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iograph;y of God
AS MEN HAVE TOLD IT
An Anthropological Sketch
QUERY TO LATEST
DUREN J. H. WARD
UP THE DIVIDE PUBLISHING CO.
C\ s' ' " . ' . .
V, 958 Acoma St., Denver, Colo.
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Early Progress Compelled, Not Planned 5
Origin of Religion 7
Primitive Religions 8
Stone and Rock Worship 12
Tree Worship 14
Serpent Worship 16
Water Worship 17
Worship of the Heavens and of Heavenly Objects 18
Moral Education thru Religion 20
Value of Nature Worship 23
Influence of the Gods on Conduct 24
Forms and Creeds , 25
Origin of Priesthood and Church 27
Mutu4l Influence of Church and State 31
Medical, Legal and Pedagogical Differentiation 33
Character and Its Basis 35
The Changing Content of Religion 37
Anthropomorphism , 39
Social Reflexes on Primitive Theology 40
God Today The New Monism 43
Finding The Real God at Last 45
Peschel, The Races of Men.
Tylor, Primitive Culture, 2 vols.
Spencer, Ecclesiastical Institutions.
Romanes, Mental Evolution in Man.
Reed, Winwood, Martyrdom of Man.
Frazier, The Golden Bough.
Klaatsch, Evolution and Human Progress,
Robinson, Mind in the Making.
Soddy, Matter, Motion and Energy.
Thomson, What is Man?
The idea of God is perhaps man's largest generalization. It
is learned by each very early. It is made the basis for other
thought. Around it is built the world-outlook of every individual.
It is not an instinct. It is learned. Each specific kind of god-idea
is passed on by tradition in each nation or race. It is a matter of
upper brain function. Instincts being earlier, probably function
from the earlier or mid-brain. Religion grows sacred by unques-
tioned belief. It slowly falls into narrowness and greater error be-
cause the problem is so great and so dangerous.
Moreover, religions differ. Instincts are the same. Religions
can be changed. Gods can be dethroned. New gods can be ea-
throned. But, like political revolutions, these are serious under-
takings. Yet all intelligent and unvested people now know that
development can take place and must, or the social order will
But many people are yet living who believe and assert that
there arq no new realms of truth. They insist on being left un-
disturbed. They are bitter against the Columbuses for revealing ~~
new continents. They despise the Edisons for turning on electric ~
lights. They are more comfortable under the blinking of tallow
candles.' They make much noise about being "loyal to the fathers"
and being "safe and sane." -They berate the thinkers who strive
for progress. They forever reassure humanity that they alone
possess reliability, and that to strive for change is not respectable.
And yet, strange to say, they die and are forgotten. No one re-
members who were the persecutors of Socrates or Jesus or Gali-
lee. And soon no one will be able to recall the maligners of
Darwin and Spencer and Haeckel and Lester Ward. Later gen- ,
erations remember with heroic devotion those who have enlarged j
And so it is in the matter of god-making. A great change is
coming. The historical gods were what unenlightened imagina-
tions made them nothing more, nothing less. They were charac-
ters in fiction, made to play parts they did not fit. They were
never facts in history. Not one of them ever came near repre-
senting reality. They were always abstractions, paralleling hu-
man growth and interests, separate from human life, objectified and
raised ever higher and higher above the world. At first, they
always meant ideals and better character to the people whose
imagination created them. Later they always degenerated and
became weak, wicked or indifferent after taking on the character of
a commercialized hierarchy and an exploiting aristocracy. Thus
they became useless as inspirers of life, and then new prophets
and reformers arose to be jeered at for a time, and to become
triumphant authority later.
There was always present, in and around, before and behind,
above and below the simple blindness of fore-time peoples, that
GrQat All-Might, that Eternal Entity, that Omnipresent Cause,
that Only Reality, which in almost no way corresponded to their
primitive guesses and musings. Before the nineteenth century, not
one in a hundred million ever glimpsed this Sole Actual God
now revealed by Science.
Thus men have averaged very poor-godmakers. They knew
but little history and did not live long enough to see how in-
competent their deities turned out. Like children with empty-
faced dolls, they hugged them long after the first flush of fitness.
In all those dreary ignorant centuries, the modeling and pictur-
ing of a Power they had never more than glimpsed (and always
misinterpreted) could have had but one outcome, viz.,, that each
modeler (each would-be theologian) made his god in his own
image. He then enlarged this imagined being, claimed him invis-
ible to others, and complimented him as. being the creator of the
Surely it is 1 time for a more religious treatment of this cen-
tral religious theme. Twentieth century people should be beyond
being peeved at. what Science is "taking away from them." There
was little or nothing to take 'away. Science fills an empty place.
It points out the counterfeit we have been doting on. All honest
thoughtful people will be grateful for this amazing discovery.
Science has found both God and the Universe. The Ancients
never more than guessed either. Science 'for the first time makes
us understanding!}' conscious of Infinite Spiritual Presence.
-D. J. H. W,
Where Men Have Seen God
From Earliest to Latest Times I
Early Progress Compelled Not Planned
The present age surveys space and time from the
plateau of "Evolution." It is accustomed to look down
from its giddy height with a feeling of self-pride at the
contrast between its condition and that of the low stages
when first it recognizes the creature man. It congratu-
lates itself all too willingly over the great work that it
has accomplished. But the more the work of ethnological
and archaeological investigation proceeds, the more our
scientific inquiries throw off the dark veil from those
primitive times, the more are we coming to see the work-
ings of Nature upon the development of life, the influence
of man's environment in driving him out on and up. Es-
pecially must we regard the man's initiative factor as but
little active in early times, or, better, as not yet having
reached a state of activity in those early stages of human
career. As in the pre-human life, so here, the surround-
ings molded the man as first and chiefly, for many ages.
Now, the higher men mold the surroundings to a very
considerable extent. From the first, the subjective power
was an increasing quantity, tho practically beginning at
zero. Not reasoning and philosophical reflections, but
outward necessities drove man into social relationships and
bonds with his kin, as over against the rest of animate
existence. And the external compulsion of this social
relation compelled him to communicate, to learn to speak
with his fellows in their common struggle for life. Neces-
sity, especially in all the earlier period, became the mother
of his inventions, and thus developed his intellect for him.
He had neither the wish nor the capacity to think till Na-
ture drove him to it. It put in him the unsuppressible
impulse to live, and it made the conditions so difficult that
he must go forward in order to live. Not his own volun-
tary conclusions and considerations at first, but the straits
into which Nature put him, called forth the development
of his meagre capacities. He was brought face to face
with necessities on the solution of which his life Was con-
ditioned. And thus there was more and more awakened
the consciousness of his condition. He was ever com-
pelled ' to exercise what powers he had, while he ever
reaped a reward in the form of an extension of life and
an increase of capacity.
Nor may we make any exception in the case of his
religious nature. If we understand evolution we must
be consistent and say that when he had reached a suffi-
ciently intelligent stage to have these attitudes, environ-
ment was again active in driving him into the consequences
and activities which these imply. It is the entrance upon
these, together with language, that marks the completion
of the transition from the merely animal to human life.
Mr. Darwin especially, and others also, have shown that
man does not monopolize the moral realm. The family,
and to some degree the social relation, exist among var-
ious animal species. But with man the strengthening- of
the social bond brought the means for its extension, viz.,
Origin of Religion.
Again, the further awakening of his powers of obser-
vation and thought revealed to him the world in which
he had been living and stirred his simple reflection into
exercise concerning its deeper and underlying realities.
In other words, it set him over against his environment, in
its parts or its wholeness, in what we now term the re-
Just what may have been the first occasions of this
new mental condition, is perhaps beyond our powers of
It may have been the benignant activities of Nature
which stirred his thought about it.
It may have been the raging fury of the elements
threatening him with destruction and death which made
him suspect that there were personal malevolent powers
whom we must try to appease in any and all possible ways.
It may have been the phenomenon of death itself tak-
ing hold upon his being and moving him to seek the favor
of the power which his imagination would naturally per-
sonify as its cause.
It may have been the animistic notion, maintained by
Herbert Spencer, Julius Lippert and others, that he strove
to propitiate and win over the double of the dead into
his favor, or at least to maintain its neutrality in his
further struggle for life.
Of it may have been the reverence for the leader of
the community in the personage of high and superior old
age, awakened by the demands upon him in his growing
social relationship, as held by Caspari.
Considering the feebleness of early man's reflective
reasoning, it is more probable that the first inciting force
was of a negating, destroying kind, since such motives
act with so much more weight on low grades of mind.
Be the first incentive or awakening what it may, there
can be no doubt to him who has made some acquaintance
with primitive minds, that the earlier instances of reflec-
tive life must have been very simple, and that there could
have been in the stupid, beastly wonderings, fears and
loves of these primitive human creatures very little ap-
proach to what we now call "the idea of God." Nor can
we' assume that they had any notion of a "soul" at their
entrance upon the religious life, unless we hold the theory
that it was thru the development of the soul-idea in
notions about sleep, dreams and death, that the religious
sentiment aro.se and became ancestor worship.
..-.- .Primitive Religions
'We are now ; able to see that an attempt to study the
religious sense broadly meets an antagonism in. our own
feelings. To the stuff that fills the savage mind we are
inclined to deny the name of religion at all. But we are
not to investigate with our feelings. As the later man grew
up from the earlier, so his religious thought had its par-
entage in the vague indefinite imaginings of those simple
children of the far away ages. And hence there is a com-
mon element in what we are bound to dignify as their
faith, It is certainly not conspicuous at first sight. The
religidns of the lower savage races differ so much from
ours that they appear to be quite the opposite in many
ways. Their gods are evil, not good; they are weak, not
strong even to a great extent under man's power; they
are not always even wise, much less omniscient; they de-
light in bloody sacrifices, often of human beings, rather
than in mercy; they often approve of vice, not virtue;
they are of Nature, not its creator; and they are mortal,
not immortal. We think we do best when we most submit
ourselves to the laws of Deity; they triumph only when
they evade or control their gods. We often gratefully
recount the blessings received; they believe that if the
good does not come of itself some evil being has interfered.
