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The Bell System Technical Journal (1922-1983)

The scientific discoveries and technological innovations produced by Bell System research and engineering were critical not only to the evolution of global telecommunications but, more widely, they had a considerable impact on the technological base of the global economy and, indeed, on our daily lives.



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Bell System Technical Journal, 6: 1. January 1927 pp 18-26. Toll Switchboard No. 3. (Davidson, J.)
Topics: toll, cord, switchboard, relay, switching, relays, ringing, circuit, composite, trunk, cord...
Bell System Technical Journal, 48: 5. May-June 1969 pp 1249-1292. The Chirp z-Transform Algorithm and Its Application. (Rabiner, Lawrence R.; Schafer, Ronald W. ; Rader, Charles M.)
Topics: fourier, transform, chirp, discrete, algorithm, samples, frequency, contour, fast, magnitude,...
Bell System Technical Journal, 27: 3. July 1948 pp 379-423. A Mathematical Theory of Communication. (Shannon, C.E.)
Topics: log, probability, channel, entropy, source, probabilities, sequences, symbols, discrete, sequence,...
Bell System Technical Journal, 39: 4 July 1960 pp 745-808. The Theory and Design of Chirp Radars (Klauder, J.R.; Price, A.C.; Darlington, S.; Albersheim, W.J.)
Topics: signal, chirp, pulse, frequency, network, weighting, amplitude, radars, output, linear, system...
Bell System Technical Journal, 57: 6. July-August 1978 pp 1899-1904. UNIX Time-Sharing System: Forward. (McIlroy, M.D.; Pinson, E.N.; Tague, B.A.)
Topics: unix, system, operating, programs, bell, programming, software, tools, language, program, operating...
Bell System Technical Journal, 7: 3. July 1928 pp 535-563. Transmission of Information. (Hartley, R.V.L.)
Topics: transmission, selections, symbols, wave, steady, transmitted, system, frequency, technical journal,...
Bell System Technical Journal, 27: 4 October 1948 pp 623-656. A Mathematical Theory of Communication (Shannon, C.E.)
Topics: entropy, log, ensemble, probability, functions, power, noise, theorem, function, continuous,...
Bell System Technical Journal, 29: 3. July 1950 pp 295-342. Principles and Applications of Waveguide Transmission. (Southworth, George C.)
Topics: wave, force, electric, transmission, waves, waveguide, lines, magnetic, vector, reflection,...
Bell System Technical Journal, 35: 4. July 1956 pp 917-926. A New Interpretation of Information Rate. (Kelly, J.L., Jr.)
Topics: bets, gambler, log, transmitted, exponential, probability, rate, symbol, transmission,...
Bell System Technical Journal, 24: 1. January 1945 pp 46-156. Mathematical Analysis of Random Noise . (Rice, S.O.)
Topics: noise, probability, random, function, sin, journal, spectrum, frequency, density, band, random...
Bell System Technical Journal, 38: 3. May 1959 pp 611-656. Probability of Error for Optimal Codes in a Gaussian Channel. (Shannon, Claude E.)
Topics: probability, sin, code, error, bound, exp, gaussian, asymptotic, bounds, cone, solid angle, code...
Bell System Technical Journal, 29: 2. April 1950 pp 147-160. Error Detecting and Error Correcting Codes. (Hamming, R.W.)
Topics: code, error, codes, positions, minimum, single, correcting, parity, check, detecting, code points,...
Bell System Technical Journal, 27: 3. July 1948 pp 446-472. Spectra of Quantized Signals. (Bennett, W.R.)
Topics: signal, frequency, quantizing, quantized, signals, band, distortion, sampling, input, spectra,...
Bell System Technical Journal, 20: 4. October 1941 pp 415-433. The History of Electrical Resonance. (Blanchard, Julian)
Topics: resonance, electrical, patent, circuit, spark, leyden, condenser, alternating, discharge, current,...
Bell System Technical Journal, 3: 2. April 1924 pp 324-346. Certain Factors Affecting Telegraph Speed. (Nyquist, H.)
Topics: wave, current, signal, rectangular, telegraph, voltage, frequency, codes, morse, sine, technical...
