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Cbe University of CbicaQO 
1C i bra vies 




A TREATISE ON THE SACRAMENTS OF 
THE CHURCH. 



" Quanquam non soleo apud me epistolas meas 
servare, nee possum, quia, ut primo scribuntur, 
a me dantur, nullo earum exemplo retento ; 
tamen, si quae sunt qaae aliquid in se 
doctrinaa habent, eas omnino perdi nolim." 

JOANNES COLETUS ABBATI WINCHINCUMBENSI. 



IOANNIS COLET OFU3 DE SA CRAMENTIS 



TREATISE ON THE SACRAMENTS 
OF THE CHURCH, 



BY JOHN COLET, D. D. 

FORMERLY DEAN OF ST. PAUL'S. 



NOW FIEST PUBLISHED, WITH AN INTKODUCTTON, 

BY J. H. LUPTON, M.A; 

SUK-MASTBK OF ST. PATTt's SCHOOL, AND LATE FELLOW OF 
ST. JOHN'S COLLEGE, CAMBRIDGE. 




LONDON: 
BELL AND DALD.Y, 

YOBK STEEE'T, COVENT GAKDEN. 

1867. 




PREFACE. 

[HOBTLY before I sought permission to 
publish the following Treatise, a permis- 
sion which was most obligingly granted 
by the Court of the Worshipful Com- 
pany of Mercers, I had found my task 
considerably lightened. It had been my intention to 
enter at some length into the circumstances of Dean 
Colet's life, so far as they served to throw light on 
the state of religion and learning at that period. For 
this purpose I had been gradually making collections 
for a considerable space of time. But, in March last, 
it was my fortune to discover that all, and much 
more than all, which I had contemplated, was already 
most efficiently performed. I allude to a work re- 
cently published, by Frederick Seebohm, Esq., en- 
titled The Oxford Eeformers of 1498. Some of the 
proof-sheets .of this were shown to me by the cour- 
tesy of the author; and I could not but rejoice to 
find that the sketch I had been meditating was 
rendered unnecessary by such a finished portrait. 

I mention this to account for, and in some measure 
excuse, what may appear disconnected in the follow- 
ing Introduction. My original plan being altered, I 



VI PREFACE. 

endeavoured to confine myself to such topics as bore 
directly upon Dean Colet's Treatise ; whilst yet being 
unwilling to exclude some few particulars which 
might interest those concerned in St. Paul's School. 

On one point I was several times in doubt ; namely, 
whether or not it would be better to accompany the 
Latin Treatise with a translation. But, whilst doing 
so would have increased the size of the book, I judged 
that those into whose hands alone it was likely to 
come would readily dispense with such an addition. 

The peculiarities of spelling, usual at the period, 
such as justicie for justitice, and the like, I have not 
thought it worth while to reproduce. Some obvious 
slips of the transcriber I have silently corrected; 
more important ones, are noted at the foot of the 
page. The blanks in words and sentences which 
occur here and there in the manuscript, evidently 
those left by one who could not decipher the writing 
before him, I have filled up on conjecture; marking 
all such insertions by [ ]. The quotations from 
Scripture I have throughout verified, and placed the 
references in the margin. Besides the more obvious 
extracts from Dionysius, I have added one or two 
passages from the Fathers, which are cited, or seem 
alluded to ; and now and then a brief note in illustra- 
tion of the text. The Introduction and Synopsis will, 
I trust, render anything more than this unnecessary. 

St. Paul's School, 
May, 1867. 




INTRODUCTION. 



Treatise -which is here presented to 
the reader occupies the last sixty pages 
of a manuscript volume, in quarto, 
which has been in the library of St. 
Paul's School since the year 1759. The inscription 
on the fly-leaf shows that it was the gift of Robert 
Emmott; but its previous history I have not been 
able to trace. From a passage in Pepys's Diary 1 it 
would appear that there were some of Colet's treatises 
in the possession of the High Master of that time, 
Mr. Samuel Crumleholme; but in a little work, 
written shortly afterwards, the titles of these are 
given, 2 and prove them not to have been included in 



1 Under Feb. 7th, 1660. " Went to Paul's School ; where he 
that made the speech for the Seventh Form, in praise of the Founder, 
did shew a book which Mr. Crumlum had lately got, which he believed 
to be of the Founder's own writing." 

2 " His Commentary on the Epistle to the Eomanes, and an Epistle 
of his to a Cardinal, both writ with his own hand, are in the Library 
of .St. Paul's School in London." A Sermon of Conforming and 
Reforming, $c., edited by Tho. Smith (1661), p. 75. In the Great 
Fire of 1666, as Strype tells us (Stoiv, i. 168), Cromleholme " lost an 



2 INTRODUCTION. 

the contents of the present volume. The previous 
part of the volume consists of two treatises, one on 
the Celestial Hierarchy, and the other on the Eccle- 
siastical Hierarchy .of Dionysius, the so-called Areo- 
pagite. These two are digests, or summaries, of the 
corresponding works of Dionysius, made, as the 
opening sentences 1 of the first inform us, for the use 
of a friend. All three are in the same neat and 
beautiful hand. That this is not Dean Colet's own 
is clear from several considerations. The manuscript 
has all the appearance of a fair copy ; here and there 
are blanks in the middle of a sentence, which betoken 
an amanuensis, unable to decipher a word or phrase ; 
and, what is most conclusive of all, a portion of it is 
evidently a transcript of a copy corrected by the 
author. This appears from a comparison of the 
manuscript 2 in the Cambridge University Library, 
which contains several compositions of Dean Colet's, 
and among them one on the Celestial Hierarchy. In 
the margin of this are marked numerous corrections 
and additions, in a less formal hand, very probably 
the author's ; and those corrections are embodied in 



incomparable library ; for he was very curious in books." Such as 
were rescued from the fire probably got scattered about ; and possibly 
the two Treatises described by Smith are the very ones now in the 
University Library at Cambridge. 

1 " Cognosco tuam sublimem et angelicam mentem, vir optime et 
amice charissime, dignam sane quse non solum de angelis audiat, sed 
prseterea qua3 cum ipsis una consocietur. Quapropter, quse heri et 
nudiustertius apud Dionysium Areopagitam in eo suo libro qui inscri- 
bitur De Ccelesti HierarcMa (in quo magnifice et divinitus de angelis 
disserit) legi et memoria reportavi, ea volo tecum communicare." 

2 Which, by the : courteous permission of the authorities, I was 
allowed to inspect. It is marked Gg. iv. 26. 



INTRODUCTION. 3 

the school manuscript. 1 I am inclined to think that 
the handwriting of the latter is that of Peter Meghen, 
a native of Brabant, and Colet's amanuensis. 2 It 
resembles, most nearly of all which I have seen, that 
of a little volume in the British Museum, 3 which 
purports to contain the original Statutes of St. Paul's 
School, and the history of which is so curious as to 
deserve a passing notice. It is entitled: Statuta 
Paulince Scholce. Hum Libellum ego Joannes Colet 
tradidi in manibus Magistri Lilii xviii" die Junii 
a ' X'' M.CCCCC.XVIII. ut eum in scola servet et observet. 
And inside the cover is written the following memo- 
randum, signed " William Hamper, Deritend House, 
Birmingham, Feb. 5th, 1820." " This valuable do- 
cument was given to me by Mr. Rodd, Bookseller, 
Great Newport Street, Long Acre, in whose shop I 
accidentally discovered it, lying, as waste paper, be- 
tween the last leaf and cover of a fragment of an old 



1 Thus, for example, in the sentence at the bottom of the first page, 
" in qua unitate lucis omnino et idemtitate est varietas rerum ; in variis 
rebus eadem lux," the latter part is altered to " luxque eadem manet 
una et simplex in variis rebus ; " and so it appears in the School copy. 

2 A noble manuscript of his, executed at Dean Colet's charge, is 
also in the University Library, marked Dd. vii. 3. It is a transcript 
of the Gospels of St. Matthew and St. Mark, in Latin, arranged in 
parallel columns ; but being in a print hand, does not afford the means 
of comparison with the School manuscript. The same remark holds 
good, I am informed, with respect to the manuscripts done by Meghen, 
which are in the Library of Corpus Christi College, Cambridge. 

Knight, in the Introduction to his Life of Colet (1823), p. xvi, 
speaks of a " manuscript in the Chapter-house at St. Paul's, writ by 
Dean Colet's own hand." Through the kindness of the Eev. W. S. 
Simpson, M.A., Librarian of St. Paul's, I am enabled to state that no 
such manuscript is to be found there. 

3 " Additional and Egerton, S. 6274." It is a thin quarto of 
twelve leaves, neatly repaired and bound. 



4 INTRODUCTION. 

law manuscript on vellum, which, with others of a 
like description, was on the point of being sent to a 
neighbouring gold-beater's, to be used for the pur- 
poses of his trade. July 7th, 1818." l The sub- 
scription at the end of this document Joannes Colett, 
fundator nove scale manu mea propria seems to indi- 
cate that it is in Colet's own handwriting ; and there 
is undoubtedly a resemblance between it and that of 
the school manuscript : but I think the reasons given 
above, on the other side, to be much more weighty. 

To pass from, the question of the handwriting to 
that of the time when the Treatise on the Sacraments 
was composed, there is reason for thinking that it was 
not long after 1498. Besides the slight presumption 
which its being found in the same copy affords, that 
it was a work of the same period as the summaries 
of Dionysius before-mentioned, there is the more 
important fact, that it is deeply penetrated with the 
influence of that writer. Now, Erasmus, writing 
about the year 1530, 3 states that Grocyn, " thirty 
years before," had begun to lecture in St. Paul's on 



1 A copy of it, in facsimile, is in vol. XT. of Kennett's MSS. (Lans- 
downe Library, No. 949), with this note : " Ex autographo tran- 
scripsit Joannes Copping, Maii, &c. 1715." Is it possible that the 
original lay misplaced in some law-stationer's office, till found, more 
than a century later, by Mr. Hamper ? 

2 The passage occurs in the Declarationes Des. Erasmi Roterodami 
ad censuras Lutetice vulgatas sub nomine Facultatis Theologice Paris- 
iensis, printed by Froben in 1532, p. 264. The charge in question 
was, that Erasmus, in the Ejoistola ad D. Erardum de Marca, pre- 
fixed to his paraphrase of the First Epistle to the Corinthians, had used 
the following language : " Nam Dionysius, qui in Hierarchia Secunda 
priscos Ecclesias ritus satis copiose describit, eruditis recentior quispiam 
fuisse videtur, quam fuerit Areopagites ille Pauli discipulus." (Froben, 
1534, tomus secundus, p. 146). Erasmus replies by noticing men's 



INTRODUCTION. 5 

I the Ecclesiastical Hierarchy, but had not been many 
weeks engaged in his task before he came to the 
conclusion that the writings which passed for the 
Areopagite's could not be his. It is not likely that 
after Grocyn, an intimate friend of Colet's, had made, 
and publicly owned, this discovery, Colet would have 
continued to speak of Dionysius with such unqualified 
respect. 1 Moreover, an event occurred hi the year 
1498 which was likely to direct Colet's thoughts 
afresh to Dionysius ; whose writings, in some form or 
other, he had before met with during his travels on 
the Continent. This was the publication of the Paris 
edition of some of the works of the Areopagite, in 
the form of a Latin translation by Ambrosius, the 
earliest edition, I believe, which had appeared. The 
attention thus, excited is shown, to some extent, by 
the publication, in 1502, of the Argentine edition, 
containing, in a Latin dress, the works which had 
appeared four years before, with some additional ones. 
There is therefore no improbability in supposing, 
that it was the appearance of one of these two edi- 



proneness to such pious frauds as he held the production of the Areo- 
pagite's works to be ; and, to show that other learned men were of his 
opinion, cites the case of Grocyn. 

1 Jewell, indeed, distinctly states that Colet held the same view as 
Grocyn : " Dionysius, although he be an ancient writer, as it may 
many waies well appeare, yet it is judged by Erasmus, John Colet, 
and others many, grave and learned men, that it cannot be Areopagita, 
S. Paul's disciple, that is mentioned in the Acts." Of Private Masse 
(ed. 1611), p. 8. 

But Harding, in his Rejoinder to M. Jeivel's Replie (1566), fol. 44, 
says : " As for John Colet, he hath never a word to shew, for he 
wrote no workes. If he said it at his table, or in a sermon, as M. 
Jewel perhappes hath heard saye, the proufe is of small auctoritie. 
We admit not the trial of hearesaies." 



6 INTRODUCTION. 

tions, most likely of the former, which turned Colet's 
attention afresh to the Hierarchies, and prompted him 
to draw up the abridgments of them before referred 
to. Indeed, if we can depend upon the date given 
by Erasmus for Grocyn's Lectures on Dionysius, it is 
not unreasonable to conjecture that he was the friend 
for whose benefit Colet took this trouble. After 
reading Colet's abstracts, supposing him not as yet to 
have thoroughly studied the author for himself, 
Grocyn would be likely enough " stomachari in eos, 
qui negarent esse ilium Areopagitam." And the 
present Treatise on the Sacraments would seem, 
from its style, to have had its origin in the same train 
of thought. 

When- we think of the eminently practical cast of 
Dean Colet's mind, it is almost surprising that the 
high-flown fancies and turgid style of Dionysius 
should have made any deep impression on him. We 
call to mind his strong common sense, as it is so 
admirably portrayed for us in Erasmus's account of 
their journey to the shrine of St. Thomas of Canter- 
bury; 1 and we feel that in the twelve years or so 



1 In the colloquy headed Peregrinatio religionis ergo, of which a 
new translation, with many interesting notes, by John Gough Nichols, 
Esq., appeared in 1849. The story has since heen told by Dean 
Stanley, in his Historical Memorials of Canterbury (1865), pp. 240 
sqq. Mr. Nichols has satisfactorily proved that the Gratianus Pullus 
of the Dialogue was no other than Colet. Fuller, in his Abel JRedivi- 
vus (1651), p. 99, mentions the circumstance which is shown to have 
suggested the name of Pullus, and adds a reason for it of his own : 
'" Black he loved above all colours, preferring it farre before Purple ; 
which preserved his Doctorall robes the longer." 

If any one still doubts of the completeness of Mr. Nichols' proof 
that Gratianus Pullus was John Colet, and no imaginary Gratian 



INTKODUCTION. 7 

which elapsed between the probable date of this 
Treatise and the pilgrimage to Canterbury, great 
changes must have taken place in his mind. But it 
should be remembered how wide a sway those 
singular writings once exercised. " Dionysius is 
the mystical hero of mysticism. You find traces 
of him everywhere. Go almost where you will, 
through the writings of the mediaeval mystics, into 
their depths of nihilism, up their heights of rapture 
or of speculation, through their overgrowth of fancy, 
you find his authority cited, his words employed, his 
opinions more or less fully transmitted." 1 

The very fact that their authority was disputed, 
at the first public citation of them of which we find 
mention, tended to direct men's thoughts to them the 
more. When the Severians, at the Council of Con- 



Pullen, I tliink that I can add another argument. Gratianus is 
clearly a Latin translation of the name John. In the interpretation of 
Hebrew names given us by St. Jerome (a favourite author with both 
Erasmus and Colet), among those taken from the Acts is the follow- 
ing : " Joannes,, in quo est gratia, vel Domini gratia ." Bishop 
Jewell seems to have had the same thought, in a passage that reminds 
us, in more than one respect, of Colet. Speaking of the lessons which 
our Christian names should teach, he says: " As, if any be called 
John, that he pray for grace, and desire to be filled with grace : that 
he give witnesse of Christ, that he is the Lambe of God which taketh 
away the sins of the world : that he rebuke vice boldly, as John did in 
Herod, though he were a mighty prince." Treatise of the Sacraments 
(1611), p. 268. 

1 Hours with the My sties, by Bobert Alfred Vaughan, B.A. (1856), 
vol. i. p. 128. This highly-gifted author was well able to form an 
opinion on the matter : but I think he is somewhat too severe on the 
merits of Dionysius as a writer : " His verbose and turgid style, too, 
is destitute of all genuine feeling. He piles epithet on epithet, throws 
superlative on superlative, hyperbole on hyperbole, and it is but log 
upon log; he puts no fire under, neither does any come from else- 
where." II. p. 127. 



8 INTRODUCTION. 

stantinople, in 533, endeavoured to support their 
opinions by a reference to the Areopagite, the validity 
of their standard was called in question, on the 
ground that neither Cyril nor Athanasius had indi- 
cated any knowledge of it in their own controversies 
against Nestorius and Arius. 1 In course of time, 
this Dionysius became identified with the patron 
saint of France, 2 and the influence of his works was 
thus still more widely spread. They were translated 
and commented on by John Scotus in the ninth cen- 
tury, and appealed to by Boniface VIII. in the 
thirteenth. 3 Should any one now attempt seriously 
to maintain the genuineness of these writings, as 
being, what they were long believed to be, the com- 
position of the Dionysius converted by St. Paul at 
Athens, Casaubon's expression 4 would hardly be 
too strong to apply to him. But at the time when 
Colet read them, it was but small disparagement to 



1 Neander's General History of tlie Christian Religion (1851), 
vol. v. p. 235. 

2 As such, his portrait stands first in the Pourtraits et vies des 
Homines illustres of Andre Thevet (1584), who thus disposes of the 
question of genuineness : " Je ne daignerois respondre a ceux qui 
trop severes Aristarques revoquent en douhte si cestuy Denis Areopa- 
gite, disciple de Sainct Paul, et Apostre des Gauls, est autheur des 
livres qui sont divulguez en son nom, les attrihuant a autres qui ont 
vescu en autre temps." fol. 2. a. 

See also Struve's Introductio in notitiam rei literarice (1754), p. 
607; and Mosheim's Ecclesiastical History (1790), voh ii. p. 331, 
where is the story of his works reaching France in 824. 

3 Neander, vol. ix. pp. 11-12. 

4 Written in his copy of Dionysius : " Auctor est sane lectu dig- 
nissimus, et qui Pontificiorum causam aperte in multis jugulat. Hunc 
autem fuisse Apostolorum sequalem stupor est credere ; furor est velle 
aliis persuadere. Asinos esse oportet, qui hoc sibi sinent persuaderi." 
Cave's Historia Literaria (1688), p. 177. 



INTEODUCTION. 9 

his intellect that he should believe them to be the 
genuine work of the disciple of St: Paul. 

Erasmus, in a letter 1 written in the year that Colet 
died, speaks of them as the production of a later 
author. Since then it has been the fashion to depre- 
ciate them. 2 Be their value, however, what it may, 



1 Epistolce (1642), p. 3825, G., being the letter to Cardinal de 
Marca, from which an extract has been given. 

2 So Neander, iii. p. 497 : " A theurgical system, or mixed sym- 
bolism of this sort, formed out of a mixture of Christianity and Pla- 
tonism, we find completely elaborated in the writings forged under the 
name of Dionysius the Areopagite, which might have been composed 
some tune in the course of the fifth century." Fabricius, in his 
Prolegomena to Marinus's Proems (1703), p. xii, speaks of " that 
lunatic Dionysius" " larvatum ilium Dionysium Areopagitam" and 
by Brucker he is described as " Pseudo-philosophus ifie et impostor." 
Miscellanea Tiistorice Philosophies (1748), p. 142. n. 

In the clouds of controversial dust which have been raised about 
the age and authorship of the Dionysiac writings, it is not easy to 
take a correct view of the value of the writings themselves. Many 
will be disposed to respond to the conclusion of Struve (Introductio, 
fyc, p. 856) respecting the works of the Mystics generally : " Omnes 
judicant, paucissimi intelligunt. Legi, pervolvi horum scripta, nee 
condemno, nee adprobo : nou intelligo." In Usher's Dissertatio, sub- 
joined to his Historia Dogmatica (1690), pp. 281-289, the reader 
will find a full discussion of the arguments against the Apostolic date 
claimed for Dionysius. Usher concludes by assigning him to the fifth 
century. Pearson, in his Vindicice Epistolarum S. fgnatii (1852), 
vol. i. pp. 249-264, places him still earlier, and makes him contempo- 
rary with Eusebius. Peter Halloix, in his Qucestiones de Vita et 
operibus S. Dionysii, appended to the Venice edition of 1756, argues 
very acutely against some of the reasons commonly brought forwards 
for the lateness of the authorship ; especially that grounded on the 
alleged quotation from Ignatius. The opinion of Grocyn he makes 
very light of: " Quam putida ratio ! et quam arundineo innixa baculo 
auctoritas. Albusne an ater fiierit iste Crocinus qui ista crocitavit, quis 
novit?" In one of the Dissertations appended to the Disquisitio 
Chronologica of Baraterius (1740), pp. 285 sqq., a sensible view, as I 
think, is taken. And though the reader may not join in his conclu- 
sion that the author of the Hierarchies was really Dionysius, Bishop 



10 INTRODUCTION. 

their influence on Colet's mind, at one period of his 
life at least, was such, that it seems proper to give a 
short account of the Ecclesiastical Hierarchy, as being 
the treatise which Colet epitomized most fully, and 
which has given a strong tinge to his own work 
on the Sacraments. 

Of the seven chapters into which the Ecclesiastical 
Hierarchy is divided, the first treats of the resemblance 
between the Celestial Hierarchy and the Ecclesias- 
tical. The object of each is to raise the beings, of 
and for whom it consists, through successive stages, 
from a lower order to a higher, and so, in the end, to 
God. For this purpose, the orders of heavenly beings 
receive an illumination directly, as their spiritual 
natures allow them to do, from the Source of' all 
Light; but for mankind, there is need of sensible 
images, or sacraments. 

The second treats of Baptism, the formal com- 
mencement of the spiritual life ; of the ceremonies 
attending it the stripping off the old garments, the 
anointing with oil, the arraying in a white robe, and 
the participation in the Holy Communion. 



of Alexandria, he will see good reason for not regarding the work as 
that of an impostor. 

It may be added that Pilkington, in his Confutation of an Addition 
(Parker Society, 1842), p. 586, contrasts the simplicity of rites, as 
described in Dionysius, with the Popish additions of later times. And 
Stillingfleet, no mean authority, whilst denying any right to the title of 
Areopagite, appears to have had no thought of the writings being 
" forged." " If you had asked," he writes in his controversy with 
Cressy, " whether he had been an ancient and learned author, living 
sometime within the first four hundred years, you should not have met 
with any opposition from me." Rational Account (1665), p. 648. 



INTRODUCTION. 11 

- The third is on the Eucharist, called Synaxis, and 
Communion, as uniting us to God ; with a descrip- 
tion of the manner of solemnising it. 

The fourth contains an account of the consecration 
of the Holy Oil, and the mystical significance of its 
use in Baptism, at the altar, and the like. 

The fifth describes the priestly Orders, and their 
office ; the Christian Hierarchy being something mid- 
way between the Mosaic and the Heavenly. As the 
channels through which the Christian Church receives 
illumination are more corporeal than spiritual natures 
require, so are they less carnal and material than those 
suited to the infant condition of the Legal Church. 

The sixth assigns the Orders which are the proper 
subjects of the threefold work of purifying, illu- 
mining, and perfecting. The Monastic state is the 
highest example of the last, or perfect condition. 
Then follow the forms of Monastic consecration. 

The seventh and last treats of the burial of the 
dead, whether ecclesiastics or lay people ; the mean- 
ing of> anointing after death ; and the nature and 
limitations of prayers for the dead. 

We may thus see that the pervading idea in this 
Treatise of Dionysius is that of a gradual ascent to 
God, through various stages of spiritual life, brought 
about through the agency of corresponding orders in 
a divinely appointed ministry. To quote again the 
words of Vaughan, 1 " The chain of being in the 
upper and invisible world, through which the Divine 
power diffuses itself in successive gradations, he calls 
the Celestial Hierarchy. The Ecclesiastical Hierarchy 

1 Ut supra, p. 123. 



12 INTEODUCTION. 

is a corresponding series in the visible world. The 
orders of angelic natures and of priestly functionaries 
correspond to each other. The highest rank of the 
former receive illumination immediately from God. 
The lowest of the heavenly imparts divine light to 
the highest of the earthly hierarchy. Each order 
strives perpetually to approximate to that immedi- 
ately above itself, from which it receives the trans- 
mitted influence, so that all, as Dante describes it, 
' draw and are drawn, and tend in common towards 
the centre, God.' " 

The idea is, in itself, a sublime one, when divested 
of unnecessary mysticism ; and the reader will not 
fail to perceive how largely it enters into the follow- 
ing treatise of Dean Colet's. 