In the childhood of the race and in the childhood of
each individual there seems to be inherent the belief that
all Nature is animate, and that all have therefore the power
of sense perception in greater or less degree. The Borneo
Dyaks believe that not only animals but plants have a
mental nature. When plants decay they say, the soul has
left them. When the missionary Phillips irreverently
grumbled at the heat of a sultry day, a young Fuegian
anxiously warned him "not to call the sun hot, because it
would hide itself, and the wind would blow cold." (Aus-
land, 1861.) Lichtenstein tells a good story illustrating
this general belief. An anchor was found stranded off
the coast of South Africa. The chief of one of the Kaffir
tribes, Amachosa, ordered that a piece be broken off from
it. Not long afterwards, the man who did it died, and
thereafter the Kaffirs paid homage to the injured anchor
as having been the cause of the man's death. (Reisen in
S. Afr., 1811.) The simple people of New South Wales
think it is disagreeable to the rocks to have whistling in
their presence, and they tell the story of how some of their
people were killed by the falling of rocks when they
whistled near the foot of the precipice. It is also remark-
able that the Tonga Islanders regard all whistling as dis-
respectful to the .gods. In Kamtshatka, the Itelmes be-
lieved that the water wagtails were the authors of Spring,
because with their coming came the warmer season; and
they pay them a homage and worship due to their sup-
posed function. Captain Cook gave the Tahitians some
small nails. These they sowed in the hope of growing
young ones. They belived that "not only all animals, but
trees, fruits and even stones, have souls, which at death,
or upon being consumed or broken, ascend to the Divinity
with whom they first mix, and afterwards pass into the
mansions allotted to each." (Mariner's Tonga Islands,
11,137.) They sometimes broke or killed the implements
which they buried with the dead, that their spirits, like
those of the wives and slaves which were killed, might
accompany the spirit of their master to the land of shad-
ows. Burton tells of the Mohawk notion that one would
meet with great misfortune if he spoke on Lake Saratoga.
A strong-minded English woman who kept on talking
while being ferried over, taunted the boatman about his
superstition; but he replied, "the Great Spirit is merciful,
and knows that the white woman cannot hold her tongue."
(Abbeokuta, 1,198; quoted by Lubbock.)
These references to awe in the presence of the objects
of Nature are indeed remarkable characteristics of man in
primitive conditions. Various views are held by scholars
as to their origin. Oscar Peschel, the German ethnologist,
believed it to be "a craving- after the invisible author or
cause." "All religious emotion proceeds only from the
desire for acquaintance with the Creator, and the worship
of a deity is extinguished the instant that it ceases to
satisfy the requirements of causality." (Races of Men,
247, 257.) Professor C. C. Everett regarded it as an un-
clear sense of the supernatural which is always and every-
where natural to man. Professor Max Mueller held that
the ground of this, as of all religion, is in man's incentive
toward and yearning after the Infinite more or less
clearly defined. (Hibbert Lectures, 1878.) Still others
hold that it is a tendency traceable to dreams. Thru
these the savage comes to believe in a world of super-
natural existences and powers which he does not under-
stand and which he believes to exert a great influence
over his life.
It is not necessary for the purposes of this booklet to
consider which of these is true. In any event, the tendency
is serving the purpose of an education to the individual or
If one gives some attention to the. variety of objects
which have called out the veneration of man, he is likely
to be impressed with their indiscriminate character. An
object to be thus adored need have no more striking char-
acteristic than once to have called forth particular atten-
tion in some now forgotten manner. The tendency is
within man and it is brought out now by one and now by
another object and circumstance. To him who believes in
ghosts, there is a ghost in every corner. Any simple and
casual object may come to be regarded as a fetich. Stones,
weapons, vessels, plants, feathers, shells anything, may
come to mean the omen of good or evil to the simple child
of Nature. It may even come to be thought of as having
control over much of their lives. If they observe any sort
of coincidence between the object and a certain want or
result, in childlike reason they attribute the result to the
influence of the fetich. If the savage is successful in the
chase when a certain object has been carried with him, he
attributes his success to the charm of the thing, whatever
it may be. If reverse fortune attends his doings, this is
also the fault of the fetish. Under such circumstances,
he has at times not hesitated to punish it for supposed
obduracy in not granting his wishes when it had the
power to do so. If the Ostiak meets with misfortune, he
angrily thrusts his fetish on the ground and beats it, some-
. times breaking it in pieces . Rastus, said to be the last
of the pagan Lapps (somewhere about 1840), punished his
divine bauta stone by withholding his customary offering
of brandy. Soon after this two of his reindeer were
killed by lightning. This he took to be the work of the
angry fetish. , He spitefully gave to the stone the dead
bodies of the animals, exclaiming, "Take that thou hast
slain," and at once professed Christianity. (Related by
Peschel from Globus, Jan., 1873.)
Stone and Rock Worship
Large stones and rocks have been objects of worship
in all parts of the world. Meteorites must always have
been greatly reverenced where their nature and source were
not understood. Near Chicomoztoc (the seven caves) is
a huge meteor which was worshipped by the ancient Mexi-
cans as the son of the god and goddess Ometeuetli and
Everyone has heard of the celebrated "Black Stone"
at Mecca in Arabia, which the Mohammedans worship by
kissing. They say that it shone brightly at first, but soon,
turned black on account of the sins of mankind. We
should see a truth in this ! There is another sacred stone
built into the Mosque of Omar at Jerusalem. It is said
to be the one on which the Prophet was carried to Heaven,
and that it fell back to earth.
In Oregon there is a rock to which the Umpkwa
Indians make pilgrimages.
Ewald in his History of Israel holds the view that the
constant warfare waged by the Prophets against the wor-
ship of the "high places" probably refers to the tall
pointed stones which the people believed to be symbolical
of the Most High or the Most Holy. In all the early
Jewish worship, the use of stones in one way or another
was a conspicuous element. Jacob is said to have poured
oil upon the top of the stone at Bethel after he had used
it for his pillow. (Genesis xxviii, 18.)
Wherever the Celts made permanent abode in Europe,
we find their menhir, their trilithon, cromlechs, tumuli,
and circles of stone. One of these menhir at Carnac in
Brittany was 63 feet high and 14 feet in diameter. To
this class of objects of devotion belongs also the cele-
brated "blarney stone" of Blarney Castle, Ireland.
Within the space and period of Christendom, this sort
of reverence has been several times forbidden by authority
of Church and State. A council at Tours in A. D. 567
threatened excommunication against stone worshippers.
In England, Theodoric, archbishop of Canterbury in the
seventh century, King Edgar in the tenth and King Canute
in the eleventh, each issued similar interdicts.
This sort of worship is more sublime when it takes
for objects of adoration the crests of the mountains.
Olympus was the seat of the more noble epic divinities of
Greece. Sinai was the mountain of the Jewish legislation.
And the more rare such elevations are, the more highly
are they reverenced. On the heights of Serbais is a stone
circle within which the Bedouin Arabs do not enter with-
out first putting off their sandals. Other instances of this
type of extreme reverence Peschel says are found in "the
Shaman stone of the Mongolian Burats, a rock on the
peninsula of Olchon on lake Baikal, and the mountain of
Tyrma or Tirmak, on which the Guanches, the aborigines
of the Canary Islands, took their most solemn oaths and
from which enthusiasts voluntarily cast themselves as
Tree worship has probably been practised wherever
man has lived. There is something extremely impressive
in the stately forst. And this is greatly enhanced by the
action of sun, wind and storm. There is little wonder
then that the primitive mind found it an object of rever-
ence. More especially would this be the case where trees
are rare or where there has been connected with them some
circumstance of note. To the Ostiaks, a tree is sacred if
an eagle has made it a place of nesting during several
years. In middle Siberia, if a Samoyed finds a cedar in a
forest of firs or a clump of seven larches together, his
reverence is commanded. When Xerxes was marching to
Sardis in Lydia, he found a sacred plane tree, and there-
upon adorned it with gold and left a guardian over it. In
the groves of Mundakhol, a Dravidian tribe of Southern
India, not a single twig is allowed to be injured. Some of
the tribes in Africa offer oblations to the huge Adansonia,
or monkey bread trees. And this custom also exists in
Burmah. In a similar manner the Mexicans worship a
cypress, the western Colorado Indians an oak, the Red In-
dians of Lake Superior an ash, and the Patagonians the
solitary Wallitshu tree. Besides these, there may be named
the Classic instances of the Grove of Dodona, the Plane
Tree of Aulis mentioned by Homer (the remains of which
are said to have been seen by Pausanias), the Pepal and
the Indian Fig-tree revered by the Brahmins and Budd-
hists, the sacred Aspen of the Kirghiz, and the great
Ygdrasil or Ash of- Norse mythology.
The meaning of tree worship depends on the char-
acter of the offering. The early Arabs thought that cer-
tain trees were the abodes of the gods or were the gods
themselves, and therefore they hung their weapons upon
them. In the Mandingo country in Africa, Mungo Park
saw trees hung with rags and shreds by which the natives
hoped to avoid diseases, thus giving them to the trees.
This superstition also prevailed in Europe. If in any
way an. afflicted person could coiiyey a piece of his prop-
erty to a tree or to another person, he could thus rid him-
self of his malady. Bosman found that in New Guinea
the sacred groves and tree were more assiduously visited
in times of pestilence. Tylor tells us that in Southern
Europe young- girls often try to sell to travellers bouquets
which have come from the house of a sick person. I well
remember being often told in childhood not to pick up
flowers, fruit, pins, etc., which had been dropped by others,
since it was often done to give away some disease. This
was in Ontario, Canada. I am told that the same notion
prevailed in Germany.
These instances show that trees, like other gods, were
propitiated from their supposed benevolent and malevolent
The adoration of the snake has been more frequent
than that of any other animal. Doubtless the reason for
this is found in the peculiar mysterious character of the
creature. A certain wonder attaches to the serpent that is
not found among the rest of the animal creation. In India
it has given rise to a type of worship called "Naga re-
ligion." The fact that the word Naga is found in the
names of so many of the cities shows that this religion
has been widely practised, as for example, Nagapoor, Wid-
shanagara, Baghanagara, etc. And there is still a feast of
Nagapanshmi, at which the Brahmins publicly worship the
The serpent was a conspicuous actor in the drama of
early human affairs according to the Assyrio-Jewish
legend of the "Fall" of Adam. Later in Jewish history,
Moses is said to have lifted up a brazen serpent for the
adoration of the people in the time of affliction. It was
preserved and taken to Palestine. There it was held in
sacred remembrance at the Temple in Jerusalem until the
pious but more advanced Hezekiah removed it in 720 B. C.
In Mansel's Gnostic Heresies, we read of the Ophites, a
Christian sect who were serpent worshippers. It exists
in a vigorous state in the Negro kingdom of Dahomey, and
thru slavery has spread to Haiti in the West Indies.
Water in all its forms has come in for its share of
the reverence of man. The Hindus regard running water
as divine. Sanctuaries have been reared at the sources of .
the Ganges, Jumma and Nerbudda. There is supposed to
come a holy influence to the person who bathes in these
waters. We see a devotion which challenges the world in
the fact that some Hindus in order to wash their neigh-
borhood idols carry on foot the water of the Ganges from
Benares to Ramesseram, a distance . equal to that from
Boston to New Orleans.
