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RESULTS OF THE 



FIRST UNITED STATES 
MANNED ORBITAL SPACE FLIGHT 

FEBRUARY 20,1962 




Manned Spacecraft Center 

NATIONAL AERONAUTICS AND SPACE ADMINISTRATION 



RESULTS OF THE FIRST 
U.S. MANNED 
ORBITAL SPACE FLIGHT 
FEBRUARY 20, 1962 



MANNED SPACECRAFT CENTER 
NATIONAL AERONAUTICS 
AND SPACE ADMINISTRATION 



FOREWORD 

This document presents the results of the first United States manned 
orbital space flight conducted on February 20, 1962. The prepunch activities, 
spacecraft description, flight operations, flight data, and poetJught analyses 
presented form a continuation of the information previously published for the 
two United States manned suborbital space flights conducted on May 5, 1961, 
and July 21, 1961, respectively, by the National Aeronautics and Space 
Administration. 



FOREWORD 

L OPERATION REQTJI REMENTS AND FLAMS 

By John D. Hodge, night Operations Division, NASA Man^dSpaoecruft Cen- 
ter; Christopher C. Kraft, Jr., Chief, Flight Operations DMatcn, NASA 
Manned Spacecraft Center; Chark* W. Mathews, Chief, Spe<^tB«ear* 
Division , NA SA Manned Spacecraft Center; and Sigurd A. Sjoberg, Flight 
Operations Division. NASA Manned Spacecraft Center. 

2. SPACECRAFT AND SPACECBAFT SYSTEMS 

By Rennet* S. KUdnkneeht, Manager, Mercury Project, NASA Maimed Space- 
craft center: William M. Bland, Jr, Depot? Manager, Mercury Project, 
NASA Manned Spacecraft Center; and B. M. Fields, Chief, Project Engineer- 
ing Office, Mercury Project, NASA Manned Spacecraft Center. 

3 . ufe SUPPORT SYSTEMS AND BIOMEDICAL INSTRUMENTATION 

By Richard S. Johnston. Asst. Chief, Life Systems Division, NASA Manned 
Snaceoaft Center; Frant H. Samonsfci, Jr, life Systems Division, NASA 
Man^ Spacecraft Center; Maxwell W. Ltppitt, Life System* < Mj*^ 
NASA Manned Spacecraft Center; and Matthew I. Radnofeky, Life Systems 
Division, NASA Manned Spacecraft Center. 

4. LAUNCH-COMPLEX CHECKOUT AND LAUNCH-VEHICLE SYSTEMS 

By B. Porter Brown, Mercnry Lannch Coordinator, NASA Manned 
Center; and G. Merritt Preston, Chief, Preflight Operations Dirodon, NASA 
Manned Spacecraft Center. 

5. SPACECRAFT PREPARATION AND CHECKOUT 

By G. Merritt Preston, Chief. Preflight Operations Division ,S ASA Manned 
Spacecraft darter; Eagene F. Brans, Flight Operation Division, NASA 
Spacecraft Center; and J. J. Williams, Preflight Operations Divi- 
sion, NASA Manned Spacecraft Center. 

6. FLIGHT CONTROL AND FLIGHT PLAN- 



trXiltstri: \aii* xxaju l ui^^^ - — 

By Christopher C. Kraft, Jr, Chief, Flight Operations Diviston, NASA ManMd 
Spacecraft Center; Tecwyn Roberts, Flight Operations Division. NASA 
MWed Spacecraft Center; and C. Frederick Matthews, Flight Operations 
Division, NASA Manned Spacecraft Center. 



7. RECOVERY OPERATIONS— 



UTA^J * UI oiuii.u!^ — 

By Robert F. Thompson, Fiight Operations Division, NASA Manned Spacecraft 
Center; and Enoch M. Jones. Flight Operations Division, NASA Manned 



8. ABROMEDICAL PREPARATION AND RESULTS OF POSTFLIGHT MEDI- 
CAL EXAMINATIONS 

By Howard A. Winners, MJD„ Life Systems Division, NASA Mann*! Space- 
craft Center; William K. Douglas, MS)., Astronaut Flight Surgeon, NASA 
Maimed Spacecraft Center; Edward C. KnoWock, Ph. D., Walter Reed Army 
Institute of Research ; Asbton Graybiel, 4LD., USN School of Aviation Medi- 
cine, Pensacola, Fla. ; and Willard R. Hawkins, M.D„ Office of the Surgeon 
General, Hq. USAF, Washington, D.C. 



PHYSIOLOGICAL RESPONSES OF THE ASTRONAUT 93 

By C. Patrick Laughlin, M.D., Life Systems Division, NASA Manned Space- 
craft Center: Ernest P. McCutcheon, M.D., Life Systems Division, NASA 
Manned Spacecraft Center; Rita M. Rapp, Life Systems Division, NASA 
Manned Spacecraft Center; David P. Morris, Jr., M.D., Life Systems Divi- 
sion, NASA Manned Spacecraft Center; and William S. Augerson, U.S. 
Army, Ft Campbell,' Ky. 

10. ASTRONAUT PREPARATION 105 

By M. Scott Carpenter, Astronaut, NASA Manned Spacecraft Center. 

11. PILOT PERFORMANCE 113 

By Warren J. North, Chief, Flight Crew Operations Division, NASA Manned 
Spacecraft Center; Harold I. Johnson, Flight Crew Operations Division, 
NASA Manned Spacecraft Center; Helmut A. KnehneL Flight Crew Opera- 
tions Division, NASA Manned Spacecraft Center; and John J. Van BoekeL 
Flight Crew Operations Division, NASA Manned Spacecraft Center. 

12. PILOT'S FLIGHT REPORT ^ 119 

By John H. Glenn, Jr., Astronaut, NASA Manned Spacecraft Center. 

13. SUMMARY OF RESULTS 1ST 

By George M. Low, Director of Space Craft and Flight Missions, Office of 
Manned Space Flight, NASA 

APPENDIX A. MERCURY NETWORK PERFORMANCE SUMMARY FOR MA-6_ 139 
By The Manned Space Flight Support Division, NASA Goddard 
Space Flight Center. 

APPENDIX B. AIR-GROUND COMMUNICATIONS OF THE MA-6 FLIGHT. 148 

APPENDIX C. DESCRIPTION OF THE MA~6 ASTRONOMICAL, METEORO- 
LOGICAL, AND TERRESTRIAL OBSERVATIONS 195 

By John H. Glenn, Jr., Astronaut, NASA Manned Spacecraft Cen- 
ter. 

APPENDIX D. PRELIMINARY REPORT ON THE RESULTS OF THE MA-6 

FLIGHT IN THE FIELD OF SPACE SCIENCE 199 

By John A. O-Keefie, Ph. D, Aast Chief, Theoretical Division, 
NASA Goddard Space Flight Center. 



vi 



1. OPERATIONAL REQUIREMENTS AND PLANS 

y John D. Hodge, Flight Operations Division, NASA Manned Spacecraft Center; Christopher C. Kraft, 
Jr., Chief, Flight Operations Division, NASA Manned Spacecraft Center; Charles W. Mathews, 
Chief, Spacecraft Research Division, NASA Manned Spacecraft Center; and SlGURD A. Sjoberg, 
Flight Operations Division, NASA Manned Spacecraft Center 



Summary 

This paper presents a brief outline of the 
overall operational requirements and plans for 
the MA-6 mission. A short description of the 
tracking and ground instrumentation network 
is given together with general plans for re- 
covery. Some aspects of flight-control train- 
ing and simulation are discussed and require- 
ments for weather forecasting and allowable 
weather conditions are examined. Total per- 
sonnel commitments for direct operations are 
enumerated. 

Introduction 

The operational plan for Project Mercury 
has been presented in a number of papers pre- 
viously (see refs. 1 and 2) and, therefore, it is 
only the intention of this paper to give a very 
brief outline of the preparations for the MA-6 
flight. The operation was planned by a great 
number of different groups of people, both 
civilian and Department of Defense, and no 
effort will be made to describe the efforts of any 
individual group. The entire operation was a 
coordinated team effort and was only accom- 
plished by the complete cooperation of all 
concerned. 

Network Stations 

In order to perform real-time analysis of both 
the powered phase and orbiting flight, a net- 
work of 16 stations located along the three- 
orbit ground track was constructed. The loca- 
tion of these sites is shown in figure 1-1 and 
table 1-1. The sites were chosen for a great 
number of reasons but primarily to take advan- 
tage of the existing tracking and data-gathering 
facilities that were available at the start of the 
project. In addition, it was desirous to make 
available continuous real-time tracking during 



Table 1-L— Ground Stations for Project 
Mercury 



bt&tlOQS 


^and 6 
tele- 


G^and 
radTr 


mand 
capa- 
bility 


1, Atlantic Missile 








Range 


X 


C 


X 


2. Bermuda 


X 


s-c 


X 


3. Mid-Atlantic Ship— 


X 






4. Canary Islands 


X 


s 




5. Kano, Nigeria . 


X 






6. Zanzibar. . _.- - 


X 






7. Indian Ocean Ship.. 


X 






8. Muchea, Australia. . 


X 


s 


X 


9. Woomera, Australia. 


X 


c 




10. Canton Island 


X 






11. Hawaii - -_ 


X 


s-c 


X 


12. Southern California. 


X 


s-c 


X 


13. Guaymas, Mexico. _ 


X 


s 


X 


14. White Sands 




c 




15. Corpus Christi, 








Texas 


X 


s 




16. Eglin (AFATC)-.. 




c 





the launch and reentry phases, and to provide 
communications and telemetry data as often as 
possible throughout the flight. In addition, six 




—Network stations distribution for 
Project Mercury 



of the sites at pertinent points along the ground 
track were provided with radio command ca- 
pability in order to back up such functions as 
retrofire and clock changes. These were At- 
lantic Missile Range ; Bermuda ; Muchea, Aus- 
tralia; Hawaii; Guaymas, Mexico; and South- 
ern California. A communications and com- 
puting center located at the NASA Goddard 
Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, Md., acts as the 
focal point for these network sites, and by means 
of telephone lines and microwave links provides 
high-speed information to the Mercury Control 
Center at Cape Canaveral, Fla. This network 
has proven to be an exceptionally good and ca- 
pable tool in controlling orbiting vehicles and, 
in particular, manned spacecraft. 
(See appendix A.) 

Recovery Forces 

One of the biggest considerations for Mer- 
cury operations planning was to provide for 
safe and quick recovery of the astronaut. Plans 
were made to place forces in a large number of 
strategic locations to cover possible aborted 
flights during all phases of the mission. Figure 
1-2 gives a general picture of the recovery op- 
eration. Plans were made for recovery in the 
launch area on the basis of any foreseeable 
catastrophe from an off-the-pad abort to aborts 
occurring at or shortly after lift-off. From 
this period to the point at which the spacecraft 
was inserted into orbit, a number of recovery 
areas were located across the entire Atlantic 
Ocean, based on the probabilities of aborted 
flights occurring as a result of launch vehicle or 
spacecraft malfunctions. It was possible to 
choose discrete areas on the basis of using the 
spacecraft retrorockets to control the total range 
traveled. In addition, certain areas around 
the world were set up for contingencies should 




Figure 1-2. — Project Mercury recovery areas. 

2 



it be necessary to reenter the spacecraft as a 
result of some inflight emergency. These areas 
are as indicated in figure 1-2. 

It was desirable to have the capability of re- 
covery at the end of each of the three orbits, 
and primary landing areas located as shown 
were established for this purpose. The forces 
necessary to support the various recovery areas 
were based on the probability of having to end 
the flight in a particular phase of the mission, 
and the requirements for the various areas were 
normally given in terms of access time to the 
spacecraft once the landing had taken place. 
For instance, in the high probability area at 
the end of three orbits, a maximum of 3 hours 
was stated as the time to reach the spacecraft. 
On the other hand, the contingency area lo- 
cated on the east coast of Africa did not have 
predeployed forces, but airplane search capa- 
bility was provided so that the spacecraft could 
be located in a maximum of 18 hours. In this 
case, the capability of providing emergency aid 
by means of paramedics was available should it 
be necessary. A more detailed description of 
the recovery operation actually performed in 
MA-6 is presented in paper 7. 

Training 

In the 3 years previous to the MA-6 flight, 
all of the operating elements supplying support 
to the operation have gone through various 
training exercises in preparation for a particu- 
lar flight. Of course, the Mercury-Redstone 
flights, both unmanned and manned, and the 
Mercury- Atlas orbital flights previous to MA-6 
were accomplished in preparation for the first 
manned orbital flight and provided the best 
and most realistic training. Also, both the 
astronaut and the ground flight-control person- 
nel performed a great number of simulated 
launches and orbital flights in preparation for 
each of these exercises and were a highly trained 
and professional organization by the time the 
MA-6 flight was made. 

Weather Information 

As the whole world now knows, one of the 
most difficult operating problems encountered 
was the weather. Early in the project the 
NASA solicited the aid of the U.S. Weather 
Bureau in setting up an organization to sup- 
ply pertinent weather information. This group 
developed means for obtaining fairly detailed 



weather data along the entire three-orbit track 
of the Mercury mission. This information was 
analyzed in many different ways to provide use- 
ful operational information. For instance, de- 
tailed analysis of the weather over the Atlantic 
Ocean for various periods of the year was made 
to provide a basis of planning the flight and 
to provide a background knowledge as to what 
could be expected to develop from day to day 
once a given weather pattern had been deter- 
mined. As a guideline, weather ground rules 
were established on the basis of spacecraft 
structural limitations and recovery operating 
capabilities. These included such details as 
wind velocity, wave height, cloud cover, and 
visibility. During the days previous to and on 
the day of the operation, the U.S. Weather 
Bureau meteorologists provided weather in- 
formation for all of the preselected recovery 
areas and the launching site. The other weather 
limitation was the result of the desire to obtain 
engineering photographic coverage in the 
launch area. 

Optical Tracking 

Optical tracking of the Mercury- Atlas launch 
vehicle is part of the total launch instrumen- 



tation. These camera observations are used in 
conjunction with data from other instrumenta- 
tion for establishing launch records. 

In some cases where serious malfunctions oc- 
cur, the photographic data are the only source 
for establishing the exact sequence of events. 

Cameras are used to obtain trajectory para- 
meters in the early phase of launch, for engi- 
neering sequentials and for historical documen- 
tation. They are located in the vicinity of the 
launch pad, in the general area of Cape Cana- 
veral and along the Florida Coast both North 
and South of the launch area. 

Support Personnel 

As an indication of the total effort involved 
in the Mercury operation, it is interesting to 
note the number of people who participated. A 
total of about 19,300 people were deployed at 
the time of the mission. By far the largest 
number (about 15,600) were associated with 
the recovery effort. About 2,600 were involved 
at the launch complex and 1,100 were manning 
the tracking network. (See table l-II.) 

Details of spacecraft and launch-vehicle 
preparations and the flight plan and control of 
the flight are described in subsequent papers. 



Table l-II. — Direct Operations Support Personnel 



Agency 


Location 


Function 


Number of 
personnel 


National Aeronauties and Space Administration... 


Canaveral- - 
Worldwide 
Worldwide _ 
Worldwide 


Launch support 

Network 

Flight control. 

Recovery 


300 
50 
90 
15 


Department of Defense 


Canaveral 6 

Worldwide » 

Worldwide 

Worldwide. 


Launch support 

Network 

Recovery— ..... 
Aeromedical — 


1,900 
400 
15, 600 
160 




Canaveral 


Launch support.- - 


380 
360 




Worldwide. 


Network 


Weapons Research Establishment 


Australia 


Network . 


50 



■ Department of Defense utilizes considerable contractual support in these areas. 



References 

1. Kbaft, Chbistopher C, Jr. : Some Operational Aspects of Project Mercury. Presented at the Annual Meeting 

of the Society of Experimental Test Pilots, Los Angeles, Calif., Oct. 9, 1959. 

2. Mathews, Charles W. : Review of the Operational Plans for Mercury Orbital Mission. Presented at the 28th 

Annual Meeting of the Inst Aero. Sci., New York, N.Y., Jan. 25, 1960. 



3 



2. SPACECRAFT AND SPACECRAFT SYSTEMS 



By Kenneth S. Kleinknecht, Manager, Mercury Project, NASA Manned Spacecraft Center; William M. 
Bland, Jr., Deputy Manager, Mercury Project, NASA Manned Spacecraft Center; and E. M. Fields, 
Chief, Project Engineering Office, Mercury Project, NASA Manned Spacecraft Center 



Summary 

The Mercury spacecraft used by Astronaut 
John H. Glenn, Jr., in successfully accomplish- 
ing the first manned orbital flight from the 
United States performed as it was designed. 
Performance of all systems was at least as good 
as design, and in some cases better, as for in- 
stance, communications and manual attitude 
control. Deleterious effects of minor systems 
malfunctions were effectively avoided by sys- 
tem redundancy aided by astronaut corrective 
action, as in the case of the malfunctioning 
control system, and by ample system design 
margins, as in the cases of the lack of inverter 
cooling and nondesign reentry without jettison- 
ing the retropackage. 

Introduction 

The Mercury spacecraft is designed to sustain 
a man in a space environment for a given period 
of time, to protect him from external heating 
and acceleration during exit and reentry, to 
provide him with means for controlling the 
attitude of the spacecraft, to permit him to 
perform observations and a limited number of 
experiments in space, and to then bring him 
safely back to earth with sufficient location aids 
to permit rapid recovery by surface forces. 
The purpose of this paper is to present a brief 
description of the spacecraft and its systems 
and to provide a limited description of the per- 
formance of the spacecraft during the first 
manned orbital flight from the United States. 

The external arrangement of the spacecraft 
is shown in figure 2-1. At the time this photo- 
graph was taken the spacecraft was mounted 
on the launch vehicle and was undergoing final 
preparation for flight. The spacecraft is just 
large enough to contain the astronaut and the 
necessary equipment. The main conical por- 



tion contains the crew, the life-support system, 
the electrical-power system, and necessary dis- 
plays and system controls. The cylindrical 
section contains the major components of the 
parachute landing system. The topmost section 
contains a bicone antenna for RF transmission 
and reception and the drogue (stabilizing) 
parachute which is deployed during the landing 
phase. 

The large face of the spacecraft is protected 
against reentry heating by an ablation-type heat 
shield. A package which contains three posi- 
grade rocket motors and three retrograde rocket 
motors is held to the spacecraft at the center 
of the heat shield by three straps. 

The spacecraft escape system includes an es- 
cape-rocket motor on top of a tower which is 
fastened to the top of the recovery section by 
a clamp ring. The escape-tower assembly also 
incorporates a small rocket motor which jet- 




Fisttee 2-1.— Exterior view of spacecraft 13. 



5 



VENT- 



PEROXIDE TANK 



WINDOW 
INSTRUMENT PANEL 
HATCH 




COUCH AND 
RESTRAINTS 



FiotiEE 2-2. — Interior view of spacecraft. 



tisons the tower should the escape motor be 
fired. In a normal mission such as MA-6, the 
escape tower is jettisoned by firing the escape- 
rocket motor soon after launch vehicle staging 
when the aerodynamic forces have decreased so 
that the escape rocket motor is no longer re- 
quired for a possible abort maneuver. The 
spacecraft posigrade rocket motors provide for 
separation from the launch vehicle after this 
time for either aborted or normal missions. 

The entire spacecraft is mounted to a special 
adapter section on the Atlas launch vehicle and 
is restrained by an explosively actuated clamp 
ring. 

Figure 2-2 shows an interior view of the 
spacecraft. The astronaut is supported by a 
molded couch and other restraints and faces 
the small end of the spacecraft. Accelerations 
during both exit and reentry act in the same 
direction and thus enable his support couch to 
be effective without reorientation. The as- 
tronaut faces a display of the surface of the 
earth through a periscope and an instrument 
panel as shown in figure 2-3. 

The instrument panel, which is shown in 
figure 2rA, is supported by the periscope struc- 
ture. It contains the instruments and display 
lights necessary to monitor spacecraft systems 



and sequencing, the controls required to initiate 
primary sequences manually, and the necessary 
flight control displays. 

Within the pressurized compartment, the 
major systems near the astronaut are batteries 
for d-c electrical power, the environmental- 
control system, and major components of the 
communications and instrumentation systems. 
The astronaut operates control sticks with each 
hand. The right-hand stick is used for man- 
ually controlling the spacecraft attitude, and 
the left-hand stick can be used for initiating the 
escape sequence in event of an emergency. 

Between the pressure compartment and the 
heat shield are the tanks for the hydrogen 
peroxide which is used as fuel for the attitude 
control system. In addition, the landing bag is 
folded up and stowed in this area. Around the 
periphery of the large pressure bulkhead are 
vents for the steam which is given off by the 
environmental control system. 

A window is provided, in the conical section 
over the astronaut's head, for the astronaut to 
use for observations and for obtaining visual 
attitude references. The astronaut entrance 
and egress hatch is located in the conical section 
as indicated by the outline to the astronaut's 
right. The astronaut can also egress through 



ENTRANCE HATCH 



-RIGHT CONSOLE 




Fiouke 2-3. — Spacecraft cabin arrangement 



the recovery compartment by removing a por- 
tion of the instrument panel, the forward pres- 
sure bulkhead, and the parachute container. 

The spacecraft at the launch of MA-6 
weighed 4,265 pounds. The weight at insertion 
into orbit was 2,987 pounds, and at retrograde, 
2,970 pounds. The water-landing weight was 
2,493 pounds, and the recovery weight was 
2,422 pounds. 

HEAT PROTECTION 

An artist's conception of the Mercury space- 
craft during the early stages of a normal reen- 
try is shown in figure 2-5, with shading indi- 
cating that the spacecraft is surrounded by a 
bright-orange envelope of heated air. The 
spacecraft has been designed to protect the in- 
terior from the effects of reentry aerodynamic 
heating. This heat protection consists of an 
ablation reentry heat shield for the forebody 



and an insulated double-wall structure for the 
afterbody. 

Ablation Shield 

The ablation-shield material is a mixture of 
glass fibers and resin in the proper proportions 
such that the resin will boil off under applied 
heat with the glass fibers to provide strength 
and shield integrity. During the high-heating 
period of reentry, the resin vaporizes and boils 
off at low temperatures into the hot boundary 
layer of air thus cooling. 

The shield is designed to withstand the heat 
loads generated by more severe reentry condi- 
tions than those experienced during the MA-6 
mission when only a few pounds of the shield 
were boiled away. 

Afterbody 

The afterbody (cone, cylinder, and antenna 
cannister) is protected somewhat from the hot 
boundary layer of air and gaseous ablation 



7 




products during reentry since most of the after- 
body, with its inward sloping sides, is in the 
dead-air region behind the ablation shield. The 
afterbody surface thus receives only 5 to 10 per- 




Figure 2-5. — Artist's conception of spacecraft during 
reentry. 

8 



cent of the heating that is experienced by the 
ablation shield; therefore its heat protection 
arrangement can be the more conventional dou- 
ble-wall construction with insulation between 
the inner and outer walls (see fig. 2-6) . The 
Mercury spacecraft afterbody heat protection, 
as shown in figure 2-6, consists of a double- wall 
construction with insulation between the outer 
and inner walls. In figure 2-6 lightweight 
fiberglas blankets are labeled "insulation," and 
compressed surface-clad insulation is labeled 
"Min-K." On the outer conical surface and 
antenna section thin high-temperature alloy 
(Rene 41) shingles are used. On the outer 
cylindrical section thicker shingles of beryllium 
are used in a heat-sink arrangement. The shin- 
gles are blackened to aid the radiation of heat 
away from the spacecraft, and they are at- 
tached to the basic structure in such a manner 
that they can expand and contract with temper- 
ature changes without transferring loads to the 
primary -load-carrying spacecraft structure. 




VYCOR 
WINDOW 
ABLATION - 
SHIELD 

Figure 2-6. — Arrangement of heat-protection elements. 

In order to illustrate the effectiveness of .the 
spacecraft heat protection, some significant tem- 
peratures are presented in figure 2-7. From an 
overall standpoint, the most severe beating is 
encountered during reentry. During this time, 
the air cap surrounding the front end of the 
spacecraft has a maximum temperature of about 
9,500° F, which is nearly the same as the tem- 
perature of the surface of the sun. As a result, 
the surface of the heat shield reaches a maxi- 
mum temperature of about 3,000° F and the 
spacecraft afterbody shingles attain maximum 
temperatures in the order of 1,000° F on the 
thin shingles and about 600° F on the thicker 
shingles. 

During the exit flight, when the small end of 
the spacecraft points in the direction of flight, 
the afterbody shingles are also subjected to 
aerodynamic heating, attaining maximum tem- 
peratures as high as about 1,300° F. With the 
local temperatures dependent upon local flow 
conditions and the thermal mass of the space- 
craft surface. 

The temperature variation of the outer shin- 
gles around the astronaut's pressure compart- 



ment is modest during the orbital phase of the 
mission, varying between 200° F and —50° F, 
depending upon the sun impingement. Of par- 
ticular interest are the cabin-air and suit-air 
temperatures. These remain at acceptable lev- 
els during all phases of the mission, attesting to 
the effectiveness of the environmental control 
system and the insulation. 

Figure 2-8 shows the maximum temperatures 
in the ablation shield near the stagnation point 
during and after reentry for three orbital re- 
entries. As can be seen, preflight calculations 
predicted quite well the measured temperatures. 
As is now well known, the MA-6 reentry was 
intentionally begun with the retropack in place 
in the center of the shield. Thus, it is particu- 
larly interesting to note that the maximum tem- 
perature measured near the stagnation point in 
the MA-6 shield was not much lower than those 
measured during the MA-4 and MA— 5 reentries. 
This and other available evidence indicates that 
the retropack disintegrated from reentry heat- 
ing during the early part of the reentry so that 
its presence made little difference in the total 
heat input to the shield. 

SPACECRAFT SYSTEMS 

Rocket Motor Systems 

The rocket motor assemblies used in the 
Mercury spacecraft are as shown in figure 2-9 
and are listed in the following table along with 
their nominal performance characteristics. 



EXIT, 1,300 
ORBIT, 200 TO -25 
REENTRY, 850-7 



3,00( 
SHOCK WAVE: 
9,500 AT START 
OF REENTRY; 
7,500 AT MAX q- 



^-EXIT, 700 

ORBIT, 150 TO -50 
REENTRY, 1,000 

EXIT, 150 
ORBIT, 100 TO 0 
REENTRY, 600 

-CABIN AIR: 
EXIT, 85 

ORBIT, 105 TO 90 
SUIT AIR: RECOVERY 103 

EXIT, 65 
ORBIT, 65 TO 75 
RECOVERY, 85 




Rocket motor 


Number 

of 
motors 


Nominal 
thrust 
each, lb 


Approx- 
burning 


Tower jettison.^ . 

Posigrade _. 

Retrograde. 


1 

3 

. 3 


52, 000 
800 
400 
1,000 


1 

1. 5 
1 
10 



All of these rocket motors employ solid- 
propellant fuel. 

The escape rocket is mounted at the top of 
the escape tower and incorporates three canted 
exit nozzles to direct the exhaust gases away 
from the side of the spacecraft. 

The tower jettison rocket also has a three- 



9 



TEMPERATURE, 



MA-6 







DEPTH FROM OUTER SURFACE, PERCENT 
Figure 2-8. — Maximum ablation-shield temperatures. 

nozzle assembly and is attached to the bottom 
of the escape rocket-motor case. 

The three posigrade and three retrograde 
rocket motors are mounted in a package which 
is held to the spacecraft at the center of the 
heat shield by three straps. The posigrade 
rockets are salvo-fired to separate the space- 
craft from the launch vehicle. The retrograde 




Fiqube 2-9. — Spacecraft rocket motors. 

rocket, motors are ripple-fired (5-second delays 
between motor ignitions) and provide the ve- 
locity decrement necessary to initiate reentry. 

All rocket motors have dual ignition systems 
from separate electrical power sources. In 
addition, each ignition system has dual squibs 




10 



Figure 2-10. — Retroroeket fire schematic diagram. 



to insure ignition. A typical example of rocket- 
motor system firing circuitry is shown in figure 
2-10. 

In the MA-6 mission, all rocket motor sys- 
tems appear to have operated properly. The 
escape tower was jettisoned as planned at the 
proper time. The firing of the posigrade 
rockets provided the expected velocity change, 
as did the retrorocket motors. 

Control System 

The control system of the Mercury space- 
craft provides the capability of performing 
several functions vital to a successful orbital 
mission ; they are attaining a precise attitude for 
retrofire and holding the attitude closely during 
the stepped thrusting period of the retrorockets. 
Without such control, an orbital mission would 
very probably suffer mission failure. Because 
of this critical function, the Mercury control 
system has been designed so that it can per- 
form its function in event of multiple 
malfunctions. 

Table 2-1 indicates the four control arrange- 
ments that are available in the present Mercury 
spacecraft. Basically, there are two completely 
independent fuel . supply, plumbing, and 
thruster systems. Each uses 90-percent hydro- 
gen peroxide to provide selected impulse as de- 
sired. There are two means of controlling the 
outputs of each of these systems; that is, on 
system A the astronaut has a choice of using 
either the automatic stabilization and control 
system (ASCS) or the fly-by- wire (FBW) sys- 
tem. The ASCS is automatic to the extent that 
it can provide the necessary attitude control 
throughout a complete mission without any ac- 
tion on the part of the astronaut ; this is the sys- 
tem that was used on the unmanned Mercury 
missions. The FBW system is operated by 
movement of the astronaut control stick to oper- 
ate the solenoid control valves electrically. 

On system B the astronaut has the choice 
of using either the manual proportional system 
(MP) or the rate stabilization control system 
(RSCS), both of which are operated through 
the astronaut's control stick. In the MP sys- 
tem, linkages transmit the control stick move- 
ment to proportional control valves which regu- 
late the flow of fuel to the thrusters. The 
RSCS uses a combination of stick positions 
and the computing components of the auto- 
matic system to provide rate control. 

634401 O— «2 2 



The mode of control can be easily selected by 
the astronaut by positioning of the proper 
switches and valves mounted on the instrument 
panel. It should also be noted that certain of 
these control modes can be selected to operate 
simultaneously, such as ASCS and MP, or 
FBW and MP, in order to provided double au- 
thority or so that even with certain malfunc- 
tions in each mode, complete control can be 
maintained. Also of interest is the type of 
electrical power requirement, for each of these 
control arrangements. Most significant is the 
lack of any electrical power requirement for the 
manual proportional control mode. 

The thruster impulse is directed by the four 
basic control modes through 18 individual 
system, as shown in figure 2-11. Figures 
thrusters — 12 on system A and 6 on the manual 
2-12(a) and 2-12 (b) show the A and B systems 
RCS schematic diagrams. Figures 2-12 (a) 
and 2-12(b) do not show completely the meth- 
ods of electrically controlling the thrusters; in 
figure 2-12{a) there is a switch missing be- 
tween the hand controller and the ASCS control 
box which permits selection of either FBW or 
ASCS. Similarly, in figure 2-12 (b) the con- 
nection of the hand controller through a switch 
and the ASCS control box to the thruster sole- 
noids for RSCS control is missing. Metered 
quantities of hydrogen peroxide are decomposed 
in silver-plated catalyst beds in each of the 
thruster chambers to provide the desired im- 
pulse. Twelve of the thrusters used on the 
Mercury spacecraft are sized to provide ade- 
quate control during the retromaneuver. 

These thruster ratings are as follows : 





System A, 
lb 


System B, 
lb 


Pitch - 


24 


4 to 24 


Yaw 


24 


4 to 24 


Roll 


6 


1 to 6 









The remaining six thrusters are in system A 
to provide fine attitude control as desired under 
orbital conditions with minimum fuel consump- 
tion. Each of these six thrusters has a thrust 
rating of 1 pound. 

On the MA-6 mission the control system, with 
essential mode changes by the astronaut, pro- 
vided adequate control of spacecraft attitudes 

11 



Table 2-1. — Spacecraft Control System Re- 
dundancy and Electrical Power Requirements 



system 1 
modes 


system (fuel 
supply, plumbing, 
and thrusters) 


Electrical 

power 
required 


ASCS 

FBW 


A 

A 


d-c and a-c 
d-c 


MP 


B 


RSCS 


B 



ASCS — Automatic stabilization and control system 
FBW— Fly-by-wire 
MP — Manual proportional sys- 



Oontrolled by pilot ac- 
tuation of control 
stick 



RSOS— Rate stabilization con- 
trol system 

during all phases of the mission despite recur- 
rences of small thruster malfunctions which dis- 
abled the minimum fuel consumption mode 
about the yaw axis early in the mission. As 
discussed in paper 11, the astronaut very satis- 
factorily completed his planned maneuvers in 
space, orientated the spacecraft as he desired 
to make terrestrial and celestial observations, 



attained and maintained accurate control for 
retrofire by by using both automatic and man- 
ual attitude-control modes, and accurately 
achieved entry attitude. During entry, after 
maximum dynamic pressure, the astronaut 
while on manual proportional and fly-by-wire 
control successfully controlled the lateral oscil- 
lations until the B-system fuel supply was de- 
pleted. At this time the oscillations began to 
build up; however, switching to an automatic 
mode did reduce oscillations to within desirable 
limits until the A-system fuel supply was also 
depleted. 

Communications and Instrumentation 
Communications 

The spacecraft communications and instru- 
mentation systems consisted of voice, radar, 
command, recovery, and telemetry links. Each 
system had main and backup (or parallel) 
equipment for redundancy, with selection of 
the desired system generally at discretion of 
the astronaut through switches mounted on the 
instrument panel. Table 2-II is a list of the 
systems, and figure 2-13 shows the physical lo- 



12 



Figube 2-11.— Arrangement of reaction control system. 




(a) System A. 

Figube 2-12. — Reaction control system schematic diagrams. 



13 



Figure 2-13. — Locations of major components of communications system. 



Table 2-II. — Spacecraft Communications and 
Instrumentation Systems 





UHF transceiver 


2 watts 
0.5 watt 
5 watts 


UHF transceiver 


HF transceiver _ . . - 






C-band be aeon. 


400-watt 

transponder 
1,000- watt 

transponder 


S-band beacon. . 




Commands 


2 command receivers 


10 channels 




Telemetry 


2 FM transmitters _ 


2 watts each 




Recovery 


HF D/F beacon SEASAVE 

UHF D/F beacon SARAH____ 
UHF D/F beacon SUPER- 
SARAH. 
HF transceiver 


1 watt 
7.5 watts 
91 watts 





cation of the communications equipment in the 
spacecraft. The performance of the various 
communication links was generally very good 
during the MA-6 mission as shown in figure 2- 
14. The time for which useful signals were ob- 
tained for each link are compared with the time 
that the spacecraft was within line-of -sight for 
each pass over two selected range stations. 
This same comparison was made for each pass 
over each range station, averaged for the entire 
mission, and presented in percent form in the 
right-hand column of figure 2-14. 

Since the HF voice system was not used 
enough in the MA-6 flight to allow a meaning- 
ful assessment of HF coverage, the HF cover- 
age shown in figure 2-14 is for the MA-5 
orbital flight which utilized a tape recording 
for spacecraft voice broadcasts on both HF 
and UHF systems. A simplified schematic 
diagram showing the various communications 
systems and their respective antenna systems 
is shown in figure 2-15. 

Voice system. — The voice system, used for 
two-w T ay voice conversations between the 
ground and spacecraft, was made up of high- 
frequency (HF) and ultra-high-frequency 
(UHF) systems. From previous orbital ex- 



15 



ORBIT NUMBER 



MUCHEA (AUSTRALIA) 



ORBIT NUMBER 



m 



wm 



NOT APPLICABLE 



COMMAND 
RECEI- 
VERS 



PERFORMANCE HAS BEEN SATISFACTORY 



m 



PERFORMANCE HAS BEEN SATISFACTORY 



KEY - VAM/A USEFUL TIME, {x} MINUTES 

| (X) 1 STATION LINE OF SIGHT TIME, (X) MINUTES 

Figure 2— 14.— Performance of spacecraft communications lints. 



16 





17 



perience and ground tests, it was known that 
the HF system had somewhat poorer voice fi- 
delity but longer range than the UHF system. 
The UHF system, because of its slightly better 
voice quality, was considered to be the primary 
system. From previous experience, it was 
known that the range of the UHF system was 
approximately equal to the line-of-sight range 
and was entirely adequate for a normal mis- 
sion. The main voice traffic was therefore con- 
ducted on the UHF system, with a small amount 
of traffic conducted on the HF system to verify 
system operation. It might be noted that the 
UHF system consisted of a main and a backup 
transmitter-receiver. Thus, three separate 
voice systems were available for choice of the 
astronaut— HF, UHF main, and UHF back- 
up — as shown in figure 2-16. Also, a redundant 
ground-to-air voice link is available through 
the command receiver channel. An additional 
air-to-ground communication link is available 
to the astronaut by keying the low-frequency 
telemeter carrier. It should be noted that all 
of these links use the main bicone antenna 
through the use of a multiplexer. 

Performance of the voice system during the 
MA-6 mission was satisfactory as indicated in 
figure 2-14. 

Radar system. — The radar system consisted 
of C- and S-band beacons onboard the space- 
craft. Both beacons were "on" continuously 
throughout the flight, and either or both 
beacons could be interrogated when within 
range of the appropriate ground station. Per- 
formance of the radar system, including the 
ground tracking and computing complex, was 
satisfactory and was such that the spacecraft 
orbital trajectory was well defined by the end 
of the first orbit, and continued tracking dur- 
ing the remaining orbits resulted in only minor 
changes to orbit parameters already established. 
Radar performance is shown in figure 2-14 
and is discussed in more detail in paper 6. 

Command system, — The command system 
provided means of commanding an abort, retro- 
fire, spacecraft-clock change, or instrumenta- 
tion calibration from the ground, if necessary. 
None of the first three of the above commands 
were needed for accomplishment of the MA-6 
mission. The onboard command system was 
exercised by ten instrumentation-calibration 
ground commands during the mission for in- 



strument calibration and to obtain additional 
data on the command-system inflight perform- 
ance. The onboard command system con- 
sisted of two identical receivers and decoders, 
each capable of performing any required func- 
tions. The data are being studied to evaluate 
the command-system performance, which has 
been satisfactory in previous orbital missions. 

Telemetry system. — The telemetry system 
consisted of two nearly identical FM-FM tele- 
metry subsystems, each carrying essentially the 
same data for redundancy and each using com- 
mutated and continuous channels. The aero- 
medical data and some system-performance 
information from the telemetry system were 
displayed in real time at the Mercury Network 
stations for the purpose of monitoring the con- 
ditions of the astronaut and critical spacecraft 
systems as the mission progressed. The per- 
formance of the telemetry system was satisfac- 
tory as shown in figure 2-14. 

Recovery system. — The recovery system con- 
sists of a HF transceiver (1 watt) , one recovery 
package containing the CW SEASAVE beacon 
(1 watt), a pulse modulated SARAH beacon 
(7.5 watts), and a pulse modulated SUPER- 
SARAH beacon (91 watts). The antenna sys- 
tems used by the recovery system are shown in 
figure 2-15. Performance of the recovery sys- 
tem has been satisfactory. 

Instrumentation 

The spacecraft instrumentation system moni- 
tored the astronaut's ECG, respiration rate 
and depth, blood pressure, and body tempera- 
ture in addition to certain aspects of operations 
of the spacecraft systems. Locations of many 
of the sensors are shown in figure 2-17, and the 
instrumentation list is shown in table 2-III. 
Ninety commutator segments were available for 
data, plus seven continuous channels. The con- 
tinous channels were used mainly for aeromedi- 
cal information and spacecraft control-system 
performance data. An instrumentation sche- 
matic diagram is included as figure 2-18, to 
show how the different measurements were han- 
dled. A 16-mm camera photographed the as- 
tronaut's face and upper torso area in color at 
360 frames/min or 5 frames/min, depending on 
the mission phase. The overall quality of these 
photographs was good; however, due to ex- 
treme variations in the light intensities in the 



19 



Table 2— III. — Spacecraft Instrumentation and 
Ranges for the MA-6 Mission 

[All data commutated, unless otherwise noted.] 

Instrument 
range 
(0 to 100 percent 
full scale unless 



Events: otherwise noted) 

Tower release On-off 

Tower escape rocket ignition On-off 

Spacecraft separation On-off 

Retroattitude command On-off 

Retrorocket fire On-off 

Retrorocket assembly jettison On-off 

0.0% relay On-off 

Drogue parachute deployment On-off 

Antenna fairing release On-off 

Main parachute deployment On-off 

Periscope retract On-off 

Mayday On-off 

Heat-shield deployment On-off 

Main parachute jettison On-off 

Reserve parachute deploy On-off 

Pilot abort On-off 

Stabilisation and control: 

Control stick position (roll) 1 , deg___ ±12 

Control stick position (pitch) 1 , deg— ±12 

Control stick position (yaw) 1 , deg ±14 

Gyro output (roll), deg —130 to 190 

Gyro output (pitch), deg —120 to 174 

Gyro output (yaw), deg —70 to 250 

Scanner output (roll), deg —37.5 to 33 

Scanner output (pitch), deg —38.5 to 33 

Scanner ignore (roll) On-off 

Scanner ignore (pitch) On-off 

ASCS slaving signal On-off 

Roll solenoid, high, -f- On-off 

Roll solenoid, high, — On-off 

Pitch solenoid, high, + On-off 

Pitch solenoid, high, — On-off 

Taw solenoid, high, + On-off 

Yaw solenoid, high, — On-off 

Roll solenoid, low, + On-off 

Roll solenoid, low, — On-off 

Pitch solenoid, low, -f On-off 

Pitch solenoid, low, — On-off 

Yaw solenoid, low, + On-off 

Yaw solenoid, low, — On-off 

Roll rate (low range) 2 , deg/sec —9.9 to 10 

Roll rate (high range) 2 , deg/sec —25.5 to 31.5 

Pitch rate = , deg/sec —10.3 to 10.5 

Yaw rate 3 , deg/sec ±10.3 



1 Commutated and continuous ; continuous data re- 
corded onboard only, 

2 Continuous only ; recorded onboard only. 



Table 2— III. — Spacecraft Instrumentation and 
Ranges for the MA-6 Mission — Continued 
[All data commutated, unless otherwise noted.] 

Instrument 
range 
(0 to 100 percent 
full scale unless 
otherwise noted ) 

Electrical functions: 



3 volt reference 100-percent full 

scale 

Zero reference 0-percent full 

7 volt a-c bus, volts 0 to 8 

d-c 3 , volts 12.9 to 29.8 

d-c current *, amperes 0 to 50 

Fans a-c bus, volts 95 to 120 

ASCS a-c bus, volts 90 to 125 

Isolated d-c bus, volts 13.3 to 23.4 

Standby d-c bus, volts 13.2 to 23 

Standby inverter >'ON" On-off 

Astronaut: 

Body temperature, "P 92.5 to 105.9 

Body temperature, °F 92.6 to 106 

ECG#1 4 

Respiration 4 

Blood pressure *, mm Hg 56 to 205 

Command receivers : 

Command receiver ON-OFF On-off 

Command receiver signal strength 

"A", iiv 0 to 80 

Command receiver signal strength 

"B", /iv 0 to 80 

Environmental functions: 

Suit inlet temperature, °F 39 to 116 

Cabin temperature, °F 35 to 233 

Suit pressure, psia 0 to 15 

Cabin pressure, psia 0 to 15 

Static pressure, psia 15.2 to —0.3 

Coolant quantity pressure, psig 213 to 489 

0 3 supply pressure, primary, psig —50 to 7,500 

0 3 supply pressure, secondary, psig— —100 to 7,600 

O s partial pressure, mm Hg —15 to 980 

0 3 emergency rate mode On-off 

Acce lera tions : 

Acceleration, A. (low range), g 

units —0.415 to 0.375 

Acceleration, A* (high range), g 

units —3.2 to 3.5 

Acceleration, A y (low range), g 

units -0.415 to 0.38 



3 Commutated and continuous ; continuous d-c cur- 
rent and d-c voltage recorded onboard only. 
1 Continuous only. 



20 



Table 2— III. — Spacecraft Instrumentation and 
Ranges for the MA— 6 Mission-— Continued 

[All data commutated, unless otherwise noted.] 



Instrument 

(Oto 100 percent 
full scale unless 

Accelerations — Continued otherwise noted) 

Acceleration, A T (high range), g 

units —4.0 to 4.9 

Acceleration, A, —31 to 35 

Integrating accelerometer signal, 
ft/sec Oto 565 

Equipment temperatures: 

RCS automatic Had line tempera- 
ture low roll, clockwise, °F —6 to 242 

RCS automatic H^Oi line tempera- 
ture low roll, counterclockwise, 
"F -11 to 239 

RCS manual H.O* line temperature 
low roll, clockwise, "F —12 to 260 

RCS manual H*O s line temperature 

low roll, counterclockwise, °F —29 to 224 

Retrorocket temperature, °F —16 to 140 

Heat-shield temperature, °F —140 to 2,470 

Inverter temperature, 150 v-amp, 

■F —10 to 337 

Inverter temperature, 250 v-amp, 

"P —18 to 322 

Transmitter temperature, HF, °F... 8 to 320 

Transmitter temperature, LF, °F„_ —16 to 326 

Onboard time: 

Verner clock, 4 percent 0 to 12 

Time since launch, percent 0 to 100 

Time to retrograde, percent 0 to 100 

Calibrate signal 

4 Continuous only. 



spacecraft during the various mission phases, 
definition was reduced at times. Performance 
of the instrumentation system was satisfactory. 

Environmental Control System 

As shown in figure 2-19, the environmental 
control system is located principally under the 
astronaut's support couch. This all-important 
system provides an oxygen atmosphere, tem- 
perature control, and pressure regulation for 
the astronaut's suit and the cabin. The cabin 
and suit are independent redundant circuits for 
automatically providing proper environmental 



conditions for the astronaut. In addition, the 
astronaut can manually actuate a control to 
initiate the oxygen emergency-flow-rate mode 
to provide an adequate suit environment in the 
case where multiple plumbing or electrical 
failures might make automatic initiation of the 
emergency-flow-rate mode inoperative. 

The environmental control system provided, 
with its automatic operation, an adequate and 
safe environment for the astronaut throughout 
the entire MA-6 mission. 

A simplified schematic diagram of the en- 
vironmental control system is shown in figure 
2-20, and the system is discussed in more de- 
tail in papers 3 and 5. 

Electrical Power and Sequential Systems 
Electrical Power System 

Figure 2-21 shows the spacecraft electrical 
power system. Rechargeable silver-zinc bat- 
teries of both 3,000-watt-hour and 1,500-watt- 
hour ratings are arranged into three power 
sources to provide a total of 13,500 watt-hours. 
Nominal discharge rate for each type of bat- 
tery is 4.5 amperes but each battery is capable 
of supplying pulse currents up to 42 amperes 
for a few milliseconds. Silicon diodes in each 
positive leg of all batteries prevent discharge 
of normal batteries into defective or low-voltage 
batteries in parallel configurations. The in- 
dividual battery voltages and the total current 
are monitored in flight by the astronaut. In 
event of battery failure or equipment failure, 
he can manually switch off individual batteries 
or all battery power. 

A solid-state static inverter provides 115- 
volt, 400-cycle, single-phase alternating-current 
power for the spacecraft attitude control system 
and another provides similar power for the 
environmental control system. A standby in- 
verter provides redundancy for either of these 
two main inverters and can take over for both 
if noncritical ASC3 loads are switched off man- 
ually. The standby inverter can be automati- 
cally or manually placed in action. 

Electrical power consumption for the MA-6 
mission is shown in the following table : 



21 



1 

1 


!!l 

Li 


1 




1 


in] 




00 


«! 






! 
1 


iw 
iij 


tN" 
1 




I 

O 


M 
hi 


of 


§ 


1 


lui 








1 




E 

1 

1 

m 


§ 

I 


] 




Figure 2-18. — Instrumentation system schematic diagram. 



> 2 SUPPLY ^^fiCABlN HEAT 

econdaryHHBexchange 

Figure 2-19. — Approximate physical arrangement of spacecraft environmental control system. 




Fig use 2-20.— Schematic diagram of environmental control system. 

24 



3-3000 W.H. \~r- MAIN 24 V DC BUSES 

STANDBY 24,18,12,8k 6 V DC BUSES 
ISOLATED 24, 18, a 6 V DC BUSES 



STANDBY 
2-1500 W.H. 






ISOLATED 
1-1500 W.H. 





ASCS INV. 
250 V.A. 



FANS 


INV. 


150 


V.A. 



STANDBY INV. 
250 V.A. 




ASCS 115 VAC, 400 CPS, 1^, BUS 

FANS 115 VAC, 400 CPS, \<f>, BUS 

W. H. - WATT HOURS 
V. A. - VOLT AMPERES 



Figure 2-21.— Schematic diagram of spacecraft electrical power system. 

APPROX. 34" 



' 0 9-0 

1. BOOSTER AND SUSTAINER ENGINES FIRED 

2. BOOSTER ENGINE CUTOFF 

3. TWENTY SECONDS AFTER BOOSTER CUTOFF TOWER JETTISONED 10 

4. SUSTAINER CUTOFF 

5. SPACECRAFT SEPARATION 
6 SPACECRAFT TO ORBIT ATTITUDE 

7. SPACECRAFT EXECUTES THREE EARTH ORBITS 

8. START RETROSEQUENCE 
*9. SIXTY SECONDS AFTER RETROFIRING RETROPACKAGE IS JETTISONED 

*10. DROGUE PARACHUTE DEPLOYED AT 21,000 FEET 

11. MAIN PARACHUTE AND LANDING BAG DEPLOYED AT 10,000 FEET 

12. MAIN PARACHUTE RELEASED, RESERVE PARACHUTE EJECTED, 
RECOVERY AIDS ACTIVATED 

*RETROPACKAGE NOT JETTISONED FOR MA-6MISSI0N 12 
** DROGUE WAS DEPLOYED AT SLIGHTLY HIGHER ALTITUDE IN MA-6 MISSION 

Figure 2-22. — Sequence of major events for the MA-6 mission. 



Table 2-IV. — Methods of Initiating or Controlling Major Mission Sequences 



1 Booster and sustainer engines firing 

2 Booster engine cutoff 

3 Tower jettison 

4 Sustainer engine cutoff 

5 Spacecraft separation 

6 Yaw and pitch maneuver to orbit attitude 

7 Attitude control during orbit 

8 Start retrosequence 

9 Retropackage jettison and reentry attitude control 

10 Drogue parachute deployment 

11 Main parachute and landing bag deployment 

12 Main parachute release, reserve parachute ejection, recovery aids activation. 



Initiation capability 



® Refers to automatic redandant system. H Refers to indirect control. 

Both the d-c and a-c electrical systems func- 
tioned well throughout the MA-6 mission. Ex- 
cessive temperature rises of the inverters were 
caused by a malfunction of the inverter cooling 
system. The inverter design operating tem- 
peratures was exceeded for both inverters dur- 
ing the second orbit. Maximum inverter tem- 
peratures were over 200 c F, somewhat higher 
than design temperature ; however, performance 
of the inverters during the mission was excellent 
and no adverse effects due to the high tempera- 
tures were noted during postflight inspections. 

Sequential System 

Figure 2-22 shows the sequence of major 
events for the MA-6 mission. The only excep- 
tion to the planned sequence occurred during 
event (9) as a result of the astronaut being 
advised to retain the retropackage during re- 
entry and manually overrode the automatic 
sequencing as directed by instructions from the 
ground. Figure 2-23 shows the spacecraft 
master sequential system. 

Redundancy for the automatic initiation of 
spacecraft sequence events is furnished by the 
astronaut's ability to initiate events manually 
by switches and controls and by ground-com- 
manded initiation of certain events by means 
of a radio-command link. Table 2-IV shows 
the redundancy in initiation capability for im- 
portant events. From this tabulation it can be 
seen that the astronaut has control over all of 
the primary spacecraft automatic functions. 
The astronaut also has indirect control over the 
important launch-vehicle functions, such as 
26 



e Refers to direct control. 




(a) Launch and orbit. 

—Master sequential diagram for tl 
spacecraft. 




I RETRO ASSEMBLY SEP [ 
IRETRO ASSEMBLY SEP SENSOR]— 

, I , 

1 5 SEC TIME DELAY | 



THIS PART OF THE AUTOMATIC 
SEQUENCE WAS PERFORMED 
MANUALLY BY THE ASTRONAUT, 
AFTER HE INTERRUPTED THE 
CIRCUITRY (PILOT SWITCH) 
TO PREVENT JETTISONING OF 
THE RETROPACK (RETRO 
ASSEMBLY SEP BOLT FIRE). 



| 30 SEC TIME DELAY ] 
| RETRACT PERISCOPE | 



*ASCS 12°/SEC 
ROLL RATE, 
PLUS RATE 
DAMPING 



I REENTRY STABILIZATION | I REENTRY ORIENTATION | 



*RSCS 7.5°/SEC ROLL RATE, 
PLUS RATE DAMPING 



*THE MAJOR PORTION OF REENTRY RATE DAMPING WAS ACCOMPLISHED BY THE ASTRONAUT 
USING FLY- BY- WIRE AND MANUAL-PROPORTIONAL CONTROL MODES, RATHER THAN THE 
AUTOMATIC MODES OF CONTROL SHOWN. 



(b) Retrograde and reentry. 
Figure 2-23. — Continued. 



634401 i 



27 



ARMED 2 SEC AFTER TOWER SEP 



21,000 BAROSTATS 
ACTUATE 



[EXTEND PERISCOPE I 



DROGUE MORTOR FIRE | 



| 2 SEC TIME DELAY ~| 
0,000 BAROSTATS ACTUATE | 



| DROGUE CHUTE DEPLOY | | JETTISON ANTENNA FAIRING [ | SWITCH UHF TO DF MODE | 



H 2°2 



RESCUE BEACOn1onT| 



AUTOPILOT (OFF) 



OPEN CABIN INLET I | DEPLOY MAI N PARACHUTE 1 
AND OUTLET SNORKELS 1 



SWITCH FROM B I CONE I 
TO DESCENT ANTENNA I 



| EJECT SOFAR BOMB| I INFLATE MAIN I 
| CHUTE EJECTOR BAG j 



12 SEC TIME DELAY 



□ 



| LANDING BAG EXTEND | | DUAL INERTIA SWITCHES | 
I TOUCHDOWN (SPLASH) I 

ZLT 



I 1 SEC TIME DELAY | 
| DISCONNECT MAIN CHUTE | 



TURN ON FLASHINGl 
| LIGHT SEASAVE BEACON 



1 MIN TIME DELAY || 10 MIN TIME DELAY" 



[ EXTEND WHI P ANTENNA | 



TURN OFF COMMAND 
RECEIVERS C AND S BAND 
BEACONS HF COMMUNICA- 
TIONS. BOTH TELEMETERS 
TAPE RECORDER, CAMERAS 



(c) Landing and recovery. 
Figuke 2-23. — Concluded. 



engine cutoff, through use of the spacecraft 
abort handle when necessary. 

The performance of the spacecraft sequenc- 
ing system was satisfactory during the MA-6 
mission. 

Landing System 

The landing system consists of the drogue 
parachute, main and reserve parachutes, land- 
ing bag, and attendant functional systems. 
The landing system is armed when the escape 
tower is jettisoned during exit flight; however, 
it is not actuated until the spacecraft returns 
to the relatively dense parts of the earth's 
atmosphere, as shown in figure 2-24. 

The landing system is normally actuated at 
an altitude of about 21,000 feet by either one 
of two barostats which sense atmospheric pres- 



sure. At this time, the drogue parachute is de- 
ployed to decelerate and stabilize the space- 
craft. At about 10,000 feet, the antenna section 
and drogue parachute are jettisoned by the sig- 
nals from another dual barostat and the main 
parachute is deployed in a reefed condition 
opened to 12-percent of the maximum diameter 
for 4 seconds to minimize the opening shock. 
The main parachute deploys fully after 4 
seconds of reefing. A reserve parachute may 
be deployed by the astronaut in the event the 
main parachute is unsatisfactory. After main 
parachute deployment, the landing bag is ex- 
tended to provide attenuation of the landing 
load. Immediately after landing, the main 
parachute is automatically disconnected and the 
reserve parachute is ejected. 



28 



DROGUE 
DEPLOYED 



MAIN PARACHUTE DEPLOYMENT 



r ANTENNA CAN 

-REEFED 



DISCONNECTED 
RESERVE PARACHUTE JETTISONED 




DISREEFED 



LANDING BAG 
DEPLOYED 



Figure 2-24.— Sketch depicting use of spacecraft landing systems. 



The drogue parachute is a 6-foot-diameter 
conical ribbon-type with a 30-foot-long riser. 
The main and reserve parachutes are 63-foot- 
diameter ringsail types, either of which will 
provide a sinking velocity of 30 feet per second 
at sea level. 

The landing bag is a rubberized -cloth assem- 
bly about 4 feet long. Before release, the heat 




Figure 2-25. — Details of heat-shield deployment mech- 
anism and sensing switches. 



shield is held directly to the spacecraft by a 
mechanical latch and the landing bag is folded 
and contained between the heat shield and 
spacecraft. After release, the heat shield drops 
down and extends the bag to its full length. 
For a water landing, the bag attenuates land- 
ing decelerations from approximately 45g to 
approximately 15g. 

The drogue parachute deployed at an accept- 
able but somewhat higher than expected alti- 
tude during the MA-6 mission. Both drogue 
and main parachutes were observed by the as- 
tronaut to be in good condition after deploy- 
ment. The heat shield released properly and 
the landing bag attenuated the landing loads 
about as expected. 

The "heat-shield-deployed" signal, that is 
sent to the telemetry system, is furnished by 
either one of two limit switches which sense 
the movement of the heat-shield retention de- 
vices as shown in figure 2-25. During the or- 
bital flight portion of the MA-6 mission, one 
of these switches sent a "shield-deployed" sig- 
nal to the ground monitoring stations. Post- 
29 



flight tests of both limit switches revealed that 
one switch was faulty and could give intermit- 
tent "shield-deployed" signals with the shield 
locked in place. 

FUTURE PLANS 

As a result of minor difficulties experienced 
during the flight of MA-6 the following modi- 
fications will be made to subsequent spacecraft : 

(1) The limit switches which indicate that 
the heat shield is released will be wired in series 



rather than parallel and rigged farther away 
from actuation points. 

(2) A "maneuver" switch will be installed 
on the ASCS panel to permit the astronaut to 
interrupt automatic orbital pitch-precession. 

(3) The 1-pound-thrust chamber assemblies 
are being modified to make them more reliable. 

(4) The check valve between the coolant tank 
and inverter cold plates is to be replaced by a 
manual valve. 



30 



3. LIFE SUPPORT SYSTEMS AND BIOMEDICAL 
INSTRUMENTATION 



By Richard S. Johnston, Asst. Chief, Life Systems Division, NASA Manned Spacecraft Center; Frank H. 
Samonski, Jr., Life Systems Division, NASA Manned Spacecraft Center; Maxwell W. Lippitt, Life 
Systems Division, NASA Manned Spacecraft Center; and Matthew I. Radnofsky, Life Systems 
Division, NASA Manned Spacecraft Center 



Summary 

This report contains a description of the en- 
vironmental control system and outlines the 
system performance in flight. The pressure 
suit is described and the significant pressure- 
suit developments accomplished to date are 
shown. The survival kit is described and 
special emphasis has been placed on newly de- 
veloped survival itema The MA-6 bioinstru- 
mentation is discussed and the development of 
the blood pressure measuring system is re- 
viewed. The paper is presented as separate 
sections for these four areas. 

Environmental Control System 

Introduction 

The Project Mercury environmental control 
system (EOS) has been described in previous 
papers (refs. 1 and 2) and, therefore, this paper 
only reviews the system design and outlines 
specific MA-6 system configurations. The test 
program for the ECS was presented in the 
ME-3 flight report {ref. 3). Flight data for 
the MA-6 flight are presented in this paper. 

System Description 

The Mercury environmental control system 
provides a livable environment for the astronaut 
in which total pressure, gaseous composition, 
and temperature are maintained, and a breath- 
ing oxygen supply is provided. To meet these 
requirements a closed-type environmental con- 
trol system was developed by AiResearch 
Manufacturing Division of Garrett Corpora- 
tion under a McDonnell Aircraft Corporation 
subcontract. 

The environmental control system shown in 
figure 3-1 is located in the lower portion of the 




Figure 3-1. — Project Mercury environmental control 
system. 

spacecraft under the astronaut support couch. 
The astronaut is clothed in a full pressure suit 
to provide protection in the event of a cabin 
decompression. 

The pressures in the cabin and pressure suit 
are maintained at 5.1 psia in normal flight with 
a 100-percent oxygen atmosphere. The system 
is designed to control automatically the en- 
vironmental conditions within the suit and cabin 
throughout the flight. Manual controls are 
provided to enable system operation in the event 
of automatic control malfunction. In describ- 
ing the environmental control system, it can be 
considered as two subsystems ; the pressure-suit 
control system and the cabin system. Both of 
these system operate simultaneously from com- 
mon coolant water and electrical supplies. The 
coolant water is stored in a tank with a pres- 
surized bladder system to facilitate weightless 
flow of water into the heat exchanger. Elec- 
trical power is supplied from an onboard bat- 
tery supply. Oxygen is supplied at an initial 



31 




Figitke 3-2. — Schematic diagram of the Mercury 
environmental control system. 



pressure of 7,500 psi from two spherical steel 
tanks. 

Pressure-Suit Control System 

The pressure-suit control system provides 
breathing oxygen, maintains suit pressuriza- 
tion, removes metabolic products, and main- 
tains, through positive ventilation, gas tempera- 
tures. 

As shown in figure 3-2, the pressure suit is 
attached to the system by two connections, the 
gas inlet connection at the waist and the gas 
exhaust at the helmet. Oxygen is forced into 
the suit distribution ducts, carried to the body 
extremities, and permitted to flow freely back 
over the body to facilitate body cooling. The 
oxygen then passes into the helmet where the 
metabolic oxygen, carbon dioxide, and water 
vapors are exchanged. The gas mixture leaves 
the suit and passes through a debris trap where 
particulate matter is removed. Next, the gas is 
scrubbed of odors and carbon dioxide in a chem- 
ical canister of activated charcoal and lithium 
hydroxide. The gas then is cooled by a water- 
evapdrative type of heat exchanger which 
utililizes the vacuum of space to cause the cool- 
ant water to boil at approximately 35° F. The 
heat-exchanger exit gas temperature is regu- 
lated through manual control of the coolant- 
water flow valve. The resulting steam is ex- 
hausted overboard. The st earn exit temperatn re 
on the overboard duct is monitored by a thermal 
switch which actuates a warning light when the 
duct temperature drops below 47° F. 

The light is on the astronaut's panel and pro- 
vides a visual indication of excessive water flow 
into the heat exchanger. Proper monitoring of 



the light and correction of the water flow rate 
will prevent the heat exchanger from freezing. 
In the gas side of the heat exchanger, water 
vapors picked up in the suit are condensed into 
water droplets and are carried by the gas flow 
into a mechanical water separation device. The 
water separator is a sponge device which is 
squeezed periodically to remove the metabolic 
water from the system. This water is collected 
in a small tank. The constant flow rate of the 
atmosphere is maintained by a compressor. 

In the MA-6 spacecraft a constant bleed ori- 
fice was provided between the oxygen supply 
and the pressure-suit control system. This 
constant oxygen flow was in excess of metabolic 
needs and thus provided a continuous flushing 
of the pressure suit to insure adequate oxygen 
partial pressure. In normal operation, suit 
pressure levels were maintained slightly above 
cabin pressure by metering this excess oxygen 
flow through an exhaust port in the demand 
regulator. In the event of a cabin decompres- 
sion the demand regulator would automatically 
establish a referenced pressure of 4.6 psia for 
the exhaust port of the regulator, and thereby 
suit pressure would be maintained at this pres- 
sure level. The addition of the oxygen bleed 
orifice is the major ECS change for this flight. 

An additional mode of operation is provided 
by the emergency rate valve. This valve pro- 
vides an open-type pressure-suit operation simi- 
lar to aircraft pressure-suit systems. A fixed 
flow of oxygen is directed through the suit for 
ventilation and metabolic needs. The re- 
mainder is dumped into the cabin. This system 
is used in the event the pressure- suit control 
system fails and also during final stages of 
descent. The other components of the suit sys- 
tem are closed off during this mode of operation. 

Oxygen is supplied from two tanks, each con- 
taining sufficient oxygen for more than 28 
hours. The tanks are equipped with pressure 
transducers to provide data on the supply pres- 
sure. The tanks are connected in such a way 
that depletion of the primary supply automati- 
cally provides for supply from the secondary 
bottle. 

Cabin System 

The cabin system controls cabin pressure and 
temperature. A cabin relief valve controls the 
upper limit of cabin pressure. This valve per- 
mits cabin pressure to decrease with ambient 



32 



pressure maintaining a differential pressure of 
5.5 psi during the climb of the vehicle. This 
valve seals the cabin at 5.5 psia. In addition, a 
manual decompression feature is incorporated 
in this valve to permit the astronaut to dump 
the cabin pressure if a fire or buildup of toxic 
gases occurs. 

A cabin-pressure regulator meters oxygen 
into the cabin to maintain the lower limit of 
pressurization at 5.1 psia. A manual recom- 
pression feature is incorporated in the regulator 
for cabin repressurization after the cabin has 
been decompressed. 

Cabin temperature is maintained by a fan and 
heat exchanger of the same type as that de- 
scribed in the discussion of the pressure-suit 
system. 

Postlanding ventilation is provided through 
a snorkel system. At 20,000 feet following re- 
entry, the snorkels open and ambient air is 
drawn by the suit compressor through the inlet 
valve. The gas ventilates the suit and is 
dumped overboard through the outlet valve. 

Flight Data 

Launch. — The launch phase was normal in 
that cabin and suit pressures maintained a 5.5 
psi differential pressure above ambient during 
ascent and held at 5.7 and 5.8 psia, respectively. 

Orbit. — Cabin and suit pressures were main- 
tained at 5.7 and 5.8 psia, respectively, through- 
out the flight. The delay in these pressures 
that has been observed in previous flights was 
absent in this flight for three possible reasons: 

(1) Low cabin leakage (less than 500 
cc/min) 

(2) Oxygen from the bleed orifice in excess 
of astronaut requirements 

(3) Possible leakage from the secondary 
oxygen supply 

The oxygen partial pressure measurement 
agreed with suit pressure within 0.2 psi 
throughout the flight. This value is within the 
accuracy of the instrument. 

The cabin air temperature (fig. 3-3) fluctu- 
ated between 90° F and 104° F as the space- 
craft passed from darkness into sunlight. The 
astronaut reported that at least five attempts 
to reduce cabin air temperature by increasing 
water flow to the cabin heat exchanger resulted 
in the illumination of the excess-water light. 
This light indicated that the cabin heat ex- 



era DARKNESS 
i I SUNLIGHT 




TIME, HRiMIN 



Figure 3-3. — Variation of suit and cabin temperatures 
with time. 

changer was operating near its maximum ca- 
pacity for the existing conditions. Even so, 
the mean cabin air temperature was steadily 
reduced during the mission after the first hour 
in orbit. 

The suit inlet temperature (fig. 3-3) varied 
between 65° F and 75° F during the orbit phase. 
The astronaut reported a coolant flow of 1.7 
lb/hr to the suit heat exchanger and a steam 
exhaust temperature of 60° F. These values 
are both higher than anticipated and contra- 
dict each other since freezing of the heat ex- 
changer would be expected at this flow rate. 
No explanation of this anomaly can be offered 
at this time. 

The coolant tank was charged with 25 pounds 
of water before the flight. The coolant-quan- 
tity indicating system shows a usage of 7.2 
pounds. Postflight tests revealed a usage of 
11.8 pounds. The difference in calibration and 
final system temperatures can account for about 
3.8 pounds of the 4.6-pound discrepancy. The 
remainder is considered to be instrument error. 

The primary-oxygen-supply pressure indi- 
cates a usage rate of 0.13 lb/hr for the duration 
of the flight. Postflight tests confirm this usage 
rate. 

The secondary oxygen supply exhibited an 
unexplained decay in pressure of approximately 
12 percent of the total supply. This decay was 
first noted at an elapsed time of 1 hour and 40 
minutes. An approximation of the time when 
the leakage began is difficult since the bottle 
was serviced to 8,000 psig prior to flight, and 
the maximum indicating value of the pressure 
transducer is 7,500 psig. Postflight testing re- 
vealed no appreciable leakage from the sec- 
ondary supply. No explanation of this problem 
is available at this time. 

33 



Reentry and Postlanding 

The maximum cabin temperature during re- 
entry and postlanding was 103° F, which was 
tolerable. The suit inlet temperature increased 
to 86° F during the postlanding phase. This 
value is reasonable since the air temperature in 
the landing area was 76° F (relative humidity, 
56 percent) and the suit compressor raises the 
temperature by approximately 10° F. 

Pressure Suit 

Introduction 

The pressure suit used in the MA-6 flight 
was developed from the U.S. Navy MK-IV full 
pressure suit manufactured by the B. F. Good- 
rich Co. This basic suit was selected by NASA 
in July 1959 for use in Project Mercury after 
an extensive evaluation program of three full 
pressure suits. This initial suit evaluation was 
conducted by the U.S. Air Force Aerospace 
Medical Laboratory, Aeronautical Systems Di- 
vision. Many design changes have been made 
to the suit since the start of the Mercury pro- 
gram and, indeed, changes and modifications 
are still being investigated to provide as good 
a suit as possible for the Project Mercury 
nights. In this paper, the suit is briefly de- 
scribed and emphasis is placed on showing the 
developmental evolution of the present pressure 
suits. 

The full pressure suit consists of five basic 
components, the suit torso, helmet, gloves, boots, 
and undergarment. 

