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244

Jun 12, 2011
06/11

by
Aragon, Cecilia R.; Hearst, Mart

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Many aircraft accidents each year are caused by encounters with invisible airflow hazards. Recent advances in aviation sensor technology offer the potential for aircraft-based sensors that can gather large amounts of airflow velocity data in real-time. With this influx of data comes the need to study how best to present it to the pilot - a cognitively overloaded user focused on a primary task other than that of information visualization. In this paper, we present the results of a usability...

Topics: CONSUMERS, AIR TRANSPORTATION, AIRLINE OPERATIONS, DEPENDENT VARIABLES, MARKET RESEARCH, SEATS,...

We present a dependent-type system for a lambda-calculus with explicit substitutions. In this system, meta-variables, subject reduction, soundness, confluence and weak normalization.

Topics: NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS), DEPENDENT VARIABLES, FUNCTIONS (MATHEMATICS), CALCULUS,...

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263

May 27, 2011
05/11

by
Kordes, Eldon E.; Tuovila, Weimer J.; Guy, Lawrence D

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Representative experimental results are presented to show the current status of the panel flutter problem. Results are presented for unstiffened rectangular panels and for rectangular panels stiffened by corrugated backing. Flutter boundaries are established for all types of panels when considered on the basis of equivalent isotropic plates. The effects of Mach number, differential pressure, and aerodynamic heating on panel flutter are discussed. A flutter analysis of orthotropic panels is...

Topics: RUNGE-KUTTA METHOD, PARTIAL DIFFERENTIAL EQUATIONS, COMPUTERIZED SIMULATION, NUMERICAL ANALYSIS,...

585
585

Jun 1, 2011
06/11

by
Tessler, Alexander; Sleight, David W.; Wang, John T

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Thin solar sail membranes of very large span are being envisioned for near-term space missions. One major design issue that is inherent to these very flexible structures is the formation of wrinkling patterns. Structural wrinkles may deteriorate a solar sail's performance and, in certain cases, structural integrity. In this paper, a geometrically nonlinear, updated Lagrangian shell formulation is employed using the ABAQUS finite element code to simulate the formation of wrinkled deformations in...

Topics: PROGRAM VERIFICATION (COMPUTERS), MATHEMATICAL MODELS, HEURISTIC METHODS, SYMBOLIC PROGRAMMING,...

An approach for reducing the number of variables and constraints, which is combined with System Analysis Equations (SAE), for multiobjective optimization-based design is presented. In order to develop a simplified analysis model, the SAE is computed outside an optimization loop and then approximated for use by an operator. Two examples are presented to demonstrate the approach.

Topics: NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS), COMPLEX SYSTEMS, CONSTRAINTS, OPTIMIZATION, SYSTEMS ANALYSIS,...

This paper argues that a consumer's decision on ticket class takes into account the expected likelihood of obtaining a seat in a particular class which, in turn, partially depends on an optimum "transaction cost". Taking into account the preferences of the consumer and the information that the consumer is endowed with, the consumer will select a ticket that includes its own optimal transaction cost. This motivates the inclusion of the capacity constraint as a proxy independent...

Topics: NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS), CONSUMERS, AIR TRANSPORTATION, AIRLINE OPERATIONS, DEPENDENT...

Algorithms are examined for evaluating the parameters of a regression model when there are errors in the independent variables. The algorithms are fast and the estimates they yield are stable with respect to the correlation of errors and measurements of both the dependent variable and the independent variables.

Topics: NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS), ERRORS, ESTIMATING, INDEPENDENT VARIABLES, REGRESSION...

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318

May 31, 2011
05/11

by
Kory, Carol L.; Andro, Mont

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For the first time, a time-dependent, physics-based computational model has been used to provide a direct description of the effects of the traveling wave tube amplifier (TWTA) on modulated digital signals. The TWT model comprehensively takes into account the effects of frequency dependent AM/AM and AM/PM conversion; gain and phase ripple; drive-induced oscillations; harmonic generation; intermodulation products; and backward waves, Thus, signal integrity can be investigated in the presence of...