A novel notion of piety, and one from which many
modern people might take inspiration, is to be found in
the regard of the Ancient Persians for the purity of the
water. In direct contrast to the Hindus, they tried by all
means to prevent pollution. So extreme was the belief,
that it was thought a work of piety to build bridges, and
thereby prevent wading thru the streams. But this rever-
ence for the aqueous element did not hinder the great and
angry despot, Xerxes, from lashing the Hellespont when
it defeated for a time his ambitious plans, In striking
contrast again, is this with the so-called humble adoration
of Canute, the Danish king- of England. To prove to his
credulous subjects that he had no power over the sea and
to show his real reverence for it, he seated himself and
others to wait for the incoming tide, pretending the while
to forbid its advance. In various Old and New Testament
stories, we have instances of the belief in the power of
water to work miraculous cures. In the modern crowds
that throng the seashores and the mineral springs, we have
the same faith held and practised in perhaps a more intel-
In these and a hundred other instances one readily sees
the power of the religious motive in creating activity, in
bringing about thought, and in increasing intensity of life.
Worship of the Heavens and of Heavenly Objects
Gradually, and as the human mind grew broader and
stronger in its powers, the demand for more permanent
objects of worship came on. Tree worship must sooner
or later be supplanted by a more profound and stable
basis. The destruction of the tree by old age or by the
ravages of parasites, storms, or lightning, would also be
the destruction of the plant god which resided in it. This
process being ever and ever repeated must force the wor-
shippers sooner or later to the recognition of still higher
powers behind these perishable ones. It is hard to say
what would next be appealed to and reverenced ; but some
sort of advance there must be. Here is a different form
of the .demand for causality, and it must mark a happy day
for the people who arrive at it. Such an inquiry for a
Power which is behind the conspicuous phenomena of Na-
ture is an index of a higher intellectual maturity. We
should naturally expect to find that there had been a con-
siderable change in the circumstances of their lives. If
the primitive hunter had begun to till the soil, even to a
very slight extent, his attention would be inevitably drawn
to the workings of the elements which influence vegetal
growth the sunshine, the rain, the atmosphere changes,
etc. The field becomes vastly extended. For a consid-
erable period yet, he must see in the separate phenomena
powers that seem to him independent. But this lifting of
man's eyes from the earth to the heavens was a bright
day in man's education. Religion was ennobled' and life
was broadened. The sun, moon, stars and storms might
prove tyrants, but not of such petty sort as had been the
more earthly objects.
In every religion, the Heavens, the bright upper re-
gions, become sooner or later the designated abode of de-
ities or deity. The suggestion for it is clear. There the
glorious dazzling sun daily lifts itself. There the glitter-
ing stars nightly travel the sky. There man's eyes grad-
ually -lifted and mysteriously love to dwell on the infinite
depths of the blue dome under which he treads. Its color
suggests to him warmth, serenity and peace. Hence in
"his ecstacies of joy or paroxysms of fear or pain," man
naturally lifts his hands and eyes above to the boundless
source of all that he most highly esteems. (Blue as a
paint expressive of friendly intent was in wide use among
even the rudest hunting tribes, says Loskiel in his "Gesch.
d. Mission cl. Evang. Bruecler," p. 63.)
Man finally grew to believe that from above came
the strong and the good, and from below came the in-
ferior and the evil. Superior came to mean higher than I
am, in a good sense. In the Algonquin language, "Oghee-
ma," or chieftain, means "the Higher One." "Superbus,"
proud, in the Latin, is etymologically the same in mean-
ing as "Wakanicidapi" in the Dakota language.
Moral Education Thru Religion
We have now arrived at the stage when religion be-
gins to exercise a powerful influence on morality. It has
been the background for conduct that was moral all along,
but the peculiar feature is that conduct has been so little
moral. As religion has been conceived in very narrow
lines, so has morals. The interests of the fetich worshipper
are not broader in the one than in the other. Peschel and
some others hold that "religious emotions appear in hu-
man societies far earlier than the distinction between good
and evil, and therefore have nothing to do with the sub-
sequent laws of morality." But as history does not ex-
tend to the times when such a condition existed, this view
is entirely without historical support. But that is not all.
There are still deeper considerations against it. Religion
is to a greater or less extent a matter of observation upon
and sympathy with the world of objects about man. It is
something learned, not born. On the other hand, morality
is a matter of human relations. It is grounded in instincts,
biologically inherited. Some of them have to be curbed,
some encouraged. It is a something which forces itself
upon him, a condition with which he is born. Some sort
of morality existed, and must have been recognized, before
the emergence from the brute state. This is a matter of
definite observation upon the life of creatures below man
and now extant. Evolutionsists are quite generally satis-
fied that morality did not begin with man. Not so religion.
The truly human state must have been entered upon ere
anything which we designate by the term religion could
have swelled in the breast of man. Religion is in no sense
an instinct. It is cosmic interest, and later there is built
up with this the anthropic or human sentiment. With the
religious insight once aroused, it is easy to see what a
moral factor it would eventually become.
Fritz Schultze in his "Fetichismus" observes: "The
fact that the savage is so absolutely under the dominion
of his Mokisso (fetish) and of his oath, constitutes the
important educational element of fetishism. The savage
imposes duties on himself." And Peschel in the same sen-
tence in which he made the statement above cited, goes
on to corroborate this view : "As soon as intercourse be-
tween the members of the same confederation is regu-
lated by strictly observed customs, human institutions are
believed to be derived from the commands of the Deity,
and from this time religion becomes the most effectual
means of education and improvement." (p. 253.) That
which men revere they try to glorify. In doing this they
refine themselves unconsciously, and later, consciously. If
that which they would glorify has conspicuous glory in
itself, it becomes so much the more a powerful moral
element. The elements of conscious knowledge and power
will always be attributed to it; and hence it is that the
worship of the heavenly bodies and of the heavens as a
whole becomes a more power moral inspiration than any
of the forms of worship which look at the things of earth
alone. Even the Apache Indian under this view could
point to the sun and ask the white man, "Do you not be-
lieve that this Deity sees our actions, and chastises us if
they are wicked?" (Froebel, quoted by Tylor, Prim. Cult.,
1,286.) How much of the high morality and advanced
civilization of the Incas of Peru was due to the great fact
that they believed themselves to be the children of the orb
of day? Did not their sincere and reverent worship of the
sun have much to do with the genesis of their high moral
standpoint? Lafitau cites the remark of a Huron squaw
who on hearing a priest describe the perfections of God,
exclaimed, "I had always pictured to myself our Areskui
as of the nature which you ascribe to your God." By
Areskui she meant the Sun and the Great Spirit.
But, as again and again heretofore, we have seen that
there could be no rest when it was found that that which
was worshipped was itself a creature or power dependent
on a higher and more ultimate source, so Sun worship
must recede before the advance of intellect. Hence wher-
ever we find a nation which worships the sun, we may be
sure that if we could know its history long enough, we
should find an age in which a state of doubt woul'd arise.
Huayna Capac, a Peruvian Inca, about 1524 began to doubt
whether the sun could be the creator of all things, because
the progress of all went on without interruption during
the night. It is therefore but a matter of time when even
Sol. himself is. seen to be a child of the Sky. The change-
less, self-moving Heavens gradually make their impression
on man. Finally they seem to him to be the source and
supporter of all things. He is transferring his homage
'farther and farther and yet nearer and nearer to the true
source. All the peoples who have risen to the stage
called civilization have been, sooner or later, sky- wor-
shippers of some sort. The "subdivo or sub-dio" of the
Romans meant "under the open skies." And it was their
word for the name" of Deity as well. The old German
idiom, "Der Himmel behuete dich" and the English,
"Heaven help you" are indications of a time when the Su-
preme Deity and the Heavens were one in the minds of
some of the people. The worship of the Heavens is still
prevalent in China. (See Legge.) The Vedic Hymns of
India abound with personifications and petitions to
Varuna, the Enveloper. (Mueller.) Both Heaven and
Earth are worshipped by the Hurons, and some Negroes
on the West coast of Africa lift up their hands to the sky.
Value of Nature Worship
It thus turns out that a religion may be valued by the
amount of its stimulation toward culture, intellectual or
moral. Viewed in this manner, the worship of the larger
and more general forces of Nature is capable of doing
much for man, especially in the development of his con-
science. Nations having a severe morality are found to
have severe or austere deities, and to hold more strictly to
the idea that the world is governed by just laws. On the
other hand, those nations who have lowered their gods to
(or who have not elevated them above) the immoral level
of their own passions, have themselves sunk Tower and
lower, and finally lost that social virtue which is neces-
sary to national preservation. Hence it is that we often
find high grades of morality among races very inferior in
their general political civilization. (Witness some of the
cases quoted.) Where men firmly believe, as do the Poly-
nesian Tongans and Friendly Islanders, that their gods
approve the life of -virtue and hate the life of vice, that
the guardian spirit of a man will watch over him while
he is honorable and forsake him when he is wicked, there
is exerted an influence for good which is not easy to
Influence of the Gods on Conduct
The largest examination of the facts will show, that
of all the factors entering into the development of human
institutions, religion is the most potent. Its influence has
been mighty; both for the good and the evil. Some na-
tions it has elevated, some it has destroyed. It never fails
to become a most powerful lever for human education
when the deity or deities are amplified with high moral
conceptions. The gods who have ignored righteousness
never lifted their subjects into its plain. Lower the divine
realm to the level of human affairs, human desires, hum?n
passions, and instead of becoming an aid to virtues and an
inspiration toward ideal life, it furnishes the strongest
sanction to vice and a support- and encouragement to un-
restrained indulgence. (It must be remembered that none
of the gods of history exer existed outside the imagination
of their worshippers.) These imaginary, invisible, yet
ever-present authors of existence, these personified moral
ideals, being the acknowledged legislators and judges or
sources of right and wrong, will be obeyed whenever and
wherever their idealized laws and decisions are clearly
visualized and understood. What the gods desire, men
desire; what the gods hate, men hate; because men made
the gods expressly to desire and hate. Hence (in the past)
good religion has been the leading influence and power by
which humanity has been uplifted. In this way its in-
fluence is far wider than at first appears. It becomes the
stimulant which creates for man his science, his art and
Forms and Creeds
It was previously hinted that religion can flourish
without manifest moral relations. Not that in such cases
it has always been immoral, but merely unmoral. Ages
upon ages must have elapsed before the whole better ideal
element of life was thought of as embodied in the very
nature of the deity, and ages more must have passed be-
fore the character of the imagined deity was striven to be
embodied in the individual life. With how small a num-
ber, even in the most enlightened lands at this late period,
is there a feeling of realization that religion may be or
should be much more than form, a profession, a mere be-
lieving of something! Advances begin in the minds of
occasional individuals. A religion that is helpful morally
stimulates to greater advances and higher life. It becomes
an aid to the spread and enforcement of a higher moral
status. In conditions of religious decay, there are always
to be found men who are better than their creeds. They
are morally superior to their gods. But such individuals
are in advance. These are not better than their actual
religion. Religion and creed are not synonymous. A con-
spicuous instance is that furnished in the Christian creeds
and the real Christian spirit, or between average Christian
conduct and the real Christian religion or ideal apart from
its creeds. The latter recognizes the brotherhood of hu-
manity, and thus it stands as an ideal far above the daily
conduct of those who but dimly profess to adore the God
from whom it is supposed to have been promulgated. In-
stead of adopting directly and practising the essential doc-
trine, there is substituted a system of belief, and the poor
Chinaman, Indian or Turk is brought in guilty oftentimes
for what is in reality our own sin. Because of our lack
of genuineness in living out our religion at its best, he
gets no credit for what honesty or moral purpose he really
possesses. In comparison with our ideal, he is set down
as degraded, low, savage, fanatical, or full of malicious
In our own or other lands, all this is only evidence of
the still undeveloped state of those among whom it pre-
vails. It is complicated by systems of theology, creeds and
ceremonies. But underneath and in the nature of things
there is a strong tendency toward making the province of
ethics and religion coincide as soon as and ever after in-
ward moral purity and observance of social obligations
are insisted on as divine laws. Sir John Lubbock, who has
given much attention to this great question, says: "The
sacred character, which forms an integral part of our con-
ception of duty, could not arise until religion became moral.
