206
206

May 31, 2011
05/11

by
Pritchett, Amy R.; Hansman, R. Joh

texts

#
eye 206

#
favorite 0

#
comment 0

Current Air Traffic Control communications use shared very high frequency (VHF) voice frequencies from which pilots can obtain 'Party Line' Information (PLI) by overhearing communications addressed to other aircraft. A prior study has shown pilots perceive this PLI to be important. There is concern that some critical PLI may be lost in the proposed datalink environment where communications will be discretely addressed. Different types of flight operations will be, equipped with datalink...

Topics: NATIONAL AIRSPACE SYSTEM, SUPERCOMPUTERS, COMPUTER SYSTEMS PERFORMANCE, COMPUTER PROGRAMS, COMPUTER...

Low-cost vector processing (VP) is within reach of everyone seriously engaged in scientific computing. The advent of affordable add-on VP-boards for standard workstations complemented by mathematical/statistical libraries is beginning to impact compute-intensive tasks such as image processing. A case in point in the restoration of distorted images from the Hubble Space Telescope. A low-cost implementation is presented of the standard Tarasko-Richardson-Lucy restoration algorithm on an Intel...

Topics: NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS), IMAGE PROCESSING, LOW COST, VECTOR PROCESSING (COMPUTERS),...

Algorithms for direct volume rendering on parallel and vector processors are investigated. Volumes are transformed efficiently on parallel processors by dividing the data into slices and beams of voxels. Equal sized sets of slices along one axis are distributed to processors. Parallelism is achieved at two levels. Because each slice can be transformed independently of others, processors transform their assigned slices with no communication, thus providing maximum possible parallelism at the...

Topics: NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS), COMPUTATIONAL GRIDS, COMPUTER GRAPHICS, MIMD (COMPUTERS),...

The Arnoldi process is a well known technique for approximating a few eigenvalues and corresponding eigenvectors of a general square matrix. Numerical difficulties such as loss of orthogonality and assessment of the numerical quality of the approximations as well as a potential for unbounded growth in storage have limited the applicability of the method. These issues are addressed by fixing the number of steps in the Arnoldi process at a prescribed value k and then treating the residual vector...

Topics: NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS), APPROXIMATION, EIGENVALUES, EIGENVECTORS, ITERATIVE SOLUTION,...

A real-time vector adaptive predictive coder which approximates each vector of K speech samples by using each of M fixed vectors in a first codebook to excite a time-varying synthesis filter and picking the vector that minimizes distortion. Predictive analysis for each frame determines parameters used for computing from vectors in the first codebook zero-state response vectors that are stored at the same address (index) in a second codebook. Encoding of input speech vectors s.sub.n is then...

Topics: NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS), CODING, REAL TIME OPERATION, SPEECH, AUDIO SIGNALS, VECTOR...

An algorithm for progressive classification of data, analogous to progressive rendering of images, makes it possible to compromise between speed and accuracy. This algorithm uses support vector machines (SVMs) to classify data. An SVM is a machine learning algorithm that builds a mathematical model of the desired classification concept by identifying the critical data points, called support vectors. Coarse approximations to the concept require only a few support vectors, while precise, highly...

Topics: NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS), ALGORITHMS, CLASSIFICATIONS, VECTOR PROCESSING (COMPUTERS),...

During the first six months of 1994, the NAS (National Airspace System) 16-CPU Y-MP C90 Von Neumann (VN) delivered an average throughput of 4.045 GFLOPS while the ACSF (Aeronautics Consolidated Supercomputer Facility) 8-CPU Y-MP C90 Eagle averaged 1.658 GFLOPS. The VN rate represents a machine efficiency of 26.3% whereas the Eagle rate corresponds to a machine efficiency of 21.6%. VN displayed a greater efficiency than Eagle primarily because the stronger workload demand for its CPU cycles...

Topics: NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS), NATIONAL AIRSPACE SYSTEM, SUPERCOMPUTERS, COMPUTER SYSTEMS...

1,264
1.3K

Jul 26, 2010
07/10

by
NON

texts

#
eye 1,264

#
favorite 0

#
comment 0

No Abstract Available

Topics: INTERPOLATION, GEOPOTENTIAL, METEOROLOGY, VECTOR ANALYSIS, KALMAN FILTERS, NUMERICAL WEATHER...

These architectures are based on methods of vector processing and the discrete-Fourier-transform/inverse-discrete- Fourier-transform (DFT-IDFT) overlap-and-save method, combined with time-block separation of digital filters into frequency-domain subfilters implemented by use of sub-convolutions. The parallel-processing method implemented in these architectures enables the use of relatively small DFT-IDFT pairs, while filter tap lengths are theoretically unlimited. The size of a DFT-IDFT pair is...