Topics: AERODYNAMIC CHARACTERISTICS, SIMULATION, TABLES (DATA), AIRCRAFT MODELS, DYNAMIC MODELS, DEPENDENT...

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167

Jul 12, 2010
07/10

by
Thoren, R. J

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A microcomputer based automatic test system was developed for the daily performance monitoring of wind energy system time domain (WEST) analyzer. The test system consists of a microprocessor based controller and hybrid interface unit which are used for inputing prescribed test signals into all WEST subsystems and for monitoring WEST responses to these signals. Performance is compared to theoretically correct performance levels calculated off line on a large general purpose digital computer....

Topics: COMPUTER GRAPHICS, MATHEMATICAL MODELS, PLOTTERS, GERT, MULTIVARIATE STATISTICAL ANALYSIS,...

Moment method solutions are considered for treating the problem of wire antennas in the presence of an arbitrary dielectric inhomogeneity. In the first method, the current on the wire and the electric field intensity in the inhomogeneity are treated as independent unknowns, while in the second and third methods they are treated as dependent unknowns. The third method is applied to the problem of strip antennas in an electrically thin dielectric slab. Numerical results are presented, and are in...

Topics: NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS), ANTENNAS, DIELECTRICS, ELECTRIC MOMENTS, DEPENDENT VARIABLES,...

The purpose of this study was to investigate the usefulness of different input device configurations when trial planning new routes for aircraft in an advanced simulation of the en route workstation. The task of trial planning is one of the futuristic tools that is performed by the graphical manipulation of an aircraft's trajectory to reroute the aircraft without voice communication. In this study with two input devices, the FAA's current trackball and a basic optical computer mouse were...

Topics: NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS), AIR TRAFFIC CONTROL, CONTROL EQUIPMENT, CONTROLLERS,...

The CESE development is driven by a belief that a solver should (i) enforce conservation laws in both space and time, and (ii) be built from a nondissipative (i.e., neutrally stable) core scheme so that the numerical dissipation can be controlled effectively. To provide a solid foundation for a systematic CESE development of high order schemes, in this paper we describe a new high order (4-5th order) and neutrally stable CESE solver of a 1D advection equation with a constant advection speed a....

Topics: NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS), COMPUTATIONAL GRIDS, SPACE-TIME CE/SE METHOD, INVERSIONS,...

The use of parametric and functional gradient sensitivity analysis techniques is considered for models described by partial differential equations. By interchanging appropriate dependent and independent variables, questions of inverse sensitivity may be addressed to gain insight into the inversion of observational data for parameter and function identification in mathematical models. It may be argued that the presence of a subset of dominantly strong coupled dependent variables will result in...

Topics: NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS), MATHEMATICAL MODELS, OPTIMIZATION, PARAMETERIZATION,...

A classification of all the compensators that stabilize a given general plant in a linear, time-invariant multi-input, multi-output feedback system is developed. This classification, along with the associated necessary and sufficient conditions for stability of the feedback system, is achieved through the introduction of a new parameterization, referred to as R-Parameterization, which is a dual of the familiar Q-Parameterization. The classification is made to the stability conditions of the...

Topics: NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS), FEEDBACK, LINEAR SYSTEMS, PARAMETERIZATION, COMPENSATORS,...

NEWRAP, an improved version of a previous multiple linear regression program called RAPIER, CREDUC, and CRSPLT, allows for a complete regression analysis including cross plots of the independent and dependent variables, correlation coefficients, regression coefficients, analysis of variance tables, t-statistics and their probability levels, rejection of independent variables, plots of residuals against the independent and dependent variables, and a canonical reduction of quadratic response...

Topics: NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS), COMPUTER PROGRAMS, DOUBLE PRECISION ARITHMETIC, REGRESSION...

Finite element and finite difference methods are examined in order to bring out their relationship. It is shown that both methods use two types of discrete representations of continuous functions. They differ in that finite difference methods emphasize the discretization of independent variable, while finite element methods emphasize the discretization of dependent variable (referred to as functional approximations). An important point is that finite element methods use global piecewise...

Topics: NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS), FINITE DIFFERENCE THEORY, FINITE ELEMENT METHOD, NUMERICAL...

