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4rH MAY, 1911, 



Price As. 8.] 

Under the auspices of the Sreenivasa Mandiram, 

Professor K. Sundara Rarna Iyer, M.A., of Kumbakonam, 

delivered a lecture on " The Place of Sri Ramanuja in the 

Story of India", in the Janopakari Doddanna Hall, City, in 

the presence of an unusually large gathering, yesterday 

evening, (4ih May, 1911) under the presidency of Mr. 

J. S. Chakravarthi, M,A., F.B.A.S., Comptroller to the 

Government of Mysore. The hall and the entrance were 

gaily decorated with flags and bunting. An Indian band 

was in attendance at the gate. The members of the 

Ladies' Association entertained the audience with vocal 

and instrumental music. Swami Nirmalananda, Sir P. N . 

Krishnamurti, K.C.S.I., ex-Dewan of Mysore; Dr. and 

Mrs. R. lyengar, Messrs. V. P. Madhava Row, C.I.E., K. P. 

Puttanna Chetty, H. Y. Nanjundiah, B. J. Kumarasami 

Naick, F. J. Richards, Venkata Pathi lyengar, Chengiah 

Chetty, C. Srinivasa lyengar, S. Narayana Row, Sundra 

Murthi Mudaliar, C. Krishnamurthi and other members 

of the Bar, D. B. Ramachandra Mudaliar, N. SubbaRow, 

S. N. Subba Row, S. Krishnaswami lyengar, M. T. 

Narayana lyengar, K. Ramachandra Row and other 

Professors, Mylari Row, Hirianniah and the Assistant 

Secretaries to the Govt. were amongst the audience. 

The orphans of the Mandiram Orphanage sang the 
invocation. One of the members of the Ladies' Associa- 
tion sang to the accompaniment of the harmonium, a song 
from Mukundamala. The Chairman read a letter from 
H. H. the Yuvaraja of Mysore, expressing his deep regret 
at being unable to attend in person on the occasion. 

With the permission of the Chairman, Mr. A. 
Gopalacharlu read the report of the Mandiram in the 


course of which he expressed his deep regret in the 
matter of the demise of King Edward VII and R. B. A. 
Maigandadeva Mudaliar, and also stated that on those 
occasions special offerings of worship were conducted 
in the Mandiram for the repose of the departed souls. 
The Chairman then introduced the lecturer to the 
audience, who then delivered ihe following lecture. 

Note to the Reader. 

My main aim in this lecture is not to give an 
account of Sri Ramanujacharya's religion and philosophy 
but the very limited one of indicating his place in the 
story of India. My view is that in the leading crisis 
and revolutions of Indian history, the Yedic religion and 
tradition as interpreted by Sri Ramanuja have helped to 
preserve social unity or to restore it after a period of 
social unrest or disintegration. This will become clear 
when the whole of the lecture has been studied. 
References to Ramanuja are made wherever necessary for 
elucidating the purpose in view. 




The Place of Sri Ramanuja in the Story of India. 

Mr. Chairman and Gentlemen, 

I am highly thankful to our respected fellow-citizen 
in the Chair for the kind and complimentary terms in 
which he has introduced me to you. I had long heard 
from visitors and other sources of information of Srimad 
Gopalacharya Swami's self-denying labours in maintain- 
ing and developing this religious and charitable institu- 
tion. When, therefore, he invited me, first last year 
and again this year, to undertake the function of deliver- 
ing this address at the Annual Celebration of the birth day 
of Sri Ramanujacharya, I felt that, however unworthy I 
was and am of the honor of occupying a position which 
my eminent predecessors have illustrated with the 
splendour of their, name, erudition and oratory and how- 
ever much I may be wanting in the qualifications needed 
for speaking in the presence of the many great men who 
are assembled in this hall, I felt that a call from one who 
has so long stood manfully at his post and done this 
great work for Sri Krishnarpanam was a call inspired by 
the blessed Bhagavan Himself and that therefore I must 
respond to it. I beg you will excuse me for my weakness 
in yielding to Mr. Gopala Charlu's call in a moment 
of unthinking impulse, overlook my undoubted short- 
comings, and grant me your kind indulgence during the 
few minutes I shall occupy this platform. 

We are fated to live in a time of ferment due to the 
conflict of many voices, purposes and activities, and we 
have to meet the situation and find ways and means for 
securing the .peace and unity we need. There is a good 
deal of disturbance and discord all round. At this 
moment of mental agitation and social unrest, I for one 
believe that it is a great blessing that we have in our 

present raters a race of men gifted not only with political 
sagacity and political sympathy, but also with the iron 
will and resolute purpose needed to put down the forces 
of disorder and to deal mercilessly and mercifully with all 
disturbers of the peace. . 

In the age of Buddhistic rebellion, the conflict came 
from within. For nearly 500 years of Buddhistic 
predominance the ferment, disturbance and dislocation 
were almost unprecedented in history. Everywhere 
minds of a certain type have a fatal fascination for a 
bewitching personality or a seemingly comprehensive 
theory or principle. In the case of the Buddha mind, 
by the bye, that not only our puranic. Buddha preceded, 
while the founder of Buddhism followed, the lovely and 
holy avatar a of Sri Krishna, but also His mission which 
was to prevent avaidikas from taking to Vedic religion 
was the exact reverse or counterpart of that of the founder 
of Buddhism a magnetic personality, sweet and gentle 
beyond measure, combined with teaching such as is 
always attractive to highly emotional, or soaringly 
rationalistic, minds. When we speak of the Buddhistic 
religion, we must carefully distinguish between the 
teaching of Sakya Muni himself and its subsequent 
developments. The former ignored in fact it also 
denied the existence of an - eternal soul and God. 
Everything in the universe is in a dynamic state of flux 
and transformation. Nothing is permanent, not even 
the self which is for all of us a datum of consciousness 
and the basis of all aspiration, activity, or achievement. 

" 3?R*?r H 


o W'e?' tf aeroJjT'oeo os 


"It is the self of all, and so cannot be denied by any 
one. Whoso is the denier, it is the very self of him." 
The Buddhist resolutely denies this. As everything in 
the universe is transient (anitya), as there is not; even a 
permanent self, man can only have peace by abandoning 
striving of all kinds even the striving after the reali- 
sation and perfection of the self. Every one is called on 
to abandon the world, or live to help those who can 
muster the courage to do so. The rich have their 
miseries quite as much as the poor, and the only way 
open to us to escape the miseries of life is to join the 
Sangha, the Buddhistic fraternity of monks and,nuns 
and to practise the life of ascetic discipline prescribed for 
them by the Buddha so as thereby to gain the supreme 
bliss and peace of Nirvana. This teaching is still to a 
great extent preserved in the Hinayana or Southern 
School of Buddhism, and so it must be regarded as repre- 
senting the Sugata's true teaching, while the Mahayana 
or Northern School made such wide departures from it 
that it may be said to be a new religion altogether. In 
the Diamond Sutra, Buddha is said to have addressed the 
following prediction to his disciples : " Five hundred 
years after my death there will arise a religious prophet who 
will lay the foundation of his teaching not on one, two, 
three, four, or five Buddhas, but on the Fountain of all the 
Buddhas ; when that one comes, have faith in him and 
you will receive incalculable blessings." Strangely 
enough, Asvaghosb a, a gifted Brahman, became a convert 
to Buddhism at the close of the first century after Christ 
and laid the foundation of a new Buddhism. Unlike the 
Buddha's teaching, it inculcated a belief in God who is 
known to it by the name of Amitabha. Deliverance 
from the vanities and sorrows of life is to be reached 
not simply by one's own karma, but also by God's 


help. , Those who seek such deliverance were called 
on to live in the world and to help it, not to fly from 
the scene, of life's straggles to the silence and solitude of 
a monastery. The new religion also asserted the power 
and possibility of obtaining everlasting iife by com- 
munion with, and knowledge of God and the consequent 
paitaking of his nature so as to avoid the imperative 
necessity of going through endless births and re-births. 
The old faith which denied or ignored the existence of an 
eternal soul or God was practically abandoned, as also the 
.uncompromising asceticism which .alone was to lead -to 
:the peace of Nirvana by going through the discipline 
enjoined on the fraternity of Buddhistic monks and nuns. 
Even the Southern School was influenced by the new 
teaching so far that ic deified its founder and offered him 
the worship and homage which deists offer to God. To 
those who appreciate the significance of these facts it 
must be clear how Buddhism came gradually to die a 
natural death. The Mahayaua doctrine was practically 
indistinguishable from the deistic religion of .the Vedas. 
With the gradual revival of Hinduism, therefore, it 
became stricken with inanition, for even to the masses 
of men a distioction without a difference can convey no 
appeal or meaning. To that revival the way was first 
led by the work of Sri Sankaracharya, critical and 
constructive, and after him by the equally great and 
noble work of Sri Kamanujacharya. Each repre- 
sented a great and inmemorial Vedic tradition. Neither 
founded a new school of religious thought in India. 
They devoted their genius to the task of expounding 
the traditional doctrines of their schools in a system- 
atic and comprehensive manner, and they have 
been the inspiring sources of virtue, holiness, and 
wisdom in India for untold ages. We are accustomed 

to dwell on our differences a good deal. They are cer- 
tainly of paramount importance. Each school must 
stand by the acceptance or fall by the rejectionof 
whatever doctrines are peculiar to it, and we must also 
consider the influence they exercise on the lives and 
minds of men. But the points o agreement are many 
and valuable and should not be ignored or undervalued. 
The Saguna-vada which is for the Advaitin the means 
for the attainment and realisation of the Absolute Self 
is substantially the doctrine of Ramanuja known as 
qualified .Monism. In fact, the Advaitic teacher Appayya 
Dikshita has declared in one .'of his works that the 
interpretation of the Sariraka - Mimamsa - Sastra as 
establishing and denning the personalities of Siva and 
Vishnu and the means of attaining to their realisation as 
the Supreme God is fully acceptable to him. Both the 
Pasupata and Pancharatra Schools have had an extensive 
share in the reconquest of India for the Vedic religion. 
Sri Ramanuja has always shone forth as the brightest 
star of the Pancharatra system and, of the religion of 
bhakti which has had an abiding influence all over India 
throughout the ages that have passed away. Thus the 
Buddhistic religion had once overspread the whole land 
and was in a fair way to accomplish the overthrow of 
the Sanatana Dharma. India, however, after passing 
through centuries of trial and conflict, was enabled, under 
the lead and inspiration of great teachers and saints, to 
pass again infco the peace and bliss of firm allegiance to 
the ancient banner of the Vedic religion. 

The Mohammedan invasion and conquest brought to 
us some little unsettlement followed by reaction and reno- 
vation. In Maharashtra, in Bengal, and in the Punjab 

the same parts of India as have become centres of 



political and religious disturbance in: recent times the 
position seems to have become somewhat acute, and the 
Hindu mind responded by the development of what has 
been, happily or otherwise, termed Protestant Hinduism, 
a movement inspired by various holy saints and insist- 
ing on the importance of the emotional aspect of bhakti 
in its various forms or stages towards the personality of 
Isvara and ignoring or undervaluing the contemplative 
aspect of it as well as the ritualistic aspect of the Vedic 
religion. Some have held that even the Upanishads and 
the Gita are the outcome of an earlier period and move- 
ment of Protestantism, but this is only the opinion of 
men wi|h a superficial knowledge of them, or of men 
interested not only in raising the emotional aspect of 
bhakti in the estimation of men, but of underestimating 
the higher phases of religion in India as practised among 
the orthodox castes and sections Those who have 
always adhered to the Vedic religion in this country will 
never undervalue the importance of the emotion of prema 
(love) as a spiritual force making for the elevation of 
man. But to say that it is the only aspect of religion 
wanted for man in this or any age is to ignore the 
authority of the greater part of the Sruti and to stultii'y 
the importance, in the eyes of God and man, of the 
Holy Land and the Holy People. The emotional 
religion of bhakti has not only existed in India from 
the remotest times, but exists in one form or another in 
Mohammedan, Christian, and other lands. Emotion is 
undeniably good in itself. It has led to charity and social 
unity, and it has also helped to some extent to bring 
about that form of mental energy which spends itself in 
the realisation of high economic and political aims. But 
here positivists, sceptics, agnostics, and atheists come in 
.with a record and claim of the same kind as that which 


does so much credit to the religions emotionalists of all 
times and climes. We cannot also be quite certain if, in 
the emotional religion of Maharashtra and elsewhere, the 
bhakti idea is so pure or elevated as we would wish. It 
seems to bear on its face the mark of a compromise or 
struggle with the aggressive force of Islam, and so has 
the defect of its origin. My point in saying all this is 
only to explain that, though we attach due importance to 
the so-called Protestant religion of emotional Ihalcti or 
prema and to- its developments in various forms in later 
periods of our history, we cannot assign to it the import- 
ance that belongs to the Karma, the upasana, and the 
jnana aspects of the Vedic religion. These are the 
aspects of our religion which differentiate it from every 
other religion in the world. To abandon these or 
minimise their importance is to dethrone Hinduism from 
its unique position among the faiths of the world and to 
deny to the people of Aryavarta the function which 
belongs to them of being the channels by which those 
who have developed the Daiva Sampat or the spiri- 
tual side of human nature are enabled to find the 
facilities needed for reaching the goal of life. At the 
same time, we cannot help feeling that these Protes- 
tant movements whether initiated by the Bhaktas 
and Gurus of the past or by the leaders of Samajes in 
Modern India are the means by which the Aryan 
religion protects itself from encroachment by alien faiths. 
They seem to serve as a temporary cave of Adullam or 
as a moral dyke or barrier erected to protect the Holy 
Faith and People for the time being from the rising 
flood of materialistic and un spiritual beliefs threatening 
to overwhelm them in desolation and ruin. In the course 
of time and the progress of circumstance, the unfading 
vitalitv ancl incorporating power of the Arya-Dharma 

unfailingly, assert themselves through divine grace, and 
the hope springs eternally in our breast that we, as the 
elect of God, are to remain the heirs of all the .ages. 7 The 
rebels of to-day, the heretics of to-morrow, the brethren 
in the faith of the day after, such are the steps in the 
adaptation of the Arya-Dharma to the changing needs of 
the environment ; and so we who remain the eternal 
guardians of the citadel of holiness and truth in the 
domain of the spirit have to pursue pur way in calmness 
and strength of conviction, as we have hitherto done 
and as the Koman Catholic Church has done throughout 
her history, yielding to the stress of circumstance where 
we have to yield, resisting where we can, but firm in our 
obedience to our Master's commanding voice and his 
confiding message to us as his chosen people. 