Topics: NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS), DIGITAL FILTERS, DISCRETE FUNCTIONS, FOURIER TRANSFORMATION,...

176
176

Jun 2, 2011
06/11

by
Fletcher, Daryl P.; Alena, Richard L.; Akkawi, Faisal; Duncavage, Daniel P

texts

#
eye 176

#
favorite 0

#
comment 0

This paper presents some of the challenges associated with bringing software projects from the research world into an operationa1 environment. While the core functional components of research-oriented software applications can have great utility in an operational setting, these applications often lack aspects important in an operational environment such as logging and security. Furthermore, these stand-alone applications, sometimes developed in isolation from one another, can produce data...

Topics: CRAY COMPUTERS, SOFTWARE ENGINEERING, PERFORMANCE TESTS, APPLICATIONS PROGRAMS (COMPUTERS), VECTOR...

Isaac is a task in the NSO external package for IRAF. A descendant of a FORTRAN program written to analyze data from a Fourier transform spectrometer, the current implementation has been generalized sufficiently to make it useful for general spectral analysis and other one dimensional data analysis tasks. The user interface for Isaac is implemented as an interpreted mini-language containing a powerful, programmable vector calculator. Built-in commands provide much of the functionality needed to...

Topics: NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS), CURVE FITTING, DATA REDUCTION, LEAST SQUARES METHOD, LINE...

In this paper, we report the results of our recent research on the application of a multiprocessor Cray T916 supercomputer in modeling super-thermal electron transport in the earth's magnetic field. In general, this mathematical model requires numerical solution of a system of partial differential equations. The code we use for this model is moderately vectorized. By using Amdahl's Law for vector processors, it can be verified that the code is about 60% vectorized on a Cray computer. Speedup...

Topics: NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS), CRAY COMPUTERS, MATHEMATICAL MODELS, VECTOR PROCESSING...

Guidelines are presented for use of the computer program PANCOR to assess the interference due to tunnel walls and model support in a slotted wind tunnel test section at subsonic speeds. Input data requirements are described in detail and program output and general program usage are described. The program is written for effective automatic vectorization on a CDC CYBER 200 class vector processing system.

Topics: NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS), COMPUTER PROGRAMS, PANEL METHOD (FLUID DYNAMICS), SLOTTED...

The processing of raw data obtained by the solar vector magnetograph at NASA-Marshall requires extensive arithmetic operations on large arrays of real numbers. The objectives of this summer faculty fellowship study are to: (1) learn the programming language of the MicroMSP Array Processor and adapt some existing data reduction routines to exploit its capabilities; and (2) identify other applications and/or existing programs which lend themselves to array processor utilization which can be...

Topics: NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS), COMPUTER PROGRAMS, COMPUTER SYSTEMS PERFORMANCE, DATA...

A parallel adaptive dynamic relaxation (ADR) algorithm has been developed for nonlinear structural analysis. This algorithm has minimal memory requirements, is easily parallelizable and scalable to many processors, and is generally very reliable and efficient for highly nonlinear problems. Performance evaluations on single-processor computers have shown that the ADR algorithm is reliable and highly vectorizable, and that it is competitive with direct solution methods for the highly nonlinear...

Topics: NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS), ALGORITHMS, MASSIVELY PARALLEL PROCESSORS, PARALLEL...

Here, it is explained why the FORCE parallel programming language is easily portable among six different shared-memory microprocessors, and how a two-level macro preprocessor makes it possible to hide low level machine dependencies and to build machine-independent high level constructs on top of them. These FORCE constructs make it possible to write portable parallel programs largely independent of the number of processes and the specific shared memory multiprocessor executing them.

Topics: NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS), MICROPROCESSORS, MULTIPROCESSING (COMPUTERS), PARALLEL...

This paper describes a technique for obstacle detection, based on the expansion of the image-plane projection of a textured object, as its distance from the sensor decreases. Information is conveyed by vectors whose components represent first-order temporal and spatial derivatives of the image intensity, which are related to the time to collision through the local divergence. Such vectors may be characterized as patterns corresponding to 'safe' or 'dangerous' situations. We show that essential...

Topics: NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS), BINARY DATA, CLASSIFIERS, IMAGE ANALYSIS, IMAGE PROCESSING,...

The growing gap between sustained and peak performance for scientific applications has become a well-known problem in high performance computing. The recent development of parallel vector systems offers the potential to bridge this gap for a significant number of computational science codes and deliver a substantial increase in computing capabilities. This paper examines the intranode performance of the NEC SX6 vector processor and the cache-based IBM Power3/4 superscalar architectures across a...