A substantial amount of software engineering research effort was focused on the development of software estimation models. A measure of lines of code was derived based on the origin of the delivered code, L sub dev = N + E + 0.2 (S + O) (where L sub dev = developed lines of code, N = newly implemented lines of code, E = extensively modified lines of code, S = slightly modified lines of code, and O = old unchanged lines of code) that is substituted in the following equation H sub s = aL sup b...

Topics: NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS), COMPUTER PROGRAMMING, COMPUTER SYSTEMS PROGRAMS, COST...

This study explored three approaches for the utilization of transpiration cooling in thermal protection systems. One model uses an impermeable wall with boiling water heat transfer at the backface (Model I). A second model uses a permeable wall with a boiling water backface and additional heat transfer to the water vapor as it flows in channels toward the exposed surface (Model II). The third model also uses a permeable wall, but maintains a boiling condition at the exposed surface of the...

Topics: NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS), THERMAL PROTECTION, TRANSPIRATION, COOLING, HEAT TRANSFER,...

An injector optimization methodology, method i, is used to investigate optimal design points for gaseous oxygen/gaseous hydrogen (GO2/GH2) injector elements. A swirl coaxial element and an unlike impinging element (a fuel-oxidizer-fuel triplet) are used to facilitate the study. The elements are optimized in terms of design variables such as fuel pressure drop, APf, oxidizer pressure drop, deltaP(sub f), combustor length, L(sub comb), and full cone swirl angle, theta, (for the swirl element) or...

Topics: NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS), DESIGN ANALYSIS, INJECTORS, OPTIMIZATION, SPACECRAFT...

The CESE development is driven by a belief that a solver should (i) enforce conservation laws in both space and time, and (ii) be built from a non-dissipative (i.e., neutrally stable) core scheme so that the numerical dissipation can be controlled effectively. To initiate a systematic CESE development of high order schemes, in this paper we provide a thorough discussion on the structure, consistency, stability, phase error, and accuracy of a new 4th-order space-time flux-conserving and...

Topics: NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS), CONSERVATION LAWS, DEPENDENT VARIABLES, INDEPENDENT...

A sequential adaptive experimental design procedure for a related problem is studied. It is assumed that a finite set of potential linear models relating certain controlled variables to an observed variable is postulated, and that exactly one of these models is correct. The problem is to sequentially design most informative experiments so that the correct model equation can be determined with as little experimentation as possible. Discussion includes: structure of the linear models;...

Topics: NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS), EXPERIMENT DESIGN, INFORMATION THEORY, PROBABILITY THEORY,...

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273

May 22, 2011
05/11

by
Pervaiz, Mehtab M.; Garrett, J.; Kuryla, J

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This presentation describes a CFD analysis for an Alternate Turbopump Development (ATD) configuration. The analysis consists of a coupled configuration of the inducer and impeller. The work presented here is a joint collaboration of J. Garrett, J. Kuryla and myself.

Topics: COMPUTATIONAL FLUID DYNAMICS, NAVIER-STOKES EQUATION, REYNOLDS NUMBER, COMPUTERIZED SIMULATION,...

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262

Jun 3, 2011
06/11

by
Sever, Thomas; Irwin, Daniel; Sader, Steven A.; Saatchi, Sassa

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To foster scientific cooperation under a Memorandum of Understanding between NASA and the Central American countries, the research project developed regional databases to monitor forest condition and environmental change throughout the region. Of particular interest is the Mesoamerican Biological Corridor (MBC), a chain of protected areas and proposed conservation areas that will link segments of natural habitats in Central America from the borders of northern Columbia to southern Mexico. The...

Topics: UNSTRUCTURED GRIDS (MATHEMATICS), DEPENDENT VARIABLES, PROGRAM VERIFICATION (COMPUTERS), PARALLEL...

Propulsion ground test facilities face the daily challenge of scheduling multiple customers into limited facility space and successfully completing their propulsion test projects. Over the last decade NASA s propulsion test facilities have performed hundreds of tests, collected thousands of seconds of test data, and exceeded the capabilities of numerous test facility and test article components. A logistic regression mathematical modeling technique has been developed to predict the probability...