Pressure-Suit Torso 

The suit torso, as shown in figure 3-4, is a 
closely fitted coverall tailored for each of the 
astronauts. It covers all of the body except 
for the head and hands. The torso section is 
of two-ply construction : an inner gas-retention 
ply of neoprene and neoprene-coated nylon fab- 
ric and an outer ply of heat-reflective, alumi- 
nized nylon fabric. The helmet is attached to 
the torso section by a rigid neck ring. A tie- 
down strap is provided on this neck ring to 
prevent the helmet from rising when the suit 
is pressurized. Straps are also provided on the 
torso section for minor sizing adjustments of 
leg and arm length and circumferences and to 
prevent the suit from ballooning when pressur- 
ized. 




I ICCK RJNG 
2. HELMET Tr- 

4f€CK3PPERS 
&MWST ZIPPER 
6 M.ETV EHTP0WT 
7 PRESSURE INDICATOR 



Figcbe 3-4. — Pressure suit torso. 

Donning and doffing of the suit is provided 
through a pressure-sealing entrance zipper 
which extends diagonally across the front of 
the torso from the left shoulder down to the 
waist. Two frontal neck zippers and a circum- 
ferential waist zipper are also provided for 
ease in donning and doffing. 

The pressure-suit ventilation system is an in- 
tegral part of the torso section. A ventilation 
inlet port is located at a point just above the 
waist on the left side of the torso section. This 
inlet port is connected to a manifold inside the 
suit where vent tubes lead to the body extrem- 
ities. These tubes are constructed of a helical 
spring covered by a neoprene-coated nylon fab- 
ric that contains perforations at regular inter- 
vals. Body ventilation is provided by forcing 
oxygen from the environmental control system 
into the inlet and distributing this gas evenly 
over the body. The ventilation system in the 
Mercury pressure suit was especially developed 
to insure compatibility with the environmental 
control system. 

The suit torso section contains several items 
which have been developed specifically for Proj- 
ect Mercury. They are as follows : 

Bioconnector. — The bioconnector provides a 
method for bringing medical data leads 
through the pressure suit. The bioconnector 
consists of a multipin electrical plug to which 
the biosensors are permanently attached, a re- 
ceptacle plate mounted to the suit torso sec- 
tion and an outside plug which is connected to 
the spacecraft instrumentation system. With 
this system, the biosensor harness is fabricated 
with the bioconnector as an assembly and no 
additional electrical connectors are introduced 



34 




1. INTERNAL PLUG 

2. RECEPTACLE PLATE 

3. UNDERGARMENT WITH 

SPACER PATCHES 



Figure 3—5. — Bioconneetor (installation). 

into the transducer system. In operation (fig. 
3-5) the male internal plug is inserted inside 
the suit receptacle and locked into place. The 
internal plug protrudes through the suit to al- 
low the spacecraft plug to be attached. The 
bioconneetor system has proven to be a much 
more satisfactory connector than the previously 
used biopatch. 

Neck Dam. — A conical rubber neck dam is 
attached to the torso neck ring as shown in fig- 
ure 3-6. The purpose of this neck dam is to 
prevent water from entering the suit in event 
of water egress with the helmet off. The 



neck dam is rolled and stowed on the outside 
of the neck ring disconnect. After the astro- 
naut removes the helmet in preparation for 
egress, he unrolls the neck dam until it provides 
a seal around his neck. 

Pressure Indicator. — A wrist-mounted pres- 
sure indicator is worn on the left arm. This in- 
dicator provides the astronaut a cross check on 
his suit-pressure level. The indicator is cali- 
brated from 3 to 6 psia. 

Blood-Pressure Connector. — A special fitting 
is provided on the suit torso which permits 
pressurization gas to be fed into the blood-pres- 
sure cuff. A hose leading from the cuff is at- 
tached to this connector during suit donning. 
After astronaut ingress into the spacecraft the 
pressurization source is attached to the connec- 
tor on the outside of the suit. 

Helmet 

The helmet assembly, shown in figure 3-7, 
consists of a resinous, impregnated Fiberglas 
hard shell; an individually molded crushable 
impact liner; a ventilation exhaust outlet; a 





I. NECKR84GAND 

LATCH 
2 PLEX1GLAS VISOR 
iP^JMATIC VISOR 

4"ON-OFF" VISOR VAIVE 

5 OEFLATE BUTTON 

6 VISOR SEAL HOSE 

7 VISOR SEAL BOTTLE 
a MICROPHONES 



Figure 3-7. — Helmet assembly. 



visor sealing system; and a communications 



The helmet visor sealing system consists of 
a pivoted Plexiglas visor, a pneumatic visor 
seal, and an on-off visor valve. Closing the 
visor actuates the valve and causes automatic 
inflation of the visor seal. The visor seal re- 
mains inflated until a deflation button on the 
valve is manually actuated by the astronaut. 
The valve has provision for attachment of the 
visor-seal gas- supply-bottle hose. 

The helmet communication system consists 
of two independently wired AIC-10 earphones 
with sound attenuation cups and two inde- 
pendently wired AIC-10, newly developed, 
dynamic, noise-cancelling microphones. The 
microphones are installed on tracks which al- 
low them to be moved back from the center of 
the helmet to permit eating and proper place- 
ment. 

Gloves 

The gloves attach to the suit torso at the lower 
forearm by means of a detent ball-bearing 
lock. The gloves have been specially developed 
for Project Mercury to provide the maximum 
in comfort and mobility. Early centrifuge 
programs dictated the requirements for this 
development. Poor mobility in wrist action 
when the suit is pressurized caused an impair- 
ment in the use of the three-axis hand con- 
troller. 

A pressure-sealing wrist bearing was in- 
corporated to improve mobility in the yaw- 
control axis. The one-way stretch material on 
the back of the gloves improves mobility in the 
pitch and roll axes. 

The gloves have curved fingers so that when 
pressurized the gloves assume the contour of the 



hand controller. The glove, like the torso sec- 
tion, has a two-ply construction — the inner gas 
retention ply and an outer restraint ply. The 
inner ply is fabricated by dipping a mold of 
the astronaut's hand into Estane material. The 
outer ply is fabricated from one-way stretch 
nylon on the back of the hands and fingers and 
a neoprene material injected into a nylon fab- 
ric in the palm of the gloves to prevent slippage 
in turning knobs, and so forth. Lacings are 
provided on the back of the glove to allow for 
minor adjustments. Two wrist restraint straps 
are provided to form break points and thereby 
improve pressurized glove mobility, 

Minature needle-like red finger lights are 
provided on the index and middle fingers of 
both gloves. Electrical power is supplied to 
the minature lights by a battery pack and switch 
on the back of the gloves. These lights provide 
instrument-panel and chart illumination before 
the astronaut is adapted to night vision. 



Lightweight, aluminized, nylon-fabric boots 
with tennis-shoe-type soles were specially de- 
signed for the Mercury pressure suit. These 
boots resulted in substantial weight savings, 
provided a comfortable boot for flight, and a 
flexible friction sole which aids in egress from 
the spacecraft. 

Undergarment 

The undergarment is a one-piece, lightweight, 
cotton garment with long sleeves and legs. 
Thumb loops are provided at the sleeve ends to 
prevent material from riding up the arms dur- 
ing suit donning. Ventilation spacer patches 
(see fig. 3-5) of a trilock construction are pro- 
vided on the outside of the undergarment to 
insure ventilation gas flow over certain critical 
areas of the body. 

Pressure-Suit Support 

Prior to and after astronaut donning of the 
pressure suit the complete assembly was pres- 
surized and leak checked at 5 psig, and at 5 
inches of water differential pressure. This test 
console provides the pressure control and leak- 
age measurement system required. 

During astronaut transfer from the suit 
dressing room to the launching pad, a light- 
weight, hand-carried, portable ventilator pro- 
vided suit cooling. 



Constant communications are maintained 
with the astronaut during this transfer by uti- 
lizing portable communication headsets carried 
by the astronaut insertion team. 

In the MA-6 flight, the pressure suit served 
more as a flight suit since the cabin pressure 
was maintained. Astronaut comments indi- 
cated that the pressure suit was satisfactory 
throughout the flight. 

Survival Equipment 

Introduction 

The MA-6 spacecraft was equipped with a 
survival kit (fig. 3-8) made up of standard 




Figure 3-8. — Packed survival kit. 

Department of Defense (DOD) survival items 
and other items recently developed by the 
NASA. This survival equipment is carried for 
emergency recovery contingencies and has not 
been used in the three manned flights to date. 



Contents of the survival kit are shown in 
figure 3-9 and are as follows : 
Sea dye marker Signal mirror 

Survival flashlight Zinc oxide 
Shark chaser Soap 
Food container Medical injectors 

Jack knife First-aid kit 

Sun glasses SARAH beacon 

Pocket waterproof Nylon lanyard 

matches Liferaft 
Signal whistle Water container 

Survival knife 

The newly developed items include the flash- 
light, liferaft, water container, and automatic 
medical self -injectors. Also, a newly developed 
life vest, not contained in the survival kit, was 



developed. This report presents a brief descrip- 
tion of each of these items and the develop- 
mental programs. 

Liferaft 

Early in the Mercury program it was decided 
that improvements could be made in the design 
of the PK-2 raft. These improvements in- 
cluded improved stability in rough seas and 
ease in boarding. A contract was let in No- 
vember 1959 to fabricate several lif erafts which 
incorporated bow ballast buckets under the 
raft for stability and a deflatable aft section 
to simplify boarding. Tests of these rafts with 
a subject in a full-pressure suit proved that 
they were very difficult to capsize and easy to 
board. 

With the configuration settled upon, an at- 
tempt was made to reduce the weight of the 
raft by the employment of a lighter base fabric 
and coating and C0 2 cylinders. 

Sea tests were again performed by NASA 
personnel attired in a Mercury pressure suit 
using liferafts fabricated of conventional fab- 
ric, built in accordance with the NASA designs. 
The subject was able to sit on one side tube of 
the raft without capsizing it. 

An inhouse program was then initiated to 
improve the raft reliability and reduce its 
weight by decreasing the number of fabrication 
seams through the utilization of new materials. 
Figures 3-10 and 3-11 are photographs of the 
rafts developed by NASA. 

Test results indicated satisfactory or superior 
performance when compared with conventional 
rafts or rafts developed to date for NASA. 
The new unit was significantly lighter than con- 
ventional rafts, packed to about Y 4 the thick- 
ness, and when inflated provided over 3 square 
feet of additional space for the occupant. This 
raft contained only 1 seam as opposed to 11 
seams in the previous rafts. 

Two single-seam rafts were fabricated and 
strength tested to 5 psi and shape retention 
after 24 hours with 2 psi. These rafts were 
then packed and subjected to the shock, ac- 
celeration, temperature, vibration, vacuum, and 
oxygen conditions specified for the Mercury 
spacecraft. After passing these tests, the rafts 
were reinfiated, repacked, and considered flight 
items for the MA-6 mission. 



37 



Figure 3-9. — Survival kit components. 




Figtjbe 3-10.— Liferaft showing stabilizing buckets. 



Water Container 

The original spacecraft water containers were 
two inflexible 1-pound plastic cases containing 
3 pounds of water each, with a total weight of 
8 pounds. It was determined that a flexible 
water bag might be installed in the liferaft kit 
which would provide both inflight and survival 
drinking water and reduce overall weight and 
volume. 

By fabricating these items of neoprene coated 
nylon fabric, an immediate savings of 1% 
pounds and 220 cubic inches in volume was 



realized, since when filled with 6 pounds of 
water, the bag takes up space already unusable 
in the liferaft kit. 

Figure 3-12 shows the water container in the 
uninflated, unfilled condition. "Water is forced 
under pressure into the container by means of 
the one-way pressure valve shown in the lower, 
middle, left-hand section. The astronaut drinks 
through the plastic, spiral tube. An Estane 




Figure 3-11. — Liferaft top view. 



38 




Figure 3-12. — Water coDtainer. 



liner within the bag insures tasteless water. 
Figure 8-13 shows how the water container 
packs into the survival kit. The liferaft is 
placed on top of the water container. 

Life Vest 

As a result of the MR-4 recovery operation in 
which the astronaut had to make an emergency 
exit without his survival kit, it became apparent 
that an emergency flotation device was required 
to maintain flotation in a water-filled pressure 
suit. In order to preclude or reduce the pos- 
sibility of similar situations of this nature, the 
NASA instituted the development of a minia- 
turized life vest employing the following 1 
criteria : 

(1) Minimal bulk (less than 20 cu in.) 

(2) Minimal weight (less than 1 lb) 

(3) Minimal interference with flight effi- 
ciency 

Two basic configurations were fabricated, one 
a simple tube similar to a ski belt, the second 
a belt, with inflated hooks (fig. 3-14). The in- 
flatable hooks were constructed to provide a 
positive grasp to the wearer's shoulders; easy 
donning and doffing features: and adequate 
flotation characteristics without impairing 
rescue, recovery, or swimming of the astronaut. 




Figure 3-13. — Water container in survival kit. 




Figure 3-14. — Life vest. 

The second model, with minor modification and 
supplementary testing, became the standard 
flight items of equipment. 

Internal carbon dioxide actuating devices 
were designed to reduce bulk and weight. 
Lighter weight coated fabrics were tested and 
one was selected (5 oz nylon with 1.5 oz 
neoprene) . 

A packet to stow the vest was developed. 
The present configuration (fig. 3-14) is trape- 
zoidal, 5- by 4- by 3- by 1-inch in thickness. 
The packet and vest weigh less than 1 pound 
(0.99 lb) and contain an oral inflater in addi- 
tion to the internal carbon dioxide charge. 
Presently, the packet is affixed to the suit be- 
low the neck ring. A lanyard is provided to 
preclude accidental loss upon inflation. Place- 
ment tests of the package indicate the chest 
area to be as satisfactory as the lower leg. The 
entire unit can be opened, inflated, and donned 
with one hand in less than 10 seconds when 
attired in the pressure suit. 

Tests were made in the open sea from a 
launch. The test subject first swam about with 
the pressure suit in the intact condition, then 
actuated the flotation device, donned it, and 
opened the zipper to his suit. The suit soon 
filled with water and the subject swam about 
unhindered. The "subject then was instructed 
to remove the vest while tied to a safety line. 
He was unable to remain on the surface unless 
held there by the safety line. 

Final acceptance testings, including high 
shock, acceleration, heat-cold, vacuum, and 
vibration, were performed in accordance with 
the requirements for all spacecraft hardware. 
The life vest was carried by the astronaut dur- 
ing the MA-6 flight but was not used. 



39 




Automatic Self -Injectors 

The survival kit contained four automatic 
self-injectors which contained medications for 
pain, shock, and motion sickness and a stimu- 
lant. These injectors were developed under an 
NASA contract. The injectors are stored in a 
small package. One end of the injector is 
equipped with a red safety cap and the other 
end contains the medication and needle. Upon 
removal of the safety pin, the injector is armed. 
By pressing the needle end of the injector into 
the pressure suit, the needle is extended through 
the suit into the skin and the medication is re- 
leased. The resulting hole in the suit caused an 
insignificant suit leak. In the MA-6 flight the 
astronaut did not use any of the injectors prior 
to, during, or after the flight. 

Postrecovery Kit 

Each of the MA-6 recovery ships was 
equipped with a postrecovery kit which con- 
tained : 

High cut gym shoes Toothbrush 

Flight jackets Kazor and blades and 

T-shirt cream 

Shorts (briefs) Combs 

Socks TVrist watch 

Handkerchiefs Pressure-suit-helmet 

Sunglasses carrying case 

Wash cloths Fostflight coverall 

Soap 

Bioinstrumentation 
Introduction 

The biosensors used to monitor the physio- 
logical state of the pilot during the MA-6 flight 
are essentially the same as those used on the 
previous MR-3 and ME-4 suborbital flights 
with the exception that for the first time the 
astronaut blood-pressure measuring system 
(BPMS) was used. (See fig. 3-15.) 

A detailed discussion of the electrocardio- 
gram, body-temperature, and respiration sen- 
sors can be found in the report on the MR-3 
flight (ref. 3), and these sensors will be only 
briefly treated here. A more complete discus- 
sion of the BPMS is included. 

Electrocardiographic Sensor 

The ECG sensors consist of rings composed 
of silicone rubber. The rings are constructed 



Figuhe 3-15. — Flight sensor harness. 

to support a disc of 40-mesh stainless steel 
screen, 30 mm in diameter and approximately 
2 mm above the skin. The center conductor of 
a miniature-type coaxial cable is brought 
thuough a. strain relieving projection in the 
rubber ring and soldered to the screen. A piece 
of thermally shrinking plastic tubing seals the 
cable shield at the entrance into the ring to pre- 
vent the entry of moisture. 

Before the electrode is applied to the washed 
and shaved skin, a coating of elastoplast adhe- 
sive is applied to the bottom surface of the elec- 
trode and allowed to dry. The ring cavity is 
filled with a paste composed of bentonite, cal- 
cium chloride, and water. The electrode is 
then applied and the cavity of the ring is 
checked ; voids are eliminated ; then the assem- 
bly is sealed with tape. A 4-inch square of 
moleskin applied over the entire sensor area 
completes the installation. 

The signal from the ECG electrode is trans- 
mitted via the coaxial cable within the pressure 
suit to the bioconnector and then to the ECG 
amplifiers in the spacecraft instrumentation 
package. Differential amplifiers with high in- 
put impedance and good common mode rejec- 
tion are used to raise the signal to that required 
for input to the spacecraft telemetry system. 
ECG measurements are discussed in paper 9. 

Respiration Sensor 

In order to measure respiration rate and 
depth, a thermistor anemometer detecting the 
flow of the expired air was used. A thermistor 
with sufficient current through it to maintain 
its temperature at approximately 200° F in still 
air was mounted in a small plastic enclosure 



40 



that was attached to one of the microphones 
within the helmet. A funnel-shaped opening 
facing the pilot conducts a portion of the ex- 
pired air across the heated thermistor, and 
through exist vents in the back. When the flow 
of air cools the thermistor, the resistance change 
causes a voltage variation across the sensor. 
This voltage change is sensed by a small pre- 
amplifier mounted on the cable leading from 
the sensor and this signal is transmitted through 
the pressure-suit biconnector to the spacecraft 
instrumentation package. 

The respiration sensing system does not yield 
data from which tidal volume can be deter- 
mined. The microphone to which the sensor 
is attached is pivoted so that it can be adjusted. 
When the microphone is moved, the signal from 
the sensor varies because of the change in the 
volume of air passing across the thermistor. 
The respiration data have not been fully satis- 
factory to date. Therefore, an improved re- 
spiration sensing system emplojnng the im- 
pedance pneumograph principle is presently 
being developed under an NASA Manned 
Spacecraft .Center contract. Details of the 
impedance pneumograph are published in 
reference 4. 

Body Temperature 

The body temperature probe is a thermistor 
mounted in a special rectal catheter. The cathe- 
ter is a small plastic cylinder about 3 mm in 
diameter and 25 mm long from which the ther- 
mistor projects approximately 2 mm. The ther- 
mistor, catheter, and lead wires are dipped in 
liquid latex to a length of about 20 cm to pre- 
vent the entry of moisture. The thermistor 
forms one arm of a resistance bridge which is 
excited by 400 cps current and which is located 
in the spacecraft instrumentation package. 
Body temperature data are discussed in paper 9. 

Blood-Pressure Measuring System 

In April 1961 it was decided to institute a 
program to develop a device to measure arterial 
pressure. It was hoped that a system could 
be developed in time for the first orbital flight. 
After a survey of the current state of the art, 
the decision was made to use the new method 
then currently under development. An inten- 
sive effort to design, develop, and test the flight 
hardware was started in June 1961. The 



method utilizes essentially the same principle 
used in clinical sphygmomanometry, namely an 
inflatable occluding cuff on the left arm. The 
cuff is inflated by gas to a pressure in excess of 
expected systolic pressure. As the pressure de- 
creases slowly, a microphone placed under the 
lower half of the cuff over the brachial artery 
transduces the Korotkoff sounds (ref . 5) . The 
signal from the microphone is amplified and 
mixed with a signal from a pressure transducer 
which transmits the cuff pressure. In order to 
find the arterial pressure it is necessary to 
identify the points of inception and cessation of 
the microphone signal on the cuff pressure 
signal, which are the systolic and diastolic 
pressures. 

In order to develop a blood pressure measur- 
ing system (BPMS) for spacecraft use, a num- 
ber of problem areas had to be considered : 

(1) Pilot safety and comfort 

(2) Establishment of the accuracy of the 

measurement compared to clinical and 
direct methods 

(3) Operation in a full- pressure suit 

(4) Operation on an active subject in a noisy 

environment 

(5) Compatibility with spacecraft systems 

(6) Compatibility with the receiving facili- 

ties at Mercury Control Center and the 

Mercury Network stations 
The original concept of the BPMS {fig. 3-16) 
was an automatic system, which would be initi- 
ated from a tracking station through the com- 
mand receiver, by an automatic sequencing de- 
vice onboard or by the pilot. The automatic 
system incorporated special safety circuits to 
dump the cuff pressure if the cuff stayed above 



^OCCLUDING 
I \ CUFF 

LJ V MICR0PH0NE wJi-t" 

SUIT MERCURY 
FITTING /-BATTERY 





^HLTFRSi 



PREAMPLIFIER 



Figure 3-16. — Block diagram of automatic BPMS. 



41 



60 mm Hg for more than 2 minutes. This fea- 
ture provided for the situation in which the 
pilot was unconscious and the automatic system 
failed to bleed off the cuff pressure. The cuff 
pressure in the automatic system was decreased 
in a linear manner from 220 mm Hg to 60 mm 
Hg by a special pressure regulator in which 
the reference spring tension was varied by a 
motor-driven cam. The pneumatic system con- 
sisted of an oxygen storage flash, solenoid fill 
valve, motor-driven regulator, dump solenoid 
valve, cuff pressure transducer, and suit refer- 
ence manifold. The regulator, dump solenoid 
valve, and pressure transducer were referenced 
to a manifold connected through a flow restric- 
tor to the pressure-suit system to prevent dif- 
ferences between cabin pressure and suit 
pressure from causing large errors and to allow 
measurements in the event of the loss of cabin 
pressure. After considerable testing it was de- 
cided to wear the cuff inside the suit because 
readings taken with the cuff outside of the suit 
showed large errors due to the cooling ducts 
within the suit. The problem of entering the 
suit with a pneumatic line to inflate the cuff 
required extensive development. A fitting was 
devised that is comfortable, reliable, and easily 
disconnected for spacecraft egress. 

During the testing of the preliminary system 
on astronauts and other flight personnel it be- 
came evident that the standard 5-inch clinical 
cuff was unsatisfactory because of its stiffness, 
bulk, and the fact that arm movement was re- 
stricted. A new cuff (fig. 3-17) was devised by 




FlGUBE 3-17.— BPMS cuff. 



the NASA which has proved to be acceptable 
on all points and is almost imnoticeable in its 
iminflated state. Tests were performed to com- 
pare the new cuff with the standard cuff and 
the resulting data were identical. It is felt 
that, the new cuff type has application where 
comfort, light weight, ease of application and 
unrestricted arm motion are desired. 



Dr. Geddes observed in reference 5 that if 
the microphone signal is filtered so that only 
frequencies between 32 and 40 cps are used, 
the various artifacts due to movements and 
ambient noise level are greatly attenuated, 
while the component that allows the discrimi- 
nation of the systolic and diastolic points is 
passed. Sometime prior to the inception of the 
project, this observation was confirmed. For 
flight use a specially damped, piezoelectric 
microphone was developed. The instrument is 
about 3.5 cm in diameter and 0.5 cm thick and 
is so constructed that sensitivity to noise enter- 
ing from the side away from the skin is greatly 
reduced. The microphone signal exists from 
the suit through the bioconnector and enters 
the amplifier in the blood-pressure unit. The 
BPMS amplifier consists of a shielded pream- 
plifier and two high-gain amplifiers which de- 
termine the response characteristics. Each am- 
plifier is designed to have greatly attenuated 
response outside the 32 to 40 cps pass band by 
means of resistor-capacitor filtering circuits in 
each feedback loop. The amplifier output is 
gated so that unless a signal of sufficient am- 
plitude is present there is no output signal, and 
this gating results in a marked reduction in the 
output noise level for improved readability of 
the signal. 

The cuff pressure is measured by a potenti- 
ometer-type transducer powered by two mer- 
cury batteries to give the zero-centered +1.5 
volt output necessary for input to the telemeter. 
The signal from the pressure transducer passes 
through a miniature transformer where it is 
mixed with the output from the microphone and 
then on to the output clipping circuits that 
protect the telemetry system from excessive 
voltages that can cause cross-channel inter- 
ference. 

In order to compare this method with direct 
arterial measurement, a special centrifuge unit 
was fabricated and installed on the human 
centrifuge at the University of Southern Cali- 
fornia (USC). A series of tests were per- 
formed by personnel from USC, XASA, Mc- 
Donnell, and AiEesearch. Subjects equipped 
with the BPMS on the right arm and an arterial 
catheter on the left arm were tested at various 
acceleration levels. Spot checks were also made 
with a clinical cuff and stethoscope. The re- 
sults showed that at lg the BPMS method read 



42 



about 5 mm lower on systole and about S mm 
higher on diastole compared with the direct 
arterial readings. 

There is an increased scatter in the points as 
acceleration increased which is thought to be 
partly due to the "eyeballs-down" position of 
the subject causing a pooling of blood in the 
lower arm. Comparison of the data from the 
BPMS with clinical and arterial tests can be 
summarized as follows: The BPMS is more 
accurate than the clinical method when both 
are compared with the direct arterial measure- 
ments, and the BPMS readings compared with 
the clinical readings are higher on systole and 
lower on diastole, a fact which is probably due 
to the increase in sensitivity of the microphone 
over the stethoscope. 

In order to test the system further as well as 
to obtain baseline data on the pilots, a centri- 
fuge unit was installed on the centrifuge at the 
U.S. Navy Aviation Medical Acceleration 
Laboratory (AMAL), Johnsville, Pennsyl- 
vania. Various noise and vibration problems 
were encountered and solved. The tests were 
most useful in the testing of the proposed flight 
amplifier, and they also provided, the first op- 
portunity to obtain pilot comments on the de- 
vice. It was during these tests that the pres- 
sure-suit fittings and special cuffs were devel- 
oped. 

Concurrently with the test program, prob- 
lems in spacecraft integration were being 
pursued by the McDonnell Aircraft Corpora- 
tion. The decision to start the program to de- 





FILTERS-^ 

Figure 3-18. — Block diagram of manual I 



Figube 3-19.— Manual BPMS flight equipment 

velop the BPMS as late as 1961 resulted in the 
system being a retrofit item instead of planned 
spacecraft equipment. A number of late 
changes were made in the configuration of the 
system to reflect developments in the space- 
craft equipment. The area originally selected 
for the mounting of the BPMS was proved un- 
desirable due to egress difficulty. Alternate 
areas selected required repackaging of various 
components and finally resulted in the elimina- 
tion of the gas pressure source, regulator, and 
motorprogramer and the installation of a hand- 
pumped inflation system with a simple orifice 
to release cuff pressure (figs. 3-18 and 3-19). 

Subsequent flights will be provided with a 
BPMS requiring only a switch actuation to 
initiate the cycle. This system will contain 
the gas pressure source for cuff inflation, the 
regulator, and the orifice to relieve cuff pres- 
sure and will allow a larger number of deter- 
minations. 

In order to measure arterial pressure with- 
out adding telemetry channels, the input to the 
channel carrying the sternal ECG lead was 
switched to BPMS during blood-pressure de- 
terminations. The band width required for the 
BPMS is somewhat greater than that required 
for ECG and it was necessary to modify the re- 
ceiving equipment to insure legible readout. 
Blood pressure measurements are discussed in 
detail in paper 9. 



43 



References 



1. Johnston, Richard S. : Mercury Life Support Systems, Life Support Systems for Space Vehicles. (Presented 

at the IAS 28th Annual Meeting, New York, Jan. 25-27, 1960), SMF Fund Paper No. FF-25. 

2. Geeidee, Hebekt R., and Babton, John R. : Criteria for Design of the Mercury Environmental Control Sys- 

tem — Method of Operation and Results of Manned System Operation. Jour. Aerospace Med vol 32, no 9 
Sept. 1961, pp. 839-843. 

3. White, Stanley C, Johnston, Richard S., et al. : Review of Biomedical Systems for MRS Flight: Proc. 

Conf. on Results of the First U.S. Manned Suborbital Space Flight, NASA, Nat. Inst. Health, and Nat 
Acad. Sei., June 6, 1961, pp. 19-27. 

4. Geddes, L. A., Hoff, H. E., Hichman, D. M., and Moore, A. G. : The Impedance Pneumograph. Jour. Aero- 

space Med., vol. 33, no. 1, Jan. 1962, pp. 28-33 

5. Geddes, L. A., Spencek, W. A., and Hoff, H. E. : Graphic Recording of the Korotkoff Sounds. American Heart 

Jour., vol. 57, no. 3, Mar. 1959, pp. 361-370. 



44 



4. LAUNCH-COMPLEX CHECKOUT AND LAUNCH-VEHICLE 
SYSTEMS 

By B. Porter Brown, Mercury Launch Coordinator, NASA Manned Spacecraft Center; and G. MerRITT 
Preston, Chief, Preflight Operations Division, NASA Manned Spacecraft Center 



Summary 

In summary this paper has pointed out the 
planning required to support the launch com- 
plex and vehicle for the MA-6 operation. For- 
tunately, all modification and emergency type 
considerations were not activated during the 
operation. However, the paper has indicated 
the necessity for such items in support of 
manned spacecraft operation. It is not the in- 
tent of this paper to suggest that all possible 
combinations of occurrences were thought of 
and planned for. Such a conclusion can only 
be reached after considerable experience is 
gained from many such operations. The suc- 
cess of MA-6, however, indicates that the 
planned concept, test procedures, and check-out 
and preparation techniques were sound and that 
no additional major modifications are neces- 
sary for support of a manned orbital operation. 

Introduction 

This paper is concerned with the special 
modifications and considerations for Mercury 
launch operation involving the launch complex 
and the launch vehicle. The paper covers two 
areas, long-range planning, and the tests and 
preparations of the complex and the launch 
vehicle for the MA-6 operation. For the sake 
of clarity, comparisons are made between stand- 
ard Atlas boosters and complexes and the 
launch vehicle and complex as configured for 
Mercury. 

Description of Launch Complex and 
Launch Vehicle 

The Mercury -Atlas 6 vehicle* was launched 
from launch complex 14 at Cape Canaveral, 
Fla. The launch vehicle used for this mission 
was essentially an Atlas (series) D and the 



launch complex was basically designed to sup- 
port Atlas D operations. Both the complex 
and the launch vehicle, however, were modified 
to provide various and specific features that 
were necessary for a manned spacecraft opera- 
tion. A brief description of a standard launch 
complex and launch vehicle is given first so that 
the special features for Mercury will be more 
readily recognized. Figure 4-1 shows a stand- 
ard Atlas D launch complex. The term "com- 
plex" includes such facilities as the blockhouse, 
fuel and liquid oxygen storage, electrical power 




Fiqube 4r-l. — Standard Atlas D launch complex. 



supply, service tower, and the launching pad. 
All equipment necessary to check out com- 
pletely each system on the complex and in the 
launch vehicle is located in these facilities and 
each of these systems is completely validated 
prior to each launch operation. Figure 4-2 
shows a view of some of the checkout equip- 
ment located inside the blockhouse. 

The general configuration of the launch 
vehicle is shown in figure 4-3, The launch 
vehicle is a iy 2 stage, liquid-propellant launch 
vehicle with five engines: 2 booster engines, 1 
sustainer engine, and 2 small vernier engines. 
These engines produce a total thrust of approx- 
imately 360,000 pounds. The fuel tank is lo- 



45 



Figure 4-2. — View of equipment in blockhouse. 



cated immediately above the main engines and 
the liquid oxygen tank is located above the fuel 
tank, the tanks being separated by a bulkhead. 
System components, such as command receivers, 
telemetry packages, guidance equipment, an- 
tennas, and so forth, are housed in the two pods 
on the sides of the fuel tank. Launch-vehicle 
guidance is provided by a combination of on- 
board equipment and raido ground guidance 
equipment. 

Perhaps the best way to explain the normal 
functions of the launch vehicle is to look at the 
sequence of events during powered flight. Such 
a sequence is shown in figure 4-4. The figure 
shows the launch-vehicle trajectory plotted as 




FUEL TANK (RP-I) 
VERNIER ENGINE NO. I 



SUSTAIN ER ENGINE 
TFT3IN. 



BOOSTER ENGINES 
FiGtntE 4-3. — Standard Atlas D launch vehicle. 



altitude against range. Two seconds after lift- 
off, the roll program is initiated by onboard 
flight equipment. This maneuver is necessary 
because the launch pad is oriented so that the 
pitch axis of the launch vehicle is alined on an 
azimuth of 105° while the Mercury spacecraft 
insertion head is about 75°. Therefore, the roll 
program has to rotate the launch vehicle ap- 
proximately 30° to aline it with the Mercury 
spacecraft insertion heading. At 15 seconds 
after lift-off the roll program is complete and 
then the pitch program is started. Although 

ALTITUDE VS SURFACE RANGE FOR LAUNCH- 
VEHICLE POWERED FLIGHT PATH 
ALTITUDE 

SUSTAINER ENGINE CUTOFF 301 SEC - 




"_7 



START OF GUIDANCE 156 SEC 
^STAGING 134 SEC 
^BOOSTER ENGINE CUTOFF 130 SEC 



SURFACE RANGE 

Figure 4-4. — Sequence of events during powered flight. 



BLOCKHOUSE COMMAND ABORT SYSTEM— 7 




— WHITE ROOM WATER AND FOAM NOZZLES 

Figure 4^5.— Mercury modifications to launch complex. 

the pitch program is active throughout the re- 
maining portion of powered flight, the rate at 
which the pitch program changes the pitch at- 
titude varies throughout the trajectory. At 
T + 130 seconds, the ground guidance station 
sends a command which shuts off the two boost- 
er engines. Then the sustainer engine is locked 
in the neutral position and the booster engines 
are jettisoned. The sustainer engine is then 
unlocked and the vehicle is guided to insertion 
by the controllable sustainer engine which is 
positioned by commands from the ground guid- 
ance station. At approximately T + 300 sec- 
onds, the ground guidance station, once satisfied 
that all insertion parameters are attained, sends 
a command which shuts off the sustainer and 
vernier engines. 

Complex and Launch- Vehicle Modifications 

As mentioned previously, in order to support 
Mercury missions, both the complex and the 
launch vehicle were modified. Figure 4-5 
shows the major modifications that were made 
to the complex. In the service tower, a room 
was built to enclose the spacecraft. Figure 4-6 
shows an external view of the service tower 
and the specially built room. This room, com- 
monly called the "white room,'* is located near 
the top of the service tower. The spacecraft 
is shown in the figure immediately outside of 
the sliding doors of the white room. Figure 
4-7 presents a close-up view looking into the 
white room. The figure shows the sliding doors 
in the open position and the spacecraft sus- 
pended just above the adapter. The figure also 
shows the roof in the folded position, but the 
floor is shown intact. It should be pointed out 



Figure 4^-6. — Service tower 




Figure 4-8. — Emergency egress tower. 



that the floor also can be folded in a manner 
similar to that of the roof. The movable doors, 
floors, and roof are necessary to allow opening 
of the white room so that the service tower can 
be moved away from the flight vehicle approxi- 
mately 55 minutes prior to launch. The en- 
vironment in this white room was controlled 
to minimize the effects of humidity, dust, and 
so forth, on the spacecraft components. 

An emergency egress tower is shown in fig- 
ure 4-8. The figure shows the egress platform 
in the extended position such that the end of 
the platform is adjacent to the door of the space- 
craft. When retracted, the platform is rotated 
in the vertical plane about the opposite end 
and locked in the vertical position. This fea- 
ture is necessary so that the launch vehicle, 
when launched, will not strike the platform. 
Actually, the platform is held in the vertical 
position during the entire countdown and, if 
needed, it is lowered to the extended position 
in about 30 seconds by means of remote con- 
trol from the blockhouse. This tower provided 
the astronaut with a means of evacuating the 



spacecraft without external aid or, in case the 
astronaut became incapacitated, the external 
egress crew could use the tower to remove the 
astronaut. Also shown in the figure is the mo- 
bile egress tower, known as the "cherrypicker." 
The mobile tower is shown on the left of the 
figure in a partially extended position. This 
mobile tower was used on the Mercury-Redstone 
operations; however, subsequent tests on the 
Atlas complex indicated that the tower may 
possibly interfere with radio transmissions. 
Also, the tower was subject to possible damage 
from the greater pressure environment pro- 
duced by the Atlas engines. It was decided, 
therefore, that the mobile tower was not as well 
suited for an Atlas launch as was the fixed struc- 
ture previously discussed. The "cherrypicker" 
however was stationed behind the blockhouse 
so that it could be used as substitute in the 
event that the primary egress tower failed to 
operate. 

Special rescue and firefighting vehicles were 
stationed just outside of the complex to trans- 
port the egress crew to the tower and/or to 
meet the astronaut at the tower and transport 
him away from the complex. Figure 4-9 shows 
the position of these vehicles relative to the 
launch pad. The astronaut-transport vehicle, 
with its covering of special thermal insulation, 
can be seen in this figure. The egress proce- 
dure was practiced many times and it is interest- 
ing to note that the astronaut could evacuate 
the spacecraft and be delivered to a safety zone 
outside of the complex in about 2V 2 minutes. 

A special firefighting system was also in- 
stalled. The four nozzles shown in figure 4—5 
were remotely controlled from the blockhouse 
in such a manner that water or fire-smothering 
foam could be directed to any area inside the 




Figure 4-9. — Rescue and firefighting vehicles. 



48 



and the spacecraft is mounted on top of the 
adapter. 




FlGUEE 4-10. — Firefighting nozzle. 



complex. Figure 4^10 shows a close-up view of 
one of the nozzles. 

A radio command system was installed in the 
blockhouse. This system provided a ground- 
command means of firing the spacecraft escape 
rockets and aborting the spacecraft prior to 
launch and was the primary system for abort 
during the first 10 seconds of flight. 

The Mercury configuration of the flight 
vehicle is shown in figure 4-11. The adapter 
which mates the spacecraft to the launch vehicle 
is immediately above the liquid oxygen tank 



MA-6 FLIGHT VEHICLE 



ESCAPE TOWER 
SPACECRAFT 
—SPACECRAFT ADAPTER 




FUEL TANK (RP-I) 
■VERNIER ENGINE NO. I 



SUSTAINER ENGINE 



BOOSTER ENGINES-^"" t! FT 3 IN, 
Figure 4-11. — Mercury configuration of flight vehicle. 



Pilot Safety Program 

It was recognized at the beginning of the 
program that the launch vehicle would have 
to be modified in some areas for Project Mer- 
cury; therefore a special study program was 
initiated to evaluate each system, concept of 
operation, and the effects of combinations of 
various failures that could conceivably occur. 
This program, called the "Pilot Safety Pro- 
gram," drew on the talents of many groups, 
primarily those groups with previous experi- 
ence gained from Atlas D operations. The 
philosophy stressed in this program was based 
on the use of fully developed components in or- 
der to preserve system reliability as established 
by flight experience. The program also estab- 
lished a standard for components to be used on 
Mercury launch vehicles so that component ac- 
ceptability could be based on nominal perform- 
ance characteristics rather than outstanding or 
better than expected characteristics. There 
were some instances in which wiring or cir- 
cuitry changes were made, but in these cases 
the changes were made to improve system 
reliability. The factory rollout procedures and 
the flight safety review for the pilot safety pro- 
gram are discussed in detail in references 1 
and 2. 

No attempt is made to mention all changes 
made to the launch vehicle ; however, the major 
changes will be discussed. For instance, after 
ignition, the launch vehicle is intentionally held 
down for several seconds in order to determine 
that the engines are functioning properly. This 
change was a result of previous experience 
which showed that, after ignition, the engine 
performance could possibly become erratic 
(rough combustion) and cause destruction of 
the launch vehicle. The experience also showed 
that the additional hold-down time would pro- 
vide sufficient time to detect such a malfunction 
and shut off the engines before lift-off, thereby 
preventing destruction. 

Another system that was modified is the com- 
mand destruct system. This system was changed 
to include a time delay circuit so that if a man- 
ual destruct command was sent to the launch 
vehicle, receipt of the command would im- 
mediately fire the spacecraft escape rocket mo- 

49 



tor; but destruet action of the launch vehicle 
would be delayed 3 seconds to allow the space- 
craft, time to escape from the launch vehicle. 

The addition of the time delay circuit intro- 
duced the major modification made to the launch 
vehicle — the abort sensing implementation sys- 
tem (ASIS). This system was designed spe- 
cifically for Project Mercury, and its purpose 
was to provide an automatic system that w^ould 
sense specific quantities in the launch vehicle, 
detect when those quantities indicated impend- 
ing catastrophe in the launch vehicle, and abort 
the spacecraft to escape the catastrophe. It was 
believed that the ASIS was necessary because 
some previous flights of the Atlas D had indi- 
cated that the time period between an indication 
of impending catastrophe and launch vehicle 
destruction could be extremely short — ap- 
proaching the reaction time of a human being. 
It was decided therefore that an automatic sys- 
tem would be desirable, at least until more ex- 
perience was gained on manned flights. 

Basically, the ASIS consists of sensing ele- 
ments which detect malfunctions and a control 
unit that receives the signal and initiates the 
proper action. The sensors used in this system 
are rate gyros, pressure switches, and electrical 
power sensors. The control unit is basically 
connected to two systems, the spacecraft escape 
system, and the booster-engine system. For ex- 
ample, if the control unit receives a signal from 
a sensor, the unit tells the spacecraft escape sys- 
tem to abort, the spacecraft ; then the unit tells 
the booster engines to shut down. Also, if the 
engines are intentionally shut down by a com- 




Figuhe 4-12. — Launch vehicle being erected. 



30 



mand from ground control, the control unit calls 
for spacecraft abort. It should be pointed out 
that just prior to launch, the ASIS indicates 
to the blockhouse that the system is in a ready 
condition: however, the system is not actually 
activated until the launch vehicle has risen 2 
inches. This feature precludes spacecraft abort 
in the event that the engines should shut down 
after ignition but prior to launch-vehicle re- 
lease. Of course, the ASIS is far more compli- 
cated than implied by this discussion, however 
the intent of this paper is to present the gen- 
eral explanation of operation rather than details 
of the system. 

Systems Preparation for MA-6 

All of the previous discussion has dealt with 
long-range planning and implementation in re- 
gards to the complex and the launch vehicle 
for the Mercury program. The following dis- 
cussion will concern the actual preparation of 
these systems for the launch of MA-6. Upon 
arrival at Cape Canaveral, the launch vehicle 
was inspected and prepared for erection in ap- 
proximately 48 hours. The launch vehicle was 
transported to the complex on a dolly-type 
vehicle. The launcher on the launch pad was 
rotated about 90°; and the launch vehicle was 
backed into the launcher, alined, and attached 
to the launcher. A hoist cable was then at- 
tached to the front, end of the dolly (top end 
of the launch vehicle) and the dolly and launch 
vehicle were hoisted to the vertical position, the 
launcher- rotating back to its original position. 
Figure 4-12 shows the launch vehicle being 
erected, and figure 4-13 shows the launch vehi- 
cle after erection in launch position. 

After erection it was learned that the 
launcher mechanism, in which the launch ve- 
hicle was mounted, could not be adjusted suf- 
ficiently to aline the launch vehicle properly. 
Therefore, the launch vehicle was taken down, 
the launcher mechanism was replaced, and the 
launch vehicle was reerected. All systems on 
the complex and the launch vehicle were then 
tested individually. For example, complete 
tanking tests were conducted in which the fuel 
and liquid oxygen tanks were loaded and pres- 
surized to flight pressure. This test is per- 
formed to determine if any leaks are in the 
systems and also to check out the controls re- 
lated to each system. During this test on the 




Figube 4-13- — Launch vehicle after erection. 



MA-6 launch vehicle no major leaks were evi- 
dent; however, some minor leaks were dis- 
covered and subsequently corrected. 

The autopilot system, as another example, is 
also tested; however, before autopilot tests are 
conducted on the launch complex the gyro 
packages are calibrated in a laboratory at Cape 
Canaveral with special testing equipment. 
These packages are also electrically mated to the 
abort-sensing control package which is part of 
the ASIS previously discussed. During these 
laboratory and systems tests, various anoma- 
lies were uncovered in the gyro package and 
the ASIS control package. These packages 
were replaced and systems tests were completed 
satisfactorily on the launch vehicle. All 
launch-vehicle systems were then tested simul- 
taneously in a test commonly known as the 
launch-vehicle flight acceptance composite test 
(FACT). This test is conducted to determine 
that all launch-vehicle systems are compatible 
so that each system will not adversely affect the 
operation of another. The launch-vehicle 
FACT must be successfully accomplished before 
the spacecraft is electrically mated to the launch 
vehicle. 



After electrical mating, the launch vehicle 
and spacecraft participate jointly in all tests. 
These tests are discussed in paper 5 on space- 
craft preparation. The first attempt to launch 
MA-6 was on January 27, 1962. The launch 
vehicle was loaded with fuel on January 24. 
However, the mission was canceled because of 
excessive cloud cover in the launch area and 
was rescheduled for February 1; so the fuel 
tank was drained. On January 30, the fuel tank 
was again loaded: however, normal inspection 
procedures disclosed that the insulation-retain- 
ing bulkhead in the fuel tanks was leaking. 
Figure 4-14 shows a sketch of this bulkhead. 




Figure 4-14. — Bulkhead between fuel and liquid 
oxygen tanks. 

This partition is actually made up of three 
separate pieces. The top line represents the 
main bulkhead that provides structural integ- 
rity. Below this bulkhead is l 1 ^ inches of in- 
sulating material and the lower line is the re- 
taining bulkhead whose only purpose is to 
support the insulation. The leak was in the 
lower retainer and this had allowed fuel to soak 
into the insulation and become trapped. This 
trapped fuel, the amount of which was un- 
known at the time, could possibly have caused 
excessive inertia loads to be applied to the very 
thin retainer. After a careful study of the 
possible effects connected with this problem, it 
was decided that sufficient flight experience had 
been obtained on previous launch vehicles with- 
out the retainer to justify removing the re- 
tainer from this launch vehicle. Therefore, the 
sustainer engine was removed, the lower apex 
of the fuel tank was removed and a scaffold 
was built inside of the launch vehicle up to the 
retainer. After the retainer was removed and 

51 



all systems -were reconnected, a complete test 
program was rerun on every system disturbed 
by the modification. The simulated flight test 
was rerun on February 16, 1962, and the launch 
vehicle was again loaded with fuel in prepara- 
tion for launch on February 20. 

Countdown 

During the actual launch countdown, two 
problems were experienced — one with the 
launch vehicle and one with ground support 
equipment on the complex. The first problem, 
the one involving a launch-vehicle system, oc- 
curred at T— 120 minutes and involved a mal- 
function of the guidance rate beacon. The bea- 
con was replaced and checked out satisfactorily. 



The other problem concerned the pumping sys- 
tem that loads liquid oxygen aboard the launch 
vehicle. This problem occurred during liquid 
oxygen tanking at T-22 minutes. The outlet 
valve in the main liquid oxygen pump failed 
in the closed position, but a smaller secondary 
pump was switched into the circuit to complete 
the tanking operation with no further incidents. 
The remaining part of the countdown was per- 
formed smoothly and without trouble of any 
kind. At lift-off, blockhouse equipment indi- 
cated that all systems were functioning prop- 
erly, and about 5 minutes later, the report from 
the Mercury Control Center of successful in- 
sertion proved that the launch vehicle had per- 
formed its job nearly to perfection. 



References 

1. Program Office, Mercury/Atlas Launch Vehicle : Mercury/Atlas Launch Vehicle Factory Rollout Inspection 

General Procedures and Organization— Pilot Safety Program of the Atlas Launch Vehicle for NASA Project 
Mercury. Rep. no. TOR-594(1101)RP-3 (Contract no. AFO4(647)-930), Aerospace Corp., El Segundo 
Calif. Oct 31, 1961. 

2. Program Office, Mercury /Atlas Launch Vehicle: Mercury/ Atlas Launch Vehicle Flight Safety Review General 

Operating Procedures and Organization— Pilot Safety Program of Atlas Launch Vehicle for NASA Project 
Mercury. Rep. no. TOR-594(1101)RP-4 (Contract no. AFO4(647)-930), Aerospace Corp. El Segundo Calif 
Oct 31, 1961. 



52 



5. SPACECRAFT PREPARATION AND CHECKOUT 



By G. Merritt Preston, Chief, Preftight Operations Division, NASA Manned Spacecraft Center; and 
J. J. Williams, Pre/light Operations Division, NASA Manned Spacecraft Center 



Summary 

Friendship 7 arrived at Cape Canaveral on 
August 27, 1961, and was launched February 
20, 1962. The spacecraft underwent detailed 
system-by-system tests after arrival to verify 
its configuration. The configuration was 
changed as result of information obtained from 
the MA-o orbital flight. After the design 
changes were incorporated, the spacecraft un- 
derwent final hangar systems tests. 

At the launch complex the spacecraft was 
mated to its launch vehicle and combined tests 
were conducted to ascertain the compatibility 
of the spacecraft, launch vehicle, and support- 
ing range instrumentation. After ascertaining 
the compatibility and functional capabilities of 
all elements, the space vehicle was successfully 
launched February 20th. 

Introduction 

Friendship Seven arrived at Cape Canaveral, 
Fla., on August 27, 1961, for final preparation 
for flight. It was in checkout at Cape Canav- 
eral for 166 working days. This appears to be 
a long time ; therefore, the philosophy of oper- 
ations for Project Mercury that dictates such 
a lengthy checkout at Cape Canaveral is 
discussed. 

The reliability of the Mercury project was 
established by a step-by-step developmental 
flight program and a repeated detailed exami- 
nation of the spacecraft and its systems. 

Because of the urgency of the program, all 
spacecraft produced were used for flight testing 
and none were available for developmental test- 
ing in the laboratories until late in the program. 
Therefore, the preflight operations conducted 
at Cape Canaveral on the various spacecraft 
served not only to prepare that particular craft 
for flight, but it also was part of the design 
evaluation of the spacecraft that is typical of 



this type of program. The flight tests also con- 
tributed to this design evaluation. 

The detailed examination of the spacecraft 
design, therefore, was primarily conducted at 
Cape Canaveral. 

This examination involved functional testing 
of the spacecraft systems, observing in detail 
the performance of the systems. These tests 
were repeated often and duplicated as near as 
possible different flight environments and 
modes. During these tests, all discrepancies, 
no matter how trivial, were scrutinized for 
their significance. Design changes indicated by 
these tests and the flight tests were incorporated 
as rapidly as possible so that the optimum 
spacecraft configuration was flown. 

Astronauts Glenn and Carpenter participated 
in all system checkouts at Cape Canaveral and 
reviewed all design changes. This participa- 
tion allowed for intimate familiarization with 
the spacecraft and a better understanding of 
its system. 

Time Utilization 

By examining the expenditure of the 166 
days that Friendship Seven spent at Cape Ca- 
naveral, the effort spent in testing and modify- 
ing the spacecraft can be seen. The checkout 
of the spacecraft itself was conducted in Hangar 
S compound at Cape Canaveral, Florida, and 
lasted approximately 133 days as shown in fig- 
ure 5-1. This checkout was followed by launch 
complex operations in which the launch vehicle 
and spacecraft were mated and testing was con- 
ducted to assure that the launch vehicle and 
spacecraft were mechanically, electrically, and 
radio-frequency compatible. This testing was 
followed by final preparations and assembly for 
the launch. 

The time spent in the hangar can be initially 
broken into two parts : 

(1) Work was performed on the spacecraft 



53 



ENVIRONMENTAL J 
INSTRUMENTATION 



pHANGAK CEECKS 133— 



■COMMUNICATIONS 5 



SEQUENTIAL J 
■INSTRUMENTATION 



-MEICHANICAL 



r- MECHANIC 
2 j-ENVIRONM 



■MECHANICAL 1 
ENVIRONMENTAL ^ 

JNTROL 12 



^-SIMULATED FLIGHT 



•-MECHANICAL 22 



'-COMPLEX CHECKS 33 LAUNCH-VEHICLE 

MODIFICATION lj 

.is of Friendship xi s 

derations LwEATHER 7 

Figure 5-1.— Time analysis of preflight operations on Friendship 7. 



such as assembly and servicing the spacecraft 
and incorporating design changes that had been 
dictated by previous flights. This work took 
approximately 63 of the 133 days spent in the 
hangar. 

(2) Systems testing, troubleshooting, and re- 
placing of components as the result of this test- 
i ng were also conducted in the hangar. Sevent y 
days were spent in this phase of the operation. 
The launch-complex operations required 33 clays 
to perform. 

A further breakdown of the aforementioned 
categories would show thai 33 days were spent 
during the work periods to assemble and serv- 
ice the spacecraft in the hangar. Thirty days 
were spent incorporating design changes as the 
result of the previous flight. Of these 30 days, 
11 were spent changing the wiring of the elec- 
trical and sequential system ; 7 were spent modi- 
fying the environmental control system ; 3 were 



spent in adding instrumentation: and 9 were 
spent modifying the reaction control system. 

Of the 70 days spent in testing and taking 
corrective action, 41 were used for actual test- 
ing. Of these 41 days, 13 were used by the 
electrical and electronic systems, 22 for the me- 
chanical systems, and 6 for overall simulated 
flight tests. Figure 5-1 shows a further break- 
down of the electrical and electronic systems 
tests and the mechanical systems tests. 

Twenty-nine days were spent troubleshooting 
and replacing components as the result of 
troubles encountered during these test periods. 
Of these 29 days, 7 days were spent on the elec- 
trical and electronic systems and 22 days were 
spent on the mechanical system. A majority of 
the troubles with the mechanical system were 
associated with the environmental control sys- 
tem which took 15 days to correct. 



54 



Of the 33 days spent on the launch pad (ac- 
tually, 43 days were spent on the pad, however, 
10 of these were spent troubleshooting and have 
been included in the above analysis), 13 days 
were spent in pad testing ; 13 days were required 
to modify the launch vehicle as a result of a 
malfunction of the fueling system, and there 
were 7 days of weather delays. 

Spacecraft Design Changes 

Friendship 7 had several design changes made 
at Cape Canaveral as a result of information 
obtained from the orbital flight of spacecraft 9. 
A total of 255 changes were made in the space- 
craft while at the Cape. Some of these items 
will be discussed subsequently for each of the 
major spacecraft systems. 

Reaction Control System 

The following changes were made to the re- 
action control system : 

( 1 ) Plastic flare seals were removed from the 
automatic system inlet and outlet connections 
to the thrust chamber solenoid valves and re- 
placed with soft aluminum washers (fig. 5-2). 
Tests conducted at Cape Canaveral and Mc- 
Donnell Aircraft Corp., St. Louis, Mo., re- 
vealed that the plastic seals resulted in relaxed 
torque on the tube fittings at ambient tempera- 
tures. It was also shown that this condition 
was further aggravated by the high tempera- 
tures found in the vicinity of the thrust 
chambers. 

(2) Heat sinks were added to both manual 
and automatic roll thruster assemblies (fig. 
5-3) . Tests at McDonnell Aircraft Corp., St. 




Figure 5-2.- -Reaction Control System flare seals. 




Figure 5-3.— Heat sinks added to roll thruster as- 
semblies in reaction control system. 



Louis, Mo., and data obtained from the space- 
craft 9 flight indicated a need for removing the 
excess heat generated by the thrusters. This 
heat resulted in undesirable fuel temperatures. 

Electrical System 

The following changes were made to the elec- 
trical system : 

(1) The fuses were removed from the stand- 
by inverter circuit for the manual mode of 
operation. 

(2) The fuse holders were structurally rein- 
forced because of the record of mechanical fail- 
ures that they have experienced in the past. 

(3) Indicator lights were added to enable the 
pilot to determine which inverter was powering 
the bus. 

(4) An auxiliary battery was added to the 
maximum-altitude sensor wiring to eliminate 
voltage transients in the circuits. 

(5) The abort signal to the sensor was inter- 
locked with a spacecraft separation signal to 
prevent the tower from jettisoning prema- 
turely. 

(6) A camera programing system was added 
to enable the cameras to run at high and low 
speeds so that the film would last throughout 
the mission. 

(7) Wiring to the thruster solenoids was 
brought through a common connector so that 
the solenoids could be disabled for long dura- 
tion autopilot checkout to prevent electrical 
overheating of the solenoids during testing. 

55 



Environmental Control System 

The following changes were made to the en- 
vironmental control system: 

(1) Advanced water-type heat exchangers 
(cold plates) were installed under the 150 and 
250 main inverters (fig. b-A). The results ob- 
tained on the spacecraft 9 flight indicated in- 
sufficient cooling. 




Figure — Inverter cooling plate. 




Figure o-5. — Cooling fan duet inlet screens for Friend- 
ship 7 and Spacecraft 9. 

(2) The cooling fan duct inlet screens were 
changed to screens having 0.06-inch diameter 
holes. (See figure 5-5.) This change was 
required when the postnight inspection of 
spacecraft 9 revealed that the cabin fan was 
jammed by small bits of metal, fabric, and rub- 
ber, shown in figure 5-6, which were ingested 
into the fan under zero-g conditions through 
the 0.25-inch diameter holes in the inverter cool- 
ing duct screens. 

56 




Figure 5-6.— Debris found In cooling fan of Space- 
craft 9 after flight. 



( 3) The aluminum check valves in the freon- 
water inverter cooling system were replaced 
with stainless steel valves. This change was 
made when it was found that the aluminum 
check valves tended to corrode and remained in 
either the open or closed position. 

(4) An indicator was installed on the instru- 
ment panel to provide the astronaut with an in- 
dication of heat exchanger exhaust temperature 
in order to control the cooling flow in the suit 
circuit. 

Automatic Stabilization and Control System 

The following changes were made to the 
automatic stabilization and control system : 

(1) The autopilot was replaced with a later 
model which contained new logic circuitry. 
This circuitry prevented erroneous orbit pulses 
due to intermittent sector switching. This 
change was designed to conserve reaction con- 
trol system fuel. 

(2) Fuses -were added to the power leads to 
the rate gyros to prevent loss of an inverter in 
the event of a malfunction in the gyro. 

(3) Heater blankets were added to the scan- 
ners. It was found that the effectiveness of the 
scanners was reduced unless the scanner bolom- 
eter was maintained at 75°. 

Instrumentation System 

The following changes were made to the in- 
strumentation system : 

(1) An instrument package was changed 
from a position near the right foot, This 



change was made to avoid interference with 
the pilot's right foot during flight and to facili- 
tate removal of the hatch for egress. 

(2) Temperature pickups were added to the 
1-pound automatic and manual roll thrusters 
to monitor the effectiveness of the new heat 
sinks. 

(3) A manual blood pressure measuring sys- 
tem was installed. 

Miscellaneous Changes 

Two other design changes were made. They 
are: 

(1) A personal equipment container was 
manufactured and installed to provide a place 
for storing the items which the astronaut took 
on the flight to perform the activities required 
of him. 

(2) Removable filters were installed on the 
pilot's observation window to provide protec- 
tion to the astronaut when exposed to direct 
sunlight. 

Hangar S Systems Tests 

Checkout operations at Hangar S consisted 
of individual systems tests followed by a simu- 
lated flight test with all systems operating in a 
manner approaching flight conditons as nearly 
as possible. The following system tests were 
performed on Friendship 7 : 

(1) Electrical power 

(2) Instrumentation 

(3) Sequential 

(4) Environmental control 

(5) Communications 

(6) Reaction control 

(7) Communications radiation tower test 

(8) Automatic stabilization and control 

(9) Altitude chamber tests 

The electrical power system test was the ini- 
tial test performed on the spacecraft. The test 
determined if power could be safely applied to 
the control and power distribution system of 
the spacecraft. The test also checked automa- 
tic and manual a-c inverter switching. Figure 
5-7 shows the spacecraft cabled up for this test. 
Similar cabling is used in many of the follow- 
ing tests. 

Power surges on the d-c bus were experienced 
when the 150 v-amp main inverter was switched 
on the line. Because an excessive number of 




Figure 5-7. — Spacecraft cabled for electrical power 
system tests. 

power surges occurred, the inverter was re- 
placed. Previous experience has indicated 
that such inverters often fail completely at a 
later date. 

The instrumentation system was thoroughly 
tested and calibrated on the bench as shown in 
figure 5-8 at Cape Canaveral prior to its instal- 
lation in the spacecraft. The system was tested 
again after it had been installed in the space- 
craft. The primary purpose of the latter test 
is fourfold : ( 1 ) to determine the error, if any, 
between the hardline signal normally used to 
transmit data to the blockhouse or other test 
equipment in the hangar and the signal radi- 
ated through the transmitter; (2) to determine 
possible system interference with the system 
operating in the spacecraft ; (3) to make a sin- 




Figure 5-8. — Bench setup for testing spacecraft in- 
strumentation. 



57 



gle-point calibration check of the complete cali- 
bration made on the bench; and (4) to insure 
that the system was satisfactory to support other 
spacecraft tests. No major system discrepan- 
cies were uncovered during this testing. 

The sequential system test provides for the 
checkout of the automatic and manual sequen- 
tial system. The sequential system testing may 
be broken down into four major phases; 
namely, (1) launch sequence. (2) orbit se- 
quence, (3) escape or abort sequence, and 
(4) recovery sequence. Control signals 
were fed to the various inputs of the 
sequential system and the output functions 
of the system were monitored. The maximum- 
altitude sensor actuates the jettisoning of the 
escape tower. Although it is called a maxi- 
mum-altitude sensor, it is really a variable timer 
whose time delay depends on the existence of an 
abort signal and the time from lift-off that the 
abort signal occurred. During the abort phase 
in the simulated flight of Friendship 7, it was 
determined that this sensor actuated early. The 
sensor was replaced and the abort runs were 
repeated successfully. 

The environmental control system (ECS) 
checkout conducted prior to the altitude-cham- 
ber test determined the functional operation of 
the individual components of the ECS system. 
The oxygen bottles are serviced to operating 
pressure at this time for the altitude-chamber 
test. 

As the result of testing, the following major 
ECS discrepancies were uncovered : 

(1) Excessive leakage of the high-pressure 
oxygen shut off valve was noted. The stem was 
removed from the valve body and the lubricant 
was found to have hardened on the O rings 
and sealing surfaces (fig. 5-9). The O rings 
and backup seals were replaced, and the com- 
ponent was lubricated and replaced in the valve 
body. The valve continued to show a leakage 
caused by the seals not seating properly. The 




Figure 5-9. — High-pressure shutoff oxygen valve stem 
shown with hardened lubricant. 

58 



leakage was reduced to within the specification 
volume by employing a specific procedure in 
opening the valve. The repeatability of this 
procedure was validated: that is, the leakage 
rate remained within specifications after follow- 
ing the opening procedure. 

(2) The oxygen-flow-sensor warning light 
failed to come on when the primary bottle was 
exhausted. The sensors have shown erratic 
performance in the past. It was decided that 
the ground and flight monitoring was adequate 
information to warn the pilot of oxygen 
quantity. 

('?>) The high-pressure oxygen regulator 
showed an external leak. The valve body was 
found to be defective. The defect was repaired 
stopping the external leak. 

(4) The aluminum freon check valve stuck 
open. These valves were replaced with newly 
designed stainless steel check valves which 
operated properly. 

The primary purpose of the communication 
system tests was to determine the electrical 
characteristics of the individual components 
that comprise the onboard communications sys- 
tem. Although the test equipment was phys- 
ically located approximately 100 feet away in 
the checkout trailer (fig. 5-10), the test was 




Figure 5-10. — Communications system test equipment 
in checkout trailer. 



equivalent to a bench test with the components 
in the spacecraft. The test revealed the fol- 
lowing discrepancies : 

During HF rescue voice receiver checks, the 
HF output change was 14 decibels with an in- 
put signal level change from 5 to 50,000 micro- 
volts. The specification requirement was for 
not more than 10 decibels. With an input vari- 
ation of from 10 to 50 microvolts, the output 
change was 7 decibels. This deviation from 
specification was not considered serious and was 
considered acceptable. It is well to point out at 
this time that detailed specifications have been 
established for the performance of spacecraft 
equipment. However, during spacecraft check- 
out, when the performance does not meet these 
specifications, the required performance is re- 
viewed by considering the requirements for the' 
particular flight and the increase in knowledge 
about the performance requirements that has 
been obtained since they were originally estab- 
lished. Thus, equipment is not arbitrarily 
changed when it does not meet specification. 

The reaction control system (KCS) checkout 
procedure determined the condition and opera- 
tion of the ECS system. Tests were conducted 
in a special test cell (fig. 5-11). Several gas 
checks were employed to determine the overall 



Figure 5-11.— Spacecraft in reaction control system 
facility for functional test of system. 




Figure 5-12. — Spacecraft being installed on commu- 
nications tower for communication antenna tests. 

system gas integrity. The system was then 
filled with 35-percent hydrogen peroxide 
(H 2 0 2 ) for 24 hours to monitor decomposition 
pressure rise and to determine system cleanli- 
ness as well as to precondition the system for 
use with 90-percent H,0 2 . Following the 35- 
percent H 2 0 2 surveillance, a hydrostatic check 
of each system using 35-percent H 2 0 2 was 
made to determine system liquid integrity. A 
24-hour surveillance using 90-percent H 2 0 2 
was then conducted. This surveillance was 
followed by a functional check that pressurized 
the system and static firing each of the 
thrust ers. 

The system performed very well during these 
tests, except the manual proportional control 
mode had slightly higher stick forces than de- 
sired. These forces, however, were acceptable 
to Astronauts Glenn and Carpenter. 

Communications system tests were made on 
the radiation tower to determine the HF char- 
acteristics of the bicone antenna. Tests of the 
other communications system components were 
also made at the same time to permit the At- 
lantic Missile Range to evaluate the system. 
For this test the spacecraft was placed on a 
44-foot -high wooden tower as shown in figure 
5-12. The test is conducted with no ground 

59 



Figure 5-13. — Dynamic tests of autopilot in dynamic 
fixture 

servicing equipment (GSE) cables connected to 
the spacecraft; thus the flight configuration 
was simulated as closely as possible. 

During the test it was noted that the auxiliary 
TTHF beacon caused some interference on the 
IIHF voice transmission. Since the interfer- 
ence was not great and did not affect the intel- 
ligibility of UHF voice transmissions, system 
operation was considered satisfactory for flight. 

The automatic stabilization and control sys- 
tem (ASCS) checkout of the spacecraft was 
divided into two parts: a static test, and a 
dynamic test. The dynamic test was conducted 
with the spacecraft, in a dynamic fixture (fig. 
5-13) which could be rotated at constant rates 
of roll and pitch. Yaw dynamic tests were 
conducted by rolling the spacecraft 90° and 
pitching. The logic of the system was tested 
by using an automatic tester located in the 
checkout trailer as shown in figure 5-14. 

The autopilot passed the static test with only 
minor discrepancies. However, the dynamic 
portion of the test was terminated with a failure 
of the yaw repeater loop. A shorted capacita- 
tor was discovered in the repeater motor cir- 
cuitry. A new autopilot passed both the static 
and dynamic test with no system discrepancies. 

The altitude-chamber tests (fig. 5-15) were 
used to determine the operating characteristics 
of the overall environmental control system 
(ECS). The astronaut was suited and con- 
nected into the ECS for the first time during 
the altitude-chamber tests. The chamber was 
pumped down to a simulated altitude of ap- 



Figube 5-14. — Automatic checkout equipment for 
checking logic of autopilot. 

proximately 125,000 feet and a simulated mis- 
sion was conducted. 

Test data indicated that the 150 v-amp in- 
verter overheated during the first three runs. 
The flow orifices were increased in size for the 
fourth run. 

During the fourth run, the 150 v-amp in- 
verter still o\ T erheated while the 250 v-amp in- 




Figuee 5-15. — Overall evaluation of the environmental 
control system in altitude chamber. 



60 



verter remained cool. A subsequent investiga- 
tion indicated that the flow passages in the. 
water-type heat exchanger (cooling plate) were 
plugged. It was found that sealant used in 
the construction of the cooling plates had pene- 
trated into the flow passages as shown in figure 
5-16. The passages were cleaned and the orig- 
inal orifices were reinstalled. Flow tests on the 
final installation showed that the system was 
clean. 




Figure 3-16— Plugged inlet part of cooling plate for 
150 v-amp inverter. 



Friendship 7 began its hangar simulated 
flight test on November 25, 1961. This test 
was completed on December 12, 1961. When 
the launch was rescheduled for January 1962, 
a rerun of the hangar simulated flight was 
made. The second simulated flight test series 
began December 19, 1961, and were successfully 
completed on December 21, 1961. At this time, 
the spacecraft was considered functionally 
ready for launch pad operations. 

This simulated flight test was designed to 
accomplish the following test objectives : 

(1) To reverify proper operation of indi- 
vidual systems 

(2) To insure proper operation of the se- 
quence system through all modes, including 
abort and emergency override 

(3) To demonstrate intrasystem compatibil- 
ity when all systems were operating concur- 
rently 

(4) To verify proper operation of space- 
craft systems when the flight conditions are 
simulated as nearly as practicable 




Figure 5-17. — Spacecraft during final simulated flight 
test in Hangar S. 

The configuration of the spacecraft during 
the simulated flight test was as follows and is 
shown in figure 5-17. 

(1) The spacecraft was installed on the 
launch-vehicle adapter, and was electrically 
connected to the adapter. 

(2) The escape tower without the escape 
rockets was installed on the spacecraft. 

