Skip to main content

Full text of "NASA Audio Highlight Reels, Soundbites and Launch Sounds"

See other formats


COPY OF COPIK 



L 



POSTLAUNCH MEMORANDUM REPORT 
FOR 

MERCURY-ATLAS NO. 7 (MA-7) 



PART I - MISSION ANALYSIS 

CLASSIFICATION CMANatn^TtJ 

Uncials,' ^^f^nf 

Br AUTHOBITY Ol» ^0 /3^?.fv^ 



NATIONAL AERONAUTICS AND SPACE ADMINISTRATION 
MANNED SPACECRAFT CENTER 
Cape Canaveral, Florida 
June 15, 1962 



This document contains information affecting the national defense of the 
United States vithin the meaning of the Espionage laws. Title 1», u.b.o.. 
Sections 793 and 19k. The transmission or the revelation of its cdntents 
in any manner to an unauthorized person is prohihited by law. 



COMTDEKTIAL 



POSTLAUUCH MEMORAMDUM REPORT 
FOR 

MERCURI -ATLAS NO. 7 (MA-T) 



E. 


M. 


Fields, Senior Editor 


J. 


H. 


Boynton, Assistant to Senior Editor 


R. 


D. 


Harrington 


R. 


G. 


Arbic 


E. 


A. 


Horton 


S. 


C. 


White, M.D. 


c. 


A. 


Berry, M.D. 


V. 


I. 


Grissom 


R. 


B. 


Voas, PhD. 


W. 


J. 


Horth 



MTIOKAL AEROWAUTICS AM) SPACE AEMIWISTRATION 
MAMED SPACECRAFT CEETER 
Cape Canaveral, Florida 
June 1^,M962 



COINIFIDEETIAL 



CONTTDEHrriAL 



TABLE OF COlfTENTS 

Section 

1.0 ITJTRODUCTIOW 
2.0 MISSION SUMMARY 

3.0 LIFT-OFF COMFiaUEATION DESCRIPTION 

3.1 Spacecraft Description 

3.2 Launch Vehicle Description 

h.O EVEICS, TRAJIICTORY, AND GUIDANCE 
k.l Sequence of Events 
k.2 Trajectory 
h.3 Guidance 

5.0 SPACECRAFT PERFORMANCE 

5.1 Spacecraft Control System 

5.2 Envlrontiiental Control System 

5.3 Spacecraft Communications 

5. U Electrical and Sequential- System 

5.5 Mechanical and Rocket Systems 

5.6 Reentry Heating 

5.7 Scientific Experiments 

6.0 LAUNCH VEHICLE PERFORMANCE 

6.1 Hydraulics 

6.2 Ahort Sensing and Implementation System 

6.3 Airframe 

6. k Guidance 

7.0 PIEOT ACTIVITIES 

7-1 Pilot's Iitrpressions of the Plight 

7.2 Flight Activities 

7.3 Aeromedical Studies 
T,h Conclusions 

8.0 FLIGHT CONTROL AND NETWORK PERFORMANCE 

8.1 Introduction:' : : 

8.2 Flight Control Summary 

8.3 Network Performance Simimary 

9.0 RECOVERY 

9.1 Recovery Plans 

9.2 Recovery Operations 

9.3 Recovery Aids 



Page 


1 


_ 


1 








3 




1 


3 


- 


1 


3 




3 


k 


- 


1 


h 




1 


k 


- 


1 


k 


- 


3 


5 




1 


5 




1 


5 




8 


5 


- 


12 


5 






5 




18 


5 




22 


5 




2'+ 


6 




1 


6 




1 


6 




1 


6 




1 


6 


- 


2 


7 




1 


7 




1 








7 






7 






8 




1 


8 




1 


8 




1 


8 




' k 


9 




1 


9 




1 


9 




1 


9 




5 



CONFIDENTIAL 



COKFIDENTIAL 



Section Page 



APPEKDIX A 


10 


- 1 


10.1 Postf light Inspection 


10 


- 1 


10.2 Launch 0]3erations 


10 


- 3 


10.3 Weather Conditions 


10 


- k 


10. U Spacecrarrt History 


10 


- 6 


10.5 Communications Details (deleted) 






10.6 Telemetry, Instrumentation and Onboard Film 10 


- 10 


10.7 Atlantic Missile Range Support & 


Data Coverage 10 


- 13 


10.8 Flight Safety Reviews 


10 


- 16 


10.9 Test Objectives 


10 


- 18 



APPENDIX B - ACKNOWLEDGEMENT 


11 


- 1 


APPENDIX C - 14A-7 AIR -GROUND VOICE COMMUNICATIONS 


12 


- 1 


12.1 Introduction 


12 


- 1 


12.2 Contents of Communication Transcript 


12 


- 2 


12.3 Transcript 


12 


- 3 


Distribution 


12 


- 85 



CONFIDENTIAL 



COHPIDENTIAL 
LIST OF TABLES 

Table Pa^e 

U.1-1 Sequence of Events ^-5 

h,2-l Comparison of Planned and Actual Trajectory 

Parameters h - 6 

5.1.2-1 Fuel Consumption 5-6 

5.1.2- 2 Spacecraft 18 Thrust Chamber Inspection 5 - T 

7.2.1.1- 1 Time Pilot Spent in Spacecraft 18 During Hangar 

and Pad Tests 7 - I8 

7.2.1.2- 1 Pilot Training Summary on the Alfa and Procedures 

Trainers 7-19 

7.2.1.4-1 Pilot Pre-f light Preparation History 7-20 

7.2.3- 1 Summary of Maneuvering Plight and Inflight Activities -7-22 

7. 3. 1- 1 General Astronaut Activities 7-39 

7. 3. 1.1- 1 Aeromedical Countdown Events 7 - •^O 

7.3.1.2- 1 Pre- and Postf light Medical Findings 7 - ll 

7.3.1.2- 2 MA-7 Astronaut Laboratory Values 7-42 

7.3.2.3- 1 Summary of Inflight Blood Pressure Measurements ... 7-^,^4 

7.3.2.3-2 Summary of Blood Pressure Data 7-^5 

8.3-1.3-1 Orbital Insertion Conditions Available at MCC .... 8-10 

8.3.1.3-2 Radar Tracking 8-11 

8.3.1.3-3 Reentry Tracking Data 8-13 

8.3.2- 2 Telemetry Performance - Acquisition and LOS Times, 

Ranges^ and Elevation Angles 8 - ik 

8.3-4-1 Command Handover Summary 8-15 

8.3-4-2 Command Function Summary 8-17 

10.7-1 AMR Optical Coverage of Launch and Reentry Phases . . 10-15 



COIJFIDEWTIAL 



COIIFIDENTIAL 



LIST OF FIGUEES 

Figure Page 

1.0-1 Pref light photograph of Astronauts Schirra 

(MA-7 "baclmp), Carpenter (MA-T pilot), 

and Spacecraft Engineer Graham 1-2 

1.0-2 Astronauts Carpenter and Glenn during an 

ijaformal postflight discussion 1-3 

3.0- 1 MA-7 Launch configuration at lift-off 3-^ 

3.1- 1 MA-7 Spacecraft l8 mounted on the launch vehicle 3-5 

3.1- 2 MA-7 Axis diagram 3-6 

3.2- 1 Sketch showing general configuration 3-T 

4.2-1 Gro\ind track for the MA-7 orhital mission 4-8 

4.2-2 Altitude versus longitude profile 4-9 

4.2-3 Time histories of trajectory parameters for MA-7 

mission launch phase 

(a) Altitude and range 4-10 

(h) Space-fixed velocity and flight-path angle .... 4-11 

(c) Earth-fixed velocity and flight-path angle .... 4-12 

(d) Dynamic pressure and Mach number 4-13 

(e) Longitudinal deceleration along spacecraft 

Z-axls 4-l4 

4.2-4 Time histories of trajectory parameters for MA-7 

mission orbit phase 

(a) Latitude, longitude, and altitude 4-15 

("b) Space-fixed velocity and flight-path angle .... 4-l6 

4.2-5 Time histories of trajectory parameters for MA-7 

mission reentry phase 

(a) Latitude, longitude, and altitude 4-17 

(h) Space-fixed velocity and flight-path angle .... 4-l8 

(c) Earth-fixed velocity and flight-path angle .... 4-19 

(d) Dynamic pressure and Mach number 4-20 

(e) Longitudinal acceleration along spacedraft 

Z-axls 4-21 



CONFIDENTIAL 



CONFIDENTIAL 



Figure Page 

k.3-1 Space-fixed velocity and flight-patli angle in 

the reglor of cutoff using General Electric - 
Burroughs data 

(a) Space -fixed velocity ^-22 

(h) Space-fixed flight-path angle h-23 

k.3-2 Space-fixed velocity and flight-path angle in the 

region of cutoff using I. P. TO9O data 

(a) Space -fixed velocity ^-2k 

(b) Space-fixed flight-path angle 

k.3~3 Space-fixed flight-path angle versus space-fixed 

velocity in the region of cutoff h-26 

5. 1- 1 Spacecraft s.nd launch vehicle indicated 

attitudes during powered flight 5-32 

5.2- 1 Variation of cabin air, cabin heat exchanger 

steam exhaust temperatures , and associated 

comfort control valve settings with time 5-33 

5.2-2 Variation of suit Inlet, suit heat exchanger 
steam exhaust temperatures and associated 
comfort control valve settings 5-3^ 

5.2-3 Variation of I50 V-amp and 250 V-amp inverter 
temperatures and associated cooling control 
valve settings with time 5-35 

5. 5. 1-1 Logic diagrEJH for parachute deployment system 

(a) Schem£.tic 5-36 

(b) Key to components shown in part (a) of 

this figure 5-3T 

5.5 -T-l Sketch showing location of valves in spacecraft 

small pressure bulkhead 5-38 

5. 6. 1-1 Maximum ablation shield temperatures experienced 

on flights 5-39 

5.7 -1-1 Balloon experiment planned deployment 

configuration 5-UO 



CONFIDENTIAL 



CONFIDENTIAL 

Figure Page 

5. 7. 2-1 Zero-gravity experiment 5-^1 

5.7.3.1-1 MIT horizon -definition photograph 5-^2 

6,1-1 Atlas launch -vehicle hydraulic diagram 6-3 

6.1-2 Pressure at transducer H52P 6-k 

7. 2. 3. 1-1 Turnaround maneuver; fly -by-wire control mode, 

rate and attitude gyro indicator 7-^7 

7.2.3.6- 1 Horizon scanner and gyro output during retro- 

fire period for MA-7 7-^8 

7. 2. 3. 7- 1 HgOg fuel usage 7-^+9 

7.2.4.1-1 35iimi hand-held camera 7-50 

1.2. k. 3-1 MIT filter mosaic 7-50 

1.2.k.k-l Photometer 7-51 

7.2.4.5- 1 Binoculars 7-51 

7.2.4.6- 1 Extinction Photometer 7-52 

7.2.4.8- 1 Air glow filter 7-52 

7.2.4.9- 1 Night adaption eye cover 7-53 

7. 3. 2. 1-1 Sample of blockhouse bioinstrumentation record 

at T-68 minutes, 5:52 a.m., e.s.t., showing 
an adequate blood pressixre trace, value 
114/64, Lead 2 is inverted. (Recorder speed 

is lOmm/sec) 7-5^ 

7.3.2.1- 2 Typical Inflight blood pressure data 7-55 

7.3.2.2- 1 Preflight: respiration rate, pulse rate, blood 

pressure, body temperature and suit Inlet 
temperature for MA-7 countdown with values 
at selected events from the MA-6 simulated 
launch of January I7, I962, and the MA-7 
simulated laimch of May 10, I962 

(a) Countdown 04:40 to 06:20 e.s.t 7-56 



CONFIDENTIAL 



CONFIDENTIAL 



Figure Page 

(b) Countdown, 06:20 to 07:^5 e.s.t. 

(lift-off) , T-5T 

T.3«2.3-l Flight: respiration rate, pulse rate, blood 
pressure, body temperature, and suit inlet 
temperature during the MA-7 flight, with 
values from the Mercury-Atlas three -orb it 
centrifuge dynamic simulation 

(a) Flight elapsed time, 00:00 to 02:30 7-58 

(b) Flight elapsed time, 02:30 to biosensor 

disconnect, 0k:^2 7-59 

7-3'2.3-2 Sample of pl£.yback record from the onboard 
tape showir..g physiologic data after one 
minute of veightlessness . (Recorder speed 

25nim/sec) 7-6o 

7.3.2.3-3 Sample of the physiological data from playback 
of the onbcard tape at 04:32:06 mission 
elapsed time, one minute and 15 seconds be- 
fore retrof ire, illustrating a premature 

atrial contraction. (Recorder speed 25imii/sec) .... 7-6l 

8. 3- 1.1-1 C-band radar coverage 

(a) First orbital pass 8-l8 

(b) Second orbital pass 8-19 

(c) Third orbital pass 8-20 

8. 3.1.1-2 S-band radar coverage 

(a) First orbital pass 8-21 

(b) Second orbital pass 8-22 

(c) Third orbital pass 8-23 

8. 3 '2-1 Telemetry reception coverage 

(a) First orbital pass &-2k 

(b) Second orbital pass 8-25 

(c) Third orbital pass 8-26 

8.3.3-1 HF and UHF voice coverage 

(a) First orbital pass 8-27 

(b) Second orbital pass 8-28 

(c) Third orbital pass 8-29 



CONFIDENTIAL 



CONFIDENTIAL 



Figure Page 

9-1-1 Recovery areas and ship locations 9-6 

9-1-2 Contingency recovery support forces 9-7 

9.2-1 Details of landing area H 9-10 

9-2-2 Spacecraft prior to installation of 

aiixiliary flotation collar 9-11 

9-2-3 Astronaut retrieval by HSS-2 9-12 

9-2-U Spacecraft prior to pickup 9-13 

9-2-5 Spacecraft being hoisted aboard ship 9-1^ 

10.1-1 Postf light photograph of spacecraft l8 

prior to disassembly in Hangar S 10-19 

10.1.2- 1 Postf light photograph of spacecraft l8 

ablation shield 10-20 

10.1.3- 1 Spacecraft l8 depicting postf light damage 

to landing bag and suspension straps 10-21 

10.3-1 Launch site wind direction and speed 10-22 

lO.il- 1 Spacecraft l8 prelaunch history 10-23 

10. T. 3-1 AMR engineering-sequential tracking-camera 

coverage 10-24 



CONFIDENTIAL 



CONFIDEIWIAL 



NOTICE 

NO. 1: LIFT-OFF TIME (2-INCH MOTION) FOE THE MA.-T FLIGHT 

WAS 07:^5:16.57 EST.' RANGE ZERO TIME WAS ESTABLISHED 
AS 07:^1-5:16.00 EST. ALL TIMES REFERRED TO IN THIS 
REPORT ARE IN ELAPSED TIME IN HES:MIN:SEC FROM RANGE 
ZERO UNLESS OTHERWISE NOTED.. 

NO. 2: THE MA.- 7 POSTLAUNCH MEMORANDUM REPORT IS IN 2 PARTS, 
UNDER SEPARATE COVERS, AS FOLLOWS: 

PART I - MISSION ANALYSIS . - THIS PART CONTAINS 
AN OVERALL ANALYSIS OF THE MISSION AND PRESENTS A 
MINIMUM OF DATA. 

FART II - DATA .- THIS PART CONTAINS COMPLETE 
TIME HISTORIES OF SPACECRAIT DATA, WITHOUT ANALYSIS. 



CONFIDENTIAL 



COKPIDEKTIAL 



Page 1 



1,0 INTRODUCTION 



The second manned orbital flight in Project Merc-ury was 
successfully made on May 2k, ±962, from the Cape Canaveral Missile 
Test Center. Astronaut M. Scott Carpenter^ shown in figures 1.0-1 
and 1.0-2, was the pilot for this Mercury-Atlas (MA-T) mission. 
This was the fourth orbital flight of a Mercury specification 
spacecraft and the seventh of a series utilizing the Atlas launch 
vehicle . 

The MA-7 mission was planned for three orbital passes and was 
a continuation of a program to acquire operational experience and 
Information for manned orbital spaceflight. The objectives of the 
flight were to evaluate the performance of the manned spacecraft 
system in a three-pass mission] to evaluate the effects of space- 
flight on the astronaut; to obtain the astronaut's opinions on the 
operational suitability of the spacecraft systems; to evaluate the 
performance of spacecraft systems replaced or modified as a result 
of previous missions; and to further exercise and evaluate the 
performance of the Mercury worldwide network. All objectives were 
successfully achieved. 

A preliminary analysis of the significant data has been made, 
and the important findings are presented in this report. Brief de- 
scriptions of the mission, the spacecraft, and the launch vehicle 
precede the performance analysis and supporting data. All signifi- 
cant events of the MA-7 mission, beginning with delivery of the 
spacecraft to the launch site through recovery and postflight 
examination, are documented. 

The graphical Information presented herein has been included 
to support and clarify the text; however, the reader is referred 
to Part II for a complete presentation without analysis, of all 
MA-7 time history data. 



CDNFIDEWTIAL 



CONFIDENTUL 



Page 1-2 




CONFroENTIAL 



CONFroENTIAL 



Page 1-3 




CONFroENTIAL 



CONFIDENTIAL 



Page 2-1 



2.0 MISSION SUMMARY 



The MA-7 mission, with Astronaut M. Scott Carpenter as pilot, 
experienced unscheduled prelaunch holds totaling ^5 minutes, and 
these were directly related to reduced visibility conditions and 
the measurement of atmospheric refraction in the launch area. A low- 
level fog and smoke condition precluded required optical coverage at 
the planned launch time of 7:00 AM, e.s.t. Lift-off occurred approxi- 
mately at 7:ll5 AM, e.s.t., on May 2k, I962; 3 hours after the astro- 
naut entered the spacecraft. 

Laimch vehicle performance was highly satisfactory, and all 
events occurred as planned through spacecraft separation. General 
Electric -Burroughs and AZUSA data both indicated a "CO" condition. 
Orbital insertion conditions were excellent with deviations from 
nominal values of space-fixed flight-path angle and velocity (post- 
posigrade) of .OOOh degrees and 2.0 ft/sec, respectively. The perigee 
and apogee of the orbit differed from the nominal values of 86.96 and 
Ikh.k nautical miles by .09 nautical miles and O.56 nautical miles, 
respectively. 

Spacecraft separation and manual turnaround were accomplished 
satisfactorily. During the first two and one-half orbital periods, 
some difficulties were experienced in maintaining suit-circuit 
temperatures. Control-system fuel usage rates were higher than ex- 
pected during the early part of this period. 

The pilot tracked the launch vehicle tankage, checked out the 
spacecraft control system, performed planned tasks, and conducted 
scientific experiments. He also took numerous photographs of the 
launch vehicle tankage, a tethered balloon, meteorological phenomena, 
and general terrestrial featiires. 

Upon arriving within communication range of Hawaii on the third 
pass, the pilot noted that the spacecraft true attitude and indicated 
attitude in pitch were in disagreement and that the ASCS control mode 
appeared to have an error in attitude reference. Because of this 
problem and previous preoccupation with other observations, he got 
behind in his pre-retro checklist and was occupied with assessing the 
control problem from that point to retrof Ire . Retrorocket ignition 
occurred approximately 3 seconds late, the pitch and yaw attitudes 
varied during retroflre, and the pilot noted that the sensations dur- 
ing this period did not equal the pronounced effects of accelleration 
that he had expected. Shortly after retroflre, computed trajectory 
data indicated that an overshoot of about 250 nautical miles beyond 
the planned landing area would occur, and subsequent tracking data 
confirmed the initially -predicted coordinates of the landing point. 



CONFIDENTIAL 



Page 2-2 



CONFIDENTIAL 



The pilot received information after ionization blackout regarding 
these coordinates and the expected recovery time of about one hour. 
Retropackage release and periscope retraction operations were re- 
ported by the pilot^ and these occurred at near nominal times . The 
pilot also reported depletion of the manual fuel supply prior to 
ionization blackout. The portion of the reentry through the heat 
pulse and deceleration buildup were accomplished satisfactorily, 
but oscillations of the spacecraft increased considerably thereafter. 
The pilot manually deployed the drogue parachute at an altitude of 
about 25,000 feet to damp these oscillations. 

After landing, the pilot immediately began the normal procedure 
of egressing from the spacecraft through the recovery compartment, 
deployed his recovery equipment, and entered his life raft. 

Recovery operations were successful, which included deployment 
of a pararescue team into the water about one hour after landing. 
This team inflated additional rafts and mounted a flotation collar 
around the spacecraft to provide additional buoyancy. An HSS-2 
helicopter from the aircraft carrier Intrepid recovered the astro- 
naut in good condition about 3 hours after landing, and the space- 
craft was retrieved by the destroyer J. R. Pierce about 6 hours 
after landing. 



CONFIDENTIAL 



COKFIDEKTIAL 
3.0 LIFT-OFF COKFIGURATIOK EESCRIFTION 



Page 3 - 



A photograph of the lift-off configuration consisting of space- 
craft and launch vehicle is shown In figure 3«0-l. 



3ol Spacecraft Description 

Spacecraft number l8 (.shown In figure 3-l-l) was employed in the 
MA-7 orbital mission., and figure 3° 1-2 displays the reference axis sys- 
tem employed. This spacecraft was essentially identical to Spacecraft 
number I3 used on the MA-6 flight. Eovever^ some of the more signifi- 
cant features and modifications between the two are listed below: 

1. The Sofar bombs and radar chaff were deleted, since they are 
no longer considered necessary for an effective recovery. 

2. The oxygen-q.uantity telelight was removed because the oxygen 
partial -pressure transducer, originally located in the cabin, was re- 
located in the suit. Later the transducer was put back in the cabin, 
but the oxygen-quantity telelight remained deletedo 

3. The earth-path indicator and oxygen partial-pressure indicator 
were deleted, since they were not necessary to accomplish the mission. 

The knee and chest straps were removed as a result of re-evalu 
ation of their usefulness = 

5. The coolant-quantity and humidity indicators were deleted as 
unnecessary after an analysis of their performance histories, 

6. The instrument-observer camera was removed because the data 
from this source Is no""longer considered essential. " The' pilot-observer 
camera, using a mirror, performs a part of this function. 

7. A 30-inch diameter balloon, deployed in orbit, was installed 
in order to obtain drag and visibility data. 

8. A zero-gravity experiment was carried to obtain data on fluid 
behavior within a specific envelope configuration while weightless. 

9. A temperature survey was incorporated to give a more complete 
indication of inflight temperatures . 

10. A low-level commutator was added to the temperature survey 
circuit and recorded directly to the onboard tape . 



COKFIDEHTIAL 



Page 3-2 



C03IFTDEMTIAL 



11, The low- frequency-telemetry center frequency was raised 

500 kc, from 225-7 mc to 226.2 mc, to eliminate the KF interference which 
occurrred on the M-6 flight. 

12. The suit— circuit constant -hl££ji.j:irif±ce was deleted. 



13- The landing hag limit switches were re-wired to prevent erroneous 
telemetered and indicated deploy signals should one switch malfunction. 

ik. A maneuver switch was added to remove roll and yaw slaving of 
spacecraft gyros and pitch or"bital precession at atronaut's will. 

15. The cahin and suit-circuit steam vents were instrumented^ and 
a dual indicator was installed on the instrument panel to enable the 
astronaut to evaluate temperatures. 

16. The check valve was deleted from the inverter cold -plate water 
cooling system, since a stuck valve could cause high inverter temperatures. 

17. The l/h-g relay was locked in after SECO because this dropped out 
with posigrade ignition and interferred with the ASCS damping mode on the 
m-6 flight. 

18. The parachute landing system was modified, as a result of Project 
Reef, as follows: 

(1) The reef :_ng -cutter pockets were Invert-ed-t 

(2) The reefiLng-cutter lanyards were relocated to the canopy. 

(3) The reefing line was changed from a 750 -pound test to 1,000- 
pound test line. 

(4) The deployment bag was strengthened. 

The weight and baj.ance data recorded immediately prior to flight for 
the MA-7 spacecraft are summarized below. 

Spacecraft I8 Weight and Balance Summary 

Uormal 



Parameter Launch Orbit Ee -entry Main Chute ELotation 



Weight in Pounds 






297^^.56 


2663.36 


2557.70 


2407.83 


Center of Gravity 


Z 


168.40 


121. 


125.10 


122.51 


119.89 




X 


-.07 


-.10 


-.10 


-.09 


-.40 


Station in Inches 


Y 


.02 


-.01 


.00 


.03 


■ 05 


Moments of Inertia 




354.60 


288.90 


272.10 


266 . 50 


262.80 






7709 ■ 50 


646.30 


562.20 


445.60 


376.10 


Slugs - Ft^ 




7720.70 


658.80 


575-30 


458.90 


389.00 



CONFIDENTIAL 



COi^FIDENTIAL 



Page 3 - 



3.2 Launch Vehicle Description 

The MA-7 launch vehicle; the Atlas lOT-C^ was an Atlas Series-D 
missile modified for the mission as on previous Mercury-Atlas flights 

The Atlas IO7-D was modified during factory assembly to include 
heavier forward tank skins . With the exception that the fuel tank 
insulation hulkhead was retained^ this vehicle configuration did not 
differ from the launch vehicle (IO9-D) utilized for the MA-6 mission 
in any major respect. 

The following is a configuration comparison summary of minor 
changes from Mercury-Atlas 109-D to lOT-D. 

Class I changes added: 

1. Staging time was reduced from 131-3 to 130=1 sec. after 
lift-off and backup staging ^ime was altered from I36 
to 132.2 sec, 

2. Propellant -utilization manometer calibration procedure 
revised. 

3. Boiloff -valve spring rate changed, 

k. LOX-tank pressure regulator operating range changed. 

5- Servo stabilization provision to eliminate need for special 
selection of booster engine hydraulic actuators. 

6. Propellant utilization telemetry-signal conditioning 
changed. 

7. Booster engine main-oxidizer-valve material changed 
from aluminum to stainless steel to reduce thermal 
expansion effects . 

8. Improved pneumatic regulators cn booster engines. 

9. Eliminated interference between high-pressure fuel 
drain fitting and vehicle structure, 

10. The head-suppression and propellant-utilization solenoid 
valves were modified by reversing the electrical-mechani- 
cal position stops in an effort to improve reliability. 



CONFIDENTIAL 




CONFroENTIAL 



CONFroENTIAL 



Page 3-5 



i 




Figure 3.1-1.-. MA-7 Spacecraft 18 mounted 
on the launch vehicle. 



CONFIDENTIAL 



CONFroENTIAL 




Pitch 

Pitcb Is defined as the rotation of the spacecraft 
ahout its X-axis. The pitch angle is zero degrees 
(0°) when the Z-axis lies in a horizontal plane. 
Using the astronaut's right side as a reference, 
positive pitch is achieved hy counterclockwise 
rotation from the zero degree (0°) plane. The 
rate of this rotation is the spacecraft pitch 
rate and is positive in the direction shown. 

Yaw 

Yaw is defined as the rotation of the spacecraft 
about its Y-axis. Clockwise rotation of the space- 
craft when viewed from ahove the astronaut, is 
called right yaw and is defined as positive. 

Yaw angle is considered zero degrees (0°) when 
the spacecraft is in normal orhltal position 
(blunt end of spacecraft facing line of flight). 
When the positive Z-axis of the spacecraft is 
directed along the orbital flight path (recovery 
end of spacecraft facing line of flight), the 
yaw angle is l80°. 



Roll 

Hon is defined as the rotation of the spacecraft 
about its Z-axis. Clockwise rotation of the space- 
craft, as viewed from behind the astronaut, is 
called right roll and is defined as positive (+). 
When the X-axis of the spacecraft lies in a hori- 
zontal plane, the roll angle is zero degrees (0°). 



Accelerometer Polarity with Respect to Gravity 

With the spacecraft in the launch position, the 
Z-axls will be perpendicular to the earth's 
surface and the Z-axis accelerometer will read 



Figure 3.1-2.- MA-7 Axis diagram 

CONFIDENTIAL 



CONFroENTIAL 



Page 3-7 




Figure 3.2-1.- Sketch shoving general configuration. 

CONFroENTIAL 



CONFIDENTIAL 



Page ^ - 1 



^.0 EVENTS, TRAJECTORY, AND GUIDANCE 



k.l Sequence of Events 



The times at which the major events of the MA-7 mission occurred 
are given in table ij-.l-l. 



k.2 Trajectory 

The ground track of the flight is shown in figure 4.2-1, and 
the altitude-longitude profile is shown in figure k.2-2. 

The launch trajectory data, shown in figure 4.2-3, are based on 
the real time output of the Range Safety Impact Predictor Computer 
(which used AZUSA MK II and Cape Canaveral PPS-16 radars) and the 
General Electric -Burroughs guidance computer. The data from these 
tracking facilities were used during the time periods listed below. 

Facility Time, MintSec 

Cape Canaveral FPS-16 0 to 00:39 

AZUSA MK II 00:39 to 01:13 

GE-Burroughs 01:13 to 05:10 

The parameters shown for the "planned" launch trajectory in 
table 4.1-1 were computed using the 1959^ ARDC model atmosphere to 
maintain consistency with other published preflight trajectory 
documents. The density of the Cape Canaveral atmosphere is approx- 
imately 10 percent higher than that of ARDC model atmosphere in the 
region of maximum dynamic pressure (about 37,000 feet altitude). 
As a result, the maximum dynamic pressure expected would be about 10 
percent higher than that shown as "planned". 

The orbital portion of the trajectory, shown in figure 4.2-4, 
was derived by first starting with the spacecraft position ajid velocity 
vector obtained during the second pass near Bermuda (during the second 
orbit) as determined by the Goddard computer using Mercury network 
tracking data. Integrating backward along the flight trajectory to 
orbital insertion and forward to the start of retrofire at the end of 



CONFIDENTIAL 



Page k - 2 



CONFIDENTIAL 



t'he third pass yielded the calculated orbit. These integrated values 
were in excellent agreement wixh the guidance -system measured values 
at orhital insertion. They were also in accord with the position and 
velocity vectors determined by the Goddard computer for passes near 
the Canary Islands (first pass) and Muchea (second and third passes), 
thus establishing the validity of the integrated orbital portion of 
the flight trajectory. 

The reentry portion of the trajectory, shown in figure h,2-^, was 
obtained by starting with the spacecraft position and velocity vector 
near Cape Canaveral, Florida, as determined by the Goddard computer. 
Integrating backward along the flight to the end of retroflre and for- 
ward to landing yielded the reentry trajectory. This included the 
assuarptions that the drogue parachute deployed at Ok:^0:'^k and the 
main parachute deployed at 0^4-: 51: ^8. 2 as indicated by onboard measure- 
ment of the times of these events. 

The spacecraft decelerations from the integrated reentry trajec- 
tory agree within reading accuracy with the decelerations measured by 
the onboard accelerometer . In addition, the time of .05 g from the 
integrated reentry trajectory and from spacecraft onboard measurements 
agree within one second. This agreement serves to verify the validity 
of the integrated reentry posixion of the trajectory. 

The fact that the spacecraft landed approximately 250 nautical 
miles downrange of the nominal impact point and 15 nautical miles 
north of the nominal gro\md track can be attributed to improper 
spacecraft attitude, late retroflre, and a slightly lower ( approxiEoate - 
ly 3^) than nominal retrorocket; performance. 

Use of measured capsule attitudes, which were given by both 
scanner and gyro data in integrated trajectory calculations resulted 
in landing points approximately kOQ nautical miles downrange of the 
actual landing point. Therefore, these attitude data are clearly 
erroneous , In order to obtain a reasonably accurate estimate of the 
actual spacecraft attitudes and retrorocket performance which are 
uniquely related to the measured trajectory and, consequently, the 
actual landing point, an extensive trajectory analysis was conducted. 
This study made use of actual radar tracking data immediately prior 
to and after retroflre, the measured retroflre time, and a calculated 
spacecraft pre -retrograde weight. Estimated accuracies of space -fixed 



CONFIDENTIAL 



CONFIDENTIAL 



Page k - 3 



position and velocity vectors obtained from radar tracking immediately 
prior to and following retrofire are: 

Velocity 1 2 ft/sec 

Flight -path angle + .002° 

Altitude t ^00 ft 

Heading angle + .002° 

Results of the comparison of the pre- and post-retrofire vectors 
yielded spacecraft attitudes of 36.5° + 0.5° in pitch and 27° + 0.5^^ 
in yaw and a retrorocket total impulse which is 3 ±0.5 percent lower 
than the nominal value of 38,9^3 lb-sec expected for this particular 
group of rocket motors . This impulse is within the specification 
value of 38^880 lb -sec + 5 percent. These values can be used to 
generate the measured reentry trajectory and the actual landing point. 
The roll attitude was neglected, since the roll values of +20° result 
in only one -nautical -mile variation In landing point. 



The aerodynamic parameters for the planned and integrated reentry 
trajectories were computed using the MSG model atmosphere (NASA Pro- 
ject Merc^lry Working Paper No. 205). This is based on Discoverer 
Satellite program data above 50 nautical mile altitudes, the 1959 ARDC 
model atmosphere between the 25- and 50-nautical mile altitudes, and 
the Patrick AFB atmosphere below 25 nautical mile altitudes. 

In the trajectory figures the above integrated values are labeled 
"actual" . 

A comparison of the planned and actual trajectory parameters is 
given in table h.2-1. The difference between these primarily resulted 
from the actual cutoff velocity and flight-path angle at insertion 
being slightly higher than planned. 



h . 3 Guidance 



The General Electric -Burroughs, Atlas guidance system performed 
exceptionally well in this flight. The guidance system locked on the 
vehicle in both track and rate at 00:73 seconds, approximately as 
planned, and lost lock at 05:38 (28. 1 seconds after SEGO). 

In figures k.3-1 to U.3-3, the velocity and flight-path angle 
are shown in the region of sustainer cutoff. GE-Burroughs data are 
shown in figure U.3-I, and the AZUSA data used in the Range Safety 
Impact Predictor Computer (IP7090) are shown in figure h.3-2 to 



CONFIDENTIAL 



Page h - k 



COUFIDEWTIAL 



illustrate the noise level during the time of the GO-NO-GO computations. 
Both the GE-BurrojLghs and the AZUSA data are considered very good, 
except for three AZUSA points immediately after SECO. The reason for 
these three points with such large errors is not known at this time. 
The points are obviously in error tut are included. in the f igures^since 
these points were generated hy the IP 709O computer and received by 
the Goddard computers as shown in the figures. 

The guidance system gave a cutoff condition which was about 2 
ft/sec high in velocity and about .0002° high in flight-path angle. 
These vadues axe within the expected accuracy range for the system. 
In figure U.3-3, -:hese data are shown as flight -path angle versus 
velocity. This is the type of display used by the Flight Dynamics 
Officer in the Mercury Control Center for the orbital GO-NO-GO decision. 
Both GE-Burroughs and AZUSA data indicated a GO decision. 

The primary auxiliary sustainer cutoff (ASCO) signal based on 
General Electric -burroughs guidance system computations was sent to 
the launch vehicle simultaneously with SECO. However, the backup 
ASCO signal was generated at the 7O9O computer O.kk seconds before 
the guidance SECO discrete was sent. The enable switch in the Mercury 
Control Center wasj in the "normal" position, which prevented trans- 
mission of this liaproper ASCO signal. Had this signal been sent, a 
cutoff velocity o:r approximately 110 ft/sec, and possible marginal 
GO-NO-GO insertion conditions, would have resulted. The TO90 
computer used AZUSA data to compute the time of ASCO transmission, 
and the reason fo]' this premature signal is being investigated. 



CONFIDENTIAL 



CONFIDENTIAL 



Page k - 3 



TABLE 


- SEQUENCE OF EVENTS 




Event 


Planned time^ 
hr :min: sec 


^ Actual tim^e, 
hr :min:seG 


Difference^ 
seconds 


Booster-engine cutoff 
(BECO) 


00:02:10.1 


00:02:08.6 




-1.5 


Tower release 


00:02:32.2 


00:02:32.2 


0 


Escape-rocket ignition 


00:02:32.2 


00:02:32.2 


0 


Sustainer-engine cutoff 
(SECO) discrete 




00:05:09.9 




Tall -off complete 


00:05:05-3 


00:05:10.2 


4.9 


Spacecraft separation 


00:05:06.3 


00:05:12.2 


5-9 


Retrofire seq^uence 
initiation 


Ok:32:23.6 


04:32:36.5 


10.9 


Retrorocket No. 1 (left) 


OU:32:55.6 


04:33:10.3 


14.7 


(bottom) 


Oi4^:33:00.6 


04:33:15-3 


14.7 


Retrorocket Wo. 3 
(right) 


04:33:05-6 


04:33:20.3 


14.7 


Retro assembly jettison 


0^:33:55.6 


04:34:10.8 


15.2 


0.05 g relay 


04:J+3:55-6 


04:44:44 


48.4 (1.0)^ 


ment 


0^1:50:00.6 


04:50:54 


53-4 


Main parachute deployment 


04:50:37.6 


04:51:48.2 


70.6 


Landing (accelerometer 
measurement) 


OU:55:22.6 


04:55:57 


34.4 (25.6)^ 


Main parachute jettison 


04:55:22.6 


04:56:04.8 


42.2 (33-4) 


^ref light calculated, based on nominal 


Atlas performance 





.1= 



"'^The numbers in parentheses show the difference between the actual and 
the postf light -calculated reentry event times based on actual insertion 
parameters . 

CONFIDENTIAL 



Page 4-6 CONFIDENTIAL 



TABLE k.2-1.- COMPARISON OF FLAMED AND ACTUAL TRAJECTORY PARAMETERS 



1 

Condition and quality 


Planned 


Actual 


Difference 


Cutoff conditions (including tail-off) 








Range time^ seconds 


305-3 


310.2 


4.9 


min :sec 


05:05-3 


05:10.2 




Geodetic latitude, deg north 


30.4308 


30.5035 


.0727 


Longitude, deg west 


72.5076 


72 . 4111 


-.0965 


Altitude, feet 


528,367 


527,859 


-508 


nautical miles 


86.96 


86.87 


-.09 


Range, nautical miles 


437.4 


443.3 


5.9 


Space-fixed velocity, feet/second 


25,715 


25,717 


2.0 


Space -fixed flight -path angle, deg 


-.0006 


- . 0004 


.0002 


Space -fixed heading ;3jngle, deg 








east of north 


77 . 4886 


77 . 6go8' 


1132 


Post-posigrade ignition conditions : 








Range time, seconds 


307-3 


312.2 


4.9 


min : sec 


05 : 07 . 3 


05:12.2 




Geodetic latitude, deg north 


30.4606 


30.5374 


.0768 


Longitude, deg west 


72.3605 


72.2416 


-.1169 


Altitude, feet 


528,397 


527,894 


-503 


nautical miJ.es 


86.96 


86.88 


-.08 


Range, nautical mileE; 


445.2 


452.3 


7.1 


Space-fixed velocity, feet/second ■ 


25,736 


25,738 


2.0 


Space -fixed flight -path angle, deg 


-.0035 


-.0031 


.0004 


Space -fixed heading ejigle, deg 








east of norlh 


77.5672 


77.6915 


.1243 



COWFIDEI\fTIAL 



COfflFIDENTIAL 
TABLE i+.2-l.- Concluded 



Page 4-7 



Condition and quality 


Planned 


Actual 


Difference 


Orbit parameters: 








Perigee altitude statute miles 


100.1 


99.97 


-.13 


nautical miles 


86.96 


86.87 


-.09 


Apogee altitude, statute miles 


166.2 


166.82 


.62 


nautical miles 


Ihk.k 




.56 


Period, min:sec 


88:32 


88:32 


0 


Inclination angle, deg 


32.52 


32.55 


.03 


Maximum conditions : 








Altitude, statute miles 


166 2 


166 82 


.62 


nautical miles 


Ihh.h 




•56 


Space-fixed velocity, feet/second 


25,737.0 


25,738.0 


1.0 


Earth-fixed velocity, feet/second 


24,U20.0 


2i^,i^22.1 


2.1 


Exit acceleration, g 


7.7 


7.8 


.10 


Exit dynamic pressure, lbs/ft 


966* 


967 


1.0 










Entry acceleration 


1.6 


7.5 


-.1 


Entry dynamic pressure, psf 




i^29 


-21.0 


Landing point : 








Latitude, deg:min 


21°07'N 


19°27'N^ 


-1°40'N 


Longitude, deg:mln 


68°00'W 


63°59'W^ 





*Based on Cape Canaveral atmosphere. 
**Based on 1959 ARDC model atmosphere. 



^"Actual" landing coordinates shown above were those resulting from the 
trajectory integration. The retrieval point after landing was reported 
as 19°30'W and 6i|°15'W by the recovery ship (see section 9-0)- 



CONFIDENTIAL 



CONFIDENTIAL 



Page 4-9 




CONFIDENTIAL 



n 



CONFIDENTIAL 



CONFIDENTIAL 

Page 4-11 




CONFIDENTIAL 



CONFIDENTIAL 



Page 4-12 




CONFIDENTIAL 




CONFroENTIAL 



CONFIDENTIAL 

Page 4-14 




CONFIDENTIAL 



Page 4-15 

CONFroENTIAL 



- 1 
- 1 




CONFIDENTIAL 



CONFIDENTIAL 




rrfcivri?f ni?ivT^i a t 



CONFroENTIAL 




lap «»l)n»Ti«i 3nsp<»9 

CONFroENTIAL 



CONFIDENTIAL 



Page 4-18 




CONFIDENTIAL 



CONFIDENTIAL 



^..:-f 






















- 1- . 






















J X ^ 

1l 1 






















































































^ 1 
























































































X ! 














































~ 1 




















































































































































































































- 














































































- - 






— 














/ 






















































































u - 


— 










































































t 














































/ 


















































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































1 4- 
































































































































































































































































































































0$ 


























































2 































S S g 3 S 



^ \ \ k \ i \ i I \ 
CONFIDENTIAL 



CONFIDENTIAL 



Page 4-20 




CONFIDENTIAL 



CONFIDENTIAL 



Page 4-21 




s^tnn a 'noTtejsxsosp ^^!^I■fpn:^^a^o^ 

CONFIDENTIAL 



CONFIDENTIAL 



Page 4-22 




CONFIDENTIAL 




CONFIDENTIAL 



CONFIDENTIAL 



Page 4-25 




CONFIDENTIAL 



CONFIDENTIAL 



Page 4-26 




CONFIDENTIAL 



COWFIDENTTAL 



Page 5-1 



5.0 SPACECRAFT PEEFOmajJCE 



The spacecraft as an entity pe;rfomied. adequately- Some system 
anomalies were experienced^ and analyses of these are discussed in 
the following paragraphs. Also discussed^ from an overall mission 
viewpoint^ are the spacecraft systems' general performance. Flight 
data and measurements are generally not shown, other than to clarify 
an analysis or present measurements of particular interest. Complete 
time histories of spacecraft data, vithout analysis, are presented 
in Part II of this report. 



5.1 Spacecraft Control System 



With the single exception of trie pitch horizon scanner, space- 
craft control system components functioned normally through the 
flight. The horizon scanner prohlem is discussed in detail in the 
paragraphs helow, and the analysis takes into account the astronaut's 
comments concerning orbit attitude and attitudes prior to retrograde. 

5.1.1 System description .- The spacecraft control system is designed 

to provide attitude and rate control oi the spacecraft and is capable 
of operation in the following modes: 

1. A-utomatic stabilization and control system (ASCS), with 
secondary choices of orientation, orbit, and auxiliary damping modes . 

2. Fly -by -wire (FBW) system 

3. Manual proportional (MP) system 

k. Rate stabilization control system (RSCS) 

Modes 1 and 2 employ the automatic reaction control s;. stem (RCS) 
thrusters, while modes 3 and h use the manual RCS thrusters. Each 
reaction control system has its own fuel supply and is independent of 
the other. Combinations of modes 1 and 3, 2 and 3, or 2 and k are 
available to provide "double authority" at the astronaut's discretion. 
The amplifier-calibrator (Ajnp Cal) emploved standard A-8 logic circuit 
and did not have the single -pulse insurance feature in orbit mode that 
was employed in spacecraft 13 (MA-6). This insurance feature prevente 
more than one actuation of a given thruster when the Amp Cal effected 
operation of that thruster. The data from the MA-7 flight do not show 



CONFIDENTIAL 



COrJFIEEKTIAL 



any double actuations of thrusters in the orbit mode, and therefore 
the lack or this insurance feature did not affect the control s„ stem 
performance . 

The horizon scanner system employed a standard circuixry which 
reduced cold-cloud effects. 

A MAIIEUVER switch was placed in series with the 0.05g switch 
fuse to remove torqueing of the dlrection-gi^ro gimbals. This effect- 
ively disables the yaw reference slaving system and pitch orbital 
precession (4 /mil) at the astronaut's discretion. This allows the 
astronaut to perform spacecraft maneuvers without introducirg errors 
in his attitude displays. 

Flight Control Analysis . - Systems operation was normal during 
this flight, with the exception of a pitch horizon scanner malf-onction 
which is evident ir'rom the data as having been present before space- 
craft separation \'rom the laur.di vehicle. The pitch horizon scanner 
output read +17 dfjgree^ kO seconds after tower separation. At this 
time, the launch vehicle pitch g;yro read approximate!;, -0.5 degrees 
revealing an l8 degree error in scanner output. By capsule separation 
the spacecraft pi-:ch gyro had slaved to the pitch scanner output and 
was in error by about 20 degrees. This is sho™ in figure 5.1.2-1. 

At various t:.mes during the orbital phase, the pitch horizon 
scanner output dr:.fted without apparent spacecraft motion, as was 
found between 00:07:33 and 00:08:30, where an apparent slaving rate 
of 20 degrees per minute would be required to duplicate the scanner- 
gyro reference shi^ft. The nominal gj-ro slaving rate is 8 degrees 
per minute. From known astronaut reference positions during the 
orbital period, the comparable pitch horizon scanner output was 
observed to be in error by varying amounts between +50 and -20 
degrees. 

During the rstrofire period, a trajectory computation based 
on radar^tracking data (see section k.2) yielded a mean pitch attitude 
of -36.5 > whereas the maximum horizon scanner reading was -l6° 
(see figure 7.2.3.6-1). This -omparison and that which was made during 
the launch phase are the only independent sources wnich verify the 
scanner bias, and these are in excellent agreement. 

Further studies and tests are in progress to localize the nature 
of the failure. It is believed that the malfunction can be attributed 
to a random component failure, since the scanner design has previousl.v 
been qualified. 



CONFIDENTIAL 



CONFIDEIWIAL 



Page 5 - 3 



There were x.vo Indications of tne gyros not caging to zero during 
the flight. The as^ronauu rec;.'cied the gyro switch each time and the 
gyros Imraediateiy caged properly. 

The ASCS orbit mode performance appeared zo be satisfactory^ but 
cannot be evaluated in detail since con-cinuous scanner slaving was 
employed. The ASCS orbit mode operation can be best analyzed when the 
gyros have been free for an extended period of time^ thereby eliminat- 
ing the scanner slaving. 

The orientation mode displa^'sd a divergent oscillation at OU: 26:13 
when the astronaut switched to A.SCS in order to maintain an accorate 
retroattitude . This divergent oscillation was caused by the rate- 
gyro spin motors not having sufficient time to r^on up, since they were 
shut down during the previous two hours of manual proportional control 
system utilization. The nominal rate gyro run up tirne is 2 minutes. 

5.1.3 Control System Utilization , - Spacecraft turnaround was accomplished 

manually by the astronaut^ according to the flight plan, using the 
FBW control system. ASCS control was initiated at 00:07:10. By 
00:56:50, maneuvering had been conducted using all control systems and 
modes of operation^ and the astronaut reported thses operations as 
satisfactory. However^ the brief periods of operation involved may 
have prevented the pilot from recognizing improper attitude reference. 

Manual control (FBW and MP) was used extensively during the 
flight. Approximately 17 minutes of the flight consisted of double 
authority control. The control system combinations utilized were 
FBW with MP and ASCS with MP. It should be noted that the high 
thrusters were actuated inadvertantly a number of times by t he astronaut 
while using the FBW control system. It is believed that the repeated 
use of the high thrusters ^ together with the use of double authority 
control, resulted in the unfavorable fuel usage rate, which can be 
seen in figure 7-2.3.7-1. 

The FBW control sjstem was used to obtain and hold reentrt attitude 
during retro fire. After retrofire, the MP control system was utilized 
until manual fuel depletion at 04: 3^:00. Thereafter, FBW control was 
used until spacecraft oscillations began to build up during reentry^ 
at which timie the auxiliary damping mode of A.SCS was utilized ^antil 
autoiiatic fuel depletion at 0^:^9:58. 

The spacecraft oscillations began to diverge after automatic fuel 
depletion and continued until manual drogue deploj-- . A preliminary 
anaxysis of the onboard data indicates that the natural frequency and 
damping ratios of the MA-7 spacecraft during reentry are approximately, 
as predicted^ based on an analysis of the MA-6 reentr^ data. 



CONFIDENTIAL 



COM-IDENTIAL 



Reaction contrcl system .- The reaction control system (RCS) was 
of the standard con! iguration^ with the exception of modified thrust- 
chamber assemblies. This modification essentially involved replacing 
the stainless-steel f uel-distrib ition (Dutch weave) screens with 
platinum screens anc. a stainless -steel fuel distribution plate, 
reducing the volume of the automatic heat barriers and solenoids, and 
moving the fuel -mete ring orifice to the solenoid inlet. This change 
was Incorporated into the l-lb thruster as-semblies^. but not the 24-lb. 
Only the 'platinum screens were added to the 6-lb units. 

Objectives of the thruster configuration change for the MA-T 
mission were to elliilnate the possibility of blocking the fuel 
metering orifices with particles of Dutch weave screens, as is presumed 
to have occurred on the MA-6 mission, and also to reduce the total 
impulse per pulse of low thruster opemtion in the ASCS orbit mode. 
Ground tests conducted on this new conf igurntion indicated an approximate 
reduction of 50 percent of total impulse per thruster pulse. 

Heat sinks were attached to the automatic and manual roli-thruster 
assemblies in a manner similar to that employed on the MA-6 mission, 
in order to reduce fropellant feed-line temperatures. 

Performance: The astronaut's report of no malfunctions in the 
reaction control system is substantiated by the onboard recorded data. 
The high rates of fuel consumption appear to be consistant with the 
frequency and duration of thruster activity. There is no evidence, 
either from flight data or from postf light inspection, of fuel leakage. 

Propellant feed -line temperatures were measured during the flight 
and maximum temperatures recorded are listed below: 



Thruster position 


Temperature of 


Approximate 




feed line, °F 


Time, 






hr:min 


Automatic roll (clockwise) 


101+ 


03:i^8 


Automatic roll ( counterclockwl: 


ie) 105 


01:55 


Manual roll (clockwise) 


108 


03:28 


Manual roll (counterclockwise) 


119 


03:00 


Automatic pitch (up) 


128 


03:^3 


Automatic pitch (do™) 


139 


03:27 


Automtlc yaw (right) 


lh2 


0 3:3^ 


Automatic yaw (left) 


136 


03:^1 



CDNPIDEIITIAL 



CONFIDENTIAL 



Page 5-5 



An analysis of the data indicates that thruster impulse of the 
expected magnitude was delivered whenever a thruster solenoid was 
actuated. Angular velocity changes inparted ~q the spacecraft by 
automatic system thruster operations were nominal. Refer to tahle 
5-1-2-1 for a history of automatic and manual fuel usage. 

During the spacecrafx l8 (MA-j) thrust chamher inspection, all 
assemhlies appeared zo he in excellent condition, with evidence of 
a normal amomt of salt water corrosion and heat discoloration. 
The results of the postfligho RCS inspection are presented in table 
5 •1-2-2, The only nox-iceable conditions were 'he heat markings on 
the pitch and yaw heat barriers, which varied from 0.25 to 0A5 inches 
long. This was not evident on the 1-pound roll heat barriers; how- 
ever, there existed a heavier discoloration and slight oxidation of 
the diffuser plates in the pitch and yaw 1-pound thrust chambers. 
Diffuser plates in the roll chambers were light blue in color. 

