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NATIONAL A€ROH«inCS AND SPACE ADMINISTRATION 

Manned Sjxi 
PRCt 




RESULTS OF THE SECOND 
U.S. MANNED 
ORBITAL SPACE FLIGHT 
MAY 24, 1962 




NATIONAL AERONAUTICS 
AND SPACE ADMINISTRATION 
MANNED SPACECRAFT CENTER 
PROJECT MERCURY 



For sale by the Superintendent of Documents, U.S. Government Printing Office 
Wmhintton 25, D.C. - Price 66 cents 



FOREWORD 



This document presents the results of the second United States manned 
orbital space flight conducted on May 24, 1962. The performance discussions 
of the spacecraft and launch systems, the modified Mercury Network, mission 
support personnel, and the astronaut, together with analyses of observed 
space phenomena and the medical aspects of the mission, form a continuation 
of the information previously published for the first United States manned 
orbital flight, conducted on February 20, 1962, and the two manned sub- 
orbital space flights. 



CONTENTS 



1. SPACECRAFT AND LAUNCH- VEHICLE PERFORMANCE 

By John H. Boynton, Mercury Project Office, NASA Manned Spacecraft 
Center; and E. M. Fields, Mercury Project Office, NASA Manned Space- 
craft Center. 

2. MERCURY NETWORK PERFORMANCE 

By James J. Donegan, Manned Space Flight Support Division, NASA Goddard 
Space Flight Center; and James C. Jackson, Manned Space Flight Support 
Division, NASA Goddard Space Flight Center. 

3. MISSION OPERATIONS 

By John D. Hodge, Asst. Chief for Flight Control, Flight Operations Division, 
NASA Manned Spacecraft Center; Eugene F. Kranz, Flight Operations 
Division, NASA Manned Spacecraft Center; and William C. Hayes, Flight 
Operations Division, NASA Manned Spacecraft Center. 

4. SPACE SCIENCE REPORT 

By John A. O'Keefe, Ph. D., Asst. Chief, Theoretical Division, NASA Goddard 
Space Flight Center; Winifred Sawtell Cameron, Theoretical Division, NASA 
Goddard Space Flight Center, 

5. AEROMEDICAL STUDIES 

A. CLINICAL MEDICAL OBSERVATIONS 

By Howard A. Minners, M.D., Aerospace Medical Operations Office, 
NASA Manned Spacecraft Center; Stanley C. White, M.D., Chief, 
Life Systems Division, NASA Manned Spacecraft Center; William K. 
Douglas, M.D., Air Force Missile Test Center, Patrick Air Force Base, 
Fla.; Edward C. Knoblock, Ph. D., Walter Reed Army Institute of 
Research, Washington, D.C.; and Ashton Graybiel, M.D., U.S. Naval 
School of Aviation Medicine, Pensacola, Fla. 

B. PHYSIOLOGICAL RESPONSES OF THE ASTRONAUT 



By Ernest P. McCutcheon, M.D,, Aerospace Medical Operations Office, 
NASA Manned Spacecraft Center; Charles A. Berry, M.D., Chief, 
Aerospace Medical Operations Office, NASA Manned Spacecraft 
Center; G. Fred Kelly, M.D., U.S. Naval Air Station, Cecil Field, 
Jacksonville, Fla.; Rita M. Rapp, Life Systems Division, NASA 
Manned Spacecraft Center; and Robie Hackworth, Aerospace Medical 
Operations Office, NASA Manned Spacecraft Center. 

. PILOT PERFORMANCE 

By Helmut A. Kuehnel, Flight Crew Operations Division, NASA Manned 
Spacecraft Center; William O. Armstrong, Flight Crew Operations 
Division, NASA Manned Spacecraft Center; John J. Van Bockel, 
Flight Crew Operations Division, NASA Manned Spacecraft Center; 
and Harold I. Johnson, Flight Crew Operations Division, NASA 
Manned Spacecraft Center. 



7. PILOT'S FLIGHT REPORT 

By M. Scott Carpenter, Astronaut, NASA Manned Spacecraft Center. 
APPENDIX. MA-7 AIR-GROUND VOICE COMMUNICATION 



1. SPACECRAFT AND LAUNCH-VEHICLE PERFORMANCE 



By John H. Boynton, Mercury Project Office, NASA Manned Spacecraft Center; and E. M. Fields, 
Mercury Project Office NASA Manned Spacecraft Center 



Summary 

The performance of the Mercury spacecraft 
and Atlas launch vehicle for the orbital flight 
of Astronaut M. Scott Carpenter was excellent 
in nearly every respect. All primary mission 
objectives were achieved. The single mission- 
critical malfunction which occurred involved a 
failure in the spacecraft pitch horizon scanner, 
a component of the automatic control system. 
This anomaly was adequately compensated for 
by the pilot in subsequent inflight operations so 
that the success of the mission was not compro- 
mised. A modification of the spacecraft con- 
trol-system thrust units were effective. Cabin 
and pressure-suit temperatures were high but 
not intolerable. Some uncertainties in the data 
telemetered from the bioinstrumentation pre- 
vailed at times during the flight ; however, as- 
sociated information was available which indi- 
cated continued well-being of the astronaut. 
Equipment was included in the spacecraft 
which provided valuable scientific information ; 
notably that regarding liquid behavior in a 
weightless state, identification of the airglow 
layer observed by Astronaut Glenn, and photo- 
graphy of terrestrial features and meteorolo- 
gical phenomena. An experiment which was 
to provide atmospheric drag and color visibility 
data in space through deployment of an inflata- 
ble sphere was partially successful. The flight 
further qualified the Mercury spacecraft sys- 
tems for manned orbital operations and pro- 
vided evidence for progressing into missions of 
extended duration and consequently more de- 
manding systems requirements. 

Introduction 

The seventh Mercury-Atlas mission (MA-7) 
was planned for three orbital passes and was a 
continuation of a program to acquire operation- 
al experience and information for manned or- 



bital space flight. The objectives of the flight 
were to evaluate the performance of the 
man-spacecraft system in a three-pass mission, 
to evaluate the effects of space flight on the 
astronaut, to obtain the astronaut's opinions on 
the operational suitability of the spacecraft sys- 
tems, to evaluate the performance of spacecraft 
systems modified as a result of unsatisfactory 
performance during previous missions, and to 
exercise and evaluate further the performance 
of the Mercury Worldwide Network. 

The Aurora 7 spacecraft and Atlas launch 
vehicle used by Astronaut Carpenter in success- 
fully performing the second United States 
manned orbital mission (MA-7) were nearly 
identical to those used for the MA-6 flight. The 
Mercury spacecraft provided a safe and habita- 
ble environment for the pilot while in orbit, as 
well as protection during the critical flight 
phases of launch and reentry. The spacecraft 
also served as an orbiting laboratory where the 
pilot could conduct limited experiments which 
would increase the knowledge in the space sci- 
ences. The intent of this paper is to describe 
briefly the MA-7 spacecraft and launch vehicle 




Figure 1-1. — Mercury spacecraft systems. 



1 



systems and discuss their technical perfor- 
mance. 

The many systems which the spacecraft com- 
prises may be generally grouped into those of 
heat protection, mechanical and pyrotechnic, 
attitude control, communications, electrical and 
sequential, life support, and instrumentation. 
The general arrangement of the spacecraft in- 
terior is schematically depicted in figure 1-1. 
Although a very basic description of each sys- 
tem accompanies the corresponding section, a 
more detailed description is presented in refer- 
ence 1. 

Heat Protection System 

During flight through the atmosphere at 
launch and reentry, the high velocities generate 
excessive heat from which the crew and equip- 
ment must be protected. The spacecraft must 
also be capable of withstanding the heat pulse 
associated with the ignition of the launch es- 
cape rocket. To provide this protection, the 
spacecraft afterbody is composed of a double- 
wall structure with thermal insulation between 
the two walls. The outer conical surface of the 
spacecraft afterbody is made up of high-tem- 
perature alloy shingles, and the cylindrical por- 
tion is protected by beryllium shingles. The 
spacecraft blunt end is fitted with an ablation- 
type heat shield, which is constructed of glass 
fibers and resin. Additional description of the 
heat protection system can be found on pages 
7 to 9 of reference 1. 

Although the MA-7 reentry trajectory was 
slightly more shallow than for MA-6, the heat- 
ing effects were not measurably different, as is 
evident in figure 1-2. 

The performance of the MA-7 heat protec- 
tion system was as expected and was quite sat- 
isfactory. 



2,000 
u. 1,500 
S 1,000 



O MA-4 
□ MA-5 
O MA-6 



-Outside ""Q>-8~- 



Figure 
2 



Thickness, percent 
1-2.— Maximum ablation-shield temperatures. 



Two temperature measurements were made 
in the ablation shield, one at the center and the 
other approximately 27 inches from the center. 
The maximum recorded values are graphically 
shown and compared with previously obtained 
orbital reentry values in figure 1-2. The mag- 
nitudes of these temperatures, as well as the 
ablation-shield weight loss during reentry, are 
comparable with previous flights. The sup- 
porting structure behind the ablation shield was 
found to be in excellent condition following the 
flight. A more complete temperature survey 
of points around the afterbody than on previ- 
ous flights was conducted for MA-7. This sur- 
vey was made possible by the addition of a low- 
level commutator circuit. The data, which are 
shown in figure 1-3, were within expected 
ranges, and the integrity of the structure was 
not affected by the thermal loads experienced. 

Mechanical and Pyrotechnic Systems 

The mechanical and pyrotechnic system 
group consists of the separation devices, the 
rocket motors, the landing system, and the in- 
ternal spacecraft structure. This entire group 
functioned satisfactorily during the mission. 
Performances of individual systems are dis- 
cussed in the following paragraphs. 

Separation Devices 

Separation devices generally use explosive 
charges to cause separation or disconnection of 
components. The major separation points are 
at the interface between the spacecraft and 
launch vehicle, between the spacecraft and the 
escape tower, at the heat shield, and around 
the spacecraft hatch. All separation devices 
worked properly during the mission. The ex- 
plosive-actuated hatch was not used, since the 
pilot egressed through the top of the spacecraft 
after landing. 

Rocket Motors 

The rocket motor system consisted of three 
retrorocket motors, three posigrade motors, the 
launch escape rocket, and the small tower- jetti- 
son rocket. All of these motors are solid-pro- 
pellant type. See page 9 of reference 1 for 
additional description of the rocket motor sys- 
tem. Nominal thrust and burning-time data 
are given in the following table : 

Although ignition of the retrorocket motors 
was about 3 seconds later than expected, the per- 





Number 
motors 


Nominal 
each, lb 


Approx- 
imate 

sec' 


Escape 

Posigrade-.- 

Retrograde 


1 

3 
3 


52,000 
800 
400 
1, 000 


1 

1. 5 
1 
10 



formance of the rocket motors was satisfactory. 
An analysis of radar tracking data for the 
flight yielded a velocity increment at retrolire 
which indicated that the retrorocket perform- 
ance was 3 percent lower than nominal. This 
was acceptable and within the allowable devia- 
tion from nominal performance of ±5 percent. 

Landing System 

The landing system includes the drogue 
(stabilization) parachute, the main and reserve 
parachutes, and the landing shock-attenuation 
system (landing bag). The latter system at- 
tenuates the force of landing by providing a 
cushion of air through the deployment of the 
landing bag and heat shield structure, which is 
supported by straps and cables. The landing 
system can be actuated automatically, or manu- 



ally by the astronaut. The landing system is 
described in greater detail on pages 28 to 30 of 
reference 1. The landing system performed 
satisfactorily and as planned. 

The MA-7 landing system differed from the 
MA-6 system in the manner of arming the 
barostats (pressure-sensing devices). These 
units initiate automatic deployment of the para- 
chutes when the spacecraft descends to the 
proper pressure altitude during reentry. In 
the MA-6 and prior missions, the barostats 
were armed when above the atmosphere dur- 
ing exit flight and thus were in readiness to 
initiate the parachute-deployment mechanisms 
when the barostats sensed the appropriate pres- 
sure during spacecraft descent through the at- 
mosphere. This armed status of the barostats 
would of course permit deployment of a para- 
chute during orbital flight if a certain type of 
barostat malfunction should occur. While 
such barostat malfunctions had not been de- 
tected in previous flights or during ground 
tests, it was believed that an additional safety 
margin would be desirable, because of the un- 
explained early deployment of the drogue para- 
chute during the MA-6 mission. Consequently, 
a control barostat was added to the automatic 
sequence circuit of the MA-7 spacecraft. This 
barostat sensed pressure in the cabin and f unc- 



1,200 

= 800 

| 600 
2 400 
" 200 



■ Afterbody temperature history (representative) 
[ ' | Ror>ge of afterbody temperatures 




>:30 coo i:30 2:00 2:30 3:00 3:30 

Elapsed time , hrs '. min 
Figure 1-3. — Afterbody temperature from low-level commutator circuit. 



4:00 4130 



3 



tioned in a manner intended to prevent auto- 
matic deployment of the parachutes until the 
spacecraft cabin pressure corresponded to an ac- 
ceptable altitude. The control barostat did not 
alter the circuitry that was available to the pi- 
lot for manual deployment of the parachutes. 
In the MA-7 mission, it was planned for the pi- 
lot to deploy the drogue parachute manually 
at an altitude of 21,000 feet or higher if added 
spacecraft stabilization prior to automatic de- 
ployment of the drogue parachute was desired. 
Astronaut Carpenter felt the need for addi- 
tional spacecraft stabilization and manually 
deployed the drogue parachute at an altitude of 
approximately 25,500 feet. The pilot also 
planned a manual deployment of the main 
parachute routinely at an altitude of about 
10,000 feet, rather than waiting for automatic 
deployment at approximately 8,200 feet alti- 
tude; the data show that manual deployment 
was effected at about 9,500 feet. 

Flotation 

After landing, the astronaut reported a severe 
list angle on the order of 60° from vertical, 
and postflight photographs of the spacecraft 
taken after egress of the pilot indicate approxi- 
mately a 45° list angle. The time normally re- 
quired for the spacecraft to erect to its equilib- 
rium angle exceeds the period that Astronaut 
Carpenter used to initiate egress ; therefore, this 
egress activity may have prevented the return 
to a more nearly vertical notation attitude. 
Upon recovery, a considerable amount of sea 
water was found in the spacecraft, the majority 
of which is believed to have entered through 
the small pressure bulkhead when the pilot 
passed through the recovery compartment into 
the liferaft. In addition, small leaks in the 
internal pressure vessel which probably oc- 
curred upon landing were disclosed during the 
normal postflight inspection; but accounting 
for the 6 hours prior to spacecraft recovery, 
these leaks would have contributed only slightly 
to the water in the cabin. The pilot reported 
that at landing a small amount of water 
splashed onto the tape recorder in the cabin ; it 
is believed that this resulted from a surge of 
water which momentarily opened a spring- 
loaded pressure relief valve in the top of the 
cabin. 



Spacecraft Control System 

The spacecraft control system is designed to 
provide attitude and rate control of the Mer- 
cury vehicle while in orbit and during reentry. 
Page 11 of reference 1 presents an additional 
description of the spacecraft control system. 
With the single exception of the pitch horizon 
scanner, all system components performed nor- 
mally during the entire flight. 



Table 1-1. — Spacecraft Control System Redun- 
dancy and Electrical Power Requirements 



Control 
system 
modes 


Corresponding fuel 
system (fuel sup- 
ply, plumbing, and 
thrusters) 


Electrical 

power 
required 


ASCS 


A 


d-c and a-c 
d-c 

d-c and a-c 


FBW 


A 


MP 


B 


RSCS 


B 







ASCS — Automatic stabilization and control system 

FBW— Fly-by-wire ) 

MP — Manual proportional J Controlled by pilot 

system > actuation of con- 

RSCS— Rate stabilization con- trol stick 

trol system ) 

The attitude control system, at the discre- 
tion of the pilot, is capable of operation in the 
modes listed in table 1-1. 

The spacecraft was equipped with two sepa- 
rate reaction control systems (RCS) shown as 
A and B in table 1-1, each with its own fuel 
supply and each independent of the other. 
Combinations of modes ASCS and FBW, FBW 
and MP, or FBW and RSCS were available to 
provide "double authority" at the choice of the 
pilot. A "maneuver" switch was added to the 
instrument panel for MA-7 and was included 
in the control circuitry to allow the astronaut 
to perform maneuvers without introducing er- 
rors in his attitude displays. Actuation of the 
switch effectively disabled the yaw reference 
slaving system and the automatic pitch orbital 
precession of 4°/ min and thus prevented gen- 
eration of erroneous gyro slaving signals dur- 
ing maneuvers. 

The reaction control components were of the 
standard configuration, with the exception of 
the 1-pound and 6-pound thruster assemblies 
which had been slightly modified to correct de- 
ficiencies which occurred on earlier flights. The 



4 




replacement of the stainless-steel screens with 
platinum screens. These changes proved to be 
effective, as all thrust units operated properly 
throughout the flight. 



modification to the 1-pound units involved re- 
placing the stainless-steel fuel distribution 
(Dutch weave) screens (see fig. 1-4) with plat- 
inum screens and a stainless-steel fuel distribu- 
tion plate, reducing the volume of the heat bar- 
riers of the automatic ECS, and moving the 
fuel-metering orifice to the solenoid inlet. The 
only modification to the 6-pound units was the 



The horizon scanners are employed to pro- 
vide a correction reference for the spacecraft 
attitude gyros which is indicated in the basic 
schematic diagram shown in figure 1-5. An 
error introduced by the pitch horizon scanner 
circuit was present during launch and apparent- 
ly remained to some degree throughout the 
flight. Since the scanners were lost when the 
antenna canister was jettisoned during the nor- 
mal landing sequence, postflight inspection and 
analysis of these units were impossible; how- 
ever, the failure is believed to have been in the 
scanner circuit and was apparently of a random 
nature in view of the fact that the scanner sys- 
tem has been fully qualified on previous flights. 



"Ignore roll and/or pitch c< 



telemetry 
Sequence commi 





Rate gyro 



Figure 1-5.— Control system schematic diagram. 



5 




Spacecraft separation - 



Figure 1-6. — Spacecraft attitudes during launch. 

Some 40 seconds after escape tower separa- 
tion, the output of the pitch scanner indicated a 
spacecraft attitude of approximately 17°, which 
is graphically depicted in figure 1-6. Also 
shown is the attitude of the launch vehicle and 
spacecraft as determined from launch vehicle 
data which is about — 1° at this time, indicating 
a scanner error of about 18° in pitch. This er- 
ror apparently increased to about 20° at space- 
craft separation. Radar tracking data at the 
time of retrofire provided the only additional 
independent information source and the radar 
data verify, in general, the scanner error. The 
thrust vector which produced the postretro- 
grade velocity was calculated by using the radar 
measurements, and since this vector is alined 
with the spacecraft longitudinal axis, a retro- 
fire attitude of about —36° in pitch was de- 
rived. This calculated attitude was compared 
with a scanner-indicated attitude of —16° dur- 
ing retrofire, yielding a difference of 20°. Al- 
though these two independent measurements 
and calculations would support a theory that 
a constant bias of about 20° was present, the 
attitudes as indicated by instruments and com- 
pared with observations by the pilot disclose 
possible horizon scanner errors of widely vary- 
ing amounts during the orbital flight phase. 
Because of the malfunctioning scanner which 



resulted in pitch errors in the spacecraft atti- 
tude-gyro system, the pilot was required to as- 
sume manual control of the spacecraft during 
the retrofire period. 

Fuel Usage 

Double authority control was inadvertently 
employed at times during the flight, and the 
fly-by-wire high thrust units were accidently 
actuated during certain maneuvers, both of 
which contributed to the high usage rate of 
spacecraft fuel indicated in figure 1-7. In 
addition, operation of the ASCS mode while 
outside the required attitude limits resulted in 
unnecessary use of the high thrust units. The 
manual-system fuel was depleted at about the 
end of the retrofire maneuver, and the auto- 
matic-system fuel was depleted at about half- 
way through the reentry period. 

Because of the early depletion of automatic- 
system fuel, attitude control during reentry 
was not available for the required duration. 
As a result, attitude rates built up after the 
ASCS became inoperative because of the lack 
of fuel, and these rates were not sufficiently 
damped, as expected, by aerodynamic forces. 
These oscillations to diverge until the pilot 
chose to deploy the drogue parachute manually 
at an altitude of approximately 25,000 feet to 
stabilize the spacecraft. 

In order to prevent inadvertent use of the 
high-thrust jets when using FBW mode of con- 
trol, the MA-8 and subsequent spacecrafts will 
contain a switch which will allow the pilot to 
disable and reactivate the high-thrust units at 
his discretion. An automatic override will re- 
activate these thrusters just prior to retrofire. 
Additionally, a revision of fuel management 
and control training procedures has been in- 
stituted for the next mission. 

Communication Systems 

The MA-7 spacecraft communication system 
was identical to that contained in the MA-6 
configuration with one minor exception. The 
voice power switch was modified to provide a 
mode whereby the astronaut could record voice 
on the onboard tape recorder without trans- 
mission to ground stations. Switching to the 
transmitting mode could be accomplished with- 
out the normal warmup time, since the trans- 
mitter was maintained in a standby condition 



6 




A ASCS, gyros caged 
M Maneuvering to observe parlicles, s 
O Orientation mode of ASCS 



Retroottitude maneuver -- 



Time, hr 

Figure 1-7. — Fuel usage rates. 



when the switch was in the record position. 
The communications system is described in 
more detail beginning on page 12 of reference 
1. The MA-7 communication system, with cer- 
tain exceptions discussed below, performed 
satisfactorily. 

Voice Communications 

The UHF voice communications with the 
spacecraft were satisfactory. Reception of HF 
voice in the spacecraft was satisfactory ; how- 
ever, attempts on the part of the astronaut to 
accomplish HF voice transmission to the 
ground were unsuccessful. The reason for the 
poor HF transmission has not been determined. 

Radar Beacons 

Performance of the C- and S-band beacons 
was entirely satisfactory, although slightly in- 
ferior to that of the MA-6 mission. Several 
stations reported some beacon countdown 
(missed pulses) and slight amplitude modu- 
lation on the C-band beacon. The amplitude 
modulation was possibly caused by the modula- 
tion presented by the phase shifter and the 
drifting mode of the spacecraft, which resulted 
in a less than optimum antenna orientation, as 
expected. Both beacons were rechecked after 



the mission and found to be essentially un- 
changed from their preflight status. 

