(View) 43. Needles Channel.
- Publication date
- World War II
- Generalstab des Heeres, (Military High Command)., Berlin
Zoomable full resolution image available at davidrumsey.com.
Drawn coastal profiles.
A set of German documents prepared for Operation Sea Lion, the planned Nazi invasion of England and Wales. (See Pub List No 7807.000 through 7811.000). Materials are 11 A4 sized folders, each containing maps and a book of photographs including 144 town maps and 1500+ photographs. Set also has three thick A5 sized folders containing books with photographs, drawings and maps: Folder A: England and Wales; Folder B: London; Folder C: Coasts. Convinced the British would capitulate without a fight, Hitler waffled on invading Great Britain. As a result, he did not order adequate preparation for an invasion in 1940. Regardless, the British were not about to surrender and immense problems faced the Germans including: failed strategies in the Battle of Britain which left the Royal Air Force as a major force, a lack of seaworthy transports, limited intelligence about Great Britain, an inferior navy compared to the British, and a lengthy Channel passage of 200 miles (verses 40 miles for the Allies in 1944). As time passed after Dunkirk, the British took significant measures to counter invasion including: organizing and arming the Home Guard including countrywide round-the-clock surveillance, rearming and re-equipping the regular troops evacuated from Dunkirk, and developing of a resolute population. After the Germans were unable to meet invasion target dates in Fall, 1940, their preparation improved; however, so did the British capabilities to resist. No invasion was ever launched as the Nazis became preoccupied with fighting Russia and around the Mediterranean. Author Peter Fleming, in Operation Sea Lion, concludes that the best possibility for a successful invasion would have been shortly after Dunkirk, something the Germans had no plan to do. Fleming’s entertaining 1957 book lays out a myriad of misconceptions, hare-brained schemes, problems, and rumors which bedeviled both the Germans and the British. See also materials on the plan to invade Ireland, Operation Green.
Operation Sea Lion (Unternehmen Seelöwe) Terms from Map Legends German – English Translation: Abwasserwerk – Sewage Plant; Akkumulatoren – Storage Batteries or Boilers; Alkali-Werk – Alkali Plant; Alte Befestigungsanlage – Old Fortification; Apparate – Appliances; Asbest – Asbestos; Backerei – Bakery; Bahnhofsanlagen – Railway Station Facilities; Batterienfabrik – Battery Factory; Baumwollweberei – Cotton Weaving; Befestigungsanlage – Fortification; Bekleidung – Clothing; Benzinwerk – Oil Refinery; Bereifung – Tires Station; Beschlaege – Fittings; Betriebsstoff – Fuel; Bier – Beer; Blech – Sheet Metal; Braunkohlenbergbau – Lignite Coal Mining; Brikett – Briquettes; Brikettfabrik – Briquette Factory; Chemie – Chemistry; Chemische Fabik – Chemical Factory; Chemische Farben – Chemical Dyes; Chemisches Werk – Chemical Plant; Dampfelektrizitaetswerk – Steam Power Plant; Draeht – Wire; Draehte – Wires; Eisenbahnbruecke – Railway Bridge; Eisenbahnwerkstaetten – Railway Workshops; Eisengiesserei – Iron Foundry; Eisenhuette – Iron Foundry; Eisenindustrie – Metallurgy; Eisenwalzwerk – Metal Rolling Mill; Elektromaschinen – Electrical Machinery; Elektrotechnik – Electrical Engineering; Elemente – Elements; Erdbehalter – Water Reservoir; Erden – Earth; Erden – Earth; Erzbergbau – Ore Mining; Fahrraeder – Bicycles; Fahrzeuge – Vehicles; Farben – Colors; Farbenfabrik – Paint Factory; Feinchemikalien – Fine Chemicals; Feinmechanik – Precision Engineering; Feldflugplatz – Air Field; Fisch – Fish; Fleischwaren – Meat Products; Fliegerhorst – Military Airport; Flugenplatz – Air Field; Flugplatz – Airport; Flugzeuge – Aircraft; Friedensflugplatz – Airfield of Peace; Funkstelle – Radio Station; Fussgaengerbruecke – Foot Bridge, Pedestrian Bridge; Futterspeicher – Feed Storage; Gas – Gas; Gaswerk, Gasanstalt – Gas Works; Gebrauchsfette – Cooking Oils; Gemischtes Electrizitaetswerk – Power Plant ; Gestuet – Horse Farm; Getreidesilo – Grain Elevator; Gewehrfabrik – Gun Factory; Glas – Glass; Glasfabrik – Glass Factory; Gluehlampen – Light Bulbs; Gummi – Rubber; Gummiwaren – Rubber Products; Hafenanlagen – Port Facilities; Heeresfunkstelle – Army Radio Station; Heilmittel – Medical Supplies; Hochbehalter – Water Settling Tank; Holzbearbeitung – Wood Working; Holzindustrie – Timber Industry; Holzwaren –Wood Products; Kabel – Cables; Kabelwerk – Cable Factory; Kalk – Lime; Kalkwerk – Lime Factory; Kampfgasfabrik – Poison Gas Factory; Kartoffeln – Potatoes; Kaserne – Barracks; Keramik – Ceramics; Kessel – Boilers; Kesselbauanstalt – Boiler Manufacturer; Klaeranlage – Sewage Treatment Plant; Klaeranlagen – Sewage Treatment Plants; Kleineisen – Small Iron Pieces; Kohlenlager – Coal Depot; Kohleverarbeitung – Coal Processing; Kokerei – Coke Factory; Koks – Coke; Konserven – Cannery; Kraftfahrzeuge – Motor Vehicles; Krankenhaus – Hospital; Kuehlhaus – Cold Storage Facility; Kulturdenkmaeler – Cultural Monument; Kulturdenkmal – Cultural Monument; Kunstleder – Leatherette; Kunstlederfabrik – Synthetic Leather Factory; Kunstsammlung – Art Collection; Lagerhaus – Warehouse; Lazarett – Field Hospital; Leder – Leather; Lederhandschuhe – Leather Gloves; Lederindustrie – Leather Industry; Linoleumfabrik – Linoleum Factory; Machinen – Machinery; Maschinenfabrik – Machinery Factory; Metallhuette – Metal Plant; Mineralien – Minerals; Moertelwerk – Cement Factory; Molkerei – Dairy; Molkereiwaren – Dairy Products; Muehle – Mill; Muna – Ammunition Depot; Munitionsanstalt – Ammunition Depot; Munitionslager – Ammunition Depot; Musikinstrumente – Musical Instruments; Nahrungsmittel – Food; Naturdenkmal – Natural Monument; NE-Metalle – Non-ferrous Metals; Nebenmuna – Satellite Ammunition Depot; Oeldestillation – Oil Distillation; Optik – Optical Products; Papier – Paper; Papierfabrik – Paper Mill; Papierindustrie – Paper Industry; Papierwaren – Stationary; Pferdestallung – Horse Stables; Postamt – Post Office; Pulverfabrik – Gun Powder Factory; Rohrenfabrik – Pipe Factory; Rundfunksender – Radio Transmitter; Saegegemuhle – Sawmill; Saegewerk – Sawmill; Schiffe – Ships; Schlachthof – Slaughterhouse; Schloesser – Locks; Schmelzerei – Smelter; Schuhwaren – Footware; Schusswaffen – Firearms; Schwerchemikalien – Heavy Chemicals; Sonstige Wirtschaftsanlage – Food Facilities; Speisefette – Edible Fats; Spielzeuge – Toys; Spinnerei – Spinning Mill; Spirituosen – Spirits; Sprengstoff – Explosives; Stahlgiesserei – Steel Foundry; Steine – Stones; Steinkohlenbergbau – Coal Mining; Steinkohlengrube – Coal Mine; Strassenbruecke – Street Bridge; Talsperre (Mauer) – Dam (Wall); Tanklager – Fuel Storage, Tank Farm; Teerfabrik – Tar; Textdruck – Printing Factory; Textilindustrie – Textile Industry; Textilwaren – Textiles; Textilwarenfabrik – Textile Factory; Tongrube – Clay Pit; Trinkwasser – Drinking Water; Truppenlager – Troop Camp; Umspannwerk – Electric Power Substation; Waggonfabrik – Rail Car Factory; Waggons – Rail Cars; Walzwerk – Sheet Metal Factory; Wasserelektrizitaetswerk – Hydroelectric Plant; Wassererdbehaelter – Water Reservoir; Wasserwerk – Water Plant; Weberei – Weaving; Werkzeug – Tools; Werkzeugfabrik – Tool Factory; Zement – Cement; Ziegelei – Brick Factory; Zivile Funkstelle – Civilian Radio Station; Zucker – Sugar;