There are some who hold that Sri Bamanuja's 
system is also an aspect of the Protestant movement to 
which we have just made reference. This opinion is 
chiefly founded on the idea that he raised the Sudras 
to religious privileges which are denied to them by 
Sankaracharya. This idea has no justification if we 
examine the respective positions taken by these Acharyas 
in the Apasudradhikarana of the Vedanta Sutras. 
Both agree that the Upanishads cannot be utilised 
for conveying spiritual instruction to the Sudras. 
The Itihasas, Puranas, &c., are the media specially 
intended and reserved for their benefit. This arrange- 
ment is not due to human injustice or depravity. The 
Sruti and the Smritis contain the divine law and com- 
mand, and God ordains all for the benefit of all. Nor is 
there any special loss or injury to the Sudras involved 
thereby. For, so long as the meaning conveyed and the 
result gained is the same, it matters not a bit whether the. 


words of the Veda or others are used. San kara declares 
his view as follows : 

" The Smritis declare that all the four castes are 
qualified for acquiring knowledge by means of Itihasas 
and Puranas." Bamanuja's view, on the contrary, is : 




" The permission of knowledge to Sudras through 
Itihassi and Purana is meant to secure to them the 
destruction of sin, &c., not to enable them to practise 
devout meditation (on God)." These extracts clearly 
show that Ramanuja's views are more or less in accord- 
ance with those of Sankara, and that the aim of both : was 
to adhere to the Vedic religion according to their lights. 
It is not justifiable to hold that Ramanuja is here simply 
declaring the views of the Sutrakara, and not his own, 
For all must acknowledge that the Sariraka- Sutras are 
meant to declare only the doctrine of the Sruti which is 
universally esteemed the highest authority for all 'Hindus. 
In forming these views, I am entirely guided by the 
writings of the Acharyas, and not by the so-called biogra- 
phies of them which are current, though every .one 
must admit that the biographies of Raraanuja and the 
Vaishnava teachers who came after him seem more 


reliable than the Sankara-Vijayas. We have at present 
no means of obtaining thoroughly critical and authentic 
accounts of the lives of these Acharyas apart from what 
devotion and tradition have handed down to us, and it 
seems to me that we should prefer to be guided by the 
light of the knowledge we can gather from their authentic 
writings. So guided, we have not a shadow of justifica- 
tion for the opinion now current that Bamanuja led a 
protestant movement or crusade against the Yedic religion 
or gave that religion a more universal form than any 
other aspect of Hinduism in the absurd meaning often 
given to the phrase, universal religion, viz., that which 
seeks to embrace within its fold by proselytism as large a 
number as possible of the members of the human race 
who inhabit the earth at any particular epoch of its 
history. At the same time we must not lose sight of the 
fact that it is not what a man really is or does that 
influences the course of events in the life of his own 
people or of humanity at large, but what is regarded as 
such in the world under the influence of a living and 
growing tradition. Especially in India, where we have 
never cared to cultivate a truly critical spirit and a 
genuine historical conscience, tradition and often tradi- 
tion wildly and even grotesquely cumulative in its course 
through the ages has usurped the place of truth. The 
life and career of Sri Kamanujacharya have, like those of 
all our other great Acharyas, become transformed under 
the influence of human imagination, or even of purely 
material human self-interest, and this transformation has 
at least in the present case been on the whole at least in 
some respects beneficial to Hind a Society. It has 
clearly led to greater consolidation and greater mutual 
trust and influence among the various subdivisions of 
caste among Sri Vaishnavas. It has also led to 


greater intellectual and moral elevation of non-Brahman 
Srivaishriava castes, though they have not in my view 
attained to such high levels of moral and spiritual 
elevation as have been reached by the corresponding 
classes of the Hindu Community which profess the Saiva 
religion in South India. We see in Christian lands also 
the influence of the great spiritual transformation which 
Christianity passed through under the disturbing influ- 
ence exercised by ecclesiastical tradition or by command- 
ing personalities like St. Paul, St. Augustine, Martin 
Luther and others. In the case of Hinduism, however, 
no such change of doctrine or perversion of truth has 
occurred as to involve a distortion of the course to be 
followed by the human spirit here, or of its destiny 
beyond. We have only to deplore the comparatively 
milder process of distortion in the record of events in the 
lives of certain important personalities ; and though 
this has been productive of a good deal of super- 
stition, credulity and priestcraft, the actual writings 
of our great Acharyas and the maintenance of the spirit 
of their teachings as handed down through successive 
generations of scholars and adherents have enabled us to 
retain, even to these days and in spite of the numerous 
revolutions of Indian political history, some measure of 
that enthusiasm for the spirit and its realisation which 
has been the proud privilege of our Arya community in 
Bharatavarsha from the remotest antiquity. 

Once more we have in our own times attractive prin- 
ciples or attractive personalities presented to us, and 
difficulties of various kinds present and prospective 
thereby created for us. These difficulties are neither of 
our own making, nor of our rulers' making, but are due to 
influences which have entered this land from outside. 
First there is the materialistic creed of modern science 


and life. Scientific discoveries, mechanical inventions, 
industrial appliances and inventions of all kinds : the laws 
of the conservation and correlation of energy : the princi- 
ple of the evolution of matter and life conceived as a 
world-law : the growth of the historical and critical spirit 
and the search after origins uncompromisingly applied to 
every branch of knowledge : the progress of the revolu_ 
tionary gospel of democratic equality in its moderate form 
of universal manhood suffrage and equality of opportunity 
for all or in its extreme forms of socialism with its 
advocacy of common property and work for all and of 
anarchism with its denial of the right of Governments to 
exist, all these have come upon the Western mind 
in a flood. The new light has travelled from West to 
East and revealed to us that civilisation is the aim 
of life and consists in the harmonising or adaptation 
of the organism to the environment and demands its 
growing complexity and compositeuess. The old Indian 
ideal of simplicity and serenity is false. Man is fated to 
live by the application of reason to the problems of life 
and mind, by strenuous and unceasing exertion, by the 
creating and filling up of new wants, not by resignation 
to the authority of a supreme will. The Indian ideals of 
Viveka and Vairagya have lost their application to 
human life, and the Indian civilisation is effete, for it is 
based on theocratic or aristocratic conceptions, the world 
has outgrown them and adopted an agnostic creed and a 
democratic ideal instead. We, too, must therefore re- 
place faith by science, the joint family by social unity, 
caste by class, custom by competition, birth by choice, 
selection by election, restraint by freedom, individualism 
by collectivism, and so on and on. Secondly, we have 
also preached to us but more often in these days of 
criticism, higher and lower, with the voice of supplication 


than with the voice of a compelling authority- the 
attractive picture of the life and personality of Jesus, a 
picture blurred indeed and torn by rationalistic and 
historical inquiry, chiefly in France and Germany, but 
still a picture of resignation, of suffering, of love and 
service to man which, when presented to minds ignorant 
of the present battered and tattered condition of its great 
original and prototype and enforced, too, by the addition 
of valuable worldly advantages and attractions, is often 
found in practice to possess an irresistible charm for certain 
men of all races and climes and conditions of life. As a 
consequence, then, of the coming in of new men and new 
ideas and of the wide disturbances, too, which have taken 
place in the industrial and social condition of the land, a 
ferment has arisen in the minds of men, many feel the 
need of some alteration in the basis of thought and life, 
some take a hasty plunge into the unknown from pure 
self-love or the love of novelty and excitement; some, 
too, are moved to action by the Voltairean principle of 
Crushing the Infamous. 

Every man with any pretensions to discernment 
must admit that the present economic and industrial situ- 
ation in India is to the last degree unsatisfactory. Once 
we took the lead in the manufactures and commerce of 
the world, and that not very long ago ; now we are fallen 
into a position of abject decadence and impotence. 
We only produce in order to supply raw material for 
foreign manufacturers. Our native agriculture, too, is 
not only unprogressive, but steadily tending to decline. 
In many cases, also, land is tending to pass from Indian 
ownership, and this is a tendency that should be checked 
by every legal and fair means in our power. In order to 
check these and other economic evils, we must leave no 
stone unturned to acquire a thorough knowledge of modern 



science and its mechanical applications and devices.. 
The question of the material condition of India is a large 
one and cannot be taken up here. But the facts above 
stated are unquestionable ; and blind, indeed, must be the 
man who can fail to see the great industrial crisis that 
is developing here and to appreciate the causes that have 
transformed India from the El Dorado it once was into 
one of the world's sinks of poverty and destitution. 

And yet it is worth while to reflect in this connection 
upon the opinion expressed by a brilliant Englishman 
Houston Stewart Chamberlain whose nature and culture 
have been entirely continental and whose great German 
work, "The Foundations of the Nineteenth Century" 
has just appeared in an English translation, that 
" Sincere harmony between Science and the Church we 
can never have in the way it prevailed in India." The 
same harmony has existed all along, and hence we can 
see how the power of thought inherent in the Indian 
mind can break the force of the temporary discords of 
to-day and bring us again to the haven of peace. 



The strength is still alive which marks the spirit of 
.the sage whose spontaneous outpourings from a truly 

enlightened heart have even now such a strange fascina- 
tion for us. 



"If the sun should emit a freezing light and the 
moon a burning one, if fires send downward their blazing 
sparks, the liberated sage here will feel no emotion of 
surprise, for he knows that they are but (the more 
unusual) manifestations of nature." At the same time 
we are not to suppose that the Indian mind is 
incapable of working on nature so as to produce mar- 
vellous and striking effects and to accomplish great 
wordly aims for the society and the state. The gifted 
Englishman above quoted delivers himself as follows 
about our ancestors : " The pretty clearly denned com- 
plex of peoples that make up the Aryan Indians forms an 
absolutely unique phenomenon among mankind; they 
possessed gifts such as no other race has ever possessed 
and which led to immortal, incomparable achievements." 
Even of us, their degenerate descendants of to-day he 
says : "That born metaphysician upon whom we Euro- 
peans fix our eyes in admiration never daring to hope 
that we could ever overtake him." The marvellous 
achievements of European science have in these recent 
years come upon us in such bewildering and astounding 
succession that the mind of the modern Indian trained in 
Western knowledge refuses to believe that there can be 
any truth in the accounts transmitted to us of " the 
immortal, incomparable achievements" of the epic age of 
pur national story. But so learned and accomplished a 


man as Mr. Chamberlain finds no difficulty in believing in 
the possession by the Indian mind of gifts and methods 
now unfortunately fallen into discredit or desuetude 
which were once undoubtedly efficacious for acting fruit- 
fully on the material world. The same gifts still remain 
with us, but dormant and waiting to be called forth into 
activity for achievements similar to those which our 
ancient forbears were capable of accomplishing in the 
glorious epic age and even subsequently. The time may 
come and quite unexpectedly when man's reason or 
faith may find the value and utility of sources of know- 
ledge now despised and relegated to undeserved neglect. 
There is hardly any use or even time for entering into 
details. It is enough for our present purpose to state in 
general terms that our Rasayana, Yoga, and Mantra 
Sastras and our Vedic ritualism contain the methods for 
acting on the outer world animate and inanimate, with- 
out the use of complicated machinery, At its best, 
machinery is but an awkard and ugly imitation of nature's 
gifts to some of her children in the lower rungs of the 
ladder of. creation. For example, the air-ship now so 
much noised about is, at its best, but a poor inartistic 
imitation of the charming spontaneity which marks the 
bird when it cleaves the air on its wings. Man is an 
artist only when he acts within his internal realm with 
the freedom and ease which characterise the spontaneous 
operations of nature, and such inner activity manifests 
itself in the production of intended effects on the outer 
world. The civilisation whose chronicle is found in the 
epics of India was fruitful of achievements having their 
source in the culture of man's inward energies and capa- 
cities. Only thus does man essentially and honourably 
differ from the animals around him. Moreover, the 
Atman is the real man ; and all that we achieve in the 


outer world, all that binds us to that outer 'world,' is ai* 
obstacle in the path to that self-realisation which can 
alone lead to spiritual freedom. The Indian sages have 
also realised in practice that that which thus leads man 
to freedom from the bondage of the flesh proves also his 
sanctuary from the material ills of all kinds which 
threaten him during his pilgrimage on earth. The 
Indian conception of civilisation is thus one which truly 
values the inner moral and spiritual culture and is sure 
to lead to such a truly artistic shaping of the external life 
of the individual and society as will place man above the 
animal impulses, cravings and conflicts of his lower 
nature. Hence we maintain that our civilisation and 
society alone furnish the suitable environment for those 
whose Karma is such as to provide them with the 
facilities needed for achieving the goal of emancipation 
from the bondage of material and animal existence. 

