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NASA Images
Dec 28, 2010 NASA
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Marshall-managed first space shuttle external tank rolls off the assembly line on Sept. 9, 1977, at Michoud Assembly Facility in New Orleans.
Topics: What -- Space Shuttle Orbiter, Where -- Michoud Assembly Facility (MAF)
Source: http://www.nasa.gov/images/content/468622main_7783349_rs_full.jpg
NASA Images
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eye 536

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July 20, 2009 -- Astronaut (STS-73) Fred Leslie autographs a Space Shuttle model at Marshall Space Flight Center's July 20, 2009 Apollo 40th anniversary event at the U.S. Space and Rocket Center in Huntsville, Alabama. Image credit: NASA/MSFC/David Higginbotham
Topics: What -- STS-73, What -- Space Shuttle Orbiter, What -- Apollo 4, Where -- Marshall Space Flight...
Source: http://www.nasa.gov/centers/marshall/moonmars/apollo40/apollo40_6041.html
NASA Images
Nov 20, 2009 NASA/Marshall Space Flight Center
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eye 59

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Astronaut Ronald M. Sega, payload commander, works in the glovebox facility in the Spacehab laboratory aboard the Earth-orbiting Space Shuttle Atlantis. The Spacehab facility was one f the busier research areas on Atlantis during the STS-76 mission. Also, some of the gear for transfer to Russia's Mir Space Station was stowed there prior to the March 23, 1996 docking of Atlantis.
Topics: What -- Earth, What -- Space Shuttle Orbiter, What -- Atlantis, What -- STS-76, What -- Russian Mir...
Source: http://mix.msfc.nasa.gov/abstracts.php?p=211
NASA Images
Nov 20, 2009 NASA/Marshall Space Flight Center
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eye 109

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During the STS-90 shuttle flight in April 1998, cultured renal cortical cells revealed new information about genes. Timothy Hammond, an investigator in NASA's microgravity biotechnology program was interested in culturing kidney tissue to study the expression of proteins useful in the treatment of kidney diseases. Protein expression is linked to the level of differentiation of the kidney cells, and Hammond had difficulty maintaining differentiated cells in vitro. Intrigued by the improvement in...
Topics: What -- STS-90, What -- RAT, What -- Space Shuttle Orbiter, What -- Russian Mir Space Station
Source: http://mix.msfc.nasa.gov/abstracts.php?p=642
NASA Images
Nov 20, 2009 NASA/Marshall Space Flight Center
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eye 83

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This is an image of a colloidal crystal from the CDOT-2 investigation flown on STS-95. There are so many colloidal particles in this sample that it behaves like a glass. In the laboratory on Earth, the sample remained in an amorphous state, showing no sign of crystal growth. In microgravity the sample crystallized in 3 days, as did the other glassy colloidal samples examined in the CDOT-2 experiment. During the investigation, crystallization occurred in samples that had a volume fraction...
Topics: What -- STS-95, What -- Earth, What -- Space Shuttle Orbiter
Source: http://mix.msfc.nasa.gov/abstracts.php?p=633
NASA Images
Nov 20, 2009 NASA/Marshall Space Flight Center
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eye 125

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This is a computer generated image of a Shuttle in flight utilizing 2nd Generation Reusable Launch Vehicle (RLV) with flyback boosters, a futuristic concept that is currently undergoing study by NASA's Space Launch Initiative (SLI) Propulsion Office, managed by the Marshall Space Fight Center in Huntsville, Alabama, working in conjunction with the Agency's Glenn Research Center in Cleveland, Ohio. Currently, after providing thrust to the Space Shuttle, the solid rocket boosters are parachuted...
Topics: What -- Space Shuttle Orbiter, Where -- Alabama, Where -- Glenn Research Center (GRC), Where -- Ohio
Source: http://mix.msfc.nasa.gov/abstracts.php?p=3120
NASA Images
Nov 20, 2009 NASA/Marshall Space Flight Center
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eye 53

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The USMP mission series pioneered sophisticated telescience technology to control experiments in the open cargo bay of the space shuttle. At Kennedy Space Center, the system of trusses that supported the USMP-4 experiments was loaded into the cargo bay. The bay doors were closed during launch but were opened in orbit.
Topics: What -- Space Shuttle Orbiter, Where -- Kennedy Space Center (KSC)
Source: http://mix.msfc.nasa.gov/abstracts.php?p=639
NASA Images
Nov 20, 2009 NASA/Marshall Space Flight Center
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eye 56

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The USMP mission series pioneered sophisticated telescience technology to control experiments in the open cargo bay of the space shuttle. At Kennedy Space Center, the system of trusses that supported the USMP-4 experiments was loaded into the cargo bay. The bay doors were closed during launch but were opened in orbit.
Topics: What -- Space Shuttle Orbiter, Where -- Kennedy Space Center (KSC)
Source: http://mix.msfc.nasa.gov/abstracts.php?p=640
NASA Images
Nov 20, 2009 NASA/Marshall Space Flight Center
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eye 102

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The same rocket fuel that helps power the Space Shuttle as it thunders into orbit will now be taking on a new role, with the potential to benefit millions of people worldwide. Leftover rocket fuel from NASA is being used to make a flare that destroys land mines where they were buried, without using explosives. The flare is safe to handle and easy to use. People working to deactivate the mines simply place the flare next to the uncovered land mine and ignite it from a safe distance using a...
Topics: What -- Space Shuttle Orbiter, Where -- Utah
Source: http://mix.msfc.nasa.gov/abstracts.php?p=1905
NASA Images
Nov 20, 2009 NASA/Marshall Space Flight Center
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eye 1,373

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The same rocket fuel that helps power the Space Shuttle as it thunders into orbit will now be taking on a new role, with the potential to benefit millions of people worldwide. Leftover rocket fuel from NASA is being used to make a flare that destroys land mines where they were buried, without using explosives. The flare is safe to handle and easy to use. People working to deactivate the mines simply place the flare next to the uncovered land mine and ignite it from a safe distance using a...
Topics: What -- Space Shuttle Orbiter, Where -- Utah
Source: http://mix.msfc.nasa.gov/abstracts.php?p=1904
NASA Images
Nov 20, 2009 NASA/Marshall Space Flight Center
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eye 102