Topics: NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS), GROUND TESTS, ROCKET TEST FACILITIES, PROBABILITY THEORY,...

This document reports on the activities carried out during a four-week visit of Roberto Cavada at the NASA Ames Research Center. The main goal was to test the practical applicability of the framework proposed, where a diagnosability problem is reduced to a Symbolic Model Checking problem. Section 2 contains a brief explanation of major techniques currently used in Symbolic Model Checking, and how these techniques can be tuned in order to obtain good performances when using Model Checking tools....

Topics: NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS), PROGRAM VERIFICATION (COMPUTERS), MATHEMATICAL MODELS,...

Numerical solution of two dimensional, time dependent, compressible viscous Navier-Stokes equations about arbitrary bodies was treated using density gradients as additional dependent variables. Thus, six dependent variables were computed with the SOR iteration method. Besides formulation for pressure gradient terms, a formulation for computing the body density was presented. To approximate the governing equations, an implicit finite difference method was employed. In computing the solution for...

Topics: NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS), DEPENDENT VARIABLES, FINITE DIFFERENCE THEORY, NAVIER-STOKES...

As part of a 2009 Annals of Statistics paper, Gavrilov, Benjamini, and Sarkar report results of simulations that estimated the false discovery rate (FDR) for equally correlated test statistics using a well-known multiple-test procedure. In our study we estimate the distribution of the false discovery proportion (FDP) for the same procedure under a variety of correlation structures among multiple dependent variables in a MANOVA context. Specifically, we study the mean (the FDR), skewness,...

Topics: NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS), COVARIANCE, MATHEMATICAL MODELS, STATISTICAL ANALYSIS,...

A time-derivative preconditioning algorithm that is effective over a wide range of flow conditions from inviscid to very diffusive flows and from low speed to supersonic flows was developed. This algorithm uses a viscous set of primary dependent variables to introduce well-conditioned eigenvalues and to avoid having a nonphysical time reversal for viscous flow. The resulting algorithm also provides a mechanism for controlling the inviscid and viscous time step parameters to be of order one for...

Topics: NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS), ALGORITHMS, CONVERGENCE, INVISCID FLOW, PRECONDITIONING, TIME...

Three new Runge-Kutta methods are presented for numerical integration of systems of linear inhomogeneous ordinary differential equations (ODES) with constant coefficients. Such ODEs arise in the numerical solution of the partial differential equations governing linear wave phenomena. The restriction to linear ODEs with constant coefficients reduces the number of conditions which the coefficients of the Runge-Kutta method must satisfy. This freedom is used to develop methods which are more...

Topics: NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS), RUNGE-KUTTA METHOD, PARTIAL DIFFERENTIAL EQUATIONS,...

The problem of monitoring a multivariate linear regression model is relevant in studying the evolving relationship between a set of input variables (features) and one or more dependent target variables. This problem becomes challenging for large scale data in a distributed computing environment when only a subset of instances is available at individual nodes and the local data changes frequently. Data centralization and periodic model recomputation can add high overhead to tasks like anomaly...

Topics: NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS), MULTIVARIATE STATISTICAL ANALYSIS, REGRESSION ANALYSIS,...

The development process for a large software development project is very complex and dependent on many variables that are dynamic and interrelated. Factors such as size, productivity and defect injection rates will have substantial impact on the project in terms of cost and schedule. These factors can be affected by the intricacies of the process itself as well as human behavior because the process is very labor intensive. The complex nature of the development process can be investigated with...

Topics: NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS), SOFTWARE ENGINEERING, COMPUTER PROGRAMMING, DEPENDENT...

The development, validation and application of a fractional step solution method of the time-dependent incompressible Navier-Stokes equations in generalized coordinate systems are discussed. A solution method that combines a finite-volume discretization with a novel choice of the dependent variables and a fractional step splitting to obtain accurate solutions in arbitrary geometries was previously developed for fixed-grids. In the present research effort, this solution method is extended to...

Topics: NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS), AIRFOILS, COMPUTATIONAL GRIDS, COORDINATES, FLUID DYNAMICS,...

