Thesis (M. S.)--University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign

Topics: Floating-point arithmetic, Roundoff errors

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xiii, 378 p. : 29 cm

Topics: Computer programming, Floating-point arithmetic, Computer arithmetic

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Jun 22, 2017
06/17

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Bernal, Javier; Witzgall, Christoph

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Topics: Decimal system -- Software, Floating-point arithmetic, Tetrahedra

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Jun 9, 2011
06/11

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Halfon, E.; Nishri, B.; Seifert, A.; Wygnanski, I

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The Effects of elevated free-stream turbulence (FST) on the natural and periodically excited separation bubbles were studied experimentally, due to the relevance of this flow to low-pressure turbine blades at low Reynolds numbers. A bubble was formed at the leading edge of a flat plate and the FST level was altered by placing a grid across the flow at different locations upstream of the plate. The mixing across the separated shear-layer, forming the free boundary of the bubble, increased due to...

Topics: ALGORITHMS, FLOATING POINT ARITHMETIC, SUBTRACTION, THEOREM PROVING, STANDARDS

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Oct 22, 2020
10/20

by
Kulisch, Ulrich

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467 p. ; 19 cm

Topics: Algebra, Abstract, Floating-point arithmetic, Mathematics -- Data processing

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Sep 28, 2020
09/20

by
Gregory, Robert Todd, 1920-

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xii, 194 pages ; 25 cm

Topics: Approximation theory -- Data processing, Floating-point arithmetic, Approximationstheorie,...

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Oct 26, 2020
10/20

by
Kulisch, Ulrich

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xiii, 249 p. : 24 cm

Topics: Algebra, Abstract, Interval analysis (Mathematics), Floating-point arithmetic, Computer arithmetic

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May 21, 2011
05/11

by
Wray, Richard B.; Stovall, John R

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This paper presents an overview of the application of the Space Generic Open Avionics Architecture (SGOAA) to the Space Shuttle Data Processing System (DPS) architecture design. This application has been performed to validate the SGOAA, and its potential use in flight critical systems. The paper summarizes key elements of the Space Shuttle avionics architecture, data processing system requirements and software architecture as currently implemented. It then summarizes the SGOAA architecture and...

Topics: ADDING CIRCUITS, DIGITAL FILTERS, FLOATING POINT ARITHMETIC, MULTIPLIERS, ARCHITECTURE (COMPUTERS),...

Journal of Research of the National Institute of Standards and Technology

Topics: logarithmic and level-index arithmetic, computer arithmetic, fixed-point and floating-point...

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Jul 21, 2010
07/10

by
NON

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Recent findings by NASA Exobiology investigators are reported. Scientific papers are presented in the following areas: cosmic evolution of biogenic compounds, prebiotic evolution (planetary and molecular), early evolution of life (biological and geochemical), evolution of advanced life, solar system exploration, and the Search for Extraterrestrial Intelligence (SETI).

Topics: ARCHITECTURE (COMPUTERS), MULTIPROCESSING (COMPUTERS), PARTIAL DIFFERENTIAL EQUATIONS, PARTITIONS...

A significant portion of the ANSI/IEEE-854 Standard for Radix-Independent Floating-Point Arithmetic is defined in PVS (Prototype Verification System). Since IEEE-854 is a generalization of the ANSI/IEEE-754 Standard for Binary Floating-Point Arithmetic, the definition of IEEE-854 in PVS also formally defines much of IEEE-754. This collection of PVS theories provides a basis for machine checked verification of floating-point systems. This formal definition illustrates that formal specification...

Topics: NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS), FLOATING POINT ARITHMETIC, FORMALISM, PROTOTYPES, PROVING,...

For the past decade, a framework combining model checking (symbolic trajectory evaluation) and higher-order logic theorem proving has been in production use at Intel. Our tools and methodology have been used to formally verify execution cluster functionality (including floating-point operations) for a number of Intel products, including the Pentium(Registered TradeMark)4 and Core(TradeMark)i7 processors. Hardware verification in 2009 is much more challenging than it was in 1999 - today s CPU...