In preparing to invade Britain, the German military preparations included the production of a series of military/geographical assessments, showing what might be found by those arriving. This material was also used in a military evaluation of the regions of the British Isles, and considered each from the viewpoint of invasion. The full assessment for England and Wales consists of eleven A4 sized folders (numbered 1 to 12, folder 5 was never issued as there was no Sheet 5 in this Ordnance Survey quarter-inch series, hence no German folder). Each contains large scale town plans marked with strategic locations, a book of photographs and a quarter-inch map of the area, each folder titled “Militärgeographische Einzelangaben über England” (Maps of England showing features of military significance) and “Militärgeographische Objektkarten mit Objektbildern” (Maps of military installations with photographs.” Also there are three thick A5 sized folders containing books and maps: Folder A : England and Wales, on a regional basis with numerous photographs and maps; Folder B : London, photographs and maps; and Folder C : Books of coastal photographs to help with selecting invasion beaches. In addition, there is material on the planned invasion of Ireland - Operation Green (Unternehmen Grün). There are 144 six-inch town maps marked with strategic locations, and almost 1500 black and white photographs. The maps are copies of Ordnance Survey maps, with overprints highlighting sites which the Germans would have considered targets in any invasion. Most maps and books are headed: “Nur für den Dienstgebrauch!” (For Official use only.) The maps were arranged in groups, based on the Ordnance Survey Quarter-inch Fourth Edition sheet lines. Thus, each numbered folder has a quarter-inch map of the area, a book of photographs and large scale plans of significant towns. The quarter-inch (1:250,000) maps use an extensive list of purple symbols for industrial sites (e.g. chemicals, waterworks, textiles, electricity) and red symbols for strategic sites (e.g. hospitals, airfields, radio stations, barracks). The large scale plans are usually 1:10,000 scale (metric six-inch), and again are an Ordnance Survey base map with coloured symbols showing sites of military significance such as airports, railway workshops, docks, bridges. Such sites are often illustrated in the book of photographs, the captions of which give a map location for each site, and each mapped site gives the book illustration number. The town maps are printed in brown (rather than black), with blue water. The various coloured symbols stand out clearly, are easily seen and are quite striking. The delicate black bridge symbols are especially noticeable and numerous, as are the red boundaries of railway stations and goods yards. Basically, for each town these maps show all locations that the Germans thought to be strategically important. All folders were issued in 1940, 1941 or 1942. (Text from David Archer's excellent description of the collection, modified).
- 2022-04-04 09:12:27
- Call number
- Military Atlas
- Images may be downloaded and used following Creative Commons CC BY-NC-SA 3.0 license. Image credit should be given to "David Rumsey Map Collection, David Rumsey Map Center, Stanford Libraries." Please contact the David Rumsey Map Collection for commercial use. https://www.davidrumsey.com/about/copyright-and-permissions
- Internet Archive Python library 3.0.0