Bell System Technical Journal, 28: 1. January 1949 pp 59-98. The Synthesis of Two Terminal Switching Circuits. (Shannon, Claude E.)
Topics: functions, variables, function, theorem, switching, network, elements, circuits, circuit,...
Bell System Technical Journal, 28: 4. October 1949 pp 656-715. Communication Theory of Secrecy Systems. (Shannon, C.E.)
Topics: key, secrecy, message, systems, probabilities, system, equivocation, cryptogram, messages, cipher,...
Bell System Technical Journal, 37: 3. May 1958 pp 711-718. Measurement of Sheet Resistivities with the Four-Point Probe. (Smits, F.M.)
Topics: resistivities, resistivity, probe, infinite, voltage, finite, measurement, sheet, sample,...
Bell System Technical Journal, 57: 6. July-August 1978 pp 1905-1929. The UNIX Time-Sharing System. (Ritchie, D.M.; Thompson, K.)
Topics: file, system, unix, user, program, files, directory, command, device, programs, operating system,...
Bell System Technical Journal, 30: 1. January 1951 pp 50-64. Prediction and Entropy of Printed English. (Shannon, C.E.)
Topics: entropy, prediction, text, frequencies, probabilities, probability, letters, letter, rectangular,...
Bell System Technical Journal, 10: 4. October 1931 pp 656-683. Developments in Short-Wave Directive Antennas. (Bruce, E.)
Topics: antenna, antennas, directive, horizontal, wire, vertical, tilt, signal, directivity, wave, vertical...
Bell System Technical Journal, 34: 5. September 1955 pp 1045-1079. A Method for Synthesizing Sequential Circuits. (Mealy, George H.)
Topics: circuit, circuits, input, method, table, rule, combination, sequential, equivalence, synthesis,...
Bell System Technical Journal, 28: 3. July 1949 pp 435-489. The Theory of p-n Junctions in Semiconductors and p-n Junction Transistors. (Shockley, W.)
Topics: current, holes, transition, diffusion, equation, potential, recombination, hole, electron,...
Bell System Technical Journal, 27: 3. July 1948 pp 510-588. The Evolution of the Quartz Crystal Clock. (Marrison, Warren A.)
Topics: quartz, frequency, crystal, resonator, oscillator, clocks, pendulum, clock, bell, accuracy, quartz...
Bell System Technical Journal, 36: 6. November 1957 pp 1389-1401. Shortest Connection Networks And Some Generalizations. (Prim, R.C.)
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Topics: shortest, terminal, connection, network, labelled, terminals, spanning, subtree, fragment,...
Bell System Technical Journal, 2: 3. July 1923 pp 101-111. Permalloy, A New Magnetic Material of Very High Permeability. (Arnold, H.D.; Elmen, G.W.)
Topics: permalloy, permeability, magnetic, cent, properties, magnetizing, alloys, nickel, alloy,...
Bell System Technical Journal, 62: 7. September 1983 pp 2345-2364. Total Network Data System: Trunking System. (Bezdek, P.V.; Collins, J.P.)
Topics: trunk, tss, tfs, forecast, group, base, data, forecaster, measurements, load, trunk groups, base...
Bell System Technical Journal, 3: 3. July 1924 pp 400-408. The Transmission Unit and Telephone Transmission Reference Systems. (Martin, W.H.)
Topics: ratio, transmission, power, unit, cable, corresponding, standard, circuit, output, telephone,...
Bell System Technical Journal, 19: 3. July 1940 pp 421-454. Relations Between Attenuation and Phase in Feedback Amplifer Design. (Bode, H.W.)
Topics: phase, feedback, characteristic, cutoff, gain, loop, frequency, amplifier, circuit, attenuation,...
Bell System Technical Journal, 43: 4. July 1964 pp 1783-1809. Hollow Metallic and Dielectric Waveguides for Long Distance Optical Transmission and Lasers. (Marcatili, E.A.J.; Schmeltzer, R.A.)
Topics: modes, attenuation, dielectric, hollow, guide, curvature, optical, radius, mode, field, optical...
Bell System Technical Journal, 32: 2. March 1953 pp 406-424. A Study of Non-Blocking Switching Networks. (Clos, Charles)
Topics: crosspoints, array, switching, equation, intermediary, outputs, inputs, switches, switch, input,...