(3) An absolute minimum of GSE cabling 
was connected to the spacecraft to simulate ac- 
tual flight configuration as closely as possible. 

(4) Two-tenths ampere fuses, used to simu- 
late squibs, were installed at actual squib loca- 
tions. 

(5) All squib firing-circuit, wiring was in 
flight configuration. 

(6) The astronaut was suited and in the 
spacecraft for the systems test. 

(7) Recorders were connected to monitor all 
squib circuits to verify proper firing times. 

Malfunctions during the simulated flight test 
were as follows: 

(1) The no. 2 suit fan showed intermittent 
flow characteristics. Further troubleshooting 
led to replacement of no. 2 suit fan, no. 1 and 
no. 2 check valves, and the negative pressure 
relief valve. 

(2) The C-band beacon operated intermit- 
tently at low voltage. The beacon was replaced. 



61 





1 mmi N nr; i 


















W 






mi 
















■ 


m ;: 


mm 







Figure 5-18. — Launch complex testing of Friendship 7. 



(3) The instrumentation time correlation 
clock was replaced because of an inoperative 
time-zero light. 

(4) Plastic compound was found on a fuse 
block contact. The compound was removed and 
all fuse blocks were checked for the compound, 
but none was found. 

(5) The satellite clock jammed during me- 
chanical reset. It was replaced. 

(6) The suit-fan toggle switch could be made 
to break contact when a slight force was placed 
on the toggle while it was in the no. 2 position. 
The switch was replaced. 

(7) The microphone wires in the astronaut's 
helmet were found reversed, and the helmet was 
repaired. 

(8) The emergency 10-second retrorocket fire 
relay timed out in 5 seconds. The relay panel 
was replaced and reverified. 

Launch Pad Operations 

As originally planned the launch pad opera- 
tions were scheduled for completion in 13 days ; 
however, due to delays caused by changes in 
the spacecraft and launch vehicle after mating, 
trouble encountered during tests, and adverse 
weather conditions, the actual time the space- 
craft spent on the launch pad is somewhat 
longer than the 13 days as shown in figure 5-18. 
For Friendship 7 this period extended from 
January 3, 1962, through February 20, 1962. 
Figure 5-19 shows the spacecraft on the launch 
vehicle during these launch pad operations. 

The launch pad operations are listed below 
in the order in which they are normally per- 
formed : 

(1) Launch complex checkout 

(2) Interface inspection 



(3) Mechanical mating 

(4) Spacecraft systems test 

(5) Electrical interface and aborts 

(6) Flight acceptance composite tests 

(7) Flight configuration sequence and 

aborts 

(8) Launch simulation including reaction 

control thruster firings 

(9) Simulated flight 

( 10 ) Pyrotechnic check 

(11) Spacecraft servicing 

(12) Precount 

(13) Count 

Each of these launch pad operations, together 
with the troubles encountered, subsequent, de- 
lays, and repairs made, is discussed for the tests 
made during the checkout of the complex, the 
spacecraft, and the spacecraft-launch-vehicle 
combination. 




Figure .V-19.— Spacecraft on Atlas launch vehicle 
undergoing launch complex testing. 

Launch Complex Checkout 

The launch complex checkout is performed 
to validate all the complex wiring and launch 
pad modifications prior to mating the spacecraft 
with the launch vehicle. An automatic wire 
checker is used in this operation. It is shown 
in figure 5-20. 



62 



Figure 5-20.— Automatic wiring checker used to check 
cabling involved in preflight operation. 

There were no serious discrepancies discov- 
ered during this test and the complex was de- 
clared ready for receiving the spacecraft. 

Interface Inspection 

Prior to mating the spacecraft to the launch- 
vehicle adapter, it was necessary to verify that 
all items in the adapter section had the proper 
clearance and that there was no debris. Figure 
5-21 shows the adapter being mounted on the 
launch vehicle. Following the inspection and 
mating of the spacecraft to the launch vehicle, 
all openings into this vital section were sealed. 
These seals are not removed again except for 
emergency work and just prior to launch. The 
adapter and interface area met all requirements 
and the spacecraft was then mated with the 
launch vehicle. 

Mechanical Mating 

Mechanical mating was primarily a mechani- 
cal fit operation in which the spacecraft was 
placed on the launch-vehicle adapter (fig. 5-22) 
and the main clamp ring was installed. In 
addition, prior to hoisting the spacecraft to the 



Figure 5-21. — View of spacecraft adapter being 
mounted on launch vehicle. 

top of the launch vehicle the retropackage pyro- 
technics are checked for continuity and resis- 
tance and then shorted with shorting plugs. No 
unforeseen difficulties were experienced in mat- 
ing spacecraft 13 to the launch vehicle; thus 
the MA-6 vehicle was ready for launch pad 
checkout. 




Figure 5-22. — Mechanical mating of spacecraft 
to adapter. 

63 



Spacecraft Systems Tests 

Spacecraft systems tests were performed 
primarily to check the spacecraft systems func- 
tionally and to check the remote-control capa- 
bility from the blockhouse. Figure 5-23 shows 
the spacecraft blockhouse consoles. Following 
this test the spacecraft was ready to proceed 
with tests which integrate the launch vehicle 
and the spacecraft. During these tests trouble 
was experienced with the coolant quantity indi- 
cating system indicator, the auxiliary beacon, 
:ind minor discrepancies in ground-servicing 
equipment (GSE) cabling. These items were 
corrected and those parts of this system tests 
required were rerun to validate the changes. 




Figure 5-23. — Blockhouse consoles for monitoring 
spacecraft operation during the launch complex 
operation. 



Electrical Interface and Aborts 

The electrical interface and aborts test vali- 
dated the spacecraft-launch-vehicle interface 
compatibility as well as redundant electrical 
and radio- frequency paths. For this test, GSE 
cables were installed. By use of the GSE 
cables this test also provides a means of check- 
ing the redundant paths used for abort at 
various times during the prelaunch and launch 
modes. This test was run with only minor dis- 
crepancies which were corrected, and then those 
portions of the test which had contained the 
discrepancies were rerun to validate the 
changes. However, during preparations for 
this test faulty automatic roll thrusters were 
discovered and these were replaced. At the 
same time, heat sinks were added to the 



thruster assemblies as a result of a design 
change. The silver batteries for the auxiliary 
beacons were also replaced. All of this special 
work resulted in a 4-day delay in testing. 

Flight Acceptance Composite Test 

The flight acceptance composite test was de- 
signed to prove compatibility of the spacecraft 
radio-frequency systems with the Atlantic Mis- 
sile Eange and the launch vehicle and to prove 
that spacecraft and launch-vehicle systems do 
not generate radio- frequency interference. 
This test was also used to verify satisfactory 
operation of spacecraft radio frequency with 
GSE cables installed. This test was completed 
with only a minor discrepancy which required 
a change of a f reon check valve. 

At this point, because of a projected change 
in launch schedule, the order of testing was 
changed and the launch simulation was 
scheduled next. 

Launch Simulation 



The launch simulation test was designed to 
validate the spacecraft and launch-vehicle sys- 
tems in a launch configuration and to evaluate 




64 



the launch-day procedures. At the same time 
this test provides an opportunity to practice 
emergency egress procedures (fig. 5-24). No 
problems were encountered in this test. 

Flight Configuration Sequence and Aborts 

The flight configuration sequence and aborts 
test provides for compatibility tests of space- 
craft systems and launch- vehicle autopilot. 
The test also further checks the abort modes 
with the spacecraft in a flight configuration 
simulating launch and flight. This test was 
completed with no difficulties. 

The launch simulation test was repeated for 
practice for the launch crew. 

Flight Safety Review 

A flight safety review board was convened 
approximately five days before launch to re- 
view the spacecraft history. This review was 
conducted by the operations directors. The re- 
view board was composed of representatives of 
the Mercury Project Office, the Flight Safety 
Office, the astronauts, and the Preflight Opera- 
tions Division. This board reviewed the status 
of all systems, approving all deviation from 
specifications found during spacecraft check- 
out. It was the responsibility of this board to 
commit the spacecraft to launch. 

Simulated Flight 

The simulated flight test completely checks 
all spacecraft systems during a simulated flight 
from lift-off to landing. The test also per- 
mits a check of the automatic launch-vehicle 
abort- system at lift-off +200 seconds. 

During the simulated flight test on X-4 days 
for the attempted launch on January 23, 1962, 
it was noted that the oxygen consumption rate, 
with Astronaut Glenn in the system, was high 
intermittently. Checks the previous day with 
Astronaut Carpenter in the circuit had indi- 
cated normal consumption rates. 

Friendship 7's environmental control system 
was different than any of those previously flown 
in that it had an orifice in the oxygen supply 
that provided a constant flow of about 1,000 
cc/min. This flow was adequate for all normal 
astronaut demands. Originally, the environ- 
mental system contained a demand regulator 
which sensed a drop in pressure in the suit cir- 



cuit indicating a need for oxygen. With the 
drop in pressure, the regulator would supply 
oxygen to bring the system up to operating 
pressure. With the addition of the constant 
bleed orifice it was not expected that the demand 
regulator would function often. Troubleshoot- 
ing following the simulated flight indicated 
that one of the diaphragms in the demand regu- 
lator had developed a small leak. Since it was 
very difficult to remove the regulator because 
of its location, extensive testing was made to 
be sure that the trouble truly was in the regu- 
lator. Finally the decision was made to remove 
the regulator and it was found that the problem 
was not in the regulator but in the plumbing 
to the regulator. Here, a leaky joint was found. 

These incidents pointed out two principles 
that should be observed in design: First, in- 
accessibility of the demand regulator made it 
difficult to check the regulator adequately and 
caused delays at a crucial time in launch 
preparations (X-4 days). Secondly, inade- 
quate test points made it impossible to diagnose 
the problems properly. 

After the regulator was replaced and the 
plumbing repaired, another check was made 
with the astronaut in the suit circuit. These 
checks indicated some improvement in the oxy- 
gen consumption rate, but it was still much 
higher than it should have been. 

After a detailed analysis of the system it was 
concluded that there must be a leak in the 
astronaut's pressure suit. Prior to any test in- 
volving the suit, it was pressure tested at 5 psi 
(fig. 5-25). However, the suit, during normal 




Figure 5-25. — Pressure tests of astronaut's pressure 



65 




Figure 3-26. — Low pressure tests of suit. 




Figure 5-27. — Pressure-suit gloves showing cuff slip 
joint. 

flight, operates at a pressure of only a few 
indies of water above cabin pressure and would 
operate at 5 psi differential only if the cabin 
should become decompressed. No leak checks 
previously had ever been made at these low 
pressures. Inspection of the suit cuff and zip- 
per seals indicated that pressure was required 
to effect a good seal at these points. Upon test- 
ing of the suit, at low pressure (fig. 5-26) it 
was found that the cuff seals at the wrists (fig. 
5-27) leaked as the cuff was rotated. 

This particular experience leads to some addi- 
tional conclusions : 

(1) The necessity for functional testing at 
the launch site is proven again. 

(2) The necessity for integrated system test- 
ing is demonstrated. 

(3) The fallacy of assuming that one test 
condition is equivalent to another is pointed 
out. Testing should be conducted under condi- 



tions as near to all flight conditions as possible. 

Upon checking the system after the previ- 
ously mentioned faults were corrected, it was 
found that the system used oxygen at approxi- 
mately the 1,000 cc/min rate provided by the 
constant bleed orifice. 

Since the constant bleed orifice was added to 
an already automatic system, this bleed changed 
the pressure levels in a delicately balanced sys- 
tem. Without the bleed the small leaks in the 
suit circuit would have been inconsequential. 
However, with the bleed, the suit leakage was 
causing the demand regulator to flow extra 
oxygen into the suit, and thus the oxygen con- 
sumption was increased. This seemingly small 
change, therefore, produced large effects on the 
performance of the system. It must be pointed 
out that the addition of the constant bleed did 
provide additional safety by reducing carbon 
dioxide concentration in the suit circuit and 
provided positive oxygen flow regardless of the 
regulator operation. 

Of additional interest was the fact that none 
of these discrepancies were noted, during the 
altitude-chamber tests even though the same test 
procedures were used. Apparently, the position 
of the cuff seals during this test prevented them 
from leaking. Also, the plumbing leak in the 
demand regulator plumbing must have occurred 
subsequent to the chamber tests. This indicates 
the desirability of repeating tests of systems at 
discrete times. 

A simulated flight was repeated to verify the 
changes in the environmental control system. 

Spacecraft Servicing 

Various items of work were then performed 
to put the spacecraft in a flight-ready condition. 
These items are filling the oxygen bottles, serv- 
icing and installing the onboard tape recorders, 
servicing the landing-bag release system, and 
many other items of a purely mechanical na- 
ture. This work was accomplished in the al- 
lotted time and the precount was scheduled. 

Precount and Launch Count 

Precount. — The countdown is performed in 
two parts. The first part, known as the pre- 
count, is primarily a check of the various space- 
craft systems. Following completion of this 
first part of the countdown, there is an approxi- 
mate 15-hour hold for pyrotechnic check, elec- 



66 



trieal connection, and peroxide system servic- 
ing and surveillance. Both the precount and 
the 15-hour hold operations were performed 
without discrepancies, and the final part, the 
launch count, was started. This count pro- 
ceeded to T-13 minutes at which time the launch 
was canceled for the day because of adverse 
weather conditions. 

Difficulties encountered after cancellation. — 
After the cancellation at T-13 minutes on Janu- 
ary 27, 1962, it was decided to replace the 
carbon dioxide absorber unit because it had ap- 
proached the end of its service life. The per- 
oxide system also had to be drained and flushed 
to prevent corrosion, and the pyrotechnics were 
disconnected and shorted as a safety measure. 
This work was accomplished in 1 day. At this 
time, some of the launch-vehicle systems were 
being revalidated. During the tanking test of 
the launch vehicle, a leak was discovered in the 
inner bulkhead of the fuel tank and required 
4 to 6 days to repair. The repairing of this 
leak, the necessary retesting and launch prep- 
aration after the repair had been made, and 
other operational considerations dictated re- 
scheduling of the launch for February 13, 1962. 
The launch date was rescheduled to February 
14 sometime later because all of the aforemen- 
tioned work had not been completed. During 
this delay, all six flight batteries and the para- 
chutes were replaced. Portions of the normal 
complex testing were rerun to verify launch 
status. The precount was started again on 
February 13, 15, and 16, but it was canceled 
each time because of adverse weather condi- 
tions. The launch was then rescheduled for 
February 20, 1962. 

Launch count. — During the launch count on 
February 20 all systems were energized and 
final overall checks were made. The count- 
started at T-390 minutes by installing and con- 
necting the escape-rocket igniter. The service 
structure was then cleared and the spacecraft 
was powered to verify no inadvertent pyro- 
technic ignition. The personnel then returned 
to the service structure to prepare for static 
firing of the reaction control system at T-250 
minutes. Following the reaction control static 
firing the spacecraft was then prepared for 
astronaut boarding at T-120 minutes. The 
hatch was put in place at T-90 minutes. Dur- 
ing installation a bolt was broken, and the hatch 
had to be removed to replace the bolt. From 




Figure 5-28. — Lift-off of MA-6 from launch complex 
at Cape Canaveral, Fla. 



T-90 to T-55 final mechanical work and space- 
craft checks were made and the service was 
evacuated and moved away from the launch ve- 
hicle. At approximately T-35 minutes filling 
of the liquid-oxygen tanks began and final 
spacecraft and launch-vehicle systems checks 
were started. At T-10 minutes the spacecraft 
went on internal power, and the launch vehicle 
went to internal power at T-3 minutes. At 
T-35 seconds the spacecraft umbilical was 
ejected and at T-0 the main engines started. 
At about T + 4 seconds lift-off occurred and the 
flight was underway as shown in figure 5-28. 

Concluding Remarks 

In conclusion, the flight success of Mercury 
has in part been achieved by: (1) repeated 
testing to uncover systems weakness; (2) par- 
ticular attention to details that might lead to 
mission failure, (3) integrated flight simula- 
tions that assured compatibility among the 
spacecraft systems and among the spacecraft, 
launch vehicle, and range, and (4) a continual 
updating of the spacecraft configuration taking 
full advantage of previous flight experience. 
This policy has led to lengthy checkout periods 
at Cape Canaveral; however, a single flight 
mission failure would have caused even longer 
delays in the overall Mercury program. 



67 



6. FLIGHT CONTROL AND FLIGHT PLAN 



By Christopher C. Kraft, Jr., Chief, Flight Operations Division, NASA Manned Spacecraft Center; 
Tecwyn ROBERT9, Flight Operations Division, NASA Manned Spacecraft Center; Eugene F. KraNZ, 
Flight Operations Division, NASA Manned Spacecraft Center; and C. Frederick Matthews, Flight 
Operations Division, NASA Manned Spacecraft Center 



Summary 

A number of malfunctions occurred during 
this flight which caused some concern to the 
flight control team. These included the mal- 
function of the automatic control system, and 
what later proved to be the false indication of 
heat-shield deployment. However, the presence 
of the astronaut onboard the spacecraft made 
these malfunctions of a minor nature. The 
astronaut's ability to evaluate the performance 
of the spacecraft systems and take corrective 
action, and his excellent method of reporting 
these results to the ground, resulted in the suc- 
cessful completion of the MA-6 flight. 

Introduction 

It is the intent of this report to give a brief 
outline of the flight plan of the MA-6 flight 
and primarily the procedure used to perform 
flight control. In addition, some of the perti- 
nent flight test results will be given. 

Flight Plan 

A detailed outline of the flight plan is given 
as follows: 

The astronaut was to evaluate the various 
modes of control available in the spacecraft and 1 
to report on the capabilities of these various 
systems. He was to determine his visual ref- 
erence capabilities, that is, his ability to deter- 
mine attitude by observing the horizon and/or 
the stars by using the window and periscope and 
his ability to obtain this reference on both the 
light and dark sides of the earth. Certain 
specific maneuvers were set up to provide infor- 
mation on this capability. The effects of 
weightlessness for extended periods were to be 



determined by his ability to perform in this 
environment and, here again, specific, tests were 
set up to aid in this determination. The astro- 
naut was to perform management of onboard 
systems such as cabin and suit cooling, use of 
a-c and d-c power, and so forth, and he was to 
report on the performance of all of the space- 
craft systems. The astronaut was to determine 
his ability to navigate by both earth and star 
reference. He was to perform visual observa- 
tions of astronomical and scientific interests, 
including weather observations. Finally, he 
was to report on any unusual phenomena within 
or outside of the spacecraft. Although the mal- 
function of some of the spacecraft systems may 
have altered the flight plan to some extent, it is 
felt that the flight test results achieved a great 
majority of the objectives laid down and that 
generally speaking the flight test was extremely 
successful. 

The following description of the mission is 
given in chronological order so that apprecia- 
tion of the flight-control problems can be under- 
stood, and in this manner the flight tests results 
are given. 

Countdown 

The countdown for launching the Mercury- 
Atlas vehicle is conducted in two parts. The 
first part is conducted on the day before the 
launch and lasts approximately 4 hours. Dur- 
ing this period detailed tests of all of the space- 
craft systems are performed and those interface 
connections important to these systems are veri- 
fied. This part of the countdown was con- 
ducted with no major problems or holds result- 
ing. Approximately 17y 2 hours separated the 
end of this count and the beginning of the final 
countdown, and during this period the space- 



69 



craft pyrotechnics were installed and connected 
and certain expendables such as fuel and oxy- 
gen were loaded. 

At T — 390 minutes the countdown was re- 
sumed and progressed without any unusual in- 
stance until T— 120 minutes. During this pe- 
riod additional spacecraft systems checkouts 
were performed and the major portion of 
the launch-vehicle countdown was begun. At 
T— 120 minutes a built-in hold of 90 minutes 
had been scheduled to assure that all systems 
had been given sufficient time for checkout be- 
fore astronaut insertion. During this period a 
problem developed with the guidance system 
rate beacon in the launch vehicle causing an ad- 
ditional 45 minute hold, and an additional 10 
minutes were required to repair a broken micro- 
phone bracket in the astronaut's helmet after 
the astronaut insertion procedure had been 
started. The countdown proceeded to T— (50 
minutes when a 40 minute hold was required to 
replace a broken bolt because of misalinenient 
on the spacecraft's hatch attachment. At T — 45 
minutes, a 15 minute hold was required to add 
fuel to the launch vehicle; and at T— 22 min- 
utes an additional 25 minutes was required for 
filling the liquid-oxygen tanks as a result of a 
minor malfunction in the ground support 
equipment used to pump l quid oxygen into the 
launch vehicle. At T— fi minutes and 30 sec- 
onds, a 2 minute hold was required to make a 
quick check of the network computer at Ber- 
muda. In general, the countdown was very 
smooth and extremely well executed. A feel- 
ing of confidence was noted in all concerned, 
including the astronaut, and it is probably more 
than significant that this feeling has existed on 
the last three .Mercury-Atlas launches. 

Powered Flight 

The launch occurred at 9:47:39 a.m. e.s.t. on 
February 20, 1962. The powered portion of 
the night which lasted 5 minutes and 1 second 
was completely normal and the astronaut was 
able to make all of the planned communications 
and observations throughout this period. 
Throughout this portion of the flight no abnor- 
malities were noted in either the spacecraft 
systems or in the astronaut's physical condi- 
tion. The launch-vehicle guidance system per- 
formed almost perfectly, and 10 seconds after 
cutoff the computer gave a "go" recommenda- 



tion. The cutoff conditions obtained were 
excellent. 

Table 6-1 presents the actual cutoff condi- 
tions that were obtained. A comparison of 
the planned and actual times at which the 
major events occurred are given in table 
6-11 and the times at which all of the network 
sites acquired and lost contact with the space- 
craft are presented in table 6-III. 

It. might be noted that the flight test ex- 
perience which had been achieved on the pre- 
vious Mercury-Atlas orbital flights, that is, the 
if A-4 and MA-5, had given the flight control 
team an excellent opportunity to exercise con- 
trol over the mission. These nights were, of 
course, much more difficult to control and com- 
plete successfully because of the lack of an 
astronaut within the spacecraft. All of the 
analyses and decisions had to be made on the 
basis of telemetered information from the 
spacecraft, The presence of an astronaut, made 
the flight, test much more simple to complete, 
primarily on the basis of astronaut observations 
and his capability of systems management, A 
manned flight, however, makes the job of moni- 
toring spacecraft performance more complex 
because of the large number of backup and al- 
ternate systems from which the astronaut could 
choose. 

Mission Rules 

Previous to all of the flights, mission rules 
for all phases of the o]>eration wei« established 
beginning with the countdown and ending with 
the recovery. The development of these rules 
was started a considerable length of time before 
any of the Mercury flight operations, and began 
to develop at the same time as the flight control 
concepts. The mission rules were established 
in an effort to take into account every conceiva- 
ble situation which could occur onboard the 
spacecraft ; that is, consideration was given to 
both the astronaut and the spacecraft systems, 
and to all of the conceivable ground equipment 
failures which could have a direct tearing on 
the flight operation. In addition, rules were 
established in an effort to handle a large num- 
ber of launch vehicle malfunctions. These, of 
coui'se, dealt primarily with the effects of a 
sudden cutoff condition and its effect on the 
spacecraft flight thereafter. These rules were 
established for the prelaunch, powered flight, 
and orbital flight phases of the mission. 



70 



Table 6-1. — Planned and Actual Flight Conditions 



Cutoff conditions: 

Altitude, ft 528, 381 

Velocity, ft/sec 25, 730 

Flight-path angle, deg -0. 047 

Orbit parameters: 

Perigee altitude, nautical miles 86. 92 

Apogee altitude, nautical miles 140. 92 

Period, min: sec 88:29 

Inclination angle, deg 32. 54 

Maximum conditions: 

Exit acceleration, g units 7. 7 

Exit dynamic pressure, Ib/sq ft 982 

Entry acceleration, g units 7. 7 

Entry dynamic pressure, lb/sq ft 472 



Table 6-II. Sequence of Events During MA-6 Flight 
(All times are Eastern Standard) 



Event 


Planned time », 


Actual time, 




hr: min: sec 


hr: min: sec 


Booster-engine cutoff 


00:02:11. 4 


00:02:09. 6 


Tower release 


00:02:34. 2 


00:02:33. 3 




00:02:34. 2 


00:02:33.4 


Sustainer-engine cutoff (SECO) _ 




00:05:01. 4 


Tail-off complete -- --- 


00:05:03. 8 


00:05:02 


Spacecraft separation 


00:05:03. 8 


00:05:03. 6 


Retrofire initiation 


04:32:58 


04:33:08 


Retro (left) No. 1 


04:32:58 


04:33:08 


Retro (bottom) No. 2 


04:33:03 


04:33:13 


Retro (right) No. 3 


04:33:08 


04:33:18 


Retro assembly jettison 


04:33:58 


< b ) 




04:43:53 


« 04:43:31 


Drogue parachute deployment 


04:50:00 


04:49:17. 2 


Main parachute deployment 


04:50:36 


04:50:11 


Main parachute jettison (water impact) 


04:55:22 


04:55:23 



* Preflight calculated, based on nominal Atlas performance. 
•> Retro assembly kept on during reentry. 

" The 0.05g relay was actuated manually by astronaut when he was in a "small g field." 



Because of the complexity of the entire oper- 
ation and the critical time element of powered 
flight, it was felt and borne out by flight ex- 
perience that such a set of rules were an absolute 
necessity. Of course, it is impossible to think 
of everything that can happen but if most of 
the contingencies have been anticipated along 
with the procedures to handle these situations, 
the time available can be used to concentrate on 
the unexpected. The occurrence of the heat 
shield deploy signal in this flight is an example 
of one of these unforeseen circumstances. 



Flight Test Results 

The rest of this paper deals primarily with 
the flight test results and flight control prob- 
lems which developed throughout the tliree- 
orbit mission. The observations made by the 
astronaut and his evaluation of the mission are 
presented in paper 12 by Astronaut John H. 
Grlenn, Jr. 

After separation of the spacecraft from the 
launch vehicle, the astronaut was given all the 
pertinent data, involved with orbit parameters 



71 



Table 6— III. — Network Acquisition Times for MA-6 Flight 



letry signal duration, 



Canaveral _ . 
Bermuda. _ . 



Atlantic Ship 

Zanzibar 

Indian Ocean Ship.. 

Muchea 

Woomera 

Canton 

Hawaii 

California 

Guaymas 

Texas 



Canary Islands 

Atlantic Ship 

Kano 

Zanzibar 

Indian Ocean Ship__ 

Muchea 

Woomera 

Canton 

Hawaii 

California 

Guaymas 



Bermuda 

Canary Islands .. 

Atlantic Ship — 
Zanzibar 



00:21:13 



00:2 



:21 



00:5 



):51 



00:40:02 
00:49:21 
00:54:00 
01:09:19 
Not in 

01 :26:41 

01 :26:47 



01 :51:54 
01:54:47 
02:04:05 
02:12:17 
02:22:51 
02:27:36 
02:42:51 
02:49:01 
02:58:11 
02:59:59 
03:03:14 



range 
03:24:44 



00:37:51 
00:48:31 
00:57:55 
01:02:41 



01:: 



:42 



01:31:23 

01:33:25 

01:36:18 

01:37:05 
01:40:03 

01:43:53 

01:53:58 
01:58:31 
02:01:21 
02:10:51 
02:22:09 
02:31:23 
02:35:45 
02:49:45 
02:55:19 
03:04:48 
03:06:44 
03:09:39 



UHF 
UHF 
UHF 
UHF 
UHF 
UHF 



UHF 
UHF 
UHF 
UHF 
UHF 
UHF 
UHF 
UHF 
UHF 
UHF 
UHF 
UHF 



00:22:00 to 00:29:00 
00:30:00 to 00:38:00 
00:41:00 to 00:48:00 
00:50:00 to 00:58:30 
00:56:00 to 01:03:00 
01:09:00 to 01: 15:30 



1:27:30 to 01:30:00 
01:19:00 to 01:25:30 
01:26:00 to 01:33:30 
01:20:30 to 01:26:00 
01:33:30 to 01:39:00 
28:30 to 01:36:30 



01 :33:30 to 01 
28:00 to 01 
01:33:30 to 01 
43:00 to 01 
01 :49:00 to 01 
01:54:00 to 01 
01:58:00 to 02 
02:04:00 to 02 
02:14:00 to 02 
02:25:00 to 02 
02:28:00 to 02: 
41:30 to 02 
02:49:00 to 02 
58 : 30 to 03 
03:00:30 to 03 
03:03:30 to 03 
03:03:30 to 03 
03:07:30 to 03 
03:07:00 to 03 
3:05:00 to 03 
03:00:30 to 03 



40:00 
43:00 
42:00 
49:30 
55:00 
58:00 
02:00 
11:00 
23:00 
32:30 
37:00 
49:00 
55:30 
04:30 
04:30 
10:30 
10:30 
12:30 
14:00 
13:30 



03:1 



:00to 03:1 



03:21:00 to 03:i 



03:41:00 to 03:42:00 

5:48:00 to 03:56:00 
03:58:30 to 04:04:00 
03:57:00 to 03:58:00 



72 



Table 6— III. — Network Acquisition Times for MAS Flight — Continued 



Station 


Telemetry signal duration, 
hr:min:sec 


Voice reception 


Acquisition 


Loss 


Frequency 


Duration, hr:min:sec 




04:03: 16 


04:06:19 


UHF 


04:04:00 to 04:07:00 


C ton 


Not in 




HF 


04:15:30 to 04:21 :00 




range 






Hawaii 


04:21 :49 


04:28:49 




04 : 19:00 to 04 : 40 : 30 










04:20:00 to 04:20 : 15 


California 


04:31 : 17 


04:37:57 


UHF 


04:31 :30 to 04:38:30 










04:19:00 to 04:19:15 


Guaymas - _ _ _ 


04:33:44 


04:39:49 


UHF 


04:34:30 to 04:40:30 




04:36:53 


04:42:32 


TJHF 


04 : 38 : 00 to 04 : 39 : 00 








UHF 


04:41:00 to 04:43:00 








HF 


04:36:00 to 04:45:00 


Eglin 


04:39:00 


04:42:52 


UHF 


04:39:00 to 04:43:30 


Canaveral 


04:40:52 


04:42:55 


UHF 


04:40:30 to 04:44:30 








HF 


04:33:30 to 04:42:30 








HF 


04:35:15 to 04:35:30 











and the retro fire times necessary had immediate 
reentry been required. Following these trans- 
missions, which were primarily from the Ber- 
muda site, the astronaut made the planned 
checks of all of the spacecraft control modes 
using both the automatic and manual propor- 
tional systems. All of these checks indicated 
that all of the control systems were operating 
satisfactorily. Also, the astronaut reported 
that he felt no ill effects as a result of going 
from high accelerations to weightlessness, that 
he felt he was in excellent condition and, as the 
two previous astronauts had commented, that 
he was greatly impressed with the view from 
this altitude. 

The first orbit went exactly as planned and 
both the astronaut and the spacecraft per- 
formed perfectly. Over the Canary Islands' 
site, the astronaut's air-to-ground transmissions 
were patched to the voice network and in turn 
to the Mercury Control Center and provided 
the control center and all other voice sites the 
capability of monitoring the transmissions to 
and from the spacecraft in real time. This con- 
dition existed throughout all three orbits from 
all sites having voice to the control center and 
provided the best tool for maintaining surveil- 
lance of the flight. (See appendix A.) 

Except for the control systems checks which 
were made periodically, the astronaut remained 
on the automatic system with brief periods on 



the fly-by-wire system which utilizes the auto- 
matic control jets. This procedure was as 
planned so that a fixed attitude would be pro- 
vided for radar tracking and so that the astro- 
naut could make the necessary reports and 
observations during the first orbit. During the 
first orbit, it was obvious from the astronaut's 
reports that he could establish the pitch and 
yaw attitude of the spacecraft with precision 
by using the horizon on both the light and 
dark sides of the earth, and that he could also 
achieve a reasonable yaw reference. Aside 
from the xylose tablet taken over Kano, he 
had his first and only food (tube of applesauce) 
over Canton Island during tliis orbit and re- 
ported no problems with eating nor any notice- 
able discomforts following the intake of this 
food. 

During the first orbit, the network radar sys- 
tems were able to obtain excellent tracking data 
and this data, together with the data obtained 
at cutoff, provided very accurate information 
on the spacecraft position and orbit. As an ex- 
ample, between the time the spacecraft was in- 
serted into orbit and the data were received 
from the Australian sites, the retrosequence 
times changed a total of only 7 seconds for 
retrofire at the end of 3 orbits. This indicated 
the accuracy of the orbit parameters. From 
this point to the end of the 3-orbit flight, using 
all of the available radar data, these times 



73 



changed only 2 seconds. The final retrose- 
quence time was 04 : 32 : 38 as compared with the 
time initially computed at cutoff of 04:32:47 
and the time initially set into the clock on the 
ground before liftoff of 04 : 32 : 28. All of the 
network sites received data from the spacecraft 
and maintained communications with the astro- 
naut from horizon to horizon, and everything 
progressed in a completely normal fashion. Be- 
cause of the excellent condition of the astronaut 
and the spacecraft, there was no question about 
continuing into the second orbit, and a "go" de- 
cision was made among personnel at Guaymas, 
Mexico and the Mercury Control Center and 
"foremost'' the astronaut himself. 

Shortly after the time that the "go'" decision 
was made at Guaymas, the spacecraft began to 
drift in right yaw. After allowing the space- 
craft to go through several cycles of drifting in 
yaw attitude and then being returned by the 
high thrust jets, the astronaut reported that he 
had no 1-pound jet action in left yaw. With 
an astronaut aboard the spacecraft, this mal- 
function was considered a minor problem, espe- 
cially since he still had control over the space- 
craft with a number of other available control 
systems. It should be pointed out, however, 
that without an astronaut aboard the space- 
craft, this problem would have been very serious 
in that excessive amounts of fuel would have 
been used; and it may have been necessary to 
reenter the spacecraft in some contingency re- 
covery area because of this high f lel-usage rate. 

During the pass over ~he control center on 
the second orbit, it was noticed that the telem- 
etry channel used to indicate that the land- 
ing bag was deployed was showing a readout 
which, if true, indicated that the landing-bag 
deployment mechanism had been actuated. 
However, because there was no indication to 
the astronaut and be had not reported hearing 
any unusual noises or noticing any motions of 
the heat shield, it was felt that this signal, al- 
though a proper telemetry output, was false 
and probably had resulted from the failure of 
the sensing switch. Of course, this event caused 
a great deal of analysis to result and later re- 
quired the most important decision of the mis- 
sion to be made. 

The flight continued with no further serious 
problems and the astronaut performed the 
planned 180° yaw maneuver over Africa to 



observe the earth and horizon while traveling 
in this direction and to determine his ability 
to control. Following this maneuver, the as- 
tronaut began to have what appeared to be 
trouble with the gyro reference system, that is, 
the attitudes as indicated by the spacecraft's 
instruments did not agree with the visual ref- 
erence of the astronaut. However, the astro- 
naut reported he had no trouble in maintaining 
the proper attitude of the spacecraft when he 
desired to do so by using the visual reference. 
Because of the problems witli the automatic 
control system, previously mentioned, and the 
apparent gyro reference problem, the astronaut 
was forced to deviate from the flight plan to 
some extent, but he was able to continue all of 
the necessary control systems tasks and checks 
and to make a number of other prescribed tests 
which allowed both the astronaut and the 
ground to evaluate his performance and the 
performance of the spacecraft systems. As ob- 
served by the ground and the astronaut, the 
horizon scanners appeared to deteriorate when 
on the dark side of the earth; but when the 
spacecraft again came into daylight the refer- 
ence system appeared to improve. However, 
analyses of the data subsequent to the flight 
proved that the horizon scanner system was 
functioning properly but the changes in space- 
craft attitudes that resulted from the maneuvers 
performed by the astronaut, caused the errone- 
ous outputs which he noticed on the attitude 
instruments. It has been known that spurious 
attitude outputs would result if the gyro refer- 
ence system were allowed to remain in effect 
during large; deviations from the normal orbit 
attitude of 0° yaw, 0° roll and 34° pitch, and 
this was apparently the case during the 180° 
yaw maneuver which was conducted over 
Africa. This condition will be alleviated in 
future flights by allowing the astronaut to dis- 
connect the horizon scanner slaving system and 
the programmed precession of the tyros which 
preserves the local horizon to be disconnected 
while he is maintaining attitudes other than the 
normal spacecraft orbit attitude. 

As the go-no-go point at the end of the second 
and beginning of the third orbit approached, 
it was determined that although some spacecraft 
malfunctions had occurred, the astronaut con- 
tinued to be in excellent condition and had com- 
plete control of the spacecraft. He was told 



74 



by the Hawaiian site that the Mercury Control 
Center had made the decision to continue into 
the third orbit. The astronaut concurred, and 
the decision was made to complete the three- 
orbit mission. 

One other problem which caused some minor 
concern was the increase in inverter tempera- 
tures to values somewhat above those desired. 
It appeared, and the flight test results con- 
firmed, that the cooling system for these in- 
verters was not functioning. However, recent 
tests made previous to the flight had shown that 
the inverters could withstand these and higher 
operating temperatures. The results of these 
tests caused the flight control people to mini- 
mize this problem, and it was decided that this 
minor malfunction was not of sufficient magni- 
tude to terminate the flight after the second or- 
bit. Furthermore, a backup inverter was still 
available for use had one of the main inverters 
failed during the third orbit. 

During the third orbit, the apparent prob- 
lems with the gyro reference system continued 
and the automatic stabilization and control sys- 
tem (ASCS) malfunctions in the yaw axis were 
still evident. However, these problems were 
not major and both the ground and the astro- 
naut considered that the entire situation was 
well under control. This was primarily be- 
cause of the excellent condition of the astronaut 
and his ability to use visual references on both 
the dark and light sides of the earth, and the 
fact that most of the control systems were still 
performing perfectly. The one problem which 
remained outstanding and unresolved was the 
determination of whether the heat-shield de- 
ployment mechanism had been actuated or 
whether the telemetry signal was false due to a 
sensing switch failure. During the pass over 
Hawaii on the third orbit, the astronaut was 
asked to perform some additional checks on the 
landing-bag deployment system. Although the 
test results were negative and further indicated 
that the signal was false, they were not conclu- 
sive. There were still other possible malfunc- 
tions and the decision was made at the control 
center that the safest path to take was to leave 
the retropackage on following retrofire. This 
decision was made on the basis that the retro- 
package straps attached to the spacecraft and 
the spacecraft heat shield would maintain the 
heat shield in the closed position until sufficient 



aerodynamic force was exerted to keep the 
shield on the spacecraft. In addition, based on 
studies made in the past, it was felt that the re- 
tention of the package would not cause any seri- 
ous damage to the heat shield or the spacecraft 
during the reentry and would burn off during 
the reentry heat pulse. 

Also during the pass over the Hawaiian site, 
the astronaut went over his retrosequence check- 
list and prepared for the retrofire maneuver. 
It was agreed that the flight plan would be 
followed and that the retrofire maneuver would 
take place using the automatic control system, 
with the astronaut prepared to take over man- 
ually should a malfunction occur. Additional 
time checks were also made over Hawaii to make 
sure that the retrofire clock was properly set 
and synchronized to provide retrofire at the 
proper moment. The astronaut himself con- 
tinued to be in excellent condition and showed 
complete confidence in his ability to control any 
situation which might develop. 

The retrofire manuever took place at pre- 
cisely the right time over the California site 
and, as a precautionary measure, the astronaut 
performed manual control along with the auto- 
matic control during this maneuver. The atti- 
tudes during retrofire were held within about 
3° of the nominal attitudes as a result of this 
procedure, but large amounts of fuel were ex- 
pended. Following this maneuver, the astro- 
naut was instructed to retain the retropackage 
during reentry and was notified that he would 
have to retract the periscope manually and ini- 
tiate the return to reentry attitude and the plan- 
ned roll rate because of this interruption to the 
normal spacecraft sequence of events. 

Following the firing of the retrorockets and 
with subsequent radar track, the real-time com- 
puters gave a predicted landing point. The 
predictions were within a small distance of 
where the spacecraft and astronaut were finally 
retrieved. As far as the ground was concerned, 
the reentry into the earth's atmosphere was en- 
tirely normal. The ionization blackout oc- 
curred within a few seconds of the expected 
time and although voice communications with 
the astronaut were lost for approximately 4 
minutes and 20 seconds, the C-band radar units 
continued to track throughout this period and 
provided some confidence that all was well 
throughout the high heating period. As it 



75 



might be expected, voice communications re- 
ceived from the astronaut following the ioniza- 
tion blackout period resulted in a great sigh of 
relief within the Mercury Control Center. The 
astronaut continued to report that he was in 
excellent condition after this time, and the re- 
entry sequence from this point on was entirely 
normal. 

A number of spacecraft control problems 
were experienced following peak reentry ac- 
celeration primarily because of the method of 
control used during this period. In addition, 
large amounts of fuel from both the manual 
ajid automatic systems has been used and finally 
i-esulted in fuel depletion of both systems just 



previous to the time that the drogue chute was 
deployed. The results of these flight tests have 
indicated that somewhat different control pro- 
cedures be used during this period for the next 
flight. 

The communications with the astronaut 
during the latter stages of descent on both the 
drogue and main parachutes were excellent and 
allowed communications with either the astro- 
naut or the recovery forces throughout this en- 
tire descent phase and the recovery operations 
which took place following the landing. The 
landing occurred at 2:43 p.m. e.s.t. after 4 
hours, 55 minutes, and 23 seconds of flight. The 
recovery operations are described in paper 7. 



76 



7. RECOVERY OPERATIONS 



By Robert F. Thompson, Flight Operations Division, NASA Manned Spacecraft Center; and 
Enoch M. Jones, Flight Operations Division, NASA Manned Spacecraft Center 



Summary 

Astronaut Glenn and his spacecraft were re- 
covered by the destroyer USS Noa in the North 
Atlantic planned recovery area after a flight 
of three orbits around the earth. A description 
of the events occurring in this recovery opera- 
tion and a general description of the scope of 
recovery support required for the MA-6 flight 
are presented. Also, the composition and de- 
ployment of the recovery forces provided for 
various landing situations are outlined and the 
location and retrieval techniques available to 
these forces are discussed. 

Introduction 

This paper presents a general description of 
the total scope of recovery support provided for 
the MA-6 flight, briefly describes the location 
and retrieval techniques available in various 
landing situations, and describes the MA-6 re- 
covery operation in the actual landing area. 

Recovery operations are defined as the sup- 
port required for location and retrieval of the 
astronaut and spacecraft, subsequent to landing. 
Before the MA-6 recovery is discussed specifi- 
cally, two general points are noted. The sup- 
port provided for all Mercury flights reflects a 
consideration of both normal flights and various 
possible abort situations; and it is the latter 
case, that is, supporting possible abort situa- 
tions having a reasonable probability of occur- 
ring, that imposes by far the greatest support 
requirements on recovery forces. Consequently, 
while a relatively large number of recovery ve- 
hicles and personnel are required to provide the 
desired support capability, only a few actually 
become directly involved in the recovery for 
any given operation. 

Secondly, the recovery forces which have 
supported Project Mercury flight operations — 
the airplanes, ships, helicopters, and other spe- 



cial vehicles — are provided by the Department 
of Defense, and for the most part represent op- 
erational units that devote only a relatively 
small part of their total workload to Mercury 
recover;'. Recovery techniques and equipment 
have been developed which permit the Depart- 
ment of Defense to support this program with 
an acceptable diversion from their normal 
functions. 

Deployment of Support Forces 

In order to describe the recovery support pro- 
vided for the MA-6 flight, recovery areas are 
considered in two broad categories: Planned 
recovery areas in which the probability of land- 
ing was considered sufficiently high to require 
the positioning of location and retrieval units 
assuring recovery within a specific time; and 
contingency recovery areas in which the prob- 
ability of landing was considered sufficiently 
low to require only the utilization of specialized 
search and rescue procedures. 

The planned recovery areas were all located 
in the North Atlantic Ocean as shown in figure 
7-1, and table 7-1 is a summary of the support 
positioned in these areas at launch time for the 
MA-6 flight. 




80 4 60* 40* 20" 



E*igube 7-1. — MA-6 planned recovery areas. 



77 



Special recovery teams utilizing- helicopters, 
amphibious vehicles, and salvage ships were 
located at the launch site to provide rapid ac- 
cess to the spacecraft for landings resulting 
from possibile aborts daring the late count- 
down and the early phase of powered flight. 
Winds at the launch site were measured and 
the locus of probable landing positions for 
various abort times were computed to facilitate 
positioning of these recovery forces. 

Areas A to E supported all probable landings 
in the event an abort- was necessitated at any- 
time during powered flight. Area A would 
contain landings for abort -v elocities up to about 
24,000 feet per second, and Areas B, C, D, and 
E would support higher abort velocities where 
programed use of the retrorockets become ef- 
fective in localizing the landing area. Forces 
as shown in table 7-1 were positioned in these 
areas to provide for location and retrieval 
within a maximum of 3 hours in the areas of 
higher landing probability and 6 hours in the 
areas where the probability of landing was 
somewhat lower. 

Once the spacecraft was in orbital flight, 
Areas F, G, and H were available for landing 
at the end of the first, second, or third orbits, 
respectively. Forces as shown in table 7-1 
were available to assure location and retrieval 
within a maximum of 3 hours for most probable 
landing situations. 

Thus, to assure short-rime recovery for all 
probable aborts that could occur during pow- 
ered flight and for landings at the end of each 
of the three orbits, a total of 21 ships. 12 heli- 
copters, and 16 search aircraft were on station 
in the deep-water landing areas at the time of 
the MA-fi launch. Backup search aircraft were 
available at several staging locations to assure 
maintaining the airborne aircraft listed in table 
7-1. These forces in the planned recovery areas 
were all linked by communications with the 
recovery control center located within the 
Mercury Control Center at Cape Canaveral. 

Since it was recognized that certain low prob- 
ability situations could lead to a spacecraft 
landing at essentially any point along the 
ground track over which the spacecraft flies, 
suitable recovery plans and support forces were 
provided to cover this unlikely contingency. In 
keeping with the low probabilities associated 
with remote landings, a minimum type of sup- 



port was planned for contingency recovery; 
however, a large force is required because of 
the extensive areas covered in three orbits 
around the earth. The location of contingency 
recovery units for the MA-6 flight is shown in 
figure 7-2. A typical unit consists basically of 
two search aircraft specially equipped for 
CHF/DF homing on spacecraft beacons, point- 
to-point and ground-to-air communications, 
and pararescue personnel equipped to provide 
on-scene assistance on both land and water. No 
retrieval forces were deployed in support of 
contingency landings; procedures were availa- 
ble for retrieval support for after the fact. 
These search and rescue units were stationed at 
the 16 locations shown in figure 7-2, and were 
all linked by communications with the recovery 
control center at Cape Canaveral. Throughout 
the MA-6 flight, the astronaut was continually 
provided with retrofiring times for landing in 
favorable contingency recovery areas. How- 
ever, the contingency forces deployed had the 
capability of flying to any point along the 
orbital track if required. 

Recovery Techniques 

In order to complete the description of the 
recovery forces that were deployed for the 
MA-6 flight, it is important to have a general 
understanding of the techniques that were 
available for location and retrieval in various 
situations. 

Location 

Launch-site forces are expected to have vis- 
ual contact with the spacecraft should an abort 
occur in their area. Launches are scheduled 
after daylight in the launch area and satisfac- 
tory weather- is assured before launching. The 




160 120 80 40 ~0 40 80 120 160 



Figure 7-2. — MA-6 staging locations for contingency 



78 



launch-site recovery commander is airborne in 
a helicopter behind the launch pad at the time 
of launch, and other launch-type support forces 
are prebriefed and deployed where possible 
aborts could be effectively observed and re- 
trieval assignments executed. 

In the deep-water areas of the North Atlan- 
tic, search aircraft are airborne in the recovery 
areas prior to spacecraft fly-over or landing. If 
required, the aircraft would be directed toward 
a search datum established from landing-pre- 
diction information provided by the Mercury 
tracking-corn pitting network and other space- 
craft location systems; such as, SOFAR, the 
sound fixing and ranging system which utilizes 
an underwater detonation technique, and HF/ 
DF (high frequency/direction finding), the 
fixing of spacecraft position by land-based sta- 
tions utilizing HF radio signals radiated from 
the spacecraft subsequent to landing. Accu- 
racy of the datum is expected to be sufficient to 
bring these airborne search aircraft equipped 
with special electronic receivers within range of 
spacecraft electronic beacons operating in the 
UHF (ultra high frequency) range. When 
within UHF/DF range, the search aircraft can 
commence "homing" on the spacecraft elec- 
tronic beacons until visual contact is estab- 
lished. Fluorescein sea marker and a flashing 
light are provided as visual location aids. 
Lookouts aboard the recovery ships are also on 
alert during the reentry and landing phase in 
an attempt to sight the spacecraft. 

In contingency areas, procedures utilized for 
MA-6 called for the search aircraft to remain 
on the ground in an "alert'" status. In the 
event, of a contingency landing, a search area 
would be established by the recovery control 
center from information similar to that used 
in the planned areas for establishing the search 
datum. Contingency aircraft were also 
equipped with UHF/DF equipment compatible 
with spacecraft beacons and would utilize this 
equipment to locate the spacecraft. This 
"ground alert" procedure assured maximum 
utilization of all aircraft and still permitted 
reaching all possible landing sites well within 
the lifetime of spacecraft location aids. 

Retrieval 

Recovery units deployed to provide a re- 
trieval capability generally have several tech- 



niques or modes of operation available for 
adapting to different possible situations. It is 
beyond the scope of this discussion of MA-6 
recovery operations to describe all of the vari- 
ous capabilities involved, and only limited com- 
ments are made in order to provide a general 
feeling of what retrieval support was available 
at the time of the MA-6 launch. 

All recovery ships have the basic capability 
of hoisting the Mercury spacecraft clear of the 
water and securing it on deck. Basic plans call 
for the astronaut to remain in the spacecraft 
until it is aboard ship and egress at this time; 
however, he could egress from the spacecraft 
prior to pickup if this procedure l)eeame 
desirable. 

The helicopters which were in the launch 
site and in each of the end-of-orbit landing 
areas have three techniques available for re- 
trieval. They are: deployment of a flotation 
collar and retrieval of the astronaut only, simul- 
taneous retrieval of the astronaut and the space- 
craft, with transfer of the astronaut to the heli- 
copter, and simultaneous retrieval of the 
astronaut and the spacecraft with the astronaut 
remaining in the spacecraft. Only the first 
case is discussed since this method of retrieval 
was planned as the primary technique for use 
by helicopters had they become involved in 
MA-6. Two swimmers are deployed into the 
water from the retrieval helicopter and they 
affix a flotation collar to the spacecraft as shown 
in figure !-?>. This collar is positioned about 




Figure 7-3. — Helicopter retrieval technique. 

79 




Figure 7-4. — On-scene assistance to contingency 
landing on -.vater. 

the spacecraft before inflation; and when the 
dual rings are inflated, the spacecraft is par- 
tially supported and, relative to the spacecraft, 
becomes a ve ry stable working plat form. After 
collar installation, the astronaut can egress 
either through the tower as shown in figure 7-3 
or through the side hatch for transfer to the 
helicopter by personnel hoist. 

The flotation collar is also utilized in pro- 
viding contingency recovei-y forces with an 011- 
scene assistance capability for remote water 
landings. This mode of operation is depicted 
in figure 7-4 which shows pararescue personnel 
at the spacecraft following their deployment by 
parachute from a contingency search aircraft. 

This discussion of the recovery forces that 
were deployed and the brief resume of the pro- 
cedures to be utilized for location and retrieval 
in various situations provide a background for 
describing the actual MA-6 location and 
retrieval. 

Description of MA-6 Recovery 

Recovery forces in all areas were notified of 
mission progress by the recovery control center. 
Consequently, units located at the end of the 
third orbit knew they were to become involved, 
and figure 7-5 presents recovery details in the 
MA-6 landing area. An aircraft carrier with 
retrieval helicopters was located in the center 
of the planned landing area, one destroyer was 




/- DESTROYER 
SOFAR FIX 

TELEMETRY AIRCRAFT 
^CARRIER 

DESTROYER 



■^TELEMETRY \ ^ 
AIRCRAFT 1 SEARCH ^ . 

AIRCRAFT 



Figure 7-5.— MA-6 landing area. 

located about 40 nautical miles downrange, and 
a second destroyer was located about. 40 nauti- 
cal miles uprange. Telemetry and search air- 
craft were airborne in the areas as shown. 
After the retrorocket maneuver and about 1,5 
minutes prior to the estimated time of landing, 
the recovery control center notified the recov- 
ery forces that according to calculations, the 
landing was predicted to occur near the up- 
range destroyer as shown in figure 7-5. The 
astronaut was also provided with this in- 
formation by the Mercury Control Center as 
soon as communications were reestablished 
after the spacecraft emerged from the ioniza- 
tion blackout. Lookouts aboard the FSS -Vo,v. 
the destroyer in the. uprange position, sighted 
the main parachute of the spacecraft as it de- 
scended below a broken cloud layer at nn alti- 
tude of about 5,000 feet from a raiue of ap- 
proximately 5 nautical miles. Con: uunications 
were established between the spa ■■ecru ft and the 
destroyer, and a continuous flow of information 
was passed throughout the remainder of the 
recovery operation. 

In this case, location was very straightfor- 
ward in that a retrieval ship gained visual con- 
tact during spacecraft landing. However, as 
a matter of interest for future operations since 
visual sightings are probably the exception 
rather than the rule, other spacecraft location 
information available soon after landing is 
also plotted in figure 7-5. The SOFAR fix was 
approximately 4 nautical miles from the land- 
ing point, and the first two HF/DF fixes were 
within approximately 25 miles of the actual 
spacecraft position. This landing information, 
along with the calculated landing position pro- 
vided by the Mercury network, would have as- 
sured bringing search aircraft within UHF/ 
I)F range. In fact, the airborne search air- 




Figubb 7-6.— MA-6 retrieval by destroyer USS Noa. 



craft in the MA-6 landing area obtained 
UHF/DF contact with the spacecraft shortly 
after beacon activation at main parachute 
opening: however, it was the Noa'x day and she 
was on her way to retrieve. 

The Noa had the spacecraft aboard 20 min- 
utes after landing. Figure 7-6 shows the 
spacecraft as it is being lowered to the deck. 
Astronaut Glenn remained in the spacecraft 
during pickup; and after it was positioned on 
the ship's deck, he egressed from the spacecraft 
through the side hatch. Original plans had 
called for egress through the top at this time; 
however, the astronaut was becoming uncom- 
fortably warm and decided to leave by the 
easier egress path. 

In making the pickup, the Noa maneuvered 
alongside the spacecraft and engaged a hook 
into the spacecraft's lifting loop. The hook is 
rigged on the end of a detachable pole to facili- 
tate this engagement and the lifting line is 
rigged over one of the ship's regular boat davits 



as shown in figure 7-6. A deck winch is used 
for inhauling the lifting line, and when the 
spacecraft is properly positioned vertically, the 
davit is rotated inboard to position the space- 
craft on deck. A brace attached to the davit 
is lowered over the top of the spacecraft to pre- 
vent swinging once the spacecraft is clear of the 
water. 

Each ship in the recovery force had em- 
barked a special medical team consisting of two 
doctors and one technician to provide medical 
care and/or initial postflight medical debrief- 
ing. For the MA-6 mission, postflight medical 
debriefing was the only requirement and was 
completed onboard the Noa in about 2 hours 
after pickup. The astronaut was then trans- 
ferred to the aircraft carrier for further trans- 
fer to Grand Turk Island, and he arrived there 
approximately 5 hours after landing. Addi- 
tional engineering and medical debriefmgs were 
conducted at Grand Turk. 



81 



Table 7-1. — MA-6 Recovery Forces for the Planned Recovery Areas 



Area 


search 
aircraft 


Number of 
helicopters 


Number of ships 


Maximum 
time, hr 


Launch site 




3 




Short 
3 to 6 
3 to 6 




6 


8 destroyers . 


B, C, D, E 






1 destroyer each 


F, G, H 


2 each 


3 each 


{2 destroyers each 


) • 












Total 


16 


12 


91 













82 



8. AEROMEDICAL PREPARATION AND RESULTS OF POSTFLIGHT 
MEDICAL EXAMINATIONS 



By Howard A. Minners, M.D., Life Systems Division, NASA Manned Spacecraft Center; William K. 
Douglas, M.D., Astronaut Flight Surgeon, NASA Manned Spacecraft Center; Edward C. Knoblock, 
Ph. D., Walter Reed Army Institute of Research; Ashton Graybiel, M.D., USN School of Aviation 
Medicine, Pensacola, Fla; and Willard R. Hawkins, M.D., Office of the Surgeon General, Hq. USAF, 
Washington, D.C. 



Summary 

The preflight and postflight medical evalua- 
tions have revealed no adverse effect of 4*4 
hours of space flight per se. In an effort to in- 
terpret such normal results, three alternatives 
come to mind : 

(1) As measured by available techniques of 
examination, space flight has, indeed, no ill 
effect. 

(2) The effects of space flight may be so 
evanescent that they were resolved before the 
pilot could be examined after the flight. 

(3) The MA-6 space flight was of insufficient 
duration to produce detectable effects or such 
effects have not yet become evident. 

Further study in future manned space flights 
should help to determine which of these, or 
other, possible interpretations is correct. 

Introduction 

Comprehensive medical evaluations of Astro- 
naut John H. Glenn, Jr., were performed prior 
to his orbital space flight and as soon after this 
flight as recovery practices permitted. Pri- 
marily, these examinations were accomplished 
to determine the pilot's state of health and his 
medical fitness for flight. In addition, such 
clinical evaluations serve as baseline medical 
data which may be correlated with inflight 
physiological information. 

Aeromedical data sources utilized to establish 
Astronaut Glenn's state of health are: 

(1) Prior medical examination commencing 
with astronaut selection in 1959. 



(2) Detailed preflight clinical evaluations 
conducted prior to the canceled and successful 
missions. 

(3) Immediate preflight examination con- 
ducted on launch morning. 

(4) Postflight medical examinations aboard 
the recovery ships and at the Grank Turk Is- 
land medical facility. 

Preflight Examinations 

The pilot's general preflight activities, com- 
mencing with preparation for a planned early 
January 1962 launch, are summarized in table 
8-1. Throughout this period, his physical and 
mental health remained excellent. 

Lift-off marks the simultaneous culmination 
of a number of different countdowns used for 
such a complex mission. The aeromedical 
countdown represents an effort not only to af- 
ford the pilot sufficient time for sleep and im- 
mediate preparation for the mission, but also 
seeks to insert him into the spacecraft at the 
time required by the other countdowns. By 
careful planning of aeromedical countdown 
events, the pilot can be maintained in optimum 
condition and embarks on the flight with a min- 
imum of fatigue and in the best physical con- 
dition. Significant MA-6 aeromedical count- 
down events are listed in table 8-II. A total 
of 7 hours and 27 minutes elapsed between 
awakening the pilot and lift-off; he did not get 
to sleep again until 23 hours and 10 minutes 
after being awakened at 2 :20 a.m. e.s.t. on the 
morning of the flight. Therefore, on flight day 
the pilot spent more than 5 hours on the ground 
for every hour in space flight. 



83 



Table S-1.—MA-6 Pilot's Prefiight Activities 



Date 


Activity 1 


December 
1961 




13, 15, and 16 


Simulated orbital mission 


January 
1962 " 




15 

16 and 18 
17 

iy 

20 and 23 
22 

27 


Flight acceptance composite 
test, launch pad 

Simulated orbital mission 

Launch simulation, launch 
pad; network simulation 

Launch simulation 

Simulated flight, launch pad 

Full mission simulation; spe- 
cialists medical examinations, 
hospital 

Prefiight physical examination, 
countdown, launch pad; can- 
celed flight 


February 
1962 ' 




7 and 8 
9 and 13 

15 
17 
20 


Simulated launch aborts 
Mercury orbital simulation 
Specialists medical examina- 
tions, hospital 
Insertions 
Launch simulation 
Actual MA-6 flight 



1 In Cape Canaveral procedures trainer, unless 
otherwise stated. 



Detailed medical examinations were con- 
ducted prior to the canceled flight in Januaiy 
1962 and before the flight in February. Aspects 
of the examination which were not time critical 
were completed several days before the launch 
and included the following: specialists' evalua- 
tions in neurology, ophthalmology, aviation 
medicine, psychiatry, and radiology; a standard 
12-lead electrocardiogram, an audiogram, and 
an electroencephalogram; and biochemical 
studies of blood and urine. All of these evalu- 
ations showed normal results and revealed no 
change from the numerous preceding examina- 
tions. In addition, special labyrinthine studies 
were performed in which the pilot was timed 
and scored on his ability to maintain his balance 
while walking along successively more narrow 
rails as depicted in figure 8-1. Astronaut 




Figure 8-1. — Balance test. 

Glenn's routine scores on these rails are consid- 
erably higher than those which have been ob- 
tained from a group of flight personnel. Also, 



Table 8— II. — Significant Events Prior to Launch 



Date 




Event 


February 




Began low residue 


16, 1962 




diet 


February 


9:30 p. m. 


Retired 1 


19, 1962 






February 


2:20 a.m. 


Awakened and 


20, 1962 




showered 




2:50 a.m. 


Breakfast 




3:05 a.m. 


Physical examina- 










4:28 a.m. 


Suiting started 




5:05 a.m. 


Entered transfer 




5:20 a.m. 


Arrived at launch 






pad and remained 






in transfer van 




5:58 a.m. 


Ascended gantry 




6:06 a.m. 


Insertion into space- 










6:25 a.m. 


Countdown resumed 




9:47 a.m. 


Launch 



' Obtained 4 hours and 50 minutes of dozing, light 
sleep. No medication administered. 



84 



his auditory canals were irrigated for 45 seconds 
with carefully temperature-regulated water, 
and the warmest temperature at which fine 
nystagmus began was recorded as the threshold 
temperature. 

The pilot was again examined on launch 
morning by specialists in aviation medicine and 
internal medicine. This examination, begun 
at 3 :05 a.m. e.s.t. on February 20, 1962 (the day 
of the flight), revealed a calm, healthy, and 
alert adult male. Vital signs were as follows : 
pulse, 68 beats per minute and regular; blood 
pressure 118/80 mm Hg (left, arm sitting) ; 
respiration 14 breaths per minute; oral temper- 
ature, 98.2° F; and nude weight with the 
bladder empty 171 pounds 7 ounces. Eyes, ears, 
nose, and throat were normal and unchanged 
from previous examination. Lungs were clear 
throughout and diaphragmatic excursion was 
full. Examination of the heart revealed that 
the aortic second sound was equal to the pul- 
monic second sound when the examinee was in 
a sitting position, and the pulmonic second 
sound was greater than the aortic second sound 
when the examinee was supine. The cardiac 
sounds were of good quality, were not split, 
and there were no murmurs. The abdomen was 
well relaxed ; there was no tenderness and no 
masses. The liver edge was barely ] 



and there was no costovertebral angle nor 
bladder tenderness. Skin was clear and a cur- 
sory neurologic examination was normal. Some 
of these findings, along with extremity meas- 
urements, are listed in table 8-IIL The au- 
thors have taken the liberty of summarizing 
the clinical findings of Dr. Myers, Neurologist, 
Dr. Clark, Ophthalmologist, Dr. Buff, Psychi- 
atrist, and Drs. Mclver and Mullin, recovery 
forces physicians. 

Post flight Examinations 

Postflight medical evaluation began when 
Astronaut Glenn emerged from the spacecraft 
on board the destroyer Noa 39 minutes after 
landing. The pilot was described as appearing 
hot, sweating profusely, and fatigued. He was 
lucid, although not talkative, and had no med- 
ical complaints other than being hot ; there was 
no other subjective evidence of dehydration. 
After removal of his pressure suit and a shower, 
the pilot began with the shipboard medical 
debriefing. 

A brief medical history of the space flight 
revealed that in spite of voluntary, rather vio- 
lent head maneuvers by the pilot in flight, he 
specifically noted no gastrointestinal, vestibu- 
lar, nor disorientation symptoms while weight - 



Table 8— III. — Clinical Evaluation 
(All times are Eastern Standard) 



General status 

Weight, lb 

Temperature, 0 F 

Respiration, breaths/m 

Pulse, beats/min 

Blood pressure, (left a 
Hg. 

Heart and lungs 

Skin 



Preflight {launch morning) 



Extremity measurements: 

Wrist, in 

Calf (maximum), in... 
Ankle (minimum), in.. 



Eager for flight 

171^6 at 3:15 a.m 

98.2 (oral) 

118/80 (sitting) 

Normal 

No erythema or abrasions 



Alert, but not talkative; sweating pro- 
fusely; appeared fatigued; not hungry. 

166 2/ ia at 6:50 p.m. (5 5/ iS lb loss) 1 . 

99.2 (rectal at 4:00 p.m.); 98.0 (oral at 
12:00 p.m.). 

14. 

76 on shipboard, 72 at Grand Turk. 
105/60 (standing); 120/60 (supine) at 3:45 

p.m.; 128/78 (sitting) at 9:30 p.m. 
Normal — no change. 

Erythema of biosensor sites; superficial 
abrasions second and third fingers of 
right hand. 

Left Right 



6J4 

16% 



16H 



1 Not true inflight weight loss si 
4 hours, 8 minutes after landing. 



e neither the same nor compared and postflight weight was 



less. Like-wise, he experienced no adverse 
effects from isolation or confinement. Specifi- 
cally, there was no sensory deprivation. His 
flight plan, in addition to the requirement to 
control the spacecraft on the fly-by-wire system, 
kept Astronaut Glenn very active and busy dur- 
ing the flight, and there was no so-called "'break- 
off" phenomenon. As evidenced by the numer- 
ous inflight reports, by task performance, and 
by the onboard film, the pilot's mental and psy- 
chomotor responses were consistently appropri- 
ate. Psychiatrically, both before and after, and 
during the flight, he exhibited entirely normal 
behavior. He did describe a mild sensation of 
"stomach awareness," which in no way approxi- 
mated nausea or vomiting. This sensation, 
which cleared spontaneously in V/ 2 hours, be- 
gan after the spacecraft was on the water and 
during the 20-minute period before recovery. 
At the time of landing, the ambient air tem- 
perature was 76° F with 60 to 65 percent rela- 
tive humidity; suit inlet temperature was 85° 
F; cabin air temperature was 103° F. The 
pilot ingested the equivalent of only 94 cubic 
centimeters of water (applesauce puree) for 
the rather long period of almost 13 hours from 
breakfast at 2 :50 a.m. e.s.t. to shipboard at 3 :4o 
p.m. e.s.t. During the flight, he also ate one 
5.0-gram sugar tablet (xylose) . Gastrointesti- 
nal function while weightless, as measured by 
xylose absorption, was normal. (See table 8- 
IV). The fluid intake and output is shown in 
table 8-V. 

The immediate postflight medical examina- 
tion onboard the destroyer recorded the follow- 
ing vital signs: rectal temperature, 99.2° F, 
blood pressure, 120/60 mm Hg supine, pulse 76 



Table 8-V. — Fluid Intake and Output 





Urine 
Output 1 




Fluid Intake 


e.s.t. 


Countdown _ 


0 cc 

" 800 cc 

0 cc 




0 cc 
a 94 cc 

f265 cc iced tea 
1 240 cc water 
il25 cc coffee 




Inflight _ 

Postflight, ship 


2:00 p.m. 


11:48 a.m. 
3:45 p.m. 
6:30 p.m. 
6:50 p.m. 






Total 


800 cc 




724 cc 





1 See also table 8- VI. 

2 Specific gravity, 1.016. 

5 119.5 grams of applesauce puree (78.7 percent water) 



beats/min and regular. There were two small 
superficial skin abrasions of the knuckles of the 
second and third fingers of the right hand with- 
out deformation or fracture. These were re- 
ceived when the plunger of the explosive actua- 
tor for the egress hatch recoiled against the 
pilot's gloved hand. The skin also revealed an 
area of moderate reddening and a pressure 
point at the site where the blood pressure micro- 
phone had been attached. Furthermore, there 
was a mild reaction to the moleskin adhesive 
plaster which attached the four ECG electrodes. 
Head, eye, ear, nose, and throat examinations 
were normal. The heart rhythm, size, and 
sounds were normal, and the lungs were clear, 
without physical evidence of local pulmonary 
collapse. Abdominal examination was nega- 
tive, and the lower extremities showed no swell- 
ing nor evidence of venous thrombosis. A 
general neurologic examination was entirely 
normal. Urine and blood samples were ob- 
tained for later analysis. (See tables 8- VI 




Figure 8-2. — Urine summary. 



87 



MA-6 flight j 






1 






?a | Sim ;«***; | 


5a ; Sillf 1 | 


: — = 1 




; 8isa 3 = | 


+ £ 




¥-- 




mm 




iiiit 








>f 


si Hi: 






t| 




7t 


WW ! 1 


i 


1 




i | | J 


I 






I 


il! 



Table 8-VIL— Peripheral Blood 





Preflight 


Postflight 




Mar. 


Aug. 


Aug. 


— 29 


-8 


+ 8 hr i 


+ 46 hr 1 




1959 


1960 


1961 


days 1 


days 1 






Hematocrit, percent 


45 


45 


42 




39. 5 


46 


42 


Hemoglobin (Cyanmethemo- 






globin method), grams/100 ml. 


15. 7 


15. 3 


13. 6 


14. 5 


14. 1 


16. 1 


14 7 


Red blood cells X IC/mm 3 








4. 75 


4. 96 


4. 82 


5. 03 


White blood cells/mm 3 


5, 000 


5, 000 


6, 310 


5, 100 


4, 650 


8, 200 


5, 450 


Differential white-blood count: 
















Lymphocytes, percent 


40 


41 


45 


37 


47 


36 


33 


Neutrophils, percent-. 