With respect to the number of the Sacraments, we 
do not find in Dionysius any formal enumeration of 
them, much less the exact seven which were after- 
wards recognized by theWestern Church. And this the 
early date assigned to him would naturally lead us to 
expect. Of the seven chapters composing the Eccle- 
siastical Hierarchy, setting apart the first as introduc- 
tory, we find that the remaining six treat, in brief, of 
Baptism, the Lord's Supper, the Consecration of the 
Holy Oil, Priestly Orders, Monastic Dedication, and 
the Ceremonies of the Holy Dead. And these are 
the very six rites to which, as we are informed, 1 the 
term mysterium became gradually restricted in the 
Eastern Church. But, in fact, till long after the 
time of Dionysius, both the sacramentum of the 

1 Hard wick, History of the Christian Church: Middle Age, 
(1853), p, 321, n. 



INTKODUCTION. 13 

Western and the mysterium of the Eastern Church, 
were terms employed with great latitude of mean- 
ing. It was not till the twelfth century that " the 
ordinances which could claim to be admitted to the 
rank of sacraments were found to coincide exactly 
with the sacred number seven. The earliest trace of 
this scholastic limitation has been pointed out in a 
discourse of Otho, the Apostle of the Pomeranians 
(1124); and from the age of Peter Lombard, Bona- 
ventura, and Aquinas, members of the Western 
Church were taught to pay a large, if not an equal, 
share of reverence unto all the Sacraments of the new 
law: Baptism, Confirmation, the Eucharist, Peni- 
tence, Extreme Unction, Orders, and Matrimony." 1 
In the Necessary Doctrine, put forth in 1543, 2 the list 
of seven Sacraments is retained. The First Book of 
Homilies (1547) speaks of the " Sacrament of Matri- 
mony." Cranmer's Catechism gives three Sacra- 
ments as instituted by Christ, namely, Baptism, 
Absolution, and the Lord's Supper. In the Second 
Book of Homilies (1563) there is a clear decision 
given on the matter : " In general acceptation, the 
name of a Sacrament may be attributed to any thing, 
whereby an holy thing is signified. In which under- 
standing of the word the ancient writers have given 
this name, not only to the other five, commonly of 
late years taken and used for supplying the number 
of the seven Sacraments, but also to divers and 
sundry other ceremonies, as to oil, washing of feet, 

1 Hardwick, Ib. 

2 Quoted iu Browne's Escposition of the Thirty-nine Articles (1 858), 
p. 580 ; whence also I have taken the references to Cranmer and the 
Homilies. 



14 INTRODUCTION. 

and such like : not meaning thereby to repute them 
as Sacraments in the same signification that the two 
forenamed Sacraments are. Dionysius, Bernard, de 
Ccend Domini, etAblut. pedum" And Bishop Jewell, 1 
writing some two years later, allows a like freedom 
in the use of the word : " Now for the number of 
Sacraments, how many there be, it may seeme some- 
what hard to say, and that it cannot be spoken with- 
out offence. For men's judgements heerein have 
swarved very much : some have said there are two ; 
others three ; others foure ; and others, that there are 
seven Sacraments. This difference of opinions 
standeth rather in termes, than hi the matter. For 
a Sacrament, in the maner of speaking which the 
Church useth, and in the writings of the Holy Scrip- 
ture, and of ancient fathers, sometimes signifieth pro- 
perly every such Sacrament which Christ hath 
ordained in the New Testament, for which he hath 
chosen some certaine element, and spoken special 
words to make it a Sacrament, and hath annexed 
thereto the promise of grace : sometimes it is used hi 
a general kind of taking; and so every mistery set 
downe to teach the people, and many things that in- 
deed and by special property be no Sacraments, may 
neverthelesse passe under the generall name of a 
Sacrament." 

With such divergence between the conclusions of 
the Eastern and "Western Churches as to the Sacra- 
ments, and such a latitude in the use of the term 
itself, as the above passages show, we shall not be 
surprised to find little that is dogmatic in Colet's 

1 Treatise of the Sacraments (1611), p. 263. 



INTKODUCTION. 15 

treatise. He adopts, indeed, the prevalent enumera- 
tion of seven Sacraments, but he arranges them in an 
order of his own. In the Distinctions of Peter Lom- 
bard, 1 they are treated of in the following order : 
Baptism, Confirmation, Eucharist, Penitence, Ex- 
treme Unction, Orders, Matrimony. And this 
arrangement was finally confirmed by the Council of 
Trent. 2 But Colet, under the influence of the spiri- 
tualizing mysticism of Dionysius, places Orders and 
Matrimony together first, as distinctive of the " Yir," 
the masculine or sacerdotal element in the Church ; 
the remaining five, of which Penitence occupies the 
first place, being assigned to the " Uxor," the femi- 
nine or lay element. So far from being at all in the 
manner of Peter Lombard, his treatise may almost 
be described . as a commentary on the text, " Sacra- 
mentum hoc magnum est ; ego autem dico in Christo 



1 This famous writer died July 20th, 1164. Cave specifies six 
editions of his Sentences between 1474 and 1499 inclusive. His work 
appears to have been welcomed as a convenient handbook, and the com- 
mentators upon it were very numerous. Erasmus, in his note on St. 
Matt. i. 19 (quoted by Fabricius), says: "Haud aspernandus Theo- 
logus Petrus Longobardus, rhapsodus ejus operis quod vocant Sen- 
tentiarum, quern arbitror quidem et probum fuisse virum, et, ut ilia 
ferebat setas, eruditum. Atque utinam illius labor tarn feliciter cessis- 
set Orbi Christiano quam ab illo susceptum est pio studio. Siquidem 
apparet ilium hoc egisse, ut semel collectis quse ad rem pertinebant, 
qusestiones omnes excluderet. Sed ea res in diversum exiit. Videmus 
enim ex eo opere nunquam finiendarum qusestionum non examina sed 
maria prorupisse." 

2 iSessio septima (die tertio Martii, 1547) : Canon i. : " Si quis 
dixerit, Sacramenta novse legis non fuisse omnia a Jesu Christo Domino 
nostro instituta, aut esse plura, vel pauciora, quam septem; videlicet: 
Baptismum, Oonfirmationem, Eucharistiam, Poenitentiam, Extremam 
Unctionem, Ordinem, et Matrimonium; aut etiam aliquod horum 
septem non esse vere et proprie Sacramentum, anathema sit." 



16 INTRODUCTION. 

et in Ecclesia." Whilst the five last mentioned Sa- 
craments are handled very briefly, the two preceding 
' Orders and Matrimony are treated of at great 
length. On Matrimony especially; that spiritual 
union, namely, "betwixt Christ and his Church/' 1 
of which he does not scruple to call the union of man 
and wife a " vain and empty shadow," he expatiates 
at length. This, in fact, he makes to include all: 
" to the fruitful union of mankind, as wife, with God, 
as husband, all the Sacraments in the 'Church tend." 
And he does not hesitate to explain the silence of 
Dionysius about marriage, on the ground, either of 
his perceiving it to be identical with priesthood, or of 
his meaning us to gather that, in the Church of 
Christ there ought not to be any other marriage than 
the mystical one involved in the priesthood. 

If any additional argument were required to prove 
that this treatise was written at a comparatively 
early period of Colet's life, it would be furnished by 
his maintaining such doctrines as these. They ap- 
pear to betoken a study of books, rather than of the 
world. When, in 1511, he preached his Convocation 
Sermon, 2 he spoke boldly of the evil of " carnal con- 



1 The words of the introduction in our service " signifying; unto us 
the mystical union that is hetwixt Christ and His Church^ would have 
well satisfied Dean Colet; but, so far as this treatise expressed his real 
thoughts, he would not have called matrimony an " holy estate," and 
" honourable among all men." 

2 Given at length in vol. ii. of The Phcenix; or, a Revival of 
scarce and valuable Pieces (1708). In his Preface, p. iv, the editor 
of the Phoenix speaks of it as " perhaps one of the oldest, as well as 
one of the honestest, extant in the English tongue."- " This piece," 
he adds, " we might safely trust alone into the world without Passport 
or Eecommendation ; whether we consider it purely as a sermon, with 



INTRODUCTION. 17 

cupiscence." But lie did not propose, as the remedy 
for it, the stricter enforcing of celibacy among priests. 
And when he was called upon to put the soundness 
of his own views to a very practical test, in the choice 
of governors and masters for his newly-founded 
school, he showed no preference for the unmarried 
state, but rather the reverse. " In charge of the 
revenues," Erasmus tells us, 1 " and of the whole con- 
cern, he set, not priests, not a bishop, not a chapter, 
not dignitaries; but married citizens, 2 of established 



respect to the language and ornaments of speech, tho preached in the 
reign of Henry VII, or with respect to the matter and doctrine, tho 
in the days of Popery." Bishop Unmet " once intended to have 
published it, as a piece that might serve to open the scene, and to 
shew the state of things at the first beginnings of the Reformation." 
[Ib. p. v.) It was republished by Tho. Smith in 1661 ; and again in 
1701 ; the suggestive cause of this latter republication being stated to 
be a recent quotation from it by Dr. Atterbury. 

From his greatness as a preacher, Erasmus in one passage fanci- 
fully derives the name of Colet: " Since Coheleifi is the Hebrew 
word for Preacher, which in Greek is Ecclesiastes." Letter to Thomas 
Lupset (Epp., 1642, iv. 4). -Smith, who mentions this remark about 
Colielefh, adds : " If I might guess again, I should say, that he was 
so called because of those rare endowments that were in him. For the 
Colet is that part of the ring wherein the pretious stone or signet is set 

. . . It pleased Aim. God to break his mother's wedding-ring, in 
taking away all her 22 children, except only one ; but he preserved 
the colet of it, in preserving our Dr. alive as long as she lived." A 
Sermon, fyc, p. 59. 

Guesses apart, I suppose it will be allowed that the name Colet is 
only a diminutive of Nicholas. The popularity of that saint made his 
namesakes multiply fast. " The southern nations almost always con- 
tract their names by the omission of the first syllable, as the northern 
ones do by leaving out the latter ones ; and thus, while the English 
have Nick, the Italians speak of Cola, &c." See History of Christian 
Surnames (1863), vol. i. p. 214. 

1 Letter to Justus Jonas (Epp. 1642, p. 705). 

2 " Gives aliquot conjugates" ?7>. I am aware that this has been 
explained by some to mean " formed into a Company," as the Mercers 

C 



18 INTRODUCTION. 

v/ 

reputation." And for the master of the school, there 
was to be chosen " a wedded man, 1 a single man, or 
a priest that hath no benefice with cure ;" a direction 
which shows at least no preference of unmarried men 
for this office. We may conclude, therefore, that the 
exaltation of celibacy, which we find in this treatise, 
betokens an early and transition state of Colet's mind, 
and one which was afterwards greatly modified by 
what he saw of the evils of enforced celibacy among 
the clergy. 2 Of those evils we have a sufficient 
account from contemporary writers. 3 

are. So Holland appears to have understood it (Heroologia Anglica, 
1620, vol. ii. p. 155): " Docuit ipse conjugatus, se nusquam reperisse 
minus corruptos mores quam inter conjugates." And yet the passage 
in Erasmus's letter, a little further on, which Holland is evidently 
quoting, shows beyond doubt what meaning the word was there 
intended to have. For the writer adds, as the reason for good prin- 
ciples being found among the " conjugati," that natural affection, the 
care of children) and domestic concerns, were so many barriers to keep 
them from falling into vice. 

Among the Harleian MSS. in the British Museum is a thin folio 
(marked 6037), containing Short Lives of various Divines. In his 
account of Colet, the writer says that " he always preferred the honest 
and honourable estate of matrimony before the unchast single life of 
priests;" and again, of the " Head Master and Usher," " bee willed 
that they should be chosen out of the number of married men, than of 
priests with their suspected chastity." But the account seems only to 
be a somewhat careless abstract of -Erasmus or Holland. 

1 The copy of the Statutes in Knight's Colet, p. 303, has " yf such 
may be gotten a wedded man." The autograph copy before referred 
to, as well as the two in Kennett's Collections, show that the words " yf 
such may be gotten," refer to the master's being learned " also in 
Greke," which precedes. 

2 " Erasmus often referred to this wisdom and honesty of Dr. Colet 
in preferring a married man for the master of his school and again, 
married men for the trustees and guardians of it ; because the crelibacie 
of the clergy was at that time run into infinite crimes and scandals." 
Kennett Collections, vol. xcvi. fol. 82, a ; where a passage is given, in 
testimony, from Erasmus's Dialogus de Recta Latini Grcecique ser- 



INTRODUCTION. 19 

It will be interesting, for the completion of our 
knowledge of what Dean Colet wrote upon the Sacra- 
ments, to compare the summary of religion which he 
drew up for the use of the " lytel babys and lytel 
children " of his school. It is prefixed to the Latin 
Accidence 1 which he composed for the same purpose. 



monis pronuntiatione. I quote from Maire's edition of it (1643), 
p. 27. " Proinde Joannes Coletus, vir seterna dignus memoria, quum 
templo Divi Pauli scholam puerilem addidisset, nulla cura magis 
torquebatur, quam in quos ejus rei prsefecturam delegaret. Episcopi 
judicant hanc rem indignam sua solicitudine. Scholasteres censibus 
recipiendis se potius quam scholse curandse datos arbitrantur ; et 
pulcbre sibi videntur suo functi officio, si ludimagistros non deciment. 
In collegiis canonicorum fere deterior pars superat. Magistratus vel 
judicio carent, vel indulgent privatis affectibus. LEO. Quid tandem 
consili repent? TJESTJS. Hominem conjugatum, et liberis divitem, 
scholas prsefecit. Provisionem delegavit aliquot e civibus laicis, quo- 
rum probitatem habere sibi videbatur exploratam ; ut ab his in hseredes 
proximos derivarentur. LEO. Num ea providentia securum reddidit? 
UESTIS. Minime. Sed bic aiebat sibi videri minimum esse periculi, ut 
turn habebant res humanse." 

Earlier in ihe same Dialogue (ib. p. 13) there is a striking picture 
drawn of the amount of care shown in the choice of schoolmasters ; 
which places Colet's attention to this matter in yet stronger relief: 
" Ad hujus aut illius commendationem quemvis ludo prseficimus, fere 
indoctum, interdum et moribus improbis; non hue spectantes, ut rei 
charissimae, civium liberis, omnibus consulamus, sed ut unius famelici 
ventriculo prospiciamus ; accuratius circuinspicientes cui committamus 
unum equum aut canem venatorem, quam cui credamus totius civitatis 
pignora." See also Ridderus De Eruditione (1680), pp. 36-40. 

3 Thus Melancbthon, writing in 1529 to Henry VIII, says : " Ne- 
mo non videt qualis sit vita ccelibum: bonorum querelse notse sunt, 
malorum turpitude manifesta est." Epp. 1642, p. 28. 

But the strongest testimony is that of Polydore Vergil, himself an 
ecclesiastic, and acquainted with Colet : " Illud tamen dixerim, tan- 
turn abfuisse, ut ista coacta castitas illam conjugalem vicerit, ut etiam 
nullius delicti crimen majus ordini dedecus, plus mali religioni, plus 
doloris omnibus bonis impresserit, inusserit, attulerit, quam sacerdotum 
libidinis labes." De Rerum Inventoribus (1644), p. 347. 

1 The exact title of this work, an early edition of which is, I believe, 



20 INTBODUCTION. 

The Articles of the Faith, or Creed, are as 
follows : 

i. "I beleve in God the father almighty creatour of 

heven and of erth. 

ii. And in his sone Jesu Christ ower lorde. 
iii. Which was conceived by the holy gost, and 

born of the clene Virgen Marie, 
iiii. Which suffred under Poncio Pilato, and was 



very rare, is Joannis Goleti Theologi, olim Decani Divi Pauli,ceditio,una 
cum quibusdam G. Lilii Grammatices rudimentis. There is a copy in 
the King's Library of the British Museum (marked C. 12. e. 5), printed 
at Antwerp, by Martin Csesar, in August 1535. It contains eighty- 
seven pages, of which 13 and 14 are missing. In the Grenville Library 
there is also a copy (marked 7475), printed in June 1 536, which is 
perfect. 

I have not been able to discover any earlier edition, but I imagine 
there is no doubt as to this portion of the work being from Colet's own 
pen. In Strype's Stow (1720), vol. i. pp. 163 sqq. we are told that 
" Colet also framed a short Catechism in English for the, youth of his 
school, which he obliged all to learn, and was used in the time of 
Popery to be bound up at the beginning of the Accidence." After a 
description of the parts of this Catechism, which corresponds with what 
is found in the editions above-mentioned, Strype concludes : " If the 
superstitious parts of this Catechism had been laid aside, and the rest, 
which is very pious, had been retained for the use of the school, it 
would, in my opinion, have been very well done, and the Pounder's 
Will more complied with." 

And in Pepys's Diary (1848), vol. ii. p. 439, there is the following 
entry under March 9, 1665: "At Paul's School, where I visited 
Mr. Crumlum at his house . . . and he did, upon my declaring 
my value of it, give me one of Lillie's Grammers, of a very old im- 
pression, as it was in the Catholigue times, which I shall set much by." 
From a previous entry, under Feb. 4, 1663, we have a further descrip- 
tion of what was, no doubt, the same book : " Mr. Crumlum . . . . 
also showed us upon my desire an old edition of the Grammer of 
Colett's, where liis Epistle to the children is very pretty ; and in re- 
hearsing the Creed it is said, ' borne of the cleane Virgin Mary.' " 



INTKODUCTION. 21 

crucified and dyed, and was buried, and des- 
cended to hel. 
v. Which rose again the third daye frome deth to 

life. 

vi. Which ascended into heven and sittethe at the 
right hande of the father almighty. 

vii. Which shal come againe and judge both quicke 
and- deed. 

viii. I beleve in the holy gost the holy spirite of 
God. 

ix. I beleve in the holy chirche of Christ, which is 
the clene congregacion of faithful people in 
grace and communion of saintes onely in 
Christ Jesu. 

x. I beleve that in the Chirche of Christe is re- 
mission of synnes both by baptime and by 
penaunce. 

xi. I beleve aftir this life resurreccion of oure deed 
bodyes. 

xii. I beleve at the last everlastinge life of body and 
soule. Amen." 

Next follow The Seven Sacramentes : 

" I beleve also that by the seven Sacraments of 
the Chirch cometh grete grace to al that take 
them accordingly, 
i. By gracious ordre is given power to minister in 

God. 
ii. By gracious matrimony we ar born in to this 

worlde to God. \ 

iii. By gracious baptym we ar born agein the sones 
of God. 



22 INTKODUCTION. 

iiii. By gracious counfirmation we are stablysshed 

in the grace of God. 

v. By gracyous Eucharistye where is ye very pre- 
sence of the persone of Christ under forme 
of breed, we be nouresshed spiritually in 
God. 

vi. By gracious penaunce we rise againe from synne 
to grace in God. 

vii. By gracious Enoelinge and the laste anointinge 
we are in oure deth commended to God." 

After the Oratio Dominica, and Salutatio Angelica, 
there follows next a prayer to the Virgin Mary : 

" Sancta Maria, virgo et mater Jesu, age cum filio 
tuo, ut hsec schola quotidie pronciat in ipso, utque 
omnes pueri in eadem discant ipsum et erudiantur 
in ipso, tandem ut perfecti filii Dei fiant per ipsum. 
Et tu quoque, Jesu benignissime, age cum patre tuo 
et patre nostro, ut gratia sui spiritus, nos suos filiolos 
faciat, sic te Jesu discere et hnitari in hoc seculo, ut 
una tecurn foeliciter regnemus in future." 

Immediately after which conies the Oratiuncula ad 
patrem [sic: leg. pueruni] Jesum Scholce prcesidem, 
which is given in Knight, p. 383. ' 



1 I have been tlie more precise in giving the Prayer to the Virgin 
Mary at full, because there is no intimation of it in Knight, nor yet 
any Table of the Sacraments, as above. And yet, at p. 131 he says, 
speaking of some Prayers of Erasmus, " though made long before the 
foundation of Paul's School, they were never recommended to the 
boys ; nor indeed anything else of foppery or Popish superstition ; so 
that, considering the original constitution of it, it might be called the 
first Protestant School before the [Reformation." So, indeed, it justly 
might; but the reasons for saying so should be sound. St. Paul's 
School, like any other public institution, took the complexion of the 



INTRODUCTION. 23 

It will be observed that, in the above Table of the 
Sacraments, Colet retains the same order as in his 
Treatise. Nor should the wording of the Fifth 
escape notice. It is much nearer to the language of 
our own Church than it is to that of the Council of 
Trent. 1 

In the CarminaScholaria* which Erasmus composed 



times. Thus in 1527, only eight years after Colet's death, we find the 
boys, under their master, Eightwise, acting a masque before the Bang 
at Greenwich, in which one character was " The heretic Luther, like a 
party-friar, in russet damask and black tafiety." In Hall's Chronicle 
(ed. 1809), from which chiefly Froude (Hist. Eng. i. pp. 70-73) gives 
his interesting account of this entertainment, the scholars who acted 
are not stated to be from St. Paul's School. And in many of the 
accounts of these old plays, the " children of Paul's" must be 
understood of those in the Cathedral School. But in the present 
instance, a passage from the original document, given in Collier's 
History of English Dramatic Poetry (1831), vol. i. p. 110, shows 
clearly who are meant : " It. payd by me Eychard Gybson, for 
bjer [beer] and aell and bred for xxxviii chylldern, the Master, the 
.Ussher, and the Masstres, that et and dranke, 3s. 2d. It. Mast. 
Eyghtwos, Master of Powlls School, axethe to be alowed for dobelets, 
hossys [hosen] and schoos for the chylldern that were poore mens 
sons ; and for fyer in tyem of lernyng of the play, as by hys byll 
apperythe, 45s. Qd. ; so for kosts by the sayd Mast. Eyghtwos doon, 
sma. 45s. 6d." 

1 Compare the Shorte Catechisme . . . sett fourth by the Kings 
Majesties authoritie, for all scholemaisters to teach (1553 : reprinted 
in the Enchiridion Theologicum, 1825, vol. i. p. 30): "And even as 
by breade and wyne our natural bodies are susteined and nourished ; 
so by the body, that is, the flesh and bloude of Christ, the soule is fed 
through fayth, and quickened to the heavenlye and godly lyfe." 

Nor is the language of our present Catechism less similar. 

On the other hand, compare the decision of the Council of Trent 
(Sessio decima tertia, canon iv.) : " Hsec Synodus declarat, per con- 
secrationem panis et vini, conversionem fieri totius substantise panis in 
substantiam corporis Christi ; " and the Catechismus, Pars ii. 40. 

- Of which, by the kindness of F. Seebohm, Esq., I have seen 
editions of 1512,-14,-16, and -20. As they are correctly reprinted in 
Knight, p. 125, I do not quote from them. 



24 INTRODUCTION. 

for use in the new school, there is a remarkable 
absence of anything like invocation of saints, or of 
the Virgin Mary. There was one hymn, indeed, 
which we are told was sung by the children on enter- 
ing and leaving school, 1 which it is to be feared is lost. 
At least there is nothing among the extant Carmina 
Scholaria of Erasmus which quite answers to the 
description. The present High Master of St. Paul's 
School, Dr. Kynaston, whose graceful pen has done 
so much to supply the want of which he complains, 
says in the Preface to his Cantica Coletina : " Eras- 
mus was our first contributor; and happy indeed 
should we be, if we possessed the hymn which he 
tells us was daily sung before the picture of the 
Child Jesus at the entering and departing of the 
children." 

At the end of a little parchment-covered book, 2 of 
which the title-page runs Continentur in hoc libello 
plence pietatis aliquot Erasmi lucubraciunculce : Concio 
de puero Jesu : Oratio ad Deum : Pcean ad divam 
Virginem : Oratio ad deiparam Mariam, there are 
some short pieces in Latin verse, by Cornelius Gra- 
pheus, 3 of Alst.- One of these pieces, entitled In 



1 " And all the young fry when they come in and go out of school 
(beside their appointed prayers) salute Christ with an hymn; which you 
may read amongst Erasmus's Epigrams." Smith's translation of the 
Letter to Justus Jonas, &c. (1661), p. 66, and n. So in Fuller's Abel 
Redivivus (1651), p. 100. " Whom the children as they entered the 
schoole were wont to salute with a sacred Hymne, composed, if I be 
rightly informed, by Erasmus." 