Nor would this take place until the deities were conceived
to be beneficent beings. As soon, however, as this was the
case, they would naturally be supposed to regard with ap-
probation all that tended to benefit their worshippers, and
to condemn all actions of the opposite character." (Orig.
of Civil., 4th ed., 409.)
When a community comes to believe that not form,
but conduct; not ceremony, but righteousness; are proofs
of reverence, its individuals, consciously or unconsciously,
begin to make these into their lives. That which is thought
to be divine, all men desire, and many hope and strive to
exemplify. Do they believe they reach it by oblations
and sacrifices, then will they offer these. Do they think
that the divine will is done by their believing in a sacrifice
that their generous god has provided himself, then will
they offer up credulity instead of righteous conduct. Do
they believe in divinely appointed laws in the nature of
life and society, the obedience to which is absolutely indis-
pensible for the obtainment of that divine sanction which
is exhibited by a constant advance and growth in all that
makes life higher, then will they substitute for all those
former extraneous things a loyal righteous life. And in
all directions but this last, the efforts not only fall short,
but they are open to special dangers from exclusive atten-
tion to some one feature, or from man's love of approba-
tion. He who believes in sacrifices is tempted to vanity in
trying to make the greatest sacrifice. He who believes in
exalted states and rapturous feelings will hesitate at no
extravagance in asceticism or artificial excitement to attain
the ecstacy he longs for.
Origin of Priesthood and Church
Among all peoples during historic times, the Church
(or what was its equivalent) has been one of the two or
three most important topics of human interest. The people
of Christendom mostly think of the Church as a definite
institution having a definite origin about eighteen cen-
turies ago. And so of all lands. Each people thinks of its
own religious institutions as special, original, typical. But
in reality each is only an illustration. The Church is not.
Palestinian or European. It is a human institution, de-
veloped out of the social relations. It occupies a peculiar
and unique position.
Society began with the family. In this, the father
being the natural protector, became the head or leader in
all affairs during many ages. He was not only political
head, but also leader in whatever simple religious cere-
monies the family required. As the number of families
grew and formed themselves into clan relations for mutual
protection against outside enemies, there developed the
necessity of leadership. The tribe must have its chief.
The oldest, wisest and strongest came to the front.
But the tribe, as well as the family, had its religious
interests, and the public recognition and care of these
devolved upon the chief. In the early stages, he was both
chief and priest at once. And while the cluster of fam-
ilies was small, the patriarch found it possible to be do-
mestic, political, and religious chief. Gradually as the
tribal interests became more complex, the multiplicity of
duties became too numerous for the individual patriarchal
oversight. Some of the duties must be done by proxy. He
naturally delegates to someone else those duties of the
least immediate interest. Hence he keeps the political
control and appoints assistants to perform the tribal cere,-
monies. Instances of this condition of social development
are to be found in New Zealand, Madagascar, Sandwich
Islands, many Indian Tribes, Mexican Mayas, Peruvian
Incas, Siamese, Japanese, Chinese, Ancient Egyptians,
Assyrians, Davidic Israelites, Ancient Athens (under
Archons, where the kiijg was rex sacrorum), Romans
under kings, Scandinavians, Empire o-f the Middle Ages
under Charlemagne, Italy, Spain, Great Britain and
In many of these there is or was a chief priest. Each
domestic head remains priest in his own family. A priest
is the social officer for religious things. The chief priest
is the grand social officer for religious affairs. He corre-
sponds to the chief in political relations. It is a question
of investiture of authority according to recognized or ad-
mitted right. Sons and women, as such, have no right
to perform these functions. (See the injunctions in the
New Testament, and even today in family and pulpit.)
The complexities of his duties and the dignity of his
station at length compelled the chief to appoint generals,
captains, judges, advisors and priests. Livy says, Numa
"instituted flamens to replace the kings when the latter
were absent," i. e., in wars, etc. The traveller MacDonald
writes that among the Blantyre Negroes, "if the chief is
from home, his wife will act [as priest]), and if both are
absent, his younger brother." We observe the survival of
this in England in the present usage, where the younger
brothers of the lords so generally "take orders," i. e.,
become clergymen. In the old Mexican kingdom of
Acolhuacan and that of Tlacupan, th,e high priest was sec-
ond son of the king. In Ancient Peru, he was an uncle
or brother of the king, or a legitimate member of the royal
Seniority of age and superiority of wisdom or power
are the next differentiating qualifications for priestly du-
ties. Witness again the survival of this in the expressions
"Father," "Elder," "Reverend," "Right Reverend,"
"Very Reverend," and "Pope," (i. e., Great or Holy
A curious digression from this more natural transmis-
sion of religious functions is witnessed in the occasional
setting apart of a whole tribe, as of the Levites among
the Ancient Hebrews, or of two tribes, among the Santals
of India. But these tribes probably had their function
by right of descent. Levi was the second son of Jacob,
the patriarchal chief.
From the original incentive to religious functions
there has been a long and complicated development of re-
ligious conceptions from fetishism thru polydemonism,
polytheism, to monotheism and monism. And along with
this have gone corresponding changes in the social organ-
ization and government. A coercive type in the one has
been accompanied by the same in the other. Where there
is no close social organization, there is no close religious
one. The Empire of the Middle Ages was closely followed
by the invincible Papal Hierarchy. And tho they quar-
reled with each other, they united in showing no quarter
to other tendencies in politics or religion. When the
throne of Papal power began to weaken under the
Renaissance movement, the imperial thrones begtan to
change situations and occupants and break up their do-
mains. Among peoples like the Comanche Indians or the
Nagas, there are no priests, and correspondingly there
are no consolidated or regulated organizations. It is not
assumed that one is the cause of the other, for they are
both influenced by other causes. The Tahiti people, tho
in some respects a primitive race, are socially much dif-
ferentiated. They have their king, nobility, land owners
and common people. For each of these classes there are
special priests, and those for the national temples are
It must also be observed that where the theology is
highly developed, the religious organization is more dis-
tinct. In China, where the religious thought is simple, the
emperor was also ruler in the spiritual realm. In Christen-^
clom, where theology is developed into a system of phil-
osophy, the Church is far more separated from the State.
Mutual Influence of Church and State
Thus we see that Church and State grew from one
root, and that they were at first one. After the differentia-
tion had once begun, the political and religious leaders
were mutually subject to each other. When the priest had
become the representative of the Deity, he therefore gave
or withheld his sanction to the civil authority. .Thus the
chief came to be subject to the religious rule, because he
with his subjects was a subject of the. gods when the
gods had grown great enough. Strabo and Diodorus re-
cord the fact that the priests at Meroe in Ancient Egypt
occasionally ordered the king to put an end to himself,
and that they were obeyed without opposition. . So to a
greater or less extent, the kings and rulers in all countries
and times have been subject to the priesthood in their con-
duct and mode of living. The priest is the man of influence
with the supernatural powers and the man of knowledge
about supernatural things. He can forgive sins or lay
down the conditions therefor. He can furnish passports
to the next world, or he can excommunicate. As such, he
holds an inexplicable and mysterious balance of power. To
follow his course is believed to bring blessing; to disobey
it brings an evil train. v
In later times when the differentiation became still
more. complete and the separation of Church and State was
supposed to be an accomplished fact, there still remained
a most potent power and influence in favor of the former.
In the latest as well as in the earliest times, the civil au-
thorities are installed with religious rights and sanctions.
The oaths and prayers administered by priest-sanctioned
judges and priest-ordained priests are at the back of the
ruler, whether he be the President of the United States,
the King of England, the Emperor of Germany or Saul
the first King of Israel.
Of course, in all this age-long influence of the priest
and his religious faith on matters of State and also moral
policy, he has been a power incalculable in educating and
directing this side of man's development. It is not neces-
sary here to discuss the special value, character and quality
of that training furnished by the religious sentiment to
the social development. It is only to be borne in mind that
religion is first a cosmical theory, then an added moral
theory. Nextj the two are objectified and personalized into
a divine being or beings. Then this imagined being is
made the cause of the world and the source and "standard
of moral conduct.
Medical, Legal and Pedagogical Differentiations
Out of the division of patriarchal function begun with
separating the priesthood, has grown a vast system of
other social labors. As mankind developed desires and an
understanding of the world without, it became necessary
to have those desires and conditions met by a further ap-
portionment of services. Like the division of function
which took place between chief and priest, so the next
steps come about on the lines of the most widely separated
needs. In the early stages of social development the priest
was naturally the man of widest culture. Aside from the
political field, he was the sole professional man. He was
therefore a source for all intelligence. He gave opinions
on the physical ailments as well as the spiritual. He did
all the teaching that was done outside of the family. He
was the authority behind the throne, or the ultimate ap-
peal in matters of right and justice.