58 


49 


42 


57 


47 


58 


57 




1 


6 


7 


3 


3 


3 


3 


Eosinophiles, percent 




4 




1 


2 


2 


5 


Basophiles, percent 




0 




2 




1 


2 



1 Determinations by same technician. 



and 8-VII and fig. 8-2.) The inflight urine 
collection device contained 800 cubic centi- 
meters of clear, straw-colored urine with a 
specific gravity of 1.016, pH 6.0, and was nega- 
tive microscopically and for blood, protein, 
glucose and acetone. This volume of urine 
was passed just prior to retrosequence ; bladder 
sensation and function while weightless was 
normal and unchanged from that of the cus- 
tomary lg, ground environment. 

At 5:45 p.m. e.s.t. the pilot was transferred 
to the aircraft carrier U.S.S. Randolph where 
posterior-anterior, and lateral chest X-rays, 
standard 12-lead electrocardiogram, and body 
weight were obtained. Body weight could not 
be obtained sooner due to the rolling of the 
destroyer. 

Later, Astronaut Glenn flew to Grand Turk 
Island where a general physical examination 
was begun at 9:30 p.m. e.s.t,, approximately 
6% hours after spacecraft landing. The vital 
signs at that time were : blood pressure, 128/78 
mm Hg (left arm, sitting) ; pulse, 72 beats/ 
min; respiration 14 breaths/min; and oral 
temperature, 98° F at 12 :00 p.m. e.s.t. Except 
for the previously described superficial skin 
abrasions, the entire examination was normal. 
During the subsequent 48 hours, a comprehen- 
sive examination was conducted by the same 
medical specialists who examined the pilot prior 
to flight. The psychiatrist's examination was 
entirely normal, a neurologic examination, in- 



cluding an electroencephalogram, was un- 
changed except for slightly increased deep 
tendon reflexes, and the ophthalmologist found 
normal and unchanged ocular function, with- 
out slit lamp or funduscopic evidence of cosmic 
ray damage. The internist noted no change in 
the lung fields nor in the quality and character 
of the cardiac sounds. The preflight and post- 
flight chest X-rays and electrocardiograms were 
compared ; neither abnormality nor change was 
observed. The identical, special labyrinthine 
tests were performed in an effort to demonstrate 
any effect of space flight upon the pilot's sense 
of balance. These postflight labyrinthine tests, 
and both the general and specialists' examina- 
tions, revealed no significant changes from the 
pilot's preflight condition. 

There were, however, a few measured dif- 
ferences between the preflight and postflight 
medical findings, and these are summarized in 
table 8-IIL The pilot lost only slightly more 
weight than he lost during a Mercury-Atlas 
three-orbit simulation on the centrifuge. Such 
weight loss, coupled with a diminished urine 
volume and increased specific gravity after the 
flight (see table 8- VI and fig. 8-2), hemocon- 
centration (see table 8-VII), and the recovery 
physicians' clinical impression led to the diag- 
nosis of mild dehydration. The battery of bio- 
chemical studies (see tables 8- VIII and 8-IX) 
further supports this impression ; however, no 



89 



abnormality specifically attributable to space 
flight, as opposed to atmospheric flight, is evi- 
dent. Astronaut Glenn further reported no sub- 
jective symptoms of dehydration other than 
being hot. His mild dehydration was due 
primarily to the overheating experienced just 
prior to landing and while on the water await- 
ing pickup. Also, he had a minimal fluid in- 
take for almost IS hours; his intake and output 
is summarized in table S-V. His mild post- 
flight gastrointestinal "'awareness" is also 
attributed to the increased environmental tem- 
perature after the flight and to mild dehydra- 
tion. In addition, the bobbing motion of the 
spacecraft on the sea is undoubtedly a major 
contributory factor. 



Acknowledgments. — Special acknowledgment 
is paid to the following for their assistance 
in the medical studies : Paul W. Myers, M.D., 
and Charles C. Watts, Jr., M.D., Lack- 
land Air Force Hospital, San Antonio, Texas; 
W. Bruce Clark, M.D., USAF School of Aero- 
space Medicine, San Antonio, Texas; George 
Ruff, M.D., University of Pennsylvania; 
Walter Frojola, Ph. D., Department of Rio- 
chemistry, Ohio State University; Kristen B. 
Eik-Nes, M.D., University of Utah; Hans 
Weil-Malherbe, M.D., St. Elizabeth's Hospital, 
Washington, D.C. ; Leonard Laster, M.D., 
National Institutes of Health ; and S/Sgt. Carl- 
ton L. Stewart, Lackland Air Force Hospital, 
San Antonio, Texas. 



Table 8-VIII. — Blood Summary 1 





Centrifuge 


MA-6 flight 




Postrun 


Preflight 


Postflight 


+ 2 
hr 


+ 6 
hr 


-29 

days 


-8 
days 


+ 1 
hr 


+ 8 +46 


Glucose (whole blood) mgm/100 ml 




112 


121 


95 


109 




96 99 


Sodium (serum), mEq/L 


143 


140 


154 


155 


160 


146 


144 143 


Potassium (serum), mEq/L 


4. 8 


4. 8' 


5. 6 


5. 4 


4. 6 


3. 9 


4. 4 4. 4 


Calcium (serum), mEq/L . . 


5. 2 


6. 0 


5. 2 


4. 9 


4. 3 


4. 3 


4. 2 4. 4 


Chloride (serum), mEq/L 


SO 


83 


83 


9S 


98 


104 


104 104 


Protein (total serum), g/100 ml_ ___ 


7. 9 


7. 7 


8. 0 


6. 9 


6. 6 


6. 9 


6. 6 6. 7 


Albumin (serum), g/100 ml 


4. 3 


4. 1 


4. 7 




3. 8 


3. 8 


3. 8 3. 8 


Albumin/Globulin ratio (serum) 


1. 2 


1. 1 


1. 2 


1. 4 


1. 4 


1. 2 


1. 4 1. 3 


Urea Nitrogen (serum) mg/100 ml 


15. 4 


16. 0 


14. 3 


14. 1 


15. 5 


10. 5 


10.5 11.6 


Epinephrine, plasma ^g/L.. 


<0. 1 


<0. 1 


<0. 1 


<0. 1 


<0.1 


<0. 1 


<0. 1 <0. 1 




<0 1 


<0. 1 


<0. 1 


5. 0 


18. 0 




6, 0 3. 8 



1 Operational priorities precluded making a biochemical requirement for fasting specim 



90 




034401 



91 



Bibliography 



Doi-clas. William K.. Jackson-. Cakmavlt B.. Jr.. pt al. : Results of the MR-J, Preflight and Postflight Medical 
Examination Conducted on Astronaut Virgil I. (Irissom. Results of the Second I'.S. Manned Suborbital Space 
Flight, July 21. 1961. NASA. Manned Spacecraft Center. 

Jackson. Carmai-i.t B„ Jr.. Douglas. William K., et ill. : Results of Preflight and Post flight Medical Examina- 
tions. Proc. Conf. on Results of the First U.S. Manned Suborbital Space Flight. NASA, Nat. Inst. Health, and 
Nat. Acad. Sci. June 6, 1961, pp. 31-36. 

Glucose : 

Nelsos, M. : Photometric Adaptation of Somogyi Method for Determination of Glucose. Jour. Biol. Chem., 
vol. 153, 1944, pp. 375-380. 
Total protein, albumin : 

Conx, C, and Wolfson, W. G,: Studies in Serum Proteins. I— The Chemical Estimation of Albumin and 

of the Globulin Fractions in Serum. Jour. Lab. Clin. Med., vol. 32. 1947, pp. 1203-1207. 
Gornall, A. G., Bardawill, C. J., and David, M. M. : Determination of Serum Proteins I,,, Means of the 
Biuret Reaction. Jour. Biol. Chem.. vol. 177, 1940, pp. 751-766. 
Urea nitrogen : 

Gentzkow, C, X, and Masen, J. M. : An Accurate Method for the Determination of Blood Vrea Xitrogcn by 
Direct Nesslerization, Jour. Biol. Chem., vol. 143, 1942, pp. 531-544. 
Calcium : 

Dieiil, H.. and Ellixoboe. J. L. : Indicator for Titration of Calcium in Presence of Magnesium With Di- 
sodium Dihgdrogen Ethylene Diaminctetraaeetate. Anal. Chem.. vol. 28, 1956. pp. 882-8S4. 
Chloride : 

Sc hales, O., and Schai.es, S. S. : A Simple and Accurate Method for the Determination of Chloride in Bio- 
logical Fluids. Jour. Biol. Chem.. vol. 140, 1941, pp. 879-884. 
Epinephrine and norepinephrine : 

Weil-Malherbe, H., and Bone, A. D. : The Adrenergic Amines of Human Blood. Lancet, vol. 264, 1933, pp. 
974-977. 

Gray, I., Young, J. G., Keegan, J. F., Mehaman, B., and Southeri.and, E. W. : Adrenaline awl Norepine- 
phrine Concentration in Plasma of Humans and Rats. Clin. Chem., vol. 3. 1957, pp. 239-248. 
Sodium potassium by flame photometry : 

Bebkmax, S., Henry, E. J., Golub, O. J., and Seagalove, II. : Tungstic Acid Precipitation of Blood Proteins. 
Jour. Biol. Chem., vol. 206, 1954, pp. 937-943. 
Vanyl mandelic acid : 

Sukdebman, F. W.. Jr., et al. : A Method for the Determination of 3-Meth oxy-4-Hydroj-yma « delic Acid 
("Vanilmandelic Acid") for the Diagnosis of Pheochromocytoma. Am. Jour. Clin. Pathol., vol. 34, 1900, 
pp. 293-312. 
Heat-stable lactic dehydrogenase : 

Strandjobd, Paul E.. and Clayson, Kathleen C. : The Diagnosis of Acute Myocardial Infarction on the 
Basis of Heat-Stable Lactic Dehydrogenase. Jour. Lab. Clin. Med., vol. 58, 1961, pp. 962-966. 



92 



9. PHYSIOLOGICAL RESPONSES OF THE ASTRONAUT 



By C. Patrick Laughlin, M.D., Life Systems Division, NASA Manned Spacecraft Center; Ernest P. 
McCuTCHEON, M.D., Life Systems Division, NASA Manned Spacecraft Center; Rita M. Rapp, Life 
Systems Division, NASA Manned Spacecraft Center; David P. Morris, Jr., M.D., Life Systems Division, 
NASA Manned Spacecraft Center; and William A. Augerson, M.D., U.S. Army, Ft. Campbell, Ky. 



Summary 

The MA-6 mission provided a period of 
extended weightlessness during which the astro- 
naut's physiological responses apparently sta- 
bilized. The values attained were within ranges 
compatible with normal function. No subjec- 
tive abnormalities were reported by the pilot. 

Introduction 

The orbital space flight of Astronaut Glenn 
has provided a significant addition to the body 
of information reflecting human responses to 
this new situation. The life-science objectives 
of the flight included the study of the effects 
of weightlessness, launch and reentry accelera- 
tions, and weightless transition periods. The 
much shorter Redstone ballistic flights per- 
mitted little time in the weightless phase for 
physiological adjustment mechanisms to stab- 
ilize. The MA-6 mission provided a period of 
weightlessness of sufficient duration so that the 
pilot's physiological responses attained a rela- 
tively steady state. In addition to the biosen- 
sor data, the pilot's subjective evaluation of 
general body sensations provided a very im- 
portant source of information. His comments 
regarding body function, such as, spatial orien- 
tation, eating, urination, and task performance, 
were regarded as most significant. Additional 
information on the operation of the spacecraft 
environmental control system and the bioinstru- 
mentation system was also obtained. 

The approach to these studies remains essen- 
tially as outlined in the MB-3 and MR4 post- 
flight reports (refs. 1 and 2). Physiological 
investigations must comply with the overall 
operational requirements of the mission. There 



are many unexplored study areas and future 
flights will provide additional information. 

The Space Flight Environment 

The astronaut's activities during the time im- 
mediately prior to the countdown are noted in 
paper 8. A 38-minute hold was called after 
the transfer van arrived at the launch pad and 
the astronaut remained in the van until 5:58 
a.m. e.s.t. when he ascended the gantry. Inser- 
tion into the spacecraft occurred at 6:06 a.m. 
e.si., and continuous physiological monitoring 
began at this time. He wore the Mercury full- 
pressure suit and was positioned in his contour 
couch in the semisupine position, with head and 
back raised 12° from the horizontal and hips 
and knees flexed at approximately 90° angles. 
A shoulder and lap harness secured him in the 
couch. During weightless flight the spacecraft 
was oriented so that he was in a sitting position 
relative to the earth's surface. At reentry he 
was exposed to the force of inertia in the supine 
position. 

After completion of suit purging he was 
maintained on 100-percent oxygen at 14.7 psia 
until suit and cabin pressure declined during 
launch. Cabin and suit pressure regulation 
proceeded normally, and levels were stable at 
approximately 5.7 and 5.8 psia, respectively, 
until snorkel valve opening during the reentry 
sequence, after which ambient air was intro- 
duced into the system. 

The total time in the spacecraft during the 
prelaunch period was 3 hours and 41 minutes. 
During this period the astronaut performed 
numerous spacecraft checks and prevented fa- 
tigue with frequent deep-breathing and muscle- 
tensing exercises. Lift-off occurred at 9:47 



93 



a.m. e.s.t. and the flight proceeded as planned. 
Accelerations during powered flight were from 
lg to 6.7g in 2 minutes and 10 seconds (booster- 
engine cutoff, BECO), and from 1.4g to 7.7g 
in the following 2 minutes and 52 seconds 
(sustainer-engine cutoff, SECO). Spacecraft 
separation from the launch vehicle and the be- 
ginning of weightlessness occurred at T + 5 
minutes and 2 seconds. The three-orbit mission 
resulted in a total weightless period of 4 hours 
and 38 minutes. 

Keentry began with 0.05g at T+4 hours and 
43 minutes. Maximum reentry acceleration 
forces of 7.7g occurred at T+4 hours and 47 
minutes with gradual buildup from lg and 
gradual return to lg over a period of 3 minutes 
and 30 seconds. With main parachute deploy- 
ment at T+4 hours and 50 minutes, there was a 
brief 3.7g spike. The spacecraft landed on the 
water at T + 4 hours and 55 minutes, 2:43 p.m. 
e.s.t. 

Monitoring and Data Sources 

Data reflecting physiological responses to 
flight were obtained by evaluating the biosensor 
real-time recordings from range stations and 
from the continuous onboard recording. In ad- 
dition, various in-flight tests and the pilot-ob- 
server camera film were utilized for further 
objective analysis. The reports of values from 
the range medical monitors provided vital con- 
tinuous coverage enabling accurate appraisal of 
the astronaut's status during the flight. Sub- 
jective evaluation included pilot reports from 
onboard voice recordings and the postflight de- 
briefing. The countdown period provided base- 
line preflight information. Useful comparative 
measurements were available from the Mercury- 
Atlas three-orbit centrifuge simulation, pad- 
simulated launch, simulated flights, and the 
January 27,1962, launch attempt. 

Bioinstrumentation * 

In addition to the type of bioinstrumentation 
used in the manned Mercury-Redstone flights 
(two ECG leads, respiratory rate sensor, and 
body-temperature sensor), a blood pressure 
measuring system as described in paper 3 was 
utilized in flight. Preflight and postflight cali- 
brations of the blood pressure system showed 
no significant change. 



The total biosensor monitoring time, from 
astronaut insertion until just prior to landing, 
was 8 hours and 33 minutes. The biosensor 
readout quality was excellent throughout the 
countdown and flight with the exception of the 
respiratory trace. As in prior flights, variation 
with head position and air density combined to 
reduce the quality of the respiration trace. 
There were brief periods of noise on the ECG 
channels during countdown and flight, usually 
occurring during vigorous pilot activity. 

Preflight 

During approximately 45 minutes in the 
transfer van, the astronaut's pulse ranged from 
58 to 82 beats/minute with a mean of 72 and 
the blood pressure was 122/77 mm Hg. 

Figure 9-1 depicts the pulse rate, respiration 
rate, body temperature, suit-inlet temperature, 
and blood pressure values recorded during the 
MA-6 countdown. Values at selected events 
for the same physiological functions obtained 
from the simulated launch of January 19, 1962, 
and the launch attempt of January 27, 1962, are 
also shown. Pulse and respiration rates were 
determined by counting the rates for 30 seconds 
every 3 minutes until 10 minutes prior to lift- 
off when 30-second duration counts were made 
each minute. 

The pulse rates during the launch attempt of 
January 27, 1962, varied from 60 to 88 
beats/minute with a mean of 70 beats/minute. 
These rates were essentially the same as those 
observed during the MA-6 countdown, as shown 
in figure 9-1. Respiration rates were similar, 
varying from 12 to 20 breaths/minute. Blood 
pressure values from the simulated launch also 
approximated those observed during the MA-6 
countdown. A pulse rate of 110 beats/minute 
and a blood pressure 139/88 mm Hg was 
observed at lift-off. 

The low suit-inlet temperature maintained 
during countdown resulted in the pilot feeling 
cold and was accompanied by a fall in body 
temperature from 98.6° F at insertion to 97.6° 
F at lift-off. 

An examination of the electrocardiographic 
waveform obtained during the MA-6 count- 
down revealed a number of variations in the 
pacemaker activity which had been observed 
previously. These included sinus pauses, sinus 
bradycardia, premature atrial and nodal beats, 



94 



(a) Countdown 06:00 to 08:00 a-m. e.s.t 
Figure 9-1. — Pre flight : Respiration rate, pulse rate, body temperature, suit-inlet temperature, and blood pressure 
for MA-6 countdown with values at selected events from the simulated launch of January 19, 1962, and the 
launch attempt of January 27, 1962. 



and premature ventricular beats. On several 
instances some of these reported findings oc- 
curred with deep respiration. Similar varia- 
tions were also recorded from the simulated 
launch of January 19 and from the launch at- 
tempt of January 27. In addition, a brief (16 
beats) run of atrial rhythm with a rate of 100 
beats/minute occurred during countdown, and 
an isolated run (19 beats) of a rhythm origi- 
nating adjacent to the atrio-ventricular node 
with aberrant conduction occurred during the 
attempted launch of January 27 ; however, these 



were not observed at any other time. All of the 
above are not unexpected physiologic varia- 
tions. (Samples of MA-6 blockhouse records 
from the time of insertion and at T— 50 seconds 
are shown in figs. 9-2 and 9-3.) 

Flight 

Figure 9-4 illustrates the inflight physiologi- 
cal data and includes values from the Mercury- 
Atlas three-orbit centrifuge simulation for com- 
parison. Minute pulse rates were determined 
by counting every 30 seconds during MA-6 



95 



(b) Countdown, 08:00 to lift-off, 09 :47 a.m. e.s.t. 
Figure 9-1. — Concluded. 



launch and reentry and for 30 seconds at 3- 
minute intervals throughout the remainder of 
the flight. Because of the variation in the qual- 
ity of the respiratory recording, rates were 
counted for 30 seconds whenever possible and 
varied from 8 to 19 breaths/minute throughout 
flight. 

The pulse rate from lift-off to spacecraft sep- 
aration reached a maximum of 114 beats/min- 
ute. The pulse rate varied from 88 to 114 
beats/minute in the first 10 minutes of weight- 
lessness. It then remained relatively stable 



with a mean rate of 86 beats/minute during the 
next 3 hours and 45 minutes of flight. At the 
time of retrorocket firing the rate was 96 beats/ 
minute. During reentry acceleration and para- 
chute descent the mean pulse rate was 109 beats/ 
minute, and the highest rate was 134 beats/min- 
ute just prior to drogue parachute deployment 
at a time of maximum spacecraft oscillation. 
This rate was the highest noted during the mis- 
sion. These rates indicate that acceleration, 
weightlessness, and return to gravity were tol- 



96 



Figure 9-2. — Sample of blockhouse physiological record at insertion, 6 :06 a.m. o.s.t. Lead 2 is inverted. 
(Recorder speed 25 mm/sec) . 























-NTH 






























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m 






























































































































































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I 1 


























































































































































-i i l 






































































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V 




































■v 




V v. 










































































































































i 


























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ECG 






















































































1 
















































































! 






-1- 






























































m 


































V 
































































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"A 


Sy 




























































































































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T i-.l !.. . 



Figure 9-3. — Sample of blockhouse record at T-50 seconds, 9:46 a.m. e.s.t, with blood pressure tracing, value 



erated within acceptable physiological limits. 
Figure 9-5 compares Astronaut Glenn's in- 
flight pulse rate, his pulse rate during Mercury- 
Atlas three-orbit centrifuge simulation, and the 



mean pulse rate of six astronaut centrifuge 
simulations. 

The ECG variations noted during the pre- 
flight observation period were not observed in 



97 



flight. Analysis of the inflight record re- 
vealed only normal sinus rhythm with short 
periods of sinus bradycardia and sinus arrhyth- 
mia. There were rare periods in which trace 
quality deteriorated so that only pulse rate 
determinations were possible. The ECG varia- 
tions noted during Astronaut Glenn's Mercury- 
Atlas three-orbit centrifuge simulation in- 
cluded: sinus arrhythmia, sinus bradycardia, 
atrial and nodal premature beats, and rare pre- 
mature ventricular contractions. These are 
interpreted as normal physiological variations. 



Ten blood pressure determinations were made 
in flight; the first at T+18 minutes and 30 sec- 
onds and the last at T+ 3 hours and 14 minutes. 
The values are shown in figure 9-4, and range 
from 119 to 143 mm Hg systolic and from 60 
to 81 mm Hg diastolic. The mean blood pres- 
sure values and the ranges from physical exam- 
inations, static procedures trainer simulations, 
Mercury-Atlas three-orbit centrifuge simula- 
tions, launch pad tests, MA-6 countdown, and 
the MA-6 flight are presented in the following 
table : 





Number 






Systolic 


Diastolic 


Data sources 


of deter- 




pulse 


range, 




minations 


pressure, 
mm Hg 


pressure 


mm Hg 


SB. 


Physical exams . _ 


14 


110/66 


44 


98 to 128 


60 to 80 


Procedures trainer .. _ 


15 


121/76 


45 


110 to 132 


66 to 87 


3-orbit Mercury-Atlas centrifuge simulation 


56 


114/80 


34 


92 to 136 


68 to 92 


Launch-pad tests 


26 


104/76 


28 


91 to 125 


64 to 91 


MA-6 countdown 


14 


123/87 


36 


101 to 139 


83 to 93 


MA-6 flight _ _ . 


10 


129/70 


59 


119 to 143 


60 to 81 



The MA-6 inflight mean pulse pressure shows 
some widening when compared with preflight 
values. This widening appeared after 1 hour 
of flight and is of uncertain physiological 
significance. 

Samples of physiological data from playback 
of the onboard tape and from range stations are 
shown in figures 9-6 to 9-9. 

The inflight exercise device is illustrated in 
figure 9-10. Exercise was accomplished by a 
series of pulls on elastic bungee cords. An 
exercise period over Zanzibar on the first orbit 
raised the pilot's pulse rate from 80 beats/min- 
ute to 124 beats/minute after 30 seconds. The 
pulse rate returned to 84 beats/minute within 
2 minutes. The blood pressure before exercise 
was 129/76 and after exercise was 129/74. This 
response is within the previously observed 
values from exercise in the procedures trainer, 

The environmental control system effectively 
supported the pilot throughout the mission. It 
should be noted that body temperature grad- 
ually rose from a lift-off value of 97.6° F to 
99.5° F at the time of biosensor disconnect. 
The suit-inlet temperature increased slowly 
during most of the flight with a more rapid 



rise after reentry and during parachute descent. 
During descent and while awaiting recovery on 
the water, the suit-inlet temperature in- 
creased approximately 1° F per minute for a 
15-minute period and probably contributed to 
the pilot's overheated status observed at egress. 
Since biosensor disconnect occurred 13 minutes 
before loss of telemetry signal, the maximum 
body temperature may not have been observed. 

Pilot Inflight Observations 

The astronaut's voice reports were consist- 
ently accurate, confident, and coherent through 
all phases of the flight. His voice quality con- 
veyed a sense of continued well being and his 
mental state appeared entirely appropriate for 
the situation. The pilot's mood and level of 
performance were effectively conveyed by his 
voice reports. His prompt responses to ground 
transmissions and to sounds from the space- 
craft suggest no decrement in hearing ability. 
Visual acuity was maintained and his report 
of visual perceptions, especially with regard 
to colors, was accurate and was confirmed by 
the inflight photographs. 

The pilot's voice report contained a number 



98 



( a ) Flight elapsed time 00 :00 to 02 :30. 
Fioube £-4.— Flight: Respiration rate, pulse rate, body temperature, Wood pressure, and suit-inlet temperature 
during the MA-6 flight, with values from the Mercury-Atlas three-orbit centrifuge simulation. 



of observations of physiological significance. 
During his postflight debriefing these reports 
were amplified. Those considered of most sig- 
nificance are discussed below. 

No disturbances in spatial orientation were 
reported, nor were any symptoms suggestive 
of vestibular disturbances described during the 
flight. Voluntary rapid head-turning move- 
ments produced no unpleasant sensations. No 
sensory deprivation or "break-off phenomenon" 
was noted. 

A brief sensation of tumbling forward, 
similar to that described by the astronaut in 
the MIt-i mission, occurred just after sus- 
tainer-engine cutoff (SECO). This sensation 
ended promptly and was not associated with 
nausea. Coincident with retrorocket firing, a 



feeling of acceleration opposite from flight di- 
rection ("back to Hawaii") was noted. This 
could be expected with the sudden change in 
spacecraft velocity. The pilot noted no dif- 
ference in the sensations associated with re- 
entry accelerations from those experienced 
during launch. 

Food chewing and swallowing were accom- 
plished without difficulty. No water as such 
was ingested during flight. 

The pilot urinated without difficulty shortly 
before reentry. He described "normal" sensa- 
tions of bladder fullness with the associated 
urge to urinate. 

The astronaut described weightlessness as a 
"pleasant" sensation and control manipulation 
was not affected. 



99 



( b) Flight elapsed time. 02 :30 to biosensor disconnect, 04 :53. 
Figure 9-1. — Concluded. 




Figure 9-o. — Comparison of Astronaut Glenn's inflight 
physiologic data, his data during the Mercury-Atlas 
three-orbit centrifuge simulation, and the mean 
physiologic data of six astronaut centrifuge simu- 
lations. 



Conclusions 

1. The physiological responses observed 
during the MA-6 mission are all consistent with 
intact systems and normal body function. 

2. The MA-6 mission provided an exposure 
to weightlessness of sufficient duration to per- 
mit physiological responses to reach a relatively 
steady state. 

o. No symptoms reflecting disturbed vestib- 
ular function were reported. This lack of find- 
ings occurred even though specific attempts 
were made to stimulate the vestibular system in 
flight 

4. The pilot's subjective evaluation of his 
body processes and sensations during the flight 
all conveyed normal function. 



100 




Fiqttre 9-6 —Sample of physiological record received at Bermuda Range Station during powered phase of flight, 
approximately 4 minutes after lift-off. (Recorder speed 25 mm/sec) . 




Figure 9-7.— Sample of playback record from the onboard tape showing physiological data after 2 hours and 63 
minutes of weightlessness, with inflight blood pressure trace, value of 135/64. (Recorder speed 10 mm/sec). 



5. Acceleration-weightlessness transition pe- 
riods did not produce any recognized physiolog- 
ical deterioration. Specifically, reentry accel- 
eration after 4 hours and 38 minutes of weight- 



lessness did not produce any unexpected symp- 
toms and physiological data remained within 
functional limits. 

6. The environmental control system effec- 

101 



R 

i 


EL 


km 

i 


....4 
4! 


••1- 
















* 














liii: 




A- 


-4 


/ 




















it 








A* 


m 












































& 






-44 


















| 


E 


cc 


2 


















































































































i 










ft 





Fiotjee 9-8.— Sample of physiological record received at the Hawaii Range Station corresponding to figure 9-7. 
(Recorder speed 25 mm /sec). 



tively supported the pilot throughout the Hackworth, Life Systems Division, NASA 

mission. Manned Spacecraft Center; and Charles D. 

Acknowledgments.— The authors gratefully Wheelwright, Life Systems Division, NASA 

acknowledge the invaluable assistance of : Eobie Manned Spacecraft Center. 



102 




Figure 9-9.— Sample of playback record from the onboard tape showing physiological data at drogue parachute 
deployment, approximately 4 hours and 49 minutes after lif t-ofC. (Recorder speed 25 mm/sec) . 



Figure 9-10— MA-6 Inflight exercise device. 
References 

1 Auger sox, William S., and Latjghl™, C. Patrick: Physiological Responses of the Astronaut in the MRS 

Flight, Proc. Conf. on Results of the First U.S. Manned Suborbital Space Flight, NASA, Nat. Inst. Health, 
and Nat Acad. Sci., June 6, 1961, pp. 45-50. 

2 Laughliit, C. Patrick, and Augebson, Wiixiam S. : Physiological Responses of the Astronaut tn the MR-4 

Space Flight. Results of the Second U.S. Manned Suborbital Space Flight, July 21, 1961, NASA Manned 
Spacecraft Center, pp. 15-21. 



103 



10. ASTRONAUT PREPARATION 



By M. Scott Carpenter, Astronaut, NASA Manned Spacecraft Center 



Summary 

Many hours were profitably spent in special- 
ized training activities, such as spacecraft sys- 
tems discussions and operation, mission and sys- 
tem procedures and simulated emergencies, 
physical fitness, and egress and recovery. Also 
of great value were the many hours the crew 
spent participating directly in spacecraft prep- 
aration and checkout operations. In addition, 
much time was spent in the study of terrestrial 
and extraterrestrial features in preparation for 
scientific and space-navigation observations in 
orbit. All of these training and study activi- 
ties contributed greatly to crew readiness for 
the orbital mission. 

Introduction 

Since the general Project Mercury training 
program is common knowledge (see refs. 1 and 
2), this discussion is limited to the specialized 
training activities which were conducted sub- 
sequent to the selection of the crew for the 
MA-6 flight. 

Spacecraft Familiarization 

At this stage of the Mercury program, each 
spacecraft differs somewhat from its predeces- 
sors and a considerable amount of time must 
be devoted to the study of these differences. 
This study was accomplished in part by system 
briefings conducted by McDonnell Aircraft 
Corporation and NASA engineers as shown in 
figure 10-1. Approximately 40 hours were 
spent in formal briefings of this type. Detailed 
discussion of environmental control, reaction 
control, automatic stabilization and control, 
sequential, electrical, pyrotechnic, communica- 
tions, and recovery systems were held in the 
crew quarters by systems engineers and were 
attended by the flight crew and representatives 
of the NASA Manned Spacecraft Center Train- 
ing Division. 

In addition, many hours of individual study 




Figure 10-1.-— Spacecraft 13 systems briefings. 



were devoted to the notes and publications 
which applied specifically to spacecraft 13. 
(See fig. 10-2.) 

A second important activity which con- 
tributes measurably to pilot familiarity with 
the spacecraft is participation, as spacecraft 
observer, in the many systems checks (see figs. 
10-3 and 10-4) which constitute the prepara- 
tion of the spacecraft for flight. This testing 
takes place both in the hangar and on the launch 
pad after mating of the launch-vehicle and 
spacecraft. A total of over 100 hours was spent 
in the spacecraft by the flight crew during these 
tests. 

Baseline Physiological Studies 

During the early phases of the training, an 
effort was made to acquire familiarity with the 
physiological sensations that might be expected 
during the flight. 

At the Naval School of Aviation Medicine, 
Pensacola, Fla., the flight crew received a re- 
fresher course in night vision, and spent pe- 
riods in the slowly revolving room and in the 
human disorientation device. 

Baseline studies of the pilot's individual bal- 
ance mechanisms were made at this time. (See 
figs. 10-5 and 10-6) . Since an important ob- 



105 




Figure 10-2— Individual study by Astronauts Glenn 
and Carpenter. 

jective of the flight was to evaluate the astro- 
naut's tolerance of prolonged periods of weight- 
lessness, baseline studies were conducted in an 
attempt to provide data for comparison with in- 
formation accumulated during and after the 
flight. The special equipment, which was de- 
veloped for inflight evaluation of orientation 
ability, is discussed subsequently. 

Flight Simulation 

The flight crew spent a total of approximately 
106 




Figlbe 10-4. — Astronaut Carpenter enters Mercury 
spacecraft 13 during a preparation test In hanger 
prior to MA-6 launch. 



90 hours in the procedures trainer during which 
complete mission simulations, both with and 
without range support, were practiced. (See 
fig. 10-7.) These simulations provided experi- 
ence in the performance of all flight-plan activ- 
ities and familiarity with range procedures. 



Piguee 10-5.— Modified caloric test. Astronaut's bal- 
ance mechanism (semicircular canals) are tested by 
running cool water into ear and measuring effect on 
eye motions (nystagmus). 

Many hours were spent practicing manual 
control of spacecraft attitudes. Emphasis was 
placed on control of the retrofire maneuver, 
turnaround following sustainer engine cutoff 
(SECO), and reaction control system (ECS) 
checks following insertion. Orbit maneuvering 
with low thrusters was also simulated. 

Additional practice in the manual control 
task was acquired through the use of the air- 
lubricated free-attitude (ALFA) trainer at 
Langley Air Force Base, Va. 

System failures in orbit which required im- 
mediate or end of orbit reentries were prac- 
ticed and discussed. 

The majority of trainer time was devoted to 
launch aborts with the support of Mercury Con- 
trol Center (MCC) and Bermuda (BDA). 
Astronaut Glenn was subjected to simulated 
system malfunctions of every description. 
Some of these, with proper corrective action, 
resulted in continuation of the mission while 
others required either immediate or fixed time 
aborts. These aborts, depending on their na- 
ture, could be initiated by either the Astronaut 
or MCC, or both. 

Tape recordings of Astronaut Glenn's voice 
were made during these trainer sessions and 
sent to all range stations so that flight control- 
lers might become familiar with his voice and 
normal manner of speaking. In addition, 
physiological and performance data were re- 
corded for postflight comparison with onboard 
data. 

One additional function of the procedures 
trainer worthy of note is the opportunity it 



Figure 10-6.— Ataxia test : Checking Astronaut Glenn's 
balance mechanism performance by his walking on a 
narrow board. 

provides to evaluate the pressure suit in the 
spacecraft environment. The suit restricts 
mobility considerably, and procedures,as well as 
the special equipment were designed with this 
limited mobility in mind. 

These simulations were excellent not only 
from the training standpoint, but because they 




Figure 10-7.— Astronaut Glenn using procedures 
trainer for simulated mission. 

107 



634401 0 — 62 . 8 



stimulated original thinking that was range- 
wide and many flight-plan and mission-rule in- 
puts resulted. Much was learned both by the 
astronaut and the flight-control teams. If one 
activity were to be singled out as being the most 
valuable in preparing for the flight, it would 
be this procedures training. 

Physical Training 

Since its inception, the Mercury physical 
training program has been the option of the in- 
dividual. Astronaut Glenn has elected to exer- 
cise by running. (See fig. 10-8.) Over the 



i 




Fiocee 10-^8. — Astronaut Glenn during physical 
training. 

last 3-year period, he has steadily built up from 
1 mile to 5 miles a day. For the 3 months pre- 
ceding the flight, he ran 5 miles nearly every 
day, except for the final week when he tapered 
off to 2 miles, 1 mile and then 2 days of complete 
rest prior to the flight. 

This activity, including dressing and shower- 
ing, required about 1 hour per day. It is felt 
that this is a reasonable amount of time to be 



so devoted and anything much short of this is 
insufficient to maintain good physical condition. 

Special Observation Requirements 

A 2-day period was spent at the Morehead 
Planetarium in Chapel Hill, N.C. This proved 
to be an invaluable aid in familiarization with 
the heavens in general and particularly with 
those constellations and star patterns that might 
reasonably be visible through the window for 
the MA-6 launch date. Members of the More- 
head staff were most cooperative and continued 
use of their facilities is recommended. 

Additional study of the constellations was 
aided by the use of a Farquahr celestial sphere 
and many star charts, astronomy books, and 
star finders. A star chart, which proved to be 
not only a valuable study aid but also a good 
navigation aid and darkside yaw reference de- 
vice for inflight use, was developed. 

Two briefings. with the Ad Hoc Committee 
for Astronomical Tasks for the Mercury Astro- 
nauts and with scientists of the Project Mer- 
cury Weather Support Group and the U.S. 
Weather Bureau Meteorological Satellite Lab- 
oratory were held in Washington, D.C., during 
which observations of interest to both agencies 
were discussed. Development of special equip- 
ment resulted from these discussions, also, and 
is covered in the next section. 

Special Equipment 

As a result of the preflight briefings, the need 
for some special equipment was apparent, and 
a container for this equipment was needed. 
Following are brief descriptions of this equip- 
ment. 

Two economy-type toothpaste tubes were 
filled separately with applesauce and beef stew. 
A screw-on straw which punctured the seal on 
the top of the tube was provided to duct the food 
over the lip of the helmet to the mouth. 

The pill tube held 10 pills and was spring- 
loaded for easy extraction of the pills. Each 
pill measured about % inch thick and % inch 
in diameter. Nine of the pills were chocolate 
malt tablets and the other was made of xylose 
which is a five-carbon, traceable form of sugar 
and was included to measure the rate at which 
the intestine absorbs food during weightlessness. 

Pliers were included to facilitate egress 
through the top of the spacecraft if the pip pins 



108 



on the parachute canister became jammed or 
in the event of a survival situation where pliers 
have no substitute. 

The bulb block contained extra amber, green, 
and red bulbs to be used in the event of telelight 
or warning-light bulb failure. 

The waterproof bag was provided for film 
stowage after landing and before recovery. 

The camera filter was provided for use with 
the infrared film and was to be mounted inside 
the camera when the infrared film was used. 

Extra film was carried for the regular cam- 
era; only the one roll of ultraviolet film al- 
ready in the ultraviolet camera was carried. 

The ultraviolet spectrograph consisting of a 
35-mm camera equipped with a special quartz 
lens and prism system was developed for use 
through the spacecraft window in the 2,000 to 
3,000 angstrom wavelength band. A de- 
mountable reticle was provided for sighting on 
the star. 

A 35-mm camera with a 50-mm F2.8 lens and 
a photocell which automatically adjusted the F 
stop was used for daylight photography. Con- 
siderable development effort was required to 
modify the camera for use in the spacecraft 
by the astronaut in a pressure suit. 

The airglow filter is a device which filters 
out all light except the 5,577 angstrom wave- 
length, one of the bright lines of the airglow 
spectrum. It was intended to be used as an aid 
in studying the patterning of the airglow layer. 

The binoculars were of a miniature type, 8- 
power with 50-mm objectives. 

The filter block was provided for use with the 
V-Meter. It allowed all the normal exterior 
observations to be made while excluding all but 
red, green, or blue light. 

The V-Meter is a very clever little instrument 
whose assigned name is the extinctospectropo- 
lariscope - occulogyrogravoadaptometer. This 
device is designed to be used for 16 astronomical 
and physiological tests. It could be used for 
measuring the relative brightness of the 
zodiacal light and other dim night phenomena. 
It was equipped with crossed polaroid filters 
which permitted direct viewing of the solar disc 
and measurement of the polarization of the 
corona. It could also be used to judge the hori- 
zontal under zero-g conditions. 

All of this equipment was carried in an ac- 
cessory kit located by the astronaut's right up- 



per arm. Accessibility was not good but it was 
the only space available. Use of the equipment 
was further hampered by the need for a re- 
straining line to each item which was secured 
to the accessory kit. Velcro, a trade name for 
an adhering material made up of two types of 
cloth, one with multiple loops, one with multi- 
ple hooks which adhere when pressed together, 
was used extensively inside the spacecraft for 
restraining the kit contents during flight. In 
paper 12, Astronaut Glenn discusses the use of 
this equipment. 

In addition to this equipment in the acces- 
sory kit, a knee pad, knife, scissors, survival 
kit, flashlight, star charts, and an orbital chart 
book with an overlay of worldwide weather 
were carried. 

A discussion of this equipment is pertinent 
to the astronaut preparation phase because not 
only was a great amount of time spent in the 
development and modification of the equipment 
but a like period was involved in becoming pro- 
ficient in its use. 

Egress and Recovery Practice 

Much time had been spent in egress training 
prior to the crew selection and little remained 
to do but polish the procedures. 

Egress from the small end and side hatch of 
the spacecraft was practiced w T ith both HUS 
(see fig. 10-9) and HR2S (see fig. 10-10) hel- 
icopters at Langley Air Force Base, Va. 

Egress was practiced by other members of 
the astronaut team with a destroyer (see fig. 
10-11) out of Norfolk, Va., and they reported 
no problems. 

At Cape Canaveral, Fla., two 3-hour periods 
were spent with the LAEC amphibious vehicle 
in deep-water familiarization with the liferaft 
and survival equipment. Many equipment and 
packing modifications resulted from this work. 

Pad egress practice was accomplished at Cape 
Canaveral utilizing the Midas Tower (see fig- 
10-12) and the M113 armored vehicle. This 
practice acquainted all launch complex person- 
nel with the problems related to egress from 
the spacecraft with the launch vehicle in an un- 
safe condition. 

A form of egress training was conducted at 
the end of each trainer session by going through 
the actual sequence of events from parachute 



109 



deployment to actual egress. This practice 
helped to smooth the existing procedures as 
well as to develop new ones. 




Figuee 10-9.— HUS helicopter lifting astronaut from 
spacecraft, side hatch egress practice. 




Figure 10-10. — HR2S helicopter preparing to remove 
astronaut from floating spacecraft, egress practice 



Miscellaneous 

Many other studies were conducted which do 
not fall into any of the previously mentioned 




Figure 10-11. — U.S. destroyer lifting spacecraft from 
water with standard boat davits and special lifting 



categories. A considerable amount of time was 
spent on : 

(1) Star recognition 

(2) Morse code practice 

(3) Study of aerial photographs 

(4) Study of world charts 

(5) Study of Tiros photographs 

(6) Study of photographs from previous 

Mercury flights 

(7) Study of mission rules 
{ 8 ) Study of Atlas systems 

(9) Attending briefings 

(10) Physical examinations 

(11) Correction of minor pressure-suit diffi- 

culties 

Because of the many delays which preceded 
the launch of MA-6, it was felt in some quarters 



110 




Figure 10-12. — Astronaut practicing pad egress with 
aid of egress tower. 



that Astronaut Glenn was overtrained. On the 
contrary, there was easily enough work to fill 
the available preflight period. During the 
many delays, he continued to train, modify and 
practice procedures, and work with and modify 
the accessory equipment. 

Training data indicated continued improve- 
ment up to the day of launch. 

The backup astronaut's role throughout was 
to participate in as much of the training ac- 
tivity as was consistent with the astronaut's 
need for direct support and the need for an 
astronaut as spacecraft observer during system 
tests. Knowing what is involved in this job, 
it is difficult to envision mission accomplish- 
ment in a comparable amount of time, without 
the services of a backup pilot. 

The training period in general went very 
smoothly. Cooperation was the keynote. A 
few blind alleys were stumbled into but a siz- 
able extension was made to the trail started by 
Astronauts Shepard and Grissom. It is hoped, 
that through our efforts, the way for the many 
who will follow in Astronaut Glenn's footsteps 
will be a little easier. 



References 

1. Slattos, Doitald K.: Pilot Training and Pre/light Preparation. Proc. Conf. on Results of the First U.S. 

Manned Suborbital Space Flight, NASA, Nat Inst Health, and Nat. Acad. Sci., June 6, 1961, pp. 53-60. 

2. Voas, E. B. : Project Mercury: Astronaut Training Program. Physcophysiological Aspects of Space Flight, 

Columbia Univ. Press, Jan. 1961, pp. 96-116. 



Ill 



11. PILOT PERFORMANCE 



By Warren J. North, Chief, Flight Crew Operations Division, NASA Manned Spacecraft Center; Harold 
I. Johnson, Flight Crew Operations Division, NASA Manned Spacecraft Center; Helmut A. Kuehnel, 
Flight Crew Operations Division, NASA Manned Spacecraft Center; and John J. Van Bockel, Flight 
Crew Operations Division, NASA Manned Spacecraft Center 



Summary 

The MA-6 flight showed that man can adapt 
to spacecraft activities in a space environment 
in much the same way as he adapts to his first 
flight in a new airplane. 

The value of static and dynamic simulators 
in providing accurate spacecraft systems and 
control familiarization was reaffirmed. Nearly 
all phases of the MA-6 flight had been simu- 
lated. Although Glenn previously experienced 
zero-gravity flight for durations of only 1 
minute in parabolic aircraft flight paths, the 
extension of weightlessness to iy 2 hours caused 
no concern and was, in fact, a pleasant contrast 
after spending several hours on his back at lg. 

Proposed concepts for manual control of ad- 
vanced spacecraft and launch vehicles were 
given added impetus as a result of the pilot's 
findings. By giving man a major role in sys- 
tems operation, as in aircraft practice, the most 
rapid and efficient attainment of advanced mis- 
sions will be possible. The possible malfunc- 
tion of the MA-6 heat-shield release mechanism 
required the pilot to interrupt the automatic 
retropackage jettison sequence. The automatic 
control mode was similarly switched off when 
the small attitude control jets malfunctioned. 
The significance of these malfunctions and man- 
ual corrective measures can be extrapolated to 
the design and operational philosophy for high- 
ly-complex multistage missions of the future. 
It is clear that man must play an integral role. 

His ability to observe the separated launch 
vehicle equally well when it was either above or 
below the horizon, his ability to view the sun 
safely in space, and his ability to establish a 
yaw reference optically lends credence to the 
use of optical rendezvous techniques in Gemini 
and Apollo missions. 



Finally, the performance of Shepard, Gris- 
som, and Glenn during their Mercury flights 
would seem to justify the selection of mature 
and experienced aircraft test pilots as Mercury 
astronauts. 

Introduction 

The pilot's primary role during the MA-6 
flight was to observe and report on spacecraft 
systems operation and provide control inputs 
which would insure mission success. Addi- 
tional activities were included in the flight plan 
to obtain information on visibility conditions 
during both day and night, to obtain pic- 
tures with special photographic film, and to 
obtain physiological information. These addi- 
tional activities were to be conducted only if the 
spacecraft were operating satisfactorily and 
did not require full attention from the pilot. 

In formulating the detailed flight plan, a 
prime consideration was the orbital position of 
the spacecraft with respect to the ground track- 
ing and communications stations. It was 
planned to perform most of the spacecraft ma- 
neuvers within line-of-sight distance of the 
ground stations in order that spacecraft motions 
could be correlated between the pilot and the 
ground readout of UHF radio telemetry. As to 
be expected on a flight of this nature, radio- 
voice contact was maintained a great majority 
of the time (approximately 80 percent). 

Although the spacing of Mercury network 
stations was designed such that the longest 
void in UHF radio contact would be 17 min- 
utes in a three-orbit mission, during the MA-6 
mission the longest gap in effective voice com- 
munications was 9 minutes, 13 seconds, appar- 
ently due to the longer range of HF radio. 



113 



This period of radio silence occurred during 
the third orbit between Australia and Hawaii. 

Pilot Performance 

Although network communications were ex- 
cellent during the flight, it was apparent in the 
Mercury Control Center that the pilot was the 
only person with continuous knowledge of 
spacecraft systems, and he was therefore in the 
best position to exercise control of the flight. It 
is significant that even during the period in 
which he was assessing the control system and 
the apparent heat-shield malfunctions, he was 
able to continue detailed systems reporting, 
make and record visual observations of weather 
and astronomical phenomena, and take many 
photographs. 

One of the important pilot tasks was moni- 
toring the occurrence of critical spacecraft se- 



quential events and providing manual override 
when necessary. Most of the spacecraft flight 
events can be identified by instrumentation on 
the control panel. In this flight, as well as in 
the previous two manned ballistic flights, the 
pilot's first and most reliable indication was the 
actual visual observation and/or an auditory 
cue of the event and/or a corresponding accel- 
eration from the event. Therefore, the pilot has 
positive evidence of the occurrence of an event 
by direct cues without the dependence upon 
electronic equipment. 

Because of the malfunction of the automatic 
control jets, the pilot was on manual control 
during most of the last two orbits. The deci- 
sion to retain the retrorocket package required 
that the automatic retrojettison switch be left 
in the "off" position after retrofire. The "off- 
position of this switch electrically interrupted 



114 



Figure 11-1. — MA-6 instrument panel, left section. 



Fiqube 11-2. — MA-6 instrument panel, center section. 



the sequential system and made it necessary for 
the pilot to control manually certain events 
from that time through the end of the flight. 
Those events were : to retain retrorocket pack- 
age, to pitch to reentry attitude, to retract the 
periscope, to actuate 0.05g reentry relay, and to 
extend the periscope. The rescue aids were 
deployed manually after impact in accordance 
with normal procedures. 

In each case of manual control of an event, 
the pilot took the appropriate action and ob- 
tained the desired result. 

The general ability of the pilot to control the 
vehicle manually is illustrated by a brief review 
of the major attitude maneuvers accomplished. 
With the exception of the 180° yaw turnaround, 
the following maneuvers were required to 
assess the status of the control system properly 
and to accomplish the mission : 



Control Systems Check 

A control systems check was performed dur- 
ing the first orbit to verify the operational 
status of the reaction control modes in a 
minimum amount of time and with minimal 
fuel usage. Figures 11-1 and 11-2 show the 
portions of the instrument panel which are in- 
volved during the control systems check. The 
large vertically-oriented handles on the left 
section are used to control valves in the hydro- 
gen peroxide plumbing system. The horizontal 
switch array is used to select various electronic 
control modes. Spacecraft rate and attitude 
displays are shown in the upper portion of- 
figure 11-2. The control system is designed so 
that the automatic and manual systems can be 
used independently or concurrently. Many 
additional control combinations are possible in 



115 



PITCH 
ATTITUDE, 
DEG 



TRAINER RUNS 




Figure 11-3. — MA-6 manual control systems eheck. 

that the manual system can be used to control 
motions about one axis and the automatic sys- 
tem to command motions about the remaining 
two axes. 

Figure illustrates the inflight control 

systems check with a background envelope con- 
sisting of four control systems checks accom- 
plished on the procedures trainer. All space- 
craft attitudes are defined as zero when the 
pilot is sitting upright with the small end of 
the spacecraft pointing horizontally backward 
along the flight path. As can be seen from 
this figure, the attitudes between the flight and 
procedures trainer varied 10° or less; the rates 
varied less than 1° per second. The time used 
to complete the flight maneuver was almost 
identical to those on the procedures trainer. 
These inflight data may give the initial impres- 
sion of a poorly controlled maneuver; however, 
it should be remembered that during orbital 
flight, the spacecraft has no aerodynamic stabil- 
izing forces or aerodynamic damping. Except 
for retrofire, there is no need to control space- 
craft attitudes precisely; consequently, during 
these maneuvers the pilot, was looking "for quali- 
tative rather than quantitative results. 

180° Right Yaw Maneuver 

The pilot made three 180° yaw maneuvers 
during this flight; however, only the first was 
intended as a planned maneuver in which the 
pitch and roll errors were minimized. The 
other two 180° maneuvers were- done for the 
purpose of observing and taking pictures of the 
sunrise, and the particles surrounding the space- 
craft. He had no difficulty making the precise 




TIME FROM LIFT-OFF, HR:MIN 
Figtjke 11-4.— MA-6 180° turnaround maneuver. 

180° yaw turnaround, using the window, while 
holding pitch and roll reasonably steady as can 
be seen in figure 11-4. 

These maneuvers involving large deviations 
from normal spacecraft attitudes produce spur- 
ious indications from the horizon scanner- 
gyroscope reference system. In each case, the 
pilot noted the erroneous indication and re- 
erected his gyroscopes within the limits required 
to allow the automatic reference system to re- 
store the proper indication. A similar gyro- 
scope caging operation is necessary to correct 
aircraft gyro precession after a gross maneuver. 

Retrofire Control 

The pilot backed up the automatic control 
system during the retrosequence and retrofire 
events, using the manual proportional control 
mode. The attitudes did not deviate more than 
3° during this maneuver. It is difficult to 
evaluate the effect of the pilot control duringi 
retrofire because of concurrent activity of the 
automatic and manual control jets. 

Reentry Pitch Maneuver 

He manually positioned the spacecraft to the 
proper reentry attitude (0° about all axes) 
using the manual control mode and the rate and 
attitude instruments. The precise reentrv 
pitch alinement is 1.6°. As can be seen by fig- 
ure 11-5, he performed this maneuver smoothly 
and accurately. The initial conditions repre- 
sent spacecraft attitude at the end of retrofire 
in which the pitch angle was -34°. 



116 



/ 



Figure 11-5— MA-6 reentry pitch. 

Reentry Damping 

The shape and weight distribution of the 
Mercury spacecraft provide sufficient inherent 
aerodynamic stability to reenter with the con- 
trol system inoperative; in fact, the Mercury 
"Big Joe" development flight in September 1959 
did reenter successfully with an inactive control 
system. Consequently, the thrust levels of the 
reaction-jet control system were designed with 
sufficient capability to control spacecraft atti- 
tudes during retrofire, but not to control space- 
craft trim attitudes during the high aerody- 
namic forces of reentry. The pilot's reentry 
task was to aline the spacecraft initially with 
the velocity vector, then to damp or minimize 
the low-frequency oscillations which occur. 
Although his attention was diverted by the 
burning retropack, reentry damping was per- 
formed satisfactorily by using a combination of 
the manual and automatic control systems until 
the control fuel was depleted. 

In contrast to the MA-5 mission, there was 
little concern regarding the ability of the* 
manned MA-6 spacecraft to complete three 
orbits. In fact, the third orbit gave the pilot 
additional time to experiment with the mal- 
functioning control system in order that he 
could better perform a successful retrofire and 
reentry. 



Pilot Observations 

In general, the pilot found he could easily 
orient the spacecraft in pitch and roll by using 
the external horizon reference. 

Yaw (or drift) is more difficult to determine 
at orbital attitudes because ground terrain fea- 
tures and clouds subtend low angular rates with 
respect to the spacecraft. By the end of the 
flight, he was able to determine yaw quite easily, 
both on the daylight side and during full moon- 
light night conditions, by using the window 
reference. During the flight, he used the pro- 
cedure of pitching down to —60° to pick up 
terrain drift due to the orbital velocity. He 
f ound that the periscope was not as useful as the 
window for determining drift on the nightside. 
Even with a full moon, the clouds were too dim 
in the periscope to pick up readily a specific 
point and follow it for yaw heading informa- 
tion. 

The pilot was able to observe the separated 
launch vehicle clearly when it was both above 
and below the horizon. Direct observation of 
the sun through the window was no more annoys 
ing than direct observations from the surface 
of the earth. 

John Glenn describes these and other observa- 
tions fully in paper 12. 

He found that weightlessness was pleasant, 
and in several respects, easier or more enjoyable 
than the lg condition. Zero-g facilitated cer- 
tain tasks, such as using the camera, since this 
equipment could be left hanging in midair when 
he was interrupted by other activities. The 
pilot experienced no problem in reaching for 
and activating controls. The effects of head 
rotation in a zero-g field were investigated. He 
moved his head rapidly in each of the three 
planes of rotation, with no sensations of nausea 
or vertigo. The pilot reported that he could 
feel only the highest angular accelerations en- 
countered during the flight. Most of the atti- 
tude maneuvers were conducted at rates lower 
than those that could be sensed under lg. 



117 



12. PILOT'S FLIGHT REPORT 



By JOHN H. Glenn, Jr., Astronaut, NASA Manned Spacecraft Center 



Summary 

Weightless flight was quickly adapted to, and 
was found to be pleasant and without discom- 
fort. The chances of mission success are 
greatly enhanced by the presence of a human 
crew in the spacecraft. A human crew is vital 
to future space missions for the purpose of 
intelligent observation and actions when the 
spacecraft encounters expected or unexpected 
occurrences or phenomena. 

Introduction 

The test objectives for the MA-6 mission of 
Friendship 7, as quoted from the Mission Di- 
rective, were as follows : 

(1) Evaluate the performance of a man- 

spacecraft system in a three-orbit 
mission 

(2) Evaluate the effects of space flight on 

the astronaut 

(3) Obtain the astronaut's opinions on the 

operational suitability of the space- 
craft and supporting systems for 
manned space flight 
These are obviously broad objectives. Pre- 
vious papers have described in some detail the 
operation of the spacecraft systems and, to a 
degree, man's integration with these systems. 

My report is concerned mainly with those 
items in all three objectives where man's ob- 
servation capabilities provided information not 
attained by other means. It is in this type of 
reporting that a manned vehicle provides a 
great advantage over an unmanned vehicle, 
which is often deaf and blind to the new and 
the unexpected. My report, then, will stress 
what I heard, saw, and felt during the orbital 
flight. 

Preparation and Countdown 

Preparation, transfer to the launch pad, and 
insertion into the spacecraft went as planned. 



The technicians and I had been through the 
entry to the spacecraft many times. 

As with every countdown, short delays were 
encountered when problems arose. The sup- 
port for the microphone in the helmet, an item 
that had been moved and adjusted literally 
thousands of times, broke and had to be re- 
placed. While the spacecraft hatch was being 
secured, a bolt was broken and had to be re- 
paired. During this time I was busy going over 
my checklist and monitoring the spacecraft in- 
struments. 

Many people were concerned about my mental 
state during this and earlier delays, which are a 
part of preparation for a manned space flight. 
People have repeatedly asked whether I was 
afraid before the mission. Humans always 
have fear of an unknown situation— this is nor- 
mal. The important thing is what we do about 
it. If fear is permitted to become a paralyzing 
thing that interferes with proper action, then 
it is harmful. The best antidote to fear is to 
know all we can about a situation. It is lack 
of knowledge which often misleads people when 
they try to imagine the feelings of an astronaut 
about to launch. During the years of prepara- 
tion for Project Mercury, the unknown areas 
have been shrunk, we feel, to an acceptable level. 
For those who have not had the advantage of 
this training, the unknowns appear huge and 
insurmountable, and the level of confidence of 
the uninformed is lowered by an appropriate 
amount. 

All the members of the Mercury team have 
been working towards this space flight oppor- 
tunity for a long time. We have not dreaded 
it ; we have looked forward to it. After 3 years 
we cannot be unduly concerned by a few delays. 
The important consideration is that everything 
be ready, that nothing be jeopardized by haste 
which can be preserved by prudent action. 

The initial unusual experience of the mission 



119 



is that of being on top of the Atlas launch ve- 
hicle after the gantry has been pulled back. 
Through the periscope, much of Cape Canav- 
eral can be seen. If you move back and forth 
in the couch, you can feel the entire vehicle 
moving very slightly. When the engines are 
gimbaled, you can feel the vibration. When the 
tank is filled with liquid oxygen, the spacecraft 
vibrates and shudders as the metal skin flexes. 
Through the window and periscope the white 
plume of the lox (liquid oxygen) venting is 
visible. 

Launch 

When the countdown reached zero, I could 
feel the engines start. The spacecraft shook, 
not violently but very solidly. There was no 
doubt when lift-off occurred. When the Atlas 
was released there was an immediate gentle 
surge that let you know you were on your way. 
The roll to the correct azimuth was noticeable 
after lift-off. I had preset the little window 
mirror to watch the ground. I glanced up after 
lift-off and could see the horizon turning. 
Some vibration occurred immediately after lift- 
off. It smoothed out after about 10 to 15 sec- 
onds of flight but never completely stopped. 
There was still a noticeable amount of vibration 
that continued up to the time the spacecraft 
passed through the maximum aerodynamic 
pressure or maximum q, at approximately 
T+l minute. The approach of maximum q is 
signaled by more intense vibrations. Force on 
the outside of the spacecraft was calculated at 
982 pounds per square foot at this time. Dur- 
ing this period, I was conscious of a dull muffled 
roar from the engines. Beyond the high q area 
the vibration smoothed out noticeably. How- 
ever, the spacecraft never became completely 
vibration free during powered flight. 

The acceleration buildup was noticeable but 
not bothersome. Before the flight my backup 
pilot, Astronaut Scott Carpenter, had said he 
thought it would feel good to go in a straight- 
line acceleration rather than just in circles as 
we had in the centrifuge and he was right. 
Booster engine cut-off occurred at 2 minutes 9.6 
seconds after lift-off. As the two outboard en- 
gines shut down and were detached, the ac- 
celeration dropped but not as sharply as I had 
anticipated. Instead, it decayed over approxi- 
mately y 2 second. There is a change in noise 
level and vibration when these engines are jet- 

120 



tisoned. I saw a flash of smoke out the window 
and thought at first that the escape tower had 
jettisoned early and so reported. However, this 
flash was apparently deflected smoke coming 
up around the spacecraft from the booster en- 
gines which had just separated. The tower was 
jettisoned at 2 minutes, 33.3 seconds, and I cor- 
rected my earlier report. I was ready to back 
up the automatic sequencing system if it did 
not perform correctly and counted down the 
seconds to the time for tower jettisoning. I was 
looking at the nozzles of the tower rockets when 
they fired. A large cloud of smoke came out 
but little flame. The tower accelerated rapidly 
from the spacecraft in a straight line. I 
watched it to a distance of approximately 
V 2 mile. The spacecraft was programmed to 
pitch down slowly just prior to jettisoning the 
tower and this maneuver provided my first real 
view of the horizon and clouds. I could just 
see clouds and the horizon behind the tower as 
it jettisoned. 

After the tower fired, the spacecraft pitched 
slowly up again and I lost sight, of the horizon. 
I remember making a comment at about this 
time that the sky was very black. The accerela- 
ation built up again, but as before, acceleration 
was not a major problem. I could communi- 
cate well, up to the maximum of 7.7g 
at insertion when the sustainer-engine thrust 
terminates. 

Just before the end of powered flight, there 
was one experience I was not expecting. At 
this time the fuel and lox tanks were getting 
empty and apparently the Atlas becomes con- 
siderably more flexible than when filled. I had 
the sensation of being out on the end of a spring- 
board and could feel oscillating motions as if 
the nose of the launch vehicle were waving back 
and forth slightly. (Appendix B presents the 
onboard tape transcript of the Friendship 7 
orbital flight.) 

Insertion into Orbit 

The noise also increased as the vehicle ap- 
proached SECO (sustainer engine cutoff). 
When the sustainer engine cutoff at 5 minutes, 
1.4 seconds and the acceleration dropped to 
zero, I had a slight, sensation of tumbling for- 
ward. The astronauts have often had a similar 
sensation during training on the centrifuge. 
The sensation was much less during the flight, 



and since the spacecraft did pitch down at 
this point it may have been a result of actual 
movement rather than an illusion. 

There was no doubt when the clamp ring be- 
tween the Atlas and the Mercury spacecraft 
fired. There was a loud report and I im- 
mediately felt the force of the posigrade rockets 
which separate the spacecraft from the launch 
vehicle. Prior to the flight I had imagined 
that the acceleration from these three small 
rockets would be insignificant and that we 
might fail to sense them entirely, but there is 
no doubt when they fire. 

Immediately after separation from the Atlas, 
the autopilot, started to turn the spacecraft 
around. As the spacecraft came around to its 
normal aft viewing attitude, I could see the 
Atlas through the window. At the time I esti- 
mated that it was "a couple of hundred yards 
away." After the flight an analysis of the 
trajectory data Showed that the distance be- 
tween the launch vehicle and the spacecraft 
should, at this point, be 600 feet. Close enough 
for a rough estimate. I do not claim that I 
can normally judge distance so close. There 
was a large sized luck factor in the estimate; 
nevertheless, the facts do give an indication 
that man can make an adequate judgment at 
least of short distances to a known object in 
space. This capability will be important in 
future missions in which man will want to 
achieve rendezvous, since the pilot will 
be counted on to perform the final closing 
maneuver. 

I was able to keep the Atlas in sight for 6 
or 7 minutes while it traveled across the At- 
lantic. The last time I reported seeing it the 
Atlas was approximately 2 miles behind and 
1 mile below the spacecraft. It could be seen 
easily as a bright object against the black back- 
ground of space and later against the back- 
ground of earth. 

Orbit 

The autopilot turned the spacecraft around 
and put it into the proper attitude. After my 
initial contact with Bermuda I received the 
times for firing the retrorockets and started 
the check of the controls. This is a test of the 
control systems aboard the spacecraft. I had 
practiced it many times on the ground in the 
Mercury procedures trainer and the test went 
just as it had in the trainer. I was elated by 



the precision with which the test progressed. 
It is quite an intricate check. With your right 
hand you move the control stick, operating the 
hydrogen peroxide thrusters to move the space- 
craft in roll, pitch, and yaw. With your left 
hand you switch from one control system to 
another as the spacecraft is manually controlled 
to a number of precise rates and attitudes. 

This experience was the hrst time I had been 
in complete manual control, and it was very 
reassuring to see not only the spacecraft react 
as expected, but also to see that my own ability 
to control was as we had hoped. 

Following this controls check I went back to 
autopilot control and the spacecraft operated 
properly on autopilot throughout the first orbit 

Thruster Problem 

Because of a malfunction in a low-torque 
thruster at the end of the first orbit, it was nec- 
essary to control the spacecraft manually for 
the last two orbits. This requirement intro- 
duced no serious problems, and actually pro- 
vided me with an opportunity to demonstrate 
what a man can do in controlling a spacecraft. 
However, it limited the time that could be spent 
on many of the experiments I had hoped to 
carry out during the flight. 

Flight Plan 

The Mercury flight plan during the first orbit 
was to maintain optimum spacecraft attitude 
for radar tracking and communication checks. 
This plan would provide good trajectory in- 
formation as early as possible and would give 
me a chance to adapt to these new conditions 
if such was necessary. Other observations and 
tasks were to be accomplished mainly on the 
second and third orbits. Since the thruster 
problem made it necessary for me to control 
manually during most of the second and third 
orbits, several of the planned observations and 
experiments were not accomplished. 

Attitude Reference 

A number of questions have been raised over 
the ability of a man to use the earth's horizon 
as a reference for controlling the attitude of 
the space vehicle. 

Throughout this flight no trouble in seeing 
the horizon was encountered. During the day 
the earth is bright and the background of space 

121 



is dark. The horizon is vividly marked. At 
night, before the moon is up, the horizon can 
still be seen against the background of stare. 
After the moon rises (daring this flight the 
moon was full) , the earth is well enough lighted 
so that the horizon can be clearly seen. 

With this horizon as a. reference, the pitch 
and roll attitudes of the spacecraft can easily 
be controlled. The window can be positioned 
where you want it. Yaw, or heading reference, 
however, is not so good. I believe that there 
was a learning period during the flight regard- 
ing my ability to determine yaw. Use of the 
view through the window and periscope grad- 
ually improved. 

To determine yaw in the spacecraft, advan- 
tage must be taken of the speed of the space- 
craft over the earth which produces an ap- 
parent drift of the ground below the spacecraft. 
When the spacecraft is properly oriented, fac- 
ing along the plane of the orbit, the ground ap- 
pears to move parallel to the spacecraft longi- 
tudinal axis. During the flight I developed a 
procedure which seemed to help me use this 
terrain drift as a yaw reference. I would pitch 
the small end of the spacecraft down to about 
- 60° from the normal attitude where a fairly 
good vertical view was available. In this atti- 
tude, clouds and land moving out from under 
me had more apparent motion than when the 
spacecraft was in its normal orbit attitude and 
I looked off toward the horizon. 

At night with the full moon illuminating the 
clouds below, I could still determine yaw 
through the window but not as rapidly as in the 
daytime. At night I could also use the drift 
of the stars to determine heading but this took 
longer and was less accurate. 

Throughout the flight I preferred the window 
to the periscope as an attitude reference system. 
It seemed to take longer to adjust yaw by using 
the periscope on the day side. At night, the 
cloud illumination by the moon is too dim to 
be seen well through the periscope. 

Three times during the flight I turned the 
spacecraft approximately 1S0° in yaw and faced 
forward in the direction of flight. I liked this 
attitude — seeing where I was going rather than 
where I had been— much better. As a result of 
these maneuvers my instrument reference sys- 
tem gave me an inaccurate attitude indication. 
It was easy to determine the proper attitude, 



however, from reference to the horizon through 
the window or to the periscope. Maintaining 
orientation was no problem, but I believe that 
the pilot automatically relies much more com- 
pletely on vision in space than he does in an 
airplane, where gravity cues are available. The 
success with which I was able to control the 
spacecraft at all times was, to me, one of the 
most significant features of the flight. 

Weightlessness 

Weightlessness was a pleasant experience. I 
reported I felt fine as soon as the spacecraft 
separated from the launch vehicle, and through- 
out the flight this feeling continued to be the 
same. 

Approximately every 30 minutes throughout 
the flight I went through a series of exercises 
to determine whether weightlessness was affect- 
ing me in any way. To see if head movement 
in a zero g environment produced any symp- 
toms of nausea or vertigo, I tried first moving, 
then shaking my head from side to side, up 
and down, and tilting it from shoulder to shoul- 
der. In other words, moving my head in roll, 
pitch, and yaw. I began slowly, but as the 
flight progressed, I moved my head more rap- 
idly and vigorously until at the end of the flight 
I was moving as rapidly as my pressure suit 
would allow. In figure 12-1 1 the camera has 
caught me in the middle of this test, and this 
photograph shows the extent to which I was 
moving my head. 




Figube 12-1.— Pilot looks to his right. Note the dis- 
tance his head can be turned in the pressure suit 
1 All the originals of these photographs are in color 
and some detail is lost in the black and white repro- 
duction of these photographs. 



122 



In another test, using only eye motions, I 
tracked a rapidly moving spot of light gener- 
ated by my finger-tip lights. I had no problem 
watching the spot and once again no sensations 
of dizziness or nausea. A small eye chart was 
included on the instrument panel, with letters 
of varying size and with a "spoked wheel 1 ' pat- 
tern to check both general vision and any 
tendency toward astigmatism. No change 
from normal was apparent. 