Bell System Technical Journal, 23: 3. July 1944 pp 282-332. Mathematical Analysis of Random Noise. (Rice, S.O.)
Topics: random, noise, probability, function, average, theorem, spectrum, interval, density, mathematical,...
Bell System Technical Journal, 45: 10. December 1966 pp 1775-1796. Synthesis of Band-Limited Orthogonal Signals for Multichannel Data Transmission. (Chang, Robert W.)
Topics: transmitting, transmission, signals, data, phase, characteristics, filters, orthogonal, amplitude,...
Bell System Technical Journal, 48: 10. December 1969 pp 3187-3215. Mode Conversation Caused by Surface Imperfections of a Dielectric Slab Waveguide. (Marcuse, Dietrich)
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Topics: modes, mode, waveguide, equation, dielectric, loss, equations, guided, continuum, slab, dielectric...
Bell System Technical Journal, 19: 1. January 1940 pp 1-39. The Physical Basis of Ferromagnetism. (Bozorth, R.M.)
Topics: magnetic, magnetization, electrons, atoms, nickel, ferromagnetic, electron, atom, ferromagnetism,...
Bell System Technical Journal, 2: 1. January 1923 pp 1-46. Theory and Design of Uniform and Composite Electric Wave-filters. (Zobel, Otto J.)
Topics: impedance, impedances, transmitting, frequency, equivalent, frequencies, shunt, series, constant,...
Bell System Technical Journal, 36: 3. May 1957 pp 593-626. Radio Propagation Fundamentals. (Bullington, Kenneth)
Topics: transmission, antenna, frequency, radio, diffraction, loss, propagation, fading, signal, median,...
Bell System Technical Journal, 7: 4. October 1928 pp 639-707. The Practical Application of the Fourier Integral. (Campbell, George A.)
Topics: coefficient, exp, fourier, integral, pairs, cisoidal, unit, pair, erfc, impulse, bell system, unit...
Bell System Technical Journal, 41: 3. May 1962 pp 877-884. On Non-Computable Functions. (Rado, T.)
Topics: turing, computable, entries, valid, score, entry, machine, binary, binary turing, functions, bell...
Bell System Technical Journal, 15: 1. January 1936 pp 113-135. Magnetic Alloys of Iron, Nickel, and Cobalt. (Elmen, G.W.)
Topics: alloys, magnetic, permeability, flux, resistivity, magnetizing, alloy, permalloy, initial,...
Bell System Technical Journal, 36: 2. March 1957 pp 517-535. Binary Block Coding. (Lloyd, S.P.)
Topics: code, polynomial, detection, hamming, condition, roots, coefficients, weight, function, integers,...
Bell System Technical Journal, 5: 4. October 1926 pp 539-554. Wave Propagation in Overhead Wires with Ground Return. (Carson, John R.)
Topics: impedance, ground, propagation, mutual, wire, surface, formulas, axial, electric, wave, mutual...
Bell System Technical Journal, 54: 2. February 1975 pp 297-315. An Algorithm for Determining the Endpoints of Isolated Utterances. (Rabiner, L.R.; Sambur, M.R.)
Topics: algorithm, endpoint, energy, waveform, utterance, silence, crossing, speech, weak, unvoiced, weak...
Bell System Technical Journal, 57: 6. July-August 1978 pp 2233-2249. UNIX Time-Sharing System: Circuit Design Aids. (Fraser, A.G.)
Topics: circuit, wire, drawing, placement, pins, chip, package, programs, socket, design, wire list, design...
Bell System Technical Journal, 25: 3. July 1946 pp 435-482. Techniques and Facilities for Microwave Radar Testing. (Green, E.I.; Fisher, H.J.; Ferguson, J.G.)
Topics: radar, frequency, wave, microwave, power, coaxial, pulse, test, testing, signal, standing wave,...
Bell System Technical Journal, 33: 3. May 1954 pp 661-719. Coupled Wave Theory and Waveguide Applications. (Miller, S.E.)
Topics: coupling, wave, coupled, loss, transfer, phase, discrimination, waveguide, constants, mode, bell...