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SSME Hardware Simulation Laboratory at Marshall Space Flight Center is the facility that verifies the software which controls SSME prior to each Space Shuttle flight
Topics: What -- Space Shuttle Orbiter, Where -- Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC)
Source: http://mix.msfc.nasa.gov/abstracts.php?p=650
NASA Images
Nov 20, 2009 NASA/Marshall Space Flight Center
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eye 127

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This photograph is an artist's cutaway view of the X-37 flight demonstrator showing its components. The X-37 experimental launch vehicle is roughly 27.5 feet (8.3 meters) long and 15 feet (4.5 meters) in wingspan. Its experiment bay is 7 feet (2.1 meters) long and 4 feet (1.2 meters) in diameter. Designed to operate in both the orbital and reentry phases of flight, the X-37 will increase both safety and reliability, while reducing launch costs from $10,000 per pound to $1000 per pound. The X-37...
Topics: What -- Space Shuttle Orbiter, Where -- Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC)
Source: http://mix.msfc.nasa.gov/abstracts.php?p=2510
NASA Images
Nov 20, 2009 NASA/Marshall Space Flight Center
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Pictured is an artist's concept of the experimental Reusable Launch Vehicle (RLV), the X-37 located in the cargo bay of a space shuttle with Earth in the background. The X-37 was designed to launch from the space shuttle's cargo bay as a secondary payload. Once deployed, the X-37 would remain on-orbit up to 21 days performing a variety of experiments before re-entering the Earth's atmosphere and landing. The X-37 program was discontinued in 2003.
Topics: What -- Space Shuttle Orbiter, What -- Earth
Source: http://mix.msfc.nasa.gov/abstracts.php?p=2957
NASA Images
Nov 20, 2009 NASA/Marshall Space Flight Center
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In this photograph, the Chandra X-Ray Observatory (CXO) was installed and mated to the Inertial Upper Stage (IUS) inside the Shuttle Columbia's cargo bay at the Kennedy Space Center. The CXO will help astronomers world-wide better understand the structure and evolution of the universe by studying powerful sources of x-rays such as exploding stars, matter falling into black holes, and other exotic celestial objects. X-ray astronomy can only be done from space because Earth's atmosphere blocks...
Topics: What -- Space Shuttle Orbiter, What -- Earth, What -- Columbia, What -- STS-93, What -- Galileo,...
Source: http://mix.msfc.nasa.gov/abstracts.php?p=1987
NASA Images
Nov 20, 2009 NASA/Marshall Space Flight Center
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Pictured is an artist's concept of the experimental X-37 Reusable Launch Vehicle re-entering Earth?s atmosphere. NASA and the Boeing Company entered a cooperative agreement to develop and fly a new experimental space plane called the X-37 that would be ferried into orbit to test new technologies. The reusable space plane incorporated technologies aimed at significantly cutting the cost of space flight. The X-37 would be carried into orbit by the Space Shuttle or be launched by an expendable...
Topic: What -- Space Shuttle Orbiter
Source: http://mix.msfc.nasa.gov/abstracts.php?p=2958
NASA Images
Nov 20, 2009 NASA/Marshall Space Flight Center
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This is a computer rendering of the fully developed Chandra X-ray Observatory (CXO), formerly Advanced X-Ray Astrophysics Facility (AXAF), in orbit in a star field. In 1999, the AXAF was renamed the CXO in honor of the late Indian-American Novel Laureate Subrahmanyan Chandrasekhar. The CXO is the most sophisticated and the world's most powerful x-ray telescope ever built. It is designed to observe x-rays from high energy regions of the Universe, such as hot gas in the renmants of exploded...
Topics: What -- Visible Light, What -- Space Shuttle Orbiter, What -- Columbia, What -- STS-93, Where --...
Source: http://mix.msfc.nasa.gov/abstracts.php?p=1982
NASA Images
Nov 20, 2009 NASA/Marshall Space Flight Center
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The STS-96 crew paused for an International Space Station (ISS) onboard group photo. Pictured on the bottom row (left to right) are Mission Specialists Daniel Barry, Julie Payette, and Ellen Ochoa. Pictured on the top row (left to right) are Cosmonaut Valery Ivanovich Tokarev, and Tamara Jernigan, Mission Specialists; Kent Rominger, Commander; and Rick Husband, Pilot. STS-96 was the second ISS assembly flight and the first flight to dock with the station. The 10 day mission crew launched aboard...
Topics: Who -- Daniel Barry, Who -- Julie Payette, Who -- Ellen Ochoa, Who -- Kent Rominger, What --...
Source: http://mix.msfc.nasa.gov/abstracts.php?p=2773
NASA Images
Nov 20, 2009 NASA/Marshall Space Flight Center
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eye 363

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This Space Tug concept, proposed as a reusable multipurpose space vehicle to transport payloads to different orbital inclinations, was intended to serve as an important link between the Space Shuttle and the Space Station or any other orbital element requiring crew and/or cargo transportation. The Marshall Space Flight Center managed NASA's Space Tug activities. The Space Tug program was cancelled and did not become a reality.
Topics: What -- Space Shuttle Orbiter, Where -- Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC)
Source: http://mix.msfc.nasa.gov/abstracts.php?p=1806
NASA Images
Nov 20, 2009 NASA/Marshall Space Flight Center
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eye 66

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This is a computer rendering of the fully developed Chandra X-Ray Observatory (CXO), formerly Advanced X-Ray Astrophysics Facility (AXAF). In 1999, the AXAF was renamed the CXO in honor of the late Indian-American Novel Laureate Subrahmanyan Chandrasekhar. The CXO is the most sophisticated and the world's most powerful x-ray telescope ever built. It is designed to observe x-rays from high energy regions of the Universe, such as hot gas in the renmants of exploded stars. It produces picture-like...
Topics: What -- Visible Light, What -- Space Shuttle Orbiter, What -- Columbia, What -- STS-93, Where --...
Source: http://mix.msfc.nasa.gov/abstracts.php?p=1981
NASA Images
Nov 20, 2009 NASA/Marshall Space Flight Center
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eye 63