An "oculogyric test" was made in which 
turning rates of the spacecraft were correlated 
with sensations and eye movements. Eesults 
were normal. Preflight experience in this test 
and a calibration had been made at the Naval 
School of Aviation Medicine, Pensacola, Fla., 
with Dr. Ashton Graybiel, so that I was thor- 
oughly familiar with my reactions to these same 
movements at 1 g. 

To provide medical data on the cardiovascular 
system, at intervals, I did an exercise which 
consisted of pulling on a bungee cord once a 
second for 30 seconds. This exercise provided 
a known workload to compare with previous 
similar tests made on the ground. The flight 
surgeons have reported the effect that this had 
on my pulse and blood pressure. The effect 
that it had on me during the flight was the same 
effect that is had on the ground — it made me 
tired. 

Another experiment related to the possible 
medical effects of weightlessness was eating in 
orbit. (See fig. 12-2.) On the relatively short 
flight of Friendship 7, eating was not a neces- 
sity, but rather an attempt to determine whether 
there would be any problem in consuming and 
digesting food in a weightless state. At no 




Figure 12-2. — Pilot opens visor to eat. 



time did I have any difficulty eating. I believe 
that any type of food can be eaten as long as it 
does not come apart easily or make crumbs. 
Prior to the flight, we joked about taking along 
some normal food such as a ham sandwich. I 
think this would be practical and should be 
tried. 

Sitting in the spacecraft under zero g is more 
pleasant than under 1 g on the ground, since 
you are not subject to any pressure points. I 
felt that I adapted very rapidly to weightless- 
ness. I had no tendency to overreach nor did 
I experience any other sign of lack of coordina- 
tion, even on the first movements after separa- 
tion. I found myself unconsciously taking ad- 
vantage of the weightless condition, as when I 
would leave a camera or some other object float- 
ing in space while I attended to other matters. 
This was not done as a preplanned maneuver 
but as a spur-of-the-moment thing when an- 
other system needed my attention. I thought 
later about how I had done this as naturally as 
if I were laying the camera on a table in a 1 g 
field. It pointedly illustrates how rapidly 
adaptable the human is, even to something as 
foreign as weightlessness. (See fig. 12-3.) 

We discovered from this flight that some 
problems are still to be solved in properly deter- 
mining how to stow and secure equipment that 
is used in a space vehicle. I had brought along 
a number of instruments, such as, cameras, bin- 
oculars, and a photometer, with which to make 
observations from the spacecraft. All of these 
were stowed in a ditty bag by my right arm. 
Each piece of equipment had a 3-foot piece of 




Figure 12-3.— After his snack of applesauce, the pilot 
leaves his expended tube hanging in air momentarily. 

123 



634401 



line attached to it. By the time I had started 
using items of the equipment, these lines became 
tangled. . Although these lines got in the way, 
it was still important to have some way of se- 
curing the equipment, as I found out when I at- 
tempted to change film. The small canisters of 
film were not tied to the ditty bag by lines. I 
left one floating in midair while working with 
the camera, and when I reached for it, I acci- 
dentally hit it and it. floated out of sight behind 
the instrument panel 

Color and Light 2 

As I looked back at the earth from space, 
colors and light intensities were much the same 
as I had observed when flying at high altitude 
in an airplane. The colors observed when look- 
ing down at the ground appeared similar to 
those seen from 50,000 feet. When looking 
toward the horizon, however, the view is com- 
pletely different, for then the blackness of space 
contrasts vividly with the brightness of the 
earth. The horizon itself is a brilliant, brilliant 
blue and white. 

It was surprising how much of the earth's 
surface was covered by clouds. The clouds can 
be seen very clearly on the daylight side. The 
different types of clouds — vertical develop- 
ments, stratus clouds, and cumulus clouds — arc 
readily distinguished. There is little problem 
identifying them or in seeing the weather pat- 
terns. You can estimate the relative heights of 
the cloud layers from your knowledge of the 
types or from the shadows the high clouds cast 
on those lower down. These observations are 
representative of information which the scien- 
tists of the U.S. Weather Bureau Meteorologi- 
cal Satellite Laboratory had asked Project Mer- 
cury to determine. They are interested in im- 
proving the optical equipment in their Tiros 
and Nimbus satellites and would like to know 
if they could determine the altitude of cloud 
layers with better optical resolution. From my 
flight I would say it is quite possible to deter- 
mine cloud heights from this orbital altitude. 
(See figs. 12-4 to 12-8.) 

Only a few land areas were visible during 
the flight because of the cloud cover. Clouds 
were over much of the Atlantic, but the western 

1 A more detailed description of the visual observa- 
tions taken from the postflight debriefing is presented 
in appendix. 



(Sahara Desert) part of Africa was clear. As 
I passed over it the first time I took the picture 
shown in figure 12-9. In this desert region I 
could plainly see dust storms. By the time I 
got to the east coast of Africa where I might 
have been able to see towns, the land was cov- 
ered by clouds. The Indian Ocean was the 
same. 

Western Australia was clear, but the eastern 
half was overcast. Most of the area across 
Mexico and nearly to New Orleans was covered 
with high cirrus clouds. As I came across the 
United States I could see New Orleans, Charles- 
ton, and Savannah very clearly. I could also 
see rivers and lakes. I think the best view I 
had of any land area during the flight was the 
clear desert region around El Paso on the sec- 
ond pass across the United States. I could see 
the colors of the desert and the irrigated area 
north of El Paso. As I passed off the east coast 
of the United States I could see across Florida 
and far back along the Gulf Coast. (See figs. 
12-10 and 12-11.) 

Over the Atlantic I saw what I assume was 
the Gulf Stream. The different colors of the- 
water are clearly visible. 

I also observed what was probably the wake 
of a ship. As I was passing over the recovery 
area at the end of the second orbit, I looked 
down at the water and saw a little "V." I 
checked the map. I was over recovery area G 
at the time, so I think it was probably the wake 
from a recovery ship. When I looked again 
the little "V" was under a cloud. The change 
in light reflections caused by the wake of a ship 
are sometimes visible for long distances from 
an airplane and will linger for miles behind a 
ship. This wake was probably what was 
visible. 

I believe, however, that most people have an 
erroneous conception that from orbital altitude, 
little detail can be seen. In clear desert air, it 
is common to see a mountain range 100 or so 
miles away very clearly, and all that vision is 
through atmosphere. From orbital altitude, at- 
mospheric light attenuation is only through ap- 
proximately 100,000 feet of atmosphere so it 
is even more clear. An interesting experiment 
for future flights can be to determine visibility 
of objects of different sizes, colors, and shapes. 

Obviously, on the night side of the earth, 
much less was visible. This may have been due 



124 



it 



Si 

I 

si 
l| 
s » 

IP 
5H 

ill 



III 

in 
111 

ill 



Figtjbe 12-5. — Just before sunset on the first orbit, the pilot's camera catches the darkening earth. The 
photograph shows how the shadows help to indicate cloud heights. 



not only to the reduced light, but also partly to 
the fact that I was never fully dark adapted. 
In the bright light of the full moon, the clouds 
are visible. I could see vertical development at 
night. Most of the cloudy areas, however, ap- 
peared to be stratoform. 

The lights of the city of Perth, in Western 
Australia, were on and I could see them well. 
The view was similar to that seen when flying 
at high altitude at night over a small town. 
South of Perth there was a small group of 
lights, but they were much brighter in intensity. 
Inland there was a series of four or five towns 
lying in a line running from east to webt. 
Knowing that Perth was on the coast, I was just 
barely able to see the coastline of Australia. 
Clouds covered the area of eastern Australia 
around Woomera, and I saw nothing but clouds 



from there across the Pacific until I was east 
of Hawaii, There appeared to be almost solid 
cloud cover all the way. 

Just off the east coast of Africa were two 
large storm areas. Weather Bureau scientists 
had wondered whether lightning could be seen 
on the night side, and it certainly can. A large 
storm was visible just north of my track over 
the Indian Ocean and a smaller one to the south. 
Lightning could be seen flashing back and forth 
between the clouds but most prominent were 
lightning flashes within thunderheads illumi- 
nating them like light bulbs. 

Some of the most spectacular sights during 
the flight were sunsets. The sunsets always oc- 
curred slightly to my left, and I turned the 
spacecraft to get a better view. The sunlight 
coming in the window was very brilliant, with 



126 



Figcbe 12-6.— Over the Atlantic on the third orbit, the pilot's camera shows an overcast region to the northwest 
and patterns of scattered clouds in the foreground. 




Figure 12-7.— View from Tiros IV of approximately 
the same area in the Western Atlantic as that in 
figure 12-6. This view shows the appearance of the 
cloud as televised from a height of about 440 miles. 
Actual time of the photograph was 1428 G.c.t. Pho- 
tograph is of the general vicinity of latitude 60° N., 
longitude 60° W. (U.S. Weather Bureau photo- 
graph.) 



an intense clear white light that reminded me 
of the arc lights while the spacecraft was on 
the launching pad. 

I watched the first sunset through the pho- 
tometer (fig. 12-12) which had a polarizing fil- 
ter on the front so that the intensity of the sun 
could be reduced to a comfortable level for 
viewing. Later I found that by squinting, I 
could look directly at the sun with no ill effects, 
just as I can from the surface of the earth. 
This accomplished little of value but does give 
an idea of intensity. 

The sun is perfectly round as it approaches 
the horizon. It retains most of its symmetry 
until just the last sliver is visible. The horizon 
on each side of the sun is extremely bright, and 
when the sun has gone down to the level of this 
bright band of the horizon, it seems to spread 

127 



Figure 12-9.— View looking back toward the African coast on the first orbit. The photograph from the pilot's 
camera shows the desert with blowing sand in the foreground. 



out to each side of the point where it is setting. 
With the camera I caught the flattening of the 
sun just before it set (fig. 12-13 (b) ). This is 
a phenomenon of some interest to the astron- 
omers. 

As the sun moves toward the horizon, a black 
shadow of darkness moves across the earth un- 
til the whole surface, except for the bright band 
at the horizon, is dark. This band is extremely 
bright just as the sun sets, but as time passes 
the bottom layer becomes a bright orange and 
fades into reds, then on into the darker colors, 
and finally off into the blues and blacks. One 
thing that surprised me was the distance the 
light extends on the horizon on each side of the 
point of the sunset. The series of pictures 
shown in figures 12-13 and 12-14 illustrates the 
sequence of this orbital twilight. I think that 
the eye can see a little more of the sunset color 



band than the camera captures. One point of 
interest was the length of time during which 
the orbital twilight persisted. Light was vis- 
ible along the horizon for 4 to 5 minutes after 
the sunset, a long time w T hen you consider that 
sunset occurred 18 times faster than normal. 

The period immediately following sunset was 
of special interest to the astronomers. Because 
of atmospheric light scattering, it is not pos- 
sible to study the region close to the sun except 
at the time of a solar eclipse. It had been hoped 
that from above the atmosphere the area close 
to the sun could be observed. However, this 
would require a period of dark adaptation prior 
to sunset. An eye patch had been developed 
for this purpose, which was to be held in place 
by special tape. This patch was expected to 
permit one eye to be night adapted prior to 
sunset. Unfortunately, the tape proved unsat- 



129 




(b) 

Figure 12-10, 



130 



i. — At the beginning of the third orbit, the pilot catches a panoramic view of the Florida coast, from 
the cloud covered Georgia border to just above Cape Canaveral. 




Figure 12-11— View of the Florida area from Tiros 
IV taken at 1610 G.c.t. on February 20, 1962. This 
photograph shows the band of clouds ( across South- 
ern Florida) which had moved away from Cape 
Canaveral earlier that morning. The clouds just 
north of Florida are apparently the ones plainly vis- 
ible in figure 12-10. (U.S. Weather Bureau photo- 
graph ; major land masses are outlined in white ink.) 

isfactory and I could not use the eyepatch. 
Observations of the sun's corona and zodiacal 
light must await future flights when the pilot 
may have an opportunity to get more fully dark 
adapted prior to sunset. 

Another experiment suggested by our advi- 
sors in astronomy was to obtain ultraviolet spec- 
trographs of the stars in the belt and sword of 
Orion. The ozone layer of the earth's atmos- 
phere will not pass ultraviolet light below 3,000 
angstroms. The spacecraft window will pass 
light down to 2,000 angstroms. It is possible, 
therefore, to get pictures of the stars from the 
Mercury spacecraft which cannot be duplicated 
by the largest telescopes on the ground. Sev- 
eral ultraviolet spectrographs were taken of the 
stars in the belt of Orion. Thef are being 
studied at the present time to see whether use- 
ful information was obtained. 

The biggest surprise of the flight occurred 
at dawn. Coming out of the night on the first 
orbit, at the first glint of sunlight on the space- 
craft, I was looking inside the spacecraft check- 
ing instruments for perhaps 15 to 20 seconds. 
When I glanced back through the window my 
initial reaction was that the spacecraft had tum- 
bled and that I could see nothing but stars 
through the window. I realized, however, that 
I was still in the normal attitude. The space- 
craft was surrounded by luminous particles. 

These particles were a light yellowish green 
color. It was as if the spacecraft were moving 
through a field of fireflies. They were about 




the brightness of a first magnitude star and 
appeared to vary in size from a pinhead up to 
possibly % inch. They were about 8 to 10 feet 
apart and evenly distributed through the space 
around the spacecraft. Occasionally, one or 
two of them would move slowly up around the 
spacecraft and across the window, drifting very, 
very slowly, and would then gradually move 
off, back in the direction I was looking. I 
observed these luminous objects for approxi- 
mately 4 minutes each time the sun came up. 

During the third sunrise I turned the space- 
craft around and faced forward to see if I 
could determine where the particles were com- 
ing from. Facing forwards I could see only 
about 10 percent as many particles as I had 
when my back was to the sun. Still, they 
seemed to be coming towards me from some 
distance so that they appeared not to be com- 
ing from the spacecraft. Just what these par- 
ticles are is still subject to debate and awaits 
further clarification. Dr. John O'Keefe at the 
NASA Goddard Space Flight Center is mak- 
ing a study in an attempt to determine what 
these particles might be. (See appendix D.) 

Other Planned Observations 

As mentioned earlier, a number of other ob- 
servations and measurements during orbit had 
to be canceled because of the control system 
problems. Equipment carried was not highly 
sophisticated scientific equipment. We be- 
lieved, however, that it would show the feasi- 
bility of making more comprehensive measure- 
ments on later missions. 



131 



Some of these areas of investigation that we 
planned but did not have an opportunity to 
check are as follows: 

(a) Weather Bureau observations : 

(1) Pictures of weather areas and 

cloud formations to match 
against map forecasts and Tiros 
pictures 

(2) Filter mosaic pictures of major 

weather centers 

(3) Observation of green air glow 

from air and weather centers in 
5,577-angstrom band with air 
glow filter 

(4) Albedo intensities — measure re- 

flected light intensities on both 
day and night side 

( b ) Astronomical observations : 

(1) Light polarization from area of 

sun 

(2) Comets close to sun 

(3) Zodiacal light 

(4) Sunlight intensity 

(5) Lunar clouds 

(6) Gegenschein 

(7) Starlight intensity measurements 

(c) Test for otolith balance disturbance and 
autokynesis phenomena 

(d) Vision tests: 

( 1 ) Night vision adaptation 

(2) Phorometer eye measurements 

(e) Drinking 

Reentry 

After having turned around on the last orbit 
to see the particles, I maneuvered into the cor- 
rect attitude for firing the retrorockets and 
stowed the equipment in the ditty bag. 

This last dawn found my attitude indicators 
still slightly in error. However, before it was 
time to fire the retrorockets the horizon-scanner 
slaving mechanism had brought the gyros back 
to orbit attitude. I crosschecked repeatedly be- 
tween the instruments, periscope presentation, 
and the attitude through the window. 

Although there were variations in the instru- 
ment presentations during the flight, there was 
never any difficulty in determining my true at- 
titude by reference to the window or periscope. 
I received a countdown from the ground and 
the retrorockets were fired on schedule just off 
the California coast. 



I could hear each rocket fire and could feel 
the surge as the rockets slowed the spacecraft. 
Coming out of zero-g condition, the retrorocket 
firing produced the sensation that I was accel- 
erating back toward Hawaii (fig. 12-15) . This 
sensation, of course, was an illusion. 

Following retrofire the decision was made to 
have me reenter with the retro package still on 
because of the uncertainty as to whether the 
landing bag had been extended. This decision 
required me to perform manually a number 
of the operations which are normally automati- 
cally programed during the reentry. These 
maneuvers I accomplished. I brought the 
spacecraft to the proper attitude for reentry 
under manual control. The periscope was re- 
tracted by pumping the manual retraction lever. 

As deceleration began to increase I could hear 
a hissing noise that sounded like small particles 
brushing against the spacecraft. 

Due to ionization around the spacecraft, com- 
munications were lost. This had occurred on 
earlier missions and was experienced now on 
the predicted schedule. As the heat pulse 
started there was a noise and a bump on the 
spacecraft. I saw one of the straps that holds 
the retrorocket package swing in front of the 
window. 

The heat pulse increased until I could see a 
glowing orange color through the window. 
Flaming pieces were breaking off and flying 
past the spacecraft window. (See fig. 12-16.) 
At the time, these observations were of some 
concern to me because I was not sure what they 
were. I had assumed that the retropack had 
been jettisoned when I saw the strap in front of 
the window. I thought these flaming pieces 
might be parts of the heat shield breaking off. 
We know now, of course, that the pieces were 
from the retropack. 

There was no doubt when the heat pulse oc- 
curred during reentry but it takes time for the 
heat to soak into the spacecraft and heat the 
air. I did not feel particularly hot until we 
were getting down to about 75,000 to 80,000 
feet. From there on down I was uncomfortably 
warm, and by the time the main parachute was 
out I was perspiring profusely. 

The reentry deceleration of 7.7g was as ex- 
pected and was similar to that experienced in 
centrifuge runs. There had been some ques- 
tion as to whether our ability to tolerate accel- 



133 





Figube 12-15. — Pilot concentrates on instruments while 
controlling attitude during retroflre. 

eration might be worse because of the iy 2 hours 
of weightlessness, but I could note no difference 
between my feeling of deceleration on this flight 
and my training sessions in the centrifuge. 

After peak deceleration, the amplitude of the 
spacecraft oscillations began to build. I kept 
them under control on the manual and fly-by- 
wire systems until I ran out of manual fuel. 
After that point, I was unknowingly left with 
only the fly-by-wire system and the oscillations 
increased; so I switched to auxiliary damping, 
which controlled the spacecraft until the auto- 
matic fuel was also expended. I was reaching 
for the switch to deploy the drogue parachute 
early in order to reduce these reentry oscilla- 
tions, when it was deployed automatically. The 
drogue parachute stabilized the spacecraft 
rapidly. 

At 10.800 feet the main parachute was de- 
ployed. I could see it stream out behind me, 
fill partially, and then as the reefing line cut- 
ters were actuated it filled completely. The 
opening of the parachute caused a jolt, but 
perhaps less than I had expected. 

The landing deceleration was sharper than I 
had expected. Prior to impact I had discon- 
nected all the extra leads to my suit, and was 
ready for rapid egress, but there was no need 
for this. I had a message that the destroyer 
Noa would pick me up within 20 minutes. I 
lay quietly in the spacecraft trying to keep as 
cool as possible. The temperature inside the 
spacecraft did not seem to diminish. This, com- 
bined with the high humidity of the air being 
drawn into the spacecraft kept me uncomfort- 
ably warm and perspiring heavily. Once the 



Figure 12-16. — Pilot looks out of window at fireball 
during maximum reentry heating. 

Noa was alongside the spacecraft, there was 
little delay in starting the hoisting operation. 
The spacecraft was pulled part way out of the 
water to let the water drain from the landing 
bag. 

During the spacecraft pickup, I received one 
good bump. It was probably the most solid 
jolt of the whole trip as the spacecraft swung 
against the side of the ship. Shortly after- 
wards the spacecraft was on the deck. 

I had initially planned egress out through 
the top, but by this time I had been perspiring 
heavily for nearly 45 minutes. I decided to 
come out the side hatch instead. 

General Remarks 

Many things were learned from the flight of 
Friendship 7. Concerning spacecraft systems 
alone, you have heard many reports today that 
have verified previous design concepts or have 
shown weak spots that need remedial action. 

Now, what can be said of man in the system % 

Reliability 

Of major significance is the probability that 
much more dependence can be placed on the 
man as a reliably operating portion of the man- 
spacecraft combination. In many areas his safe 
return can be made dependent on his own in- 
telligent actions. Although a design philoso- 
phy could not be followed up to this time, 
Project Mercury never considered the astronaut 
as merely a passive passenger. 

These areas must be assessed carefully, for 
man is not infallible, as we are all acutely 
aware. As an inflight example, some of you 



135 



may have noticed a slight discrepancy between 
launch photographs of the pilot and similar re- 
entry views. The face plate on the helmet was 
open during the reentry phase. Had cabin 
pressure started to drop, I could have closed the 
face plate in sufficient time to prevent decom- 
pression, but nevertheless a face-plate-open re- 
entry was not planned. 

On the ground, some things would also be 
done differently. As an example, I feel it more 
advisable in the event of suspected malfunc- 
tions, such as the heat-shield-retropack diffi- 
culties, that require extensive discussion among 
ground personnel to keep the pilot updated on 
each bit of information rather than waiting for 
a final clearcut recommendation from the 
ground. This keeps the pilot fully informed 
if there would happen to be any communication 
difficulty and it became necessary for .him to 
make all decisions from onboard information. 

Many things would be done differently 
if this flight, could be flown over again, but we 
learn from our mistakes. I never flew a test 
flight on an airplane that I didn't return wish- 
ing I had done some things differently. 

Even where automatic systems are still neces- 
sary, mission reliability is tremendously in- 
creased by having the man as a backup. The 
flight of Friendship 7 is a good example. This 
mission would almost certainly not have com- 
pleted its three orbits, and might not have come 
back at all, if a man had not been aboard. 

Adaptability 

The flight of the Friendship 7 Mercury 
spacecraft has proved that man can adapt very 
rapidly to this new environment. His senses 



and capabilities are little changed in space. At 
least for the 4.5-hour duration of this mission, 
weightlessness was no problem. 

Man's adaptability is most evident in his 
powers of observation. He can accomplish 
many more and varied experiments per mis- 
sion than can be obtained from an unmanned 
vehicle. When the unexpected arises, as hap- 
pened with the luminous particles and layer 
observations on this flight, he can make observa- 
tions that will permit more rapid evaluation 
of these phenomena on future flights. Indeed, 
on an unmanned flight there likely would have 
been no such observations. 

Future Plans 

Most important, however, the future will not 
always find us as power limited as we are now. 
"We will progress to the point where missions 
will not be totally preplanned. There will be 
choices of action in space, and man's intelligence 
and decision-making capability will be 
mandatory. 

Our recent space efforts can be likened to the 
first flights at Kitty Hawk. They were first 
unmanned but were followed by manned 
flights, completely preplanned and of a few 
seconds duration. Their experiments were, 
again, power limited, but they soon progressed 
beyond that point. 

Space exploration is now at the same stage 
of development. 

From all of the papers in this volume, I am 
sure you will agree with me that some big steps 
have been taken toward accomplishing the mis- 
sion objectives expressed at the beginning of 
this paper. 



136 



13. SUMMARY OF RESULTS 



By George M. Low, Director of Space Craft and Flight Missions, Office of Manned Space Flight, 
National Aeronautics and Space Administration 



The fact that John Glenn's flight was an un- 
qualified success is well documented in the pre- 
ceding papers. This flight marked a major 
milestone in the United States program for the 
manned exploration of space. It would seem 
to be appropriate, at this time, to sum up what 
has been learned during this first phase and to 
interpret the results in terms of future mis- 

In the fall of 1958 the stated objective of 
Project Mercury was to: "Determine man's 
capabilities in a space environment." This ob- 
jective has been achieved for the missions ac- 
complished to date. Man's reactions to the ac- 
celerations of launch and to the decelerations of 
reentry have been learned. It has been deter- 
mined that a trained pilot can perform tasks 
under a relatively high g-stress as well as under 
zero-g, can monitor all his systems, can manu- 
ally control the flight sequence, and can ade- 
quately control the attitude of his craft. The 
period of weightlessness has been extended by 
more than two orders of magnitude— from 1 
minute to nearly 300 minutes. It has been 
learned that there are no deleterious psycho- 
logical or physiological effects resulting from 
this prolonged exposure to weightlessness, even 
though attempts were made to induce such 
effects. 

In Project Mercury, far more has been 
learned than was anticipated — far more than 
merely the determination of man's capabilities 
in space. A knowledge of how to design, de- 
velop and manufacture a craft specifically en- 
gineered for man's flight into space has been 
gained. It has been learned how, through an 
intensive ground and flight test program, such 
a spacecraft can be developed to carry out its 
assigned mission. Ways have been deter- 
mined to modify existing launch vehicles, de- 



signed for other purposes, to make them suit- 
able for manned flight. The development of an 
abort sensing system, together with the most 
stringent quality control, has permitted the use 
of the Atlas missile in a program for which it 
was not designed or developed. 

A knowledge of how to implement an exten- 
sive network of tracking stations, a network 
which is unique in that it makes use of real-time 
data transmission and real-time computing, 
and thereby permits real-time flight control, 
has been gained. 

Ground rules have been established for re- 
covery from space. It has been learned how 
ships and aircraft, with information provided 
by the tracking network, can locate and retrieve 
a spacecraft after it has landed. 

Some of the items that were developed for 
Project Mercury will find use in other fields. 
For example, the new lightweight survival 
equipment might well be used by Air-Rescue 
services throughout the world. The biomedical 
instrumentation for measuring respiration rate, 
temperature, activity of the heart, and blood 
pressure and for transmitting these quantities 
over long distances may also find uses in fields 
other than the exploration of space. 

Extensive training and simulation has been 
found to be an absolute requirement. The 
training of the pilots has, of course, received a 
great deal of attention. Equally important is 
the extensive simulation of flights carried oat 
by all persons involved in an actual opera- 
tion. All the flight controllers and the net- 
work, computer, and communications experts 
have performed literally hundreds of practice 
missions wherein every conceivable emergency 
was simulated. Through these exercises, they 
have learned to work together as a well-func- 
tioning team, a team that supports the pilot 
throughout his mission. 



137 



Most important of all, it has been learned 
that a well-trained pilot, like Shepard, Gris- 
som, or Glenn or like the other astronauts, can 
perform a mission in space just as well as he 
can perform a mission in the earth's atmos- 
phere. 

The knowledge derived in the last 3 years is 
tremendous. Yet, in recognizing this fact, it 
must also be recognized that manned space flight 



is still in its earliest development stages. The 
flights of Shepard, Grissom, and Glenn were 
pioneering ventures and, as such, were not un- 
dertaken without risk. 

In accepting the challenge of future flights, in 
Projects Mercury, Gemini, and Apollo, it should 
not be forgotten that the risk in these missions 
will be at least as great as it has been in the 
past. 



138 



APPENDIX A 



MERCURY NETWORK PERFORMANCE SUMMARY FOR MA-6 

By The Manned Space Flight Support Division, NASA Goddard Space Flight Center 



Summary 

The performance of the Mercury Network 
was considered highly successful for the Mer- 
cury /Atlas-6 mission. At the time of launch, 
14 :47 :39Z on February 20, 1962, all systems re- 
quired to support the flight were operational. 
This was phenomenal considering the vast 
amount of equipment committed to support the 
mission. 

Radar 

The Mercury Network includes both C-band 
and S-band radars located around the Mercury 
ground track in such a manner that redundancy 
is afforded in case of a spacecraft beacon fail- 
ure. The radars have a range capability of 
approximately 500 miles for the C-band radars 
and 1,000 miles for the S-band radars. During 
this mission, all radar sites tracked the space- 
craft with C-band and/ or S-band radars when 
it was within range. Data were supplied, in 
real time, to the dual Goddard computers at 
the rate of one data point per 6-second inter- 
val. An average of about 50 radar data points 
was received from each site with as many as 93 
points from several. A majority of the sites 
tracked the spacecraft from one horizon to the 
other. The tracking was of such quality that 
the Goddard computers were supplied with 
more than enough data to update the orbital 
parameters for each orbit. The quality of the 
network data is indicated by the following 
typical values of standard error (eliminating 
all data points for pointing angles below 3° 
elevation) : 

Woomera FPS-16 

Data points 85 

Range, yd 6.9 

Azimuth, mil 0. OS 

Elevation, mil 0. 25 



Bermuda FPS-16 

Data points 50 

Range, yd 8.6 

Azimuth, mil 0.17 

Elevation, mil 0. 49 

Muehea Verlort 

Data points 93 

Range, yd 17.6 

Azimuth, mil 0. 97 

Elevation, mil 0.81 

California Verlort 

Data points 49 

Range, yd 7.0 

Azimuth, mil 0. 60 

Elevation, mil 0. 90 



A summary of the radar data received at 
Goddard during this mission (including all 
points) is shown in table A-I (see ref. 1, table 
12, p. 68) and the radar coverage times are 
shown graphically in figures A-l to A-6. 

Computing 

Throughout the mission the automatic com- 
puting system at Goddard effectively used the 
network data to supply real-time digital dis- 
play and plot board information to the Mercury 
Control Center at Cape Canaveral. During 
launch the high-speed data from the Cape to 
Goddard were uninterrupted and of good 
quality, and the flight parameters were such 
that the computer recommended a GO. The 
Goddard computers quickly established the 
orbit from early network data and supplied 
real-time acquisition data to all sites. The pre- 
cision of the data was indicated by the fact that 
the time of retrofire, as recommended by the 
computers, was adjusted by only 2 seconds 
during the entire mission. During the reentry 



139 



Table A-I. — Orbital Data Analysis, Radar Tracking 







Total 






Standard Deviat 


ion 






possible 


Valid 


Nonvalid 








Station 




valid 




observa- 












observa- 


tions 




Range, yd 


Azimuth, 


Elevation, 






tions 








mils 


First pass: 


















FPS 16 


"1 


52 






1 ' _ 


0. 61 


wn \ 


V 


1 




26. 8 


CYI 




68 


63 


9 


73. 3 


1. 4 


2. 0 




Verio -t 














W()M 


FPS-16 


40 


39 


1 


6. 9 


. 077 


. 25 


GYM 


Verlorl 


65 


51 


14 


30. 3 


1. 02 


1. 82 












5. 9 


. 22 




TFX 




64 


46 


18 


71. 0 


2. 69 


1 60 




FPS 16 


40 


38 


8. 58 


. 240 




egl 


MPQ-31 


65 


18 




38. 7 


2. 85 


? ' ' 

0 


Second 'I'm- 


















FPS 16 


64 


43 


21 


39. 3 


. 288 


871 


BD \ 


FPS 16 


66 




15 


14. 5 


. 380 


' ° 


bdV 


V 1 t 




DATA NOT 


AVAILABLE 




CVI 


Wort 


54 


48 


6 


27. 1 


1. 71 


1. 54 








60 


20 


39. 1 


1. 43 




WOM 


FPS-16 


33 


28 


5 


2. 28 


. 081 


. 13 


HAW 


FPS-16 


15 


15 


0 


4. 92 


. 313 


. 251 








45 


11 


80. 1 


1. 89 




CAL 


FPS-16 


38 
47 


28 


10 


8. 88 


. 544 


. 208 




Verio rt 


20 


20. 1 


. 705 


. 800 








31 
58 


10 


17. 2 






T 1 . \ 


Verio rt 


60 


41. 5 


1. 61 


1. 41 

. 286 


EGL 


FPS-16 


-to 


32 


8 


6. 85 


. 209 




MPQ-31 


oO 


32 


18 


103. 8 


3. 82 


3. 74 


Th" d ss- 
















C N V 


FPS- 16 




26 


38 
9 


57. 3 


. 318 








65 


56 


30. 6 


157 


"61 






DATA NOT AVAILABLE 




CYI 








OUT OF RANGE 






MUC 




70 


69 ! 1 


31. 6 


. 803 


1. 24 


\YOM 


FPS-16 






OUT OF RANGE 






HAW 


FPS-16 


38 
64 






8. 05 


. 230 






Verlort 


s 


12 


38. 6 




1. 60 



SB 



■ RADAR COVERAGE 



Figure A-l. C-band radar coverage, first orbit. 



140 



■RAOAR COVERAGE 



Figttre A-2. C-band radar coverage, second orbit. 



■ RADAR COVERAGE _ 
3 HORIZON-TO-HORIZON COVERAGE _ 



Figure A-3. C-band radar coverage, ttiird orbit 



■I i j -r 




Figubb A-4. S-band radar coverage, first orbit. 



cnv Moon. 



Figube A-5. S-band radar coverage, second orbit. 



141 



CNV mod a 

BOA-VER 






































CYI-VER 
MUC-VER 
HAW-VER 






































CAL-VER 
GYM-VER 
TEX-VER 
EGLMPQ3I 






' 1 


RADAF 
HORiZ 


COV 
ON-TC 


ERAG 
-HOR 

1 


ZON 


-\- 

COVERAGE 

ll 























^-^■=> i t ii i d i d i j i d i d i ii i i a=r i j_ 

GMT 1817 27 37 47 57 19=07 17 27 37 

GET 3:20 330 3:40 3:50 4 00 4(0 4 20 430 440 4=50 



phase of the mission, the network data per- 
mitted a computation of predicted landing point 
which varied by only 2 miles. 

Acquisition Aid 

The automatic acquisition aid subsystems per- 
formed as expected with no major problems en- 
countered. As usual, multipath was a problem 
at low elevation angles and, therefore, manual 
elevation control was used. Four sites — 
Canary Island, Muchea, California, and 
Texas — used real-time computed pointing data 
for direct radar acquisition, independent of the 
automatic acquisition systems. This was excel- 
lent verification of the accuracy of acquisition 
data furnished to the network radars by the 
Goddard computers. 

Command 

The command subsystems operated in a satis- 
factory manner for the mission with a total of 
eleven functions being successfully transmitted 
to the spacecraft from various sites. 

Telemetry 

The telemetry subsystem reception and per- 
formance was outstandingly good. All stations 
acquired and lost signals at or near the horizon. 
No major operator error or equipment malfunc- 
tion was reported that influenced mission mon- 
itoring and control. The maximum range of 
telemetry reception varied from 500 to 1,100 
miles. 

The malfunction of the landing-bag-deploy 
microswitch was first indicated by the telem- 
etry system as the spacecraft passed Cape 
Canaveral at the end of the first orbit. Since 
this event is normally not displayed, remote 
sites were requested to monitor this function on 
the events recorders for the remainder of the 



mission. After a number of sites confirmed 
that this event was indicated, the astronaut was 
informed and given a course of action. 

A summary of telemetry subsystem perform- 
ance is shown in tables A-II to A- VII and the 
telemetry coverage times are shown graphically 
in figures A-7 to A-9. 

Voice Communication 

Voice communication between the ground and 
the spacecraft was considered excellent. The 
quality of the air-ground voice communication 
monitored on the Goddard conference loop was 
very good and provided the flight controllers at 
Mercury Control Center with adequate moni- 
toring capability throughout the mission. 

The coverage times of HF and UHF com- 
munications are shown graphically in figures 
A-10 to A-12. 

Timing 

The timing system performed very well with 
the exception of the serial decimal GMT time 
used on the strip-chart recorders at Hawaii 
and Kano. The real-time records from these 
sites are usable in spite of the timing malfunc- 
tions. 

Data Transmission 

No problems were encountered with the data 
transmission system; all high-speed and low- 
speed data lines were operational during the 
entire mission. 

Ground Communication 

The teletype system circuits performance was 
good with relatively few outage periods. Traf- 
fic flow- was exceptionally smooth, with trans- 
mission times generally less than 1 minute. 



142 



Table A-IL— Telemetry Data, Orbit 1 





Telemetry 




Decommutator 


Slant 




Elevation, 












naut. miles 


deg 




Acquisition 


Loss of 






Acquisi- 


Loss of 


Acquisi- 


Loss of 


Station 


of signal 


signa 


Lock 


Loss 


tion of 


signal 


tion of 


signal 










signal 




signal 


BDA 


00:03:02 


00.10:26 


00:03:40 


00:10:26 


750 


868 


0 


-1. 2 


ATS 






Not applicable 










CYI 


00:14:15 


00:21:23 


00:14:41 


00:21:20 


800 


850 


0 


0 


KNO 


00:21:13 


00:28:21 


00:21:50 


00:28:21 


850 


900 


— . 3 


— . 5 


ZZB 


00:29:51 


00:37:51 


00:30:01 


00:38:01 


920 


990 


2 


— . 6 


IOS 


00:40:02 


00:48:31 


00:43:12 


00:46:56 


1000 


1040 


— . 6 




MUC 


00:49:21 


00:57:55 


00:49:32 


00:57:21 


1020 


990 


-. 4 


-8 


WOM 


00:54:00 


01:02:41 


00:54:16 


01:02:37 


810 


1060 


+ 3 


-1. 5 


CTN 


01:09:19 


01:17:42 


01:09:36 


01:17:40 


900 


1150 


+ . 3 


-4 


HAW 






Not applicable 










CAL 


01:26:41 


01:31:23 


01:27:18 


01:31:23 


840 


920 






GYM 


01:26:47 


01:33:25 


01:27:01 


01:33:15 


730 


950 


;:J 


zll 


WHS 






Not applicable 










TEX 


01:29:24 


01:36:18 


01:29:32 


01:36:14 


830 


820 


-. 7 


-. 6 


EGL 


01:32:00 


01:37:05 


01:32:11 


01:37:00 


800 


880 


-1 


-1. 5 



Table A-IIL— Telemetry Data, Orbit 2 





Telemetry- 




Decommutator 


Slant 




Elevation, 










naut. miles 


deg 




Acquisition 


Loss of 






Acquisi- 


Loss of 


Acquisi- 


Loss of 


Station 


of signal 


signal 




Loss 


tion of 




tion of 


signal 


BDA 


01:36:38 


01:43:53 


01:36:49 


01:43:53 


860 


890 


-1. 2 


— 1. 4 


ATS 


01:51:54 


01:58:31 


01:53:04 


01:58:21 


880 


830 


-. 2 


+ 1 


CYI 


01:47:55 


01:53:58 


01:48:11 


01:53:53 


850 


910 


-. 2 


-. 2 


KNO 


01:54:47 


02:01:21 


01:55:07 


02:01:21 


890 


940 


-. 6 


-. 6 


ZZB 


02:04:05 


02:10:51 


02:04:13 


02:10:51 


920 


1040 


. 23 


-1. 1 


IOS 


02:12:17 


02:22:09 


02:13:27 


02:21:54 


1100 


1050 


-1. 9 


--. 9 


MUC 


02:22:51 


02:31:23 


02:23:06 


02:31:22 


1008 


960 


-.3 


0 


WOM 


02:27:36 


02:35:45 


02:27:45 


02:35:39 


950 


1020 


+ .5 


-1. 5 


CTN 


02:42:51 


02:49:45 


02:42:59 


02:49:38 


870 


907 


-1. 5 


-1. 3 


HAW 


02:49:01 


02:55:19 


02:49:29 


02:55:08 


940 


830 


-1. 3 


-. 8 


CAL 


02:58:11 


03:04:48 


02:58:35 


03:04:48 


880 


730 


-1. 5 


+ .7 


GYM 


02:59:59 


03:06:44 


03:00:13 


03:06:34 


610 


880 


+ 3 


— 1. 6 


WHS 






Not applicable 










TEX 


03:03:14 


03:09:39 


03:03:16 


03:09:31 


810 


810 


-. 8 


— . 4 


EGL 


03:05:35 


03:12:07 


03:05:46 


03:12:00 


670 


1000 


+ 2 


-3 



143 



Table A-IV.— Telemetry Data, Orbit 3 



Decommutator 



Acquisi- Loss of ] Acqui 
tion of signal I tion < 
signal signs 



BDA 

ATS 

CYI 

KNO 

ZZB 

IOS 

MUC 

won 

CTN 
HAW 
CAL 
GYM 
WHS 
TEX 
EGL 



900 i -1.2 




Not applicable 

03:48:10 03:56:30 
03:56:49 04:04:08 
04:03:31 04:06:01 

Not applicable 
04:22:02 j 04:24:39 
04:31:27 04:37:56 
04:34:04 | 04:39:39 

Not applicable 
04:36:58 I 04:42:34 
04:39:21 | 04:42:48 



Table A-V .—Telemetry Receiver Signal Strength, 
Orbit 1 



Station 


Estimated mean, microvolts 


Low 
(Receiver 
1, model 
1415) 


Low 

2, model" 
1434) 


High 
(Receiver 
1 , model 

1415) 


High 

(Receive 
2, model 
1434) 


j | 









MCC 




Not applicable 




BDA 


250 


250 


250 


250 


CYI 


75 


120 


25 


190 


ATS 




No contact 




KNO 


100 


50 


100 


80 


ZZB 


110 


92 


84 


134 


IOS 


20 


80 


35 


150 


MUC 


205 


205 


259 


259 


WOM 


200 


200 


210 


210 


CTN 


30 


70 


25 


25 


HAW 




No contact 




GYM 


130 


150 




250 


CAL 


40 


20 




10 


W T HS 


No telemetr 


y equipment 


TEX 


100 


180 


90 


200 


EGL 


N 


o telemet 


y equipment 



Table A-VI. — Telemetry Receiver Signal 
Strength, Orbit 2 





Estimated me 




olts 


Station 




Low 


High 


High 




(Re L c°e7ver 


Receiver | (Receiver 


(Receive 




1, model 


2, model 




2, model 




1415) 


1434) 


N?i°5) el 


1434) 


MCC 




Not applicable 




BDA 


250 


250 


250 


250 


CYI 


40 


180 


50 


80 


ATS 


015 


15 


10 


60 


KNO 


70 


60 


70 


50 


ZZB 


71 


32 


43 


60 


IOS 


40 


150 


80 


150 


MUC 


204 


204 


204 


204 


WOM 


100 


130 


200 


100 


CTN 


40 


60 


30 


35 


HAW 


90 


50 


60 


80 


GYM 


120 


200 


100 


160 


CAL 


80 


50 


80 


30 


WHS 


No telemetry equipment 


TEX 


90 


100 


70 


200 


EGL 


No telemetry equipment 



144 



Table A-VII. — Telemetry Receiver Signal 
Strength, Orbit S 



MCC 

BDA 

CYI 

ATS 

KNO 

ZZB 

IOS 

MUC 

WOM 

CTN 

HAW 

GYM 

CAL 

WHS 

TEX 

EGL 



(Receiver 
2, model 
1434) 



No telemetry equipment 
) j 225 | 90 | 2 
No telemetry equipment 



There were 2,048 lines of radar data automati- 
cally transmitted by teletype with only 15 lines 
in error. All acquisition messages before retro- 
fire were dispatched to sites in time for effec- 
tive use. 

Very good support by the voice network per- 
mitted exceptionally fine communications be- 
tween the Mercury Control Center and sites 
with voice terminations. Echo was reported on 
the Guaymas line at the T-33 voice check; a 
speaker was found to be feeding back into the 
system. Appropriate action was taken to cor- 
rect this condition promptly. 

Conclusion 

It is concluded that there were no major net- 
work problems encountered during the MA-6 
mission. However, there were a number of 
minor problems, as indicated, which are cur- 
rently under investigation. 



CNV 
BDA 
ATS 




=4 111 

NOT IN RANGE - FIRST PASS 


















1 

=1 HORIZON 
■ COVERAC 


1 1 1 
-TO-HORIZON TIME _ 
E TIME .... - . 


CV| 
KNO 
ZZB 










































IOS 
MUC 
WOM 

CTN 










































CAL 
GYM 
WHS 












i 














NOT 








PASS 






TEX 
EGL 
CNV 








































BDA 

GBI 
GTI 




w * 




















1 












HC 


IT MM 


m 


CNV TELTT 

0 


0 


0 


0 0=20 


0: 


JO 


O 

riME- 


w 

GETII- 


0:5O |: 

RS-MIN) 


X> 110 M20 130 M 



Fioube A-7. Telemetry reception coverage, first orbit 
Reference 

1. Manned Space Flight Support Division : Mercury Network Performance Analysis for MAS. Goddard Space 
Flight Center, Mar. 15, 1962. 



145 




p HORIZON-TO-HORIZON TIME 
• COVERAGE TIMi 



OUT OF RANGE 



OUT OF RANGE 



330 340 



Figure A-9. Telemetry reception coverage, third orbit. 



146 



hf I — 

HORIZON " 



0:30 0 : 40 0:50 100 IK3 

TIME (HRS MIN) 

Fiodee A-10. HF and TJHF communications, first orbit. 



Figure A-ll. HF and UHF communications, second orbit. 



~ CZH HORIZON _ 



3:30 3:40 3 30 4:00 410 420 430 

TIME(HRS'MIN) 

Figube A-12. HF and UHF communications, third orbit. 



APPENDIX B 



AIR-GROUND COMMUNICATIONS OF THE MA-6 FLIGHT 



The following table is a verbatim transcrip- 
tion of the MA-6 flight communications taken 
from the spacecraft onboard tape recording. 
This is therefore a complete transcript of the 
communications received and transmitted by 
Astronaut Glenn. 

In a few cases, the communications do not 
agree with post flight detailed analysis of tele- 
metered and recorded data. Xo attempt has 
been made to correct the transcript, and, there- 
fore, the technical papers should be considered 
authoritative in the event of conflict. 

In the table, column one is the elapsed time 
from the launch of the spacecraft in hours, 
minutes, and seconds that the communique was 
initiated. Column two is the duration in sec- 
onds of the communique. Column three identi- 
fies the communicator as follows : 

CC — Capsule (spacecraft) Communicator at 
the range station 

P — Pilot (astronaut) 



CT — Communications Technician at the 
range station 

S — Surgeon or medical monitor at the 
range station 

S Y — Systems monitor at the range station 

R — Recovery personnel 

All temperatures are given as °F ; all pres- 
sures are in pounds per square inch, absolute 
(psia) ; fuel, oxygen, and coolant quantities are 
expressed in remaining percent of total nomi- 
nal capacities; retrosequence times are ex- 
pressed in hours, minutes, and seconds (i.e., 
04 3*2 47 means 4 hours, 32 minutes, and 47 sec- 
onds from instant of lift-off) . 

Within the text, a series of dots (...) were 
used to designate times where communiques 
could not be deciphered. The station in prime 
contact with the astronaut and the orbit num- 
ber are designated at the initiation of communi- 
cations with that station. 



CAPE CANAVERAL (FIRST ORBIT) 







CC 


3, 2, 1, 0 


00 00 03 


4. 0 


p 


Roger. The clock is operating. We're underway. 


00 00 07 


1. 5 


CC 


Hear loud and clear. 


00 00 08 


2. 0 


p 


Roger. We're programing in roll okay. 


00 00 13 


3. 5 


p 


Little bumpy along about here. 


00 00 15 


1. 0 


CC 




00 00 17 


2. 0 


CC 


Standby for 20 seconds. 


00 00 19 


0. 5 


p 


Roger. 


00 00 20 


2. 0 


CC 


2—1, mark. 


00 00 23 


3. 5 


p 


Roger. Backup clock is started. 


00 00 32 


5. 0 


p 


Fuel 102-101 [percent], oxygen 78-100 [percent], amps 27. 


00 00 39 


3. 0 


CC 


Roger. Loud and clear. Flight path is good, 69 [degrees]. 


00 00 43 


4. 0 


p 


Roger. Checks okay. Mine was 70 [degrees] on your mark. 


00 00 48 




p 


Have some vibration area coming up here now. 


00 00 52 


2. 0 


CC 


Roger. Reading you loud and clear. 


00 00 55 


4. 0 


p 


Roger. Coming into high Q a little bit; and a little contrail went by the window 








or something there. 


00 01 00 


0 


CC 


Roger. 


00 01 03 


e 


p 


Fuel 102-101 [percent], oxygen 78-101 [percent], amps 24. Still okay. 


00 01 12 




p 


We're smoothing out some now, getting out of the vibration area. 


00 01 16 


3. 


CC 


Roger. You're through max. Q. Your flight path is ... . 


00 01 19 


3. 


p 


Roger. Feels good, through max. Q and smoothing out real fine. 



149 



CAPE CANAVERAL (FIRST ORBIT)— Continued 



00 01 26 


4. 0 


P 


Cabin pressure coming down by 7.0 okay; flight very smooth now. 


00 01 31 


2. 0 


P 


Sky looking very dark outside. 


00 01 42 


3. 0 


P 


Cabin pressure is holding at 6.1 okay. 


00 01 46 


3. 5 


cc 


Roger. Cabin pressure holding at 6.1. 


00 01 49 


3. 5 


p 


Roger. Have had some oscillations, but they seem to be damping out okay now. 


00 01 56 


9. 5 


p 


Coming up on two minutes, and fuel is 102-101 [percent], oxvgen 78-102 [pereentl 
The g's are building to 6. 


00 02 07 


5. 0 


cc 


Roger. Reading you loud and clear. Flight path looked good Pitch 25 [decrees] 
Standby for. 


00 02 12 


8. 0 


p 


Roger. BECO, back to VA g's. The tower fired; could not see the tower go. 
I saw the smoke go by the window. 








00 02 21 


2. 0 


cc 


Roger. We confirm staging on TM. 


00 02 24 


0. 5 


p 


Roger. 


00 02 27 


3. 0 


p 


Still have about \}i g's. Programming. Over. 


00 02 36 


7. o 


p 


There the tower went right then. Have the tower in sight way out. Could see 
the tower go. Jettison tower is green. 


00 02 48 


0.3 


cc 


Roger. 


00 02 50 


0. 5 


p 


m g's. 


00 02 53 


3. 5 


cc 


Roger, Seven. Still reading you loud and clear. Flight path looks good. 


00 02 56 


6. 0 


p 


Roger. Auto Retrojettison is off ; Emergency Retrojettison Fuse switch off ■ 
Retrojettison Fuse switch, off. 


00 03 03 


1. 5 


p 


UHF/DF to normal. 


00 03 19 


2. 3 


cc 


Flight path looks good; steering is good. 


00 03 22 


5. 0 


p 


Roger. Understand everything looks good; g's starting to build again a little bit 
Roger. 


00 03 30 


0. 5 


cc 


00 03 32 


1. 5 


cc 


Friendship Seven. Bermuda has you. 


00 03 34 


13. 0 


p 


Roger. Bermuda standby. 



This is Friendship Seven. Fuel 103-101 [percent], oxygen 78-100 [percent]. 
All voltages above 25, amps 26. 



00 


03 


48 


4. 5 


CC 


Roger. Still reading you loud and clear. Flight path is very good. Pitch, 
— 3 [degrees]. 


00 


03 


53 


0. 5 


P 




00 


03 


56 


3, 0 


p 


My pitch checks a - 7 [degrees] on your — 3 [degrees]. 


00 


04 


00 


0. 8 


CC 


Roger, Seven. 


00 


04 


08 


10. 5 


p 


Friendship Seven. Fuel 103-101 [percent], oxygen 78-100 [percent], amps 25, 
cabin pressure holding at 5.8. 


00 


04 


20 


5. 0 


cc 


Roger. Reading you loud and clear. Seven, Cape is Go; we're standing bv 
for you. 


00 


04 


25 


16. 5 


p 


Roger. Cape is Go and I am Go. Capsule is in good shape. Fuel 103-102 



[percent], oxygen 78-100 [percent], cabin pressure holding steady 
is 26. All systems are Go. 
00 04 44 2. 0 CC Roger. 20 seconds to SECO. 
00 04 47 0. 5 P Roger. 
00 04 49 1. 5 P Indicating 6 g's. 

00 04 52 0. 5 P Say again. 

00 04 53 1. 0 CC Still looks good. 
00 04 54 0. 5 P Roger. 

00 05 04 4. 0 P SECO, posigrades fired okay. 

00 05 10 0. 5 CC Roger, stand .... 

00 05 12 5. 0 P Roger. Zero-g and 1 feel fine. Capsule is turning around. 

00 05 18 1.8 P Oh, that view is tremendous! 

00 05 21 1. 5 CC Roger. Turnaround has started. 

00 05 23 7. 0 P Roger. The capsule is turning around and I can see the booster during turnaround 

just a couple of hundred yards behind me. It was beautiful. 
00 05 30 4. 5 CC Roger, Seven. You have a go, at least 7 orbits. 
00 05 35 4. 5 P Roger. Understand Go for at least 7 orbits. 

00 05 44 7. 0 P This is Friendship Seven. Can see clear back; a big cloud pattern way back across 

towards the Cape. Beautiful sight- 
00 05 54 3. 5 CC Roger, still reading you loud and clear. Next transmission, Bermuda. 
00 05 58 10. 5 P Roger. Understand next transmission, Bermuda. Capsule did damp okay and 

turned around. Scope has extended, okay. Taking off the filter I had on it 



150 



CAPE CANAVERAL (FIRST ORBIT) — Continued 



00 06 02 1.0 P Making electrical check. 

00 06 18 4. 5 P All batteries 25 or above, on main. Going through orbit checklist. 

BERMUDA (FIRST ORBIT) 
00 06 25 2. 0 CC Roger, Friendship Seven. Orbit checklist. 

00 06 27 6. 0 P Landing Bag is off. Emergency Retrosequence, off. Emergency Drogue Deploy 

is off. 

00 06 38 1. 5 CC Emergency Landing Bag is next. 

00 06 40 17.0 P Roger. Landing Bag was already off. I got it first and reported it. Retromanual 

is off, and we're all set. This is very comfortable at Zero-g. I have nothing but 
very fine feeling. It just feels very normal and very good. 

00 06 58 2. 0 CC Friendship Seven. Standby for retrosequence times. 

00 07 00 1.0 P Roger. Ready to copy. 

00 07 08 4. 2 CC Roger. IB, 00 17 50. 

00 07 08 4. 3 P Roger. 1 Bravo is 00 plus 17 plus 50. 

00 07 14 3. 6 CC End of orbit, 01 28 54. 

00 07 19 2. 9 P Roger, 01 plus 28 plus 54. 

00 07 22 3. 8 CC Roger, end of mission is 04 32 47. 

00 07 28 6. 3 P Roger. 04 plus 32 plus 47. Do I have okay for resetting clock? Over. 

00 07 36 8. 5 CC Negative, don't reset the clock. Your V over V R is unity, your apogee altitude is 

138 [nautical miles] and are you starting your control systems cheek? 
00 07 45 5. 6 P Roger. As soon as we get done with this transmission. I understand am I cleared 

to control systems eheck. 
00 07 51 1. 7 P Roger. Starting controls cheek. 

00 08 01 1.1 P Starting controls check. 

00 08 09 1. 3 CC Your attitudes look okay here. 

00 08 32 2. 4 CC Friendship Seven. Anything to report on control systems checks. 

00 08 34 6. 9 P Not yet, everything appears to be going okay. Am now on the yaw part of the 

check. Going off right on schedule. 
00 08 42 0. 8 CC Very good, very good. 

00 08 50 4. 5 P Control so far is excellent. Very good, no problems at all so far on control. 

00 08 55 0. 6 CC Roger. 

00 09 01 2. 7 P Aux Damp pulls it right in every time. No problems. 

00 09 04 0. 4 CC Very good. 

00 09 24 1. 8 CC Friendship Seven, Bermuda. Do you still read? 

00 09 26 5. 6 P Roger, Bermuda, still read you loud and clear. Still completing control check. 

Having no problem at all so far. 
00 09 32 1. 4 CC Roger, you're still loud and clear. 
00 09 35 0. 5 P Roger. 

00 09 46 10. 8 P This is Friendship Seven. Working just like clockwork on the control check, and 

it went through just about like the Procedures Trainer runs. It's very smooth 
and I checked .... 

00 09 58 1. 9 CC On UHF, if you read, go to HF. 

00 10 00 1.1 P Roger. Going. 

00 10 24 2. 8 CC Friendship Seven, Bermuda CapCom on HF. 

00 10 27 3. 5 P Hello, Hello, Bermuda. Receive you loud and clear; how me? 

00 10 38 2. 1 CC Friendship Seven, Friendship Seven, Bermuda CapCom on HF. 

00 10 40 6. 7 P Hello, Bermuda, Hello, Bermuda CapCom. Friendship Seven reads you loud 

and clear. Hello, Bermuda, Friendship Seven. How me? 
00 10 53 2. 2 CC Friendship Seven, this Bermuda CapCom on HF. 

00 10 56 4. 4 P Hello, Bermuda CapCom, this is Friendship Seven. Read you loud and clear; 

CANARY (FIRST ORBIT) 
00 11 16 1. 9 P Hello, Canary, Friendship Seven. Over. 

00 11 20 5.3 CC Friendship Seven, Friendship Seven, this is Canary CapCom. Read you loud 
and clear. Over. 

00 11 26 14. 0 P Canary, Friendship Seven. Roger. Control check complete. Capsule in ASCS 

and holding. I have booster in sight out the window. It's probably about 
1 mile away and going down under my position and a little bit to my left. Over. 

00 11 46 7.3 P This is Friendship Seven. Everything is still Go. Capsule is in fine shape. Hold- 

ing pressure at 5.8. Over. 

151 



CAXARY (FIRST ORBIT) — Continued 



00 12 18 3. 4 CC Friendship Seven, Friendship Seven, this is Canary Cap Com. Do you read? 

00 12 21 3. 5 P Hello, Canary Cap Com, loud and clear on HF. How me? Over, 

00 12 26 7. 1 CC I read you loud and clear. Would you give me your fuel on your control systems 
check. 

00 12 34 6. 7 P Roger. This is Friendship Seven. Control systems check was perfect. Control 

systems checks perfect. Over. 
00 12 42 3. 4 CC Roger, Friendship Seven, understand control systems check was perfect 
00 12 47 1. 1 P That's affirmative. 

00 12 52 5. 2 CC Friendship Seven, this Canary Cap Com. Could you get started with your station 
report? Over. 

00 13 00 2. 4 P Hello, Canary, Friend Seven. Repeat please. Over. 

00 13 05 4. 3 CC What is your space, spacecraft station, status report? 

00 13 10 3. 9 P This is Friendship Seven. Standby. I'm getting out some equipment. Over. 

00 14 03 3. 7 P Hello, Canary, Friendship Seven, switching to UHF. Over. 

00 14 09 4. 6 CC Friendship Seven, Friendship Seven, Canary Cap Com. Say again. 

00 14 23 4. 3 CC Friendship Seven, Friendship Seven, Canary Cap Com. Read you. 

00 14 32 3. 5 P Hello, Canary, Friendship Seven on UHF. How now? Over 

00 14 37 2. 1 CC I read you loud and clear. 

00 14 39 5.9 P Roger, understand loud and clear. I read you much better also, than I did on HF. 

00 14 46 1. 3 CC Same here. 

00 14 48 3. 6 P This is Friendship Seven. Everything is going fine. 

00 14 55 3. 2 P Getting, getting some of the equipment together. Over. 

00 14 59 0. 5 CC Roger. 

00 15 12 5. 2 CC Friendship Seven, Friendship Seven. What is vour spacecraft status report'? 
Over. 

00 15 17 1:0.4 P Roger. Standby, Will give status report. I am in orbit attitude for your tracking. 

Status report follows: Fuses all number one except Tower Sep number two. 
Emergency Retrosequenee, Emergency Retrojettison, and Emergency Drogue 
are in the center-off position. Squib is Armed. Auto Retrojettison is off. 
ASCS is normal, auto, gyro normal. All "T" handles are in the "in"-position. 
Retro Delay is normal. Cabin Lights are on both. Photo Lights are still on. 
Telemetry Low Frequency is on. Rescue Aids are on automatic. Ah, Jettison 
Tower, and Sep Capsule lights are out. The pressure regulator is still in the 
'■in"-position. Launch control is on. All sequence panel positions are normal 
except Landing Bag is off. Are you receiving? Over. 

00 16 19 1.8 CC Understand. We have telemetry solid. 
2. 0 P Roger, you have telemetry solid. 

00 16 25 6. 7 P Control fuel is 90-98 [percent], I repeat, 90-98 [percent]. 

00 16 32 2. 9 CC Automatic fuel is 90 [percent], 98 [percent], 

00 16 35 1:21. 7 P That is affirmative. Attitude: roll 0 [degrees], yaw 2 [degrees] right, pitch -33 

[degrees]. Rates are all indicating zero. I am on ASCS at present time. The 
clock is still set for time to ret, for retrograde time of 04 plus 32 plus 28. I have 
retrograde times okay from Bermuda. Cabin pressure holding steady at 5.7. 
Cabin air 90 [degrees]. Relative humidity, 30 [percent]. Coolant quantity is 
68 [percent]. Suit environment is 65. Suit pressure is indicating 5.8. Steam 
temperature 60 [degrees] on the suit. I am very comfortable. However, I do 
not want to turn it down just yet. Primary oxygen is 78 [percent]; secondary, 
102 [percent]. Main bus is 24. Number one is 25, 25, 25. Standby one is 26; 
Standby two is 25; Isolated, 29, and back on main. Ammeter is indicating 23 
ASCS is 112. Fans are 112. Over. 

00 17 58 5. 4 CC I understand, I understand your retrosequenee time is 04 32 28. Over. 

00 18 04 20. 7 P That is affirmative. That's what's set in the clock. The horizon is a brilliant, a 

brilliant blue. There, I have the mainland in sight at present time coming up 
on the scope, and have Canaries in sight out through the window and picked 
them up on the scope just before I saw them out of the window. Over. 

00 18 26 6. 0 CC Roger, Friendship Seven. This is Canary CapCom. Repeat blood pressure check, 
repeat blood pressure check. 

00. 18 32 5. 0 P Roger, repeating blood pressure check now. Starting, pumping up. 

00 18 41 8. 3 P This is Friendship Seven. Have beautiful view of the African Coast, both in the 

scope, and out the window. Out the window is by far the best view. 



152 



CANARY (FIRST ORBIT) — Continued 

00 18 56 2. 7 P Part of the Canaries was hidden by clouds. 

00 19 09 2. 8 CC Roger, I read you. We're getting the blood pressure now. 

00 19 12 1. 8 P Roger, Friendship Seven. 

00 19 18 5. 7 CC Friendship Seven this is Canary CapCom. Your, your medical status is green; it 
looks okay. 

00 19 24 3. 2 P Roger. This is Friendship Seven. What is blood pressure? Over. 

00 19 30 0. 4 CC Standby. 

00 19 33 CC Friendship Seven. Your blood pressure is 120 over 80, repeat 120 over 80. 

00 19 38 0.5 P Roger. 

00 19 40 8. 2 CC Friendship Seven, this is Canary CapCom. Your 150 volt-amp inverter is 175 , 
and holding. 

00 19 49 1. 6 P Roger. Friendship Seven. 

00 19 52 4. 9 CC Your 250 volt-amp inverter temperature is 150 [degrees], and holding. 

00 20 02 1.0 P Friendship Seven. Roger. 

00 20 04 7. 0 CC Your auto fuel line temperature is 70°, your manual fuel line temperature is 100 . 

00 20 12 1. 9 P Say again fuel temperatures. Over. 

00 20 15 6. 7 CC Negative, your auto fuel line temperature was 70°, 70°. 

00 20 22 1.1 P Roger, very good. 

00 20 25 1. 9 CC 100°. 

00 20 28 0. 4 P Roger. 

00 20 33 8. 8 P This is Friendship Seven standing by. I am slightly behind on my checklist at 

present time. Will get caught up. 

00 20 42 2 8 CC Roger, this is Canary CapCom standing by. 

00 21 16 11.4 P This is Friendship Seven still on ASCS. I can see dust storms down there blowing 
across the desert, a lot of dust; it's difficult to see the ground in some areas. Over. 

00 21 29 2. 7 CC Seven, you are fading; how me? Over. 

KANO (FIRST ORBIT) 

00 21 33 4. 9 CC Friendship Seven, this is Kano Cap Com, I read you loud and clear. How do 

you read me? Over. 
Roger, Kano, loud and clear; how me? 



00 21 37 



00 23 00 
00 23 11 



00 21 40 3. 3 CC Roger, loud and clear. What is your status? 

00 21 44 3 5 P This is Friendship Seven. My status is excellent. I feel fine. Over. 

00 21 49 9. 0 CC Roger. I monitored part of your conversation over Canary and heard your 

comments on the weather over Africa. Will you give us status report? Over. 

00 21 59 26 0 P Roger, this is Friendship Seven. Fuel, 90-98 [percent]. Oxygen, 78-100 [percent]. 

Cabin pressure holding 5.6 at the present time. Have very little dirt floating 
around in the capsule, just a little bit and preferring to take xylose pill at present 
time. Unsealing the, going to unseal the faceplate. Over. 

00 22 27 3. 9 CC Roger, Friendship Seven. Your exhaust temperature please. Over. 

00 22 32 3 1 P Say again. Standby one, taking xylose. 

00 22 41 4. 3 CC Friendship Seven, this is Kano Cap Com. Can you give us the reading on your 

exhaust temperature? 
00 22 49 1. 7 P Say again, Kano. Over. 

00 22 51 2. 3 CC Reading on your exhaust temperature. 

00 22 56 2 5 P Roger. Steam temperature is 59 [degrees]. Over. 

CC Roger. Friendship Seven. We have TM solid. If you want, we will standby 

while you do your yaw maneuver and check your systems. 

_ p Roger. Friendship Seven. I am taking xylose pill now. 

00 23 19 1. 9 CC Roger, Friendship Seven, understand. 
00 23 22 4. 2 P This is Friendship Seven, going to, UHF low for check. Over. 

00 23 29 1. 4 CC Roger, Friendship Seven. 

00 23 48 3. 0 P Hello, Kano. Friendship Seven. UHF Low; how now? Over. 

00 23 53 2. 6 CC Friendship Seven, this is Kano Cap Com. Say again. 

00 23 56 3. 9 P This is Friendship Seven on UHF Low. How do you receive me? Over. 

00 24 00 3. 0 CC Friendship Seven, this is Kano. Read you loud and clear. 

00 24 04 2. 8 P Roger, Kano, going back to UHF Hi. Over. 

00 24 16 8. 3 CC Wehave a temperature of 189° on your 150 volt inverter and 150° your 250 volt 



153 



KANO (FIRST ORBIT) — Continued 

00 24 28 4. 6 P Roger. This is Friendship Seven on UHF Hi again. Understand i. 

peratures. 

00 24 38 5. 3 CC Roger, Friendship .Seven. We will standby while you do your yaw maneuver. 

00 24 43 9. 5 P Roger, this is Friendship Seven, starting in yaw maneuver. I'm about 40 seconds 

late on that one. Starting yaw maneuver at present time. Over 
00 24 54 L. 1 CC Roger, understand. 
00 24 56 1.7 P Going to manual control. 

00 25 02 2. 2 P Correction, going to fly-by-wire. Over. 

00 25 06 3. 4 CC Roger, understand on fly-by-wire for yaw maneuver 
00 25 09 0. 7 P That's affirmative. 

00 25 30 16. 5 P This is Friendship Seven, having no trouble controlling on fly-bv-wire. Drift is 

coming around at about 1° per second, and holding attitude okay in other axes. 

00 25 46 9. 8 CC Roger. Cheek drift at 1° per second and holding attitude okay all axes, I ha%'e 

your retrosequence time for Area 1 Charlie. 
00 25 57 l ' 4 p Standby. Will get it later; I'm in the middle of yaw maneuver at present time. 

00 26 02 0. 6 CC Standing by. 

00 26 18 5. 7 P This is Friendship Seven at 60° right yaw, and holding temporarily. Over 

00 26 25 2. 5 CC Roger. 60° right yaw and holding. 

00 26 34 6. 8 P Attitudes all well within limits. I have no problem holding attitude with fly-by - 

wire at all. Very easy. Over. 
00 26 42 9. 4 CC Roger, check fly-by-wire is very easy. Our telemetry checks all your systems out 

okay. Are you ready for retrosequence time? 
00 26 52 7. 5 P Negative, not yet. I'll pick it up possibly at next station if I lose contact with you. 

I'm still on manual control here on fly-by-wire. Over 
00 27 01 0. 4 CC Understand. 

00 27 24 5. 1 P This is Friendship Seven, returning on fly-by-wire to orbit attitude. Over. 

00 27 30 3. 8 CC Roger, Friendship Seven, I check your returning to orbit attitude. 

00 27 34 8. 6 P Roger, this is Friendship Seven. Out the window, can see some fires down on the 

ground, long smoke trails right on the edge of the desert. Over. 

00 27 44 6. 1 CC Roger. We've had dusty weather here, and as far as we can see, a lot of this part 
of Africa is covered with dust. 

00 27 50 2. 9 P That's just exactly the way it looks from up here, too. 

00 27 55 3. 4 CC Roger. You want to stand by for retrosequence time, Area 1 Charlie? 

00 28 01 3. 6 P Roger. Going back on ASCS. Yaw check okay. Can pick up yaw fairlv well 

in the scope. It's a little different display than I had really anticipated, but 
it checks okay, and I can pick up yaw. I have to be about 5° or so in yaw be- 
fore I really start picking it up. Over. 

00 28 26 11. 3 CC Seven, you are fading rapidly. I will broadcast this time in the blind for Area L 
Charlie, 00 32 12, 00 32 12. 

00 28 40 4. 2 P 00 32 22. Is that affirm? Over. 

ZANZIBAR (FIRST ORBIT) 
00 29 25 6. 6 P This is Friendship Seven. Hello, Zanzibar, Friendship Seven. Do you receive? 

00 29 39 6. 2 CT Friendship Seven, Friendship Seven, this is Zanzibar Com Tech transmitting on 
HF, UHF, do you copy? Over. 