Topics: NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS), THEOREM PROVING, FLOATING POINT ARITHMETIC, CHIPS, FIRMWARE,...

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875

Jul 12, 2010
07/10

by
Bowers, A. H.; Sim, A. G

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Computations of drag polars for a low-speed Wortmann sailplane airfoil are compared with both wind tunnel and flight test results. Excellent correlation was shown to exist between computations and flight results except when separated flow regimes were encountered. Smoothness of the input coordinates to the PROFILE computer program was found to be essential to obtain accurate comparisons of drag polars or transition location to either the flight or wind tunnel flight results.

Topics: BITS, MICROPROCESSORS, COMPUTER PROGRAMS, FLOATING POINT ARITHMETIC, HIGH LEVEL LANGUAGES,...

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506

May 27, 2011
05/11

by
Foster, Gerald V

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An investigation of the static stability characteristics of several hypersonic boost-glide configurations has been conducted in the Langley 4- by 4-foot supersonic pressure tunnel at Mach numbers of 1.41 and 2.01 (with Reynolds numbers per foot of 2.90 x 10(exp 6) and 2.41 x 10(exp 6) respectively). This series of configurations consisted of a cone, with and without cruciform fins, a trihedron, two low-aspect-ratio delta wings that differed primarily in cross-sectional shape, and two wing-body...

Topics: APPLICATIONS PROGRAMS (COMPUTERS), FORTRAN, FLOATING POINT ARITHMETIC, IBM 704 COMPUTER, PUNCHED...

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May 27, 2011
05/11

by
Boltz, Frederick W.; Kenyon, George C.; Allen, Clyde Q

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An investigation was conducted in the Ames 12-Foot Low-Turbulence Pressure Tunnel to determine the effects of sweep on the boundary-layer stability characteristics of an untapered variable-sweep wing having an NACA 64(2)A015 section normal to the leading edge. Pressure distribution and transition were measured on the wing at low speeds at sweep angles of 0, 10, 20, 30, 40, and 50 deg. and at angles of attack from -3 to 3 deg. The investigation also included flow-visualization studies on the...

Topics: PERFORMANCE PREDICTION, CHEMICAL COMPOSITION, CHEMICAL EQUILIBRIUM, COMPUTER PROGRAMS,...

The ANSI/IEEE Standard 854-1987 for floating-point arithmetic is interpreted by converting the lexical descriptions in the standard into mathematical conditional descriptions organized in tables. The standard is represented in higher-order logic within the framework of the HOL (Higher Order Logic) system. The paper is divided in two parts with the first part the interpretation and the second part the description in HOL.

Topics: NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS), FLOATING POINT ARITHMETIC, FORMALISM, STANDARDS, ADDITION,...

Goddard Space Flight Center has developed a large scale integrated circuit (type 623) which can perform pulse counting, storage, floating point compression, and serial transmission, using a single monolithic device. Counts of 27 or 19 bits can be converted to transmitted values of 12 or 8 bits respectively. Use of the 623 has resulted in substantial savaings in weight, volume, and dollar resources on at least 11 scientific instruments to be flown on 4 NASA spacecraft. The design, construction,...

Topics: NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS), ACCUMULATORS, FLOATING, INTEGRATED CIRCUITS, FLOATING POINT...

An error complexity analysis of two algorithms for solving a unit-diagonal triangular system is given. The results show that the unusual sequential algorithm is optimal in terms of having the minimal maximum and cumulative error complexity measures. The parallel algorithm described by Sameh and Brent is shown to be essentially equivalent to the optimal sequential one. Some numerical experiments are also taught.

Topics: NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS), ALGORITHMS, ERROR ANALYSIS, ERRORS, FLOATING POINT...

The MACSYMA program for symbolic and algebraic manipulation enables exact, symbolic mathematical computations to be performed on a computer. This program is rather large, and various approaches to the hardware and software problems are examined.

Topics: NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS), COMPUTER PROGRAMS, CONFERENCES, DIFFERENTIAL EQUATIONS,...