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This photograph shows TRW technicians preparing the assembled Chandra X-Ray Observatory (CXO) for an official unveiling at TRW Space and Electronics Group of Redondo Beach, California. The CXO is formerly known as the Advanced X-Ray Astrophysics Facility (AXAF), which was renamed in honor of the late Indian-American Astronomer, Subrahmanyan Chandrasekhar in 1999. The CXO will help astronomers world-wide better understand the structure and evolution of the universe by studying powerful sources...
Topics: What -- Space Shuttle Orbiter, What -- Earth, What -- Columbia, What -- STS-93, Where --...
Source: http://mix.msfc.nasa.gov/abstracts.php?p=1986
NASA Images
Nov 20, 2009 NASA/Marshall Space Flight Center
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Five astronauts based at the Johnson Space Center (JSC) and two payload specialists comprising the STS-95 mission take a break from their training schedule to pose for the STS-95 preflight portrait. Seated (left to right) are Steven W. Lindsey, pilot; and Curtis L. Brown, commander. Standing (left to right) are Scott E. Parazynski, mission specialist; Stephen K. Robinson, mission specialist; Chiaki Mukai (NASDA), payload specialist; Pedro Duque (ESA), mission specialist; and John H. Glenn,...
Topics: Who -- Chiaki Mukai, Who -- Pedro Duque, What -- Space Shuttle Orbiter, What -- STS-95, What --...
Source: http://mix.msfc.nasa.gov/abstracts.php?p=3614
NASA Images
Nov 20, 2009 NASA/Marshall Space Flight Center
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This photograph shows a TRW technician inspecting the completely assembled Chandra X-ray Observatory (CXO) in the Thermal Vacuum Chamber at TRW Space and Electronics Group of Redondo Beach, California. The CXO is formerly known as the Advanced X-Ray Astrophysics Facility (AXAF), which was renamed in honor of the late Indian-American Astronomer, Subrahmanyan Chandrasekhar in 1999. The CXO will help astronomers worldwide better understand the structure and evolution of the universe by studying...
Topics: What -- Space Shuttle Orbiter, What -- Earth, What -- Columbia, What -- STS-93, Where --...
Source: http://mix.msfc.nasa.gov/abstracts.php?p=1976
NASA Images
Nov 20, 2009 NASA/Marshall Space Flight Center
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Internation Flavors and Fragrances Inc. proprietary research technology, Solid Phase Micro Extraction (SPME) utilizes a special fiber needle placed directly next to the bloom of the living flower to collect the fragrance molecules. SPME was used in the Space Flower experiment aboard STS-95 space shuttle mission, after which Dr. Braja Mookherjee (left) and Subha Patel of IFF will analyze the effects of gravity on the Overnight Scentsation rose plant.
Topics: What -- Space Shuttle Orbiter, What -- STS-95
Source: http://mix.msfc.nasa.gov/abstracts.php?p=180
NASA Images
Nov 20, 2009 NASA/Marshall Space Flight Center
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Researchers' at Hauptman-Woodward Medical Research Institute, in Buffalo, N.Y. have analyzed the molecular structures of insulin crystals grown during Space Shuttle experiments and are unlocking the mystery of how insulin works.
Topic: What -- Space Shuttle Orbiter
Source: http://mix.msfc.nasa.gov/abstracts.php?p=170
NASA Images
Nov 20, 2009 NASA/Marshall Space Flight Center
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NASA researcher Dr. Donald Frazier uses a blue laser shining through a quartz window into a special mix of chemicals to generate a polymer film on the inside quartz surface. As the chemicals respond to the laser light, they adhere to the glass surface, forming optical films. Dr. Frazier and Dr. Mark S. Paley developed the process in the Space Sciences Laboratory at NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center in Huntsville, AL. Working aboard the Space Shuttle, a science team led by Dr. Frazier formed...
Topics: What -- Space Shuttle Orbiter, What -- Earth, Where -- Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC)
Source: http://mix.msfc.nasa.gov/abstracts.php?p=703
NASA Images
Nov 20, 2009 NASA/Marshall Space Flight Center
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This photograph shows the U.S. Laboratory Module (also called Destiny) for the International Space Station (ISS), in the Space Station manufacturing facility at the Marshall Space Flight Center, being readied for shipment to the Kennedy Space Center. The U.S. Laboratory module is the centerpiece of the ISS, where science experiments will be performed in the near-zero gravity of space. The Destiny Module was launched aboard the Space Shuttle orbiter Atlantis (STS-67 mission) on February 7, 2001....
Topics: What -- Destiny, What -- International Space Station (ISS), What -- Space Shuttle Orbiter, What --...
Source: http://mix.msfc.nasa.gov/abstracts.php?p=1607
NASA Images
Nov 20, 2009 NASA/Marshall Space Flight Center
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NASA engineers successfully tested a Russian-built rocket engine on November 4, 1998 at the Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) Advanced Engine Test Facility, which had been used for testing the Saturn V F-1 engines and Space Shuttle Main engines. The MSFC was under a Space Act Agreement with Lockheed Martin Astronautics of Denver to provide a series of test firings of the Atlas III propulsion system configured with the Russian-designed RD-180 engine. The tests were designed to measure the...
Topics: What -- Space Shuttle Orbiter, What -- Saturn, What -- Atlas, Where -- Marshall Space Flight Center...
Source: http://mix.msfc.nasa.gov/abstracts.php?p=1996
NASA Images
Nov 20, 2009 NASA/Marshall Space Flight Center
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With Commander Kevin R. Kregel and Pilot Steven W. Lindsey at the controls, the orbiter Columbia (STS-87) touched down its main gear on Runway 33 at Kennedy Space Center's (KSC) Shuttle Landing Facility to complete a 15-day, 16-hour and 34-minute-long mission of 6.5 million miles. During the 88th Space Shuttle mission, the crew performed experiments on the United States Microgravity Payload-4 and pollinated plants as part of the Collaborative Ukrainian Experiment. This was the 12th landing for...
Topics: What -- Columbia, What -- STS-87, What -- Space Shuttle Orbiter, Where -- Kennedy Space Center...
Source: http://mix.msfc.nasa.gov/abstracts.php?p=557
NASA Images
Nov 20, 2009 NASA/Marshall Space Flight Center
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The Wake Shield Facility is a free-flying research and development facility that is designed to use the pure vacuum of space to conduct scientific research in the development of new materials. The thin film materials technology developed by the WSF could some day lead to applications such as faster electronics components for computers. The WSF Free-Flyer is a 12-foot-diameter stainless steel disk that, while traveling in orbit at approximately 18,000 mph, leaves in its wake a vacuum 1,000 to...
Topics: What -- Space Shuttle Orbiter, What -- Earth
Source: http://mix.msfc.nasa.gov/abstracts.php?p=134
NASA Images
Nov 20, 2009 NASA/Marshall Space Flight Center
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eye 180