The platinun screens in all chambers were found to be in 
excellent condition with no evidence of deterioration. 

All automatic system solenoids were inspected and tested for 
electrical actuation. The 2i|-pound pitch-down and yaw-right sole- 
noids failed to operate with 30 VDC applied. This is attributed 
solely to postflight salt-water corrosion, since no indication 
exists that these units failed to operate during the flight. All 
others operated properly under I8 VDC. Detailed inspection of the 
1- and 6-pound solenoids revealed no apparent discrepancy, and 
poppet tips looked good in all respects. No rust was seen within 
the valves; however, as was evident in a n^omber of cases at the 
outlet port, it appears as if the voishan washer may be -causing the 
plating to crack at this point. 

Inspection of the 2i^-pound solenoids revealed rust in varying 
degrees within the bore, mainly at the netal insert and poppet 
bore lip. The inoperative valves had a heavy salt -like substance 
within the bore. Inlet screens were generally clean, and the few 
exceptions that were found revealed minute plastic and crystalline 
particle deposit. 



GONIflDENTIAL 



Page 5-6 CONFIDENTIAL 



TA:3LE 5.1.2-1.- FUEL COWSUMPTIOK 





Automatic system 


Manual system 


Time 


Mission phase 


Fuel used, 
lb 


Fuel remaining 
lb 


Fuel used, 
lb 


Fuel remaining 
lb 


00 : 00 : 00 


Launch 


0 


35-0 


0 


2J+.9 


00:08:00 


Turnaround and 
damp ing 


1.6 


33.^ 


0 




01:33:32 


First pass 


15.8 


17.6 


8.5 


16.^ 


03:07:OU 


Second pass 
to retro 


5-8 


11.8 


5-1 


11-3 


0^:33:21 


Retro to O.O5 g 


5A 


e.h 


10.3 


1.0 




05 g to drogue 


5.0 


i.h 


1.0^ 




D4:50:5U 


Drogue to main 


1.1.^ 


0 







Fuel depletion occurred during this period. 



CONFIDSFTIAL 



COWFIDEMTIAL 



Page 5 - 7 

TABLE 5-1.2-2.- SPACECR/VPI^ l8 THRUST 
CHAMBER INSPECTTC'N 



Thmster 


Serial number'' 


Inspection results 


law right 
(1-lb) 


136 


Orifice spacer clean^ rust stains evident on the 
bottom side of orifice and diffuser plate. Platinum 
screens in good condition. 


Yaw left 
(1-lb) 


133 


Orifice spacer clean diffuser plate clear. Platinum 
screens in good condition. 


Pitch UD 
(1-lb) 


73 


Orifice spacer clean^ tubz stains evident on coth 
sides of diffuser plaue and top side of first 
screen. Platin-uiri screens in good condition. 


Pitch down 
(l-lb) 


135 


Orifice spacer claan^ diffuser plate clear. Screens 
look excellent . 


CCW automatic 
roll. (6-10) 


28 


Eeav;/- rust stains on ail parts ^ diffuser plate and 
o''"T ""ice clear^ piao'^num scT^eens good. 


CCW automatic 
roll (l-lb) 


28 


Rust stains evident on orifice spacer and diffuser 
plate,, diffuser plate blue in color. Platln"^jm 
screens okay. 


CW automatic 
roll (6-11)) 


18 


Very wet, orifice clean? diffuser plate blue in 
color ^ screens ver:^ good. 


roll (1-lb) 


l8 


Orif ce spacer clear^ ro ~^v2't ^ d'^ffuser plate lisihtly 
blued on top surface. Screens excellent. 


CCW manual 
(1-6-10) 


21 


Orifice and diffuser plate clean, light rust stain 
on platinum screen. Light corrosion on check valve 
nose piece. 


CW manual 
(1-6 -lb) 


28 


stance found in valve and heat barrier screen. 
Orifice, diffuser plate and platinum screens In good 
shape . 



^The serial number refers to a thrust chamber assembly, which 
may contain more than one uhruster. 



COfTFIDEI^TIAL- 



Page 5 - 8 



COKFIDENTIAL 



5.2 Environmental Control System 

The environitental control system (ECS) is designed to provide a 
comfortable level of temperature and liumidity in the pressure suit 
and to maintain appropriate suit and cahin pressures. The composition 
of the suit environment is lOC^ oxygen, and the nominal pressure level 
is 5.1 psia. Control of this environment is accomplished by removing 
metabolic heat, carbon dioxide and water. Replenishment of the atmos- 
phere is provided from two tanks, each containing four pounds of 
gaseous oxygen stored at 7500 psig. In addition to the metabolic 
requirements of the astronaut, the ECS also removes heat from onboard 
electrical equipment and supplies gas makeup for cabin overboard 
leakage . 

5.2.1 System description .- The ECS as installed in Spacecraft l8 
represents the specification system in all respects. It differs from 
the ECS of Spacecraft 13 (MA-6) in two respects. First, the constant 
oxygen bleed employed in MA-6 was deleted; and therefore, oxygen was 
supplied to the astronaut on demand. Secondly, the oxygen partial 
pressure was measured in the cabin instead of the suit circuit. 

5.2.2 System performance .- Data for the following analysis were obtained 
from both the comtnutated data recorded onboard and the onboard voice 
tape. The latter source was utilized for cabin and suit steam exhaust 
temperatures, excess coolant water warning light actuations, and heat- 
exchanger coolant -control valve settings, none of which are recorded. 

The only ECS measurement known to be inaccurate was that of the 
cabin oxygen partial pressure. Difficulty with the oxygen partial 
pressure sensor had been encoiLntered during spacecraft preparations, 
and the final calibration was known to be only approximate . 

The flight data deviate from design criteria of the system only 
in the performance of the cabin and suit cooling systems. 

Although the cabin air temperature varied between 82°F and lOP'^F, 
it remained above 100°F for much of the flight. The variation of 
cabin temperature with time Ie. plotted in figure 5.2-1. These high 
temperatures, though tolerable, are undesirable. Tests will be made 
with a larger fan in the heat exchanger to determine if a significant 
reduction in cabin temperature can be realized. 

The many chaiges in the cabin comfort control valve setting 
prevent an accurate analysis cf the effects of sunlight and darkness 
on cabin temperatures. 



COWFIIEIITIAL 



Suit inlet temperature, suit hsat exchanger :--te.sir. t.er.perature 
and suit comfort -control -valve settings are presented in figure ?o2-2. 
The astronaut repori:ed that he fo-orid it difficult to determine the 
proper comfort -control -valve setting which would maintain a confortahle 
level of suit temperature. Figure 5.2-2 shows appreciahle surt--cemper- 
ature fluctuation resulting from changes in coolant water flow rate 
(The coolant water flow rate Is controlled by the astronaut's manual 
adjustment of the comfort-control valve), 

MA-7 was the first orbital flight from which approximate values 
for astronaut metabolic oxygen requirements could be caicu^ated, Fre- 
launch oxygen consiu.nption was deterrr-ined to be 0.0457 pounds/hour or 
261 standard cubic centimeters/minute (measured at 1'+.^ psia and 70°F). 
During orbital flight, the astronaut metabolic consumption was calcu- 
lated to be 0.0722 pounds/hour or i-03 standard cubic centimeters/minute „ 
These metabolic consumption rates were ca.lculated from the oxygen 
pressure decay rates of the primary oxygen tank after accounting for 
the 60 cc/m constant bleed orifice cf the suit demand regulator. The 
ECS design criteria for the astronaut metabolic rate vas 500 soc/minute. 
This was based upon oxygen usage data obtained during work of similar 
difficulty under 1 g. The astronaut activity under weightless condi- 
tions demonstrated that weightless oxygen cons-jmption rates are of a 
similar level as those v;hlch occuri^ed under 1 g. 

5.2.2.1 Launch prase: The ECS operated properly during the lauTiCh phase. 
The cabin and suit pressures maintained the proper differential of 
5.5 to 6.0 psi above ambient pressure during ascent, and held at 5.8 
and 5.9 psia, respectively. 

5.2.2.2 Orbital phase: The cabin and suit pressures decreased slowly 
during the orbital phase because of a cabin leakage of 1000' cc/minute;, 
as established before flight. The pressure decay ceased at approxi- 
mately 03:00:00 at which time the caoln pressure control valve began 
supplying oxygen to compensate for the cabin leakage. The cabin 
pressure was then maintained at ^+.9 psia. The only problems encouatered 
during the orbital phase were the high suit inlet and cabin air 
temperatures previously described. 

The I50- and 250-VA inverter temperatures, sho^wn in figure 5.2-3> 
increased from 112°F and 128°F, respectively, at launch to 175°F and 
l86°F. respectively^ by 0^:00:00. The temperatures appeared to be 
stable after this time. The rate of temperature increase appeared to 
decrease after the inverter coolant -control valve was advanced from 
the number k to the number 5 position at 03:00:38. The corresponding 
change in coolant-water flow is from 0.50 po'unds/hour to 0 .6h- pounds/ 
hour . 



COilFIDEIJTIA.L 



Page 5-10 



CONFIEENTIAL 



The Coolanr (Juantity Indicating System (CQIS) indicated a coolant- 
water usage of 10.0 poimds, when corrected for temperature change. 
Postflight inspecvion measured a usage of 10.23 pounds. This agreement 
represents the most accurate CQJS measurements in flight to date. 
Coolant usage ave-'aged about 2.1 pounds/hour over a period of k hours 
and 50 minutes, compared with a nominal flow rate of 1.6 pounds /hour. 

The secondary -oxygen supply pressure increased slightly during 
the flight. This can be attriouted to the increase in supply bottle 
temperature, as measured during flight. Temperatures were identical 
for both the prim^Lry and secondary supplies, and indicated T2^F at 
launch and 86°F at landing. The decay of the secondary oxygen supply 
experienced during MA-6 did not recur during this flight. 

5-2.2.3 Reentry phase: The performance of the ECS during reentry was 

normal. The astronaut opened che inflow and outflow valves manually 
at 04:5l:l8 during descent. This placed the system in the postlandlng 
mode. The emerger.cy oxygen rate commenced at this time. 

The suit temperature starred to increase sharply at a time of 
approximately 0^^:^5:00 (figure 5.2-2). About one hour earlier 
(03:2T:00), the suit comfort-control-valve setting had been advanced 
to give a high coolant water f.iow rate. The ensuing temperature de- 
crease resulted in a comfortab:^e suit temperature level until about 
0U:15:00, when a fluctuation began and later the subsequent sharp 
increase in suit temperature began. It is suspected that freezing 
of the suit heat exchanger occurred because of a high coolant-water 
flow rate for this period of an hour. This resulted in a decrease 
of cooling efficiency just prior to and during the reentry phase. 

5-2.3 Discussion of problems and concluding remarks .- The oxygen 

consumption rate obtained from this flight is the first indication 
of metabolic rate during weightlessness. The inflight value agrees 
closely with the rate found under 1-g conditions for similar work, 
and validation of the design criteria for oxygen consumption estab- 
lished for the ECS was accomplished. 

The high cabin and suit inlet temperatures were the only problems 
enco^untered during the flight. The Inability of the cabin cooling 
system to reduce tne cabin air temperature below 95°F is undesirable 
and may be due to the size of the fan which delivers air zo the cabin 
heat exchanger for cooling. Irvestigations employing a cabin fan of 
larger capacity are underway. 

Some diff.lculi-.y in obtaining the proper valve- setting for the 
suit-Inlet temperature control was experienced, primarily because of 
the lag in ^suit : temperature wltn control manipulations . However, the 



CONFIDENTIAL 



COKFIDEWTIAL 



Page 5 



high temperatures and humidity, as reported ty the astronaut, may 
have partially resulted from ot)sxruGtion of the heat-exchanger 
evaporative surfaces by freezing. This partial freezing would 
slightly increase the evaporation pressure. The design conditions 
are for evaporation at 0.1 psla pressure and 35° ? temperature. 
An increase of 0.1 psi in this design pressure would raise the 
corresponding evaporation temperature to 53° F> which in turn 
significantly reduces the system capability to condense and collect 
water in the suit circuit. Flight data show that the suit steam- 
exhaust temperature was approximately 70° F, instead of the ex- 
pected 50° F, thus indicating that the evaporation temperature was 
probably near ^3° F and that partial freezing may have been ex- 
perienced. The water-flow and evaporation mechanism of the system 
is presently under study and future mission training will more 
accurately define temperature control procedures for the astronaut. 



CCI^FIDENTIAL 



COWPZDENTIAL 



5.3 Spacecraft Ccamuni cat Ions 



The spacec:"aft communication system aboard the iMA-T spacecraft 
was identical to that contained in the MA-6 mission with one minor 
exception. The VOX power switch was modified to provide a mode 
whereby the astronaut could record voice on the onboard tape recorder 
without RF transmission to the ground stations. Switching to the 
transmitting mode- could be accomplished without the normal warmup 
time because the transmitter was maintained in a standby condition 
with the VOX power switch in the record position. 

Voice communications .- UHF voice communications with the 
spacecraft were satisfactory. Attempts on the part of the astronaut 
to utilize HF voice communications were unsuccessful. It is 
believed that the poor HF reception of the spacecraft transmissions 
was the result of spacecraft orientation and atmospheric conditions. 
The HP transmitter will be re -checked during scheduled pes tf light 
testing. 

Radar beaco ns.- Perfor:aance of the C- and S-band beacons was 
satisfactory, although it was slightly inferior to that of the MA-6 
mission. Several stations reported some countdown on both beacons 
and^ amplitude mod^olation on the C-band beacon. The amplitude modu- 
lation may have been caused by the modulation presented by the phase 
shifter (wobulator) and the drifting mode of the spacecraft, giving 
a poor antenna orientation. In view of these problems, both beacons 
were rechecked after the mission and found to be essentially unchanged 
fi^m their pref light status. Additional bench checks s.re planned for 
these beacons. 

Location al ls.- Recovery forces reported that the a^oxiliary 
beacon (Super SARAH) and UHF/'DF signals were received. The super 
SARAH beacon was received at a range of approximately 250 miles. 
Both the SARAH beacon and UHF/DF were received at ranges of 50 
miles from the spacecraft. The HF rescue beacon (SEASAVE) was 
apparently not received by the recovery stations. The whip antenna 
used by this SEASAVE beacon was reported by the recovery forces to 
be fully extended and normal in appearance. The SEASAVE beacon was 
tested after flight and found to be satisfactory, as shown in 
the following table. Investigation as to why it was not received 
is continuing. 



CONFIDENTIAL 



CONFIDEKTIAL 5 - : 



Parameter Preflight Tesn Postflight Design 
(SEUR TT ) Test Specification 

Transmitter frequency -tlOO +2^^ +836 

Deviation, CPS 



Power Output, watts 1.0 
BUS Voltage, volts 12.0 



5. 3 A Command receivers , - The coiEnand receivers operated satisfactoril 

The discrepancies noted during the MA -6 mission were no^ evident durin 
this flight. It appears that increasing the low-telemeter frequency 
by 500 kc eliminated the interference prohlem, which was previously 
experienced during the MA -6 reentry hlackout period. 



SEDR YT is a simulated mission, during which all applicahle systems 
are exercised. 



COHFIDENTIAL 



Page 5 - ll+ 



CONFIDENTIAL 



^.k E]_ectrical and Sequential System 

5-^-l Electrical ST^-stem .- The ispacecraft electrical system was a speci- 

fication spacecrai't system. Voltage and current profiles were similar 
to the MA-6 mission and were as expected. CSianges in the electrical 
system from spacecraft 13 are as follows: 

1. Inverter AC voltages were monitored on the AC voltmeter 
rather than by morltor lights. 

2. The max±iiUm-altitude-3ensor battery was used as an auxilliary 
battery for the velocity sensor after retrofire command. 

3- The 2kY isolated bus was monitored on the #2 position of the 
DC voltmeter select switch (position was blank on spacecraft 13). 

h. A switch fuse was added to the phase shifter circuit for 
OW-OFF control during the special radar test. 

Inverter temperatures were about llO^F on the I5O-VA inverter and 
125°F on the 250-VA inverter at lift-off, and these increased gradually 
throughout the mission to 175°F and 185OF, respectively. These final 
temperatures are somewhat lower than those experienced on the MA-6 
mission. Inverter cooling is discussed in the Environmental Control 
System section (5-2) of this report. 

It was found during postfJ_ight tests that a number of f-ases had 
blown on this mission that had not blown on previous missions. This 
was undoubtedly ca^ised by sea -.^ater that got into the spacecraft after 
landing^ since there were no ir^dications of any fuses, other than 
squib-firing fuses, blowing prJ.cr to landing. The following is a list 
that apparently blew as a result of sea water producing shorting paths 
to ground within tne spacecraft. 

1. Emergency hold control 

2. Low-frequency telemetiy 
3- Instrumen-:ation DC #6 

h. Telemetered sequence, 6V isolated 

5- Standby inverter 

6. Isolated-bus regulator 

7. Main inverter fans 



CONFIDFrWIAL 



CONFIDEHTIAL 



Page 5 - 15 



8. Automatic E2O2 Jettison 

9. Phase shifter (switch fuse panel) 

10, Klgh-frequency telemetry (switch fuse panel) 

Squib -circuit fuses were found blown as in previous flights. 
In the retrorocket Ignition circuits, 5 of o had blown, including 
the #1 retrorocket switch fuse which also had a hole in the cera- 
mic portion along the side. From records of current during retro- 
fire, it was deduced that approximately 7 amps passed through this 
fuse for 6 or 7 seconds before it blew. It is believed that this 
was the source of smoke reported by the astronaut during retrofire, 
since it is q^ulte common for this type of fuse to produce smoke 
when blown in this manner. It was confirmed by the astronaut during 
postf light tests, where he observed two similar fuses being blown, 
that these fuses produce a smoke having the same color and smell as 
that encountered in flight at the time of retrofire . 

Post.flight inspection revealed that two of the four diodes in 
the zehner diode package were badly corroded. The corroded diodes 
were li4--volt zehners with their positive terminals connected through 
fuses to the main and isolated buses, respectively, and their nega- 
tive terminals connected to the positive side of the other two 1^- 
volt zehners, which have their negative terminals connected to cap- 
sule ground. The zehner diodes, ..when powered under a sea water 
environment, exhibit an electrolytic effect. Electrolysis occurs 
between the case, which is at a 1^-volt positive potential when the 
diode electrically adjacent to the bus is conducting, and the space- 
craft structure, which is at ground or zero potential. This pheno- 
minon has been demonstrated in the Hangar S electrical lab. 

5.^.2 Sequential system .- The sequential system for spacecraft I8 

was similar to that employed for spacecraft I3 (MA-6), but the follow- 
ing modifications were incorporated: 

1. The cap-sep bolt-fire relay was electrically latched in at 
spacecraft separation. 

2. The landing-bag deployment monitoring circuit was changed. 
The limit switches were wired such that the actuation of both was 
required for telelighx operation and telemetry indications. 

3. The emergency retrosequence relay contacts were jumpered 
so that the spacecraft was capable of accepting simultaneous retro- 
fire signals from the clock and ground command. 



CONFIDENTIAL 



Page 5 - 16 



CONFIDIINTIAL 



h. The HF transmitter/rec:eiver was enabled at tower separation 
rather than spacecraft separatj.on. 

5. The Og-quantity light on the right hand instrument panel was 
disabled. 

6. The scanner slaving sj.gnal was changed from prcgrairmed to 
continuous . 

7. A harostat was added inside the cabin and wired such that the 
automatic recovery system was not armed until the cabin pressure was 
above 9.62 psia on descent (apj)roximately 11^000 feet). 

8. The emergency drogue c_eploy switch was wired such that the 
periscope would extend and the snorkel door blow-off squibs would 
ignite when the switch was actuated. 

Sequential system performance >,^s as expected throughout the 
mission with the following excf-p^^-ions : 

1. Retrofire had to be accomplished manually because there was 
no attitude permission from ASCS . The astronaut reported a 1 to 2 
second delay between pushing tiie retrofire switch and ffl retrorocket 
ignition. Onboard records indj.cate that retrofire occurred 3-2 
seconds after the clock gave tJ-.e ignition signal, but there is no 
indication of any malfunction Ir. the retrorocket system after retro 
#1 Ignition, Postfligh- tests of the retrGseq_uence circuitry indi- 
cate that the system still functions normally. At present there is 
no explanation for the reportec. 1 to 2 second delay. 

2. The main parachute was deployed manually by the astronaut. 
This action resultsd because c:'' the cabin pressure lagging static 
pressure as expected. This is discussed with more detail in the 
Mechanical Systems Section (5.:) of this report. Postflight checks 
indicated that the automatic Sj/stem did fiuaction during the descent 
phase J although it was sometime after main parachute deployment, and 
the exact time cannot be determined. The automatic recovery- sequence 
system functioned properly during postflight tests. 

3. The onboard tape recci:-der and other telemetry components 
apparently did not lose input rower at landing plus 10 minutes as 
planned. Upon initial power-u^. when the spacecraft was returned to 
Hangar S, It was fDund that a short existed between the 2 pre -impact 
buses, which supply power to tclemetrjr, and the spacecraft main DC 
bus. After the spacecraft was dried in the altitude chamber, it was 
found that the short no Icnger existed. It is felt that sea water 
either got into ons of the fuse blocks which contain the three 



COT^FIDEKTIAL 



COWFIDENTIi\L ^'^^'^ J - ^\ 

buses mentioned above or one of the Instrumentation packages and 
shorted the three buses together. This would explain the fact that 
the pre-impact buses remained powered. 



COWFIDENTIAL 



Page 5-18 



GOKPIDENTIAL 



5o5 Mechanical and Rocket Systems 

Some anoMolies occurred in the mechanical systems^ although 
no serious or dangerous conditions resulred. These anomolies^ 
along with general systems description and performance are dis- 
cussed in the following paragraphs . 

5'5.1 Recovery sequence .- The recovery sequence system was modified 

hy adding a control haroswitch in the circuit to disarm the re- 
covery system at s.lti-udes abo/e 11,2^0 feet. The recovery sequence 
as flown is shown in Figure 5. 3. 1-1. 

5- 5. 2 Parachutes . - The performance of the drogue and main parachutes 

upon deployment we.s satisfactor-y. Since neither parachute was re- 
covered^ a detailed postflight visual Inspection could not be made. 
Observation by the astronaut verified that both parachutes were de- 
ployed cleanly anc. were undamaged during descent. The anomolies 
encountered with th.e parachute system can generally be attributed 
to the changes in the recovery sequence. The drogue parachute was 
manually deployed at a static pressure of 5.35 psia^ which corres- 
ponds to a pressure altitude of 25,^1-50 feet. A manual deployment 
of the drogue at an altitude o::' about 21/300 feet was planned for 
this mission. The deployment altitude^ however^ was left to the 
astronaut's discretion^, and he could have chosen an automatic de- 
ployment at approximately 10,000 feet. 

The main parachute was to be deployed manually at about 
10,000 feet if the astronaut c-.ose, or automatically at a slightly 
lower altitude If the astronaut chose to wait for automatic deploy- 
ment. The data show that the control baroswltch, which senses 
cabin pressure, would have effi;'Cted main parachute deployment at a 
pressure altitude of approximately 825O feet. The astronaut chose 
the manual procedure and deplot^ed the parachute at a pressure alti- 
tude of 8950 feet. 

5 -5 -3 Rockets and piyrotech-nles . - A postflight examination of the 

spacecraft and an analysis of the pertinent data indicate that all 
rockets and pyrotechnics apparently functioned normally. Daring 
retrorocket firing, the astronaut felt that the deceleration was 
somewhat less than expected. Detailed trajectory analysis, however, 
indicates that the retrorocket performance was within specification 
values, as dlscussea In section •4,0-. 

It cannot be determined wr.ether certain pyrotechnics actually 
fired (such as redundant clamp ring bolts and tower- jettison rocket 
ignition), since tie available Information shows only that the 
resulting function was satisfactory. 



COIIFILEJJTWi 



CONFIDENTIAL 



Page 5 - 19 



5.5.^ Explosive -actuated hatch .- The spacecraft explosive -actuated 

side hatch was unbolted after the spacecraft was placed onhoard the 
recovery ship. The side hatch was not used for astronaut egress^ 
and postf light visual examination shows the hatch to he in excellent 
condition. 

5'5'5 Landing shock attenuation system . - 

5.5.5-1 Landing bag: The system was unaltered from the MA-6 configura- 

tion, with the exception that the instrumentation limit switches 
were re -wired for improved reliability. The landing-attenuation 
system performed normally, as evidenced by the astronaut's statements 
and from postflight examinations. The rescue personnel, who para- 
chuted into the landing area, examined the landing bag in the water 
and reported the bag to be in good shape. However, when the space- 
craft was hoisted aboard ship, it was found that most or all of the 
straps were broken and the bag was extensively damaged (see figure 
10.1.3-1). This damage may have been caused by wave action while 
the spacecraft was supported by the flotation collar prior to recovery. 
All restraining cables and the large pressure bulkhead appeared to be 
intact; however, a cable -restraining spring had been lost. 

5.5.5.2 Ablation shield and main pressure bulkhead: The ablation shield 

appeared intact, except for a lost center plug, and the usual minor 
damage occurred to the ablation-shield retaining studs and to the 
bulkhead protective shield. Although a small air leak was found at 
a thermocouple lead through the main pressure bulkhead, the bulkhead 
did not experience any^ visible damage. Small areas of protective 
honeycomb were slightly crushed and minor deformation of small tubing 
was experienced, as in previous missions. 

5 -5 .6 Flotation . - The astronaut reported that the spacecraft did not 

right itself acceptably after landing. He also stated that it was 
listing in the pitch-down, yaw-left quadrant at an angle estimated 
to oe about 60° from vertical. Although no photographs are available 
of the spacecraft before the astronaut egressed, pictures taken after 
egress show approximately a ij-5° - 50° list angle. However, it is not 
known how much water was in the spacecraft cabin when these photographs 
were taken. The center of gravity (CG) for the MA-7 flotation configur- 
ation was at Z = 120.03 inches, which is a corrected calculation to 
include the loss of the ablation shield center plug and the measured 
ablation weight loss. The CG was offset from the axis of symmetry by 
O.kO inches; these values are in substantial agreement with those for 
the MA-6 flotation configuration, which were II9.78 and 0.37 inches, 
respectively. The list angle for previous missions has been reported 
as approximately I50 _ 250 from the vertical. By timing audible events 



COMFIDENTIAl 



Page 5 - 20 



COKFIjEKTIAL 



on the onboard taje^ it appear;3 ^hat zhe astronaut initiated his post- 
landing checklist imiiiediat.ely rind had already begun to egress by four 
minutes after lanc.ing. Water stability data^ from tests conducted by 
the Recovery Branch of the Flight Operations Division, indicates that 
the above CG coulc, have caused the spacecraft to take some 3 or ^ 
minutes to stabilize in an upright position if the astronaut had re- 
mained in the couch. Since th.j astronaut vas apparently moving around 
in preparation foi' egressing diring this stabilization period, his 
weight may have nullified any restoring moment that existed. lfe.ny un- 
known factors can influence the- spacecraft erection time, including 
air trapped in the- landing bag, insulation -blanket soaking, and the 
manner in which the reserve parachute is jettisoned. Considering 
these unaccountab].e effects an^i the fact that they cannot be duplicated 
in a controlled f]_otation testj the actual list angle is indeterminate. 
Therefore, the cor. elusion must be drawn that, after taking into 
account the astror.aut's immediate egress, the higher center of gravity, 
and a number of possible minor factors; the spacecraft did not have 
sufficient time to erect itsel: before the absence of the astronaut 
changed tne equilibri-om list angle. 'This equilibrium angle, based on 
the unoccupied sp£,cecraft CG„ -ould well have been close to the astro- 
naut's estimate and is in reasonable agreement with the postflight 
photograph. 

5.5.7 Water in spac'ecrait cabin .- After spacecraft recovery, approxi- 

mately 65 gallons of salt water were removed from the cabin and an 
estimated 10 gallons remained in inaccessible places. Tne astronaut 
reported that a few drops of water splashed on the tape recorder at 
the time of landing, which can probably be attributed to water coming 
in through the cabin pressure-relief valve. Astronaut comments and 
postflight examinations reveal that this valve was not placed in the 
locked position- -3ne surge of vater which entered the recovery section 
of the spacecraft upon landing may have had enough velocity head to 
briefly overcome the valve's negative-pressure-relief setting (approxi- 
mately 16" of water) and spraj' througn onto the recorder. Tnis valve 
is located almost directly ever the tape recorder installation, as 
shown in figure '^.'^.7-1. 

The small amount of water that could have ccme in through this 
cabin pressure-rei.ief valve, rowever, would be negligible compared 
to the total amount found in tne spacecraft cabin. Postflight tests 
show the cabin leak rate to be about eoTC cc of air per minute, which 
is an increase of IbTO over tne prelaunch value of iOOO cc per minute. 
A leak was detected in the large pressure bulkhead around a thermo- 
couple connector] however, this leak is not large enough to account 
for much over 15 percent of the total. The astronaut stated that he 
heard some water enter through the opening left by the removal of the 
small pressure bulkhead, but aid not believe that this amounted to 



COEFIDENTIAL 



CONFIDENTIAL 



Page 5-21 



much more than a few gallons. Although the spacecraft was listing, 
it was not listing enough for the recovery section to he in the water. 
It is prohable that the water entered through the small pressure 
hulkhead opening during the egress and t-he period when The astronaut 
was using the capsule for support "o turn the liferaft over. This 
water could have entered through the shingles to the recovery section 
and would not necessarily been noticed hy the astronaut whose atten- 
tion was otherwise occupied. 



CONFIDENTIAL 



Page 5-22 



CONFIDENTIAL 



5.6 Reentry Heating 

5-D-l Heat shield. ■■ The perforiiance of the heat shield (see figure 

10.1.2-1) during reentry was satisfactory. The center plug was 
lost, DUt a postfhight investigation revealed that this occurred 
after major heating. The area under the plug showed no evidence 
of charring or excessive heatiag. Otherwise, the shield suffered 
only normal cracking and displayed the usual glass droplet streaks . 
The stagnation point appears to have oeen approximately in the 
center of the shield. 

Two temperatiLre pickups were recorded. One was located in 
the center of the shield and -ae other 27 inches from the center. 
Temperature -time histories are given in Part II of this report. 
The maximum tempei'atures experienced are in agreement with pre- 
dicted values. M£,ximum heat-sriield temperatures for this and pre- 
vious flights are presented in figure 5. 6. 1-1. 

The heating £,ppeared to be uniform over the shield, as is 
shown by 8 core ssmples taken at various locations in i^he shield. 
Visual char depth varied from O.3 to O.35 inches. This compares 
very closely with the MA-5 and MA-6 measurements. No reduction in 
overall thickness was ooserved. 

The measured weight loss of I3.I pounds was slightly more 
than the expected loss of 11 pi^unds, but is still within the limits 
of measurement anc. calculation accuracy. This value is greater 
than that resultiEg from previous flights; however, the possibility 
that previous shields were not completely dry when weighed might 
have contributed to their lower weight loss. This is especially 
probable for the VA-k and MA-5 spacecraft ablation shields. 
Approximate calculations show tnat the slightly more shallow reentry 
for this flight wculd not have resulted in a significant increase in 
the ablation loss compared to a nominal reentry. 

5-6.2 Afterbody . - Ihe shingles on the conical-cylindrical afterbody 

show no evidence cf adverse heating effects. Temperatures measured 
on these shingles are also prer>ented in Part II. 

5- 6. 3 White paint natch .- Tne gi'eatest heating effects experienced 

by the white patch (shown in ftgure 10.1-1, upper left of spacecraft) 
are when it is oriented towards, the sun, and since the spacecraft 
was never positioned in this manner for an extended period, only a 
trend in the data can be derived. Apparently the spacecraft was 
rolled several times, which placed the patch toward the sun for 
brief periods, and during these periods the differential was -40°F 
between the patch and an oxidised shingle. Just after O.O5 g, the 
white patch experienced a sudden drop in temperature, Ho explanation 

COTJFIDENTIAL 



COWIDENTIAL 



Page 5 - 23 



for this is available at the present time. During the priimry 
reentry heating phase ^ the patch te-mperature differential increased 
to +l80°F. This is expected and is attrihuted to the decreasing 
emissivity of the white paint with increasing temperature. 

Green-glow effect .- The astronaut reported a green glow around 
the recovery section during reentry. Ko explanation for the cause 
of this is available. Inspection of the beryllium shingles indicates 
nothing abnormal in this area; these shingles have about the same 
appearance as those of previous spacecraft. Beryllium shingles with 
black paint have been heated in tests to temperatures as high as 
2000°F without exhibiting the green glow. However, it Is possible 
that since these tests were conducxed using Quartz lamps, this intense 
lighting condition might have precluded recognition of this phenomena 
if it were present. 



CONFIDENTIAL 



5.7 ScienT:.fiG Experiraents 

Tethered iniriatable balloon .- This experiment was designed to 
provide orbital observations of nearby objects of varying surface 
finishes and to neasure the drag of an ooject of kno'^ii aerodynamic 
characteristics ::a a region of free molecular flow. Balloon drag 
could then be related to atmospheric density and thus provide a 
density profile over -he altitude range enconipassed during the Mercury 
orbit. It was also intended t,o obtain qualitative information on the 
capability of the astronaut t: estimate separation distance between 
the spacecraft and an object jf known size and shape in space. The 
visual portion of the experiment was to evaluate the relative merit 
of various colors and surface finishes for optimum visibility in a 
space envirorjnent, at varying ranges. Additional objectives of this 
test included observations of the general stability qualities and 
damping characteristics of the tethered balloon. The appearance, 
brightness and behavior of srrall diffuse reflecting discs were to be 
obser^/ed to provide a conipari;.on with ota&r foreign particles in 
space where appropriate. 

Description of testr Th.; test device consisted of a thirty- 
inch diameter_, inflatable bal _oon fabricated from a two-ply ravlar, 
aliuminum foil material, each -;?ly being one-half mil in tnickness.' 
The balloon surface was dii^ided into five equal-cjiced lunes of differ- 
ent colors and surface finish. These finishes were uncolored a^u-n.U 
num foil, yellow fluorescent Day-Glo, orange fluorescent D&y-Glo, flat 
white finish, and a phosphore ;;cent coating (see figure 5.7,1-1).' The 
balloon and inflating bottle ^^^ere packaged in a cylindrical container 
located in the antenna cannister imder the destatilizer flap. 

The balloon and inflatior bottle vetghed approximately 0.5 
po-xnds and the entire installation including instr^^mentation weighed 
approximately fivs pounds. 

The balloon was deployed in orbit at 01:33.00 by firing an 
actuating squib. A small com|;ressed spring then ejected tne balloon 
and an inflation bottle from the container, along with two balsa 
block liners and :he mylar discs. The balsa blocks were semi-cylin- 
derical in shape and about 6 inches long and -j inches wide. They 
were coated Day-Glo orange anc black and Day-Glo yellow and blact, 
respectively. Tbise my:Lar dircs v^ere coated witn aluminum foil on 
one side and a diffuse reflecting material on the other„ The balloon 
was tethered to tlie capsule b^ a 6-11 test nylon line IOC feet in 
length which was deployed from a spinning reel. When the ballon had 
been fully deployed, the line was entirely stripped from the reel 
but remained atta(;hed to a small strain gage mounted in the bottom 
of the balloon container. Continuous strain gage measurements were 



COI'IFIDENTIi^.L. 



Page 5 - 25 



to "be recorded onboard the spacecraft until xhe drag test was completed. 
The balloon was xhen to "be jettisoned and the rate and distance of 
separation hetween the spacecraft and halloon were to he estimated hy 
the astronaut . 

However^ the halloon did not inflate cc^mpletely and it did not 
jettison. Therefore^ drag raeasurements and rate and distance of 
separation of the halloon from the spacecraft were not ohtained . 

Results: At halloon deplojotent , the astronaut reported seeing 
the mylar discs spread out and q^uicl-^ly disappear. His first impression 
was that the halloon nad hroken free from the spacecraft; however, the 
object he was tracking was one of the balsa blocks. He observed this 
block for about 20 seconds, at whlcn tine the balloon cane into view, 
and was only partially inflated. 

These observations were verified by pictures taken by the astro- 
naut. During the towed phase^ the following results were obtained 
from astronaut observations, photographs, and the onboard data tape: 

1. Pilot comments indicated that deplojotent occurred with the 
spacecraft near 0°-0°~0° attitude. These attitudes cannot be 
confirmed by onboard instrumentation, since the gyros were caged at 
this time. Attitude rates vere noted in all three axes dnurlng 

and after deployment^ but the effect of these cannot be conclusively 
determined. 

2. Tne strain gage instrumer.tation and the squib-firing systemi 
appeared to work well. Strain-gage calibrations also checked well 
with previous ground checks . 

3. The onboard tape indicated that in-and-out oscillations 
occurred following deployment and spacecraft attitude changes. 
Tnese oscillations developed because of the inherent elasticity of 
the balloon and nylon line. However, an annealled aluminum foil 
shock absorber was included in the ejected system to absorb miost of 
the residual energy of the ejected balloon (see figure l) . Ground 
sim-ulation tests showed that about 90 percent of the energy imparted 
to the balloon during deplc^Tnent was absorbed. 

k. Pilot comments and flight photographs showed that the balloon 
shape tended to be irregular and oblong, and appeared to be about o 
to 8 inches in cross section. 



GOKTIDENTIAL 



COI^TIDEIvTLAL 



5. Astronaut comments descriced the balloon motion as being 
completely random in nature. These random motions may nave been 
caused by IsLTge ciemges in spacecraft attitude whicn occurred after 
deployment. However, aneven e.erodynaoiic loads which likely existed 
on the Irregular balloon shape would also be expected to contribute 
to this random miotion. Onboaio. comments by the astronaut did 
indicate;, however, that during the pc.rtlon of both the second and 
third orbital pas aes when dynac ic pressure was increasing;, calloon 
motions tended to become more stable. 

6. Approximsitely 35 minutes after balloon deploj^-ment , the 
astronaut initiated a series cf large control itianeuvers to check 

the spacecraft control system. The strain gage measuremenos indicated 
that fouling of tlie tethering line occurred during this period. 
This conclusion is further substantiated by the fact that subsequent 
large spacecraft maneuvers were net registered on the strain gage 
system. 

7. At approximately 03;]1:0C, tne astronaut attempted balloon 
jettison, but the balloon did not release from the spacecrafo. 
However, the onboard strain gage recording indicated a drop in ga.ge 
output from the level it had raid since probable fouling to the 
output level of the unloaded gage. Although this drop constituted 
a change of only 2. to 3fo in gage output, i^ does provide a positive 
indication that the jettison squib fired and that tne tethering 
line was severed. 

8. Only tne Day-Glc oran:5e and the unccated aluminium foil 
were visible to the astronaut, and these were the only colors that 
appeared in the phctograpns . Therefore, an effective evaluation 
of the colors could not be made on this flight. 

Summary: Ans.lysis of the experimental results Indicates that 
the balloon deplojTiient, jettis.:n, and the instrum.er.tation systems 
functioned satisfE.ctorily durl.ig f ligoT: . Since the balloo-n failed 
to inflate properJ.y at deployment, no useful drag and visual observatio 
data were obtained.. High rates of change in spacecraft attitude 
after balloon depJ.oyment, as w;ll as the irregular shape of the 
partially inflatec_ balloon, probably accounted for the random motion 
of the balloon observed during flight. Effective evaluation of the 
various colors was not possible since only part of the balloon 
was exposed. 



COEFIDEHTTAL 



.2 Z^_Q_^ 

t "^f ort -^f L u ^ a -^"i 

1/ It d OT"-^-^ L- 

p hit: 1 t 1 : 

r 1 a o f _ : 
Mi « n „ 

tt-1 r - = 

s-oacecrai u , 



TO : 

maintain a 5- 
Cdri'"'- 1-1'- 



to me as 
posiLio: 



e-la f 
containing a cap 
II d^ajL 

ttie base or the 
enc d a i 
cy o b 
conta 1 1 
volja of tl 
wat- bit-i^ d 
suit + -ir 



the p I 

36 hours alzer 

for CHVP^c 

read for 

as ro g Pi 



Page > - 28 



C0K?i:jErmAL 



Capsule sep£,ration occurred at 00:05:12.8 after lifT.-off. The 
liquid in t.he sphere was f irs ^ observed to move at 00:05:lU and the 
capillary appeared to be comp.Letely filled at 00:05:26. During the 
spacecraft turnai'O-jnd maneuver^ the liquid remained in the capillary. 
Iz is difficult t.o read the clock on the filjii^ although the miniscus 
can be seen in tie capillary during the daylight portions of the 
flight. At no time did it appear that the capillary rainiscus was 
lost because of e.ttitude control operations. 

Retrofire wes conducted from k: 33:0^,6 to ^: 33: 31.6, witn 
the capillary emjtying at 4:3,3:13 -xnder .35 g acceleration. The 
liquid began to refill the capillary at 4:33:39 and appeared to have 
completed this at 4:33:51. The capillary emptied at L:U5:53 during 
the reentry phase, which was after the 0.5-g point. The accurac^, of 
the onboard accelerometer is not enough to obtain the g-loading that 
caused the collapse of the mi:jiscus. 

Maximum angular accelera-:ion of .011-g on pitch, .0055-g in ^aw, 
and .OC33-g in roll during utilization of the reaction control system 
was experienced during the flight. Although the miniscus appeared 
to move slightly under these angular accelerations, the level of the 
miniscus to the standpipe appe-ared to remain unchanged. The astro- 
naut visually observed the experiment at 3:19:43 hours, and he con- 
firmed that the miniscus comp:_etely filled the standpipe and that no 
oscillations of or bubbles in tne liquid were evident. 

Results and conclusions.- The results of the experiment fully 
confirm classical capillary -action theory and ser^^e to complement" the 
results of the Lewis Research Center drop-tower tests. 

The ability of the capillary to maintain a stable fluid position 
during angular accelerations imposed by the reaction control system 
-indicates that this method of ullage contro_ is valid within the 
loading range involved. The results obtained during this experiment 
will be extrapolated to other liquids, particularly propellants, in 
accordance with tiae genei^l lf:_ws governing each specific fluid, 
namely the surface tension^ f ] uid temperature, and the capillary tube 
diameter. Despite the poor f :, Im data quality- resulting from salt- 
water effects, tha results of the zero-gravity experiment nave en- 
hanced and extended our knowledge of liquid behavior in a weightless 
environment . 

5- 7- 3- Photographic studies . - 

5 -7. 3-1 Horizon definition: As jart of the program to develop navigational 

procedures for the Apollo spac:ecraft, Peterson at the Massachusetts 
Institute of Tec hi: 10 log;,- has requested that photographs be taken of the 



COrfFlDENTlAL 



Page 5-29 



daylight horizon through a dual Elus and Red filxer. It is desired 
to obtain definition of the earth-horizon limb for application to 
spacecraft navigation system design. Eastman SO I30 film was used 
for this purpose. This film was intended to provide a measure of the 
Intensity of light scattering as a f-jnction of wavelength and alti- 
tude. The pilot exposed 26 frames of useable q_ualityj with some losses 
during film change , One of these photographs is iiiustrated in 
figure 1? . 7 . j . 1-1 . A photometer analysis of the photographs Is under- 
way at MIT, and results pertinent to the Apollo mission are expected soon. 

5.7- 3-2 Meteorological: The Meteorological Satellite Laboratory of the 

U. S. Weather Bureau requested that the pilot take photographs using 
Trl-X and infra-red sensitive filic through a five filter unit> The 
purpose of this experimient was to octain information on the best 
wavelengths for meteorological satellite photograph;/ . The f ilr; and 
filter were taken aboard the spacecraft by the pilot, but time did 
not permit completion of the experiment. 

5. 7- 3- 3 General color photography; Thirty feet of Eastman color nega- 

tive film was provided for the pilot to take color films of the s^jnllt 
earth with the 35mm hand-held camera described In Section 7.2. 

Photographs of the booster and balloon were taken to verify the 
astronaut's observations and provide information for simulation 
studies. Fourteen pictures were taken of the partially, inflated 
balloon, and fifteen frames of the launch vehicle were exposed. 

Photographs of African and North American land masses were desired 
by Paul D. LovTman of the Theoretical Division of Goddard Space Flight 
Center. These were requested to build up a catalogue of photographs 
of various physiographic features of the earth to be used as reference 
material for studies of other planetary surfaces and for detection of 
meteorite impact features on the earth. The pilot took I3 frames 
showing the African land mass^ and. these were sent to Lo^rfman for analysis. 

Photographs of cloud formations are to be used by scientists of 
the U. S. Weather Bureau Meteorological Satellite Laboratory in studies 
of weather fonnatlons and for compa.rlson with Tiros data= Ninety-six 
photographs showing cloud formations were obtained. Most of these 
were clear and revealed interesting cloud patterns. These are being 
forwarded to the IJ , S, Weather Bureau for anali'Sis, 

Theoretical calculations indicate that the sun should appear 
flattened ^ust before setting and just after rising. Photographs of 
the sun at this time were desired by John 0 'Keefe of the Theoretical 



COriFIDElJTIAL 



CONFIDENT lAL 



Physics Division of zhe Godda-d Space Flight Center. The pilot made 
two excellent photographs of the sun at the horizon^ and these are 
being forwarded to Goddard for evaluation. 

The color lasers at the horizon at sunset siay provide informa- 
tion as to the light transfusion characteristics of the upper layer 
of the atmosphere. John O'Keefe of Goddard has requested these 
photographs for tnis purpose^ and the pilot ootained l8 photographs 
of the siunset horizon. 

Photographs were desired In order to derive information on the 
size, brightness^ and speed of motion of the particles which Glenn 
reported. The pilot exposed 2 9 frames in an attempt to photograph 
these particles. He appears to have been successful in at least 
two frames. Several frames ajpear to have the particles but they are 
not in focus. 

Air-glow layer obsei-vaticns , During the third orbital pass, the 
pilot made a serifss of observations on a l-jminous band visible around 
the horizon at night, which was also reported by astronaut, John Glenn 
The most decisive observation was made with an air-glow filter 
supplied by Mr. Lawrence DurAeLuan of the Goddard Space Flight Center. 
The filter transmits a narrow band of wavelengths, approximately 11 
Angstrom 'onits wide at the half power point and centered at the wave- 
length of the strongest radiation of the night airglow (5577 Angstrom). 

Calculation based on the pilot's obser^'ation that Phecda Ursae 
Majoris (magnitude 2,5) was lost to sight at the brightest part of 
the layer Indicates that it is about 5O times as bright as a write 
surface illuminatg:d by mooniient„ 

From star observations reported on the onboard tape, the densest 
part of the 5577 layer can be calculated to be at a height of 89 kilo- 
meters, which is in good agreement with rocket measurements. 

The pilot die. not note an,,- structures, either vertical or hori- 
zontal, in this la.yer. He did not attempt to observe it completely 
.around the'horizor . ' , 

A remarkable feature of tnis observation is tne discrepancy be- 
tween the pilot's eye estimate,:, of 8°-10° in altitude above the hori- 
zon and the results of timed s :ar observations on the other. The 
latter indicates altitudes of .2=-3-. It appears that there is a 
strong illusion tbat exaggerat^^s angles near the horizon, since 
astronaut Glenn also reported ^^^-8° as the height of the luminous 
band. This phenoirenon is perhaps comparable to the we 11 -Known 
illusion which makes the moon :eem larger near the horizon. 



CO;^Fm;NTlAL 



CONFIDENTIAL 



Page 5 - 31 



Ground -flare visibility experiment . 



The ma^or objectives of 



^his experiment were to determine the capability of the astronaut 
to observe a grotnd light of high intensity while in orbit and to 
evaluate visibility from the spacecraft at various ranges and slant 
angles through the atmosphere. This experiment was also intended 
to provide a quantitative measure of ataospherlc attenuation of 
light. 



5.7.5.1 Description of the experiment: Ti 

using two Items of equipment. The fir; 
of one -million -candlepower flares loca" 
station. A total of ten flares were to 
first orbital pass and three during eac 
flare had a burning time of approximate 
These flares were scheduJ.ed to be ignlt 
sixty seconds apart^ with the first fla: 
the point of closest approach o: 



second item of equipm^e 
meter h" in diameter 
filter varied from 0 
3.8 neutral density (99 



to be used inf. 

thick and ^l. 3 < 
.eutral density 1 
98/0 light re due 



experiment was conducted 
of these items was a group 
d near the Woomera tracking 
be usedj four during the 
I succeeding pass. Each 
y one and one -half minutes, 
d in series approximately 
'e Ignition occuring near 
.cecraft to the station. The 
Ight consisted of a photo - 
iz. in weight. The photometer 
20. Wo light reduction) to 
tlon) , 



Results: On the first pass over Australia^ four flares were 
ignited simultaneously. However^ because of the extensive cloud 
cover (approximately eight-tenths at 5OCO feet)^ the flares were not 
visible to the astronaut. Therefore, the experiment was discontinued 
for the remainder of the mission and no results were obtained. 



COEFIDENTIAL 



CONFroENTIAL 



Pao« 5-32 




CONFIDENTIAL 



Page 5-33 




CONFIDENTIAL 




CONFIDENTIAL 



CONFroENTIAL 




CONFIDENTIAL 



CONFroENTIAL 



Page 5-36 




CONFroENTUL 



CONFroENTTAL 



Page 5-37 



1. Automatic drogue deploy fuse (5A) 

2. Main parachute system arm #1 (2 sec time delay) 

3. 21,000 foot barostat switch #2 

4. 21,000 foot barostat switch #1 

5. Main parachute system arm #2 (2 sec time delay) 

6. Automatic drogue deploy fuse (5A) 

7. Drogue deploy relay 

8. Inlet-air door release 

9. Automatic main system lockout fuse (5A) 

10. 11,250 foot barostat switch 

11. Tower separation relay #1 

12. Automatic main system lockout fuse (5A) 

13. Tower separation relay #2 

14. Emergency drogue deploy fuse (5A x) 

15. Drogue deploy 

16. Emergency drogue deploy relay 

17. Automatic main deploy fuse (5A) 

18. Postlanding system relay #1 

19. Tower separation relay #1 

20. Tower separation relay #2 

21. Main-parachute system arm relay #1 (2 sec time delay) 

22. Main-parachute system arm relay #1 (2 sec time delay) 

23. Main-parachute delay relay #1 (2 sec time delay) 

24. Main-parachute time delay #1 (2 sec time delay) 

25. 10,000 ft. barostat switch #1 

26. 10,000 Descent 

27. 10,000 Descent relay #1 

28. Main deploy warning light relay (2 sec time delay) 

29. Main deploy #1 

30. Automatic main deploy fuse (5A) 

31. Post landing system relay #2 

32. Tower separation relay #1 

33. Tower separation relay #2 

34. Main-parachute system arm relay #2 (2 sec time delay) 

35. Main-parachute delay #2 (2 sec time delay) 

36. 10,000 barostat switch #2 

37. Main-parachute system arm relay F# 2 (2 sec time delay) 

38. Main-parachute delay relay #2 (2 sec time delay) 

39. Main deploy #2 

40. Antenna-fairing separation signal 



(b) Key to components shown in part (a) of this figure. 
Figure 5.5.1-1.- Concluded. 



CONFroENTIAL 



CONFroENTIAL 



Page 5-38 




CONFIDENTIAL 



CONFroENTIAL 




CONFIDENTIAL 



Page 5-40 




CONFIDENTIAL 



CONFroENTIAL 




CONFroENTIAL 



CONFIDENTIAL 



Page 5-42 




CONFIDENTIAL 



CONJTDEM'IAI. 
6.C LAUNCH VEHICLE PERFDEMAIICE 



All launch vehicle systems perfoimed satisfactorily. The 
following items are noted for inf omation. 