Location Aids 

The recovery beacons employed as postland- 
ing location aids include the SEASAVE (HF/ 
DF), SARAH (UHF/DF), and Super 
SARAH (UHF/DF) units. Recovery forces 
reported that the auxiliary beacon (Super 
SARAH) and TJHF/DF signals were received. 
The Super SARAH beacon was received at a 
range of approximately 250 miles. Both the 
SARAH beacon and UHF/DF transmitter 
were received at ranges of 50 miles from the 
spacecraft, 

The SEASAVE rescue beacon (HF/DF) 
was apparently not received by the recovery 
stations. The whip antenna used by this bea- 
con was reported by the recovery forces to be 
fully extended and normal in appearance. The 
beacon was tested after the flight and found to 
be operating satisfactorily. The reason for 
lack of reception of this beacon has not been 
established, but the large list angles of the 
spacecraft after landing placed the whip an- 
tenna near the surface of the water, and this 
may have been a contributing factor. 



Command Receivers 

The two command receivers operated effec- 
tively during the MA-7 flight. One exercise 
was successfully accomplished with the emer- 
gency-voice-mode of the command system while 
over Muchea. The second exercise of this 
mode, attempted during reentry, was unsuc- 
cessful because the spacecraft was below the 
line-of-sight of the range stations at this time. 

Instrumentation System 

The spacecraft instrumentation system was 
basically the same as that for the mis- 
sion which is described on page 19 of reference 
1. Performance of the system was satisfactory 
except for those items discussed below. 

The instrumentation system sensed informa- 
tion pertinent to over 100 items throughout the 
spacecraft. The biological parameters of the 
pilot, namely electrocardiogram (ECG) traces, 
respiration rate and depth, body temperature, 
and blood pressure, were of primary concern 
to flight control personnel. In addition, many 
operational aspects of spacecraft systems were 
monitored. These aspects included significant 
sequential events, control system operation and 
component outputs, attitudes and attitude rates, 
electrical parameters, ECS pressures and tem- 
peratures, accelerations along all three axes, 
and temperatures of systems and structure 
throughout the spacecraft. These quantities 
were transmitted to Mercury Network stations 
and recorded onboard the spacecraft. The 
system also included a 16-mm motion picture 
camera which photographed the astronaut and 
surrounding portions of the spacecraft. The 
instrumentation system had direct readouts on 
the MA-7 spacecraft display panel for many of 
the instrumented parameters. 

System Modifications 

The changes made since the MA-6 flight in- 
cluded the incorporation of an additional, low- 
level commutator circuit which provided a more 
complete temperature survey, rewiring of the 
circuitry which monitored closure of the limit 
switches that sensed heat-shield release and the 
substitution of a semi-automatic blood pressure 
measuring system (BPMS) for the manual de- 
vice used for MA-6. In addition, the earth- 
path indicator and the instrument-panel cam- 
era were deleted for MA-7. 



Instrumentation Anomalies 

A problem in the instrumentation system 
occurred just after lift-off when erroneous ECG 
signals were temporarily recorded. These ex- 
traneous signals were primarily attributed to 
rapid body movements of the pilot and possi- 
bly excessive perspiration during this period. 

For a short period during the orbital phase, 
the instrumentation indicated that the astro- 
naut's temperature had increased to 102° F. and 
this caused momentary concern. However, 
other medical information indicated that this 
102° F. value was erroneous. The respiration 
rate sensor provided adequate preflight data, 
but the inflight measurements were marginal 
because of the variations in head position and 
air density. This anomaly has been experi- 
enced on previous flights and was of little con- 
cern. 

The data transmitted from the blood-pressure 
measuring system were questionable at times 
during the flight, primarily because of the mag- 
nitude of the data and the intermittency with 
which it was received. The intermittent sig- 
nals were found to have resulted from a broken 
cable in the microphone pickup, shown in figure 
1-8. This malfunction, however, could not 
have affected the magnitude of the transmitted 
information, since an intermittent short either 
sends valid signals or none at all. The BPMS 
was thoroughly checked during postflight tests 
in the laboratory using actual flight hardware, 
with the exception of the microphone and cuff. 
Tests of the controller unit and amplifier were 
also conducted, and no component failure or 
damage in the BPMS has been detected to date. 
However, a number of uncertainties regarding 
the calibration and operation of the BPMS still 



Occluding ^ Programed 

| i CUf | ..Microphone solenoid j™ 9 *"^ 




Figure 1-8. — Semiautomatic blood-pressure 
measuring system. 



exist. Extensive testing is being conducted to 
correlate postflight and inflight BPMS read- 
ings more accurately with clinically measured 
values. 

The remainder of the instrumentation sys- 
tem performed satisfactorily, with the excep- 
tion of a noncritical failure of one temperature 
pickup, a thermocouple located at the low clock- 
wise automatic thruster. A brief indication 
of spacecraft descent occurred on the rate-of- 
descent indicator toward the end of the orbital 
phase ; but since this unit is activated by atmos- 
pheric pressure, the indication was obviously 
false. This indicator apparently operated sat- 
isfactorily during descent through the atmos- 
phere and was found to be operating properly 
during postflight evaluation. The pilot-obser- 
ver camera film suffered sea-water immersion 
after the flight, and its quality and usefulness 
were somewhat limited. 

Life Support System 

The life support system primarily controls 
the environment in which the astronaut oper- 
ates, both in the spacecraft cabin and in the 
pressure suit. Total pressure, gaseous com- 
position, and temperature are maintained at 
acceptable levels, oxygen is supplied to the pilot 
on demand, and water and food are available. 
Both the cabin and suit environmental systems 
operate automatically and simultaneously from 
common oxygen, coolant water, and electrical 
supplies. In-flight adjustment of the cooling 
system is provided for, and the automatic-sup- 
ply function of the oxygen system has a man- 
ual override feature in case of a malfunction. 



The suit and cabin pressures are maintained 
at 5.1 psia, and the atmosphere is nearly 100- 
percent oxygen. The environmental control 
system (ECS) installed in the MA-7 space- 
craft, schematically shown in figure 1-9, dif- 
fered from that for MA-6 in only two respects : 
The constant bleed of oxygen into the suit cir- 
cuit was eliminated, and the oxygen partial 
pressure of the cabin atmosphere was measured, 
rather than that of the suit circuit. Pages 21 
and 31 of reference 1 contain additional descrip- 
tion of the life support system. 

Higher-than-desired temperatures in the 
spacecraft cabin and pressure suit were experi- 
enced during the MA-7 flight, and these values 




Figure 1-9. — Schematic diagram of the environmental 
control system. 

are plotted in figures 1-10 and 1-11, respec- 
tively. In the same figures, the cabin and suit 
temperatures measured during the MA-6 mis- 
sion are shown for comparison. The high 
temperatures were the only anomalies evident 
in the ECS during the flight. 
The high cabin temperature is attributed to 




Figure 1-10. — Cabin-air temperatures. 




Figure 1-11.— Suit-inlet temperature and comfort control valve setting. 



a number of factors, such as the difficulty of 
achieving high air-flow rates and good circu- 
lation of air in the cabin and vulnerability of 
the heat exchanger to freezing-blockage when 
high rates of water flow are used. Tests are 
currently being made to determine if the cabin 
temperature can be lowered significantly with- 
out requiring substantial redesign of the cabin- 
cooling system. 

In the case of the high suit temperatures, 
some difficulty was experienced in obtaining the 
proper valve setting for the suit-inlet tempera- 
ture control, mainly because of the inherent 
lag at the temperature monitoring point with 
control manipulations. The comfort control 
valve settings are presented in figure 1-11, and 
a diagonal line reflects a lack of knowledge as 
to when the control setting was instituted. It 
has been further ascertained in postflight test- 
ing in the altitude chamber that the suit tem- 
perature did respond to control valve changes. 
Based on the satisfactory performance of the 
suit system in the MA-6 flight, it is believed 
that the suit-inlet temperature could have been 
maintained in the 60° to 65° F range for the 
MA-7 flight, had not the comfort control valve 



been turried down early in the flight. The valve 
setting was reduced by the pilot during the first 
orbital pass when the cabin heat exchanger in- 
dicated possible freezing. It is believed that 
some freezing at the heat exchanger did occur 
during the flight which may have resulted in 
less efficient cooling, but this is not the primary 
cause of the above-normal temperature. 

A study of the metabolic rate associated with 
a manned orbital flight was conducted in this 
mission, and the results yielded a metabolic ox- 
ygen consumption of 0.0722 pound/hour or 408 
standard cubic centimeters (sec) per minute. 
This level under weightlessness is comparable 
to that in a normal gravity field with similar 
work loads and is within the design specifica- 
tion of 500 scc/min for the ECS. 

Electrical and Sequential System 

The electrical power system for MA-7 was 
of the same type as that used for MA-6. This 
system is described more fully on page 21 of 
reference 1. The MA-7 electrical power sys- 
tem performed satisfactorily during the MA-7 
mission. 



10 



The sequential system for MA-7 deviated only 
slightly from that used for MA-6, which is 
described in detail on page 26 of reference 1. 
The major change involved the addition of a 
control barostat in the landing sequence cir- 
cuit, which is discussed in a previous section. 
The MA-7 sequential system performed ade- 
quately during the mission. The one anomaly 
that was experienced is discussed subsequently. 

Inverters 

Temperatures of the inverters were, as in 
previous flights, above expected values. How- 
ever, a change in the coolant valve setting by 
the astronaut later in the flight did decrease 
the rate of rise in the inverter temperatures. 

Squib Fuses 

As expected, squib-circuit fuses were found 
to be blown, including the number 1 retrorocket 
switch fuse which also had a small hole on the 
side of the ceramic housing. Postflight testing 
demonstrated that at the electric current levels 
experienced in flight, the casing of these fuses 
could be ruptured and significant quantities of 
smoke could be produced. It was confirmed 
by the astronaut during postflight tests, where 
he observed two similar fuses being blown, that 
these fuses produce a smoke having the same 
color and odor as that encountered in flight at 
the time of retrofire. 

Sequential System 

The differences between the MA-6 and MA-7 
sequential systems included changing of the 
horizon scanner slaving signal from programed 
to continuous and locking-in of the %-g relay 
at sustainer engine cutoff to prevent reopening 
by posigrade thrust. 

One sequential system anomaly was indi- 
cated in the mission when retrofire was reported 
to have been delayed about 1 second after the 
pilot actuated the manual switch to ignite the 
retrorockets. Figure 1-12 shows schematically 
the retrosequence circuitry. Since the attitude 
gyro in pitch indicated that the spacecraft 
pitch attitude was not within ±12° of the nom- 
inal — 34°, the attitude-permission circuitry 
could not pass the retrofire signal from the 
clock and thus, the automatic clock sequence 
could not ignite the retrorockets; this lack of 
permission was proper and indicated that se- 



quential circuitry performance was according 
to design. After waiting for about 2 seconds, 
Astronaut Carpenter actuated the manual retro- 
fire switch. He reported that an additional 
delay of about 1 second occurred before the 
retrorockets actually ignited, which normally 
would take place instantaneously. No explana- 
tion is available for this additional 1-second 
delay, since exhaustive postflight testing has 
failed to reveal any trouble source in the igni- 
tion sequence circuitry. 

Scientific Experiments 

It was planned that a series of research ex- 
periments would be conducted by Astronaut 
Carpenter during the MA-7 mission. This 
series included a balloon experiment, a zero- 
gravity study, a number of photographic exer- 
cises, a ground flare visibility experiment, and 
observations of the airglow layer witnessed by 
Astronaut Glenn. Results of the last ex- 
periment are presented in paper 4 and will not 
be discussed here. Most Mercury experiments 
were proposed and sponsored by agencies out- 
side the Manned Spacecraft Center. Each was 
carefully evaluated prior to its approval for 
inclusion in the flight plan. Sponsoring agen- 
cies for the MA-7 experiments are shown in the 
following table. 



Experiment 


Sponsoring organization 


Balloon 


Langley Research 




Center 


Zero-gravity _ 


Lewis Research Center 


Ground flare visibility- 


Manned Spacecraft 




Center 


Horizon definition 


MIT Instrumentation 




Laboratory 


Meteorological 


U.S. Weather Bureau 


photography 




Airglow layer 


Goddard Space Flight 




Center 



Balloon Experiment 

The objectives of the balloon experiment were 
to measure the drag and to provide visibility 
data regarding an object of known size and 
shape in orbital space. The balloon was 30 
inches in diameter, and was constructed of five 
equal-sized lunes of selected colors and surface 
finishes. The sphere was constructed of a plas- 
tic and aluminum foil sandwich material, and 



654033 O — 62 2 



11 




Figure 1-12. — Retrosequence schematic diagram. 



was to be inflated with a small nitrogen bottle 
immediately after release from the antenna 
canister at the end of the first orbital pass. 
In addition, numerous 14-inch discs of alumin- 
ized plastic were placed in the folds of the bal- 
loon and dispersed when the balloon was de- 
ployed. As intended, the pilot observed the 
rate of dispersion and the associated visual ef- 
fects of the "confetti." 

The balloon was deployed at 01 :38 :00 ground 
elapsed time, but it failed to inflate properly. 
The cause has been attributed to a ruptured 
seam in the skin. Aerodynamic measurements 
were taken with the strain-gage pickup, but 
these are of little use since the actual frontal 
area of the partial inflated balloon is not known. 
The visibility portion of the experiment was also 
only partially successful because only two of 
the surface colors were visible, the orange and 
aluminum segments. While the balloon was 
deployed, a series of spacecraft maneuvers evi- 
dently fouled the tethering line on the destabi- 

12 



lizing flap located on the end of the cylindrical 
portion of the spacecraft, thus preventing the 
jettisoning of the balloon. No difficulty was 
encountered during retrofire and the balloon 
burned up during reentry. 

Zero-Gravity Experiment 

The objective of the zero-gravity experiment 
was to examine the behavior of a liquid of 
known properties in a weightless state using a 
particular container configuration. The ap- 
paratus consisted of a glass sphere containing 
a capillary tube which extended from the in- 
terior surface to just past the center, as shown 
in figure 1-13. A liquid mixture representing 
the viscosity and surface tension of hydrogen 
peroxide was composed of distilled water, green 
dye, aerosol solution and silicon, and consumed 
about 20 percent of the interal volume. The 
diameter of the sphere was 3% inches. The 
application of the results of this experiment is 
primarily in the design of fuel tanks for fu- 



Stondpipe 




(l-?> (zero-?) 



Fioube 1-13. — Zero-gravity experiment 

ture spacecraft. The surface configuration of 
the liquid under zero-gravity was expected to 
assume the position indicated in the final view 
of figure 1-13. An astronaut report during 
the third pass over Cape Canaveral (see ap- 
pendix) and a postflight analysis of the pilot- 
observer film verified the predicted behavior of 
the liquid. The results of the experiment 
showed that the liquid filled the capillary tube 
during weightless flight and during the low-ac- 
celeration portion of reentry. 

Ground-Flare- Visibility Experiment 

The major objective of the ground-flare- 
visibility experiment was to determine the ca- 
pability of the astronaut to acquire and observe 
a ground-based light of known intensity and 
to determine the attenuation of this light source 
through the atmosphere. The earth-based ap- 
paratus consisted of ten 1,000,000-candle-power 
flares located at Woomera, Australia. The pilot 
was supplied with an extinction photometer 
with a filter variation from 0.1 neutral density 
to 3.8 neutral density (99.98-percent light reduc- 
tion) . The flares, with a burning time of about 
iy 2 minutes, were to be ignited approximately 
60 seconds apart during passes over this station. 
The experiment was attempted and failed to 
yield results because of heavy cloud cover during 
the first pass. It was therefore discontinued for 
the remainder of the flight because of continu- 
ing cloud cover. This cloud cover, which was 
also experienced during a similar experiment 
in MA-6, was approximately eight-tenths at 
3,000 feet. The exercise is scheduled to be re- 
peated in a future flight. 

Photographic Studies 

A series of photographic exercises were 
planned for the MA-7 flight, but since opera- 
tional requirements assume priority over sched- 



uled flight activities, some of these studies were 
not conducted. The Massachusetts Institute of 
Technology sponsored a study and supplied the 
necessary equipment to determine horizon defi- 
nition as applied to the design of navigation 
and guidance systems. A few mosaic prints 
were derived from a series of exposures taken 
of the horizon. The MIT photographic study 
is discussed, and a sample photograph is shown 
in the Pilot Performance paper (paper 6). 

A meteorological experiment involving a 
series of special photographs for the U.S. 
Weather Bureau was not accomplished because 
of the lack of time. 

Astronaut Carpenter exposed an extensive 
series of general interest color photographs of 
subjects ranging from terrestrial features and 
cloud formations to the launch-vehicle tankage 
and the tethered balloon. Some of these photo- 
graphs are displayed in the Pilot's Flight Ee- 
port (paper 7). 

Launch Vehicle Performance 

The launch vehicle used to accelerate Astro- 
naut Carpenter and his Aurora 7 spacecraft 
into orbit was an Atlas D missile modified for 
the Mercury mission. The MA-7 launch vehi- 
cle was essentially the same as that used for the 
MA-6 mission and is described in paper 4 of 
reference 1. 

The differences between the Atlas 107-D 
(MA-7) and the Atlas 109-D used for MA-6 
involved retention of the insulation bulkhead 
and reduction of the staging time from 131.3 to 
130.1 seconds after lift-off. The performance 
of the launch vehicle was exceptionally good, 
with the countdown, launch, and insertion con- 
forming very closely to planned conditions. At 
sustainer engine cutoff (SECO), all spacecraft 
and launch-vehicle systems were go, and only 
one anomaly occurred during launch which re- 
quires mention. 

Although the abort sensing and implementa- 
tion system (ASIS) performed satisfactorily 
during the flight, hydraulic switch no. 2 for the 
sustainer engine actuated to the abort position 
at 4 :25 minutes after lift-off. This switch and 
the pressure transducer H52P for the sustainer 
hydraulic accumulator are connected to a com- 
mon pressure-sensing line as shown in figure 
1-14. For an unknown reason this transducer 
was apparently faulty and showed a gradual 



13 




Figure 1-14. — Launch-vehicle hydraulic diagram. 



decrease in pressure from 2,940 psia to 0 between 
190 and 312 seconds after lift-off. Another 
transducer located in the sustainer control cir- 
cuit indicated that pressure had remained at 
proper levels throughout powered flight; 
therefore, this pressure switch did not actuate 
until the normal time after SECO. Since both 
of these switches must be activated to initiate 
an abort, the signal which would have unnec- 
essarily terminated the flight was not generated. 



Reference 

1. Anon : Results of the First U.S. Manned Orbital Space Flight, Feb. 20, 1962. NASA Manned Spacecraft 
Center. 



14 



2. MERCURY NETWORK PERFORMANCE 

By James J. DoNEGAN, Manned Space Flight Support Division, NASA Goddard Space Flight Center; and 
James C. Jackson, Manned Space Flight Support Division, NASA Goddard Space Flight Center 



Summary 

The Mercury Network performed very well 
in support of the Mercury Atlas-7 mission. All 
systems required to support the mission were 
operational at the time of launch and in some 
instances utilized backup equipment in the place 
of primary equipment. No problems were en- 
countered with computing and data flow. The 
computers at the Goddard Space Flight Center 
accurately predicted the 250 nautical mile over- 
shoot immediately after the FPS-16 tracking 
data from Point Arguello, California, were re- 
ceived. Kadar tracking was generally horizon 
to horizon, and the resulting data provided to 
the Goddard computers resulted in good orbit 
determination during the mission. 

The ground communications network per- 
formance was generally better than that of the 
MA-6 mission. The ground-to-spacecraft com- 
munications were slightly inferior to MA-6 per- 
formance, particularly when patched onto the 
conference network to allow monitoring by 
other stations. Telemetry reception, as in the 
MA-6 flight, was good. 

Introduction 

The purpose of this paper is twofold. The 
first is to present a description and the per- 
formance during the MA 7 mission of the Mer- 



cury Network and its associated equipment. 
The second is to describe briefly the Mercury 
real-time computing system of the network and 
to give a brief account of its performance dur- 
ing the MA-7 mission. 

Mercury Network 

The Mercury Network configuration for the 
MA-7 flight shown in figure 2-1, was the same 
as that for MA-6, with but minor exceptions. 
For MA-7 there was no Mid- Atlantic Ship, the 
Indian Ocean Ship was repositioned in the 
Mozambique Channel as shown in figure 2-1. 

The Mercury Network consists of 15 Mercury 
sites supplemented by several Atlantic Missile 
Range (AMR) stations, and the Goddard 
Space Flight Center communications and com- 
puting facility. The major functions of this 
Network during the MA-7 mission were to : 

(1) Provide ground radar tracking of the 
spacecraft and data transmission to the God- 
dard computers. 

(2) Provide launch and orbital computing 
during the flight with real-time display data 
transmitted to the Mercury Control Center. 

(3) Provide real-time telemetry display data 
at the sites and summary messages to Mercury 
Control Center (MCC) for flight control pur- 




180* 160° 140* 120' 



J0° SO" 60° 40° 20° 0° 20° 40° 60° 80° 100° 120° 140° 160° 180° 
Figure 2-1. — Mercury Network configuration for MA-7. 



15 



(4) Provide commancf capability from vari- 
ous stations for astronaut backup of critical 
spacecraft control functions. 

(5) Provide ground-to-spacecraft voice com- 
munications and remote station-to-MCC voice 
and teletype communications. 

The major equipment subsystems located at 
each site are shown in table 2-1. Generally, 
the overall performance of all major equipment 
of the Mercury Network during the MA-7 mis- 
sion was excellent, A brief description of the 
performance of each specific network subsystem 
and an introduction to the equipment is pre- 
sented in the following sections. 

Radar Tracking and Acquisition 

Two principal types of precision tracking 
radars are used in the Mercury ground range 
to track the spacecraft : the AN/FPS-16 and 
Verlort radars. The AN/FPS-16, shown in 
figure 2-2, is a precision C-band tracking radar 
with a 12-foot dish. It operates on a frequency 
of 5,500 to 5,900 mc and has a beam width of 
approximately 1.2°. It is the most accurate 
of our tracking devices. The S-band, or Ver- 
lort, radar, shown in figure 2—3, is a very long- 
range tracking radar with a 10-foot dish. It 
operates on a frequency of 2,800 to 3,000 mc and 
has a beam width of approximately 2.5°. The 
redundancy provided by both of these radar 
systems supplies the computers with sufficient 
data to determine the orbit, should one of the 
spacecraft beacons fail. The active acquisition 
aid has a quad-helix antenna, which is shown 
in figure 2-4. It has a broad beam width of 20 0 , 
operates on telemetry frequencies (215 to 265 




Figure 2-2. — AN/FPS-16 radar installation at 
Bermuda.. 



16 




Figure 2-3. — Verlort radar installation at Guaymas, 
Mexico. 



mc), and normally acquires the target first. 
The acquisition aid console and equipment racks 
are shown in figure 2-5. 

This acquisition capability is most critical 
at sites with the FPS-16 radar since this radar 
is a narrow-beam device requiring precise point- 
ing information to locate the target. Once the 
radar has acquired the spacecraft, the radar 




Figure 2-4. — Acquisition aid quad-helix antenna at 
Bermuda. 