1 know not on what authority this hymn was ascribed to Erasmus. 

2 Brit. Mus. 4375. a. It bears date Lovanii, 1514. 

3 See an account of him in Appendix ii. of vol. i. of "Oilman's 
Reformers before the Reformation (tr, by Menzies, 1855). He was 



INTRODUCTION, 25 

nativum Hiesum Ode, contains stanzas which might 
possibly have been so sung. 

The whole is too long to be quoted here; but I 
give the first and last, with one of the intermediate 
stanzas : 

" Salve, parve puellule, 
Salve, maxime ccelitum, 
Et rerum pater omnium; 
Salve, dulcis hiesu. 

Vagis, parve puellule : 
Ne vagi, pue ; parvuli 
Te multi puerum pueri 
Optant visere dulcem. 

Atque hsec nostra tenerrimo 
Affectu data votula 
Illi, indigna Deo licet, 
Offer, Diva, precamur." 

Occurring, as it does, in the same book with the 
Concio depuero Jesu, which was composed for delivery 
in St. Paul's School, it is barely possible that this 
ode, or some portion of it, was the hymn referred to 
by Erasmus ; but that is the most that can be said. 

There is a little work, commonly assigned to Colet, 
which has been often reprinted, under the title of 
Daily Devotions, or the Christian's Morning and Even- 
ing Sacrifice . . . by John Colet, D.D. 1 Of this, the first 



born in 1482, the year before Luther, and in 1520 published Goch's 
work on Christian Liberty, for which, the year after, he was imprisoned. 
He was a friend of Erasmus, but not a thorough-going Reformer. 

1 " There are extant two speeches of his made to the Convocation ; 
some Essays upon Grammar, Prayers for daily use, and an Exhorta- 
tion to a Holy Life" Collier's Ecclesiastical History (1852), vol. iv. 
p. 30. But the account is very inaccurate : thus Colet's father is 
called Sir John Colet ; Polydore Vergil is Vigil, <fec. In a commu- 
nication to Notes and Queries, Aug. 1, 1863, p. 94, mention is made of 



26 INTRODUCTION. 

piece alone, headed in the later editions An useful 
Direction in order to a Good Christian Life, but in the 
original A right fruitfull Admonition concerning the 
order of a good Christian Man's Life, is Colet's compo- 
sition. The reader will see a great contrast between 
the plain, practical tone of the following extract * from 
it, and that which he caught from Dionysius : " If 
thou be religious, remember that the due execution 
of true religion is not in wearing of the habite, but 
with a cleane mynde in very deed to execute the 
rules and ordinances of religion. For so it is, that 
to weare the habite and not to execute the rule and 
order of religion, is rather to be deemed hypocrisie, 
or apostasie, than otherwise. If thou be lay and un- 
maried, keepe thee cleane unto the time thou be 
maried. And remember the sore and terrible 
punishmente of Noe's flood, and of the terrible fyre 
and brimstone and sore punishment of Sodome and 
Gornor, done to man for misusing of the fleshe. . . . 
And if thou intende to mary, or be maried, and hast a 



Anthony a Wood reckoning the Daily Devotions among Colet's 
works ; but the writer adds, " its authenticity appears questionable." 
I think I can trace the history of the book. In 1577 there was 
printed for Gabriel Cawood a little volume (Brit. Mus. C. 21, a.) con- 
sisting of three treatises : (1 ) A righte fruitfull admonition, concern- 
ing the order of n good Christian man's life . . . . made by the famous 
Doctour Colete ; (2) A Godly Treatise, declaring the benefites .... 
of Prayer. Written in Latin fourtie yeers past by an Englishman of 
great vertus and learning ; (3) A brefe Treatise exhorting sinners to 
Repentance. The first of these treatises was kept prefixed to a volume 
which grew and altered, somewhat after the manner of a modern hymn- 
book, and gradually caused the name of Colet's Daily Devotions to be 
given to the whole. I have seen the 19th, 20th, and 22nd editions 
(1 684-1722), and in the first of these three, Colet's treatise is still 
left unpaged. 
' 1 I quote from the edition of 1577, leaf 5, a. 



INTRODUCTION. 27 

good wife, thanke our Lord therefore, for she is of his 
sending. And remember that three thinges in es- 
peciall bene pleasaunt to the spirite of God ; that is 
to say, concord betwene brethren, love and charitie 
betwene neighbours, and a man and his wyfe wel 
agreeing. And if thou have an evyl wife, take pa- 
cience, and thanke God; for all is for the best, well 
taken. Howbeit thou art bounde to doo and pray 
for her amendement, least she go to the Devyl, from 
whom she came. And have in remembraunce, that 
the intent of mariage is not in the beastly appetite 
or pleasure in the thing ; but the intent thereof is to 
eschewe the sinne of the fleshe, or els to have children. 
And if thou have children, as much as thou mayest, 
bring them up in vertue, to be the servauntes of God : 
for it is better for thee and them not to be borne, 
than to be otherwise." 

Having said thus much, I will do no more than 
present the reader with a brief Synopsis of Colet's 
Treatise, and leave him to form his judgment from 
the Treatise itself. He will now be prepared, I 
think, to regard it only as " representing a phase of 
thought through which Colet passed;" not as the 
work of his maturest years. Dean Colet never ceased 
indeed to believe in the reality of that spiritual mar- 
riage and union betwixt Christ and His Church, 
which is so fully discoursed of in the following pages ; 
but he came to look on earthly marriage as no more 
"common or unclean;" but as a state in which 
the "sacrifice of righteousness" might still be 
offered to God. That prolem justitice, of which he 
speaks again and again, Colet in his time largely 



28 INTRODUCTION. 

helped to bring forth. But we must look for it less 
in the written works which he has left behind, than 
in the effects which he wrought upon the men of the 
age in which he lived. When we think of the versa- 
tile and prolific, but less stable, genius of Erasmus, 
it is hardly wrong to say, that to the femineus homo 
there, he was the Vir Deus. And what he was for 
men like Erasmus and More, he has been, in measure, 
for thousands of others, whose tale is not yet num- 
bered. His association with them has been in truth 
a fecundissima conjunctio. His writings fill no volume 
with their titles only, as do those of Erasmus; his 
presence does not pervade the history of that period, 
like the presence of Wolsey : but, when we learn to 
trace events to their source, and actions to their 
motives; to look beyond the decrees of king and 
pope, beyond the printing-presses of Basle and Paris 
and London and Louvain, we may begin to feel his 
true greatness. And the estimate of Southey 1 will 
then seem to us scarcely an exaggerated one, when 
he pronounced him to be " the best and wisest of his 



age." 



J Common-Place Book. Second Series (1849), p. 332. 



SYNOPSIS. 



I. 

God all things have their being, form, and per- 
fection. He is the true Priest, and the source of all 
priesthood in heaven and earth. He himself is perfect 
Purity, Light, and Goodness ; and the priestly office 
is an unceasing imitation of Him in these three 
qualities. 

. The Augels first fulfil this office ; and heing consecrated as priests 
to God in a threefold order, through purification, illumination, perfec- 
tion, they offer to Him the sacrifice of righteousness. In the world 
their office consists in the restoration of a true and right order 
in things. Hence the name of Orders given to the priesthood Page 35 




II. 

* 

The first Sacrament instituted was that of Orders, or Priesthood. 
By this sacrament were the heavenly intelligences hound to fight, in 
the strength of God, for the restoring of unity, beauty, and perfection, 
where the enemy had brought in multiplicity, deformity, and defect. 

The Mosaic Priesthood, with its multitude of sacrifices and obla- 
tions, was a shadow of the heavenly hierarchy. 

In this world, which is the te'mple of God, the three ternaries of 
Ango.ls spread the threefold rays of God, the divine Sun, in purifica- 
tion, illumination, and perfection . . . Page 38 



III. 



In the heavenly natures there are, moreover, all the other Sacra- 



30 SYNOPSIS. 

ments, but after a spiritual manner. These are Marriage, Penitence, 
Baptism, Confirmation, Eucharist, Extreme Unction. 

There is the Sacrament of Marriage, because the heavenly spirits 
are as a wife to God, their husband. To Him they cling, and from 
Him they become fruitful for the propagation of righteousness. 

Whilst towards God they are as the wife, towards mankind they are 
as the husband, making them in turn prolific with the offspring of 
righteousness. 

Hence Marriage and Priesthood are one and the same ; righteous- 
ness at once the offspring and the sacrifice. Of this spiritual marriage 
the earthly rite is but a poor and empty shadow. A fuller discussion 
of this being reserved till afterwards, a rapid survey may be taken of 
the manner in which the other Sacraments are solemnized in the 
world, which is the temple of God . . . Page 42 



IV. 

The Sacrament of Penitence might more properly be called that of 
Reconciliation. It is carried on by the spiritual, or sacerdotal part of 
created beings, whose office is to restore order in disorder. 

This they do by acting on the lower, the corrupt and sensual part, 
and renewing in it the image of God. 

For this work of purifying, illumining, confirming, and finally per- 
fecting that which is fallen, signs and sacraments are needed. 

For man, whose nature is twofold, spiritual and corporeal, these 
sacraments are of a like twofold nature. There is in them the visible 
sign and the invisible thing signified . . Page 43 



V. 

In the ministry, which the heavenly hierarchy performs, we may 
conceive that there are offices like those in the Church on earth, but of 
far higher order. These 'are Ostiarii, or door-keepers ; Lectores, or 
readers ; Exorcists ; Acolytes and Sub-Deacons. They are exercised 
in the work of purification, as the two higher grades are in the works 
of illumination and perfection. 

The functions of the inferior orders above-mentioned are described. 

These, as well as the two superior orders, all work after a pattern 
from God. In the Mosaic Church there was the shadow; in the 
Christian Church there is the image, or visible sign ; in heaven there 
is the reality. The sketch must precede the finished picture. So with 
respect to the Sacraments. Among the Angels there is the reality of 
that which they symbolize to us. We have but the figure Page 46 



SYNOPSIS. 31 



VI. 

On the origin of that evil which made sacraments necessary. 
The Angels, who fell from their first estate, have not ceased to devise 
mischief against mankind. Hence the Temptation in Eden, the Fall, 
and man's subsequent misery. 

But as Adam fell, not without being tempted, he had an excuse 
which the Devil had not. Hence a way of restoration was opened to 
him. As man was created to be the Spouse of Christ, he had now to 
he re-created. The words of St. Paul are repeated, touching " the 
depth of the riches ' of the wisdom and knowledge of God," in thus 
bringing good out of evil. 

In this re-creation the goodness of God is shown even more strikingly 
than in the first creation of man. There was no cause why man should 
not be created at the beginning, but afterwards there was cause why he 
should not be created anew. 

The effect of this mercy is shown in an increase of humility on the 
part of man, whose nature, divested of its old clothing, and arrayed in 
wedding garments, is then fitted to be united in marriage to God. 

This union being so great and wonderful, the sacrament of it was 
ordained to precede the Fall. Eve, taken from the side of Adam, was 
a sign of the Church taken from the side of Christ. The command, 
" increase and multiply," foretokened the multiplying of a spiritual 
offspring. 

Thus Adam's prophecy is fulfilled, and Christ and His Church are 
joined together in one Spirit. This is the " great mystery," of which 
St. Paul writes to the Ephesians, and the depth of which he does not 
attempt to fathom. 

Adam was " the figure of Him that was to come : " one the progeni- 
tor of the flesh, unto death; the other of the spirit, -unto life. In 
Christ there ought not to be any propagation of the flesh ; the only 
offspring to be sought for being that of righteousness. 

Man, as carnal, cannot be united with God, who is spiritual. There 
must therefore be a mortifying of the flesh, and a quickening again in 
the spirit. This truth is largely enforced by passages from St. Paul's 
Epistles. 

The fruits of this union betwixt Christ and His Church are described 
by St. Paul to the Galatians ; and are, in brief, the works of righteous- 
ness. 

To the human nature in Christ the Church is as a sister ; to the 
divine nature in Him as a wife ; to God the Father as a married 
daughter. 

God the Father is the King who would make a marriage for His 
Son. That Son is the first Husband, the source of all true marriage 



32 SYNOPSIS. 

in heaven and earth. In this heavenly union mankind would have 
been joined to Him from the first, but for the transgression in Eden. 

God, who foresaw the spiritual adultery that mankind would com- 
mit, foreordained also the restoration from it ; and earthly marriage 
was instituted as a sign from the beginning of the spiritual union .that 
should be. 

At length, in the fulness of time, Christ came down from heaven as 
the Bridegroom ; leaving Him who was at once His father and His 
mother, to cleave unto His wife the Church. 

Before such a bride could be prepared, " not having spot, or wrinkle, 
or any such thing," much time and labour must be spent. For this 
end a better and purer part of mankind were all along kept 
reserved by the providence of God, till what' had been growing ripened 
at length in the fruit of the " stem of Jesse," Jesus ; made " male 
and female;" male, in His divinity, female in His humanity ; through 
which humanity He was to draw to Himself the rest of mankind that 
were needed to complete the Church, His Bride. 

This being the only true marriage, Dionysius is therefore, perhaps, 
silent on marriage in his Ecclesiastical Hierarchy, because its Sacra- 
ment preceded the institution of the Church. 

For the completion of His bride, the Church, by gathering in all of 
mankind that remains to be united to it, Christ, our High Priest, ordains 
His children to labour as priests under Him. By the remaining Sa- " 
craments of Penitence, Baptism, Confirmation, Eucharist, and Extreme 
Unction, as by visible cords, the rest are thus drawn to Him. 

In this work they imitate Christ, and are in turn themselves as hus- 
bands to the rest of the world ; the fruit of their intercourse being 
righteousness. 

David meant this when he wrote, " Offer the sacrifices of righteous- 
ness ; " and the same is shown to be the meaning of St. Paul in 
various passages. The offspring and the sacrifice are one. In offering 
this sacrifice, there is an active and there is a passive element in the 
Church; but both together make up that "spiritual house" and "holy 
priesthood " of which St. Peter speaks . . Page 50 

VII. 

The propagation of the flesh, through earthly marriage, though 
allowed by St. Paul to the Corinthians, of necessity rather than of free 
will, is in itself not a thing of Christ. Neither is any such marriage, 
nor the issue of it, required in Christianity ; though to the weak it may 
be needful to permit it. Provided that the reality of the Sacrament have 
been obtained, the sacramental character disappears from it. Heathen- 
dom would have supplied material enough for the work of regeneration; 
even though in this respect the Church had been barren. Nor need 



SYNOPSIS. _ 33 

there have been any fear that all the world would grow Christian, when, 
even under the name of Christianity, the greater part were heathens. 
Hence St. Paul would have all men to be even as he himself was; 
although, for the avoidance of greater evils, he gave permission to 
marry. Yet it is to be wished that all the Christian world were in 
celibacy, as was the desire of St. Paul himself. 

Orders and marriage are thus proper to the higher, or masculine, 
part of the Church ; in which part are various ranks of ministers, as 
before said. Their office- is to act upon the weaker and feminine part, 
that it may bring forth the fruits of righteousness . . Page 73 

VIII. 

As the righteousness which is thus brought forth is from God, and is 
the" reflection of the light of truth and goodness which streams down 
from Him ; so, that man may be able to show this image reflected in 
himself, he must be purified and changed from that " multiplicity " 
which is akin to sin and death, to " simplicity " which is truth and 
life. 

In restoring this "inner man," and " single eye," is the work of 
the priesthood. It is only in the light of God that men can " see 
light." While distracted by the manifold affairs of the world, men in 
.reality are not. They must therefore be drawn back from such a disso- 
lution, and reunited to God, " by the bringing in of a better hope." 

The old clothing must be stripped off, that the renewed man may be 
fit for heavenly raiment ; the vessel cleansed, that it may be refilled. 

Thus, the first work of the priesthood is purification, and the bring- 
ing in of a better hope. Men in this state are Catechumens, on whom 
the others act as Readers, Exorcists, and the like. 

The Penitence which this purification brings about must be sincere 
and real. There must be compensation for wrongs done, as well as 
confession of them. Until a man is thus purified, he is not in the 
mystical body of Christ. As this is rather a preparation for Sacra- 
ments than a Sacrament itself, therefore Dionysius does not expressly 
treat of it. 

Our penitence may often have to be repeated ; such is the fluctu- 
ating character of the warfare we wage. But, though he who falls and 
rises again is not to be compared with him who has never fallen, yet 
God will have compassion on us at every fresh effort to recover our- 
selves. At such times there is joy in heaven. 

It is not the office of Sacraments to scatter darkness and cleanse 
away defilement, but to introduce light. Those results then of neces- 
sity follow. Hence Baptism is specially called by Dionysius the Sacra- 
ment of Illumination. In it there is the presence of the Spirit of 
Light. 

D 



34 . SYNOPSIS. 

By the approach of that light, the little cloud of original sin is dis- 
pelled from infants: adults must of themselves confess and abjure their 
sins. This they can only do by the help of God. Through the inter- 
vention of the Sacrament, the will of God for their release from their 
sins is communicated to them. No sins are remitted which the peni- 
tent himself does not remit by his own confession; none are retained 
which the sinner himself does not retain. There is no remission of 
sins but from God ; the priest who absolves only declares and confirms 
the will to repent, on the part of the sinner, and the will to pardon, on 
Lthe side of God. 

This Sacrament, which the later Church called Penitence, might fitly 
be called Reconciliation and Kemission . . . Page 78 

ix. 

Baptism illumines those who are purified, and is the seal of faith be- 
stowed by God. Confirmation witnesses the sure gift of the Holy 
Spirit. It took its rise from the sending of Peter and John to Samaria, 
and might be called the Sacrament of the gifts of the Holy Ghost. 

The Sacrament of Communion in the food of Christ's flesh and blood 
shared in common, is the feeding and nourishing of those who have 
been confirmed. 

Lastly, Extreme Unction, which used to be performed after death 
also, but now at the last extremity, so far as that can be discerned, is 
the Sacrament of labour done and warfare ended. It has its warrant in 
the words of St. James. 

There are many Anointings in the Church, which are the divers ex- 
hortations of the Holy Ghost. His coming, and the. effects wrought by 
Him, are what Sacraments signify to the faithful, to their eternal 
salvation Page 92 



DE SACRAMENTIS ECCLESIJE. 




I. 

DEO Patre per Filium cum Spiritu 
sancto sunt, formantur, et perficiuntur 
omnia. A sanctissima Trirdtate omnis 
consecratio est; videlicet a Deo per 
Filium cum Spiritu sancto. Deus verus sacerdos 
est, a quo omne sacerdotium in coelo et in terra 
nominatur. In Deo vere sunt omnia; extra Deum 
imitatio est Dei. In Deo, qui ssternus est, aeterna 
sunt omnia. Illic paternitas et filiatio et amor et 
sacerdotium seternum est. Sacerdotium illic est qui- 
dem, ut ita dicam, sacerdotificans ; omne enim sacer- 
dotium a Deo est, sacerdotum sacerdote : sacerdotale 
munus es[t quae]dam Dei assidua imitatio in puritate, 
luce, et bonitate. Deus ipse est puritas, lux, et 
bonitas. Post Deum hsec relucent in angelis, quos 
Deus, summus sacerdos, purificando, illuminando, et 
perficiendo, 1 sibi consecravit. Consecravit autem et 

1 Perfidendo.~\ Purification, illumination, and perfection, are the 
three objects of the Sacraments, and give exercise to the threefold 
order of the ministry. Thus in the Ecclesiastical Hierarchy, c. vi. 



36 DE SACRAMENTIS ECCLESLE. 

dedicavit sibi, ut angeli in se triunum Deum in liac 
trinitate referant. Quatenus hsec tria eminentissime 
in Deo sunt ; Deus est ipse qui colitur et cui sacrifi- 
catur. Quatenus sanctificator ille hsec propagans 
creat, illuminat, perncit, sacerdos est mirifice et sa- 
crificans sibi et aliis sacerdotes consecrans. Effectus 
illius benignissimi divini sacerdotii primus in angelis 
est; qui in tanto consecratore et summo pontifice 
evaserunt feliciter sacerdotes consecrati Deo ab ipso 
Deo, ut Deum deinceps consecratione imitentur : imi- 
tentur, inquam, consecrando, sacrificandoque triplici 
ilia ratione purgandi, illuminandi et perficiendi, qua 
ipsi Deo sunt consecrati. Propagatio enim oportet 
sit Dei, et illius benignitatis derivatio. 1 In hoc 
officio qui sunt, in sancto Dei sacerdotio sunt. Quod 
sacerdotali munere sanctificatur Deo, sacerdotis sacri- 
ficium est Deo acceptissimum. Velit Deus ut sacer- 
dotes sacrificent sibi in sanctificatione, sicut ille 



pars in. Dionysius writes, " Conclusimus igitur, sancta quidem mysteria 
purgationem esse et illuminationem atque perfectionem : ministros 
vero, purgantem ordinem ; sacerdotes autem, illuminantem ; consum- 
mantem autem sive consecrantem, divinos esse pontifices." 

I have thought it best, in the quotations from Dionysius, to give 
the Latin version of Ambrosius (1498) ; which alone, probably, Colet 
had read. The first Greek edition was the Juntine, in 1515. 

1 Derivatio.~\ The first chapter of the Celestial Hierarchy com- 
mences with the words of St. James, i. 17, " Every good gift, and 
every perfect gift is from above, and cometh down from the Father of 
lights." Hence we are to learn that we best imitate God by be- 
coming in turn the bestowers of good. Colet aptly expresses this 
thought in the introduction to the abstract of the Celestial Hierarchy 
which he has made for a friend : " In his quse didicimus in eo libro 
id vel primurn et maximum est, ut, quicquid aliunde accepimus boni, 
id benigniter deinceps impartiamus aliis et communicemus ; hoc imi- 
tati inestimabilem Dei bonitatem, qui largitur se et ordine communicat 
universis." School MS. fol. 1, a. 



DE SACBAMENTIS ECCLESLE. 37 

sanctificans sacerdotes ipsos sibi [sacrificat.] Pro- 
pagatio Deitatis maximum et proprium est Deo 
sacrificium. Opus enim est ardentissimas charitatis, 
et ob id quidem opus justissimum. Justitia Dens 
placatur mirifice. Hinc illud Davidicum, " Saerifi- PS. 
cate sacrificium justitiae." Inter se mutuo et sine 
intermissione angeli sacerdotale munus exercent, sa- 
crificantque justitiam. Item fit extra se, ut quam 
latissime in Deo justi appareant. Moliuntur omni 
conatu in Ordine ipso ordinante constantem et justum 
ordinem in rebus. Hie effectus sacerdotalis muneris 
est. Unde sacerdotium Ordo a recentiori ecclesia 
cognominatum est. Ordinata in ordinatores; ordi- 
natores in Ordinem 1 ipsum referuntur. Ordo ipse 
ratio est Dei ilia omniformis, ab intima Dei mente 
deprompta, tota et adaequata Divinitatis summa, ipsa 
pulchritude, quod ipsum est verbum Dei ex alto ore 
prolatum, Deum totum intimo exitu plenissime, ex- 
pressissime significans ; quo, pulcherrimo ordine, dic- 
tata sunt omnia. In quo ab ordinatis in propaga- 
tionem ordinis laboratur. Primum et maxime in 
stabilem et justum ordinem rerum sacerdotali officio 
expurgans, illustrans et perficiens, Ordo ipse agit et 
operatur; et in eo deinceps qui sunt ordines, ordine 
quisque suo. Primus ergo sacerdos est Ordo ipse, 
et primus ordo Sacerdos ipse. Hie est sacratissimus 
Dei aeternus Filius, cui Pater in ore David hsec verba 
habuit : " Tu es sacerdos in geternum, secundum or- PS. 



1 Ordinem.] Thus, in the De Divinis Nominibiis, c. iy. pars i. God 
is called toons, or Order. In the same passage Dionysius speaks of 
the " supersubstantiale illud pulchrum," in God, which draws, and as 
it were calls men to itself : " unde etiam pulchritude greco vocahulo 
calos, a vocando, dicitur." 