6.1 Hydraulics 

The launch vehicle hydraialic system operated satisfactorily 
throughout the MA-7 powered flight. The sustainer hydraulic system 
maintained 308O psi^ as indicated by measurement H 3IO P (see figure 
6.1-1 for location of this transducer). Hydraulic system pressure 
measurement H 52 which "began decreasing at 00:03:10 and reached 
zero at SECO (see figure 6.1-2) is discussed in paragraph 6.2 helcw. 

6.2 Abort Sensing and Implemenxation System (ASIS) 

The ASIS went to a ready condition^ that Is^ all ASIS parameter 
monitors enabled and both spacecraft fail detect relays energized^ 
at T-3-33 seconds. The additional holddora time for propulsion 
system verification was 2.93 seconds. 

The ASIS performed satisfactorily during the flight. However, 
the sustainer hydraulic pressure switch No. 2 actuated to the abort 
position at 00:Oi+:25.1. This switch and the sustainer hydraulic 
accijmulator pressure transducer (H52P) are connected to a common 
pressure -sensing line. H 52 P showed a gradual decrease in pressure 
from 294-0 psia to zero between 00:C3:1C and 00:05:12. Switch No. 2, 
which was preset to activate at 2015 ^100 psia^ activated when H 52 P 
indicated a pressure of I050 psia. The sustainer controls, hydraulic 
pressure transducer indicated that hydraulic pressure remained constant 
at a normal level throughout the flight, and as result of this, the 
ASIS sustainer hydraulic pressure switch No. 1 did not activate until 
normal time after SECO. Both ASIS sustainer hydraulic pressure 
switches must be actuated to Initiate abort command; therefore, this 
command was net given. 



6 . 3 Airframe 

The performance of the airframe was satisfactory, and struc- 
tural integrity was maintained through powered flight and space- 
craft separation. The maximum activity in airframe external dynamic 
pressure measured at the spacecraft adapter occurred in the viclrJ.ty 
of Mach 1 and at maximum dynamic pressure. This activity decreased 
with the lessening of ambient pressure. 



CONFIDENTIAL 



C0FFTDE1:TIAL 

Noise during tower jettison and poslgrade ignition was measured 
on a microphone loca":ed inside trie adapter. 'This was the same behavior 
as noted in previous Mercury-Atlas flights, Normal clearance and space- 
craft separation vere indicated hy measurement A 828 D "manhole cover", 
to the retropack extensiometer . 



6 A Guidance 

The operation of the Mod III guidance system was entirely 
satisfactory. The system placed the spacecraft in a satisfactory 
orDit . 

This was the fl::'Et Mercury flight in which the 6,000-feet 
rate legs were used for closed loop guidance. Lock was maintained 
until approximately one second after lift-off. At this time, the 
system was shifted to the first acq_uisition cube; full acquisition 
occurred at approximjitely 60 seconds. The launch vehicle appeared 
to pass directly into the cube center. Both track and rate lock 
were maintained until well after SECO. The final elevation angle 
at SECO was 7.4 degrees. 



CONEIDET-.TIAL 



CONFroENTIAL 



Page 6-3 




CONFIDENTIAL 



CONFroENTIAL 



Page 6-4 




CONFTOENTIAL 



COWFIDEHTIAL 



Page 7-1 



7.0 PILOT ACTIVITIES 



7.1 Pilot's Impressions of the Flight 

Introduction .- The pilot's narrative accotmt of the flight 
which follows has "been exerpted hy the editors from the pilot's 
dehriefing. 

Insertion and countdown .- Insertion was accomplished without 
a hitch, except for a minor problem with the tiedown for the helmet 
visor seal hottle hose. The countdown went perfectly until the 

minute weather hold. At T-10 minutes it was picked up again and 
proceeded perfectly once more until lift-off. During the pre- 
launch period I had no problems. The couch was comfortable. I 
had no pressure points . The length of the prelaunch period was not 
a problem. I believe I could have gone at least twice as long. 
Throughout the prelaunch period, the launch vehicle was much more 
dormant than I had expected it to be. I did not hear the clatter 
that John Glenn had reported. Once I felt the engines gimbaling. 
I do not recall hearing the boil off valve. 

7.1.3 Launch and powered flight .- At firing signal, everything 

became quiet. I had expected to feel the launch vehicle shake, 
some machinery start, the vernier engines light off, or to hear 
the LOX valve make some noise, but I did not. Nothing happened 
until T-0; then I began to feel the vibration. There was a little 
bit of shaking. Lift-off was unmistakable. 

At around 00:01:30, the sky changed in brightness rather 
suddenly. It did not become black, but it was no longer a light 
blue. The noise and vibration increased so little during maximum 
dynamic pressure that it would not be noticed \mless you were 
looking for It. EECO was very gentle. Three seconds later, 
staging occTii-red. There was no mistaking staging. Two very definite 
noises could be heard; one accompanied the drop in acceleration; 
the other was associated with staging. 

At staging there was a change in the light outside the window 
and I saw a wisp of smoke. It was gone in a second. Tower 
jettisoning was unmistakable. I felt a bigger Jolt than at staging. 
Out the window, the tower could be seen way off in the distance, 
heading straight for the horizon. It was rotating at atoout 20 RFM, 
smoke still trailing out of the three nozzles. Just prior to BECO, 
a cyclic yawing at about 1 c.p.-s. was noticeable. It was jerky, not 
sinusoidal. This picked up again after HECO and increased very 
gradually. until SECO. 



COWPIDEMTIAL , 



COKFIIMTIAL 



At SECO there was a gentle drop off in acceleration. Two 
separate bangs coiald be heard; first, the clamp ring explosive 
holts and then the louder noise of the posigrade rockets. The 
Best ciie to spacecraft separation vas weightlessness . You also 
notice the silence.. 

Orbital Flight . - 

Turnaround: 1 began the turnaround and wondered why I 
did not feel anything. At this time, the angular accelerations 
of the spacecraft can not be felt, and nothing can be seen through 
the window. The instruments provided the only reference. The 
turnaround proceeded 'jufet^asiin.the trainer except that I was 
somewhat distracted, initially by the new sensation of weightless- 
ness. I followed the needles aroimd and soon there was the hori- 
zon. What an arresting sight the first view of the horizon is L 
At this point, the pilot needs about 30 seconds to drink in this 
sight and take stock of what has happened. 

Booster observations: Following the turnaround, I tracked the 
launch vehicle taiikage . It moved down the window as predicted. 
I believe I described its tumbling rates. These were very slow, 
it was not rolling. It was pointing away from me with the 
sustainer engine down. I could see what looked like little ice 
crystals spewing out the sustainer nozzle . They seemed to be visi- 
ble for two or three times the length of the booster, in a gradu- 
ally Increasing pattern. The booster was q_ulte bright and easy 
to see. 

Weightlessness: Zero g was exactly what I had expected from 
my brief experience with it in training. I adapted to it quickly. 
It was very pleasant, a great freedom. 

The solid food provided for the flight was found crumbled in 
its plastic bag. Everytime I opened the bag, some crumbs would 
come floating out, but once a bite sized piece of food was in the 
mouth, there was no problem. It was Just like eating here on 
earth. 

My only cues to motion were the instruments and the views 
through the window or the periscope. At times during the flight, 
the spacecraft angular rates were greater that 6° per second, but 
aside from vision, I had no sense of movement. 

I was never disoriented. I always knew where controls and 
other objects within the cabin were relative to myself. I could 



COHPIDENTIAL 



COKFUMJTIAL 



I^ge T - 3 



reach anything I needed. I did have one unusual experience. 
After looking out the window for sometime, I noticed that vhen 
I would turn my head to the right to look at the ditty bag, I 
would get the impression that it was oriented vertically or 90 
degrees from where I felt it should be, 

There were times vhen the gyros were caged, and nothing was 
visible out the window, that I had no idea where the eajrth was in 
relation to the spacecraft. But it did not seem important to me. 
I knew at all tmes that I had only to wait for a period of time 
and the earth would appear in the window. The periscope was par- 
tiCTolarly useful in this respect, because it had such a wide field 
of view. However, even without it, the window would have been 
adequate . 

^.l.h.k Control system function: For normal maneuvering in orbit, 

fly-by-wire, low thrusters only, was the best system. However, 
I believe for a tracking task, manual proportional control might 
be desirable. The fly-by-wire high thrusters, and the rate command 
and auxiliary damping systems were not needed for the tasks that 
I had to perform in orbit. 

In orbit the solenoids of both the high and lew thrusters 
of the fly-by-wire system could be heard. I could hear and feel 
the rate command system. You do not hear the control linkages 
but I could hear the manual solenoids and manual thrusters, and 
I could feel the rate command system kick in. Through the window, 
the exhaust from the pitch down thriisters could be seen. There 
was no movement, just a little "V of white steam in front of the 
window. It is visible even at night. 

7-1.^.5 Unusual flight attitudes: During the flight I had an oppor- 

tunity to investigate a number of unusual flight attitudes. One 
of these was forward inverted flight. This was a good way to fly. 
When I was pitched down close to 90° I think I could pick out the 
nadir point very easily without reference to the horizon. I 
could determine whether I was looking straight down or off at an 
angle. I>uring large portions of the second and third orbit, I 
allowed the spacecraft to drift. Drifting flight was a thrill. 
I enjoyed the continiiing change of scenery. 

Alining the gyros consumed fuel or time, one of the two. 
The horizon provided a good roll and pitch reference as long as it 
was visible in the window. But yaw reference was a problem. The 
best yaw reference was obtained by pitching down 50 to TO degrees 
and viewing through the window. Another good yaw reference was 



COHFIDENTIAL 



COKFIDMTIAI, 

Page 7 - ^ 

available In the periscope at nearly any attitude. The zero 
pitch mark on the periscope vas also a valuable aid in alining the 
gyros since at zero pitch, the horizon is not in the windov. 

On the dark side of the earth, the horizon is visible at all 
times, even before moon rise. Yaw attitude is difficult to deter- 
mine at night. Tie best reference is a known star. The peri- 
scope is no help in determining yav on the night side. 

'^•^•^■^ Communications: In general, comraijnicatlons were excellent. 

When I was within UEF range, everyone said they could hear me, 
and I heard very well. 

'^•^■^•^ Balloon observations: At balloon deployment, I saw one of the 

balsa blocks and mistook it for the balloon. I saw the confetti as 
it was Jettisoned but it disappeared rapidly. Finally the balloon 
cajne into view; it looked to me like it was a wrinkled sphere 
about 8 to 10 inches thick in the center. It had a little sausage 
coming out each side. The balloon motion, following deployment, 
was unpredictable. 

^'^■^■Q Terrestrial observations: There was no difference in the 

apparent color of land, water areas, or clouds from orbital 
attitude compared to the view from a high flying aircraft. The 
view looked to me exactly like the pictures from other Mercury 
flights. The south Atlantic was .9 covered with clouds but all 
of western Africa was clear. I had a beautiful view of Lake Chad. 
Parts of Africa were green, and it was easy to tell that the green 
areas were jungle. There were clouds over the Indian Oceaja. The 
eastern Pacific was roughly .3 to .h cloud covered. Farther west 
in the Pacific, it was not so heavily clouded. The western half 
of Bajala, California was covered with clouds along its entire 
length but the eastern half was clear. Over the United States 
on the second orbit, I noticed a good amoimt of cloudiness, but 
after retrofire, I could see the area around El Centro quite clearly. 
I saw a dirt road -.md. had the impression that had there been a truck 
on it, I could have picked it out. I did not see Florida nor the 
Cape area. 

^'^•^'9 Celestia.1 observations: Because of the light leak: around the 

tune correlation clock, I was not fully dark-adapted, nor was the 
cabin completely diirk; therefore, I did not see more stars than I 
could see from the earth. I am convinced having seen the star 
Corvus, both during! the flight and later in the S2F that a lot i 
stars can be seen from the ground than I could see through the 
spacecraft window. I could, nevertheless, readily see and identify 



. more 



COKFIDEITTIAL 



COKFIDEUTIAL 



Page T - 5 



the major constellations and use them for heading information. I 
could not see stars on the daylight side if the earth vas in the 
field of view of the window; however, I do remember seeing stars 
at the western horizon when the sun was just up in the east but the 
terminator had not yet reached the western horizon. The sun rises 
and sun sets were the most beautiful and spectacular events of the 
flight. I think that, unlike the sun rises and sun sets on earth, 
those in orbit were all the same. The sharply defined bands of 
color at the horizon were brilliant. 

At a number of points during the flight, I observed the 
particles reported by John Glenn. They appeared to be like snow- 
flakes. I do not believe that any of them were truly luminous, 
I think all shown with reflected sunlight. The particles traveled 
at different speeds but I do not believe I saw any move away from 
the vehicle as rapidly as the confetti. At dawn on the 3rd orbit, 
I reached for the densiometer and inadvertently hit the spacecraft 
hatch, a cloud of particles flew by the window. Since I was yawed 
to the right, the particles traveled across the front of the window 
from the right to the left. I continued to knock on the hatch and 
on other portions of the spacecraft walls and each time a cloud of 
particles came past the window. The particles varied in size, 
brightness, and color. Some were gray; some were white. The large 
ones were k to 5 times the size of the small ones. One I saw was 
a half inch long, and it looked lake a lathe filing. It was shaped 
like a curly-cue. 

Y.1.5 Retrosequence . - I think that one reason that I got behind at 

retrofire was because just at dawn on the third orbit, I discovered 
the source of the fireflies. I felt that I had time to get that 
taken care of and prepare for retrofire properly, but time slipped 
away. It really raced during this period as it did through the 
whole flight. I needed that time over Hawaii. The Hawaii Cap Com 
was trying very hard to get me to do the pre -retrograde checklist. 
After the fireflies, I was busy trying to get alined in orbit 
attitude. Then I had to evaluate ASCS problem. I got behind. 
I had to stow things haphazardly; I think everything was stowed, 
but not in the planned places. 

Just prior to retrofire, I had a problem in pitch attitude. 
I did not have any confidence in the ABCS. By this time, I had gone 
through the part of the preretro checklist which called for the 
manual fuel handle to be out as a backup for the AECS. When I 
selected the fly-by-wlre control system, I did not shut off the 
manual system. As a result, attitude control during retrofire was 
accamplished on both the fly-by-wlre and the manual control systems . 



COHFIDEKTIAL 



I^e 7-6 



COlfflDErTTIAI, 



I feel that attitude control during retrofire was good. My 
reference was divided between the periscope, the window, and the 
attitude indicators . At retro attitude as indicated by reference to 
the window and the periscope, the pitch attitude indicator read 
-10°. I tried to hold this attitude on the instruments throiaghout 
retrofire, but I cross checked attitude in the window and the peri- 
scope . I have commented many times that on the trainer you cannot 
divide your attention between one attitude reference system and 
another and do a good job in retrofire. But that was the way I 
controlled attitude during retrofire on this flight. 

The initiation of retrofire was just a little bit late, al- 
though retroseq.uence came on time. I received a countdown to retro- 
fire from the California Cap Com. I waited one more second, and 
then punched the m;ajaual retrofire button and one or two seconds after 
that I felt the first retrorocket fire. 

I expected a big boot from the retrorockets . But the deceleration 
was just a very gentle nudge. The sound of the rockets firing was 
just audible. Retrofire gave me a sensation, not of being pushed 
back toward Hawaii as John Glenn reported, but of being slowed down 
in three increments, so that by the time the retrofire was over, I 
felt that there had been Just enough deceleration to bring the space- 
craft to a stop. :: felt that if I were to look down, I would see that 
the motion that I had seen thro^agh the window and the periscope before 
retrofire would have stopped; but of course, it had not. 

Reentry . - Retropack jettison occurred on time and the periscope 
came in on time . At this time, I noticed my appalling fuel state, 
and realized that I had controlled retrofire on both the manual and 
fly-by-wire systems . I tried both the manual aiid the rate-command 
control modes and got no response. The fuel gage was reading about 
6 percent, but the fuel tank was empty. This left me with 15 percent 
on the automatic system to last out the ten minutes to .05 g and to 
control the reentry. 

If the California Cap Com had not mentioned the retroattitude 
bypass switch, I think I would have forgotten it, and retrofire would 
have been delayed considerably longer. He also mentioned an Aux Damp 
reentry which I think I would have chosen in any case, but it was a 
good suggestion to have. He was worth his weight in gold for just 
those two items. 

The period prior to the .05 g was a harried one because I 
did not know whether the fuel was going to hold out. The periscope 



CO]IFIDEM;LAL 



COKFIDEKTIAL 



Page T - T 



was retracted. I felt the attitude Indicators were useless. The 
only attitude reference I had was the window. I did not have much 
fuel to squander at this point holding attitude. I xised it sparingly, 
trying to keep the horizon in the window so that I would have a 
correct attitude reference. I stayed on fly-hy-wire until .05 g. 
At .05 g I think I still had a reading of about 15 percent on the auto- 
fuel gage. 

I hegan to hear the hissing outside the spacecraft that John 
Glenn mentioned. The spacecraft was alined within 3 or 1^ degrees in 
pitch and yaw at the start of the reentry period. I feel that it 
would have reentered properly without any attitude control. The 
grad-ual Increase of aerodynamic damping dTiring the reentry appeared 
to he sufficient to aline the capsule properly. 

Veiy shortly after .05 I began to pick up oscillations on 
the pitch and yaw rate needles. These oscillations seemed about 
the same as those in the trainer during a -0.1* reentry. From this 
I decided that the spacecraft was in a good reentry attitude and I 
selected the AUX-damp Control Mode . 

I watched both the rate indicator and the window during this 
period because I was beginning to see the reentry glow. I could see 
a few flaming pieces falling off the spacecraft. I also saw a long 
rectangular strap of some kind going off in the distance. The window 
did not light up to the extent that John Glenn reported. It was 
just a noticeable Increase in illumination. I did not see a fiery 
glow prior to peak g. 

I noticed one thing during the heat pulse that I had not expected. 
I was looking for the orange glow. It was at this time that I noticed 
a light green glow that seemed to be coming from the cylindrical 
section of the spacecraft. It made me feel that the trim angle was 
not right, and that some of the s\arface of the recovery compartment 
might be ablating. I think it must have been the beryllium vaporizing. 
The fact that the rates were oscillating evenly, strengthened my 
conviction that the spacecraft was at a good trim angle. The green 
glow was brighter than the orange glow around the window . 

I heard Cape Cap Com up to the blackout. He told me that 
blackout was expected momentarily. I listened at first for his 
command transmission, but it did not get through. So I just talked 
the rest of the way down. 



*-0.1 damping coefficient set into the trainer computer. 



COKPIDENTIAL 



r^ge T - 8 



COKFIDENTIAL 



Acceleration [oeakei at about 6.7 g. At this time oscillations 
in rate were nearly Inperceptlble . AUX-Damp was doing very, very 
well. The period of peak g was much longer than I had erpected. I 
noticed that I had to breathe a little more forcef\ilIy in order to 
say normal sentences. 

Landing;.- The accelerometer read 2| to 3 g when the spacecraft 
passed through a himdred thousand feet. At around 80 or TO thousand 
feet, I may have nm out of automatic fuel. I do not remember looking 
at the fuel gage but the rates began to oscillate pretty badly al- 
though the rate needles were still on scale. 

My best indication of the amplitude of the oscillation was to 
vatch the sun cross the window, and try to determine the angle through 
which the spacecraft was oscillating. I coiild feel the deceleration 
as we would go to one side in yaw or pitch, I switched the drogue 
fuse switch on at about ^5 thousand feet. At about ko thousand feet, 
I began to feel that the spacecraft oscillations were going past 90°. 
I reported that the oscillations were getting too bad and I deployed 
the drogue chute manually at around 25,000 feet. 

I could see the drogue pulsing and vibrating more than I had 
expected. It was visible against a cloudy sky. After the drogue 
chute was deployed, I operated the snorkel manually. The rate 
handle came up, but I reached over and pushed it up too. I did 
not notice any increase in cooling at this time. 

I switched the main chute fuse switch on at 15,000 feet, and 
waited for the main chute to deploy. At about 9,500 feet, I manually 
operated the main chute deploy switch. It came out and streamed. 
It was reefed for a little while. There Is a lot of stress on that 
chute 1 You can see how it is being tried. The chute unreefed and It 
was beautif\ii: I could see no damage whatsoever. Rate of descent 
■was right on 30 feet per second. 

I was convinced that the main chute was good and selected the 
auto position on lariding bag switch and the bag went out immediately. 
I went through the postreentry and lOK feet checklists and got every- 
thing pretty well t<aken care of. 

The impact was much less severe than I had expected. It was 
more noticeable by -he noise than by the g-load. There was also 
a loud knock at impact. I thought we had a re-contact problem of 
some kind. I was somewhat dismayed to see water splashed on the 
face of the tape recorder box immediately after Impact. My fears 
that there might be a leak in the spacecraft appeaj-ed to be confirmed 
by the fact that the spacecraft did not right itself. 



COMFIDEirTIAL 



GOKFrDENTIAIi 



Page 7-9 



7.1.8 Egress .- The spacecraft listed halfway "between pitch down and 

yaw left. I got the proper things disconnected and waited for the 
spacecraft to right itself. We do not have a window in the egress 
trainer, hut the level of the water on the window seemed to he higher 
than I had expected. The list did not change. 

I knew that I was way off track. I had heard the Cape Cap 
Com transmitting hlind that there would he an hom- for recovery. 
I decided to get out at that tijue and went about the biisiness of 
egressing from the spacecraft- 
Egress is a tough job. The space is tight and egress is hard. 
But everything worked properly. The small pressure bulkhead stuck 
a little bit. Pip pins and initiators came out very well. I 
easily pushed out the cannister with my bare head. I had the raft 
and the camera with me. I disconnected the hose after I had the 
cannister nearly out. 

I forgot to seal the suit and I did not deploy the neck dam. 
I was aware at this time that the neck dam was not up but I had for- 
gotten it earlier right after impact when I should have put it 
up. I think one of the reasons I did not was that it was so hot. 
However J it was not nearly as hot as I expected it to be. I think 
after impact I read 105 on the cabin temperatiire gage. I was much 
hotter in orbit than I was after impact. I did notice the hijmidity. 
I felt fine. 

I climbed out. I had the raft attached to me. I placed the 
camera up on top of the recovery corapartment so that I could get 
it in the raft with me if the capsule sank. I did not want to 
take it with me while I inflated the raft. 

I slid out of the spacecraft while holding on to the neck. I 
pulled the raft out after me and inflated it, while still holding 
on to the spacecraft. The sea state was very good. Later on the 
swells may have increased to eight or nine feet, but at impact, they 
were only five or six feet. 



COHFIDEWTIAL 



Page 7 - IQ 



00115' IDENTIAL 



7-2 Flight Activities 



7.2.1 Fref light training . - 

7-2.1.1 Spacecraft checkout activities: The pilot's participation 

in the spacecraft pref light checkout activities enabled him to 
become familiar with the MA-7 spacecraft and launch vehicle systems. 
Table 7.1.1.1-1 summarizes the checkout activities during which he 
spent 31 hours and 30 minutes in the spacecraft itself and many 
additional hours before and after each checkout operation in p^ep- 
ar^tion, trouble shooting, observation and discussion. In addition, 
the pilot spent 79 hours and 30 minutes in the MA -6 spacecraft 
which also added considerably to his knowledge of Mercury space- 
craft and launch vehicle systems. 

T.2.1.2 Training activities: Table 7.1.1.2-1 is a brief summary of 

the training activities on the Langley and Cape Canaveral Procedures 
trainers and the PJJFA trainer from 25 March to 22 May 1962. During 
this period the pilot spent 70 hours and ko minutes accomplishing 
Ilk turnarounds, 92 retrofires, and experienced 1^3 simialated 
systems failures. The main training emphasis diiring these simu- 
lations was on the practicing of specific attitude maneuvers and 
rehearsing the inflight activities. The pilot also received 
training on failure detection and correction which us\aally resulted 
in an abort or early reentry. He participated in several of the 
launch abort and network simulations during which the mission rules 
were discussed and rehearsed. 

7-2. 1.3 Training analysis: On the Mercury Procedures Trainers, the 

pilot achieved a high level of skill in performing maneuvers such 
as turnaround, retrofire and reentry rate damping. The pilot 
reported that during the flight these particular maneuvers seemed 
familiar to him. However, he was less well prepared for these 
activities which could not be properly simulated and practiced 
"before flight, such as the gyro re-alinement and the more extensive 
attitude change maaeuvers. 

In addition, it should be noted that the horizon scanner mal- 
function encountered during the flight could not be simulated on 
the Procedures Trainer, nor can practice be given in the analysis 
of instrument reference problems because of the lack of a system 
for simulating the view through the spacecraft window. These 
factor? , together with the higher fly -by-wire low thrust levels 
simulated on the trainer, may have contributed to the pilot's 
tendency to use the high torque thrusters excessively with the 
resulting high rate of fuel consumption. 



CONFIDENTIAL 



CONFIDENTIAL 



Page 7-11 



Flight plan activities had to l3e altered as required when they 
conflicted at times with operational requirements arising from system 
malfunctions or mission requirements = 

During the flight the pilot had difficulty in obtaining a satis- 
factory setting on the suit and cabin cooling systems . Much of this 
difficulty resulted from time lags "between regulator settings and 
system response. 

The pilot failed to follow the planned egress procedure with 
regard to deployment of the neck dam and the sealing of the suit 
inlet hose valve o The droplets of water which splashed on the tape 
recorder at landing and the apparent unusual list angle of the 
spacecraft may have contributed to his desire to perform a rapid 
egresSj with a resulting Inattention to deployment of the neck dam. 

7.2.1A Pref light operations schedule: The specific preflight pilot 

activities and dates beginning from March I6 to launch date are 
given in table Td.l.ij-l- During the preflight preparation period, 
the pilot maintains a tight schedule of training activities « In 
addition, a large number of \mscheduled demands on the pilot's 
time resulted in a somewhat crowded schedule. 

7.2.2 Flight plan activities . - 

7,2.2.1 Design of the flight plan: Pilot activities during orbital 

flight consisted of observations, experiments, and flight maneuvers. 
The activities were planned to provide the maximum information in 
the time available. The observations included pilot recorded 
comments, photographs, and studies during flight of the earth's 
surface and atmosphere and celestial phenomena. Experiments in which 
the pilot actively participated consisted of measurements with a 
tethered balloon and tests to evaluate the physiological functions of 
a man in a space environment. Flight maneuvers were devised to ob- 
tain information and to develop safe rendezvous, attitude control 
tasks, and spacecraft orientation problems. The layout of the flight 
plan presumed an 08:00 e.s.t. launch, which determined the timing of 
those tasks to be done during daylight and those to be done at night. 
A nominal trajectory was assumed with regard to station passage and 
the apogee -perigee points, which affected certain observations and 
experiments . 



CONFIDENTIAL 



Fa^e 7 - 12 



COKFIDENTIAL 



7.S.2.e General results: The mission produced successful measure- 

ments of the alti-;ude and thickness of the haze layer and proved 
its origin to he axi expected airglow phenomenon. In addition^ 
the extensive drifting flight in the third orbital pass to con- 
serve fuel, the ingestion of water and bite -size food, and the 
horizon definition photographs required for the design of the 
Apollo navigation and guidance system all provided useable results 
applicable to future spaceflight. Several control tasks have pre- 
viously been discussed in the pilot report, section 71., or else- 
where in this section; these maneuvers include yaw, drifting flight, 
inverted flight, gyro uncaging, spacecraft stability, and forward 
inverted flight. Extensive cloud cover over Australia prevented 
the observation of flares or the lights from cities and Darwin 
airport. Partial inflation compromised the success of the tethered 
balloon experiment, and instrumentation problems in the blood 
pressure system pr-e eluded valid results of calibrated work at 
zero g. 

The scientific experiments called for in the flight plan are 
discussed In detail in sections 5.7 and To3= Spacecraft attitude 
control activities called for in the flight plan are discussed 
in the following section (7.2o3) 

7-2.3 Spacecraft attitude dontrol and flight procedures.- The major 

portion of the pilot's performance in controlling his spacecraft 
attitudes could not be quantitatively analyzed because: 

1. The horizon scanners appear to have malfunctioned. 

2. There was a considerable period of time in which the 
spacecraft attitudes were either beyond the horizon scanner satur- 
ation limits and/or the gyros were in the caged position. 

3. The pilot dewiatedf:itightly-;-from;.prpE;edures rehearsed ■ 
prior to and during the pilot pref light preparation period. 

The pilot's attitude control activities are summarized in 
table 7,2.3-1. The function and operation of the reaction control 
system is discussed In section 5.1. The attitude control tasks 
are discussed below: 

7.2.3.1 Turnaround maneuver; The purpose of accomplishing the turn- 

around maneuver, using the fly-by -wire (FBW) control mode, was to 
conserve fuel and still complete the turnaround within approxi- 
mately the nominal time period required by the ASCS system. 



CONFIDEKfTIAL 



COUFIDEWTIAL 



Page T - 13 



The MA.-7 FBW turnaround used approximately I.60 pounds of HgOg, 
whereas the MA-6 ASCS tunaaround used over 5 pounds of control fuel. 
Generally, the turnaro^lnd maneuver was accomplished satisfactorily 
except that the pilot was slow in getting into Proper retroattitude 
(:figure 7. 2. 3. 1-1 ). Since he had an insertion "GO", there was no 
immediate need to quickly assume the proper retroattitude, and he 
therefore pitched up to track and photographed the spacecraft sus- 
tainer stage . 

7,2.3.2 Sustainer tracking: This task was designed to determine the 

limits of the pilot-spacecraft conibination in tracking a moving object 
at varying separation distances, and to investigate the visual limita- 
tion associated with a receding ohject in space. The pilot, using 
FBW mode, was to aline the window reticiec with the sustainer and pitch 
down slowly, staying on target, until he was required to return to or- 
bit attitude during contact with CYI. This would normally allow ap- 
proximately two and a half minutes of tracking. Results of the mis- 
sion show that the photographing task extended longer than expected. 
Although he did not perform the tracking maneuver as planned, he 
commented that precision tracking of objects with small relative 
motions to the spacecraft could best be done on FBW low or possibly 
the lowest deflections on manual proportional control. 

Y.2.3.3 Gyro caging and uncaging procedure: A procedure for alining 

the gyro indicators to the window reference was formulated and re- 
hearsed during the preflight preparation period. It was Intended 
to use the window and not the periscope under the assumption that 
the periscope would not be available for fut\ire Mercury flights. 
The pilot's ability to re-alihe the gyro indicators to the window : 
reference cannot be determined precisely because of the pitch horizon 
scanner malfunction. However, the data does indicate that the pilot 
did generally follow the planned gyro realinement procedure on the 
first two occasions . Thereafter, he simply went to a true vehicle 
attitude, using the periscope orbital attitude reference scribe 
mark, and caged and uncaged at this point. This method of alining the 
gyros by using the periscope was more economical in both time and 
fuel expenditure. 

j.2.3.i<. Yaw maneuvering: The pilot accomplished two 1800 yaw turn- 

arounds and several 90° yaw maneuvers during the flight. Since these 
maneuvers were accomplished only for photography and observation pur- 
pose, and not as precision maneuvers, no attempt was made to analyze 
them quantitatively. The preferred method of yaw attitude control on 
the daylight side was by reference to ground terrain drift. At night 
this type of reference is available only when the moon is sufficiently 
bright to illuminate the clouds. The preferred method of yaw deter- 
mination on the nightside available at all times is by orientation to 



CONFIDEHTIAL 



Page J - ih 



CONFIDENTIAL 



known stars that lay close to the orbital plane. Star charts were 
provided for this; purpose. The pilot reported difficulty in finding 
cues for detennining yaw. However, his general comments during de- 
briefing indicated that moonlight or ground lights are necessary 
for the terrestrial yaw check. 

An attempt was made to establish that star patterns can he 
recognized in "both the day and night sectors of an orbit. Through 
knowledge of constellation patterns , the pilot was able to use the 
stars for yaw reference. The pilot was able to successfully identify 
several constellations on the dark side of the earth. Star navigation 
was not attempted during the day sectors. Constellations Corvus and 
Cassiopeia were noted during the first pass at about I9 and 35 minutes 
after sunset respectively. Scorpio was noted during the third pass 
at about 2J minutes after sunset. The brightest star in each of 
these constellations is approximately 2.5 magnitude. Ursa Major 
(Big Dipper) was also identified prior to the haze layer experiment. 
The pilot reported that the star navigation device was very useful. 
However, he did have difficulty in reading the charts because of 
their reflective surface and the cabin lighting arrangement. The 
pilot stated that he saw fewer stars than he had expected while in 
orbit because of the light transmission characteristics of the window 
and internal reflections. 

l'2-3'5 Drifting flight, inverted flight: These maneuvers cannot be 

quantitatively analyzed because the gyros were caged and the horizon 
scanner outputs wsre usually questionable. During the flight, the 
pilot allowed the spacecraft to drift for a total of one hour and 
seventeen minutes, one hour and six minutes of which was continuous 
drifting during the third orbital pass to conserve fuel. The pilot 
reported that drifting flight was not disturbing and that he was not 
concerned when no external reference was available. He stated that the 
forward Inverted attitude was desirable for orbital flight. 

^•^'3.6 Retrofire attitude control: The pilot decided to control at- 

titude during the retrorocket ignition event, using the fly-by-wire 
control mode, primarily because of an undetermined problem with the 
automatic stabilisation control system. Because of the apparent 
attitude control problem leading to the deviation in impact point, 
a review of the pilot's activities prior to and during the retrofire 
period is presented. 

At approximately eleven minutes prior to retrosequence, the 
pilot discovered a source of the glowing particles reported during the 
MA-6 mission. Observing and photographing these particles delayed 
the accomplishment of equipment stowage and completion of the pre- 
retrofire checklists. At this time, he was reminded to pull his 
manual fuel handle out, thereby enabling the manual control system 

CONFIDENTIAL 



GOWFIDENTIAL 



Page T - 15 



as a backup to the automatic control system. At retrofire minus 
five minutes, he determined that his gyro indications were wrong 
and quickly rechecked his fly-hy-wire and manual proportional control 
modes. At retrofire minus two minutes, he again checked his auto- 
matic control system and decided to use the window and periscope in 
conjunction with fly-by-wire to control the retrofire. At retrofire 
minus thirty seconds, he again checked his ASCS orientation mode upon 
ground request. This drove him down in pitch and he quickly switched 
"back to fly-by-wire and repositioned the spacecraft to retrofire 
attitude using external reference. Because the manual control system 
was also enabled, he used double authority during this and the sub- 
sequent retrofire maneuver. At retrofire minus twelve seconds, he was 
told by the ground to go to bypass position and use manual over-ride. 
The pilot had to manually initiate retrofire which occurred three 
seconds late . 

Apparently, as a result of these control activities Just prior 
to retrofire, the pilot began the period of retrofire with an indicated 
250 error in yaw which he gradually reduced during the course of the 
22-second period of retrorocket firing (figure 7.2.3.6-1). 

7.2.3.7 Fuel Management: The pilot frequently departed from recommended 

operational procedures concerning control mode switching, which re- 
sulted in a greater than normal fuel expenditure rate (figure 7.2.3.T-1)- 
The high rate of fuel usage can be attributed to the following: 

1. The pilot inadvertently used the high fly -by-wire thrusters . 

2. Double authority control was used on 6 occasions, inclu-. : 
ding the retroflring sequence, for a, total of approximately IT minutes. 

3. The automatic stabilization and control system went into 
orientation mode 7 times (approximately I.5 lbs. usage each case). 
On 3 of these 7 occasions, it is possible that the malfunctioning 
attitude reference system caused inadvertent use of the orientation 
mode of control. On 3 occasions, the pilot switched to ASCS "normal" 
with the gyros caged, and in one case the ground requested that he 
check his ASCS orientation mode just prior to retrosequence . About 
1.5 pounds of fuel was used each time the ASCS went into orientation 
mode. 

7.2,14- Scientific equipment .- The equipment aboard the MA-7 flight and 

the pilot's comments regarding their operation are as follows: 

7.2.14..1 The 35 mm hand held camera: (See figure 7.2.U.I-I) A 35mm 

Robot Recorder 36 was provided. It was lightened, a pistol grip 
handle was provided along with other modifications to permit ease 
of operation, and a clip was provided for attachment to the chart 
CONFIDENTIAL 



16 



COIff'IDMTIAL 



holder during orbit. It was equipped with a standard back assembly 
and with a 30-foot film capacity magazine. Additional equipment 
included 2 interchangeable lenses, one a 75mm, f3,5 lens and the 
other a h^xm, f2.3 lens. Each lens system was provided with an 
W-17 filter. This camera functioned well throughout the flight. 
Although the large capacity back reduced film changing to a mini- 
mujn, it was still necessary to change films to accomplish special- 
ized photography. The results are contained in the section on 
Photography Efforts, 

Film: The 30 -foot magazine was preloaded with Eastman Color 
Negative film (Eastman stock number 5250 ) and attached to the camera 
prior to insertion into the spacecraft. This film load represented 
a 250-exposure capability. The Massachusetts Institute of Technology 
provided a preloaded film (Eastman stock number SO-IO30) to be used 
for the horizon definition photographs. This film load provided 
approximately TO exposures. The Weather Bureau experiment required 
a 36 exposure film load that was alternately spliced from Tri-X and 
Infra-red film stocks. Also included was one 36-exposure roll of 
Ansco Super Hypan film, to provide an alternate to the EOT for photo- 
graphing the particles. The results obtained by the use of these 
films will be found in the section on Photographic Efforts. 

Filter Mosaics: (See figure 7.2.4.3-1) Two filter mosaics were 
provided. These mosaics were mounted in holders designed to be 
inserted into the camera at the film plane. One was fo- tre' used' with 
the MIT film and the other with the Weather Bureau film. The MIT 
mosaic consisted of two equal sections of Wratten filter, numbers 
29 and 47B. The Weather Buireau mosaic contained 5 equal sections of 
Wratten filter, numbers .8 neutral density, 25, kl, 58, and 87. Of 
these, only the MIT mosaic was used, and it performed satisfactorily. 

Photometer: (See figure 7,2.k.k~l) This device was the same 
one used during the MA-6 mission. It is used to view sunrise and 
sunset, to evaluate the pilot's capability to orient to the horizon- 
tal, and as a high and low level light meter. This instrument was 
used by the pilot with satisfactory results. 

Binoculars: (See figure ^.2.1^.5-l) The pilot was provided 
with a miniature pair of 8 x 20 binoculars. Clips were provided to 
permit attachment to the chart holder during orbit. The pilot 
reported utilization during flight was difficult due to the viewing 
angle with the window. 

Extinction photometer: (See figure This device 

consisted of a calibrated, circular, varying density filter in a 
suitable mount. It was used on several occasions during the flight 
with satisfactory results. 



COEFIDEIVTIAL 



CONFIDENTIAL 



Page 7 - IT 



T.2A..T Airglow filter: (See figure T.2.1+.7-1) This again is the same 

device, with a modified mount, as used on the MA-6 flight. It 
selectively passes light at the 5577^ wave length. This device was 

used to view the air glow layer on the night side of the earth. 

7.2.1^.'8 Night adaption eye cover: (See figure 7.2.^.6-1) This device 

fitted the eye socket in such a manner as to eliminate any direct 
light from reaching the eye. It was provided with a red lens to al- 
low the pilot the use of his left eye during the adaption period. It 
functioned properly during the flight although complete dark adaption 
was prohibited by stray light within the spacecraft. 

T.2.k.^' Map booklet, star navigation device and inserts, and flight plan 

cards: The pilot reported only that the glare from the star navigation 
device made it difficult to use. The balance of this equipment and its 
stowage was adequate. 

7. 2. 4. ID Equipment stowage: All equipment had female velcro applied to 

strategic points, whereas male velcro was applied to the stowage 
areas. Four equipment areas were provided within the MA-7 spacecraft. 
During the launch, retrofire, and reentry phases, the equipment was 
stowed in three locations. First, the equipment container located to 
the pilot's right, below the hatch, contained the: 35mm hand held 
camera and associated accessories; photometer, binoculars, and ex- 
tinction photometer. Second, the "glove compartment", located in the 
left central section of the center instrument panel console, contained 
the: exercise device, filja, filter mosaics, airglow filter, and the 
night adaption eye cover. Third, the chart holder, located below 
the periscope, contained the: map booklet, star navigation device and 
inserts, and the flight plan cards. During the orbital phase, the 
equipment was stowed either in these locations or on the velcro ap- 
plied to the hatch for this purpose. The pilot reported no difficulties 
with the stowage of any of the equipment. 



CONFIDENTIAL 



Page 7 - 18 



CONFIDENTIAL 



TABLE 7.2.1.1-1, - TIME PILOT SPENT IN SPACECRAFT l8 
DURING HANGAR MD PAD TESTS 



Date 


Spacecraft Tests 


Approximate 
Duration, 
hrs+min 


12 Apr 


SEDRa77 - Systems Test (Hangar S) 


6+30 


15 Apr 


SEDE 77 - Systems Test (Hangar S) 


3+30 


16 Apr 


SEDR 77 - Sequential, Sect. 2 


T+00 


17 Apr 


SEDR 77 - Sequential, Sect. 2 


6+00 


18 Apr 


SEDR 77 - Sequential, Sect. 2 


3+00 


30 Apr 


SEDR 171 - Simulated Flight #1 


k+20 


k May 


SEDR 171 - Simulated Flight #2 and FACt''^ 


0+30 


5 May 


RCS blip check (special test) 


0+1+0 


10 May 


SEDR 170 - Launch Simulation and Egress 


5+00 


12 May 


RCS blip check (special test) 


1+00 


15 May 


SEDE 171 - Simulated Flight #3 


7+30 




Approximate Total Time 


1+5 hrs 



Service Engineering De;partment Report 
^Flight Acceptance Composite Test 



CONFIDEIfTIAL 



COWFIDEKTIAL 

TABLE 7.2.1.2-1.- PILOT TRAIMItJG SUMMAEY ON THE 
; ALFA Airo PROCM)IJI?ES' ■TRAtfil^ ';' i u..L.:.; .. : 



Page 7-19 



Date 
1962 






Time 


No. of 


Failure Number and T^ 




Special** 




* 


Type of Training 


Hrs. & 
Min. 


Missions 


ECS 


RCS 


SEQ 


Elec 


Comm 


Misc 


Training 
Activities 


25 Mar 




Attitude control 


2+15 


1 






1 











25 Mar 


A 


Attitude control 


1+35 
















2,4 


28 Mar 


i 


& ■ 


Attitude control 


2+1^0 


2 














1;2 


29 Mar 




2 


Attitude control 


1+45 


1 














1^2 


STMar 




A 


Attitude control 


1+10 
















2 






^1 


Attitude control 


2+15 


1 






1 








1,3 






^1 


Attitude control 


1+00 


1 














1,3 




i 


^1 


Attitude control 


1+30 


1 














1,3 


. 2 ^P^ 






Attitude control 


1+30 
















1.3 




i 


i^l 


Attitude control 


1+00 
















1.3 


■ ■ ■ 






SYStems failures 


2+30 


10 


"TT" 


2 


6 


2 


■ 1 


3 


3.5,6 




-4 




Systems failures 
Attitude control 


1+35 


7 


2 




3 


— li. ' 




4 


1,5 


20 Apr 




Systems failures 
Attitude control 


3+15 


k 


2 


1 


2 


3 




1 


1,2,5 


21 Apr 




Systems failures 


3+15 


' 8 


2 


1 


■ 6 


5 


1 


5 


5,6 


26 Apr 


A 


Attitude control 


1-KX) 
















2,4 


27 Apr 




^1 


2 Ortit mission 


i;+00 


1 






2 








2,3,6,7 


1 May 


i 




Systems failures 


2+20 


4 


1 




7 


1 




3 


5.6 


2 Mav 


—i 




3 Orbit mission 


5+35 


1 














7 


■Tl? 


i 




Systems failtires 


2+00 


3 






3 


2 




1 




p May 






Systems failures 
Attitude' e'ontroi 


3+oo_ 


_ .5 




1 


3, 








..1.2,3,4,5^ 




















7 Mav 




2 Orbit mission 


3+35 


1 


1 












7 






Systems failures 


1+15 


6 


3 




5 


3 


1 


6 


5,6 


9 May 






MCC/BDA Sim. 


2+35 


3 


1 


1 


1 




2 




5 


LO May 






MCC/BDA Sim. 


1+05 


1 


2 












5 


L2 May 






1 Orbit mission 


1+45 


1 














T 


13 May 


: 




1 Orbit mission 


1+45 


1 




1 










7 


14 May 


_j 


P 


3 Orbit mission 


5+i^O 


1 














7 








MCC/BM Sim. 


2+45 


1^ 


1 


3 




1 


1 


1 




gl May 




E 


2 Orbit mission 


U+15 


1 


1 












7 


52 May 






Systems failures 


0+50 


h 


h 


1 






1 


■ V 


5.6 






1 TOTALS 


70+40 


73 


24 


11 




26 


7 


32 





* Tfairier^-^code f5 #1 - Langley Procedures Trainecr 
JfQ. - Gape Procedures Trainer 
A - Alfa Trainear 

Totals No. of : 

(a) Failures - 1^3 

(b) Turnaround maneuvers - 11^ 

(c) Reentries - ^9 

(d) Retroflre attitude control - 92 



Training Activities key : 

1 - Tumaround maneuvers 

2 - Retroflre attitude control 

3 - Reentry rate control 

4 - Special attitude maneuvers 

5 - Launch aborts 

6 - Orbital emergencies 

7 - Flight plan work 



CONFIDENTIAL 



Page 7-20 



COWFIDEETIAL 
7.2.1^-1.- PILOT .PRE-FLIGHT PREPARATION HISTORY 





Date 


Day 


Activity* 


Date 


Day 


Activity* 




16 Mar 


Fri 


Flight Plan Meeting 


26 Apr 


Thu 


ALFA Trainer j 




19 Mar 


Mon 


Systems Briefing (ASCS) 


27 Apr 


Fri 


MPT #1 




20^ Mar 


Tue 


Systems Briefing (RCS & 
Elect.) 


28 Apr 


Sat 


Morehead Planetarium 




21 Mar 


Wed 


Booster Review 


30 Apr 


Mon 


SEDR 171 (Sim. Fit.) 




22. Mar 


Thu 


Systems Review (ECS & 
Mech^ 


1 May 


Tue 


MPT #2 

MIT Photo Briefing 
Scheduling 




25 Mar 

28 xMar 
31 Mar 

2 Apr 


Sun 

Wed 
Sat 

Mon 


A.M. - ALFA Trainer 
P.M. - MPT #1 
MPT #2 
A.M. - MPT #1 
P.M. - ALFA Trainer 

MPT #1 


2 May 

3 May 
h May 


Wed 
Thu 
Fri 


MPT #2 

Egress Training 

Egress Training 
MPT #2 




3 Apr 


Tue 


MPT #1 


5 May 


Sat 


MPT RCS 
Static Fire 




'h Apr 


Wed 


Trajectory Briefing 


7 May 


Mon 


MPT #2 




5 Apr 

6 Apr 


Thu 
Fri 


MPT #1 
MPT #1 


8 May 


Tue 


SEDR 171 (Sim. Pit. #2 
& FACT) MPT #2 




9 Apr 

10 Apr 
13 Apr 

15 Apr 

17 Apr 

19 Apr 

20 Apr 

21 Apr 


Mon 
Tue 
Fri 

Mon 

Tue 
Wed 
Thu 

Fri 
Sat 


MPT #1 
MPT #2 

Scheduling Meeting 

SEDR 77 (Systems Test) 

SEDR 77 
SEDR 77 

Survival Pack Training 
Zero g Exp. Briefing 

MPT #2 

MPT ^ 


9 May 

10 May 

11 May 


Wed 
Thu 

Fri 


MCC/BDA Simulation 
Mission Rules Review 
Fit. Plan Review 

MCC/BDA Simulation 
RCS Blip Check 
SEDR 170 (Launch 
& Egress) 

WX Briefing, 
Scheduling, 
Trajectory, & Fit. 
Plan & Balloon Exp. 
Briefings ; 




2h Apr 


Tue 


Flight Plan Meeting 


12 May 


Sat 


MPT #2, RCS Blip 
Test 





CONFIDEWTIAL 



CONFIDENTIAL 
TABHE 7.2.1.4-1.- Concluded 



Page T - 21 



Date 


Day 


Activity*'^ 


Date 


Day 


Activity* 


13 May 


Sun 


MPT #2 


18 May 


Fri 


MCC/BDA Simulation 


Ik May 


Mon 


MPT #2, Fit. Plan 


21 May 


Mon 


MPT if2j Scheduling 




& M.I.T. Photo Briefings 
Mission Review 






MPT if2j Fit. Plan 
Review 


15 May 


Tue 


SEDR ITl (Sim. Fit. #3) 


23 May 


Wed 


Pilot Briefing, Study 


16 May 


Wed 


Booster & Mission Review 


2h May 


Thu 


Launch 


IT May 


Thu 


Physical Examination 









*Activity code: 

MPT #1 (Langley) Mercury Procedures Trainer. 

MPT #2 (Cape) Mercury Procedures Trainer. 



CONFIDENTIAL 



Page 7-22 




O G 

O -P 



CQ CO CQ 

^ m m 
< K < 



U U -.r- 

-P (1) H >j ■ 

■H -P O H C 

O S O M ' 



3 H -P O 
3 CQ f^ -P 
O CQ 



cB O CM 

•• O 

■P ^ CO no 

I <+H O O 

cd as •■ OJ 



•H a 

-P 0 -H 

Cfl W P> 

OJ 'jh S S ^ 

EQ • 'd ft c6 _^ -P 

O Is tiD O 

08 0) Tii S O -P 

do d U o d) -H 

H O P' 03 O -P H 

En CO CQ > < ch 



Page 7 - 2lf 



°5 

C ft 

o 

<U O 



•H nj . 

a -p 1^ 

• -H -P (U 

4^ H 03 -P 

ft a S 

fH O O -H 

O +J O -P 

<D to H 1^ 

O H OJ 

03 U d 

tn -P <D 

O ftS H 

-P ^ -P 



0) £ 



as 



O ^1 ( 



■p P _j 



-P 0) 

<tH O 

■H -P CO 



t:! -P C ,cl 

?4 <D O C 0 ! 

qS +J -P O O < 

-P -P J3 -H -H 4 



0 G >> aS ^1 

3 H P 

^ 0) (D (1) T 

3 b w 



e 0) cs 

4J .H r- ^ 



3 0) ^ O 

^ ^1 H nn 

^ -P m o cO 

-P O H 

i M fit I 

5 CI -H 

^ c6 H O -P 



O c! 
C5 -P 



ti 



CO a 



U CO 



3 tH -p 



dro] 
sec- 


ions 
cent 




•H ''^ 


. 

1 S o § 




to tH H 


O • 

■H O 


CO o ^ 
O ft 0) o 


O -p m 
CD fH aJ----. 


CO 

P5 O ft 


U f>i ^ -P 


3 CO 
d i iH u 
5 i o m 


P 

to >tJ d OJ 



" 

g 0) p dj 

p p C! p 

!-i (B OJ 

« -H O 

to fH ft 

O S3 O OJ 



P o 

> £3 H 

fl (U cd 



ftp t:J 

0) o a 



<D P 

:s cQ 



PHI 
a O c 
o u \ 



9 I 
I I 
S £ 



: T - 26 





CJ 

-rt 1 1 CQ 




;s -H -P 

-P rd -H OO 


1 


•H E3 j3 c: 
-p fi^ 


-p 

•H H 


C6 O 0) -H 

o u tn <iH 


OJ 


-p So '"^ ° 


ides . 
i and 


(D OJ rH +5 


-p -P 







, if -p ir\ f 

I +i O O (6 OJ ( 



O -H 



O O t 



N H S 

•H O O H 

H ---I !h 

•H -p -p a t>i 

p 03 C o 

aJ N O -H 03 

-P -H O 4^ -H 

ta H U r-i 

•H 0) O -H 

-J^ & ^ 

<3 w g <: 



CONFIDENTIAL 



Page T - 27 



7.3 Aeromedicalu.Studies 

The aeromedlcal studies of the MA-7 mission continued the "basic 
program outlined in previous manned mission reports. The studies 
are separated into three groups : 

1. Clinical examinations: These consist of standard medical 
procedures, including repeated examinations by physicians; 
routine and special laboratory tests; X-rays; and special 
tests, such as retinal photography and tests of the body's 
balancing mechanism. The pre- and postf light clinical exa- 
minations were performed as close together In time as is per- 
mitted by recovery operations so as to detect any physical 
changes resulting from the spaceflight experience. 