The cosine or correlation measures of similarity used to cluster high dimensional data are interpreted as projections, and the orthogonal components are used to define a complementary dissimilarity measure to form a similarity-dissimilarity measure pair. Using a geometrical approach, a number of properties of this pair is established. This approach is also extended to general inner-product spaces of any dimension. These properties include the triangle inequality for the defined dissimilarity...

Topics: NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS), ANALOGIES, INEQUALITIES, ERROR ANALYSIS, TRIANGLES,...

This report is a summary description of WEST-3, a new real-time wind turbine simulator developed by Paragon Pacific Inc. WEST-3 is an all digital, fully programmable, high performance parallel processing computer. Contained in the report are descriptions of the WEST-3 hardware and software. WEST-3 consists of a network of Computational Units (CUs) working in parallel. Each CU is a custom designed high speed digital processor operating independently of other CUs. The CU, which is the main...

Topics: NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS), PARALLEL PROCESSING (COMPUTERS), SIMULATION, WIND TURBINES,...

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May 31, 2011
05/11

by
Hodel, A. S.; Callahan, Ronni

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The role of control allocation (CA) in modern aerospace vehicles is to compute a command vector delta(sub c) is a member of IR(sup n(sub a)) that corresponding to commanded or desired body-frame torques (moments) tou(sub c) = [L M N](sup T) to the vehicle, compensating for and/or responding to inaccuracies in off-line nominal control allocation calculations, actuator failures and/or degradations (reduced effectiveness), or actuator limitations (rate/position saturation). The command vector...

Topics: COMPUTERS, ARCHITECTURE (COMPUTERS), CHIPS (ELECTRONICS), CENTRAL PROCESSING UNITS, COMPUTATIONAL...

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May 23, 2011
05/11

by
Gilbert, Michael G.; Welch, Sharon S.; Pappa, Richard S.; Demeo, Martha E

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The Photogrammetric Appendage Structural Dynamics Experiment was designed, developed, and flown to demonstrate and prove measurement of the structural vibration response of a Russian Space Station Mir solar array using photogrammetric methods. The experiment flew on the STS-74 Space Shuttle mission to Mir in November 1995 and obtained video imagery of solar array structural response to various excitation events. The video imagery has been digitized and triangulated to obtain response time...

Topics: OPERATING SYSTEMS (COMPUTERS), PARALLEL COMPUTERS, MICROPROCESSORS, MEMORY (COMPUTERS), FAST...

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May 23, 2011
05/11

by
Faur, Mirce

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The main results of the theoretical and experimental research on electrodeposition of CuIn(x)Ga(l-x)Se2 thin layers for CdS/CIGS solar cell applications are outlined.

Topics: FORTRAN, FAST FOURIER TRANSFORMATIONS, CRAY COMPUTERS, CHECKOUT, COMPUTER PROGRAMS, ALGORITHMS,...

A parameterized definition of subtractive floating point division algorithms is presented and verified using PVS. The general algorithm is proven to satisfy a formal definition of an IEEE standard for floating point arithmetic. The utility of the general specification is illustrated using a number of different instances of the general algorithm.

Topics: NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS), ALGORITHMS, FLOATING POINT ARITHMETIC, SUBTRACTION, THEOREM...

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Jul 6, 2010
07/10

by
ALFVEN, H

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THE INADEQUACY OF CHEMICAL-FUEL ROCKET ENGINES AND THE NEED FOR NEW ENERGY SOURCES ARE DISCUSSED, IN PARTICULAR, THE TAPPING OF THE COSMIC PLASMA AND THE EXTRACTING OF ENERGY FROM THE SOLAR WIND IS SUGGESTED. THE SOCIAL VALUE OF SPACE RESEARCH AND THE IMPORTANCE OF SPACE FLIGHTS IN ANY ATTEMPT TO SOLVE THE COSMOLOGICAL PROBLEM ARE STRESSED. FLIGHTS TO THE ASTEROIDS AND COMETS ARE CONSIDERED TO BE AS IMPORTANT AS FLIGHTS TO THE PLANETS.