38 DE SACRAMENTIS EGOLESS. 

dinem Melchisedech," cujus ordinis neque principium 
neque finis agnoscitur. Itaque seternus sacerdos est 
Dei, ipse Deus sacerdotificans :^idem seternus Dei 
ordo; ipse Deus ordinans omnia, a quo omnis sacer- 
dotalis ordo est, et omne ordinatum sacerdotium. 
Ille ordo et sacerdos primum ordinavit sacerdotium 
in coelis sanctissimorum spirituum; in quibus est 
illuminatio, purgatio et perfectio, 1 et inter se maxime 
ipsorum, et omnium. Sacerdos etiam ille primus et 
exemplaris, in quo sunt omnia, qui ipse est omnia 
verissime, is ipsum est etiam sacramentum sacrificans 
omnia, omniaque sacramenta faciens, quae omnia 
ipsum referant, sacramentorum sacramentum. 



II. 

PRIMUM autem conditum sacramentum, per quod 
deinde omnia alia sacramenta condantur, erat quod 
ordinem vocant et sacerdotium. In principio a Sa- 
cerdote ipso et Ordine. Consecravit enim et aperte 
astrinxit sacramento felicissimos illos spiritus, ut in 
ipso ordinum auctore sancte et ordinate commilitfint. 
Militia enim in Deo omne sacerdotium est; lut, in 
viribus Dei, Dei creaturam a rationibus Deo con- 



1 Perfectio. ,] The Celestial Orders themselves being spoken of as 
fulfilling these offices for one another, not merely for mankind. Thus, 
Eccl. Hier. c. vi. p. iii : " Ita sunt et qui illuminantur ordines, et qui 
consummantur ; purgantes item et illuminantes ac perficientes in hier- 
archia codesti. Quando supremse illse divinioresque substantise infe- 
riores sacras ccelestesque distinctiones ignorantia omni emundant in 
ordinibus ac proportionibus ccelestium functionum, ipsasque sacratiorum 
doctrinarum fulgore implent atque perficiunt." 



DE SACKAMENTIS ECCLESLE. 39 

trariis vindicent; utque agant ut Deus ubique et in 
omnibus luculente appareat. Quoniam authores ma- 
litias nequitiasque indesinenter agunt, ut sibi ex bono 
malum exaugeant; ut, quemadmodum depravaverint 
se, ita alia quaecumque, quoad possunt, in meremen- 
tum 1 mali depravent; coeleste sacerdotium conse- 
cratur Deo, et sacramentali nexu obligatur, ut in 
uno pulchro et bono Deo unitatem, 2 pulchritudinem 
et perfectionem rerum conquirant et conservent, a 
rationibus videlicet contrariis, multiplicitate, defor- 
mitate et defectu, quse assidue moliuntur in mundo 
qui sua ipsorum irnprobitate apostatarunt, ex Lucifero 
illo factus tenebrifer,j Diabolus, et satellites ejus. 
Sacratissimi illi, quos dedicavit sibi Deus ipse, statim 
post defectionem illorum qui in suum malum cor- 
ruerunt, in hac rerum universitate, quod Dei est 
templum, exstant magnifici sacerdotes summi Dei, et 
industries! exercitus magni Dei Sabaoth; tales facti 
a Deo, ut pro datis viribus sine intermissione in 
mundo, suapte natura labente, conquirant Deo justi- 
tiam, justitiamque consacrificent. Quorum assiduita- 
tem in. Me parte, Moysaicum sacerdotium, quod 
scatet hostiis et immolationibus, plenissime adum- 



1 In mer, mali,~\ " To become subjects^ or material, of evil." Me- 
rementum is a word that has come from materia, through the length- 
ened form mater iamentum. The form merrementum is found in 
Statutes of the year 1246. Glossarium Manuale (1776). 

2 Both Dionysius and Colet lay much stress on the divineness of 
unitas. Compare the De Divinis Nominibus, c. xiii : " Denique si 
unum tollas, neque totum erit, neque pars aliqua, neque aliud quie- 
quam in rebus. Omnia enim in seipso unum uniformiter prseaccipit 

atque complectitur Et expedit ut nos quoque a multis ad unum, 

virtute divinse unitatis, conversi, unice laudemus totam atque unam 
deitatem, unum, omnium causam." 



40 DE SACEAMENTIS ECCLESLE. 

brat. 1 Illi ergo imitantes exemplar et causam omnis 
sacerdotii, ordinem etiam et justitiam ipsam, in pro- 
pagatione justitiaa Dei elab[orant], hoc maxime sacri- 
ficantes Deo, et vero suo fungentes officio sacerdotali, 
quod est quidem, in sole Deo, triplici Dei radio 
purgatorio, illuminatorio et perfectorio, et quani late 
fieri potest et quam longe, copiosum justitiae fructum 
parere et procurare. Quoniam sacerdotium est certe 
irnitatio Dei in amplificatione justitise. In eo munere 
ordines illi angelorum, numero novem (sicnti describit 
Dionysius), 2 longe excellunt et antiquitate et veritate. 
Qui consecrati et consummati ordines in creatura 

J A.dumbrat.~\ Eccl. Hier. c. v. p. i : " Cum parvuli essemus . . . ; 
legale indulsit sacerdotium, obscuris verarum rerum imaginibus et 
figuris, a primitivis suis remotissimis, signisque baud facile penetrabi- 
libus ac typis opertam babentibus neque discerni facilem intelligentiam ; 
congruam, et viribus nostris convenientem lucem; ut imbecillioribus 
oculis innocue infulgens." 

2 Ccelestis Hierarchia, c. vi : " Omnes simul ccelestes immorta- 
lesque substantias in novem ordines divinus sermo distinxit, propriisque 
ac significantibus vocabulis appellavit. Has eximius praeceptor noster 
in ternas tertio repetitas distinctiones ad Sanctse Trinitatis divisit 
imaginem. Ac primam quidem esse ait quse coram Deo versetur 
semper, idque ex divina dignatione susceperit, ut illi inhsereat jugiter, 
nullisque mediis interjectis spiritibus, inseratur. Nam sauctissimos 
Thrones, et oeulis plurimis alisque prseditos ordines, CTierubin, scilicet, 
et SerapMn, Hebrseorum voce appellatos, juxta Deum, nullis mediis 
insertis agminibus, eminenti propinquitate locatoa ait; idque sancta- 

ruui Scripturamm tradere expositionem Secundam vero 

asseruit, quse Potestatibus, Dominationibus, Vi,rtutibusque conficitur. 
Tertiam item, quse in ccelestibus fimctionibus extremum teneat locum, 
ex Angelis et ArcJiangelis Princvpatibusq\ie constantem." 

These three ternaries are illustrated in Ambrosius's Version by a 
diagram, such as Colet has several times adopted in the following 
pages. 

The Eeader will hardly need to be reminded of Paradise Lost (v. 
600) : 

" Hear all ye Angels, progeny of light, 
Thrones, Dominations, Princedoms, Virtues, Powers." 



DE SACKAMENTIS ECCLESLE. 41 

mundi, Dei templo, perfect! sacerdotes sunt, sanctis- 
sime se in sacrificiis laudis exercentes. In quo 
mundo constituit Deus angelos sacerdotes, ut sibi 
merementum Dei sacrificent in omnibus ; id est, sim- 
plicem et veram bonitatem. Jj)ei films [est] summus 
et seternus pontifex, condens et templum mundi, et 
angelicos ac spiritales sacerdotes, item sacramenta et 
sacrificia constituens omnia ipse in omnibus sacrifi- 
cantibus, sacrificans Deo Patri suo, ut universus 
mundus nihil sit nisi templum, sacerdotium et sacri- 
ficia Deo, in eo qui ipse est templum templi, et 
sacerdotii et sacrificii veritas ; Deo Patri suo, a quo 
seterniter accegit omnia, et ut sit templum, sacerdos 
et sacrificium. j Primus itaque et summus pontifex 
est Deus ipse, cujus sacra est sedes templum creature, 
in quo sacerdotes sunt angeli, in quo sacrificium est 
simplex veraque justitia; quam ut sacrificent, quin 
immo ut inter sacrificandum ministri sint (pontifex 
est enim ipse qui omnia in omnibus consacrificat), in 
perpetuum sacerdotium Deo consecrantur. Quo fit 
ut in sacramentis prior et antiquior sit Ordo, et Sa- 
cerdotium, in templo mundi a Deo conditum. Pon- 
tificia majestas, sacerdotium consecrans, seterna est. ~J 

f Pater, a quo omnia, et ad quern omnia ; et templum et sacer- 
Deus < dotium et sacrificium. 

LMlius, seternus et coaaqualis Patri ; Primus pontifex et ordo ipse. 

. ,. , , ,.,, . "^ In propaganda iustitia 

Angeli, sacerdotes pontmcis. j 

j . . i T ! m mundo verum sacer- 

Mundus universus, templum Dei. rj.ii ^ IE 

.,,.. j i 4.-*; i dotale munus est offi- 
Sacrincium in mundo, simplex veraque iustitia. i . 

r ^ J J cmmque. 



42 DE SACRAMENTIS ECCLESL&. 



III. 

SUNT praeterea in spiritalibus naturis reliqua sacra- 
menta omnia, sed modo spiritali et angelico ; Matri- 
monium, Poenitentia, Baptismus, Confirmatio, Eucha- 
ristia, Extrema Unctio. Nam, tanquam uxor Dei, 
adhasrent Deo divini illi spiritus, et fecundantur ab 
ipso, et, fecundati divino semine, divinam similitudi- 
nem propagant. Item uxores in Deo viri sunt, 
aliosque tanquam feminas sibi asciscunt, et quodam 
sancto coitu impregnant. Sic a primo viro et marito 
maritaceo procedit quae est inferioris partis attractio 
sursum 1 a superiore, et amplexu astrictio, ut fecun- 
detur in eo, et pro capacitate plena sit divina bonitate 
et justitia, quse tota est derivata a Deo, quae viros 
facit, ut hi feminas faciant viragines; atque ut sic 
vicissitudinario matrimonio justincetur mundus in 
justo Deo. Finis ejus veri matrimonii est fecunditas 
justitiae ; aut ex adhoasione, 2 quag ipsa est justitia, aut 
illis quse ab ipso justificantur. Verus vir et maritus 
est primus ille pontifex, in quo est omnis maritatio 
in fecunditatem omnium, ut sterilia quasque in se, 
subjecta vel Deo vel subjectis Deo, alicujus justitiae 
fructus fiant feracia atque tenera, spiritali mente ex- 



1 So Dionysius describes the Order which is in the second, or 
middle, stage of illuminatio, as " communione sacra omni cum volup- 
tate acquiescentem, et ad divinum ipsorum scientiae amorem, subnixum 
eoruin subvehentibus virtutibus, pro modo suo evolantem." Coelest. 
Hier. c. vi. 

The Greek word is still more literally rendered in the Latin version 
appended to the Venice Edition of 1755 : " Per anagogicas virtutes." 

2 Some pronoun, perhaps ei, seems to have been missed here. So 
et seems wanting before spintali mente <?#., just below. 



DE SAGE A MENTIS ECCLESLE. 43 

aminentur. Idem est sacerdotium quod matrimo- 
nium, et sa[crificatio idem] est quod prolificatio. 
Quum enim in mundo prolem justitiae fecisti, sacrifi- 
casti Deo. Hujus matr[imonii] levis et inanis umbra 
est id quod est maris et feminas in propagationem . 
carnis; de cujus institutione, et quid velit, dicemus 
postea prolixius. Nunc autem cursim et leviter, in 
hoc magno mundi templo sub pontifice Deo quomodo 
celebrantur reliqua sacramenta, volumus annotare; 
ut a primis fontibus derivata oratio influat in id 
melius quod intendinms. Habemus enim in pro- 
posito loqui expressius de sacramentis ecclesise nos- 
trae, quibus quasi jurati Deo nostro in Jesu Christo 
militamus. 



IY. 

PCENITENTIA vero, qu3B longe rectius reconciliationis 
sacramentum vocaretur, et reditus a deteriori ad id 
quod melius est, quas semper est cum poenitentia de- 
licti et confessione peccati et voluntate recompen- 
sandi, 1 ut confessio etiam et satisfactio possit' vocari 
geque ac poenitentia; illud, inquam, reconciliationis 
sacramentum, quod posteriori ecclesise placuit pceni- 
tentiam appellare, in alienatis et lapsis assidue a 
sacerdotali mundi parte agitur, qui spiritus sunt, qui 
ordines illi 2 relevant, et quodque ad suum statum re- 

1 " In perfectione autem poenitentise tria observanda sunt, scilicet, 
compunctio cordis, confessio oris, satisfactio operis .... Hsec est 
fructifera pcenitentia ; ut, sicut tribus modis deum oflfendimus, scilicet, 
corde, ore, et opere, ita tribus modis satisfaciamus." Petri Lombardi 
Sententice (1575), lib. iv. Distinct, xvi. 

2 Ordines illi.'] So in MS. The sense appears obscure ; unless illi 
may signify " to Him," i. e. " God." 



44 DE SACRAMENTIS ECCLESL3S. 

stituunt, ut in ordinatis a Deo, qui ipse est Ordo, 
suum ordinem teneant. Ex infirmitate rerum trans- 
gressiones et casus sunt frequences in mundi parte 
inferiore et corpora!!. Quod si a superior! et spiritali 
parte revocata non sustinerentur, defluxus rerum 
suapte knpotentia in malum et deforme evaderet in 
nihilum. In hoc ergo magni mundi templo, pars ilia 
purgata, illuminata, confirrnata, perfecta, pars vide- 
licet ilia a Deo sibi consecrata et sacerdotalis, pars 
spiritalis et angelica, sacerdotale munus exercet quasi 
sacramentali ratione, atque corpoream partem infir- 
mam et nnpuram purgat et stabilit, quoad fieri possit, 
in esse spiritali, ut pro captu illuminetur et perfi- 
ciatur in Deo; ut a divisione ad unum, a deformitate 
ad pulchritudinem, a defectu ad perfectionem con- 
tracta, oninia Deum in se referant; ut Deus, qui 
debet, extet omnia in omnibus. In hoc munus et 
omcium sacerdotis est; in hoc sacrificatio grata Deo 
est. Quoniam in hoc est coactio et cooperatio in 
Deo, qui unum in se, pulchrum, et bonum mundum 
velit esse ; et res omnes a malitia, tenebris et morte 
vindicare; ut tandem absorpta morte vivant in Deo 
omnia, luculenta ordine et perfecta. In quo labore, 
per angelos, qui student consecrare mundum Deo, 
est expurgatio et reconciliatio rerum, et baptismalis 
illuminatio, et confirmatio in lumine, et denique sua 
cuj usque, quatenus potest capere, 1 bonitate impletio 
et perfectio. Nihil enim aliud vult omne sacerdotale 



1 " Quemadmodum enim ipse sol, diversis rebus subditis apparens, 
alterum altero plus calefacit; idque non ob solis, sed eorum qase 
solem excipiunt, diversitatem ; sic utique divinum donum cum sit per- 
fectum, pro suscipientium capacitate, vel remittitur vel intenditur." 
Pachymerse Parajohrasis in CceJest. Hier. c. i. 



DE SACRAMENTIS ECCLESL3E. 45 

munus, nisi diversorum purgationem in unitatem, et 
tenebricosorum iUuminationem in claritatem, et pos- 
tremo deficientium impletionem in perfectionem ; quse 
in spiritalibus naturis fiunt simpliciter et aperte, sine 
consignatione sacramenti sensibilis. In naturis par- 
tim spiritalibus partim corporeis, cujusmodi sunt 
homines, eadem fiunt, sed adhibitis etiam symbolis 
et consignaculis sensibilibus ; ut corpus in eis habeat 
etiam quod agat puritatem, lumen et bonitatem 
ipsius. In naturis vero quse non sunt perditae, spiri- 
tibus aeternis in ipsis, pura, pulchra et bona conditio 
eorum 1 sine ulteriore significatione est earum tem- 
poralis felicitas. Etenim tria sunt genera rerum, 
sub ips& rerum omnium causal Deo ; spiritalia penitus 
sine corporibus temporalibus, et corporea prorsus 
sine aeternis spiritibus, et inter hasc media ex tem- 
poralibus corporibus et aeternis spiritibus constantia. 
In illis primis sacramentum est quodque res ipsa 
sacramenti; in secundis res ipsa sacramentum; 2 in 
mediis his, qui sunt homines, et res est ipsa aliqua- 
tenus, et sacramentum quoddam, medium scilicet ex 
spiritali et corporeo compositum, mediae natures ad- 
modum congruum. Haec sunt sacramenta humanae 



1 Eorum.~\ Attracted to the gender of spiritibus. 

" " Hie dicendum est, aliquos suscipere sacramentum et rem sacra- 
menti; aliquos sacramentum et non rem; aliquos rem et non sacra- 
mentum." Petri Lombardi Sententice, iv. 4. Though his threefold 
division comprises only three classes of human beings, the passage will 
in some measure illustrate what Colet says. As an example of those 
who receive both the sign and the thing signified (sacramentum et 
rem), he instances infants at then- baptism ; of those who receive the 
sign but not the reality, unbelievers at the eucharist ; of those who 
receive the reality but not the sign, martyrs for Christianity, whose 
shedding of blood would be a baptism, though they had never been 
baptized before. 



46 DE SACRAMENTIS ECCLESL33. 

societatis in Christo, ad quse aliquando nostra per- 
veniat oratio. 



g. ^ f" Supra hominem. Res sacramenti. Invisibiles veritates. ^Eternitas. 

II \ rSpiritali. 

?"$ [ I 

"^ ^-Homines ex* Res sacramentata. Invisibile et oeternum 

g> 2 J I [factum quodammodo sensibile et temporale. 

-o -^ . I Corporeo. 






a" a" LSub hominem. Sacramentum rei. Sensibilia signacula. Tempus. 



V. 

Ex superiore itaque sermone constat, sub pontifice 
templi (id est, totius mundi), Dei Filio, esse naturas 
spiritales, purgatas in esse simplex et stabile in Deo, 
et illustratas omnifaria sapiential et impletas omni 
bonitate ; quae purgant, illuminant et perficiunt pur- 
ganda, illuminanda et perficienda in Deo. In qua 
purgatione, quae reconciliatio est, multiplex est mi- 
nisterium. Unde in eo versati a Dionysio Ministri 1 
vocantur. In quibus potes cogitare in magno mundo, 
sed longe meliori nota quam in nobis nostraque 
ecclesia, Hostiarios, Lectores, Exorcistas, Acolitos, 
Hypodiaconos. 2 Diaconos mihi videtur Dionysius 



1 Ministri.'] The leitourgoi of Dionysius; who uses hiereus and 
hierarches for the two higher orders of Sacerdos and Pontifex.-^EccL 
Hier. c. vi. Theoria, 5. 

2 Colet names them in an ascending order of dignity, from Ostiarii, 
or door-keepers, up to Hypodiaconi, or sub-deacons. With respect to 
the authority for these orders, Bingham writes: "The two great 
oracles of the Romish Church, Baronius and the Council of Trent, are 
very dogmatical and positive in their assertions both about their rise 
and number; that they are precisely five, viz. Sub-deacons, Acoly- 
thists, Exorcists, Readers, and Door-keepers ; and that they are all of 



DE SACKAMENTIS ECCLESI^. 47 

vocare sacerdotes : et quos nos vocamus sacerdotes et 
presbiteros, ille pontifices et prsBsulesappellat ; quorum 
est dominicum corpus conficere, et illuminatos com- 
plere mysteriis; sacerdotum dyaconorumque, illumi- 
nare purgatos; ministrorum primum expurgare; in 
quibus, ut dixi, hostiarii sunt, qui stant pro foribus 
templi Dei, excludentes multiplices, 1 simplices si- 
nentes intrare ; item lectores Psalmorum et scripturae 
sacrse : hi in spiritalibus sunt, qui tacite indicant sine 
verbo veritatem Dei: exorcistse, qui energuminos 
obsessosque a malignis spiritibus solvunt et liberant, 
quod faciunt angelici 'spiritus adjurationibus nobis 
incognitis : acoliti, qui ignem et aquam templo ammi- 
nistrant, quod est factum in mundi templo a cceles- 
tibus acolitis longe alio et veriori modo : hypodiaconi 
in sacrario et Dei sanctuario sollicite inserviunt, quod 
in sanctuario et choro templi mundi fit ineffabiliter. 
Aqu& autem et igne lavantur purganturque omnia. 
Coelestis ignis et aqua est amor, et gratia Spiritus 
sancti. Supra hos purgatorios ordines, in mundi 
sacerdotio, potest cogitare, qui se habent illic ut apud 
nos nostri sacerdotes (ut vocat Dionysius; ut nos 
appellamus, Diaconi), quorum est purgatos illustrare, 
ut saltern imagines divinse veritatis videant, eisdemque 



Apostolical Institution." .... But he goes on to show that even 
Peter Lombard declared that " the primitive Church had no orders be- 
low those of Presbyters and Deacons." Antiquities (1710), vol. ii. 

P- 2. 

1 Multiplices.] See the note below, p. 80, on Psalm iv. 10 ; and 
compare Eccl. Hier. c. iii. 2. " Post hsec, extra delubrum catechu- 
meni fiunt, et cum ipsis energumeni, et ii quoque qui in pcenitentia 
sunt. Manent autem intus soli qui divina spectare merentur atque 



pei-cipere." 



48 DE SACRAMENTIS ECCLESLffi. 

injiciantur. Hi in ccelesti hierarchia sunt potentes et 
dominantes virtutes, quss in medial illic hierarchi& 
locantur ; a quibus est in mundo illuminatio, sicut ab 
infima' purgatio. Supra hos cogita summum ponti- 
ficalem ordinem, sub pontifieum pontifice Deo; a 
quibus sub Deo cuique est perfectionis ministratio. 
Illi sunt in mundo perfectione complentes omnia, 
sicut riostri apud nos debent esse pontifices. Nihil 
est his excellentius prseter ipsum. Deum. In his con- 
summatus est numerus ecclesiasticorum ordinum; 
qui sunt exemplariter in mundi sacerdotio in illis 
choris angelicis, imaginarie in humana hierarchic. 
Apud Moysen eadem erant omnia umbrositer, praeter 
hasc quee sunt et nominantur episcopi, archiepiscopi, 
primates, officia, et administrationes. Atque hi quos 
modo dixirnus ordines famulatus sunt potius quam 
ordines. Sed de his apud nps jam statim plura diffu- 
sius dicemus. Hoc ante omnia teneamus in memoriS,, 
ad exemplar Dei omnia esse; quse referunt angeli 
verius, ecclesia nostra imaginarie, ecclesia legalis um- 
brose : omnia pr[ius] esse in coelo quam in terra : in 
terr& quae fiunt, ab imperfecto ad perfectum profi- 
cisci. Non potuit enim imago Dei depingi in terra 
in hominibus, nisi prius adumbraretur. 1 In medial 
mundi tabula et hominum quasi carbone infuscavit 



1 Adumbraretur.'] " Deus, qui dixit de tenebris lucem splendescere, 
ipse illuxit in cordibus nostris, ad. illuminationem scientise claritatis in 
facie Jesu Christi ; ut veriorem'illius vultum fide cernamus : qui reve- 
lavit quse de se et ecclesia depinxit Moyses. ... . . In Christo enim 

sunt omnia cumulate, quae vel docere in justitia, vel in religione insti- 
tuere Moyses ille voluit. Quaa fuere prius adumbranda, turn deinde 
suo tempore illustranda; utaliquando in fine seculi perficiantur omnia." 
Colet in Ccel. Hier. (School MS, fol. 4, b). 