2. Physiological observations: These consist of data gathered 
by the sensor systems adapted to both the spacecraft and the 
pilot. Since the pilot's physiological responses cannot be 
completely separated f^rom his environment, the discussion in 
Section 5.2 regarding the environmental control system comple- 
ments the aeromedlcal studies, 

3. Inflight observations: These are a report of the aero- 
medlcal experiments and other pertinent observations that 
relate to body functions in the space environment. 

The prefllght aeromedlcal studies were conducted in order to 
ascertain the astronaut's state of health and his medical fitness as 
pertains to the completion of an orbital flight mission. The accumu- 
lation of such data before the flight familiarized the aeromedlcal 
monitors with the astronaut's normal physiological responses. Follow- 
ing the flight, the biomedical data were analyzed to discover any 
effects of such a spaceflight. 

7,3.1 Clinical ex^Tn-i nations . - Clinical observations were accomplished 

through several medical examinations and before most of the prefllght 
activities listed in table 7. 3. 1-1. Previous annual physical exami- 
nations and the pilot's medical records were reviewed. 

7.3.1.1 Clinical history: The aeromedlcal history of the MA-7 mission 

began on April 30, I962, with the astronaut's arrival at Cape Cana- 
veral for prefllght preparations. A summary of his activities from 
this date until his return to Cape Canaveral following the flight is 
presented in table 7.3.1-1. Throughout this period, his physical 
and mental health remained excellent. A special diet was used for 



CONFIDENTIAL 



Page 7-28 



CONFIDENTIAL 



19 days before the flight. Re -scheduling of the launch date caused 
two starts on the low residue diet before the final diet began. The 
pilot maintained his physical condition through daily workouts on a 
trampoline and distance running. 

On the morning of the flight, the pilot was free of medical, 
complaints J mentally composed and ready for the mission. Breakfast 
consisted of filet mignon, poached eggs, strained orange Juice, 
toast and coffee. The events of the aeromedical countdown are pre- 
sented in table 7. 3. 1.1-1. The preflight fluid intake consisted of 
1050 cc of water and sweetened ice tea. He voided three times be- 
fore launch. 

After landing, the astronaut stated, "My status was very good, 
but I was tired." The fatigue at landing is normal and attributable 
to the heat load associated with the elevated suit temperature and 
humidity, the activity required to carry out the flight plan, and 
the emotional stress associated with a flight. Several postlanding 
events also contributed to his fatigue . After entering the raft, he 
recognized that it was upside down. He left the raft, held to the 
spacecraft, righted the raft and once again climbed aboard. His 
neck dam was still stowed, and he deployed it with difficulty after 
his second entry into the raft. An undetermined, but moderate quan- 
tity of water had entered his pressure suit. 

Astronaut Carpenter drank water and ate food from his survival 
kit during the three -hour period awaiting helicopter pickup. 

Throughout the debriefing period he talked logically about his 
spaceflight experiences and remained alert. 

7-3'1.2 Physical examinations: Abbreviated physical examinations were 

accomplished prior to most of the planned activities in the prelaunch 
period. These revealed no variations from previous examinations. 
Later the aeromedical debriefing team, representing the specialties 
of Internal medicine, neurology, pphthalmology, aviation medicine, 
psychiatry, radiology and clinical laboratory conducted the compre- 
hensive medical exsunination . This included the special labyrinthine 
studies (a modified caloric test and the balance test on successive- 
ly more narrow rails), electrocardiogram, electroencephalogram and 
audiogram. The astronaut was in excellent health and showed no sig- 
nificant change from previous examinations . 

On the night prior to flight, the pilot obtained approximately 
three hours of sound sleep. No sedative was required. He was given 
the preflight exam:.natlon by the same specialists In aviation medicine, 



CONFIDENTIAL 



COEFIDEKTIAL 



Page T - 29 



internal medicine and neuropsychiatry. He had an entirely normal 
mental status. A talaulation of the pre- and postlaimch physical 
findings is noted in table 7.3.1.2-1. 

After a three -hour period in the life raft, the astronaut was 
examined in the helicopter. The physician reported as follows: 
"He pulled the tight rubber collar from his neck and cut a hole in 
his rubber pressure suit sock (left) to drain out sea water. He 
was anxious to talk and to discuss his experiences^ and was coopera- 
tive and well controlled. He talked with the helicopter pilot, 
paced about a bit, and finally relaxed as one normally would after 
an extended mental and physical exercise," The physical examination 
aboard the aircraft carrier revealed that he was in good health. 
Concerning his arrival at Grand Turk Island, the internist member of 
the debriefing team stated, "He entered the dispensary with the air 
and the greeting of a man who had been away from his friends for a 
long time. He was alert, desiring to tell of his adventure and 
seemed very fit... his appearance and movements suggested strength 
and excellent neuromuscular coordination." A brief medical examina- 
tion was undertaken about an hour after the pilot's arrival. The 
following morning, the comprehensive examination was made by the 
same group of specialists who had examined him on May 17, 1962. The 
postflight modified caloric test on May 25 revealed an approximate 
l.h'^C rise in threshold temperature in the right ear and 1,8°C in 
the left. The rail tests of dynamic and static equilibrium showed 
a moderate postflight increase of the pilot's ability to stand with 
his eyes closed. The significance of these pre- and postflight 
differences is unknown. The aeromedlcal debriefing was completed 
on the second morning following the flight. The results of these 
examinations are presented in tables 7.3.1.2-1 and 7.3.1.2-2. A 
mild asymptomatic urethritis was present both pre- and postflight. 
Treatment was withheld until after the flight. The small postflight 
rise in hematocrit, coupled with a six-poiind weight loss, suggests 
mild dehydration; however, this did not jeopardize the pilot's health. 

Aside from moderate fatigue, based upon the long hours of work 
and but a few hours sleep, the astronaut remained in excellent health 
throughout the debriefing period. He returned to Cape Canaveral on 
May 27, I962, ready to "do it again." 

7.3.2 Physiological data .- Physiological data sources for MA-7 were 

the same as those reported in previous Mercury manned flights. Data 
from the Mercury-Atlas three-orbit centrifuge simulation; preflight 
pad activities, when spacecraft power was available; and the count- 
down serve for comparison with flight data. The reports from the 
range medical monitors, the onboard continuous biosensor records, 
the voice transmissions, and the pilot-observer camera are essential 

COKFIDEfTTIAL 



Page 7 - 30 



CONFIDEHTIAL 



sources. Results of special inflight tests and the debriefing pro- 
vided additional information. 

7.3.2.1 Biosensor sys-!:em: The biosensor system consists of two sets 

of electrocardiographic leads, ECG I (axillary) and EGG II (sternal); 
a rectal temperatui'e thermistor; a respiration rate thermistor; and 
the blood pressure measuring system (BPMS). 

The only biosensor change from MA-6 was the replacement of the 
manual BPMS with a semi-automatic system. The BPMS is a device for 
indirect measurement of arterial pressure utilizing the same prin- 
ciple as in clinical sphygmomanometry. In the BPMS, a similar in- 
flatable cuff is eE]ployed, with the stethoscope of the clinical 
method replaced by a microphone positioned under the cuff. The micro- 
phone signal exits from the suit through the bioconnector and enters 
the amplifier in the blood -pressure unit. The BPMS amplifier consists 
of a shielded preaDiplifier and two high-gain amplifiers which deter- 
mine the response characteristics. Each amplifier is designed to have 
greatly attenuated response outside the 32 to ko cps pass band by 
means of resistor-capacitor filtering circuits in each feedback loop. 
The amplifier output is gated so that unless a signal of sufficient 
amplitude is present, there is no output signal, and this gating re- 
sults in a marked reduction in the output noise level for improved 
readability of the signal. The amplifier is contained in the BPMS 
controller unit, which also . includes the pressure transducer and its 
batteries, the voltage regulator, and associated mixing and limiting 
circuits. This system is actuated by manually depressing a switch on 
the spacecraft instrument panel which initiates the complete ll8- 
second cycle. The cycle includes switching the telemetry channel 
from ECG II to the BPMS, cuff pressurization and bleed down over a 
30 -second period, £.nd return of the telemetry to ECG.;iI. The system 
contains a pressurized oxygen source, with regulator, for cuff in- 
flation and an orifice which relieves the cuff pressujre into the suit 
circuit. The blood-pressure transmitting and recording procedure was 
the same as that Ir. MA-6. In order to find the arterial pressure, it 
is necessary to identify the points of inception and cessation of the 
microphone signal on the cuff pressure signal, which are the systolic 
and diastolic pressures. 

All sensors operated normally during the countdown except the 
BPMS. At T-3k minutes, three cycles of the BPMS demonstrated inter- 
mittency of the microphone, and these values are not included in the 
data presented. The BPMS cycles near lift-off were normal. Of 2k in- 
flight BPMS cycles obtained from the onboard tape, 6. were easily read, 
ik were difficult to read, and k were unreadable. One factor in the 
wide variation of data legibility was the sporadic intermittency of 



COKI'IDEWTIAL 



CONFIDENTIAL 



Page T - 31 



the mlchrophone throughout the flight. During the open circuit 
periods, no pulses were transmitted, but the nature of the malfunc- 
tion is believed not to have affected the data received with regard 
to the pulse pressure amplitude. Many traces were atypical, as 
shown in figure 7, 3 <, 2. 1-2, The pulses indicating systole showed 
erratic variation in amplitude. This made interpretation of the 
systolic values difficult; however, the diastolic values were readi- 
ly obtained. Elevated systolic pressure during the flight may have 
produced the unusual traces. This cannot be confirmed because these 
readings are the highest observed with the BPMS in the spacecraft. 

The unusual inflight data dictated the need for postflight evalu- 
ation of the BPMS. Only the controller unit was available for testing, 
and this was removed from the spacecraft after the flight. Tests were 
conducted on subjects in the altitude chamber at sea level and at 
27,000 feet (cabin altitude), Ko adjustments were changed on the 
flight unit in the initial test series, and an effort was made to 
duplicate flight conditions. The unit was cycled, and simultaneous 
blood pressure determinations were made using the usual clinical 
method for comparison. Readings during f is>t clenching, arm move- 
ments, loose cuff, and rotated cuff were accomplished. The unusual 
pattern of inflight pulse amplitudes could not be duplicated. The 
correlation with the clinical readings was generally good, and no 
malfunctions were detected in the controller unit. 

Hext, the gain of the pulse amplifier was widely varied. Read- 
ings obtained at the various gain settings showed reasonably normal 
behavior. The BPMS was then moved to the laboratory, and a second 
test series was begun. The unit operated within the specification 
limits in spite of its period of immersion in sea water. The post- 
flight calibration of the pressure transducer showed no change. At 
this point, the system seemed to have performed satisfactorily dur- 
ing the flight, and the inflight data appeared valid. However, 
these first two series of tests were believed to be inconclusive 
with regard to the effects of amplifier gain settings and artery- 
microphone coupling, and to better define the adjustment, calibra- 
tion, and operation of the BPMS, a third series of tests was initiated. 
This test series is continuing and will isolate system components and 
operating procedures to determine their relevance to the level of data 
obtained. In addition, a more detailed investigation, using space- 
craft components, of the correlation between BPMS and clinical read- 
ings will be conducted. 

During the flight, body movements and profuse perspiration 
caused a large number of EGG artifacts, but the record was inter- 
pretable throughout. 



CONFIDENTIAL 



Page 7-32 



COKFIDENTIAL 



The unstable body temperature readout is believed to be the 
result of erratic behavior of the amplifier from 59 minutes to 
2-1/2 hours after launch, approximately one -third of the flight. 
This erratic period is shown as a shaded area in figure 7.3.2.3-1. 
The values at all other times are considered valid. 

The respiration rate sensor provided useful preflight informa- 
tion, but inflight coverage was minimal. 

The pilot-observer camera film was of poor technical quality 
resulting from its postlanding immersion in sea water, and it was 
therefore of limited usefulness. One of the better quality frames 
is reproduced in figure 5.7.2-1. 

7.3.2.2 Preflight physiological data: The preflight activities monitored 

for MA-7, together with time durations, are listed in the table below: 

^ Fad test monitoring: 

Event 



1. 


Simulated 


launch. 


, MA-6, 


January 17, 1962 


5 hours 


12 minutes 


2. 


Simulated 


flight 


no. 2, 


April 30, 1962 


h hours 


0 minutes 


3. 


Simulated 


launch J 


, MA-7, 


May 10, 1962 


3 hours 


15 minutes 


k. 


Simulated 


flight 


no. 3, 


May 15, 1962 


k hours 


50 minutes 


5. 


Launch countdown, 


MA-7, 


May 2k, I962 


3 hours 


1 minute 



Total: 20 hours I8 minutes 



Figure 7.3.2.2-1 depicts the respiration rate, heart rate, blood 
pressure, body temjierature and suit-inlet ten5)erature recorded during 
the MA-7 launch couratdown. Values for the same physiological func- 
tions obtained from simulated launches are also shown plotted coinci- 
dent with significant events. Heart and respiration minute rates 
were obtained by counting for 30 seconds every 3 minutes until 10 
minutes before lift-off, at which time counts were made for thirty 
seconds every minute. All values recorded are within physiologically 
acceptable ranges. 

Examination of the SCG wave form from all preflight data revealed 
normal sinus arrhythmia (variation in rate), occasional premature 
atrial contractions (early beats from normal excitation area) and rare 
premature ventricular contractions (early beats from an excitation 

CONFIDENTIAL 



CONFIDENTIAL 



Page T - 33 



area lower in the cardiac musculature). These are normal variationa, 
A sample of the blockhouse record at T-68 (5=52 a.m., e.s.t.) with a 
normal, adequate hlood pressure trace is shown in figure 7.3. 2. 1-1. 

During approximately 50 minutes in the transfer van on launch day, 
the astronaut's heart rate varied from 56 to 70 heats/minute, with a 
mean of 65. Respiration rate varied from 8 to 20 cycles/minute, with 
a mean of ik-. The EGG was normal. Additional physiological values 
were not obtained. 

7.3.2.3 Flight physiological data: Figure 7. 3. 2. 3-1 depicts the respira- 

tion rate, heart rate, blood pressure, body temperature and suit-inlet 
temperature during the flight, with values from the Mercury-Atlasi,. 
three -orbit centrifuge simulation presented and correlated with flight 
events . 

A summary of heart rate, respiration rate and body temperature is 
presented in the following table: 



Heart Rate Respiration Body Temperature 



Data 


No. of 






No. of 






No. of 






sources 


values 


Mean 


Range 


values 


Mean 


Range 


values 


Mean 


Range 


All preflight 














128 






data 




57 


42-8!+ 


354 


15 


5-32 


99.3 


98.3-101.5 


Countdown 


92 


62 


50-8i+ 


75 


15 


6-26 


57 


97.8 


96.8-98.2 


Flight 










16 










launch 


7 


87 


82-96 


5 


10-20 


4 


98 


98 

98-100.6 


orbital 


9k 


70 


60-94 


not 


obtained 


60 


99.9 


entry 


115 


81^ 


72-104 


not 


obtained 


15 


100.4 


100.2-100.5 



The heart rate increased from 84 to the maximum of 96 beats/minute 
between lift-off and T+30 seconds. This was not associated with maxi- 
mum acceleration. The orbital phase resulted in a weightless period 
of 4 hours and 30 minutes. The highest heart rate during the entry 
phase was 104 beats/minute . This occurred Immediately following the 
highly oscillatory period just after reentry. All heart rates are 
within accepted ranges. 

The inflight blood-pressure data fall into four legibility cate- 
gories and are smmnarized in table 7. 3. 2. 3-1. Category I denotes 
values which are clearly readable. Category II denotes values for 



CONFIDENTIAL 



Page 7 - 3^ 



CONFIDENTIAL 



which diastole is easily readable, hut systole can only be determined 
with difficulty because of the variation in pulse amplitude. Cate- 
gory III denotes vsilues for which diastole is legible, but determi- 
nation of systole is questionable. The fourth category is denoted by 
the times for which no values are recorded and contains the cycles in 
which the broken mi.crophone wire resulted in few or no pulses being 
transmitted. 

The apparent i.nflight systolic elevation with a resultant in- 
creased pulse pres&ure is a distinct change from the pref light values, 
as is evident in the summary of mission blood pressure data, table 
7.3-2.3-2. There E.re three possible explanations for this finding. 
First, the data may be entirely valid. Second, a mechanical malfunc- 
tion may have occurred during the flight, which would remove all con- 
fidence In the data. And third, the BIMS may have operated properly, 
but uncertainties in the reduction of inflight data to analytical 
blood pressure information may be present. These involve a number of 
system parameters a.nd analytical procedures, notably the effect of 
amplifier gain on system output, the effect of amplifier saturation, 
the correlation of sea-level performance with that derived in an 
orbital environment, the coupling characteristics between the micro- 
phone and the cuff, and finally the correct calibration profile be- 
tween BEMS data and clinically measured blood pressures. These 
factors are being studied on a continuing basis, and the results of 
a comprehensive test series will be forthcoming. 

If the data are found to be valid, the increased pulse pressure 
unaccompanied by a change in heart rate indicates one means of in- 
creasing cardiac output. An increased cardiac output might occur 
with overheating, heavy perspiration, exercise, psychological stress 
(especially with an increased adrenaline output), body positional 
changes, or in general,, any orbital flight experiences which deviate 
from normal activity. The usual response to these stresses is an in- 
crease in both pulse pressure and heart rate. However, variations 
from this means of increasing cardiac output are not uncommon, parti- 
cularly since they are subject-dependent. The blood pressure data 
from the MA-6 mission, where the Inflight heat stress was not as 
severe, showed a less marked trend toward increased pulse pressure. 

The possibility still exists that a malfunction of the equipment 
occurred during the flight, although no source of such an occurrence 
has been detected in postf light testing. Investigations in this regard 
are continuing. The present explanation for the blood pressure find- 
ings is believed to be physiological; however, comprehensive testing 
to be conducted will either more precisely define the magnitude and 
confidence level of the Inflight data or reveal a major anomaly in the 



CONFIDENTIAL 



COKFIDENTIAL 



Page 7-35 



operation of the system which would totally invalidate these data. 

Examination of the ECG wave form recorded during the flight 
showed an entirely normal record except for the variations noted 
below. There was a single premature atrial contraction (PAC) 13 
second^safter sustainer engine cutoff. This was followed by a beat 
showing suppression of the sinus pacemaker. A second PAC occurred 
one minute and fifteen seconds befoi'e retrofire. At 04:i;8:19, 21 
seconds prior to maximum reentry acceleration, a i|-3-second period 
contained a number of cardiac events. This began with a PAC, 
followed by suppression of the sinus pacemaker and then a normal 
beat. Twelve seconds later, there was a PAC followed by an aberrant 
QPS, a compensatory pause, and then a normal beat. Twelve seconds 
followiiiig this there was a third PAC with aberrant conduction 
followed by a normal cycle . A fourth PAC occurred five seconds 
later with a less aberrant conrplex. An atrial fusion beat followed. 
After 3 nonnal beats, there were 2 sets of nodal beats. The first 
set contained k nodal beats followed by 3 normal beats . The second 
contained 5 nodal beats . The remainder of the record was entirely 
normal. During the period of maximum entry acceleration, the astro- 
naut made a special effort to continue talking. The increased 
respiratory effort associated with continued speech could have pro- 
duced these changes. These irregularities did not compromise effec- 
tive performancfeQ Figure 7.3,2.3-2 illustrates the appearance of 
physiological data from the onboard tape after one minute of weight- 
lessness. Figure 7.3.2.3-3 shows the physiological data with the 
premature atrial contraction at Ok'.32'.06 mission elapsed time. 

The pilot stated that he was comfortable and could not believe 
the telemetered laody temperature of 102°F. This onboard assessment 
was helpful in the determination of the significance of these read- 
ings. The values in question are shown as a shaded area in figure 
7.3.2.3-1, but they are not included in the table above. The 2.6^. 
overall increase in body temperature is physiologically tolerable 
and is believed to have resulted in part from an increased suit-in- 
let temperature. The trend of gradually increasing body temperature 
has been observed in previous manned flights . 

7.3.3 Mission observations .- The following items rendered the MA-7 

mission different from that of MA-6: 

1. Bite size food cubes carried in a non-rigid container were 
included, instead of sem-solld foods in collapsible tubes. 

2. The 5.0 gram xylose tablet was taken orally after 2 hours 
and 36 minutes of exposure to zero g, rather than at the be- 
ginning of flight. 



COIJFIDENTIAL 



Page 7-36 



CONTIDEWTIAL 



3. Water was cons-umed several times during the flight. 

h. Moderate overheating was a factor during the flight, 
whereas postflight environmental heat stress was present 
in MA-6. 

5. Food and water were consumed during the 3-hour postflight 
survival experience. 

Overall, the astronaut stated that he had anticipated greater 
physical stress during the flight than was experienced. Weight- 
lessness was a pleasant experience and reminded him of his sensa- 
tions while skin diving. He oriented rapidly to his new environment. 
To test vestibular sensitivity, he performed rather violent head 
maneuvers on several occasions while weightless. These movements 
caused no disorientation or vertigo. He also moved his head during 
roll maneuvers and noted no Coriolis effect. Often he had no posi- 
tional reference, but lack of such reference did not confuse him. 

The pilot experienced a momentary illusion involving his posi- 
tion In relation to the special equipment storage kit. At one time 
when sitting upright in orbit attitude, he was surprised to see that 
the equipment kit was vertical with respect to the horizon. During 
mission simulations in the procedures trainer, the equipment kit had 
always been parallel to the horizon. This illusion was very brief 
and caused the pilot no subsequent difficulty in the operation of 
the spacecraft. 

Vision and hearing were normal. He readily estimated distances 
by relative size of objects. Colors and brightness of objects were 
normal. Tactile approximation, with eyes closed, was unchanged from 
that experienced in the ground environment. He reported no tendency 
to over- or undershoot in reaching spacecraft controls. 

He felt that bladder sensation was normal while weightless, al- 
though he is not certain that he urinated during the flight. He had 
no urge to defecate. The pilot did not feel tired or sleepy during 
the flight. He stated that he was frustrated by the stress of time 
and his Inability to control suit temperature. He reported that he 
was hot from the end of the first orbital pass until the middle of 
the third pass. Environmental control system readouts confirm this 
subjective evaluation. He experienced no other heat stress. He used 
no medications at any time during the mission. 

During the flight the pilot consumed solid food, water, and a 
xylose tablet without difficulty. Once the food was in his mouth, 



CONFIDEIJTIAL 



COKFIDEKTIAL 



Page T - 37 



chewing and swallowing were normal. Taste and smell were normal. 
The solid food was in the form of 3/i4-inch cubes with a special 
coating, packed in a plastic bag, and stored in the equipment kit. 
Some of the food cubes had crumbled, and the pilot reported that 
the resulting particles were an aspiration hazard (the crumbling of 
the food probably occurred prior to or during launch). The elevated 
cabin temperature caused the chocolate to melt. 1213 cc of water 
were consumed from the mission water supply, of which approximately 
60 percent was consumed inflight, and the remainder was drunk by the 
astronaut after landing. The xylose experiment was unsuccessful on 
this flight because of the indefinite time of urination. 

Calibrated exercise was performed without difficulty at 03:59:29 
ground elapsed time. Because of the overheated condition of the 
pilot, an earlier scheduled exercise was omitted. A bungee cord with 
a 16-pound pull through a distance of 6 inches was used. Use of this 
exerciser caused an increase in heart rate of 12 beats/minute, with 
a retiirn to previous values within one minute. The blood pressures 
taken at this time could not be interpreted. This response demon- 
strated the ability of nominal exercise to elevate the pilot's heart 
rate. This pulse response to exercise was evidence of a reactive 
ceirdiovascular system. 

Attempts to produce autokinesis (illusion of vision due to 
involuntary eye muscle movements) were made on two occasions. Auto- 
kinesis was not produced, but the tests were inconclusive. 

7.3.4 Conclusions . - 

1. The postf light clinical examinations of Astronaut M. Scott 
Casrpenter reveal no significant change from the preflight findings. 

2. Aspiration of the crumbled food presents a danger to the 
astronaut. 

3. The inflight pilot responses were within acceptable physio- 
logical ranges except for the possible elevation of systolic blood 
pressure. Wo compromise of pilot performance was noted. Blood 
pressure measurements should be obtained on future flights. to allow 
a more precise determination of the significance of these pressures. 

h. The information from the two ECG leads provided invaluable 
correlation data for blood pressure analysis. The evaluation of any 
ECG abnormality or artifact requires crosschecking of the two leads. 

5. The aberrant ECG tracing during entry was the result of a 
respiratory maneuver and talking during maximum acceleration. 



CONFIDENTIAL 



Page T - 38 



CONFIDENTIAL 



6. A rapid postlanding pilot-status report is necessary for 
intelligent use of medical personnel in the recovery forces . 

7. Sensory perceptions during the flighty as reported by the 
astronaut, were normal and equivalent to those under one g. 

8. Additional time for remote -site postf light examination and 
debriefing would "be beneficial. 



CONFIDENTIAL 



COMPIDENTIAL 
Table 7- 3- 1-1 
MA-T GEHEEAL ASTEOHAITT ACTIVITIES 



Date (1962) 


Ac'bivi'ty 


April 30 


Arrived at Cape Canaveral, Simulated Flight, suited 


May 2 


Procedures Trainer, suited 


5 


Began Special diet, Aeromedica,l Feeding Facility 


7 


Procedures Trainer, suited 


9 


Procedures Trainer, not suited 


10 


Simulated Launch (SEDR-I70), suited 


15 


Simulated Flight ^3 (SEDR-17l)j suited 


17 


Comprehensive Medical Examinations, PAFB Hospital 


21 


Plr*sf ligli"b low rssicLu-s (iist "bG^sm for "fcliircL "bimG 


23 


MA-7 meetings, asleep at 2000 hours 


2h 


Awakened 0115, "began Aeromedical Countdown 
LcLuncn vj f M-p 

Recovery Physicians Examination 1530 and 1715 
Brief examination. Grand Turk Island 2300 


. 25 _ 


Asleep 0230 

Awoke 0915 for Aeromedical Debriefing, then 
Engineering Debriefing 


26 


Asleep 0014-5 
Awoke 06U5 

Aeromedical and Engineering Debriefing 
Skin Diving (3 hours) 


27 


Asleep 0230 
Awoke 0915 

Arrived Patrick AZB ihOO 


28 


Departed from Cape Canaveral 1^1-15 



COmDENTIAL 



COMTTDENTIAIj 

Page J - 

Table 7. 3.1' 1-1 



MA.-7 Aeromedical Countdown Events 
May 2k, 1962 



Time (e.s.t.) 


Activity 


0115 


AwaJten the pilot 


01^6 


Br ea}^if £is t 


0205 


Preflight physical examination 


02^1 


Biosensor placement 


0304 


Don Mercviry pressiire suit 


0325 


Pressure suit and "biosensor checkout 


0340 


Hangar S Aeromedical Facility to transfer van 


Oil03 


Transfer van to launch pad 


Ok36 


Asc«;nd gantry 


Ohk3 


Asti'onaut insertion into spacecraft 


07^5 


Lift-off 



COWTTDENTIAL 



CONFIDEHTIAL 



Page T - 



; i I 1 S 



-=1- -d- 00 OO 



H 1^ 



to tiDH 3 O >5 
CQ O S -H <; Jx! 



:J oo H H on 



SO (DP M C 



^00 

P m LTN oo 
Hh I I I 

h5 H H 



^ <U P >5 (D 

OJ ^3 ch S (0 

U OJ Of 

0) O a I Sh 

p p X <1> 

c6 liH Pm H P 

^ (U pq g P a 

o p a o j3 o 



H O -H 

a> OS 
U f-i Ti 



•rH 

It 




6" P 

03 P <D ;:s ^ 

5-1 bj ^ fn a 

O dJ 0) 01 

0) ^ m fl p a 

^ P S -H bD >l 

p «3 ^^ P -H P tn 

ca 5h ft OS 0) -H gj 

(U <D -H (DO 

Ph m O p< fH S 

an O m T3l P H 

Eh pC( K pq p£5 



11 

a a 



(D (U 

o o 



11^ 



M td 
O 



0) o 
W pi 



HMD a 

H Ip 
W 0) <J 



^ 5h • 

pi CQ 

p 03 0) 


w 


§ ^ S 


P -H 

p p 

■H P 


03 rH 


03 R 


m •^ <D 




may 
Low p 





eOHFIDENTIAL 



COKFIDHWIAL 

Page J - 

TABLE 7-3 -1.2-2.- MA-7 ASTROMUT LABORATORY VALUES 



Peripheral Blood 




Preflight 


Post flight 




Determina'tion 


-7 Days 


_-2^ 


0015 
May 25, 1962 


1200 
May 26, 1962 


Hemo^lotin, g, 

(Cyanmethemoglobln Method) 


15.0 


13.8 


16.0 


li+.8 


Hematocrit, percent 






50 




White Blood Cells, per mm^ 


12,700 


ll,6oo 


12,500 


11,900 


Red Blood Cells, Millions per 


5-2 




5.6 


5.2 












Differential Blood Count, 










percent 










Lymphocytes 


25 


19 


27 


37 


Weutrophiles 


71 


79 


65 


58 


Monocyi^es 


2 


1 


3 


2 


Eosinophiles 


2 


1 


k 


2 


Ba^ophiles 


0 


0 


1 


1 



COKFIDEMTIAL 



COKFIDMTIAL 

Page T - ^3 



Table 7.3.1.2-2 (continued) 



MA.-T Urine Summary * 


Sample Date 
(all May I962) 


Volume 
cc 


Specific 
Gravity 


pH 


Albumin 


Microscopic 


1215 - IT 


250 


1.02^ 


5.0 


Trace 


20-30 WBC/hpf^ occasional 
hyaline casts, occasional 
RBC/hpf, squamous epithe- 
lial cells 


13^0 - 22 




1.015 


6.0 


Negative 


Occasional WBC, occasional 
epithelial cells, rare KBC 


Inflight 

Pinal urination 
on water . Exact 
time unknown, 
but after egress 
from spacecraft. 


2360 


1.003 


5.0 


Trace 


20-25 WBC/hpf , no RBC, no 
casts 


1700 - 24 


155 


1.013 


5.0 


30 mg 


Some clumps of WBC/lpf 
20-25 WBC/hpf, no RBC, no 
casts 


0605^ - 25 


i4o 


1.016 


5-0 


Trace 


15-20 WBC/hpf, no RBC, no 
casts 


0925 - 25 


iho 


1.016 


5.0 


Trace 


10-15 WBC/hpf, no RBC, no 
casts 


1^35 - 25 


215 


1.02*^ 


5.0 


Trace 


3-5 WBC/hpf , no clumps in 
Ipf, no RBC, no casts 


1830 - 25 


305 


1.021 


5.0 


Trace 


15-20 WBC/lpf, few mucous 
threads, 1-3 WBC/hpf 


0030 - 26 


89) 


1.005 


5.0 


Negative 


8-12 "WBC/hpf, occasional 
small 'WBC clusters 


0220 - 26 


310 


1.019 


6.0 


Trace 


Large amount of amorphous 
urates 


0700 - 26 


550 


1.009 


5.0 


Negative 


10-15 WBC/hpf , small amount 
of mucous, occasional small 
cluster of WBC 


09*1-5 - 26 


310 


l.Olil 


5.0 


Negative 


h-Q WBC/hpf, occasional 
small WBC cluster;, small 
amount of mucous 



* All samples are negative for glucose, ketones, and bile. 
** This sample was divided into 3 fractions at collection. Microscopic was 

immediately done. Only the first fraction showed the presence of appreciable 
WBC/hpf . Samples 2 and 3 showed 2-3 WBC/hpf . No other formed bodies were noted. 



CONFIDENTIAL 



Page 'J - kh 



COHFIDEHTIAl 



TABLE T. 3.2. 3-1.- SUMVIARy OF INFLIGET 
BLOQD PRESSURE MEASUKEMEIJTS 



Legi- 
bility 
Category 


- Mission 
elapsed 


BlosdL 
Pressure 
nnn/Hg 


Ptase 
Press Tire 


Leg!-. J. 

Bilxty 

Category 


Mission 
Elapsed 
time 


Pressure 
inm/Hg 


; .. PuiUe. ,' 
Pressuace 




. .. 
00 ; 16 : OT 


182/70 


112 


I 


02:25:35 


196/54 


142 




00: 20; 50 


164/69 


95 


II 


02:33:27 


182/62 


120 


II 


OO.iZh: 13 


212/69 


143 


I 


02:44:28 


196/60 


136 


III 


00:50:10 


197/69 


128 




02:54:38 






III 


00:53:21 


t /64 






03;02.:ifeT 




- 


III 


01:30:40 


16^/64 


99 


I 


03:15:24 


202/54 


149: 


II 


01:35:07 


182/60 


122 


II 


03:30:56 


188/64. 


12% 


I 


01:43:10 


174/60 


114 


II 


03:34:25 


214/56 


158 


I 


01:^1:03 


194/70 


124 


n 


03:49:02 


22,0^/60 


160 


II 


0:^:56:47 


202/54 


148 




03:58:01 






II 


02:04:38 


212/62 


150 




04:00:06 






HI 


02:10:20 


153/56 


97 


III 


04:07:50 


? /74 





NOTE: The reader is referred to paragraph 7.3-2.3 (page 7-33) for a 
discussion of the validity of these data. 



COKFIDEHTIAL 



OOM-IDENTIAL 



TABLE 7. 3. 2. 3-2.- SUMMARY OF BLOOD". PRESSURE DATA 



Wuniber 
of 

D3."fca. sou-jTce vsliiBS 


Mean blood 
pressure 
mm/Hg 


standard 
DeviationX2 
Syst Diast 


Sys toli c 
range 


Diastolic 
range 


pulse 


Pref light 
physical exams I8 


119/73 


Ik 


15 


98-128 


58-84 


46 


3-orbit Mercury- 
Atlas centrifuge 
simulation 30 


130/83 


22 


15 


104-155 


72-106 


47 


Launch pad tests 45 


127/64 


31 


18 


101-149 


44-84 


63 


MA-T countdown I3 


116/63 


18 


12 


105-139 


56-70 


53 


Totals (preflight)l06 


125/71 


2k 


Ik 


98-155 


44-106 


54 


Inflight Category I 6 
Category IE 5 


191/62 
196/62 


19 
36 


Ik 
10 


174-202 
164-220 


54-71 
54-69 


129 
134 


Postriight 
physical exams 3 


115/76 


2 


9 


114-116 


70-80 


39 



CONFIDENTIAL 



Page T - ^6 



COWFIDEWTIAL 



J.h Conclusions 



MA-7 capsule systems operation and pilot performance f\zrther 
indicate that long-duration flight should be feasible in the 
Mercury spacecraft. Longer duration missions will^ hovever, 
require that control activity be reduced and extended periods of 
drifting flight be included in the flight plan. 

In spite of difficulties with the automatic stabilization and 
control system, the pilot was able to manually control attitude 
satisfactorily during retrofire by cross-referencing the window, 
the gyros, and the periscope. The down-range and cross-range 
landing errors app(;ar to have largely resulted from an error in 
capsule attitude during retrofire. The pilot was using fly-by- 
wire augmented by "he manual proportional control mode at this 
time. 

The attitude control problems experienced prior to retrofire 
reemphasize; the need to evaluate system malfunctions when they 
become evident d\aring the mission. 

All physiological data were normal during the flight except 
the elevated systolic blood pressure and the associated increased 
pulse pressure. Tlie explanation of this finding is believed to be 
physiological, althoiigh the exact mechanism is not evident at 
present; however, system malfunctions, yet imdetected, and instru- 
mentation calibration error cannot be completely ruled out at this 
time. Blood pressijre studies in this regard are Intensively being 
pursued. No indication of deteriorated inflight pilot performance 
was observed, and no physical change can be demonstrated during 
post-flight examination. The astronaut felt less press\ire-suit 
restriction in the zero-gravity environment. 

The high rate of fuel consumption resulted from inadverte-nt 
use of the high thrusters in the fly-by-wlre mode and discrepancies 
in the procedures for selecting control modes . 



CONFIDENTIAL 



CONFroENTIAL 



200 




7 2 3 1-1.- Turnaround maneuver; fly-by-wlre 

control mode, rate and attitude gyro 
indicator. 



CONFIDENTIAL 













;;;[■;- 




1 1 


1 1 ^ 






!. n Gvro 


output i. — 




w 












-—t' □ Horizon scanner i . 


! / 




























-P- 














J 1 




















- 






— 




- 


















■ 




ml 












- 
































Retro 


fire 


perio 










.^^ . ; 


- 












I 


















ill 












































































- - 































— 








-- 














/ i — 




— 

















- 






°? 














■ 








— 


- 
























— 




— 




















m 












































m 


^ 1 


















L_ 


















































it: 











































-lO* "" ' -t--| --r--r-- I t - -T- , 

04:33:10 04:33:20 04:33:30 04:33:40 

Time, hr:min:sec 

Figure 7.2.3.6-1.- Horizon scanner and gyro output during 
retrofire period for MA-7. 



CONFIDENTIAL 




rONFTTlFNTlAT. 



CONFroENTIAL 



Page 7-SO 




CONFIDENTIAL 



CONFroENTIAL 



Page 7-52 




Figure 7.2.4.7-1.- Airglow filter. 

CONFIDENTIAL 



CONFroENTIAL 



Page 7-53 




Figure 7.2.4.8-1.- Night adaption eye cover 



CONFIDENTIAL 



Page 7-54 




r'rfciwi?Tmri\rn A i 



CONFroENTIAL 



Page 7-55 




iHium'iijnssaad oooia 



CONFroENTIAL 




CONFroENTIAL 



CONFroENTIAL 




CONFIDENTIAL 



CONFroENTIAL 



Page 7-58 




CONFroENTIAL 



CONFIDENTIAL 




rONFTDENTIAL 



CONFroENTIAL 




CONFroENTIAL 



CONFIDEKTIAL 



Page 8-1 



8.0 FLIGHT CONTROL AND NETWORK PERFORMAHCE 



8.1 Introduction 

The Mercury Network consists of the Mercury Control Center (MCC ) 
at Cape Canaveral (CNV)j stations at the Atlantic Missile Range (iMR), 
Bermuda (BDA), and at thirteen other locations along the orbital 
ground trackj and communications and computing centers at the Goddard 
Space Flight Center, For this mission, the Indian Ocean Ship was 
located at 170^4-5' South, 3902^+' East. The Atlantic Ocean Ship was not 
deployed because of modification commitments to support later missions, 
The Network affords a data acquisition capability for real-time moni- 
toring and mission control, and for postf light analysis. This section 
describes the flight monitoring and control and presents information 
on the performance of the communications, telemetry, tracking, com- 
puting, and command systems. 

8.2 Flight Control Summary 

This summary presents the results of the flight as determined 
in real time. It is recognized that the results may be somewhat 
different from those obtained from an analysis of the data and pre- 
sented in other section of this report. 

The preparation of the flight control team and the Mercury Net- 
work followed the same procedure as for MA-6 and previous Mercury 
orbital flights . Simulations carried out prior to the flight are 
considered as one of the most important steps in the preparation of 
the flight controllers and the astronaut for the flight. This pro- 
cess is absolutely essential to the safety of the flight. 

The countdown for the launch vehicle, spacecraft, and network 
was as close to perfect as can ever be hoped for. There were some 
minor problems, but none of these resulted in the necessity for a 
hold, and the cooperation between the blockhouse and the Mercury 
Control Center was excellent. 

The powered portion of the flight was completely normal, and 
no problems were experienced in achieving the proper information 
nor in making the GO-NO-GO decisions at the required times in the 
flight. The communications to the astronaut throughout the en- 
tire mission were satisfactory, but slightly inferior to those 
of MA-6. The GO-NO-GO decision at sustainer engine cutoff was 
made rapidly, and there was no doubt that the proper conditions 
had been achieved. It was immediately apparent in the early reports 



CONFIDENTIAL 



Page 8-2 



CONFIDENTIAL 



from the African sites that the suit cooling system was not function- 
ing properly and that the astronaut was uncomfortable. However, the 
suit temperature began to decrease as a result of increased water 
flow In the suit circuity and by the end of the first orbital pass 
it was down to a satisfactory value. Other than a slight discomfort due 
to these suit teirperatures, the astronaut was obviously in good con- 
dition and performing satisfactorily throughout the first pass. A 
report from Canton (CTH) of a body temperature of 102°^ which was also 
noticed at loss of signal (LOS) from Woomera (WOM) was of some concern 
until it was decided that the transducer had either failed or had 
been affected by an in-flight calibration. The only other problem 
was the large amount of automatic fuel being used by the astronaut 
during the first pass and he was cautioned against further gross usage 
over the continental United States. As a result, he used the auto- 
matic and fly -by-wire systems sparingly from this point on. 

During the second pass, the suit temperature again rose to a 
rather high value, but again showed a decrease in trend before the 
end of the second pass. It was obvious throughout the flight that the 
pilot was having difficulty in achieving the proper water flow setting 
for the suit cooling system. 

The inverter temperatures showed increases similar to previous 
flights, but these caused no concern because of past experience. It 
is possible that increases in the water flow to both inverters would 
have caused a decrease in these temperatures but this was not suggested 
until late in the flight. The cabin-air temperature followed trends al- 
most identical to the MA-6 flight, although somewhat higher tempera- 
tures were reached during the second orbital pass. This, however, did 
not cause any great concern. 

By the end of the second pass, the astronaut had used large 
amounts of manual fuel and was down to about 42^ as he began the third 
period. The low automatic and manual fuel quantities caused concern 
on the ground and resulted in a number of repeated requests to the 
astronaut to conserve his fuel on both systems. As a result, when 
the astronaut reached HAW at the end of the third orbit, approximately 
koi> of the fuel was remaining in both systems and this amount of fuel 
would normally have been ample to perform a retrofire maneuver and 
reentry on either system. 

Throughout the flight the astronaut made a nimber of voice re- 
ports regarding visual observations and discussions on various experi- 
ments carried out in the flight. However, these can best be obtained 
from the transcript of the astronaut's voice reports, ..and in section 
5.7 of the present report. 



CONFIDENTIAL 



COKTlimilAL 



Page 8 - 3 



Upon contact with Hawaii (HAW) at the end of the third pass, the 
astronaut was instructed to begin his pre-retrosequence checklist and 
to revert from his present inanual- control mode to the ASCS system in 
preparation for retrofire. This was initiated "but when the astronaut 
went back to ASCS^ he reported having trvOuble with this system and, as 
a result, was unable to corrrplete the retrosequence checklist properly. 
It was obvious both from voice reports and telemetry readouts on the 
ground that the astronaut was concerned over the apparent unsatisfactory 
operation of the automatic control system and large amo-unts of manual 
and automatic fuel were used both over the Hawaii station and prior 
to acquisition at California. 

The astronaut continued to have ASCS problems , "in that the pitch 
horizon scanner yielded improper attitudes, and he performed 
the retrofire maneuver using manual control. Ifee astronaut was 
directed to use attitude bypass and manual retrofire initiation by 
the California CapComj, and it was apparent mainly from the time of 
retro jettison that the retrofire had taken place several seconds 
late. Initial reports from the astronaut indicated that the attitudes 
had been held fairly well during retrofire ^ but later reports from 
California did not corroborate this reports Also, the California 
station reported the measurement of the velocity increment from the 
integrating accelerometer was approximately ij-50 feet per second. 
Because of the first report on capsule attitudes, the Initial radar 
data from California and the resulting impact prediction was sus- 
pected to be in error. However^ as additional radar data became 
available from other sites it was obvious that the data was correct 
and that the landing point would be approximately 250 nautical miles 
downrange from the planned location. Because of the small amount 
of automatic fuel remaining following retrofire, and the complete de- 
pletion of manual fuel, the astronaut was instructed to use as little 
fuel as possible in orienting the spacecraft to reentry attitude and to 
conserve the fuel for use dtiring reentry. He was also instructed to 
use the auxiliary damping system during the atmospheric reentry por- 
tion of the flight. 

Upon contact with Cape Canaveral just prior to communications 
blackout, the astronaut was queried as to the position of the face- 
plate. He indicated it was still open and was therefore directed to 
close it. The ionization blackout occurred about kO seconds late, 
lending further evidence to the longer reentry range, and the astro- 
naut was told that his landing point would be long and at approxi- 
mately 19°23 min. North and 63°53 mln. West. From this point, no 
voice communications were received from the astronaut. However, a 
number of communications were made from MCC both on the command voice 
system and over the normal UHF' and HF voice system. The AMR C-band 



COHFILEKTIAL 



CONFIDENTIAL 

r^ge 8 - h 



radars at Cape Cjinaveral, GBI, and San Salvador tracked the C-"band 
beacon until the spacecraft reached the local horizon^ indicating that 
it had reentered satisfactorily^ and these data continued to give the 
same landing point prediction. All sources of data and methods of 
calculations, in fact, gave essentially the same impact prediction. 

The remainder of the mission involved primarily the recovery 
operation^ which is described in detail in that section of this 
report. 



8.3 Network Performance Summary 

Generally, Mercury Network performance was exceellent. The few 
minor malfunctions did not affect the flight monitoring and control of 
the mission. Acquisition of data from tracking, telemetry, and air/ 
ground voice systems was satisfactory in both quantity and quality 
for real-time monitoring and for postf light analysis. The relaying of 
air/ground voice to the Mercury Control Center from all voice sites 
contributed substantially in enabling MCC to maintain close real- 
time monitoring of the mission. (This was not quite as satisfactory 
as on MA-6, for reasons yet undetermined.) 

Trajectory . - The following paragraphs discuss details of track- 
ing, data transmission, computing, ajid trajectory displays. 

8-3-1-1 Tracking: T]:.e radar tracking system provided data from both C- 

and S-band systems satisfactorily for all requirements. The quantity 
and quality of the data were more than adequate. All sites provided 
high quality data to the computer on all orbital passes where the 
capsule was above their horizon. See Figures 8. 3. 1.1-1 and 8.3.1.1-2. 
Some sites reported amplitude modulation, lobing, and countdown of 
both radar beacons, and Bermuda reported local interference on C- 
band. In spite cf these difficulties, the overall tracking was very 
good. New radar handover procedures have been developed, and are 
being used very effectively. Both C-band and S-band spacecraft sys- 
tems are being checked to determine if their performance could have 
caused the reported degradation. Evaluation tests of the C-band 
phase modulator conducted over White Sands and Bermuda are incon- 
clusive, pending detailed analysis of signal strength and spacecraft 
attitude data. At White Sands, track was lost very shortly after 
the modulator was turned off, but this was undoubtedly due to ex- 
treme range and low elevation angle. During the "blackout" period 
on reentry, the S-band radars tracked for a maximum of about 1^ min- 
utes. The C-band radars tracked well into the "blackout" condition with 
the San Salvador PPS-16 losing track just seconds before the end, 
at which time the elevation angle was about one degree, and the range 
almost hOO miles. 

CONFIDENTIAL 



CONFIDENTIAL 



Page 8-5 



8.3.1.2 Data Transmission: The transmission of both high-speed and 

low-speed data was satisfactory throughout the mission. 

8. 3. 1-3 Computing and Trajectory Displays; A modified computer pro- 

gram at the Goddard Space Flight- Center was utilized in support of 
the MA-7 mission. This program was capable of receiving high-speed 
radar data from BDA, and provided the MCC with an additional source 
for determining satisfactory orbital insertion (G0-N0-G0)„ The com- 
puting and trajectory display facilities at BDA were retained and 
operated In parallel with the high speed remoting for this mission 
since this was the first opportunity to obtain operational experience 
with the new system. The system performed satisfactorily, and no 
problems were encountered. With the introduction of high speed data 
from BDA, the capability of transmitting raw FPS-I6 radar data from 
the AMR radars to the GSFC has been deleted. 

Confidence cheeks during the countdown indicated that the launch 
monitor system was in a GO condition. The GE personnel reported high 
refractive indices being measured through a fog bank in the local Cape 
area by a test aircraft. These indications caused some concern among 
the guidance personnel who felt this could create noisy data at cut- 
off similar to that experienced on MA-4, Further evaluation indicated 
that this noise would probably be of a high frequency nature, and 
would therefore not cause any significant difficulty. Therefore, the 
guidance complex considered this a GO condition. This was the first 
Mercujry flight in which the 6000-foot legs of the tracking antenna 
configuration were actively utilized for guidance . Further study will 
be required to evaluate in detail the performance of this system. 

At liftoff the selected source for display at the MCC was the 
output of the IP 7090. Cape FPS-I6 tracking was utilized until ap- 
proximately 00:00:35 when the IP TO9O switched to AZUSA. AZUSA was 
displayed for approximately the next 37 seconds, at which time GE -Burroughs 
via Goddard was selected and was displayed throughout the powered flight. 
The GE radar acquired both rate and track at 00:01:02 as planned, and 
never lost lock throughout the powered flight. The quality of the GE 
data was excellent up to SECO and during the GO-NO-GO computation. No 
difficulty was experienced in making the GO-NO-GO decision, and it was 
not necessary to select either the IP 7O9O or BDA data to verify the 
GE /Burroughs s olut ion. The cutoff conditions are given m Table 
8.3.1.3-1. 

The programmed phase of the flight showed a minor deviation of 
plus 1.2*^ in flight path angle, and plus I.5 n.m. in altitude at booster 
engine cutoff. After staging, steering corrected these deviations in 
both flight path angle and attitude , The yaw velocity error was zero 
at cutoff. 



CONFIDENTIAL 



Page 8-6 



COKFIDENTIAL 



Low speed tracking data from the remote sites were excellent^ 
such that the orbit was well defined after Canary Island (CYl) 
tracking was received. Subsequent tracking resulted in no change 
In the orbit, and only increased confidence In the values obtained. 
Table 8.3.1.3-2 shows the tracking data obtained. 

The retroseguence time set in the spacecraft at launch was 
oil-: 32:25, At insertion the computed retrosequence time was 04:32:39. 
This was reduced to 0^:32:28 after correcting the orbit from the 
Bermuda data. During the rest of the mission the computed time varied 
only plus or minus one second about Olj-:32:28. This Indicates that the 
orbit was fixed very early in the flight. 

The spacecraft clock was set to Oki'^Zt^k, capsule elapsed time, 
over Muchea (MJC ) during the third pass. This setting included a minus 
one second clock error and a plus six-second correction because of a 
decrease In spacecraft weight caused by more fuel usage than accounted 
for in the computer programs. A countdown to retrosequence at a 
ground elapsed time of 0U:32:35 was given from Mercury Control Center. 

During the reentry, tracking data established the landing loca- 
tion with a high degree of confidence. Table 8. 3. 1.3-3 shows the minor 
variations in landing latitude and longitude as obtained from tracking 
data across the United States. Cape, GBI, and San Salvador FPS-l6's 
tracked through blackout, reports of which In real time at the MCC 
were extremely comforting in verifying the Integrity of the capsule 
during reentry. 

The performance of the computing system and the tracking facili- 
ties was excellent throughout the mission and no malfunctions occurred. 
It is felt that the performance of the BDA to GSFC high speed data 
transmission system during this mission was such that the computing 
facilities and trajectory displays at BDA are no longer necessary in 
support of the Mercury program. 