\xxxxxxxxxxxxxxxx 



II 

II 



; x X X X X X 



\ XXX XXX XXX XX XXX 



it 



\xxx ixZz 



\x \xx :x :x 



: x x x xx x x x x x x x x 



\xxxxxxxxxxxxx 



\x \ \xxx 



6 



Is s |"g oi || | J-a^ Is as 



Is 



II 

If 



17 




Figure 2-5. — Acquisition aid console and equipment 



system begins automatic tracking and does not 
require additional acquisition assistance unless 
the tracking is interrupted. 

The acquisition system performance was very 
good; the only difficulty encountered was the 
failure of the elevation drive motor at the Zan- 
zibar station. This failure did not influence 
the reception of data since, the operator was able 
to operate successfully the antenna elevation in 
the manual mode. The coverage periods of the 
acquisition system for the Network are shown 
in figure 2-6. 

A comparison of the radar coverage for 
MA-6 and MA-7, for both C- and S-band sys- 
tems, is shown in figure 2-7. From an examina- 
tion of this figure, it can be ascertained that 
the acquisition system received signals beyond 
the meaningful limits of horizon-to-horizon 
track. The standard errors in range, azimuth, 
and elevation as a result of noise in the radar 
data collected by the Goddard computers and 
the quantity of data received are given in table 



2-II for the MA-7 flight. These data reveal 
that the radar tracking was comparable with 
the horizon-to-horizon coverage obtained dur- 
ing MA-6. 

Tracking was consistent from horizon to hori- 
zon. The spacecraft beacons functioned very 
well during the launch phase and satisfactorily 
throughout the flight. Some amplitude modu- 
lation and slight beacon countdown were noted 
at times. However, these conditions caused no 
noticeable deterioration of data presented to the 
computers. Signal strengths received by the 
radars were noticeably weaker than in the 
MA-6 flight. The radar data transmission ( v ia 
automatic teletype) was excellent with only 
minor errors in transmission of several lines of 
data from Muchea, Australia, during the first 
orbital pass. There was a total of 67,354 char- 
acters transmitted by the network radars with 
no error. 

Computing 

By way of introduction to the Mercury real- 
time computing system, a brief description is 
given. Data from the worldwide Mercury 
Tracking Network are transmitted to the God- 
dard Communications Center via the data cir- 
cuits shown in figure 2-8. From the Communi- 
cations Center, the data are transmitted to the 
Goddard Computing Center, shown in figure 
2-9, which is located in an adjacent room. 
Here, real-time equipment places the radar data 
from each tracking station automatically in 
the core storage of the computers. Two IBM 
7090 computers operating independently but in 
a parallel fashion process the data. Should 
a computer malfunction during the mission, the 
other computer may be switched on-line to sup- 



m 



tt±t 



Gfound elopsed time.hrmin 
Figure 3-6. — Acquisition system coverage. 



18 



mi 



i 



Bermuda -Ver 



Canaries-Ver. 



Californio-Ver. 



Fioube 2-7. — Comparison of radar coverage for MA-6 and MA-7. 




Fiqtjbe 2-8. — Data circuits for Project Mercury. 



port the mission while the malfunctioning com- 
puter is taken off-line and repaired. 

The Mercury computing program is a real- 
time automatic computing program designed to 
provide trajectory information necessary to the 
flight control of the Mercury mission. The 
heart of the real-time computing system is 
the monitor system which is shown schemati- 
cally in figure 2-10. This monitor control sys- 
tem directs the sequence of computer operations 
in real time. Simply stated, the monitor system 
accepts data from the remote sites, places the 
data in the correct block of computer memory, 
calls on the correct processor (whether it be 




19 



Table Q-U.—Standard Deviations of MA-7 Low-Speed Radar Data 



Station 




Total 


Standard deviations 






points 


Range, yards 


Azimuth, mils 


Elevation, mils 



First orbital p 



Bermuda 

Bermuda 

Canaries 

Muchea 

Woomera 

Guaymas. 

White Sands 

Texas 

Eglin 

Eglin 

Cape Canaveral. 



FPS-16.. 
Verlort-- 
Verlort... 
Verlort— . 
FPS-16. . 
Verlort- _. 
FPS-16- - 
Verlort... 
FPS-16- _ 
Verlort... 
FPS-16.. 



Second orbital pass 



Bermuda 

Bermuda 

Canaries 

Muchea 

Woomera 

Hawaii 

Hawaii 

California 

California 

White Sands 

Texas 

Eglin 

Eglin 

Cape Canaveral. 



FPS-16 
Verlort. 
Verlort- 
Verlort- 
FPS-16 
FPS-16 
Verlort- 
FPS-16 
Verlort- 
FPS-16 
Verlort. 
FPS-16 
FPS-16 
FPS-16 



12.0 
17. 7 
76. 7 



0. 16 

1. 65 

2. 31 



Third orbital pass 



Bermuda. 
Bermuda. 
Muchea.. 
Hawaii... 
Hawaii 



FPS-16- _ 
Verlort... 
Verlort— 
FPS-16.. 
Verlort... 



California 

California 

White Sands 

Texas 

Eglin 

Cape Canaveral.. 
San Salvador 



FPS-16.. 
Verlort—. 
FPS-16. . 
Verlort.. . 
Verlort-. 
FPS-16. . 
FPS-16. . 



11. 6 

20. 5 

21. 7 



20 



— l— CBrtroT 



Fioube 2-10. — Real-time monitor control system. 

launch, orbit, or reentry) to perform the proper 
computation on the data, then provides the re- 
quired output quantities to be transmitted to 
the proper destination at the correct time. 

During the MA-7 mission the computing 
system at Goddard performed well. The 
equipment, the launch subsystem, and the high- 
speed line functioned properly during the en- 
tire mission. Especially gratifying was the 
performance of the Bermuda high-speed data 
system and computations which were imple- 
mented after the MA-6 mission. The new 
dual-compilation system also worked well. 

Launch. — All the computing and data trans- 
mission equipment was operational during the 
entire countdown. High-speed input data were 
continuous during the powered phase of the 
flight from each of the three data sources, the 
AMR range safety computer, the launch-vehi- 
cle guidance computer, and the Bermuda range 

Table 2-IIL— Launch Phase Discrete and 
i Events 



Lift-off 

BECO 

Tower release 

Tower separation __ 

SECO 

Spacecraft separa- 

Posigrade 1 

Posigrade 2 

Posigrade 3 

Orbit-phase switch. 



Time "tag" of arrival at 
GSFC, sec since lift-off 
unless indicated 



General Electric/ Nominal 
Burroughs line 



7:45:16 e.s.t. 

128.964 

153.464 

153.464 

310.464 

313.964 



317.964.. 
318.464.. 
318.964. . 
350.964.. 



152. 2 
142. 0 
304. 7 



station. See figure 2-11. The data received 
from Atlantic Missile Range sources during the 
launch were excellent. At lift-off FPS-16 
data processed through the AMR IP 7090 com- 
puter were used as the data source for the God- 
dard computers for approximately the first 35 
seconds of launch. Mark II Azusa data pro- 
cessed by the AMR IP 7090 computer were 
used for the next 37 seconds as source data for 
the Goddard computers. The launch-vehicle 
guidance complex acquired the vehicle in both 
rate and track at 00 : 01 : 02 g.e.t. and was used 
throughout the powered-flight phase and during 
the "go-no-go" computation as the selected data 
source by the Goddard computers. Minor de- 
viations in flight-path angle, for example, 1.2° 
at booster-engine cutoff, and altitude during 
powered flight were corrected by steering prior 
to insertion by the Atlas guidance system. 
Time of the telemetry discretes observed by 
Goddard during launch are shown in table 2- 
III. Insertion conditions computed on the 
basis of the three independent launch sources 
of data were in close agreement. The data 
from all sources during the launch were excel- 
lent. From a trajectory point of view it was a 
nearly perfect launch. 

Orbital phase. — As a result of the extremely 
good insertion conditions provided by the Atlas 
launch vehicle, the orbit phase was nearly nom- 
inal. The orbit was determined accurately and 
verified early in the first pass. The orbital 
computation equipment functioned normally 
and automatically during the mission. A basic 
parameter which is usually indicative of the 
performance of the tracking-computing net- 
work is the computed time for retrorocket igni- 
tion for a landing in the normal mission recov- 
ery area. This parameter varied a maximum 
of 2 seconds from launch throughout the mis- 
sion after the Bermuda correction. As stated 
previously, the tracking data were plentiful 
and accurate during orbit. 

Reentry phase. — A retrofire time of 4 hr 
32 min 58 sec g.e.t. was recommended by the 
Goddard computers based on a nominal land- 
ing point of 68° W. longitude. The retrofire 
time actually used was 4 hr 33 min 06 sec g.e.t. 
based on a more realistic reentry weight because 
of the actual fuel usage. The retrorockets were 
fired at approximately 04:33:09 g.e.t. Point 
Arguello, Calif., tracked the spacecraft during 



21 



Bermuda 




Figure 2-11.— Computer data sources during launch. 




and after retrofire. Based on the Point Ar- 
guello FPS-1 6 tracking information, the God- 
dard computers immediately predicted an over- 
shoot of 246 nautical miles. The overshoot 
point was confirmed by the data from the White 
Sands and Texas stations and all subsequent 
tracking data. The position of the spacecraft 
was continuously and accurately displayed on 
the wall map of the Mercury Control Center in 
real time to an altitude of 60,000 feet. 

From an analysis of the data, it appears the 
tracking and computing systems performed 
their primary tasks normally and without ex- 
ception. No computer or equipment problems 
were encountered during the mission. 

Telemetry and Timing 

The telemetry system provides reception of 
the aeromedical data for display of astronaut 
heartbeat rate, respiration, ECGr, blood pres- 



Figuke 2-12. — Telemetry antenna installation at Kano, 
Nigeria. 



22 




Figube 2-13. — Typical telemetry receiving equipment 




Figube 2-13. — Continued. 



sure, and body temperature. It also provides 
the reception and display of data indicative of 
spacecraft performance for use by the Flight 
Control team at each tracking station. 

A typical telemetry antenna installation is 
shown in figure 2-12, and the associated elec- 
tronic receiving and decommutation equipment 
is shown in figure 2-13. A typical arrange- 
ment of display consoles for Flight Control at 
remote sites is shown in figure 2-14. Although 
not all spacecraft systems quantities are dis- 
played at the Flight Control consoles, all data 
received are recorded either on magnetic tape 
or on direct-writing oscillograph recorders. 
The timing system provides time marks on all 
records for later verification and also provides 



time "tags" with the radar data transmitted to 
the computers. 

In general, all tracking stations received 
telemetry signals from horizon to horizon. Be- 
cause the telemetry transmission frequency is 
severely attenuated by the reentry ionization 
sheath, a blackout of ground reception results. 
This effect was recorded for MA-7 as com- 
mencing at a ground-elapsed time of 4 hours, 
43 minutes and 58 seconds. Signal contact was 
regained at 4 hr 48 min and 47 sec for approxi- 
mately 12 seconds at Grand Turk Island. 
Final loss of telemetry during the landing 
phase was the result of extreme range and low 
elevation angle. 

A comparison of telemetry reception cover- 
age for each site for MA-6 and MA-7 is given 
in figure 2-15 and the received signal strengths 
are given in table 2— IV. The reception periods 
for each station, identified in figure 2-15, are 
almost identical to the results shown for the 
MA-6 mission. 

Command 

The dual ground command system was in- 
stalled at specific command sites shown in table 
2-1. This system provides ground command 
backup to critical spacecraft functions such as 
abort and retrofire. Out of a total of 16 com- 
mand functions transmitted to the spacecraft, 
15 were effectively received. The one exception 
was a calibration command transmitted from 
Muchea, Australia, which was attempted when 
the spacecraft had passed beyond the optimum 
transmitting time. 

As backup means of voice communications 
from the ground to spacecraft, the ground com- 




Figube 2-14. — Typical display consoles at remote 
stations. 



23 



Table 2-IV. — Telemetry Receiver Signal Strengths 



Station 


Estimated mean, microvolts 


l^ZodeTuTs) 


2^ 0 modeTl434 r ) 


High (receiver 
1, model 1415) 


High (receiver 
2, model 1434) 



Mercury Control Center. . 

Bermuda 

Canaries 

Zanzibar 

Indian Ocean Ship 

Muchea 

Woomera 

Canton 

Hawaii 

Guaymas 

California 

Texas 



Mercury Control Center.. 

Bermuda 

Canaries 

Zanzibar 

Indian Ocean Ship 

Muchea 

Woomera 

Canton 



Second orbital p 



Guaymas. _ 
California . . 
Texas 



Mercury Control Center- 
Bermuda 

Canaries 

Zanzibar 

Indian Ocean Ship 

Muchea 

Woomera „ 

Canton 

Hawaii 

Guaymas 

California 

Texas 



Third orbital pass 



Too low to estimate 
Not in range 
Not in range 



24 



Canaveral Bl 1 
Canaveral Tel n R 






m 










-11 






- - w 


wans oanung 15, 
Grand Turk Is. 
Bermuda 


g»Not availa 
Will 


ble 




















t> 


Kano 




Not used 


on MA- 7 


-4 


— = 










Not 
Not 


n range 
n range 


w 


Indian Ocean Ship 
Muchea 














■it 






Not 






Woomera 




J = 






















Colifornia 


■ MA-6 




Not n 

! 




















White Sands 
Eglin 


HMA-7 

irtffl 








-4 


n MA-7 

14 






i. 









Ground elapsed time, hr min 
Pigtjbe 2-15. — Comparison of telemetry coverage times for MA-6 and MA-7. 



mand system employs a voice modulator which 
may be utilized in the event both the HF and 
UHF voice systems are inoperative. This back- 
up technique was tested successfully during the 
first orbital pass over Muchea, Australia. 

Standby systems were called upon to main- 
tain command coverage at two stations. Minor 
trouble was experienced at the California sta- 
tion during the first orbital pass when a fuse 
opened in the primary system, and the trans- 
mitter in the primary command system at Guay- 
mas failed during the third pass. In both cases 
the standby system functioned satisfactorily. 
The command system operated normally in 
spite of several minor malfunctions and had 
no effect on the mission. 

Communications 

The communications facilities for the Mer- 
cury Network consist of : 

(1) Teletype between all remote stations and 
the Mercury Control Center through the 
Goddard Space Flight Center. 

(2) Direct -line telephone communications 
between selected stations and Mercury 
Control Center. 

(3) HF and UHF communications from all 
stations except Eglin, Fla., and White 
Sands, N. Mex., to the spacecraft. 

The teletype circuits are utilized for flight- 
control message traffic and radar data from 
radar tracking stations to the Goddard com- 
puters. This sharing of circuits restricts all 
but priority messages from a station during 
the radar tracking period. 



The voice communications circuits between 
the Mercury Control Center and selected re- 
mote stations provide a direct and rapid means 
of information transfer between the Flight 
Control personnel at these locations. 

The HF and UHF receiving and transmit- 
ting equipment permits direct and successive 
voice contact during the flight between the as- 
tronaut and the Flight Control team over each 
station. A patching arrangement permits all 
stations which have ground voice communica- 
tions to the Control Center to monitor all 
ground-to-spacecraft communications during 
the flight. 

Teletype and ground voice. — All regular, 
part-time, and alternate circuits were active and 
operative on launch day. The propagation pre- 
diction was for good conditions for those tele- 
type circuits which utilize radio links to reach 
certain stations. The teletype network per- 
formed well with only three difficulties occur- 
ring: 

(1) The teletype circuit between Goddard 
and Guaymas was open for a 7-minute 
period beginning at 00:36 g.e.t. The 
spacecraft was not over Guaymas at the 
time, and retransmission assured message 
continuity. 

(2) The Australian cable gave trouble for a 
short period at 01 : 00 g.e.t., which re- 
sulted in loss of four lines of Woomera 
radar data. 

(3) Teletype traffic to the Indian Ocean Ship 
was interrupted for about 6 minutes due 
to propagation; however, the interrup- 



25 



Canoveral 


F 


















-4 


■ 


































































































Grand Turk Is. 




























































Bermuda 




























































Atlantic Ocean Ship 










MA 
















































tockout- 


























































-- 




























































































































Indian Ocean Ship 










Location of 






for MA- 




































Mucheo 




























































Woomera 
















































































































































































































































Guaymos 
























































































































HF 




= 


















5 








































Grand Bahama Is. 


F 


























































Grand Turk Is 




























































Bermuda 




























































Atlantic Ocean Ship 






totii 


sed 


n M 


A- 7 














































periogL 
























T 


































































































Zanzibar 




























































Indian Oceon Ship 










Location o 






lor MA-7 
































































































Woomera 
























































































































Howaii 
Colifomia 


■HMA-6 
BIIA-7 






I 








































































































1=1 Horizon 
































m 




















Eglin 

0^ 


"ttttt 
)0 0 








00 






30 




2 


■00 






£3 


3 




300 




33 


0 




40 


0 






D 



Ground elapsed time,hr.min 
UHF 

Fiqube 2-16. — HF and UHF coverage for MA-6 and MA-7. 



tion occurred at a time when the space- 
craft was approaching the west coast of 
the United States and did not interrupt 
critical traffic. 
HF and UHF voice.— The quality of the 
ground-to-spacecraft communications was ac- 
ceptable throughout the mission; however, it 
was not as good as that for the MA-6 mission. 
A study of the character of the average signal 
strength at the ground systems reveals that the 
majority of the stations reported a lower signal 
level for MA-7 than was experienced during 



MA-6. In some of these cases the signal level 
was 2 to 5 times greater for the earlier mission. 

It was noted that when the ground-to-space- 
craft circuit was patched to the between-sta- 
tions voice conference, the quality was not as 
good as the MA-6 mission. This effect is being 
investigated by studying the recordings made at 
various locations on the circuits. The general- 
ly weaker signal strength may account for part 
of this problem. Figure 2-16 shows the HF 
and UHF coverage for both the MA-6 and 
MA-7 missions. 



26 



3. MISSION OPERATIONS 



By John D. Hodge, Asst. Chief for Flight Control, Flight Operations Division, NASA Manned Spacecraft 
Center; Eugene F. Kbanz, Flight Operations Division, NASA Manned Spacecraft Center; and WIL- 
LIAM C. Hayes, Flight Operations Division, NASA Manned Spacecraft Center 



Summary 

A discussion of the detailed operational sup- 
port provided during the MA-7 mission, in- 
cluding prelaunch, launch, flight, and recovery 
phases, is presented. Since the launch vehicle 
countdown and prelaunch phase was nearly 
identical to that for MA-6, this activity is given 
only minor emphasis. The launch phase pro- 
ceeded almost perfectly, with only a last -minute 
hold for weather. Powered flight was normal, 
and the Mercury spacecraft was inserted into 
a nominal orbit with exceptional precision. 
The flight was satisfactorily monitored by the 
ground stations of the Mercury Network, and 
their activities are presented chronologically. 
No major flight discrepancies were evident dur- 
ing the orbital phase until just prior to retro- 
fire, when it was discovered that the automatic 
control system was not operating properly. 
The astronaut was instructed by ground per- 
sonnel to effect a manual retrofire maneuver. 
Radar tracking data subsequent to this maneu- 
ver indicated that the spacecraft would land 
250 nautical miles downrange of the planned 
landing point. Following contingency recov- 
ery procedures, the astronaut was recovered by 
helicopter some 3 hours after landing, and the 
spacecraft was retrieved by a recovery destroyer 
approximately 3 hours later. 

Introduction 

In the present paper, the flight control and 
recovery operations for the MA-7 mission will 
be discussed in detail. Since the launch sup- 
port procedure was discussed in the MA-6 
flight report (ref. 1), it will be only discussed 
briefly.' Some small changes from the MA-6 
operational support were made, most of which 
were associated with the development of ap- 

654533 O — 62 3 



propriate support procedures for the future 
missions of longer duration. Network support 
is discussed in detail in paper 2. Based on 
previous experience, it was found that the total 
recovery support used for MA-6 could be 
slightly reduced for MA-7. The flight plan 
was basically the same as that for the MA-6 
mission with two significant differences: the 
astronaut was given a greater amount of man- 
ual-control tasks to perform ; and a large num- 
ber of experiments were to be accomplished. 

Prelaunch Activities 

During the prelaunch period, four flight con- 
troller network exercises were performed. A 
new network countdown was used, and a high 
degree of confidence was established in the 
countdown format during this time. These 
drills were very similar in content to those per- 
formed for the MA-6 mission. Flight Con- 
trollers quickly obtained a high degree of con- 
fidence in various site and network procedures 
and reached a high level of performance very 
early in the schedule. They maintained this 
performance level throughout all the network 
simulations and during the actual MA-7 flight. 
The countdown for launching the Mercury- 
Atlas vehicle is conducted in two parts. The 
first part is conducted on the day before the 
launch and lasts approximately iy 2 hours. This 
part of the countdown was conducted with no 
major problems or delays. The second part of 
the countdown was probably as close to per- 
fect for the launch vehicle, spacecraft, and net- 
work as could ever be expected. There were 
some minor problems throughout the network ; 
however, none of these resulted in the necessity 
for a hold, and the coordination between the 
various agencies involved was excellent. A hold 
of about 45 minutes occurred at T-ll minutes 

27 



in anticipation of better camera coverage and 
to allow aircraft to check the atmospheric re- 
fraction index in the vicinity of Cape Canaveral 
for the launch-vehicle guidance equipment. 

Powered Flight Phase 

The launch occurred at 07 : 45 : 16 a.m. e.s.t. on 
May 24, 1962. Sustainer engine cutoff occurred 
at 5 minutes 10 seconds ground elapsed time 
(g.e.t.). The "go" capability as indicated by 
the Goddard Space Flight Center computers 
was obtained and transmitted to the astronaut 
at 5 minutes 32 seconds. The powered portion 
of flight was completely normal, and the astro- 
naut was able to make all of the planned com- 
munications and observations throughout this 
period. The Mercury Control Center go-no-go 
decision at cutoff was made rapidly, and there 
was no doubt that condiiions very close to no- 
minal had been achieved. Table 3-1 presents 



the actual cutoff conditions that were obtained. 
A comparison of the planned and actual times 
at which the major events occurred are given 
in table 3-II. 



Table 3-1.— Actual FVtg 

Cutoff conditions : 

Altitude, ft 

Velocity, ft/sec 

Flight-path angle, deg 



L ConditU 



Orbit parameters : 

Perigee altitude, nautical miles 

Apogee altitude, nautical miles 

Period, inin : sec 

Inclination angle, deg 

Maximum conditions : 

Exit acceleration, g units 

Exit dynamic pressure,* lb/sq ft 

Entry acceleration, g units 

Entry dynamic pressure, lb/sq ft— 



* Based on the atmosphere at Cape Cana 



Table 3-II. — Sequence of Events During MA-7 Flight 



Booster-engine cutoff (BECO)-. 