The question may here be put whether Hinduism 
and the Aryan people can justly be allowed the unique 
merit or function which we claim for them. A Christian 
Missionary no less a man than the Eevd. Dr. Miller, of 
the Madras College studying the history of religious 
development in India once proclaimed his conviction that 
India alone had taught to the world the doctrines of the 
" Omnipenetrativeness of God and the solidarity of man." 
The former refers to our idea that Isvara is the 
Antaryamin or the supreme immanent soul residing in 
the universe and guiding the evolution and destiny of the 
soul. The latter refers to our system of Varnasrama 
which provides the suitable environment for the soul 
which has attained to fitness for progress in true 
spiritual evolution. No Hindu who knows anything 
of the laws of social evolution need be ashamed of 
the ancient system of Varnasrama of which only 


a feeble and distorted remnant still survives. Security, 
self-sufficiency within the state, and material prosperity 
have successively been the guiding principles in the evoli> 
tion of societies. These principles have successively 
brought into existence the militant, the legal, and the 
economic stages of social development, India alone has 
striven to rise beyond the purely military ideal of the 
ancient empires of Egypt and Babylon, the legal and 
administrative constructions of the Greeks and Romans, 
and the ideal of economic freedom and advance which 
gives to the fervid Teutonic and Slavonic mind its 
intense absorption in the pursuit of gold and land. In 
India alone our sages combined these principles and 
gradations of social evolution into a harmonious whole 
and at the same time subordinated them to the pursuit 
and realisation of the ultimate destiny of the soul. There 
are many to whom in these days the Indian caste- 
system is an eyesore. The very mention of it is like 
brandishing a red rag before the bull. The truth is that 
we have but a shattered and deformed remnant of the 
system, not the system in its ancient prelection, purity 
and power. Buddhism sought to overthrow it, but only 
succeeded in undermining its strength and integrity. The 
key to the subsequent history of India is, as Swami 
Vivekananda pointed out, to be found in the fact that it 
has consisted of a uniform endeavour on the part of 
Hindus to regain lost ground. We have only very parti- 
ally succeeded, but it is a consolation to think that the 
attempt is still going on and will not cease till we shall 
have restored to us the glories of ancient India. The 
true Brahmin, the true Kshatriya and other castes are 
in course of formation, and henceforth the process of 
renewal and recovery promises to be more rapid than 
hitherto. The time is coming when in. Indian Society 

structure and function will have to be in perfect 
correspondence, when the demand for conformity be- 
tween men's professions and performances will become so 
insistent and imperious as to be irresistible. The present 
is an age of transition and so is full of struggle and 
disturbance. It will soon pass, and then the Indian 
civilisation will have regained its ancient harmony within 
and strength without. Meanwhile, we have to remain 
true to the aspirations of the sages and to the inspiring 
precepts and promises given to us by the Lord Himself 
in the Gita, IX. 32 and 33, ... 




" Partha ! even those who are of sinful birth ' 
women, Vaisyas and Sudras, even they, seeking Me as 
their helper, reach the Supreme Goal. How much more 
certain it is that Brahmans of holy birth and royal saints 
who are my devotees (attain the same)." This passage 
clearly shows who, according to Sri Krishna, reach the 


supreme goal of existence and under what conditions; 
Ours , is the only religion which gives prominence to 
the doctrines of Karma and re-birth and recognises 
the need of spiritual perfection by a process of evo- 
lution. All souls which have ever been in incarnation 
anywhere have an assured place and an assured 
hope in our Hindu religion. Hence it is the only 
universal and absolute religion for man. Our great boast 
is that we take in no proselytes, and we disdain to offer 
any attractions, worldly or other, for those who are 
willing and ready to go in search of them. We owe this 
proud and unique position to our conviction, that all souls 
will isorne time in the course of their evolution find their 
place in our system of Varnasrama, and to our conscious 
or UD conscious belief that we are the most spiritually 
advanced among the communities of men, and that 
irrespective of our secular status in the world. The 
spiritual superiority of Hinduism is acknowledged by the 
rest of the world, not only by thinkers and scholars like 
Victor Cousin, Schopenhauer, Max Muller and Deussen, 
but by active public men and journalists like Mr. 
W. T. Stead, who in daily and hourly contact with 
the social life and popular needs of Western peoples and 
civilisations. The great Indian ideas of the omni- 
penetrativeness of God and the solidarity of man and our 
doctrines of Karma and re-birth are wanted for the 
rest of the world. Till they can acquire them they can 
never gain the spiritual peace born of Vairagya which 
can .alone bring joy and satisfaction to the perturbed 
heart of man or release him from bondage to those 
emotions and activities which bring ruin successively to 
community after community in the tireless pursuit of 
material preponderance in the world or the equally 
tireless pursuit of the problems of mind and life by pure 

speculation and ratiocination unaided by divine authority 
and revelation. This will become clear if we examine 
the history of ideas in Europe at certain momentous 
epochs of past history or condition of thought in Europe 

Europe has had its own share of recurrent social and 
mental unrest. The sophists or wise men, having got a 
scientific training in Athenian Schools, made their way 
into the arena of life and began to teach the people. 
They directed a terrnendous battery of criticism against 
earlier systems of belief and founded a new doctrine on 
individualistic or utilitarian principles. Gradually the 
conception of the validity of divine and human laws gave 
way. Men reached the anarchical conclusion that those 
who are truly wise and strong follow their own natural 
dispositions and impulses a conclusion not unlike the 
modern Nietzschian philosophy of Naturalistic Immoral- 
ism. The new inspiration which came from Socrates 
and the philosophical systems to which it gave birth could 
do little for the revival of the old religious faith or of the 
basis of popular morality in any form. The Macedonian 
supremacy, the Roman Conquest, and the introduction of 
Christianity came in one after another ; and the classical 
age of Greek antiquity finally came to a close. The 
Greek race and intellect had done its work and passed 
away slowly from the world's stage. Let us take a leap 
of a thousand years. Christian inspiration and Eoman 
organisation had built up a great religious society and 
civilisation a civilsation based on ideals and conceptions 
which recent activities of Catholic ecclesiastics in Eng- 
land and America have shown not to have lost any part 
of their former vitality! But for centuries they have had 
to contend against many purely intellectual and sceptical 

movements. Italian humanism, French rationalism, 



German Enlightenment, and modern materialism and 
scientific meliorism are simply varying phases of an 
intellectual movement which has steadily tended to sap 
the foundations of faith and produced radical changes 
and sometimes violent convulsions in society and state. 
If Europe has been saved from anarchy or catastrophe, it 
has owed it to the fact that much of the energy of men 
has been diverted to the work prompted by the love of 
gold or the love of possessions and power or of all combined 
of territorial expansion over the rest of the globe. Nor 
has the situation changed during recent years or at the 
present moment. The same unsettlement of thought is 
at work ; the same undermining of accepted standards of 
morality and the social unrest consequent on it continue. 
The work of expansion and conquest followed by activity 
in the development of new territorial acquisitions con- 
tinues to occupy the minds and energies of men. The 
danger of social disaster, however, remains ; and we often 
hear of the increasing popularity of socialistic ideas, of 
the occasional outburst of anarchic forces in the form of 
strikes on a large scale, of protracted conflicts or even 
battles between large masses of working men and the 
police, of the sudden and violent overthrow of dynasties 
and of political systems. 

It is worth while considering what are the intellec- 
tual sources of the present unsettlement, ferment, and 
instability in society and the state. We may take Mill 
and Spencer as representative of the ideas which have 
had the largest vogue among thinking minds during the 
greater part of the last 100 years. Mill resolved the 
contents of mind into sensations and feelings and the 
permanent possibilities of them. Impressions coming 
from outside and following their own laws form the 
entire framework of the mind. Memory is the mere 


reproduction in images and ideas of these externally- 
derived impressions, sensations and feelings. The human 
will consists of the associations the attractions and 
repulsions established by our feelings and forming 
motives to action or abstinence from it. Men's thoughts 
and activities are the result of the interaction by associa- 
tion between the contents of the mind impressed on it 
from without. Turning to Spencer, we can sum up his 
view by quoting a sentence from one of his works : 
' ' The deepest truths we can reach are simply statements 
of the widest uniformities in our experience of the 
relations of matter, motion, and force, and that matter, 
motion and force are but symbols of the unknown 
reality." Spencer only gave a scientific turn to the 
sensational and associational psychology of the two Mills 
and of Lewes, and added to it a constructive side based 
on the principle of evolution. The complex phenomena of 
the external and internal world are explained by the laws 
of the persistence of force and the consequent continuous 
redistribution of matter and motion. Spencer proclaims 
the absoluteness of existence outside the phenomenal 
world. But it is certain that he did not conceive of his Un- 
knowable or Absolute as anything other than the substance 
of matter and mind. Certainly it was nothing spiritual 
nothing having the least kinship with our conception of 
Atman. Kant's Thing-in-Itself (Diny-an-sich) does not 
differ very materially from Spencer's unknowablefor he 
holds that our knowledge can predicate absolutely nothing 
of it, but that yet we can think of it, though it has no 
positive content of any kind. How real existence and mere 
negation can be combined it is hard to conceive. Kant's 
Categories or Forms of the Understanding do not seem to 
be very different from the apriori intuitions of the mind 
postulated by his predecessors of the common-sense school, 


If we turn from the speculative to the practical side 
of modern thought we find the same uncertainty and 
conflict in the views of leaders of philosophical schools, 
However much writers belonging to the experiential or 
evolutional school have differed from intuitionists in 
regard to the origin and standard of morality, however 
much they may have wished to emphasise the importance 
of experience in relation to the one, and of consequences 
in relation to the other, they have agreed in urging the 
need of practising the virtues which have always been 
recognised as binding on man in the society and the state. 
The apostle of selection by the processes of "Nature red in 
tooth and claw " Charles Darwin admits that sympathy, 
self-sacrifice, fidelity, patriotism, &c., are qualities which 
though they might not help individuals, are of service to 
communities in the struggle for existence. Huxley, also, 
admits the need of "combating the cosmic process" of self- 
assertion by the "ethical process " of self-restraint in order 
that we may secure " the fitting of as many as possible to 
survive." Spencer's optimistic imagination enables him 
to look forward, in the name of scientific evolution, to a 
time when we shall reach a thorough-going reconciliation 
of egoism and altruism. But he, too, does not mean- 
while deny the existence, or the need, or the merit of the 
altruistic virtues which men have long been accustomed 
to value. At last, however, there has arisen one to whom 
we have had to make an earlier reference the German 
Nietzsche, the apostle and advocate of what Huxley 
called "the gladiatorial theory of existence." Nietzsche 
holds that the time has come for making a new valuation 
of good and bad conduct on the basis of a "Naturalistic 
Immoralism." He hates morality on the -ground that it 
thwarts the instincts of nature. He condemns what he 
calls "the slave-morality of sympathy" and holds that 


"the only Christian died on the Cross." He hates - 
Christianity as its morality is that of the slave, and con- 
ceives his mission to be to deliver the Western mind 
from the infection of Christianity. The will to rule or 
the desire for power is the most important for the future 
development of mankind. We have reached the time 
when wickedness is again to prevail as it did in the good 
old heroic times when the strong man did what he liked. 
Goodness and badness are one to him, and nothing is to 
be forbidden. The supreme task of mankind is to pro- 
duce the strong man the " Ubermensch," the Overman. 
The present German Emperor is well known as the 
preacher of the Gospel of the " Mailed Fist," and both 
Machiavelli and Napoleon who admired Machiavelli and 
his maxims are great favourites in Modern Europe. 

