The SpaceCube 2.0 is a compact, high performance, low-power onboard processing system that takes advantage of cutting-edge hybrid (CPU/FPGA/DSP) processing elements. The SpaceCube 2.0 design concept includes two commercial Virtex-5 field-programmable gate array (FPGA) parts protected by gradiation hardened by software" technology, and possesses exceptional size, weight, and power characteristics [5x5x7 in., 3.5 lb (approximately equal to 12.7 x 12.7 x 17.8 cm, 1.6 kg) 5-25 W, depending on the application fs required clock rate]. The two Virtex-5 FPGA parts are implemented in a unique back-toback configuration to maximize data transfer and computing performance. Draft computing power specifications for the SpaceCube 2.0 unit include four PowerPC 440s (1100 DMIPS each), 500+ DSP48Es (2x580 GMACS), 100+ LVDS high-speed serial I/Os (1.25 Gbps each), and 2x190 GFLOPS single-precision (65 GFLOPS double-precision) floating point performance. The SpaceCube 2.0 includes PROM memory for CPU boot, health and safety, and basic command and telemetry functionality; RAM memory for program execution; and FLASH/EEPROM memory to store algorithms and application code for the CPU, FPGA, and DSP processing elements. Program execution can be reconfigured in real time and algorithms can be updated, modified, and/or replaced at any point during the mission. Gigabit Ethernet, Spacewire, SATA and highspeed LVDS serial/parallel I/O channels are available for instrument/sensor data ingest, and mission-unique instrument interfaces can be accommodated using a compact PCI (cPCI) expansion card interface. The SpaceCube 2.0 can be utilized in NASA Earth Science, Helio/Astrophysics and Exploration missions, and Department of Defense satellites for onboard data processing. It can also be used in commercial communication and mapping satellites.