00 29 45 14. 1 P Roger, Zanzibar Com Tech, read you loud and clear. Control fuel is 90-98 [per- 

cent] cabin pressure, 5.6 and holding; oxygen, 75-100 [percent]. Over 

00 30 13 17. 3 P This is Friendship Seven in the blind for recording. Much of eastern Africa is 

covered by clouds, sort of wispy high cirrus looking clouds. Cannot see too 
much down there except the cloud decks themselves. Catch a sight of the 
ground underneath once in a while. 

00 30 32 3. 9 CC Friendship Seven, this is Zanzibar Cap Com, reading you loud and clear. 

00 30 37 1. 2 P Roger, Zanzibar. 

00 30 39 7. 2 CC Message from IOS Cap Com, that he will not release balloon flare this orbit. Will 

fire parachute flares instead. Did you copy? Over. 
00 30 47 2, 1 P Roger, this is Friendship Seven, understand. 



154 



ZANZIBAR (FIRST ORBIT) — Continued 

00 30 52 10. 1 CC Friendship Seven, this is Zanzibar Cap Com. We have solid telemetry contact, 
report your status. Over. 

00 30 58 P Roger, this is Friendship Seven. Fuel 90-98 [percent], cabin pressure 55 and 

holding, oxygen 75-X00 [percent], amps 24. Over. 
00 31 12 5. 3 CC Roger, Friendship Seven, this is Zanzibar Cap Com. Proceed with 30-minute 

report. Over. 

00 31 18 3. 2 P Roger, this is Friendship Seven. Standby one. 

00 31 34 2. 2 P This is Friendship Seven, blood pressure. 

00 32 04 11. 7 S Friendship Seven, Friendship Seven, this is Surgeon Zanzibar. You've got a 

good blood pressure trace. It shows the systolic and diastolic, if there's no 
necessity to repeat, you do not need to. 

00 32 15 3. 1 P Roger, this is Friendship Seven, going through exercise. 

00 32 48 3-2 P This is Friendship Seven. Exercise completed, repeating blood pressure. 

00 32 54 14. 1 S Friendship Seven, this Surgeon Zanzibar. Your blood pressure was 136 over 80 

before exercise. We have good electrocardiographic trace during the time of 
exercise and you are now in a good level coming down on your blood pressure. 

00 33 08 1. 9 P Roger, this is Friendship Seven. 

00 33 23 20. 7 S Friendship Seven, this is Zanzibar Surgeon. Blood pressure 136 systolic after 

exercise, recording well and coming down now to just under 90 for diastolic. 
Both traces are of excellent quality. Your electro-cardiogram is excellent also. 
Everything on the dials indicates excellent aeromedical status. Over. 

00 33 43 3-9 P Roger, Friendship Seven. Running through 30-minute check, 

00 33 52 23. 3 P This is Friendship Seven. The head movements caused no sensations, whatsoever. 

Feel fine. Reach test, I can hit directly to any spot that I want to hit. I have 
no problem reaching for knobs and have adjusted to zero-g very easily, much 
easier than I really thought I would. I have excellent vision of the charts, no 
astigmatism or any malfunctions at all. 

00 34 15 0. 9 

00 34 20 1. 9 P Roger. You should get it now, okay. 

00 34 23 0. 9 CC Now, thank you. 

00 34 26 12. 9 S Friendship Seven, this is Zanzibar Surgeon, received your report indicating good 

reach accuracy. No disturbances on head motion, good visual acuity including 
astigmatism test and good response to exercise. Over. Could you . . . ? 

00 34 39 3. 9 P Roger, this is Friendship Seven. Are you ready to copy panel rundown? Over. 

00 34 44 3. 1 CC Roger, Friendship Seven. This is Zanzibar CapCom. Proceed. 

00 34 48 47. 5 P Ah, Roger, Zanzibar CapCom. Friensdhip Seven. All fuses remain same as 

previously reported; have not changed any of them. Squib is armed. Auto 
Retrojettison is off. ASCS is on normal, auto, gyro normal. All "T" handles 
are in. Retro Delay is normal. The sequence panel is normal. Landing bag 
is off. Fuel is 90-98 [percent]. The EPI is indicating just about right on 
schedule. My attitude is 5 [degrees] left, 3 [degrees] right, - 33 [degrees] on pitch. 
Retrograde time is still set for 04 plus 32 plus 28. Are you receiving? Over. 

00 35 37 3. 0 CC Roger, Friendship Seven. Continue with the report. 

00 35 40 46. 9 P Roger. This is Friendship Seven. The window, attitude indications, and peri- 

scope all check right together in good shape. I can see the dark side coming up 
in the periscope back behind me at present time. Cabin pressure is 5.5 and 
holding. Cabin temperature is 95 [degrees]. Relative humidity is 28 [percent]. 
I have turned the cabin — my suit temperature onto the increased water position 
for more cooling. Steam temperature is presently indicating 61 [degrees]. 
Oxygen is 75-100 [percent]. I didn't give suit temperature. Suit inlet tempera- 
ture is 65 [degrees] and pressure is 5.8. Over. 

00 36 28 2. 7 CC Roger, Friendship Seven. Continue with the report. 

00 36 31 8. 8 P Roger. All other switches on right panel are normal except for Retrojettison and 

Retromanual fuse switches in the oft position. Over. 

00 36 42 3. 4 CC Roger, Friendship Seven. Could you give me suit exhaust temperature? Over. 

00 36 45 6. 5 P Roger. Suit exhaust temperature, steam temperature is 61 [degrees]. I have just 

turned it down. Over. 

00 36 54 4. 3 CC Roger, Friendship Seven. Continue with battery voltages. Over. 



155 



ZANZIBAR (FIRST ORBIT) — Continued 



00 


36 


58 


20. 2 


p 


Roger Batter ■ volta • M ' ' ?4 N h O 


is 25, Two is 25, Three is 25, 












Standby O 2" St db^r" 18 25 iT ^ on 6 


Ammeter is 22; ASCS, 11?; 












fan" 113 'over' M " W ° ' lsolated - 9 - 


uo 


87 


20 


7. 5 


CO 


Roger' Friend«hl ei Seven Arc vou read 
retro-sequence time'' Over" ^ ° C ° P " J ° 


>ur Contingency Area 1 Delta 


00 


:i7 


28 


1. 7 


P 


Roger. Say 1 Delta. 




00 


37 


30 


4. 8 


CC 


1 Delta is 00 50 24. Did you copy? Over. 




00 


37 


35 


4. 0 


p 


Roger. 00 50 24 for 1 Delta. 




00 


37 


40 




CC 


Roger, your inverter temperatures 150 volt inverter is 


188°, 250 volt inverter, 158°. 


00 


37 


50 


4. 0 


p . 


Roger, Roger, I copy inverter temperatures okay. 




00 


37 


50 


12. 3 


CC 


Friendship Seven, this is Zanzibar Cap Com. Telemetry indicates all systems go. 



little bit of telemetry drop 
ninutes. Zanzibar Cap Com 



00 38 22 1.0 P Roger, Zanzibar. 

INDIAN OCEAN SHIP (FIRST ORBIT) 

00 38 26 7. 1 CT Hello, Friendship Seven, Friendship Seven. This is Indian Com Tech .... 
00 38 41 2. 8 P This is Friendship Seven, going on to eye patch. 

00 39 04 4. 3 CT Hello, Friendship Seven. Friendship Seven, IOS Com Tech. Over. 
00 39 00 2. !) P Hello, IOS Com Tech, Friendship Seven. Go ahead. 

00 39 28 5.0 CT Friendship Seven, Friendship Seven. This is Indian Com Tech on HF UHF 

How do you read? Over. 
00 39 36 3. 2 P IOS, this is Friendship Seven. Do you read? Over. 

00 39 49 5. 2 CT Friendship Seven, Friendship Seven. This is Indian Com Tech on HF UHF 

How do you read? Over. 
00 39 55 3. 7 P Indian Com Tech. Read you loud and clear on HF. Over. 

00 40 08 5.5 CT Hello Friendship Seven, Friendship Seven. This is Indian Com Tech on HF UHF 

How do you read? Over. 
00 40 16 2. 8 P Indian Com Tech, Friendship Seven. Loud and clear, how me? 

00 40 19 6. 8 CT Roger, Friendship Seven, reading you loud and clear — 

00 40 28 9. 8 P This is Friendship Seven. Had a beautiful sunset and can see the light way on 

almost up to the northern horizon. 
00 40 38 1. 6 CC ... 

00 40 57 5. 0 CC Friendship Seven, Friendship Seven, .... Over. 

00 41 04 3. 7 P Indian Cap Com, I'm receiving you verv garbled. Over. 

00 41 09 2. 7 CC Roger, . . . , now. Over. 

00 41 44 3. 6 CC Friendship Seven, Friendship Seven, this is Indian Cap. Over. 
00 41 48 3. 0 P Go ahead Indian Cap Com. I read you fairly good now. Over. 

00 41 51 2.6 CC Roger. Proceed with the rest of your status please. Over. 
00 41 55 1. 2 P Say again, Indian. Over. 

00 41 57 3. 4 CC Would you give me your status and consumable readings please? Over. 

00 42 01 16. 7 P Roger. This is Friendship Seven. My status is very good. I feel fine. Fuel i: 

90-98 [percent], oxygen 75-100 [percent], amps, 21 present time, cabin pressuri 

holding at 5.5. Over. 

00 42 20 2. 9 CC Roger, understand, reading vou loud and clear now, Over. 
00 42 23 1. 7 P Roger, loud and clear. 

00 42 31 30. 1 P This is Friendship Seven. At this, .MARK, at this present time, I still have somi 

clouds visible below me, the sunset, was beautiful. It went down very rapidly 
I still have a brilliant blue band clear across the horizon almost covering mi 
whole window. The redness of the sunset I can still see through some of thi 
clouds way over to the left of my course. Over. 

00 43 03 1. 0 CC Roger, under .... 

00 43 06 9. 5 P The sky above is absolutely black, completely black. I can see stars though uj 

above. I do not have any of the constellations identified as vet. Over. 
00 43 17 1. 9 CC Roger, understand Friendship Seven. 

00 43 27 5. 1 CC Friendship Seven. Would you confirm you received retrosequence time 1 Delt; 

from Zanzibar? Over. 
00 43 34 5. 0 P This is Friendship Seven. Roger, 1 Delta is 00 50 24. 



156 



INDIAX OCEAN SHIP (FIRST ORBIT) — Continued 



00 43 42 


5. 6 


CC 


Roger. I have areas 1 Echo, Foxtrot, and Hotel. Are you prepared to copy? 
Over. 


00 43 47 


1. 1 


P 


Standby one. 


00 43 49 


1. 1 


CC 


Roger. Let me know. 


00 43 54 


2. 1 


P 


All right, go ahead with retrotimes. Over. 


00 43 57 


10. 2 


CC 


Roger. Area 1 Echo is one hour, 15 minutes, 42 seconds. I say again, one hour, 








15 minutes, 42 seconds. Over. 


00 44 07 


4. 0 


P 


Roger. One Echo is 01 plus 15 plus 42. 


00 44 13 


9. 3 


CC 


Roger. Area Foxtrot is one hour, 28 minutes, 50 seconds. I say again, one hour, 








28 minutes, 50 seconds. 


00 44 22 


3. 5 


P 


Roger. Foxtrot is 01 plus 28 plus 50. 


00 44 26 


9. 4 


CC 


That is affirmative. Area Hotel is four hours, 32 minutes, 42 seconds. Four 








hours, 32 minutes, 42 seconds. Over. 


00 44 36 


3. 2 


P 


Roger. 04 plus 32 plus 42. Over. 


00 44 40 


1. 5 


CC 


Roger. That is affirmative. Over. 


00 44 42 


17. 0 


P 


Roger. This is Friendship Seven. I am having no trouble at all seeing the night 








horizon. I think the moon is probably coming up behind me. Yes, I can see 








it in the scope back here and it's making a very white light on the clouds below. 








Over. 


00 45 01 


1. 2 


CC 


Roger, understand. 


00 45 08 


3. 9 


CC 


Friendship Seven, we have launched our flare. You understand it is ... . Over. 


00 45 12 


1. 0 


p 


That is affirmative. 


00 45 20 


2. 9 


CC 


We have been advised that it has been ignited. Do you see anything? Over. 


00 45 25 


5. 8 


p 


This is Friendship Seven. Negative. I don't have anything in the scope or out 








the window. 


00 45 35 


0. 9 


CC 


Roger, understand. 


00 45 49 


5. 2 


CC 


Friendship Seven, this is Indian Cap Com. Do you have any feelings from weight- 








lessness? Over. 


00 45 54 


3. 8 


p 


This is Friendship Seven. Negative, I feel fine so far. Over. 


00 45 59 


0. 8 


CC 


Roger, understand. 


00 46 03 


8. 0 


p 


This is Friendship Seven. Turning suit water to increase position. I am still run- 








ning steam temperature of about 60 [degrees.] Over. 


00 46 13 


0. 8 


CC 


Roger, understand. 


00 46 15 


5. 3 


p 


I am now on suit temperature setting of 1.7. Over. 


00 46 21 


3. 1 


CC 


Roger, understand. What is your control mode? Over. 


00 46 24 


2. 9 


p 


Control mode is ASCS automatic. Over. 


00 46 28 


0. 7 


CC 


Roger, understand. 


00 46 32 


5.7 


p 


Roger. The night side is light enough; I can even see the horizon okay out through 








the periscope. Over. 


00 46 40 


1. 1 


CC 


Roger. Over. 


00 46 42 


1. 2 


p 


Friendship Seven, Roger. 


00 46 59 


3. 2 


CC 


Friendship Seven, this is Indiana CapCom. We now have IOS. Over. 


00 47 02 


1. 6 


p 


Roger, understand IOS. 


00 47 08 


2. 5 


CC 


Your voice transmissions are starting to fade very badly. Over. 


00 47 11 


1. 3 


p 


Roger. Friendship Seven. 


00 47 15 


2. 1 


CC 


. . . clear, IOS Cap Com. Out. 


00 47 18 


0. 5 


p 


Roger. 


SO 48 55 


43. 7 


p 


This is Friendship Seven, broadcasting in the blind. Wait a minute. Friendship 








Seven, broadcasting in the blind, making observations on night outside. There 








seems to be a high layer way up above the horizon; much higher than anything 








I saw on the daylight side. The stars seem to go through it and then go on down 








toward the real horizon. It would appear to be possibly some 7 or 8 degrees 








wide. I can see the clouds down below it; then a dark band, then a lighter band 








that the stars shine right through as they come down toward the horizon. I can 








identify Aries and Triangulum. 








MUCHEA (FIRST ORBIT) 


00 49 49 


3.7 


CT 


Friendship Seven, Muchea Com Tech. We read you. Would you. 


00 49 55 


4. 8 


p 


Hello, Muchea Com Tech. This is Friendship Seven, reading you loud and clear. 








How me? 


00 50 01 


3. 1 


CC 


Roger, Friendship Seven. Muchea Cap Com. How me? Over. 



MUCHEA (FIRST ORBIT) — Continued 



00 50 05 


5. 1 


P 


00 50 10 


1. 2 


CC 


00 50 12 


12. 4 


P 


00 50 25 


3. 6 


CC 


00 50 29 


27. 4 


p 


00 50 58 


1. 2 


CC 


00 51 00 


15. 5 


p 


00 51 10 


12. 4 


CC 


00 51 29 




p 


00 51 3"' 


6 1 


CC 


00 51 38 


0. 5 


p 


00 51 40 


2. 5 


CC 


00 51 44 


1. 0 


p 


00 51 46 


1. 3 


CC 


00 51 51 


5. 0 


CC 


00 51 56 


3. 5 


p 


00 52 00 


3. 4 


CC 


00 52 03 






00 o'> 10 


'> 7 


CC 


00 52 13 


0 " 


p 


00 o° 16 


■~> 9 


CC 


00 52 19 


T 0 


p 


00 52 23 


0 4 


CC 


00 52 31 


.' 


CC 


00 52 36 


2 


p 


00 52 46 


0, 8 


CC 


00 52 48 


0. 4 


p 


00 53 01 


1, 3 


p 


00 53 04 


1. 2 


CC 


00 53 05 


2. 6 


p 


00 53 08 


1. 6 


CC 


00 53 10 




p 


00 53 12 


0. 3 


CC 






CC 


00 53 20 


10. (i 


p 


00 53 33 


3 5 


CC 


00 53 38 


'>' 4 


p 


00 53 41 


7 6 




00 53 50 


0. 4 


p 


00 53 56 


2. 4 


CC 


00 53 59 


1. 5 


p 








00 54 20 


3. 2 


CC 


00 54 25 




p 


158 







Roger. How are you doing Gordo? We' 

going very well. Over. 
John, you sound good. 
Roger. Control fuel i 

all systems are still 



; doing real fine up here. 



Ovt 



1-100 [percent], oxygen is 75-100 [percent], amps are 22, 
Having no problems at all. Control system operating 



Roger. Do you have any star or weather or landmark observations as yet? O 
Roger. I was just making some to the recorder. The only unusual thing I h 
noticed is a rather high, what would appear to be a haze layer up some 7 < 
degrees above the horizon on the night side. The stars I can sec through i 
they go down toward the real homon, but it is a very visible single band or la 
pretty well up above the normal horizon. Over. 
Roger, very interesting. 

This is Friendship Seven. I had a lot of cloud cover coming off of Africa. It 
thinned out considerably now and although I can't definitely see the ocean, tl 
is a lot of moonlight here that does reflect off what clouds there are. Over. 



Roger. You had an excellent cutoff, John. 

V over V n , 1.0002. Can you confirm your i 
Hotel from Indian Ocean Ship? Over. 

That is affirmative. I did. 

Roger. Your yaw check over ATS was good, 
by-wire over IOS was excellent, 



Are we clear to send you a Z and R Cal? 
Roger. 

Z Cal coming through now. 
Roger. Shortly you may observe s< 

check on that to your right? Over. 
Roger. I'm all set to see if I can't get them in sight, 
Roger, You do have your visor closed at this time. Over. 
This is affirmative. I had it open for a little while; it's closed n 

is holding in good shape. Over. 
Roger, Z Cal is off. R Cal is coming through now. 

Any symptoms of vertigo or nausea at all? Over. 

toms whatsoever. I feel fine. Over. 



■ velocity was 8 feet per second low 
Jtrosequenee 1 Easy, Foxtrot, and 



e lights down ther 



r 150 VA ii 



Very well. 

Roger. Looks 
R Cal is off. 

That was sure a short day. 

Say again, Friendship Seven. 

That was about the shortest day I'vt 

Kinda passes rapidlv, huh. 

Yes Sir. 

Fine. 



180°. 



Looks like it's doing pretty well. 



I havf 
r patterns i 



Roger, understand you have Pleiades in sight. 
Negative. Do not have Orion in sight yet. 
Within a few seconds, you should have Orion anc 
sight very shortly thereafter. The moon will 

Do you have time to send us a blood pressure rea 
Roger. Standby. 

Roger. The surgeons are standing by for your 
Roger. I'm already sending it. Did they pick ii 



e Pleiades in sight out here, very clear. Piekin 
Little better than I was just off of Africa. 



MUCHEA (FIRST ORBIT) — Continued 



00 54 28 1. 5 CC Roger. They have it in good shape. 

00 54 31 4. 8 P Roger. I do have the lights in sight on the ground. Over. 

00 54 36 2. 5 CC Roger. Is it just off to your right there? 

00 54 39 12. 3 P That's affirmative. Just to my right I can see a big pattern of lights apparently 

right on the coast. I can see the outline of a town and a very bright light just 
to the south of it. On down .... 

00 54 52 2. 1 CC Perth and Rockingham, you're seeing there. 

00 54 54 4. 9 P Roger. The lights show up very well and thank everybody for turning them on, 

will you? 

00 55 00 0. 9 CC We sure will, John. 

00 55 02 17. 2 P Very fine. On down farther to the south and inland, I can see more lights. There 

are two, actually four patterns in that area. And also, coming into sight in 
the window now is another one almost down under me. The lights are very 
clear from up here. 

00 55 19 1. 3 CC Roger. Sounds good. 

WOOMERA (FIRST ORBIT) 

00 55 26 6. 8 CC Friendship Seven, Friendship Seven. This is Woomera Cap Com, reading you 
loud and clear. We have TM solid. Woomera standing by. 

00 55 33 1. 3 P Roger, Woomera. 

00 55 40 8. 2 CC Friendship Seven. We have your blood pressure readout, reading 126 over 90. 

What kind of results from your physiological tests? Over. 

00 55 49 20. 7 P This is Friendship Seven. I have had no ill effects at all as yet from any zero-g. 

It's very pleasant, in fact. Visual acuity is still excellent. No astigmatic effects. 
Head movements caused no nausea or discomfort whatsoever. Over. 

00 56 11 6. 1 CC Roger, Friendship Seven. Let's go ahead with this 30-minute report please, 
starting with the fuse panel positions. Over. 

00 56 17 46.1 P Roger. This is 30-minute report coming up. Have gone through head movements 

and I get no effect from that. Have gone through the reach test and have no 
problem with that at all. My orientation is good, vision is clear. My moving 
target, looking at a light spot back and forth causes no ill effects whatsoever. 
Running the light test at present time and all lights do check okay in the capsule. 
I am over a large cloud bank at present time, almost extending to the left of my 
course which would be to the south. Over. 

00 57 04 3. 2 CC Roger, Friendship Seven. Let's continue on with this 30-minute report. 

00 57 07 1:13.9 P Roger. Panel rundown follows: The fuse switches on the left panel are all as pre- 

viously reported, without repeating them again. Squib is armed. Auto Retro- 
jettison is off. ASCS Mode Select is normal, auto, gyro normal. All "T" 
Handles are in. The Retro Delay is normal, Cabin lights are on both. I have 
the red filters on, of course. The Telem low frequence is on. Rescue Aids is 
auto. All sequence panel items are normal except the Landing Bag to the center- 
off position. Fuel is 90-100 [percent]. Attitude indications are 5 [degrees] right, 
3 [degrees] left, 36 [degrees] down. EPI is indicating fairly well, indicating 
almost over Woomera at present time. Time from launch on my mark will be 
58 plus 15. Standby-MARK. Retrograde time is still set at 04 plus 32 plus 28. 

00 58 23 34. 6 P Cabin pressure is holding steady at 5.5. Temperature in the cabin is 100 [degrees]. 

Cabin humidity is 25 percent, Coolant quantity is 67 percent. Suit environment 
is 62 [degrees]. Inlet pressure. Inlet temperature, . . . pressure is 5.8 on the 
suit. Steam temperature is 57 [degrees] and dropping since I turned it down. 
Oxygen is 74-101 [percent]. Amps 23. Are you still copying? Over. 

00 58 59 1. 7 CC Affirmative, Friendship Seven. Go ahead. 

00 59 07 27. 3 P Roger. Main Bus is 24, One is 25, 25, 25. Standby One is 25, 25. Isolated 

29, and Main 24 again. Fans 113, ASCS 113. All switch fuses on the right 

are on except Retrojettison and Retromanual in the center-off position. All 

other switches normal. Over. 
00 59 32 11.7 CC Hello. Roger, Friendship Seven. Read you loud and clear. All systems appear 

go at this time. Your clocks are in sync. We have the Woomera Airport 

lights on. Do you, do you see? Over. 
00 59 44 12. 9 P This is Friendship Seven. Negative, I do not; there's too much cloud cover in 

this area. I had the lights at Perth in good shape ; they were very clear, but I 

do not have the lights at Woomera; sorry. Over. 

159 



WOOMERA (FIRST ORBIT) — Continued 









cc 




01 


00 01 


2. 3 


cc 


Friendshi^Seven 5 letVhave another blood ressur h k 1 O 


01 


00 05 




p 


Friendship Seven' Roeer °° preSSUre c ec P ease - ver - 


01 


00 24 


8. 5 


cc 


Hellow Friendship Seven Woomera Ca Com 150 volt inv 










reading 195 [decreesV^O inverteMem^rature r d' V ° ^sTd 6 " 1 ^ temperature 


01 


00 34 


0. 4 


p 


Roger rnpera lire rea ing egrees. 


01 


00 45 


3. 1 


cc 


Friendship Seven, this is Woomera Cap Com. What J s your cabin temperature 










reading? Over. 


01 


00 50 


2. 1 


p 


Woomera, standby just a moment, please. 


01 


00 58 


1. 9 


p 


Sav again. You wanted cabin temperature? 


01 


01 01 


0. 9 


cc 


Roger, Friendship Seven. 


01 


01 02 


1. 8 


p 


Cabin temperature 100 [degrees]. Over. 


01 


01 06 


6. 1 


cc 


Roger, Friendship Seven. Your Roll Auto Line temperature is reading 110 [de- 












01 


01 12 


1. 5 


p 


Roger 8 ' 


01 


01 14 


1. 7 


cc 


Temperature is reading 95 [degrees]. Over. 


01 


01 16 


1. 5 


p 


Roger, Friendship Seven. 


01 


01 19 


4. 5 


p 


This is Friendship Seven. Getting some pictures of star. Over. 


01 


01 26 


1. 1 


cc 


Roger, Friendship Seven. 


01 


02 00 


2. 6 


cc 


Hello Friendship Seven, Woomera Cap Com. Do you read me? Over. 


01 


02 04 


3. 2 


p 


Roger, Woomera Cap Com. Still read you loud and clear. How me? 


01 






cc 


W pressurVreadmg l^Tover ^O^You ifave^^H^ che & k g ° ^ ^ tlme ^°° d 




















minutes and 30 seconds and Canton acquisition a ro^m tri 1 "-^ ^ o' 


01 


02 22 


8. 0 


p 


Roger Friendship Seven ' Thank you very much AU^ystems are still^o at this 










time. Switching to HF. Over. 


01 


02 31 


2. 2 


cc 


Roger, Friendship Seven. This is Woomera Cap Com. Out. 


01 


03 17 


3. 1 


p 


Hello Woomera, Friendship Seven on HF. Do you receive me? Over. 


01 


04 00 


13. 5 


p 


This is Friendship Seven. This is Friendship Seven, broadcasting in the blind to 










the Mercury network. 1, 2, 3, 4, 5. This is Mercury Friendship Seven. Out. 


01 


04 16 


11. 9 


cc 


This is Canaveral Cap Com, testing the HF. G.m.t. 15 (Cape) 52 05, MARK. 










I did not read the capsule. Cape, out. 


01 


05 17 


10. 0 


cc 


Friendship Seven, this Kano. G.m.t. 15 53 02. I did (Kano) not read your 










transmission. Kano, out. 


01 


05 32 


7. 8 


cc 


Friendship Seven, this is Zanzibar Cap Com. . . . This is Zanzibar Cap Com, out. 










CANTON (FIRST ORBIT) 


01 


09 44 


2. 7 


CT 


Friendship Seven. This is Canton Com Tech. Do vou read? Over 


01 


09 53 




p 












clear, how me? Over. 


01 


10 00 


3. 9 


p 


^me^^Over HeU ° ^ anton ' Friendship Se\en. Read you loud and clear. How 












01 


10 08 


5. 1 


CT 


Friendship Seven, Canton Com Tech. Read vou loud and clear, also. Stand by 










for Cap Com. 


01 


10 14 


13. 8 


p 


Roger. This is Friendship Seven. Corn Tech Canton. Fuel 90-100 [percent], 










oxygen 73-101 [peicent]. 


01 


10 28 


2 4 


cc 


Seven, this is Canton Cap Com. Go ahead. Over. 


01 


10 32 


15. 1 


p 


Roger, Canton Cap Com. My repoit follows: Fuel 90-100 [percent], oxvgen 73- 










100 [percent], amps 22, cabin pressure holding steady at 5.5 Over. 


01 


10 50 


4. 0 


CC 


Friendship Seven, this is Canton Cap Com. Would vou repeat that please? 


01 


10 55 


5. 6 


p 


Roger, Canton. Friendship Seven repeating. First, do you have TM solid? 












01 


11 02 


4. 1 


CC 


Friendship Seven this is Canton Affirmative we do have TM ol d 


01 


)] 07 


12. 7 


p 


Roger, message follows: Control fuel 90—100 [percent], oxvgen 73—100 [percent] 










amps 22, cabin pressure 5.5 and holding steady. Over. 


01 


11 21 


4. 2 


cc 


Ah. Rogei, Friendship Seven. What control mode are vou in the present time? 
Over. 


01 


11 26 


4. 2 


p 


This is Friendship Seven. Still in automatic, automatic. Over. 


01 


11 32 


2. 8 


CC 


Roger, Friendship Seven. Canton standing by. 


01 


11 35 


1. 4 


p 


Roger, Friendship Seven. 



160 



CANTON (FIRST ORBIT) — Continued 

01 12 06 17. 0 CC Friendship Seven. This is Canton Cap Com. All systems on the ground appear 
go. Your 150 volt-amp inverter temperature is presently 188°, repeat 188°. 
Your clocks are in sync. Over. 

01 12 23 1. 8 P Roger, Friendship Seven. Thank you. 

01 12 29 2. 7 P This is Friendship Seven, preparing to eat. Over. 

01 12 35 1. 4 CC Roger, Friendship Seven. 

01 12 42 9. 6 P This is Friendship Seven. I had a big storm in sight off to the south, of course, 

for a little while and had lightning flashes going around on top of the clouds. 
I could see it very clearly. Over. 

01 12 53 0. 3 CC Roger. 

01 13 09 3. 2 P This is Friendship Seven. Opening visor, going to eat. Over. 

01 13 13 0. 9 CC Roger, Friendship Seven. 

01 14 60 13. 5 P This is Friendship Seven. Having no trouble at all eating, very good. In the 

periscope, I can see the brilliant blue horizon coming up behind me; approaching 
sunrise. Over. 

01 14 15 2. 3 CC Roger, Friendship Seven. You are very lucky. 
01 14 19 1. 6 P You're right. Man, this is beautiful. 

01 14 30 16.0 P This is Friendship Seven. Have eaten one tube of food, shutting the visor. I've 

had no problem at all eating. Oh, the sun is coming up behind me in the peri- 
scope, a brilliant, brilliant red. Over. 

01 14 48 0. 4 CC Roger. 

01 14 53 12. 2 P This is Friendship Seven. It's blinding through the scope on clear. It's started 

up just as I gave you that mark; I'm going to the dark filter to watch it come on 
up. 

01 15 06 0. 4 CC Roger. 

01 15 24 21. 3 P This is Friendship Seven. I'll try to describe what I'm in here. I am in a big 

mass of some very small particles, that are brilliantly lit up like they're lumi- 
nescent. I never saw anything like it. They round a little; they're coming by 
the capsule, and they look like little stars. A whole shower of them coming by. 

01 15 57 12. 6 P They swirl around the capsule and go in front of the window and they're all bril- 

liantly lighted. They probably average maybe 7 or 8 feet apart, but I can see 
them all down below me, also. 

01 16 06 3-1 CC Roger, Friendship Seven. Can you hear any impact with the capsule? Over. 

01 16 10 16. 8 P Negative, negative. They're very slow; they're not going away from me more 

than maybe 3 or 4 miles per hour. They're going at the same speed I am ap- 
proximately. They're only very slightly under my speed. Over. 

01 16 33 10. 1 P They do, they do have a different motion, though, from me because they swirl 

around the capsule and then depart back the way I am looking. 

01 16 46 1. 3 P Are you receiving? Over. 

01 16 55 2. 5 P There are literally thousands of them. 

01 17 16 3. 7 P This is Friendship Seven. Am I in contact with anyone? Over. 

01 17 30 11.7 P This has been going on since about 1 plus 15. Over. Just after I remarked about 

the sunset. I looked back up and looked out the window, and all the little swirl 

of particles was going by. Over. 
01 19 24 6. 6 P This is Friendship Seven. This is Friendship Seven, broadcasting in 'the blind 

again on HF. 

01 19 38 40. 9 P This i3 Friendship Seven, broadcasting in the blind. Sunrise has come up behind 

in the periscope. It was brilliant in the scope, a brilliant red as it approached 
the horizon and came up; and just as the — as I looked back up out the window, 
I had literally thousands of small, luminous particles swirling around the capsule 
and going away from me at maybe 3 to 5 miles per hour. Now that I am out in 
the bright sun, they seem to have disappeared. It was just as the sun was coming 
up. I can still see just a few of them now, even though the sun is up some 20° 
above the horizon. 

GUAYMAS (FIRST ORBIT) 

01 20 44' 7. 1 CT Friendship Seven, Friendship Seven. This is Guaymas Com Tech, Guaymas Com 
Tech, transmitting on HF-UHF. Do you read? Over. 

01 20 51 7. 8 P Hello, Guaymas Com Teeh, Guaymas Com Tech. This is Friendship Seven. 

Receive your HF loud and dear. How me? Over. 



161 



GUAYMAS (FIRST ORBIT) — Continued 



01 


21 


00 


9. 0 


CC 


Friendship Seven, Friendship Seven. This is Guaymas Cap Com. You're little 












garbled right now, but understandable. What is, what is your status? Over. 


01 


21 


08 


15. 6 


P 


This is Friendship Seven on HF. My status is excellent. Everything is going 












according to plan. Control fuel is 90-100 [percent], oxygen is 72-101 [percent], 












amps 22. Over. 


01 


21 


29 


4. 3 


CC 


Roger, Friendship Seven. Would you repeat your oxygen please? Over. 


01 


21 


34 


4. 9 


P 


This is Friendship Seven. Oxygen is 72-101 [percent]. Over. 


01 


21 


42 


0. 6 


CC 


Roger. 


01 


21 


50 


4. 9 


CC 


Friendship Seven, Guaymas Cap Com, Everything looks fine from here. 


01 


21 


57 


3. 9 


P 


Roger. This is Friendship Seven. Understand everything looks okay. 


01 


22 


01 


6. 3 


CC 


. . . 110. Your main inverter temperatures are rising slightly, but everything 












is okay now. Over. 


01 


22 


09 


1. 7 


P 


Roger. Friendship Seven. 


01 


22 


32 


6. 4 


P 


This is Friendship Seven. I still have some of these very small particles coming 












around the capsule. Over. 


01 


22 


42 


3. 2 


CC 


Friendship Seven, Guaymas Cap Com. Say again, please. Over. 


01 


22 


46 


17. 3 


P 


This is Friendship Seven. Just as the sun came up, there were some brilliantly- 












lighted particles that looked luminous, that were swirling around the capsule. 












I don't have any in sight right now; I did have a couple just a moment ago, when 












I made the transmission to you. Over. 


01 


23 


10 


0. 9 


CC 


Roger, Friendship Seven. 


01 


23 


21 


9. 5 


P 


This is Friendship Seven. For the record, number, the number two film that I'm 












putting in the camera is the number four roll. 


01 


23 


52 


19. 1 


CC 


Friendship Seven. Guaymas Cap Com. We have about 3 minutes yet before 












we acquire telemetry. I'll give you, I'll give you your retrosequence times for 












Areas 2 Alpha, Golf, Hotel. Area 2 Alpha is 01 36 38. 


01 


24 


u 


6. 2 


P 


This is Friendship Seven. Standby. I'm not ready to copy yet; I'm changing 












film in the camera. Over. 


01 


24 


23 


1. 4 


CC 


Roger, we're standing by. 


01 


24 


52 


6. 1 


P 


This is Friendship Seven, going back and using the number 2 roll if I can get hold 
of it. 


01 


25 


07 


3. 1 


p 


Negative, number 2 is missing; I'm using number 3. 


01 


25 


17 


2. 6 


CC 


Friendship Seven, Guaymas Cap Com. Say again, please. 


01 


25 


21 


7. 1 


p 


This is Friendship Seven, I was making a transmission for the record here on what 












film I was loading. Over. 


01 


25 


31 


0. 4 


CC 


Roger. 


01 


26 05 


4. 1 


CC 


Friendship Seven, Guaymas Cap Com. Could you go to UHF now? 


01 


26 


10 




p 


Roger. This is Friendship Seven, going to UHF. 


01 


26 


40 


3. 2 


p 


Hello, Guaymas, Friendship Seven on UHF. Do you receive? Over. 


01 


26 


44 


1. 8 


CC 


Roger, Friendship Seven, loud and clear. Over. 


01 


26 


47 


5. 3 


p 


Hello, Roger, this is Friendship Seven. Loud and clear with you also. Are we 












still go from Control Center? Over. 


01 


26 


53 


1. 0 


CC 


Roger, we're still go. 


01 


26 


55 


12. 3 


p 


Roger. Friendship Seven. All systems are go in the capsule. I still have some 












of these little particles coming around the capsule occasionally here. I can see 












them against the dark sky even on the day side. Over. 


01 


27 


10 


1. 3 


CC 


Roger, understand. 


01 


27 


19 


5. 9 


CC 


Friendship Seven, Guaymas. Do you want your contingency times now? Over. 


01 


27 


27 


2. 3 


p 


This is Friendship Seven. Ready to copy. 


01 


27 


32 


8. 5 


CC 


Area 2 Alpha 01 36 38. Area Golf 03 00 41. 


01 


27 


42 


2. 1 


p 


Say again Area Golf again, please. 


01 


27 


45 


4. 3 


CC 


Area Golf 03 00 41. 


01 


27 


50 


4. 6 


p 


Roger, Area Golf is 03 plus 00 plus 41. Is that affirm? 


01 


27 


56 


5. 3 


CC 


That's affirmative. Area Hotel is 04 32 40. 


01 


28 02 


4. 5 


p 


Roger, 04 plus 32 plus 40 for Hotel. 


01 


28 


13 


5. 5 


CC 


Friendship Seven, Guaymas. If you have a chance, could you give us a blood 












pressure check? Over. 


01 


28 


20 


8. 0 


p 


Roger. Friendship Seven. Will give blood pressure check. I still have some 












of these particles that I cannot identify coming around the capsule occasionally. 














01 


28 


30 


1.7 


CC 


Roger. How big are these particles? 



162 



GUAYMAS (FIRST ORBIT) — Continued 

01 28 32 16 7 P Very small, I would indicate they are on the order of 16th of an inch or smaller. 

They drift by the window and I ean see them against the dark sky. Just at 
sunrise there were literally thousands of them. It looked just like a myriad 
of stars. Over. 

01 28 50 3 8 CC Roger. Are they moving by you or floating with you? Over. 

01 28 54 9 2 P Some of them almost float with me. Most of them appear to be moving at about 

3 to 5 miles an hour away from me. I'm going just a little faster then they are. 

Over. 

01 29 05 0. 5 CC Roger. . 

01 29 44 6. 4 CC Friendship Seven, Guaymas Cap Com. We have a scope retract indication on 

ground. Believe it's ground failure. Over. 
01 29 52 3. 8 P That is affirmative. The scope is extended. The scope is extended. Over. 

01 29 57 0. 4 CC Roger. 

01 30 03 3 7 P ™ s is Friendship Seven. A lot of cloud cover. I cannot see land yet. Over. 

01 30 11 4 5 P This is Friendship Seven. Yaw is drifting out of orbit attitude and will bring it 

back in. Over. 
01 30 16 0. 4 CC Roger. 

01 30 18 7. 0 CC Friendship Seven, Guaymas. I said the, I have an indication of scope retract. 

Your say your scope is out, though? Over. 
01 30 26 0. 8 P That is affirmative. 

01 30 28 0. 4 CC Roger. 

CALIFORNIA (FIRST ORBIT) 

01 30 30 3. 7 CC Friendship Seven, California Cap Com. We have your scope as extended. 
01 30 34 2. 7 P That is affirmative, Cal, scope is extended. 

01 30 39 1. 3 CC Roger, we concur here. 

01 30 41 0. 4 P Ttois Friendship Seven. Yaw drifted out of limits about 20 degrees to the right. 

I'm bringing it back in manually at present time. Over. 
01 30 55 0. 5 CC Roger. 

m o. n^t 2 6 P This is Friendship Seven. Back on ASCS. 

CC Friendship Seven, Guaymas. You were on ASCS when it started drifting out. 
Over. 

01 31 19 12 P Tnat is affirmative. 

01 31 25 4 8 P This is Friendship Seven. Now on fly-by-wire to hold orbit attitude. 

01 31 33 6. 5 P This is Friendship Seven. I have the land in sight out the window. Controlling 

manually, on fly-by-wire. 
01 31 41 3- 0 CC Friendship Seven. Is the ASCS OK now? Over. 
01 31 45 2. 5 P I'll switch back on to it now and see. 

01 32 03 3 8 P This is Friendship Seven. Negative. Seems to, well, standby one. 

01 32 15 5' 1 P This is Friendship Seven. Affirmative. Seems to be controlling now. There may 

be some drift to the right, however. Over. 
01 32 22 0. 4 CC Roger. 

01 32 29 17. 3 P This is Friendship Seven. It drifts about out 20 

large pulse to kick it back over to the left. It goe 

to about 3 degrees per second, to the left. 
01 32 45 4. 3 P It's drifting again in yaw. Over. And once again pulls through. 

CANAVERAL (SECOND ORBIT) 
01 32 50 1. 5 CT Cape Com Tech. Do you read? Over. 
01 32 52 2. 3 P Roger, Cape Com Tech. Friendship Seven. Over. 

01 33 03 2 3 P Hello, Cape Com Tech. Friendship Seven. Over. 

01 33 14 5. 1 CT Friendship Seven, this is Cape Com Tech, Cape Com Tech. Do you read? Over. 

01 33 19 2. 2 P Roger, Cape Com Tech. Friendship Seven. 

01 33 23 2 0 P Hello, Cape Com Tech. Friendship Seven. Over. 

01 33 27 3. 8 CT Friendship Seven, this is Canaveral Com Tech. How do you copy? Over. 

01 33 31 4 9 P Friendship Seven to Canaveral. Read you loud and clear. How me? Over. 

01 33 37 4. 0 CT Friendship Seven, Canaveral Com Tech. Read you loud and clear. Standby for 

Cap Com. Over. 
01 33 42 0. 4 P Roger. 



01 30 44 



01 31 15 



163 



CANAVERAL (SECOND ORBIT) — Continued 

01 33 44 7. 4 CC Friendship Seven, Cap Com. Would you give us the difficulty you've been having 
in yaw in ASCS? Over. S 

01 33 52 39. 0 P Roger. This is Friendship Seven. I'm going on fly-by-wire so I can control more 

accurately. It just started as I got to Guaymas, and appears to be it drifts off 
in yaw, to the right at about 1° per second. It will go over to an attitude of 
about 20°, and hold at that and when it hits about a 20° point it then goes into 
orientation mode and comes back to zero, and it was cycling back and forth in 
"that mode. I am on fly-by-wire now and controlling manuallv. Over. 

01 34 32 5. 4 CC Roger. Understand. Do you have a retrofire time for 2 Bravo and * Charlie' 

01 34 39 1. 9 P This is Friendship Seven. Negative. 

01 34 41 12. 2 CC OK, 2 Bravo, 01 50 00; 2 Charlie, 02 05 59. Over. 

01 34 57 20. 6 P Ah, this is Friendship Seven. Understand 1 Bravo is 01 plus 50 plus 00: 2 

Charlie, correction 2 Bravo is 01 50 00, 2 Charlie is 02 plus 05 plus 59 Is that 
affirm? 

01 35 09 2. 1 CC That is affirmative. Standby one, please. 

01 35 27 13. 2 P This is Friendship Seven. What appears to have happened is, I believe, I have 

no one pound thrust in left yaw. So it drifts over out of limits and then hits it 
with the high thrust. Over. 

01 35 41 3. 8 CC Roger, Seven, we concur here. Recommending you remain flv-bv-wire 

01 35 45 1.8 P Roger, remaining fly-by-wire. 

01 35 56 7. 0 CC Seven, this is Cape. The President will be talking to you and while he is talking 

I'll be sending Z mid R eal. 
01 36 05 1. 2 P Ah— President. 

01 36 07 0. 9 CC Go ahead, Mr. President. 
01 36 47 1.7 P This is Friendship Seven, standing by. 

01 36 50 3. 6 CC Roger, Seven. Having a little difficulty. Start off with vour 30 minute report 
01 36 54 39. 4 P Roger. This is Friendship Seven, controlling manually on fly-by-wire, having no 

trouble controlling. Very smooth and easy; controls very nicely. Fuses are 
still the same on the left panel. Squib is, Squib is armed. Auto Retrojettison 
is off. ASCS is fly-by-wire, auto, gyro normal. All fuel, all "T" handles are in, 
Retro Delay is normal. 1 have beautiful view out the window of the coast at 
present, time. Just departing. Can see the, way down across Florida. Cannot 
quite see the Cape vet. 
01 37 35 0. 3 CC Roger. 

22 4 P Continuing with the report. No sequence panel lights showing. Only abnormal 

position. Landing bag is off. The EPI is indicating okay. Control fuel is 80 
[percent] auto, 100 [percent] manual. Retrograde time set in is 04 plus 32 plus 28. 

01 38 00 1. 3 CC Roger, still reading you. 

01 38 02 2. 4 P Roger. Are we in communication vet? Over 

01 38 06 1. 0 CC Say again, Seven. 

01 38 08 5. 1 P Roger. I'll be out of communication fairly soon. I thought if the other call was in, 

I would stop the cheek. Over. 
01 38 14 1. 9 CC Not as yet, we'll get you next time. 

01 38 16 40. 7 P Roger. Continuing report. Cabin pressure 5.5 and holding nicely. Cabin air is 

95 [degrees]; relative humidity, 20 [percent]; coolant quantity is 67 [percent]; 
temperature is 67 [degrees] on the suit; 5.8 on the pressure; steam temperature 
is 50 [degrees) and coming down slowly. Oxygen is 70-100 [percent]; amps, 22. 
Only really unusual thing so far beside ASCS trouble were the little particles, 
luminous particles around the capsule, just thousands of them right at sunrise 
over the Pacific. Over. 

01 38 59 5. 2 CC Roger, Seven, we have all that, Looks like you're in good shape. Remain on 

fly-by- wire for the moment. 
01 39 04 1. 3 P Roger. Friendship Seven. 

BERMUDA (SECOND ORBIT) 
01 39 09 1. 7 CC Friendship Seven, this is Bermuda Cap Com. 
01 39 11 0. 7 P Go ahead, Bermuda. 

01 39 13 1. 8 CC Roger, we read you 5 by 5. 
01 39 15 2. 0 CC Seven, this is Cape. Go to Bermuda now. 



164 



BERMUDA (SECOND ORBIT) — Continued 



01 39 18 


2. 6 


P 


01 39 24 


4. 5 


CC 


01 39 29 


7. 8 


P 


01 39 38 


1. 9 


CC 


01 39 40 


0. 4 


P 


01 40 19 


0. 9 


CC 


01 40 20 


1. 4 


P 


01 40 23 


2. 1 


CC 


01 40 25 


2.2 


P 


01 41 00 


1. 7 


CC 


01 41 02 


2. 4 


P 


01 41 05 


0. 5 


CC 


01 41 50 


4. 0 


p 


01 42 05 


2.0 


p 


01 42 08 


0. 4 


CC 


01 42 09 


4. 4 


p 


01 42 13 


0.8 


CC 


01 42 14 


5. 2 


p 


01 42 20 


1. 3 


CC 


01 42 22 


3. 4 


p 


01 42 41 


1. 6 


CC 


01 42 44 


2. 6 


p 


01 42 55 


1. 8 


CC 


01 42 59 


3. 6 


p 


01 43 03 


3. 3 


CC 


01 43 07 


3. 7 


p 


01 43 11 


2. 6 


CC 


01 43 14 


0. 7 


p 


01 43 38 




CC 


01 43 41 


2. 1 


p 


01 43 44 


1. 4 


CC 


01 43 50 


3. 4 


p 


01 44 01 


14. 4 


p 


01 44 17 


7. 4 


CC 






(CNV) 




6. 7 


CC 


01 44 41 


11. 5 


CC 


01 44 57 


10. 7 


p 


01 45 09 


5 8 


CC 


01 45 17 


9. 6 


CC 






(KNO) 


01 46 38 


4.0 


CT 


01 46 46 


6. 7 


P 


01 46 55 


4 3 


CT 


01 47 01 


4. 0 


P 


01 47 25 


3. 7 


CT 






p 


01 47 48 


4. 2 


CT 


01 47 54 


4. 0 


P 


01 48 15 


4. 8 


CT 


01 48 20 


2.9 


P 



Roger. This is Friendship Seven. Go ahead, Bermuda. 

Roger, Friendship Seven. Your oculogyric test is due in a minute and 30 seconds. 
Roger. This is Friendship Seven. I am controlling fly-by-wire, present time. 

I have no left yaw low thrust. Over. 
Roger, we understand all of your reports. 

Friendship Seven. Bermuda. 

Go ahead, Bermuda. Friendship Seven. 

Have you started your oculogyric test yet? 

Negative, not yet. Just getting set at the present time. 

Friendship Seven, have you started your test yet? 

This Friendship Seven. That's affirmative, starting now. 

Roger. 

This is Friendship Seven. I can get no, no results from that at all. 
Hello, Bermuda Cap Com. Friendship Seven. Over. 
Friendship Seven. 

This is Friendship Seven. Oculo check being completed. Got no effects. 
. . . Com. Go ahead. 

Bermuda Cap Com, Friendship Seven. I get no results from oculo check. 
Cap Com. If you read, go ahead. 

Bermuda, Friendship Seven. I get no results from oculo check. Over. 
Friendship Seven, Bermuda Cap Com on HF. 

Bermuda, this is Friendship Seven. Do you receive me now? Over. 
Friendship Seven, Bermuda Cap Com. How do you read? 

Hello, Bermuda Cap Com. Friendship Seven, HF. Do you receive me now? Over. 
On HF. What are the results of the oculogyric test, please? 
Results negative. Get no effect at all, no effect at all. Over. 
Roger. Understand no effects from oculogyric. Thank you. 
That's affirmative. 

Friendship Seven, Bermuda Cap Com. Do you read? 

Roger, Bermuda. Loud and clear; how me? 

Roger. We still are reading you loud and clear. 

Roger. Friendship Seven getting ready for 1 plus 44 check. 

This is Friendship Seven broadcasting blind to Mercury Network on from just off 
the east coast over middle Atlantic, check completed at 15. 

. testing on HF G.m.t. 16 31 59 MARK. I read the capsule weak, but read- 
able. Cape, out. 

Friendship Seven, this is Bermuda Cap Com on HF. We did not read the capsule. 

G.m.t, 16 32 15. 

CANARY (SECOND ORBIT) 
Friendship Seven, Friendship Seven, this is CYI. The time now 16 32 26. We 

are reading you loud and clear; we are reading you loud and clear. CYI. 
This is Friendship Seven on UHF. As I went over recovery area that time, I 

could see a wake, what appeared to be a long wake in the water. I imagine that's 

the ships in our recovery area. 
Friendship Seven, ... We do not read you, do not read you. Over. 
Friendship Seven, this is Kano. At G.m.t. 16 33 00. We do not. . . . This 

is Kano. Out. 

Friendship Seven, Friendship Seven, this is CYI Com Tech. Over. 

Hello, Canary. Friendship Seven. Receive you loud and a little garbled. Do 

Friendship Seven, Friendship Seven, this is CYI Com Tech. Over. 
Hello, Canary, Friendship Seven. I read you loud and clear. How me? Over. 
Friendship Seven, Friendship Seven, this is CYI Com Tech. Over. 
Hello, CYI Com Tech. Friendship Seven. How do you read me? Over. 
Friendship Seven, Friendship Seven, this is CYI, CYI Com Tech. Do you read? 
Over. 

Roger. This is Friendship Seven, CYI. I read you loud and clear. Over. 
Friendship Seven, Friendship Seven, this is CYI Com Tech, CYI Com Tech. Do 

you read? Over. 
Hello, CYI Com Tech. Roger, read you loud and clear. 

165 



CANARY (SECOND ORBIT)^Continued 

01 48 26 5. 3 CT Friendship Seven, this is CYI Com Tech. Read vou loud and clear also on UHF 

on UHF. Standby. 
01 48 32 1. 3 P Roger. Friendship Seven. 

01 48 51 5. 6 CC Friendship Seven, Friendship Seven, Friendship Seven, this is Canary Cap Com 
How do you read? Over. 

01 48 58 3. 3 P Hello, Canary Cap Com. Friendship Seven. I read you loud and clear. How 

01 49 02 11.9 CC I read you loud and clear. I am instructed to ask you to correlate the actions of 
the particles surrounding your spacecraft with the actions of vour control jets 
Do you read? Over. 

01 49 15 5. 1 P This is Friendship Seven. I did not read you clear. I read vou loud but very 

garbled. Over. 

01 40 22 15. 5 CC Roger. Cap asks you to correlate the actions of the particles surrounding the 

vehicle with the reaction of one of your control jets. Do you understand? 

01 30 4. 1 P This is Friendship Seven. I do not think they were from my control jets, negative. 

01 49 52 2. 2 CC Roger, I understand. 

01 49 58 5. 9 CC Friendship Seven, Friendship Seven, this is Canary Cap Com. Please complete 
your status repon . 

01 50 06 8 - 7 P This is Friendship Seven. My status is excellent. I have control of capsule on 

fly-by-wire at present time. Control fuel is 80-100 [percent]: oxygen, 69-100 
[percent]; amps, 22. Over. 

01 50 25 8. 0 CC Understand your auto fuel is 80 [percent], your manual fuel is 100 [percent], Main 

0 2 is 69 [percent], secondary 0 2 is 100 [percent]. Over 
01 50 35 1.7 P Roger. This is Friendship Seven. 

01 50 40 2. 2 CC Friendship Seven, would vou take a deep breath'' 
01 50 43 I. 6 P Roger. Friendship Seven. Deep breath 

01 50 50 0. 5 CC That 's good. 

01 50 52 6. 3 P This is Friendship Seven. Have Cape Verde Islands in sight to mv left Over 

01 50 59 1.0 CC Roger, I understand. 

0151 04 2.9 CC Friendship Seven, your medical status is excellent 

01 51 08 1. 1 P Roger. Friendship Seven. 

01 51 15 «• 4 P This is Friendship Seven. The sun coming through the window is very warm 

where it hits the suit. I get quite a bit of heat from it 
01 51 23 0. 5 CC Roger, I understand 

01 51 28 3. 8 CC Friendship Seven, are you going through your dav horizon check? 

01 51 33 1.6 P This is Friendship Seven. Say again. 

01 51 36 2. 8 CC Are you going through the day horizon check? 

01 51 42 8. 6 P This is Friendship Seven. Negative, not at present time. I am going to start 

into a yaw right very shortly. Over. 
01 51 52 1. 0 CC Roger, I understand. 

01 51 55 3. 1 P This is Friendship Seven. Correction: will do day horizon check now 

01 51 59 1.2 CC Roger. Standing by. 

01 52 09 3. 4 P Friendship Seven, coming up to 14°. 

01 52 24 1. 5 CC When are you coming up? 

01 52 29 0. 4 CC ... coming up ... . 

01 52 31 2. 5 P Say again. You're very garbled. This is Friendship Seven. 

01 52 34 3. 9 CC Roger. We have you at 3° on the ground on TM readouts. 
01 52 39 1. 7 P Roger. Friendship Seven. 

01 52 44 1.7 CC We have you about 14 [degrees]. 

01 52 54 4. 2 P This is Friendship Seven. I have no problem at all controlling on the horizon. 

Over. 

01 53 00 3. 7 CC Roger, understand you have no problem at all controlling with the horizon 

01 53 05 0. 8 P That's affirmative. 

01 53 22 1. 2 P This is Friendship Seven. 

ATLANTIC SHIP (SECOND ORBIT) 
01 53 26 0. 8 CC Friendship Seven, I read you. 

01 53 30 3. 5 CC Friendship Seven, Friendship Seven, this is ATS Cap Com. Over 
01 53 34 2.1 P Hello, ATS Cap Com. Loud and clear; how me? 



ATLANTIC SHIP (SECOND ORBIT) — Continued 



01 53 38 3. 2 CC Roger, Friendship Seven. You are loud and clear, also. 

01 53 48 5. 5 P This is Friendship Seven. My tioubles in yaw appear to have largely reversed. 

01 53 54 1. 7 CC Friendship Seven, we just lost .... 

01 53 56 2. 6 CC Roger. Troubles appear to have reversed. Over. 

01 53 59 12. 7 P That is affirmative. At one time, I had no left low thrust in yaw, now that one 

is working, and I now have no low right thrust in yaw. Over. 

01 54 14 4. 9 CC Roger, no right yaw, low thrust. Over. 

01 54 20 5. 1 P Roger, This is Friendship Seven. Starting 180° yaw right, Over. 

01 54 26 4.5 CC Roger. Starting 180° yaw light. Standing by, go ahead. 

01 55 07 0. 8 CC MARK 50°. 

01 55 10 1. 7 P This is Friendship Seven. Say again. 

01 55 13 1. 8 CC My mark was on 50 degrees. 

01 55 15 0. 6 P Roger. 

01 55 27 0. 8 CC MARK, a hundred. 

01 55 29 0. 5 P Roger. 

01 55 52 6. 0 P This is Friendship Seven. Have yawed 165 [degrees], holding orbit attitude in 

roll and pitch. Over. 

01 55 59 4. 3 CC Roger, I confirm, confirm your values. Over. 

01 56 05 1. 2 P Roger. Friendship Seven. 

01 56 12 3. 2 P This is Friendship Seven, holding 180° in yaw. Over. 

01 56 17 3.3 CC Roger, holding 180° in yaw. 

01 56 27 1.6 P This is Friendship Seven. 

01 56 33 1. 0 CC Go ahead, Friendship Seven. 

01 56 35 5-2 P This is Friendship Seven. I like this attitude very much, so you can see where 

you're going. Over. 

01 56 41 3. 4 CC Roger, say you liked your attitude? Over. 

01 56 45 1. 4 P Say again, please. Over. 

01 56 49 6. 0 CC Friendship Seven, this is ATS Cap Com, suggest you ... . Over. 

01 57 01 4. 2 P This is Friendship Seven. I have a loose bolt floating around inside the periscope. 

01 57 13 3. 6 CC Did not read, did not read. Say again, say again. 

01 57 25 3. 5 P This is Friendship Seven, yawing back to orbit attitude. Over. 

01 57 29 3. 3 CC Roger, coming back to orbit attitude. Over. 

KANO (SECOND ORBIT) 

01 57 38 2. 7 CC Friendship Seven, this is Kano Cap Com, standing by. 
01 57 42 2. 3 P Hello, Kano. Roger. Hear you loud and clear. 

01 57 50 6. 3 CC Friendship Seven, this is Kano. Any time you're ready, we'd like your status 

report. We hear you loud and clear, also. 
01 57 59 9. 6 P Roger, Kano. This is Friendship Seven. I am presently returning to orbit 

attitude from 180° yaw cheek. Over. 
01 58 08 9. 5 CC Roger, Friendship Seven. We marked that your part of the transmission pretty 

clearly over ATS, and understand you like the old attitude. 
01 58 18 4 5 P Negative, I like the forward-facing attitude much better. Like, .... 

01 58 24 5. 0 CC But, how is your status, and your station report? 

01 58 29 12. 2 P This is Friendship Seven. My status is good. Control fuel is 76-100 [percent]; 

oxygen, 68-100 [percent]; amps, 25. Over. 

01 58 44 10. 8 CC Roger, Friendship Seven. We are monitoring your inverters. Your 150-volt in- 
verter 200°, your 250, 180°-180°. 

01 58 57 1.1 P Roger. Friendship Seven. 

01 59 10 9. 8 CC Friendship Seven, we have telemetry solid and check all your systems out okay. 

We will remind you to start pre-darkside check list as soon as you lose contact 

01 59 20 1.0 P Roger. Friendship Seven. 

01 59 23 2. 1 P This is Friendship Seven, back in orbit attitude. Over. 

01 59 26 2. 3 CC Roger, understand back in orbit attitude. 
01 59 29 1. 3 P This is Friendship Seven. That's affirm. 

01 59 32 & 9 P This is Friendship Seven. I now have control in low thrust to the left. I do not 

have control in low right thrust. Over. 
01 59 42 6. 5 CC Roger. Confirm you have control in low thrust to the left, but no control in low 

thrust to right. 

01 59 49 1. 6 P That is affirmative. Friendship Seven. 

167 



KANO (SECOND ORBIT) — Continued 



01 59 51 3. 9 CC We will inform MCC. Have you any other comments or queries? 

01 59 55 5. 4 P Negative. Friendship Seven. I'm in orbit attitude. I'll try a 

ASCS and see if it works. Over. 

02 00 02 1. 3 CC Roger. Will stand bv. 
02 00 03 0. 4 P Roger. 

02 00 28 2. 6 P This is Friendship Seven. The capsule appears .... 

02 00 38 2. 5 CC Friendship Seven, your last transmission was interrupted. 
02 00 41 7. 9 P This is Friendship Seven. The capsule appears to be holding in i 

I believe we are off in yaw. Do vou confirm? Over 
02 00 50 0. 6 CC Standby. 

02 00 53 3. 7 CC Our signal shows vou are sitting at zero in yaw. 

02 01 03 16. 2 P This is Friendship Seven. I'm going to depart from flight plan foi 

try and work this out a little better here, we are drifting in yaw. I am cutting 
automatic yaw off. And, and will control manually in yaw temporarily. Over. 

02 01 20 5. 0 CC Roger, we still confirm you are holding in yaw, at, as last TM check 

02 02 28 4. 6 CC Friendship Seven, this is Kano Cap Com. I do not think I can read vou, handing 
over to Zanzibar. 

02 02 37 1. 5 P Roger, this is Friendship Seven. 

ZANZIBAR {SECOND ORBIT) 

02 02 49 6. 1 CT Friendship Seven, Friendship Seven this is Zanzibar Com Tech, transmitting on 

HF UHF. Do you read? Over. 
02 02 56 1. 8 P Roger, Zanzibar. Friendship Seven. 

02 03 10 6. 3 CT Friendship Seven, Friendship Seven, this is Zanzibar Com Tech transmitting on 

HF UHF. Do you read? Over. 
02 03 16 3. 3 P Roger, Zanzibar. Read you loud and clear; how me? Over 

02 03 30 2. 8 P Zanzibar Com Tech, this is Friendship Seven Over 

02 03 40 1. 0 P Zanzibar Com Tech. 

02 03 42 5. 2 CT Friendship Seven, this is Zanzibar Com Tech transmitting on HF UHF Do vou 
read? Over. 

02 03 47 3. 6 P Roger, Zanzibar. Friendship Seven. Hear you loud and clear- how me' 

02 04 08 3. 7 P Zanzibar, this is Friendship Seven. Do you receive? Over. 

02 04 14 8. 8 CC Friendship Seven, this is Zanzibar Cap Com, reading you weak but readable. We 
have solid telemetry contact. Report vour status Over 

02 04 22 37.2 P Roger. This is Friendship Seven. My "status: I am on ASCS, it is not holding 

all the time. My trouble in yaw has reversed. During the first part of the 
flight, when I had trouble over the west coast of the United States, I had a 
problem with the yaw, with no low thrust to the left; now I have thrust in that 
direction but do not have low thrust to the right. When the capsule drifts out 
in that area, it hits high thrust and drops into orientation mode, temporarily. 

02 05 01 7. 5 CC Roger, Friendship Seven. This is Zanzibar Cap Com. Continue with your 30- 
minute report. Over. 

02 05 13 1:30.2 P Roger. This is Friendship Seven. Thirty-minute report follows: Head move- 

ments cause no nausea or no bad feelings at all. I am surprised that I can look 
as close to the sun as I can; the sun is shining directly on my face at present time, 
and all I have to do is to shade my eyes with my eyebrow. All fuse switches 
are still as previously reported on left panel. ASCS Mode Select is normal, 
auto, gyro normal: Squib is armed, Auto Retrojettison is off. All "T" handles 
are in except manual and I have it pulled so that I can immediately go to manual 
as a backup in case the ASCS malfunctions further. The Rescue Aids are 
normal. Landing bag is off. All other sequence panel items are in normal 
position. Control fuel is 68-100 [percent], repeat, 68-100. EPI is indicating 
my approximate position. Time from launch is 02 plus 06 plus 30 MARK. 
Retrograde time for [area] H is still set for 04 plus 32 plus 28. I would like to 
know if Canaveral wants me to reset that into the clock. Over. 

02 06 45 2. 2 P To reset the correct time on the clock. Over 

02 06 50 1. 4 CC Standby one, Friendship Seven. 

02 06 53 0. 5 P Roger. 

02 07 03 7. 9 CC Friendship Seven, this is Zanzibar Cap Com. We don't have word from Canaveral 
instructing us to instruct you to change the clock at this time. 



168 



ZANZIBAR (SECOND ORBIT) — Continued 



02 07 1 



1 P Roger, Roger. 

02 07 20 2. 7 CC Frienship Seven, continue with 30-minute report. 

02 07 24 54 2 P Roger. This is Friendship Seven. Thirty-minute report continues. Cabin 

pressure is 5.6 and holding. Cabin temperature is 95 [degrees] and dropping slowly. 
The relative humidity is 20 [percent], coolant quantity is 67 [percent], and suit 
environment temperature is 68 [degrees], pressure is 5.8. Steam temperature is 
47 [degrees], and I'm turning that down a little bit more now. Oxygen is 68-100 
percent; amps, 22; voltages: main 24, 25, 25, 25; standby one, 25, 25. Cabin 
excess water light is on, turning that one down. Over. 
02 08 20 1. 8 CC Roger, Friendship Seven. Continue. 
02 08 23 1. i P Roger. Friendship Seven. 

02 08. 27 3. 5 P Standby one, I need to reorient the capsule. We're getting too far out. Over. 

02 08. 32 0. 4 CC Roger. 

02 08 40 46. 3 P This is Friendship Seven. Sun, I want to make a mark here when the sun goes 

down. Sun is on the horizon at the present time, a brilliant blue out from each 
side of it. And I'll give a mark at the last. The sun is going out of sight. 
Ready now, MARK (2:09:06). There's a brilliant blue out on each side of the 
sun, "horizon to horizon almost. I can see a thunderstorm down below me 
somewhere, and lightning, 

02 09 44 8. 4 P And I am not night adapted right now, so I cannot see any of the zodiacal light. 

02 09 56 9. 0 CC Friendship Seven, this is Zanzibar Cap Com. Contingency time for Area 2 Delta, 

02 38 31. Did you copy? Over. 
02 10 07 2. 0 P Say again, contingency area time. Over. 

02 10 10 3. 3 CC 02 38 31. Over 
02 10 14 2. 2 P 02 38 31, Roger. 

02 10 20 5. 7 CC Friendship Seven, this is Zanzibar Cap Com. Please comment an reach accuracy 
and visual acuity. Over. 

02 10 26 27. 4 P Right, visual acuity is good. I have no problem reading the charts, no problem 

with the astigmatism at all. I am having no trouble at all holding attitudes 
either. I m still on fly-by-wire. I'm on normal ASCS but I'm backing it up 
with manual at present time. Over. 

02 10 56 4. 3 CC Roger, Friendship Seven. We have intermittent pitch ignore. 

02 11 02 11-7 CC The inverter temperatures are 205° for fans inverted 190° for ASCS inverter. We 
are losing telemetry contact. Stand by to contact IOS, Zan. 

02 11 15 1.1 P Roger. Friendship Seven. 

02 11 33 5.1 P This is Friendship Seven, Zanzibar. Does Cape recommend any action on inverters ! 

Over. 

02 12 04 3. 9 P This is Friendship Seven. Have a lot of lightning under me at the present time. 

02 12 50 9- 1 P This is Friendship Seven. I still have very bright light along the horizon; orange 

at the bottom, yellowish layer, then blue, then very dark on top. 

INDIAN OCEAN SHIP (SECOND ORBIT) 
02 13 18 5. 7 CT Friendship Seven, Friendship Seven, this is Indian Com Tech on HF and UHF 
How read? Over. 

02 13 24 18. 9 P This is Friendship Seven. I read you okay, Indian Com Tech. This is Friendship 

Seven. I am on straight manual control at present time. I have 92 percent 
fuel. Over on, on manual, auto fuel is at 64 [percent]. Over. 

02 13 57 & 1 CC Friendship Seven, Friendship Seven, this is Indian Cap Com. You are fading in 
and out. Say again your fuel positions. Over. 

02 14 00 3. 1 P This is Friendship Seven. Standby one. 

02 14 04 0.8 CC Roger standing by. 

02 14 10 9. 9 P This is Friendship Seven. Capsule dropped into orientation mode again on AbCb. 

I took it over manually and am reorienting at present time. Over. 
02 14 21 2.7 CC Roger, understand you're reorienting in manual. Over. 

02 14 24 15. 5 P Right, it dropped into orientation mode. I have fuel quantity warning light on 

in automatic. I'm okay at present time. Have capsule under control and using 
manual. Over. 

02 14 36 3. 3 CC Roger, understand. Will you give me a list of your consumables, please? Over. 
02 14 40 1.1 P Roger. Standby one. 

02 14 45 15. 7 P This is Friendship Seven. Fuel, 62-90 [percent]; oxygen, 68-100 [percent]; amps, 

20. Over. 

169 



INDIAN OCEAN SHIP (SECOND ORBIT) — Continued 

02 15 02 3. 0 CC Roger, Roger. You're coming in loud and clear, loud and clear. Over. 

02 15 06 8. 5 P Roger. This is Friendship Seven. I have good night horizon check, can control 

okay on night horizon. 
02 15 18 0. 9 CC Roger, understand. 

02 15 28 4. 4 CC Friendship Seven, this Indian Cap Com. Can you see any constellations and 
identify them? Over. 

02 15 33 9. 9 P This is Friendship Seven. Affirmative. I'm pitching up at present time to trv 

and identify some of them. At capsule attitude in orbit, you can't see very much 
of the sky. Over. 

02 15 44 1.1 CC Roger, understand. 

02 16 09 4. 8 CC Friendship Seven, this is Indian Cap Com. Are you prepared to copy your retro- 
sequence time? Over. 
02 16 15 2. 1 P This is Friendship Seven. Standby one. 