But just as the duties of the chief became so numerous
that they had to be divided and done partly by proxy, so
here also as the social structure increases in size and com-
, plexity, the multifarious duties of the priest are too dif-
ficult. Those of them who show the most knowledge and
skill in a given direction naturally give their time and
attention to that phase. These proclivities may be seen
in the astronomer-priests among the Ancient Chaldeans,
the medicine-men among the Indians, the monk-teachers
among the priesthood of the Middle Ages,
Again, it must be noticed that the necessity of main-
taining their standing in the community, when once under
way, compelled a certain amount of preparation for their
labors. This was still further emphasized by the growth
of competition which begins to be an element of stimula-
tion in all societies which have reached a stage where two
or more are following in lines of similar or like occupa-
tions, Hence arose schools, simple at first, and only for
the teaching of the most rudimentary elements of their
trade. But here again, as knowledge increased it must
lead to differentiation. And the school itself would prove
the source of new professions. Thus it was that the
monkish schools of the Middle Ages, started merely for
the purpose of inculcating a deeper piety and for in-
structing the coming priests, came to be the universities of
the Renaissance time. Out of the study of the "sacred"
came the study of "natural" and "social" law and "mental"
law, and finally the whole realm of modern knowledge.
The same order and processes of development may be
seen in some of its lower stages in India and China today.
The "sacred books," of the peoples coming down from very
early times, were the starting points for whatever higher
professions they have attained. And what we see in the
ancient and modern history of these Oriental nations, we
-see also in the career of the Egyptians, Greeks and Ro-
mans whose national lives did not reach into modern times.
Everywhere it is the religious stem from which proceeded
the later lines of further differentiation. Nor has the dif-
ferentiation ceased. The religious incentive is still giving
rise to new tendencies which will undoubtedly in the
course of time develop into new channels of human ac-
tivity in the form of separate professions. And this will
mean, as it has meant in the past, new fields and instru-
ments of human education and development. We think
of the various types of philanthropy begun and stimulated
by the advanced churches of these days, of the new edu-
cational enterprises, of the mission undertakings, and of
the change coming over the teaching of the Church as a
whole, and over the most advanced portion of it in par-
ticular, as to its function. This last is worthy of special
mention. Those who have grasped more or less of the
real nature of religion see this fundamental educational
feature or office of it and are laboring toward having it
recognize itself as the pioneer in inspiring and helping
man to enter upon advanced ground and to cultivate new
fields of truth, rather than to hinder these activities.
Character and Its Basis
But religion is not merely the ultimate source of the
higher social differentiations, it has likewise become the
ground of individual character. Whether it has been
clearly perceived or not, this has been the real fact, for
it was faith conscious or not in the reliability of the
Power posited and promised at the bottom of things which
provided the basis for an improving conduct.
Ever since religion had its moral side, it has been the
perception of Law supposed to be imposed from without;
and character has been obedience thereto. Without some
sort of belief or trust in the basic condition of life, there
can be no conscious moral conduct ; and the profounder or
more conscious that confidence trust; the more consistent
the conduct. But this is merely the assertion of the now-
inseparable relation between religion and character. The
men of highest character have been the men who believed
not backward, but forward. Such were the genuine
prophets and saints, and such are the genuine men of
Science. Such were all the men whom later times revere.
Moreover, it is this attitude of mind that leads to more
and higher truth. And when the old faith no matter what
it is is weakened by new discovery, there follows a de-
terioration of character, unless there is another faith to
take its place. If the previously accepted basis of con-
duct is questioned by large numbers (as in Roman times),
there follows what Professor Goldwin Smith says we are
again in danger of, viz., "a moral interregnum." This is
the gravest condition into which any people can ever fall.
Thus we perceive that religion is more and more at
the foundation of all conduct that has the element of high
conscious moral character in it.*
(^Distinction is here made between "moral character"
and "instinctive morality," which latter belongs to many
creatures below man, besides being the greater element in
men of low intelligence.)
Not only this, but in thus affording a ground for con-
scious right action, it at the same time provides the way for
the further advance of religious insight and truth. Re-
ligion that is not forward-looking is ceasing to be re-
ligion. And unless this process goes on steadily, not only
is truth not discovered, but character declines. And when
once a process of decline has begun the decay of character
becomes itself a further cause of decay. The action is
both forward and backward. The true acted, is the good;
and the good results in greater perception of the true.
The true is the actual. The good is the ideal. The beau-
tiful is the union of the actual and the ideal. "The true
is what is; the good is what ought to be; the beautiful is
what is as it ought to be."*
Life thus lived is at one with itself. It is religious.
Religion now is the recognition of the possibility of life
improving by action. It is the joy of responding to up-
ward effort. Moral character is the conscious endeavor
which strives to keep up to that recognition. The result
is a forward-leaning serenity of mind. This (not doctrine
or dogma) is religion. In its highest form, it takes the
world as a natural world, and stimulates man to conduct
his life on the foundation of natural conditions. It
"Throb thine with Nature's throbbing breast,
And all is clear from east to west."
The Changing Content of Religion
Perhaps the greatest difficulty in the understanding
and treatment of this question is, that the devotional con-
tent of religion has changed so greatly and has been so
differently conceived indeed, is even yet, that we are apt
to mistake that formulated statement for the substance.
The definition given in the last section provides for
or is drawn from the facts, with this fact conspicuously in
view. If we are in sight of the real substance of religion,
it has from the start contained an act of reason or general-
*See a more extensive discussion of the point in this
section in my book, "A Receivership for Civilization."
ization, be it ever so low. As much or more than aught '
else in man's nature, it marks the differentiation from the
brute into the human. Whatever else it is or has been,
religion is always a cosmical theory and the basis of moral
action. (See also Romanes, Mental Evolution in Man.)
For ages, this process of development was, from our
present way of seeing things, untellably slow. But it be-
gan this is the important feature and it grew. And in it
we have the potency of the future religion and science.
They start at the same root. One became the feeling of
interest in, and the other the method of treating the prob-
lems at, the foundation of life. It has been an infinite pro-
cess of seeing, experiencing and inferring.
Man began to think and reason over that which he
conceived to be harmful and injurious to him. He watched
such forces jealously. He devoted to them his simple
study. He thought that because they moved and produced
effects, they therefore had life. Hence they were subject
to motives. If so, then he could buy off their harmful,
evil intent. And he propitiated them.
He by and by recognized that he had paid his offer-
ings to his own imagination. The evil did not come from
where he thought it did. He has discerned more deeply.
He has seen broader meanings to many phenomena. He
has unified various manifestations as proceeding from a
single Power. His fetishism advanced to polytheism.
This simple polydemonism and animistic tendency has
come down from remotest ages. By the process of elim-
ination and unification here described, it has expanded and
improved. The mind (at first conscious of the facts and
'forces about it, but only in the most disjointed manner)
grows by putting these' together in ever more proper re-
lations. This is what growth of mind is, viz., compre-
hension and insight accomplished by cerebrational asso-
ciation processes. The mountains, woods, streams, winds,
rains, etc., which he took for separate and unrelated
powers, he by and by perceives are all parts of one world.
So too, the sky, the sun, the stars, which he thought the
abodes of other gods than those of earth, he has eventu- .
ally found to be but parts of one system, and all floating
together in the Great All of space. Thus by greater and
greater breadth of observation and by keener interest and
insight has he kept on solving the perplexities which have
confronted him. The outward objects of his religious at-
tention have been the developers of his inward religious
conceptions and feelings. And the religious sense once
engendered, has in turn been his most powerful stimulation
toward learning the true nature of the outward objective
world. It has been his most inspiring teacher.
There are no evils brought on may by man which do not
have some possible good. Among the most baleful things
under which he has suffered are the creeds which he has
formulated and made himself tlie slave of. Yet even they
have had their place in the process of, man-training. " The
very grossest anthropomorphisms have been a school at
which man has learned better things. They were attempted
explanations of the world and of human relations thereto.
Their crudeness was the result of the slackness of those
who formulated them and of the others who lived by them.
The trouble they caused and the difficulties into which
they led were the penalty for carelessness and indifference.
Out of the need which the bad begets there grows a better
creed. This is inherent and necessary. If for example,
the gods are not ideals and are not maintained as such,
human conduct suffers. The Greeks who allowed to their
gods the evil motives and conduct indulged in by their
own passions were taught a better lesson by the bad ef-
fects of their low ideals. And the Europeans and Amer-
icans of later centuries, where they have believed in a God
that makes law, the penalties for whose violations can be
evaded by bribe substitutes and ceremonies, have a con-
duct and a civilization which match the belief. In politics
and commerce they practice the most conspicuous moral
characteristics of their God by bribing and undermining
Social Reflexes on Primitive Theology
It is true of all these creeds that they were morally
relatively better in their early stages, and were a check on
still worse doings. It requires cruel vengeful gods to move
cruel peoples. The treacherous, jealous, unprincipled Hindu
or. Persian could have found the reason for his doctrine of
demons and hells in his own disposition. So again, the
concept of divine vengeance and of the tortures of the
darnned were probably the best antidote to the unsympa-
thetic and hard feelings of the Christian world of earlier
and later times. Dante and Milton were but the artists
who painted the transfigured feelings of their contempo-
raries. George Eliot has said something to the effect
that the gods always and everywhere are but the shadow
reflections of human ideas cast in gigantic perspective on
the clouds of heaven, or I may add, seen in lurid gleams
in the pits of darkness. This contains a large truth which
is clearer and truer when the word "but" is removed.
After ages of social discipline have humanized "the
heart," the intellectual ideal regarding- the divine sources
also improves. The gocU'take on a better character. And
the reason is clear. The study of the forces of the cosmos
goes on pari passu with that of the ethnos. Study in
either improves the other. Theology is therefore seen to
be transfigured sociology.
Corresponding with the disintegrated society of the
early Aryans in India, we find the most unregulated
mythology as the content of their religious mind. The
tempest, wind, thunder, fire, dawn, twilight, sun, and all
the phenomena and powers of Nature claim their atten-
tion, but without order or subordination. In henotheistic
manner their feeling's go out toward each.
The Greeks and Romans, more socially developed,
brought a better order into their theological conceptions.
Their world of spirits is full of the struggles and rela-
tionships which are on the earth. As in their early his-
tory we find the people entering upon a more democratic
stage of social life, so too among the gods, Zeus, who had
been supreme and who was later nominally so, had lost
his authority as absolute ruler, and deigned (or was com-
pelled) to consult with the other deities.