DE SACKAMENTIS ECCLESI/E. 49 

atrum quiddam Moyses; depinxit clarius in toto 
nmndo noster Jesus. Primaria idea et exemplar 
omnium in coelis est; in quam veritatem ietur 1 ali- 
quando, ut opus a Deo coeptum in terris perficiatur. 
Quod ut est promotum a Moysaica, umbra ad Chris- 
tianam imaginem in terris, ita ab hac imagine ad Chris- 
tianam veritatem in coelis suo tempore promovebitur. 
; Est enim suum cuj usque tempus. Temporis momenta 
"Solus Deus novit. Qui novit tempora adumbrandi 
et depingendi, idem novit etiam verificandi. Ordo 
autem, Matrimonium, Keconciliatio, Baptismus, Con- 
firmatio, Synaxis, 2 Extrema Unctio, et etiam ut 
hsec fiant purgatione, illuminatione et perfectione, 
in illis quoque ordinibus primis sunt Hostiarii, Lee- 
tores, Exorcistaa, Acoliti, Hypodiaconi, Diaconi, Pres- 
biteri, tanquam in magno hujus niundi templo, in 
coelis. Sed illic, modo coelesti et vere omnia; hie in 
nobis, qui ad illud exemplar componimur, imaginarie. 
Quorum imaginum nomina sunt que modo diximus, 
et nostrse ecclesias. sacramenta significantia. De 
quibus nunc, uti in principio statuimus, liberiiis vesti- 
gantes magis aliquid quam diffmientes, diss[eremus]. 



1 Ietur.] Leg. ibitur. So below, p. 64, for prcetenbit the MS. has 
prceteriet. 

2 Synaxis.'] This is a common term for the Eucharist. Hammond, 
in his Parcenesis, has a section " On the frequency of Synaxes." Dio- 
nysius says that to it the term communio, which properly belongs to all 
the Sacraments, is specially applied. "Ac primum quidem illud pie 
inspiciendum, cujus rei gratia,, quod aliis quoque venerandis divinisque 
mysteriis commune vocabulum est, huic prae cseteris prsecipue ac pecu- 
liariter applicetur ; ut singulariter communio, sive societas et Synaxis, 
sive collectio dicatur." Eccl. Hier. c. iii. p. i. 



E 



50 DE SACKAMENTIS ECCLESLZE. 



VI. 

DIVINO erant in mundo angeli scientes, et sponte de- 
sciscebant a Deo. Hie malum coepit in creatura pec- 
catum; scilicet, inobedientia, superbia, transgressio. 
Superbi[entis] 1 a Deo est humiliari, decidique in 
malum. Sua sponte longe abiit a Deo, qui erat 
conjunctissimus, Lucifer ille factuosus, secum con- 
trahens in suas partes magnam angelorum catervam ; 
quorum culpa invenialis, et discessus irrevocabilis est, 
quod scienter et sponte commissus erat. Sciens enim 
spontaneumque peccatum non habet veniam. Est id 

s. Matt. xii. 32. " contra Spiritum sanctum, quod non remittetur, neque 
inhoc sseculo, neque in future. " Hie voluntaria n[ocen- 
tia] in mundo et nequitia est malum et stultitiam et di- 
visionem mortemque machinans assidue : hie maxim as 
invidiae homing cujus gloriam vidit fore. Hinc hie 

Gen. iii. i. author et propagator mali, quern Moyses " serpentem 
callidiorem vocat cunctis animantibus terras, quas 
fecerit Dominus Deus," suasit mulieri falso promisso, 
ut de illecebroso fructu ligni, quod est in medio pa- 
radisi, ederet ; hoc scitura Dea bonum et malum. 

' ' s: 

Cui niuliercul93 assensus est vir, jam sciens mali, 
auscultans inalum, audiens sociam mulierem, quoa 
Gen. iii. 14. audivit serpentem " maledictum inter omnia animan- 
tia [et bestias] terras, pronum, terram comedentem, 
perpetuum ininiicum mulieris et insidiosum." Hinc 
huniano generi vita asrumnosa, dura, difficilis, plena 
miserise, extra paradisum, longe a ligno vitas. Homo 



1 Sw/perbientisJ] See below, p. 53 : " Quse volens superbire de- 
cidit a Deo." Hence decidi is probably a mistake for deddere. 



DE SACRAMENTIS ECCLESLE. 51 

quia seductus peccavit, quodammodo inscius et in- 

vitus peccavit. Unde non erat ei nihil loci miseri- 

cordise, quum hornini erat aliquid excusationis. In 

serpentem seductorem rejectum peccatum est. Novit 

Deus optimum tempus miserendi. Erat faciendum 

ut, qui creavit homines, idem recrearet. Creatus 

erat homo, ut esset conjunx divini Filii; sed sapien- 

tia Dei (de qua exclamat Paulus, " altitude diviti- Rom. xi. 33, 34. 

arum sapientiee et scientise Dei : quam incomprehen- 

sibilia sunt judicia ejus, et investigabiles vise ejus. 

Quis cognovit sensum Domini?") ilia sapientia, ut 

tanta misericordia adhuc major agnosceretur, sinit 

hominem delabi; ut non solum creatum ex nihilo, 

sed etiam recreatum ex malo, ducat uxorem; ut 

universa creatura tantam creatoris benignitatem ob- 

stupescat et revereatur. Creavit et recreavit sibi 

suam conjugem humanam Deus : quae bonitatis di- 

vitise sunt tantse, ut verba defecerint Paulum, quibus 

digne rem tantam expromeret ; sed ' divitias et opes Rom. ii. 4. 

misericordise ' appellat. Si ante casum assumpsisset 

sibi in uxorem hominem, et propagatio mali, et po- 

tentia Dei in malo discutiendo, et in mundo maxima 

Dei sapientia et misericordia non apparuisset. Trans- 

gressiones et mala declarant sequitatem et bonitatem 

Dei (ut idem sentit Paulus : " Yeritas Dei in men- Rom. m. 7. 

dacio abundat ") : iniquitas justitiam Dei commendat, 

in gloriam ipsius. Materia gratise Dei malum est; 

ut morbus materia artis medicinae, in gloriam medici. 

Antequam illud tantuni miraculum assumptaa humance 

naturaB in creatura mundi ostentaretur, sivit et per- 

misit hominem cadere in nihilum, ut ex tanta humi- 

litate in sublimatione hominis ingentius beneficium 

et Deo dignius manifestissime cognosceretur. Proa- 



52 DE SACRAMENTIS ECCLESIJE. 

destinatum erat ut homo creatus decideret, seductus 
ab illo qui decidit non seductus; ut in recreatione 
rerum in creaturis Dei potentia etiam non minor 
quam in creatione appareret; misericordia "autem 
multo major quam in creatione, quummulto majus est 
ex misericordia revocare a malo quam ex misericordia 
creare a nihilo. Nam quod non est, ut non creetur, 
non est causa; quod autem malum est, ut non re- 
creetur, causa est. Magis obstat Deo malum in 
recreatione, quam non esse in creatione : ut multo 
majoris potentias esset recreare mundum a malo, 
quam creare ex nihilo. In creatione pura potentia; 
in recreatione pura misericordia; in utraque summa 
sapientia erat ; per quam Deus et potenter creavit, et 
misericorditer recreavit: ut in mundo tandem simul 
cum potentia timenda, inestimabilis misericordia 
ejusdem amanda sapientissime effulgeret (ut iterum 
atque iterum inculcat Paulus) in laudem glorias gra- 
tise suea. Ex tanta ergo humilitate in creaturis 
voluit sibi conjugem accipere altissimus Deus, et in- 
fimam naturam rationalem, earn quoque in irratio- 
nalitatem delapsam ; ut suprema ilia natura rationalis, 
quse invidia decidit, magis in suanr miseriam invidi& 
ardeat. Est enim poena perditis gloria salvatorum; 1 
et in his quanto major est misericordia, tanto illis 
justitia major est altiorque vindicta. Ut liceat 
cernere, quain ineffabili modo est Deus simul Justus 
et rnisericors ; et simul, quanto magis misericors, eo 
magis Justus ; ut in misericordia ejus videatur nasci 
justitia, et esse eadem in Deo misericordia et justitia 



1 Salvatorum.'] " Virtutem videant, intabescantque relicta." Pers. 
Sat. Hi. 38. 



DE SACRAMENTIS ECCLESI2E. 53 

in una infinite sapientia. Longa erat declaratio im- 
becillitatis humanse impotentiseque resurgendi per se, 
antequam earn relevavit Deus, ut deserta multo ex- 
perimento et suam imbecillitatem confiteretur, et 
divinam misericordiam agnosceret; utque quse volens 
superbire decidit a Deo, discat humilitate resurgere 
et referre omnia Deo. Sine lege delira erat; sub 
lege deliratior : opportune tempore in extremo peri- 
culo succurrit divina misericordia, et pauperculam 
naturam nominis, obsitam et squalidam, quasi manu 
[et] 1 'capite apprehensam ad se traxit; exuit foedam 
et tabificain vestem; discussit pulverem; extersit 
sordes ; purgatam induit nitidam et salutarem vestem 
nuptialem. Idem pontifex et maritus consecravit 
nuptias; ut, qui angelorum pontifex est, idem sit 
pontifex hominum, idemque restauret ecclesias qui 
"construxit. In create homine tantarum nuptiarum 
sacramentum voluit antecedere etiam ante peccatum, 
ut sanctius sacramentum esset : ut mirabiliter creatus 
homo ex nihilo recreati hominis ex malo sit sacra- 
mentum. Adas primo homini in creatione adjecit 
mulierem ad carnem propagandam; ut ex hoc primo 
homini in recreatione intelligatur electa femina ex 
latere 2 ejus recreata, redemptione effusi sanguinis, 
in spiritum propagandum ; cui dicatur, " Crescite Gen. i. 28. 
et multiplicamini " spiritali prole, "et replete ter- 



1 Et.'} In the MS. merely the letter "1." manu apprehensam 
alone seems all that is required ; unless we should read manu 
ca/piente. 

2 Eco latereJ] " Nee sine causa et ipsa conjux de latere facta est. 
Viro dormiente, Eva facta est. Moriente Christo, Ecclesia facta est. 
Et ilia de latere viri, cum costa detracta est: et ista de latere viri, 
quando latus lancea percussum est, et sacramenta profluxerunt." 
S. Augustinus : Enarratio in Psalmum cxxvii. 11. 



54 DE SACBAMENTIS ECCLESI/E. 

ram, et subjicite earn, et dominamini piscibus ma- 
ris et volatilibus coeli, et universis quae moventur 
super terrain." In paradise creata femina virago 
erat recreata in terra, ecclesise umbra, de qua vatici- 
natus est Adam, primus propheta, dicens quod " re- 
linquet homo patrem suum et niatrem, et adheerebit 
uxori suae; et erunt duo" in spiritu uno. Nam 
caro Adam significat spiritum Christi. Hoc est sa- 
cramentum quo dicit Paulus in epistola ad Ephesios, 
et prae magnitudine (ut Jeronimus scribit) 1 non ex- 

Eph. v. 32. plicat ; sed uno fere verbo dicit quod est " sacramen- 

tum in Christo et ecclesia;" malens tantuni myste- 

^.rium tacere, quain de eo loqui diminutius. Idcirco 

Eph. v. 25. admonet Ephesios ut " uxores diligant, sicut Christus 
ecclesiam," in sanctificationem earum, et fecunda- 
tionem in spiritu, non in carne. Nam quatenus in 
conjugio res carnis sit, tanto veritas spiritus minuitur. 
Et in paradiso erat maris et feniinEe connubiuni sine 
carnali copula, spiritalis coitus sacramentum. Adam 
autem, primus homo creatus, et parens carnalis pro- 
geniei, umbra erat secundi hominis recreati, et pa- 
^rentis prolis spiritalis ad numerurn stellarum. Erat 
- primus Adam minister Dei in propagatione carnis ad 
mortem; secundus Adam minister Dei in propaga- 

1 " Gregorius Nazianzenus, vir valde eloquens, et in Scripturis ap- 
prlme eruditus, cum de hoc mecum tractaret loco, solebat dicere : vide 
quantum istius capituli sacramentum sit, ut Apostolus in Christo illud 
ct in Ecclesia interpretans, non se ita asserat, ut testimonii postulabat 
dignitas, expressisse ; sed quodammodo dixerit : Scio quia locus iste 
ineffabilibus plenus sit sacramentis, et divinum cor quadrat interpretis. 
Ego autem, pro pusillitate sensus mei, in Christo interim illud et in 
ecclesia intelligendum puto : non quo aliquid Christo et ecclesia majus 
sit ; sed quod totum quod do Adam et de Eva dicitur, in Christo efr in 
ecclesia interpretari posse difficile sit." S. Eusebii Hieronymi Com- 
mentarius in loc. (Migne, 1845). 



DE SACRAMENTIS ECCLESLE. . 55 

tione spiritus ad vitam. Primum Adam vocat Paulus 

in epistola ad Romanes " formam futuri;" cujus gra- Eom. v. 14. 

tia in plures abundavit ex nmltis delictis in justinca- 

tionem, ut justi conregnent in vita per unum, Jesum 

Christum, per cujus obedientiam homines justifican- 

tur. Is erat parens et propagator spiritus ad vitam 

in terris, sicut primus Adam progenitor carnis ad 

mortem. Quocirca scribit Paulus ad Corinthios : 

" Sicut in Adam omnes moriuntur, ita et in Christo i Cor. xv/22, 

omnes vivificantur. Factus est pr[imus] homo Adam 47< 

in animam viventem, novissimus Adam in spiritum 

vivificantem. Primus homo de terra terrenus; se- 

cundus homo de ccelo ccBlestis." In Christo ergo 

non est prolificatio nisi coelestis et spiritus. Jam 

(ait Paulus alibi) " neminem cognovimus secundum 2 Cor. v. 16. 

oarnem." Nee carnalis in Christo debet esse ulla 

propagatio, sed tota ccelestis, ut " portemus imaginem i Cor.xv. 49. 

coelestis," et ccelestis parentis nostri similes simus, 

qui fecundat suam ecclesiam, injecto in earn divino 

semine, ut copiosam pariat prolem justitise ad regnum 

Dei. Qui creavit Adam, ut esset imago sui, voluit 

ipse quodammodo recreari; ut (sicut ad Colocenses 

scriptum est) " qui est primogenitus omnis creaturse," CoL i. is. 

idem sit "principium, primogenitus ex mortuis," ec- Col. i. is. 

clesiae caput ; ut sit in omnibus ipse primatum tenens, 

et creatis et recreatis, et plenis et dencientibus ; qui 

defecit ipse maxime, ut esset etiam in recreatione et 

reconciliatione primas, sicuti in creatione et pleni- 

tudine et perfectione rex erat primas et primogenitus 

omnis creaturae. " Quoniam in ipso condita sunt Col. i. ie. 

universa perfecta in coelis et in terra, visibilia et in- 

visibilia, sive throni, sive dominationes, sive princi- 

patus, sive potestates; omnia per ipsum et in ipso 



56 DE SACRAMENTIS ECCLESLE. 

creata sunt" mirifice et oninipotenter : deficiente 
ipso Creators quodammodo ut creatura reficiatur j 1 (ut 
primogenitus creaturse sit idem primoregenitus re- 
creaturae, in recreata scilicet humans^ natural quae de- 
fecit ; ad quam etiam defeeit Dei Filius ipse et factus 
est filius hominis, ut refecta natura humana fiat filia 
Dei et sponsa Filii aeterna. Ut decidit homo in 
carnem, ita fuit necesse ut exemeretur ex carne. com- 
prehensione spiritus, fiatque ex carne spiritalis ; carne, 
quaa regnavit, a spiritu vict4; ut spiritus existens 
homo idoneus esset ut spiritali connubio cum Deo 
ipso conjungeretur; cum quo nequaquam conjungi 
potest nisi sit summe spiritalis. Proportione enim 
aliqua oportet sint qua? copulentur. Caro enim longe 
distat a Deo, ut carnalem hominem cum Deo conjungi 
sit impossibile. Hinc Paulus et reliqui apostoli sua- 
dent et imperant, quoad maxime possunt, mortifica- 
tionem carnis et revivificationem in spiritu; semper 
hoc docentes plane, nisi homines fiant spiritus, eos 
Deo, ut unus fiat spiritus, adhaarere non posse. 
Rom. vi. 4. " Comrnortuos et consepultos" dicit Paulos nos esse 
ib. v. e. in Christo, in epistola ad Romanos. " Yetus homo 

noster simul crucifixus est, ut destruatur corpus pec- 
cati, ut ultra non servianms peccato." Est paulo 
ib. vii. 24. post, "Quis me liberabit a corpore mortis hujus?" 



1 Reficiatur.'] " How, will some say, can this be? After this 
manner. The comparison is taken from our first parents. Eve was 
made of a ribbe taken out of Adams side, he being cast into a slumber : 
this being done, Adam awaked and saide, This is now bone of my bone, 
and flesh of my flesh. Christ was nayled on the crosse, and his most 
pretious blood was shedde, and out of it arise and spring all true 
Christians ; that is, out of the merit of Christ's death and passion, 
whereby they become newe creatui'es." Perkins, Exposition of the 
Oreede (1597), p. 687. 



DE SACRAMENTIS ECCLESL&. 57 

Item, " Sapientia carnis inimica est Deo;" et, " Pru- Rom. viii. 7, e. 

dentia carnis, mors." " Qui in carne stint, Deo pla- 

cere non possunt." " Si Christus in vobis est, corpus ft. w. 10, 13. 

quidem mortuum est propter peccatum, spiritus vivit 

propter justificationem. - Si spiritu facta carnis mor- 

tificaveritis, vivetis." Et adhuc postea : " Obsecro ib. xii. i, 2. 

vos, fratres, per misericordiam Dei, ut exhibeatis 

corpora vestra hostiam viventem, sanctam, Deo pla- 

centem, rationabile obsequium. Et nolite conformari 

huic sseculo, sed reformamini in novitate" spiritus et 

"sensus vestri; ut probetis quse sit voluntas Dei 

bona et beneplacens et perfecta." Ad Corinthios: iCor.ii.i4, is. 

" Animalis homo non sapit ea quae Dei sunt ; stultitia 

enim est illi, et non potest intelligere, quia spiritaliter 

examinatur. Spiritalis autem judicat omnia." Quern 

dicit animalem hominem, eundem mox postea " car- ib. iii. s. 

nalem" dicit, et " secundum carnem ambulare." E"fc 

in II ad Corinthios: " Semper nos, qui vivimus, in 2Cor. iv. 11. 

mortem tradimur propter Jesum; ut vita Jesu ma- 

nifestetur in carne nostra mortali;" et in eodem loco : 

" Semper mortificationem Jesu Christi in corpore ib. iv. 10. 

circumferentes, ut et vita Jesu manifestetur in corpo- 

ribus nostris." Item, " Unus pro omnibus mortuus 2Cor.v. 14,17. 

est Christus;" et in Christo " omnes mortui sunt; ut, 

qui vivunt, jam non sibi vivant, sed ei qui pro eis 

mortuus est et resurrexit. Itaque nos ex hoc nemi- 

nem novimus secundum carnem. Si qua ergo in 

Christo nova creatura, vetera transierunt ; ecce nova 

facta sunt omnia." Et illud: " Libenter gloriabor 2 Cor. xii. 9, 10. 

in infirmitatibus meis, ut inhabitet in me virtus 

Christi. Quum infirmor, tune fortior sum." Ad 

Galathas: "Si hominibus placerem, Christi servus Gal. i. 10. 

non essem." Item, "Ego per legem legi mortuus Gal. ii 19, 20. 



58 DE SACKAMENTIS ECCLESI^E. 

sum, ut Deo vivam: Christo crucifixus sum cruci. 
Vivo jam non ego; vivit vero in me Christus." Et 

Gai.v. 16, 17. illud: " Spiritu ambulate, et desideria carnis non 
perficietis. Caro enim concupiscit adversus spiritum ; 
spiritus adversus carnem: haec enim sibi invicem 

ib. w. 24,25. adversantur." Et paulo post: " Qui autem sunt 
Christi, carnem suam crucifixerunt cum vitiis et con- 
cupiscentiis. Si vivimus spiritu, spiritu ambulenms." 

Gal. vi. 14, 15. Et post ha3c : " MiM absit gloriari, nisi in cruce Do- 
mini nostri Jesu Christi; per quern mihi mundus 
crucifixus est, et ego mundo." In quo " nihil valet 
nisi nova creatura." Et ad Ephesios scribens, Deum 

Eph. i. 3. patrem appellat, " qui benedixit nos in omni benedic- 

Eph. iv. 22-24, tione spiritali in coelestibus." Et illud: " Deponite 
30 ' vos secundum pristinam conversationem veterem ho- 

minem, qui corrumpitur secundum desideria erroris, 
et renovarnini spiritu mentis vestrae; et induite 
novum hominem, qui secundum Deum creatus est in 
justitia et sanctitate veritatis. Et nolite contristare 

Eph. v. is. Spiritum." Et, "Implemini Spiritu sancto." "Est 

Ep . vi. 12, 11. no j.^ s colluctatio adversus spiritalia nequitiae in coeles- 
tibus," quae vincenda sunt "armatura Dei." Et ad 

Phil. i. 21. Philippenses : " Mihi vivere Christus est, et mori lu- 

rha. iii. 10-14. crum." Et illud : "Configuratus morti ejus ; si quando 
ad resurrectionem occurram quae est ex mortuis ; si 
quomodo comprehendarn. in quo et cornprehensus 
sum a Christo Jesu. Quae quidem retro sunt obli- 
viscens, ad ea quae priora sunt extendens me ipsum, 
ad destinatum prosequor bravium supernae vocationis 

Col. i. 24. in Christo Jesu." Ad Collocenses: "Nunc gaudeo 
hi passionibus pro vobis, ut impleam ea quse desunt 

Col. m. 5. passion um Christi in carne mea." Item: " Mortifi- 
cate membra vestra quaa sunt supra terram." Depo- 



DE SACEAMENTIS ECCLESLE. 59 

nite et " exspoliate veterem hominem cum actibus Coi. iii. 9, 10. 
suis, et induite novum." Sed quorsum hsec testi- 
monia?" Nempe ut intelligamus, si Deo, qui spiritus 
est, conjungi et copulari voluerimus, nos necessario 
mortificata carne spiritales omnino esse oportere, et 
penitus novos in Christo, ad formam illius hominis in 
Christo viventes, qui exemplum dedit ut sequamur 
vestigia ejus ; qui ob id causse solum assumpsit homi- 
nem, ut spiritalem et divinam in homine vitam 
ostendat hominibus, doceatque quam vestem nup- 
tialem induat homo, si velit a Deo in uxorem duci. 
Non locatur matrimonio Deo nisi virgo rejuvenescens 
spiritu, " sine ruga, sine macula, aut aliquid ejusmodi, Eph.v.a?. 
tota sancta et immaculata," casta cum sancto, spiritalis 
et divina cum spiritu et Deo. Cujusmodi puellam 
Dominus, quando " de coelo prospexit, ut videret si PS. xiii. 2, 3. 
esset intelligens aut requirens Deum," sibi in terris 
non invenit; quoniam "omnes declinaverunt, simul 
inutiles facti sunt : non erat qui fecit bonum, non 
erat usque ad unum." Fuit igitur necesse sane, ut 
Deus, creator omnium, quum voluit in terris (miseri- 
cordia quanta excogitari potest a nemine) uxorem 
ducere, et hominem arctissima copula sibi astring[ere], 
earn crearet. Creavit primum hominem in utero 
matris Virginis Marias ; quern secundum Adam con- 
junxit sibi, sanctum penitus et sine labe peccati, 
cujusmodi erat primus Adam antequam cecidit. In 
illo Dei Filius apparuit hominibus ; ut omnes volentes 
credere crearet 1 ejusmodi, adscisceretque multos, ex 
peccatoribus factos justos, in societate Filii sui, in 



1 Crearet.'] If Dei Fifais be right, the subject of this verb is 
changed to Deus ; as shown by Filii sui below. 



60 DE SACBAMENTIS ECCLESLE. 

sanctam sibi conjugem, quae vocatur ecclesia; quam 
2 Cor. v. 17. Paulus ssepe vocat "in Christo novam creaturam;" 
ut sacrosanctis nuptiis et divino coitu homo curn Deo 
(femina homo) in amplexu tanti viri et Dei summe 
perficiatur, et quse erat sterilis plene fecundetur in 
illo misericordi concubitu Dei Filii; ut, quasi semine 
concepto, pariat copiosum fructum in se sanctitatis et 
justitise. quag sunt bona opera, quae ssepe Paulus vocat 
fructus in vitam seternam. Ad Galathas scribit: 
Gal. v. 22,23. " Fructus autem spiritus est charitas, gaudium, pax, 
patientia, longanimitas, bonitas, benignitas, mansue- 
tudo, fides, modestia,. continentia, castitas." Has 
virtutes sunt quasi soboles Filii Dei et ecclesise : opera 
justitise quasi filii sunt Dei et suse conjugis ecclesiae. 
Homines vocantur in ecclesiam in partem uxoris Dei, 
ut divino semine impregnentur, et, quum antea 
friguerint, jam caleant, et ex charitate pariant spisse 
bona opera, et justitiarn, quse proles est aeterna Dei et 
ecclesiee. 