8.3-2 Telemetry . - The data provided by the telemetry system was 

generally adequate and of good quality. Coverage was excellent, and 
data were acquired throughout each pass at every site . Coverage is 
shown graphically in Figure 8. 3. 2-1 and in tabular form, with decom- 
mutator figures, ranges and elevation angles, in Table 8.3.2-2. 
Signal strengths were satisfactory, ranging up to kOO+ microvolts. 
The usual lonlza-:lon "blackout" of telemetry, expected to begin at 
approximately OU :lf3 :10, did not begin until Ok:k3:^6, because of 
the landing poln" overshoot. Grand Turk acquired the signal briefly 
(6 seconds for the commutated channel, 29 seconds for the continuous 
channels) at approximately 04:48:4U. If Grand Turk acquired at the 
end of the "blackout" this would indicate an ionization time of 



CONFIDENTIAL 



CONFIDENTIAL 



Page 8 - T 



Oif:if8. Loss of signal at Grand Turk was apparently due to range and 
elevation angle . 

Wo serious problems were experienced in the instrumentation 
systems, other than apparent difficulties with onboard physiological 
ins trumentation . 

Trend charts plotted from the telemetry summary messages showed 
fairly good consistency except for automatic and manual fuel quantity. 
Curves for manual fuel quantity and for coolant quantity were compared, 
since the latter displays only minor deviations. The obvious scatter 
on fuel quantity is being investigated- This is in part caused by the 
fact that the full sensor range represents only 5^4-^ of the full scale, 
reducing resolution by almost 2 to 1„ 

Performance of the acquisition aid system was satisfactory, with 
the usual multipath errors at elevation angles less than l8 degrees. 
Operation of the Bermuda remoting system, used for the first time on 
this mission, was very good. 

8.3.3 Air/Ground Voice .- The performance of the primary air/ground 

voice system (UHF) was generally good throughout the mission, with 
the exception of the first 1 to 2 minutes of laiinch, and the period 
from the onset of "blackout" during reentry to the end of the mission. 
During the early phase of powered flight the voice transmissions re- 
. ceived from the vehicle were very noisy, although readable. The loss 
of signal after blackout were undoubtedly due to horizon effect. The 
range to Grand Turk was over hOO miles and to the nearest relay air- 
craft was approximately 200 miles. In spite of these ranges several 
Cape Canaveral transmissions were received by the astronaut and one 
capsule transmission was received by Cape Canaveral, all apparently 
through the two relay aircraft flying at approximately 25,000 feet. 

Signal strengths were adequate to provide very good signal-to- 
noise ratios for essentially all times the spacecraft was above the 
local visual horizon at the Network sites. UHF in-range times averaged 
about six minutes per pass. See figure 8,3-3-1- 

Since the UHF system provided adequate communications, the HF 
system was seldom used. On the first pass, the astronaut heard Can- 
ton calling, responded on UHF, then HF, but was not received until within 
UHF range. No reason can be given at this time for the questionable 
HF performance. A more efficient antenna, such as a resonant whip or 
wire, is being considered for the multi -orbit missions, where HF com- 
munication will be of paramount inrportance. 



CONFIDENTIAL 



CONFIDENTIAL 



Emergency voice checks^ using the connnand transmitters, resulted 
in loud and clear reception Isy the astronaut. 

Conmiand System .- The command system for MA-7 operated in a satis - 
factoi*y manner during the mission. There were more ground system 
malfunctions than have previously heen noted during mission time. 
These malfunctions are discussed "below, A summary of the command 
handover exercises is shown in Table 8,3.^4—1, and a summary of com- 
mand transmissions is shown in Table 8.3A-2. 

Ground System: A preliminary evaluation of the data shows that 
all command sites appeared to have comiaand coverage beginning at slant 
ranges equal to that of the MA-6 mission. The 10 KW command sites 
using the quadhelix antennas had an average of approximately 35 per- 
cent better coverage above the 10 microvolt level than that of the 
600 watt command sites, 

A total of sixteen functions were transmitted from the command 
sites. All of the functions were received successfully with the ex- 
ception of one telemetry "R" calibration from MUG. This function 
was not received because of the signal strength being, below re- 
ceiver threshold. In addition, the emergency voice via command 
carrier was used by MUG during the first orbit pass, and by CW 
during reentry. MUC's transmissigin was successful. CNV's transmis- 
sion was not successful due to ionization blackout and excessive 
slant range . 

The following malfunctions were experienced: 

1. The rotary Joint on the quadhelix antenna located at Cape 
Canaveral burned out at T-I35 minutes. The AMR unipole antenna along 
with GBI was used for first pass coverage. The unipole was used with 
a change jln the handover plan for the second and third orbit coverage. 
The -unip'ole coverage was less than expected with an average of only 
26 percent coverage above the 10 microvolt level. 

2. The master FRW-2 at Bermuda was inoperative during the 
mission. An atteaipt to repair the transmitter prior to the mission 
was unsuccessful because of numerous teflon ring failures in the 
power amplifier section of the transmitter. The station did satis- 
factorily support the mission with the standby FRW-2 and the 10 KW 
power amplifier. 



GGKFIDENTIAL 



CONFIBSBTIAI. 



Page 8 - 9 



3- A failover^- from the master to the standhy FRW-2 transmitter 
occurred at G-uaymas during the third orl:iit pass» This failover was 
caused "by an open fuse in the transroitter power supply. The standby 
transmitter operated satisfactorily. 

h. Although California was not used during the first orhit 
pass, a failover to the standby transmitter occurred during this 
time. The cause was an open 310 volt fuse, 3ie fuse was replaced and 
the mission was completed in a normal manner „ 

Spacecraft Command System" Command receiver ''A" operating from 
the l8-volt isolated bus had a threshold value of 3-6 microvolts 
and a saturation value of between 20 to h-G microvolts. Command re- 
ceiver "B" operating from the l8-vclt standby bus has a threshold 
value of 3 '8 microvolts and a saturation value of between kO to 80 
microvolts . 

The command system appeared to operate normally o The antenna 
pattern effects on MA-J were as noticeable as on previous missions. 

8.3-5 Ground Communications ,- AH the ground communication networks 

provided good support for the mission. The few isolated instances 
of outages occurred, but communications were accomplished by alter- 
nate circuits. Single -sideband HF communication from the Indian 
Ocean Ship (lOS) direct to Canaveral or relayed via Ascension or 
Pretoria, was excellent and aided materially in mission monitoring,, 



^ Failover - Failure of primary system, accompanied by automatic 
switching to standby system. 



COHPIDEWTIAL 



CONFIDENTIAL 

Page 8-10 

TABIE 8, 3.1. 3-1.-- OEBITA.L IITSERTION CONDITIONS AVAILABLE AT MCC 





Nominal 


GE 


IP 


BDA 


back from MUG 


Velocity with posigrades, fjjs 
(avg. of GO-WO-GO) 


25,736 


25,735 


25,750 


25,7^0 


25,739 


Inert ial flight path angle, deg 
(avg. of GO-NO-GO) 


-.0035 


-.031^^ 


-.111+ 


+ .010 


-.00051 


Insertion altitude, n.m. 


87.0 


86.7 






86.7 


Inclination angle, deg 


32.52 


32.5 






32.5 


Orhlt capahility 




7^ 








Apogee, n.m. 


1^5 


ii^3 






li^5 



^ Maximiim nimiber displayed in MCC 



KEY 10 MEECUEY NETWORK STATION ABBREVIATIONS 



CNV 


- Cape Canaveral 


HAW - 


Hawaii 


BDA 


- Bermuda (island) 


CAL - 


California (Pt, Auguello) 


ATS 


- Atlantic Ocean Ship 


GYM - 


Guaymas, Mexico 


CYI 


- Canary Islands 


WHS - 


White Sands, New Mexico 


KNO 


- Kano, Nigeria 


TEX - 


Corpus Christl, Texas 


ZZB 


- Zanzibar, East Africa 


EGL - 


Eglin, Florida 


lOD 


- Indian Ocean Ship 


SAL - 


San Salvador, Bahama Is. 


MUC 


- Muchea, Australia 


GBI - 


Grand BaJiama Island, Bahama Is 


WCM 


- Woomera, Australia 


MCC - 


Mercury Control Center (CNV) 


CTR 


- Canton (island) 





CONFIDENTIAL 



COHFIDENTIAL 
TABIiE 8.3.1.3-2.- RADAE TMCKIWG 



Page 8 - 



Station Wo. of Obs. 



BDA-16 
V 
CYI 
MUC 
WOM 
GYM 
WHS 
TEX 

EGL-16 
V 

CNV 
BDA-16 
V 

CYI 
MUC 
¥CM 

HAW- 16 

CAL 
GYM' 
WHS 



Valid No Used D.C. 



58 

68 
81+ 
73 
TO 

29 

71 

29 

53 
61 
57 
13 
61 
77 



52 

63 
80 
32 

17 
60 
29 
22 
^3 
kk 
8 
59 
62 



data not available at this 
time 



15 
32 
25 
5 

20 



1+2 

not used 

50 
50 
32 
3h 
17 
50 
29 
15 
3h 
33 
8 
37 
50 
29 



25 
20 



15 
23 
25 



CONFIDENTIAL 



Page 8-12 



CONFIDENTIAL 
TiiBLE 8.3.1.3-2.- (Continued) 



No. of Obs. 



No. Used D.C. 



Accepted 



Rejected 



TEX 
EGL-16 
V 

CNV 

BDA-16 
V 
MUG 
HAW F 



TEX 
EG-L-16 



CNVa 
SAL 



71 

37 
30 
59 
kQ 
18 
73 



55 
37 
13 
56 
k6 
12 
71 



data not available at this 
time 



data not available at this 
time 



data not available at this 
time 



10 
17 
11 



^3 
35 
Ik 
^9 
k6 
h 
50 
29 

18 
30 



late arrival 



Cape FPS-16 used 



Start of transmission of CNV data was deliberately delayed in the hopes 
of getting early San Sal data for use at Goddard. San Sal data were not 
available early enough so transmission of Cape FPS-I6 data was commenced. 



CONFIDENTIAL 



COKFIDEJJTIAL 

Page 8-13 

TABLE 8.3.1.3-3.- REENTRY TRACKING DATA 



Station 


Latitude, 


Longitude, 


Approximate Dis- 
tance from Ac- 




deg. 


- min. 


deg. 


- min. 


tual Landing 
Point, n.m. 


Assumed time 
(assioming correct 
attitudes) 


21 


ok N 


6T 


59 W 


235, iw 


Calif. D.C. . 
30 points FPS-16 
20 points ver 


19 


ik N 


63 


31^ W 


k^, SE 


WHS D.C. 

32 points 


19 


21 W 


63 


k7 W 


30^ SE 


hi points 


19 


2k N 


63 


53 W 




EGL D.C. 
02 points FPS-16 
06 points ver 


(late 


report) 








CNV D.C.^ 

11 points FPS-16 


19 


2k N 


63 


53 W 


20, SE 



IP-TO90 Integrated solution on Cape FPS-I6 data - 19°27^W, 63°59'W 
Actual location reported "by recovery ship - 19030'W, 6k 15 'W 



^ Start of transmission from CNV was deliberately delayed to obtain 
San Sal data, so more tracking was actually available from CNV. 



COKFIDEWTIAL 



Page 8 - 11+ 



COITFIDENTIAL 



TABLE 8.3.2-2.- TELEMETRY PERFOEMANCE - ACQUISITION AND LOS TIMES, RANGES, AND 
ELEVATION ANGLES 



Station 


Acquisition 


Decomm. 
Lock 


Decomm. 

LOS 


LOS 


Slant 


Range 


Elev. 


Angle 


Acq. 


LOS 


Acq. 


LOS 


CNV 


0 


0 


0007:35 


0007 


46 


0 


1100 






BDA 


0003:01 


0003:07 


0010:32 


0010 


34 


740 


890 


-1 


-1 


CYI 


00lij-:20 


0014:44 


0021:38 


0021 


42 


800 


950 


0 


-1 


KNO 


0021:09 


0021:26 


0028:33 


0028 


37 


880 


. 950 


0 


-1 


ZZB 


0029:57 


0030:09 


0038:00 


0038 


21 


915 


1090 


-1 


-1 


lOS 


0034:04 


0034:38 


0038:54 


0039 


04 










MUC 


00^9:24 


0049:44 


0058:12 


0058 


19 


1030 


1050 


0 


0 


WOM 


0054:06 


0054:20 


0102:55 


0103 




1100 


1030 


-1 


-1 


GTN 


0109:31 


N/A 


0116:46 


0116 


46 


930 


925 


0 


0 


HAW 


Not in Range 
















CAL 


0127:16 


0127:44 


0131:36 


0131 


36 


785 


1000 


0 


0 


GYM 


0126:39 


0126:43 


0133:31 


0133 


35 


835 


835 


-1 


-1 


TEX 


0129:18 


0129:34 


0136:31 


0136 


53 


885 


950 


-1 


-1 


EGL 


0132:11 


N/A 


N/A 


0137 


44 


780 


560 


0 


+5 


CNV 


0133:28 


0133:32 


0l4l:12 


oi4i 


12 


820 


1080 


-1 


-1 


BDA 


0136:44 


0136:59 


0144:12 


0144 


i4 


840 


94o 


-1 


-1 


CYI 


014t:35 


0148:08 


0153:57 


0154 


16 


970 


960 


-1 


-1 


KNO 


0154:50 


0155:5^ 


0201:54 


0201 


54 


910 


1020 


0 


-1 


ZZB 


0204 : 07 


0204:21 


0211:05 


0211 


30 


940 


1150 


0 


-1 


lOS 


0204:48 


0205:01 


0213:29 


0213 


39 










MUC 


0223:00 


0223:24 


0231:44 


0231 


47 


1030 


1020 


-1 


-1 


WOM 


0227:50 


0228:06 


0235:5^ 


0236 


07 


1030 


1000 


0 


0 


CTN 


0243:10 


0243:25 


0249:44 


0249 


44 


905 


865 


0 


0 


HAW 


0249:14 


0249:48 


0255:12 


0255 


12 


920 


780 


-1 


0 


CAL 


0258:44 


0258:52 


0305:04 


0305 


04 


800 


825 


0 


0 


GYM 


0300:13 


0300:36 


0306:52 


0306 


57 


855 


830 


-1 


-1 


TEX 


0303:16 


0303:24 


0310:02 


0310 


04 


850 


880 


-1 


-1 


EGL 


0305 :4l 


n/a 


N/A 


0312 


46 


790 


910 


0 


-1 


CNV 


0307:04 


0307:08 


0316:07 


0316 


13 


820 




-1 




BDA 


0310:10 


0310:11 


0317:23 


0317 


26 


850 


940 


-1 


-1 


CYI 


0322:31 


0324:54 


0325:01 


0325 


l4 










KNO 


Not in Range 
















ZZB 


Not in Range 
















lOS 


0339:04 


0339:13 


0346:49 


0346 


44 










MUG 


0356:48 


0357:08 


04o4:25 


o4o4 


32 


1010 


980 


0 


0 


WOM 


0403:13 


0403:37 


0406:27 


o4o6 


40 


985 


930 


0 


0 


CTN 


Not in Range 
















HAW 


0421:58 


0422:17 


0429:05 


0429 


11 


935 


810 


-1 


0 


CAL 


0431:10 


0431 :4l 


0438:20 


0438 


20 


94o 


790 


-1 


0 


GYM 


0434:02 


0434:24 


0439:58 


o44o 


03 


820 


720 


-1 


+1 


TEX 


0437:03 


0437:07 


0442:50 


0442 


53 


790 


645 


0 


+2 


EGL 


0439:37 


N/A 


N/A 


0443 


59 


680 


415 


+2 


+10 


CNV 


0440:58 


044l:02 


0443:56 


0443 


56 


N/A 


N/A 






GT 


0448:43 


0448:45 


0448:51 


0449 


12 


N/A 


n/a 







CNV includes GBI and GTK, data remoted via sub -cable. 



CONFIDENTIAL 



CONFIDENTIAL 

Page 8-15 



TABLE 8.3A-I.- COMMMD HANDOVER SUMMARY 



Station 


Command Carrier 


+10_^v Carrier 
Coverage Above 
Line of Sight 


ON 


OFF 


CNV 


Launch 


00 


0^ 


05 












(00 


oh 


07) 


100/0 


CNV ( SAL ) 


00 


Ok 




00 


06 


00 




(00 


Oh 


07) 


(00 


06 


02) 


ihi 


BDA 


00 


05 


58 


00 


12 


00 






(00 


05 


58) 


(00 


12 


00) 




MUC 


00 


h5 


00 


00 


59 


00 






(00 


^5 


00) 


(00 


59 


00) 


hole 


GYM 


01 


20 


00 


01 


33 


00 






(01 


20 


00) 


(01 


33 


00) 


kilo 


CNV 


01 


33 


00 


01 


36 


30 






(01 


33 


05) 


(01 


36 


36) 


30i 


CNV (GBI) 


01 


36 


30 


01 


38 


00 






(01 


36 


36) 


(01 


38 


06) 


100^ 


BDA 


01 


37 


58 


01 


^5 


00 






(01 


37 


58) 


(01 


i;5 


00) 


87^ 


MUC 


02 


15 


00 


02 


32 


00 






(02 


15 


00) 


(02 


32 


00) 


h3io 


HAW 








02 


56 


00 






(02 


k^ 


00) 


(02 


56 


00) 


9ii 


CAL 


02 


56 


00 


03 


Oh 


00 






(02 


56 


00) 


(03 


oh 


00) 


91^ 


GYM 


03 


Oh 


00 


03 


06 


00 






(03 


oh 


01) 


(03 


05 


59) 


335^ 


CNV 


03 


06 


00 


03 


10 


30 






(03 


06 


00) 


(03 


10 


29) 


14^ 


BDA 


03 


10 


30 


03 


18 


00 






(03 


10 


30) 


(Q3 


19 


00) 


81^ 



CONFIDENTIAL 



Page 8-16 



COKFIDEHTIAL 
TABLE 8.3 (Continued) 





Command Carrier 


+10^v Carrier 


Station 


ON 


OFF 


Coverage Above 
Line of Sight 


MUC 


03:51^:00 
(03:5^^:00) 


0lj-:05:00 
(0l4-:05 :00) 


31^ 


HAW 


01^:15:00 
(0U:15:00) 


01^:30:00 
(Oin30:00) 


82^ 


CAL 


OU:30:00 
(0i4-:30:00) 


01^:38:00 
(01^:38:00) 


9T^ 


GYM 


0U:38:00 
(0^:38:09) 


0i^:ll0:00 
(0l^:U0:0l) 


55i 


CNV 


01^:1^0:00 
(0i^:1^0:00) 
(0lt:l^T:ll)^ 


01^:1^3:11 
(0i^:i+3:10) 
(0l|:52:35) 





NOTE: The times in parentheses are actual; times not in parentheses are planned. 



^ Turned on in an attempt to communicate with the capsule during reentry. 



Orbit coverage : 

CNV: 10 KW into unlpole antenna 

GBI: 10 KW into Sterling antenna 

BDA: 9.5 KW into quad±.elix antenna 

HAW, CAL: 10 KW into quadhelix antenna 
MJC, (Smx 600 W into quadhelix antenna 



CONFIDENTIAL 



CONFIDENTIAL 

Page 8-17 



TABLE 8.3.4-2.- COMMAND FUHCTION SUMMARY 



Station 


Function 


of 


Time/Duration 
Signal Transmission 


Slant 
W.M, 


Signal Strength 
at Spacecraft J 
microvolts 


:nv (sal) 


ASCO 


00 


05 


09.9/2 sec. 


415 


+50 


MUG 


Z Cal 


00 


53 


ij-9.5/15 sec. 


155 


30 




R Cal 


00 


5h 


O8/U6.5 sec. 


170 


20 


GYM 


Z Cal 


01 


29 


31.8/18 sec. 


l4o 


20 




R Cal 


01 


30 


07/32 sec. 


135 


15 


CNV (get) 


Z Cal 


01 


37 


00.5/4 sec. 


375 


30 




R Cal 


01 


37 


10.5/6 sec. 


370 


30 


ynjc 


Z Cal 


02 


27 


OU/12 sec. 


165 


30 




R Cal 


02 


27 


21/16 sec. 


145 


30 




R Cal 


02 


27 


38/1 sec. 


150 


30 




R Cal 


02 


27 


i+O/l sec. 


155 


25 




R Cal 


02 


27 


i|2/l sec. 


160 


12 




R Cal 


02 


27 


45/1 sec. 


165 


5 




R Cal^ 


02 


27 


ij-7/l sec. 


170 


3 


CAL 


Z Cal 


03 


01 


12.2/14 sec. 


310 


10 




R Cal 


03 


01 


3V2I sec. 


290 


+50 



Wot received "by spacecraft 



COHFIDEEfTIAL 




CONFroENTIAL 



page 8-20 



CONFroENTIAL 




CONFroENTlAL 



CONFroENTIAL 



Page 8-21 



■age 
















ma 


::::f;::: 






lllllllll Radar coverage 

^■■B HoriTinn to horizon cover 


















^-}^;;; 


















1;:: 

III 

mil 


















il " 
























































1 




























































iji 










i}i 






























;;:^|;:-. 








::::|:;;: 




















ii 


; 1 . 










- 









































































































1 
















r 








































































































— - 


















































































:;;:|;;;; 








































! 

i 


m 














--— 












































il 


























































CNV 
Mod II 


BDA 

VERLORT 


CYI 

VERLORT 


MUC 

VERLORT 


HAW 

VERLORT 


CAL 

VERLORT 


GYM 

VERLORT 


TEX 

VERLORT 


EGL 
MPQ-31 





CONFroENTIAL 




CONFroENTIAL 



CONFTOENTIAL 




CONFroENTIAL 



CONFroENTIAL 



Page 8-24 




CONFroENTIAL 



Page 8-25 

CONFroENTIAL 




rONFmENTIAL 



CONFroENTIAL 



Page 8-26 




CONFroENTIAL 




CONFroENTIAL 



CONFIDENTIAL 



Page 9-1 



9.0 RECOVERY 



9.1 Recovery Plans 

The Atlantic recovery areas where ships and aircraft were 
positioned at the time of launch are shown in figure 9. 1-1. Recovery 
capability was provided in areas A through E in the event that it 
became necessary to abort the mission during powered flight. Recovery 
forces were distributed so as to provide for recovery within a maxi- 
mum of 6 hours in areas B, D, E and the first 61O nautical miles of 
area A, 9 hours in the remainder of area A, and 3 hours in area C. 
Recovery forces were located to provide recovery within a maximum of 
3 hours in area and H at the end of orbital passes 1, 2, and 

3^ respectively. A total of 20 ships and I3 aircraft were on station 
in these Atlantic recovery areas at launch time. In addition, hell- 
copters, amphibious surface vehicles, and small boats were positioned 
for close recovery support in the vicinity of the laimch site. 

Figiire 9.1-2: shows the contingency-recovery aircraft that were 
on alert at various staging bases in the event that a landing occurred 
at any place along the orbital ground track. These aircraft were 
etiuipped to locate the spacecraft and to provide emergency on-scene 
assistance if required. 



9.2 Recovery Operations 

A chronological summary of significant events pertinent to the 
recovery operation is presented in the following table. This table 
was prepared primarily from information available at the Mercury 
Control Center throughout the operation, with some events confirmed 
by debrleflngs of cognizant downrange personnel. 

Since the landing was outside the planned landing area (Area H), 
contingency recovery procedures were followed at MCC. The downrange 
recovery commander aboard the aircraft carrier Intarepid (CVS) was 
designated as mission coordinator, and :the Coast Guard and other 
U. S. Naval Commands were quarried as to the location of merchant 
ships or naval vessels (other than those assigned to recovery forces) 
near the area of the interest. Information from these sources was 
evaluated and communications were established with the following 
three ships (positions shown on figure 9>2-l): A Coast Guard cutter 
at St. Thomas, Virgin Islands, a merchantman located approximately 
31 nautical miles north of the calculated landing position, and the 
iFarlragut, a destroyer which was located about 75 nautical miles 



COKFIDEKTIAL 



Page 9-2 



CONFIDENTIAL 



southeast of the calculated landing position. It was determined that 
the Farragut could arrive in the landing area first, so this ship 
headed for the landing area at hest speed. The other two ships were 
so notified and they then continued with their normal operations. 

Elapsed time Elapsed time 

from launch, from landing. Event 
hr :min hr :min 

24 May I962 

03:33 An Air Rescue Service SC-5i|- was launched 

from Roosevelt Roads, P. R., and assigned 
a station on the downrange portion of the 
3rd -pass recovery area, as shown in figure 
9.2-1. This aircraft carried two para- 
rescue personnel, and its deployment was 
requested as a precautionary measure after 
the mission was committed to a 3rd orbital 
pass . 

^^'•31 Recovery forces were informed that the re- 

trorockets had been Ignited for a landing 
in area H. 



Loss of communications to and from space- 
craft resulting from ionization "blackout. 

End of ionization blackout. 

Recovery forces were informed that the new 
calculated landing position (CALEIEP) was 
1902i^'N, 63053'W. An Air Rescue Service, 
SA-16, amphibian aircraft was launched from 
Roosevelt Roads to proceed to the calculated 
landing position. 

A P2V search aircraft made UHF/DF contact at 
2k3 mc with the spacecraft and later repor- 
ted this contact to Mercury Control at 05:02. 

0^:56^ 00:00 Spacecraft landing. 

0^-59 00:03 The new calculated landing position (l9°24'N, 

63053 1^) va,s established as the best estimate 
of the spacecraft landing position. In the 
meantime, recovery forces from area H were 
proceeding at best speed toward the landing 
position. 

^Actual landing tinie - Oh:3^:^J GET. 



Oil: 50 



CONFIDENTIAL 



CONFIDENTIAL 



Elapsed time Elapsed time 
'f tom^ launchj from landing, 
hj-rmini ; .V. hrrmin 



05:32:G - 00:36 A P2V search aircraft reported visual contact 

with the spacecraft, and that the astronaut was 
alongside in a liferaft (see figiire 9.2-2). 

05:52::; 00:56 An Air Rescue Service 30-5*+ in the landing area 

prepared to deploy pararescue personnel with 
survival equipment and a spacecraft auxiliary 
flotation collar. 

05:59;r ) 01:03 HSS-2 twin-turhine helicopters were launched 

from the USS Intrepid with an estimated time of 
arrival (ETA) at the spacecraft of 07:^3: 
(02:^^-7 after spacecraft landing). These hell- 
copters had the capability of personnel retrie- 
val and return to the Intiel^ia. 



03-;_., 01:07 The first pararescue man jumped from 

q8:, 01:12 The second pararescue man jumped from 



06 
06 

06-l'?-'. ; 01:19 A spacecraft auxiliary flotation collar was de- 

ployed from the 30-5^^. NOTE: The initial task 
for pararescue personnel was to contact the 
astronaut and determine his condition. Since 
the astronaut required no assistance, they then 
proceeded to attach the collar to the space- 
craft to insure a longer flotation lifetime. 
Radio equipment initially dropped failled to 
operate properly, and therefore voice communi- 
cations with the recovery forces were not 
established at this time. Additional radio 
equipment was deployed just prior to the time 
the helicopters arrived on-scene and was not 
activated. 

06:30: j) 01:3^ The SA-I6 deployed from Roosevelt Roads reported 

surface conditions in the landing area satis- 
factory for a safe landing and subsequent take- 



COMT'IDENTIAL 



Page 9 - U 



COnFIDENTIAL 



Elapsed time Elapsed time 
from^ launch^ from landing, 
hr:min ■ _ ■ hr:min 



06:36 ■ 01:^0 A situation report from the mission coordinator 

(downrange recovery commander) indicated the 
following r 

(a) At 01-: 33, ■ the-astrOnB.ut. appeared 
normal, waving to aircraft. 

(b) Pararescue team had been deployed. 

(c) Plans were to utilize HSS--2^ hell-- 
copters for astronaut retrieval rather 
than the SA-I6. These helicopters were 
deployed with a Mercury program doctor 
aboard. NOTE: ETA of the ikrEagut at 
the spacecraft landing point was 03:19- 
and ETA of the Pierce (DD-I3) was 06: 3lj.. 
The Pierce was equipped to retrieve the 
spacecraft and the Farragut was prepared 
to stand by to provide emergency assis- 
tance If required. 

06: 5^ 01:58 The P2V search aircraft reported the flotation 

collar attached to the spacecraft and inflated. 

07:55 I 02:59 The astronaut was retrieved by an IKS -2 heli- 

copter (see figure 9-2-3) • The doctor reported 
condition of the astronaut as good. A second 
HSS-2 retrieved the pararescue team. 

08: 35 03: 39 The Pferragut arrived in the landing area and 

maintained visual contact with the spacecraft. 

09:10 04:li| The astronaut was delivered to Mercury medical 

personnel aboard the Intrepid for medical 
examination and debriefing. 

11:07 06:11 The Pierce recovered the spacecraft and secured 

it aboard. 

NOTE: A "shepherds crook" was used to attach a 
lifting-line to the spacecraft, which was then 
hoisted aboard. Photographs of the spacecraft 
prior to and during retrieval are shown in 
figures 9.2-4 and 9.2-5. 



COKFIDENTIAL 



CONTIDENTIAL 



Page 9-5 



Elapsed time" Elapsed time 
ftom jLauncti, from landing, 
lir:m,lh... ■ ■ ■ Hr:min 



Event 



25 May, I962 



15:35 



10:39 



The astronaut arrived at Grand Turk Island for 
further de"briefing. 



30:i^5 



25:^9 



The spacecraft arrived at Cape Canaveral. 
NOTE: The Fierce delivered the spacecraft to 
Roosevelt Roads, and it was then airlifted to 
Cape Canaveral. 



9.3 Recovery Aids 



All spacecraft recovery aids functioned normally, with the exception 
that there were no reports of SEASAVE HF/dF beacon reception. 

One search aircraft reported contact with the Super SARAH recovery 
beacon at a raxige of 250 nautical miles. Another search aircraft 
reported receiving the SARAH recovery beacon at a range of 50 nautical 
miles. Aircraft also reported establishing contact with the d/f mode 
of the UHF transceiver. 

The flashing light was reported to be functioning normally and was 
visible up to 6 miles. The dye marker was sighted by a search aircraft 
at a range of 15 nautical miles. 



CONFIDENTIAL 



CONFIDENTIAL 



Page 9-7 




CONFIDENTIAL 



CONFIDENTIAL 



Page 9-8 




CONFIDENTIAL 



CONFIDENTIAL 



Page 9-9 




CONFIDENTIAL 



CONFroENTIAL 



Page 9-10 

















L recovery 
md DATUMREP 






i 

! 


H 

o 


ii rt a. 

S r i o S 

5 'id < 
^ ■: m o 




1 

1 


/ 


L 

/ OT 

/ o 


^ / !^ 

/ / i 


if .-1 . 






^ / / 

A / 


^ i 


1 _j 






s 13>*C 




< ^. t— 

O- .■ 








1 ' ., 1 
/ 


"'■■'•>r 








• ^< 


/ f^., < 

/ C \ uj 
■ 2 \ ci; 





CONFroENTIAL 



CONFTOENTIAL 



Page 9-11 




CONFroENTIAL 



CONFIDENTIAL 



Page 9-12 




CONFIDENTIAL 



CONFroENTIAL 



Page 9-13 




CONFroENTIAL 



Page 9-14 

CONFIDENTIAL 




Figure 9.2-5.- Spacecraft being hoisted aboard recovery ship. 



CONFIDENTIAL 



COKFTDEMTIAl 



10.0 APVmDlXA Page 10-1 

10.1 Postf light Inspection 

Spacecraft number l8 underwent the normal postflight conditioning 
procedure. A photographic record was made of this process after the 
spacecraft was returned to Hangar S, Cape Canaveral. A thorough 
visual inspection was made of the^extemal and internal areas in the 
"as-received" condition (see figure 10.1-1). Switch and control 
positions were noted. The spacecraft was then taken to the pyrotechnic 
area for external disassembly and inspection^ and following this, it 
was transported to the power area for a postflight systems check. 

A de -salting wash-down, tank drainage , and flushing procedure, if 
applicable, was accomplished, and deterioration safeguards were taken 
in general. The immediate postflight inspection procedure included 
external disassembly of the heat shield and conical shingles in order 
to inspect the pressure bulkhead and internal skin areas. Samples of 
insulation were removed and stored for later analysis. The following 
paragraphs discuss individual spacecraft structural systems and the 
results of a detailed inspection. 

10.1.1 Structure . - The spacecraft experiencedx.no i. inflight damage. vThe 

conical-section shingles showed the usual bluish and orajige tinge, 
and the cylindrical-section shingles displayed the usual dark-yellow- 
gray appearance, both of which Were caused by aerodynamic heating. 
Several shingles were slightly dented and scratched, as in previous 
missions, presumably during recovery operations. 

10.1.2' Ablation shield .- The external surface of the heat shield had 

the normal, evenly charred, glass -streaked appearance, and some cir- 
cumferential separation of the edge laminations was evident. The 
ablation shield center plug was found to be missing, with evidence 
that the plug remained intact through the i^entry heat pulse, as in 
the MA-5 mission. A number of cracks similar to those experienced 
in some previous missions were found In the ablationiishield exterior j 
however, these cracks did not compromise mission safety. Considerable 
recovery-handling dents and cuts were noted. The weight loss of the 
heat shield during the reentry phase amounted to approximately thir- 
teen pounds.. A postflight photograph of the ablation shield Is 
shown in figure 10.1-2. 

10.1.3 Landing bag . - The landing ba;g had been damaged 

quite extensively, and all landing bag straps had been' broken, primarily 
because of sea action (see figure 10.1.3-1)' 

10.1. '4- Re covery compartment . - The interior of the compartment was 

undamaged, and the appearance, except for stains from the recovery 
dye marker, was normal. The butterfly antenna atop the spacecraft 
was bent somewhat during postflight handling, and the whip antenna 



COKFIDENTIAL 



CONFIDENTIAL 

Page 10-2 

had. been severed^ as in previous missions, as part of the standard 
recovery procedure. 

10.1.5 Main pressure bulkhead .- Small areas of honeycomb were crushed 
slightly, and some minor deformation of small tubing was noted. This 
minor damage was evidently due to deflection of the fiberglass pro- 
tective shield which tfas struck by the edge 6f the ablation shield 
during landing. The fiberglass protective shield was gouged in four 
places by heat-shield retaining studs- during l^diiig re -contact. The 
main pressure bulkhead was intact, except for a small leak noted 
below. 

10.1.6 Spacecraft interior .- Nearly the entire interior of the space- 
craft was wet from sea water which got into the cabin after landing. 
About four inches of water remained in the astronaut's couch and 
battery compartments' after draining of this sea water aboard ship. 
Some electrical connectors and internal spacecraft systems were 
heavily corroded; however, all systems responded well to postflight 
systems checks. The window was clear, although the usual moisture 
was present between the two outer panes. A postflight pressure -leak 
test yielded a leak rate of 26 TO cc/min (as compared to about 1000 
cc/min pref light) with an audible leak at the thermocouple -lead 
passage in the large pressure bulkhead. Some of the water found in 
the spacecraft at recovery undoubtedly came from this source. 



CX^NFIDENTIAL 



CONFIDENTIAL 



Page 10-3 



10.2 Launch Operations 

The spacecraft launch operations were planned ahout a 6lO-mlnute 
split countdown with a 17 1/3 hour built-in hold at T-390 minutes 
for spacecraft RCS fuel and pyrotechnic servicing. To provide addi- 
tional assurance that the projected launch time of 7:00 a.m., e.s.t., 
2k May I962 could he met, a 90-minute built-in hold wa.s scheduled 
at T-135 minutes. 

The second half of the split countdown was started at 11:00 p.m., 
e.s.t. on 23 May 1962. Launch occurred at 7:^5 a.m., e.s.t., on 
2k May 1962 after k^ minutes of unplanned holds. The following is a 
sequence of major events, including holds ^ which occurred in the 
countdown: 

T-390 min Start of second half of countdown. 

T-I35 inin Astronaut insertion. 

l-^k rain Spacecraft hatch closure started. 

T-Jk min Spacecraft hatch secured, shingle installation 
started. 

1}-6k min Spacecraft shingle installation complete. 
T-47 min Service tower (gantry) first motion. 
T-33 min Service tower stowed. 
T-32 min LOX pumping started. 

T-11 min 15 -minute hold for weather (launch ajrea smoke and 

ground fog). Hold extended for additional 15 minutes 
for weather. Hold extended for additional 10 minutes 
for evaluation of atmospheric -refraction data. Hold 
extended for additional 5 minutes to complete refracto- 
meter data evaluation. 



COEFIDEWTIAL 



CONFIDENTIAL 

Page 10 - ij- 

10.3 Weather Conditions 

Weather in the launch area was initially unsatisfactory for 
required camera coverage because of a ground fog and smoke condi- 
tion. By 7:30 a.m. -t^ ^ 'cbfadiiibrii ha:ftr.imp*ovecl- c6iiBiaferaJ>ly and 
at launch time were as follows: 

Sky cover - broken at 7OO feet 

Wind - 8 knots from 2k0 degrees (WSW) 

Visibili"y - 1 mile 

Temperature - 77°F 

Dewpoint - 73°F 

Relative humidity - 88 percent 

Although the ground visibility at lift-off was limited to one 
mile, the estimated camera coverage through 250,000 feet was pre- 
dicted to be good at the time of launch. The coverage actually 
obtained from varioijs supporting cameras is presented in Section 10. 7. 

A plot of the launch area wind direction and speed is shown in 
Figure 10.3-1 for altitudes up to 6o,000 feet. 

Weather and sea conditions in all Atlantic recovery areas were 
reported as satisfactory prior to launch. Weather and sea conditions 
in the planned landing area at the end of the third orbital pass are 
given below. These were reported by the destroyer, John R. Pierce, 
at noon, \^.^j.tii, on my, 2k, '1^2 

Cloud cover - i;/l0 (scattered at 1000 feet) 

Wind - 11 knots from O96 degrees (easterly) 

Visibility - 10 miles 

Air tempe!rature - 8h°F 

Wet bulb temperature - 79°F (dewpoint) 

Water temperature (insertion) - 77°F 

Wave height - 3 feet 



COHFIDEKTIAL 



CONFIDENTIAL ^ n ^ . 

Page 10 ,-■ 5 

The destroyer, USS Farragut, standing by the spacecraft at 
:50 p.m. J e.s.t., reported the following weather and sea conditions: 

Wet bulb temperatiire - T5°F 

Air temperature - 8o°F 

Wave height - 2 to 3 feet 



CONFIDENTIAL 



Page 10-6 



CONFIDENTIAL 



10, h Spacecraft History 



Spacecraft nuoiber l8 arrived at Hangar Cape Canaveral, Florida, 
on November 1, 196I. The preparation period in the hangar consisted of 
the standard work periods, system checkouts, and configuration changes. 
Actual work days in the hangar totaled 100 days, of which kO days were 
spent on tests. The number of Mission Preparation Sheets (items re- 
quiring work) and Discrepancy Reports (unsatisfactory items) were 5^5 
and 560, respectively, and are typical. The spacecraft was transported 
to the launch site on April 28, I962. A brief history of the space- 
craft is graphically presented in Figure 10.i4--l. 



Major spacecraft changes and modifications prior to launch are 
chronologically listed below. 



Spacecraft Modification Completion Date 

The heat shield was X-rayed, and the center-plug 

dowels were determined to be acceptable. Dec 7, I96I 

The auxiliary battery for the maximum-altitude 

sensor was added. Dec 9, I96I 

Gyros with a silicone -base lubricant were in- 
stalled. Dec li^, 1961 

The cabin far. inlet duct was equipped with 

screens to prevent possible cabin fan fouling 

by foreign material. Dec I8, 196I 

The check valve was removed from the cold-plate 

water system. Dec 20, I961 

The oxygen partial -pressure indicator was 

deleted. Jan 10, I962 

The suit-comjiressor check valves were positively 

oriented and had springs to assist their closing. Jan 11, I962 

The semi-automatic blood pressure measuring 

system, which included the fill and dump solenoids, 

was added. Jan 24, 1962 

The velocity sensor was reset from cap-sep +5 

second to caji-sep +5 minutes, Jan 25, I962 



CONFIDENTIAL 



COKFIDEKTIAL 



Page 10 - T 



Spacecraft Modification Gomple^ 



10. The suit-circuit constant bleed orifice was 

removed. Jan 31^ 19^2 

11. The C-hand beacon did not respond during the 
Service Engineering Department Report (SEDR) 
195 interrogation, a communication system 

radiation test, and was returned to the vendor. Feb 13, 19^2 

12. The cabin relative -humidity indicator was 

removed. Feb ll^, I962 

13. The coolant quantity indicator was deleted. Feb ih, I962 

14. The Sofar bombs and radar chaff were deleted 

from the spacecraft. Feb II+, I962 

15. The oxygen partial-pressure transducer was re- 
moved from the suit circuit and located in the 

cabin. Mar 2, I962 

16. The landing bag limit switches were rewired 

for improved reliability of the system. Mar 3, I962 

17. The l/*4-g relay circuitry was changed to pre- 
vent drop-out of this relay during posigrade 

ignition. Mar 6, I962 

18. The oxygen-flow sensor las disabled. Mar ik, I962 

19. The low -frequency telemetry center frequency 

was raised 500 kc. ' Mar 30, I962 

20. A maneuver switch was installed that removed 
roll and yaw slaving of gyros and pitch orbital 
precession. Apr 2, 1962 

21. The hand-controller fly-by-wire switch rod 
was changed to incorporate a step to prevent 

travel from going over-center. Apr 7, 1962 

22. The instr\jment panel camera was deleted. Apr 9, 19^2 

23. A dual indicator was installed for the suit 

and cabin steam-vent temperatures. Apr 12, I962 



COMTIDENTIAL 



Pa^e 10 - 8 



CONFIDENTIAL 



Spacecraft Modification Completion Date 



24. 


All one-pouad thrusters had the Dutch weave 
screens removed and four platinum screens added 
plus a distribution plate. The six-pound 
thrusters had the screens added. 


Apr 18, 1962 


25. 


A 30-inch balloon was installed for obtaining 
visual acuity effects and aerodynamic drag 
measurements . 


Apr 19. 


, 1962 


26. 


A separately-commutated temperature siirvey was 
installed using thermocouples and resistance 
elements . 


Apr 20, 


, 1962 


27. 


The oxygen emergency-rate valve and system 
shut-off valve were hard link connected. 


May 3; 


, 1962 


28. 


Zero-gravity experimental apparatus was in- 
stalled in the position formerly occupied by the 
instrument -panel camera. 


May k, 


1962 


29. 


The yaw mam;£i.l;-proportional valve was replaced 
at the launch site after a simulated launch, 
since tests had revealed poor centering from 
left-yaw position. 


May 11, 


1962 


30. 


A third barostat was installed in the cabin 
and wired into the parachute circuitry to pre- 
vent automatic -system deployment of the drogue 
and main parachutes at altitudes above 11,000 
feet. 


May 19, 


1962 


The spacecraft spent 26 days aboard Atlas I07-D at the launch 
site. The following specific activities were accomplished during 
this time: 


No. 


Activity 


Comroletion Date 


1. 


Mechanical mate 


Apr 28, 


1962 


2. 


Simulated flight #1 (system) 


Apr 30, 


1962 


3. 


Electrical mite and aborts 


May k, 


1962 


h. 


Special hydrogen peroxide tests 


May h, 


1962 



CONFIDENTIAL 



CONFIDENTIAL 



Page 10-9 



No. 


Activity 


Completion Date 


5. 


Simulated flight #2 (joint FACT) 


May 5 J 


1962 


6. 


Flight configuration and ahorts 


May 8, 


1962 


7. 


Launch simulation 


May 10, 


1962 


8. 


Simulated flight #3 


May 15, 


1962 


9. 


Simulated flight #3 


May 18, 


1962 


10. 


Launch 


May 2k, 


1962 



CONFIDENTIAL 



COIfflDENTIAL 

Page 10 - 10 

10.6 Telemetry, Instrumentation, and Onboard Film 

The MA-7 instrumentation system derived information from differ- 
ent locations in the spacecraft and recorded this information on the 
onboard tape recorder. Much of the information received was trans- 
mitted from the spacecraft through two telemetry transmitters. The 
pilot-observer camera, mounted on the instrument panel, took pictures 
of the astronaut and a zero-gravity experiment at different frame 
speeds throughout the mission. 

10.6.1 Systems description .- The instrumentation system flown in MA-T 

was essentially the same as that of MA -6, although some changes were 
made to incorporate new experiments and generate additional data. 
The research experiments added were the zero gravity experiment and 
the balloon experiment; and a more complete temperature survey was 
incorporated. 

The zero gravity experiment employed the pilot -observer camera, 
which took". pictures of a transparent sphere containing liquid. The 
balloon experiment used a thirty-inch mylar balloon which was deployed 
in orbit, and the tension exerted on a strain gage was measured. The 
output modulated a strain gage oscillator (SGO), which was recorded on 
the onboard tape recorder. The temperature survey used a solid-state 
low-level commutator, thermocouples, resistance elements, thermistors 
and an existing channel of the onboard tape recorder. 

Deletions i.n the spacecraft instrumentation system were the 
coolant quanltlty indicator, partial -pressure indicator, telemetry 
high- and low-f rsquency transmitter temperatures, the backup heat 
shield temperatures (pickup numbers 3 and h) , and the instrument- 
panel camera. Cross strapping of the X- and Y-axis accelerations 
and the command receiver signal strengths were also deleted. In 
place of the telemetry transmitter temperatures and heat shield temp- 
eratures were the "B" nut temperatures on the clockwise and counter- 
clockwise, automatic and manual,: roll thrusters. Backup segments for 
the command-receiver signal strengths and the four thruster "B" nut 
temperatures wers incorporated with the removal of the cross strapping, 
which also enabled the separation of the horizon -scanner pitch and 
roll ignore by placing them on separate segments. Four segments were 
then left unassigned; one was used as a three -volt reference and the 
other three were zero references. 

Other chang2S to spacecraft l8 are listed as follows: 

1. g^)t : and . cab in steam-vent ■ temperature pickups "w^re installed 
in the steam-yet-Lt overboard ducts, .apd mcnitcred on a dual .indicator . 



OONFIDEHTIAL 



CONFIEEKTIAL 



Page 10 - 11 



2. A modified integrating accelerometer was installed which re- 
duced the 2^4-0 feet per second relay to 210 feet per second. 

3. A semi-automatic hlood pressure measuring system was installed. 
A manual start "button was installed on the instrument panel. 

k. The oxygen partial -pressure transducer was relocated from the 
suit circuit to the cahin. 

5. The suit pressure indicator was calibrated from four to six 
psia only. 

6. The low-frequency-transmitter center frequency was raised 
500 Kc to eliminate KF interference experienced during the MA-6 
flight. 

10.6.2 Pre launch . - The pilot -oh server camera was found to have low clutch 
tension and was replaced. The oxygen partial-pressure transducer began 
to rise in output the day before the first scheduled laxinch. This indi- 
cated a drying out of the transducer. A decision was made to remove 
only the transducer and make calibrations using another set of amplifiers. 
The calibration curve did not follow the same curve as the previous cali- 
bration and a decision was made not to rely on the information received. 
All telemetry during prelaunch testing was working correctly. 

10.6.3 Launch . - During a period of approximately 20 seconds^ starting at 
T+90 sees, extraneous signals appearing at the EGG electrodes drove the 
subcarrier oscillators (SCO) from bandedge to bandedge. These large 
fluctuations were caused by the astronaut's high body movements. 

At lift-off, the telemetry signals were of good quality, with sig- 
nalr. strengths of 8,000 microvolts for the low-link and 10,000 microvolts 
for the high-link. At tower release, the signal strengths went from 
500 microvolts to TOO microvolts on both links. At staging, a loss of 
signal for one second was evident; this is normal and is caused by flame 
attenuation. At launch, the transmitter frequencies were -6.0 Kc from 
the center frequency for the low-link and -5.0 Kc from the center fre- 
quency for the high-link. On the first orbital pass, the high-link was 
+7.0 Kc from the center frequency, and no reading was made on the low- 
link. Center frequency readings were not made on the telemetry links 
during the second and third passes . Both telemetry links were modulated 
&or a total of 60 Kc deviation throughout the MA-7 mission. 

10.6.ij- Orbit . - While in orbit, the astronaut reported the zero-gravity 

experiment as having, quote: "Fluid gathered around the standpipe. 
The standpipe appears to be full and the fluid outside the standpipe 
is about halfway up," Postf light photographs from the pilot-observer 
camera confirmed this. The mylar balloon was deployed in orbit, but 
the test was unsuccessful from an overall standpoint. The reader is re- 
ferred to the scientific experiment section for a more detailed discussion. 



COKFIDEUTIAL 



Page 10 - 12 



CONFIDENTIAL 



The temperature survey worked well throughout the flight; however, 
the low clockwise automatic thruster (segtaent 25) gave no temperature 
reading J indicating a broken thermocouple. 

During the orbital phase, the astronaut's temperature rose to 
102°F. E-Cal of this pickup reads approximately the same. Records 
show that one hour after launch, the astronaut's temperature began 
to rise. The temperature leveled off ten minutes later at 102OF. 
Thirty minutes later, an R-Cal was given with no change in body- 
temperature readout. Analysis of the data shows definitely that the 
body-temperature readout of 102"^? was not reliable and it is believed 
that the instrumentation was reading the R-Cal resistor through a 
faulty R-Cal relay on the body temperature amplifier. 

The blood-pressure measuring system pressurized when the astro- 
naut actuated the start button, but twice during flight it did not 
show any pulses during bleed -down time. A postf light system check 
Indicated an intermittently operating microdot cable. 

The astronaut reported that the rate indicator moved during 
Z-Cal. This movement is normal, since the Z-Cal changes the load on 
the transducer. 

The oxygen partial -pressure transducer appeared to operate 
normally during flight; however, post -calibration of the system was 
not possible because of the condition of the transducer. 

10.6.5 Reentry . - The manual fuel Indicator read Gjo during reentry, but 
the astronaut re;oorted no more fuel was available. This condition 
can exist because the transducer reads pressure whether or not fuel 
is present. 

After black-out, telemetry signals were received by Cape Canaveral 
and aircraft. The low-frequency transmitter signal had dropouts and 
was weak. Because of the corrosion of the transmitters from the salt 
water, a postf li,ght check of the transmitters' signal quality would 
not be informative. The spacecraft's excessive landing range caused 
the telemetry sL^nal received by the aircraft to be of poor quality. 

10.6.6 Sijmmary . - The pilot-observer film quality from MA-7 vas poor 
because of its submersion in both salt and fresh water, making it 
impossible for an effective developing process. The film was 
sufficient, however, to confirm theoretical estimates of the liquid 
behavior in the zero-g experiment. The onboard tape and the astro- 
naut's hand -held camera film provided excellent flight data. The 
instrimentation iaxid data system provided satisfactory performance 
for the mission. 



CONFIDENTIAL 



COHFIDEjWIAL 



Page 10 - 13 



10.7 Atlantic Missile Range Support and Data Coverage 

General . - The support provided by the Atlantic Missile Range (AMR) 
was adequate to obtain satisfactory data coverage for the mission. The 
part of the discussion which follows pertaining to telemetry and radar 
coverage includes only items not covered in Flight Control and Network 
Performance (Section 8.0). These items are committed by AMR, but are 
not available at MCC for real-time flight-control monitoring. Cover- 
age figures are based on AMR's preliminary estimate of data coverage. 