Some of the Hebrews had accomplished the unifica-
tion at an early period, and their later monotheism in the
person of the burly jealous Jehovah was the transfigured
picture of their more ethical, but still monarchical govern-
ment. In the former they studied the latter. And as they
did so, both improved. Not having the facts from which
to interpret properly, the so-called evils of life, they (by
help obtained from the Persians during their Captivity)
developed a more perfect God by accounting for the evil
in another way. Before that, Yahweh had created good
and evil at his will. In Persia they borrowed or stole the
Devil, and thereafter made him responsible for all fea-
tures which their idea of God forbade ascribing to
Jehovah. Jehovah improved in character. Later on the
tender-hearted Jesus conceived of him as a Heaven Father
who would take pity on a wretched humanity. Thus was
transferred to the West that system of dualism which has
had such extensive adherence among Gnostics, Kabbalists,
Neo-Platonists, Manichaeans, Roman Catholics, and Prot-
estant Christians. As a profound problem of study, 'and
thereby as a possible means of development, it has had
scarcely a rival in all man's career. To it at bottom must
be attributed the growth of the whole strictly Christian lit-
erature of these nineteen centuries. They have been de-
voted to the one grand end of trying to solve the problem
of evil. Nor will it ever be possible to estimate its in-
fluence, both for good and evil, on the Western civiliza-
The problem is now changing. Recent developments
in Science may be said to have completely inverted it.
Not the "origin of evil" now perplexes men, but the origin
of the good. And the. difficulty seems already well passed.
(See chapter on "The Problem of Evil" in "A Receiver-
ship for Civilization.")
At the time of the Roman conquest of the world, the
religion of the Hebrews was the one which naturally came
forward as the nearest representative of the social con-
ditions. It supplemented all others because is accomplished
the unification of the gods>and because its central ideas
were moral ones. Rome conquered the world and made it
a socio-political unity. A world politically unified, under
one control,- by military force, must soon have a religion
to correspond and to make the unity more real. Because
all nations had been brought into one, all-'civil and political
problems had become ethical. Out of this condition was
drawn the larger family inference by him "who spake as
never man spake," that God was one the Father of all
and that all men were brothers. The larger social interest
grew out of Roman unification. To secure the complete
adoption of this foundation belief "in the Fatherhood of
God and the Brotherhood of man" has been the one object
and effort of the Christian minds of all the Occidental
nations in all these "Christian ages." And this is true,
whether they have been orthodox or heterodox. For one
end have they thought, written, preached and striven.
They have had different conceptions of God and different
notions as to how men were to be made to realize .and
live up to their notion of a brotherhood.
The New Monism
'And now, in a final chapter, it remains to see a little
more clearly how the little world of primitive man, which
was at first conceived as a congeries of : objects each with
its presiding anthropomorphic spirit, has thru man's re-
ligious interest grown to be a Universe. In it he has at
last discovered the Only Real Deity, the Universal Spirit,
the one Eternal Energy, from which all things and worlds
and lives have proceded. Moreover, this creature, man
himself finds that he has developed from a wild and
prowling animal, herding intermittently in loosely joined
tribes, fearing every phenomenon of terrestrial or celestial
origin, into vast social aggregates sometimes reaching
a hundred million organized and sub-organized into a
thousand-and-one co-operative efforts. His achievements
have become so numerous and so profound as to make his
present self a wonder far surpassing even his fiction gods
in his racial childhood.
The Fading Away of Dualism
The standard traditions which come down to us from
the Assyrians, Jews, Greeks, and Romans professed to be
Dualism, but were nearer Materialistic Monism, Their
World, their God, their Heaven, their Hell, etc., were very
sensuously conceived, and scarcely different from this
world. This began to be set aside when the discovery of
the New World and the Solar System took place. A new
Geography, a new Astronomy and finally a new Ontology
have been coming into view. W'e call the process the
growth of Modern Science. Modern Science implies that
there was an Ancient Science. Science, in this sense, is
only the body of knowledge of any time or people. The
difference between Ancient Science and Modern is one of
thoroness and honesty. By these virtues the minds of some
men have wrought wonders since the Fifteenth Century.
More recently they have discovered the evolutionary pro-
cess. They have been engaged, as it were, in "Historical
Research," for Evoliution, Biology, Geology, Astronomy,
Chemistry are just "natural" history, the search for pres-
ent and remote causes and influences.
Incidentally, our New Science has discovered the Uni-
verse and other universes. Ine ancients never knew there
was a universe. This movement has multiplied knowledge
a thousand fold. It has straightened out, systematized and
made intelligent a previously inconceivable realm. Much
remains to be done. The meaning is not wholly clear. It
is not all fully tellable. Expectancy, however, is large
in this twentieth century.
Finding the Real God At Last
Physics and Chemistry, Biology and Psychology are
today the text-books of Theology. For over 2,000 years
tradition and speculation saw the World as Matter and
Force. Sensation was the means. Reason wrought over
what the senses brought. In man (a part of the Universe)
the component materials have been called body and mind,
body, the matter; mind, the force. The Ancients called
these Matter and Spirit. Tradition handed it on to and
thru ignorant ages. The nature of either of these was
given up as inscrutible. Modern Philosophy quite ac-
cepted this dictum, even down to Herbert Spencer, who.
thought that Force was unknowable. The recent work in
Physics and Chemistry have gone a long way beyond the
knowledge of the middle of the Nineteenth Century.
And recent Psychology has analyzed the process of
sensation, Between the two, the way is open to Ontology
as an understandable science. Sensation is now believed
to be the reception of phenomena in consciousness. This
is not yet the perception of essence. It is merely the read-
ing of impressions produced by the outward world in the
inward consciousness. Analysis shows this to be motion,
more or less rapid. Motion is the evidence of force pro-
duced by energy. Ingenuity or reason, thru invention, has
called to the aid of sensation numerous mechanical ap-
pliances. Among these are the microscope, telescope,
thermometer, barometer, micrometer, scales, measures,
mathematical computation, etc. These magnify, minify,
and intensify. Thus we can the better compare and analyze
sensations. These and other instruments tremenduously
magnify man's sensitive ability. (See Table of The Ex-
Meanwhile Physics (Dynamology) has been at work
analyzing, the phenomena. Impressions from objects do
not reveal the objects, but only the effect of the motions on
the consciousness. For example, the circle made by whirl-
ing a burning stick gives no idea of the flame or the stick,
the man or the purpose. For example, again, a tone from
a violin gives no idea of the violin, the string or the bow,
nor of the nature of these, the man, or the piece of music.
And so of all phenomena. They are not the things, but
only the impressions made by the motions. We incorrectly
designate these as things.
By some inner process of association, impressions are
compared in consciousness those from one sense with
those from another. Inferences, are made and after these,
reasoning processes take place, i. e., better guesses are
reached. We see in, out, backwards and forwards. We
arrive at theories. And again, we correct these theories
by more seeing-, in and out.
One of these inferences about -Matter arose from the
speculating and experimenting of John Dalton about the
year 1800. It was called the^' Atomic Theory." We all
know what it is. We have heard it for one hundred years.
It grew in favor as an explanation of the material side
of the ' Dualistic Philosophy, till finally its advocates as-
sumed it as a complete explanation, the ultimate philosophy,
a Monistic Materialism. There were difficulties, but these
were made light of. A considerable following and great
excitement arose because of the contradictions between
this philosophy and many cherished traditions.
To review a little Sir Isaac Newton in 1708 had
said : "Perhaps the whole frame of Nature may be nothing
but various contextures of some certain etherial spirits
or vapors, condensed, as it were, by precipitation and after
condensation wrought into various forms, at first by the
immediate hand of the Creator, and ever after by the power
This old-fashioned materialistic conception made a
good start. It was crude in placing the "Creator" outside
of Nature, and in assuming some power in Nature
miraculously placed there. But it was an anticipation of
the most important result in our most modern physical inr
vestigation. Lord Kelvin, not so long ago, announced the
new theory that the atoms are vortices in this Ether.
Others have since actually explained the atoms as con-
sisting of the more recondite electronic units.
Thus we have gone beyond atoms. We have analyzed
them. They are motions of something finer. They are not
things. They are phenomena of something. They are
centers of force in this great underlying Basic Essence.
They are conditions, not entities. They are phenomena,
not reality. Just as in the larger world, so in them motion
prevails. Motion is the universal condition, and the
phenomena of all material existence. Sensation is the
process of reading motion, of interpreting force. The
senses are simply so many means of reading the various
kinds of force directions or motions. Motion in its es-
sence is opposition, resistance to force arising from other
motion. Spencer said : "The fundamental fact in nature
is resistance ; and the fundamental fact in consciousness is
response to resistance."
Pushing these principles to their legitimate outcome,
matter ceases to be the hard, inert, dead substance formerly
supposed. It ceases to be any "thing." It is simply the
forms in which the real thing manifests itself to us. This
real thing, this universal basic condition is known to
Science under the name Ether. In Dr. StockwelPs lan-
guage, the Ether "is an immaterial, super-physical sub-
stance, filling all space, carrying in its infinite throbbing
bosom the specks of aggregated dynamic force called
worlds. It embodies the ultimate spiritual principle, and
represents the unity of those forces and energies from
which spring, as their source, all phenomena, physical,
mental and spiritual, as they are known to man."
"Dead matter" is thus a dead theory. "Matter" was
a product of the imagination, cogitated Ipy men who were
tired of traditions. They did not analyze far enough. They
took the senses literally. They did not make allowances.
It was primitive interpretation, even tho it was called
"Philosophy." The Universe is not worked upon by some-
thing outside. The Universe is that something-. There is
no outside. It is the life ano^power which we have been
wrongly interpreting. Energy is life. The Cosmos lives.
Even the rocks live. All things act. All things move,
work and get tired. Prof. Dolbear has tired out a tuning-
fork. Shafts, springs, etc., break down from hard work
too much action. Life has many degrees, modes, stages.
Some of them stand very little action.
The elements are considered as so many types of
fundamental motion of the Infinite Substratum. Back-
ward in time, if we go far enough, they blend or dissolve
into a unity deeper than "Matter." Even the last ex-
, ponents of the newer materialims advocate the Ether.
Prof. Haeckel said, "We are as sure of the Ether as we
are sure of the existence of Matter." ( !) This was
equivalent to saying, we are as sure of the man as we are
of the shadow. He also called. the Ether the Eternal
Substance. But he failed to see the humor in his state-
ments. He was a Biologist who went beyond his beat.
Matter does not exist as thing. It is a sensory condition
of some essence that is vastly deeper. This later news from
Physics tells us that "Matter" is a fiction of imagination
resulting from misconception of sense impressions.
Ontology, then, turns out to be a science close to life.
The Onta has been resurrected to the Psyche. The Uni-
verse is Basic Condition. It does not have our limited
attributes. It doubtless includes vastly moire than we con-
ceive. We are of the Universe. We have grown conscious.