("Dei Filii reterni "1 

,-Dei filii ^ j-Christus maritus -j p roles j usti . 

Deus Pater <j j:Hominis temporalis fllte ^ Uiaebonorum- 

LT-I / J (T- i ^ . J que operum. 

SDeasfihjes ^-Ecclesia uxor Dei r 

(_Hominum confiliarum J 

Homines, confratres vel consorores filise Dei Patris, 
una conjux est Filii Dei: homini in Christo conso- 
rores sumus, Deitati in Christo conjuges. Illi etam 
Deitati quasi sorores; quibus nupsit seternus Dei 
Filius, ut ecclesia sit ei in communi Patris domo et 
soror et conjux ; x soror creata a Deo Patre ut earn 
uxorem ducat Filius, earn fecundans justitia in seter- 



1 Et soror et conjux.'] Thus was fulfilled and spiritualized the legend 
of the ancients concerning the children of Saturn. See the passages 
quoted at ii. of Fiilgentius's Mythologies (1681). p. 36. 



DE SACRAMENTIS ' ECCLESLffi. 61 

nitatem. Itaque ecclesia homini in Christo consoror 
est: Deo Filio in Christo et soror et conjux: Deo 
Patri filia virago. Sed filia Dei virilior est viris filiis 
hominum. Deus Pater genuit sibi aeterna generatione 
cosBternum Filium: genuit quidem in se, et ex se 
ipso, et quasi coit-in se ipso, ut Filium progignat in 
se ipso ; ut illo ineffabili modo esset simul [Pater] et 
Mater. Grenitus autem Filius ille aeternus, Dei Patris 
virtus et sapientia, quum cceperit amare, non potuit 
esse cui non tradatur uxor. Nam ex amore implere, 
perficere, et in alio et cum alio propagare imaginem 
et sirnilitudinem suam, tanta virtus abesse divinis 
et divino Filio non potest. Hoc est matrimonium ; ' 
conjunctio maris et feminaB : que, si bona est, debet 
esse prima in primo, ut a primo deinceps quas sunt 
nominentur. Dei Filius ergo primus maritus est, a 
quo omnis maritatio in coelo et in terra nominatur. 
Est vir ipse, et ipsa masculinitas, fern in 83 creaturoa 
perfectio. Quanquam illi destinata erat conjux, 
tamen non statim ei data fuit. " Primogenitus omnis 
creatures," ut vocat Paulus in epistola ad Collocenses, 
"In quocondita sunt universa in coelis et in terra, visi- Col. i. is, ie. 
bilia et invisibilia, sive throni, sive dominationes, sive 
principatus, sive potestates; omnia per ipsurn et in 
ipso creata sunt:" ille primogenitus creaturae et 
imago invisibilis Dei, creaturam ad imaginem Dei 
conditam, id est, hominem creatum, illico duxisset 
uxorem, si puella hasc lasciva in paradise non violata 
fuisset. Qua ob id causse repudiata, mansit viduus 
vir ille Filius Dei, donee Pater genuerat sibi filiam 
incorruptam, quam Filio suo nubendam tradat ; quam 
quum voluit ex corrupta carne et adulterata ilia in 
paradise progignere, ut opus Dei ordine procedat, 
magno opus erat prseparamento, magno etiam et 



62 DE SACBAMENTIS ECCLESL^J. 

vario rerum successu. Ante omnia vero opus erat, 
ut tanta res futura digno et congruo sacfamento 
significaretur. Est semper intelligendum, sensibi- 
lia et carnalia in hominibus intelligibilium et spiri- 
tualium esse sacramenta, ! Quuni provisum erat 
Adam casuruin, cui erat adjecta femina, ut ex eo 
carnali fluat progenies, simul prasdestinata erat ex 
coelo virtus processura, qu.se cornprehendens homi- 
nem serperet spiritificans in interitum carnis; quas 
esset alia propago et secunda, cui prirna ilia propago 
ut umbra prsecessit, et potentibus intelligere ut sa- 
cramentum. Yoluit ergo Deus in corrupto homine 
depingere earn veritatem, quse incorrupto homine 
evenit suo tempore. Usus est corruptela mundi pro 
materia significationis. Veritas significata ex coelo 
tandem contrario cursu se influit in mundum, lapis 

i Pet. ii. s. objectus fluctibus, " lapis offensionis et petra scan- 
dali," ad quern delabens mundus se frangit, qui est 
mundo omnino contrarius, et ccelestis fluvius, mun- 

PS. xiv. s. dano omnino objectus; " fluvius ille inipetuosus, qui 
leetificat civitatem Dei." Hsec est restauratio mundi 
per vim revelanteni. Mundo bene create et condito, 

Gen. i. si. (" Vidit Deus," inquit, " cuncta quas fecerat, et erant 
valde bona") ruinae cosperunt esse, quas reparaturus 
erat Deus per Filium suum, et reEedificaturus mun- 
duni, ac quasi novuni mundum facturus ; ut nuptiee, 
gloria, regnum sit Filio suo, qui erat apud Patrem 

Gen. . is. antiquus Adam. Sed " non est bonum hominem 

1 Sacramento,.] Eccl. Hier. c. ii. p. iii. " Sunt enim (ut Libro de 
Intelligibilibus et Sensibilibus aperte docuimus) visibilia sacramenta 
intelligibilium imagines qusedam ; quibus ad ea recto itinere ducimur. 
Porro intelligibilia visibilium sacramentorum initium sunt atque 
scientia." 



DE SACRAMENTIS ECCLESt^. 63 

esse solum. Dixit ergo Dominus Deus, Faciamus ei 
adjutorium simile sibi." Hinc Paulus vocat eccle- 
siam coadjutor em Dei in propagatione justitise : pro- 
les enim Filii Dei et ecclesias conjugis justitia est. 
Adam ille antiquus nominavit omnia proprio nomine ; 
quo verbo erant creata omnia. At huic Filio Dei 
non erat reperta uxor, quam impleret semine divino 
in propagationem justitiae. " Adas non inveniebatur Gen. ii. 20. 
adjutor similis ejus." Yoluit Deus Adam in sopore 
esse in humana carne, ex ejus latere viraginem 
[sumpturus], 1 propter quam relinquet Filius Dei 
Patrem suum et Matrem, et adhaerebit uxori sues, et 
erunt duo in spiritu uno. Sed ut serpens Evam, ita 
serpens est qui seducit ecclesiam. Quapropter Paulus 
ad Corinthios, " Timeo," inquit, " ne, sicut serpens 2 Cor. xi. 3. 
feminam seduxit astutia sua, ita corrumpantur sensus 
vestrij et excidant a simplicitate quse est in Christo ;" 
qui assumpsit sibi ecclesiam in uxorem, ut non e.dat 
de ligno scientiae boni et mali, sed adhsereat illi sim- 
plici fide, a qua si cadat in ratiocinationem boni et 
mali, turn cadit a fide et Christo. " Despondi vos 2 Cor. xi. 2. 
uni viro" (Filio Dei), " virginem castam" (simplici- 
tate fidei) " exhibere Christo ;" qui reliquit patrem 
et matrem (id est, Deum qui ilium genuit ex seipso, 
ut esset et Pater et Mater) ut adhsereret uxori suse 
ecclesiae; quam, sanguine ex latere effuso et morte 
Christi redemptam, Pater sibi adoptavit in filiam, 
ut ei nubat Filius suus. Ad Eomanos : " Vos mor- Rom. vii. 4. 
tificati estis legi per corpus Christi, ut sitis alterius" 
(id est, Filii Dei una cum homine assumpto illo) 



1 Sumptui~us.'] " Hsec vocabitur virago, quoniam de viro sumpta 
est." Gen. ii. 23. 



64 DE SACKAMENTIS ECCLESI^E. 

" qui resurrexit a mortuis," ut vos novi cum illo 
homine, et conjux Christi, " fructificetis Deo." fjlic 
fructus justitise est masculina virtus, et filius Dei%t 
ecclesiaa. Vos enim estis menibra de membro, id 
est, homines adhaerentes homini illi primo, ut una 
cum illo sitis in uxore Dei, uniti et adhserentes illi, 
quam uxoreni humanam vocat Paulus, facturam et 
creaturam ex nequitia hujus mundi. Cujus rei et 
matrinionii, conjunctionisque feminei hominis cum 
masculine Deo, sacramentum dicit in epistola ad 
Ephesios magnum illud sanxitum matrimonium Adas 
et Evae fuisse, qui primi erant homines; 1 Net in illis 
primum sacramentum et prima prophetia ; quod illud 
et carrialia omnia in alio progressu spiritali, incepto 
a Christo, perfici debent spiritaliter, in fmitionem 
s. Matth.v. is. eorum quse sunt carnis. "Iota," dixit ille secundus 
Adam, " et apex unus non prseteribit de lege,' donee 
omnia fiant." Adam divinum Filium, Eva ecclesiam 
significat : matrimonium inter Adam et Evarn, matri- 
monium sanctum inter Dei Filium et ecclesiam, in 
fecunditatem justitise, quae proles est Dei et ecclesiae. 
Propagatio ilia carnalis ad mortem; hsec per Chris- 
tum propagatio justitiae ad vitam. Hsec omnia sunt 
signa et sacramenta novi mundi in Christo, ut nee 

1 Compare the Paraphrase of Erasmus on Eph. v. ad f. " Subest 
hie ineffabile quoddam et ingens arcanum, quomodo quod in Adam et 
Eva sub typo gestum est, in Christo et in ecclesia mystice peragatur. 
Hujus individuam eopulam quisquis scrutabitur, intelliget magnum 
subesse mysterium. Nam quemadmodum ipse cum Patre unum erat, 
ita et suos omnes unum voluit esse seeum. Quod arcanum licet re- 
ti'usius sit quam ut in pra?sentia sit explicandum, tamen in hoc sat est 
attulisse exemplum, ut suara quisque uxorem non secus diligat atque 
se ipsum diligit ; memineritque, secum illam unum et idem esse, quem- 
admodum Christus adamavit ecclesiam suam, quam sibi intime ad- 
junxit." 



DE SACRAMENTIS ECCLES1/E. 65 

iota nec apex prsetereat donee omnia fiant. Post- 
quam ceciderit homo quam longissime a Deo in ni- 
hilum, in parand& h&c conjuge multum erat laboris 
et negotii. Ut Dei opus ordine procederet, summa 
et serenior pars humani erat reservata, et ea quoque 
in humano genere ordine fluens, donee tandem [p]u- 
rissima virgo, flos ex radice Jesse, fructificaverit 
Jesum, masculum et feminam, in quo erat masculus 
Deus et femineus homo. Id est quod Moyses ait: 
" Faciamus hominem ad imaginem et similitudinem Gen. i. 25, 27. 
nostram; et prsesit piscibus maris, et volatilibus 
coeli, et bestiis, universae[que] terras, omnique reptili 
quod movetur in terra. Et creavit Deus hominem ad 
imaginem suam ; ad imaginem Dei creavit ilium ; mas- 
culum et feminam creavit eos," Hie est Jesus, mascu- 
linus Deo, et femininus humanitate, per quam attraxit 
sibi reliquos homines in completionem conjugis suae, 
ut incrementum et multiplicatio sit, et repletio, et 
subjectio terras per justitiam. Hie est quern Paulus 
vocat " principium, primogenitus " (id est, primore- Col. i. is. 
genitus), " ut sit ipse in omnibus primatum tenens." 
In quo est factura rerum, et refactura inchoata ab 
homine, quas conjux assumpta est per caput, qui est 
homo, a Maria virgine sumptus; cui sunt reliqui 
vocati homines membra ex membro, ex quibus om- 
nibus constat una ecclesia, cujus maritus est Dei Fi- 
lius. Quas ecclesia ut effingeretur apta ad nuptias, 
antecessit Moysaica lex : immo illic, ut in brevi 
tabula, quse est futura ecclesia in mundo significatur 
a Patre facto capite ecclesise; et, data Filio suo in 
manum, agit idem Pater in completionem uxoris 
Filii sui. Nemo venit nisi Pater traxerit in conju- 
gium : simul Filius fecundat in frugem justitiae verse 

F 



66 DE SACKAMENTIS ECCLESLffi. 

et simplicis, turn in Deuin turn in homines. Itaque 
seterno genito Filio, Pater in terris genuit filiam 
ecclesiam, et eam locavit matrimonio Filio suo. Hinc 
Filius Dei apud Marcum se sponsum vocavit ; dicens, 

s. Mark, ii. 19, Nuinquid filii nuptiarum, quamdiu sponsus cum 
illis est, possunt jejunare? Quanto tempore habent 
secum sponsum, non possunt jejunare. Veniet autem 
tempus quum auferetur ab eis sponsus; et tune jeju- 
nabunt illis diebus." De his nuptiis est ilia parabola 

s. Matth. xxii. apud MattliEeum, " Hominem regem " (id est, Deum 
2 ' Patrem) " fecisse nuptias Filio suo ; vocasse quam 

plurimos, sed illos indignos non venisse; vocatos 
multos, paucos venisse." Primum ergo quod est in 
ecclesia nostra est pontifici nostro veritas nuptiarum ; 
in qua quia non est significatio, sed ipsa veritas, ideo 
puto Dionysium in Ecclesiastica Hierarchic), de matri- 
monio tacuisse, cujus sacramentum antecessit. Hinc 
inter Deum et ecclesiam verse sunt nuptise, et feminei 
hominis cum masculino Deo fecundissima conjunctio ; 
ad quam omnia sacramenta in ecclesia tendunt; ut 
homines parentur, et in illis sanctis nuptiis continean- 
tur sacramentis purgatoriis, illuminatoriis et perfec- 
toriis. JHomo in Dei Filium assumptus purissimus, 
illuminatissimus, et perfectissimus erat, et vera Dei 
uxor. Is sacerdotium instituit apostolos ; qui poeni- 
tentia, baptismo, confirmatione, eucharistia, extrem^, 
unctione, expurgent, illuminent, perficiant, et talibus 
sacramentis consignent homines in uxorem Christi et 
DeiTJ Consecravit primum sibi sacerdotes, ad exem- 
plum angelorum, pontifex ille et sponsus; qui sunt 
primi in sponsa Dei, et quasi mulieris anima ; ut re- 
liquum sponsse corpus conficiant purgatum, illumina- 
tum, et perfectum, ac ejusmodi dignis sacramentis 



DE SACRAMENTIS ECCLESL&. 



67 



Unum 



Sacrum conjugium. 



68 DE SACRAMENTIS ECCLESL. 

consignent, ut sensibili sigillo et impressione spirit- 
alem impressionem agnoscant. Dei Filius, pontifex 
noster, vir, et sponsus, purgator idem et illuminator 
et perfector, sanxivit nuptias inter se et sororem 
suam adoptatam in domum Patris sui : instituit sub 
se filios et pontifices, qui reliquam conjugem conse- 
crent Deo. Quae quia corporea et caduca est, cor- 
poreis ' sacramentis, tanquani retinaculis quibusdam, 
colligant; pcenitenti&, baptismo, confirmatione, eu- 
charistia, et extrema unctione. Omnia ad haec ten- 
dunt, ut compleatur conjux, et nuptiae Christi. 
Sacerdotes sunt mariti in marito et sacerdote Jesu ; 
et in illo purgantes poenitentia, illuminantes bap- 
tismo et confirmatione, et perficientes eucharistia et 

extrema unctione. Quid est tota 



Matrimonium. 

Ordo Sacerdotii. 

Poenitentia. 

Baptismus. 

Confirmatio. 

Eucharistia. 

Extrema Unctio. 



ecclesia nisi matrimonium illud 
spiritale, vir et uxor, ordinati 
etiam et qui ordinentur, purga- 
tione, illuminatione et perfec- 
tione, ut sordes, tenebrse et de- 
fectus carnis tollatur a secundo 



Adam? Pontifex et sponsus se propagat, et in illo 
omnes pontifices sunt sponsi, et agunt in illo pontifi- 
cale munus, et parationem uxoris, et fecundationem 
divino semine, et verbo Dei, ut eo fecunda ecclesia 
parens et mater sit justitias. Ordo ergo primum est 
in ecclesia ; pontifex enim ipse Christus ; et in illo 



1 Corjjoreis sacr.'] " Primis et summis hominibus apertiores sunt 
visiones, ac in mentes eorum irradiatio simplicior deitatis. Eeliquis 
deinde crassioribus per signa commode indicantur omnia; et morum 
effictio, et Dei excultio, et veritatis expectatio." Colet, in Gael. Hier. 
(School MS., fol. 6, a). 



DE SACRAMENTIS ECCLESLE. 
TJnum 



69 



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70 DE SACKAMENTIS ECCLESL&. 

deinde simul matrimonium, et in illo pontifices et 
sponsi agentes pontificatum et sponsionem Christi, ut 
spiritales nuptias propagent, omniaque contrahant 
ordine in conjugem Christi, et in eodem contineantur. 
Ipsa veritas pontificis est Dei Filius, qui et ange- 
lorum est idem quoque veritas sponsi. Superior 
ecclesise pars in ratione pontificis et sponsi ilium 
imitatur, ut in pontifice et sponso Deo pontificem et 
sponsum agat, et sacrificet, prolemque progignat. 
In qua actione quia idem est sponsus et pontifex, 
idcirco idem est proles et sacrificiuin, quge [justitia] 
est, quse sacrificatur a pontifice et progignitur a 
sponso. In qua re idem est sacrificatio et progene- 
ratio. Ut enim idem est sacrificans et generans (id 
est, pontifex et sponsus in summo pontifice et sponso 
Deo Christo), ita eademest actio, sacrificatio etproli- 
ficatio; et eadem oblatio et proles, qusB est justitia ; 
quam ecclesia, sanctificata et fecundata a Deo Filio, 
et offert et parit prolem et sacrificium. In persona 

PS. iv. e, 7. ecclesise, David in Psalmo quarto jubet, " Sacrificate 
sacrificium justitise, et sperate in Domino: multi 
dicunt, Quis ostendit nobis bona? Signatum est 
super nos lumen vultus tui, Do-mine." In quo anno- 
tandum est breviter ibi a propheta tactas esse illas 
tres virtutes celeberrimas, spem, fidem et caritatem. 

ib. iv. 10. Jubet enim speremus, qui " sumus constituti in spe 
singulariter," id est simpliciter, et " sumus signati 
lumine " fidei, quod est signum vultus et veritatis 
Dei: et "Sacrificate sacrificium justitias," quod idem 
sacrificium est et proles Dei et ecclesise. Quid enim 
aliud est sacrificare quam parere, et procreare ex 
semine et fecunditate Dei vivas et pingues hostias, 
vitali sanguine plenas ? Et id quoque quidnam aliud 



DE SACRAMENTIS ECCLESLZE. 71 

est quam juste agere, offerreque justitiam Domino illi 

justitiae justificanti, et fecunditatis Domino fecun- 

danti; ut idem sit pontifex Justus justificans, et 

sponsus fecundus fecundans ecclesiam sponsam, quae 

est gens sancta et sacerdotalis sacrificans, et eadem 

mater fecunda verbo et semine Dei pariens, justitiam, 

sacrificium et prolem Deo Filio, parenti genitorique 

justitiee in sua uxore ecclesia. Paulus autem, agens 

in Jesu vero pontifice et sponso, personam pontificis 

et sponsi, saepe in suis epistolis, in quibus se vocat 

" dispensatorem mysteriorum Dei," et coadjutorem 

quatenus ad pontificatus officium attinet, scribit in 

epistola ad Romanes hisce verbis: "Audacius autem Eom. xv. 15,16. 

scripsi vobis, fratres, ex parte, tanquam in memoriam 

vobis reducens, propter gratiam quae data est mihi a 

Deo" (in quo ago ministerium), "ut sim minister 

Jesu Christi in gentibus, sanctificans evangelium 

Dei, ut fiat oblatio gentium accepta " (id est, justitia 

in eis) "et sanctificata in Spiritu Sancto; " in obedi- 

entia scilicet Deo. Et ad eosdem Romanes, quos 

velit gentem esse sanctam et sacerdotalem, (nam est 

sacerdotis sacerdotium propagare : nihil enim est 

munus et ofiicium cujusque, nisi propagatio ejusdem, 

et qui se sacrificavit Deo ef&cere ut secum alii consa- 

crificent, ut tota ecclesia sit sacerdotium consacri- 

ficans justitiam, id est, quisque in ea se justum, 

vwam hostiam, offerat Deo) scribit : " Obsecro itaque Eom. xii. i, 2. 

vos, fratres, per misericordiam Dei, ut exhibeatis 

corpora vestra hostiam viventem, sanctam, Deo 

placentem, rationale obsequium vestrum. Et nolite 

conformari huic saaculo ; sed reformamini in novitate 

spiritus vestri; ut probetis quaa sit voluntas Dei 

bona, beneplacens et perfecta." Hie ecclesia inferior 



72 DE SACEAMENTIS ECCLESL&. 

superiorem ecclesiam imitatur, et sacrificans se illam 
sacrificantem se Deo contendit referre. Quia nihil est 
aliud ofncium in ecclesia, quam sacrificatio sui cu- 
jusque Deo; et id quoque nihil est aliud quam se 
filium Dei facere. Sacrificare est ergo facere filium 
summo pontifici et sponso. Et ecclesia est sacerdos 
et mater ; justitia est sacrificium et proles. Mascu- 
linior pars cum femininiori agit assidue, ut a tota simul 
sacrificium et proles offeratur. Qffert masculinior 
ut gignens, femininior ut mater et parens. Tota res 

Gal. iv. 19. una est et simplex, et quasi arbor fructificans. " Fi- 
lioli mei," inquit ad Galathas Paulus, " quos iterum 
parturio, donee formetur in vobis Christus." Ibi 
Christum sponsum imitatur, cujus est in conjuge for- 
mare filios justitise, facereque ut conjux sacerdos 
offerat filios Deo, justa sacrificia justitiae. Est enim 
ecclesia soror Christi, et mater et sacerdos justitise ; 
sponsa et sacerdos pati ns non agens. Sunt enim 
sacrificantes agentes, et sacrificantes patientes. Una 
sacrificat agens, et [una] l pars patiens in ecclesia. Et 

i Peter ii. 9; 2, tota ecclesia, ut Petrus scribit, "genus electum, 
regale sacerdotium, gens sancta, populus acquisi- 
tionis " est simul; "ut modo geniti infantes, ut cres- 
camus in salutem," in similitudinem Domini; "ad 
quern accedentes, lapidem vivum, electum, ipsi 
lapides vivi supersedificemur, domus spiritalis, sacer- 
dotium sanctum, oflferentes spiritales hostias, accep- 
tabiles Deo per Jesum Christum. Haec hostia est 
suum cuj usque in se sacrificium justitise Deo in 
Christo, quae etiam justitia est filia Dei in nobis 
genita, verbo Dei audito et credito, et nobis edita. 

1 Una.'] There is no blank in the MS, but the word seems to be 
required. 



DE SACRAMENTIS ECCLESLffi. 73 

VII. 