Topics: DIGITAL FILTERS, ERROR ANALYSIS, FLOATING POINT ARITHMETIC, COMPUTER PROGRAMS, DIGITAL SIMULATION,...

Methods are investigated for formally specifying and verifying the correctness of mathematical software (software which uses floating point numbers and arithmetic). Previous work in the field was reviewed. A new model of floating point arithmetic called the asymptotic paradigm was developed and formalized. Two different conceptual approaches to program verification, the classical Verification Condition approach and the more recently developed Programming Logic approach, were adapted to use the...

Topics: NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS), COMPUTER PROGRAM INTEGRITY, COMPUTER PROGRAMS, PROGRAM...

A description of three extended precision packages is presented along with three small conversion subroutines which can be used in conjunction with the extended precision packages. These extended packages represent software packages written in FORTRAN 4. They contain normalized or unnormalized floating point arithmetic with symmetric rounding and arbitrary mantissa lengths, and normalized floating point interval arithmetic with appropriate rounding. The purpose of an extended precision package...

Topics: NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS), DECIMALS, FLOATING POINT ARITHMETIC, FORTRAN, PROGRAMMING...

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Jun 11, 2011
06/11

by
Malanushenko, Elena V.; Jones, Harrison P

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We develop a technique. for the analysis of He I 1083 nanometer spectra which addresses several difficulties through determination of a continuum background by comparison with a well calibrated standard and through removal of nearby solar and telluric blends by differential comparison to an average spectrum. The method is compared with earlier analysis of imaging spectroscopy obtained at the National Solar Observatory/Kitt Peak Vacuum Telescope (NSO/KPVT) with the NASA/NSO Spectromagnetograph...

Topics: DISCRETE FUNCTIONS, FOURIER TRANSFORMATION, RECONFIGURABLE HARDWARE, ALGORITHMS, DATA PROCESSING,...

A series of experiments has been run to examine the floating-point performance of FORTRAN programs on the Flex/32 (Trademark) computer. The experiments are described, and the timing results are presented. The time required to execute a floating-point operation is found to vary considerbaly depending on a number of factors. One factor of particular interest from an algorithm design standpoint is the difference in speed between common memory accesses and local memory accesses. Common memory...

Topics: NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS), FLOATING POINT ARITHMETIC, FORTRAN, MULTIPROCESSING...

In this paper we compare a variety of modern image compression methods on a large sample of astronomical images. We begin by demonstrating from first principles how the amount of noise in the image pixel values sets a theoretical upper limit on the lossless compression ratio of the image. We derive simple procedures for measuring the amount of noise in an image and for quantitatively predicting how much compression will be possible. We then compare the traditional technique of using the GZIP...

Topics: NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS), RANDOM NOISE, COMPRESSING, DATA COMPRESSION, ASTRONOMY,...

Approximations which can be evaluated with precision using floating-point arithmetic are presented. The particular set of approximations thus far developed are for the function TAN and the functions of USASI FORTRAN excepting SQRT and EXPONENTIATION. These approximations are, furthermore, specialized to particular forms which are especially suited to a computer with a small memory, in that all of the approximations can share one general purpose subroutine for the evaluation of a polynomial in...

Topics: NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS), CHEBYSHEV APPROXIMATION, CONSTRAINTS, FLOATING POINT...

A class of direct inverse decomposition algorithms for solving systems of linear equations is presented. Their behavior in the presence of round-off errors is analyzed. It is shown that under some mild restrictions on their implementation, the class of direct inverse decomposition algorithms presented are equivalent in terms of the error complexity measures.

Topics: NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS), ALGORITHMS, ERROR ANALYSIS, GAUSSIAN ELIMINATION, LINEAR...

A high level language was designed to control the process of conducting an experiment using the computer "Elektrinika-1001". Program examples are given to control the measuring and actuating devices. The procedure of including these programs in the suggested high level language is described.

Topics: NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS), COMPUTER PROGRAMMING, MAN MACHINE SYSTEMS, PROGRAMMING...