It is not everywhere conscious. We get our heredity from
the Universe. We may be improving on or adding some-
thing to our parentage. We are more than former-time
Nature. We are expanding. We are its variations. We
are getting to know more than former life did. This means
that things are knowable. Things are but forces in other
terms (mistakenly conceived as static). The "Unknow-
able" has gone off with "Dead Matter." The capitals are
dropped. A year before his death, Prof. Huxley said : "I
no longer wish to speak of anything as unknowable; I
confess I once made that mistake, even to the waste of a
capital U." .
"Substance" then, in scientific terms, is Ether. Ether
is the basic substance the only "substance." Ether is not
Matter. In Prof. Dolbear's words, "It is daily becoming
more certain that even in the physical universe we have
to do with a factor the Ether the properties of which
we vainly strive to interpret in terms of matter, the undis-
covered properties of which ought to warn everyone
against the danger of strongly asserting what is possible
and what is impossible in the nature of things." He says
again, "Physicists today concur in the belief that what was
called at first luminiferous ether, on account of its func-
tion in transmitting light, is the same medium that is con-
cerned in the other phenomena of magnetism, electricity,
gravitation, and so forth. If the Ether can be said to have
density, it is less than 936 that of
water. And its rigidity is 1 . that of steel.
The Ether then is the nearest approach to the con-
ception of the ultimate reality, wjiich we know under other
terms as the Infinite and Eternal Enargy the Eternal
God, the "Living God." What is this but a scientific way
of saying "GOD"? What is it but "SPIRIT"? The
Scientist says : "Matter is a mode of motion of Energy."
Rev. Dr. Calthrop says, "Matter is a mode of motion of
Spirit." And what is the difference? Calthrop further
says, "All things, thoughts, beings, worlds are modes of
motion of Spirit. Spirit substance underlies them all.
Hence Scientist and enlightened Religionist mean the
same thing. They refer to the same thing. They give this
Eternal Thing the same place in the scheme of existence.
The trend of Scientific thought is unmistakably immaterial.
Nicholas Tesla somewhere writes, "Nature has stored
up in the universe an infinite amount of energy. The
eternal recipient and transmitter of this energy is the
Ether." Observe in these lines the scientific doctrine ex-
pressed with earnest feeling, but with a very poor con-
ception of its ontological and religious character. Like
the rest of the world, he is saturated with the old attitude
of some-power-thing which is assumed to be outside of
everything. Who is this Nature that "has stored up," etc. ?
When did this Nature do this storing? Where is Nature?
now that the storing has been done? Where does this
Nature keep itself, since it appointed the Ether as its
- '"' -52-
Demi-urgos to do the work of the universe or to be "the
eternal recipient and transmitter of this energy"?
,Dr. Stockwell quotes Prof. Hemstreet as paraphrasing
these views of Tesla thus: "Now call this energy God's
mind and the ether God's body, then we have the secret of
eternal life and the process of cosmic evolution. . . .
God in the ether is no more strange than a soul in the
body. . . . Gravitation, attraction and all energy and
mind are qualities of the ether. Mind in the ether is no
more unnatural than mind in the flesh and blood." But
here again is the yet-unwarranted assumption that the
mind is an entity over and beyond the body.
Of course this word "Ether" is a scientific term. Into
it we put a content and a flavor that will keep it .isolated
for a time from religious ideas. That is because of the
still surviving materialistic character of our thought and
of the inflexible formalities which words impose on us.
If we once get at the idea meant by the imperfect word-
sign Ether, we will have reached a new, a deeper and a
real "spiritual" understanding. Never before has there
been any real basis for a spiritual conception of life or the
universe. Former thought has been merely speculation
and conclusion without an investigated, verified basis.
Samuel Calthrop, that rare speciman of a minister
drawing his gospel from Science, had much to say about
God from this point of view, and many of his thoughts
are entirely new conceptions in the field of religion. In
the "New World" for December, 1894, he wrote, "God
has nothing but his own perfect substance to make worlds
(and all that they contain) out of." "Matter, therefore,
is not only divine, but is the crowning act of the divine
love and self-sacrifice. It is God giving away himself
for man to use, to enjoy, to govern." (Notice that even
in this masterpiece of religious statement there is still
persistent the anthropomorphic apperception. He still ap-
plies to the Ether the attributes of man. He still fits out
God with human dispositions.)
Farther on he says, God's children "are spirit because
he is spirit. They live because he lives. They inherit
into his love, his wisdom, his 'eternity. There is only one
mind and they share it ; only one lif eand in that life they
live ; only one spirit, and they are spirit. Verily, then, 'in
him and of him and by him, we live and move and have our
being'." "A God whom we may possibly approach in
some far-off tomorrow is to give place to a God in whose
bosom we rest, the presence of whose life and love we
daily and hourly feel." "God, the ultimate fact and spirit,
the sure foundation on which all things rest; this is the
thought of the twentieth century, into which we of the
nineteenth are just beginning to enter."
Yes, this comes near the thought of the twentieth
century. But the thought of the twentieth century is a
little stronger and a little keener than the incisive mind of
Dr. Calthrop divined.
From all this, it is seen that "empty space is an
empty phrase." Every place is full. The old idea of the
"all-seeing God" means better the all-being God. As.Hin-
ton has said also, "God is seen to be no longer the cause of
things, but the fact of things." Cause and effect, power
and might, substance and space, phenomena and time, truth
and beauty, life and love are just modes of being. Some
of them are probably modes of infinite being and others
modes of finite being. They are not all merely conse-
quences of divine action. Some of them we think are
divine nature. Things are manifestations of the divine,
but the divine does not possess all the attributes of ail the
things, nor do things possess all the attributes of the divine.
Things grow, evolve, change. We do not think of God as
growing or evolving, tho God does change. God is not
the same forever, even tho some ancient Hebrew prophets
boldly shouted it. Things are just so many finite visions
of divine actions. God exists changing. These changes
are just so much as we get into our consciousness of the
divine phenomena. We can look nowhere and escape them.
We are of them. But the visible Divine Phenomena are
not all of the Divine Nature. And any attributes that we
may ascribe to any of these phenomena do not necessarily
apply to the whole Divine Nature. We cannot get away
from the Divine, we cannot live without being a part of
it ; but the descriptions of our life and of other phenomena
do not fit in any attempted description of the Divine Nature
as a whole. We say that we are tall or short, adipose or
thin, mechanical or clumsy, good or bad, wise or ignorant ;
but we cannot apply any of. these to the Divine Nature.
Men have during all time wrongly anthropomorphized
their gods, and thus have kept themselves in moral sur-
veilance and at the same time in intellectual perplexity.
They have hindered themselves from solving the problems
of Nature by insisting on seeing Nature's controlling
power as existing in their own image. They will be com-
pelled to give this up. They will soon turn the moral in-
terest and devotion which they have wasted on God toward
human beings who infinitely need it. They will have a
hard time in doing this. A few have tried it. Occasionally
during the centuries someone sees this fact and breathes
it out in sad despair. Long years ago Omar Khayyam,
the Persian poet, in deep realization of the imperfect nature
of Nature, said:
"Ah Love ! could you and I with him conspire
To grasp this sorry scheme of things entire,
Would not we shatter it to bits and then
Re-mold it nearer to the heart's desire !"
In his dark age, before Science. brought its multitude
of facts to busy and bless our lives, all existence seemed
fate to the thinker. He had not the basic thoughts where-
with to interpret. He saw the contradicting facts, and
knew not how to use them. Yet he saw the place where
devotion should be centered. Let men return their thanks
and lavish their love and admiration and service upon
their human benefactors, upon the state, upon humanity,
upon all that lives and helps. Omar saw the childishness
and the uselessness of thinking that man by a treaty, a
prayer, or sacrifice could move the will of his forward
"The moving Finger writes ; and, having writ,
Moves on ; nor all your piety and wit
Shall lure it back to cancel half a line,
Nor all your tears wash out a word of it,
And that inverted bowl they call the Sky,
Whereunder crawling coop'd we live and die,
Lift not your hands to it -for help for it
As impotently rolls as. you or I.
With earth's first clay they did the last man knead,
And thereof the last harvest sows the seed :
And the first morning- of creation wrote
What the last dawn of reckoning shall read.
What! out of senseless nothing 'to provoke
A conscious something to resent the yoke
Of unpermitted pleasure, under pain
Of everlasting penalties, if broke !
What ! from his helpless creature be repaid
Pure gold for what he lent us dross-allay'd
Sue for a debt we never did contract,
And cannot answer Oh the sorry trade !
Oh Thou, who didst with pitfall and with gin
Beset the road I was to wander in,
Thou wilt not -with predestin'd evil round
Enmesh, and then impute my fall to sin !
Oh Thou, who man of baser earth didst make,
And ev'n with Paradise devise the Snake:
For all the sin wherewith the face of man
Is blacken'd Man's forgiveness give and take !"
Six hundred years ago, or at any time before the nine-
teenth century, wise, indeed, was the man who could do
better than this, if he meditated honestly and unpreju-
dicedly on the great All of Life and Being. It was all a
sorry, fated scheme before man had achieved enough to
make his life worth while. To those who did not think,
"worth-while" was not a problem. The tragedy comes in
when the higher consciousness arrives. And that higher
consciousness "must solve its problems and reach its com-
fort thru contemplation and thru a service so complete
that it removes the cause of pain; and in this must the
newer, wiser humanity find its purpose and its comfort.
Nature is not a great man. Nature has not man's at-
tributes. Nature does not contrive and plan and design.
Nature does not make laws that become so many fates for
man. Wise and good and angry and considerate apply no
more to Nature than tall, and white and bony and deaf.
Nature is endless possibility, and limitless being. Nature
is basic condition for finite activity. Only at this later
date in terrestrial evolution does here and there an organism
reach the conscious realization that sees and feels and
suffers because of the incongruities. And not to Nature,
but to man's ingenuity and loving sense of justice must
man look for relief. Man must build into the nature, of
things, man must so modify his environment that he shall
make life what he could have wished life to have been.
Man will continue to talk about and picture this Basic
Condition of his being, but he will do it less in terms of
himself. He will agonize for a time over the conse-
quences. It is a pity that our age must suffer for the ideas
they were buncoed into learning. These age-long preju-
dices will long continue to warp our thought toward
anthropomorphic forms. But as we escape from these
prejudices, we will try the harder to redeem our life to the
ideals which honest search and experience have 'impelled.
Man will never cease to wonder over the profundities
of Nature. But the new adoration will vastly transcend
the old. And when he gets used to it, it will be vastly more
inspiring. He will quit his childish expectancy of help
from without, and his self-acquired new facts will fill him
with new purpose and new hope to bring about his bless-
ings by his own co-operative efforts.