These brief allusions to the speculative and practical 
sides of modern thought in the West show us how great 
is the need for reiterating here and elsewhere the great 
ideas common to all our Indian teachers at the present 
stage of our evolution. Sri Eamanuja is among the most 
eminent of all the Indian Acharyas who have condemned 
this perpetual life of worldliness of struggle and striving 
as the goal of human life. All Hindu teachers have 
insisted on the importance of realising the principle of 
fixity in nature and man. Not only the Atman is 
permanent and eternal, but in nature itself there is not 
only variation, but also fixity of species. We have also 
in human life not only principal but subsidiary groups- 
and all are fixed. These groups and species have come 
into existence under the influence of the laws of Karma 
and the operation of the principle of divine selection. 
They are to be helps, not hindrances to each other. 
Souls are to be helped to be born into the spheres 
of life and the social groups which are fit for their 


present and future evolution. Man's duty is to obey 
divine laws and help forward the process of divine 
selection. If man disobeys and incurs Heaven's wrath, 
God ' has to punish him and even to destroy the 
world. The laws of Karma operate, and be is only 
the giver of Karma's fruits. Again, the laws of 
Karma are inexorable and God creates the world anew. 
The time comes when destiny and divine grace unite to 
give the world another start, so that men may again have 
the chance of obeying the divine ordinances and render- 
ing themselves deserving of the goal which, in His grace 
and mercy, God has marked out for them. Neither 
wreckage is to be the goal of life, nor the greatest gain to 
some at the expense of others. The goal is to be reached 
by the process of co-ordination through self-denial and 
love as the higher law of Nature and through such 
activities only as are suitable to the grade of evolution 
which we have reached and will lead to the avoidance of 
conflict and competition. Intelligent initiative is not to 
be denied to man, but its province must be limited by 
the high purposes and aims for which the Dharrna has 
been prescribed for us. This alone can lead to harmony 
and co-operation and accelerate the reign of love and the 
evolution of man so as to accomplish his high destiny. We 
must not also forget that our environment is much 
larger than the material universe we know, and that the 
different gradations of intelligent beings have mutual 
attraction and repulsion so as to influence each other's 
destinies and evolution. It is these ideas that lie at the 
basis of the religion of the Hindus, and they are shared 
by all forms and divisions of Hinduism. They are 
common alike to Raman uja and Sankara, and some of 
them at least are peculiar and special to India. This 
may sound to some at least a startling claim to make on 


behalf of India. But familiarity, as we know, often 

blunts, or even blinds, human perception. In India, 

especially, many of us are even wilfully blind to our 

own treasures, and even the common places of daily life 

have often to be revealed to us by Western voice in order 

that we may open our eyes and perceive them, and we do 

not often see ourselves truly even after knowing ourselves 

as we appear to others. We have already seen how a 

Western voice once spoke on our behalf and on behalf of 

truth; and, wonder of wonders!,. it ; was the voice 

of, a Christian Missionary which proclaimed; that. India 

alone has taught : to the world the doctrines of "the 

omnipenetrativeness of . God and the solidarity of 

man." It is because we have stuck firmly to the 

Vedic revelation of these doctrines that we still remain 

the impregnable rock of spirituality against which the 

waves of Materialism and Atheism, of Socialism and 

Anarchism, of credulity and wonder-working which 

have flooded the world from time to time have dashed 

themselves in vain. The nectar of immortality is still 

ours to give, and, as Swaini Vivekananda said truly, 

" This National ship has been ferrying and carrying 

millions and millions of souls across the waters of life. 

For scores of shining centuries it has been plying across 

this water, and scores of millions of souls have been taken 

to the other shore, to blessedness, through its agency,'' 

We shall now take leave of these general consider 
ations and refer to certain questions which have been 
raised as to the relation of the Bamanuja to other schools 
of religious thought and especially to Sankara!s Vedanta 
doctrine. And,,first, can we justly hold, as Dr. Thibaut 
does, that, while E ; amanuja interprets the Sutras of 
Vyasa in accordance with the views of many predecessors 
representing a venerable and weighty tradition, Sankara is 


disinclined to quote previous teachers of his own school ? 
Dr. Thibaut says: " Sankara does not on the whole 
impress one as an author particularly anxious to 
strengthen his own case by appeals to ancient authorities." 
On the other hand, he says of Sri Karnanuja: "In 
addition to Bodhayana, Ramanuja appeals to quite a 
series of ancient teachers Purvacharyas who carried 
on the true tradition as to the teaching of the Vedanta 
and the meaning of the Sutras." The truth is that Sri 
Sankaracharya refers in explicit terms to the Purva- 
eharyas of his own school. At the commencement of his 


on the Taittiriya-Upanishaclr he says : 


"I offer my constant obeisance to those Gurus who 
before me, have commented on all Vedantas (Upanishads) 
by explaining the words, the sentences, and the proofs." 
Again he not only frequently quotes from his Parama- 
Guru, Gaudapadacharya, but has written a lengthy 
commentary on his Karikas, and he also refers to him 
several times in his Bhashya on the Brahma-Sutras as 
Sampradayavidj the knower of tradition. Both Sankara 
and Ramanuja, therefore, represent schools of Vedic 
doctrine having a venerable antiquity, and neither carne 
forward only with a make-shift framework of compro- 
mise intended simply to meet a historic crisis and need 
forced on us from without or from within. In India the 
Veda has been accepted as the sole basis for all doctrine 
regarding both the goal of existence and the means for its 
attainment. Any doctrine acceptable to any section of 
the Hindus has come in only as directly or indirectly 


taught by the Vedas. The Agamas whether belonging 
to the Vaishnava or Saiva religion, all claim to be, and 
are accepted as, the divine exponents of the essential 
purport of the Vedas. Even the Protestants of the later 
seemingly un-Vedic Bhakti Schools in Maharashtra or 
elsewhere have not placed themselves in opposition to 
the Veda or Vedanta and have freely drawn from the 
Itihasas and Puranas for inculcating lessons in Dharma 
and for information regarding the lives and works of the 
deities they have worshipped. Some have even com- 
mented on the Sutras of Vyasa. We claim, therefore, 
that Ramanuja cannot be said to take his place much 
less anything like a pre-eminent place among the 
founders of the Protestant Schools which have either 
partially or wholly abandoned the revelation of the Vedas 
in order to place themselves in consonance with altered 
conditions of life or even regarded it as wholly unsuited 
to the needs of human life on earth. Ramanuja, like 
Sankara, is purly Vedic and orthodox though they 
represent two different schools and traditions. The 
Mahabharata refers to the Vedas, the Sankhya, the Yoga, 
the Pasupata and the Pancharatra in one and the same 
sloka as containing the traditional teaching in regard to 
religion and so the Vaishnava religion of Ramanuja which 
is based on the Vedas and the Pancharutragama cannot 
be classed along with the modern schools of Indian 

There is also another reason why we cannot consent 
to class Ramanuja among the expounders of non- Vedic 
Protestantism in India. The supremacy of the Vedic 
religion among the world's faiths is due to the fact that 
in it alone are formulated and systematised the practical 
modes of life and the processes of meditation needed for 
attaining to the realisation of the supreme goal , of 



liberation from the bondage of matter, processes which 
are common to all sections of our hoi} 7 faith and which 
are unknown to the creeds professed by the rest of the 
world. It is only the Vedas and the Agamas that have 
set a supreme value on these practical steps for the 
realisation of the Supreme Being. So long as the Vaish- 
navism of Ramanuja shares with other aspects of 
Hinduism these peculiar doctrines and aids to the reali- 
sation of the self, it cannot be classed among the Indian 
Protestant sects, but takes rank as an orthodox system. 
Perhaps it is the most orthodox of all in some respects, 
and his spiritual influence is potent among his followers 
today to an extent and in a manner which cannot be 
found among the professed followers of any other teacher. 

In this place, we feel tempted, to protest against 
Dr. Thibaut's idea that, while Sankara's doctrine is 
nearer to the Upanishads, Ramanuja's is more akin 
to the Sutras of Vyasa. The Sariraka-Mimamsa is 
intended as a text-book of Vedanta for the instruction 
and illumination of the human mind, and for the pre- 
paration of Pandits for the work of defending and 
propagating the eternal truths of the Brahma- Vada. 
So there can be no conflict between the doctrines of the 
Upanishads and of the Sutras of "Vyasa Bhagavan. 
Badarayana is aptly called Sarvajna-Sikhamani by the 
great Bhashyakara Srikantacharya, and is adored through- 
out India by the follwers of every School of Vaidika 
orthodoxy as the purest, the holiest, the wisest, the most 
gifted and the most thoroughly benevolent and divinest 
of the saints and prophets who have shed the lustre of 
their name on the holy land. Nothing can be more 
absurd than to suggest that there is a conflict of any kind 
between his system and that expounded by the eternal 
Vedas. No Indian School of Vedanta recognises or can 

afford to recognise the existence of such a conflict. To do 
so would be at once to write its own doom, and no 
thinking man of our race would give ear to such a 
.suggestion. For the Vedas are to us the source of all 
knowledge which is to lead us from darkness to light, 
from the bondage of ignorance to the bliss of eternal 
freedom ; and Vyasa's Mission in the world, as one of 
the Vibhutis of the Lord Himself, is to set forth the 
Vedic doctrine on the irrefragable basis of his supreme 
dialectics. Eamanuja and Sankara, equally with the 
leaders of all other Vaidika Schools, interpret Vyasa as 
the most authoritative of all Indian authorities on Vedic 
doctrine, and not as one who has brought to us a message 
of his own which is more or less in conflict with the 

There is an idea abroad that, while Sankara had a 
mightier intellect than Eamanuja, Eamanuja had a 
broader heart and a more cosmopolitan sympathy than 
Sankara. This view seems to be chiefly based on the 
unfounded belief that Eamanuja's doctrine and ministry 
resulted in securing larger religious privileges for Sudras. 
We have already seen how erroneous this view is when 
comparing the views propounded by the two Acharyas in 
the Apasudradhikarana. Moreover, the comparison of 
their leading works brings out nothing to justify us in 
fixing the stamp of inferiority either on the intellect of 
Eamanuja or the heart of Sankara. In solid thought, 
extent of erudition, mastery of dialectics, power of inspi- 
ration, and the witchery of artistic literary expression, no 
one can point to any very perceptible difference between 
the two great teachers. Both owe it to their mighty 
intellectual power and to the marvellous stores of their 
mind that they have exercised an abiding influence on 
Indian thought and religion, an influence, too, which 


promises at no distant date to overthrow all geographical 
barriers and spread over the entire civilised world. In 
these days there is a tendency in certain quarters to 
indulge in contumelious ridicule of our Pandits, their 
training, their learning, and their methods. Only the 
other day there was a melancholy exhibition of inexcus- 
able ignorance or insolence on a Madras platform where 
one speaker went the length of calling our Pandits 
" ethnological specimens." In my view, there are no 
worse ethnological specimens than our modern Indian 
educated men who, after half a century of honest and 
sustained effort on the part of our enlightened and bene- 
volent rulers, have not been able yet to give to the world 
a single contribution to the literature of power or beauty 
which it will not willingly let die. Indeed, we the pro- 
ducts of Indian University training, at least in this 
Presidency, have not a single creative thought or work- 
absolutely nothing to boast of, and it seems to me that 

we should be the last to cast a stone at our Pandits or the 
system which produced and is producing them. From 

this system have sprung the masterpieces of Indian 
literature and the immortal creations of Indian thought. 
It is this system that has produced the great Indian epics 
which are still the despair and the delight of civilised 
men all over the world. It is this system which has 
given us the Sakuntala which is accepted everywhere as 
one of the noblest creations of the human intellect. It 
has given us those great systems of Indian philosophy 
which have anticipated almost all that is valuable in the 
systems of thought, ancient and modern, which have had 
any influence for good in the development of all that is 
best in human civilisation. It has, finally, given us the 
great Acharyas who have exercised so much influence on 
the destinies of the Indian people and who have now 