Tower release 

Escape rocket firing 

Sustainer-engine cutoff (SECO) . . 

Tail-off complete 

Spacecraft separation 

Retrofire sequence initiation 

Retro (left) No. 1 

Retro (bottom) No. 2 

Retro (right) No. 3 

Retro assembly jettison 

0.05 g relay 

Drogue parachute deployment. _ 
Main parachute deployment 

Main parachute jettison 



00:02:10,1 
00:02:32.2 
00:02:32.2 

00:05:05.3 
00:05:06.3 
04:32:25.6 
04:32:55.6 
04:33:00.6 
04:33:05.6 
04:33:55.6 
04:43:55.6 
04:50:00.6 
04:50:37.6 
04:55:22.6 
04:55:22.6 



00:02:08.6 

00:02:32.2 

00:02:32.2 

00:05:09.9 

00:05:10.2 

00:05:12.2 

04:32:36.5 

04:33:10.3 

04:33:15.3 

04:33:20.5 

04:34:10.8 

04:44 :44 

04:50:54 

04:51:48.2 

04:55:57 

04:56:04.8 



Orbital Flight Phase 

After separation of the spacecraft from the 
launch vehicle, the astronaut was given all per- 
tinent data involved with orbit parameters and 
the necessary retrofire times were transmitted. 
A remoting facility for transmitting air-to- 
ground voice for the Mercury Control Center 
through the Bermuda site transmitters was im- 
plemented for the MA-7 mission. This facility 
enabled the Mercury Control Center Capsule 



Communicator (Cap Com) to transmit space- 
craft systems data and orbital information to 
the astronaut in real time; therefore, much 
of the requirement for relaying information !>e- 
tween the Canaveral and Bermuda Flight Con- 
trollers was eliminated. From the summary 
messages received from the African sites, it 
became readily apparent that the suit cooling 
system was not correctly adjusted and that the 
astronaut w r as uncomfortable. However, the 



28 



suit temperature began to decrease when the 
astronaut increased the water flow in the suit 
cooling circuit. By the end of the first orbit 
it had reduced to a satisfactory value. Other 
than the slight discomfort due to the high suit 
temperature, the astronaut was obviously in 
good condition and performing satisfactorily 
throughout the first orbit. The Canary Island 
site transmitted radar data to the Goddard com- 
puters, and these data confirmed the orbital in- 
sertion parameters and an extremely good or- 
ital definition was obtained. Over the Woo- 
mera station, the astronaut reported that he 
took four swallows of water and that his bite- 
sized food tablets had crumbled in the container 
and some particles of food were floating free in 
the cabin. He was able to eat some of the 
crumbled food. 

Toward the end of this pass, a slight in- 
crease in body temperature was noted. The 
Canton Island site then reported a body tem- 
perature of 102°. However, the Mercury Con- 
trol Center surgeon felt such a rapid increase 
was not probable and that the transducer had 
either failed or had been affected by the tele- 
metry calibrate command transmitted from the 
Muchea site. The only other problem was the 
large amount of automatic control system fuel 
being used by the astronaut during the first 
orbit. He was cautioned against further ex- 
cessive usage of this fuel during the orbital 
pass over the United States. The air-to- 
ground transmissions relayed via the Goddard 
voice loop during the first orbit were of good 
quality and provided the Mercury Control Cen- 
ter with information available from the air- 
ground voice communications of the astronaut. 
The network air-ground voice quality, although 
not as good as the previous MA-6 mission, con- 
tinued to be usable throughout the remaining 
orbits and provided one of the best tools for 
maintaining surveillance of the flight. The 
spacecraft clock performed satisfactorily 
throughout the entire mission. The initial 
clock error of —1 second remained constant 
throughout the mission and was compensated 
for in the retrosequence settings that were 
transmitted to the astronaut. During the first 
orbit, the network radar systems were able to 
obtain excellent tracking data and these data, 
together with the data obtained at cutoff, pro- 
vided very adequate information on the space- 



craft position and orbit. As an example, the 
retrosequence time computed at insertion was 
changed only 11 seconds by the Bermuda data, 
and thereafter, the time varied within only ± 1 
second throughout the mission. The balloon 
was deployed during contact with Cape Cana- 
veral 1 hour 38 minutes after lift-off. During 
the first portion of the second orbit, the suit 
temperature indicated a rise from 70° at Cape 
Canaveral to approximately 90° during con- 
tact with the Indian Ocean Ship, but again 
showed a decrease in trend before acquisition 
by the Muchea and Woomera stations. It was 
obvious throughout the flight that the pilot was 
having difficulty in achieving the proper water- 
flow setting for the suit cooling system. There 
is about a 30-minute lag in the cooling system 
in response to a change in the valve setting and 
as a result it was difficult to determine an ade- 
quate setting. However, when the loss of sig- 
nal (LOS) occurred at Woomera, the suit tem- 
perature had decreased to approximately 82° 
and during the remaining one and one-half orb- 
its the suit temperature indicated a steady de- 
crease to a value between 64° and 67°. Cabin- 
air-temperature readings were slightly higher 
with the MA-6 flight. A maximum tempera- 
ture of 108° was monitored by the Hawaii sta- 
tion near the end of the second orbit. This 
temperature decreased and tended to stabilize at 
about 100° during the remainder of this orbit 
and the first portion of the third orbit. 

Over the Woomera site, the astronaut re- 
ported that he could temporarily change the 
spacecraft attitude by moving his arms 
and body. The mission continued normally 
throughout the remainder of the second orbit. 
The astronaut was behind the flight-plan sched- 
ule by several items, and it was noted at Cali- 
fornia acquisition that the astronaut had used 
rather large amounts of manual fuel and was 
down to approximately 42 percent as he began 
the third orbit. The low automatic and manual 
fuel quantities caused considerable concern on 
the ground and resulted in a further request 
to the astronaut to conserve his fuel in both 
the automatic and manual systems. Site evalu- 
ation of telemetry recordings during the first 
and second orbits indicated considerable high 
thruster activity. These indications generally 
occurred while the astronaut was in the fly-by- 
wire mode, and it appeared that he was employ- 



29 



ing high thrusters excessively during attitude 
changes. 

Throughout the flight, the astronaut made a 
number of voice reports regarding visual ob- 
servations and discussed various experiments 
carried out in the flight. These reports are ex- 
plained in more detail in paper 7. 

The Mercury Control Center made a go deci- 
sion for the beginning of the third orbit at 2 
hours 55 minutes g.e.t. The astronaut was cau- 
tioned to conserve his fuel and it was suggested 
that he increase his water flow to the inverter 
cold plates. The inverters had indicated an 
increase in temperature similar to the previous 
MA-6 flight. This caused no major concern; 
however, the increased water flow reduced the 
rate of this temperature increase to an accepta- 
ble level. As a result of the request to conserve 
fuel, the astronaut entered a period of drifting 
flight at 3 hours 9 minutes g.e.t. while he was 
in contact with Cape Canaveral. Over Mer- 
cury Control Center during the third orbit, 45 
percent of the fuel in the automatic system and 
42 percent of the fuel in the manual system re- 
mained. Over the Indian Ocean Ship, the as- 
tronaut attempted to jettison the balloon man- 
ually and reported that he was unable to ac- 
complish this although the switch was cycled 
several t imes. 

During the third orbit, all systems appeared 
to be normal. The clock was reset to 04 :32 :34, 
the retrofire time for the end of the third orbit, 
by the astronaut while in contact with the 
Muchea station. 

Reentry Phase 

Upon contact with Hawaii at the end of the 
third orbit, the astronaut was instructed to be- 
gin his preretrosequence check list and to revert 
from his present manual control mode to the 
automatic mode in preparation for retrose- 
quence. The retrosequencecheck listwas started 
but when the astronaut returned to automatic 
control, he reported having trouble with this 
system and, as a result, was unable to complete 
the list. The capsule communicator at Hawaii 
continued transmitting the remainder of the 
preretrosequence check list after loss of tele- 
metry contact, and most of the transmission was 
received by the astronaut. However, the 
ground was unable to confirm that it had been 



received because of the limited UHF range of 
the spacecraft. 

From both astronaut reports and telemetry 
readouts during the periods in which the astro- 
naut was using automatic control over remote 
sites during the mission, it appeared that no 
major difficulty was experienced while using 
this system. The astronaut reported the auto- 
matic stabilization and control system (ASCS) 
to be performing satisfactorily on several oc- 
casions. Although some differences between 
horizon scanner outputs and spacecraft atti- 
tudes had been noted, they were not considered 
to be any reason for concern because of the con- 
trol configuration at the time. Therefore, the 
failure of the ASCS system to maintain proper 
attitudes when engaged by the astronaut over 
Hawaii was unexpected. When voice com- 
munications were established with the Cali- 
fornia station, the astronaut continued to have 
problems on ASCS and, with advice from the 
capsule communicator, elected to perform the 
retrofire maneuver using manual control. 
During this period the astronaut used a com- 
bination of window reference, periscope, and 
attitude displays. 

The astronaut was directed to initiate retro- 
fire manually and to bypass the attitude per- 
mission circuit. The coundown was transmit- 
ted from California, but it was apparent that 
the retrofire had taken place several seconds 
late. Initial reports from the astronaut indi- 
cated that the attitudes had been held fairly 
well during retrofire. The California station 
reported that the velocity change indicated by 
the integrating accelerometer was normal. The 
radar data from California indicated an over- 
shoot but the indication was suspected to be in 
error because of previous reports. However, 
as additional radar data became available from 
other sites, it was obvious that the California 
radar data were correct and that the landing 
point would be approximately 250 nautical 
miles beyond the planned position. Because of 
the small amount of automatic fuel remaining 
following retrofire and the complete depletion 
of manual fuel, the astronaut was instructed 
to use as little fuel as possible in returning the 
spacecraft to reentry attitude and to conserve 
the fuel for use during reentry. He was also 
instructed to use the ASCS auxiliary damping 



30 



mode during the atmospheric reentry portion 
of the flight. 

Upon contact with Cape Canaveral just 
previous to the loss of communications as a 
result of ionization blackout, the astronaut was 
queried as to his face-plate position. He indi- 
cated that it was still open, and proceeded to 
close it. The communication blackout occurred 
about 40 seconds late, an occurrence which lent 
further evidence to the longer reentry range 
predicted by the radar. The astronaut was told 
that his landing point would be long and would 
occur at approximately 19°23' N., 63°51' W. 
From this point no voice communications were 
received from the astronaut; however a brief 
period of telemetry data was obtained after 
blackout. A number of communications were 
attempted with the command voice system and 
the normal UHF and HF voice system on the 
chance that he might receive this information. 
All operating C-band radars at Cape Canaveral 
and San Salvador tracked the C-band beacon 
until the spacecraft went below the local hori- 
zon indicating that the spacecraft had re- 
entered satisfactorily, and these radar data con- 
tinued to predict approximately the same land- 
ing point. 

Recovery Operations 

The operation of recovery forces for this mis- 
sion was very similar to that for the MA-6 mis- 
sion. Planned landing areas were established 
in the Atlantic as shown in figure 3-1 to cover 
aborts during powered flight and landing at the 
end of each orbital pass. The disposition of 



Table 3-III. — Disposition of Recovery Forces in Planned Landing Areas 





Search 
aircraft 


Search and 
rescue 
aircraft 


Helicopters 


Ships 


Maximum 
recovery 
time, hr 


A« 


4 


2 


0 


9 


3 to 6 


B 




0 


0 




6 


C 




0 


0 




3 


D 


1 


0 


0 


1 


6 


E 


1 


0 


0 




6 


F 


0 
1 


0 


3 


2 


3 


G 


0 


3 


2 


3 


H 


2 


1 b 


3 


3 


3 














Total 




3 


9 


20 















* Launch site recovery forces consisted of 3 helicopters, several amphibious vehicles, and small boats. 
b Launched as a precautionary measure when the astronaut began the third orbital pass. 

31 




Figtjbe 3-1. — Planned landing areas. 



the recovery forces in the planned landing areas 
is shown in table 3-III. Area H is the planned 
landing area for the end of the third orbit, and 
recovery in this area could be effected within 
3 hours of landing. Special aircraft were pre- 
deployed on a standby basis to locate the space- 
craft and render pararescue assistance within 
18 hours of landing at any point along the 
ground track. 

During the entire mission, all recovery forces 
were informed of the flight progress by the Re- 
covery Control Center. Shortly after the as- 
tronaut began the third pass, an Air Rescue 
Service SC-54 aircraft with a specially trained 
pararescue team aboard was dispatched as a 
precautionary measure from Roosevelt Roads, 
Puerto Rico, and assigned a position at the 
downrange end of landing area H. As soon as 
the calculated landing position was established 
about 250 nautical miles downrange of the cen- 
ter of area H, all units in area H were instructed 



Table 3-IV. — Chronological Summary of Post-Landing Events 



e.s.t., 
hr: min 


Elapsed time 
from landing, 
hr: min 


Event 


11:18 a.m. 




As a precautionary measure, Air Rescue Service SC-54 was launched from 






Roosevelt Roads, Puerto Rico, to take station on downrange end of Area 






H. The SC-54 had specially trained pararescue team aboard. 


12:22 p.m. 




Retrorockets were ignited. 


12:33 p.m. 




Calculated landing position was reported as being 19°24' N. latitude, 63°53' 






W. longitude. Air Rescue Service SA-16 (amphibian) was launched and 






instructed to proceed to this point. 


12:35 p.m. 




All units in area H were proceeding to calculated landing position. 


12:41 p.m. 


00:00 


Spacecraft landed. 


12:44 p.m. 


00:03 


Contingency recovery situation was established at Recovery Control Cen- 






ter. Recovery commander in area H (embarked on U.S.S. Intrepid) was 






designated mission coordinator. Positions of vessels in vicinity of land- 






ing point were requested from Coast Guard and other Naval commands 


12:47 p.m. 


00:06 


(see fig. 3-2) . 

Search aircraft reported possible UHF/DF contact with spacecraft at 






04:54 g.e.t. 


12:58 p.m. 


00:17 


Destroyer U.S.S. Farragut was proceeding to calculated landing position. 


12:59 p.m. 


00:18 


All search aircraft were executing search plan. Had positive UHF/DF 






contact with spacecraft. 


1:20 p.m. 


00:39 


Search aircraft reported visual contact with green dye at 19°29' N. 64°05' 






W. (Spacecraft employs flourescein sea-marker.) 


1:21 p.m. 


00:40 


Search aircraft reported astronaut in liferaft attached to spacecraft. 


1:27 p.m. 


00:46 


Search aircraft reported that astronaut appeared to be comfortable. 


1:34 p.m. 


00:53 


The SC-54 descended to deploy pararescue team and auxiliary notation 






collar. 


1 :40 p.m. 


00:59 


Pararescue team was deployed. 


1:40 p.m. 


00:59 


Two HSS-2 helicopters were launched from U.S.S. Intrepid with Mercury 






Project doctor and specially equipped swimmers aboard. 


1:50 p.m. 


01:09 


The SA-16 arrived on-scene. 


1:56 p.m. 


01:15 


The SA-16 descended to evaluate sea-state condition for possible landing. 


2:15 p.m. 


01:34 


The SA-16 reported sea condition satisfactory for landing and take-off. 


2:21 p.m. 


01:40 


Astronaut appeared normal, and waved to aircraft. Pararescue team was 






in water. Helicopters were enroute to spacecraft. The SA-16 was in- 






structed not to land unless helicopter retrieval could not be made. 


2:39 p.m. 


01:58 


Auxiliary notation collar was attached to spacecraft and inflated. 


2:52 p.m. 


02:11 


Astronaut and pararescue team were in water. There was no direct 






communication with astronaut. Astronaut appeared to be in good 






condition. 


3:30 p.m. 


02:49 


Helicopter arrived over spacecraft. j 


3:40 p.m. 


02:59 


Astronaut was in helicopter. Doctor reported astronaut in good condition. ! 


3:42 p.m. 


03:01 


Helicopter retrieved pararescue team. Astronaut Carpenter reported, | 






"Feel fine." Destroyer U.S.S. Farragut was 18 miles from spacecraft. 


4:05 p.m. 


03 :24 


Helicopters returned to the U.S.S. Intrepid accompanied by SA-16 and 






search aircraft. 


4:20 p.m. 


03:39 


U.S.S. Farragut had spacecraft in sight. 








6:16 p.m. 


05:35 


U.S.S. John R. Pierce had U.S.S. Farragut in sight, 


6:52 p.m. 


06:11 


U.S.S. Pierce had spacecraft onboard. 


7:15 p.m. 


06:34 


Initial medical examination and debriefing of astronaut was completed 






onboard U.S.S. Intrepid. Astronaut departed for Grand Turk Island. 



32 



to proceed to this point. (See table 3-1 V for 
a chronological summary of post-landing 
events.) An Air Rescue Service SA-16 am- 
phibian aircraft was also dispatched from 
Roosevelt Roads and instructed to proceed di- 
rectly to the calculated landing position. 

Since the landing was outside of a planned 
landing area, recovery procedures set up for 
such an eventuality were followed in the Recov- 
ery Control Center. The recovery commander 
in area H aboard the aircraft carrier, U.S.S. 
Intrepid, was designated as mission coordinator. 
Various United States Naval Commands and 
the Coast Guard were interrogated as to the 
location of merchant and naval ships, other 
than those assigned to recovery forces, to estab- 
lish their availability for possible assistance in 
the recovery operations. The location of units 
available to assist in recovery operations at the 
time of spacecraft landing is shown in figure 
3-2. 

Search aircraft from area H quickly obtained 
a bearing on the spacecraft UHF/DF electronic 
location aids and proceeded to establish visual 
contact with the spacecraft about 40 minutes 
sifter landing. The astronaut was reported as 
seated comfortably in his liferaft beside the 
floating spacecraft. The SC-54 aircraft arrived 
shortly thereafter and deployed the pararescue 
team with a spacecraft auxiliary notation collar 
and other survival equipment to render any 
necessary assistance to the astronaut and to pro- 
vide for the continued flotation of the space- 
craft. A photograph of the spacecraft in the 
flotation collar is presented in figure 3-3. 

Information received from the Coast Guard 
and Navy indicated a Coast Guard cutter at 
Saint Thomas, Virgin Islands; a destroyer, the 
U.S.S. Farragut, located about 00 nautical miles 




W long 72° 70" 68" 



Figure 3-2. — Landing area details. 




Figure 3-3. — Spacecraft in flotation collar. 



southwest of the calculated landing position; 
and a merchant ship located about 31 nautical 
miles north of the calculated landing position. 
It was determined that the Farragut could ar- 
rive at the spacecraft first, and it was directed 
to proceed at best speed. Two twin-turbine 
HSS-2 helicopters were launched from the car- 
rier Intrepid to retrieve the astronaut. The 
first helicopter carried a doctor from the special 
Mercury medical team assigned to the Intrepid 
for postflight examination and debriefing of the 
astronaut. The recovery helicopters also con- 
tained two specially trained divers equipped 
with a second spacecraft auxiliary flotation col- 
lar. The SA-16 then arrived at the spacecraft 
and prepared for landing in the event such ac- 
tion would be required before the arrival of the 
helicopters. Although the landing point was 
outside the planned landing area, the astronaut 
was retrieved by helicopter, as shown in figure 
3^t, in slightly less than 3 hours after landing. 




Figure 3-4. — Astronaut being retrieved by helicopter. 



33 



He was returned to the U.S.S. Intrepid for med- 
ical examination and debriefing and was later 
flown to Grand Turk Island. 

The destroyer U.S.S. Farragut arrived at the 
spacecraft and kept it under close surveillance 
until the destroyer, U.S.S. John R. Pierce, ar- 
rived with special retrieval equipment to make 
the pickup as shown in figure 3-5. The space- 
craft was delivered to Roosevelt Roads by the 
destroyer, with a subsequent return to Cape Ca- 
naveral by airplane. 




Figure 3-5. — Spacecraft retrieval by destroyer. 



Reference 

1. Anon. : Results of the First United States Manned Orbital Space Flight, February 20, 1962. NASA Manned 
Spacecraft Center. 



34 



4. SPACE SCIENCE REPORT 



By John A. O'Keefe, Ph. D., Asst. Chief, Theoretical Division, NASA Goddard Space Flight Center; and 
Winifred Sawtell Cameron, Theoretical Division, NASA Goddard Space Flight Center 



Summary 

The principal results in the field of space 
science obtained from the MA-7 mission are: 

1. The luminous band around the horizon 
is attributed to airglow ; a large part of the light 
is in the 5,577-angstrom (A) line, where maxi- 
mum intensity is at about 84 kilometers. 

2. Space particles, similar in some ways to 
those reported by Astronaut Glenn, were shown 
to emanate from the spacecraft. They are 
probably ice crystals. 

3. New photographs showing the flattened 
solar image at sunset were made. 

Introduction 

A discussion is presented in this paper of the 
observations regarding terrestrial space phe- 
nomena made by Astronaut M. Scott Carpenter 
during the MA-7 flight and reported in paper 
7. Some of these observations are compared 
■with those made by Astronaut John H. Glenn, 
Jr., in the first manned Mercury orbital flight 
and described in reference 1. The principal 
subjects considered in the field of space science 
are: 

1. The airglow layer at the horizon. 

2. The space particles reported by Astronaut 
Glenn. 

3. The flattened solar image at sunset, 

An analysis of these and other observations 
of the astronauts is continuing. 

Airglow Layer 

Toward the end of the MA-7 flight, between 
4 hours 2 minutes g.e.t. (16 hr and 47 min 
Greenwich mean time) and 4 hours 18 minutes 
g.e.t., May 24, 1962, Astronaut M. Scott Car- 
penter made a series of observations of a lumi- 
nous band visible around the horizon, known 
as the "airglow" layer. The airglow is a faint 
general illumination of the sky visible from the 



ground on a clear, moonless night. The glow is 
brightest about 10° or 15° above the horizon 
and becomes fainter toward the zenith. The 
height of the airglow layer has been investi- 
gated by Heppner and Meridith (ref. 2) of the 
Goddard Space Flight Center using an Aero- 
bee sounding rocket, This rocket, which carried 
a filter that transmitted only the 5,577-angstrom 
(A) line, have indicated that the height of the 
layer extends from 90 to 118 kilometers above 
the earth. Their studies were also concerned 
with the characteristics of other layers of spe- 
cific wavelengths, such as the sodium layer. 
The light emitted from the luminous layer is 
attributed to a forbidden transition, or transi- 
tion from a metastable state, of the oxygen in 
the upper atmosphere. A forbidden transition 
is very difficult to produce in the laboratory be- 
cause the atoms lose the energy corresponding 
to the transition through the collision with an- 
other atom or with the walls of the container. 
This effect can be minimized only if the labora- 
tory apparatus is very large and the enclosure 
is at an extremely high vacuum. Thus a for- 
bidden transition is much more common in 
space. 