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NASA engineers successfully tested a Russian-built rocket engine on November 4, 1998 at the Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) Advanced Engine Test Facility, which had been used for testing the Saturn V F-1 engines and Space Shuttle Main engines. The MSFC was under a Space Act Agreement with Lockheed Martin Astronautics of Denver to provide a series of test firings of the Atlas III propulsion system configured with the Russian-designed RD-180 engine. The tests were designed to measure the...
Topics: What -- Space Shuttle Orbiter, What -- Saturn, What -- Atlas, Where -- Marshall Space Flight Center...
Source: http://mix.msfc.nasa.gov/abstracts.php?p=2040
NASA Images
Nov 20, 2009 NASA/Marshall Space Flight Center
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eye 114

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Onboard Space Shuttle Columbia's (STS-87) first ever Extravehicular Activity (EVA), astronaut Takao Doi works with a 156-pound crane carried onboard for the first time. The crane's inclusion and the work with it are part of a continuing preparation effort for future work on the International Space Station (ISS). The ongoing project allows for evaluation of tools and operating methods to be applied to the construction of the Space Station. This crane device is designed to aid future space...
Topics: Who -- Takao Doi, What -- Space Shuttle Orbiter, What -- STS-87, What -- International Space...
Source: http://mix.msfc.nasa.gov/abstracts.php?p=361
NASA Images
Nov 20, 2009 NASA/Marshall Space Flight Center
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Ecomaster, an affiliate of BioServe Space Technologies, this PentaPure technology has been used to purify water for our nation's Space Shuttle missions since 1981. WTC-Ecomaster of Mirneapolis, Minnesota manufactures water purification systems under the brand name PentaPure (TM). BioServe researcher Dr. George Marchin, of Kansas State University, first demonstrated the superiority of this technology and licensed it to WTC. Marchin continues to perform microgravity research in the development of...
Topics: What -- Space Shuttle Orbiter, What -- Earth, Where -- Minnesota, Where -- Kansas
Source: http://mix.msfc.nasa.gov/abstracts.php?p=142
NASA Images
Nov 20, 2009 NASA/Marshall Space Flight Center
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eye 83

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Diabetic patients may someday reduce their insulin injections and lead more normal lives because of new insights gained through irnovative space research in which insulin crystals were grown on the Space Shuttle. Results from a 1994 insulin crystal growth experiment in space are leading to a new understanding of protein insulin. Lack of insulin is the cause of diabetes, a desease that accounts for one-seventh of the nation's health care costs. Dr. Marianna Long, associate director of the Center...
Topics: What -- Space Shuttle Orbiter, Where -- Alabama, Where -- Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC)
Source: http://mix.msfc.nasa.gov/abstracts.php?p=684
NASA Images
Nov 20, 2009 NASA/Marshall Space Flight Center
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Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt), a natural bacteria found all over the Earth, has a fairly novel way of getting rid of unwanted insects. Bt forms a protein substance (shown on the right) that is not harmful to humans, birds, fish or other vertebrates. When eaten by insect larvae the protein causes a fatal loss of appetite. For over 25 years agricultural chemical companies have relied heavily upon safe Bt pesticides. New space based research promises to give the insecticide a new dimension in...
Topics: What -- Earth, What -- Space Shuttle Orbiter
Source: http://mix.msfc.nasa.gov/abstracts.php?p=141
NASA Images
Nov 20, 2009 NASA/Marshall Space Flight Center
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Onboard Space Shuttle Columbia (STS-94) Mission Specialist Donald A. Thomas observes an experiment in the glovebox aboard the Spacelab Science Module. Thomas is looking through an eye-piece of a camcorder and recording his observations on tape for post-flight analysis. Other cameras inside the glovebox are also recording other angles of the experiment or downlinking video to the experiment teams on the ground. The glovebox is thought of as a safety cabinet with closed front and negative...
Topics: What -- Space Shuttle Orbiter, What -- Columbia, What -- STS-94
Source: http://mix.msfc.nasa.gov/abstracts.php?p=362
NASA Images
Nov 20, 2009 NASA/Marshall Space Flight Center
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Onboard Space Shuttle Columbia (STS-75) the vertical stabilizer appears to point to the four stars of the Southern Cross. The scene was captured with a 35mm camera just prior to a sunrise.
Topics: What -- Space Shuttle Orbiter, What -- Columbia, What -- STS-75
Source: http://mix.msfc.nasa.gov/abstracts.php?p=1736
NASA Images
Nov 20, 2009 NASA/Marshall Space Flight Center
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eye 53

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NASA research Dr. Donald Frazier uses a blue laser shining through a quartz window into a special mix of chemicals to generate a polymer film on the inside quartz surface. As the chemicals respond to the laser light, they adhere to the glass surface, forming opticl films. Dr. Frazier and Dr. Mark S. Paley developed the process in the Space Sciences Laboratory at NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center in Huntsville, AL. Working aboard the Space Shuttle, a science team led by Dr. Frazier formed...
Topics: What -- Space Shuttle Orbiter, What -- Earth, Where -- Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC)
Source: http://mix.msfc.nasa.gov/abstracts.php?p=702
NASA Images
Nov 20, 2009 NASA/Marshall Space Flight Center
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Astronaut James D. Halsell, Jr., mission commander, uses a Hi-8mm camcorder to videotape the Hand Held Diffusion Test Cells (HHDTC), in the Spacelab Science Module aboard the Earth-orbiting Space Shuttle Columbia (STS-94). Each test cell has three chambers containing a protein solution, a buffer solution and a precipitant solution chamber. Using the liquid-liquid diffusion method, the different fluids are brought into contact but not mixed. Over a period of time, the fluids will diffuse into...
Topics: What -- Earth, What -- Space Shuttle Orbiter, What -- Columbia, What -- STS-94
Source: http://mix.msfc.nasa.gov/abstracts.php?p=363
NASA Images
Nov 20, 2009 NASA/Marshall Space Flight Center
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eye 54

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Diabetic patients may someday reduce their insulin injections and lead more normal lives because of new insights gained through irnovative space research in which insulin crystals were grown on the Space Shuttle. Results from a 1994 insulin crystals growth experiment in space are leading to a new understanding of protein insulin. Lack of insulin is the cause of diabetes, a desease that accounts for one-seventh of the nation's health care costs. Champion Deivanaygam, a researcher at the Center...
Topics: What -- Space Shuttle Orbiter, Where -- Alabama, Where -- Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC)
Source: http://mix.msfc.nasa.gov/abstracts.php?p=683
NASA Images
Nov 20, 2009 NASA/Marshall Space Flight Center
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eye 40

