A drawing of the VR-190, the first Soviet conception of a piloted spacecraft in the post World War II era. Conceived by Mikhail Tikhonravov at Scientific Research Institute No. 1 (NII-1) in 1945, the VR-190 would carry two "stratonauts" strapped in an upright position on a 200-kilometer "hop" into the upper atmosphere. Many design innovations from the project were later used in the 1060s-era spacecraft, such as Voskhod and Soyuz. Publication information: Image from the files of Asif Siddiqi. Image and caption from Challenge to Apollo: The Soviet Union and the Space Race, 1945- 1974 (NASA SP-2000-4408) by Asif A. Siddiqi. Please note that the image number assigned to this image is not an official NASA number. It is for GRIN database purposes only.