10.7.1 Telemetry . - Telemetry aircraft positioned in the third-orbital- 
pass landing area obtained telemetry signals from the spacecraft 
following ionization blackout for a six-minute period (0^:^9:10 to 
Ok:^^:ll) . The received signal was weak, causing numerous dropouts of 
the decommutator when played back from the tape; however, there were 
several periods of useable data from the commutated channels, AMR sta- 
tions 12 (Ascension) and I3 (Pretoria) made telemetry contact with the 
spacecraft on the third orbit pass from local horizon-to-horizon. Sig- 
nal-strength records from these two stations are not presently available, 
but they will be examined for consideration of use of these facilities 
(especially Pretoria) for future missions. 

10.7.2 Radar . - The Patrick AFB FPS-I6 (committed for launch only) obtained 
track of the spacecraft C-band beacon during the launch phase from 
00:00:20 to 00:05:25. Mod II radars at Grand Bahama Island (GBI) ac- 
quired track of the spacecraft S-band beacon during a portion of the 
ionization blackout period from Ok-:kh:36 to Oh:k6:13. The Mod II's 

at Grand Turk Island (GTI) did not acquire. The FPS-I6 at Ascension 
acquired and tracked for a five-minute period during the third orbital 
pass. The MPS-25 at Pretoria also observed the spacecraft for approxi- 
mately one minute during the third pass. The AZUSA MK II ground sta- 
tion at Cape Canaveral obtained track of the launch vehicle transponder 
from 00:00:39 to 00:06:3^. 

10. 7.3 Optics . - AMR optical coverage, including quantity of instrumenta- 
tion committed and data obtained during launch and reentry phases, is 
shown in table 10. 7-1. AMR optical tracking from lift-off or first 
acquisition to limits of visibility is shown in figure 10. 7. 3-1. The 
coverage times shown as bars in this figure represent the duration from 
when either the spacecraft, launch vehicle, or the exhaust flame was 
first visible until all three were out of sight. As is evident from 
the figure, optimal camera coverage is in the region near maximum dyna- 
mic pressure, and adequate data would have been available had a failure 
not occurred at this time. Optical data obtained at other times is 
considered marginal. At lower attitudes;, coverage was primarily limited 
by ground fog and haze and, at higher altitudes, both ground haze and 
image reduction due to slant range affected optical tracking capability. 
Since the quality of data required for an engineering evaluation has 



CONFIDENTIAL 



Page 10 - Ik 



CONFIDENTIAL 



never been defined, it cannot be stated whether all coverage repre- 
sented in the flgui'e, and defined above, is completely adequate. 

Metric film: Metric films were processed, and the results were 
tabulated by AMR, but these data were not required for evaluation by 
MSG, since the powered flight phase was normal. 

Engineering sequential film: Engineering sequential coverage at 
AMR Station 1 during the launch phase was generally satisfactory. 
This statement is qualified by the fact that a detailed film analysis 
was not required as. a result of normal mission sequence from liftoff. 
The quality of fixed and tracking camera coverage was very poor be- 
cause of fog and gi'ound haze conditions. Twelve films were reviewed, 
including l6mm and 35fflm films from three fixed cameras and niae track- 
ing cameras. The quality of fixed camera coverage with respect to 
exposure and focus was generally good, with the exception of one under- 
exposed film. LOX boiloff , umbilical ejection, periscope retraction 
and umbilical-door closure, booster ignition, and lift-off appeared 
to be normal. The quality of tracking camera coverage with respect to 
exposure, focus, and tracking was generally good, with the exception 
of one underexposed and one overexposed film. Four tracking cameras 
indicated normal booster staging and two tracking cameras indicated 
normal tower separation. 

Documentary fi-lm: Documentary coverage of the mission provided 
by available motion picture films was very good in quality but limited 
in quantity, particularly in the recovery area. Four motion picture 
films were available for review. Two of these films presented a por- 
tion of the prelaunch activities, including astronaut preparation at 
Hangar S, transfer to the launch site, and portions of the operational 
activity at the Mercury Control Center and the blockhouse. One of the 
above films also presented a portion of the recovery operation, in- 
cluding helicopter pickup of the astronaut and transfer to the recovery 
aircraft carrier. The two remaining motion picture films included 
views of the astronaut arriving onboard the carrier, suit removal 
and physical examination, and arrival of the astronaut and debriefing 
personnel at Grand Turk Island. Documentary coverage of the mission 
with respect to still photographs available for review exceeded that 
of motion picture films. These photographs were excellent both in i ' 
quality and quantity, particularly in the recovery area. Still picture 
coverage during and after the recovery operation included views of the 
astronaut and pararescue personnel in the water prior to helicopter 
pickup, pickup of the astronaut and transfer to the recovery aircraft 
carrier, spacecraft retrieval from the water by the recovery destroyer, 
loading of the spacecraft onboard the aircraft for transportation to 
Cape Canaveral, and close-up views of the spacecraft after recovery. 
Numerous engineering still photographs were also available showing close- 
up views of the spacecraft during the usual postflight Inspection at 
Cape Canaveral. 



CONFIDENTIAL 



Page 10 - 15 




EH 



Page 10 - 16 



COnriDEKTIAL 



10.8 Flight Safety Reviews 

A series of flight safety review meetings were held prior to 
the MA.-7 flight. The purpose of these meetings is to firmly establish 
the flight worthiness of the spacecraft and the launch vehicle. In 
addition, mission review meetings were conducted to ascertain readi- 
ness of all supixjrting elements of the mission. These meetings are 
discussed briefly in the paragraphs below. 

IO'8'I Spacecraft . - The review meeting for spacecraft I8 was held at 

h',00 p.m. on May ik, I962. The history of the spacecraft after 
arrival at Hangar S and the current status of all the systems were 
reviewed. The spacecraft was approved as ready for flight, pending 
satisfactory completion of the final Simulated Flight Test to be 
conducted on May 15, I962. The Simulated Plight Test was satisfac- 
tory, and the spacecraft was committed as ready for flight. 

10.8.2 Launch vehi cle . - Three meetings were held to specifically review 

the status of the Atlas 107 -D, the MA-7 launch vehicle, and generally 
the results of previous Atlas flights. The first was held at 9:00 a.m. 
on May 16, I962, at which time the history of the launch vehicle after 
arrival at Cape Canaveral and ciirrent status of the systems were re- 
viewed. The missile was approved as ready for flight, pending a test 
of the telemetry system, which was scheduled to be and was successfully 
completed on May 17, I962. 

The second review meeting was held at 1:30 p.m. on May 16, I962 
to brief NASA-MSC management on all an6aialifi4,,.Jt33ai;ti, 

Atlas R&D and operational flight program since MA -6. The attempted" 
launches and resiilting failures of Atlas vehicles 11 -F and 1-F were 
discussed in this meeting. 

The third meeting was held on May I8, I962, at 2:00 p.m. to 
discuss the latest information on the Atlas vehicles 11 -F and 1-F 
incidents. It was agreed that the information available at the time 
of the meeting would not affect the MA-7 launch vehicle flight-readi- 
ness status, but that intensive investigation would continue and be 
reported upon at the T-1 day Flight Safety Review Board meeting. 

Mission . - Two mission review meetings were held because of a 
one-week slippage in the launch date. The first was held at 10:00 a.m. 
on May I6, I962, and all elements for the flight were found to be in 
readiness. After the review meeting, a decision was made to install 
an additional barostat in the spacecraft parachute circuitry and to 
replace faulty booster flight-control canisters, resulting in a 
slippage in the launch schedule. 



COKFIDENTIAL 



CONFIDENTIAL 



Page 10 - IT 



A second mission review meeting was held at 3:00 p.m. on 
May 22j 1962^ during which the spacecraft j launch vehicle, and all 
support systems were found to be ready for the MA-T mission. 

The T-1 day Flight Safety Review Board met at 9:30 a.m. on 
May 23, I962, and this board was advised that the Status Review 
Board had met at 8:30 a.m. that morning and found the launch vehicle 
and spacecraft ready for flight. Additional information on the Atlas 
11 -F and 1-F flight failures indicated that the differences between 
the E- and F-series and the Mercury D-series start sequences were 
significant enoiigh to eliminate doubt in the perfoimance of the MA-T 
launch vehicle. 



CONFIDEHTIAL 



CONFIDEUTIAL 

Page 10 - 18 

10.9 Test Objectives 

To evaluate the performance of the MA.-7/18 manspacecraft system 
in a three-pass orhital mission. 

To evaluate the effects of orhital space flight on another astro- 
naut and to compare this analysis with previous astronaut/simulator 
program results . 

To ohtain the astronaut's opinions on the operational suitahility 
of the spacecraft and supporting systems for manned space flight. 

To evaluate the performance of spacecraft systems replaced or 
modified as a result of the MA-6/13 manned orhital mission. 



CONFIDENTIAL 




CONFroENTIAL 



CONFIDENTIAL 



Page 10-20 




CONFIDENTIAL 



CONFroENTIAL 



Page 10-21 





CONFroENTIAL 



CONFIDENTIAL 



Page 10-22 




CONFroENTIAL 



Page 10-23 




CONFroENTIAL 



Page 10-24 

CONFIDENTIAL 




rONFmENTIAT. 



COIIFIDEIJTIAL 

APPMDIXB Page 11 

11.0 ACKKOWLEDGEMEUT 

The Flight Evaluation Team for the MA -7 flight, upon whose 
analysis this report is based, was composed as follows: 



3.0 LIFT-OFF COKFIGUEATION DESCRIPTION 

3.1 Spacecraft 

H. C, Shoaf 

3.2 Laxmch Vehicle Description 

D. E. Phillips 
4.0 EVENTS, TKAJECTORY, AND GUIDANCE 

C. R. Hicks 

D. Insert o 

J. D. O'Laughlin 
K. Osgood 

I. E. Hawkins 

5.0 SPACECRAFT PERFORMANCE 

5.1 Spacecraft Control System 

G. T. Sasseen 
J. C. Cerven 
F. T. Williams 
W . Karakulko 
P. P, Horsman 
V. M. Mitchell 

5.2 Environmental Control System 

F. Saraonski 
D. F. Hughes 

H. J. McMaim 

5.3 Spacecraft Camiiuni cations 

¥. R. Stelges 

5.4 Electrical and Sequential System 

T. N. Williams 



CONFIDENTIAL 



Page 11-2 



COMPIDENTI/VL 



5.5 Mectianical and Rocket Systems 

S. T. Beddingfield 
J. Janokaitis, Jr. 

5.6 Reentry Heating 

0. Kosfeld 

5.7 Scientific Experiments 

W. 0. Armstrong 

J. ¥. Conlon 

Dr. J. A. O'Keefe 

6.0 LAUNCH VEHICLE PERFORMAlirCE 

D. E. Phillips 

7.0 PILOT ACTIVITIES 

7.1 Pilot's Impressions of the Plight 

H. I. Johnson 
Dr. R. E. Dunham 

7.2 Flight Activities 

H. A. Kuehnel 
J. J. Van Bockel 
R. Mercer 
Dr. J. A. O'Keefe 

7.3 Aercmedical Studies 

Dr., H. Minners 
Dr, E. McCutcheon 
Dr. F. Kelly 
Dr, D. P. Morris 
R. M, Rapp 

8.0 FLigHT COMTROL AUD UMWORK PERFORMANCE 

C. C. Kraft 

H. C. Kyle 

T. Roherts 

J. D. Hodge 

V. M. Dauphin 

E. F. Kreaitz 



CONFIDENTIAL 



CONFIDENTIAL 

Page 11 - 3 

9.0 RECOVERY 

R. F. Thompson 
W. Hayes 

10.0 APPENDIX 

10.1 Post flight Inspection 

H. C. Shoaf 

¥. E. Mosely 

K. B. Stoine 

A. M. Garza 

D. F. -Whiting 

10.2 Launch Operations 

D. E. Phillips 

10.3 Weather Conditions 

M. McCullough 
10, k Spacecraft History 
H. C. Shoaf 

10.6 Telemetry, Instrumentation, and Onhoard Film 

H. Ness 

10.7 AMR Optical Coverage 

G. W, Knight 
F. B, Blanton 

10.8 Flight Safety Reviews 

K. B. Vaughn 

NOTE: Acknowledgement and gratitude is extended to the many typists, 
artists, and clerical help who assisted so admirably in the 
publication of this report. 



CONFIDENTIAL 



COHFIDEIITIAL 



Page 12 - 



APEEHDIX C 

12.0 MA-7 AIR-GROUED VOICE COMMUNICATIONS 

12 , 1 Introduction 

The table that follows is a verbatim transcript of the MA-7 
flight commiinications taken from the spacecraft onboard tape re- 
cording. This is, therefore, a complete transcription of the 
coinmunications received and transmitted, as well as some inflight 
conments made while in a record-only mode, by the pilot, Scott 
Carpenter . 

In the table, column one is the ground elapsed time (GET) 
from lift-off in hours, minutes, and seconds when the communique 
was initiated. Column two identifies the communicator, as 
follows : 

CC -^ -Capsule (spacecraft) Communicator at the 
range station 

CT - Communications Technician at the range station 

F - Flight Director at Bermuda range station 

S - Surgeon or Medical Monitor at the range station 

Stony - Blockhouse Communicator 

All temperatures are given as °Fj all pressures are in pounds 
per square inch, absolute (psia); fuel, oxygen, and coolant quan- 
tities are expressed in remaining percent of total nominal capacities; 
retrosequence times are expressed in GET (hours, minutes, and seconds) 

Within the text, a series of three dashes are used to designate 
times when communiques could not be deciphered. One dash indicates a 
time pause during a communique. The station in prime contact with the 
astronaut is designated at the initiation of communications . Also, in 
the top right hand corner of each page, the station or stations in 
contact and the orbital pass number are designated. 



CONFIDENTIAL 



COKPIDEBTIAL 

Pagen2 - 2 

32.2 Contents of Communication Transcript 

PAGE MOMEERS 



liOGATIOH OBBIT #1 OKBIT #2 ORBIT #3 



Cape Canaveral 


12 - 


3 


12 




29 


12 




58 


Bennuda 






12 




31 








Canary 


12 - 


"8 


12 




33 


12 




6l 


Kano 


12 - 


10 


12 




35 


12 




63 


Zanzibar 






12 




37 








Indian Ocean Ship 


12 - 


12 


12 




38 


12 




6k 


Jftichea 


12 - 


Ik 


12 




kl 


12 




68 


Woomera 


12 - 


18 


12 




k6 


12 




71 


Canton 


12 - 


22 


12 




k8 








Havaii 


12 - 


2k 


12 




51 


12 




73 


California 






12 




53 


12 




76 


Guaymas 


12 - 


26 


12 




56 








Cape Canaveral 












12 




79 



COHFIDEHTIAL 



FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY 



Page 32 - 3 
CN7-1 



00 


00 


01 


P 


00 


00 


04 


CC 


00 


00 


06 


P 


00 


00 






00 


00 


11 


P 


00 


00 


12,5 


P 


00 


00 


16.5 


CC 


00 


00 


21 


P 


00 


00 


24.5 


CC 


00 00 






00 


00 


46 


CC 


00 


00 


47 


P 


00 


00 


50.5 


CC 


00 


00 


59.5 


P 


00 


01 


10.5 


CC 


00 


01 


13 


p 


00 


01 


22.5 


CC 


00 


01 


26.5 


p 



12.3 Transcript 
CAPE CANAVERAL 

5,4,3,2,1,0. 

I feel the lift-off, the clock has started. 
(Cape Canaveral) Roger. 
Loud and clear, Gus . 

Roger, Aurora 7, stand by for - the time hack. 
Roger . 

Little bit of shakings pretty smooth. 
3,2,1, Jferk. 

Roger, the backup clock has started, 
Roger, Aurora 7 . 

Clear blue sky. 32 seconds, 9,000, fuel and oxygen 
steady, cabin pressure 15 1 and dropping. A little 
rough through max q, and one minute. 

Roger, you're looking good from here. 

Okay, 25 amps and the power is good. 

Roger, you're looking good. 

Mark, one minute. Cabin pressure is on schedule, fuel 
and oxygen are steady, 24 amps, all the power is good. 

Roger, pitch is 56, you look - 

Roger, my pitch looks good, it's smoothing dowa a little 
bit now. I feel the pitch program starting over. 

Roger . 

The sky is getting quite black at 1 30 - elapsed. Fuel and 
oxygen is steady, cabin pressure is leveling off at 6 2, 
22 amps and the power is still good, one cps sway in yaw. 

FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY 



Page 32 - k 



CNV-1 




FOR 0PFICIA.L USE OHET 


00 01 kk 


cc 


Pniy^T* tmH^T"C+Jin^l P^+nVi a vrw^ Y^Aol irrf\j-\A 
AVJf^KSx f tUiU^^ b IfOXiU. * ITj. uCU Id Jij JfOU XOOl^ FcoU. gOOQ.* 


00 01 59 


oc 




00 02 08.5 


p 


Rog€x* * ^Hh&TQ 1,3 ££C0 on "tii&s ^ &nd. — 


00 02 lli-.5 


cc 


Ah> Roger, uncLerstaud. BECO« 


00 02 16 


p 


PofiT^T* T *Pf*n "t* Q'f'flcr*! ■ncr Tin Vrf^n /»rMTP4-mii^ 
XV^-^gC-L ;i J. X CU. 0 0 (#a.|^Xxig • JJO jT Ou COuX XX lu { 


00 02 19 


cc 


Staging? 


00 02 20 


p 


Do you confirm staging? 


00 02 22 


cc 


Aurora 7, we confirm staging. 


00 02 2h 


p 


Roger J g peaked at 6.3. 


00 02 32 


p 


!15ie tover is way out. It's gone, the light is green- 
Going over the BECO check now. 


00 02 kl.^ 


cc 


Roger, Aurora 7* 


00 02 49 


p 


BECO check is complete. 


00 02 54.5 


cc 


Roger, understand, cooiplete. Is that correct? 


00 02 57.5 


p 


OJiat is Roger. 


00 03 01.5 


p 


At three minutes. Fuel and oxygen are still steady, 
cabin is holding 5 8^ power still looks good, my 
status is good. 


00 03 Ik 


cc 


Roger, pitch minus, minus 2-1/2, and you're rigfht 
on, you're good. 


00 03 19 


p 


Roger, reading you loud and clear, Gus. 


00 03 29 


cc 


Aurora 7, , you are good. 


00 03 33.5 


p 


Roger, still reading you, broken a little bit. At 
30, my status is good, fuel and oxygen are steady. 
Cabin is holding 5 8, cabin is holding 5 8, power 
is good, 25 anps. 


00 03 47.5 


cc 


Roger. 



FOR OFFICIAL USE OHLT 



FOE OFFICIAL USE ONLI 



Pag«32 - 5 

CHV-1 



00 ok 


01 


p 


00 Oi^ 


12 


cc 


00 ok 


15.5 


p 


00 oil- 


19 


cc 


00 ok 


30 


p 


00 Oit 


k2 


cc 


00 ok 


k6 


p 


00 05 


09 


p 


00 05 


25-5 


cc 


00 05 


27 


p 


00 05 


32 


cc 


00 05 


36 


p 


00 05 


38.5 


cc 


00 05 


52 


p 


00 o6 


07.5 


cc 


00 o6 


09.5 


p 


00 06 


17 


cc 


00 06 


38 


p 



Four minutes J Aurora 7 Is go o Pael and oxygen 
steady, caMn holding^ 25 amps, power is good. 

Roger J A-arora 7. PitcJa minus 3-l/2, you're good. 

Roger, reading you on Bermuda antennas now, much 
louder. 



k plus 30 my cloek^ fuel and oxygen steady, 3-1/2 
g's. CaMn holding 5 8, 25 amps power is good. 

Roger, Aurora 7^ you're througji «8, V/VR of 08. 

Roger, »8, 

Okay, there is BECO, the posigrades fired. I am 
weightless and starting the fly-"by-wire turn- 
around = Aux Damp is good. 

Roger, You look good down here. 

Periscope is out^ - and 

We have a go, with a 7-or'bit capaliility. 

Roger, Sweet words « 

Roger. 

Okay, turnaround has stopped. I'm pitching down. 
I have the moon in the center of the window, and 
the booster off to the right slightly. 

Roger, understand » 

Fly-by-wire is good in all axes, my pitch attitude 
is high, coming down now. 

Roger, understand. 

Roger. The control system on fly -by -wire is very 
good. I have the booster in the center of the 
window now, tiimbling very slowly. 



FOR OFFICIAL WE OMS 



Page 32 - 6 
CNV-1 



FOR OFFICIAL USE GHET 



00 06 50.5 


cc 


Roger, Aurora 7, understand. You sound real good. 


00 06 59*5 


p 


It's very quiet. 


00 07 oil-. 5 


p 


A steady stream of gas, vblte gas, out of the sus- 
tai:aer engine. Going to ASGS, now. 


00 07 15 


cc 


Roger . Understand „ 


00 07 17 


p 


ASCS seems to be holding very well. I have a small 
island just below me. 


00 07 26.5 


cc 


Aurora 7, standby for retrosequence times. 


00 07 29.5 


p 


StandiLng by. 


00 07 31.5 


cc 


Area 1 B Is 17 17 • 


00 07 38.5 


p 


17 17 Roger. 


00 07 *n.5 


cc 


Roger, standby for later times. That's all I have 
riglit now. 


00 07 50 


cc 


Roger,, sequence time for end of orbit. 


00 07 53.5 


p 


Send itour message. 


00 07 55 


cc 


Aurora 7? retrosequence time for end of orbit 

28 260 


00 08 00 


p 


01 28 26, Roger. 


00 08 oh 


cc 


End of mission, O^i- 32 39. 


00 08 09 


p 


Oli- 32 29, Roger. 


00 08 12 


cc 


Negative Ok 3, 0I+ 32 39= 


00 08 17,5 


p 


Roger; understand^ OU 32 39. 


00 08 21 


cc 


Roger c 


00 08 22.5 


p 


Roger; I have copied. 


00 08 27 


p 


ASGS looks good, all fly-by-wlre thrusters appear 



to be good in all axes. Going to - beginning to 
unstow the equipment, 

FOR OFFICIAL USE OHLY 



Page:i2 - 7 

FOK OFFICIAL Xm OHLY CWf-1 



00 08 1^1 


cc 


Atirora 7, 


00 08 1^3 


p 


Roger, and the SECO checklist is complete. She 
peaked at 6 =.3. 


00 08 51.5 


cc 


Cap Com. Over. 


00 08 53.5 


p 


Go ahead^ (Mis. Lo-ad and clear 0 How me? 


00 09 01.5 


cc 


Aurora 7, Cap Gomo 


00 09 03 


p 


Roger p loud and clear « Ho-w me? 


00 09 07 


cc 


Aurora 7i Cape Cap CoiHo Overo 


00 09 16 


cc 


Aurora 7? Cape Cap Com. 0ver» 


00 09 18.5 


p 


Loud and clear,, Gus. How me? 


00 09 25 


cc 


Aurora 7^ Cape Cap Comj if you read^ retro delay- 
to Qomsal? 


00 09 29 


p 


Retro delay normal^ Roger, 


00 09 32 


cc 


— igee 8 6= 


00 09 3*^.5 


p 


Roger ^ copied perigee 8 6^ did not get apogee 0 



00 09 5''-' 5 P Markj, one picture of the booster c Going to trans- 

mit and record now„ 2^ 3, 5, 6^ - 10, II3 12 
pictures of the booster^ traveling right down the 
center of the booster^ right down the center of 
the window^ 



00 10 3^ P Going over the insertion checklist now. D-c volts 

is maino Retromanual fuse switch is off;, retro - 
manual is off all instruments^ are, all bateries 
okay, Bie a-c power is good. 35ie, let's see, 
Where's the booster. 55iere"s some beautiful cloud 
patterns down there, fhe booster is in front of a 
large cloud pattern.. I seem to be^, I seem to be 
much closer to the earth than I expected to be, 
She booster is approximately two miles away now. 

00 11 J+O P I have some pictures of the booster, maybe I7 or I8, 

all together j. then going to the horizon, north 
sweeping south, there is the moon, just setting. 
Winding the camera at this time. 



FOR OFFICIAL USE OMZ 



Page:2 - 8 
CNV-CYl-1 



FOR OFFICIAL USE OBLT 



00 12 22 P There is some rather large pieces floating around. 

Ttie flight plan is now out. Gyros are going to 
free at 12 33, and I'm going to fly-ty-wire to 
track the booster. I will - this is not a good 
tracking problem. Our speeds are too close to 
being the same. I will put it in the center of 
the right window, plus. I have it right in the 
center - I feel that - overshot there. Getting 
ahead of me in pitch. 

00 13 29.5 P The high thrusters work well, close tracking should 

be ■ione on - on fly-by-wire low only. To follow 
the booster is a tough job with the highs. Gyros 
are staying within limits pretty well. Elapsed 
time is I3 56. I have lost sight of the booster 
at this time, I'll pick up a retroattitude at 
this time for Canary radar. Large piece of — . 

00 Ik 21.5 ? This is Casterfield. Good luck. Over, 

00 ik 27 P Aurora 7, copied. Roger, thank you. 

00 lU 37.5 P Going back to gyros free., or to gyi-os normal. 

CAHARY 

00 Ik U7 CC Aurora 7. This is Canary Cap Com. How do you 

read? Over . 

00 ill- 51 P Hello , Canary Cap Com. Aurora 7, reading you loud 

and clear. How me? 

00 Ik 56.5 CC Read you loud and clear alsoo We have radar track. 

Please remain in orbit attitude. 

00 15 02 P Roger. IJnderstand. 1^ w control mode is fly-by- 

wire, gyros normal, maneuver off, I am picking 
up retroattitude and automatic control very 
sho:rtly. Over. 

00 15 18.5 CC Roger. Will you verify that your retrodelay switch 

is in the normal position. 

00 15 2ii- P Retrodelay is normal. I say again, retrodelay is 

normal. 



FOR OFFICIAL USE ONDf 



Page 32 - 9 

FOR OEFICIA.L USE OKLT CYI-1 



00 15 29 •5 CC Roger., Will you please pjroceed with the short 

reports Fuel and oxygen readings. 

00 15 38 P Roger, Fuel 103-100, OJjygen 89-IOO. All the 

power is goodo Aurora 7 status is go in all 
respects, OveT<. 



00 15 53.5 


CC 


Roger. Say again fuel, plea£ 


>e , Overo 


00 15 56.5 


p 


Fuel 103-100. Overo 




00 16-01.5 


CG 


Roger 0 Have copied 0 




00 16 04.5 


CC 


Please send blood pressure. 


Overo 


00 16 07 


p 


Roger. Blood pressure start 


nowc 


00 16 19 


p 


I have, west of your station ^ 


, many whirls and 



vortices of cloud patterns. Pictures at this 
time - 2p 3> ^» 5- Ctontrol mode is now auto- 
matic » I have the booster directly below me. 
I think attitude is not in agreement with 
the instrunents o It's probably because of that 
gyro free period. Outside of a minor difference 
in attitude indications^ everything is proceeding 
normally „ 



00 17 ik CC Can you confirm orientation, ASCS and fly-by-wire 

— operating normal? 

00 17 21.5 P Roger. Wsit one. 



00 17 53 P Roger. Canary^ TS plus 5 is verified. Manual is 

satisfactory in all axes. Fly-by -wire and auto 
is satisfactory^ all axes. Aux Damp is okay also. 
Over. 



00 18 08.5 CC Roger ^ I have copied. I have new end of orbit, end 

of mission and 1 Bravo tiioes for you. Are you 
prepared to copy? 

00 18 15 P Standby one, 

00 18 39.5 p Send your message, Canary. 

00 18 kl.^ CC Roger, End of orbit time^ 01 28 I7. End of mission, 

ok 32 27, 1 Bravo I6 plus 56. Did you copy? Over. 



FOR OFFICIAL USE OHEJf 



Page 02 - 10 
CTI-KNO-1 



FOE OTFlCm, USE OHIZ 



00 19 05 P Roger. End of orbit 01 28 17, Hotel Ok 32 39, 

1 Bravo l6 56. Over. 

00 19 22 CO Correction, Atirora 7, correction 1 Bravo. Make 

that 16 plus 52., Over. 

00 19 30 P Eoger, Dbder stand. 16 52. 

00 19 33 CC Roger. Apogee altitude is ll^3. Perigee 86. 

Did you copy? Over. 

00 19 h3.^ P Roger, llf-3 and 86. 

00 19 HQ CC Roger. Here are sunrise and sunset times. Sun- 

rise orbit one: 1 plus 21 plus 00. Sunrise, 
orbit twos 2 plus 50 plus 00. Sxinrise, orbit 
threes k plus I9 plus 00. 

00 20 16.5 P Roger, Canary. I'm going to have loss of signal 

before I get these. I want to get some pictxires. 
Have Muchea or, correction have Kano send these 
to me, in this order: Sunset, sunrise, sunset, 
stuarise, break, break. Did you copy? 

00 20 36 CC — - plus hi plus 20, Did you copy? Over. 

00 20 Il0.5 P That is negative, I'll have to wait awhile for 

those . 

00 20 50 P 1*11 get them from Kano. Thank you. 

00 20 52.5 CC Have a blood pressure reading. Tour first attempt 

was unreadable on the ground. Over. 

00 20 58 P Okay, It's on the air. 



00 23 lj-9 CC Aurora 7. Ihis is Kano on UHP/hP. Do you read? 

Over. 

00 23 56 P Roger, Eano Cap Com, Aurora 7, reads you loud and 

clear. How me? 

00 24 02.5 CC Roger, Aurora 7, Kano Cap Com reads you loud and 
clear. Welcome back, Scott. 



FOR OFFICIAL DSE OHII 



FOR OFFICIAL USE OKIff 



Pagel2 - 11 
KNO-1 



00 2k 08 


P 


Roger. 


00 2k- 09 


CC 


Blood pressure check, please. Hold your "button 

for k seconds and then go through the short report. 


00 2k 16 


P 


Roger. Blood pressure start, now. VSy status is good. 
■Eie capsule status is good. Fuel is 99-98, oxygen 
89-100. Cahin is holding good. All d-c power is 
good. All a-c power is good, 22 amps. Eversrthing 
is green and you should be reading blood pressure. 
Over. 


00 2k 1^1.5 


CC 


Roger. We are reading blood pressure. Do you want 
to check your UHF low? Over. 


00 2k k7 


p 


Roger. Going to DHF low now, standby I5. 


00 25 10.5 


p 


Hello, Kano. Hello, I^no Cap Com. Aurora 7 DHF low. 
How do you read? 


00 25 17 


CC 


Aurora 7« Kano Cap Com reads you loud and clear. 
Over« 


00 25 20.5 


p 


Roger, Reading you the same. Going back to DHF high. 


00 26 22 


CC 


Aurora 7, iCano Cap Com, How do you read? Over. 


00 26 28 


p 


Loud and clear, Kano. Send your message. 


00 26 32 


CC 


Roger, Aurora 7- Are you going to be doing your 
caging, uncaging procedure now? Over. 


00 26 37,5 


p 


Roger. I - am a little behind in the flight plan at 
this moment. I have been xmable at this time to 
install the MIT film. I finally have it. I'll go 
through the gyro uncaging procedure very shortly. 


00 27 01 


CC 


Roger . 


00 27 3^ 


p 


Okay, the MIT film is now in. 


00 28 00 


p 


ASCS is operating okay. 


00 28 12.5 


CC 


What mode are you on now? 


00 28 li^.5 


p 


Roger. My mode is auto, gyro normal, maneuver off. 



FOR OFFICIAL USE OHL? 



Page:!2 - 12 
KNO-IOS-1 



FOR OFFICIAL USE OKLY 



00 28 21.5 CC Aurora J, Kano Cap Com. Be sure you're on fly-by- 

wire "before going through the procedures for un- 
caging. 

00 28 27 P Roger, Roger. Understand. 

00 28 5li-.5 P I'm going to be unable to complete the MIT pictures 

on this pass, I belie'/e. Negative, negative, I 
can fix the problem. IPoo much film was out of 
the cannister, that was the problem. Film is now 
in tight. The small back going on now. 

00 29 ^3.5 P At 29 h3, the first time I was able to get horizon 

pict^tres with MIT film. Set at F 8 and 125th. 
A picture to the south into the sun, directly 
dowr. my flight path is nunOber two. Number three 
15 degrees north at capsule elapse 30 17 • 

00 30 29.5 P Stowir.g the camera at this time. Going to the gyro 

uncaging procedure at this time. Fly -by-wire, 
now. Gyros going to cage. Maneuver at this point 
is cn. 

00 31 02.5 P Pitching down, yawing left, 

IHDIAK OCEAH SHIP 

00 31 36 CT Aurora 7, Aurora 7, Aurora 7. This is I.O.S. Com 

Tech on HF and IMF. How do you read? Over. 

00 31 k9 P Roger, Indian Com Tech. Aurora 7 reading you weak 

but readable. Go ahead. 

00 32 10 CT Aurora 7, Aurora 7. This is I O.S. Com Tech on HF 

and UEF. How do you read? Over. 

00 32 19 P Hello, Indian Ship Cap Com. Aurora 7. Loud and 

clear. How me? 

00 33 59 P Hello, Indian Cap Com, Indian Cap Com, Aurora 7. 

How do you read? 

00 3^ 17 F Hello, Indian Cap Com, Indian Cap Com, Aurora 7* 

How do you read? 



FOR OFFICIAL USE OOTZ 



FOR OFPicmi'L^E omz 



Page 12 - 13 
IOS-1 



00 B^i- 26.5 P At 3h 28, I'm increasing the cabin water valve and 

the suit valve to 6» Steam vent temperature now 
reads 65 and 75 <, 

00 "ik P Mark; African coastal passage abotit 20 seconds ago. 

00 35 02.5 P I'm using the airglow filter at this tim-Sa Visor is 

coaling open for a better look at that. EellO;, 
Indian Gap Com_- Aurora ?, Do you read? 

00 35 39 P Mane'jver is going off at this tjIdk^ and I'm going to 

aline man-jally, to retroattitude , 

00 38 0^ P Station calling Aurora 7, Say again. 

00 39 28 p Okayo Biat tools: me some tiiae to aline my attitudes 

prcperlyo ISiree aicre pictures with MIT fUm^ 2, 
3j, directly into the sun^ at an elapsed time of 
39 ^2, 

00 iiO 12.5 P Okay J, going through ■- 

00 k2 30.5 P The big back is going on the cainera^„ at this time. 

Baere was a period there when nothing was re- 
corded because I was in VOX power off ^ instead of 
recordo Ttie big ~ 

00 k3 02.5 P At h3 02 f 1 think Eoy gyros are properly alined, 

00 ^4-3 15.5 P What in the world happened to the periscope? 

00 ij-3 25 P Oh^ it's darkj, that's what happenedc It's facing a 

dark earth. Sunset FI6 to Fn okay^ we'll start 
with FI60 Up north;, coming south, '£ry some at 
250. 

00 12»5 P It's getting darker. Let me see, Muchea contact, 

sometime, Oh^ look at that sun, 

00 kk 31 P F-11, 

00 4i| 45,5 P F-5 6, ^33iat was those last four^, were F 3 8. It's 

quite dark, I didn't begin to get time to dark-, 
adapt. 



FOR OFFICIAL USE OKLY 



Page:i2 - ll* 



IOS-MUC-1 FOR OFFICIAL USE QMS 

00 k3 15 P Photo lights are off. Catin lights are going to red 

at this time. Oh, man, a wide, a "beautiftil, 
"beautiful red like in John's pictures. Going to 
fly-'by-wire. 

00 h6 01 p It is a reflection,, It is a reflection in the 

window . That's too "bad, 

00 k6 10 P I see at this point, I'm not sure I am recording on 

YOX record. I will go to transmit. I have Venus, 
now approaching the horizon. 

00 14-6 37 p It's about 30 degrees up. It's just coming into 

view. Bright and unblinking. I cannot - I can 
see some other stars down below Venus. Going back 
to ASCS then at this time. 

00 ii-7 05 P Bright,, bright blue horizon band as the sun gets 

lower and lower - the horizon "band still glows , 
It looks like five times the width of the - the 
diameter of the sun. I'm at - now at kf elapsed. 

00 47 46.5 P It's now nearly dark, and I can't believe I'm where 

I am.. 

00 48 08 P Oh, dear,, I've used too much fuel. 

00 48 22 P Well, I'm going to have to increase, let's see, 

going to ASCS at this time. 

00 48 38 p My fuel reads 75-100 at this time. The window - is 

VenuETvocclude. So, that - that is not correct. 
Venus Uid not occlude. I'm getting out the equip- 
ment to measure Venus occlusion. 

00 49 15 p Obere is too much red light in the eocljpit from the 

time correlation. Venus at above the - horizon. 

MDCHEA 

00 49 28.5 CC Aurora 7. This is Muchea Cap Com. How do you read? 

00 49 34 P Hello, Muchea Cap Com, Aurora 7. Loud and clear. 

How me, Deke? 

00 49 39 CC Rog. Coming in very goodj dad, Sound very good, 

how's things going? 



FOR OFFICIAL JJSE 0HI2f 



Page 12 - 15 



FOE OFFICIAL USE OKIX MUC-1 

00 l<-9 lj-5.5 P Roger. 'Biings are going very veil, my status is very 

good. The capsule status is very good. Ttie 
control mode is normal. Automatic gyros normal and 
maneuver off. Fuel is 72-100. Oxygen 88-100. 
Eveiything is normal with the exception of - the fact 
that I am a tad "behind in the flight plan. Over. 

00 50 11.5 CC Roger. Uhderstand. 

00 50 13 P Blood press'jre is starting now. 

00 50 1? CC Okay, Blood pressure starting. We suggest that you 

do not exercise during the blood pressure since 
your tejnp is up. 

00 50 23.5 P Roger. Ihis is the story on the suit tejnp. I have 

increased 2 ten-degree marks since lift-off. And 
now about - well, I5 degrees above launch mark. My 
steam vent temperatures read 69 and 80. I'll take 
one more stab at increasing, or decreasing, 
temperature by increasing flow rate. If this doesn't 
work, I'll turn them off and start lower. Over. 

00 50 59 CC Rog. Understand, I'll give you some retrotimes while 

you're sending blood pressure. End of orbit is 01 
28 18, End of mission is 6k 32 28. 

00 51 15.5 P Roger. Understand, End of orbit 01 28 I8 and 0^1- 32 

28 for end of orbit. Over. End of mission. 

00 51 26 CC 25iat»s affirmative. We indicate your clock is one 

second slow and this is compensated for, 

00 51 31 P Roger. Thank you. 

00 51 3^* CC OCT time hack at this time - we're coming up on I3 36 

57 ^ MARK, 

00 51 kl p Roger, OH? - my backup (MP are right in sync, 

with (MP. Over. 

00 51 ^9 CC That's very good, 

00 51 51.5 CC Okay, if you're ready I'll give you the emergency 

voice check. We will turn off DEF and HF trsms- 
mitters for this so that you will not have to change 
volume. 



FOE OFFICIAL USE OHLY 



Page]2 - 16 

MUC-1 FOE OFFICIAL USE OHLT 

00 51 59 P Roger, standing by. 

00 52 Oh.3 CC Aurora 7. !4uchea Cap Com. 1, 2, 3^ 5, 5, ^, 3, 

2, 1 command voice. How do you read? 

00 52 12 P Roger, Deke. Read you loud ernd clear, loud and 

clear emergency voice. 

00 52 16.5 CC Very good, very good. Switching "back to UHF. 

00 52 20 P Roger. 

00 52 25.5 CC Aurora 7, Muchea Gap Com on UHF. How do you read? 

00 52 28 P Roger , Muchea Cap Com. Loud and clear. Tell 

Jerry and Gus and Lewis and - everybody else there, 
that I worked with "hello." John Whittler, if you 
see him, tell him to saddle Butch up. Break, break. 
Is your cloud cover such that I c£in expect see 
lig^t - or flares at Woomera? Over. 

00 52 52.5 CC Roger, ©le cloud coverage here is 3,000 overcast 

stratus and we think you'll probably see them 
through the clouds. Woomera is clear. 

00 53 03.5 P Roger. 

00 53 18.5 cc Sevec from Muchea. Would you send us one more blood 

pressure? 

00 53 21.5 P Roger. Starting now. 

00 53 28.5 CC We're going to send you a Z cal at this time. 

00 53 31 P Roger. And - go ahead and send it. I'll - you'll be 

interested to know that I have no moon, now. The 
horizon is clearly visible from my present position; 
that's at 5^1- hk elapsed. I believe the horizon on 
the dark side with no moon is very good for pitch 
and ro3JL. The stars are adequate for yaw in, maybe 
two minutes of tracking. Over. 

00 514- 01.5 CC Roger, understand. Sounds very good. Z cal off, R 

cal coming on. MAEUC. 

00 3k 12 CC Suggest that you back the fuel control back to your 

first black mark. 



FOR OFFICIAL USE OHXl' 



FOE OFFICIAL USE OKLI 



Page 22 - 1? 
MUC-1 



00 5^*- 18 P Roger, 1=11 try thato Going all the way off and - 

tack up a little "bit lower than where I was« 

00 3k 28.5 CC Hoger, your suit temperatfare is down a bit at this 

point » 

00 5^^ 31-5 P Say again, Deke. 

00 5l|- 33 CC Your suit teniperature is down^ which is good, 

00 3k 36.5 P Well. t-hat=s a result of an increase in flow 

lately o I woiald think that - I'll try increasing 
rather than decreasing » 

00 3k 33,3 P Hello,. Woomera Cap Com, Aurora 7, Do jou read? 

00 33 00 CC Roger o This is Woomeraj this is Woomera Gap Com. 

Reading you loud and clear » How roe? 

CC ©lis is Muehea Cap Como 'iSiey wi.ll not be contacting 

you for another three minutes, 

00 55 08 P Roger, Go ahead,, Deke, J~ast trying to get the word 

on the flare, 

00 55 12 CC Roger ^ understand. I'll give yo'J the settings^ 

correetionj the attitudes for the first flare at 
this time. It would be plus 80 yaw^ minus 80 in 
pitch, 

00 55 28.5 P Roger,, understand^ Deie. Plus 80 yaw., minus 80 

pitch o 

00 55 37 CC Roger;, okay, Ttie Cape now advises to keep the suit 

setting where it was since it's coming down, 

00 55 l4-it.5 P Roger. I - for your inforrnationj I have increased 

it just slightly. My readings now are 7 snd 7 on 
suit and cabin. What are my inverter temperatures 
and thmster line temperatures Deke? Are they 
okay? 

00 56 ok, 3 CC Rogo We are losing you. We are losing you on air 

ground. Would you care to contact Woojaera at this 
time? 



00 56 11,5 P 



FOR OFFICIAL 'J3E 



Page 12 - 18 
WOM-1 

00 56 llt.»5 CC 

00 56 18.5 P 

00 56 29 CC 

00 56 37 P 

00 56 1^7.5 CC 

00 56 52 P 

00 57 00 CC 

00 57 13 P 

00 57 16.5 CC 

00 57 24 p 

00 57 35 CC 

00 57 ^1 P 

00 57 ^1 CC 

00 57 57 P 

00 58 00 CC 



FOR 0FFICL4L USE OHLY 



WOOMERA. 

Aui-ora 7, Aurora 7, this is Woouaera. Read you loud 
and clear. Hovr me? 

Roger, Wooiaera. Reading you loud and clear, also. 
I'd like read-out on Tny inverter temperatures - 
and mark on your flare. Over. 

Roger. We're going to have the flare in approximately 
two Hiinutes. We'll give you a read-out on your 
temperatures. 

Roger. And for your information. Rate Command is 
also working in all axes. Over. 

Roger, Rate - Rate Command in all axes, 

Hiat - that signifies that all control systems are 
operating satisfactorily. Over. 

Roger, understand. All systems okay. We have your 
temperatures. Your I50 inverter, I52. Your 25O 
inverter, 167. Do you copy? Over. 

Roger. Copied, tliank you. Standing "by. 

We're going to have the flares, ell four of them, go 
at approximately 58 plus 30. We do have an eight 
by eight coverage. 

Roger. I am at - plus 80 yaw, minus 80 pitch, now. 

Roger. We'll give you a time hack when we come up 
to flare test. 

Roger. 

iEhis is Woomera Cap Com, 7. Sir John reports all 
systems look good down here. And ^sterns reports 
everything okay on his psmel. 

Roger. Ihank you. It looks good to me, also. 

Roger. You are loud and clear. Coming up on the 
flare test - in approximately 25 seconds. 



FOR OFFICIAL USE OKLY 



FOR OFFICIAL USE OBET 



Page 12 
WDM-l 



00 58 05.5 P Roger. 

00 58 09.5 CC Good air to ground. 

00 58 12 P Roger. Going to fly-by-wire. It doesn't cost so 

much. 

00 58 17.5 CC Roger. Ply-by-wire, Manual on. Is that affirma- 

tive? 

00 58 21.5 P Manual is - no, I'm, wy control mode is pure fly- 

hy-vire nov. 

00 58 26 CC Roger. Flare test coming up. Stand by. Mark, 58 

plus 30, all four flares away. 

00 58 52 CC Aurora 7, Aurora 7, this is Woomera, How do you 

read? Over. 

00 58 55 P Roger. Reading you loud and clear. Searching for 

your flares. Stand by. 

00 59 02 CC Roger. We still have approximately 60 seconds left, 

00 59 11 CC You're up to minus 50 on roll. 

00 59 15 P Roger. Backing off, thank you, thank you. Backing 

off, 

00 59 27.5 P I do not have your flares. I'm sorry, Woomera. 

00 59 31 CC Say again, Seven. 

00 59 33.5 P No Joy on your flares. I do not have your flares 

visible. 

00 59 37.5 CC Have copied. Evidently the cloud coverage is too 

tight. 

00 59 43 P At this time I have extensive cloud coverage - wait. 

00 59 ^9*5 CC Did you try Aux Daiirp when you're in fly-by-wire to 

see if you are holding attitudes? 

00 59 5^ P Negative. I have verified that Aux Danrp is operating 

satisfactorily. Over. 



FOR OFFICIAL USE OKET 



Page 32 - 20 
WOK-l 



FOR OFFICIAL USE OHET 



01 00 00 CC Roger. Understand. 

01 00 02 P I have soiae lights on the ground underneath me. 

Standby, I'll try to identify them. 

01 00 12 CC Roger. Wilco. 

01 00 h2 CC Aurora 7, Aurora 7^ this is Woomera Cap Com. Do 

you read? Over. 

01 00 l|-6 P Loud and clear, Woomera. Go ahead. 

01 00 14-9 CC Roger. Could you give us a short report at this 

time? 

01 00 52.5 P Roger. My control mode is fly-hy-wire, gyros are 

free, and the maneuver switch is off. Fuel reads 
75-85, oxygen 88 and 100. Wait till I pick a 
vasher out of the air. And everything is very 
good. Over, 

01 01 23 CC Roger. You're intermittent. What is your suit 

temperature ? Over . 

01 01 29 P Roger, Suit temperature is now 70. Suit tempera- 

ture is 70, steam exhaust ie 70, the cabin exhaust 

is eo. 

01 01 ii-3 CC Roger. Do you confirm - do you have your - back 

dowr. to the black scribe mark? 

01 01 51 P 3Jiat is negative. I have them both set on seven 

at this tijae and - an increase in setting re- 
sulted in a decrease - in suit temperairare . I 
think I'd like to try - try them at this setting a 
little while longer. Over. 

01 02 11 CC Roger, understand. I believe at this tine you're 

supposed to have your midnight snack, 

01 02 18 P Roger. I'll get to that shortly. 

01 02 21.5 CC Roger, You're starting to drift or fade slightly. 

01 02 26.5 P Roger. 



FOR OFFICIAL USE OMLT 



FOR OFFICIAL USS OHLT 



Page 32 - 21 
WOM-1 



01 02 31.5 CC Are you prepared to go into drifting flight before 

too long? 

01 02 3^.5 P Roger. I can do that at this time. At night yawed - 

01 02 ho CC — is that affirmative? 

01 02 in. 5 P I am going to drifting flight at this time. Over. 

01 02 46.5 CC Roger. 

01 02 53.5 P Gyros are caged. I have about a two-degree per 

second yaw rate. All gyros are zero. I have Corvus 
directly above me. I'm yawing over the top» I feel 
that my attitude is - the line of sight is nearly - 
nearly vertical, 

01 03 55 p I am in TOX record only now. TSie time is 10^4- elapsed. 

I'm searching the star charts. 

01 oh 19 P Hie finish on the star chart is so shiny that - it's 

impossible to read because of reflection. 

01 OU 44.5 P I've got to turn white liglits on, that's all. 

01 05 03 P At 105. 

01 05 l4.5 P Attitudes are of no concern to me whatsoever. I know 

I'm drifting freely, Eie moon crossed the window 
not too long ago. 

01 05 51 '5 P Let's see, now what can - I am at this moment rocking 

my arms back and forth and I can make this show up 
in the roll, ysw and pitch needle. By mvlng my 
torso, I can make the pitch rate needle move up to 
one degree per second. Roll is, needle, rate needle 
is very sensitive to this. Yaw is also. Let's see, 
am going to open the •'/isor at this time. Have a few 
crumbs of food floating around in the capsule. 

01 06 58.5 P At 106 - at 1 minute, 1 hour and 7 minutes elapsed, 

I'm going above the scale to approximately 8 on 
cabin and suit- 



FOR OFFICIAL USE OKLY 



Page 32 - 22 
CTN-1 



FOR OFFICIAL IBE OHLT 



GASTON 



01 07 


16 


p 


Hello, hello. Canton Com Tech, Canton Com Tech, 
Aurora 7« Weak but readable. Go ahead. 


01 07 


ho. 3 


CT 


Aurora Aurora 7^ this is Canton Com Tech, 
Canton Coia Tech. Do you read? Over. 


01 07 


46.5 


P 


Hello, Canton Com Tech, Aurora 7« Loud and clear. 
How me? 


01 08 


23.5 


P 


33ae food - hello, Canton Com Tech, Aurora 7. How 
do you read? 


01 08 


33 


P 


Hello, Canton Com Tech, Aurora 7. How do you read? 


01 08 


1^1 


P 


This food has crum'oled hadJLy. 


01 08 


50.5 


P 


First rieal at 1 08 52. 


01 09 


21 


P 


Hello, Canton Com Tech, Canton Com Tech, Aurora 7 
on HP. How do you read? 


01 09 


39.5 


CT 


Seven, this is Canton Com Tech. Do you read? 


01 09 


45 


P 


Canton Com Tech, Aurora 7, Loud and clear. How do 
you read Aurora 7 on HF7 Over. 


01 10 


07 


CT 


Aurora 7, Aurora 7, this is Canton Com Tech. Do 
you read? Over. 


01 10 


13 


P 


Roger, Canton Com Tech, loud and clear. How me? 


01 10 


33.5 


CT 


Aurora "J, Aurora 7, this is Canton Com Tech. Do 
you read? 


01 10 


57 


P 


Hello, Canton Com Tech, Canton Com Tech, Aurora 7. 
Loud and clear. How me? 


01 11 ok 


CC 


dls is Canton. Loud and clear, Aurora 7* Can you 
begin with the short report? 


01 11 


10 


P 


Roger. I've been reading you for some time. I've 



tried to contact you on HP with no success. My 
status is good; the capsule status is good; control 
mode is fly-by-wire; gyros caged; maneuver is off. 



Pag«32 - 23 



FOE OFFICIAL OSE 0^2" CTS-. 

2he fuel reads ih-Q^^ oxygen is 87-100^ the cabin 
temperature is a tit iiign at lOh^ the suit - steam 
rent teaiperature is 70 and cabin is 80^, but I be- 
lieve they're eoHlng dovn. Over. 



01 11 h9 


CC 


Roger. Did you wish tc check yQur attitude readings 
with o-ur telemetry? Over, 


01 11 56.5 


P 


Roger. W - W g^Tos are caged at this time. Stand 






Standing by 0 


01 12 17 


p 


I am beginning t-o pick up what X believe is a - yeah^ 
it's very definitely a cloud pattern equally low. 


01 12 31.5 


CC 


Roger. 