A general chemical kinetics and sensitivity analysis code for complex, homogeneous, gas-phase reactions is described. The main features of the code, LSENS (the NASA Lewis kinetics and sensitivity analysis code), are its flexibility, efficiency and convenience in treating many different chemical reaction models. The models include: static system; steady, one-dimensional, inviscid flow; incident-shock initiated reaction in a shock tube; and a perfectly stirred reactor. In addition, equilibrium...

Topics: NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS), APPLICATIONS PROGRAMS (COMPUTERS), SENSITIVITY, FORTRAN,...

This viewgraph presentation reviews the lunar regolith figures of merit. The contents include: 1) A quick review of Figures-of-Merit (FoM); 2) Software Implementation of FoM Algorithms; and 3) Demonstration of the Software.

Topics: NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS), LUNAR ROCKS, REGOLITH, FIGURE OF MERIT, SOFTWARE ENGINEERING,...

The MODEL III variational data assimilation model is the third of four general assimilation models designed to blend weather data measured from space based platforms in the meteorological data mainstream in a way that maximizes the information content of the satellite data. Because there are many different observation locations and there are many instruments with different measurement error characteristics, it is also necessary to require that the blending be done to maximize the information...

Topics: NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS), ATMOSPHERIC MODELS, DEPENDENT VARIABLES, FORMALISM,...

Methods for the presentation and display of multivariate data are discussed with emphasis placed on the multivariate analysis of variance problems and the Hotelling T(2) solution in the two-sample case. The methods utilize the concepts of stepwise discrimination analysis and the computation of partial correlation coefficients.

Topics: NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS), COMPUTER GRAPHICS, GERT, MULTIVARIATE STATISTICAL ANALYSIS,...

Matrix programming of electronic analog computers 1958

Topics: equation, matrix, analog, equations, programming, electronic, differential, solutions, extraneous,...

From the bitsavers.org collection, a scanned-in computer-related document. ibm :: 650 :: ades :: NAVORD 4209 Automatic Digital Encoding System II Feb56

Topics: recursion, equation, storage, dependent, formulation, ades, denotes, vector, values, variables,...

Decrements in balance control have been documented in astronauts after space flight. Reliable measures of balance control are needed for use in postflight field tests at remote landing sites. Diffusion analysis (DA) is a statistical mechanical tool that shows the average difference of the dependent variable on varying time scales. These techniques have been shown to measure differences in open-loop and closed-loop postural control in astronauts and elderly subjects. The goal of this study was...

Topics: NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS), HEAD MOVEMENT, VESTIBULES, RELIABILITY, FIELD TESTS,...

Efficient compression of image data requires the understanding of the noise characteristics of sensors as well as the redundancy expected in imagery. Herein, the techniques of Differential Pulse Code Modulation (DPCM) are reviewed and modified for information-preserving data compression. The modifications include: mapping from intensity to an equal variance space; context dependent one and two dimensional predictors; rationale for nonlinear DPCM encoding based upon an image quality model;...

Topics: NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS), CODING, CONTEXT, DATA COMPRESSION, DIFFERENTIAL PULSE CODE...

A methodology used in support of a contract study for NASA/MSFC to optimize the design of gas generator hybrid propulsion booster for uprating the National Space Transportation System (NSTS) is presented. The objective was to compare alternative configurations for this booster approach, optimizing each candidate concept on different bases, in order to develop data for a trade table on which a final decision was based. The methodology is capable of processing a large number of independent and...

Topics: NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS), DESIGN ANALYSIS, GAS GENERATORS, HYBRID PROPULSION,...

The full Navier-Stokes time-dependent, compressible, turbulent, mean-flow equations in mass-averaged variables for plane or axisymmetric flow are presented. The equations are derived in a body-oriented, orthogonal, curvilinear coordinate system. Turbulence is modelled by a system of two equations for mass-averaged turbulent kinetic energy and dissipation rate proposed. These equations are rederived and some new features are discussed. A system of second order boundary layer equations is then...

Topics: NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS), EQUATIONS OF MOTION, FLOW EQUATIONS, NAVIER-STOKES EQUATION,...