begun to attract the attention of the modern world and 
are soon to enter forcibly into the strongholds of the great 
civilisations of to-day and to take them by storm so as to 
bring into existence a nobler ideal and type of humanity 
than has yet been dreamt of in Western lands. Against 
triumphs like these what have we to bring for- 
ward except that, like performing animals in a Circus, 
we spout forth what we are taught of the ideas and 
words which have come to us from the West without 
even being able to discriminate which of these can be 
worked usefully into the marrow of our modern social 
being. The Pandit class has produced even within 
recent times master-pieces of thought -and learning, 
some of which have not yet been made accessible to the 
public at large. Men like Anandalwar, Balakrishna Yati 
and others have lived only in very recent times, and 
great will be the loss to India .when we shall cease to 
produce men like them men gifted with some of the 
highest powers and graces of the Indian mind and able 
to influence for good the thoughts and activities of even 
the most cultured of the modern Indians. My point is 
this, that this same system of Pandit learning gave us 
the great Ramanujacharya whose exalted personality 
and mighty influence for good on the life and destinies, 
past and present, of our country and of humanity at 
large we are celebrating today. It was that system 
which inspired and developed the mighty intellect of 
Sankara and the no less mighty intellect of Ramanuja. 
As both were mighty intellectual giants, both equally 
brought to their ministry among men all the graces of 
the human heart, all those mighty ethical impulses and 
emotions which attract the love of great masses of men 
and gain the permanent adhesion of thinking minds so 
as to form a new school of thought or a new epoch of 


social activity. That Ramauuja brought to his great 
mission a love for his fellow-men, a sympathy for the 
low and fallen almost, if not altogether, unexampled in 
the history of our racs is a circumstance which stirs the 
hearts of all of us to the utmost height of enthusiasm 
and reverence towards his holy name. It would be a 
mistake, however, to suppose that, because Sankara lived 
at a time when the work had to be done of overthrowing 
several powerful rival schools of thought and life 
totally or partially opposed to the true religion of the 
Vedas, he was only a dialectician bent on using his giant 
intellect and transcendent skill in polemics to crush his 
opponents and establish the supremacy of his own faith. 
We must not forget the persistent tradition not only 
among his followers, but universally prevalent that he 
carried out a radical reformation of morals among various 
Hindu sects, that he put an end to the filthy Tantric 
abominations of Vamachara and Kaula-Marga, and that 
everywhere he preached purity of heart and life. We 
have also referred to the fact that, according to him, 
Sudras equally with other castes were competent to 
obtain the jnana which Itihasas and Puranas contain. 
Dr. Deussen, his German expounder, calls his doctrine 
"the strongest support of pure morality," and that it 
alone enlightens us regarding the metaphysical basis of 
the Christian precept, " Love thy neighbour as thyself." 
We must not also forget the fact that Sankara has based 
his doctrine on the teachings of Him who has taught 
us (Gita, VI, 32) 

*KT: n " 


" Of all My devotees, he is the highest who, fixed in 
the realisation of the Atman everywhere, perceives that 
pleasure is as welcome, and pain is as unwelcome, to 
others as they are to himself and so does good to all 
and evil to none." 

Another point in which Sankara and Rarnanuja are 
frequently, but erroneously, contrasted is that Sankara 
teaches a kind of veiled Buddhistic idealism, while 
Rarnanuja is the out- spoken advocate of an uncompro- 
mising realism which is intelligible to all. Nothing can 
be more mistaken than this. All schools of Vedantists 
are realists. Sankara is never tired of repeating, 


" Knowledge is relative to the objects known." All objects 
exist outside in their own right and apart from the mind 
of man. Man only cognises them. As objects differ, 
cognitions differ,-- not vice versa. All Advaitins are realists. 
Only the Buddhists of one school preach idealism, denying 
the external reality of an outside world apart from the 
mind and thinking of man. No doubt the Advaitin says 
that the reality of the world is of a different kind from 
that of the Atman or absolute existence, for to him 
who has realised the Atman no world can exist. But 
it does not for this reason cease to exist for others. 
Even for him who has attained Brahmajnana external 
objects cease to exist when in the state of Svunubhava, 
self-realisation. Only the Mukta never returns to the 
world of experience material or mental. The ordinary 
jnani has his moods of more or less transitory 
God-Consciousness, and then returns to his ordinary 


state of perceptive cognition of phenomena external 
or internal. This state is what Sankara calls 

i " 

"the recurring experience of what has been stultified." 
We all know that no trees can grow upside down in 
water and that what are seen as such are merely illusory 
reflections of the trees growing on the bank. Still, the 
perception of the inverted ..reflections, in the. water ; is 
repeated all the same. ,The phenomenal reality of the 
world which recurs even for the jnani when he returns 
from his state of Samadhi-Nishta, or Samyag-darsana, 
as it is techincally known is not simply hypothetical, 
a mere creature of the mind, but a reality outside us and 
knowable as such. It is Satya, reality not Asatya, 
unreality. It is prakriti (matter), not purusha (spirit or 
intelligence) . 

A further point of comparison or contrast is that, 
while Ramanuja postulated the existence of a Personal 
God loving and being loved, the object of worship, and 
the bestower of blessings on His creatures, Sankara's 
doctrine is a kind of pantheistic monism fit only for the 
rare jnani. Brahman is the only reality ; there is no 
separate Jiva ; and the world of matter is only an illusory 
emanation of Brahman. Says a famous sloka, ascribed 
to Sankara himself : 

u " 

Sankara's doctrine is many-sided, and it would be a 
mistake to attend to one aspect of it only. It should 
never be forgotten that Sankara's advaita-Vada is inti- 
mately and inseparably associated with his Saguna Vada. 
According to him, there are two kinds of Mukti, 

release here after acquiring jnan a, without taking 
another body or going to another world; and 


gradual release after going to Bramna-loka through 
devout meditation on a Personal God. It is this 
latter that is accessible to all, and so in practice 
we are all or almost all of us followers of Visishtad- 
vaita. No one is compelled to make the attempt to 
realise the one Eeality even while here. Such 
is the privilege of the few who gird up their loins 
for the maMng of this attempt. Nor, at the same time, is 
it so easy to attain to the devout emotion of Parabhakti, 
as some people suppose, such a devotion to the Lord 
as is prescribed io the following verse of the Gita 
(VIII. 14) ; 

ScTrf qt *ri 

u He who, with a mind abstracted from all other 
objects, meditates on Me without intermission all his 



life -by that Yogi, whose mind is thus ever restrained, 
Partha, I am easily gained." How many of such do 
we see around us in daily life? If all are Bhaktas of 
Sri Krishna in this sense, the world we live in will be 
Vaikuntha itself, and not the hell, that it is at present. 
But our point is that in practice all Sankaras are Visisht- 

. Some claim that, like Ramanuja, Sankara, was a 
Vaishnava. It is, in the first place, difficult to see why 
emphasis should at all be laid on this circumstance. 
From Vedic times, Aryas have been Saivas, or Vaishnavas, 
or both. One thing is certain, there can be only one 
Supreme J.svara, whatever name we give him. The 
whole world has been fighting about names and brought 
discredit to the cause of religious truth. Sectarian 
bigotry and propagandism has filled the world with strife, 
misery, and bloodshed. They have broken human hearts, 
produced hatred where love ought to prevail, and 
divided those whom God has united by the blood- bond 
and destined for a life of mutual help and service. The 
Caste-system of the Hindus has been in this respect at 
least a blessing to humanity. A Hindu is bora, not 
made, and so we make no converts of the followers of 
other religions. In the past history of India, however, 
there have been conversions among Hindus tnemselves 
from one form of Hinduism to another. At present, 
however, activity in the making of converts is no longer 
a living phase of social life among Hindus, and certainly 
we need not regret its disappearance- Let us return 
from this digression. Was Sankara a Vaishnava or 
Saiva? None of his works enable us 1,0 answer the 
question definitely. In his Gita-bhashya, he invariably 
speaks of Vishnu as Isvara, the Supreme Personal God. 
Similarly, in the Pancharatradhikarana, consistently 


with the position taken by him in the G-ita, he speaks of 
Narayana as Paramatma, Sarvotma higher than Avyakta, 
&c. In the KenopanishacUbhashya, when he enumer- 
ates the various forms of the Personal God (Upasya- 
brahman, the object of devout meditation) he alter- 
natively mentions Brahma, Vishnu, Siva, Indra, &c. In 
the Kathopaniskad, when he explains the famous verse, 

as referring to Mukti (liberation from Samsara) he 
explains " Vishnoh " as 

, and Padam as 


11 -^r^o TG^gf I " 

So he explains it as equivalent to what he calls elsewhere 

- i " 



the self of all existence, He no doubt also adds 

> " 


but as it is used synonymously with 

: I " 

as already explained, it must be understood not as 
referring to the Personal God, but as equivalent to the 
Absolute Brahman. Vasudeva has here therefore to 
be explained (as it is explained by Sankara's comentators) 
as follows : 



Vasudeva is thus explained as meaning the one existence 
which is of the nature of self-effulgence and which is the 
support and dwelling-place of all beings. Nor is the 
derivation a mere fancy of the ingenious Indian 
commentator. For, an old Upanishad known to 
Sankara, the Amrita-bindu Upanishad after speaking 
of Brahman as 



also calls him by the name of Vasudeva and derives the 
name as follows : 




I) " 


" The Supreme self which is both the adhara and adheyti, 
the support of all phenomenal existence and the pheno- 
menal existence itself which is supported the one self- 
effulgence hy which all else lives and thrives is called 
Vasudeva and that am I " 

The Vaishnavism of Sri Bamanuja has had the effect 
of largely reducing the ritualism of his followers. This 
circumstance has also to a large extent affected, by the 
influence of example, the practical religious life, though 
not the merely theoretical position, of the followers of 
Sankara. Everywhere Hindu ritualism has been on the 
decline, a decline which has done much barm both to 
the religious life and the secular prosperity of the 
motherland. Nor are we free from blame for disobeying 
the express injunctions of the Lord as contained in the 
Gita, III, 10, 11. 


II " 

4 * The Lord of creatures, having at the beginning (of 
creation) created them along with sacrifice, thus spoke, 
" Do ye prosper by this (sacrifice) ; it will secure to you 
all you desire. By this (sacrifice) bestow prosperity on 
Devas, and may they grant you what| gives you satisfac- 


By mutual help, you shall attain the highest good." It 
seems unquestionable that the sufferings and vicissitudes 
of the holy land are due to our neglect of the sacrificial 
part of our great Aryan faith. The Devas have with- 
drawn their help from us as we have deserted them and 
failed to propitiate and worship them for what they 
bestow on us and what they hold in trust with them for 
our benefit. They are the Lord's appointed channels for 
the bestowal on us of all worldly gifts and blessings. 
Neither Sankara nor Bamanuja is responsible for the 
culpable neglect of the Karma-Kanda by the Brahmins. 
Vedic ritualism is not dead, but has long been in a state, 
if not of suspended animation at least of decayed vitality. 
Some hold that Sankara contended against the' exclusive 
ceremonialism of .the Mimamsaka school, and to him is 
due the decay of Vedic ceremonialism. But it is certain 
that there never has been a separate school or sect of 
Mimamsakas in India, as there never has been a separate 
set of men belonging to the Sankhya, Vaiseshika, or 
Nyaya school. There are some, even among Indian 
scholars, who, like Colonel Jacob, a Western Orientalist, 
hold that " whilst the other five schools have well-nigh 
ceased to exert any appreciable influence, the Vedanta has 
overspread the whole land, overgrown the whole Hindu 
mind and life." In truth, however, the other five schools 
or Darsanas have never had any greater influence than 
now. They were devised simply as aids to the per- 
fect training of the students of Vedanta, that is, 
they were all put forward as one-sided theories, and 
all that could be stated in support of them was stated by 
the Kishis only to be refuted in the Vedanta, the sole 
and final and absolute religion of Vedic revelation. 
There has never been in India a separate sect, school, or 
fraternity devoted to any of these systems, As the sage 


Brihaspati enunciated and systematised Indian materia- 
lism without being a materialist himself, so .also our 
Eishis formulated these five schools of philosophy or 
darsanas as the purely intellectual . products of their 
constructive genius. Vyasa and Yachaspati have inter- 
preted the Yoga system, without being themselves 
followers of the Yoga theory of the categories of existence. 
Vachaspati Misra's was a versatile genius which could 
master and expound every great system of Indian thought, 
but at the same time he was the mightiest of all who have 
given their whole-hearted allegiance to the Advaita- 
Vada of Sankara. In the Kamayana, Jabali propounded 
atheistic doctrines, but was a Vedantin himself. This is 
a method peculiar to Indian sages and thinkers. Our 
sages place themselves in the point of view peculiar to 
alien systems of thought and expound them in the 
manner of an avowed and ardent advocate, but they do 
not thereby declare themselves in their favour. So it has 
been with Jaimini, Sabara Swamin, Kumarila Bhatta 
and other expounders of the Purva Mimainsa School. 
Neither Sankara nor Bamanuja has condemned Vedic 
ritualism or endeavoured to diminish its influence in the 
social or national life of the Indian people. Sri Krishna 
has said even of the jnaui, Grita (III. 25) : 





"As the man who has no knowledge (of the self ) does 
Karma with attachment (to result) so he who has such 
knowledge should do Karma without attachment and 


from a desire to prevent the world from following the 
path of undesirable (unshaatrdic) activity." 