Topics: NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS), VECTOR PROCESSING (COMPUTERS), PARALLEL PROCESSING...

A real-time, computer-based, phase vector display system has been developed which will output a vector whose phase is equal to the delay between a trigger and the peak of a function which is quasi-coherent with respect to the trigger. The system also contains a sliding averager which enables the operator to average successive trials before calculating the phase vector. Data collection, averaging and display generation are performed on a LINC-8 computer. Output displays appear on several X-Y CRT...

Topics: NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS), ELECTROENCEPHALOGRAPHY, REAL TIME OPERATION, DISPLAY DEVICES,...

Some preliminary basic results on the performance of the Cedar multiprocessor memory system are presented. Empirical results are presented and used to calibrate a memory system simulator which is then used to discuss the scalability of the system.

Topics: NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS), COMPUTER SYSTEMS PERFORMANCE, MEMORY (COMPUTERS),...

An important problem in scientific computing consists in finding a few eigenvalues and corresponding eigenvectors of a very large and sparse matrix. The most popular methods to solve these problems are based on projection techniques on appropriate subspaces. The main attraction of these methods is that they only require the use of the matrix in the form of matrix by vector multiplications. The implementations on supercomputers of two such methods for symmetric matrices, namely Lanczos' method...

Topics: NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS), CRAY COMPUTERS, EIGENVALUES, EIGENVECTORS, MULTIPLICATION,...

A short survey of recent research on Krylov subspace methods with emphasis on implementation on vector and parallel computers is presented. Conjugate gradient methods have proven very useful on traditional scalar computers, and their popularity is likely to increase as three-dimensional models gain importance. A conservative approach to derive effective iterative techniques for supercomputers has been to find efficient parallel/vector implementations of the standard algorithms. The main source...

Topics: NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS), ARCHITECTURE (COMPUTERS), CONJUGATE GRADIENT METHOD,...

Practical engineering application can often be formulated in the form of a constrained optimization problem. There are several solution algorithms for solving a constrained optimization problem. One approach is to convert a constrained problem into a series of unconstrained problems. Furthermore, unconstrained solution algorithms can be used as part of the constrained solution algorithms. Structural optimization is an iterative process where one starts with an initial design, a finite element...

Topics: NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS), ALGORITHMS, FINITE ELEMENT METHOD, NONLINEARITY, PARALLEL...

Recent advances in electronic structure theory and the availability of high speed vector processors have substantially increased the accuracy of ab initio potential energy surfaces. The recently developed atomic natural orbital approach for basis set contraction has reduced both the basis set incompleteness and superposition errors in molecular calculations. Furthermore, full CI calculations can often be used to calibrate a CASSCF/MRCI approach that quantitatively accounts for the valence...

Topics: NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS), ATOMIC STRUCTURE, DYNAMIC MODELS, POTENTIAL ENERGY, VECTOR...

ViSBARD software provides a way of visualizing multiple vector and scalar quantities as measured by many spacecraft at once. The data are displayed three-dimensionally along the orbits that may be shown either as connected lines or as points. The data display allows the rapid determination of vector configurations, correlations among many measurements at multiple points, and global relationships. Things such as vector field rotations and dozens of simultaneous variables are very difficult to...

Topics: NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS), COMPUTER PROGRAMS, DATA RETRIEVAL, SCIENTIFIC VISUALIZATION,...

A detailed study of the performance effects of irregular communications patterns on the CM-2 was conducted. The communications capabilities of the CM-2 were characterized under a variety of controlled conditions. In the process of carrying out the performance evaluation, extensive use was made of a parameterized synthetic mesh. In addition, timings with unstructured meshes generated for aerodynamic codes and a set of sparse matrices with banded patterns on non-zeroes were performed. This...

Topics: NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS), COMMUNICATION NETWORKS, COMPUTATIONAL GRIDS, MASSIVELY...

This document contains a complete list of ICASE reports. Since ICASE reports are intended to be preprints of articles that will appear in journals or conference proceedings, the published reference is included when it is available.

Topics: NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS), COMPUTATIONAL CHEMISTRY, COMPUTATIONAL FLUID DYNAMICS,...

A support vector machine (SVM), a machine learning technique developed from statistical learning theory, is employed for the purpose of estimating passive microwave (PMW) brightness temperatures over snow-covered land in North America as observed by the Advanced Microwave Scanning Radiometer (AMSR-E) satellite sensor. The capability of the trained SVM is compared relative to the artificial neural network (ANN) estimates originally presented in [14]. The results suggest the SVM outperforms the...