Hue ergo ventum est tandem vago hoc sermone, ut 
habeamus matrimonium et sacerdotium in Christo 
omnino esse idem, et eandem actionem effectumque 
habere; sacrificareque esse idem quod gignere, et 
prolem idem quod sacrificium, quae justitia est : hanc 
rem, matrimonialeque sacerdotium, et sacerdotale 
matrimonium, venisse et derivatum esse in homines 
ab ipso sacerdote et sponso Jesu Christo. In quo, ad 
imitationem ipsius, deinceps in reliqu& ecclesia pro- 
cedet simul et idem sacerdotium et matrimonium 
sanctum, sanctificans sanctam ecclesiam Deo; ut to- 
tum officium superioris et masculinioris partis hi eccle- 
sia sit studere in sanctificationem inferioris ; inferior-is 
autem obedire hi omnibus, ut sanctificetur. Id est 
quod Paulus latenter suadet in Epistola ad Ephesios, 
quum viri et mulieris officium docet : mulieris sci- E P h. v. 22, sq. 
licet officium obedire hi omnibus viro hi sanctifica- 
tionem s[uam] ab illo in Domino; viri autem (qui 
caput est mulieris, sicut ecclesisB Christus) diligere 
uxorem, et ad exemplum Christi seipsum tradere pro 
ea, sanctificans earn et mundans lavacro aquas gratias 
in Verbo Vitas; ut exhiberet ipse sibi gloriosam 
uxorem, non habentem maculam, neque rugam, aut 
aliquid ejusmodi, sed sanctam et immaculatam. Nam 
hi Christo sponsum esse, est ilium imitari, et sancti- 
ficationem corporis sui agere, id est mulieris, in seter- 
nitatem; sicut hi prhna generatione mulier egit 
corruptionem capitis sui viri hi mortalitatem : item 
fecundare adhaerentem sibi conjugem, et implere 
justitia; ut, " sicut exhibuimus membra nostra servire Kom. vi. 19. 
immunditiEe, et iniquitati ad iniquitatem, ita mine 



74 DE SACRAMENTIS ECCLESLE. 

exhibeamus membra nostra servire justitise in sancti- 
ficationem." Jesus enim, castus sponsus, propagator 
J spiritus, extat nobis exemplum. Omnis actio in 
ecclesia debet esse imitatio illius, ut non sit in e& 
quicquam, nisi quod ipsum est in illo verius; nee 
debet esse in ecclesia nisi quod ab illius veritate 
derivetur. Ille maritus est ecclesise in sanctifica- 
tionem ejus ; qui, caput illius, se ipsum tradidit pro 
ea, ut illam sanctificet et impleat fetu justititse. In 
hunc finem debet esse quisque maritus in ecclesia in 
Domino, in sanctificationem uxoris suse et castum 
conjugium; ut, sicut ab Adam 1 peccatpre profluxit 
carnalis generatio in mortem, ita ab Adam justo pro- 
fluat spiritalis generatio in vitam seternam. Carnalis 
autem generatio, tametsi mollitudini hominum in 
c. vii. prima epistola ad Corinthios ab apostolo indulgetur, 

necessitate magis quam voluntate, tamen ipsa non est 
res Christi : nee ea nee ejus prolificatio in Christiani- 
tate requiritur 2 necessario, tametsi necessario mol- 

1 Ab AdamJ] "Adam must be considered not as a private man, 
but as a roote or head, bearing in it all mankind; or as a publike per- 
son representing all his posteritie ; and therefore, when he sinned, all 
his posteritie sinned with him: as in a parliment, whatsoever is done 
by the burgesse for the shiere, is done by every person in the shiere." 
Perkins, Exposition of the Creede (1597), p. 154. 

2 Requiritur.'] Compare with this strong opinion what Sir Thomas 
More writes in his Utopia (tr. by Kobinson, 1624, p. 125) : " They 
be divided into two sects : the one, of them that live single and chaste, 
abstaining not only from the company of women, but also from eating 
of flesh, and some of them from all maner of beasts. Which, utterly 
rejecting the pleasures of this present life as hurtfull, be all wholly 

set upon the desire of the life to come The other sect is no 

lesse desirous of Labour, but they embrace Matrimonie, not despising 
the solace thereof, thinking that they cannot be discharged of their 
bounden duties towards nature, without labour and toile, nor towards 
their native countrey, without procreation of children. They abstaine 



DE SACEAMENTIS ECCLESI^E. 75 

libus et infirmis permittitur. Est enim ilia res 
hominis creati in damnationem, non recreati ho- 
minis in Christo in salutem. Ratio enim sacra- 
menti in eo, modo adsit veritas ipsa matrimonii, 
evanescat et abeat necesse est. Materiam regene- 
rationis satis suppeditasset paganitas, si in ea parte 
ecclesia .omnino sterilis fuisset. Nee erat timen- 
dum ne tota paganitas Christianizet, quum nunc 
quoque sub ipso nomine Christianitatis maxima pars 
hominum paganizet. Veritas sincera semper rara est, 
et in paucis. Et perrexisset generatio carnalis in 
filiis hominum, et simui ex iisdem generatio spiritalis 
a filiis Dei. De qua re consulentibus Corinthiis in 
Epistola respondit Paulus : Incontinentibus, vitandas i Ep. Cor. 
fornicationis causa, ex indulgentiis licere eis uxores 
suas tenere, si habent; si non habeant, ducere, et in 
matrimonio rem mutuo reddere, quando libidinis 
ardor et necessitas urget. Yerum hsec invitus per- 
mittit, qui voluit omnes esse sicut ipse erat, virgo; et 
suadet, quatenus per infirmitatem impotentiamque 
continendi licet, disjugatis, turn viduis turn virginibus, 
soluti et liberi maneant Deo. Beatiores eos dicit, 
si sic permanserint, quia virgines et viduse quietius et 
simplicius vacabunt Deo, vero marito suo. Verum 
in omnibus non est sanitas quidem, et segrotis indul- 
gendum est ex ecclesise misericordia. " Unusquisque ib. vii. 7. 

from no pleasure that doth nothing hinder them from labour. They love 
the flesh of foure-footed beasts, because they beleeve that by the meat 
they be made hardie and stronger to worke. The Utopians count this 
sect the wiser, but the other the holyer. Which in that they preferre 
single life before matrimony, and that sharpe life before the easier life, 
if herein they grounded upon reason, they would mocke them : But now 
forasmuch as they say they be led to it by religion, they honour and 
worship them." 



76 DE SACRAMENTIS ECCLESL2E. 

proprium donum habet; alius quidem sic, alius vero 
sic." In tanta infirmitate non audet Paulus la- 
queum injicere optimis, necnon indulgere aliquatenus 
deteriori. ( Quod facit ea lege, ut homines ea licenti& 
utantur. Siquidem qui velint potius sani esse, et 
tales ut indulgentia nihilo egeant, alioquin sponte 
videntur gegrotare et insanire; quod est in ecclesi& 
.Christian^ detestabile, ut aliquis scilicet sponte lan- 
gueat mulieretque, quum sumus vocati in virilem 
dignitatem, non ut turpe aliquid et carnale mulie- 
briter agamus. At imbecillioribus, et non valentibus 
agere quod melius est, ipsum tametsi malum est, 
tamen eegroto non est malum ; modo medicina indulta 
utatur non amplius quam suus morbus exposcat. 
Quum videt omnes in ecclesia ad exemplum Christi 
coelibes esse oportere, tamen simul vidit omnes non 
posse. Quapropter, ut velit potentes coelibes viyere, 
ita impotentes permisit refrigerio sui ardoris uti. Op- 
tandum est tamen ut tota Christianitas esset in 
coelibatu; quod optavit ipse Paulus, quando dixit, 
iCor. vii. 7. "Vellemvos omnes esse sicut ego sum;" quoniam 
sancta ecclesia Christi, tota spiritalis, non requirit 
nisi matrimonium spiritale. et spiritalem prolifica- 
tionem in marito nostro Jesu Christo ; in quo carnales 
homines sunt facti spiritales, ut propagationem non 
agant mine, nisi angelorum more, ad exemplum 
Christi, spiritalem justitige. 

In superiore parte ecclesise in Christo est ordo, et 
matrimonium, ut ita dicam, masculinum, quod voca- 
tur sacerdotium, quod ipsum est etiam sponsus in 
sponso, quod partitur in varios ordines. Sunt Pres- 
byteri, quos Dionysius vocat Pontifices. 1 Sunt etiam 

1 See above, p. 47. 



DE SACEAMENTIS ECCLESLdE. 77 

quos ille vocat Ministros ; in quibus sunt Subdiaconi, 
Acoliti, Exorcistse, Lectores, Hostiarii; qui omnes 
exercitantur in purgatione, sicut Sacerdotes Diaco- 
nique in illuminatione, et postremo sicut illi Ponti- 
fices in perfectione et consummatione. Nam totum 
officium viri est in purgatorum illuminatione, fide, 
et perfectione eorundem caritate. Purgatio tendit 
in simplicitatem et constantiam spei. In Psalmo 
quarto est, " Constituisti me singulariter in spe." v. 10. 
Illurninatio effectum suum habet fidem, ut " in lu- PS. xxxv. 10. 
mine Dei videamus lumen," et in senigmate veritatem, 
et in imagine vultum. Quod lumen fidei, ut in illo 
eodem Psalmo testatur David, " signatum est super i v . 7. 
nos," et est imago vultus Dei et veritatis. Perfec- 
tionis autem finis est sacrificium justitiss ex caritate. 
Hgec molitur superior pars ecclesiae, et una cum 
eadem obedit et patitur inferior pars matrimonii et 
sacerdos feminea, ut pariat et sacrificet filios justitias 
Deo. De ordine loquitur Dionysius, de matrimonio 
tacet ; vel intelligens sacerdotium matrimonium esse, 
vel in sua taciturnitate nos docens non aliud in ec- 
clesia Christi matrimonium esse oportere, quani sacer- 
dotium; carnale matrimonium, quod erat spiritalis 
sacramentum, modo coruscante veritate discussum 
esse et abiisse. Antecessit illud olim in primordio 
humani generis, et in paradise coepit Divine conjunc- 
tionis et humanse symbolum j 1 Christi, seterni sponsi, 
et ecclesias conjugii signum et sacramentum. QUSB 
quidem ecclesia virago in somno illo in vivifica carne 

1 " Cum alia sacramenta post peccatum, et propter peccatum exor- 
dium sumpserint, matrimonii sacramentum etiam ante peccatum legitur 
institutum a Domino : non tamen ad remedium, sed ad officium." 
Petr. Lomb. Sentent. iv. 26. 



78 DE SACRAMENTIS ECCLESL&. 

ex illius costa et latere formata erat rnulier Dei, 
unde sanguis redemptionis sponsas et aqua ablutionis 
. v. 26,27. ejus in omni sanctificatione effluxit, " ut illam saneti- 
ficaret, mundans earn lavacro aquas in Verbo Vitae in 
seipso, ut exhiberet ipse sibi gloriosam ecclesiam, 
non habentein maculam neque rugam nee aliquid 
ejusmodi, sed sanctam et immaeulatam ;" ut tota 
sancta adhsereat sancto illi Deo quern vivificavit 
Dominus, ut in illo cum illo mirabiliter evadat unus 
Eph. v. 32. spiritus. Testatur in Epistola ad Ephesios Paulus, 
viraginem illam sumptam de latere viri, carnem ex 
carne et os ex ossibus illius, propter quam " relinquet 
homo patrem et matreni, et adhserebit uxori sua3," 
"magnum esse sacramentuin in Christo et ecclesia;" 
in qua nemo conjugatur conjunctione significante, 
sed significata; non carnali sed spiritali; non sacra- 
mento sed veritate ; omnes ad imitationem Christi in 
omnibus; ut quisque diligat uxorem sicut Christus 
ecclesiam, in uxoris sanctificationem in veritate. 
Matrimonium et sacerdotium idem est; et in supe- 
riore parte ecclesise ac masculina ejus officium est 
purgare, illuminare, et perficere; ut tota ecclesia 
pariat et sacrificet prolem justitiaa Deo. At haec de 
Ordine et Matrimonio sufficiant. 



VIII. 

UTI modo diffuse sermone ostendimus, superior ec- 
clesias pars in Christo, masculinior et activior, sacerdos 
est et sponsus, pater et genitor justitiee in inferiore 
parte ecclesiaa, quas est femininior et magis passiva, 
et quasi sponsa ac mater, in qua justitia formari de- 



DE SACRAMENTIS ECCLESL&. 79 

beat. Justitia autem est fides Deo per Christum, et 

caritas Dei et proximi. HSBC ex Deo ipso est homini- 

bus electis ; illis quos Deus irradiat, ut fide respiciant 

ilium et reament, et ex fide hominibus bene agant. 

Radius Dei et lucet et calet suavissime. Hie in Deo 

vera bonitas est, et bona veritas; in hominis anima 

idem radius est fidelis amor Deo et amans fides. Sed 

ut nVhil possit lucere et calere nisi prius sit, est 

autem quodque simplicitate et veritate, nam divisio 

et multiplicitas mors est ut aliquid ergo illuminetur 

fide, et concaleat amore Dei et proximi, oportet illud 

recreetur prius, quasi ex nihilo, et a multiplicitate 

pulvereque ad simplicitatem, a divisione morteque 

ad veritatem et vitam contrahatur, ut sit in tali esse 

et puncto ut Divino radio attingi possit, illuminarique 

et perfici in summo sole Deo, qui est in Jesu Christo. 

Est enim in homine quod suum est proprium, indi- 

viduum et simplex; quod maM et multiplici ratione 

obductum et involutum vacillat secum, et titubat; 

qua externa conditione oportet spolietur homo om- 

nino, et expurgetur illud intimum individuum, ut in 

se redeat, et extet nudum, purum et simplex; ac 

mine, subtractis omnibus impedimentis, et abrepto 

omni onere quod deorsum detrusit, solutum et libe- 

rum in se intime et summe constet; abductum jam 

ab omni divisEi et multiplici conditione, et exposition 

Deo alte in ratione simplici et individual, et in se 

penitus nuditer et aperte; ut, tale apparens in Deo, 

in Deo summo sole statim attactus 1 Divino radio 

illuminetur et calefiat. Hoc individuum in homine 

Paulus vocat " hominem interiorem :" Salvator in Eph. iii. ie. 

1 Attactus.~\ Sc. homo. 



80 DE SACEAMENTIS ECCLESLE. 

Matth. vi. 22. evangelio " hominis oculum ;" qui " si simplex fuerit, 
totum corpus lucidum erit." Simplicitas hujus indi- 
vidui hominis, et animse unitas, et esse in Deo per 
Christum, est spes, quae est ilia nuda et simplex ex- 
positio et apparitio humanas animse Deo, omni quasi 
appendice abstracto, ut levis et libera mine anima 
secum constet in se intime, et in Deo, stabiliter con- 
juncta uni et unifico Deo, et ab illo solo dependens 
et ab eodem cert[e] expectans omnia. Quse sperans 
expectatio est animae suum esse spiritale, potentia, 
firmitas, et constantia, purgationis finis, Christiani 
hominis initium, qua imprimis quisque Christianus 
et tota ecclesia quasi fixa et stabilita est in puncto, 
essentia spiritali, ut deinde altius in lumen et 
perfectionem sui promoveatur. De ecclesia inquit 

v. 10. David in Psalmo quarto, " Tu, Domine, singulariter 

in spe constituisti me." 1 Quum quis implicatur ra- 
tionibus Deo contrariis, stultitia et nequitia hujus 
mundi, non est sui compos, et ita dividitur et distra- 



1 Colet has twice before (p. 70, and p. 77) referred to this pas- 
sage ; and it is observable what force he attaches to the word singula- 
riter in the Latin version. Wycliffe's rendering exhibits the form of 
the text in that version most closely : " In pes into itself I shal slepe 
and reste. For thou, Lord, singulerli in hope hast togidere set me." 
(Forshall and Madden's edition, 1850). 

The interpretation above given of singulariter, namely " in simpli- 
city," or " singleness of heart," is perhaps due to Augustine's Com- 
mentary on the text. His words are : " Et bene ait singulariter : 
potest enim referri adversus illos multos qui, multiplicati a tempore 
frumenti, vini et olei sui, dicunt Quis ostendit nobis bona 1 perit enim 
haae multiplicitas, et singularitas tenetur in sanctis, de quibus dicitur in 
Actibus Apostolorum, Multitudinis autem credentium erat anima una 
et cor unum (iv. 32). Singulares ergo et simplices, id est, secreti a 
multitudine ac turba nascentium rerum ac morientium, amatores seter- 
nitatis et unitatis esse debemus, si uni Deo et Domino nostro cupimus 
inhserere." Enarratio in Psalmum iv. 



DE SACKAMENTIS ECCLESL3E. 81 

N liitur, ut in solo Deo uno et individuo sperare non 
possit. Primus ergo labor et negotium est sacerdo- 
tii in ecclesia, ut expurget et purificet homines in 
simplicitatem et spem Deo; ut desperare desinant et 
sperare incipiant; ut, remotis dispositionibus con- 
trariis, quum jam in summa spe sint in Deo, hoc ipso 
sint regeniti, ut inde simul promoti perficiantur. 
Quod docet divus Petrus in Epistola ad disperses 
Judasos, sic exorsus : " Benedictus Deus et Pater i Pet. i. 3. 
Domini nostri Jesu Christi, qui secundum misericorr 
diam suam regeneravit nos in spem vivam, per resur- 
rectionem [Jesu Christi ex mor]tuis ;" in quo homines 
simul resurgunt per potentiam Patris a vita mori- 
bunda, interminata desperatione, in spem vivam, ut 
in Patre genitore quisque jam sperans sit, vivens, et 
habeat esse unitatis et simplicitatis in Patre, cui 
unitas et potentia attribuitur, per quern potenter est 
in spe, et stabilit[ur] purgatoria vi ministrorum Dei. 
Ad Collocenses inquit Paulus : " Immobiles a spe Col. i. 23. 
evangelii quod accepistis." Est in hac spe immobi- 
litas et paterna constantia, quae est proprie in esse et 
imitate, quse unitas Patris est et potentis genitoris, 
in quo potenter vivunt homines, qui ministri sunt 
Dei, quorum opus est, ut scribit Paulus ad Hebrseos, 
" Introductio melioris spei, per quam proximamus ad Hebr. vii. 19. 
Deum." Nam soluti in mundo longe absunt a Deo. 
Et qui in multis mundi rebus sunt distracti diversa 
spe et expectatione earum, ii revera non sunt, et 
desperantes Deum nihil sunt. Ut recolligantur et 
reuniantur spe uni Deo, per quam ad Deum proxi- 
ment, despectis et abjectis omnibus in quibus spera- 
verunt terrenis, multiplicibus et divisis distrahenti- 
busque homines, ut sit (inquam) recollectio et intro- 

G 



82 DE SACRAMENTIS ECCLESLE. 

ductio in spem meliorem, per quam proximent Deo, 
est labor et officium paternse administrationis et 
spiritalis regenerationis in Deo. Et in hoc paterni 
sacerdotii in ecclesia est prima actio, ut desperationis 
pulverem discutiat, et depellat adversantia et impe- 
dientia omnia divinani reformationem, nudetque quasi 
statuam humanam novo colore depingendam, procreet 
honiinem in suam ipsius simplicem unitatem, educat 
ab aquis hujus mundi in spiritum Dei, ab imo terras 
in altum cceli; ut in monte spei extet vicinus Deo; 
ut ab illo illustretur et exornetur, exuat vetustatem 
male olentem ex fsece hujus mundi, et induat [since- 
ram novitatem]; abradat a vase amarum saporem 
veteris imbutionis, ut sit novum vas suavissimi vini 
Dei; spoliet et detrahat foedam et squalidam vestem, 
quam ipse sibi homo rudi arte ex terra hujus mundi 
contexuit, et induat earn novam et coelestem, ex ma- 
teria gratiae lucis, 1 Spiritiis Sancti digitis contextam; 
sit anima penitus simplex, una, individua, in unam 
partem duntaxat et unice intenta in unum Deum 
niera et indivisibili spe, puncto hoc spei constans in 
Deo, et h&c radice alte infixus in terra viventium ; ut 
radicatus spe pulchre crescat fide, et charitate fructi- 
ficet utiliter et spisse bona opera in vitam seternain. 
Primus ergo effectus sacerdotii in humiliori ecclesise 
parte est spes Deo, qui finis est purgationis; quse 
eadeni spes etiam humilitas, subjectio, et obedientia 
est Deo; ut ab illo in divinam formam exaltetur. 
Hsec sunt quse vel spes ipsa est, vel spem indivisibi- 
liter comitantur, et simul in ea emergente animii ex 
hoc mundano niari se ostentant; videlicet puritas, 
nuditas. simplicitas, unitas, potentia, constantia, sta- 

1 Grratice lucis.~] Probably one of these words should be omitted. 



DE SACRAMENTIS ECCLESLE. 83 

bilitas, firmitas, radicatio, humilitas, subjectio, obedi- 
entia, essentia, generatio, filiatio, vita, initium, fund- 
amentum, et ejusmodi omnia, quse principii rationem 
habent, et inchoationis soliditatem. Est enim certe 
homo sperans Deo purus, nudus, simplex, in se unus, 
radicatus humiliter, subjectus obedienter, generatus 
in esse firmo, potenti, constanti, stabili, filius Dei 
vivus jam inchoatus et fundatus alta et solida spe, ut 
in reliquum sedificium perficiatur. 

Ut homo reducatur in hanc et obedientem spem, 
elaborant ministri assidue, docentes ex sacris literis 
quam sperandum est in Deo, quam simul quse mundi 
sunt desperanda et abjicienda. Hi ostiarii, lectores, 
exorcistse, et id genus hominum qui in inferiori ec- 
clesi& in purgandis hominibus spiritaliter se exercent : 
catechumeni vero vocantur qui sic instruuntur, et 
ilia operatic catechizatio vocatur. In Epistola ad 
Galathas prsecipit Paulus : " Communicet is qui cate- Gal. vi. e. 
chizatur verbo ei qui se catechizat, in omnibus bonis." 
Oportet doceatur ut abrenunciet quae sunt hujus 
[mundi] omnia, ut in spem soli Deo deinceps se reci- 
piat. Hoc significat depositio vestium et hominis nu- 
datio in novum indumentum, 1 ut poeniteat maleacte 



1 Indumentum."] To the same effect Colet writes under the head of 
Spiritalis Speculatio Baptismi (School MS. fol. 34* b.) : " Christian- 
itas est professio simplicitatis, in quam trahitur homo, ut a multitudine 
in simplicitatem. Non patitur Christus simplex duplicem tunicam. In 
ejus veste nuptial! si vis esse, faciendum est ut nudus accedas, ut earn 
induas, pristinamque vivendi formam deponas, ut subeas earn quse 
Christi est. Id velit [vult] et significat quod exuit vestes omnes is qui 
se confert in Christum ; quod exspuit et exsufflat ad occidentem, et 
magna protestatione abrenunciat quicquid est iniquitatis; quod se in 
orientem nudum jam penitus objicit radiis exorti solis justitise ; id, in- 
quam, significat, ut purgatus et simplex simplicem et purum divinum 
radium capiat, et vestem lucis et justitise induat, quam in Christo con- 
texit gratia sancti Spiritus." 



84 DE SACEAMENTIS ECCLESL&. 

vitas, ut confiteatur se peccasse, ut habeat voluntatem 
redimendi tempus, et recompensandi ilia mala cum 
bonis in Deo, ac satisfaciendi modo deinceps contrario ; 
ut bonitatis lanx, quse erat ante depressa, justa satis- 
factione peccatorum lancem adsequet; immo potius 
superet justitise causa, ut erat ante superata. Quum 
enim confessorum peccatorum te pceniteat tui, salus 
esse non potest quidem, nisi redimas tempus, recom- 
penses, et satisfacias, exsurgas ut superes, sicut eras 
superatus, pugnes, prosternas, vincas, malum cum 
bono superes ; ut justa recompensatione sit pro malis 
tuis satisfactio in bonitate, vel re vel voluntate, ut 
energens in te ea justiti& a justo Deo apprehendare. 
Quid ergo cuique peccato contrarium, et sua cuique 
vitio quae propria virtus, diligenter docendi sunt ca- 
techumeni ; ut discant in rneliori vit& pro malis bona 
recompensare, et pro peccatis in justitise operibus sa- 
tisfacere, ut simul cum justitia sit misericordia Dei ; 
ut erat in peccatis libido et voluptas, ita pro eisdem 
dolor et tristitia sit, et quidam animo angor et cor- 
poris cruciatus, qui ut ignis expurget labes pecca- 
torum, et eradicet funditus, ut iterum non pullu- 
lent. Quum in manibus ministrorum est aliquis ut 
purgetur, utque colluviem peccatorum lacrymis lavet 
et abstergat, vel catechumenus, vel pcenitens, vel 
energumenus, 1 vel apostata, tametsi is rursus sit 
in ecclesia tamen non numeratur, nee est ex 
hierarchia et corpore Christi; in quo nemo esse 

1 Energumenus.] Of. Dionys. Eccl. Hier. c. iii. 6. " Post hsec, 
extra delubrum catechumini fiunt, et cum ipsis energumini, et ii quoque 
qui in penitentia sunt. Manent autem intus soli qui diyina spectare 
merentur atque percipere." See also Sir Peter Bang's Enquiry into 
the Primitive Church (1713), p. 106. 