The main goals are the development, validation, and application of a fractional step solution method of the time-dependent incompressible Navier-Stokes equations in generalized coordinate systems. A solution method that combines a finite volume discretization with a novel choice of the dependent variables and a fractional step splitting to obtain accurate solutions in arbitrary geometries is extended to include more general situations, including cases with moving grids. The numerical techniques...

Topics: NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS), BOUNDARY CONDITIONS, COMPUTATIONAL GRIDS, INCOMPRESSIBLE...

The AIAA Modeling and Simulation Technical Committee has worked for several years to develop a standard by which the information needed to develop physics-based models of aircraft can be specified. The purpose of this standard is to provide a well-defined set of information, definitions, data tables and axis systems so that cooperating organizations can transfer a model from one simulation facility to another with maximum efficiency. This paper proposes using an application of the eXtensible...

Topics: NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS), AERODYNAMIC CHARACTERISTICS, AIRCRAFT MODELS, DYNAMIC MODELS,...

In many engineering problems, the effects of dissipation can be extremely important. Dissipation can be represented by several parameters depending on the context and the models that are used. Some examples of dissipation-related parameters are damping ratio, viscosity, resistance, absorption coefficients, pressure drop, or damping rate. This Technical Memorandum (TM) describes the theoretical consolidation of the classic absorption coefficients with several other dissipation parameters...

Topics: NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS), DISSIPATION, ACOUSTICS, LINEARIZATION, ABSORPTIVITY,...

An algorithm is presented for unsteady two-dimensional incompressible Navier-Stokes calculations. This algorithm is based on the fourth order partial differential equation for incompressible fluid flow which uses the streamfunction as the only dependent variable. The algorithm is second order accurate in both time and space. It uses a multigrid solver at each time step. It is extremely efficient with respect to the use of both CPU time and physical memory. It is extremely robust with respect to...

Topics: NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS), ALGORITHMS, FLUID DYNAMICS, FLUID FLOW, INCOMPRESSIBLE FLOW,...

A human-in-the-loop high fidelity flight simulation experiment was conducted, which investigated and compared breakout procedures for Very Closely Spaced Parallel Approaches (VCSPA) with two and three runways. To understand the feasibility, usability and human factors of two and three runway VCSPA, data were collected and analyzed on the dependent variables of breakout cross track error and pilot workload. Independent variables included number of runways, cause of breakout and location of...

Topics: NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS), RUNWAYS, FLIGHT SIMULATION, TRAJECTORIES, RUNWAY CONDITIONS,...

The matrix extrapolation routine presented is a coded algorithm for the numerical solution of modified forms of the basic differential equations which are satisfied by the geocentric state vector of a spacecraft's center of mass and by the filter-weighting matrix. The equations are described in detail and the various input and output variables designated. The capability is thus established to extrapolate any spacecraft's geocentric state vector, either backwards or forwards in time, through a...

Topics: NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS), MATRICES (MATHEMATICS), SPACE SHUTTLES, SPACECRAFT CONTROL,...

An injector optimization methodology, method i, is used to investigate optimal design points for a gaseous oxygen/gaseous hydrogen (GO2/GH2) impinging injector element. The unlike impinging element, a fuel-oxidizer- fuel (F-O-F) triplet, is optimized in terms of design variables such as fuel pressure drop, (Delta)P(sub f), oxidizer pressure drop, (Delta)P(sub o), combustor length, L(sub comb), and impingement half-angle, alpha, for a given mixture ratio and chamber pressure. Dependent variables...

Topics: NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS), COMBUSTION CHAMBERS, DESIGN ANALYSIS, ENERGY CONSERVATION,...

This paper investigates the use of automatic differentiation (AD) as a means for generating sensitivity analyses in rotorcraft design and optimization. This technique transforms an existing computer program into a new program that performs sensitivity analysis in addition to the original analysis. The original FORTRAN program calculates a set of dependent (output) variables from a set of independent (input) variables, the new FORTRAN program calculates the partial derivatives of the dependent...

Topics: NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS), APPLICATIONS PROGRAMS (COMPUTERS), COMPUTER PROGRAMS, COSTS,...