Topics: NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS), SNOW, NORTH AMERICA, MICROWAVE RADIOMETERS, MACHINE LEARNING,...

The intent is to present an effort undertaken at NASA Langley Research Center to design a generic raster image format and to develop tools for processing images prepared in this format. Both the Raster Metafile (RM) format and the Raster Metafile Translator (RMT) are addressed. This document is intended to serve a varied audience including: users wishing to display and manipulate raster image data, programmers responsible for either interfacing the RM format with other raster formats or for...

Topics: NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS), COMPUTER GRAPHICS, FORMAT, IMAGE PROCESSING, SOFTWARE...

Netmeter software reads a data stream from up to 250 networked phasemeters, synchronizes the data, saves the reduced data to disk (after applying a low-pass filter), and provides a Web server interface for remote control. Unlike older phasemeter software that requires a special, real-time operating system, this program can run on any general-purpose computer. It needs about five percent of the CPU (central processing unit) to process 20 channels because it adds built-in data logging and...

Topics: NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS), READOUT, SOFTWARE ENGINEERING, COMPUTER NETWORKS,...

Many ecosystem simulation computer codes have been developed in the last twenty-five years. This development took place initially on main-frame computers, then mini-computers, and more recently, on micro-computers and workstations. Supercomputing platforms (both parallel and distributed systems) have been largely unused, however, because of the perceived difficulty in accessing and using the machines. Also, significant differences in the system architectures of sequential, scalar computers and...

Topics: NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS), COMPUTER PROGRAMS, COMPUTERIZED SIMULATION, CRAY COMPUTERS,...

Research on the computational fluid dynamics (CFD) code evaluation with emphasis on supercomputing in reacting flows is discussed. Advantages of unstructured grids, multigrids, adaptive methods, improved flow solvers, vector processing, parallel processing, and reduction of memory requirements are discussed. As examples, researchers include applications of supercomputing to reacting flow Navier-Stokes equations including shock waves and turbulence and combustion instability problems associated...

Topics: NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS), COMBUSTION STABILITY, COMPUTATIONAL FLUID DYNAMICS, FLOW...

We consider the performance of the finite element method on a vector supercomputer. The computationally intensive parts of the finite element method are typically the individual element forms and the solution of the global stiffness matrix both of which are vectorized in high performance codes. To further increase throughput, new algorithms are needed. We compare a multifrontal sparse solver to a traditional skyline solver in a finite element code on a vector supercomputer. The multifrontal...

Topics: NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS), COMPUTER PROGRAMS, CRAY COMPUTERS, FINITE ELEMENT METHOD,...

The theory, computational analysis, and applications are presented of a Lanczos algorithm on high performance computers. The computationally intensive steps of the algorithm are identified as: the matrix factorization, the forward/backward equation solution, and the matrix vector multiples. These computational steps are optimized to exploit the vector and parallel capabilities of high performance computers. The savings in computational time from applying optimization techniques such as:...

Topics: NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS), ALGORITHMS, COMPUTER SYSTEMS PERFORMANCE, FACTORIZATION,...

A Choleski method is described and used to solve linear systems of equations that arise in large scale structural analysis. The method uses a novel variable-band storage scheme and is structured to exploit fast local memory caches while minimizing data access delays between main memory and vector registers. Several parallel implementations of this method are described for the CRAY-2 and CRAY Y-MP computers demonstrating the use of microtasking and autotasking directives. A portable parallel...

Topics: NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS), ARCHITECTURE (COMPUTERS), CHOLESKY FACTORIZATION, COMPUTER...

This paper describes work in progress on a virtual environment designed for the visualization of pre-computed fluid flows. The overall problems involved in the visualization of fluid flow are summarized, including computational, data management, and interface issues. Requirements for a flow visualization are summarized. Many aspects of the implementation of the virtual windtunnel were uniquely determined by these requirements. The user interface is described in detail.

Topics: NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS), COMPUTATIONAL FLUID DYNAMICS, COMPUTER AIDED DESIGN, COMPUTER...

A fast, accurate Choleski method for the solution of symmetric systems of linear equations is presented. This direct method is based on a variable-band storage scheme and takes advantage of column heights to reduce the number of operations in the Choleski factorization. The method employs parallel computation in the outermost DO-loop and vector computation via the loop unrolling technique in the innermost DO-loop. The method avoids computations with zeros outside the column heights, and as an...

Topics: NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS), CHOLESKY FACTORIZATION, LINEAR EQUATIONS, PARALLEL PROCESSING...