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Onboard Space Shuttle Columbia (STS-87) Mission Commander Kevin R. Kregel sets up the mid-deck glove box during early hours of the 16-day United States Microgravity Payload 4 (USMP-4) mission. Kregel was joined by four other astronauts and a Ukrainian payload specialist for the mission.
Topics: What -- Space Shuttle Orbiter, What -- Columbia, What -- STS-87, Where -- United States of America
Source: http://mix.msfc.nasa.gov/abstracts.php?p=529
NASA Images
Nov 20, 2009 NASA/Marshall Space Flight Center
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Onboard Space Shuttle Columbia (STS-94) Mission Specialist Michael L. Gernhardt performs an observation at the Expedite Processing of Experiments to Space Station (EXPRESS) rack in the Spacelab Science Module. The EXPRESS rack accommodates experiments compatible with the Shuttle mid-deck, since the mid-deck will be used to ferry payloads to the International Space Station (ISS). The Microgravity Sciences Laboratory (MSL-1) mission provides an opportunity to test and demonstrate this Space...
Topics: What -- Space Shuttle Orbiter, What -- Columbia, What -- STS-94, What -- International Space...
Source: http://mix.msfc.nasa.gov/abstracts.php?p=531
NASA Images
Nov 20, 2009 NASA/Marshall Space Flight Center
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Onboard Space Shuttle Columbia (STS-78) Mission Specialist Richard M. Lirnehan works out in the Life and Microgravity Spacelab (LMS-1) Science Module. With an almost 17-day mission away from Earth's gravity, crew members maintained an exercise regimen above and beyond their assigned LMS-1 duty assignments.
Topics: What -- Space Shuttle Orbiter, What -- Columbia, What -- STS-78
Source: http://mix.msfc.nasa.gov/abstracts.php?p=359
NASA Images
Nov 20, 2009 NASA/Marshall Space Flight Center
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Dr. Daniel Carter (center), president of New Century Pharmaceuticals, and Dr. Joseph Ho (right), vice president, examine a diffusion Controlled Apparatus for Microgravity (DCAM). At left, Dr. John Ruble, a senior scientist, examines some specimens. The plastic DCAM has two chambers joined by a porous plug through which fluids can diffuse at a controlled rate. This allows researchers to mix protein solutions on Earth and load them aboard the Space Shuttle shortly before launch. The diffusion and...
Topics: What -- Earth, What -- Space Shuttle Orbiter
Source: http://mix.msfc.nasa.gov/abstracts.php?p=681
NASA Images
Nov 20, 2009 NASA/Marshall Space Flight Center
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eye 66