The astronaut's observations of this luminous 
layer permit investigation and identification of 
three of its physical characteristics. The wave- 
length of the emitted light is discussed initially, 
and this is followed by an analysis of the 
brightness of the airglow layer. Finally, an 
examination of the height of the luminous band 
above the earth's surface is presented. 

Wavelength 

The most significant observation was made 
with a specially developed filter supplied by 
the NASA Goddard Space Flight Center. The 
filter transmits a narrow band of wavelengths, 
approximately 11 A wide at the half-power 
point and centered at the wavelength of the 



35 



strongest, radiation of the night airglow, namely 

During the flight the astronaut noticed that 
the filter passed the light of the luminous band 
with but little attenuation ; however, it rejected 
the light of the moonlit earth. Therefore, the 
band was identified as the 5577 layer. 

Brightness of the Layer 

Astronaut Carpenter noted that the airglow 
layer was relatively bright. An indication of 
this brightness was derived from a comparison 
of the brightness of the layer with that of the 
moonlit horizon. 

Astronaut Carpenter also noted that the layer 
was about as bright as the horizon, which was at 
that time illuminated by the moon at last quar- 
ter. Assuming that the atmosphere at the hori- 
zon acts like a perfect diffusing reflector, and 
noting that the illumination of the moon at last 
quarter is approximately 2 X 10" 2 lux, it is found 
that the surface brightness is 6X10" 3 lux per 
steradian. 

Height of the Layer 

The astronaut provided evidence on the 
height of the layer through five separate obser- 
vations : 

1. By making a direct estimate which was 
from 8° to 10°. 

2. By noting that it is approximately twice 
the height of the twilight layer. Astronaut 
Carpenter estimated the height of the twilight 
layer as 5 sun diameters or 2%°; hence, the 
height of 5577 layer would be 5°. 

3. By observing the star Phecda as it passed 
the middle of the luminous band. 

4. By noting the time when Phecda was half- 
way from the luminous band to the horizon. 

5. By noting the fact that when the crossbar 
of the reticle is scribed on the window set diag- 
onally, the horizontal bar just covers the dis- 
tance from the band to the horizon. 

In method 3, the time of passage of the star 
below the brightest part of the luminous layer 
was used. Through careful timing of the 
spacecraft tap*, and conversation with the astro- 
naut, the time has been fixed at approximately 
04:05:25 ground elapsed time (g.e.t.) or 16 
houi-s 50 minutes 41 seconds G.m.t, To find the 
true height at that time, a special set of com- 
putations was made at Goddard Space Flight 
Center, starting from the spacecraft, latitude 




Figure 4^1.— Parameters used to calculate height of 



and longitude for each minute of ground elapsed 
time. By using the standard formulas of 
spherical astronomy, the angular zenith dis- 
tance Z, schematically shown in figure 4-1, of 
Phecda was calculated. The ray from Phecda 
was considered to be tangent at each moment 
to an imaginary sphere which is concentric with 
the earth, and which is situated at a distance 
A below the observer. The usual formula for 
the dip of the horizon is h=R(l-smZ), where 
B is the radius from the center of the earth to 
the spacecraft. Since only 3-figure accuracy is 
needed in k, it is not necessary to enter into 
refinements in the calculation of R\ a mean 
radius of the earth of 6,371 kilometers plus the 
spacecraft elevation gives more than sufficient 
precision. Subtracting h from the spacecraft 
elevation gives the elevation of the layer. By 
using the above-mentioned time, the lower 
boundary of the layer is found to be at 73 
kilometers. Other points are less definite; it 
appears that at 04 :03 :33 g.e.t. or 16 hours 48 
minutes 49 seconds (110 kilometers) G.m.t. 
Phecda had not yet entered the layer, and that 
at 04:04:52 g.e.t. or 16 hours 50 minutes 8 
seconds (84 kilometers) G.m.t. it was approach- 
ing the middle of the layer. 

These heights are some 10 to 15 kilometers 
lower than those which result from rocket 
measurements (ref. 2). The discrepancy may 
be due in part to geometrical effects; for in- 
stance, a very thin layer has some intensity at 
all zenith distances greater than that of the 
tangent to the layer. Hence the determination 
of the bottom of the layer is intrinsically un- 
certain. In a thick layer, these methods are 



36 



slightly biased toward the lower portions. On 
the other hand, it appears to be physically pos- 
sible, especially if account is taken of turbu- 
lence that the maximum of the oxygen (O) is 
really lower than 90 kilometers. 

The observation of the luminous layer 
through the filter was made at 04 :16 :50 g.e.t. 
Sunrise was witnessed about 1 minute later 
while the observation was being conducted. It 
follows that the airglow is visible even when the 
twilight band is very strong. An attempt to 
observe it in the day appears to be desirable. In 
this connection, it should be noted that Astro- 
naut Virgil I. Grissom reported a grayish band 
at the top of the blue sky layer (see ref . 4) . He 
remembers this layer as narrow and grayish in 
color, representing an actual increase in inten- 
sity. He pointed out the approximate position 
of the layer on one of the photographs taken by 
Carpenter at the height of 1.7° above the hori- 
zon. Astronaut Grissom may have in fact 
observed the luminous layer during the daytime. 

Astronaut Carpenter did not note any vertical 
or horizontal structures in this layer. He did 
not attempt a continuous survey around the 
horizon ; however, he did note the layer at sev- 
eral points along the horizon and believes it to 
be continuous all the way. It does not appear 
possible that this layer can actually absorb 
starlight. Any layer at this level capable of 
absorbing a noticeable fraction of the light (25 
percent or more) would also significantly scat- 
ter light ; it would therefore be a very promi- 
nent object on the daylight side. However, it 
is not definitely visible on the photographs of 
the day side. That the decreased visibility of 
stars passing through the layer was a contrast 
effect is entirely in agreement with Astronaut 
Carpenter's impression. This layer is thus 
assumed to be luminous. 

An interesting feature of this observation is 
the discrepancy between the eye estimates of 
8° to 10° for the altitudes above the horizon, on 
the one hand, and the results of timed observa- 
tions on the other. The latter indicates alti- 
tudes of 2° to 3°, which are clearly correct. 
For example, Astronaut Carpenter noted that 
when one arm of his reticle was at an angle of 
45°, it covered the space between the horizon 
and the bright band. The crossarm is 1.21 cen- 
timeters in length and is 26.2 centimeters from 



the astronaut's eye. At an angle of 45°, it sub- 
tends a vertical angle of about 2.6°. 

It thus appears that the well-known illusion 
which exaggerates angles near the horizon, may 
also be experienced in orbital flight. It was 
evidently present during the MA-6 mission, 
since Astronaut Glenn also reports 7° to 8° as 
the height of the luminous band. 

A summary of the results derived from the 
five methods of calculating the height of the air- 
glow layer is presented as table 4-1. 

Space Particles 

Astronaut Carpenter also noticed and photo- 
graphed white objects resembling snowflakes, or 
reflecting particles, at sunrise on all three orbits. 
(See fig. 4-2.) However, he also saw these ob- 
jects 7 minutes after the first sunrise and again 
43 minutes after sunrise and 2, 11, 23, 26, 36, 
and 45 minutes after the second sunrise. It is 
thus quite clear that they are not related to sun- 
rise, except perhaps in the sense of being most 
easily visible then. 

In the photographs some of the particles were 
considerably brighter than the moon, which 
was then very near the first quarter. At this 
time, the moon is about — 10 ; the particles may 
have been between -12.6 magnitude (10 times 
brighter than the moon) and —15 magnitude 
(100 times brighter than the moon). The sec- 
ond is considered more likely, in view of the 
appearance of the full moon ( — 12.6) as shown 
on photographs taken on the MA-6 mission. At 
- 15 magnitude, the particle brightness is con- 
sistent with centimeter-size snowflakes. The 
particles were verbally described by the pilot as 
having been between 1 millimeter and 1 centi- 




Figvre 4-2. — Space particle photographed by 
Astronaut Carpenter. 



37 



meter in size and having a strong visual resem- 
blance to snowflakes. 

Shortly before reentry just at sunrise, Car- 
penter improvised the decisive experiment of 
hitting the walls of the spacecraft with his hand. 
The blows promptly resulted in the liberation of 
large numbers of particles. It is thus clear that 
at least those particles observed in the MA-7 
flight emanated from the spacecraft. 

The possibility that the particles might be dye 
marker or shark repellant, both of which are 
green and both of which are exposed to the 
vacuum, was considered. Tests were conducted 
which demonstrated that neither material 
tended to escape from the package in a vacuum 
The possibility that they might be small parti- 
cles from the fiber glass insulator was also con- 
sidered ; in view of the smallness of the fibers, 
it appears likely that they would have been 
blown away at once, like the confetti of the 
balloon experiment. The dynamic pressure of 
1 dyne per square centimeter is sufficient to re- 
move at once anything weighing less than about 
10 to 100 milligrams per square centimeter, 
which corresponds to a thickness of the order 
of 0.3 to 1 millimeter for most ordinary sub- 
stances. 

As mentioned in reference 1, there are two 
plausible sources within the spacecraft for these 
particles : 

1. Snow formed by condensation of steam 
from the life support system. 

2. Small particles of dust, waste, bits of 
insulation, and other sweepings. 

The latter are very conspicuous in a zero g 
environment when there is nothing to keep 
them down, and it is extraordinarily difficult to 
free the interior of the spacecraft of such mate- 
rial. Undoubtedly, the exterior parts of the 
spacecraft which are exposed to the environment 
will contain these particles, and they undoubt- 
edly provide a source for the space particles. In 
particular, a corkscrew-shaped piece observed 
by Astronaut Carpenter could possibly have 
been a bit of metal shaving or perhaps a raveled 
piece of insulation. 

On the other hand, there is considerable 
evidence, which points to snow as the source of 
the majority of the material. In the first place, 
water is exhausted from the spacecraft in far 
larger quantities than any other substance. In 

38 



the second place, the material looked like snow- 
flakes both to Glenn and to Carpenter. In the 
third place, the frequency with which the par- 
ticles are reported by Carpenter appears to be 
correlated with the temperature of the exterior 
of the spacecraft as recorded by thermocouples 
in the shingles. The temperature was always 
lowest at night, falling to temperatures of 
-35° C just before sunrise, and rising to 10° C 
just after sunrise. 

The condensation probably occurred in the 
space between the heat shield and the large 
pressure bulkhead of the spacecraft, rather than 
outside the spacecraft, because even at the low- 
est recorded shingle temperature, around - 50° 
C, the vapor pressure over ice amounts to about 
0.039 millibar. Although this pressure is very 
low, it greatly exceeds the ambient pressure at 
the lowest spacecraft altitudes. Accordingly, 
it is not possible that snowflakes should form 
under these circumstances, even though it is 
true that the spacecraft must be surrounded by 
an expanding atmosphere of water vapor. 

If the water vapor is assumed to expand 
freely, then the pressure at a distance of 1 meter 
from a hole 1 centimeter in diameter will be of 
the order of 1/10,000 of the pressure at the hole. 
Hence it is fairly clear that the pressure be- 
tween the heat shield and bulkhead of the space- 
craft will be far higher than the outside pres- 
sure, in spite of the presence of 18 one-centi- 
meter apertures. Therefore, condensation be- 
hind the heat shield is more likely than out- 
side. It is noteworthy that no formation of 
rime was noticed either on the window or on 
the balloon string. It is considered most likely 
that the luminous particles are snowflakes 
formed in the spacecraft between the cabin bulk- 
head and the heat shield by the steam exhaust 
from the life support system. It is suggested 
that they may have escaped into space through 
the ports, being driven outward by the expand- 
ing vapor. Note that at 2 hours 52 minutes 47 
seconds g.e.t., Carpenter noticed a particle mov- 
ing faster than he. At 2 hours 50 minutes g.e.t., 
he had planned to observe sunrise and was fac- 
ing forward. This particle was therefore prob- 
ably seen at a point east of him. Most of the 
particles were seen behind him and falling back. 
This supports the idea that the particles prob- 



ably are pushed outward by the expanding 
steam from the spacecraft before they begin to 
stream backward. It is probable that many of 
the particles lodge on the outside of the space- 
craft, since Carpenter is quite sure, from the 
direction in which the particles streamed across 
the window, that they came from near the point 
where he had knocked. 

The Flattened Sun 

New information regarding the refraction 
by the earth's atmosphere of celestial objects 
as seen from space has recently been provided 
by the Mercury manned orbital nights. Theory 
predicts that the sun's image near the horizon 
should be highly flattened. Astronauts Glenn 
and Carpenter obtained photographs of the set- 
ting sun that illustrate this effect rather strik- 
ingly. Carpenter recognized the phenomenon 
visually, but John Glenn did not. 

A general procedure for the computation of 
refraction, in order to construct a theoretical 
solar profile for comparison with the actual 
photographs, is presented. The quantities de- 
termined are the apparent and true zenith dis- 
tances as seen from the spacecraft denoted by 
Z aDP and Z, rue , respectively. 

To find these quantities, a ray through the 
atmosphere to the spacecraft is idealized. The 
phenomenon takes place effectively only for 
rays whose perigees are lower than 20 kilom- 
eters above the surface of the earth. Figure 
4-3 illustrates the geometry employed. 

The ray from the sun is traced backward 
from the spacecraft, C. The first section, from 




Figure 4-3. — Geometry employed in eomputation of 
refraction. 



the spacecraft to the atmosphere, X, is straight. 
If the ray continued in this direction toward 
the sun, there would be a point, B, of nearest 
approach to the center of the earth, 0. That 
distance is denoted by p, and the angle at the 
center of the earth from the spacecraft to B is 
denoted as ®. If B and p are known, the ap- 
parent height of any point on the sun as seen 
from the spacecraft could be calculated. 

To make the calculation, the curving optical 
ray is followed forward until it is refracted 
so as to be parallel to the surface of the earth. 
This point is called the perigee of the ray, and 
is denoted by G. The line OG makes an angle 
® + r with OC, where r is the refraction angle 
for the sun when an observer at G sees it 90° 
from the zenith. 

If the straight portion of the ray is pro- 
longed, it will intersect OG at some point A. 
Then, the height, of D above G is called the 
refraction height, s. For any given height G, 
the refraction angle r at the horizon and the 
refraction height s, which depends on the true 
height and r, can be calculated. Then the right 
triangle OBD for the distance p can be solved. 
The length p is denoted by analogy with the 
similar dynamic problem, such as the impact 
parameter. 

Given p and the spacecraft height, the ap- 
parent angles at the spacecraft can be calculated 
as a function of ®. The refraction angle 
2r=R is added to form the true zenith distances. 

The computation of the refraction r=s-s', 
where a is the true zenith distance and z' the 
apparent zenith distance, for a fictitious ob- 
server stationed at perigee, was based on the 
rather detailed theory given in reference 5. 
The pertinent formulas are : 

r=T 1 ^B i W i+1 

and 




T=the absolute temperature divided by 273.0° 
at height h 

p= pressure at height h divided by the ground 
pressure of 1.013 X10 6 dynes/cm 2 

B = coefficient involving the index of refraction 
p and the polytropic index n. 



39 



The temperature, pressure, and density 8 of the 
atmosphere at altitude h were taken from ref- 
erence 6. More recent data on these parameters 
are available from reference 7. 

The parameter s, here called the refractive 
height, is a refraction correction commonly 
applied in calculations of times of contact in 
eclipses. The derivation of s is found on page 
515 of reference 4, which gives its relation to 
the index of refraction as l + s/a= /i.sin z' j sin z. 
Here is mean radius of the earth (6,371,020 
meters) . The index of refraction fi is computed 
using jj.= 1+2A-8, where k is a constant, and S is 
the density at h divided by the density at the 
surface ( 1.172 X10" 3 q/cm 3 ). 

Once n, r, and s have been obtained, then R 
follows immediately from the simple relation 
#=2r (a ray is doubly refracted at the space- 
craft) and p is obtained from the equation 
p= (a+h+s) cos r. Then ® is determined 
from the relation cost ®=p/H, where H= a+ h e 
(h e = 257,000 meters as determined by the MA-7 
orbit) . Finally, Z app and Z, rue are related to © 
and R by the equations Z app = 90° + (g) and 
£tr Ue =90°+ {®+R). Table 4-II summarizes 
the computed results. 

The flattening of the image of the setting sun 
is best illustrated in the plot of Z app versus Z lrue . 
An image representing the sun to scale may be 
placed at any Z lrue , and points around the limb 
extended to the curve may be located on the Z app 
axis. This procedure yields the apparent zenith 
distance of those points. Since the horizontal 
axis is not affected by refraction, parallels of al- 
titude may be laid off on the unrefracted image 
of the sun and similarly on the apparent image 
of the sun. The apparent image may be recti- 
fied for easy comparison. The theoretical pro- 
files of four phases of a setting sun are illus- 
trated in figure 4-4, which is a plot of Z trw vs. 
Z apP for four true zenith distances of the sun's 
center. These distances are Z true = 105.460°, 
Z true = 106.236°. Z true = 106.918° (sun's lower 
limb on the horizon) , and Z true = 107.180° (sun's 
center on horizon). The ratios in percent of 
the vertical to horizontal diameters are approxi- 
mately 0.63, 0.46, 0.17, and 0.11, respectively. 
Considering the spacecraft arttfelar velocity of 
4°/ min, it is seen that the entffte refraction ef- 
fect took place in the relatively |J\ort interval of 
about 20 seconds. 




Figure 4rA. — Stages of the setting sun. 



The uncertainty in photography times pre- 
cludes an exact comparison of theory and obser- 
vations. However, figure 4-4 (c) most nearly 
simulates the photographs in figures 4-5 and 
4-6 which show the effects of the spacecraft mo- 
tion and still demonstrate the arresting effect. 
Figure 4-5 was photographed by Astronaut 
Glenn on February 20, 1962. He specifically 
states that he did not see the sun as a narrow, 
flat object. He observed it as spreading out 
about 10° on either side and merging with the 
twilight band. 




Figube 4-5. — Flattening of sun photographed by 
Astronaut Glenn. 



Figure 4-6 was photographed by Astronaut 
Carpenter on the MA-7 flight of May 24, 1962. 
He stated that the sun definitely appeared some- 
what flattened during sunrise and sunset. 



40 



cise times of observation and perhaps measures 
of the horizontal and apparent vertical diam- 
eters by the astronaut using a sextant might be 
feasible. At any rate, the observations by as- 
tronauts of future nights will be carefully ana- 
lyzed and further compared with the theory 
stated herein to explain refraction phenomena 
more fully. 

Acknowledgments. — Thanks are due to Mr. 
Lawrence Dunkelman of Goddard Space Flight 
Center for providing the 5,577 filter ; to Profes- 
sor Joseph W. Chamberlain, University of Chi- 
cago, for assistance and advice in the interpreta- 
tion of the airglow information; to James J. 
Donegan of Data Operations Division of God- 
dard Space Flight Center for the provision of 
the final orbital elements; and to Frederick B. 
Shaffer of the Theoretical Division of Goddard 
Space Flight Center for programing and ob- 
taining the orbit on the 7090 computer. 



Table 4-L— Observations of the Height of the 5577 Layer 



Method 


Results 


Significance 


1. Eye estimate at angular 

height. 

2. Comparison with twilight 

layer. 

3. Observation of star in the 

middle of the layer. 

4. Observation of star halfway 

from haze layer to horizon. 

5. Observation of angular height 

with reticle. 


8° to 10° above horizon 

101°54' from Zenith 

Zenith distance is 103° 10' 

2.6° above horizon ,-- 


Apparently the moon illusion exists even 
in the absence of a gravitational field; 
objects look larger near the horizon. 

Same as above. 

Height about 83 kilometers. 

Apparent horizon 1° above geometrical 
horizon, whose Zenith distance is 106°. 

Confirms methods 3 and 4; i.e. apparent 
horizon is more than 1° above geo- 
metrical horizon. 




Figure 4-6. — Flattening of sun photographed by 
Astronaut Carpenter. 



Therefore, the flattening effect produced by 
atmospheric refraction of a celestial body as seen 
from space has been demonstrated by direct ob- 
servation. However, it is hoped that future 
missions will yield photographs with more pre- 



41 



J 



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ummtii 



iissassiisi 



mum 



ill 



iilSIIIiiiS 



illllllslsl 



illllllllll 



flllllillll 



iisi-sliilll 



1 



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§ 8 

i! 




5. AEROMEDICAL STUDIES 



A. CLINICAL AEROMEDICAL OBSERVATIONS 

By Howard A. Minners, 1 M.D., Aerospace Medical Operations Office, NASA Manned Spacecraft Center; 
Stanley C. White, M.D., Chief, Life Systems Division, NASA Manned Spacecraft Center; William 
K. Douglas, 1 M.D., Air Force Missile Test Center, Patrick Air Force Base, Florida; Edward C. 
Knoblock, Ph.D., Walter Reed Army Institute of Research, Washington, D.C.; and Ashton Gray- 
biel, M.D., U.S. Naval School of Aviation Medicine, PensacoUt, Fla. 



Summary 

A review of the detailed medical examina- 
tions accomplished on two astronauts who each 
experienced approximately ±y 2 hours of weight- 
less space flight reveals neither physical nor 
biochemical evidence of any detrimental effect. 
Such flights appear to be no more physiologi- 
cally demanding than other nonspace-oriented 
test flights. Specifically, no pulmonary atelec- 
tasis has been found, no cosmic-ray damage has 
occurred, and no psychiatric abnormalities 
have been produced. In spite of directed ef- 
forts to stimulate the pilot's orientation and 
balancing mechanisms during weightless flight, 
no abnormal vestibular nor related gastroin- 
testinal symptoms have occurred. Postflight 
special labyrinthine tests have confirmed an 
unchanged integrity of the pilots' vestibular 
system. Although events occurring during the 
MA-7 mission permitted only a qualitative 
verification of gastrointestinal absorption of 
xylose, such absorption was normal during 
MA-6. Biochemical analyses after Astronaut 
M. Scott Carpenter's flight confirmed the oc- 
currence of a moderate diuresis. 

Water survival is an emergent situation re- 
quiring the optimum in crew training and pro- 
cedure discipline. Furthermore, if heat stress 
continues to be a part of space flight, adequate 
fluid intake during the mission is necessary for 
crew performance and safety. 