DE SACRAMENTIS ECCLESLE. 85 

potest, nisi purgatus et perfectus. Unde constat 
omnes malos Christianos non esse in ecclesia, sed 
extra, ut purgentur: et interea, dum peccatorum 
contagione infecti sunt, eis non licere nee mysteria 
audire, nee sacramenta aspicere, quo-mam profanos et 
foedos habent oculos. QVLSS sunt ad vitas eruditionem, 
audire possunt; uti sunt ex sacris literis cantus et 
lectiones. ! At quum sacramenta aguntur, longe pro- 
pellantur; foedi enim et turpes illuminari non pos- 
sunt, ut videant sacra, quaa nemo recte discernit nisi 
illuminatus fide, ut " in lumine Dei lumen videat :" 
fidei autem acies in peccatorum flumine exstinguitur. 
Fide spectantur sacramenta, et eorum mysteria intel- 
liguntur. Ut autem credamus, sine peccato [esse] 
oportet. Infuscatur enim et obtenebratur fides in 
peccatorum caligine et fumo. Ait ille, " Adhuc in i Cor. xv. 17. 
peccatis vestris estis." Donee ergo deponatur tetra 
ilia et detestabilis vestis scelerum et dolorum, ac 
tristitiae facibus comburatur, et pro ea vicissim nudus 
ille modo induat nitidam et amabilem vestem nuptia- 
lem, in mensa coelestium dapum et sacramentorum 
Dei non discumbat. De hac re distincte, tanquam 
de sacramento, non locutus est Dionysius ; 2 quoniam 
est potius via et paratio ad sacrament[um quam] sa- 

1 Lectiones.'] See Bingham, Origines (1711), iii. p. 160. " The 
Church, ever since she first divided her Catechumens and Penitents 
into distinct orders and classes, had also distinct places in the church 
for them. And this lower part of the church was the place of the 
Energumens, and such of the Catechumens and Penitents as were 
commonly called Audientes, that is, Hearers, because they were 
allowed to stand here to hear the Psalms and Scriptures read, and the 
Sermon made hy the Preacher ; after which they were dismissed with- 
out any Prayers or Solemn Benediction." 

2 Dionysius.'] In the Ecd. Hierar. c. ii. where Dionysius is de- 
scribing the ceremonies at Baptism, mention is made of the stripping 



86 DE SACRAMENTIS ECCLESL&. 

cramentum; ut exuere antecedit induere, et recon- 
ciliatio amicitiam, et procuratio adoptionem, et curatio 
sanitatem, et lotio ac tersio nitorem. Justa ilia mi- 
sericordia et niisericors justitia non miseretur quidem 
nisi in justitia. Confessionem quum videt peccato- 
rum, poenitentiam, et satisfactionem, turn miseretur 
juste et misericorditer justificat. Et hoc quoque, 
quotienscunque hanc justitiaB voluntatem in nobis 
deprehendit, confessionis, poenitentiae et satisfactionis, 1 
fidefragi sumus, et amicitia professa deficimus, et a 
gradu stationis nostrse miseri delabimur. Sed ilia 
supra quam excogitari potest indulgens pietas Dei 
(quse non vult mortem peccatoris, sed ut convertatur 
et vivat), quotienscunque ex casu resurgimus, pudore 
et dolore affecti quod turpiter decidirnus, et correptis 
armis iteruni bona spe in spiritalem hostem animosi- 
ter irruimus, dux nostrss militias divina ilia pietas 
nostram industriam et voluntatem debellandi non 
recusat; quinimmo amplectitur, fovet, laudat, coro- 

off his own apparel from a person about to be baptized : " Quam 
(precem) cum omnis secum ecclesia terminaverit, discingit quidem 
ipsum, ac ministrorum manibus exuit." Paehymeres, in his Para- 
phrase, expands this into something resembling the text : " Deinde 
dicit de vestium depositione. Cum enim non liceat alicui summe con- 
trariorum participem existere, sanitatis, v. g. et morbi, et peccati et 
virtutis, et ignorantise cognitionisque Dei, divisam etiam necesse sit 
habere vitam qui utraque' amplectitur; proptereaque libemm esse 
oporteat qui ad alteram vitam transfertur, nullum affectum retinendo 
prioris vitas : idcirco, qui adducitur, nudus sistitur." Venice Edition 
(1755), i. 183. 

1 fSatisfactionis,'] The sense here is somewhat obscure; unless we 
suppose something to have been missed out after satisfactionis. Pos- 
sibly quanquam may have been written instead of, or in addition to, 
quoque above (the contractions of the two words being similar) ; in 
which case the sense would be : " And this too (God does), although, 
as often as he marks in us this desire of righteousness, confession, 
penitence and compensation, we (again) break our pledge, <fcc." 



DE SACRAMENTIS ECCLESI^!. 87 

nat. In Me militia Christiana necesse est, pro natura 
belli, vicissitudinaria sit victoria; ut cadere non sit 
damnabile, .sed prostratum velle jacere. Statim si 
resurgas, quanquam non es comparandus cum illis 
qui nunquam ceciderint, tamen quum nolis victus 
jacere, miles non es inutilis. JSTon tarn succenset 
tibi Dens quod cecidisti, quam gratam habet resur- 
rectionem tuam. " Peccare humanum est," ait Chry- 
sostomus, 1 "jacere diabolicum." Rogante Petro, '0 Matth. xviii. 
Salvator, septiesne duntaxat peccanti ignosceret,' re- ' 
spondit misericordia ipsa, ' Immo septuagesies sep- 
ties.' Et proposuit parabolam, in qua docuit non 
ignotum ei fore qui non ignoscit. Quoties ergo fide- 
fragi sumus, quotiens " ut canis re versus ad vomitum, 2 Pet. a. 22. 
ut sus lota in volutabro luti," tametsi posteriora sunt 
pejora prioribus, tamen Deus qui cognoscit figmen- 
tum nostrum, qui cognoscit quam homo pronus est 
ad malum ab adolescentia, quotiens diluere sordes et 
mundare nos volumus, et ad fidem redire, non repu- 
diat, sed de centesima ove inventa gaudet plus quam 
de nonaginta novem qui non erraverunt; et ecclesia, 
mulier, uxor Dei, cum vicinis gaudet magis de drag- 
ma inventa quam de omnibus quse possidet ; et pater 
ille de reverso filio, qui perdite dissipavit substan- 
tiam suam, tamen dicenti, " Peccavi in ccelum, coram Luke xv. 21. 
te; jam non sum dignus vocari films tuus," tanto- 
pere exultavit, omnibus IgetitiaB signis exhibitis (stola, 
annulo, calceamentis, vitulo; ut magis non potuit), 
dicens, " Hie filius meus mortuus erat, et revixit ; 
perierat, et inventus est." Est Salvatoris audienda 

1 Parcenesis T. ad Theodorum Lapsum, 15. " Nam peccare 
quidem, humanum est; at in peccatis perseverare, id non humanum 
est, sed omnino satanicum." 



00 DE SACRAMENTIS ECCLESLE. 

Luke xv. 10. et colenda sententia, quod " gaudium erit coram an- 
gelis Dei super uno peccatore poenitentiam agente," 
et se purgante, ut videat sacramenta Dei, ut alienatus 
reconcilietur Deo. Cujus reconciliationis, quae fit 
confessione delicti, poenitentia et recompensatione, 
ecclesia sacramentum instituit ; ut, quemadmodum 
ad veterem abolendam maculain statutum est sacra- 
mentum, ita nova irnmaculatione suum sacramentum 
habeat. Radio Dei fiunt omnia, qui in sacramentis 
evadit sensibilis, 1 in corporum etiam purgationem. * 
Purgatio, illuminatio et perfectio omnis est sacra 1 -.,: 
menti effectus ; et radius ille Dei benignus nihil aliudr. v 
agit nisi avocationem bine, et illuc in coelum revoca-,' 
tionem, illuminationem nostri cum tenebrarum de- 
pulsione. In quo est hoc valde notandum, nullius 
sacramenti esse ex proposito et intento depellere 
tenebras et sordes diluere ; sed lumen infundere per 
se, quod necessario fuga tenebrarum comitatur. Hinc 
Baptismus, quod sacramentum est advenientis Spirittis 
in hominem purgatum, et regignentis Deo, a Diony- 
sio vocatur sacramentum illuminationis f quia adest 



1 Sensibilis.'] Of. Ccelest. Hier. c. i. " Neque enim aliter fas est 
iufirmitati nostrse lucere divinum ilium radium, nisi sacrorum varietate 
velaminum, quibus ad superiora ferremur, opertum." 

2 Illuminationis.'] Eccl. Hier. c. iii. " Sic igitur et sacrum divinse 
generationis sacramentum, quia primi luminis consortium tradit, om- 
niumque divinarum illustrationum principium est, ex effectu ipso, ve- 
rissimo illud Illuminationis cognomine prsedieamus." 

In the abstract of the Ecclesiastical Hierarchy, which is in the 
School MS., Colet says much on the Uluminatio of which Baptism is 
the sign. Thus, under the head of Spiritalis Speculatio Baptismi, 
he writes : " Deus bonus et benignus est, justitise sol, spiritales 
naturas irradians, similiter et sequabiliter se fundens in omnes sine 
intermissione, et astans ad fores et fenestras animi, pulsans ut recipia- 
tur." (fol. 34, a). And further on, speaking of the address to the 



DE SACBAMENTIS ECCLESLE. 89 

jam Spiritus lucidus, qui dicit, " Hie est films meus Matth. m. 17. 
dilectus, in quo mihi bene complacui." In qua illus- 
tratione obscuritas omnis et. macula discutitur. Aqua 
ilia intinctionem gratiae significat, et obruitionem 
quse nos absorbet in spiritum, et facit ut, secundum 
carnem, in fide mortis Christi moriamur, vivamus 
autem et sentiamus Spiritu, jam toti spiritales, rege- 
niti Spiritu sancto Dei : ideo baptisma illuminationis 
et regenerationis vocatur. Infantes baptizati nube- 
culam originalis injustitise adventu luminis habent 
propulsam, modo quae secutura est vita sacramento 
;.-* respondent. Adulti autem, ut illuminentur, quaB 
'. ispi scientes commiserint peccata, et agnoscunt, et con- 
fitentur, et dolent et satisfaciunt. Item qui recasu in 
tenebras lumen exstinxerunt, hie non solum fides, sed 
voluntaria confessio, moeror, et recompensatio est ne- 
cessaria ; hie oportet sit spontanea relictio peccato- 
rum. Volunt autem, quos Deus vult, in cujus bona 
voluntate volunt. Ille " operatur in nobis et velle Phuipp. u. is. 
et perficere." Quos Deus vult agnoscere et abrenun- 
tiare peccata, ii abrenuntiant in Deo. Et quos Deus 
solvit, relaxat, et dimittit, ii se solvunt et relaxant in 
Deo ; et, confitentes ac odientes peccatorum vincula, 
erumpunt et exeunt in Deo. Hujus divinse solutionis, 
liberationis, et remissionis sacerdotum ministerio 
oportet sit sacramentum, et signum aliquod venera- 
bile misericordisvoluntatis Dei, qui immittit in homi- 
nem voluntatem solvendi, et agnoscendi et abjiciendi 
peccata. Yeruntamen quanquam in Deo vult esse 

baptized, he has these striking words : " Poutifex, quern illuminavit 
Christus, solis instar, ex pulpito fulget luce veritatis, et diradiat evan- 
gelicum verbum pariter universis. Clamat, Surge qui dormis, et ex- 
surge a mortuis, et illuminabit te Christus." (34, b). 



90 DE SACBAMENTIS ECCLESI^S. 

liber, tamen res non conficitur nisi medio sacramento 
ministrato a ministris Dei, quod testis efficax simul 
et divinse et humanae voluntatis remittendi. Hinc 
sacramentorum sacramenta ratio ipsa sacramentifi- 
cans Deushomo ille noster Jesus Christus, qui jacuit 1 
sacramenta inter Deum et homines, testes et foedera 
coeuntium voluntatum, qui remisit ipse et relaxavit 
peccatorum vincula, etiam remissionis peccatorum et 
reconciliationis hominum sibi, quos vult Deus recon- 
ciliari, instituit sacramentum; voluitque divinam vo- 
luntatem in homine et huinanam voluntatem in Deo 
opportune, ratione consignari. Itaque post resur- 
rectionem suam, ut testatur Joannes, mittens dis- 
John xx. 22, cipulos suos legates, " Insufflavit et dixit eis : 
Accipite Spiritum sanctum," cujus sacrarnentum 
erat flatus ille ; et addidit, " Quorum remiseritis 
peccata, remittentur eis, et quorum retinueritis, re- 
tenta sunt." Retinentur vero quse non remittuntur; 
non remittuntur, quse non remittit homo ille qui est in 
vinculis peccatorum, agnoscens et confitens peccata 
sua. Quse vero ille agnoscit et confitetur, audiens 
sacerdos, medius inter Deum et hominem, qui intel- 
ligit ex voluntate Dei hominis illius voluntatem se 
solvere, quot soluta et confessa peccata audit, illam 
solutionemcontestatur, et hominis voluntatem in Deo et 
Dei voluntatem in homine, et remissionempeccatorum 
sacerdotali officio turn signis turn verbis comprobat. 
Quae autem non remittit ille peccator, nee confitetur, 
ilia sacerdos non remittit. Hoc certissimum est: 
omnis remissio primum est a Deo, cujus solius est 
peccata remittere : qui monet hominem ut se solvat 



1 Jacuit.'] 



DE SACKAMENTIS ECCLESL2E. 91 

a peccatis ; "qui vult ut, intercedente sacerdote, humi- 
liatione, confessione, impositione manuum, invocatione 
sanctae Trinitatis, sacris Christ! verbis recitatis (vide- 
licet, " Remittuntur tibi peccata tua,") mysterium 
divinse voluntatis testificetur, ut inter Deum et 
homines qui respondent divings voluntati, sacramenti 
testimonium exstet. Hoc sacramentum reconcilia- 
tionis et remissionis non inepte vocari potest; qua 
homo benigna Dei gratia reconciliatur Deo; quod 
recentior ecclesia vocat pcenitentiae sacramentum. In 
quo vides ex istis verbis quidnam rationis habet, quod 
inter Deum et hominem se solventem in Deo a pec- 
catis intermedius est sacerdos, et audiens, et remis- 
sionem auditorum a Deo contestans ; et quid sit illud 
" Quorum remiseritis peccata, remittuntur ; quorum 
retinueritis, retinentur." Quse non solvit ipse homo, 
retenta sunt; et sacerdos contestatur retenta esse, 
quia ea remissa esse non contestatur. Yult in terris 
Deus testificationem eorum quse in coelis fiunt ab ipso 
erga homines ; quod sacerdotali munere exhibetur. 



, remittens vinculapeccatorum. 
< SACERDOS, medius sacramento confirmans. 
S, se solventes in Deo. 



Qusecunque alligaverint et solverint saltern ministri 
fideles in Deo, qui intelligunt quid Deus agit in 
hominibus, ea ligantur et solvuntur in coelis. . Qui 
(ut docet Corinthios Paulus) apostoli, sacerdotes, et 
spiritalior ecclesise pars, "ministri" duntaxat sunt i Cor. iv. i. 
"Christi, et dispensatores ministeriorum Dei;" in 
quibus requiritur fidelitas maxima, alioquin quod 
agunt non confit in ccelis. Audire confessionem 
debet sacerdos, et sentire poenitudinem, quas est tarn 
necessaria, ut ab ea reconciliationis sacramentum 



92 DE SACKAMENTIS ECCLESL. 

cognomen habeat. In evangelic Lucas jubet Salvator, 
remittatur peccatori quotienscunque modo pcenitet. 

Lukexviii.3,4. Verba illius haec sunt: "Si peccaverit in te frater 
tuus, increpa ilium ; et si poenitentiam egerit, dimitte 
illi. Et si septies in die peccaverit in te, et septies in 
die conversus fuerit ad te, dicens 'Pcenitet me,' 

isai. xiiii. ae. dimitte illi." De confessione spiritus Isaie ait : " Die 
tu iniquitates tuas ut justificeris." Recompensatio in 
contrario semper debet esse ; ut pro malo satisfactio 
fiat in bono, et ut contrarium contrarium vincat. Ava- 
ritia redimenda est liberalitate et eleemosyna; luxuria 
et crapula continentia et jejunio; negligentia Dei ora- 
tione assidua, ut injustitia tua Deus misereatur tui. 
Item pro voluptate in omnibus, in corpore dolor feren- 
dus est ; ut dolor et cruciatus carnis delectationem era- 
dicet; quern doloremvocat Paulus " compassionem." 
viii. IT, "Si tamen compatimur," inquit, "ut glorificemur." 
" Non sunt condignse compassiones ad futuram 
gloriam." Omni a haec ad sacramentum reconcilia- 
tionis pertinent, ut redeamus in gratiam et in eccle- 
siam introeamus, simusque in ea aliquod membrum 
factum Christi in sanctificato corpore suo et jam 
illuniinato baptismate ; quod lumen sacramento remis- 
sionis recuperamus, quod est lumen fidei, ut con- 
spectis sacris Dei eis credamus, et vivamus pro 
ratione sacrorum. 

IX. 

BAPTISMUS autem (ut tradit Dionysius), datus a sacer- 
dotibus, et illuminat purgatos et fidem dat; hoc est 
fidem a Deo infusam consignat. 

Confirmatio vero testatur SpMtus sancti firmam 



DE SACRAMENTIS ECCLESLE. 93 

dationem. Hoc sacramentum potest' vocari donorum 
Spiritlis sancti. Nam est sacramentum donationis 
Spiritfts, inde tractum et institutum, quod Samarise 
baptizatis erat postea ab apostolis missus qui eis im- 
positis manibus daret Spiritum sanctum; alioquin in Acts vm. 17. 
ecclesia non censerentur. 

Sacramentum communionis in communi pabulo 
carnis et sanguinis, quod sacramentum conjuncti et 
unitatis est, confirmatorum et spiritificatorum est in 
Christo in summa unitate coaltio et connutritio. 
Yocamur enim ut purgemur, illuminemur, et perfiei- 
amur spiritu, connutriamur, convivamus, compug- 
nemus, convincamus, conglorificemur. Hsec vis 
charitatis spiritalium hominum. 

Postremo extrema unctio (quae quondam fiebat 
etiam cadaveribus, 1 nunc autem in extrema vita, 
quatenus conjectura suspicari possumus), sacramen- 
tum est perfect! laboris ac militise et purgationis 
afflicti corporis, et affert in segritudine prsesentiam et 
consolationem Spiritus sancti. De qua Jacobus 

locutus est hisce verbis : "Tristatur aliquis vestrum? James v. 13, 

^ 14. 



1 Cadaveribus.'] Ecd. ffier. c. vii. 3. " Exacta salutatione, de- 
functo infundit oleum pontifex. Memento autem ut in prima sancta 
regeneratione ante sacrum baptisma, prima sancti sjmboli participatio 
traditur initiando, post priorem omnem abjectam vestem, sancti chris- 
matis oleum : nunc, in fine omnium, defuncto itidem infunditur oleum. 
Atqui tune quidem olei unctio baptisandum evocabat ad sacra certamina; 
nunc autem infusum oleum signat eum qui defunctus est eadem sacra 
exegisse certamina, sicque fuisse consummatum." 

Bingham, Origines Eccl. (1722), vol. x. p. 70, after mentioning 
that " The Psabnody and Prayers are largely described by the Author 
under the name of Dionysius the Areopagite," adds that " The two last 
ceremonies of giving the kiss of peace, and anointing with oyl, are in a 
manner peculiar to this Author, and the former of them expressly for- 
bidden in some other Bules of Burial." 



94 DE SACEAMENTIS ECCLESLffi. 

oret. .ZEquo animo est? psallat. Infirmatur quis 
in vobis? inducat presbyteros ecclesise, et orent super 
eum, ungentes euro, oleo in nomine Domini." l 
Crebra est unctio in ecclesi&, quae est crebra admo- 
nitio frequentis Spiritus sancti; cujus adventum, 
operationem, effectum, sacramenta denotant creden- 
tibus, in eorum salutem sempiternam. 



fVir. . . 

IMatnmonium. 

' ' 



f T M. '* T i- /-TraditDS a 

^ I Poemtentia . . Purgatio. ,-,. , ,, Joanne Co- 

Baptismus . . Illuminatio. 4 Hic ord est rect 3 Sa " ) I t led 

LUxor. cramentorum ecclesia , sancti 

J_ Extrema Unctio. Consummatio. 



Confirmatio . . Perfectio. cramentorum ecclesia , sancti 

J Eucharistia . . Coaltio. h Lon - 



1 Domini.~\ Dean Oolet's school, from which came Milton, maintain- 
ing, in his Tetrachordon, doctrines concerning marriage as different as 
can be imagined from those of its Founder, sent forth also Whitaker, 
who thus replies to the defence of Extreme Unction, as based on the 
precept of St. James : " Oleo utantur, qui possunt segrotis sanitatem 
precibusimpetrare: quinon possunt, abstineat inani symbolo." (Quoted 
by Bengel, on St. James v. 14). 

It is with a comment on this rite that Jewell ends his Treatise of the 
Sacraments; and his closing words are not so unlike those of Colet, 
but that they may serve for a conclusion here. "Thus doth the Church 
of God instruct all men to live, and to die, and to bee in readinesse. 
Thus are the sicke among us anointed with the inner and invisible oile 
of the mercy of God. Thus are they put in mind to have the oile of 
faith and of a good conscience, and that their lamps may ever be burn- 
ing ; that so they may enter in with the bridegrome ; that the day- 
spring from on high may visit their hearts ; and that it may be said 
unto them, ' Come, yee. blessed of my Father, inherit ye the kingdome 
prepared for you from the foundations of the world.'" 



APPENDIX. 




Page 3, Note 2. ' 

[INGE the above note was written, I have 
received an obliging communication from the 
Eev.W. M. Snell, M.A., Librarian of Corpus 
Christi College, Cambridge, respecting the 
treatises by Colet, in Meghen's handwriting, which are 
there preserved. The volume containing them is numbered 
CCCLV of the Parker Collection, and has the following 
marginal note on the first page : " Hie liber scriptus 
manu Amanuensis Johis Colett, ut videre licet in libro 
magno suarum translationum Matthjei et Marci script, 
manu Petri Meghen, monoculi, teutonis, natione Brabantini, 
ut ipsemet testatur in fine Marci Evangelistas, Anno 1509, 
8. Maii." The writing, Mr. Snell informs me, is a very 
formal print-hand, and not at all like that of the School MS. 
This being so, it may be thought that my opinion as to 
the School Manuscript being Meghen's writing is a mere 
guess. I cannot indeed claim much more value for it ; but 
there are still one or two considerations which to me seem 
to countenance it. In the Illumination at fol. 6 of the MS. 
Dd. vii. 3, the inscription on the label over the kneeling 
figure of Colet is in a small hand, not unlike that of the 
School MS. This is not much to judge from ; but it is the 



96 APPENDIX. 

only specimen, I believe, of the kind in the volume. An 
extract from Polydore Vergil, on the blank leaf at the end, 
is evidently by some other pen. The inscription on the 
label is mentioned by Tho. Smith, in 1661, and I am not 
aware that there is any reason for thinking it a later addi- 
tion. In any case, the occurrence of the peculiar blanks, 
which have been referred to, seems to me irreconcileable 
with the opinion that the School MS. is in Colet's own hand ; 
not to add that the writing is firmer and more angular, 
more full of contractions, and apparently more like that of a 
practised scribe, than any which I have seen in the Cam- 
bridge MS. Gg. iv. 26. 



FINIS. 



CHISWICK PJJjBBS: PRINTED BY WHITTINGHAM AND WH/KINS, 
TOOK? COURT, CHANCERY LANE. 



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