We may, finally, deal with an idea that is abroad, 
viz., that while in Rainanuja's system the individuality 
of the Jiva is preserved, in Sankara's system the Jiva is 
absorbed into the one existence and so loses his personality. 
This view is founded on a thorough misapprehension of 
Sankara's doctrine. In that doctrine, there is only one 
ultimate and absolute existence. Hence there can be 
no absorption. For absorption implies the triplicity of 
the . absorber, the absorbed, and the act of absorption. 
There is no real Jiva in separation from the Supreme 
Atman. We must never forget the distinction in Sankara's 
system between the standpoint of phenomenal limitation 
common to all of us and that of the noumenal or absolute 
existence which is special to the jnani. It is the latter 
standpoint that forms Sankara's speciality, and to one 
who can vividly realise it absorption is an impossibility 
as implying a triplicity of existence which is entirely 
foreign to Sankara's doctirine. In other respects the 
entire system of Eamanuja is acceptable to all Sankaras; 
and so, if the fact of absorption of the personality of 
Jiva cannot be brought forward as an objection to 
Bamanuja's system, it is equally inapplicable to Sankara. 

In connection with this doctrine of the one Absolute 
existence which has no attributes and is beyond all 
variations and limitations of time and place, India has a 
special mission to the "rest of the world. We have 
already referred to the speciality of India as the teacher 
of the doctrines of " the omnipenetrativeness of God and 
the solidarity of man." These doctrines are common to 
almost all schools of Indian religious thought, and 
Sankara's doctrine of Vyavahara (phenomenal existence) 


brings him fairly into line with all other Indian teachers 
and religious schools. But Sankara's speciality his 
doctrine of the one existence gives him a special claim 
for a hearing and influence in the West. We are entitled 
to make this claim for him on account of the vogue which 
his system has enjoyed there till now. No doubt this is 
largely due to accident. Now that the Sri-bhasya of Sri 
Eamanuja is available in an English translation, we may 
hope that in the future his influence will extend among 
Western thinkers and Orientalists. None will more rejoice 
at this extension of the -Vedic religion of Sri Ramanuja 
than those who here belong to the school of Sankara, 
for the Saguna- Vada is as essential to us as the Nirguna- 
Vada. There are no greater bhaktas of Yishnu than are 
to be found even to-day among -the followers of the 
Advaita doctrine. Still there is ample reason to believe 
that Sankara's influence will spread in the future in the 
West as it has done hitherto. Not only are the elaborate 
and valuable German translations and expositions of Dr. 
Deussen and their renderings into other European langu- 
ages evidence of this fact, but the opinions of a man like 
the late Professor Max Muller opinions, however, which 
we cannot wholly endorse may also be considered in 
this connection. He says : " In India alone the human 
mind has soared beyond this point (i.e., the anthropo- 
morphic idea of God) at first by guesses and postulates 
such as we find income of the Upanishads, afterwards by 
strict reasoning, such as we find in the Vedanta-Sutras, 
and still more in the commentary of Sankara, The 
Vedanta, whether we call it a religion or a philosophy, 
has completely broken with the effete anthropomorphic 
conception of God and of the soul as approaching the 
throne of God, and has opened vistas which were 
unknown to the greatest thinkers of Europe." And 



again : " From a purely logical point of view, Sankara's 
position, seems to be impregnable, and when so rigorous 
a, logician, as Schopenhauer declares his complete sub- 
mission to Sankara's arguments, there is no fear of their 
being, 'Upset -by : other, logicians.''] ., We ; cannot agree 
to soine. . of : the _ views herein set. forth. : That goe s 
without; saying. We cannot .'agree that either Vyasa 
or Sankara ; arrives ; at "any conclusion ; by mere ratioci- 
nation. ; Both rely on the Srufci as -., the 'basis, of their 
yedanta-docjirine,- and all their argumentation is intended 
only r to .develop cthe arguments contained in the Sruti 
and/establish its conclusions and doctrines.; . We cannot 
also, agree. , to the statement that the Personal God of. the 
Advaitin, pr;Visihtadvaitin,\or indeed, of any .other school 
of ; Indian, religious thought' can be justly,, called , " an 
anthropomorphic conception of God.'.' All .Hindus base 
them L doctrines J and ' belief s on Pramanas or accepted 
sources .of ^knowledge. Our doctrine of a Personal God .is 
nt derived .'from; our, own. inner conceptions or. cogita- 
tions, :but from 'the Yeda which- we regard as the eternal 
source of all our' knowledge regarding extra-mundane 
things , and beings. No Bipdu can, therefore, agree, to 
the statement that we have; formed our conception of a 
Personal God from our : knowledge ^ and exeprience of the 
characteristiics of, 'human : beings. What we believe con- 
cerning.; God as revealed in the Veda is, -not that man 
has created, God after his own likeness, but that God: has 
created man af ter. His likeness. -- In .fact,, we believe, that 
both are. eternal and that both are .souls. Creation is 
not with us ^..springing- of something out of nothing, 
but simply, the investing. of ;- the" soul with a body suitable 
to ,- its ! stage of ; spiritual . evolution. Apart, from these 
objections, .-/however, .there , is much ^ truth; in \ Professor 
Ma'x Muller's 'statement; that there are thinking minds, in 

Europe>arid'A'meriea7to wkoni the AdvaiMc 'conception^ of 
Pure :B-eing the !one -Beality, absolute- and attrilouteless, 
without a secondsthe Sat-Ch'it-Ananda, >as we call it; a 
.conception far- above the purely negative conceptions of 
the Noumenon: yet 'reached in the West can successful]y 
appeal; and we can- appeal , to such minds through r the 
powerful and cogent reasonings which find a 'place in the 
system of Sankara. - It is, -therefore,. 'necessary that 
Hindus should maintain their tradition of Advaita doctrine 
'quite as 'much as "that of the Bhagavata School' of 'Sri 
Ramahuja-.-- Just as the West is influencing the : East'by 
its material -acquisitions, so the East must influence the 
West byr its' spiritual acquisitions. I No -educated Hindu 
worth the name can > be indifferent to the religious" and 
spiritual irmeritahce.'o'f the sages" of old. : ' ' 

In all the vicissitudes we have passed through, these 
two great 1 Sampradayas the Bhagavata Sampradaya and 
the Advaita Sampradaya- together with the Pasupata 
system ''of Srikantacharya have been to us in Southern 
India the great sources of national vitality, and they have 
also united -us in the bonds of a close association of hearts 
with the rest of- our 'Hindu brethern in this continent. A 
great historical authority has said, "It is on the religidus 
life that nations "repose." The religious life of India has 
had '.a continuity whibh loses itself in an antiquity 'which 
surpasses' all human computation or 'comprehension. 
Throughout the ages ttiat are past, the Vedic religion has 
been the unfailing' common source of the beliefs and 
activities of the professors of every school or system of 
religion which has 'appealed to the hearts of our people. 
Neither political' nor economic changes have turned 
us from unswerving faith either in the Vedas, or 'in 
Him from whom the Vedas have sprung and whom 
they reveaKto us, On every side we see signs of " unrest' 


'and portents of coming change. What the future will 
bring we cannot foresee. But of one thing we may be 
surethat India alone will continue to be recognised 
as the eternal fountain and reservoir of spirituality. 
We alone have never yet been the willing tools or slaves 
of materialism. Elsewhere, spirituality has at best been 
an emotional aspiration, or merely a postulate of the 
human intellect. Here alone it has been an experience- 
an experience, too, the origin of which has to be sought 
in a revelation which rests on the eternal basis of the 
Vedas and cannot be traced to any date or source having 
a merely historical significance. As we stand and take 
a retrospect of the history which lies behind us in our 
past, the mind quails before the enormous vistas of time 
which imagination conjures up to the view. The divine 
grace of Sri Krishna has alone saved us during all this 
immeasurable period of time, and the generations of our 
ancestors have handed down to us the torch of Vedic 
knowledge which He, in his eternal and infinite wisdom, 
entrusted to our first progenitors the Bishis for the 
sustentation of their prosperity in all the ages that have 
since passed away. Shall we prove false to the trust ? 
Siren voices call upon us to desert our post ; there are 
deserters, too,, here and there ; temptations abound every- 
where. But remember the lessons of the past. Assyria, 
Greece, and Borne, where are they ? But we remain,- 
the , eldest of the children of the Lord. What has 
preserved us except it be the same grace as entrusted the 
torch of Vedic wisdom into our hands?. Shall we, or 
shall we not pass on the torch to those who are to 
succeed us ? History points to the dim eras of antiquity 
when the Hindus prospered in larger numbers than we 
can now count and over a vaster area than we now 
inhabit, Many others have since risen and passed away 


so that the places which knew them shall know them 
: no more. But we remain the heirs of all the ages that 
are past, and we shall remain/it may be, the inheritors 
of a remoter future than we are now ! able distinctly to 
conceive. "Who knows the possibilities of that future ? 
It may be one of recovery and renovation to such an 
extent that the Holy Land may yet again clothe herself 
in all the glory of a civilisation nobler than any the 
world has yet seen. To prepare the way for the coming 
on of such a civilisation is a mission greater than any 
we can yet conceive. To cast out the impediments oh 
the way, to give the coup to the recrudescence from time 
to time of non-Vedic religious ideals of all kinds, to 
guard the rich treasure of all Vedic ideals from baser 
admixture, to sternly smite the foes of superstition, 
credulity and legerdemain, to gain material prosperity 
and political freedom by co-operating with our rulers 
in every effort for strengthening the fibres of Indian 
civilisation and unity these are the duties which lie 
before us now and for a long time to come. The mighty 
personality and glowing inspiration of Sri Kamanuja- 
charya and, I will add, of Sri Sankaracharya and other 
great Indian teachers with Bhagavan Badarayana shining 
at their head in all the unspeakable effulgence of his 
matchless glory these alone can endow us with the 
strength, the persistency, and the endurance needed 
for carrying out all the work that lies before us and those 
who are to come after us. History and literature combine 
to place beyond a doubt that, as a people, we love truth, 
reason, justice and virtue. We must never allow true 
faith, true reason, or true virtue to be overpowered by 
the impulses or attractions of the moment and never 
desert the old tricolor flag of Indian purity, Indian piety 
and Indian sanity. The solid work of generations has to 


be intelligently ' co-ordinated and ' concentrated on ! the 
great aim of national revival. The rebuilding of> the 
national temple is not, in my view, yet begun. " It is only 
beginning, and a great army of workers is preparing 'for 
field-work, for the work of pioneering and for the laying 
of foundations. Stone after stone has to be laid, and the 
e'ntire'plan of the great architect has to be carried out. 
There is no question that the work will be done, and that 
the workers of the present and the future will succeed in 
their great task of national reconstruction and of planting 
on the crown of the edifice, when it is completed,' the 
eternal banner of Indian righteousness and. Indian 
spirituality. For there is ever marching at their head the 
eternal standard-bearer of our eternal Aryan nationality. 
Hisjs the name, his the influence, his the light and 
leading which have been our strength, our bulwark, and 
our Inspiration. He shone sweetly and gloriously once on 
the Indian firmament some thousands of years ago. His 
is still the highest, the holiest and the most captivating 
of all the influences that bind us to our past and our 
future. The day of glory will again assuredly dawn on 
this land when the adored of the G-opis and the Rishi- 
Patnis will again march forth at the head of His chosen 
people as the eternal 'standard-bearer and leader of their 
holy mission on earth. That will once again .be true 
which Sri Suka-deva sang of the Lord in His own 
blessed time, 


sT : i 

cs o o. 




The Chairman's Speech. 

AY the conclusion of tte lecture Mr. CJhakravarthi 
Delivered the following speech :. 

The- function which, we are 'Celebrating here this 
evening is, as 'you all know, a. two-fold one; In the first 
place we are celebrating, the anniversary of the birih of 
Lord Barnaimja one of tbe^greatesfc of spiritual teachers 
and -religious reformers ; which the world has ever 
produce^. -In -the: second place we are celebrating' the 
origin of some works which shew how the spirit of Lord 
Barrianuj a nds, practical expression through some of his 
followers even to the present day-^I;ret'er to the Srinivasa 
Mah f diram and the other institutions, which have clus- 
tered round it. These other institutions, as most of you 
may be aware, consist .of an-. Orphanage, a Library with 
a Beading Boom and a Ladies^ Section^; < and < they all 
owe their origin; and continued existence, it -must be 
admitted, in the ;face;of great indifference on; the part of 
some of ;us to the indefatigable Jabours a:ncl: afldomitable 
energy ;of our worthy citizen and esteemed;frieni ? Mi 1 . A. 
Gopalacharlu. , ; ..*.... i. . . ; .1 ^ 

Appropriateness of the Celebration. 