Bell System Technical Journal, 55: 7. September 1976 pp 957-971. Comparison of Equalizing and Nonequalizing Repeaters for Optical Fiber Systems. (Personick, S.D.)
Topics: receiver, nonequalizing, pulse, equalizing, repeaters, optical, impulse, fiber, output,...
Bell System Technical Journal, 13: 1. January 1934 pp 1-18. Stabilized Feedback Amplifiers. (Black, H.S.)
Topics: feedback, amplifier, gain, amplifiers, output, modulation, amplification, stability, variations,...
Bell System Technical Journal, 57: 6. July-August 1978 pp 1971-1990. UNIX Time-Sharing System: The UNIX Shell. (Bourne, S.R.)
Topics: command, unix, file, echo, procedure, output, string, commands, input, execution, null string,...
Bell System Technical Journal, 47: 6. July-August 1968 pp 1099-1103. Matrix Multiplication and Fast Fourier Transforms. (Gentleman, W.Morven)
Topics: matrix, fourier, transform, factorization, factors, matrices, multiplications, fast, elements,...
Bell System Technical Journal, 62: 6. July-August 1983 pp 1617. Human Factors and Behavioral Science: Characteristics of Human Performance.
Topics: human, mental, tation, behavior, domains
Bell System Technical Journal, 40: 4. July 1961 pp 1065-1094. Project Echo: Receiving System. (Ohm, E.A.)
Topics: system, temperature, antenna, maser, waveguide, noise, agc, carrier, liquid, demodulator, agc...
Bell System Technical Journal, 17: 1. January 1938 pp 17-48. The Impedance Concept and its Application to Problems of Reflection, Refraction, Shielding and Power Absorption. (Schelkunoff, S.A.)
Topics: impedance, wave, waves, impedances, reflection, ratio, radial, transmission, field, characteristic,...
Bell System Technical Journal, 49: 2. February 1970 pp 197-228. Use of the Discrete Fourier Transform in the Measurement of Frequencies and Levels of Tones. (Rife, D.C.; Vincent, G.A.)
Topics: weighting, equation, fourier, functions, frequency, transform, dft, class, iii, discrete, iii...
Bell System Technical Journal, 44: 4. April 1965 pp 547-588. Automatic Equalization for Digital Communication. (Lucky, R.W.)
Topics: distortion, equalizer, equalization, channel, taps, response, transversal, tap, delay, filter, tap...
Bell System Technical Journal, 57: 6. July-August 1978 pp 1947-1969. UNIX Time-Sharing System: A Retrospective. (Ritchie, D.M.)
Topics: system, unix, file, files, user, bell, program, programs, device, operating, virtual address,...
Bell System Technical Journal, 8: 2. April 1929 pp 309-367. The Receiving System for Long-Wave Transatlantic Radio Telephony. (Bailey, Austin; Dean, S.W.; Wintringham, W.T.)
Topics: antenna, antennas, directional, radio, receiving, transatlantic, array, frequency, desired,...
Bell System Technical Journal, 38: 6 November 1959 pp 1357-1426. Ideal Binary Pulse Transmission by AM and FM (Sunde, E.D.)
Topics: pulse, optimum, filter, amplitude, transmission, pulses, spectrum, characteristic, detector,...
Bell System Technical Journal, 61: 9. November 1982 pp 2185-2219. A Statistical Model of Multipath Fading on a Space-Diversity Radio Channel. (Rummler, W.D.)
Topics: fading, notch, multipath, distribution, dish, frequency, data, horn, model, function, dish notch,...
Bell System Technical Journal, 16: 1. January 1937 pp 35-44. The Physical Reality of Zenneck's Surface Wave. (Wise, W. Howard)
Topics: wave, surface, zenneck, asymptotic, series, sin, tilt, plane, vertical, dipole, wave antennas,...
Bell System Technical Journal, 11: 1. January 1932 pp 126-147. Regeneration Theory. (Nyquist, H.)
Topics: integral, amplifier, values, expression, lim, curve, network, integration, regeneration, integrand,...
Bell System Technical Journal, 19: 1. January 1940 pp 63-73. Effect of the Quadrature Component in Single Sideband Transmission. (Nyquist, H.; Pfleger, K.W.)