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Onboard Space Shuttle Columbia's (STS-87) first ever Extravehicular Activity (EVA), astronaut Takao Doi works with a 156-pound crane carried onboard for the first time. The crane's inclusion and the work with it are part of a continuing preparation effort for future work on the International Space Station (ISS). The ongoing project allows for evaluation of tools and operating methods to be applied to the construction of the Space Station. This crane device is designed to aid future space...
Topics: Who -- Takao Doi, What -- Space Shuttle Orbiter, What -- STS-87, What -- International Space...
Source: http://mix.msfc.nasa.gov/abstracts.php?p=530
NASA Images
Nov 20, 2009 NASA/Marshall Space Flight Center
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Onboard Space Shuttle Columbia (STS-87) mid-deck, Leonid Kadenyuk, Ukrainian payload specialist, works with the Brassica rapa plants being grown for the Collaborative Ukrainian Experiment (CUE). Kadenyuk joined five astronauts for 16-days in Earth-orbit in support of the United States Microgravity Payload 4 (USMP-4) mission.
Topics: Who -- Leonid Kadenyuk, What -- Space Shuttle Orbiter, What -- Columbia, What -- STS-87, What --...
Source: http://mix.msfc.nasa.gov/abstracts.php?p=360
NASA Images
Nov 20, 2009 NASA/Marshall Space Flight Center
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Onboard Space Shuttle Columbia (STS-94) Payload Commander Janice E. Voss works at the Combustion Module (CM-1) experiment. Using a video monitor, Voss observes a flame during one of the many burns in this facility that were conducted throughout the 16-day Microgravity Science Laboratory (MSL-1) mission. The combustion hardware is designed to sample and analyze gasses and soot on orbit and will be used to continue these studies onboard the International Space Station (ISS). Combustion is the...
Topics: What -- Space Shuttle Orbiter, What -- Columbia, What -- STS-94, What -- MSL 1, What --...
Source: http://mix.msfc.nasa.gov/abstracts.php?p=364
NASA Images
Nov 20, 2009 NASA/Marshall Space Flight Center
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On the Space Shuttle Orbiter Atlantis' middeck, Astronaut Donald R. McMonagle, mission commander, works with the Heat Pipe Performance (HPP-2) experiment during STS-66 mission. HPP-2 was flown to investigate the thermal performance and fluid dynamics of heat pipes operating with asymmetric and multiple heating zones under microgravity condition.
Topics: What -- Space Shuttle Orbiter, What -- Atlantis, What -- STS-66
Source: http://mix.msfc.nasa.gov/abstracts.php?p=654
NASA Images
Nov 20, 2009 NASA/Marshall Space Flight Center
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On the Space Shuttle Orbiter Atlantis' middeck, Astronaut Joseph R. Tarner, mission specialist, works at an area amidst several lockers which support the Protein Crystal Growth (PCG) experiment during the STS-66 mission. This particular section is called the Crystal Observation System, housed in the Thermal Enclosure System (COS/TES). Together with the Vapor Diffusion Apparatus (VDA), housed in Single Locker Thermal Enclosure (SLTES), the COS/TES represents the continuing research into the...
Topics: What -- Space Shuttle Orbiter, What -- Atlantis, What -- STS-66
Source: http://mix.msfc.nasa.gov/abstracts.php?p=653
NASA Images
Nov 20, 2009 NASA/Marshall Space Flight Center
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This Space Shuttle Columbia (STS-94) onboard photo is of astronauts Susan Still and Janice Voss reviewing an Inflight Maintenance (IFM) procedure in the Microgravity Science Lab (MSL-1) science module. Astronaut Gregory Linteris works at a lap top computer in the background.
Topics: Who -- Susan Still, Who -- Janice Voss, Who -- Gregory Linteris, What -- Space Shuttle Orbiter,...
Source: http://mix.msfc.nasa.gov/abstracts.php?p=2506
NASA Images
Nov 20, 2009 NASA/Marshall Space Flight Center
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The Ultra 500 Series golf balls, introduced in 1995 by Wilson Sporting Goods Company, has 500 dimples arranged in a pattern of 60 spherical triangles. The design employs NASA's aerodynamics technology analysis of air loads of the tank and Shuttle orbiter that was performed under the Space Shuttle External Tank program. According to Wilson, this technology provides "the most symmetrical ball surface available, sustaining initial velocity longer and producing the most stable ball flight for...
Topic: What -- Space Shuttle Orbiter
Source: http://mix.msfc.nasa.gov/abstracts.php?p=1903
NASA Images
Nov 20, 2009 NASA/Marshall Space Flight Center
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Five astronauts and a payload specialist take a break from training at the Johnson Space Center (JSC) to pose for the STS-87 crew portrait. Wearing the orange partial pressure launch and entry suits, from the left, are Kalpana Chawla, mission specialist; Steven W. Lindsey, pilot; Kevin R. Kregel, mission commander; and Leonid K. Kadenyuk, Ukrainian payload specialist. Wearing the white Extravehicular Mobility Unit (EMU) space suits are mission specialists Winston E. Scott (left) and Takao Doi...
Topics: Who -- Kalpana Chawla, Who -- Takao Doi, What -- Space Shuttle Orbiter, What -- STS-87, What --...
Source: http://mix.msfc.nasa.gov/abstracts.php?p=3605
NASA Images
Nov 20, 2009 NASA/Marshall Space Flight Center
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Like a rising sun lighting up the afternoon sky, the Space Shuttle Columbia (STS-87) soared from Launch Pad 39B on the fourth flight of the United States Microgravity Payload (USMP-4) and Spartan-201 satellite which were managed by scientists and engineers from the Marshall Space Flight Center. During the 16-day mission, the crew oversaw experiments in microgravity; deployed and retrieved a solar satellite; and tested a new experimental camera, the AERCam Sprint. Two crew members, Dr. Takao Doi...
Topics: Who -- Takao Doi, Who -- Winston Scott, What -- Sun, What -- Space Shuttle Orbiter, What --...
Source: http://mix.msfc.nasa.gov/abstracts.php?p=556
NASA Images
Nov 20, 2009 NASA/Marshall Space Flight Center
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A special lighting technology was developed for space-based commercial plant growth research on NASA's Space Shuttle. Surgeons have used this technology to treat brain cancer on Earth, in two successful operations. The treatment technique called photodynamic therapy, requires the surgeon to use tiny pinhead-size Light Emitting Diodes (LEDs) (a source releasing long wavelengths of light) to activate light-sensitive, tumor-treating drugs. Laser light has been used for this type of surgery in the...
Topics: What -- Space Shuttle Orbiter, What -- Cancer, What -- Earth, Where -- Marshall Space Flight Center...
Source: http://mix.msfc.nasa.gov/abstracts.php?p=1846
NASA Images
Nov 20, 2009 NASA/Marshall Space Flight Center
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Dr. Donald Frazier,NASA researcher, uses a blue laser shining through a quarts window into a special mix of chemicals to generate a polymer film on the inside quartz surface. As the chemicals respond to the laser light, they adhere to the glass surface, forming optical films. Dr. Frazier and Dr. Mark S. Paley developed the process in the Space Sciences Laboratory at NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center in Huntsville, AL. Working aboard the Space Shuttle, a science team led by Dr. Frazier formed...
Topics: What -- Space Shuttle Orbiter, What -- Earth, Where -- Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC)
Source: http://mix.msfc.nasa.gov/abstracts.php?p=2200
NASA Images