02 16 18 0. 4 CC Roger. 

02 17 19 3. 9 CC Friendship Seven, this is Indian Cap Com. Be advised we have flare ignition. 

02 17 24 4. 9 P Roger. This is Friendship Seven. Do not have it in sight; cloud cover solid 

underneath. Over. 
02 17 30 1. 1 CC Roger, understand. 

02 18 13 5. 3 P This is Friendship Seven. IOS, do you have any indication of fuel temperatures? 

02 18 20 0. 8 CC Standby one. 

02 18 45 10. 1 CC Friendship Seven, this is Indian Cap Com. We read 95° on auto fuel temp, 95° 

on manual fuel temp. Standbv one. 
02 19 01 0. 4 P Roger. 

02 19 03 3. 3 CC We read 65° on manual fuel temp. Over. 
02 19 07 3. 0 P Roger, understand 65° on manual fuel temp. 

02 19 12 8. 9 CC That is affirmative. We have message from MCC for you to keep your Landing 

Bag switch in off position, Landing Bag switch in off position. Over 
02 19 21 1. 4 P Roger. This is Friendship Seven. 

02 19 25 3. 1 CC Roger. Are you prepared to copy retrosequence times? Over. 

02 19 28 0. 6 P Standby one. 

02 19 31 1. 5 P Okay. Friendship Seven. . . . 

02 19 35 4. 1 CC Roger. Do you have Area 2 Delta time, Area 2 Delta? Over. 
02 19 39 I. 3 P Friendship Seven. Negative. 

02 19 41 8. 8 CC Roger. Area 2 Delta time is 2 hours, 38 minutes, 31 seconds. I say again, 2 hours, 

38 minutes, 31 seconds. Over. 
02 19 50 2.6 P Roger. Friendship Seven. 2 plus 38 plus 31. 

02 19 54 5. 9 CC Roger. Area 2 Echo is 2 hours plus 48 minutes plus 59 seconds. 
02 20 00 0. 5 P Say, 

02 20 02 2. 4 CC 48 minutes, plus 59 seconds. Over. 

02 20 05 3. 3 P 2 hours plus 48 minutes plus 59 seconds for 2 Echo. 

02 20 10 11. 1 CC Roger. End of orbit area Golf is 3 hours plus 00 minutes plus 39 seconds, I say 

again, 3 hours plus 00 minutes plus 39 seconds. Over. 
02 20 23 4. 2 P Roger, 03 plus 00 plus 39 seconds. 

02 20 27 1. 2 CC Roger, that is affirmative. 

02 20 37 4. 2 CC Friendship Seven, this is Indian Cap Com. Have vou noticed any constellations 
yet? Over. 

02 20 41 12. 7 P This is Friendship Seven. Negative. I have some problems here with ASCS. 

My attitudes are not matching what I see out the window. I've been paying 
pretty close attention to that; I've not been identifying stars. Over. 

02 20 55 0. 9 CC Roger, understand. 

MTJCHEA (SECOND ORBIT) 

l, this is Muchea Com Tech. Friendship Seven, 
Hello, Muchea Com Tech, Friendship Seven. Over. 

Friendship Seven, Friendship Seven, this is Muchea Com Tech. Have your telem- 
etry. Muchea Corn Tech. Do you read? 
Hello, Muchea Com Tech. Friendship Seven. Read you loud and clear; how me? 



170 



MUCHEA (SECOND ORBIT) — Continued 



02 22 14 


5. 9 


cc 


Friendship Seven, Friendship Seven, this is Muchea Com Tech. Friendship Seven, 








this is Muchea Com Tech. Do you read? Over. 


02 22 24 


5. 7 


p 


Hello, Muchea Com Tech, Friendship Seven. I read you loud and clear; how me? 


02 22 38 


5. 3 


p 


Muchea Com Tech, Friendship Seven. Holding attitude on Orion. Over. 


02 22 46 


7. 5 


cc 


Friendship Seven, Friendship Seven, this is Muchea Com Tech, calling on HF and 








UHF. Friendship Seven, this is Muchea Com Tech. Do you read? 


02 23 10 


3.3 


p 


Hello Muchea, hello Muchea. Friendship Seven on HF. Over. 


02 23 16 


2. 6 


CT 


Friendship Seven, this is Muchea Com Tech. Do you read? 


02 23 19 


3. 2 


P 


Roger, Muchea. Friendship Seven. Read you loud and clear; how me? 


02 23 24 


2. 7 


cc 


Friendship Seven, would you say again? 


02 23 29 


3. 2 


p 


This is Friendship Seven, Muchea. I read you loud and clear. Over. 


02 23 34 


3.3 


cc 


Roger, Friendship Seven. I'm reading you loud and clear on HF. Over. 


02 23 38 


. 6 


P 


Roger. 


02 23 42 


2. 7 


cc 


Friendship Seven, Muchea Cap Com. How me? Over. 


02 23 45 


12. 3 


P 


Roger, Muchea Cap Com. Loud and clear. Fuel, 62-85 [percent]; oxygen, 65-100 








[percent]; amps, 22. Over. 


02 24 00 


3. 2 


cc 


Roger. I did not get your fuel. Would you give that ... to us again? Over. 


02 24 03 


3. 8 


P 


Roger, fuel is 60-85 [percent]. Over. 


02 24 24 


2. 6 


cc 


Friendship Seven, how do you read us on UHF? Over. 


02 24 28 


2. 9 


p 


Roger. Loud and clear; I am still on HF. Over. 


02 24 33 


4. 1 


cc 


Friendship 7, Muchea Cap Com. Recommend you go UHF. Over. 


02 24 37 


1. 4 


p 


Roger, going to UHF. 


02 24 41 


2. 3 


cc 


Friendship Seven, Muchea Cap Com. How now? Over. 


02 24 49 


2. 9 


cc 


Friendship Seven, this is Muchea Cap Com. How are read now? Over. 


02 24 52 


3. 4 


p 


Hello, Muchea. Friendship Seven. Read you loud and clear; how me? 


02 24 56 


4. 4 


cc 


Loud and clear. You were coming in slightly garbled. Could you give us your fuel, 








oxygen and amps? Over. 


02 25 01 


6. 4 


p 


Roger. Fuel, 60-85 [percent]; oxygen, 65-100 [percent]; amps, 22. Over. 


02 25 09 


2. 5 


cc 


Roger. Exhaust temperature? 


02 25 12 


2. 1 


p 


Exhaust temperature 50 [degrees]. Over. 


02 25 15 


1. 9 


cc 


Roger. Are you in fly-by-wire? 


02 25 17 


10. 4 


p 


Negative, I am on manual at present time. I'm down to 60 [percent] on automatic 








fuel, so I cut it off and I'm on manual at present time. Over. 


02 25 28 


2. 6 


cc 


Roger. How is your yaw thruster problem? Over. 


02 25 32 


19. 4 


p 


This is Friendship Seven. I am getting some erratic indications in all axes. When 








I align everything on orbit attitude by the instruments I am considerably off 








where I should be. I'm rolled some 20° to the right; I'm also yawed to the right 








a little bit. Over. 


02 25 52 


6. 3 


cc 


Roger, understand. Are you satisfied with the fly-by-wire and manual proportional 








systems? Over. 


02 25 58 


4.2 


p 


Fly-by-wire is not functioning in yaw low right. Over. 


02 26 06 


1.9 


cc 


Roger, low yaw right. 


02 26 08 


13.6 


p 


That's affirmative. When I first had trouble with it, it was malfunctioning in 






low yaw left, and now low yaw left is operating okay, but low yaw right is not 








operating. Over. 


02 26 22 


5. 1 


cc 


Roger. Have you tried caging your gyros and re-erecting them. What do you 








think about this? Over. 


02 26 27 


12. 1 


p 


Negative, have not yet. I want to get an alignment as soon as I get back in day- 








light and do just exactly that. I think my, I'm probably not — my scanners 








are probably not working right. Over. 


02 26 40 


5. 1 


cc 


Roger. Will you confirm the Landing Bag switch is in the off position? Over. 


02 26 45 


3. 6 


p 


That is affirmative. Landing Bag switch is in the center off position. 


02 26 50 


4. 3 


cc 


You haven't had any banging noises or anything of this type at higher rates? 


02 26 55 


. 4 


p 


Negative. 


02 26 57 


6. 4 


cc 


They wanted this answer. Do you have your retrosequence times 2 Dog, Easy, 








and Golf from Indian Ocean Ship? 


02 27 03 


6. 6 


p 


Standby one. Yes, 2 Easy, and Golf, yes, I do have those. 


02 27 11 




cc 




02 27 14 


3. 1 


cc 


Do you have any, are you ready for Z and R Cal? Over. 


02 27 18 


1. 2 


p 


Affirmative, go ahead. 


02 27 20 


1. 1 


cc 


Cal coming through. 



171 



MUCHEA (SECOND ORBIT) — Continued 



02 27 26 


2. 5 


cc 


\ny comments on weightlessness etc 




02 27 30 


5. 7 




Negative, I have no ill effects whatsoever. I don't eve: 


n really notice it now. I'm 








just, very comfortable. 








cr 








4 9 




I have the constellation of Orion up here in the wh 


idow now. I'm holding a 












02 27 45 


6 3 


cc 


Roger, good. Your 150 VA is 200 [degrees]; vour 250 VA is 190 [degrees! Over. 


02 27 51 


. 4 


p 






02 27 52 


1. 2 


cc 


R°Cal c min n< w 




02 28 11 


o. - 


cc 


Friend^n^Seven^Muchea C-i j Com D - '11 h 


'e high, both high thrusters 








^n flv bv \vire"' "over Ca ^ °> 0L1 * tl av 




02 ''8 17 


1 2 


p 


That's affirmative. I do. 




02 28 19 


. 6 


cc 


Roger. 










WOOMERA (SECOND ORBIT) 




02 28 35 


5. 6 


cc 


Iriendsmp Seven, wooraera Cap Com. We have coi 


itact, TM solid and UHF 








solid - 0ver ' 




0 9 9 8 40 


7 


p 


Roger, Woomera. 




02 28 45 


2. 2 


cc 


Friendship Seven, are you ready to go ahead with thi> 


■■ 30-minute report? Over. 


0^ *>8 5*> 






Negative, not just at the moment. Stand by. 






rr 


Roger Friendship Seven. 




02 28 58 


o. 


rr 


Friendship Seven, Muchea. Just a reminder to take yt 


)ur exercise after the blood 








pressure. Over, Woomera. 




02 29 04 




p 


Roger. 






'>' 


cc 


Friendship Seven, Woomera Cap Com, Do you read? 


Over. 


02 29 48 






Go ahead, Woomera, 




02 29 50 


5 8 


cc 


The Cape advises that you conduct this horizon check 


and cage the gyros, before 








California. 


02 29 58 


3. 5 


p 


Say again, please, Woomera, did not understand. 




02 30 01 


3 


cc 


Cape advises that you conduct this horizon check, and 


cage the gyros before Cali- 








fornia contact. Over. 




02 30 09 


4 


p 


Roger, understand before California contact. 




02 30 13 


6 8 


cc 


Roger, Would like to confirm your control systems s 










right is inoperative. 




02 30 20 


. 9 


p 


That's affirmative. 




02 30 22 


1. 3 


cc 


Good in all axes. Over. 




02 30 24 




p 


That is affirmative 




02 30 27 


2. 4 


cc 


Can you give status on your ASCS system? Over. 




02 30 30 


52. 6 


p 


This is Friendship Seven. ASCS started out operating, 


it would drop into orienta- 








tion mode in yaw and that would throw the other a? 


tes out. It was doing this 



right and there would be no correction 
e rapidly back across and correct 
itself from a 20 c right attitude, would come back across to a left attitude in 
orientation mode. This continued for a while. I took control, that was right 
after Guaymas. By the time I had gone over Africa the condition had just 
reversed, had just reversed. The same thing, only the other direction. Over. 
02 31 24 .9 CC Roger, I understand. 

02 31 28 3. 5 CC Friendship Seven, if you're ready, could we conduct this 30 minute report? Over. 

02 31 32 27. 2 P Friendship Seven, Roger. All switch fuses still same position. Squib is armed. 

Auto Retrojettison is off. ASCS mode selector is normal, rate command, gyro, 
normal. Manual fuel handle is pulled. Automatic fuel is still on. Retro-Delay, 
normal, Landing Bag is off. Everything else on sequence panel is normal. 
Fuel .... 

02 32 00 7. 1 CC Could we have a blood pressure check? Start your button, then exercise the bungee 

cord, then start your blood pressure check again. Over. 
02 32 08 2.7 P Roger. Friendship Seven. Blood pressure coming on. 

02 32 26 5. 9 CC Roger, Friendship Seven. We're reading your blood pressure, what kind of result 

on your visual acuity test? Over. 
02 32 32 6. 7 P Roger. Friendship Seven. Visual acuity still good. Can read same lines I did 

when starting out. Over. 

02 32 40 6. 8 CC Roger. Would like to go through this 30-minute report again, starting with the 
Auto Retro-jett switch. Go ahead. 



WOOMERA (SECOND ORBIT) — Continued 



02 32 49 7. 7 P Auto Retro-jettison is armed. I'm having to break this in the middle because I 

need to keep looking out the window to control accurately. Over. 
02 32 57 2. 7 CC Roger, Friendship Seven. . . . discussion. Over. 
02 32 00 .5 P Roger. 

02 33 09 57. 8 P This is Friendship Seven. Auto Retro-jettison is off. ASCS mode selector is 

normal, rate command, gyro normal. All "T" handles are in except manual, and 
it is out. I am controlling manually at present time. Landing Bag switch is off. 
Sequence panel is all normal except for that. The control fuel is 60-82 [percent]. 
Attitudes at present time on manual control are roll 5 [degrees] right, yaw 15 
[degrees] right, pitch —34 [degrees] in orbit attitude. My time from launch is 2 
plus 33 plus 60, MARK! Correction that would be 2 plus 34 on that mark. Did 
you receive? Over. 

02 34 09 .2 CC Yes. 

02 34 10 9. 0 P Roger. Cabin pressure is 5.5 and holding. Cabin air is 95 [degrees]. Cabin 

excess water light is still on. I'm turning it down a little bit more yet. 

02 34 34 50. 3 P Cabin relative humidity is indicating 20 [percent]. Coolant quantity is 66 [percent]. 

Suit is 68 [degrees] on temperature, pressure 5.8 indicated, steam temperature, 
50 [degrees] in suit circuit and comfortable. Oxygen is 65-100 [percent] amps 
20. Voltages: main 24, 25, 25, 25; standby one is 25, 25; isolated 29; and back 
on main. Fans is 113, ASCS 113. I have two warning lights on, the excess 
cabin water and fuel quantity. Over. 

02 35 29 6. 2 CC Roger, Friendship Seven. Aeromed would like to know whether you have con- 
ducted your exercise on bungee cord. Over. 

02 35 36 6. 1 P Negative, I have not done that recently. Will conduct that now as part of this 

check. You had a blood pressure. 

02 35 43 5. 3 CC You are fading now. Standby for Canton in a few minutes. This is Woomera 
Cap Com, Over and Out. 

02 36 02 2. 9 P Okay, exercise conducted. Blood pressure starting. 

02 36 36 4. 9 P This is Friendship Seven. Woomera, are you still receiving me? Over. 

02 37 07 1. 3 P This is Friendship Seven. 

CANTON (SECOND ORBIT) 
02 42 01 2. 8 CT Friendship Seven, Canton Com Tech. 

02 42 05 4. 2 P Hello Canton Com Tech. Friendship Seven. How did you receive UHF-HI? 

02 43 10 5. 3 CT Friendship Seven, Canton Com Tech. Reading you loud and clear. Standby 
for Cap Com. 

02 43 16 24. 9 P Roger. Canton Cap Com, Friendship Seven. Fuel 62-75 [degrees], oxygen 

65-98 [percent], correction 65-100 [percent], amps 23. My condition is good. 
The sunrise is coming around the capsule right now. Over. 

02 43 42 5. 2 CC Roger, Friendship Seven. This is Canton. We have TM solid; go ahead, Over. 

02 43 48 7. 1 P Roger. This is Friendship Seven, and now that the sunrise is starting, I have all 

these little particles coming around the capsule again, just at sunrise. 

02 43 57 .9 CC Roger, Friendship Seven. 

02 44 02 5. 3 P I also can see the light on my, on steam from the thruster when I operate it. Over. 

02 44 09 7. 2 CC Roger, Friendship Seven. Are, are your thrusters working, are all your high 

thrusters working okay. Over. 
02 44 17 4- 1 P This Friendship Seven. Affirmative, operating okay. 

02 44 27 9. 8 P This is Friendship Seven. I think my, I can see a little bit of steam spitting against 

the dark sky here occasionally from my pitch down manual thruster. Over. 
02 44 36 .4 CC Roger. 

02 44 37 12. 7 P This is Friendship Seven. All these little particles; there are thousands of them; 

and they're not coming from the capsule. They're something that's already 
up there because they're all over the sky. Way out I can see them, as far as I 
can see in each direction, almost. 

02 44 52 1. 1 CC Roger, Friendship Seven. 

02 44 56 5. 5 CC Friendship Seven, this is Canton. Our telemetry here indicates that everything 

is okay. Over. 
02 45 02 1. 2 P Roger, Friendship Seven. 

02 45 05 8. 9 CC Friendship Seven, this is Canton. Our Aeromed would like to hear any comments 
you have on weightlessness, nausea, dizziness, taste and smell sensations. Over. 

173 



02 46 50 
02 46 58 
02 47 14 



02 47 36 
02 47 37 
02 47 38 



02 48 36 

02 48 42 

02 49 06 

02 49 10 

02 49 22 

02 49 27 

02 49 33 

02 49 36 

02 49 39 



02 49 59 
02 50 03 



14. 0 
13. 8 



CANTON (SECOND ORBIT) — Continued 

Friendship Seven, I have no sensations at all from weightlessness except very 
pleasant. No ill effects at all, I'm not sick; feel fine. I have had no, no dizzi- 
ness; I've run the head cheeks, the head movements and have no problem with 
that. I've run the oculogyric check and have no problem with that. I haven't 
been able to use much of the equipment this orbit, however. I've been mainly 
concerned with this control problem. Over. 

Roger, Friendship Seven. Our fuel quantities here agree with vours. Our 150 
fans inverter temperature is 200 [degrees]. The ASCS temperature N 190 
[degrees]. Out 

Roger, Friendship Seven. 

Friendship Seven, this is Canton. Do you have all the retro times that vou need'.* 



ning up here, I mean 
e pictures of these particles that 



This is Friendship Seven. I believe so. I have Foxtrc 

Golf coming up, at 03 00 39. Is that affirm'' 
Standby one. 

This is Friendship Seven. I'm trying to get s 

are outside here. Over. 
Friendship Seven, that time we have for Golf is 03 00 39. Over. 
Roger. 

Friendship Seven, this in Canton. We also have no indication that your landing 

bag might be deployed. Over. 
Roger. Did someone report landing bag could be down? Over. 
Negative, we had a request to monitor this and to ask you if you heard any flapping, 

when you had high capsule rates .... 
Negative. 



. this 



Ove 



Well, I think they probably thought these particles I saw might have come from 
that, but these are, there there are thousands of these things, and they go out 
for, it looks like miles in each direction from me and they move by here very 
slowly. I saw them at the same spot on the first orbit. Over 

Roger. 

Friendship Seven, what control mode are you in presently? 

This is Friendship Seven. I am in manual. While on the dark side, I aligned 
myself with the horizon, when up to 0 0 0, and caged the gyros and uncaged 
again. Over. 

Roger, Friendship Seven. Will be losing contact any minute now, you have 
reentry checks to make and approximately 10 minutes, until California contact 
Over. 

Roger, Friendship Seven. 

HAWAII (SECOND ORBIT) 
Friendship Seven, this is Hawaii Com Tech on UHF and HF. How do you read? 
Say again, Com Tech, what station? 

Friendship Seven, Hawaii Com Tech on UHF and HF. How do you read? Over. 
Hello Hawaii. Loud and clear; how me? Over. 

Hello Hawaii. Friendship Seven. Loud and clear; how me? Over. 

Friendship Seven, this is Hawaii Cap Com. I read you loud and clear. What is 

your status report? Over. 
Roger, Friendship Seven, ah. 
He has contact, we're putting air-to-ground on. 

This is Friendship Seven. Fuel 62-74 [percent], oxygen 64-98 [percent], amps 23. 

Roger, Friendship Seven. The first part of your transmission was broken up; 

could you say again, fuel? 
Roger, fuel 62-74 [percent]. Over. 

Roger. Read 62-74 [percent], Friendship Seven. Cape would like to know if 

you have made the visual check on the gyros yet? 
This is affirmative. During the dark side I went to 0 0 0 as best I could and 

caged and uncaged the gyros. I'm rechecking this at present time. Over. 



174 



HAWAII (SECOND ORBIT)— Continued 



02 50 26 3. 7 CC Roger. I'll stand by until you complete your checks and we'd like to get the 
results. 

02 50 30 1.0 P Roger, Friendship Seven. 

02 50 52 4. 2 P Hawaii, this is Friendship Seven. Are we getting scanner ignore? Over. 

02 50 58 4- 7 CC There are no ignore indications on the ground as of now, Friendship Seven. Hawaii. 
Over. 

02 51 04 8. 5 P Roger. This is Friendship Seven. When I aligned in, standby one. 

02 51 53 11. 2 P This is Friendship Seven. Roll appears to be about 20° off. At present time, 

I am indicating 20° right roll when I am lined up perfectly with the horizon. 

Over. 



02 52 


06 


7. 0 


CC 


Roger, Friendship Seven. Understand you still have a 20° error in your attitude 










indication after caging the gyros. 


02 52 


13 


8. 8 


P 


This is Friendship Seven. That's affirmative. It's drifted off again. It was 








correct at that time ; it apparently has drifted off. It's about 20° off in roll. 


02 52 


25 


4. 1 


CC 


Friendship Seven, could you give us a readout on all three axes; we'd like to com- 










pare ground readouts. 


02 52 


29 


7. 6 


P 


Roger, Friendship Seven. Roll indicates 19 [degrees] right, yaw, 2 [degrees] left, 










pitch —22 [degrees]. Over. 


02 52 


38 


1. 8 


CC 


Roger, Friendship Seven. Read you loud and clear. 


02 52 50 


3. 7 


P 


Friendship Seven, Hawaii Cap Com. Can you estimate the drift rates you are 










getting? 


02 52 


54 


10. 0 


p 


This is Friendship Seven. Drift rates are very difficult to pick up for some reason. 










I have not been able to get real accurate drift rates. I feel that .... 


02 53 06 


4. 3 


CC 


Do you still consider yourself GO for the next orbit? 


02 53 


10 


2. 4 


p 


That is affirmative, I am GO for the next orbit. 


02 53 


13 


2. 4 


CC 


Roger, I understand. At present time ground concurs. 


02 53 


16 


. 4 


p 


Roger. 


02 53 


24 


3. 9 


CC 


Could you, could you give me a readout on exhaust temperature, please? 


02 53 


28 


3. 2 


p 


Friendship Seven. Roger. Exhaust temperature, 47 [degrees]- 


02 53 


36 


3. 0 


CC 


Friendship Seven, Hawaii Cap Com. Could you read exhaust temperature please? 


02 53 


40 


1. 9 


p 


Roger. Exhaust temperature 47 [degrees]. 


02 53 


42 


1. 6 


CC 


Roger. Understand 47 [degrees]. 


02 53 


46 


3. 4 


CC 


Surgeon requests a blood pressure readout if convenient at this time. 


02 53 


51 


. 6 


p 


Roger 47 [degrees]. 


02 53 


55 


6. 4 


p 


Correction, Roger, blood pressure, 47 [degrees] on steam temp, blood pressure on. 


02 54 


24 


9. 8 


p 


This is Friendship Seven. I have a pretty good run here on, on yaw check. I 








believe my yaw is pretty accurate. Roll is off by about 20° to the right at 










present time. 


02 54 


35 


5. 9 


CC 


Roger, Friendship Seven. Roll is off by 20° to the right; yaw looks pretty good. 










Hawaii. Over. 


02 54 


42 


. 7 


p 


That's affirmative. 


02 54 


55 


5. 7 


CC 


Friendship Seven, Hawaii Cap Com. MCC confirms that they are GO at the 










present time for third orbit. 


02 55 


01 


0. 9 


p 


Roger. Friendship Seven. 


02 55 


14 


2. 1 


CC 


Friendship Seven, Hawaii Cap Com. Do you read? Over. 


02 55 


16 


2. 1 


p 


Roger, Hawaii. Loud and clear, how me? 


02 56 


05 


1. 2 


CC 


Are you ready to copy? 


02 56 


08 


1. 4 


p 


Friendship Seven. Go ahead. 


02 56 


31 


13. 5 


p 


This is Friendship Seven. I have a better alignment now on the day side, I be- 










lieve, on these, on the attitude. I will probably cage and uncage gyros again. 
Over. 










CALIFORNIA (SECOND ORBIT) 


02 56 


58 


5. 7 


CT 


Friendship Seven, Friendship Seven, this is California Com Tech, California Com 



Tech. Do you read? Over. 
02 57 05 3. 6 P Roger, California Com Tech. Read you loud and clear. How me? Over. 

02 57 16 3. 3 P Hello, California Com Tech. Friendship Seven. How me? Over. 

02 57 23 5. 9 CT Friendship Seven, Friendship Seven, this is California Com Tech, California Com 

Tech. Do you read? Over. 
02 57 30 3. 3 P Roger, California Com Tech. Friendship Seven. How me? Over. 

02 57 48 5. 7 CT Friendship Seven, Friendship Seven, this is California Com Tech, California Com 
Tech. Do you read? Over. 

175 



CALIFORNIA (SECOND ORBIT) — Continued 

02 57 54 3. 6 P Hello, California Com Tech. Friendship Seven. Loud and clear; how me? 

02 58 14 6. 2 CT Friendship Seven, Friendship Seven, this is California Com Tech, California Com 

Tech. Do you read? Over. 
02 58 21 3. 5 P Hello, California Com Tech. Friendship Seven. Loud and clear; how me? 

02 58 25 3. 6 CC Friendship Seven, California Cap Com. Read you loud and clear, John. 
02 58 32 3. 5 P Say again. You came in garbled that time. This is Friendship Seven. 

02 58 36 4. 8 CC Friendship Seven, this is California Cap Com. We read you loud and clear- how 

me? 

02 58 41 36. 4 P Roger. Receiving you much better now, Wally. Very good. Fuel is 62-62 

[percent], oxygen 62-95 [percent], amps are 25. All systems are still go. I have 
had some erratic ASCS operation. I caged and uncaged on the night side and it 
appears to be working fairly well now although I was drifting again in roll a 
moment ago. It appears to have corrected itself in roll, however, without me 
caging again now. Over. 
02 59 17 11.8 CC Good, John. We have a go all the way on this. I'd like to give y 

temperatures. Your fans are 215 [degrees], your ASCS 198 [degrees], 
t going to do anything about them. Looks real g 



02 59 23 


0. 6 


P 


Okay, fine. 


02 59 26 


4. 3 


CC 


Will you give me your attitudes and we'll check those with ground. 


02 59 31 


10. 6 


P 


Roger. I'll go back into orbit attitude, drifting toward it at present time Do 
you have TM solid now? Over. 


02 59 42 


. 7 


CC 


Good here. 


02 59 43 


6. 2 


P 


Roger. Roll is 5 [degrees] left, yaw 3 [degrees] right, pitch - 32 [degrees], right now. 


02 59 51 


1. 0 


CC 


Roger, have your readings. 


03 00 10 


4. 3 


CC 


John, we check almost right on the button with your attitudes within 2°. 


03 00 14 


5. 9 


p 


Roger. I appear to have a little bit of drift in the scope yet though. 


03 00 19 


2. 3 


CC 


Roger. You probably don't have a good reference yet, do you? 


03 00 22 


9. 8 


p 


It's rather, it's more difficult to pick up drift than I thought it would be. Your 
best drift really is to look out the window and try and get something moving 
away from you out the window. 


03 00 36 


. 9 


CC 


Roger, I've got you there. 


03 00 43 


5. 4 


CC 


You understand that your capsule elapsed time is running about a second slow- 
compared to GET. 


03 00 51 


4. 0 


p 


No, I did not; I was not aware of that on the elapsed time. 


03 00 56 


6. 3 


CC 


Roger. This will affect your sequence time. I'll give you 3 Alpha if you're ready 
to copy. 


03 01 03 


1.0 


p 


Standby. 


03 01 11 


1. 7 


p 


Roger, ready to copy 3 Alpha. 


03 01 13 


7. 8 


CC 


Roger. 3 Alpha corrected for the second error will be 03 plus 11 plus 26. Over. 


03 01 22 


2. 5 


p 


Roger, 03 11 26. 


03 01 35 


4. 8 


CC 


You have your end-of-orbit time, and that has not changed and I believe you have 
Area Golf also. 


03 01 41 


9. 4 


p 


That's affirmative. I have Golf at 03 plus 00 plus 39 and Hotel at 04 plus 32 plus 40. 


03 01 51 


7. 2 


CC 


That is correct. You can correet your Area Golf by subtracting one second and 
subtract one second from Hotel. 


03 01 59 


6. 4 


p 


Roger. Understand for my retrosequence for end-of-mission is 04 plus 32 plus 39. 
Is that affirm? 


03 02 06 




CC 


Negative. That should be 04 plus 32 plus 38. 


03 02 10 


6.3 


p 


Plus 38. Roger. Does Cape want me to set that into clock at present time? Over. 


03 02 17 


3. 1 


CC 


Negative, we have not had those instructions. I'll have Arnie check for you. 


03 02 20 


5. 7 


p 


Roger. I am still operating on prelaunch time of 04 plus 32 plus 28. Over. 


03 02 27 


. 3 


CC 


Understand. 


03 02 33 


4. 8 


p 


This is Friendship Seven. Coming across the Gulf of Lower California at present 
time in the scope. 


03 02 40 


. 3 


CC 


Roger. 


03 02 44 


3. 7 


CC 


John, for your information, the clocks will be set over Canaveral. 


03 02 49 


6. 2 


p 


Roger, understand clocks will be set by command, is that affirm, or do they want. . . 


03 02 56 


5. 4 


CC 


That is negative. They, on contact with Al, they will have you change the clock. 


03 03 01 


1. 7 


p 


Roger, understand. Friendship Seven. 


03 03 04 


6. 3 


CC 


For your information your 0 2 is holding. It seems to be working: it's reading about 



176 



03 04 22 

03 04 27 
03 04 33 
03 04 37 
03 04 40 
03 04 51 
03 04 54 
03 04 57 

03 05 02 



03 05 15 
03 05 20 
03 05 54 

03 06 14 
03 06 24 
03 07 01 



03 07 03 
03 07 05 
03 07 09 



03 07 28 

03 07 42 
03 07 47 
03 07 54 
03 08 00 



03 0 



11 



CALIFORNIA (SECOND ORBIT) — Continued 

Roger, Friendship Seven. Cabin temperature is holding steady at about 90 
[degrees]. I still have excess cabin water light on and my, I have the cabin 
water turned almost completely off at present time. 





03 25 


3. 4 


CC 


Roger, it sounds like it's working out all right anyway. 


03 


03 28 


3. 5 


P 


Roger, it's doing okay. We'll make one more orbit okay. 


03 


03 32 


3. 3 


CC 


I assume you are still on manual proportional; is that correct? 


03 


03 35 


1. 7 


P 


That's affirmative, I'm still on manual. 


03 
03 


03 40 


3. 0 


CC 


Friendship Seven, Guaymas Cap Com reads you loud and clear. Over. 


03 44 


2. 2 


p 


Roger, Guaymas. Read you loud and clear, also. 


03 
03 


03 54 


2. 9 


CC 


John, the Aeromeds are real happy with you; you look real good up there. 


03 57 


3. 7 


p 


All right, fine, glad everything is working out. I feel real good, Wally. No 



problems at all. 

TEXAS (SECOND ORBIT) 

Friendship Seven, Friendship Seven, thi 
Over. 

Hello, Texas, this is Friendship Seven. 
Over. 

Roger, reading you five square on HF. Let's 1 
This is Friendship Seven, I'm on UHF. Over. 
Roger, Friendship Seven, Roger. Standby for Cap Com. 

This is Texas Cap Com, Friendship Seven. Do you read? 
Roger, Texas Cap Com. Loud and clear. How me? 

Loud and clear. We have no queries down here. Continue with your observa- 



is Texas Com Tech. Do 
Read you loud and clear. 
UHF. Over. 



This is Friendship Seven. Systi 
tities again. There's no need to w 



s all operating normally. I gave my 



r El Paso in good shape. Could see 



e time on those. 

down to about 60° to make observation. Over. 
Roger, we confirm down here on the TM. Over. 
Roger. 

This is Friendship Seven. Just passed ov 
town through some of the clouds.. Over. 
Friendship Seven, flying over complete cloud deck at present time. 
I'm pitching down to 60° at present time. Orbit attitude in roll and yaw. 
This is ... . 

CANAVERAL (THIRD ORBIT) 

Canaveral Com Tech. How do you copy? Over. 

Hello, Canaveral Com Tech. Friendship Seven. Loud and clear; how me? 
Roger, Friendship Seven. This is Canaveral Com Tech. Copy you loud and clear, 

also. Standby for Cap Com please. 
Roger. 

Hello, Cap Com. Friendship Seven. Fuel i 

[percent]; amps 23. Over. 
Friendship Seven, reading you loud and clear. 

03 22 26. Over. 
Roger, 03 22 26, for 3 Bravo. Is that affirm? 
... 3 Charlie 03 40 18. Over. 
Roger, 03 40 18 for 3 Charlie. 

That is correct. At this time change your retro setting n 



s 62-60 [percent]; oxygen is 62-95 
I'll give you the 3 Bravo Time, 



a 04 32 38. 



Ove 



Roger, 04 plus 32 plus 38. 

Roger, retrograde time is reset to 04 plus 32 plus 38. Over. 

Roger, Seven. We recommend for the third orbit that you use gyros as you desire 
either normal or free so that in the event prior to retrofire on the third orbit that 
the scanners and ASCS do not program properly you may use your gyros in the 
free position for attitude reference. Over. 



177 



03 


08 08 


22. o 


P 


Roger. This is Friendship Seven. I have a fair, pretty good line-up now on 










the gyros, I believe. The check that I made on the night side was okav but 










they drifted off again, apparently rather rapidly in fact. I got another check 










on it and they seem to have corrected back pretty good now. I did not have 










to cage them again. Over. 










Roger, Seven, we understand. The only problem is that you may not have enough 










light time prior to retrofire. 


03 


09 30 


6 


P 


Rogei. 


03 


00 31 


5. 1 


CC 


Let the gyros work in the free position if you desire. Over. 


03 


09 3/ 


1. 0 


P 


Roger. Friendship Seven, 


03 


09 39 


7. 9 


CC 


Also, Seven, we recommend that you allow the capsule to drift on manual eontiol 










in order to conserve fuel. Over. 


03 


09 48 


1. 2 


p 


Roger. Friendship Seven. 






2 5 


p° 


Seven, this is Cape. Standby for Z Cal. 


03 


09 58 








03 


10 08 


" 2 


CC 


R Cal. 


03 


10 20 


. 3 


CC 


Cal off. 


03 


10 21 


. 6 


p 












BERMUDA (THIRD ORBIT) 


03 


10 30 


f 


CC 


Friendship Seven, this Bermuda Cap Com. We read you loud and clear. 


03 




2. 3 


p 


Roger, Bermuda. Hear you loud and clear also. 










Seven, this is Cape. Over. 


03 


10 38 




p 


Go ahead, Cape. 






6. 7 


CC 


Correct your 3 Bravo time to 03 22 22. Over. 


m 


in ar 




J, 


Roger, 03 22 22 for 3 Bravo. 




in 


3 Q 




Well, Seven, I'm having trouble, the seconds should be 32. Over. 


03 


10 57 


l 


p 


Roger, 03 22 32. 




02 






Good Show. 


03 


11 04 


2. 9 


p 


Roger. Roger. 


03 


11 11 


2. 2 


p 


Hello Bermuda. Friendship Seven, It's over to you. Over. 


03 


11 14 


3. 4 


CC 


Roger, Friendship Seven. We have nothing for you, you're in good shape. 


03 


11 18 


4. 7 


p 


Roger, this is Friendship Seven. I have the Cape in sight down there. It looks 










real fine from up here. 


03 


11 24 


. 9 


CC 


Rog. Rog. 






' 2 


p 


As you know. 


03 


11 29 






Yea, verily, Sonny. 


03 


11 3" 


6 3 




This is Friendship Seven, Flor-, I can see the whole state of Florida just laid out 










like on a map. Beautiful. 








CC 


Very good. 


n 


12 3^ 






Even from this position out here, I can still see clear back to the Mississippi Delta. 


03 




" 8 


p 


This is Friendship Seven, checking down in Area Hotel on the weather and it looks 










good down that way. Looks like we'll have no problem on recovery, 




41 


1. 6 


CC 


Very good. We'll see you in Grand Turk. 


03 


12 43 


. 6 


p 


Yes, Sir. 


03 


12 48 


10. 5 


p 


In fact, I can see clear down, see all the islands clear down that whole chain from 










up here, ... I can see way beyond them and area Hotel looks excellent for 










recovery. 






1. 4 


CC 


Friendship Seven, Bermuda Cap Com. 






1. 0 


p 


Go ahead, Bermuda. 






4. 3 




Cape recommends that you reenter on ASCS with manual for backup. 




■ 


4. o 


T> 


Roger, this is Friendship Seven. Understand recommend ASCS with manual 










backup. 


03 


13 29 


' ' ' 




This, this operation of ASCS has been very erratic. I have not been able to pin 










it down to any particular, one particular item. It went off one direction in yaw 










at one time; it went off the other the next time. I felt for a little while that 










pitch was drifting. It seemed to have a little stuck thrust in pitch at one time 










and I have to keep correcting that and that corrected itself and then I was off 










in roll just after I came off the dark side this time. Over. 


03 


14 00 


3. 3 


CC 


Roger, understand I have all that down. Could vou give us a blood pressure 


03 


14 03 


1. 2 


p 


please? 
Roger. Standby. 


03 


14 33 


4. 2 


CC 


Friendship Seven, can you give me both your primary and secondary oxygen? 



178 



BERMUDA (THIRD ORBIT) — Continued 



03 14 38 


5. 4 


P 


Roger, primary oxygen is [percent], secon ary is [percen 


03 14 45 


. 4 


CC 




03 15 18 


5. 7 


P 


. CT ' F . , j, i e tti n it drift a little bit to the ri ht here to look 
This is i nends lp even. m e mg l n a e 








up north. 


03 15 30 


1. 4 




G^Th^ad P B^rrnud^ ermUda 


03 15 32 


• 8 


T> 




03 15 34 


8. 4 




Your fans inverter temperature is 205 [degrees] and your ASCS temperature is 








195 [degrees]. 


03 15 44 


2. 3 




Roger, sounds real good, Gus, fine. 


03 15 47 


. 9 


CC 


You re in good shape. 


03 15 48 


. 4 


p 


R °. Be j h - nt to o to HF now' 


03 16 18 


3. 3 


CC 


Fnen s p ^ v ™> y° u wan ° g0 ° now " 


03 16 22 


1. 8 


P 


Roger, Friends p even oing o . ^ 


03 16 37 


2. 5 


CC 


Friendship Seven, Bermu a ap om. ow o you rea on 


03 16 41 


1. 9 


p 


Bermuda, Friendship Seven. Loud and clear; how met 


03 16 44 


3. 2 


cc 


You're weak but readable, John. 


03 16 48 


, 5 


p 


Roger. 


03 17 08 


2. 9 


cc 


Friendship Seven, Bermuda we have lost TM contact. 


03 17 11 


1. 5 


p 


Roger, understand LOS. 


03 17 43 


3. 5 






03 18 02 


2. 4 


cc 


Friendship Seven, Bermuda Cap Com. Are you still in contact? 


03 18 05 


6. 9 


p 


Roger, this is Friendship Seven. I'm around at the 180 [degree] point. I'm 








03 18 18 


3. 0 


cc 


Friendship Seven, Bermuda Cap Com. We do not read you. 


03 18 22 


1. 0 


p 


Roger, Bermuda. 








CANARY (THIRD ORBIT) 


03 20 28 


4. 8 


CT 


. Com Tech CYI Com Tech Do 
Friendship » ev en, nen s p even, is is om , 








you read? Over. 


03 20 34 


4. 6 


P 


Hello, Canary Com Tech. On HF; how do you receive me? Loud and clear from 








you. Over. 


03 20 41 


3. 5 


CT 


Friendship Seven, this is CYI Com Tech. Do you read? Over. 


03 20 46 


1.0 


P 


Roger, Canary. 


03 20 49 


4. 7 


CT 


Rog, Roger. Read you 5 by, read you 5 by, here in the Canaries. Over. 


03 20 54 


3. 9 


P 


Roger, Friendship Seven. I read you loud and clear on HF, also. 


03 21 01 


4. 1 


CC 


Friendship Seven, Friendship Seven, this is Canary Cap Com. I read you loud and 








clear. 


03 21 07 


2. 2 


P 


Roger, Canary. Loud and clear here also. 


03 21 13 


2. 0 




Would you give me a brief station r ^P°^ ^rcentl Oxygen is 62-94 [percent] 


03 21 16 


13. 1 


P 


This is friendship heven. ue is . LP r , , 








amps 24. Over. 


03 21 30 


5. 9 


CC 


Understand that auto fuel is 63 [percent] and manual fuel is 94 [percent]. Over. 


03 21 36 


3. 7 




Negative. Manual fuel is 54 [percent], 54 [percent], uver. 


03 21 41 


0. 6 


CC 


54 [percent]. Over. 


03 21 49 


3. 7 


P 


Canary, did you get manual fuel at 54 [percent] fiver four? Over, 


03 21 54 


2. 0 


cc 


Roger. Manual fuel at 54 [percent]. 


03 22 02 


2, 7 


cc 


Friendship Seven, this is Canary Cap Com. How do you feel? 


03 22 06 


4.0 


P 


This is Friendship Seven. I feel fine; no effects whatsoever, none. 


03 22 12 


4. 5 


cc 


Friendship Seven. Are you still seeing the particles around your capsule? 


03 22 17 


23. 0 


p 


Negative. I don't seem to see them around here on this side. I saw a few, just 




a few just after I left Canaveral and turned around facing forward. They were 








coming toward me at that time. I was going, so I know that they were not 








coming from the capsule at all. I saw the particles in huge quantities at each 








sunrise so far. Over. 


03 22 42 


1. 1 


cc 


Say again, Friendship Seven. 


03 22 44 






The particles I saw were mainly at sunrise each time around. Over. 


03 22 51 


3. 6 


cc 


I understand. What control mode are you on? 


03 22 55 


2. 9 


p 


This is Friendship Seven. I am in manual. Over. 


03 22 59 




cc 


Roger. Understand. 


03 23 14 


4. 8 


cc 


Friendship Seven, this is Canary Cap Com. The Aeromed wants to talk to you. 



Over. 



179 



CANARY (THIRD ORBIT) — Continued 



03 23 


17 


1. 4 


P 


Roger. Go ahead, Aeromed. 


03 23 


19 


6. 1 


S 


This is Canary surgeon. Are you having any nausea, or have you experienced 












03 23 


25 


5. 0 


P 


This is Friendship Seven. Negative. I have fe!t perfectly normal during the 










whole flight. I feel fine. Over. 


03 23 


32 


2. 3 


s 


Very good. Back 1o Cap Com. 


03 23 


41 


3. 5 


cc 


Friendship Seven, Friendship Seven, do you want your inverter temperatures at 
this time? 


03 23 


45 


1. 9 


p 


Roger. This is Friendship Seven. Go ahead. 


03 23 


51 


2. 0 


cc 


Roger. We're turning you over to Canary Systems. 


03 23 


54 


2. 6 


SY 


Friendship Seven, this is Canary Systems. How do you read? 


03 23 


57 


1. 5 


P 


Go ahead, Canary Systems, go ahead. 


03 24 


00 


17. 9 


SY 


The systems on the ground look fairly normal at this time. The temperatures are 










a little bit on the high side but there's nothing critical showing up. The latest 










reports show that the inverters are about 200 [degrees] and 210 [degrees] ; this does 










not seem to be critical. They should be holding at this level. Do you understand? 










Roger. Friendship Seven. 


03 24 


21 


5. 9 


SY 


All other systems are as you reported to me. 










ATLANTIC OCEAN SHIP (THIRD ORBIT) 


03 24 


43 


7.2 


CT 


Friendship Seven, Friendship Seven, this is Atlantic Ship Cap, Com Tech. How do 












03 24 


51 


3. 6 


P 


Hello, Atlantic Cap Com. Read you loud and clear. How me? Over. 


03 24 


55 


6. 5 


CT 


Friendship Seven, Friendship Seven, this is Atlantic Ship Com Tech. We read you 










weak but broken, weak but broken. 


03 25 


01 


10. 3 


P 


Roger. Friendship Seven. Fuel 64-54 [percent], oxygen 62-94 [percent], amps 23 
Over. 


03 25 


21 


4. 0 


P 


Hello, Atlantic Ship. Atlantic Cap Com. Friendship Seven, do you receive? Over. 


03 25 


34 


9. 0 


CC 


Friendship Seven, this is ATS Cap Com. How do you read me? Over. And what 










mode are you on for communications? Over. 


03 25 


43 


8. 3 


P 


This is Friendship Seven. I'm on HF at present time, on HF. I'll shift to UHF — 










is, if you're in solid contact. Over. 


03 25 


52 


6. 9 


CC 


Roger, Friendship Seven. We have TM contact, we have TM contact. Switch to 










UHF please. 


03 26 


00 


1. 4 


P 


Roger, switching to UHF. 


03 26 


12 


1. 8 


p 


Atlantic Ship, this is Friendship Seven. Over. 


03 26 


24 


1. 6 


p 


Hello, Atlantic Ship. Friendship Seven. Over. 


03 26 


29 


5. 5 


CC 


Friendship Seven, this is ATS Cap Com. Read only the last part of your trans- 










mission. Say again, please. 


03 26 


35 


31. 7 


p 


Atlantic Ship, This is Friendship Seven. Wish you would pass to Cape. I let 










the capsule drift around to the 180° position and I am having to reorient at 










present time. When I am all lined with the horizon and the periscope, my 










attitude indications now are way off. My roll indicates 30° right; my yaw- 










indicates 35 [degrees] right; and pitch indicates plus 40 [degrees]; I repeat plus 










40 [degrees] when I am in orbit attitude. Over. 


03 27 


11 


0. 8 


p 


Did you receive? 


03 27 


12 


15. 8 


CC 


Roger, Friendship Seven. I read you a little broken. You have discrepancies in 










attitudes of 30° right in roll, 35 [degrees] right in yaw and plus 40 [degrees] in 










pitch. Confirm, please. Over. 


03 27 


28 


9. 8 


p 


That is affirmative. I am realigning the capsule at present time and will cage 










and uncage the gyros before I go on the dark side. Over. 


03 27 


39 


2. 3 


CC 


Roger. We will standby. 


03 28 


58 


2. 5 


p 


This is Friendship Seven, ATS. Do you receive? 


03 29 


04 


3. 2 


CC 


Roger, Friendship Seven. Reading you loud and clear. Over. 


03 29 


07 


4. 5 


p 


This is Friendship Seven, in orbit attitude present time, caging gyros. 


03 29 


13 


0. 5 


cc 


Rog. 


03 29 


17 




p 


Gyros to cage, ready now. 


03 30 


09 




p 


This is Friendship Seven. Gyros are back on normal, going back to orbit attitude 










and will try ASCS. Over. 


03 30 




1. 6 


cc 


Roger. Standing by. 


03 30 57 


5. 0 


p 


Friendship Seven. Going to ASCS. Ready-now. 



180 



03 31 05 


3. 3 


CC 


03 31 09 


1. 1 


P 


03 31 15 


3. 9 


CC 


03 31 20 


2. 3 


P 


03 31 23 


10. 9 


CT 






CT 


03 32 04 




p 


03 32 10 


7. 9 


CT 


03 32 24 


17. 3 


P 


03 32 44 


9.9 


CC 






(ATS) 


03 32 54 


41. 6 


P 


03 33 44 


3 4 


CC 






(ATS) 


03 34 14 


2. 5 


P 


03 35 58 


3. 0 


P 


03 36 09 


6. 7 


CT 


03 36 49 


18. 6 


P 


03 37 32 






03 38 05 


1. 7 


P 


03 38 29 






03 39 21 


10. 3 


P 


03 39 41 


18. 1 


P 


03 40 06 


3. 2 


P 


03 40 36 


7. 4 


CT 


03 40 44 


4. 7 


P 


03 40 50 


4. 2 


CC 


03 40 58 






03 41 02 


16. 8 


P 


03 41 20 


7. 3 


CC 


03 41 28 


1. 3 


P 


03 41 32 


18. 5 


P 



ATLANTIC OCEAN SHIP (THIRD ORBIT)— Continued 

Friendship Seven, this is ATS Cap Com. Do you read me? Over. 
Roger, ATS. 

Friendship Seven, you are getting weak, you are getting weak. Over. 
This is Friendship Seven. Did not read you, ATS. 

ZANZIBAR (THIRD ORBIT) 
Friendship Seven, this is Zanzibar Com Tech, transmitting on HF UHF. 
Friendship Seven, Friendship Seven, this is Zanzibar Com T' eh, transmitting 

on HF UHF. Do you read? Over. 
Hello, Zanzibar Com Tech. Zanzibar Com Tech, Friendship Seven. Receive 

you weak but readable. How me? Over. 
Friendship Seven, Friendship Seven, this is Zanzibar Com Tech transmitting 
HF UHF. You're weak and garbled, weak and garbled. Do not copy. Over. 
Roger, Friendship Seven. I receive you rather garbled, also. My condition 
is good. Fuel 5, correction, fuel 64-48 [percent]; oxygen 52-92 [percent]. Over. 
Friendship Seven, this is ATS Cap Com. I'm reading you very clear, very clear. 
Could you give me the reason for the errors in your attitudes, please? 
This is Friendship Seven. That's a good question. I wish I knew, too. These 
errors have been off and on all during the flight. I have caged and recaged the 
gyros, caged and uncaged the gyros. I'm back in orbit attitude now but it is 
not, the attitude indicators are showing orbit attitude but it's not. By looking 
out at the horizon, I am about 20° right in roll and 20° too much on pitch down. 
I' m down to about probably 55° down in pitch by visual observation and about 
20° right in roll. Yaw appears to be holding okay now. Over. 
Friendship Seven, ATS Cap Com. 

Atlantic Ship, this is Friendship Seven. Over. 
This is Friendship Seven, approaching sunset. 

Friendship Seven, Friendship Seven, this is Zanzibar Com Tech transmitting on 

HF UHF. Please acknowledge on HF. Over. 
This is Friendship Seven recording. A lot of dirt on the windows from the retrofire 
and lot of stuff on here looks like, ah, we might have smashed some bugs even 
on the way up off the pad. Looks like blood on the outside of the window, 
maybe. It makes it real, very difficult to observe anything when they get around 
on the sun side. 

Friendship Seven. The sun is going down again now. Coming off automatic in 

yaw, and yawing a little bit to the left to observe it. 
Mark, the sun is down. 

And can see little or nothing of zodiacal light at the moment. 

This is Friendship Seven, flying with yaw handle pulled. Controlling on manual 

The way the horizon looks is a very orange band. Just as the sun goes down and 
extends way off either side, probably 45° each side of the sun, comes up into a 
lighter yellow, then a very deep blue, then a very light blue, on up to the black 
of the sky. 

Once again I can see lightning flashing under me, very clearly. 
Friendship Seven, Friendship Seven, this is Zanzibar Com Tech, transmitting on 

HF UHF. Please acknowledge on HF. Over. 
Hello, Zanzibar Com Tech. Friendship Seven on HF. Do you receive me now. 

Friendship Seven, this is Zanzibar Cap Com reading you weak but garbled. 
Roger. Understand reading me weak and garbled. 

This is Friendship Seven. I took the capsule off of automatic in yaw only to go 
left to look at the sunset. It's back on automatic at present time in all three 
axes; I'm backing it up with manual. Over. 
Roger, Friendship Seven, understand you're in automatic control in all three axes, 

backing up with manual. Is this affirmative. Over. 
That is affirmative. 

There's quite a big storm area under me. It must extend for, I see lightning flashes, 
as far, way off on the horizon to the right, I also have them almost directly 
under me here. They show up very brilliantly here on the dark side at night. 
They're just like firecrackers going off. Over. 

181 



ZANZIBAR (THIRD ORBIT) — Continued 

03 41 59 4. 6 P Zanzibar, this is Friendship Seven. Did you get mv fuels when I reported them'' 

Over, 

03 42 05 1. 6 CC Repeat your last transmission. Over. 

03 42 07 13. 2 P Roger. This is Friendship Seven. Fuel is 60-55 [percent], oxygen is 60-92 

[percent], Amps are 22. Over. 
03 42 28 5. 5 P This is Friendship Seven. All voltages are 2.5, or above. Over. 

03 42 53 12.3 P This is Friendship Seven at 3 plus 42. We should be just about over Johannesburg, 

I cannot see anything of southern Africa on this pass. Over. 
03 43 06 2. 2 CC Zanzibar Cap Com. Do you read? Over. 
03 43 12 2. g P Roger, Zanzibar. I'm reading you weak but readable. 

03 43 46 16. 4 P Zanzibar Cap Com, Friendship Seven on HF. Can see long streaky clouds down 

below as we, going off to my right up into sort of a general weather pattern 
That's 3 plus 44. 

03 44 45 32. 1 P This is Friendship Seven. An observation on control system operation: It appears 

that whenever I go off on manual, or fly-by-wire and maneuver for any lengthy 
period of time, that somehow we induce considerably, considerable errors into the 
gyro system. I come up with all kinds of attitudes. That time for instance, 
when I yawed around 180°, and held for a little while, and came back again,' 
I had errors of 30° in roll, 35 [degrees] in yaw and plus 40 [degrees] in pitch. 

03 45 23 5. 9 P This is Friendship Seven, going on manual pitch. 

03 46 08 22. 5 P This is Friendship Seven. Several times I have felt that I had a partially stuck 

thruster or one that was just partly operating in pitch down and just then again 
I had a pitch up rate going and all at once I felt a down thrust and it pitched down 
on me. Again there, it repeated again that time, so I think I have a stuck pitch 
thruster o~~ 



INDIAN OCEAN SHIP (THIRD ORBIT) 
Friendship Seven, Friendship Seven, this is Indian Com Tech. How do v 



03 47 09 


2. 1 


P 


Hello, Indian Com Tech, Friendship Seven. Over. 


03 47 14 


8. 2 


CT 


Friendship Seven, this is Indian Com Tech. I read you very weak, very weak, 
very garbled. Am turning over to Cap Com on UHF. Over. 


03 47 23 


1. 3 


P 


Roger. Friendship Seven. 


03 47 30 


4. 5 


CC 


Friendship Seven, Friendship Seven, this is Indian Cap Com on UHF. Do vou 
read? Over. 


03 47 34 


2. 8 


P 


Roger, Indian Cap Com. I read you loud and clear. How me? 


03 47 39 


3. 6 


CC 


About 3 by 3. You're coming in stronger. Over. 


03 47 42 


10. 1 


p 


Roger. Friendship Seven. Fuel is 60-45 [percent], oxygen is 60-92 [percent], 
amps 23. Over. 


03 47 54 


2. 3 


CC 


Say again your oxygen. Over. 


03 47 58 




p 


Roger. Oxygen is 60-92 [percent]. Over. 


03 48 04 


1. 5 


CC 


Roger, understand. 


03 48 14 


4. 1 


CC 


Friendship Seven, this is Indian Cap Com. What is your control mode? Over. 


03 48 19 


12. 9 


p 


This is Friendship Seven. I'm on ASCS but it is operating very erratically. I'm 
backing it up with manual at the present time. I'm trying to get it set up so it 
will be in a decent ASCS attitude for retrofire. Over. 


03 48 33 


1. 4 


CC 


Roger, understand. 


03 48 36 


5. 8 


p 


This is Friendship Seven. I can control it manually. I'll back it up manually 
and take over if I need to. Over. 


03 48 42 


1. 3 


CC 


Roger, understand. 


03 48 51 


5. 2 


CC 


Friendship Seven, this is Indian Cap Com. I have your retrosequence times. 
Are you prepared to copy? Over. 


03 48 57 


2. 2 


p 


This is Friendship Seven. Standby one. 


03 49 00 


0. 7 


CC 


Standing by. 


03 49 25 


1. 2 


p 


Friendship Seven. Go ahead. 


03 49 27 


8. 2 


CC 


Roger. Area 3 Delta, Area 3 Delta is 4 hours, 12 minutes, 32 seconds. 


03 49 36 


0. 8 


p 


Roger. 


03 49 40 


4. 2 


p 


Area 3 Delta is 04 plus 12 plus 32. Is that affirm? 


03 49 45 


10. 2 


CC 


Affirmative. Area 3 Echo, Area 3 Echo is 4 hours, 22 minutes, 12 seconds. I sav 
again; 4 hours, 22 minutes, 12 seconds. Over. 


03 49 55 


4. 6 


p 


Roger. Area 3 Echo is 04 plus 22 plus 12. 



182 



INDIAN OCEAN SHIP (THIRD ORBIT) — Continued 
03 50 01 9. 9 CC Roger. Area Hotel is 4 hours, 32 minutes, 37 seconds. Say it again; 4 hours, 32 

minutes 37 seconds. Over. 

03 50 11 3-5 P Roger. 04 plus 32 plus 38. I have correction, plus 37 ; I have 38 set on my retro- 

sequence because of error in my clock of 1 second. Over. 

03 50 15 2. 7 CC That is affirmative. We assume you have an error in your clock. Over. 

03 50 20 9. 7 P One second error, that is affirm. Request you confirm with Cape that I have 04 

plus 32 plus 38 as correct retrograde time. Over. 

03 50 40 1. 2 CC Roger. That's affirmative. 

03 50 49 & 3 P This is Friendship Seven. The ASCS is drifting again. I'm indicating 25° right 

03 50 59 1. 0 CC Roger, understand. 

03 51 05 6. 6 P This is Friendship Seven. I have almost continuous cloud cover under me as far 

as I can see in every direction. Over. 
03 51 13 1. 2 CC Roger, understand. 

03 51 18 3. 5 CC Friendship Seven, this is Indian Cap Com. Surgeon would like to talk to you. 
Over. 

03 51 22 1. 6 P Roger. This is Friendship Seven. 

03 51 25 4. 6 S This is the surgeon here. Have you switched to secondary oxygen for any reason 

during this hop? Over. 

03 51 29 7. 6 P Negative. I don't quite understand the decrease in secondary either unless it's the 

bottles are beginning to cool down, but they shouldn't cool that much. 
03 51 38 3. 1 S We're reading 90 [percent] on the TM. How about you? 

03 51 41 1. 5 P I am reading 90 [percent] also. 

03 51 44 2. 5 S Somewhere about 65 [percent]. This is Indian Surgeon. Out. 

03 51 47 14.1 P Roger. This is Friendship Seven. This thing is slipping in and out of orientation 

mode and wasting fuel at present time. I'm just going to try and hold it on 
orbit attitude manually. Over. Or on-fly-by-wire. Over. 

03 52 02 2. 0 CC Roger. Manually by fly-by-wire. Over. 

03 52 04 0. 5 P Roger. 

03 52 18 7. 0 P This is Friendship Seven. Checking different control modes on fly-by-wire. I 

have no low thrust to the right. Over. 
03 52 27 2. 3 CC Roger, understand no low thrust to the right. 
03 52 29 0. 4 P Roger. 

03 52 32 3. 4 P I do have low thrust in all other axes. Over. 

03 52 37 1. 2 CC Roger, understand. 

03 53 04 3. 0 P This is Friendship Seven. Pitching up for star observation. 

03 53 10 1. 9 CC Roger. Report anything you see. Over. 
03 53 12 0. 8 P Roger. 

03 54 31 3. 8 CC Friendship Seven, this is Indian Cap Com. Are you able to see anything? Over. 

03 54 36 11. 7 P This is Friendship Seven. Affirmative. I have Orion right in the middle of the 

window at present time and makes a good one to hold attitude on. I have, I 

am using it as horizon reference at the moment. 

MUCHEA (THIRD ORBIT) 

03 55 05 3- 4 CT Friendship Seven, this is Muchea Com Tech. How do you read? Over. 
03 55 09 4.5 P Hello, Muchea Com Tech. Loud and clear. Standby one. I'm right in the middle 

of operation here. 

03 55 29 3. 9 CT Friendship Seven, Friendship Seven, Muchea Com Tech. Do you read? Over. 
03 55 45 3. 2 P Hello, Muchea Com Tech. Roger. Read you loud and clear. How me? 

03 55 59 3- 8 CT Friendship Seven, Friendship Seven, Muchea Com Tech. Do you read? Over. 
03 56 17 5. 3 P Hello, Muchea Com Tech, Muchea Com Tech. Roger. Friendship Seven. Loud 

and clear. How me? 
03 56 23 0. 8 CT Over. 

03 56 25 1. 5 P Roger. This is Friendship Seven. 

03 56 30 5. 6 CT Roger, Friendship Seven. I'm reading you 3 by 3 on HF. Over. Would you call 

03 56 37 3-7 P Roger, Friendship Seven, reading you loud and clear on HF. Over. 

03 56 52 4. 3 CT Friendship Seven, Friendship Seven, Muchea Com Tech, say again. 

03 56 58 3. 3 P Roger, Muchea Com Tech. Friendship Seven. Loud and clear. How me? 

03 57 11 3. 5 CT Friendship Seven, Friendship Seven, this is Muchea Com Tech. Do you read? 

03 57 15 3. 9 P Roger, Muchea Com Tech, Friendship Seven. Read you loud and clear. How me? 



183 



MUCHEA {THIRD ORBIT) — Continued 



03 57 20 


3. 7 


CC 


Roger, Friendship Seven. You are 3 by 3. Go ahead to Cap Com. 


03 57 24 


4. 0 


P 


Roger. Hello Cap Com, Friendship Seven. How are things going? 


03 57 36 


3. 3 


P 


Hello, Muchea Cap Com, Muchea Cap Com, Friendship Seven. Over. 


03 57 48 


2. 6 


P 


Hello, Muchea Cap Com, Muchea Cap Com. Over. 


03 57 53 


1. 2 


CC 


How me? Over. 


03 58 01 


2. 7 


CC 


Friendship Seven, Muchea Cap Com. How now? Over. 


03 58 04 


3. 6 


P 


Muchea Cap Com. Friendship Seven. Loud and clear. How me? 


03 58 09 


3. 8 


CC 


Roger. You are coming through rather weak. Do you want to switch to UHF? 








Over. 


03 58 13 


1. 7 


p 


Roger. Switching to UHF. 


03 58 24 


2. 8 


CC 


Friendship Seven, Muchea Cap Com, how do you read? Over. 


03 58 27 


2. 6 


p 


Roger, Muchea. Loud and clear, how me? Over. 


03 58 33 


3. 8 


p 


Hello, Muchea, Friendship Seven. Loud and clear, how me? Over. 


03 58 38 


3. 0 


CC 


Muchea Cap Com. Give us 30-minute report. 


03 58 43 


15. 1 


p 


Roger. This is Friendship Seven. 30-minute report: ASCS is major item, still 








not operating properly. I am on fly-by-wire at present time. I have no low thrust 








to the right fly-by- wire. Over. 


03 58 58 


3. 5 


CC 


Roger, understand no low right thruster on fly-by-wire. 


03 59 02 


2. 2 


p 


That is affirmative. Got it? 


03 59 06 


4. 8 


CC 


We would like to send you a Z and R Cal sometime during your 30-minute 








report .... 


03 59 11 


0. 9 


p 


Roger. Fine, 


03 59 13 


2. 8 


CC 


You want to start down the 30-minute report there? 


03 59 16 


3. 6 


p 


This is Friendship Seven. In 45 more seconds I would like to have you send a 








message for me, please. Over. 


03 59 23 


13, 9 


p 


I want you to send a message to the Director, to the Commandant, U.S. Marine 








Corps, Washington. Tell him I have my 4 hours required flight time in for the 








month and request flight chit be established for me. Over. 


03 59 39 


0. 9 


CC 


Roger. Will do. 


03 59 47 


1. 1 


CC 


Think they'll pay it? 


03 59 49 


3. 0 


p 


I don't know. Gonna find out. 


03 59 51 


3. 7 


CC 


Roger. Is this flying time or rocket time? 


03 59 53 


1. 4 


p 


Lighter than air, buddy. 


03 59 59 


0. 3 


CC 


Rog. 


04 00 03 


2. 3 


CC 


We're sending you a Z and R Cal, hear. 


04 00 07 


0. 5 


p 


Very well. 


04 00 09 


0. 8 


CC 


Coming now. 


04 00 11 


3. 4 


CC 


Are you going to start down on this procedure, or this 30-minute stuff? 


04 00 15 


36. 3 


p 


Yes, all the fuse switches are still in the same position, Gordo. I haven't changed 








any of those. Squib is armed, Auto Retrojettison is off, I am on fly-by-wire, 








auto, and gyro normal. All "T" handles are in. The sequence panel is normal 








except for Landing Bag in the off position. The attitude indicator has been 








rather erratic, they drift very rapidly sometimes. Especially when I maneuver 








myself and then come back onto ASCS. It seems they have been thrown way 








off at that time. 


04 00 51 


0. 4 


CC 


Roger. 


04 00 53 


10. 6 


p 


My retrograde time 04 plus 32 plus 38 for capsule time which corrects for 1 second 








error in this clock. 


04 01 09 


9. 3 


CC 


On that, MCC recommends you change that to 04 32 37 shortly after you get 








done with these others. 


04 01 14 


55. 6 


p 


Roger. Okay, cabin pressure is still holding at 5.5. It's been there ever since we 



left. 90 [percent] on cabin temp, relative humidity is back up again now to 
about 36 [percent], coolant quantity is down a little bit too, we may have had 
a small water leak some place since we have that much increase in humidity, 
cause it was down around 20 [percent]. Our coolant quantity, though, is down 
around 62 [percent] now. The suit temperature is 70 [degrees] inlet; cabin 
suit pressure is 5.8. Steam temperature is 4 point, is 48 [degrees]. Oxygen is 
60-90 [percent]. Amps are 24, ASCS is 11, about 115 now. Fan, is 110. Over. 
04 02 10 3. 2 CC Roger. All your switches outboard? 

04 02 13 7. 9 P That's affirmative. On the right side, everything is outboard except the fuel 

quantity warning light which is on. I have that switch inboard to cut the 

184 



MUCHEA (THIRD ORBIT)— Continued 



04 02 22 


6. 2 




, . he center off osition on the right are Retro Jettison 








h"^ + S ^M C ^ 8es ' n 6 ' 
and e ro anua . ver. 


04 02 29 


1. 7 


CC 


Roger. Comfort control settings r 


04 02 32 


2. 5 


p 


Control settings on the water? 


04 02 36 


0. 3 


CC 


Rog. 


04 02 44 


17. 4 


p 


Water on, on cabin temperature is setting number 2. Setting on the suit temp is 








beyond the 1.7 mark. I repeat, beyond the 1.7 mark which is the maximum 








setting. 


04 02 55 


4. 9 




S°jf r 'j (ion't^kmDw' 1 ' 1 I wantVo start linin^u^'iist aTTareMlv^^^an here in 


04 03 00 


11. 3 












e ' . n , h th r the scanners will Dick it up and correct it in so that 








a rmnu e an see w e er . p ^ 


04 03 12 


4. 8 


CC 


we have a good retro re at i u a ^ is no , jj * j 1 ^ ^ ™ Indian Oc n 
Roger Do you ave your ree og, asy, an o e lmes rom n lan cean 










04 03 17 






Y ^ I did I got these okay 


04 03 19 


15. 3 


CC 


And, now I gave you the recommended change in the retro clock to 04 32 37. 






On your retro, using ASCS, you'll be using high torque thrusters for retrofire 








mode there. What do you say about retroing by ASCS and backing up by 








y-by-wire. , tC rio u ■ v 


04 03 36 


6. 5 


p 


Well-well, you can t, you couldn t do it on A&Ub ana ny-by-wire. You mean on 


04 03 43 


4. 9 


CC 


manual. 

No, I meant you could go ASCS by fly-by-wire and back it up on manual pro- 








portional. 


04 03 48 






^T'll /t 'f 116 ^^SC^^b^k It^^to'mamijd ^Ifriot ^H^appears that the 
















ros are^ocked as they were a littlT while 1 ago then"!'!! just stay on manual 








retrofire, I think and let it go at that. 


04 04 07 


2. 9 


CC 


Are you in manual proportional or fly-by-wire now? 


04 04 10 






I'm in fly-by- wire now. 


04 04 21 


6. 4 


p 


This is Friendship Seven, I am going to as near orbit attitude as I can establish 








here on the dark side. 








WOOMERA (THIRD ORBIT) 


04 04 40 


4. 0 


CC 


„ Cm We have contact UHF and TM solid 
Friendship beven, oomera ap om. e ave con ac an so i 


04 04 44 


2. 3 


p 


Roger, Woomera, loud and clear. 


04 04 49 


8. 9 


p 


T^H iS w 2 45 ' per ^^' oxyger ^ iS ? 6< ^^ [P erce nt], amps 25. Over. 


04 05 06 


1. 5 


p 




04 05 08 


6. 4 


CC 


He o, ommera, you receive. r ^ er mmends th t if QU haven't ea ten that 
Roger, nen s lp even. urgeon recommen s a i you aven ea en a 








you eat in he near u ure^ 


04 05 18 


12. 3 


p 


This is Friendship seven ^ egative^ l ^no ea on a as roun ecause o , 








I was busy wit t e P ur fuel readirT Over 


04 05 30 


4. 1 




Fnen s lp even, e s ave your ue rea ings. ver. 