Topics: sideband, quadrature, transmission, single, resultant, carrier, characteristic, component,...
Bell System Technical Journal, 45: 3. March 1966 pp 473-489. Signal-Noise Ratio Maximization Using the Pontryagin Maximum Principle. (Holtzman, J.M.)
Topics: maximum, differential, principle, ratio, problem, vector, signal, maximization, function,...
Bell System Technical Journal, 47: 8. October 1968 pp 1775-1800. Convergence Criteria for Transversal Equalizers. (Lytle, D.W.)
Topics: equation, convergence, roots, impulse, iterative, tap, equations, equalizer, matrix, pulse, central...
Bell System Technical Journal, 48: 9. November 1969 pp 2909-2947. Coupled Wave Theory for Thick Hologram Gratings. (Kogelnik, Herwig)
Topics: holograms, grating, diffraction, gratings, equation, dielectric, wave, absorption, bragg, angular,...
Bell System Technical Journal, 55: 8. October 1976 pp 1011-1056. Basic Fluid-Dynamic Considerations in the Drawing of Optical Fibers. (Geyling, F.T.)
Topics: fiber, viscosity, tensile, base, capillary, perturbations, perturbation, surface, optical, flow,...
Bell System Technical Journal, 59: 9. Nov 1980 pp 1793-1809. Designer's Workbench: The Programmer Environment. (McDonald, P.H.; Thompson, T.J.)
Topics: dwb, circuit, data, directory, programming, template, unix, user, file, files, circuit directory,...
Bell System Technical Journal, 57: 8. October 1978 pp 2983-2999. The Reliability of 302A Numerics. (Jordan, A.S.; Peaker, R.H.; Saul, R.H.; Braun, H.J.; Wade, H.H.)
Topics: failure, device, numerics, median, reliability, devices, thermal, chip, cumulative failure,...
Bell System Technical Journal, 3: 1. January 1924 pp 43-87. Some Applications of Statistical Methods to the Analysis of Physical and Engineering Data. (Shewhart, W.A.)
Topics: distribution, observed, observations, normal, theoretical, methods, frequency, probable, law,...
Bell System Technical Journal, 43: 6. November 1964 pp 2839-2853. On The Properties of Nonlinear Integral Equations That Arise in the Theory of Dynamical Systems. (Sandberg, I.W.; Benes, V.E.)
Topics: theorem, nonlinear, lemma, denotes, equations, arbitrary, integral, periodic, linear, bounded,...
Bell System Technical Journal, 48: 4. April 1969 pp 993-1040. Terminal Arrangements. (Albert, W.G.; Evans, J.B. Jr.; Haley, T.J.; Merrick, T.B.; Simmonds, T.H. Jr.)
Topics: mastergroup, circuit, carrier, khz, filter, transmission, frequency, pilot, output, circuits,...
Bell System Technical Journal, 53: 6. July-August 1974 pp 1021-1039. Low-Loss Single-Material Fibers Made from Pure Fused Silica. (Kaiser, P.; Astle, H.W.)
Topics: fiber, fibers, losses, slab, cladding, optical, unclad, core, wavelength, suprasil, spectral...
Bell System Technical Journal, 62: 5. May-June 1983 pp 1273-1309. Off-Line Quality Control in Integrated Circuit Fabrication Using Experimental Design. (Phadke, M.S.; Kackar, R.N.; Speeney, D.V.; Grieco, M.J.)
Topics: wno, factors, factor, levels, bake, squares, optimum, wafer, mask, sum, developing time, bake...
Bell System Technical Journal, 11: 2. April 1932 pp 197-212. A New Key West-Havana Carrier Telephone Cable. (Affel, H.A.; Gorton, W.S.; Chesnut, R.W.)
Topics: cable, telephone, carrier, submarine, key, cables, havana, frequency, telegraph, apparatus,...
Bell System Technical Journal, 52: 6. July-August 1973 pp 843-874. Receiver Design for Digital Fiber Optic Communication Systems, I. (Personick, S.D. 875-886)
Topics: pulse, optical, noise, fiber, output, optic, pulses, avalanche, repeater, amplifier, thermal noise,...