' . i ; . ' . ' . * ~j 

These institutions, .it has been a source of great 

pleasure, to me to, observe,, are gradually making their 

influence felt on the social, intellectual and spiritual life 

of both the^ale and: female sections of the enlightened 

.community of Bangalore.. And a.s the months roll: by 

and the, time for, ^elebraling this anniversary comes 

.round, v we look, forward to it as. one, of the well established 

,and ; one .of, the most delightful events in what may. be 


described as the socio-spiritual programme of this City. 
Indeed, Ladies and Gentlemen, to my mind there is a 
striking significance and a most- peculiar appropriateness 
in our celebrating the birth of Lord Bamanuja at this 
time of the year within the Province of Mysore. For it 
is at this season that, after a series of dry and rainless 
months, we at last begin to get these cool and blissful 
showers which change the very face of nature and make 
everything round us so fresh and full of life, so happy 
and serenely beautiful. And who does not know that 
the advent of Lord Kamanuja in the spiritual world, 
witk his glorious message -of 'Bha-kti for the . Supreme 
Be%g and love for all, converteo 1 thousands of hearts 
from 'dry and barren waste into regions full of the finest 
flowers of bliss and ecstatic devotion ? . 

Successful Anniversaries in the Past. 

The endeavours of our esteemed friend Mr, A. 
Gop.alacharlu to make these annual gatherings as interest- 
ing and as instructive as possible to the educated com- 
munities of this City have, in my humble opinion, proved 
eminently successful. Year before last, as most of you 
may remember, we listened on the occasion of this anni- 
versary to a very deep and thoughtful address on the 
origin and progress of Vaishnavism from one of the most 
erudite scholars of the Madras Presidency. Last year, 
w'e had the exceptionally good fortune of welcoming as 
the lecturer at this anniversary, no less a personage than 
that great and gifted lady whose beneficent influence is 
destined to remain as an abiding landmark in the history 
of the intellectual and spiritual regeneration of this coun- 
try. And this year, I feel that I am voicing the feelings 
of everyone in this large and representative gathering 
when I say that we are no less fortunate in having ; as 


our lecturer my esteemed and learned friend Prof. K 
Sundararama Iyer of Kuinbakonam. We have all just 
listened with rapt attention to his eloquent and im- 
pressive address on "The Place of Baroanuja in the 
Story of India." Ladies and gentlemen, I do not exactly 
know with what feelings you have been listening to that 
excellent and admirable address. As for myself, the 
loud and prolonged cheering which you raised as he 
resumed his seat at the conclusion of his address seemed 
to rouse me rather roughly from a sweet and beautiful 
dream a dream in the course of which I was following a 
white and spotless angel into the higher and higher 
regions of a pure and fragrant atmosphere under the 
transparent dome of the deep blue infinite sky ! 

Spiritual Influence of Ramanuja. 

Yes, my friends, I make no attempt to conceal the 
fact that I was carried away. For who is not carried 
away when he hears so ably and so eloquently explained 
any phase whatsoever of a character so great and glorious 
as that of Lord Bamanuja Bamanuja the expounder of 
the Bisishtadwaita system of Philosophy, Bamanuja, the 
reconciler of the diverging "Vedic texts, Bamanuja the 
blessed harbinger of the message of bhakti and love, 
Bamanuja the purest of the pure, Bamanuja of the 
broadest and the deepest sympathies which made his 
heart go forth in sympathy to the fallen and untouchable 
Panchamas. Indeed, gentlemen, when I come to think 
of all the incidents of that great and divine career, I 
cannot help feeling that even if it were for this one figure 
alone, the land in which he has lived and taught would 
command the highest respect and admiration of all the 
nations of the world. But the glory of Bamanuja is not 

diminished but rather enhanced by the fact that he is not 


a solitary star that has adorned our firmament he is not 
the only teacher who has gone forth, torch in hand, to 
the teeming millions of this country. Sree Sanka- 
racharya, Sree Madhwaeharya, Sree Chaitanya Deva and 
a number of other ardent and remarkable teachers have 
enriched the spiritual life of the country throughout the 
middle ages. In modern limes, the number of our great 
spiritual teachers have undoubtedly fallen off; but the 
appearance of men like Bam Mohan Boy and Keshab 
Chandra Sen, like the divine Eamakrishna Paramahamsa 
and his gifted disciple the great Swami Vivekananda prove 
to the world that the spiritual life of India is not yet 
doomed to destruction, and that amidst the sin and 
confusion of a period of intellectual transition, there is 
sufficient spirituality left in the country to resist success- 
fully the apparently irresistible advance of the roaring 
tide of materialism. 

Vitality of Hinduism. 

Herein lies the secret of the amazing vitality of 
Hinduism herein the explanation of why Hindu Beligionj 
Hindu Civilization and Hindu Society in their intimate 
and indissoluble union have surmounted so many diffi- 
culties and survived through so many vicissitudes. 
It is the vitalizing influence of, great spiritual teachers 
of the stamp of Bamanuja who have arisen in India 
from time to time that has made it possible for 
Hinduism to live with so little essential change through 
so many long centuries of violent strain and stress. 
Where are to-day the ancient civilizations of Egypt 
and Assyria of Persia, of Greece, of Borne? .They 
all had their day, they had their origin and the 
period of their glory ; but they -have now for ever dis- 
appeared from the scene of their actions for ever made. 


their exit from the theatre of the world wherein they 
played their part. It is the grand fabric of Hinduism 
alone which has defied the destroying hand of time, 
which has lived essentially intact through all ages. And 
I repeat that it is, the influence of the great spiritual 
teachers of India amongst whom Lord Kamanuja stands 
in the very foremost rank which has made possible this 
unique phenomenon in the whole range of history. 

Mission of Ramanuja. 

This, as the lecturer has so well demonstrated to us, 
is the correct method of realizing the mission of the 
great spiritual teachers of India viz.., the imparting of a 
fresh and life-giving current into the arteries of Hinduism 
as a whole, and through it into the arteries of the 
spiritual fabric of the whole of the human race. You 
cannot realize what Kamanuja did for India and for 
Hinduism by simply counting the number of his im- 
mediate followers ; you cannot realize what Eamanuja 
did for mankind and for the whole world by simply 
counting the number of fore-heads which to-day bear 
the distinguishing mark of his sect. No one will deny 
that the followers of Eamanuja constitute in them- 
selves a .very great sect and count amongst their 
number some of the most remarkable Indians : in 
every walk of life. But what I mean to say is that you 
can never fully appreciate a character so great and so 
glorious as that of Lord Kamanuja if you look at it 
merely from the narrow- stand-point of sect. There may 
be indeed thousands and tens of thousands who have 
derived spiritual light and spiritual solace by being con- 
verted to the doctrines of Kamanuja. But who will 
count the millions and tens of millions who from without 

narrow sectarian enclosure have come consciously or 


unconsciously under the influnce of his divine character 
and derived hope and strength in the battle of. life from 
his sublime and inspired teachings ? 

Physical Illustration. 

In common conversation we frequently speak of the 
magnetic influence of a great personality, and let us con- 
sider for a moment what, actually happens in the physical 
world when we deal with a large powerful magnet. Most 
of you may have been inside a physical laboratory and 
may have watched students of physics at work at their 
tables ; and you must have observed how, when a powerful 
magnet starts into existence and begins to exercise its 
force within its field/it is impossible to prevent a number 
of filings in the immediate vicinity from rushing to the 
pole and forming a cluster round it. But we shall be far 
indeed from correctly realizing the full influence of the 
magnet if we confine onr vision to the cluster round the 
pole alone. Cast your eyes into other parts of the field 
and you will find how, even in the remotest corners, 
inertness has given place to life, disorder to order, chaos 
and confusion to beauty and symmetry of form. Those 
who have seen this simple physical experiment will not 
have the least difficulty in understanding how the influ- 
ence of a great character like Ramanuja is bound to be 
felt far and wide far indeed beyond the narrow circle of 
his orthodox and immediate followers. 

Historical View of Sectarianism. 

I have ventured to place before you this simple 
physical illustration because there are some amongst us 
who never cease to deplore the multiplicity of religious 
sects in India. These estimable gentlemen are inclined 
to ascribe nearly all the evils which can be found any- 
where in the country to this multiplicity of religious 


sects. To my mind they take a rather narrow view of 
things and apparently forget that every sect which we 
now see in the country is only the cluster round the pole 
of a powerful magnet whose general influence for good 
is discernable far and wide, throughout the entire length 
and breadth of the country. Now, ladies and gentlemen, 
I am no advocate of sectarianism specially of sec- 
tarianism as it is sometimes preached and practised at 
the present day. But I do think, that those critics who 
ascribe nearly all the evils under the sun to sectarianism 
really go a little too far; and I cannot also help feeling 
that those who hope that the millennium may soon come, 
when sectarianism will disappear from the face of the 
earth really run after the line bounding the earth and the : 
sky which, as the poet says, allures from far but flies as 
we follow it. For my part I am content to take human 
nature as it is and it is likely to remain ; and I rather like 
to rejoice in the fact that the difference between man and 
man is not a thousandth part of the difference that may 
have existed and that sectarianism is not a millionth part 
of the evil it might have been. 

A Mathematical Calculation. 

To illustrate the meaning of what I have just now 
said I will place before you a simple mathematical calcu- 
lation. The population of the world, including men, 
women and children, according to the latest calculations, 
is somewhere between 1^800 and 1,900 millions. To be 
on the safe side and for facility of calculation we may 
take the number roundly at say 2,000 millions. Now 
suppose we print slips of paper with 31 questions relating 
to articles of faith or religious belief, the answer to each 
question being a simple ' yes ' or 'no.' And suppose also 


that we hand over to each inhabitant of the globe, with- 
out distinction of .creed, colour, caste or age or sex, one of 
these slips with a request to fill up the answers according 
to the faith and religious belief of the holder. Incredible 
as it may seem 1 at first sight it is a matter of simple 
calculation to prove that it would be possible for each 
man, woman or child 'to fill up the form in a different 
and distinctive way In other words, even if the points 
of faith or belief on which a man might differ from 
another were not more than 31 in number, it Would be 
possible for each inhabitant of the globe each separate 
member of a family to constitute a sect by himself. 
When to this you add the consideration that the number 
of points on which difference is possible really far greater 
than 31 which do you think is the point to be wondered 
at, vis., that the number of sects in the world is so 
large, or that the number is so little ? 

Evils of Sectarianism. 

Whatever evils may be said to belong to sectari- 
anism do not, in my humble opinion, appertain to the 
essence of it, viz., the honest difference of opinion between 
man and man on points of faith or religious belief. The 
whole evil lies in the unreasonable bias, impatient into- 
lerance and unworthy bigotry which people allow in 
course of time to grow round themselves and their sects. 
It is the duty of every right-thinking man to free himself 
and his sect from such base and selfish feelings. If such 
unworthy feelings should cease to exist, we would at once 
see that it is as absurd to quarrel with a neighbour for 
difference in religious faith as it would be absurd to 
quarrel with him for difference in physical features. If 
such feelings of unreasonable bias and intolerance should 
give place, to feelings of tolerance and mutual respect, 


then the shackles which blind prejudice has forged round 
us in course of time in the name of faith and religion 
will gradually lose their grip and ultimately fall off, and 
leave a brother free again to help and uplift a brother. 
And if these feelings of tolerance and mutual respect 
should develop into feelings of warm, sympathy and deep 
brotherly love, then there would be nothing to prevent 
the various sects in India from proceeding peacefully 
along the path of progress to the highest pinnacle of 
success and prosperity and renown. 


Let us all on the occasion of this blessed anniversary 
make up our mind to shake off all narrowness and pre- 
judice and strive for the attainment of that desirable goal. 
And let us all, standing at the feet of Lord Bamanuja, 
with hearts beating in unison, pray to Him and to His 
adored Banganatha that our efforts may be crowned with 
success and that their choicest blessings may descend on 
our own souls, on the institutions under the auspices 
of which we are gathered together this evening, on our 
beloved mother country, and on the whole of humanity 
and the whole of creation at large. 

Then with a hearty vote of thanks to the Lecturer 
and the Chairman the proceedings terminated with three 
lusty cheers to His Majesty the King-Emperor, His 
Highness the Maharaja, and His Highness the Yuvaraj 
of Mysore. Meanwhile Mr. Gopalacharlu garlanded some 
of the leading gentlemen that were seated on the platform. 


How others estimate the Mandiram Work. 