Introduction 

The experience gained in the MA-6 flight 
altered the medical planning for the MA-7 

654533 O— 62 1 



flight in two important respects. A compre- 
hensive medical evaluation of the astronaut was 
conducted at the earliest opportunity after 
landing when his impressions were freshest and 
any acute medical alterations would have been 
greatest. The flexibility of the procedure at 
the debriefing site was increased to take greater 
advantage of any medical symptoms which 
might appear. The MA-7 pilot was aeromedi- 
cally prepared for flight in a manner similar 
to that of the MA-6 pilot with allowance made 
for individual variations, for example, dietary 
preferences and the mode of physical condition- 
ing. Prior to the mission, clinical observations 
were obtained during several medical examina- 
tions and before most of the preflight activities 
listed in table 5-1. The medical examinations 
are logically divided into a clinical history fol- 
lowed by physical examination. This latter 
division consists of standard medical proce- 
dures, including repeated and numerous obser- 
vations by physicians, routine and special labo- 
ratory tests, X-rays, retinal photography, 
electrocardiography, electroencephalography, 
and special tests of the body's balancing mech- 

Purpose 

The threefold purpose of the clinical observa- 
tions was (1) to determine the fitness of the 
astronaut for flight, (2) to provide baseline in- 
formation for the Aeromedical Flight Control- 
lers, and (3) to measure any changes which 
might have occurred between preflight and 
postflight conditions. 

1 Astronaut Flight Surgeon for MA-7. 

43 



Table 5-1. — Significant Activities of MA~7 
Astronaut 



[All times are eastern standard] 



Date 


Activity 


1962 




Cnel-' 




flight ^ited^ /anavera ' slmu a e 


M 




2 


Procedures trainer suited 


5 


Began special diet ' aeromedical feeding 




facility. 


7 


Procedures trainer, suited 


9 


Procedures trainer, not suited 


10 


Simulated launch, suited 


15 


Simulated flight 3, suited 








Patrick Air Force Base Hospital, Fla. 


21 


Preflight low-residue diet began for 






23 


MA. 1 ? m^hi -ale at 8-00 m 


24 


A k n" 1 ^ 6 "t^l'-l * 66 m* be an "aero 




W , ' '* ' '' .^..r 

me ca coun own, aunc . a m., 








3:30 p.m. and 5:15 p.m.; brief ex- 






25 


p.m. 

Asleep 2:30 a.m.: awoke 9:15 a.m.; 




aeromedical debriefing; engineering 




debriefing. 


26 


Asleep 12:45 a.m.; awoke 6:45 a.m.; 




aeromedical and engineering debrief- 




ing; skin diving for 3 hours. 


27 


Asleep 2:30 a.m.; awoke 9:15 a.m.; 




arrived Patriek Air Force Base 2:00 


28 


p.m. 

Departed Cape Canaveral 2:15 p.m. 



Aeromedical History 

For purposes of these observations, the aero- 
medical history of the MA-7 mission began on 
April 30, 1962, with Astronaut M. Scott Car- 
penter's arrival at Cape Canaveral, Fla., for 
preflight preparations. A summary of his sig- 
nificant activities from this date until his return 
to Cape Canaveral following the flight is pre- 
sented in table 5-1. Throughout this period, 
his physical and mental health remained excel- 
lent. A special diet which insured good nutri- 
tion and hygiene was used for 19 days before the 
flight. Mission rescheduling caused two starts 
on the low -residue diet before the third and final 
3-day low-residue diet began on May 21, 1962. 
The pilot maintained his physical condition 




Figure 5-1. — Astronaut Carpenter during physical 
training-. 



through frequent exercise on a trampoline (tig. 
5-1) and distance running. 

On the morning of the flight, Astronaut Car- 
penter was free of medical complaints, men- 
tally composed, and ready for the mission. 
Breakfast consisted of filet mignon, poached 
eggs, strained orange juice, toast, and coffee. 
The preflight fluid intake consisted of 1,050 cc 
of water, juice, coffee, and sweetened iced tea. 
He voided three times into the urine collection 
device before launch. The events of the aero- 
medical countdown are listed in table 5-IL 
Astronaut Carpenter was awakened 65 minutes 
earlier than the MA-6 pilot had been and the 
MA-T launch was 122 minutes earlier than the 
MA-6 launch. 

After the flight, Astronaut Carpenter stated. 
"My status is very good, but I am tired." His 
fatigue at landing is attributable to the heat, 
load accompanying an elevated suit temperature 
(see paper 1) and the associated high humidity, 
the activity required to carry out the flight plan, 
and the expected emotional stress associated 
with such a flight. The following postlanding 
sequence of events contributed further to his 
fatigue : after entering the raft, he recognized 
that it was upside down. He left the raft, held 
to the spacecraft, righted the raft, and once 



44 



Table 5-II. — MA-7 Aeromedical Countdown 
Events 

[May 24, 1962] 



Time, 
a.m. 
e.s.t. 


Activity 


i 


Awakened the ilot 


1-46 


Breakfast 


2 05 


Preflight physical examination 


2:41 


Biosensor placement 


3:04 


Don Mercury pressure suit 


3:25 


Pressure suit and biosensor checkout 


3:40 


Entered transfer van 


4:03 


Arrived at launch pad 


4:36 


Ascended gantry 


4:43 


Insertion into spacecraft 


7:45 r 


Lift-off 



i MA-e times: Awakened, 2:20 a.m. (e.s.t.); lift-off, 9:47 a.m. (e.s.t.). 



again climbed aboard. His neck dam was still 
stowed, and, after several fatiguing attempts, 
he was able to deploy it some 30 minutes after 
his second entry into the raft. An undeter- 
mined but moderate quantity of water had en- 
tered the pressure suit. Obviously, these events 
represent survival hazards. Astronaut Car- 
penter drank water and ate food from his sur- 
vival kit during the 3-hour period awaiting 
helicopter pickup. 

Throughout the debriefing period, he talked 
logically about his space flight and remained 
alert. A detailed review of the pilot's in-flight 
aeromedical observations is presented in an- 
other section of this paper. 

Physical Examinations 

Abbreviated physical examinations were ac- 
complished by the Astronaut Flight Surgeons 
prior to most of the planned activities in the 
prelaunch period. These examinations re- 
vealed no significant variations from previous 
examinations. The aeromedical debriefing 
team, representing the specialties of internal 
medicine, neurology, ophthalmology, aviation 
medicine, psychiatry, radiology, and clinical 
laboratory conducted a comprehensive medical 
examination 7 days before the mission. This 
examination included special labyrinthine 
studies (modified caloric test and balance test 
on successively more narrow rails), electro- 
cardiogram (ECG), electroencephalogram 
( EEG) , and audiogram. Astronaut Carpenter 



was in excellent health and showed no signifi- 
cant change from previous examinations. 

On the night prior to the flight, the pilot ob- 
tained approximately 3 hours of sound sleep. 
No sedative was required. He was given the 
final cursory preflight examination by the same 
specialists in aviation medicine, internal medi- 
cine, and neuropsychiatry who carried out the 
earlier extensive medical checks. His physical 
and mental status was normal. 

After a 3-hour period in the liferaft, Astro- 
naut Carpenter was examined in the helicopter. 
The physician reported as follows : "He pulled 
the tight rubber collar [neck dam] from his neck 
and cut a hole in his [left] rubber pressure-suit 
sock to drain out sea water. He was anxious to 
talk and to discuss his experiences in a coopera- 
tive and well-controlled manner. He talked 
with the helicopter pilot, paced about a bit, and 
finally relaxed as one normally would after an 
extended mental and physical exercise," The 
physical examination aboard the aircraft car- 
rier revealed that he was without injury and in 
good health. He did show a mild reaction to 
the adhesive tape used at the four ECG sensor 
sites and the blood-pressure microphone loca- 

Upon Astronaut Carpenter's arrival at Grand 
Turk Island (10 hours after the landing), the 
internist member of the debriefing team noted : 
"He entered the dispensary with the air and 
the greeting of a man who had been away from 
his friends for a long time. He was alert, de- 
siring to tell of his adventure, and seemed very 
fit . . . his appearance and movement suggested 
strength and excellent neuromuscular coordina- 
tion." A brief medical examination was under- 
taken an hour after the pilot's arrival. The 
following morning, a comprehensive examina- 
tion was made by the same group of specialists 
who had examined Astronaut Carpenter 7 days 
prior to space flight. This extensive examina- 
tion revealed no physical changes from the 
pilot's preflight condition. Specifically, an 
audiogram, EEG, ECG, chest X-rays, balance, 
neuromuscular coordination, and mental status 
were all normal. No evidence of cosmic-ray 
damage was found during the ophthalmologic 
examination, which included slit lamp biomi- 
croscopy. The aeromedical debriefing was 
completed on the second morning following 
the flight. The results of these examinations 



45 



are presented in tables 5-III to 5-V. A mild preflight and postflight examinations. Treat- 
asymptomatic urethritis was present in both ment was withheld until after the flight. 



Table 5-III. — Preflight and Postflight Medical Findings 





Preflight 


Postflight 




May 17, 1962 


May 24, 1962 


May 24, 1962 


May 25 and 26, 




(Patrick Air Force 


(Cape Canaveral, 


(Recovery Vessel, 


1962 (Grand Turk 




Base) 


2:05 a.m.) 


5:15p.m.) 


Island) 


Temperature (oral), °F- 


97 9 


97 4 


97 6 


97 5 


Pulse rate, beats/rain 


60 


60 


76 to 80 




Blood pressure (sitting), 


126/84 (right arm) 


120/78 (left arm) 


116/78 (left arm) 


124/80 (left arm) 


mm Hg. 










Respiration, breaths/ 
min. 


14 


12 










Weight (nude), lb i 


151'/2 


154 


148 


151% 


Extremity measure- 










ments, 2 in.: 


Left Right 


Left Right 


Left Right 


Left Right 


Forearm 






10% 10% 




Wrist 


7 


o% fa/s 


6% 6^ 


6/4 6/4 


Calf 


/ / 




13 13% 


13% 13% 


Ankle 






7% 7% 




Comments _ 


Complete examin- 


Fit for flight; alert 


Moderate ery- 


Minimal ery- 














skin clear ex- 


ate mental 


chest ECG and 


postflight sites ; 




cept for two 


status. 


bloodpressure 


examination 




clusters of in- 




cuff site; nor- 


unchanged from 




clusion cysts at 




mal mental 


May 11 find- 




left axilliary 




status; chest 


ings, including 




ECG site; chest 




X-ray normal; 


ECG, EEG, 




X-ray normal; 




no atelectasis; 


audiogram, and 




ECG normal. 




ECG normal, 


chest X-ray. 








specifically, no 










arrythmia. 





■ All body weights on different scales; weights comparable ±1 pound. 

» Extremity measurements by same individual on May 17, May 24 (preflight) and May 25 and 26, 1962. On May 17, 1962, measurements made 
6 and 10 inches below olecranon on forearms; 6 and 14 inehes below patella on legs. All other measurements are maximums and minimums. 



Table 5-IV. — Astronaut Peripheral Blood Yalues 



Determination 


Preflight 


Postflight 


-7 days 


- 2 days 


May 25, 1962 
12:15 a.m. 


May 26, 1962 
12:00 m 


Hemoglobin (Cyanmethemoglobin method), 










grams/100 ml 


15. 0 


13. 8 


16. 0 


14. 8 


Hematocrit, percent 


47 


42 


50 


46 


White blood cells/mm s _ _ .. _ 


12, 700 


11, 600 


12, 500 


11, 900 


Red blood cells, millions'/mm 3 


5. 2 




5. 6 


5. 2 


Differential blood count: 








Lymphocytes, percent . _ _ 


25 


19 


27 


37 


Neutrophiles, percent 


71 


79 


65 


58 


Monocytes, percent 


2 


1 


3 


2 


Eosinophiles, percent - - - 


2 




4 


2 


Baaophiles, percent - 


0 


0 


1 


1 



46 





I 


^ 






.S 

I 














^ £ Z £ £ 


? 




+ 




f 




1 

a 


2, 360 
1. 003 
313 

Neg. 
Neg. 
Neg. 

5. 0 
85. 6 
16. 7 

3. 9 


I 


1 

7 










! 


250 
1.024 
179 
Trace 
Neg. 
Neg. 
Neg. 
; 5.0 
20. 1 
4. 9 
13 
1.0 




J 
J 


ill! 


1 

MS 


6 



Aside from moderate tiredness based upon 
long hours of work and few hours of sleep, 
Astronaut Carpenter remained in excellent 
health throughout the debriefing period. He 
returned to Cape Canaveral on May 27, 1962, 
ready to "do it again." 

Chemistries 

The blood and urine chemistries studied were 
similar to those examined in previous manned 
space nights (see bibliography). The results 
of the MA-7 blood chemistry studies are sum- 
marized in table 5- VI. The level of the blood 
chloride and alkali metals remained stable 
throughout the period of observation. There 
was a slight lowering of blood calcium on the 
second day after the MA-7 mission. 

The urinary output of calcium (table 5- VII) 
for this period showed a total of 10.67 milli- 
equivalents (mEq) of calcium excreted during 
the 17 1 / 4-hour period which included the flight 
and the immediate postnight period. In the 
subsequent 28 hours, 16.25 mEq of calcium 
were excreted. The fact that the potassium 



excretion was also elevated in the same period 
of time suggests that this increased calcium 
output is a result of a variation in kidney ac- 
tivity rather than just calcium mobilization 
alone. The stability of the blood potassium 
values, moreover, indicates that the loss of 
potassium was well compensated. During this 
period, Astronaut Carpenter's urine was con- 
sistently acidic with a pH near 5.0. 

A comparison of similar data obtained from 
Astronaut Glenn during the MA-6 mission is 
also shown in table 5- VII. The MA-6 pilot 
eliminated 9.11 mEq of calcium during the ini- 
tial 18-hour period (table 5-VII) and 18.32 
mEq during the subsequent 28 hours. How- 
ever, his blood calcium did not change signifi- 
cantly, with values of 4.3, 4.2, and 4.4 mEq/1 
corresponding approximately in time to sim- 
ilar samples taken on Astronaut Carpenter 
(table 5-VI). Study in future space flights 
should help to determine if the difference in 
blood value for calcium is an individual vari- 
able or a truly significant difference. 



Table 5- VI. — Blood Chemistry Summary 



Determination 1 


Preflight 


Postflight 


- 2 days 


+ 10^ hr 


+ 45 hr 


Sodium, mEq/1 


141 


137 


139 


Potassium, mEq/1 . . 


4. 0 


4. 4 


4. 3 


Calcium, mEq/1 


4. 8 


4. 1 


3. 5 


Chloride, mEq/1 


107 


105 


102 


Protein (total), g/100 ml ___ 


6. 9 


6. 4 


6. 6 


Albumin, g/100 ml 


3. 6 


3. 2 


3. 4 


Albumin-Globulin ratio - 


1. 1 


1. 0 


1. 1 


Epinephrine, micrograms per liter Gug/1) 


0. 2 


0. 2 


0. 2 


Norepinephrine, micrograms per liter (/ig/1) 




6. 3 


6. 3 



1 All blood chemistry determinations were done on plasma. 

2 Value too low to measure accurately on sample furnished for preflight examination. 



48 



Table 5-VII. — Urinary Electrolyte Excretion 



(Times are postlanding) 



MA-7 Pilot 


Time, hour 


Volume, 
liter 


Na, 
mEq/1 


K, 

mEq/1 


CI, 
mEq/1 


Ca, 
mEq/1 


In flight _ 

+ 4^ 

+ 17^ 


2. 36 
. 155 
. 770 


201 
6. 97 
13. 85 


39. 4 
3. 25 
3. 08 


208 
7.9 
10 


9. 2 
. 47 
1. 0 


Subtotal 


3. 285 


221. 82 


45. 73 


225. 9 


10. 67 


+ 20M 

+ 26 

+ 30 

+ 35 

+ 37^ 

+ 41^ 

+ 45 


. 215 
. 305 
. 890 
. 310 
. 550 
.310 


30. 3 
55. 8 
34. 7 
27. 8 
41. 8 
58. 0 


3. 92 
14. 4 
18. 0 

9. 8 
14. 5 

6. 05 
10. 9 


11. 2 
40. 6 
61. 0 
24. 8 
29. 6 
39. 6 
67. 0 


0. 91 

1. 89 

2. 69 

1. 96 
. 98 

5. 4 

2. 42 


Subtotal 


2. 720 


258. 35 


77. 47 


273. 8 


16. 25 


MA-6 Pilot 


In flight 

+ 8 

+ 10 

+ 18 


0. 8 
. 295 
. 076 
. 182 


126 
30 

6. 8 
17. 5 


21. 6 
17. 4 

5. 1 

6. 8 


121 
29 

2. 3 

3. 6 


1. 51 
6. 2 

. 37 


Subtotal 


1. 353 


180. 3 


50. 9 


155. 9 


9. 11 


+ 24 

+ 27 

+ 34 

+ 41 

+ 46 


0. 210 
.250 
. 720 
. 365 
. 405 


18. 5 
15. 2 
52. 5 
17.9 
50. 5 


7. 35 
4. 25 

10. 8 

8. 4 
16. 6 


16. 4 
11. 3 
48. 2 
14. 2 
56. 5 


5. 05 
2. 05 
5. 95 

2. 15 

3. 12 


Subtotal 


1. 95 


154. 6 


47. 40 


146. 6 


18. 32 



Fluid and Electrolyte Balance 

An attempt was made to control fluid and 
electrolyte balance through adequate hydration 
during the MA-7 mission. However, this bal- 
ance was complicated by problems of high suit- 
inlet temperature and the associated sweating 
plus the increased fluid intake used to com- 
pensate for this. 

A summary of Astronaut Carpenter's fluid 
intake and urine output is presented in table 
5- VIII. In spite of the excess of intake over 



output, the pilot lost 6 ± 1 pounds (table 5-III) . 
This fact, combined with slight hemoconcen- 
tration after flight, the low specific gravity of 
the 2,360 cc "in-flight" urine specimen and the 
urinary electrolyte values, leads to the opinion 
that a moderate diuresis occurred. Such a 
diuresis can be explained through the suppres- 
sion of antidiuretic hormone (ADH) secondary 
to such factors as the relative water loading 
both before and during the mission and the 
normal supine position of the astronaut when 
in the earth's gravity. 



49 



Tabu: 5- VIII. — Fluid Intake and Output * 



[May 24, 1962] 





Fluid intake, cc 


Time, e.s.t. 


Urine output, cc 












Bladder empty 


1:15 a.m. 

[5:00 a.m. 

to 

17:30 a.m. 

M 


Breakfast 

Transfer van 

Spacecraft 


Orange juice, coffee.. _ 
|"Water. 


200 
250 


1:45 a.m. 
14:03 a.m. 
| to 
J 4:36 a.m. 


f 

b 1,000 


In flight and before 
recovery. 


Water 


1, 213 


[7:45 a.m. 
| to 
13:40 p.m. 


1 

\ b 1,360 




j 


Subtotal 




2, 263 


[1:45 a.m. 
13:40 p.m. 


2,360 


[5:00 a.m. 
to 

13:40 p.m. 








After recovery 


Tea 


100 
150 
180 
200 
150 
= 500 


5:35 p.m. 

5:50 p.m. 
17:35 p.m. 
> to 

9:12 p.m. 


155 


5:00 p.m. 


Tea 

Coffee 

Tea 

Water 




Total 




3, 543 


jl :45 a.m. 
\ to 
[9:12 p.m. 


|2,515 


[5:00 a.m. 
15:00 p.m. 









• 30 cc of blood drawn at 5:20 p.m. 

•> Total of 2,360 cc la urine collection device; division into prefiight and in-flight aliquots is estimated. 
« Time unknown, approximately 7:45 a.m. to 3:40 p.m. 



Special Studies 

For both the MA-6 and MA-7 missions, a 
questionnaire and two special tests were utilized 
to elicit or measure any effect of space flight 
and its attendant weightlessness upon the hu- 
man vestibular apparatus. The first of these 
tests was a modified caloric test (see fig. 5-2) 
which is considered to be a valid and finely dis- 
criminating index of semicircular canal func- 
tion. The subject's ear was irrigated for 45 
seconds with water below body temperature 
which could be warmed or cooled under precise 
control. The times of onset and duration of 
nystagmus (fine eye jerk) were noted. The 
highest water temperature which caused nys- 
tagmus was regarded as the threshold value. 
Usually this is 3° to 5° centigrade below body 
temperature. In patients with clinical vestib- 
ular disease, the threshold temperature is 
usually lower than normal, and, during the 



course of the disease, it exhibits moderate varia- 
tion in magnitude. 

Astronaut Glenn exhibited no significant 
change in threshold temperatures before and 
after his orbital space flight. Astronaut Car- 
penter likewise did not show a significant 
change between tests carried out 6 months prior 
to flight and the two tests conducted after the 
flight. Slightly higher threshold temperatures 
for both left and right ears were obtained at the 
time of the prefiight evaluation (7 days prior 
to the flight) . However, in this instance, these 
high threshold values were the result of a tech- 
nical error. 

The other labyrinthine tests measured the 
subject's ability to balance himself on succes- 
sively more narrow rails, similar to the rails of 
a railroad track. In this test, the astronaut 
was required both to stand and to walk heel-to- 
toe and to keep arms folded on the chest. The 
standing tests were carried out first with the 



50 




Figure 5-2. — Modified calorie test. 



eyes open, then with the eyes closed. In addi- 
tion to the influence of fatigue and motivation, 
the results of this test are affected by several 
dynamic systems other than the vestibular ap- 
paratus, particularly general neuromuscular 
coordination and position sense. Normal base- 
line scores on this test for Astronauts Carpenter 
and Glenn indicate somewhat higher perform- 
ance than was found in a group of military 
flight personnel. Both astronauts showed a 
small increase in their postflight versus pre- 
flight scores on this test. These increments 
were small and within the expected range of 
physiological variation. This test represents a 
relatively quantitative method for evaluating 
the integrity of a number of neuromuscular 
mechanisms related to balance. It is not, how- 
ever, as precise nor as specific a test as is the 
modified caloric test. 

In both United States manned orbital space 
flights, a xylose tolerance test was performed 
to measure intestinal absorption while the astro- 
naut was weightless. This test requires the 
astronaut to ingest a 5.0-gram xylose tablet 
while weightless, followed by urination just 
prior to return to Iff. Unfortunately the urine 
collected during weightlessness from that 
collection device does not separate the urine 
passed before and after the flight; therefore, 
it was not possible to determine the absorption 
of xylose during weightlessness as was done in 
the MA-6 mission. Control studies on both 
the MA-6 and MA-7 were set up to simulate, 
in time, programed in-flight times for xylose 
ingestion and subsequent urination. However, 



the xylose- tolerance test accomplished during 
the MA-7 mission differed significantly from 
the same test which was successfully accom- 
plished during the MA-6 mission. In accord- 
ance with the flight plan, the 5-gram xylose 
tablet was ingested at 2 hours 41 minutes 35 
seconds g.e.t. in the MA-7 mission instead of 
at 23 minutes 11 seconds g.e.t. as was done in 
the MA-6 mission. Through a later in-flight 
xylose ingestion time, it was hoped that any 
gastrointestinal changes would be more pro- 
nounced after a slightly longer (138 minutes) 
exposure to weightlessness. Also, the weight- 
less absorption and excretion of xylose would 
then take place, if it followed the curve of nor- 
mal xylose urinary excretion, during the period 
of maximum anticipated absorption and excre- 
tion. The other significant variable was the 
marked increase in fluid intake by Astronaut 
Carpenter over that of Astronaut Glenn. Both 
astronauts had demonstrated a normal response 
in the preflight period when compared to five 
control subjects. Astronaut Glenn produced 
only 800 cc of urine and excreted 34.9 percent 
of the test xylose dose during his 414-hour 
period of weightlessness. When compared with 
his control excretion of 38.2 percent in the pre- 
flight period, this in-flight result is normal. As- 
tronaut Carpenter produced 2,360 cc of urine 
during the flight collection period and excreted 
22.5 percent of the xylose (figure 5-3). When 
the single urine specimen passed aboard ship at 
5 p.m. e.s.t. is included in the test period, a total 




Figure 5-3. — Xylose Absorption. Astronaut flight 
sample, volume 2, 360 ml. (Exact time of final col- 
lection not known, but estimated at 2 hours post- 
flight. ) Additional specimen aboard carrier in- 
creased output to 25.7 percent for total elapsed time 
of 6 hours, 40 minutes. 