The Computational Structural Mechanics (CSM) activity is developing advanced structural analysis and computational methods that exploit high-performance computers. Methods are developed in the framework of the CSM testbed software system and applied to representative complex structural analysis problems from the aerospace industry. An overview of the CSM testbed methods development environment is presented and some numerical methods developed on a CRAY-2 are described. Selected application...

Topics: NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS), ARCHITECTURE (COMPUTERS), COMPUTER AIDED DESIGN, DISTRIBUTED...

Several future, and some current missions, use an on-board computer (OBC) force model that is very limited. The OBC geopotential force model typically includes only the J(2), J(3), J(4), C(2,2) and S(2,2) terms to model non-spherical Earth gravitational effects. The Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM), Wide-field Infrared Explorer (WIRE), Transition Region and Coronal Explorer (TRACE), Submillimeter Wave Astronomy Satellite (SWAS), and X-ray Timing Explorer (XTE) all plan to use this...

Topics: NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS), AIRBORNE/SPACEBORNE COMPUTERS, EPHEMERIDES, ERROR ANALYSIS,...

This report describes theoretical background material and commands necessary to use the WARP3D finite element code. WARP3D is under continuing development as a research code for the solution of very large-scale, 3-D solid models subjected to static and dynamic loads. Specific features in the code oriented toward the investigation of ductile fracture in metals include a robust finite strain formulation, a general J-integral computation facility (with inertia, face loading), an element extinction...

Topics: NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS), FINITE ELEMENT METHOD, VECTOR PROCESSING (COMPUTERS),...

Five scientists at MSFC/ESAD have EOS SCF investigator status. Each SCF has unique tasks which require the establishment of a computing facility dedicated to accomplishing those tasks. A SCF Working Group was established at ESAD with the charter of defining the computing requirements of the individual SCFs and recommending options for meeting these requirements. The primary goal of the working group was to determine which computing needs can be satisfied using either shared resources or...

Topics: NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS), DATA SYSTEMS, EARTH OBSERVING SYSTEM (EOS), FUNCTIONAL DESIGN...

During the past two decades, there has been significant progress in the field of numerical simulation of unsteady compressible viscous flows. At present, a variety of solution techniques exist such as the transonic small disturbance analyses (TSD), transonic full potential equation-based methods, unsteady Euler solvers, and unsteady Navier-Stokes solvers. These advances have been made possible by developments in three areas: (1) improved numerical algorithms; (2) automation of body-fitted grid...

Topics: NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS), COMPRESSIBLE FLOW, COMPUTATIONAL FLUID DYNAMICS, ITERATIVE...

Experience has shown that designing a good representation is often the key to turning hard problems into simple ones. Most AI (Artificial Intelligence) search/representation techniques are oriented toward an infinite domain of objects and arbitrary relations among them. In reality much of what needs to be represented in AI can be expressed using a finite domain and unary or binary predicates. Well-known vector- and matrix-based representations can efficiently represent finite domains and...

Topics: NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS), ARTIFICIAL INTELLIGENCE, COMPUTER PROGRAMS, DATA RETRIEVAL,...

The results of a research activity aimed at providing a finite element capability for analyzing turbo-machinery bladed-disk assemblies in a vector/parallel processing environment are summarized. Analysis of aircraft turbofan engines is very computationally intensive. The performance limit of modern day computers with a single processing unit was estimated at 3 billions of floating point operations per second (3 gigaflops). In view of this limit of a sequential unit, performance rates higher...

Topics: NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS), AIRCRAFT ENGINES, COMPUTER AIDED DESIGN, DESIGN ANALYSIS,...

This paper describes the results of an integrated navigation and pointing system software development effort sponsored by the NASA MSFC through a SBIR Phase 2 Program. The integrated Global Positioning System (GPS)/Inertial Navigation System (INS) implements an autonomous navigation filter that is reconfigurable in real-time to accommodate mission contingencies. An onboard expert system monitors the spacecraft status and reconfigures the navigation filter accordingly, to optimize the system...

Topics: NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS), AUTONOMOUS NAVIGATION, GLOBAL POSITIONING SYSTEM, GYROSCOPES,...

The last decade has witnessed a rapid proliferation of superscalar cache-based microprocessors to build high-end capability and capacity computers because of their generality, scalability, and cost effectiveness. However, the recent development of massively parallel vector systems is having a significant effect on the supercomputing landscape. In this paper, we compare the performance of the recently-released Cray X1 vector system with that of the cacheless NEC SX-6 vector machine, and the...

Topics: NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS), CRAY COMPUTERS, PERFORMANCE TESTS, APPLICATIONS PROGRAMS...