On recent architectures, a numerical program may give different answers depending on the execution hardware and the compilation. Our goal is to formally prove properties about numerical programs that are true for multiple architectures and compilers. We propose an approach that states the rounding error of each floating-point computation whatever the environment. This approach is implemented in the Frama-C platform for static analysis of C code. Small case studies using this approach are...

Topics: NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS), PROGRAM VERIFICATION (COMPUTERS), COMPUTER SYSTEMS...

This report covers a study of the potential for petaflops (1O(exp 15) floating point operations per second) computing. This study was performed within the year 1996 and should be considered as the first step in an on-going effort. 'Me analysis concludes that a petaflop system is technically feasible but not feasible with today's state-of-the-art. Since the computer arena is now a commodity business, most experts expect that a petaflops system will evolve from current technology in an...

Topics: NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS), FLOATING POINT ARITHMETIC, ANNOTATIONS, BIBLIOGRAPHIES,...

The intelligent front end prototype was transformed into a RIM-integrated system. A RIM-based expert system was written which demonstrated the developed capability. The use of rules to produce extensibility of the intelligent front end, including the concept of demons and rule manipulation rules were investigated. Innovative approaches such as syntax programming were to be considered.

Topics: NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS), DATA BASE MANAGEMENT SYSTEMS, EXPERT SYSTEMS, PROGRAMMING...

Many authors are critical of the use of MIPS (Millions of Instructions per Second) as a measure of computer power. Some feel that MIPS are meaningless. While there is justification for some of the criticism of MIPS, sometimes the criticism is carried too far. MIPS can be a useful number for planning and estimating purposes when used in a homogeneous computer environmnet. Comparisons between published MIPS ratings and benchmark results reveal that there does exist a high positive correlation...

Topics: NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS), COMPUTER PROGRAMS, COMPUTER SYSTEMS DESIGN, FLOATING POINT...

Equations are given for the optimization of a class of two-and three-dimensional structures. The application of existing analytical techniques to the response of thin clamped plates is described. The ratios of deflections to plate thickness are given for uniform transverse loads as well as for uniform plus linearly varying transverse loads. Deflections are presented at angular increments of 5 degrees and at radial increments of 0.1 of the radius.

Topics: NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS), CLAMPS, COLLOCATION, DEFLECTION, STRUCTURAL ANALYSIS, THIN...

Parametric studies were performed on transputer networks of up to 40 processors to determine how to implement and maximize the performance of the solution of problems where no processor-to-processor data transfer is required for the problem solution (spatially isolated). Two types of problems are investigated a computationally intensive problem where the solution required the transmission of 160 bytes of data through the parallel network, and a communication intensive example that required the...

Topics: NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS), COMPUTER NETWORKS, PARALLEL PROCESSING (COMPUTERS), PROBLEM...

A digital controller was developed using an SKD-51 System Design Kit, which incorporates an 8031 microcontroller. The necessary interfaces were installed in the wire wrap area of the SKD-51 and a pulse width modulator was developed to drive the coil of the actuator. Also, control equations were developed, using floating-point arithmetic. The design of the digital control system is emphasized, and it is shown that, provided certain rules are followed, an adequate design can be achieved. It is...

Topics: NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS), CONTROLLERS, DAMPERS, DIGITAL SYSTEMS, LARGE SPACE...

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Sep 20, 2010
09/10

by
NON

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This study, to define the technology requirements for automated satellite servicing operations on board the NASA Space Station, is one of several parallel studies performed by a team of NASA contractors addressing various facets of space station automation. This document, generated in accordance with our contractual requirements for study reporting, contains the presentation material prepared by the TRW Space and Technology Group for this Final Review.

Topics: AEROSPACE SYSTEMS, ROBOTICS, C (PROGRAMMING LANGUAGE), INEQUALITIES, ROBOTS, SUBROUTINES,...