01 12 h2 


p 


I am - let's see., Canton,, do you have the exact sun- 
rise time for the first orbit? Over. 


01 12 55 


CC 


Say again^ Aurora 7. 


01 12 57 


p 




01 13 03 


CC 


I have a sunrise time of 1 plus 21 plus 00, 


01 13 10 


p 


1 plus 21 00, Roger, 3iank you. 


01 13 13.5 


CC 


Did you - could you eorament on whether you are com- 
fortable or not - would you — a himdred two on 
body teErperature <. 


01 13 21 


p 


No, I don't believe that's correct. J^y visor was 
open, it is now closed* I can^'t imagine I'm that 
hot. l''m quite comfortable^ but sweating some. 


01 13 38 


CC 


Roger, Can you confirm then that the face plate is 
closed^ and will be closed for the pass over Guaymas, 


01 13 


p 


TtiBt is correct^ George, I'll leave the face plate 
closed, I have had one piece of the inflight food. 
It's crumbling badly and I hate to get it all over, 
6ind I have had about four swallows of water at that 
time. 


01 ih 01^.5 


CC 


Roger, four sirallows of water. 



FOR OmCIAL USE OHLT 



Page]2 - 9.h 
CTN-MW-1 



01 Ih 11 cc You vjish to start your cormnent uovr on the haze layer - 
there was the pitch, and at the 3aE-.e tiisie con- 
fire that the ::::.i/-?;lvt; plan is on schedule. 

01 Ik 16.5 P Roger. I cannot confirm that the i'li.^ht plan ?L3 con- 

pletely on achx^rale. At sunse I was unsble to see 
a ssparate haze layer - the sane heiglit above the 
horizon that J rji reported. I'll watah closely &t 
sunrise and see if I can pick it up. Over. 

01 14 h8 CC Roger. 

01 Ik 53.5 CC All readings eppe:ir to he nor:.aal dovm hers. Ihe 

capsule locks gcccl froia dovm here. 

01 15 01.5 P Roger, the - 

01 15 02.5 CC queries, you can continue on with ycur observa- 

tions. Over. 

01 15 05.5 p Roger.. "HiankSj Geo-r^e, see you next tiee around. 

01 15 10 CC Okay, Scott. Good luck. 

01 15 30.5 CT Aurora "J, Hawaii Com Tech. How do you read me? Over. 

01 15 i)0 p I ar.i In VOX record now. I heard Hawaii calling, ha ha, 

Hawaii calling. I will go to transmit directly, and 
see if we can pick up l^awaii. 

01 15 5k P Hello, Hawaii Com Tech, Aurora 7 on HP. Loud and 

clear. How me? 

01 16 17.5 p Hello, Hawaii Cora Tech, ila'.xaii Com Tech, Aurora 7. 

Loud and clear. Eov dc you read HF? Over. 

01 16 32.5 P aoing now to record only vhile I switch back to TJHF. 

01 17 30.5 P Hello, Hawaii, hello, Hawaii Com !Itech, Aurora 7. Weak 

tut readable. Go ahead. 

01 18 00 CT Aurora 7, Aurora 7, ---on HF, UHF. How do you read? 

Over. 



FOR OFFICIAL USE OKLY 



Pagea2 - 25 



FCE OFFICIAL USE OHLY HAW-1 

01 18 05 P Eoger^ Havaii Com fech, Aurora 7 reading you loud 

and clear. How n:e? 

01 18 30 CT Aurora 7 5 Hawaii Com Te-^zh, Eow do you read? 

01 18 51.5 P All right c wty - I am at 1 19 02. Have teen several 

times coBipletely disoriented. !I!iers, I have 
Cassiopeia directly in the window and am yai*lng 
around for the sunrioe - photogi'aphs . The sky is 
Quite light in the aast. 

01 19 51 P Excess cabin water light came on at that time. I'll 

have to go baek all the way down ana off. Suit is 
- still hl^o caoin water gage is reading 

plus 9^ which is hard to belie/e. 

01 20 15 P ysy temperature J iny "body temperature doesn't feel - 

feel had at all. Ky suit - yes, my suit tenrperature 
is down noWj, also. 

01 20 32.5 P But the steam wnt temperature is - still about - 70. 

01 22 03 P I have the fireflies. Hello., auaynas, 

01 22 18 P I have the particles. I was facing away from the 

sun at sunrise - and I did not see the particles - 
just - Just yawing about - 180 degrees, I was able 
to pick up - at this - Stand by^ I thirJc I see more. 

01 23 00 P Yes^ there was one^ random motions - sonte even 

appeared to be going ahead. There's one outside. 
Almost like a light snowflake particle, caught in 
an eddy. Utej are not glcw^.ng irith their own light 
at this time. 

01 23 32 P It could be frost from a thruster. 

01 2i4- 01.5 P Going to transmit to - record only, at this time. 

01 24 11 P 'Sae weightless condition is a blessiag, nothing more, 

nothing less. 

01 23 P I am now photogj^aphing large cloud banks over the 

Pacific on a southerly direction. 

01 26 08.5 P I'm drifting slowly to retroa-ctitude at this time. 



FOR OFFICI^-L USE QIJUC 



Page 22 - 26 
GIM-1 



FOR OFFICIAL USE OHLSf 



01 22 P Hello, Gaaymas Com 'Sech., Aurora 7. Loud and clear. 

How Tset 

01 27 29.5 CC Roger, Aurora 7, this is Guaymas Gap Com. How me? 
Over. 

01 27 33.5 p Roger, Guaymas, loud and clear. Ky control mode is 

now fly-by-wlre, gyros are caged, I'm in - 
maneuver is off , I'll go to automatic mode direct- 
ly, status good; the capsule status is good. 
Bie fuel is 69-69, oxygen is 88-100. She cabin 
steam vent has gone to plus 10, I believe that's a 
bad gage reading, and suit teniperature stean vent 
is coming down slowly, now reading 68. Over. 

01 28 16 CC Roger. TJhder stand 68. How is your temperature com- 

fort? Over. 

01 28 19 p Roger. 157 "body comfort is good. I am tracking now 

a very small particle, one isolated particle, 
about - There is another, very small, could be a 
light snowflake. 

01 28 40 CC Roger. We're reading - we're having a - a bad body 

temperature reading on you, 102.^, probably 
erroneous . 

01 28 lt8.5 P I can't believe it. Hjr suit temperature shows 60 

and I feel quite comfortable. I'm sure I would be 
sweating more than this if my tenrperature were 102. 

01 28 59.5 CC Your suit inlet temperature near 6I, so it looks 
pretty good. 

01 29 OU P Roger. 

01 29 06.5 CC Roger. It looks like we have a go for the second 

orbit as everything appears all right for you. 

01 29 13 P Roger. I was hoping you'd say that, Gordo. 

01 29 16 CC Tou start to conserve your fuel a bit and maybe, 

perhaps, use a little more of your manual fuel. 



FOR OFFICIAL USE OHLT 



Page 32 



01 29 


22 


P 


01 29 


2U.5 


CO 


01 29 


27 


P 


01 29 


28.5 


cc 


01 29 


31 


F 


01 29 


35 


CC 




30 




01 29 


1*1 


CC 


01 29 


'^3 


CC 


01 29 


k6 


P 


01 30 


05 


P 



FOR OFFICIAL USE OHLI ^™ 
Roger, Can do. 

Roger, are you i-eady for Z and R ial? 

Roger, send them. 

Z cal coining on now. 

And, HARK, coastal passage. 

Say again. 

Mark, coastal passage cofiing over the - Baja. 
Good. 

How does it look? 

Half covered with clouds, and - and the other half 
is dry. Will you pass on - this rtessage for me, 
Gordo, to all the trcop;^ at GuasTnas? 

Hola, araigos, felicitaciones a J'exico y especial- 
mente a uii ainigos de GuajTcas. Desde el espacio 
exterior, su pais e^ta cubierto con nubes - and - 
es " also - se me muy bello. Aqui el tieiripo 
esta lauy bueno. Buena sucrte desde Aurora 3iete. 

('Eranslation; Hello, friends, j^reetings to Mexico 
and especially to Ky frlenc.3 of Guaynias. From 
outer srace, yonx country is covered trtth clouds 
and is very beaiitiful. Hero the weather is vei-y 
good. Good, luck from Aurora 7 .) 



01 30 


33-5 


CC 


Roger, irtuchas gracias. amigo. 


01 30 


35.5 


P 


Ha ha, okay. 


01 30 


37.5 


CC 


Give us a blood pressure. 


01 30 


39 


P 


Here you go. 


01 30 


50 


CC 


Roger, do you - I'd like to pass your 2 Alpha tine 
on to you, Scotty. 


01 30 


55^.5 


F 


Roger. 



FOR OFFICIAL U3F OlfLX 



Page 02 - 28 



FOR OFFICIAL USE OELY 



01 30 56 CO Roger, 2 Alpha time is 01 36 I3, vrith a GKS? of 

7.1 30, that takes into account your clock error. 



01 31 08.5 


P 


achat's 02 36 13? 


01 31 12.5 


cc 


Roger, 01 36 13. 


01 31 15.5 


p 


Roger. 01 36 13 for 2 Alpha. 


01 31 19.5 


cc 


For Golf 03 00 31. 


01 31 25 


p 


Roger, 03 00 31 for Gk>lf . 


01 31 28.5 


cc 


Eiere's a GMT on that of I5 k5 HQ. 


01 31 33.5 


p 
cc 


Roger. Standing by for the - ray nark on the radar 
test over Vliiite Sands • 


01 31 he 


p 




01 31 52.5 


cc 


Roger J coBinioiid roll novr . 


01 31 55 


p 


Roll myw. 


01 32 02 


p 


No, I'll have to get in a better attlt-jde for you 
first, Gus. It'll mean nothing thi.: .7fi>, I mean 
Coop.. 


01 32 10 


cc 


Roger. 


01 32 58.5 


cc 


You still reading ua, Scotty? 


01 32 59.5 


p 


Roger, loud and clear. 


01 33 02 


cc 


Hearing you also* E&ve you done your roll for the 
radar yet? 



01 33 10.5 P That's negatire. I'm afraid I'm not going to rj&ke 

it, Gordo, un3.esG I fjet the attitudes - dovn close. 

01 33 21.5 cc Roger, -v'e're reading ycur attitudes all right at 

zero nov. 

01 33 26.5 P Roger, the gyros are caged. 



FOR 0FF^ICIA.L IBE OIILY 



FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY 



Pag«:i2 
ClJV-2 



CAPE CANAVERAL 



01 


33 


41 




CC 


Aurora 7, this is Cape Cap Com on emergency voice. 


01 


33 


44 




P 


Roger, Cape. Loud and clear. How me? 


01 


33 


48 




CC 


Loud and clear. I'm going back to HF/UHF. 


01 


33 


52.5 


p 


Roger. 


01 


33 


55 




CC 


Are you ready for your two Bravo time? 


01 


33 


58 




p 


Roger, send two Bravo. 


01 


34 


00 


.5 


CC 


01 49 30. 


01 


34 


07 




p 


Roger. 01 49 30. 






12, 


,5 




Roger, and two Charlie time is nominal. 




34 


15, 


,5 


p 


Okay, standby one. 


01 


34 


37, 


,5 


p 


Okay, Gus, my status is good; my control mode is 
fly-by-wire; the gyros are still caged; maneuver 
off. Fuel is 62 and 68, a little ahead on fuel < 
sumption, fuel quantity light is on, the excess 
cabin water light is on. I'll try and get auto 
mode here directly. 


01 


35 


04, 


5 


, CC 


Roger. Can you give us a blood pressure? 


01 


35 


07 




p 


Roger. Blood pressure coming now. 


01 


35 


13. 


.5 


CC 


And after the lOS voice has dropped, will use Zanzi 
in that area. 


01 


35 


20 




p 


Roger, I heard lOS calling but I couldn't raise his 


01 


35 


24 




CC 


Roger . 


01 


35 


30 




CC 


Aurora 7, use a normal balloon release. 


01 


35 


34 




p 


Roger . 


01 


35 


41 




p 


And are you going to give me a mark for that? 


01 


35 


47.5 


CC 


Roger, one at an elapsed time of 1 37. 



FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY 



Page 32 - 30 
CNV-2 



FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY 



01 35 51 P 1 37, Roger. 

01 36 00 CC Roger. In two minutes, Echo will be almost directly 

overhead . 

01 36 05 P Roger. 

01 36 08 CC Could you give us a cabin steam and suit temperature, 

please? 

01 36 11 ? Roger, Suit steam is 69 and cabin is - plus 11. That 

dropped down very suddenly when the excess cabin water 
light came on. I think I'm going to - increase - 
I'll try to increase suit water flow one more time, if 
that doesn't work I'll drop - down - to closed and 
start over again. 



01 


36 


46 


CC 


Aurora 7, cut back your cabin water. 


01 


36 


49 


P 


Okay. Cabin water going back. I'll start now at two. 
This Is - 20 degrees below launch value. 


01 


36 


58 


CC 


Roger. I'm going to give you a Z cal . 


01 


37 


00.5 


p 


Roger . 


01 


37 


07 


CC 


Okay. I'm going to give you an R cal. 


01 


37 


10 


p 


Be my guest . 


01 


37 


35 


CC 


Aurora 7, Cap Com. Do you read? 


01 


37 


37 


p 


Roger, loud and clear. 


01 


37 


38.5 


CC 


Roger. Everything looks good down here, except for 
your fuel usage, you better watch that a little bit. 


01 


37 


44 


p 


Roger . 


01 


37 


50 


CC 


Aurora 7, have you deployed the balloon? 


01 


37 


52 


p 


That is negative. Standby. 



Balloon deploy, NOW. The balloon is out, and off. I, 
I see it way out but it - I think now it is way out, 
and dr}.fting steadily away, I don't see the line, 
I don't see that any attempt was made to inflate the 
thing. It's just drifting off. 

FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY 



FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY 



Page 32 - 31 
CHV-BEA-2 



I have only the rectangular shape tumbling at this 
point about 200 yards back, barely visible, and 
now wait, here is a line. That was the cover, the 
balloon is out. 



01 


39 


01 


CC 


Understand. Tlie balloon is out. 


01 


39 


02.5 


P 


That is Roger, 


01 


39 


09 


P 


There is veryllttle acceleration here. 




39 


17 


CC 


•^rora 7, did the balloon inflate? 


'©1 


39 


19 


p 


The balloonis partially inflated « It's not tight. 
I've lost it at this nHJinent . Wait one, I'll give 
you a better reading shortly . 


m 


39 


50 


p 


There is an oscillation beginning. 




39 


54.5 


CC 


This is an oscillation In the balloon? 


01 


39 


56.5 


p 


Yes . 


Qi 


40 


11 


p 


The line is still not taut. I have some pictures 

of the line just waving out in back= I would say we 
fiave about a one cycle per minute oscillation. It's 
both in pitch and yaw. 


01 


40 


38.5 


CC 


How irany cycles per minute? 


01 


40 


40 


p 


&ae cycle pisr titoute, or maybe one cycle in a minute 
and a half. 


01 


41 


01 


ip 


The moon is Just above the horizon at this time. 


01 


41 


17 


p 


I have a picture of the balloon. 


01 


41 


25 


de 


Aurora 7, Cap Com. Reapeat your last message. 


01 


41 


28.5 


p 


Roger, I've got a washer to put away. 


ox 41 


33 


CC 


Roger . 










BERMUDA 


01 


41 


40.5 


F 


Aurora 7, Aurora 7, this is Bermuda Flight. How do 



you read? Over . 

FOR OFFICIAL USB ONLY 



Page 02 - 32 

BDA.-2 



FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY 



01 


41 


45 


P 


Roger, Bermuda Flight, reading you loud and 


clear 


01 


41 


49 


F 


Switch wobulator switch off. 




01 


41 


51.5 


P 


Roger, phase shifter. 




01 


41 


54 


f 






01 


41 


56 


P 


Phase shifter is off. 




01 


42 


18 


P 


Phase shifter is on, now. 




01 


42 


23. ^ 


CC 


Aurora 7, Cap Com. What control mode? 










(Cape) 






01 


42 


26.5; 


P 


Fly-by -wire , 




01 


42 


28 


CC 


Thank you. 




01 






(Cape) 




43 


01 


F 


Bermuda Plight. How do you read? 




01 


43 


02.5 


P 


Hello, Bermuda Flight. Reading you loud and 


clear . 



°^ ^3 07 F Will you run a blood pressure, please? Read you loud 

and clear . 

01 43 10 p Roger. Blood pressure starting now. 

01 43 30 p I have lost sight of the balloon at this minute. 

01 43 34 F Roger. 

01 43 59 P Also, Bermuda, the balloon not only oscillates in 

cones in pitch and yaw, it also seems to oscillate 
in and out toward the capsule, and sometimes the 
line will be taut, other times it's quite. loose. 

01 44 20.5 P It's now about 50 degrees off of the flight path. 

01 44 32 p Pictures of whirls taken, just east of Bermuda, now 

the balloon line is tight. 

01 45,27.5 P At 01 45 30, I have turned the cabin, or the suit 

water vaive all the way off and back up to one. 

01 47 18 P I'm taping now the fuel quantity warning lights in 

preparation for the dark side, I think also excess 
cabin water I'll tape. It's not a satisfactory 
lighting arrangement to - 



FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY 



Page 32 



FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY 



01 47 A8 P Hello, Canary Cap Com, Aurora 7. Loud and clear. 

How me? 

01 48 10.5 CC Aurora 7, Aurora 7, this is Canary Cap Com. Hew do you 

read? Over, 

01 48 16 P Hello, Canary Cap Com, Aurora 7o Loud and clear. How 

me? 

01 48 21 CC Roger. You're coming into UHF range . Proceed with the 

short report. Over. 

01 48 27 P Roger, Canary. My status is good, the capsule status i 

good, my control mode is automatic, gyros normal, 
maneuver off. Fuel 51-68, oxygen 85-100, my cabin 
steam vent temperature now is picking up and reading 
about 19, suit steam vent temperature still reading 
70. I have backed it off to zero and reset it at one 
Over. 

01 49 09 CC cabin exhaust temperature. Over. 

01 49 11.5 P Cabin exhaust temperature is climbing back up to 19. 

Over . 

01 49 18 CC Roger, have you been doing any drifting flight? Over. 

01 49 23 P Thiit is Roger, I did quite a bit of drifting flight 

on the dark side over Woomera and Canton. Over. 

01 49 34 CC Roger, did you observe any haze layers? Over. 

01 49 40.5 P Roger, I did observe haze layers but not the ones 

that were separated from the horizon that we 
expected, and that John reported. I'll keep a sharp 
lookout next time and try to see them after sunset. 
On the light side there is nothing more than the 
bright, iridescent blue layer, which separates the 
actual horizon from the deep black of space . Over . 

01 50 15.3 CC Aurora 7, you are fading rapidly, you are fading. 

MCC is worried about your auto fuel and manual fuel 
consumption. They recommend that you try to con- 
serve your fuel . 



FOR OFFICIAL USE, ONLY 



Page 22 - 3k 

CYI 2 



FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY 



01 50 28.5 P Roger, tell them I am concerned also. I will try 

and conserve fuel . 

01 50 41,5 CC Aurora 7, Aurora 7, I cannot read you. Do you read 

Canary Cap Com? Over. 

01 50 48.5 P Roger, Canary, copied your message. Over. 

01 50 52 CC Roger. Understand copied message regarding fuel and 

consumption. 

01 50 56; 5 P That is Roger. 

01 51 01.5 CC ■ Surgeon here has requested a blood pressure transmis- 
sion. 

01 51 05.5 P Blood pressure is coming your way now. 

01 51 20 CC ■ We are receiving same at Canaries and it looks good. 

01 51 24 P Roger. 

01 51 41.5 CC Canary Systems indicates all telemetry readings look 

good. 

01 51 46.5 P Roger, that's good to hear. 

01 51 56.5 CC Aurora 7, do you have a^nything to report on your 

balloon test? Over. 

01 52 02.5 P Roger, The balloon is oscillating through an arc 

of about 100 degrees. It gets out of view frequently. 
At this moment, it's nearly vertical. MARK a 
coastal passage at this time - it seems to - what 
I'm trying to tell you is that it oscillates 180 de- 
grees, above and below. Over. 

01 52 40 P It also oscillates in and out. Sometimes the line is 

tight and other times it is not. 

01 53 52 p When I look over to the right side, I have the sen- 

sation that - 



FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY 



Page 12 - 



FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY 



01 54 15 CC This is Kano, how do you read? Over. 

Ol 54 17 P Hello, Kano. Aurora 7. Loud and clear. How me? 

01 54 32.5 CC Aurora 7, Aurora 7, this is Kano. How do you read^ 

Over, 

01 54 37 P Hello Kano, loud and clear. How me? 

01 54 52 CC Aurora 7, Aurora 7, this is Kano. How do you read? 

Over . 

01 54 59 P Kano, this is Aurora 7. Reading you loud and clear. 

How me? 

01 55 04 CC Aurora 7, Kano Cap Com. What is your status? Over. 

01 55 08.5 P Roger. >ty status is good, fuel reads 51 and - and 

69, oxygen is 84 and 100, cabin pressure is holding 
good. All d-c and a-c power is good. The only thing 
of - to report regarding the flight plan is that fuel 
levels are lower than expected. My control mode now 
is ASCS, I expended my extra fuel in trying to orient 
after the night side, I think this is due to con- 
flicting requirements of the flight plan. I should 
have taken time to orient and then work with other 
items. I think that by remaining in automatic, I 
can keep - stop this excessive fuel consumption. And 
the balloon is sometimes visible and sometimes not 
visible, I haven't any idea where it is now, and there 
doesn't seem to - and it seems to wander with abandon 
back and forth, and that's all, Kano. 

01 56 44 CC Roger, Aurora 7, Will you give us a blood pressure 
check again . Over. 

01 56 49 P Roger, blood pressure is on the air. 

01 57 01 CC Aurora 7, how are you feeling? Your body temperature 

is up somewhat. How do you feel? Over. 



Roger. I feel fine. Last time around I - someone told 
me it was 102, I don't feel, you know, like I'm that 
hot. Cabin temperature is 101, I'm reading 101, and 
the suit temperature Indicates 74, 



FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY 



Page 12 - 36 
KNO-2 



FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY 



01 57 38.5 CC Are you perspiring any? 

01 57 41.5 P Slightly, on my forehead. 

01 57 50 P Since turning down the suit water valve, the suit 

steam vent temperature has climbed slightly - am 
increasing from one to two at this time. This should 
bring it down. The cabin steam vent temperature has 
built back up to 40, 

01 58 27.5 CC Roger, Aurora 7, everything looks okay now. We seem to 

have lost the body temperature readings from previous 
stations. We are reading 102 right now, but as long 
as you feel okay right now. 

01 58 42 p Roger, I feel fine. 

01 58 46 CC Can you see anything of the Gulf of Guinea? 

01 58 49.5 P Roger, I just - just passed the coast line and I am 

over a solid cloud cover at this time. 

01 59 05 CC Roger, Aurora 7. Would you care to send a greeting 

to the people of Nigeria? 

01 59 09 p Roger, please send my greetings and best wishes of me 

and my countrymen to all Africans. Over. 

01 59 21 CC Roger, thank you very much. I'm sure it will be 

appreciated. Over. 

01 59 24.5 P Roger. 

01 59 54.5 CC Aurora 7, Kano. Are we still in contact? Over. 

01 59 57.5 P Say again, Kano. 

01 59 59 CC Roger. Would you repeat in a few words why you 

thought the fuel usage was great? Over. 

02 00 06 P I expended it on - by manual and fly-by-wire thruster 

operation on the dark side, and just approaching 
sunrise. I think that I can cut down the fuel con- 
sumption considerably on the second and third orbits. 
Over . 

02 00 32 CC Roger, understand. Over. 



FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY 



Page 12 - 37 



FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY KNO-ZZB-2 

02 do 43.5 CC Have you started your night adaptation? Over. 

02 00 46 P Roger. 

02 01 08 CC Aurora 7» Kano. Just for your own inf ormtion, the 

250 inverter is on ISO degrees right noWo Over» 

02 01 18 P Say again, please, 

02 01 21 CC Over. 

02 02 43.5 P At this time; oh-h, this doggone - food bag is a 

problem, 

02 03 00 P Actually, the focd bag is not & problem^ the food inside 

it is. It's crumbled, I dare not open the bag for 
fear the crumbs will get all through the capsule. 

02 03 43 P Things are very quiet. 

ZANZIBAR 

02 04 03.5 P Roger, Zanzibar^ loud and clear. Ho'w do you read 

Aurora 7? 

02 04 17 CT Aurora 7,^ Aurora 7, this is Zanzibar Com Tech, trans- 

mitting on HF/UHF. Do you copy? Over. 

02 04 26 P Rogers loud and clear. How me, Zanzibar? 

02 04 31 CT Aurora 7, .4urora 7^ this is Zanzibar Cap Com, Read you 

weak, but readable. Do you hav® a short report for 
us? 

02 04 38.5 P Roger,, my status is good, the capsule status is good, 

my control mode is automatic, gyros are normal, 
maneuver is off. Control fuel is 51 and 69, oxygen is 
82 and 100. That's about all except I have, so far, 
been unable to get my suit steam vent temperature 
down much below 70. Steam vant, or the water control 
valve setting at this time is 4 at the prelaunch mark. 
It may be too high, turning it off at this time and 
going to three, which is where the cabin is set = Over. 

02 05 40 CC Aurora 7, Zanzibar Cap Com, Roger » Roger. Do you have the 

latest - contingency area times? 



FOR OFFICIAL USE 0!«LY 



Page]2 - 38 
ZZB-IOS-2 

02 05 49 P 
02 05 51 CC 

02 05 55 P 

02 06 13 CC 

02 06 25.5 P 

02 06 39.5 CC 

02 06 44.5 P 

02 06 50.5 P 



02 07 29.5 CC 

02 07 38 p 

02 07 41.5 CC 

02 07 43.5 P 

02 07 48 CC 

02 07 50.5 P 

02 07 54.5 CC 



FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY 



Roger, I have them. 

Very good. Are you going to start your balloon test? 

The balloon is out. I don't see any reason for not 
leaving it on through the dark side, and I just saw 
a particle going by at about two or three feet per 
second. 

Roger, understand. According to flight plan, you're 
supposed to go to FBW about now and he says you're 
on auto mode and I wondered if you plan to go through 
with this. Over. 

That Is negative. I think that the fact that I'm low 
on fuel dictates that I stay on auto as long as the 
fuel consumption on automatic is not excessive. Over. 

Roger, Aurora 7. Congratulations on your trip so far 
and I'm glad everything has gone — . 

Thank you very much. 

I now have the wide, blue horizon band. It looks to 
be, at this time Capsule elapsed 207, to be about the 
diameter underneath the sun. It seems to be the same 
thickness underneath the sun as the sun's diameter. 
North and south it becomes less distinct and lighter. 
It extends up farther from the horizon. 

Roger, Aurora 7, that's a hard one to pronounce, any- 
thing that we can do for you . 

Negative. I think everything is going quite well. 

Roger, we'll be waiting. Out. 

Roger. See you next time. 

INDIAN OCEAN SHIP 

Aurora 7, this is Indian Ocean Ship. Over, 

Roger, Indian Cap Com. Loud and clear. How me? 

Roger, loud and clear. We have had transmitter trouble 
on your previous run. We Just got a message from the 

Cape , to conserve fuel, I monitored part of your 

transmission to Zanzibar and understand — - the 
situation. 



FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY 



FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY 



Page 32 - 
IOS-2 



02 08 12.5 P That is Roger. 

02 08 14.5 CC Do you have retrosequence times for 2 Delta, 2 Echo 

and Golf? 

02 08 19 P That is negative. I have the nominals. 

02 08 23.5 CC Roger. 2 Delta and 2 Echo are still nominal. Area 

Golf is 03 00 29, 03 00 29. 

02 08 35 F Roger. 03 00 29. 

02 08 39 CC Roger, Aurora 7, I read you loud and clear. Do you 

have any comments for the — Ocean? 

02 08 46.5 P That is Roger. I believe we may have some automatic 

mode difficulty. Let me check fly-by -wire a minute. 

02 09 07 P All thrusters are okay. 

02 09 11 CC Roger. 

02 09 17.5 P However, the gyros do not seem to be indicating pro- 

perly. 

02 09 25.5 CC Roger. 

02 09 27 P And that is not correct either. The gyros are - are 

okay, but on ASCS standby, it may be an orientation 
problem. I'll orient visually and - see if that will 
help out the ASCS problem. 

02 10 11.5 CC Aurora 7 from Indian Cap Com. Your blood pressure on 

your fairly high and you are supposed to, if pos- 
sible, give a blood pressure over Indian Ocean Ship. 

02 10 23.5 P Roger. I've put blood pressure up on the air already. 

Over . 

02 10 29.5 CC Say again, Aurora. 

02 10 31 P Blood pressure is on the air now. 

02 10 35 CC .Roger. 

02 10 40 S Blood pressure is coming through fine. 

02 10 42.5 CC Your blood pressure is coming through fine . 

FOR OFFICIAL USE (»ILY 



Page]2 - kO 
IOS-2 



FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY 



02 10 44.5 P Roger. 

°^ ^° 5^ CC Aurora 7, this is Indian Cap Com. We have lost tele- 

metry contact. How do you read me? Over. 

°2 11 04,5 P Roger. Still reading you okay. 

02 11 07.5 CC — - Report to Cape you have checked fly-by-wire and all 

thrusters are okay. Is there anything else? 

P That is negative. Except this problem with steam vent 

temperature. I'm going - I'll open the visor a mir.ute, 
that'll cool - it seems cooler with the visor open. 

02 11 26 CC Roger. Did you take xylose? 

02 11 28.5 P That is negative. I will do so now. 

02 11 35 CC Roger. 

02 11 45 CC Aurora 7, confirm you've checked fly-by-wire, and all 
thrusters okay. 

^'■•^ P Fly-^y -wire is checked, all thrusters are okay. 

02 11 56 CC Roger. 

CC Aurora 7, Indian Ocean Cap Com. I do not read your 

transmission . 

^2 P Roger. Indian Cap Com, Aurora 7. 

02 12 35.5 CC Out. 

^^-^ ^ Well, t have - I am in record only, and 1 am getting 

warm now. 

^5 P Don't know what to do with the cabin. 

^5 P I'll turn it up and see what happens. 

02 16 04.5 P I have gotten badly behind in the flight plan now. 

°^ ^ Okay, evaluating capsule stability at this time. Ihe 

capsule is most stable. 



FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY 



FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY 



Page 32 - kl 
IOS-MUC-2 



I seem able to put it at zero rates. Alright, I will 
do that now. At capsule elapsed 02 17 32 I will zero 
out all rates . 

That's as close to zero as I can make it. At 02 17 49 
my rates are zero and attitudes are zero plus, or at 
zero, minus 3, minus 48. Let those rest awhile, and 
I'll see what we can do about suit temperature. 

Cabin is rising, suit temperature seems to be rising, 
too. I'm going to let it go out until 2 25 to see if 
this is going to bring it down some. 

I don't need to exercise, I really don't feel I need 
the exercise. I would get too warm. 

We'll be getting to Mjche^ shortly. 

Have a slight pitch up rate at this time, at 02 19 13, 
I'll zero that out, now. Fly-by-wire - have a slight 
yaw left rate - I'll zero out now. Attitudes at this 
time are minus 30. 

Both busses are okay. All - let's see - number two 

battery is down to 22. One is 24, three is 24, stand- 
by one and two are 24, isolated is 27, main is 23, 
main IBU is 27. Two - two is now up. Main battery 
number two is up . 

I am over the dark side now. The moonrise has not oc- 
curred and although I still see the lighted area from 
the setting sun behind us . 

Now, I do have the haze layer at this time. It seems to 
be brighter than - It's good to open the cabin, open 
the visor . 

The reticle now extincts at about 5.6. 

MUCHEA 

Hello, Muchea Cap Com. Aurora 7 loud and clear. 
How me? 

Read you loud and clear also, what's your status? 



FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY 



Page 112 - k2 



""^-^ FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY 

02 23 28 P Roger. Ity status is good, control mode is fly-by-wire, 

gyros normal, maneuver off. Fuel is 45-6-70, that's' 
A5-70, and oxygen is 84-100. I have only one minor 
problem, and that is my inability to get the suit steam 
vent temperature down, Deke . 

02 23 56.5 CC Roger, what's it running now? 

02 23 58.5 P Well, I'm reading 70. I'm really a little at a loss 

as to how to get it down, my suit - water valve is 
set now past the marks. This doesn't seem to bring 
it down, and neither does putting it - negative, 
that's wrong. The cabin was past the marks. The 
suit temperature is at prelaunch value of about four. 
I'm going to go to a setting of plus 6 at this time 
and see if that will bring it down below 70. Over. 

02 24 40.5 CC Okay, fine. We're indicating 84 suit which is a bit 

high. 

02 24 44.5 P Roger. My gage shows 7, 76 on the suit. 

02 24 50 CC Rog. 

02 24 52 CC Okay, let me give you a couple of retrotimes here. 

You have a 2 Dog nominal. Gold is 03 29, Hotel 

04 32 26. 

02 25 10 P Roger, understand 26 . 

02 25 13.5 CC We're including your clock is still one second slow. 

02 25 18.5 P Roger. 

02 25 20 CC GMT hack of 15 10 42 - MARX. *(02 25 25 GET) 

25 26 P Roger, I'm right on and so is the backup. 

02 25 29.5 CC Roger, would you send us a blood pressure, please? 

02 25 33.5 P Starting, Roger, starting now. 

02 25 53.5 CC What mode of communications are you using at this time? 

* Editor's note 



FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY 



FOR OFFICIAL USE OHLY 



Page 12 - 43 
MUC-2 



02 


25 


58.5 


P 


I am on UHF high, Deke , 


02 


26 


01 


CC 


Fine, Roger. Would you try using your mike button once 
instead of your VOX. See how this comes in. 


02 


26 


05 .5 


p 


Roger. Soon as I get through the blood pressure. I 
can do it now. 


02 


26 


11.5 


P 


This is using the puefe to talk, 1,2,3.4,5,4,3,2,1. 
How now ? 


02 


26 


18 


CC 


I see no difference. They're identical. 


02 


26 


20 


p 


Roger, is the modulation pretty good? 


02 


26 


23 


CC 


Very good . 


02 


26 


24 


p 


Roger . 


02 


26 


26 


p 


Capsule stability, Deke, is very, very, good. I've 
noticed that I can put in a one degree per second rate 
on the needle just by moving heads and arms, - my head 
and arms . Over . 










Very good, excellent. For your inforniation, there will 
be no flares at Woomera on this pass since tbe cloud 




















Okay I'm going to send you a Z cal at this time. 




















mark! 


02 


27 


15.5 


CC 


Z cal is coming off. 


02 


27 


17.5 


p 


Roger . 


02 


27 


18.5 


CC 


On with R cal . 


02 


27 


20 


p 


Roger . 


02 


27 


33 


p 


B>lood pressure stop. 



FOR OFFICIAL USE (HILY 



Page 32 - hk 
MDC-2 



FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY 



02 27 34.5 


CC 


Blood pressure stop. Okay, vje're going to oscillate 
R cal a couple of times here in attempt to reset our 
temperature problem. 


02 27 41.5 


P 


Roger . 


02 27 47 


CC 


Okay, R cal off. We suggest you go to manual at this 
point and preserve your auto fuel. Low at this point 


02 27 53.5 


p 


Roger.. Goint to manual now. 


02 27 57 


CC 




02 28 00.5 


p 


At this time I'm reading 45-70 on fuel. 


02 28 04.5 


CC 


Rog. Understand 45-70. 


02 28 07 


p 


Cabin temperature is 107 . 


02 20 10.5 


CC 


Cabin 107. 


02 23 17.5 


cc 


I don't believe you've ever received any sunrise sun- 
set times. 


02 28 23 


p 


Roger, give me the whole lot of them, Deke, or the ones 
that are coming. Give me rise set and rise 


02 28 32 


cc 


RO£er . Will Ari Vmi-r riAvt- ^ttv*-v1 1 1 Ifc* rt** ■ cn r^n 

"'^o^'- • rt-Li-j. uu . xour nexc sunrise will oe OZ 50 00. 


02 28 40 


p 


Roger. Copy. 


02 28 41.5 


cc 


Sunset 03 41 20. 


02 28 47 


p 


Roger . 


02 28 48.5 


cc 


Sunrise 04 19 00. 


02 28 54.5 


p 


Roger . Copy . 


02 28 59 


cc 


Well, it sounds like you're doing real well up there. 
Dad . 


02 29 01.5 


F 


Roger, it's a little warm. 


02 29 04 


cc 


I suspect so. 


02 29 09 


cc 


Been riding your horse the last couple of days. 



FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY 



FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY 



Page 02 
MDC-2 





29 




























02 


29 


33 . 


.5 


CC 


02 


29 


35 . 


.5 


cc 


02 


29 


38. 


,5 


p 


02 


29 


40 




cc 


02 


29 


41. 


,5 


p 


02 


29 


47. 


.5 


cc 


02 


29 


50. 


.5 


p 


02 


29 


57. 


.5 


cc 


02 


30 


05 . 


. 5 


cc 


02 


30 


09, 


.5 


p 


02 


30 


24 




cc 


02 


30 


27 




cc 


02 


30 


30 




p 


02 


30 


41 


.5 


cc 


02 


30 


44 


.5 


p 



Good. 

For your information, Cape informs that if we don't 
stay on manual for quite a spell here we'll pro- 
bably have to end this orbit. 

I'll be sure and stay on manual. 



You've got a lot of drift left here yet too. 
Say again. 

You've got drift capability left yet, too. 
Soger . 

Did you see any lights over the Australian ? 

I did - that is Roger, I did see some lights. I 
couldn't identify them, however. 

Roger, understand. 

Would you give us another readout on your suit steam 
temp? Has this changed any? 

It may have gone down just a tad. It's about zero nowj 
I mean about 70 now. It was a little bit higher. The 
visor is closed and I'm beginning to feel a little, 
cooler. 

Very good. 

We indicated 2 degree drop at suit inlet, so it sounds 
like you're making out a bit. 

Roger. My control mode now, Deke, is manual, gyros 
free, and the maneuver is off. 

Roger. I understand. Manual,, gyro free, and maneuver 

off. 



FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY 



Pagel2 - k6 
MUC-WOM-2 



FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY 



02 31 23.5 CC Aurora 7, this is Muchea Cap Com. Are you reading? 

02 31 26 P still reading, Machea . 

02 31 28 CC Very good. 

02 31 30 CC We are just kind of leaving you alone. How is your 

balloon doing, incidentally? 

02 31 33.5 P I haven't found it since it got dark. It's - it's - 

it rambles quite a bit, Deke . It's not inflated 
fully and it doesn't stretch out on the line tight 
like I expected. It bounces in and out and oscil- 
lates up and down and sideways. Have ho good ten- 
siometer readings yet. 



02 32 08 CC Aurora 7, Aurora 7, this is Woomera Cap Com. How do 

you read? Over. 

02 32 12 p Hello, Woomera, Aurora 7. Loud and clear. How me? 

02 32 17 CC Roger, You are loud and clear, also. 

02 32 20.5 CC We copied your transmission over Muchea. Understand 

you still have the balloon on. Is that an affirma- 
tive? 

P That is affirmative. I have the balloon on. However, 

I haven't seen it for some time. It wanders quite 
a bit and I do not have it in sight at this moment. 
I believe that - it might be visible against the 
earth background at this time. 

02 32 49 CC Roger. Do you see the moon at all? 

02 32 52 p I am faced the wrong way and limited in maneuvera- 

bility I have left because of my fuel state. I can 
see the terminator between moonlit side, and un- 
moonlit side. Over. 

02 33 08.5 CC Roger, understand, 

02 33 15 CC You are manual control. Is that right? 



FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY 



FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY 



Page 32 - kj 
WOM-2 



That is correct. My control mode is manual, gyres free, 
maneuver off. Over. 

Roger. Could you give us - could you give us cabin 
temperature? 



02 


33 


31 


.5 


P 


Roger. Cabin temperature is 102 at this time. 


02 


33 


37 




CC 


Roger. What Is the suit temperature? 


02 


33 


41 




P 


Okay, standby. 


02 


33 


49 


.5 


P 


Suit temperature is 74, suit steam exhaust is 71. 


02 


33 


58 


.5 


CC 


Roger, understand. Are you feeling a little more 



comfortable at this time? 

I don't know. I'm istill warm and still perspiring, 
but not really uncomfortable. I would like to - I 
would like to nail thiis suit temperature problem down. 
It - for all practical purposes, it's uncontrollable 
as far as I can see . 



02 34 26.5 CC Roger, understand. You might have to wait a few more 

minutes before this takes effect. You are on No . 6 
Is that right? 



02 


34 


34 


P 


That is right. Suit temperature is No. 6. 


02 


34 


39 


CC 


Roger. Systems reports that your suit temperature 
dropped two degrees over station, if that's any 
encouragement to you. 


02 


34 


44.5 


P 


Roger, thank you, it is. 


02 


34 


46.5 


CC 


Roger . 


02 


34 


50 


CC 


Have you taken any food thus far? 


02 


34 


53 


P 


Yes, I have. However, the food has crumbled badly. 



and I hate to open the package anymore for fear of 
getting crumbs all over the capsule. I can verify 
that eating bite-size food as we packaged for this 



flight is no problem at all. Even the crumbly foods 
are eaten th no, with no problem. 



FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY 



Page 32 - kQ 
WOM-CTN-2 



02 35 20 


CC 


02 35 22.5 


p 


02 35 37 


cc 


02 35 43 


p 


02 35 45 


cc 


02 37 11 


p 


02 37 32.5 


p 


02 38,J)6>S 


p 


Q2 38 30 


p 


02 39 35 


p 



02 40 57.5 P 

im 41 31 P 

; ,02 4;3 39.5 P 

^,02 43 44.5 cc 

02 43 51 P 



FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY 



Roger. How about water? 

I had taken four swallows at approximately this time 
lasc orbit. As soon as I get the suit temperature - 
pegged a little bit, I'll open the visor and have 
some more water . Over . 

Roger. You are still coming in very loud and clear, 

Roger 

out at this time. 

For the record now - 

One of the labels for a fuse switch has slipped out, 
and sideways, and has tied the adjoining fuse switch 
together with it. This happened to emergency main 
and reserve deploy fuse switches. 

I caged the gyros. They are too critical. I will try 
and navigate on the dark side without the gyros. 

The fuse switch label should be glued in better so that 
turning off one fuse does not turn off the adjoining 

I guess I'd better try to get that xylose pill cut. I 
hate to do this . 

Oh yes. There is the xylose pill. It didn't melt. 
All the rest of the stuff in here did melt. 

Okay, xylose pill being consumed at 02 41 35. The 
rest of the food is pretty much of a mess. Can't 
stand this cabin temperature „ 

CANTON 

Hello, Canton Com Tech. Aurora 7 reads you loud and 
clear . How me? 

This is Canton Cap Com. Read you loud and clear. 
Could you begin your short report, please? 

Roger, George. My control mode is manual. The gyros 
are caged, maneuver is off. Fuel is 45 and 64, a 
little ahead of schedule. Oxygen reads 82-100. 



FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY 



FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY 



Page 112 - 1+9 
CTN-2 



Steam vent temperature in the suit is dropping slightly. 
It's a little below 70. Cabin is 46. Suit temperature 
has dropped to about 71 now. All the power is good, 
and here is a blood pressure. Over. 

Okay, standing by for blood pressure. 

We are receiving the blood pressure check. Over. 

Roger . 

Do you plan on eating as called for by . Over. 

I did have the visor open a short time ago for the 
xylose pill. All of the rest of the food that I 
have aboard has either crumbled or melted. It's 
unusable in its present state so I think the xylose 
pij.1 will constitude my last zero g meal. However, 
the first one, before the food crumbled, was quite 
easy. It's no problem to eat this bite-size food - 
in a weightless state. I also drank some water at 
that time, which was no problem. 

Roger. I take it, from what you said then, that you 
have confirmed that your faceplate is closed for 
the decision on the third orbit. 

That is correct, my faceplate is closed. Also, what 
is the trend of my cabin pressure on the ground? 
Over. 

Stand by, please. 

We are checking on your request there, Scott. Could 
you hit that button again? We lost your ERG. 

Crti, you want blood pressure or ERG? 

No, we lost the ERG. Possibly you could press on 

those sensors. Okay, Surgeon informs me that the ERG 
is now returning. Your other question, cabin pressure 
is staying at 5 1 approximately. 

Roger. No change in reading since launch. Is that 
corifect? 



FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY 



Page32 - 50 
CTN-2 



FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY 



02 46 40 CC Negative on that. It's gone from 5.8 at launch to 

approximately 5.1 in veryj very gradual descending 
trend. 

02 46 52 p Roger. My cabin pressure indicator is reading 4.8 at 

this time. 

02 47 02 CC Roger, 1 have no comment on this, just that the trend 

appears to be good here on the ground. 

02 47 09 . 5 P Roger . 

02 47 16.5 CC Do you have any specific comments on your balloon 

experiments; for example, the best color contrast 
with the <, 

02 47 36.5 P Yes, I would say the day-glow orange is the best. 

02/47 41 CC Roger. For your informations the second sunrise 

should be expected in approximately three to four 
lainutes . 

02 47 47.5 P Roger, thank you. 

02 47 50.5 CC Everything continues to look very good here on the 

ground. I've got a reading here on the ground for 
cabin pressure. This is for your information, is 
4.8. Now this does take the trend that has been 
set up considerably. The suit pressure comes in 
at 4.9. 

02 48 10 P Roger. 

02 48 14 CC We find now that the - the O2 partial pressure is 

fluctuating slightly, and the --- hanging around 
4.2. 

02 48 26.5 CC Did you ---? 

02 48 29.5 CC O2 partial pressure is fluctuating --- 4.2. Over. 

02 48 35 P Roger, copied, George j thank you, 

02 48 39 CC As I said before, everything looks very good here. 

Surgeon is after me here for you to try another 
blood pressure. Is this convenient? 



FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY 



FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY 



Pagel2 - 51 
CTIf-HAW-2 



02 48 47.5 P Negative. I won't be able to hold still for it now. 

I've got the sunrise to worry about. 

02 48 52.5 CC Okay, Roger. We have no further queries. If you 

have any comments we'll be listening down here. 

02 49 00 ? Negative. I have a beautiful sunrise through the 

window. I'll record it so you can see it. 



02 49 07.5 CC Aurora 7, Aurora 7, Hawaii Com Tech. How do you read 

me? Over. 

02 49 12.5 P Roger, Hawaii, Aurora 7. Loud and clear. How me? 

02 49 17.5 CG Aurora 7, this is Cap Com. Can you give me a short 

report, please. 

02 49 22 P Roger. My control mode is manual, gyros caged, 

maneuver off. Stand by one. My status is good and 
the capsule status is good. I want to get some 
pictures of the sunrise. Over. 



02 


49 


37 


.5 


CC 


Roger, Give me the short report first. 


02 


49 


40 




P 


Roger. Fuel is 45-62. Over. 


02 


49 


48 




CC 


Roger. 45 and 62 . 


02 


49 


50 


.5 


p 


Roger . 


02 


50 


31 




CC 


Aurora 7. Did you drink over Canton, did you drink 
any water over Canton? 


02 


50 


36 




p 


That is negative. I will do, shortly. 


02 


50 


40. 


,5 


CC 


Roger, Sir John feels that this is advisable. 


02 


50 


44. 


,5 


p 


Roger . 


02 


50 


45. 


5 


CC 


Do you have an auto fuel warning light? 


02 


50 


48 




p 


That is right. I have reported it and I believe I 



reported it a long time ago. It is covered with 
tape at the moment . 



FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY 



Page 02 - 52 
HAW-2 



FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY 



02 50 59 CC Rog.:r. 

02 51 24.5 CC Aurora 7, Aurora 7, Cap Com. Cape Flight advises 

me that we - that they expected the cabin to do 
such . 



02 


51 


31.5 


P 


Roger , thank you . 




02 


51 


34 


CC 


temperature exhaust 


steam exhaust? 


02 


51 


39 


P 


Roger. Suit exhaust is 70. 


Cabin exhaust is 49. 


02 


51 


46 


CC 


Roger , 




02 


52 


20.5 


CC 


Aurora 7, This is Cap Com. 


Would like for you to 



turn to gyros normal and see what kind of indication 
we have, whether or not your window view agrees with 
your gyres „ 



02 52 34 P Roger, Wait one „ 

02 52 47 P I have some more of the white particles in view below 

the capsule. They appear to be traveling exactly 
my speed. There is or^e drifting off. It's going 
faster than I am as s matter of fact. 

02 53 11.5 CC Roger, understand. 

02 53 15 P I haven't seen the great numbers of these particles, 

but I've seen ai few of them. Their motion is ran- 
dom; they look exactly like snowf lakes to me. 

02 53 29 CC Roger. Have you tried returning -- . 

02 53 33 P Negeitive. Le me get within scanner limits first. 

02 53 39 CC Say again. 

02 53 40 P I must adjust my attitude, tc within scanner limits 

first . 



There were some more of those - little particles. 
Ti-iey definitely look like snowf lakes this time. 



FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY 



Page 32 - 53 

FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY HAW-CAL-2 



02 


54 


26 




CC 


Roger, understand, your particles look like definite 
snowf lakes . 


02 


54 


32 




P 


However - 


02 


54 


33 


.5 


CC 


Can we get a blood pressure from you, Scott? 


02 


54 


34 


.5 


P 


Roger. Blood pressure - start - now. 1 have the 
balloon - now - pretty steadily below me, not os- 
cillatingo And go to gyros normal. Gyros normal 

now. 


02 


55 


07 


.5 


CC 


Roger. TM indicates your - zero pitch. 


02 


55 


15 




CC 


LOS, Scott, we've had LOS. Can you read me? Over. 
CALIFORNIA 


02 


58 


16 




CT 


Aurora 7, Aurora 7, this is California Com Tech, 
California Com Tech, Do you hear me? Over. 


02 


58 


22 


.5 


P 


Hello, Cal Com Tech, Aurora 7. Loud and clear. 
How me? 


02 


58 


45 




CT 


Aurora 7, Aurora 7, this is California Com Tech, 
California Com Tech. Do you hear? Over. 


02 


58 


51 


.5 


p 


Hello, California Com Tech, Aurora 7. Loud and clear. 

How rae? 


02 


58 


56 




CT 


We're reading you loud and clear, also. Stand by for 
Cap Com . 














02 


59 


06 


.5 


CC 


Aurora 7, California, How do you read? 


02 


59 


09 


.5 


P 


Hello, Al, loud and clear. Hov.' ..a 7 


02 


59 


12 


.5 


CC 


You're loud and clear, Scotty. Short report. 


02 


59 


16 


.5 


P 


Roger. Control mode is manual, gyros normal, maneuver 



off. Fuel is 45-50. Balloon is out. Oxygen 81-100. 
And my status is good. The capsule status is good, 
except I 'm unable to get a reasonable suit steam 
exhaust temperature. Still reading 70. Over. 



Page]2 - 3k 
CAL-2 

02 59 42 CC 

02 59 52.5 P 

02 59 55 CC 

02 59 58 P 

03 00 00 CC 
03 00 12 P 
03 00 15 CC 



03 00 38 P 

03 00-49.5 CC 

03 00 55.5 P 

03 01 06 CC 

03 01 09.5 P 

03 01 11 CC 

03 01 25 CC 

03 01 26.5 P 

03 01 29 CC 

03 01 35 P 

03 01 52.5 CC 



FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY 



Roger, seems to me as long as suit inlet is going 
down that you could continue to increase flow until 
you feel comfortable. 

Roger , 

Understand you're GO for orbit three. 
I am - Roger, I am GO for orbit three. 
Seven, this is California. 
Go, California. 