04 05 35 


1. 4 


p 


hay again, Woonera. 


04 05 38 


2, 1 




Let s have your fuel readings^ , V ^ eent , correct j on 52-45 [ ercent] over 


04 05 41 


6. 4 




oger. ue r l g ip , , • 


04 05 49 


3. 0 




Roger, ... empera ure. ver. 


04 05 55 




p 




04 05 58 


3. 9 


CC 


Friendship Seven, you are fading . . . temperature. Over. 


04 06 02 


4. 0 


p 


Roger, steam temperature is 49-49 [degrees]. Over. 


04 06 08 


1. 6 


CC 


Roger, Friendship ** ven - ^ ^ ^ 


04 06 10 


4. 3 


p 


This is friendship seven. urning more w a er on on a on , s l cnc i 








down a little more. 


04 07 30 


7. 6 


p 


This is Friendship Seven. I can notice a little crackling on fly-by-wire switches 








when I operate fly-by-wire; it comes in on the head set. 


04 13 41 


16 8 


p 


This is Friendship Seven. Turned around, yawed 180 [degrees] to see the sunrise 








here, and also to see these little, these little gadgets here that I don't know what 








they are. 


04 14 04 


7. 9 


p 


They do not seem to be coming from the capsule at all. There are too many of them. 








They're all spread out all over the place; it looks like they're some of them might 



be miles away. 

185 



CANTON (THIRD ORBIT) 



04 15 23 


5. 4 


CT 


This is Com Tech, Canton Com Tech. Do you read? Over. 


04 15 28 


3. 2 


P 


Go ahead, Canton. 


04 15 33 


5. 9 


CT 


Com Tech, Roger, read you loud and clear. Friendship Seven, this is Canton Com 








Tech, you are weak but readable. Standby for Cap Com. 


04 15 40 


0. 6 


P 


Roger. 


04 15 42 


2. 5 


CC 


This is Canton Cap Com. Over. 


04 15 45 


5. 9 


P 


Canton Cap Com, standby I'll give you a report in a minute here. I'm maneuver- 








ing back into retro attitude. 


04 15 52 


1. 2 


CC 


OK. Standing by. 


04 18 02 


6. 5 


CC 


Friendship Seven, this is Canton Cap Com. We are not receiving your transmis- 








sions and we have not lost your contact. Over. 


04 18 09 


24. 2 


P 


Roger, Canton. I was busy maneuvering here. I did not give you your report yet, 








was getting lights set up and trying to stow everything for retro fire. I have 








45-45 [percent] on fuel, oxygen is 60-90 [percent], amps is 23. Mv retrograde 








time is still set at 04 plus 32 plus 38. Over. 


04 18 35 


3. 2 


CC 


Roger, Friendship Seven. Canton standing by. 


04 18 38 


0. 4 


p 


Roger. 


04 19 19 


6. 5 


P 


This is Friendship Seven, Canton. I am getting in in orbit attitude so I can cage 








and uncage the gyros again. They're off again. Over. 


04 19 27 


1. 3 


CC 


Roger, Friendship Seven. 


04 19 29 


1. 5 


p 


Request you notify Cape. 








Friendship Seven, this Cap Com. I did not read your last transmission. Would 








you repeat please? 


04 19 39 


16. 3 


p 


Roger, Canton. Please notify Cape that I am indicating a roll 10° right, vaw 10° 








right, and pitch a plus 15 [degrees] when I'm in orbit attitude on the window and 








the scope. Over. 








HAWAII (THIRD ORBIT) 


04 21 00 


2. 0 


CT 


Friendship Seven, Hawaii Com Tech. How do you read? Over. 


04 21 04 


2. 1 


P 


Loud and clear, Hawaii Com Tech. How me? 


04 21 09 


2. 4 


CT 


Roger. Reading you loud and clear on HF. 


04 21 13 


6. 2 


P 


Roger, this is Friendship Seven. Caging gyros and uncaging. 


04 21 43 


8. 5 


P 


Hawaii Com Tech, Cap Com, this is Friendship Seven. Fuel 43-45 [percent], 








oxygen is 60-90 [percent], amps is 23. Over. 


04 21 56 


2. 0 


P 


Hello, Hawaii Com Tech. Do you receive? Over. 


04 21 59 


5. 3 


CT 


Friendship Seven, Hawaii Com Tech. Roger. Transfer from HF, would you go 








to UHF? Over. 


04 22 05 


1. 3 


P 


Roger. Going UHF. 


04 22 30 


2. 7 


CT 


Friendship Seven, do you read on UHF? Over. 


04 22 35 


2. 0 


P 


Roger, read UHF loud and clear. 


04 22 38 


3. 9 


CC 


Friendship Seven, Hawaii Cap Com. Reading you loud and clear on UHB. 








Friendship Seven, we have been reading an indication on the ground of segment 51, 








which is Landing Bag Deploy. We suspect this is a erroneous signal. However, 








Cape would like, you to check this by putting the Landing Bag switch in auto 








position, and see if you get a light. Do you concur with this? Over. 


04 23 09 


6. 6 


P 


Okay. If that's what they recommend, we'll go ahead and try it. Are vou ready 
for it now? 


04 23 16 


0. 9 


CC 


Yes, when you're ready. 


04 23 17 


6. 8 


P 


Roger. Negative, in automatic position did not get a light and I'm back in off 








position now. Over. 


04 23 25 


4. 9 


CC 


Roger, that's fine. In this case, we'll go ahead, and the reentry sequence will be 








normal. 


04 23 31 


1. 8 


P 


Roger, reentry sequence will be normal. 


04 23 34 


3. 1 


CC 


Friendship Seven, have you completed your pre-retro cheek list? 


04 23 38 


4. 3 


p 


This is Friendship Seven. Going to pre-re, check list at present time. 


04 23 43 




CC 


Roger. I'll standby. 




1 4 




Friendship Seven, Hawaii Cap Com. 


04 25 08 


0. 7 


p 


Go ahead, Hawaii. 


04 25 10 


2. 8 


CC 


Have you completed pre-retro check list at this time? 


04 25 13 


2. 2 


p 


That's affirmative. I'm just now completing it. 


04 25 17 


10. 6 


CC 


Roger. Can you comment again on this, the attitude system with respect to the, 



respect to the visual reference, how you feel about this at this time? 
186 



HAWAII (THIRD ORBIT) — Continued 



04 25 


28 


12. 5 


P 


Well, it's into, it's in and out of orientation mode right now and is wasting fuel, in 










yaw. I may have to cut it in yaw, I don't know. It appears to be correcting, 










though, at the present time or maybe the scanners are correcting it okay now. 


04 25 


42 


1. 6 


CC 


Roger, what mode are you in now? 


04 25 


44 


1. 9 


P 


I'm in ASCS, automatic. 


04 25 


47 


0. 4 


CC 


Understand. 


04 25 


51 


7. 4 


CC 


Did you understand the Cape would like you to change your clock by one second, 










to 04 32 37? 


04 25 


58 


1 7 


p 


Negative. I'll change it right now. 


04 26 


03 


4 3 


P 


Okay. Time is now 04 32 and 37. 




08 


1. 2 


CC 


We confirm with TM readout. 


04 26 




0. 5 


P 




04 26 


13 


8. 7 


CC 


Everything looks good on the ground. The inverter temperatures are a little high; 










225° on the 150, 212° on the 250. Everything else looks pretty good. 


04 26 


22 


0. 5 


p 


Roger. 


04 26 


28 


2. 7 


CC 


Surgeon would like to know if you're still comfortable. 




31 


5. 3 


p 


Roger, I'm in very good shape. I'll go through exercise bit in just a minute here, 










as soon as I get done with check list. 


04 26 


05 


7. 8 


p 


Okay, going through light test. Okay, checks okay. 


04 27 


38 


2. 4 


p 


Okay, 5 minutes to retrograde, light is on. 


04 27 


43 


1. 7 


CC 


Rog, 5 minutes to retrograde, light on. 






4 8 


CC 


TM is breaking up now. Friendship Seven, would you like a G.m.t. time hack? 


04 27 


58 


0. 8 


p 


Roger, please. 


04 28 


00 




CC 


On my mark G.m.t. will be 19 plus 15 plus 45— MARK. 


04 


08 


0 6 


p 






in 


7 1 


CC 


GET on my mark will be 04 plus 2 . . . . 




18 


2 5 






04 28 


21 


6 9 


CC 


Give you a new hack. On my mark it will be 04 plus 28 plus 35, six seconds. 


04 28 


29 


15 5 


p 


Roger. Let me give you a hack and figure a new retrograde time from the Cape. 










My time from launch will read 04 plus 28 plus 45 on my mark. Standby, 2, 3, 










4, MARK. 


04 28 


49 


4. 5 


CC 


Friendship Seven, Hawaii Cap Com. You were breaking up at the last, I could 










not read your time hack. 


04 28 


56 


13.4 


p 


Roger, this is Friendship Seven. I'll give you another time hack at 04 plus 29 










plus 10. Standby, 7, 8, 9, MARK. 


04 29 


14 


1. 4 


p 


Hawaii, did you receive? Over. 


04 29 


28 


1.3 


p 


Hello Hawaii, did you receive? 










CALIFORNIA (THIRD ORBIT) 


29 


56 


2 1 


p 


Hello California, Friendship Seven. Over. 






2 3 




Hello California Cap Com, Friendship Seven, Over. 


04 30 


20 


2 2 


p 


Hello California Cap Com. Friendship Seven. Over. 






2 8 


CC 


Friendship Seven, this is California Cap Com. Read you loud and clear, how me? 


04 


35 


3 7 


p 


California Cap Com, Friendship Seven, UHF. Do you receive now? Over. 


30 


41 


2 8 


p 


Hello California Cap Com, Friendship Seven, UHF. Over. 






" 4 


p^ 


Friendship Seven, California Cap Com. How do you read? Over. 


04 


48 


2. 5 




This is Friendship Seven. Loud and clear. How me? Over. 




56 


2. 4 


p 


Hello California Cap Com, Friendship Seven. Over. 


04 


06 


1 8 


p 


California Cap Com, Friendship Seven. Over. 


04 31 


09 


3. 7 


CT 


Seven, this is California Com Tech, California Com Tech. How do you read? 












04 31 


13 


2. 9 


p 


This is Friendship Seven. Loud and clear. How me? Over. 


04 31 


18 


4 1 


CT 


Roger, Friendship Seven, this is California Com Tech. Reading you loud and 










clear on UHF. 


04 31 


21 


16. 7 


p 


Roger, this is Friendship Seven. Let me give you my time, my capsule elapsed 










time is 04 plus 31 plus 35 on my mark. 2, 3, 4, MARK. Will you relay that 










immediately to Cape? I think we're several seconds off. Over. 


04 31 


40 


5.5 


CC 


Roger, we have you on that. Will give you the count down for retro-sequence 










time, John. You're looking good. 


04 31 


46 


3.7 


p 


Roger. We only have 50 seconds to retrograde. Over. 


04 31 


50 


2.7 


CC 


John, I'll give a mark. 45, MARK. 


04 31 


53 


—.3 


p 


Roger. 



187 



CALIFORNIA (THIRD ORBIT)—Continued 



04 31 57 


2. 8 


P 


I'm on ASCS and backing it up manual. Over. 


04 32 02 


0. 5 


CC 


Roger, John. 


04 32 07 


1. 6 


p 


My fuel is 39 [percent] 


04 32 09 


1. 0 


CC 


Thirty seconds, John. 


04 32 11 


1. 6 


p 


Roger. Retro-warning is on. 


04 32 13 


0. 3 


CC 


Good. 


04 32 15 


4. 1 


CC 


John, leave youi retropack on through your pass over Texas. Do you read? 


04 32 19 


0. 6 


p 


Roger. 


04 32 23 


1. 5 


CC 


15 seconds to sequence. 


04 32 25 


0. 5 


p 


Roger. 


04 32 28 


0. 2 


CC 


10. 


04 32 32 


5, 2 


CC 


5, 4, 3, 2, 1, MARK. 


04 32 39 


2. 0 


p 


Roger, retro sequence is green. 


04 32 42 


2. 0 


CC 


You have a green. You look good on attitude. 


04 32 44 


1. 5 


p 


Retro attitude is green. 


04 32 50 


1. 2 


CC 


Just past 20. 


04 32 52 


0. 4 


p 


Say again. 


04 32 53 


0. 2 


CC 


Seconds. 


04 32 55 


0. 4 


p 


Roger. 


04 33 02 


5. 2 


CC 


5, 4, 3, 2, 1, fire. 


04 33 09 


2.4 


p 


Roger, retros are firing. 


04 33 12 


0.9 


CC 


Sure, they be. 


04 33 15 


3. 1 


p 


Are they ever. It feels like I'm going back toward Hawaii. 


04 33 19 


1.9 


CC 


Don't do that, you want to go to the East Coast. 


04 33 23 


2.2 


p 


Roger. Fire retro light is green. 


04 33 26 


0. 7 


CC 


All three here. 


04 33 28 


0. 5 


p 


Roger. 


04 33 32 


4. 1 


p 


Roger, retros have stopped. A hundred .... 


04 33 37 


2. 5 


CC 


Keep your retro pack on until you pass Texas. 


04 33 40 


1. 0 


p 


That's affirmative. 


04 33 41 


0. 3 


CC 


Check. 


04 33 47 


2. 9 


CC 


Pretty good looking flight from what all we've seen. 


04 33 51 


3.4 


p 


Roger, everything went pretty good except for all this ASCS problem. 


04 33 55 


2. 8 


CC 


It looked like your attitude held pretty well. Did you have to back it up at all? 


04 33 57 


3. 9 


p 


Oh, yes, quite a bit. Yeah, I had a lot of trouble with it. 


04 34 04 


2. 1 


CC 


Good enough for Government work from down here. 


04 34 06 


2. 2 


p 


Yes, sir, it looks good, Wally. We'll see you back East. 


04 34 08 


0. 2 


CC 


Rog. 


04 34 09 


0. 6 


p 


All right, boy. 


04 34 11 


1. 3 


p 


Fire Retro is green. 


04 34 14 


0. 5 


CC 


Roger. 


04 34 15 


2. 2 


p 


Jettison retro is red. I'm holding onto it. 


04 34 18 


0. 5 


CC 


Good head. 


04 34 28 


2. 4 


p 


I'll tell you, there is no doubt about it when the retros fire. 


04 34 32 


1. 4 


CC 


Gathered that from your comments. 


04 34 39 


35. 1 


p 


Everything is looking good, I'll give you a fast readout here. Fuel is 29-27 [percent]. 
The cabin pressure holding 5.5, cabin air is 88 [degrees], relative humidity is 
33 [percent]; coolant quantity, 58 [percent], temperature is 71 [degrees], suit 
temperature is 71 [degrees], suit pressure is 5.8, steam temperature is 53 [degrees] 
in the suit, oxygen is, primary 60 [percent], 89 [percent] on secondary. 


04 35 17 


4. 3 


CC 


Looks pretty good on this end. How did the attitude seem to hold? Did you 
have any diversions in yaw at all? 


04 35 21 


5. 3 


p 


Negative, very close. I backed it up and worked right along with the ASCS and 
it looked like it held right on the money. 


04 35 27 


2. 9 


CC 


Roger, we didn't notice any particular disparity heie. 


U4 35 29 


4. 0 


p 


Roger, good. Do you have a time for going to Jettison Retro? Over 


04 35 33 


1.4 


CC 


Texas will give you that message. Over. 


04 35 35 


0. 3 


p 




04 35 39 


6. 7 


p 


Thfs is Friendship Seven, cutting yaw on automatic and I'll control that manually; 
it keeps banging in and out of orientation. 


04 35 46 




CC 


Roger, Friendship Seven. 


04 35 49 


1. 7 


p 


Hello, Texas. Friendship Seven. Over. 



188 



CALIFORNIA (THIRD ORBIT)— Continued 



04 35 56 


1. 9 


CC 


Friendship Seven, Cal Cap Com. Do you read? 


04 35 58 


0. 6 


P 


Roger. 


04 35 59 


3. 3 


CC 


Consideration about leaving retropack on, they will inform you over Texas. 


04 36 03 


0. 5 


p 


Roger.- 


04 36 05 


1. 2 


p 


Roger, over the Coast. 


04 36 07 


1. 2 


CC 


Roger, clear blue here. 


04 36 09 


0. 4 


p 


Yes, sir 


04 36 28 


5. 6 


p 


This is Friendship Seven. Can see El Centro and the Imperial Valley down there; 








Salton Sea very clear. 


04 36 34 


2. 4 


CC 


It should be pretty green; we've had a lot of rain down here 


04 36 37 


0. 4 


p 


Yes, sir. 




2. 5 


CC 


Do you notice any contrast over the coastline, John? 


04 36 50 




p 


Say again. 




1. 8 


CC 


How about contrast over the coastline? 


04 36 53 


0. 7 


p 


Negative. 


04 36 55 


0. 4 


CC 




04 36 59 


9. 6 


p 


There is quite a bit of cloud cover down in this area. I can, right on track, I can 






only see certain areas. I can see quite a bit on up to the north, however. 


04 37 16 


2. 4 


p 


This is Friendship Seven, going to manual control. 


04 37 19 


1. 3 


CC 


Roger, Friendship Seven. 


04 37 21 


2. 7 


p 


This is banging in and out here; I'll just control it manually. 


04 37 23 


0. 4 


CC 


Roger. 


04 37 46 


3. 1 


CC 


Friendship Seven, Guaymas Cap Com, reading you loud and clear. 


04 37 49 


2. 1 


p 


Roger, Guaymas, read you loud and clear also. 








TEXAS (THIRD ORBIT) 


04 38 04 


4. 0 


CT 


Friendship Seven, Friendship Seven, this is Texas Com Tech. Do you read? Over 


04 38 08 


1. 3 


p 


Roger, Texas, go ahead. 




3. 9 


CT 


Roger. Reading you 5 square. Standby for Texas Cap Com. 


04 38 14 


0. 4 


p 




04 38 23 


23. 8 


CC 


This is Texas Cap Com, Friendship Seven. We are recommending that you leave 








the retropackage on through the entire reentry. This means that you will have 








to override the 0.05g switch which is expected to occur at 04 43 53. This also 








means that you will have to manually retract the scope. Do you read? 


04 38 47 


4. 0 


p 


This is Friendship Seven. What is the reason for this? Do you have any reason? 








Over. 


04 38 51 


3. 6 


CC 


Not at this time; this is the judgment of Cape Flight. 


04 38 56 


2. 6 


p 


Roger. Say again your instructions please. Over. 


04 38 59 


22. 1 


CC 


We are recommending that the retropackage not, I say again, not be jettisoned. 








This means that you will have to override the 0.05g switch which is expected 








to occur at 04 43 53. This is approximately 4}£ minutes from now. This 








also means that you will have to retract the scope manually. Do you understand? 


04 39 23 


9. 7 


p 


Roger, understand. I will have to make a manual 0.05g entry when it occurs, and 








bring the scope in manually. Is that affirm? 


04 39 33 


2. 5 


CC 


That is affirmative, Friendship Seven. 


04 39 37 


0. 6 


p 


Roger. 


04 39 40 


3. 6 


p 


This is Friendship Seven, going to reentry attitude, then, in that case. 


04 39 58 


3. 8 


CC 


Friendship Seven, Cape flight will give you the reasons for this action when you 


04 40 04 


2.6 


p 


are in view. 
Roger. Roger. Friendship Seven. 


04 40 07 


2. 5 


CC 


Everything down here on the ground looks okay. 


04 40 10 


1. 5 


p 


Roger. This is Friendship Seven. 


04 40 12 


1. 4 


CC 


Confirm your attitudes. 


04 40 14 


0. 4 


p 


Roger. 








CANAVERAL (THIRD ORBIT) 


04 40 21 


1. 7 


CC 


Friendship Seven, this is Cape. Over. 


04 40 23 


1. 5 


p 


Go ahead, Cape. Friendship Seven. 


04 40 25 


4. 9 


CC 


Recommend you go to reentry attitude and retract the scope manually at this 










04 40 30 


1. 9 


p 


Roger, retracting scope manually. 



189 



CANAVERAL (THIRD ORBIT) — Continued 



04 40 34 






04 40 49 


1. 6 


P 


04 41 08 


! t 


p C 


04 41 10 






04 41 13 


5. 4 


cc 


04 41 19 






04 41 21 


3. 0 


cc 




^ ~{ 




04 41 31 






04 41 43 


0. 8 


cc 


04 41 45 


0. 9 


p 


04 41 48 


0. 6 


cc 


04 41 51 


6. 2 


p 


04 41 58 


8 9 


cc 


04 42 07 


1. 2 


p 




f f 




04 42 16 




rr> 


04 42 27 


9 2 


re 


04 42 37 


1 




04 42 45 






49 tn 


I 


J, 








04 


9 


t> 


43 37 


2. 4 




04 44 18 


1. 9 






o t 




04 45 41 






04 46 17 












04 47 16 






04 47 19 






04 47 22 


1 0 




04 47 26 






04 47 30 


n 






n <> 




fU 47 <*9 












47 44 






47 










rr 


47 




t> 


04 48 01 


3 2 




04 48 04 


2. 1 


CC 


04 48 07 


3. 4 


P 




n ^ 


p C 


04 48 13 






04 






04 48 26 


5. 0 


P 


04 48 37 


3. 3 


P 


04 48 42 






04 48 45 


0. 3 


P 


04 48 51 


3. 7 


P 


190 







While you're doing that, we are not sure whether or not your landing bag has 
deployed. We feel it is possible to reenter with the retropackage on. We see 
no difficulty at this time in that type of reentry. Over. 

Roger, understand. 

Seven, this is Cape. Over. 

Go ahead, Cape. Friendship Seven. 

CANAVERAL (REENTRY) 
Estimating 0.05g at 04 44. 
Roger. 

You override 0.05g at that time. 
Roger. Friendship Seven. 

This is Friendship Seven. I'm on straight manual control at present time. This 
was, still kicking in and out of orientation mode, mainly in yaw following retor- 
fire, so I am on straight manual now. I'll back it up . . 

. . . on reentry. 

Say again. 

Standby. 

This is Friendship Seven. Going to fly-by-wire. I'm down to about 15 percent on 
manual. 

Roger. You're going to use fly-by-wire for reentry and we recommend that you 

do the best you can to keep a zero angle during reentry. Over. 
Roger. Friendship Seven. 

This is Friendship Seven. I'm on fly-by-wire, back it up with manual. Over. 
Roger, understand. 

Seven, this is Cape. The weather in the recovery area is excellent, 3-foot waves, 

only one-tenth cloud coverage, 10 miles visibility. 
Roger. Friendship Seven. 
Seven, this is Cape. Over. 

Go ahead, Cape, you're ground, you are going out. 
We recommend that you .... 

This is Friendship Seven. I think the pack just let go. 
This is Friendship Seven. A real fireball outside. 
Hello, Cape. Friendship Seven. Over. 
Hello, Cape. Friendship Seven. Over. 
Hello, Cape. Friendship Seven. Do you receive? Over. 
Hello, Cape. Friendship Seven. Do you receive? Over. 
. . . How do you read? Over. 
Loud and clear; how me? 

Roger, reading you loud and clear. How are you doing? 
Oh, pretty good. 

Roger. Your impact point is within 1 mile of the up-range destroyer. 

Roger. 

. . . Over. 

Roger. 

This is Cape, estimating 04 50. Over. 
Roger, 04 50. 

Okay, we're through the peak g now. 

Seven, this is Cape. What's your general condition? Are you feeling pretty well? 

My condition is good, but that was a real fireball, boy. 

I had great chunks of that retropack breaking off all the way through. 

Very good; it did break off, is that correct? 

Roger. Altimeter off the peg indicating 80,000. 

Roger, reading you loud and clear. 

Roger. 

Seven, this is Cape You're . . . will be within 1 mile of the up-range destroyer. 

Recovery weather is very good. Over. 
Roger, understand. 55,000, standby, MARK. 
I'm getting all kinds of contrails and stuff outside out here. 
Roger. Say again your altitude, please. You were broken up. 
45,000. 

Rocking quite a bit, I may still have some of that pack on. I can't damp it either. 



CANAVERAL (REENTRY) — Continued 



04 49 00 2. 0 CC . . . post reentry check list. Over. 

04 49 12 4. 2 P Friendship Seven. Going to drogue early. Rocking fairly, drogue came out. 

04 49 18 0. 8 P Drogue is out. 

04 49 20 4. 0 P Roger, drogue came out at 30,000, at about a 90° yaw. 

04 49 25 1. 6 CC Roger, is the drogue holding all right? 

04 49 27 1.1 P Roger, the drogue looks good. 

04 49 29 0. 4 CC Roger. 

04 49 31 1. 6 P Scope did not come out. 

04 49 32 1.0 CC ... check list. 

04 49 34 ' 1. 5 P Roger, pumping the scope out. 

04 49 36 1. 2 CC ... check list. Over. 

04 49 38 0. 5 P Say again. 

04 49 42 3. 6 P Roger, reentry checklist complete. Standing by for main at ten [thousand feet]. 

04 49 47 0. 4 CC Roger. 

04 50 00 2. 2 P Coming down on ten [thousand feet], snorkels are open. 

04 50 04 1. 8 CC Roger, understand snorkels open. 

04 50 07 0. 5 P Roger. 

04 50 10 20. 8 P Main chute in on green. Chute is out, in reef condition at 10,800 feet and beautiful 
chute. Chute looks good. On 0 2 emergency and the chute looks very good. 
Rate of descent has gone to about 42 feet per second. The ehute looks very good. 

CANAVERAL- RECOVERY 

04 50 37 3. 4 P Hello, Mercury Recovery. This is Friendship Seven. Do you receive? 

04 50 41 4. 2 R Mercury Friendship Seven, this Steelhead. Loud and clear. Over. 

04 50 45 4. 1 P Roger, Steelhead. Friendship Seven. The chute looks very good. Over. 

04 50 50 4. 3 R Roger, understand the chute very good, descent normal. Is that Charlie? Over. 

04 50 55 5. 2 P Roger, that is affirmative. Descent is normal, indicating 40 feet per second. 

04 51 05 2. 9 P My condition is good; it's a little hot in here, however. Over. 

04 51 09 8. 0 R Roger, Friendship Seven. Be advised, I got your chaff on my radar and I'm head- 
ing out for you now. Over. 

04 51 17 2. 8 P Roger. What is your estimate on recovery time? Over. 

04 51 23 2. 0 R Friendship Seven. Steelhead. Wait. Out. 

04 51 26 2. 6 P Roger. Friendship Seven. Indicating 7,000. 

04 51 35 7. 8 R Friendship Seven, this is Steelhead. Be advised, I have you visually, estimate on 

station in approximately 1 hour. Over. 

04 51 43 1. 8 P Roger, on station 1 hour. 

04 51 47 2. 2 P This is Friendship Seven, standing by for impact. 

04 51 54 1. 8 P This is Friendship Seven, going through checklist. 

04 52 04 6. 6 R Friendship Seven, this is Steelhead. Correct my estimate on station. Estimate 

pickup now at 20 minutes. Over. 

04 52 10 2. 5 P Roger, understand 20 minutes to pickup. 

04 52 14 2. 0 P Friendship Seven, going through check list. 

04 52 27 3. 0 CC Seven, this is Cape. Do you have the Landing Bag on green? Over. 

04 52 32 1. 6 P Friendship Seven. Say again, Cape. 

04 52 35 1. 4 CC ... Landing Bag on green? Over. 

04 52 38 2. 9 P This is Friendship Seven. Still did not receive you. Repeat again. 

04 52 43 3. 1 CC Do you have Landing Bag on green? Over. 

04 52 47 2. 8 P I'm sorry. I cannot read you, Cape. Say again. 

04 52 51 3. 4 R Do you have Landing Bag on green? Over. 

04 52 55 2. 6 P That's affirmative. Landing Bag is on green. 

04 53 04 6. 9 R Friendship Seven, this is Steelhead. Be advised accordingly to my surface gadget, 

your range 6 miles from me, on the way. Over. 

04 53 11 2. 4 P Roger, understand 6 miles. Good show. 

04 63 57 0. 3 P Okay. 

04 53 58 2. 1 CC Steelhead, this is Cape Cap Com. Over. 

04 54 05 1.0 P Go ahead, Cap Com. 

04 54 07 7. 3 CC Cape Cap Com. We recommend that he remain in the capsule unless he has some 

overriding reason for getting out. Over. 

04 54 17 2. 1 P Say again. This is Friendship Seven. 

04 54 22 5. 0 R Remain in capsule unless you have an overriding reason for getting out. Over. 

04 54 28 1. 5 P Roger. Friendship Seven. 

191 



CANAVERAL-RECOVERY— Continued 

04 54 32 2.3 P Friendship Seven. Ready for impact; almost down. 

04 54 35 0. 7 R Roger. 

04 54 37 1.1 P Do you have me in sight? 

04 54 47 2. 2 P Friendship Seven. Getting close. Standing by. 

04 54 50 0. 6 R Roger. 

04 55 10 1.0 P Here we go. 

04 55 20 2. 6 P Friendship Seven. Impact. Rescue Aids is manual. 

RECOVERY 

04 55 47 4. 3 R Friendship Seven, this is Steelhead. Hold you in the water. What is your con- 

dition? Over. 

04 55 51 3. 4 P Roger, my condition okay. Does the capsule look like it's okay? Over. 

04 55 56 4. 0 R Friendship Seven, reference your last; affirmative, capsule looks good from here. 

Over. 

04 56 01 3. 8 P Roger, understand they want me to stay in the capsule until rescue. 

04 56 06 2. 1 R Friendship Seven, Steelhead. That's Charlie. Over. 

04 56 09 0. 6 P Roger. 

04 57 00 1. 8 R Friendship Seven, Steelhead is calling you. 

04 57 03 2. 6 P Go ahead, Steelhead. Friendship Seven. I don't receive you. 

04 57 11 2.3 R Go ahead, Steelhead. Friendship Seven reads you. 

04 57 16 2. 7 P Negative. This is Friendship Seven. I do not read him. 

04 57 19 2. 9 R Friendship Seven, Friendship Seven, this is Steelhead, Steelhead. Over. 

04 57 23 1. 7 P Go ahead, Steelhead. Friendship Seven. 

04 57 25 6. 2 R Friendship Seven, this is Steelhead. I understand you have me visually through 

your window. Is that affirmative? Over. 
04 57 32 0. 6 P Negative. 

04 57 36 1. 4 P Negative. This is Friendship Seven. 

04 57 55 7. 4 R Friendship Seven, this is Steelhead. Estimate recovery time in approximately 

7 minutes. Over. 

04 58 03 4. 2 P Roger, 7 minutes. Understand you're going to put men in the water with the 

collar. Is that affirm? 
04 58 09 2. 1 R Friendship Seven, Steelhead. Affirmative. Over. 

04 58 12 0. 6 P Roger. 

04 58 31 5. 9 R Friendship Seven, this is Steelhead. Understand your condition excellent at this 

time. Is that Charlie? 

04 58 37 5. 4 P That's affirmative. My condition is good. I'm a little warm at the moment, but 

that's okay, the suit fans are still running. 
04 58 44 1. 2 R Steelhead. Roger. Out. 

04 59 38 1. 7 CC Steelhead, this is Cape. Over. 

04 59 41 4. 2 R Station calling .... Read you. Say again. Over. 

04 59 46 2. 9 CC This is Cape Canaveral. Recommend .... Over. 

04 59 52 6. 4 R Understand station calling Steelhead is the Cape, unable to read your message. 

Request you say again text. Over. 

04 59 58 5. 0 CC Roger. Reeommend . . . astronaut. Over. 

05 00 08 5. 5 R Cape, this is Steelhead; request you say again all after recommend. Over. 

05 00 16 9. 6 CC Keep the Astronaut advised of the recovery progress; keep the Astronaut advised 

of the recovery progress. Over. 
05 00 27 1. 4 R Steelhead. Wileo. Out. 

05 01 02 9. 2 R Friendship Seven, this is Steelhead. We have you visually. I am closing now. 

Should be, should be ready to effect recovery in approximately 4 minutes. 

05 01 12 3. 0 P Roger, 4 minutes to recovery and my condition is good. 

05 01 17 15. 0 R Steelhead. Roger. Break, have ground tackle, etc., standing by on deck. All 

equipment fully rigged. Believe we will be able to have you aboard in approx- 
imately 2 minutes after arrival. Over. 

05 01 32 0. 5 P Roger. 

05 01 38 9. 4 P This is Friendship Seven. I'm very warm. I'm not, I'm just remaining, remain- 

ing motionless here trying to keep as cool as possible. I'm extremely warm at 
the moment. 

05 01 49 5. 9 R Steelhead. Roger, break, disregard that. 

05 01 55 0. 3 P Roger. 



192 



RECOVERY — Continued 



05 02 11 


7. 1 


R 


Friendship Seven, Steelhead. Helicopter is on its way. At present, they expect 








to be here in approximately 8 minutes. Over. 


05 02 18 


0. 6 


P 


Roger. 


05 02 29 


&7 


R 


Friendship Seven, Steelhead. Medico are standing by in case assistance necessary 








immediately after recovery. Over. 


05 02 39 


1. 3 


P 


Roger. Friendship Seven. 


05 03 04 


4. 6 


R 


Friendship Seven, Steelhead. My speed now 10 [knots], commencing my approach. 








Over. 


05 03 09 


1. 1 


P 


Roger. Friendship Seven. 


05 03 18 


6. 0 


R 


Friendship Seven, this is Steelhead. All equipment operating normally. Expect 








to be along side approximately 3 minutes. Over. 


05 03 26 


0. 5 


P 


Ah, Roger. 


05 03 57 


8. 6 


R 


Friendship Seven, this is Steelhead. All stop, I say again, my engines are stop. 








I'm coming along side at this time. Over. 


05 04 05 


0. 6 


p 




05 04 09 


2. 8 


R 


Friendship Seven, Friendship Seven, this is Steelhead. Do you copy? Over. 


05 04 12 


4 0 


P 


Roger, Steelhead, I copy. Friendship Seven. Understand you're coming along 


05 04 28 


4 4 


R 


Friendship Seven, this is Steelhead. You are now 1,000 yards. Over. 


05 04 33 


3. 9 


P 


Roger. Friendship Seven. Sounds good. 


05 04 40 


3. 8 


P 


Capsule looks to me as though its floating in pretty good shape. Does it look that 








way to you? 


05 04 46 


7. 6 


R 


Friendship Seven, this is Steelhead. Affirmative, capsule looks good from here. 








I can, can discern no damage visually. Over. 


05 04 54 


0. 6 


P 


Roger. 


05 04 58 


6. 3 


R 


Friendship Seven, this is 6 Spangle 8. I'm orbiting at 300 feet, everything looks 






(Aircraft; 


1 perfectly normal from here. 


05 05 05 


0.5 


P 


Roger. 


05 05 08 


Z 0 


R 


You're riding in a good attitude. Over. 






(Aircraft) 


05 05 10 


0. 3 


P 


Roger. 



193 



APPENDIX C 



DESCRIPTION OF THE MA-6 ASTRONOMICAL, METEOROLOGICAL, 
AND TERRESTRIAL OBSERVATIONS 1 

By John H. Glenn, Jr., Astronaut, NASA Manned Spacecraft Center 



Luminous Particles 

Coming out of the night on the first orbit, 
at the first glint of sunlight on the capsule, I 
was looking inside the capsule to check some 
instruments for probably 15 or 20 seconds. 
When I glanced back out the window, my initial 
reaction was that the capsule (spacecraft) had 
tumbled and that I was looking off into a star 
field and was not able to see the horizon. I 
could see nothing but luminous specks about 
the size of the stars outside. I realized, how- 
ever, they were not stars. I was still in the 
attitude that I had before. The specks were 
luminous particles that were all around the cap- 
sule. There was a large field of spots that were 
about the color of a very bright firefly, a light 
yellowish green color. They appeared to vary 
in size from maybe just pinhead size up to pos- 
sibly % of an inch. I would say that most of 
the particles were similar to first magnitude 
stars; they were pretty bright, very luminous. 
However, they varied in size so there would be 
varying magnitudes represented. They were 
floating in space at approximately my speed. 
I appeared to be moving through them very 
slowly, at a speed of maybe 3 to 5 miles an hour. 
They did not center on the capsule as though 
the capsule was their origin. I thought first 
of the lost Air Force needles that are some place 
in space but they were not anything that looked 
like that at all. 

The other possibility that came to my mind 
immediately was that snow or little frozen water 
particles were being created from the peroxide 
decomposition. I don't believe that's what it 



'This material is taken verbatim from the tran- 
script of pilot's postflight debriefing on Grand Turk 
Island, Feb. 21, 1962. 



was, however, because the particles through 
which I was moving were evenly distributed 
and not more dense closer to the capsule. 

As I looked out to the side of the capsule, the 
density of the field to the side of the capsule 
appeared to be about the same as directly behind 
the capsule. The distance between these parti- 
cles would average, I would estimate, some 8 or 
10 feet apart. Occasionally, one or two of 
them would come swirling up around the capsule 
and across the window, drifting very, very 
slowly, and then would gradually move off 
back in the direction I was looking. This was 
surprising, too, because it showed we probably 
did have a very small flow field set up around 
the capsule or they would not have changed 
their direction of motion as they did. No, I 
do not recall observing any vertical or lateral 
motion other than that of the particles that 
swirled around close to the spacecraft. It ap- 
peared to me that I was moving straight 
through a cloud of them at a very slow speed. 
I observed these luminous objects for approxi- 
mately 4 minutes before the sun came up to a 
position where it was sufficiently above the hori- 
zon that all the background area then was 
lighted and I no longer could see them. 

After passing out of them, I described them 
as best I could on the tape recorder and reported 
them to the Cape. I had two more chances to 
observe them at each sunrise ; it was exactly the 
same each time. At the first rays of the sun 
above the horizon, the particles would appear. 
To get better observation of these particles and 
to make sure they were not emanating from 
the capsule, I turned the capsule around dur- 
ing the second sunrise. When I turned around 
towards the sunrise, I could see only 10 percent 
as many particles as I could see when facing 



195 



back toward the west. Still, I could see a few 
of them coming toward me. This proved 
rather conclusively, to me at least, that I was 
moving through a field of something and that 
these things were not emanating, at least not 
at that moment, from the capsule. To check 
whether this might be snowflakes from the con- 
densation from the thrusters, I intentional^ 
blipped the thrusters to see if I was making 
a pattern of these particles. I could observe 
steam coming out of the pitchdown thruster 
in good shape and this didn't result in any 
observation of anything that looked like the 
particles. I had three good looks at them and 
they appeared identical each time. I think the 
density of the particles was identical on all 
three passes. 

I would estimate that there were thousands 
of them. It was similar to looking out across a 
field on a very dark night and seeing thousands 
of fireflies. Unlike fireflies, however, they had 
a steady glow. Once in awhile, one or two of 
them would come drifting up around the cor- 
ner of the capsule and change course right in 
front of me. I think it was from flow of some 
kind or perhaps the particles were ionized and 
were being attracted or repelled. It was not due 
to collisions because I saw some of them change 
course right in front of me without colliding 
with any other particles on the spacecraft. If 
any particles got in near enough to the capsule 
and got into the shade, they seemed to lose 
their luminous quality. And when occasionally 
I would see one up very close, it looked white, 
like a little cottony piece of something, or like 
a snowflake. That's about the only descrip- 
tion of them I have. There was no doubt about 
their being there because I observed them three 
different times for an extended period of time. 
I tried to get pictures of them, but it looks like 
there wasn't sufficient light emanating from 
them to register on the color film. 

The High Layer 

I had no trouble seeing the horizon on the 
nightside. Above the horizon some 6 to 8 de- 
grees, there was a layer that I would estimate to 
be roughly \y 2 to 2 degrees wide. I first no- 
ticed it as I was watching stars going down. 
I noticed that as they came down close to the 
horizon, they became relatively dim for a few 
seconds, then brightened up again and then 



went out of sight below the horizon. As I 
looked more carefully, I could see a band, par- 
allel to the horizon, that was a different color 
than the clouds below. It was not the same 
white color as moonlight on clouds at night. It 
was a tannish color or buff white in comparison 
to the clouds and not very bright. This band 
went clear across the horizon. I observed this 
layer on all three passes through the nightside. 
The intensity was reasonably constant through 
the night. It was more visible when the moon 
was up but during that short period when the 
moon was not up, I could still see this layer very 
dimly. I wouldn't say for sure that you could 
actually observe the specific layer during that 
time, but you could see the dimming of the 
stars. But, when the moon was up, you very 
definitely could see the layer, though it did not 
have sharp edges. It looked like a dim haze 
layer such as I have seen occasionally while fly- 
ing. As stars would move into this layer, they 
would gradually dim ; dim to a maximum near 
the center and gradually brighten up as they 
came out of it. So, there was a gradient as they 
moved through it ; it was not a sharp discon- 
tinuity. 

Nightside Observations of the Earth 

Over Australia, they had the lights of Perth 
on and I could see them well. It was like flying 
at high altitude at night over a small town. 
The Perth area was spread out and was very 
visible and then there was a smaller area south 
of Perth that had a smaller group of lights 
but they were much brighter in intensity ; very 
luminous. Inland, there were a series of about 
4 or 5 towns that you could see in a row lined 
up pretty much east and west that were very 
visible. It was very clear: there was no cloud 
cover in that area at that time. 

Knowing where Perth was, I traced a very 
slight demarcation between the land and the 
sea, but that's the only time I observed a coast- 
line on the nightside. Over the area around 
Woomera, there was nothing but clouds. I saw 
nothing but clouds at night from there clear 
up across the Pacific until we got up east of 
Hawaii. There was solid cloud cover all 
the way. 

In the bright moonlight, you could see ver- 
tical development at night. Most of the areas 



196 



looked like big sheets of stratus clouds, but you 
could tell where there were areas of vertical 
development by the shadows or lighter and 
darker areas on the clouds. 

Out in that area at night, fronts could not 
be defined. You can see frontal patterns on 
the dayside. In the North Atlantic, you could 
see streams of clouds, pick out frontal areas 
pretty much like the pictures from earlier Mer- 
cury flights. 

With the moonlight, you are able to pick up a 
good drift indication using the clouds. How- 
ever, I don't think it's as accurate as the drift 
indications during the day. The drift indica- 
tion is sufficient that you can at least tell what 
direction you're going at night within about 10 
or 15 degrees. In the daylight over the same 
type clouds, you probably could pick up your 
drift down to maybe a couple of degrees. 

The horizon was dark before the moon would 
come up, which wasn't very long. However, 
you can see the horizon silhouetted against the 
stars. It can be seen very clearly. After the 
moon comes up, there is enough light shining 
on the clouds that the earth is whiter than the 
dark background of space. Well, before the 
moon comes up, looking down is just like look- 
ing into the black hole at Calcutta. 

There were a couple of large storms in the 
Indian Ocean. The Weather Bureau scientists 
were interested in whether lightning could be 
seen or not. This is no problem; you can see 
lightning zipping around in these storms all 
over the place. There was a great big storm 
north of track over the Indian Ocean ; there was 
a smaller one just south of track and you could 
see lightning flashing in both of them; espe- 
cially in the one in the north ; it was very active. 
It was flashing around and you could see a cell 
going and another cell going and then hori- 
zontal lightning back and forth. 

On that area, I got out the airglow filter and 
tried it. I could not see anything through it. 
This, however, may have been because I was not 
well enough dark adapted. This is a problem. 
If we're going to make observations like this, 
we're going to have to figure out some way to 
get better night adapted in advance of the time 
when we want to make observations. There 
just was not sufficient time. By the time I got 
well night adapted, we were coming back to 
daylight again. 



Dayside Observations 

Clouds can be seen very clearly on the day- 
light side. You can see the different types, ver- 
tical developments, stratus clouds, little puffy 
cumulus clouds, and alto-cumulus clouds. 
There is no problem identifying cloud types. 
You're quite a distance away from them, so 
you're probably not doing it as accurately as 
you could looking up from the ground, but you 
can certainly identify the different types and 
see the weather patterns. 

The cloud area covered most of the area up 
across Mexico with high Cirrus almost to New 
Orleans. I could see New Orleans ; Charleston 
and Savannah were also visible. 

You can see cities the size of Savannah and 
Charleston very clearly. I think the best view 
I had of any area during the flight was the 
clear desert region around El Paso on the second 
pass. There were clouds north of Charleston 
and Savannah, so I could not see the Norfolk 
area and on farther north. I did not see the 
Dallas area that we had planned to observe be- 
cause it was covered by clouds but at El Paso, 
I could see the colors of the desert and the 
irrigated areas north of El Paso. You can see 
the pattern of the irrigated areas much better 
than I had thought we would be able to. I 
don't think that I could see the smallest irri- 
gated areas; it's probably the ones that are 
blocked in by the larger sized irrigation dis- 
tricts which I saw. You can see the very def- 
inite square pattern in those irrigated areas, 
both around El Paso and at El Centro which I 
observed after retrofire. 

The western part of Africa was clear. That 
is, a desert region where I mainly saw dust 
storms. By the time we got to the region where 
I might have been able to see cities in Africa, 
the land was covered by clouds. I was sur- 
prised at what a large percentage of the track 
was covered by clouds on this particular day. 
There was very little land area which could be 
observed on the daylight side. The eastern part 
of the United States and occasional glimpse of 
land up across Mexico and the desert area in 
Western Africa was all that could be seen. 

I saw what I assume was the Gulf Stream. 
The water can be seen to have different colors. 
Another thing that I observed was the wake of 
a ship as I came over Recovery Area G at the 
beginning of the third orbit. I had pitched 



197 



down to below retroattitude. I was not really 
thinking about, looking for a ship. I was look- 
ing down at the water and I saw a little V. I 
quickly broke out the chart and checked my 
position. I was right at Area G, the time 
checked out perfectly for that area. So, I think 
I probably saw the wake from a recovery ship 
when I looked back out and tried to locate it 
again and the little V had. gone under a cloud 
and I didn't see it again. The little V was 
heading west at that time. It would be inter- 
esting to see if the carrier in Area G was fired 
up and heading west at that time. 

I would have liked to put the glasses on and 
see what I could have picked out on the ground. 
Without the glasses, I think you identify the 
smaller objects by their surroundings. For in- 
stance, you see the outline of a valley where 
there are farms and the pattern of the valley 
and its rivers and perhaps a town. You can 
see something that crosses a river and you just 
assume that it's a bridge. As far as being able 
to look down and see it and say that is a bridge, 
I think you are only assuming that it's a bridge 
more than really observing it. Ground colors 
show up just like they do from a high-altitude 
airplane; there's no difference. A lot of the 
things you can identify just as from a high 
flying airplane. You see by color variations 
the deep green woods and the lighter green 
fields and the cloud areas. 

I could see Cape Canaveral clearly and I took 
a picture which shows the whole Florida Pen- 
insula; you see across the interior of the Gulf. 

Sunset and Sunrise Horizon Observations 

At sunset, the flattening of the sun was not as 
pronounced as I thought it might be. The sun 
was perfectly round as it approached the hori- 
zon. It retained its symmetry all the way down 



until just the last sliver of sun was visible. The 
horizon on each side of the sun is extremely 
bright and when the sun got down to where it 
was just the same level as the bright horizon, it 
apparently spread out perhaps as much as 10 
degrees each side of the area you were looking. 
Perhaps it was just that there was already a 
bright area there and the roundness that had 
been sticking up above it came down to where 
finally that last little sliver just matched the 
bright horizon area and probably added some 
to it. 

I did not see the sunrise direct ; only through 
the periscope. You cannot see that much 
through the scope. The sun comes up so small 
in the scope that all you see is the first shaft of 
light. The band of light at the horizon looks 
the same at sunrise as at sunset. 

The white line of the horizon is extremely 
bright as the sun sets, of course. The color is 
very much like the arc lights they use around 
the pad. 

As the sun goes on down a little bit more, 
the bottom layer becomes a bright orange and 
it fades into red; then on into the darker colors 
and finally off into blues and black as you get 
further up towards space. One thing that was 
very surprising to me, though, was how far 
out on the horizon each side of that area the 
light extends. The lighted area must go out 
some 60 degrees. I think this is confirmed by 
the pictures I took. 

I think you can probably see a little more 
of this sunset band with the eye than with a 
camera. I was surprised when I looked at the 
pictures to see how narrow looking it is. I 
think you probably can pick up a little broader 
band of light with the eye than you do with 
the camera. Maybe we need more sensitive 
color film. 



198 



APPENDIX D 



PRELIMINARY REPORT ON THE RESULTS OF THE MA-6 FLIGHT 
IN THE FIELD OF SPACE SCIENCE 

By John A. O'Keefe, Ph. D.; Asst. Chief, Theoretical Division, NASA Goddard Space Flight Center 



Introduction 

This paper discusses the preliminary attempts 
to explain the observations made by Astronaut 
Glenn during the MA-6 flight. Analysis of 
Pilot Glenn's observations is continuing and is 
not yet complete. This paper is intended only 
to indicate the direction which the analysis is 
taking, not to provide the final explanations. 
The theories presented are those of the author, 
not the astronaut. In some cases, final verifica- 
tion of these theories must await further Mer- 
cury flights. 

Four principal points are to be considered in 
the field of space science as a result of the MA-6 
flight. They are: 

(1) The luminous particles (Glenn effect), 
which are probably the result of the flaking off 
of paint, or possibly the condensation of mois- 
ture from the spacecraft heat exchanger 

(2) A luminous band seen around the sky 
and possibly due to airglow or aurora but prob- 
ably due to reflections of the horizon between 
the windows of the spacecraft 

(3) The flattened appearance of the sun at 
sunset. This is not attested by the visual ob- 
servations, but appears fairly clear in the photo- 
graphs 

(4) The ultraviolet photography. 

Luminous Particles 

Glenn observed a field of small, luminous 
objects surrounding his spacecraft at sunrise 
on all three orbits. He compares them to fire- 
flies, especially in color, remarking that they 
were very luminous and variable in size. 

Some of these particles came close to the 
spacecraft so that they got into the shade, as 
witnessed by a marked loss in brightness, and a 



change in color from yellow-green to white. The 
change in color is comprehensible as being due 
to passage from illumination by direct sunlight 
to illumination by bluish light scattered from 
the twilight all along the horizon. Passage into 
the shadow is a clear indication that the par- 
ticles involved were genuinely close at hand. 
It indicates that the particles were within the 
range of stereoscopic vision, so that Glenn's dis- 
stance estimates are meaningful. It follows 
that his estimates of relative velocity are also 
meaningful : These estimates were 3 to 5 miles 
per hour, that is, 1.3 to 2.2 meters per second 
relative to the spacecraft. Glenn stated that 
the overall impression was that the spacecraft 
was moving through a field of these particles 
at the above speed. 

Evidence That Particles Are Associated With 
Spacecraft 

This observation indicates that the luminous 
objects were undoubtedly associated with the 
spacecraft in their motion. The spacecraft ve- 
locity was approximately 8,000 meters per sec- 
ond ; the velocity of the particles was identical 
with that of the spacecraft in all three coordi- 
nates within about 1 part in 4,000. Rough es- 
timates show that this implies that the orbital 
inclination was the same for the particles as for 
the spacecraft within ±0.01°. The eccentricity 
was the same within ±0.0002. In particular, 
the spacecraft was at that time descending to- 
ward perigee at the rate of approximately 50 
meters per second. The particles were descend- 
ing at the same rate within ±2 meters per sec- 
ond. Thus, from velocity consideration alone, 
there is a very convincing demonstration that 
the particles were associated with the spacecraft. 



199 



In addition, it should be noted that the height 
at that time was 160 kilometers. It was thus at 
least twice the height of the noctilucent clouds 
(which apparently consist of ice particles, and 
must therefore be considered) . At this level, 
the atmosphere has a density of the order of 
10" 10 grams/cm 3 ; it is completely unable to re- 
tard the fall of any visible object. Hence, there 
is no reason to expect any layer of particles sus- 
tained at this level. Anything at this height 
must be in orbit . 

Evidence That the Size of the Field of Particles Must 
Be Relatively Small 

An important consideration is the fact that 
the field of particles could not have been of very 
great extent. If, for example, we suppose that 
there were two or three of these "very luminous" 
particles within 3 meters of the window (the 
spacing being estimated by Glenn at 6 to 10 
feet, or 2 to 3 meters), then in the next 3 meters, 
there should be 12 particles, averaging one- 
fourth as bright so that the contribution to the 
total illumination from the second 3 meters 
is the same as from the first 3, and so on. Had 
the field extended to a distant of "several miles," 
that is, say 10 kilometers, the total light would 
have been some 3,000 times that of the individ- 
ual nearby particles, and Glenn would have 
spoken of an intensely luminous fog. Since he 
saw this for a time of about 4 minutes, during 
which he traveled about 1,920 kilometers, the 
field, if a part of the environment, would have 
been of this length and the particles would 
have covered the sky solidly in this direction, 
so that it would have looked like a cloud or a 
snowfield. This sort of calculation is well 
known in astronomy under the name of Olber's 
paradox. It establishes with certainty that the 
particles did not extend far in any direction 
from the spacecraft. The fact that Glenn did 
not see a local concentration around the space- 
craft means that there was no large density in- 
crease within the range of stereoscopic vision, 
but it does not conflict with the idea that the 
field extended at most, a few hundred meters 
in any direction. 

Evidence for Particle Size and Brightness 

With respect to the brightness of the particles, 
conversations with Astronaut Glenn have estab- 
lished that the most significant brightness esti- 



mate is the comparison with fireflies. Mr. T. J. 
Spilman, of the Smithsonian Institution, states 
that the available measures of light of Photinw 
pyralis, the common firefly of the eastern 
United States, indicate from 1/50 to 1/400 
candle, when the light is turned on. At a dis- 
tance of 1 meter, a candle has a brightness of 
about — 14; the firefly at 2 meters would be 200 
to 1,600 times fainter, or between about -8.3 
and - 6. At distances of the order of 20 meters, 
it would be from -3.3 to -1, and thus com- 
parable with planets or the brightest stars. 

The full moon (-12.6) is plainly visible on 
several of the photographs taken in orbits. The 
particles may possibly also be visible; but if so, 
they are not more than 1/10 the brightness of 
the full moon, and hence not brighter than 
about —10. Of course occasionally a large 
particle may have come close ; but the run of the 
mine must have been -10 or fainter. 

A white object 1 centimeter in diameter, at 
a distance of 2 meters in direct sunlight would 
be about —13.9 magnitude; if of pinhead size 
(2 millimeters) it would be - 10.4. If we allow 
a reduction to 1 millimeter on account of the 
known effect of bright objects to seem larger 
than they are, we find - 9, which is of the same 
order as the firefly at the same distance. 

Probable Cause of Particle Motion 

The next question is, what is the agency 
which is causing the particles to move with re- 
spect to the spacecraft? The possibilities are 
electrical, magnetic, and gravitational fields; 
light pressure; and aerodynamic drag. Of 
these, the electrical forces can be discarded for 
mass motion over a large area, since we are 
in the lower F region of the ionosphere and 
space is essentially a conductor. Magnetic 
fields can be divided into terrestrial and space- 
craft. The spacecraft field is certainly too 
small at reasonable distances, and the terrestrial 
field cannot accelerate a dipole, because the field 
gradient is too small. Gravitational fields will 
act in almost precisely the same way on the 
spacecraft as on the particles. The accelera- 
tion difference will be one way for those below 
the spacecraft and the other way for those 
above ; thus, they will make the particles seem 
to go around the spacecraft with a steady mo- 
tion, rather than to move past it. 

Light pressure and drag have similar effects 



200 



at sunrise, but at heights of the order of 160 
kilometers, drag is about 1 dyne per square cen- 
timeter, while radiation pressure is less by many 
orders of magnitude. Hence, the most prob- 
able source of the acceleration is aerodynamic 
drag. 

Nature of Particles 

Important information about the nature of 
the particles is furnished by their behavior un- 
der the influence of drag forces. At sunrise, 
the spacecraft was a little above its minimum 
altitude of 160 kilometers. At this height, the 
density of the air is roughly 1.3 X 10" 12 gm/cm 3 ; 
the spacecraft velocity is about 8X10 5 cm/sec; 
the drag pressure is thus about 1 dyne/cm 2 . 
Since Glenn states that he appeared to be mov- 
ing slowly through a relatively stationary group 
of particles, it is evident that they could not 
have been greatly accelerated while in the near 
vicinity of the spacecraft. For comparison, a 
snowflake with a diameter of 1 millimeter and 
the usual density of 0.1 will have about 0.01 
gram per square centimeter of frontal area. It 
will thus be accelerated at the rate of 100 
cm/sec 2 , and will exceed the estimated velocities 
after only 2 seconds, when it has gone 2 meters. 
We cannot escape from the problem by sup- 
posing the snowflakes to be much larger, say 1 
centimeter in diameter because, though occa- 
sional particles may have been as large as this, 
the majority must have been smaller because 
they did not give strong photographic images. 
Glenn tells us that their average separation was 
only about 6 to 10 feet, so that at any moment 
one would be expected to be within a few meters 
of the spacecraft window, and hence brighter 
than the full moon. 

A few particles, which came close to the win- 
dow and could be examined in detail appeared 
large and cottony. These were very likely 
snowflakes. They were seen to accelerate per- 
ceptibly in the airstream. 

We are now in a position to attempt to esti- 
mate the material of the particles. It is clear 
at once that we are not dealing with any sort 
of gas fluorescence or gas discharge, such as 
might be produced by the motion of the space- 
craft through the ionosphere, because the lights 
were not visible until sunrise. They were, 
therefore, shining by reflected light. Solid or 
liquid particles are more efficient in reflecting 
light than gases by factors of millions; hence 



the particles must be taken as solid or liquid. 
Their sizes were probably in the millimeter 
range, as judged from their apparent bright- 
ness. Their densities must have been much 
higher than 0.1. The highest densities reason- 
able may be about 3 ; in this case the particles 
would be accelerated at 3 cm/sec 2 , and would 
reach a velocity of 2 meters/sec after a time of 
1 minute when they would be 50 meters away, 
and their velocities would be difficult to estimate 
accurately. 

Particles Did Not Originate From Launch Vehicle 

It can be shown at this point that the particles 
could not have come from the sustainer, which 
was over 100 kilometers away at the first sight- 
ing, and about 300 kilometers away at the third 
sighting. If accelerated over this distance at 
the lowest reasonable rate, namely 3 cm/sec 2 , 
they would have passed the spacecraft at 135 
meters per second, which cannot be reconciled 
with the observations. Any small particles ob- 
served at this altitude moving with low relative 
velocity must have been released from the space- 
craft itself, and not very long previously. 

Another significant item is the total mass. 
With a separation of the order of 3 meters (10 
feet) as reported by Glenn, there is about 1 
particle per 30 cubic meters; the particles ap- 
parently weigh about 3 milligrams each. If 
a 100-meter cube is imagined filled with these 
particles, there will be about 30,000, with a total 
weight of about 1 kilogram. If we assume them 
to be 1 centimeter snowflakes, of mass 100 milli- 
grams each, the total weight is 30 kilograms. 
Since Glenn reports the field as extending 
widely, it is clear that the denser smaller par- 
ticles are more probable. 

Possible Sources of Particles in Spacecraft 

Among the materials known to have come off 
the spacecraft, only the three following appear 
to have had sufficient volume : 

(1) Solid particles: A considerable amount 
of paint flaked off the outside of the spacecraft ; 
in addition, it is possible that some solid par- 
ticles were flaked off paint and other materials 
in the area between the heat shield and the pres- 
sure vessel 

(2) Water from the hydrogen peroxide 
thrusters 

(3) Water from the cooling system. 



201 



Among these, (2) can bs discarded at once, 
first, because Glenn himself directly studied 
this possibility in flight by watching the out- 
put of the pitch-down thruster. He noted at 
that time that the jet of steam, which was 
visible, was entirely unlike the observed par- 
ticles. In the second place, the velocity im- 
parted to the steam as a necessary part of the 
thruster operation would have taken the steam 
away immediately. 

The water from the cooling system may well 
have been responsible for a few large snowflakes 
which Glenn described. This water, after being 
used to cool the spacecraft, is released through 
a hole, about 2.5 centimeters across, into the 
space between the spacecraft bulkhead and the 
heat shield. This space is approximately 10 
centimeters in depth and extends over the back 
of the heat shield, which is about 2 meters in 
diameter. The volume is thus roughly 3 X 10 5 
cubic centimeters, or 300 liters. From this 
space, it emerges through 10 or more holes, each 
about 1 centimeter in diameter, spaced around 
the heat shield. 

This system appears likely to produce snow- 
flakes. When operated in tests, the clogging 
of the 2,5 centimeter pipe by ice was a common 
occurrence. In flight this condition was also 
indicated by warning lights, on the MA-6 
flight. Vapor which got through the 2.5 centi- 
meter pipe to the space back of the bulkhead 
would expand against the low pressure inside 
the bulkhead and would cool. Ice crystals 
would form, but these might not leave the space- 
craft for some time, because of the smallness of 
the ports relative to the size of the space. This 
situation, where a low gas pressure might be 
sustained for a considerable period, is very 
helpful in understanding the growth of snow- 
flakes as large as 1 centimeter in diameter. It 
would be hard to see how such flakes could grow 
in empty space. 

As a result of the relatively low temperatures, 
the large size of the pipes, and the cooling and 
the condensation back of the bulkhead, the gas 
pressure at the ports would be expected to be 
very low. so that the snowflakes would emerge 
with low velocities, as described by Glenn. It 
is easy to imagine a flake formed in this way 
drifting down past the spacecraft window 
slowly in the manner described. As long as 
it was back of the heat shield, it would not 



experience the airstream; but eventually, as 
described by Glenn, it would drift up into the 
airstream and then start moving up to the rear. 
Such particles would look like white cottony 
snowflakes because they were. Their color 
would be different by direct sunlight from their 
color in the shadow for the same reason as the 
phenomenon that shadows at sunset are some- 
times blue. (See ref. 1.) The light that gets 
into the shadow is the light from the long 
twilight arc on the earth, and this is predomi- 
nantly blue. 

The total quantity of water available from 
this source is about 1 kilogram per hour. In 
view of the very short time that it could remain 
in the vicinity of the spacecraft and the rela- 
tively large total amount required to fill a 
reasonable volume around the spacecraft, it 
appears somewhat unlikely that ice is the mate- 
rial of the particles, though the possibility 
cannot be entirely excluded that dense ice crys- 
tals were involved. 

Another possibility is solid particles of mate- 
rial such as paint. Millimeter size particles of 
this type would have densities on the order of 3 
and masses of the order of 3 milligrams. With- 
in a sphere of radius 10 meters around the 
spacecraft, there would be 140 such particles, 
with a total mass of about y 2 gram. Within 
100 meters, there would be about y 2 kilogram. 
If we suppose that particles of this type are 
liberated primarily at sunrise, possibly because 
of some cracking or stretching of the spacecraft 
skin occurring at this time, it is not necessary 
to imagine much more than iy 2 kilograms of 
material was liberated during the whole flight, 
especially if we suppose that the density was 
somewhat less in the outer portions of the cloud. 
This figure is perhaps not inconsistent with the 
amount of material which could have flaked off. 
It is necessary to emphasize the extremely tenu- 
ous character of these figures which depend on 
estimates of the cloud size, since the mass of 
material required varies with the cube of the 
diameter of the cloud. 

Summing up, it appears that the Glenn ef- 
fect is due to small solid particles, mostly about 
1 millimeter in diameter, but with a few larger 
bodies in addition. The brightness of the ma- 
jority of the particles was about -9 at a dis- 
tance of 2 meters. They were probably at least 
as dense as water; higher densities are more 



202 



likely. They were certainly not a part of the 
space environment, but were something put 
in orbit as a result of the MA-6 flight. They 
were almost as certainly related to the space- 
craft, not to the sustainer. Two reasonable 
possibilities exist, namely ice from the cooling 
system, and/or particles of paint or other heavy 
material which flaked off the spacecraft under 
the low pressures of the space environment. Of 
these, the paint is the more probable because 
its higher density explains the orbital behavior 
better, and because we can understand why 
paint might be liberated only at sunrise, while 
ice would be liberated throughout the flight. 
Hence, very large quantities of ice would be 
needed, compared to the amounts of paint. 

In short, the most probable explanation of the 
Glenn effect is millimeter-size flakes of ma- 
terial liberated at or near sunrise by the space- 
craft. 

The Luminous Band 

On all three revolutions, Glenn reports a 
luminous band, at a height of 7° to 8° above the 
horizon, tan to buff in color, more luminous 
when the moon (then full) was up. The band 
is stated to have been faintly and uncertainly 
visible when the moon was down ; at that time, 
the horizon was clearly seen silhouetted by stars. 

After the flight, it was noted that many 
photographs of the twilight showed a luminous 
band parallel to the horizon. Photographs 
of the sky in full daylight showed a faint lu- 
minous zone extending all the way up from the 
horizon. The f aintness of the band on daylight 
photographs was probably due to the automatic 
reduction of the exposure in strong light. 

The focal length of the camera lens was 50 
millimeters. Then photographs were enlarged 
about 6.8 times for study, yielding a scale about 
0°.17 per millimeter. The height of the band 
seen on the enlargements was about 75 milli- 
meters, or 12°. 6. 

The band seen on the photographs had not 
been noted as such in the spacecraft. It was 
therefore thought at first to be perhaps a camera 
effect. However, the circular symmetry of a 
camera lens makes it difficult to explain a band 
parallel to the horizon. 

The most probable explanation of the lumi- 
nous band seen on the photographs is multiple 
reflections within the spacecraft window sys- 



tem. The spacecraft has an inner and an outer 
window, which are inclined to one another. 
The angle of inclination was found by measure- 
ment of the blueprints to be about 6°. Light 
passing through the outer window and reflected 
by the inner one, back to the outer window, and 
then back again into the spacecraft would have 
been turned through an angle of about 12°, in 
a direction away from the top of the spacecraft, 
which in flight, points near the horizon. This 
explanation probably accounts for what was 
seen in the photographs. The existence of these 
reflections has been directly verified in the Mer- 
cury procedures trainer at the Mercury Control 
Center. It was further found in spacecraft 18 
that one of the reflections (there were two) had 
a light tan color corresponding to that observed 
by Glenn. 

Since it is a spacecraft phenomenon, the lu- 
minous band produced by reflection must also 
have been present in the night sky, especially 
after moonrise. It may be identical with the 
band observed by Glenn. The color difference 
which he remarked on may have resulted from 
an antireflectant coating which had been ap- 
plied to the windows. 

If not due to reflection, it might be possible 
to attribute the band to some auroral phenom- 
enon. There is a line in the auroral spectrum 
at 5,577 A. This line is known from rocket 
measurements to stop at 100 kilometers. A 
height of 100 kilometers would appear, at the 
spacecraft height of 250 kilometers, as a false 
horizon at an angular altitude of about 3°. It 
would be green in color, and would be more 
difficult to see after moonrise. It does not agree 
with the luminous band. 

In addition, there are two auroral red lines, 
at 6,300 and 6,464 A, which are known to come 
from a height greater than any so far reached 
by rockets sent to observe them. From theory, 
they ought to be at a height of about 240 kilo- 
meters. These might be reconciled with the 
observed luminous band, though they ought not 
to be easier to see after moonrise. They would 
explain the tan to buff color observed. On the 
other hand, these lines are much fainter than 
5,577, so that it is hard to understand why they 
would be observed while it was missed. 

On the whole, the balance of probability is 
that the luminous band was due to reflection in 
the spacecraft window. The outstanding rea- 



203 



son for connecting the two is that the inclined 
windows should have given a ghost image. 

The Flattened Sun 

Glenn reports that the sunset appeared to be 
normal until the last moment, when the sun 
appeared to spread out about 10° on either side, 
and to merge with the twilight band. He spe- 
cifically states that he did not see the sun as a 
narrow, flat object. 

On the other hand, three consecutive photo- 
graphs of the setting sun can be well interpreted 
in terms of the theoretically predicted sausage 
shape. In two of these, there is some slight 
spreading of the image, evidently partly pho- 
tographic and partly due to motion ; and in the 
third, the motion is considerable. All, how- 
ever, appear to indicate a solar image about y 2 
degree in greatest dimension as required by 
theory, rather than a much shorter length, as 
would be found if the setting were like that seen 
from the ground. 

The Ultraviolet Photography 

A total of six spectrograms were taken of the 
Orion region. All six show the stars of the 



Belt ; most also show Rigel and the Sword stars. 
One, more carefully guided than the others, 
reaches magnitude 4.0 and includes 14 images, 
some underexposed, and Rigel overexposed. In 
all cases, it appears from the (very approxi- 
mately) uniform light distribution that the 
spacecraft was yawing at a steady rate. 

The pictures have not yet been correlated 
with the spacecraft program. It is understood 
that they represent exposures of roughly 15 
seconds. 

Standardization in the blue region was ac- 
complished when the pictures were developed. 
Ultraviolet standardization will be done at 
Eastman Kodak. 

Next, it is planned to determine the long and 
short wavelength cutoffs, from spectra exposed 
at McDonnell Aircraft Corporation through 
the spacecraft window and to find the disper- 
sion by further studies. 

Finally, it is hoped to construct curves giving 
the relative intensities in the stars observed over 
the available region, and to compare with the 
work of Kupperian at NASA Goddard Re- 
search Center. 

(None of these plans can be considered offi- 
cial or final at this time. ) 



Reference 

1. Minnaebt, M-, (H. M. Kremer-Prlest and K. E. Brian Jay, trans.) : Light and dolor in the Open Air. Dover 
Publications, e. 1954, p. 136. 



204