With simple minds, old terms alone produce pleas-
urable emotion. New terms have to be long used before
they infuse the feelings which may replace the old. But
it is nothing against the new expressions if the old preju-
dices do not approve. Man will be long in realizing the
difficulties of his convictions. His very worst habit is
reaction against the suggestion of change.
With a full consciousness that it is impossible to reach
the feeling of today's most real religious need, and yet with
an equally strong conviction that that religious need must
be re-expressed, I have attempted to state in today's terms,
today's idea of the Great Encompassing All.
Fount of worlds unfathomed ! Energy eternal !
Realm and Potency and Law in living Cosmos, Thou;
Past or Present, all things mote to star supernal,
E'en yet evolve in Thine unending Now.
Vibrant, radiant Glory! Darkness never hides Thee;
Face to face with Nature-laws is facing Deity;
Yet o'er realms so awful whelms Thy Being mighty,
Words ne'er can utter Thine Infinity.
All-dispensing World-Life.! Every race adores Thee,
Finding Thee in rock or rill or in the smiling sky ;
Bowing down in useless fear, over-awed before Thee ;
Or lifting up their eyes in joy on high.
Nameless, baffling Presence ! Omnipresence filling ;
Yet forever, late and early, must we search for Thee ;
Source of Power and Beauty ; Ever lifting, thrilling !
GOD folding all in wondrous unity.
A RECEIVERSHIP FOR CIVILIZATION
This book condenses a long study. Forty years ago the author
began to believe that the White Civilization was approaching an-
other crisis greater than the decay of Rome at the oncoming of
Christianity. The chief element in this approach toward decadence
is the discovery of a new Cosmos by thinkers and investigators
and the stubborn preaching of the old legendary outlook by those
who assume to provide the theory of conduct. Thus we are threat-
ened with seeing the bottom drop out of Civilization. THE DEDI-
CATION furnishes the key to the purpose of the book :
To Men of Religion, the World's former Trust, the time-hon-
ored source of goodness; To Men of Science, the World's new
Hope, the modern fount of knowledge. May the one get the facts
and the other the zeal that shall save their common charge
"This is a great book and one that should be pushed for the
next 25 years."
The Putnams, Publishers, New York.
"You are truly a great prophet. Your book will be to these
times what the prophdcies of old were to their time. It is the
prophecy of a new day.
Ben B. Lindsey, Judge of Juvenile Court, Denver.
The NEW YORK, HERALD in a half-page article on "Re-
ligion and Modern Civilization" states, that over SO books have
lately appeared calling the world to see its imminent. danger. It
refers several times to and quotes much from the book entitled
"A Receivership for Civilization." It says : "Of far wider appeal
than those mentioned before is Dr. Ward's study, with its sugges-
tive title. * * * It is a call to arms and an eloquent one so
much so that it disarms any minor criticism or exception to the
details of his book. * * * The author has coined a very apt
phrase, to cover the case, in the title of his remarkable book."
THE DENVER POST says: Not as infidel or agnostic, but
as a devout believer in the universality of God, or life universal,
Dr. Ward makes his survey of civilization.
A RECEIVERSHIP FOR CIVILIZATION
We entreat your careful attention to this warning book, It
springs from a long study and a deep anxiety. It is both history
and prophecy. Civilization must have a new moral basis. The
Church, that has assumed to have directions from God as to how
life should be lived, is not keeping up to date. Old Moral Sanctions
have decayed. New ones must be collected. They abound in the
literature of Science.
This Book Challenges Attention to
Its Tribute to The Church of The Past.
Its Pungent Epitome of Christianity.
Its Portrayal of The Out-of-Date Preacher.
Its Picture of The New-Time Preacher.
Its Condensed Critique of the Old Bible.
Its Synopsis of The New Bible.
Its Clear-cut Remedy in Collegiate Preaching.
Its Statement of The Clergy's Need of Science.
Its Call to Men of Science to Come to The Rescue.
Its Creed of Science The Coming Outlook.
Its Retrospect and Prospect of Aryan Civilization.
It Solves the Fundamentalist-Modernist Dispute
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TABLE OF CONTENTS
A TRIBUTE To The Christian Church.
PROLOG The Diminishing Church. Why?
The Lines of Our Survey.
Part One THE DRAMA. OF CHRISTIANITY.
I. Epitome The Five Great Acts.
II. The Beginning of Protest in Act IH Wiclif.
III. The Next Great Protest Act IV Luther.
IV. Protestantism Its Essence and Limitations.
V. The Protest Movement A Northern Race Awakening.
VI. The Making of Modern Times by Protest.
Part Two THE GREATEST TttATUSITION IN HU-
MAN HISTORY Act V.
VII. The Latest Organized Proliant ism,
VIII. The Unorganized Protest-ants.
IX. Resulting Changes in World Outlook.
X. The Old-Time Preacher 'mid the New Time Needs.
XI. The New-Time Preacher with the New Time Facts.
Part Three THE AUTHORITY OF FORMER TIMES'!
XII. Beauties of the Old Bible.
XIII. Why Preach About the Bible?
XIV. "Higher Criticism and Its Great Discoveries."
XV. The Old Bible.
XVI. Inspiration, Revelation and Sacredness.
Part Four THE SUBSTITUTED AUTHORITY OF SCIENCE.
XVII. The New Bible.
XVIII. The New Bible Book I Of The Heavens Astronomy.
XIX. The New Bible Book II- Of The Earth Geology.
Part Five THE "INSCRUTIBLE MYSTERIES" SOLVED.
XX. The Problem of Evil.
XXI. Moral Sanctions from Brute to Saint.
XXII. Prayer and Law and Common Sense.
XXIII. The Old Worship and The New.
XXIV. On The Divide.
XXV. freedom Religion Church.
Part Six A HIGHER EFFICIENCY HAILED.
XXVI. The Ought- To-Be Church.
XXVil. The New Ministry Must Develoo New Methods.
XXVIII. Collegiate Preaching The Way To Success.
Part Seven RELIGIOUS RECONSTRUCTION iTRGENT.
XXIX. Scientinc Doctrine and Method Imperative.
XXX. Sample Close ups uf Thought Conditions.
XXXI, Reticence of Science Dangerous.
XXXII. If We Must Have a Creed The Creed of Science.
RETROSPECT AND PROSPECT of Aryan Civilization,
PUBLICATIONS PAST AND COMING
By DUREN J. H. WARD
OUT OF PRINT
Our Next Emancipation (The Temperance -Movement).
How Religion Arises A Psychological Study.
The Scientific Study of Religion.
Anthropology A Syllabus of The Science.
A Scientist's Creed.
Government Ownership in 100 Principal Countries.
The Human Races and a New Classification.
Historico-Anthropological Possibilities in Iowa.
The Problem of The Mounds.
The Okoboji Mount A Scientific Excavation.
Meskwakia and The Meskwaki Tribe.
The Classification of Religions.
ON THE MARKET
A Receivership for Civilization, $3.
Origin and Evolution of Christmas and New Year, 75c.
Education The Surpassing Farce ,25c.
World Peace By Natural Process, 25c.
Darwin and Evolution, 50c. ;
Science Its Meaning and Goal, 25c.
Crime Its 'Biology and Psychology, 50c.
The Origin of Mind A Chapter in Anthropology, 50c,
The Modern God Our Cosmic Background, $1.
The Biography of God From Fetichism to Monism, $1.
WELL ON THE WAY
The Rise of Science from Columbus to Spencer.
Nineteenth*Century Mile-Posts in Religious Doctrine.
The God Whom Men Have Always Sought, but Only Lately Found.
Lectures on "Schooling" and "Education."
A Thumb-nail Autobiography Re-estimating "Education" and "Sir
cess" long afterwards. .
Ward-Vaijnum Genealogy American Pioneers.
Letters to Future Ages Asking Their Opinions on Our Affairs.
(A new invention in Rhetoric)
Woman and World Affairs.
The Human Being From Cell to Philosopher.
The Human Mind Character Analysis on Biological Basis.
Anthropology Tne Study of Human Origins.
Poems Inspired by Science Mrs. Lizzie Cheney Ward.
Books Our Greatest Help Our Greatest Hindrance.
EXPERIENCE AND WRITINGS
By Duren J. H. Ward
A.B., AM,, B.D., Hillsdale;
A.M., Harvard; Ph.D., Leipsic.
, Harvard Fellow in Europe two ^ears.
See "Who's Who in America," 1914-1924.
District School, D'orchester, Ontario (8 years).
High School. Memphis, Mich. (3 years).
Graduate of Hillsdale College, A. B., A. M., B. D. (5 years student)
Graduate of Harvard University, A. M. (3 years).
Graduate Leipsig University, Ph. D. (1 year).
Student at Berlin University (1 year).
These ten years as College and University student covered a com-
plete Teacher's Course, a. Minister's Course, the greater part of a Med-
ical Course, also much work in Philosophy and the Sciences of Biology i
Ethnology, Anthropology, Psychology, Sociology and History.
Travelling Fellow of Harvard University for two years in Europe.
Anoont) Former Teachers:
Harvard: James, Royce, Palmer, Everett, Peabody, Emerton,
Gurney, Toy, Lyon. . t ' .
Berlin: Paulsen, Virchow, Mendel, Du Bois Raymond, Zeller,
Deussen, von Gizyckl, Ebbinghaus, Hartmann.
Leipsic: Wundt, Heinze, Ratzel, Maurenbrecher, Schmidt.
Librarian six years while at Hillsdale and Harvard. Classified and
directed the cataloguing of 29,000 volumes.
. Experience in Teaching 12 years
Country School. City School (Principal). Academy (Principal).
Model School (in New York City, Superintendent).
College (Hillsdale, Tutor; Kan. Agr. and Colo. Agr., Professor
University (Harvard and Iowa, Lecturer).
Unitarian Minister, Dover, N. H.; Iowa City, la. ; Fort Collins, Colo.
Extended experience in Printing Business and Publishing.
Studied Educational and Correctional Institutions in United States,
Canada and Europe. Has managed Organizations and been Investi-
gator, Teacher, Lecturer, Writer on various phases of Anthropology,
Ethnology, Psychology, S;c:iogv and Education.
Investigator} Indian Mounds and the Mus.quakie Indians for the
Iowa State Historical Society,, of which the maps, measurements,
statistics, survey and history were published in "Iowa Journal of His-
tory and Politics," 1902-1906 Remains collected now on permanent
exhibition in Iowa State His^rical Society Museum at State Univer-
sity, Iowa City.
Last sixteen years In Denver Writing arid Lecturing on Special
Fields of Science, Sociology, Psychology and History. From 1909H4,
Editor of "Up the Divide," a Magazine advocating the methpds, spirit
and study of Modern Sciences.
UNIVERSITY OF OHIO
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Y OF CH
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