Nov 20, 2009 NASA/Marshall Space Flight Center
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This photograph shows the U.S. Laboratory Module (also called Destiny) for the International Space Station (ISS), under construction in the Space Station manufacturing facility at the Marshall Space Flight Center. The U.S. Laboratory module is the centerpiece of the ISS, where science experiments will be performed in the near-zero gravity of space. The Destiny Module was launched aboard the Space Shuttle orbiter Atlantis (STS-67 mission) on February 7, 2001. The aluminum module is 8.5 meters...
Topics: What -- Destiny, What -- International Space Station (ISS), What -- Space Shuttle Orbiter, What --...
Source: http://mix.msfc.nasa.gov/abstracts.php?p=2575
NASA Images
Nov 20, 2009 NASA/Marshall Space Flight Center
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In this photograph, the U.S. Laboratory Module (also called Destiny) for the International Space Station (ISS) is shown under construction in the West High Bay of the Space Station manufacturing facility (building 4708) at the Marshall Space Flight Center. The U.S. Laboratory module is the centerpiece of the ISS, where science experiments will be performed in the near-zero gravity of space. The Destiny Module was launched aboard the Space Shuttle orbiter Atlantis (STS-98 mission) on February 7,...
Topics: What -- Destiny, What -- International Space Station (ISS), What -- Space Shuttle Orbiter, What --...
Source: http://mix.msfc.nasa.gov/abstracts.php?p=1603
NASA Images
Nov 20, 2009 NASA/Marshall Space Flight Center
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The crew assigned to the STS-86 mission included five U.S. astronauts, one Russian cosmonaut, and one Canadian astronaut. Kneeling is mission specialist Scott E. Parazynski. Others, pictured from left to right, are Michael J. Bloomfield, pilot; David A. Wolf, mission specialist; James D. Wetherbee, commander; and mission specialists Wendy B. Lawrence, Vlamimir G. Titov (RSA), and Jean-Loup J.M. Chretien (CNES). Launched aboard the Space Shuttle Atlantis on September 25, 1997 at 10:34:19 pm...
Topics: Who -- Michael J. Bloomfield, What -- STS-86, What -- Space Shuttle Orbiter, What -- Atlantis, What...
Source: http://mix.msfc.nasa.gov/abstracts.php?p=3603
NASA Images
Nov 20, 2009 NASA/Marshall Space Flight Center
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STS-94 Payload Specialist Roger K. Crouch and Payload Commander Janice E. Voss prepare to enter the Space Shuttle Columbia at Launch Pad 39a with assistance from white room closeout crew members.
Topics: What -- STS-94, What -- Space Shuttle Orbiter, What -- Columbia
Source: http://mix.msfc.nasa.gov/abstracts.php?p=111
NASA Images
Nov 20, 2009 NASA/Marshall Space Flight Center
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Framed by the Vehicle Assembly Building at right and the Mate-Demate Device at left, the Space Shuttle orbiter Columbia (STS-94) glided onto Runway 33 of Kennedy Space Center's Shuttle Landing Facility. On board for the reflight of STS-83 were a crew of seven and the Microgravity Science Laboratory-1 (MSL-1)which was managed by scientists and engineers from the Marshall Space Flight Center. Mission STS-94 marked the 23rd flight of Columbia and the 85th mission flown since the start of the Space...
Topics: What -- Space Shuttle Orbiter, What -- Columbia, What -- STS-83, What -- MSL 1, What -- STS-94,...
Source: http://mix.msfc.nasa.gov/abstracts.php?p=560
NASA Images
Nov 20, 2009 NASA/Marshall Space Flight Center
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The STS-87 patch is shaped like a space helmet symbolizing the Extravehicular Activity (EVA) on the mission in support of testing of tools for the assembly of the International Space Station (ISS). Earth is shown reflected on the backside of the helmet. The Space Shuttle Columbia forms the interface between the Earth and the heavens, the back and front sides of the helmet in profile. The three red lines emerging from Columbia represent the astronaut symbol as well as the robot arm, which was...
Topics: What -- STS-87, What -- Space Shuttle Orbiter, What -- International Space Station (ISS), What --...
Source: http://mix.msfc.nasa.gov/abstracts.php?p=3606
NASA Images
Nov 20, 2009 NASA/Marshall Space Flight Center
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A special lighting technology was developed for space-based commercial plant growth research on NASA's Space Shuttle. Surgeons have used this technology to treat brain cancer on Earth, in two successful operations. The treatment technique, called Photodynamic Therapy, requires the surgeon to use tiny, pinhead-size Light Emitting Diodes (LEDs) (a source that releases long wavelengths of light ) to activate light-sensitive, tumor-treating drugs. "A young woman operated on in May 1999 has...
Topics: What -- Space Shuttle Orbiter, What -- Cancer, What -- Earth, Where -- Wisconsin, Where -- Marshall...
Source: http://mix.msfc.nasa.gov/abstracts.php?p=1847
NASA Images
Nov 20, 2009 NASA/Marshall Space Flight Center
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This photograph shows the Chandra X-Ray Observatory (CXO), formerly Advanced X-Ray Astrophysics Facility (AXAF), High Resolution Mirror Assembly (HRMA) being removed from the test structure in the X-Ray Calibration Facility (XRCF) at the Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC). The AXAF was renamed CXO in 1999. The CXO is the most sophisticated and the world's most powerful x-ray telescope ever built. It observes x-rays from high-energy regions of the universe, such as hot gas in the remnants of...
Topics: What -- Space Shuttle Orbiter, What -- Columbia, What -- STS-93, Where -- Marshall Space Flight...
Source: http://mix.msfc.nasa.gov/abstracts.php?p=1984
NASA Images
Nov 20, 2009 NASA/Marshall Space Flight Center
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The Space Shuttle Columbia (STS-94) soared from Launch Pad 39A begirning its 16-day Microgravity Science Laboratory -1 (MSL-1) mission. The launch window was opened 47 minutes earlier than the originally scheduled time to improve the opportunity to lift off before Florida summer rain showers reached the space center. During the space flight, the MSL-1 was used to test some of the hardware, facilities and procedures that were planned for use on the International Space Station which were managed...
Topics: What -- Space Shuttle Orbiter, What -- Columbia, What -- STS-83, What -- MSL 1, What --...
Source: http://mix.msfc.nasa.gov/abstracts.php?p=558
NASA Images
Nov 20, 2009 NASA/Marshall Space Flight Center
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The Space Shuttle Columbia (STS-94) soared from Launch Pad 39A begirning its 16-day Microgravity Science Laboratory -1 (MSL-1) mission. The launch window was opened 47 minutes earlier than the originally scheduled time to improve the opportunity to lift off before Florida summer rain showers reached the space center. During the space flight, the MSL-1 was used to test some of the hardware, facilities and procedures that were planned for use on the International Space Station which were managed...
Topics: What -- Space Shuttle Orbiter, What -- Columbia, What -- STS-83, What -- MSL 1, What --...
Source: http://mix.msfc.nasa.gov/abstracts.php?p=559
NASA Images
Nov 20, 2009 NASA/Marshall Space Flight Center
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This STS-80 onboard photograph shows the Orbiting Retrievable Far and Extreme Ultraviolet Spectrometer-Shuttle Pallet Satellite II (ORFEUS-SPAS II), photographed during approach by the Space Shuttle Orbiter Columbia for retrieval. Built by the German Space Agency, DARA, the ORFEUS-SPAS II, a free-flying satellite, was dedicated to astronomical observations at very short wavelengths to: investigate the nature of hot stellar atmospheres, investigate the cooling mechanisms of white dwarf stars,...