AMONG the local Indian charities the Srinivasa 
Mandiram has ever held a prominent place. To the new 

m , . . comer it may be well to recall the 

The Srinivasa . J 

Mandiram and objects of the institution. They are the 
Charities. , , f ,, -^ ,. . .... 

study oi comparative Eehgion, and the 
conduct of certain forms of worship. Their Orphanage 
supports 16 destitute Hindu children, and it has a free 
Reading Room and Library. A Woman's Section has 
been organized to aid the development of the moral and 
mental qualities of the sex. The Government of Mysore 
gives a small grant supplemented by a Palace allowance 
for the maintenance of the first department of this 
institution; the second department (i.e., the Orphanage) 
receives a grant of Rs, 600 -a year. Notwithstanding 
these grants, both these departments have to depend 
largely upon public support. The third department, 
namely, the Library and Reading Room, gets a combined 
Government and Municipal grant of Rs. 600 a year. 
The Government of India supply it with their publica- 
tions from time to tira^,. The Woman's department is 
maintained by means of, 'subscriptions and donations. 
The Report for the last ye!^r has just reached us and is 
very insistent on the brotherhood of man, doubtless due to 
the Theosophist element of it| ckaracter, and the fact that 
Mrs. Besant presided on the Anniversary Day. Among 
the losses recorded of friends g^ad supporters, the report 
states : " We had to lament th& death of Rao Bahadur 
A. Maigundadeva Mudaliar, one %f our best supporters. 
It was quite accidental that we w^re in Mysore when 
this sad event occurred : and we h^d the consolation of 
paying our last respects to the decoded. We hope the 
Mandiram will fare well with Messr$. Sundaramurthi 

and Thangavelu Mudaliars, the worthy successors of the 



good Arcot Family. We also mourn the loss of Bao 
Bahadur Gubbi Thotadappa. Eegretting the circum- 
stances under which Captain Dawes, the late Officiating 
Chief Engineer lost his life, the Ladies held a particular 
meeting to express their sympathy, and added their 
quota to his Memorial Fund. The children of the 
Orphanage have one great advantage over many local 
institutions of a similar description. The boys receive 
a training in carpentry, and cane work, in addition to 
General Education and Mr. B. Srinivasalu Naidu, the 
Honorary Manager of Doddannah's Free School, deserves 
the praise he receives for this most exemplary effort. 
Were all the Orphanages to adopt the same principle, 
we should see less loafers about this Station. H. H. the 
Dowager Maharani, c.i., and H. H. the Yuvaragni were 
visited by a deputation from the Ladies' section of the 
Society. In the matter of finance, the institution has 
done better this year. This is due to the special donation 
of H. H. the Maharaja of Es. 100, Es. 55 paid by Mr. T. 
Ananda Eao, C.I.E., in a lump sum instead of a single 
rupee payment which he was making every week, and 
Es. 30 kindly contributed by Mr. M, Visvesvaraya, B.A , 
L.C.E., M.I.C.B., Chief Engineer of Mysore. The Society 
is glad to add this gentleman's name to those of the 
friends of the Mandiram. Shortly the Mandiram enters 
its 28th year. The customar}- Services and the Birthday 
Ceremonies of Sri Eamanujacharya, will be celebrated 
for ten days, commencing from the 23rd of April 1911. 
Professor K. Sundararama Aiyar, Esq., M.A., of Kumba- 
konam, has consented to deliver the annual address. 
Patrons, Friends and Sympathisers are requested to 
make the event a success by their help. The function 
has become an important, and growing feature of every 
year, and with so many note-worthy objects the Society 


deserves the support of every Hindu, and the Manager 
Mr. A. Gopalacharlu appeals for gifts of old or new clothing 
for distribution among the orphans of the Mandiram, 
and other needy persons ; and gifts of books, &c., to the 
Library and Beading Room. As Mrs. Besant said in 
her Presidential address, the public should give "that 
sympathy and help both pecuniary and moral which an 
Institution like the Srinivasa Mandiram has a right to 
expect from a public so intelligent and so wealthy as 
that of Bangalore, and Mysore," Especially true is this 
as it is an institution that attempts to keep alive 
the best traditions of the past, and link them to the 
methods of the present day, and the speaker concluded 
with the words "Let it not be said of the State of 
Mysore and the Town of Bangalore, that when there 
is a good thing in its midst, it is allowed to starve; if 
it is allowed to perish and then re-built, much labour 
and difficulty will be required, to do that which, com- 
paratively easily, might have been carried to success by a 
little timely and united effort." It is satisfactory to learn 
that the State has sanctioned a sum of Rs. 5,000, provided 
the Institution can find an equal amount, to have a solid 
structure for the accommodation of Orphans. So far the 
Mandiram has not been able to benefit by this grant, as 
it has not been able to raise the requisite Rs. 5,000, but 
we hope ere long the work will be found feasible. If the 
vast number of Hindus in this City have any regard for 
the traditions of their ancient faith, and any regard for 
its maintenance among the younger generation growing 
up with all the distractions that modern civilization gives 
to their religious life, they would decrease the growing 
stream of atheism among their young men, who with 
shattered faith in their own creed, are still outside any 
otiher ? We< would most earnestly ask for the pecuniary 


help this hardworking Society achieves in a cause that 
should be dear to the heart of every co-religionist. 
Rs. 5,000 is not a large sum and that the Mandiram 
should have had to wait and ask so often for this money 
is a slur on the traditional charity of the followers of one 
of the world's most ancient creeds that has chosen Uni- 
versal love as one of its watch words. The Daily Post, 
dated April 6th 1911. 

The Sp'mivasa Mandiram. 

Yesterday evening, at the Doddanna Hall, Bangalore 
City, the members of the Srinivasa Mandiram celebrated 
the anniversary of Sri Ramanuja. A large audience 
thronged the Hall, and there were present on the dais 
Messrs. V. P. Madhava Eao, C.I.E., K. P. Puttanna 
Chetty, H. V. Nanjundiah, Ingram Cotton, F. J. Richards, 
Sundaramurthi Moodeliar, Kumarasawmy Naik, C. Srini- 
vasa lyengar, Sir P. N. Krishna Murthi, K C.I.E., and 
many others. 

Mr. J. S. Chakravarthi, M.A., F.R.A.S., presided and 
after a Sanskrit prayer and hymn, the Chairman called 
upon Mr. Gopala Charlu, Secretary of the Mandiram, 
to read the Report; This was prefaced by the Chairman 
announcing that the Yuvaraj of Mysore had written 
expressing his regret at not being able to be present 
owing to his engagements at Ootacamund, but expressing 
his keen sympathy in the work of the Society, which he 
wished to testify to by becoming a member of the Mandi- 
ram, and of contributing a donation to the Society. 

Mr. GOPALACHARLU then read the Report of the 
year's work, and this was followed by the Chairman 
introducing Professor K. Sundararama Iyer, M.A., of 
Kunibakonam, to the audience, 


: In doing so, Mr. Chakravarthi said that such an 
introduction was hardly necessary, for he was sure that 
the gifted lecturer was well known to everybody present 
through his numerous published articles on Hindu 
philosophy which were considered masterpieces on the 
subjects treated. He was sure that eveybody would 
derive pleasure and instruction from the lecture they were 
about to hear. 

Mr. SUNDARARAMA IYER delivered a very lengthy and 
masterly discourse on " The Place of Sri Kamanuja in 
the Story of India." The lecturer began by referring to the 
decline of Hinduism in India on the rise of Buddhism, and 
then, step by step, alluded to the causes that led to the 
revival of Hinduism and the retrogression of Buddhism. 
The revivalists, he said, were Sri Sankara Chariar, Sri 
Raman uja Chariar and other bright and shining lights of 
Hindu schools of philosophy which had ultimately led to 
the present-day form of what might be called the Pro- 
testant Hindu school of thought. ; 

! ,. 

The lecturer had spoken for an hour and a half and 
had not approached the real subject of his lecture, viz., 
the place of Sri Ramanuja in the Story of India, when it 
threatened to rain heavily and many people hurried away. 
I am informed this morning that the lecturer spoke till 
nearly 9-30 P.M.,, when the Chairman closed the Meeting 
with a few words of thanks to Mr. Sundararama Iyer for 
his able discourse. The Madras Mail, dated May 6th 


MYSORE, . .: 

D. 0. No. 399 with one-C. Note for Rs. 50. 


I am directed to acknowledge with thanks the 
receipt of your letter of the 4th instant as well as the 
reports and pamphlets sent. 

The anniversary of the Srinivasa Mandirarn, you say, 
will have to be held either on the 3rd or on the 4th May. 
But the beginning of May in Qoty is so full of social 
functions and engagements that it will not be without 
inconvenience His Highness the Yuvaraja can make a 
hurried trip to Bangalore. His Highness will however 
be very glad to assist you on any other function con- 
nected with the Mandiram during the course of the year, 
say in July or August. On occasions like the prize distri- 
bution to the Orphans or Laying the Foundation Stone 
of the Orphanage you intend building, will be more 
acceptable to His Highness. 

His Highness is in genuine sympathies with the 
activities of your Mandiram and has read with keen 
interest the record of progress that you have recently 
sent him. He regrets very much that, owing to the 
inconvenience of the date clashing with the events in 
Ooty, he is unable to show his real interest in a practical 

His Highness would like to be enrolled as an annual 
subscriber to the Mandiram and accordingly I am, 


directed to forward herewith a currency note for Rs. 50/- as 
his subscription for the current year. He further desires 
to pay a donation towards the new building in contem- 
plation for the Orphans, and he is very pleased to find 
that you have received a liberal support from the Govern- 
ment in this direction. His Highness hopes that you 
may before long be able to actually start th'5 building. 

Yours sincerely, 

Special Officer on ditty with the Yuvaraja, 
of My sore,. My sore. ; s -v^ 


We have also received the 'J7th Annual Report of 
the Srinivasa Mandiram and Charities together with an 
address by Mrs. Besant on the "Ancient Indian Ideal of 
Duty " delivered on the occasion of the anniversary. To 
say anything more about the address would be like 
"gilding refined gold." The institution is doing good 
work and deserves support. Theosophy in India, July 
15th 1911. 

BANGALORE, 9-5-11. 

In assenting to Mr. Gopala Charlu's request that I 
should record my opinion about the Srinivasa Mandiram, 
I wish to say that I had long heard of it and now feel 
much impressed by what I have seen of the temple, 
library, and reading room, and especially of the orphans 

who are' brought up in the Mandiram. A building' to serve 
as a separate asylum to the orphans is now a necessity. 
The orphanage is; certainly a blessing to Bangalore. Our 
frequent famines and chronic poverty make it our impera- 
tive duty in India to do all we can to bring up destitute 
orphans, For want of orphanages like this unprotected 
Hindu babes and children have' often to pass, or even to be 
handed over to the Missionaries of proselytising faiths. 
Such a course has, I know, often had to be taken by Hindus 
themselves. This is very unfortunate, and, I must add, 
discreditable to the Hindu community. If the Charitable 
work of the 'Maficliram is fully developed, it will be of 
much use in averting the disaster of -conversion which 
best& neglected Orphans in this Country. Being myself 
a poor man, I can only give a small donation for the 
proposed building ; viz. 100 (one hundred) Rupees ; to 
be paid in 4 quarterly instalments of Es. 25, of which I 
am paying the first one to-day. 


" 9-5-1911. 

Higk'inbothaiu & Co., Madras and Bangalore. 




The objects of this Institution are as follows: 

1. Under the first branch known as the Srinivasa- 
Mandiram come, (a) the study of Comparative Eeligion 
and Philosophy and thereby the acquisition of a rational 
knowledge of God, His attributes and His relation to 
Man and the Universe ; (b) the practical conduct of the 
worship of God in the Mandiram : 

2. Under the second branch known as the Srtnivasa- 
Mandiram Orphanage come, feeding, clothing and the 
education of destitute orphan Hindu children : 

3. Under the third branch known as the Srlnivasa- 
Mandiram Free Beading Boom and Library, which is 
also called the Oriental and Mixed Library, the object is 

(a) to make a large collection of valuable books in 
general and of oriental books in particular : 

(6) to enable people to understand the harmony of 
religions ; 

(c) to organise the delivery of lectures on scientific, 

philosophical, historical, religious, social and 
moral subjects and to invite discussions on 
those subjects from the members of the 
Institution : 

(d) to issue tracts for the diffusion of useful know- 


(e) (a) to endeavour to promote the brotherhood of 

man and, (b) to encourage the right of private 
judgment in all matters, and especially in 
matters of religion : 


4. The fourth branch is the newly opened (1907) 
Ladies' Section. This is intended to help on the develop- 
ment of the moral and mental qualities of our women, 
and to promote the feeling of sisterhood among them, by 
making all the advantages of the Mandiram Beading 
Boom and Library available for them also. 


The Government of Mysore gives a small grant 
supplemented by a Palace allowance for the mainten- 
ance of the first department of this institution ; the 
second department (i.e.., the orphanage) receives a grant 
of Bs. 600 a year. Notwithstanding these grants, both 
these departments have to depend largely upon public 
support. The third department, namely, the Library 
and Reading Boom, gets a combined Government and 
Municipal grant of Bs. 600 a year. The government of 
India supply it with their publications from time to time. 
The fourth department is maintained by means of 
subscriptions and donations. 

HiaaiNBOTHftU i CO.