51 



of 25.7 percent of the xylose was excreted. The 
latter specimen extends the elapsed time follow- 
ing the in-flight xylose ingestion to 6 hours and 
10 minutes. The excretion of only 25.7 percent 
is significantly less than the. 35 percent recovered 
after 5 hours in the preflight control study 
period. This decreased xy lose excretion is diffi- 
cult to interpret because of the following cir- 
cumstances: (1) the pilot is not certain when he 
urinated during the mission, (2) another speci- 
men was passed approximately 2 -hours after 
landing while lie awaited recovery, and (3) 
normal control studies of xylose absorption 
allowing for such large volumes of fluid intake 
and urinary output were not obtained prior to 
flight. There is a remote possibility that the re- 
covered xylose was absorbed and excreted after 
landing. However, in the MA-6 flight, normal 
xylose absorption did occur during weightless- 
ness. The normalcy of such absorption during 
the MA-7 flight cannot be verified. If this test 
is to be used on future flights, the accurate tim- 
ing of xylose ingestion and urination must be 
known. Ideally, urine specimens passed while 
the subject is under the influence of gravity 
should be separated from those specimens 
voided while lie is weightless. The current urine 
collection device does not provide for such a 
separation. Nevertheless, in general terms, both 
the MA-6 and MA-7 pilots reported no ab- 
normal gastrointestinal symptoms during their 
missions. Likewise, they related that bladder 
sensation and function were normal. 



Enzymes 

In previous nights, a number of enzymes have 
been studied to evaluate variations of muscle or 
liver activity resulting from acceleration fol- 
lowed by a weightlessness period or from the 
prolonged semi-immobilization of the astro- 
naut. Neither the MK-3, MR-t, nor MA-fi 
pilot showed significant change in trans- 
aminase or aldolase activity. No increases 
in acetylcholine activity have been demon- 
strated. The dehydrogenases examined have 
included glutamic, alpha-ketoglutaric, iso- 
citric, malic and lactic dehydrogenases. Of 
these, only lactic acid dehydrogenase has shown 
any appreciable change and this has been con- 
sistent in each flight. In the MA-6 flight, the 
lactic acid level was increased. Increases have 
also been noted in leucylamino peptidase activ- 
ity and in phosphohexose isomerase. Since 
these were consistent findings in all previous 
flights, an effort was made in the MA-7 flight 
(table 5-IX) to study only those enzyme sys- 
tems reflecting change. These evaluations will 
be elaborated further to study heat stability of 
the enzyme systems and to determine the 
Michaelis-Menton constants (K M ) for the 
enzyme reactions. These additional determina- 
tions may allow an evaluation of the tissue of 
origin. 

Acknowledgments. — The authors greatly ap- 
preciate the assistance rendered by the follow- 



Table 5-IX. — Plasma Enzymes Summary MA-7 





Normal values 


MA-7 flight 


Preflight 


Postflight 


— 2 days 


+ 10}$ hr 


+ 45 hr 


Lactic acid, mg 


25 to 35 


35 

270 

334 
250 
167 

50 
165 

49 


28 
20 
300 


44 
28 
270 


Phosphohexose isomerase 
Leucylamino peptidase 

Lactic dehydrogenase . _ 


10 to 20 

100 to 310 

150 to 250 


Incubated, 30° C_ 


367 
525 
183 

50 
250 

68 


434 
500 
220 

51 
375 

86 


Incubated, 20° to 25° C _ 




Heat stable 




Heat stable, percent 

Urea stable 


14 to 15 


Urea stable, percent 









52 



ing individuals: Paul W. Myers, M.D., and 
Charles C. Watts, Jr., M.D., Lackland Air 
Force Hospital, San Antonio, Tex.; George 
Ruff, M.D., University of Pennsylvania; W. 
Bruce Clark, M.D., USAF School of Aerospace 
Medicine, San Antonio, Tex.; Carlton L. 
Stewart, Lackland Air Force Hospital, San An- 
tonio, Tex.; Evan W. Schear, M.D., USAF 
Hospital, Wright-Patterson Air Force Base, 



Ohio ; Richard A. Rink, M.D., Brooke General 
Hospital, Fort Sam Houston, Tex.; Rita M. 
Rapp, NASA Manned Spacecraft Center ; Wal- 
ter Frajola, Ph. D., Ohio State University; 
Kristen B. Eik-Nes, M.D., University of Utah ; 
and Hans Weil-Malherbe, M.D., St. Elizabeths 
Hospital, Washington, D.C.; Beatrice Finkle- 
stein, Aeromedical Laboratory, Wright- Patter- 
son Air Force Base, Ohio. 



Bibliography 



Docglas, William K., Jackson, Carmault B., Jr., et 
al.: Results of the MR-i Preflight and Postflight 
Medical Examination Conducted on Astronaut Virgil 
I. (Irissom. Results of the Second U.S. Manned Sub- 
orbital Space Flight, July 21, 1961. NASA Manned 
Spacecraft Center, pp. 9-14. 

Jackson, Carmault B., Jr., Douglas, William K, et 
al. : Results of Preflight and Postflight Medical Ex- 
aminations. Proc. Conf. on Results of the First 
U.S. Manned Suborbital Space Flight, NASA, Nat. 
Inst. Health, and Nat. Acad. Sci. June 6, 1961, pp. 
31-36. 

Minners, Howard A., Douglas, William K., et al. : 
Aeromedical Preparation and Results of Postflight 
Medical Examinations. Results of the First United 
States Manned Orbital Space Flight, February 20, 
1962. NASA Manned Spacecraft Center, pp. 83-92. 

Butter worth, C. E., Perez Santiago, Eneique, 
Martinez-he Jesus, Jose, and Santini, Rafael : 
Studies on the Oral and Parenteral Administra- 
tion of D ( + ) Xylose. Tropical Sprue, Studies 
of the U.S. Army's Sprue Team in Puerto Rico, 
Medical Science Publication No. 5, Chapter 18, 
Walter Reed Army Institute of Research, Wal- 
ter Reed Army Medical Center, Washington, 
D.C., 1958. 
Glucose : 

Nelson, M. ; Photometric Adaptation of Somogyi 
Method for Determination of Glucose. Jour 
Biol. Chem., vol. 153, 1944, pp. 375-380. 
Total protein, albumin: 

Cohn, C, and Wolfson, W. G. : Studies in Serum 
Proteins. I-The Chemical Estimation of Al- 
bumin and of the Globulin Fractions in Serum. 
Jour. Lab. Clin. Med., vol. 32, 1947, pp. 1203-1207. 

Gornall, A. G., Gardawill, C. J., and David, M. M. : 
Determination of Serum Proteins by Means of 
the Biuret Reaction. Jour. Biol. Chem., vol. 177, 
1949, pp. 751-766. 



Urea nitrogen: 

Gentzkow, C. J., and Masen, J. M. : An accurate 
Method for the Determination of Blood Urea 
Nitrogen by Direct Nesslerizatwn. Jour. Biol. 
Chem., vol. 143, 1942, pp. 531-544. 

Calcium : 

Diehl, H., and Ellinqboe, J. L. : Indicator for 
Titration of Calcium in Presence of Magnesium 
With Disodium Dihydrogen Ethylene Diamine- 
tetraacetate. Anal. Chem., vol. 28, 1956, pp. 
882-884. 
Chloride : 

Schales, O., and Schales, S. S. : A Simple and 
Accurate Method for the Determination of Chlo- 
ride in Biological Fluids. Jour. Biol. Chem., 
vol. 140, 1941, pp. 879-884. 
Epinephrine and norepinephrine: 

Weil-Malherbe, H. and Bone, A. D. : The Adre- 
nergic Amines of Human Blood. Lancet, vol. 
264, 1933, pp. 974-977. 
Gray, I., Young, J. G., Keegan, J. F., Mehaman, B„ 
and Southerland, E. W, : Adrenaline and Nore- 
pinephrine Concentration in Plasma of Humans 
and Rats. Clin. Chem., vol. 3, 1957, pp. 239-248. 
Sodium potassium by flame photometry : 

Berkuan, S., Henry, R. J., Golub, O. J., and Sea- 
galove, M. : Tungstic Acid Precipitation, of Blood 
Proteins. Jour. Biol. Chem., vol. 206, 1954, pp. 
937-943. 
Vanyl mandelic acid : 

Sunderman, F. W., Jr., et al. : A Method for the 
Determination- of 3-Methoxy-Jf-Hydroxymandelic 
Acid {••Vanilmandelic Acid") for the Diagnosis 
of Phcochromocytoma. Am. Jour. Clin. Pathol., 
vol. 34, 1960, pp. 293-312. 
Heat-stable lactic dehydrogenase : 

Strandjord, Paul E., and Clayson, Kathleen C. : 
The Diagnosis of Acute Myocardial Infarction on 
the Basis of Heat-Stable Lactic Dehydrogenase. 
Jour. Lab. Clin. Med., vol. 58, 1961, pp. 962-966. 



53 



B. PHYSIOLOGICAL RESPONSES OF THE ASTRONAUT 



By Ernest P. McCutcheon, M.D., Aerospace Medical Operations Office, NASA Manned Spacecraft Cen- 
ter; Charles A. Berry, M.D., Chief, Aerospace Medical Operations Office, NASA Manned Space- 
craft Center; G. Fred Kelly, M.D., U.S. Naval Air Station, Cecil Field, Jacksonville, Florida; Rita 
M. Rapp, Life Systems Division, NASA Manned Spacecraft Center; and Robie Hackworth, Aero- 
space Medical Operations Office, NASA Manned Spacecraft Center 



Summary 

The MA-7 mission provided an appreciable 
extension to the observation of man's physio- 
logical responses to space flight. The stresses of 
space flight appeared to have been well toler- 
ated. All flight responses are considered to be 
within acceptable physiological ranges. Spe- 
cifically, the heart-rate response to nominal ex- 
ercise demonstrated a reactive cardiovascular 
system. An aberrant ECG tracing was recorded 
during reentry and is believed to have resulted 
from the increased respiratory effort associated 
with continued speech during maximum acceler- 
ation. No disturbing body sensations were re- 
ported as a result of weightless flight. Astro- 
naut Carpenter felt that all body functions were 
normal. Solid foods can be successfully con- 
sumed in flight, but precautions must be taken to 
prevent crumbling. The biosensors provided 
useful ECG data, with minimal artifact. The 
respiration rate sensor provided good prelaunch 
but minimal in-flight coverage. Because of er- 
ratic amplifier behavior, the rectal temperature 
thermister gave invalid values for approxi- 
mately one-third of the flight. At the present 
time, the in-flight blood pressure cannot be inter- 
preted. 

Introduction 

The three-pass mission of Astronaut M. Scott 
Carpenter has added a second 41^-hour incre- 
ment to the time that man's responses to orbital 
flight have been observed as a part of Project 
Mercury. There were a number of aeromedical 
objectives continued from the MA-6 flight in- 
cluding additional study of man's physiological 
and psychological responses to space flight, i.e., 
exit and reentry accelerations, weightlessness, 



weightless transition periods, and an artificial 
environment. 

Although the general objectives for each flight 
are similar, there are many specific differences. 
One of the most important medical variables 
from flight to flight is the normal physiological 
differences between pilots. Preflight, in-flight, 
and postflight comparisons for a particular in- 
dividual can be made in some detail, but only 
general comparisons with results from previous 
flights with other subjects are possible. Pro- 
jections of the flight responses of a new astro- 
naut must include considerations of this impor- 
tant variable. 

Data were obtained from clinical examina- 
tions, bioinstrumentation. and subjective in- 
flight observations. The data and analysis 
from subjective in-flight observations and bioin- 
strumentation are contained in this part of the 
Aeromedical Studies paper. Since the pilot's 
physiological responses cannot be completely 
separated from his environment, the discussion 
in paper 1 regarding the environmental control 
system complements the following analysis. 

Mission 

The astronaut's activities during the count- 
down have been discussed in section A of this 
paper. The transfer van arrived at the launch 
pad at 4:11 a.m. e.s.t., where the astronaut 
waited 19 minutes until it was time to ascend 
the gantry. Insertion into the spacecraft oc- 
curred at 4:44 a.m. e.s.t. and physiological 
monitoring began. The astronaut, wearing the 
Mercury full-pressure suit, was positioned in 
his contour couch in the semisupine position 
and secured by shoulder and lap harnesses. 
His position, in relation to the spacecraft, re- 



54 



mained stationary throughout the flight. For 
both launch and reentry, the spacecraft is 
oriented such that the contoured couch is in a 
plane 90° from the direction of acceleration, 
which results in the astronaut's being exposed 
to acceleration transversely, or through the back. 

The spacecraft cabin and suit environments 
were maintained at nearly 100-percent oxygen 
throughout the flight until the air inlet and out- 
flow valves were opened after reentry. Open- 
ing these valves permits the introduction of 
ambient air. Spacecraft cabin and suit pres- 
sures were at ambient levels until launch and 
then declined to the nominal regulated pressure 
of 5.1 psia. They remained essentially constant 
until the pressure relief valve opened at an alti- 
tude of 27,000 feet. 

The astronaut's total time in the spacecraft 
while on the launch pad was 3 hours and 1 
minute. During this period, spacecraft pre- 
paration and final preflight checks were com- 
pleted, and the astronaut performed frequent 
deep-breathing and muscle-tensing exercises. 

After a 45-minute hold, the spacecraft was 
launched at approximately 7:45 a.m. e.s.t. and 
the flight proceeded as planned. The accelera- 
tions of powered flight occurred in two phases. 
The first phase occurred in the first 129 seconds 
from lift-off to booster engine cutoff (BECO) 
and varied progressively from \g to 6.5^. The 
second phase occurred at the time interval from 
130 to 181 seconds which is from BECO to sus- 
tainer engine cutoff (SECO). In this phase 
the accelerations varied smoothly from 13>g at 
130 seconds to 7.8# at 181 seconds. The period 
of weightlessness began at 5 minutes and 10 
seconds after launch and lasted for 4 hours 
and 39 minutes. 

Reentry acceleration began 4 hours and 44 
minutes after launch and increased gradually 
to a value of 7.5^, which occurred at 4 hours and 
48 minutes ground elapsed time. The buildup 
from Ig and return to lg occurred over a period 
of 3 minutes and 30 seconds. The spacecraft 
landed on the water at 12 :41 p.m. e.s.t., 4 hours 
and 56 minutes after launch. 

Monitoring and Data Sources 

Physiological data for the MA-7 mission 
were acquired by utilizing methods and sources 
similar to those used in previous Mercury 



manned flights. (See refs. 1 to 3.) Data from 
the Mercury -Atlas three-orbit centrifuge simu-. 
lation, conducted in September 1961, provide 
a dynamic experience to compare with the flight 
data. Recent data for establishing baseline 
responses were obtained 'from Astronaut Car- 
penter's simulated launch for the MA-6 mis- 
sion and from launch-pad simulated flights in 
the last weeks before the MA-7 launch. Flight 
data included the range medical monitor re- 
ports, pilot's reports of special tests performed, 
biosensor data, and voice transmissions. The 
biosensor data were recorded continuously from 
6 minutes before lift-off until bioplug disconnect 
at 3 minutes prior to landing. The astronaut's 
voice was recorded from 6 minutes before lift-off 
until landing. The pilot-observer camera film 
and the postnight debriefing were additional 
data sources. 

Bioinstrumentation 

The biosensor system consists of two sets of 
electrocardiographic leads, ECG 1 (axillary) 
and ECG 2 (sternal) ; a rectal temperature 
thermistor; a respiration-rate thermistor; and 
the blood-pressure measuring system (BPMS). 
The only change from MA-6 flight was the re- 
placement of the manual BPMS with a semi- 
automatic system as discussed in paper 1. 

All sensors operated normally during the 
countdown except the BPMS. Some 34 minutes 
prior to lift-off, 3 cycles of the BPMS demon- 
strated intermittent contact in the microphone 
cable, but later cycles near lift-off were normal. 
Twenty-four blood-pressure cycles were ob- 
tained in flight. At the present time these 
records cannot be interpreted. The BPMS and 
procedures in its use are being extensively in- 
vestigated in an effort to obtain accurate in- 
flight blood pressure values. - - 

Figure 5^r shows a blood-pressure trace from 
the blockhouse record at 5 :52 a.m. e.s.t. 68 min- 
utes prior to launch. A summary of blood- 
pressure data is presented in table 5-X. 

During the flight, body movements and pro- 
fuse perspiration caused a large number of 
ECG artifacts, but the record was interpretable 
throughout the mission. 

The respiration rate sensor provided useful 
preflight information but in-flight coverage was 
minimal. 

55 




ECG 2 and blood pressure 




Fiqttee 5-4. — Bioinstrumentatlon from blockhouse records (T-68 minutes). 
Speed of the tape-recorder was 10 mm/see 



Table 5-X. — Summary of Blood-Pressure Data 



Data source 


Number 
of values 


Mean blooc 
pressure, 
mm Hg 


Standard deviation, 2u 


Systolic 
range, 
mm Hg 


Diastolic 

z% 


Mean pulse 
pressure, 
mm Hg 


Systolic 


Diastolic 


Preflight physical exams. 
3-orbit Mercury-Atlas 
centrifuge simulation. 
Launch-pad tests. 
MA-7 countdown. 


18 
30 

45 
13 


119/73 
130/83 

127/64 
116/63 


14 
22 

31 

18 


15 

15 

18 
12 


98 to 128 

104 to 155 

101 to 149 

105 to 139 


58 to 84 
72 to 106 

44 to 84 
56 to 70 


46 
47 

63 
53 


Preflight totals. 


106 


125/71 


24 


14 


98 to 155 


44 to 106 


54 


Postflight physical 
exams. 


3 


115/76 


2 


9 


114 to 116 


70 to 80 


39 



56 



The instability of the body temperature read- 
out is believed to have been the result of erratic 
behavior of the amplifier from 59 minutes to 
2y 2 hours after launch, approximately one-third 
of the flight. This erratic period is shown as 
a shaded area in figure 5-5. The values at all 
other times are considered valid. 

The pilot-observer camera film, as a result of 
postlanding immersion in sea water, was of 
poor technical quality and limited usefulness. 

Preflight 

In order to obtain pertinent physiological 
baseline data on Astronaut Carpenter, certain 
preflight activities were monitored by the med- 
ical personnel. Table 5-XI lists these activities 
and their duration. 



Table 5-XI. — Laitnch-Pad Test Monitoring 



Event 




Duration, 








Simulated launch, MA-6 


Jan. 17, 




1962 




5:12 


Simulated flight 2, MA-7, 


Apr. 30, 


1962 




4:00 


Simulated launch, MA-7, 


May 10, 


1962 




3:15 


Simulated flight 3, MA-7, 


May 15, 


1962 




4:50 


Launch countdown, MA-7 


May 24, 


1962 




3:01 






Total 




20:18 



Figure 5-6 depicts the heart rate, blood pres- 
sure, respiration rate, body temperature, and 
suit-inlet temperature recorded during the 
MA-7 countdown. The values for the same 
physiological functions from the astronaut's 
MA-6 and MA-7 simulated launches are also 
shown and the occurrence of significant events 
is indicated. Heart and respiration rates were 
determined by counting for 30 seconds every 3 
minutes until 10 minutes prior to lift-off, at 
which time 30-second-duration counts were 
made each minute. The minute-long counts 
were continued until orbital insertion. 

During the simulated launches of January 
17, 1962, and May 10, 1962, the heart rate varied 
from 48 to 78 beats/minute with a mean of 57 
beats/minute. The respiration rate varied from 



8 ro 32 breaths/minnte with a mean of 16 
breaths/minute. The blood- pressure values, 
recorded in millimeters of mercury, showed a 
systolic range of 101 to 149 and a diastolic range 
of 44 to 84, with a mean of 135/62. These 
values were essentially the same as those ob- 
served during the MA-7 countdown and are all 
within an accepted physiological range. 

Examination of the ECG wave form from all 
preflight data revealed sinus arrhythmia, oc- 
casional premature atrial contractions (PAG), 
and rare premature ventricular contractions 
(PVC). These are normal physiological 
variations. 

During approximately 50 minutes in the 
transfer van on launch day, the astronaut's 
heart rate varied from 56 to 70 beats/minutes 
with a mean of 65. Respiration rate varied 
from 8 to 20 breaths/minute with a mean of 14. 
The ECG was normal. Other physiological 
values were not obtained. 

Flight Responses 

A summary of the in-flight physiological data 
is presented in table 5-XII. 
The maximum heart rate observed during 
launch was 96 beats/minute. The increase 
from 84 to 96 beats/minute occurred within the 
first 30 seconds of flight and was not, therefore, 
associated with maximum acceleration. The 
heart rate during the weightless period re- 
mained relatively stable with a mean of 70 
beats/minute. The maximum heart rate of 104 
beats/minute was found at drogue parachute 
deployment, which occurred at the time of maxi- 
mum spacecraft oscillation. The mean rate 
during reentry was 84 beats/minute. All ob- 
served heart rates are well within accepted 
ranges. 

The pilot's in-flight statement that he was 
comfortable and could not believe the teleme- 
tered body temperature readings of 102° F was 
helpful in the determination of the significance 
of these readings. The values in question are 
shown as a shaded area in figure 5-5 but are not 
included in table 5-XII. This increase in the as- 
tronaut's body temperature from 98° to 100.6° F 
during flight is physiologically acceptable 
and is believed to have resulted in part from 
an increased suit inlet temperature. A mild 
trend of gradually increasing body tempera- 



58 




59 



Table 5-XII.— i 



of Heart Bate, Respiration Rate, and Body Temperature Data 



Data sources 


Heart i 


ate, beats/minute 


Respiration rate, 
breaths/minute 


Body temperature, °F 




Number 


Mean 


Range 


Number 


Mean 


Range 


Number 


Mean 


Range 




of values 






of values 






of values 




All prcflight data__ 


408 


57 


42 to 84 


354 


15 


5 to 32 


128 




98.3 to 101.5 


Countdown 


92 


62 


50 to 84 


75 


15 


6 to 26 


57 


97. 8 


96. 8 to 98. 2 


Flight : 




















Launch „ . 