Topics: What -- STS-80, What -- Spectrometer, What -- Space Shuttle Orbiter, What -- Columbia, What -- Moon
Source: http://mix.msfc.nasa.gov/abstracts.php?p=2377
NASA Images
Nov 20, 2009 NASA/Marshall Space Flight Center
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STS-94 Payload Specialist Roger K. Crouch is helped into his launch/entry suit by a suit technician in the Operations and Checkout (OC) building after the suit has been given a pressure test. He is the Chief Scientist of the NASA Microgravity Space and Applications Division. He also has served as a Program Scientist for previous missions and is an expert in semiconductor crystal growth. Crouch and six other crewmembers prepare to depart the OC and head for Launch Pad 39a, where the Space...
Topics: What -- STS-94, What -- Space Shuttle Orbiter, What -- Columbia
Source: http://mix.msfc.nasa.gov/abstracts.php?p=110
NASA Images
Nov 20, 2009 NASA/Marshall Space Flight Center
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In this photograph, the U.S. Laboratory Module (also called Destiny) for the International Space Station (ISS) is shown under construction in the West High Bay of the Space Station manufacturing facility (building 4708) at the Marshall Space Flight Center. The U.S. Laboratory module is the centerpiece of the ISS, where science experiments will be performed in the near-zero gravity of space. The Destiny Module was launched aboard the Space Shuttle orbiter Atlantis (STS-98 mission) on February 7,...
Topics: What -- Destiny, What -- International Space Station (ISS), What -- Space Shuttle Orbiter, What --...
Source: http://mix.msfc.nasa.gov/abstracts.php?p=1602
NASA Images
Nov 20, 2009 NASA/Marshall Space Flight Center
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This photo shows the High Resolution Camera (HRC) for the Chandra X-Ray Observatory (CXO), formerly Advanced X-Ray Astrophysics Facility (AXAF), being integrated with the High Resolution Mirror Assembly (HRMA) in Marshall Space Flight Center's (MSFC's) 24-foot Vacuum Chamber at the X-Ray Calibration Facility (XRCF). The AXAF was renamed CXO in 1999. The CXO is the most sophisticated and the world's most poweful x-ray telescope ever built. It observes x-rays from high-energy regions of the...
Topics: What -- Space Shuttle Orbiter, What -- Columbia, What -- STS-93, Where -- Marshall Space Flight...
Source: http://mix.msfc.nasa.gov/abstracts.php?p=1973
NASA Images
Nov 20, 2009 NASA/Marshall Space Flight Center
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This unusual view of the underside of the Space Shuttle Orbiter Atlantis was taken by a fish-eye camera lens from Kennedy Space Center (KSC) Shuttle Landing Facility shortly before landing on May 24, 1997. Atlantis was wrapping up its nine-day mission, which was the sixth docking with the Mir space station. STS-84 Mission Specialist C. Michael Foale replaced astronaut and Mir 23 crew member Jerry M. Linenger, who had been on the Russian space station since January 15. Foale was scheduled to...
Topics: Who -- Michael Foale, What -- Space Shuttle Orbiter, What -- Atlantis, What -- Russian Mir Space...
Source: http://mix.msfc.nasa.gov/abstracts.php?p=2560
NASA Images
Nov 20, 2009 NASA/Marshall Space Flight Center
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This photo shows the High Resolution Camera (HRC) for the Chandra X-Ray Observatory (CXO), formerly Advanced X-Ray Astrophysics Facility (AXAF), being integrated with the High Resolution Mirror Assembly (HRMA) in Marshall Space Flight Center's (MSFC's) 24-foot Vacuum Chamber at the X-Ray Calibration Facility (XRCF). The AXAF was renamed CXO in 1999. The CXO is the most sophisticated and the world's most powerful x-ray telescope ever built. It observes x-rays from high-energy regions of the...
Topics: What -- Space Shuttle Orbiter, What -- Columbia, What -- STS-93, Where -- Marshall Space Flight...
Source: http://mix.msfc.nasa.gov/abstracts.php?p=1974
NASA Images
Nov 20, 2009 NASA/Marshall Space Flight Center
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The crew patch for NASA's STS-83 mission depicts the Space Shuttle Columbia launching into space for the first Microgravity Sciences Laboratory 1 (MSL-1) mission. MSL-1 investigated materials science, fluid dynamics, biotechnology, and combustion science in the microgravity environment of space, experiments that were conducted in the Spacelab Module in the Space Shuttle Columbia's cargo bay. The center circle symbolizes a free liquid under microgravity conditions representing various fluid and...
Topics: What -- STS-83, What -- Space Shuttle Orbiter, What -- Columbia, What -- MSL 1, What --...
Source: http://mix.msfc.nasa.gov/abstracts.php?p=3598
NASA Images
Nov 20, 2009 NASA/Marshall Space Flight Center
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This photograph captures the installation of the Chandra X-Ray Observatory, formerly Advanced X-Ray Astrophysics Facility (AXAF), Advanced Charged-Coupled Device (CCD) Imaging Spectrometer (ACIS) into the Vacuum Chamber at the X-Ray Calibration Facility (XRCF) at Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC). The AXAF was renamed Chandra X-Ray Observatory (CXO) in 1999. The CXO is the most sophisticated and the world's most powerful x-ray telescope ever built. It observes x-rays from high-energy regions...
Topics: What -- Spectrometer, What -- Space Shuttle Orbiter, What -- Columbia, What -- STS-93, Where --...
Source: http://mix.msfc.nasa.gov/abstracts.php?p=1975
NASA Images
Nov 20, 2009 NASA/Marshall Space Flight Center
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This photograph shows the mirrors of the High Resolution Mirror Assembly (HRMA) for the Chandra X-Ray Observatory (CXO), formerly Advanced X-Ray Astrophysics Facility (AXAF), being assembled in the Eastman Kodak Company in Rochester, New York. The AXAF was renamed CXO in 1999. The CXO is the most sophisticated and the world's most powerful x-ray telescope ever built. It observes x-rays from high-energy regions of the universe, such as hot gas in the remnants of exploded stars. The HRMA, the...
Topics: What -- Space Shuttle Orbiter, What -- Columbia, What -- STS-93, Where -- New York, Where --...
Source: http://mix.msfc.nasa.gov/abstracts.php?p=1985
NASA Images
Nov 20, 2009 NASA/Marshall Space Flight Center
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This is a photograph of the Chandra X-Ray Observatory (CXO), formerly Advanced X-Ray Astrophysics Facility (AXAF), High Resolution Mirror Assembly (HRMA) integration at the X-Ray Calibration Facility (XRCF) at the Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC). The AXAF was renamed CXO in 1999. The CXO is the most sophisticated and the world's most powerful x-ray telescope ever built. It observes x-rays from high-energy regions of the universe, such as hot gas in the remnants of exploded stars. The HRMA,...
Topics: What -- Space Shuttle Orbiter, What -- Columbia, What -- STS-93, Where -- Marshall Space Flight...
Source: http://mix.msfc.nasa.gov/abstracts.php?p=1972
NASA Images
Nov 20, 2009 NASA/Marshall Space Flight Center
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A NASA scientist displays Space Shuttle Main Engine (SSME) turbine component which underwent air flow tests at Marshall's Structures and Dynamics Lab. Such studies could improve efficiency of aircraft engines, and lower operational costs.
Topic: What -- Space Shuttle Orbiter
Source: http://mix.msfc.nasa.gov/abstracts.php?p=447