General Kraft is still some\rtut concerned about auto 
fuel. Use as little auto, use no auto fuel unless 
you have to prior to retrosequence time. And I 
think maybe you might increase flow to your inverter 
heat exchanger, to try to bring the temperature 
down. They are not critical yet, however. 

Roger, I have gone from 4 to 5 on the inverter at this 
time. And I think I'll in(;rease just a tad on the 
suit. 

Roger. You're sounding good here. Give you a period 
of quiet while 1 send Z and R cal. 

Roger . 

Seven, this is California sending Z cal on my mark. 

Roger . 

One, MARK. 

Z cal off. 

Roger 

Stand by for R cal 3,2,1. 

All right now, I'm beginning to get all of those 
various particles, they - they're way out. I can 
see some that are a hundred feet out . 

Roger, R cal off. 



FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY 



FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY 



Page 32 

CAI^2 



03 01 55.5 P They all look like snowf lakes to me. No don't - they 

do not glow of their own accord. 

03 02 12 CC Roger, Seven. Do you - have you perspire or have 

you stopped perspiring at the moment? 

03 02 20 P No, I'm still perspiring, Al , I think I'll open up 

the visor and take a drink of water. 

03 02 27 CC Roger. Sounds like a good idea. 

03 02 42 CC Seven, would you give us a blood pressure, please, in 

between swallows . 

03 03 27 P Okay, there's your blood pressure. I took about 20 

swallows of water. Tasted pretty good. 

03 03 38 CC Roger, Seven. We're sure of that, we're getting 

Alpha times and - Hotel. Yqu have Hotel, I know. 
How about 3 Alpha? 

03 03 48 P Roger, and MARK now a tensiometer r«ading. It's as 

tight as I've seen the string. Mark another ten- 
siometer reading. 



03 


03 


59 


CC 


Roger, we have those. 


03 


04 


01 


P 


Now say again your last question. 


03 


04 


06 


CG 


Do you have 3 Alpha of 03 11 OQt 


Of 


0^ 


12 


P 


03 11 00, 


03 


04 


16 


CC 


That is correct . 


03 


04 


22 


P 


Roger, copied. 


03 


04 


45 


CC 


Seven, this is California. Dp you still read? 


03 


04 


47 


P 


Roger, loud and clear. 


03 


04 


50 


CC 


Roger, we have no further inquiries. See you next 
time. 


03 


04 


53 


P 


Roger « 



FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY 



Page 32 - 56 

^^-^ FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY 

GUAYMAS 



03 05 11 


CC 


Aurora 7, Guaymas Cap Com. 


03 05 13 


P 


Hello, Guaymas . Go ahead. 


03 05 15 


CC 


Roger, we're reading you loud and clear. We'd like 
to conduct a wobulator test here. We use White 
Sands whenever you give us the word. 


03 05 23 


p 


Roger, I have one, it's the yaw gyro on the stop at 
this time. 


03 05 31 


CC 


Is your wobulator on now? 


03 05 33 


p 


Yes, the wobulator is on. 


03 05 35.5 


CC 


Roger . 


03 05 43 


CC 


What was that on your yaw? 


03 05 45.5 


p 


I have the yaw needle on the 250 stop. 


03 05 50.5 


CC 


Roger . 


03 05 52.5 


p 


I will not cage until after I get rid of the balloon 
and then I can start a slow yaw to the left to pick 
it off the stop. 


03 06 04 


CC 


Roger . 


03 06 12 


CC 


Roger, can you turn your wobulator on now and leave 
it on? 


03 06 15.5 


p 


Roger, it has been on and I haven't touched it. 


03 06 19 


CC 


Roger, understand. 


03 06 20.5 


p 


Do you want it off? 


03 06 24 


CC 


Roger , On and off in approxiniately 20 second intervals 


03.06 29 


p ' 


Okay, wobulator going off - NOW. 


01 06 38 


CC 


Roger, we're relaying this. 



FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY 



FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY 



Page 32 
GMY-2 



03 06 46.5 ^ Ar 1 a position to do a three sixty roll for them 

at tills time? 

03 06 51 CC Your 00 yav;, you do have a yaw input in. 

03 06 57 ? Could ve do this three sixty roll on this pass at 

l;hite Sands? 



FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY 



Page 22 - 58 



cifv-3 




FOR OFFICIAL USE OWHC 
CAPE CAKAVERAL 


03 07 12.5 


cc 


Aurora 7, Cape Cap Com. 


03 07 15 


p 


Roger, Cape. loud and clear and break, break. 
Guaymas, the wobulator is back on now. 


03 07 2U.5 


p 


Roger, Cape, go ahead. 


03 07 26.5 


cc 


Roger, Aurora 7, Cape Cap Com back on HF. Give 
me jovLT report. 


03 07 32 


p 


Roger. Control mode manual, gyros noimal, the 
maneuver switch is off. Fuel is k^-k^, oxygen 
is 70, or, correction, oxygen is 80 and 100. 
Suit temperature is 68 now and coming dowi pretty 
well. Suit steam vent temperature is 69 and 
beginning to be a little more confortable. Over. 


03 08 12 


cc 


Roger., and how do you feel, now? 


03 08 15 


p 


I feel pretty good. Still warn. 


03 08 18 


cc 


Okay, sounds like you'll be alright. 


03 08 23 


cc 


Did you - your noimal balloon release time will 
be 3 plus 34, Scott? 


03 08 28,5 


p 


3 plus 3k, Roger. 


03 08 31 


cc 


Roger, can you describe the balloon and its actions 
a U.ttle to us. 



03 08 35 p Yes, it has a random drift. There is no oscillation 

that I can predict whatsoever. The - the line lead- 
ing to the balloon sometimes is tight, sometimes is 
loose - loose enougfa, so that there are loops in it. 
Its - its behaviour is strictly random as far as I 
can tell. The balloon is not inflated well either. 
It's an oblong shape out there, rather than a round 
figure, and I believe \dien the sun is on it, the 
* day glow orange is the most brilliant, and the 
silver. That's about all I can tell you, Gus, 

03 09 28.5 CC Roger. Sui^eon suggests that you drink as much water 

as you can. Drink it as often as you can. 



FOR GiPFICIAL USE OTSU 



FOR OFFICIAL USE OHLT 



Page 12 - 
CHV-3 



03 09 38.5 


P 


Roger. 


03 09 ho 


cc 


Retrosequence times for area 3 B and 3 C are nominal. 


03 09 h3.^ 


p 


3 B and 3 C nominal. Roger. 


03 09 50-5 


cc 


And we reconnaend you go to noisal on your gyros vlth 
the maneuver switch off* 


03 09 55 


p 


Roger, the gyros are noimal and the Bwneuver switch 
is off. 


03 09 59.5 


cc 


Roger. 


03 10 11.5 


cc 


Woiild you give us your - your temperature control vain 
settings, please? 


03 10 20 


p 


Boger, suit is T«5^ calsin is about 10. That's ID on 
the cahin and 5 on the inverters. Over. 


03 10 35 


cc 


Roger. 


03 10 57.5 


cc 


Standby for Z cal. 


03 10 39.5 


p 


Roger, standing by. 


03 10 h6 


cc 


R cal. 


03 10 53.5 


p 


Mart a tensiometer reading. It's as tight as I've - 
as it ^ts. 


03 n 29.5 


cc 


Aurora 7, Cap Com. 


03 11 32 


p 


Go ahead. Cap Com. 


03 11 33.5 


cc 


- drifting flight yet? 


03 11 35 


p 


Say again. 


03 11 36.5 


cc 


Have you done any drifting flight? 


03 11 38.5 


p 


That is Roger, and if I am to save fuel for retro- 
sequence I think I better start again. Over. 


03 11 ^9 


cc 


Roger, I agree vlth you. 



FOR OFFICIAL USE OHLT 



Page 32 - 60 
CNV-3 



FOR OFFICIAL USE OHLY 



03 11 52 P My control mode is now manual, gyros are caged and I 

will allow the capsule to drift for a little lAile. 

03 12 Oh CC Roger, and John suggests you try to look back, towaids 

the darkness, at sunrise to see liiose particles. 

03 12 llf P - Toward the daikness 

03 12 16 CC Roger, at sunrise, try to look toward the darkness. 

03 12 18.5 P Okay, I have done that, and - and - tell him no joy. 

03 12 24 CC Roger. 

03 12 36.5 CC Aurora 7, are you in drifting flight? 

03 12 38.5 P That is Roger. 

03 12 J+O.5 CC Roger. 

03 12 k6*3 P I am looking down almost vertically. It's possible 
to distinguish, I believe, k separate cloud layers. 

03 12 57.5 CC Understand. 

03 13 07 P Balloon - I'll maneuver enough to get the balloon out 

in trail so I can photograph its departuiw. 

03 13 35.5 CC Roger, 

03 13 55 P I, insldently, have those little particles visible 

in the periscope at this time. 

03 ih 05 CC Roger, understand the periscope. 

03 ik 22.5 CC Aurora 7, Cap Ccm. 

03 Ik 2k P Roger, go ahead. 

03 l^t- 26.5 CC We're still fairly happy with your fuel state no». 

Don't let - we'd like for you not to let either on 
get down below ko percent. 

1^ 33 P Soger, I'll try. I have balloon jettison on and off, 

and I can't get rid of it. 



FOB OFFICIAL JJSE ONU 



FOR OFFICIAL USE Omi 



Page 12 - 61 
ClIV-CYI-3 



03 Ik hi 


cc 


Understand that you can't get rid of the balloon. 


03 1** ^3.5 


p 


That's right. It will not Jettison. 


03 1^ ^.5 


cc 


Okay. 


03 15 19 


cc 


Aurora J, Cap Com. 


03 15 21.5 


p 


Go ahead. Cap Com. 


03 15 23 


cc 


Give us your hlood pressure and fuel reading. 


03 15 26 


p 


Okay. Fuel is 45-42. Blood pressure on the air. 


03 15 32 


cc 


Bog. 


03 15 58 


p 


I have the particles visible still. They're streaming 
aft, but in an arc of maybe a 120 or 30 degrees. 


03 16 16.5 


cc 


Aurora 7; Cap Com. Say again. 


03 16 19 


p 


Roger, I have these particles drifting aft again, but 
they do not parallel the line to the ballooi; exactly. 
They didft aft within an arc of maybe 120 to 130 
degrees . 


03 16 36 


cc 


Roger. 


03 16 1^1 


cc 


Aurora 7, Cap Com. Can you give us a comment on the 
zero g experiment? 


03 16 ;3.5 


p 


Eoger. At this moment, the fluid is all gathered 
around the standpipe, the standpipe appears to te 
full and idle fluid outside the standpipe is about 
halfway up. There is a rather large maniscus. I'd 
say about 60° maniscus. 


03 17 27.5 


cc 


Aurora 7, Cap Com. Repeat as much of your last message 
as you can. 


03 17 32 


p 


Roger. The standpipe is full of the fluid. The fluid 
is halfway up the outside of the standpipe - a 
rather large maniscus, on angle of about 60 degrees. 
Over. 

CAMRY 


03 20 31 


GC 


Aurora 7, Aurora 7, this is Canary Cap Com on KF. Do 
you read? Over, 



FOR OFFICIAL USE OWIZ 



PageOS - 62 



^^^-3 FOE OFFICIAL USE ONIY 

03 21 00 p Hello, hello, Canary Cap Com, Aurora J. Reading you 

loud and clear, HP. Transmitting EF. How do you 
read? Over. 

03 21 32.5 CC Aurora 7, this is Canary Cap Com on HF. Do you read? 

Over, 

03 21 ^.5 p Roger, Canary Gap Com. Reading you loud and clear, 

HF, How me? Over. 

03 22 04 P These pictures of the - small groups of closely-knit 

clouds are south of Canary, third orhit. 

03 22 it8.5 P This must be crossing ITCV. I have never seen weather 

quite like this. 

03 22 3h CC This is Canary Cap Com on EF. Do you receive? Over, 

03 23 36.5 CC Aurora 7, this is Canary Cap Ccan. We had no trans- 

missions from you. This is Canary Islands, signing out. 

03 24 33 P I have the Voasmeter out at this time. 

03 2k 53 P Hello. 

03 25 01 p Hello, Canary Cap Com, Aurora 7. Reading you loud 

and clear. How me? 

03 25 08 CC Auroi-a 7, this is Canary Cap Com. Do you read? Over. 

03 25 12.5 P Go ahead Canary. Reading you loud and clear. 

03 25 18.5 P I am goii^ - I am in the record only position now. I 

think the best answer to the autokinesis - is that 
there is none. I noticed none - and I tend to aline 
the horizontal with my head - it - a horizontal line 
under zero g is a line paraUed to the line drawn 
between your eyes. I don't get autokinesis. I don't 
get - now wait a minute maybe I'm beginning to. 

03 26 P I should remark that at 3 26 33, I have in the sky, at 

any time, 10 particles. They no doubt appear to glow 
to me. They appeared to be little pieces of frost. 
However, some appear to be way, way far away. There 
are two - that look like they might be a hundred 
yards away. I haven't operated the thruster not for 
some time. Here are two in closer. Now a densiometer 



FOR OFFICIAL USE OKU 



Page la - 63 



FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY 



reading on these that are in close. Extinct at 
5,5, tiie elapsed time is 3 27 39. I am unable to 
see any stars in the black sky at this time. 
HoweTer, these little snowflakes are clearly 
visible, 

03 28 13 P The cabin temperature has droped considerable now, 

and the setting I have on the suit is J. 

03 28 20.5 P Am going to increase it just a tad more. 

03 28 to P 1^ suit valve, water valve temperature now is - 

about 8. 

03 28 53 P Hello, hello, Kano Cap Com, Aurora ?• Reading you 

loud and clear- Eow me? 

03 29 2i^ P I've noticed that every time I turn over to the 

right everything seems vertical, but 1 am upside down. 

03 29 3k P How, for the record. 

03 29 ^^3. 5 P I still feel idiat, I could easily feel like I am 

coming in on my back. 

03 30 03 P I eoiild very easily come in fixim another planet, aad 

feel that I am on my - on my back, and that earth is 
up above me, but that's sorta the way you feel \rtien 
you come out of a Split S, or out of an Immelmnn. 

KAMO 

03 30 48 CC Kano on HF. If you read me, the Sir John requests 

that you take a blood pressure check now, a blood 
pressure check for the onboard record. Over. 

03 31 00 P Roger. Beading you, Kano, loud and clear. Blood 

pressure start at this time. 

03 31 10 P Visor is coming closed now. 

03 31 39 CC Aurora 7, Aurora 1, this is Kano Cap Com. If you 

read me, would you do a blood pressure check for the 
onboard records. Over. 

03 32 55 P Okay. I'm taking the - I've taken the big back off, 

going to record only, at this time. Have taken the 



FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLT 



PageUp - 6k 
KNO-IOS-3 



FOE OFFICIAL USE ONLY 



big back off of the eaiaera and trying to get some 
more MIT film at tbis time. The filter is in. The 
cassette - is in the i 



03 33 ^3 P The zero g senta, sensations are wonderful. This is 

the first time I've ever worn this suit and had it 
canfortablCo 

03 3k 07.5 P I don't know yfolch way I'm pointed, and don't 

particularly care. 

03 3k 23 P Roger. At this time I am hearing Kano calling for a 

blood pressure check. I will give it to him nov. 
let's see, I have fuel U5-1^3, still would like to 
get Just a little rate - Just a little one* 

03 3^ ks p let's see, we wanta go back that way, 

03 35 35 '5 P I can't see any relationship between thruster action 

and the fireflies. 

03 35 ^3 P m.rk MIT pictures to 3 35 36, crank two by - at 

infinity. 

03 36 36 P Coastal passage over Africa. 

03 38 33 P I'm taking many MIT pictures, at capsule elapsed 

3 38 38- It will be the only chance we have, I 
might as well use up all the film. 

DTOIAN OGEAH SHIP 

03 38 5^ P Hello, Indian Com Tech, Aurora 7. Loud and clear. 

Hoir me? 

03 39 13-5 CT Aurora 7, this is lOS Com Tech, on HF and UHF. How 
do you read? Over. 

03 39 18.5 P Roger. loud and clear » How me, Indian Cap Com? 

03 39 2k CC Aurora 7, this is Indian Cap Com. I did not read all 

of your transmission, but the part I monitored was 
loud and clear. Go ahead, 

03 39 31.5 p Roger. My status is good, the capsule status is good. 

I am in drifting flight on manual control. Gyros 
are caged. The fuel reads ^5-42, oxygen 79-100. 



FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY 



Page 12 - 65 



FOE OFFICIAL USE ONLY lOS-3 

Sxeam vent temperatures both. r«ad 65 now, suit 
tetaperature has gone dovn nicelyc It is now 62, and 
all the po^r is good» The blood pressure is starting 
at this timeo I''ve just finished taJting some MIT 
pictures, and that is all I have to report at this 
time. 

03 UO 16.5 CC Eoger^ Aurora ?<■ I copy your control mode manual, and 

gyro caged, fuel h^~h2, oxygen 79-100, and I did not 
hear the last part of your transmission. How do - 

03 iiO 31.5 P Roger o Sfy status is good, the suit tenrperature has 

reduced considerably, steam vent temperatures now 
read 69 on cabin and suit, suit ten^jerature is 62, 
and cabin temperature is 101. Overo 

03 40 52.5 CC Eoger, suit tenrperature 62, and cabin teniperature 101. 

Your blood pressure is starting - and understand 
you are on the manuals Understand also you are 
drifting for a^ilec 

03 kl 10 P That is Roger. I am^ 

03 hi 12 CC ConfiiTOo 

03 4l 13 P I am on manual control o I am allowing the capsule 

to drift. Over. 

03 hi 18 CC Roger. 

03 4l 19 P Also another departure from the plan is the fact that 

I have been unable to jettison the balloon. The 
balloon Is still attached - should be no problem. 

03 kl 33 CC Roger, understand no problem expected but balloon is 

still attached. Stand by^ 

03 2k Ok CC Aurora 7, this is Indian Cap Como All our retro- 

sequence times are nominal » Do you want me to 
call them out to you? Over, 

03 2k 13 P Negative. I have them all, thaxik. you. 

03 2k 19.5 CC Aurora 7, your last transcription was unreadable. You 
are fading badly, although intermittently. I will 
read retrosequence times in the blind. Area 3 
Delta, ok 12 32, Ol^ 12 32, Echo Ok 22 27, 3 Echo 
ok 22 27, and the last --- ■ we have is Ok 32 26 



FOR OFFICIAL USE ONDT 



Page 02 - 66 
IOS-3 



FOE OFFICIAl USE OHLT 



now and your capsule cloek is still within one 
second. 

03 ^3 05 p Eoger, Kano. I copied all tliat. 

03 1*3 08.5 CC Roger, Aurora. You were loud and clear. 

03 J+3 20 P Tixe sunsets are most spectacular. The earth is "black 

after the sun has set. The earth is black, the first 
hand close to the earth is red, the next is yellow, 
the next is "blue, the next is green, and the next is 
sort of a - sort of a puiple. It's alBiost like a 
very brilliant rainbow. It extends at some - 

03 ^3 5^ CC Indian Cap Com. Check you see about all colors between 

the horizon and the nigtit sky. You seem to see more 
layers than Friendship 7. 

03 44 05.5 p Roger. "Ehese layers extend from at least 90 degrees 

either side of the sun at sxmseto 

03 kh ik.^ CC Aurora 7, I did not hear your vtiole sentence. Will 

you repeat, please? Over, 

03 ^ 19 P Roger. This bright horizon band extends at least 

90*^ north and south of the position of the sunset. 

03 hk 1*5 CC Boger, understands About the balloon, does Mercury 
Control Center know you did not - 

03 lf4 52 p Yes. I tried to release it over their station and 

was unable to do so» You might remind them that the 

ba;Lloon is still on, 

03 1*5 02 CC Roger, Aurora 7. Understand. 

03 1*5 25.5 CC Aurora 7, Indian Cap Com. Your inverter teniperatures 

are I83 for the I50, and 195 for the 250. All your 
other primaries check out okay on telemetry. 

03 1*5 38 P Boger, thank you very much, 

03 1*6 15.5 CC Aurora do you read? Over. 

03 1*6 18.5 p Go aliead, Indian Cap Com. 

03 1*6 21 CC Our medical monitor says that we are reading your 

respiration. I believe this is aOmost the first 



FOE OFFICIAL USE OHIY 



FOR OFFICIAL USE ONU 



Fagel2 - 67 

ios-3 



tliae it's came across = 
03 k6 2d P That's very good. I guarantee I'm breathing., 

03 k6 35 CC Roger^ understand » 

03 h6 hQ P The eye patch is in place, this time. 

03 ii6 16.5 P Going to record - record only at this time. 

03 U8 50 P At 3 hours and HQ minutes and 51 seconds elapsed, I 'm 

taking a good swig of water. It's pretty cool this 
time- Stretching my legs a tad. It's quite daA. 
I'm in drifting flight. Oh, "boy I It feels good to 
get that leg stretched out. That one and the right 
one too. 

03 ii9 IhD P I dranls: an awful lot of water and I'm still thirsty. 

As a matter of fact, I think there - there is a 
leak in the urinal, I'm sura, 

03 50 38 P Okay, line touch, 

03 51 13.5 P Okay. I'm shaking my head violently from all sides, 

with eyes closed, up and down, pitch, roll, yaw. 
nothing in my stomach, nothing any^Aiere. There 
is, now, I will try to poke zero, time zero "button. 
Well, I missed it. I was a little disoriented* as 
to exactly vhcre things are, not sure exactly \diat 
you want to accomplish by this but there is no 
problem of orienting. Your - your - inner ears and 
your mental appraisal of horizontal, you just 
adapt to this environment, like - like you were 
bom in it. It's a great, great freedom. 

03 53 25,5 P Don't let me forget about Uie shiny finish on the 

star chart. It makes it very hard to read. 

03 53 P At 3 53- 

03 55 30 P I'm using the - photometer now - to tiy and get - a 

reading. I saw a com - no, it's the balloon that 
I see, still drifting aimlessly, lighted by moon- 

* The result of this test is the same under 1 g and he describes 
no difficulty in re-establishing relationships. 



FOR OFFICIAL USE OHU 



PagelE - 68 



FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY 



;Llght at this time. 



03 56 09-5 P ETonc of the colors are - particularly- visible, I 

think - 

03 56 19.5 P Excess cabin vater light is on at this time, 3 56 2k, 

am going to turn it down just a tad - so it will be 
just about vhere the suit is. I would say, let's 
see, from that, that it junrped down to freezing. 

MOCEEA 

03 57 00 p Hello, Muchea Cap Com, Aurora 7. loud and clear. 

How me? 

03 57 06.5 CC Coming in loud and clear, 

03 57 08 P Roger, Deke, my control mode is manual, gyros are 

caged, the maneuver switch is off. Hy fuel reads 
45 and 42, the oxygen is reading 76 and 100, steam 
vent temperatures are 68 on the suit and I Just 
got excess cabin water light, the needle dropped 
down to 20. Reset cabin water at about 6 and in 
this capsule it seems optimum settings are right 
between 6 and 7- Outside of that, all things, all 
systems are good. And blood pressure is starting 
now. 

03 58 01.5 CC Roger, okay, starting blood pressure. 

03 58 04.5 p The visor has been open for some time, I've been 

taking some readings on stars through the haze 
layer with the photometer, the visor is coming 
closed now. 

03 58 16.5 CC Roger, xmderstand visor coaning closed. 

03 58 20 CC I'll give you retro time for eM of mission and would 

lilce to have you set the clock to this at this time. 

03 58 26.5 P Roger, 

03 58 28.5 CC 32 34 

03 58 31 P Understand, Oh 32 34, 

03 58 35 CC Good. 



FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY 



FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY 



Page 12 - 
MUC-3 



03 


58 


35, 


5 


P 


Okay, it's going into the clock now - whoop. 


03 


58 


46. 


5 


CC 


We indicate 35. 


03 


58 


49 




P 


I do, too, I overshot. Stand by. 


03 


59 


00. 


5 


CC 


That's probably close enough for government work. 


03 


59 


07. 


5 


p 


For you, to the second. 


03 


59 


15. 


,5 


CC 


Roger, still you indicate 1 second slow on GET, we 
indicate you on, on retrotime. 


03 


59 


20. 


,5 


p 


Roger. I m reading 04 32 34. 


03 


59 


24- 


,5 


CC 


Would you please exercise prior to your second blood 
pressure . 


03 


59 


29 




p 


Roger, I'll give you the calibrated exercise, at this 
timeo 


03 


59 


35, 


.5 


CC 


Roger . 


03 


59 


38 


.5 


p 


Exercise start, now. 


04 


00 


11 


.5 


p 


Okay, blood pressure start, not. That was 60 cycles 
in 30 seconds on the exerciser. 


04 


00 


19 


.5 


CC 


60 cycles in 30 seconds „ 


04 


00 


25 




CC 


Did you by any chance try T/M keying over the Cape 
on your last pass? 


04 


00 


31 


.5 


p 


I think I may have to mark time for tensiometer 
reading on the balloon. 


04 


00 


40.5 


CC 


Very good. 


04 


00 


43 




CC 


Understand you still have the balloon with you. It's 
possible if you go to deploy position and back to 
release, you can - 


04 


00 


51 


,5 


p 


Roger, I've tried that a number of times, Deke . I 
just can't get rid of it. 


04 


00 


57 




CC 


Okay, well, she'll probably come into your face on retrO' 



fire, but I'm sure you'll loose it shortly after that. 



FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY 



Page 02 - 70 

^^'3 FOE OFFICIAL USE ONU 

0^ 01 02 P Yeah, I figure, I hope so. 

Ok 01 06 CC Okay, for your infoimatioix, cloud — is five-tenths 

and it's only one-eighth to tlie north over Port 
Moresby, so if you see some lights up in that area, 
we'd like to itnow about it. 

04 01 18 p Roger, I'll let you knoWo 

04 01 2k CC Could you give us a GET hack, please. 

Ok 01 27 p Roger, CET on my mark will be k hours, 1 minute, 

35 seconds, stand by, MARK, k 01 35. 

Ok 01 39 CC Roger. Still one second off; that's fine. 

Ok 01 45,5 CC The flight plan calls for you to have a drink of 

water over here» Do you f«el like you need one? 

Ok 01 51 p Roger, I Just, I have had three long drinks of 

Tra,tero The last one was, I think, about 10 
minutes ago, Deke. 

Ok 02 00 CC You're probably loaded for bear, then. 

04 02 01.5 P Roger o 

ok 02 ik CC — ? 

Ok 02 17 p Roger, Deke, the haze layer is very bright. I would 

say 8 to 10 degrees above the real horizon. And I 
wtjuld say that the haze layer is about twice as 
high above the horizon as the - the bright blue 
band at sunset is, it's twice as thick. A star, 
stars are occuluded as we pass through this haze 
layer. I have a good set of stars to watch going 
ttirough at this time. I'll tiy and get some 
ptiotometer readings . 

Ok 03 12.5 CC Roger, understand. It's twice as — sunset. 

04 03 1J+.5 p It is not twice as thick, it's thinner but it is 

located at a distance about twice as far away as 
the top of the - the band at sxmset. 

Ok 03 29 CC Understand. 



FOR OFFICIAL USE OjJIY 



Page]2 - 71 



FOR OFFICIAL USE OlilLY MUC-WOM-3 

OU 03 33 P It's very narrow, and as bright as the horizon of 

the earth itself. 

ok 03 ^1 CG Rog, 

ok 03 59.5 P This is a reading on Phecda in - in the Big Dipper, 

prior to entry in the, the, into the haze layer. 
It occludes - it is extinct at roughly 2.5- llie 
reticle extincts at 5.5. TM mark for the tiii» in 
the middle of "Uie haze layer. Spica - stand by. 

WOOMER& 

ok 05 02 CC Aurora 7, Aurora 7, this is Woomera Cap Com. How 

do you read? Over. 

Olf 05 05.5 P Roger. Stand by, Woomera. 

0*1^ 05 08.5 CC Roger, standing by. 

Oiv 05 15.5 P In the middle of the haze layer, Phecda will not - 

I can't even get a reading on it throiigh the 
photometer. Phicda is now below the horizon, or 
below and mark about 5 seconds ago, now it emerged 
from the brightest part of the haze layer. It is 
now clearly visible. Woomera, my status is very good, 
fuel is k^ and k2. Standby, 1*11 give you a full 
report very shortly. 

0^ 05 55.5 CC Roger, standing by. 

ok 06 01.5 P Visor coming open. 

0^ 06 03.5 CC Roger, visor open, 

Qif 06 27.5 CC Aurora f, this is Woomera. Do you read? Over. 

04 06 29.5 P Roger, Woomera, loud smd clear. 

ok 06 32-5 CC You say visor is open? 

Oif- 06 35,5 P That's negative. I did not open it, I won't open 

it until I get through with these readings. Phecda 
now extincts at I.7 in the mid, in mid position 
between the haze layer, and the earth. Okay, 
Woomera, my - my status is very good. The suit 



FOR OFFICIAL USE ONIY 



Page 12 - 72 
WOM-3 



FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY 



temperature is coming down substantially. Steam 
vent temperature is not down much, but the suit 
environment temperature is 60. I'm quite comfor- 
table. Cabin temperature is 101, cabin is holding 
an indicated 4 8, oxygen is 75-100, all d-c power 
continues to be good. 20 An5>s, both a-c busses 
are good, fuel reads 46 and 40. I am in drifting 
flight. I have had plenty of water to drink. The 
visor is coming open now. And blood pressure Is 
coming your way at this time. 

04 08 00.5 P Hello, Woomera, Woomera Cap Com, this is Aurora 7. 

Did you copy my last? Over. 

04 09 27.5 P Cabin temperature, cabin water flow is all the way 

off and reducing back to about 7.5 now, a little 
bit less. At this time cabin steam vent, going 
to record only. 

04 09 52,5 P Cabin steam vent is 10, suit steam vent is 62. I 

would like to have a little bit more pad on the 
ten^erature, but I can't seem to get it. The suit 
temperature is 60, the cabin temperature continues 
at 102. I have 22 minutes and 20 seconds left 
for retrofire. I think that I will try to get some 
of this equipment stowed at this time. 

04 11 07.5 P There is the moon. 

04 11 31,5 P Looks no different - here than it does on the ground. 

04 11 51 P Visor is open and the visor is coining closed now at 

this time. 

04 12 28 P I have put the moon - in the center of the window 

and it just drifts very, very little. 

04 12 49.5 P There seems to be a stagnant place in the, my helmet. 

The suit is cool, but along my face it's warm, 

04 13 51 P And there is Scorpio. 

04 14 46.5 P Alright, let's see. 

04 15 04 P It's very interesting to remark that my attitude - 

and the - is roughly pitch up plus 30, roll right 



FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY 



FOR OFFICIAL USE Oipf 



Page 32 - 73 
WOM-HAW-3 



130, and yaw left 20. The laalloon at this tiiae 
is moving right along with me. It's keeping a 
constant bearing at all times. There is the 
horizon band again, this time from the moonlit side. 
Let me see, with the air glow filter, it's very 
difficult to do this because of the lights from 
that time correlation clock. Visor coming open 
nowo It's impossible to get darft-adapted in here, 
with that light the way it is. 

Alright for the record. Interesting, I believe, 

this haze layer is very bright through the air glow 
filter. Very bright. The time now is k IJ kk. 

Now, let me see, I'll get an accurate band width. 

That's very handy, because the band width - there is 
the sun. — . The horizon band width is exactly 
equal to the X. I can't explain it, I'll have to, 
to - 

Sunrise. AhhhhhJ Beautiful lighted fireflies that 
time. It was luminous that time. But it's only, 
okay, they - Alright, I have - If anybody reads I 
have the fireflies they are very bright. They are 
capsule emanating. I can rap the hatch and stir 
off hundreds of them. Rap the side of the capsule. 
Huge streams come out. They - some appear to gloV. 
Let me yaw around the other way. 

Some appear to glow but I don't believe they really 
do, it's Just the light of the sun. I'll try to 
get a picture of it. They're brilliant. I think 
they would really shine through nine on the photo- 
iMter. I'll rap, let's see. 

Taking some pictures at f of 2 8 and bulb. The 
pictures now, here, one of the balloon. The s\m 
is too bright now. That's idiere they ccaae from. 
They are little tiny \diite pieces of frost. I judge 
from, this that the vhole side of the capsule must 
have frost on it. 

HAWAII 

Aurora 7, this is Hawaii Com Tech, how do you read? 



FOR OFFICIAL USE OSU 



Page 32 - fk 

HA.W-3 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLT 

Ol^ 22 10 P HellO;, Hawaii, loud and clear. How me? 

Ok 22 19 P Hawaii Com Tech. 

Ok 22 21 CT Se^ren, Hawaii Com Tech, I read you momentarily, on 

UEF. How do you read? Over. 

04 22 26 P Roger, reading you loud and clear Hawaii. IIov me? 

Ok 22 31.5 CC Aurora 7, Hawaii Cap Com. How do you read me? 

ok 22 35 p Roger, do you read me or do you not, Jaaies? 

Ok 22 39.^ CC Gee, you are weak, but I read you, you are readable. 

Are you on UHF-Hi? 

Ok 22 kk.^ P Roger, UEF-Hi. 

Ol^ 22 1^7.5 CC Roger, orientate the spacecraft and go to the ASCS. 

04 22 53.5 P Roger, will do. 

Oil- 22 59 P Roger, copied, going into orhlt attitude at this zlmc. 

Ok 23 13 CC Aurora 7, Aurora 7, do you copy? Over. 

Ok 23 16 P Roger, copy. Going into orbit attitude at this time. 

Ok 23 2k CC Roger. 

ok 2k 11 CC Aurora 7, Hawaii Cap Com, do you read me? Over. 

Ok 2k Ik p Roger, go ahead, Hawaii. 

Ok 2k 15 CC Is your maneuver switch off? 

Ok 2k IQ p The maneuver switch is off. 

Ok 2k 20 CC Roger, are you ready to start your pre-retrosequence 

checklist. 

04 2lf 23.5 P Roger, one moment. 

Ok 2k 36 P I'm alining my attitudes. Everything is fine. I 

have part of the stowage checklist taken care of 
at this time. 



FOR OPFICIAL USE ONLY 



FOR OFFICIAL USE OHLT 



Page32 - 75 
HAW-3 



oh 2.h 


kl 




cc 




Ok 25 


11.5 


cc 


Aurora 7, do you wish me to read out any of the check- 

3-i.s't "fco you.? 


ok 25 


17 




p 


itoger, let me get the stowage and then you can help 
me with the pre -retrograde. 




24 






Roger ^ standing hy* 


oit 25 


55 




cc 


Aurora 7, can we get on with the checklist? We have 
approximately 3 minutes left of contact. 


ok 26 


00 




p 


Roger, go ahead with the checklist eund I'm coaling 
to retroattitude now and lay control mode is auto- 
matic and my attitudes-standhy, wait a minute, I 
have a problem in. 


OJf 26 


33-5 


p 


I have an ASCS problem here. I think ASCS is not 
operating properly, let me - . ^ergenoy retro- 
sequence is aimed and retro manual is aimed. 
I've got to evaluate this retro - this ASCS 
problem, iTim, before we go any further* 


oil 27 


04 






Roger, ststnding by. Make sure your emergency drogue 
deploy and emergency main fuses are off. 


oil 27 


13.5 


p 


Roger, they are. Okay, I'm going now to fly-by-wire, 
to Aux Damp , and now — attitudes do not agree < Five 
minutes to retrograde, light is on. I have a rate 
01 uescenu, wOO, ox otu^jxiu j.ccw ocv^uiiu.. 


04 27 


46. 


5 


cc 


Say again, say again. 


ok 27 


49 




p 


I have a rate of descent of about 12 feet per second. 


04 27 






cc 


What light was on? 


04 27 


56. 


.5 


p 


Yes, I am back on fly-by-wire, trying to orient. 


04 28 


06 




cc 


Scott, let's try and get some of this retrosequence 
list checked off before you get to California. 


04 28 


12, 


.5 


p 


Okay, go through it, Jim. 


04 28 


26. 


.5 


p 


Roger, Jim, go through the checklist for me. 



FOR CFFICIAL USE ONLT 



FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY 



Roger, squib switch armed, auto retro jettison switch 
off, gyros normal, manual handle out, roll, yaw 
and pitch handles in. 

Roll, yaw, and pitch are in. 

Retroattitude auto, retract scope auto, maneuver switch 
off, periscope lever up, UHF HI power, transmit on 
UHF, beacon continuous, VOX power on transmit and 
record, all batteries checked. Do you copy? 

Roger, it's con5>lete. 

Transmitting in the blind. We have LOS. Ground 
elapsed time is on my mark, 4 hours, 29 minutes 
and 30 seconds. Transmitting in the blind to 
Aurora 7. Make sure all your tone switches are on, 
your warning lights are bright, the retro manual fuse 
switch is on, the retrojettison fuse switch is off. 
Check your face plate and make sure that It is closed. 

Aurora 7 . Did you copy? 

Roger, copied all; I think we're in good shape. 
I'm not sure just what the status of the ASCS 
is at this time. 

CALIFORNIA 

Aurora 7, Aurora 7, this is California Com Tech, 
California Com Tech. Do you hear? Over. 

Hello, California Com Tech. Loud and clear. How me? 

I'm reading you loud and clear also. Stand by for Cap Com. 

Seven, this is Cap Com. Are you in retroattitude? 

Yes, I don't have agreement with ASCS in the window, 
Al. I think I'm going to have to go to fly-by-wire 
and use the window and the scope. ASCS is bad. 
I 'm on fly-by-wire and manual . 

Roger, we concur. About 30 seconds to go. 



FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY 



FOR OFFICIAL USE OHLT 



Page 32 

CAL-3 



Ok 32 


21 


CC 


About 10 seconds on my mark. 


oi*- 32 


23.5 


P 


Roger. 


OU 32 


28 


CC 


S, 5, 4, 3, 2, 1. 


oh 32 


36 


p 


Re'brose^juence is green. 


04 32 


40 


CC 


Roger, check ASCS quickly to see if orientation mode 

vill hold. 


ok 32 


47 


CC 


If your gyros are off you'll have to use attitude 
"bypass . 


o4 32 


51 


p 


Gyros are off. 


ok 32 


54.5 


CC 


Bat you'll have to use attitude hypass and manual 
override » 


04 32 








04 33 


00 


CC 


4, 3, 2, 1, 0. 


04 33 


14.5 


p 


Okay, fire 1, fire 2, and fire 3« I lia^ to punch 
off manually. I have a little bit of smoke in 
the capsule. 


o4 33 


30 


CC 


Attitudes hold, Scotty. 


n4 '^'5 




p 


Okay, I think they held well, Al, the - I think 
they -vrere good. I can't tell you irtiat was wrong 
about them because the gyros were not quite right. 
But retro jettison — 3 fuse switches aire on. 


o4 33 


51*5 




Roger, we should have i^ti^jettison in about 
10 seconds. 


04 33 


55 


p 


Roger. 


04 33 


56.5 


p 


•Hiat was a nice gentle buBtp. All three have fired. 
Retroattitude was red. 


04 3^ 


05.5 


CC 


Roger. Should have retrojettison now. 


04 34 


10 


p 


Ah, rdght then at 34 10, on time. 



FOR OFFICIAL USE OULY 



Page 32 - 78 
CAL-3 



FOE OFEECIAL USE ONLT 



Oh 3h 15 


CC 


Eoger, how much fuel do you have left both tanks? 


ok 34 19 


P 


I have 20 and 5. 


ok 34 23.5 


CC 


Roger, I guess we'd better use - 


oi^ 3k 26 


p 


I '11 use manual. 


04 34 27.5 


CC 


- on reentry unless ASCS holds you in reentry 
attitude . 


ok 3k 31 


p 


Yes, it can, I'll have to do it with manual. 


r\it oii 00 
(Jif 3'^ J5? 


CC 


Roger, recommend you try Aux Dadtp first, if it ' s not 
worfEing then, go to fly-by-wire. 


01+ 34 45 


p 


Okay, I'll have to do that. 


ok 3k 53 


p 


The balloon is gone. I am aparently out of manual 
fuel, I have to go to fly-by-wire to stop this 
tumbling 


04 35 13.5 


CC 


Roger. Using fly-by-wire to stop tumbling. 


o4 35 24.5 


CC 


Aurora 7, understand BSCS did not work. 


o4 35 27.5 


p 


I am out of manual fuel, Al. 


04 35 31 


CC 


Roger. 


04 35 3^.5 


p 


.05 g should be vkenl 


04 35 37.5 


CC 


Oh, you have plenty of time. It should be 04 44 
elapsed time. 


04 35 45 


p 


Roger. 


04 35 46 


CC 


You have plenty of time. Take your tinw on fly-by- 
wire to get into reentry attitude. 



Note; The spacecraft was rotating slowly at this point 
and was returned to proper attitude by the pilot 
before it had made ^ revolution. 



FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY 



FOR OFFICIAL USB OHIZ 



- 79 
CAL-CIlV-3 



Ok 35 


50.5 


P 


Roger. 


oi^ 36 


05 


cc 


I was Just looking over your reentry checklist, 
looks like you're in pretty good shape. You'll have 
to manmlly retract liie scope. 


ok 36 


14.5 


p 


No. I didn't. The scope did c<^e in, Al. 


ok 36 


18.5 


cc 


Roger. I didn't get that. Very good. 


ok 36 


29.5 


cc 


Hov are you doing on reentry attitude? Over. 


ok 36 


32.5 


p 


Stowing a few things first. I don't know yet. 
I^e a vhllc 


ok 36 


k6 


p 


Okay. 


oif 36 


^k 


p 


Going to he tight on fuel. 


oi^ 37 


02.5 


cc 


Roger, you have plenty of time, you have about 
7 minutes before .05 g so take — 


oif 37 


10 


p 


Roger. 


ot^ 37 


28 


p 


Okay. I can make out very, very small - faim land, 
pasture land below. I see ladividtial fields, 
rivers, lakes, roads, I thiak. I'll get back to 
reentry attitude. 


Ok 37 


39.5 


cc 


Roger, 7, recommend you get close to reentry attitude, 
using as little fuel as possible and standby on 
fly-by-wire vintil rates develop. Over. 


ol* 37 


50 


p 


Roger, will do. 


o4 38 


03 


cc 


Seven, this is Calif orcia. We're losing you now. 
Standby for Cape . 


Ok 38 


08.5 


p 


Roger. 

CAES CAHAVERAL 




50.5 


cc 


Aurora 7, Cape Cap Com. Over. 


Ok ko 


52.5 


p 


Hello Cape Cap Com, Aurora 7. Loud and clear. 



FOR OFFICIAL USE ONIT 



Pagea2 - 80 
CHV-S 



FOE OFFICIAL USE ONLY 



ok ki 08 


CO 


Aurora 7, Cape Cap Com. Over 


ok kl 10 


p 


Hello, Cape Cap Com, Go ahead. 


ok kl. 12.5 


CG 


Koger. Do you have your face, face plate closed? 


ok kl 16 


P 


Negative, it is now. Thank you. 


ok kl 18.5 


cc 


Roger, give me your fuel, please. 


ok kl 20 


p 


Fael is 15 auto, I'm indicating 7 manual but it 
is enrpty, and ineffective. 


Ok kl 27 


cc 


Roger, you have a few minutes to start of blackout. 


ok kl 33 


p 


Two minutes, you say? 


ok kl 


cc 


Aurora 7, Cap Com. 


ok kl 50 


p 


Go ahead, Cap Ccm. 


Oif 4l 52.5 


cc 


Just wanted to hear from you. 


ok kl ^k 


p 


Roger. It's going to be real tight on fuel, Guz. 
I've got the horizon in view now, trying to keep 



rates very low, the, I ^st lost part of the balloon. 
Kie string from the balloon. 

Ok k2 10 CC - checklist. 

Ok k2 12 p Yes. We're in good shape for stowage. 

Ok k2 18.5 CC Aurora 7, have you completed your reentry— 

OkkZ2Q.3 P Rcger. 

04 k2 22 CC Check. 

04 42 28.5 CC The weather in the recovery area is good, you've 

got overcast cloud, 3 foot waves, 8 knots of wind, 
10 miles visibility and the cloud bases are at 
1000 feet. 

04 42 39 P Roger. 

04 42 45 cc Will give you some more as soon as we get an IP. 



FOR OFFICIAL USE OITLY 



FOE OFFICIAL USE ONIY 



Page 32 - 8l 
CHV-3 



0^ ^2 


kj 


P 


Roger, 


ok 43 


05 


GC 


Aurora Y> Cap C<M.f vill you check youx glOTe ccaa— 
partment and make sure it's latched and your — . 


Ok k3 


10.5 


P 


Eoger, it's tight » 


ok k3 


12.5 


cc 


Eog. 


ok k3 


l6 


cc 


Starting into "blaekout anytime novo 


ok k3 


l8 


p 


Eoger. 


ok ks 


21.5 


cc 


Rogers We shov you still have some loanual fuel 
left. 


ok k3 


24.5 


p 


Yes, but I can't get anything out of it. 


ok kz 


28.5 


cc 


Roger. 


ok k3 


ko 


cc 


Aurora 7, Cap Com. Do you still read? 


Ok k3 


42.5 


p 


Roger, Loud and clear. 


ok k3 


52 


p 


I don't have a roll rate in yet, I'll put some in 
■when I begin to get the g build-up. 


ok kk 


07.5 


p 


I only was reading point 5 g's on the accelerometer. 
Okay, here comes some rates. 


ok kk 


28.5 


p 


I've got the orange glow. I assiame we're in blackout 
now, Gus, give me a try. Ihere goes scaaething 
tearing away. 


ok kk 


52»5 


p 


Okay. I'm setting in a roll rate at this time. 


ok k^ 


06 


p 


Groing to Aux Das^. 


ok 1+5 


13.5 


p 


I hope we have enough fuel. I get the orange glow 
at this time. 


ok k5 


30.5 


p 


Bright orange glow. 


ok k^ 


43.5 


p 


Picking up just a little acceleration now. 



FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY 



FOE OFFICIAL USE ONIX 



Not much glow, just a little. Reading .5 g. 
Aiax Danrp seems to be doing veil. My fuel I 
hope holds out. There is 1 g. Getting a few 
streamers of smoke out behind, there's some green 
flashes out there. 

Reentry is going pretty well, Aux Daarp seems to be 
keeping-oscillations pretty good, we're at 1^ g's 
now. There was a large flaming piece coming off. 
Almost looked like it came off the tower. 

Oh, I hope not. 

Okay. We're reading 3 g's, think we'll have to 

let the reentry damping check go this time. Beading 
now g's. The reentry seems to be going okay. The 
rates there that Aux Danip appears to be handling. 
I don't think I'm oscillating too much, seem to be 
rolling right around that glow - the sky behind. 
Auto fuel still reads 1 h at 6.5 g's. Rates are 
holding to within l| degrees per second. Indicat- 
ing about 10 degrees per second roll rate. Still 
peaked at 6.8 g's. The orange glow has disappeared 
now. We're off peak g. Still indicating ikfl, auto 
fuel, back to 5 g's. 

And I'm standing by for altimeter off the peg. Cape, 
do you read yet? Altimeter is off the peg. 100 ft., 
rate of descent is coming down, cabin pressure is - 
cabin pressure is holding okay. Still losing a few 
sti^attdng, no that's shock waves. Smoke pouring 
out behind. Getting ready for the drogue at h^. 

Oscillations are pretty good, I think ASCS has 
given up the ghost at this point. Emergency 
drogus Is, fuse switch is coming out not to on. 



Roger, Aurora 7, reading okay. Getting some pretty 
good oscillations now and we're out of fuel. looks 
from the sun like it might be about degrees. 
Oww, it's coming like - it's really going over. 



FOP. OFFICIAL USE Omi 



Page 12 - 



FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLT 



04 50 51 P Think. I'd better take a try on the drogue. Drogue 

out manually at 25, it's holding and it was Jiist 
in time. Main deploy fuse switch is on now, 21 
indicated o 

04 51 12.5 P Snorkle orerride now. Emergency flow rate on. 

aiergeney main fuse switch at 15> standing by for 
the aain chute at 10. 

04 51 33.5 P Cabin pressure, cabin altljneter agree on altitude. 

Should be 13,000 now. Maife 10, I see the main is 
out; and reefed and it looks good to me. The main 
chute is outo Landing bag goes to auto now. The 
drogue has fallen away. I see a perfect chute, 
visor open. Cabin temperature is only 110 at this 
point. Helmet hose is off. 

Does anybody read. Does anybody read Aurora 7. 
Over. 

Hello, any Mercury Recovery Force. Does anyone read 
Aurora 7? Over. 

Aurora 7, Aurora 7, Cape Cap Com. Over. 

Roger, say again. You're very weak. 

Aurora 7, Aurora 7j Cape Cap Com. Over. 

Roger, I'm reading you. I'm on the main chute at 
5,000, status is good. I an not in contact with 
any recovery forces. Do you have any infoimation 
on the recovery time? Over. 

Hello, any Mercury recovery forces. How do you read 
Aurora 7? Over. 

Aurora 7, Cape Cap Com. Over, 

Roger, Loud and clear, Aurora 7 reading the Cape, 
loud and clear. How me, Gus? 

Gus, how do you read? 

Aurora 7 — 95, Your landing point is 200 miles 
long, we will Jump the Air Rescue people to you. 



Ok 52 


39.5 


P 


ok 52 


5k.3 


P 


ok 53 


Ok, 3 


cc 


Oh 53 


07-5 


p 


Oi^ 53 


13 


cc 


Ok 53 


16 


p 


ok 3k 


Ik 


p 


Ok 54 


27 


cc 


Ok 54 


29 


p 


Ok 3k 


41.5 


p 


Ok 3k 


56.5 


cc 



FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLT 



Page 02 - 8k 
CNV-3 

ok 55 06 
Ok 55 27 

Ok 55 36 



FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLT 



P Roger, understand. I'm reading. 

CC Aurora 7, Aurora Cape Cap Com, "be advieed your 

landing point is long, we will ^vas^ Air Rescue 
people to you in about one hour. 

P Roger, understand 1 hour. 



FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY 



CONFIDENTIAL 

I^ge 12 - 85 

DISTRIBUTIOW 



This MA-T Postlaunch MemorandiJin Report has the following 
distribution: 

Office of Director^ Langley (3) 

Office of Director^ Houston (3) 

Program Analysis and Ihraluation^ Houston (l) 

MSG Files and Library^ Langley (5) ^ 

Ass 't Director for Research and 

Development, Houston (3) 

Life Systems Division, Houston (6) 

Life Systems Division, Cape (3) 

Systems Evaluation and Development 

Division, Houston (8) 

Spacecraft Research Division, Houston (8) 
Flight Operations Division, Langley (8) 
Flight Operations Division, Houston (3) 

Data Coordination Office, Cape (5) 
Flight Crew Operations Division, langley (8) 
laight Crew Operations Division, Houston (3) 

Astronauts' Office, Langley (7) 
Apollo Project Office, Houston (lO) 
Gemini Project Office, Houston (lO) 
Mercury Project Office, Langley (25) 
Mercury Project Office, Cape (2) 

Project Engineering Field Office, Cape (5) 
Reliability and Flight Safety Office, Langley (2) 
Reliability and Flight Safety Office, Houston (2) 
Reliability and Flight Safety Office, Cape (2) 
Prefllght Operations Division, Cape (15) 
Public Affairs Office, Langley (l) 
Public Affairs Office, Houston (l) 
HASA AMR Project Office, Cape (3) 
NASA Representative at MAC (15) 
NASA Headquarters (8) 
Ames Research Center (6) 
Goddard Space Flight Center (6) 
NASA Dyna-Soar Office, WPAFB (2) 
MSC Cape Files (lO) 

MSC Houston Files (Remainder for storage) (26) 



CONFIDEHTIAL