Ada packages implementing selected mathematical functions for the support of scientific and engineering applications were written. The packages provide the Ada programmer with the mathematical function support found in the languages Pascal and FORTRAN as well as an extended precision arithmetic and a complete complex arithmetic. The algorithms used are fully described and analyzed. Implementation assumes that the Ada type FLOAT objects fully conform to the IEEE 754-1985 standard for single...

Topics: NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS), ADA (PROGRAMMING LANGUAGE), ALGORITHMS, FLOATING POINT...

PASLIB is a library of Pascal callable subroutines designed to give application programs access to the unique architectural features of the Finite Element Machine and to the software support services provided by the Nodal Exec operating system which runs on it. The PASLIB subroutines are documented and the procedures needed to write Pascal programs for execution on the Finite Element Machine are defined. Considerations for obtaining optimum hardware and software performance are given. A brief...

Topics: NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS), ARCHITECTURE (COMPUTERS), CHECKOUT, FINITE ELEMENT METHOD,...

Paranoia.Ada is a program to diagnose floating point arithmetic in the context of the Ada programming language. The program evaluates the quality of a floating point arithmetic implementation with respect to the proposed IEEE Standards P754 and P854. Paranoia.Ada is derived from the original BASIC programming language version of Paranoia. The Paranoia.Ada replicates in Ada the test algorithms originally implemented in BASIC and adheres to the evaluation criteria established by W. M. Kahan....

Topics: NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS), ADA (PROGRAMMING LANGUAGE), COMPUTER PROGRAMMING, COMPUTER...

An architecture to evaluate a 24-bit floating-point sum or difference of products using modified sequential carry-save multipliers with extensive pipelining is described. The basic building block of the architecture is a carry-save multiplier with built-in mantissa alignment for the summation during the multiplication cycles. A carry-save adder, capable of mantissa alignment, correctly positions products with the current carry-save sum. Carry propagation in individual multipliers is avoided and...

Topics: NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS), ADDING CIRCUITS, DIGITAL FILTERS, FLOATING POINT ARITHMETIC,...

We develop a formalization of floating-point numbers in PVS based on a well-known formalization in Coq. We first describe the definitions of all the needed notions, e.g., floating-point number, format, rounding modes, etc.; then, we present an application to polynomial evaluation for elementary function evaluation. The application already existed in Coq, but our formalization shows a clear improvement in the quality of the result due to the automation provided by PVS. We finally integrate our...

Topics: NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS), FLOATING POINT ARITHMETIC, FORMALISM, NUMERICAL ANALYSIS,...

We describe our experience using NVIDIA's CUDA (Compute Unified Device Architecture) C programming environment to implement a two-dimensional second-order MUSCL-Hancock ideal magnetohydrodynamics (MHD) solver on a GTX 480 Graphics Processing Unit (GPU). Taking a simple approach in which the MHD variables are stored exclusively in the global memory of the GTX 480 and accessed in a cache-friendly manner (without further optimizing memory access by, for example, staging data in the GPU's faster...

Topics: NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS), MAGNETOHYDRODYNAMICS, C (PROGRAMMING LANGUAGE), PARALLEL...

The listing and description of software routines which were used to analyze the analog data obtained from LIDAR - system are given. All routines are written in FORTRAN - IV on a HP - 1000/F minicomputer which serves as the heart of the data acquisition system for the LIDAR program. This particular system has 128 kilobytes of highspeed memory and is equipped with a Vector Instruction Set (VIS) firmware package, which is used in all the routines, to handle quick execution of different long loops....

Topics: NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS), CARBON DIOXIDE LASERS, OPTICAL RADAR, PULSED LASERS, COMPUTER...

The capabilities of the atmospheric modeling and sensor simulation (AMASS) system were studied in order to enhance them. This system is used in processing atmospheric measurements which are utilized in the evaluation of sensor performance, conducting design-concept simulation studies, and also in the modeling of the physical and dynamical nature of atmospheric processes. The study tasks proposed in order to both enhance the AMASS system utilization and to integrate the AMASS system with other...

Topics: NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS), ATMOSPHERIC MODELS, CENTRAL PROCESSING UNITS, ARCHITECTURE...