7 


87 


82 to 96 


5 


16 


10 to 20 


4 


98 




Orbital 


94 


70 


60 to 94 


• 83 


14 


10 to 18 


60 


99. 9 


98 to 100.6 




15 


84 


72 to 104 


»9 


19 


16 to 24 


15 


100. 4 


100. 2 to 100.5 



ture has been observed in previous manned 
nights. 

The respiration sensor did not provide useful 
information during most of the flight. Ap- 
proximate respiratory rates per minute were 
estimated by using variation in the height of 
the EC(t R-wave and were within normal 
ranges. 

Examination of the ECG wave form recorded 
during the flight showed an entirely normal 
record except for the following variations: 
There was a single premature atrial contrac- 
tion (PAC) 13 seconds after SECO, followed 
by a beat showing suppression of the sinus pace- 
maker. A second PAC occurred 1 minute and 
15 seconds before retrofire. At 04 :48 :19 g.e.t., 
21 seconds prior to maximum reentry accelera- 
tion, a 43-second period contained a number of 
cardiac pattern variations. These variations 
included premature atrial contractions with 
aberrant QRS complexes, atrial fusion beats, 
and short runs of four and five nodal beats. A 
sample of the nodal beats obtained during re- 
entry is shown in figure 5-7. The remainder 
of the record was entirely normal. During the 
period of maximum reentry acceleration, Astro- 
naut Carpenter made a special effort to continue 
talking. The increased respiratory effort as- 
sociated with continued speech during increas- 
ing acceleration is believed to have produced 
these changes. These irregularities did not 
compromise the pilot's performance. 

Subjective Observations 

Astronaut Carpenter stated that the flight 
was not physically stressful. He was subjec- 



:-wave and are approximate only. 

tively hot and perspiring during the second 
orbital pass and the first half of the third pass 
but was never extremely uncomfortable. 

During the acceleration- weightlessness tran- 
sition phase, there was no tumbling sensation. 
The pilot was impressed by the silence after 
separation and adapted quickly to the new en- 
vironment. He described the weightless state as 
"a blessing— nothing more, nothing less." He 
compared the weightless state to that of being 
submerged in water. The Mercury full-pres- 
sure suit was comfortable in the weightless 
state. The pilot reported that there were no 
pressure points and that mobility was good. 
After the retrorockets ignited, the sensation was 
one of having stopped, rather than that of 
traveling in an opposite direction from flight 
as was reported in the MA-6 flight. 

The astronaut was always oriented with re- 
spect to the spacecraft, but at times lost orienta- 
tion with respect to the earth. When the hori- 
zon was not in view, it was difficult to distin- 
guish up and down positions, but this was never 
of immediate concern to the astronaut. The only 
illusory phenomenon occurred just after orbital 
attitude was attained and involved the position 
of the special equipment storage kit. At this 
time, the pilot had rotated from the horizontal 
to the vertical and was in a seated position rela- 
tive to the earth's surface. He was surprised 
to find that the equipment kit had also rotated 
to this position and was very accessible. Tac- 
tile approximation with the eyes closed was the 
same as that on the ground. There was no tend- 
ency to overshoot or underreach control 
switches on the spacecraft instrument panel. 



ECG2 






aJWU — 




JIavJIa^ 



Figtjse 5-7. — Onboard physiological reentry data. 



No disturbing sensory inputs were reported 
during weightless flight. Violent head maneu- 
vers within the limited mobility of the helmet 
were performed several times in every direction 
without symptoms of disorientation or vertigo. 
Vision was normal throughout the flight, and 
colors and brightness of objects were clear and 
easily discernible. Distances were estimated 
by the relative size of objects. There was no 
detectable change in hearing. Somatic sensa- 
tions were normal and no gastrointestinal 
symptoms were apparent. 

During flight, Astronaut Carpenter con- 
sumed solid food, water, and a xylose tablet 
without difficulty. The solid food was in the 
form of bite size, %-inch cubes with a special 
coating, packed loosely in a plastic bag and 
stored in the equipment kit. Since the crum- 
bling was reported when he first attempted to 
eat, it is believed that the food was inadvert- 
ently crushed during final spacecraft prepara- 



tion on the launch pad. The special coating 
having been broken, the food continued to 
crumble during flight, The pilot stated that 
the floating particles within the spacecraft were 
a potential inhalation hazard. Finally, the ele- 
vated cabin temperature caused the candy to 
melt. He reported the only difficulty was in 
getting the crumbled food particles to his 
mouth. Once in the mouth, chewing and swal- 
lowing of both solids and liquids were normal. 
Taste and smell were also normal. 

A total of 1,213 cc of water was consumed 
from the mission water supply. An estimated 
60 percent was consumed in flight and the re- 
mainder after landing. 

Calibrated exercise was performed without 
difficulty at 03 :59 :29 g.e.t. Because of the over- 
heated condition of the pilot, earlier scheduled 
exercises were omitted. A hand-held bungee 
cord with a 16-pound pull through a distance 
of 6 inches was used. Use of this device for a 



61 



short period caused an increase of 12 beats 
per minute in heart rate with return to previous 
values within 1 minute. The heart-rate response 
to this nominal exercise demonstrated a reactive 
cardiovascular system. 



Attempts to produce autokinesis (illusion of 
vision due to involuntary eye muscle move- 
ments) were made on two occasions. Autokine- 
sis was not produced but the tests were 
inconclusive. 



References 

Dougla9, William K., Jackson, Carmault B., Jr., et al. : Remits of the MR-4 PrefligM and Postfiigkt 
Medical Examination Conducted on Astronaut Virgil I. Grissom. Results of the Second U.S. Manned Sub- 
orbital Space Might, July 21, 1961. NASA Manned Spacecraft Center, pp. 9-14. 

Jackson, Carmault B., Jb., Douglas, William K., et al. : Results of Preflight and Post/light Medical Exami- 
nations. Proc. Conf. on Results of the First U.S. Manned Suborbital Space Plight, NASA, Nat. Inat. 
Health, and Nat Acad. Sci. June 6, 1961, pp. 31^36. 

Miiwers, Howard A., Douglas, William K., et al. : Aeromedical Preparation and Results of Postftight Medi- 
cal Examinations. Results of the First United States Manned Orbital Space Flight, February 20, 1962. 
NASA Manned Spacecraft Center, pp. 83-92. 



62 



6. PILOT PERFORMANCE 

By Helmut A. Kuehnel, Flight Crew Operations Division, NASA Manned Spacecraft Center; William 
0. Armstrong, Flight Crew Operations Division, NASA Manned Spacecraft Center; John J. Van 
Bockel, Flight Crew Operations Division, NASA Manned Spacecraft Center; and Harold I. John- 
son, Flight Crew Operations Division, NASA Manned Spacecraft Center 

and monitor systems operations and, if neces- 
sary, to take corrective action in order to achieve 
the mission objectives. The pilot's secondary 
responsibility during both of these missions was 
to conduct scientific experiments and to make 
observations that would further evaluate the 
spacecraft systems' performance. The purpose 
of this paper will be to discuss the pilot's per- 
formance in accomplishing the primary mis- 
sion objectives. Only a few of the pilot's 
secondary tasks, such as scientific experiments 
and observations, are discussed here, since many 
of these are discussed in papers 1, 4, and 7 of 
this report. 

Preflight Performance 

A flight plan was formulated for the MA-7 
flight to guide the pilot in carrying out the 
operational and experimental objectives of the 
mission. This plan defined the mission activi- 
ties and established the sequence in which these 
activities were to be attempted. In preparation 
for the flight, the pilot participated in extensive 
preflight checkout activities and training ses- 
sions. In general, his preflight activities were 
similar to those accomplished by the MA-6 
pilot as shown in table 6-1; however, the 
MA-7 pilot generally did acquire more time on 
the trainers and in the spacecraft than did the 



Table 6-L— Pilot Training Summary 



Flight 


ALFA and Mercury procedures trainers 


Time spent on 

spacecraft 
systems checks, 
hr:min 


Time 
hr:min 


Number of 
simulated 
failures 


Number of 
simulated 


Number of 
simulated 
control 


MA-6 (Glenn) 

MA-7 (Carpenter) 


59:45 
70:45 


189 
143 


70 

73 


162 
255 


25:55 
45:00 



63 



Summary 

The results of the MA-7 orbital flight fur- 
ther indicate that man can function effectively 
in a space environment for periods up to iy 2 
hours. In general, the pilot can orient the 
spacecraft to a given attitude by using external 
reference provided sufficient time is available 
for determining yaw alinement. As with the 
MA-6 flight the results of this flight provide 
evidence that the man can serve as a backup to 
the automatic spacecraft systems. The pilot 
has demonstrated his ability to operate scientific 
apparatus successfully in a space environment 
and to obtain useful data for the analysis of sci- 
entific problems associated with a terrestrial 
space environment. The results of the MA-7 
flight provide additional evidence that man is 
ready for a more extended mission in a weight- 
less environment. Flight difficulties occurring 
during this mission, however, have served to 
emphasize that the primary attention of the 
pilot should be devoted to management of 
spacecraft systems and detailed attention to 
operational functions. 

Introduction 

The pilot's primary role during the MA-7 
mission, as in the MA-6 mission, was to report 




Figure 6-1. — Astronaut Carpenter in the Langley 
procedures trainer. 



MA-6 pilot. It should be pointed out that this 
table summarizes only the pilots' specific prep- 
aration for their particular flight and does not 
include general training accomplished since 
their selection as astronauts. 

It should be noted that Astronaut Carpenter 
had an opportunity to become familiar with 
the spacecraft and launch-vehicle operations 
during his period as backup pilot for the MA-6 
flight. Thus, in addition to the experience in- 
dicated in table 6-1, he spent approximately 80 
hours in the MA-6 spacecraft during its check- 
out period at the launch site. This period of 
familiarization provided him with an oppor- 
tunity to increase his knowledge of the space- 
craft systems and gave him a good background 
for his own MA-7 mission preparation activi- 




Fioxjke 6-2. — Astronaut Carpenter practicing egress 
procedures. 

64 



ties. The training activities, which were con- 
ducted in the Langley (see fig. 6-1) and Cape 
Canaveral procedures trainer and the air-lub- 
ricated free-attitude (ALFA) trainer, included 
a large number of attitude control maneuvers 
and simulated system failures. These trainers 
have been described in references 1 and 2. The 
pilot was also thoroughly rehearsed on egress 
and recovery procedures. (See fig. 6-2.) In 
addition to the above-mentioned training activi- 
ties, the MA-7 pilot participated in several 
launch abort and network simulations during 
which the mission rules and the flight plan were 
rehearsed and discussed. Although the train- 
ing as described above was extensive, it should 
be recognized that limitations in the Mercury 
procedures trainer precluded practice of certain 
activities, such as controlling attitude by using 
external references. 

Control Tasks 

Several control tasks and in-flight maneuvers 
were programed for the MA-7 flight to obtain 
information on orientation problems in space 
and the ability of the pilot to perform attitude 
control tasks. These control tasks included 
turnaround, tracking, maneuvering, drifting 
flight, and retrofire. It should be pointed out 
that the pilot's performance could not be quan- 
titatively analyzed because : 

1. The pitch horizon scanner circuit appeared 
to have malfunctioned. 

2. The pilot deviated somewhat from 
planned procedures established prior to the 
mission. 

3. The gyros were caged during much of the 
flight. 

4. The spacecraft attitudes exceeded the view- 
ing limits of the horizon scanners on a number 
of occasions. 

With these limitations in mind, the attitude 
control tasks are discussed in the following 
paragraphs. 

Turnaround Maneuver 

The primary purpose in scheduling a man- 
ual turnaround after spacecraft separation 
was to conserve reaction control system fuel. 




Figure 6-3. — Turnaround maneuver. 



The pilot used only 1.6 pounds of control fuel 
for the MA-7 turnaround, whereas past flight 
experience has shown that the automatic control 
system employs over 4 pounds of control fuel 
for this maneuver. 

The shaded area of figure 6-3 displays the 
pilot's performance during turnaround train- 
ing sessions, and the uncorrected gyro attitudes 
indicated during the actual flight maneuver 
are represented by the solid curves. The flight 
maneuver was performed in yaw approxi- 
mately as planned, and the correct spacecraft 
orientation was achieved shortly after separa- 
tion from the launch vehicle. 

Although indicated roll attitude deviated to a 
greater extent during the in-flight turnaround 
maneuver than in training sessions, the pilot 
successfully brought roll attitude to zero by the 
end of the maneuver. 

The pitch attitude indication initially varied 
from that of the trainer because of the malfunc- 
tion in the pitch horizon scanner circuit de- 
scribed in paper 1. Therefore, the pilot was 
required to perform a correction in pitch which 
was considerably larger than planned, and as 
figure 6-3 shows, he accomplished this correc- 



tion in approximately the same time exhibited 
during training exercises. Then the pilot 
allowed the spacecraft attitude to diverge for a 
considerable period of time before stabilizing 
as planned at retroattitude, as shown in figure 
6-3. However, it should be noted that an in- 
sertion "go" condition had been received from 
ground control during the turnaround, and 
it was not essential for the pilot to hold orbit 
attitude. 

Sustainer Stage Tracking 

The purpose of tracking the sustainer stage 
was to investigate the ability of the pilot to 
observe an object in space and to determine his 
capability to perform pursuit tracking of an 
object in a slightly different trajectory. The 
pilot readily sighted the sustainer stage through 
the spacecraft window after completion of 
spacecraft turnaround at a calculated distance 
of approximately 300 yards. He continued to 
observe and photograph the sustainer for 8y 2 
minutes at which time the sustainer stage was 
calculated to be at a range of 3 miles behind 
and below the spacecraft. During this period, 
the pilot noted a very slow tumbling motion of 
the sustainer and also observed small crystal- 
line particles emanating from the sustainer 
nozzle. 

Sufficient data were not obtained to permit a 
quantitative analysis of the pilot's tracking 
capability. However, the pilot stated that he 
believed precision tracking would not be a diffi- 
cult task while using the low thrusters for 
control. 

Use of External Reference for Maneuvering 

This flight has further shown that manual 
control of spacecraft attitudes through the use 
of external references can be adequately accom- 
plished under daylight and moonlit night con- 
ditions. Furthermore, the MA-7 flight pro- 
vided evidence that spacecraft orientation 
about the pitch and roll axes could be accom- 
plished manually on the dark side of the earth 
without moonlight by using the airglow layer 
as a horizon reference. 

Manual control of the spacecraft yaw atti- 
tude using external references has proven to be 
more difficult and time consuming than pitch 
and roll alinement, particularly as external 
lighting diminishes. Although no precision 



65 



maneuvers were accomplished on the flight 
which could be quantitatively analyzed, the 
pilot did confirm that ground terrain drift pro- 
vided the best daylight reference in yaw. How- 
ever, a terrestrial reference at night was useful 
in controlling yaw attitudes only when suffi- 
ciently illuminated by moonlight. In the ab- 
sence of moonlight, the pilot reported that the 
only satisfactory yaw reference was a known 
star complex near the orbital plane. 

Drifting Flight 

During the final portion of the MA-7 flight, 
the spacecraft was allowed to drift free to con- 
serve fuel and to evaluate the behavior of the 
astronaut and vehicle during drifting flight. 
The spacecraft drifted for a total of 1 hour and 
17 minutes during the mission, 1 hour and 6 
minutes of which was continuous during the 
third orbital pass. Rates of 0.5 degree/second 
or less were generally typical of this period 
when the spacecraft was allowed to drift com- 
pletely free of all control -inputs. The pilot 
commented that on one occasion during drifting 
flight, he observed the moon for a significantly 
long period in or near the center of the window, 
indicating that attitude rates were near zero. 
Data showed that spacecraft attitude rates were 
less than 0.5 degree/second during this par- 
ticular period. The pilot also reported that 
drifting flight was not disturbing and that he 
was not concerned when external references 
were temporarily unavailable. It would ap- 
pear, then, that drifting flight, in addition to 
conserving fuel, affords a period when the pilot 
can be relatively free to accomplish many useful 
activities and experiments without devoting at- 
tention to spacecraft orientation. 

Retrafire Maneuver 

It was intended to have the automatic con- 
trol system maintain spacecraft attitude during 
the firing of the retrorocket; however, the mal- 
function of the pitch horizon scanner circuit 
dictated that the pilot manually control the 
spacecraft attitudes during this event. Except 
for the late ignition of the retrorockets, the 
pilot reported that he believed the maneuver 
had proceeded without serious misalinement of 
the spacecraft attitude. However, the space- 
craft overshot the intended landing point by 
approximately 250 miles. 



The pilot backed up the automatic retrofire 
system by pushing the manual retrofire button 
when the event did not occur at the commanded 
time. Eetrofire occurred 3 to 4 seconds late 
which accounted for approximately 15 to 20 
miles of the total overshoot error. 

In an effort to explain the major cause of the 
overshoot error, a review of the events just prior 
to and during the retrofire is presented. At 
approximately 11 minutes prior to retrofire, the 
pilot observed a possible source of the luminous 
particles previously reported by Astronaut 
Glenn during the MA-6 mission. This event 
followed by photographing of these particles 
delayed his completing the stowage of the on- 
board equipment as well as the accomplishment 
of the preretrosequence checklist. 

At approximately 6 minutes prior to retro- 
fire the pilot enabled the manual proportional 
(MP) control system as a backup to the auto- 
matic stabilization and control system ( ASCS), 
as specified for an automatic retrofire maneuver. 
The pilot then engaged his automatic control 
system and almost immediately reported a 
discrepancy between the instruments and the 
external window references. In the 5 minutes 
prior to retrosequence (T-30 sec), he attempted 
to analyze the automatic control system prob- 
lem, and rechecked his manual control systems 
in preparation for this event. 

At 30 seconds before retrofire, the pilot again 
checked his ASCS orientation mode upon 
ground request. While the pilot was making 
this check, the spacecraft attained excessive 
pitch-down attitude; therefore, the pilot 
quickly switched from ASCS to FBW modes 
and repositioned the spacecraft-to retrofie at- 
titude using his earth-through-window refer- 
ence. It was during this period that gyro out- 
puts indicated a significant excursion in yaw 
attitude. As a result of switching to the FBW 
mode without cutting off the MP mode, the 
pilot inadvertently used double authority con- 
trol. Because of the horizon scanner malfunc- 
tion the pilot cross referenced between the gyro 
indications and the external references for at- 
titude information during the firing of the 
retrorockets. 

Figure 6-4 presents the gyro output attitude 
indications as well as the desired attitudes to be 
held during retrofire. Because of the horizon 
scanner malfunction, the gyro indications do 



66 




Fiocbe 6-4.— Indicated spacecraft attitudes during 
retrofire. Not corrected, gyros free. 



not necessarily represent the true spacecraft 
attitudes particularly; however, they do illus- 
trate the trends in attitude as a function of 
elapsed time during retrofire. However, these 
are the indicated attitudes displayed to the 
pilot. 

Radar tracking data have indicated that the 
mean spacecraft pitch attitude during the retro- 
fire period was essentially correct. Thus the 
deviation in pitch attitude shown in this figure 
did not contribute to the overshoot error in 
landing. Some deviations are also shown in 
spacecraft roll attitude during retrofire ; how- 
ever, roll errors of this magnitude have a negli- 
gible effect on landing point dispersion. Thus, 
the error in landing position resulted primarily 
from a misalinement in spacecraft yaw attitude 
(indicated in fig. 6-4). Radar tracking data 
have shown that the spacecraft had an average 
yaw error of 27° during retrofire. It should 
be noted, however, that the error in yaw was 
essentially corrected by the end of the retro- 
fire event. 



In review, the pilot, by manually controlling 
the spacecraft during retrofire, demonstrated 
an ability to orient the vehicle so as to effect 
a successful reentry, thereby providing evi- 
dence that he can serve as a backup to malfunc- 
tioning automatic systems of the spacecraft. 
The extensive review of this maneuver further 
serves to illustrate the desirability of assigning 
priority to flight requirements so that sufficient 
time will be available to perform the more 
critical operational activities. 

Fuel Management 

The fact that the fuel usage rate was greater 
than expected was an area of major concern 
during this flight. This primarily resulted from 
the extensive use of high thruster control for 
orbit maneuvering, inadvertent actuation of 
two control systems simultaneously, and fre- 
quent engagement of the automatic system 
orientation control mode which generally uses 
high thrusters to reorient the spacecraft to 
orbit attitude. 

As pointed out in paper 1, a systems modifi- 
cation has been incorporated on future space- 
craft to preclude recurrence of high thruster 
usage for manual maneuvering in orbit. Fur- 
ther training emphasizing a more strict adher- 
ence to optimal operation of the control system, 
as well as simplified attitude maneuvering re- 
quirements and reduced control mode switching 
should also help reduce excessive fuel con- 
sumption for future Mercury flights. 

Scientific Experiments 

In addition to controlling the spacecraft and 
monitoring systems operations during the flight, 
the pilot also assumed a dominant role in ac- 
complishing a number of in-flight experiments. 
One of these experiments consisted of deploying 
a multicolored inflatable balloon from the space- 
craft while in orbit. The balloon was tethered 
to the spacecraft by means of a 100- foot braided 
nylon line. It was intended that the pilot should 
observe balloon motions and the various color 
patterns on the balloon to determine which 
appeared best suited for visual detection in 
space. Drag measurements were also to be 
taken at periodic intervals throughout the 
flight. 



67 



The balloon was deployed as programed. 
The pilot was readily able to observe the balloon 
and attachment line as well as the balsa inserts 
used to hold the package prior to deployment. 
The pilot noted that both the orange and alumi- 
num segments were visible and photographs 
confirmed this report. The pilot was also able 
to discern the irregular shape assumed by the 
balloon when it failed to inflate properly. The 
random motion of the balloon noted by the pilot 
was probably a result of large attitude maneu- 
vers of the spacecraft and unsteady aerodynamic 
loading because of the irregular balloon shape. 
The pilot was able to maintain visual balloon 
contact throughout the orbital daylight phases 
and on several occasions at night. Effective 
evaluation of the colors and meaningful meas- 
urements of the balloon drag were, of course, 
compromised by failure of the balloon to innate 
fully. 

Another experiment was conducted which was 
intended to define the earth's limb by photo- 
graphing the daylight horizon with a blue and 
red split filter over the film plane. The pilot 
was able to maneuver the spacecraft into the 
correct, attitude during the proper phase of the 
daylight pass and to expose a number of frames 
of film for microdensitometer evaluation by 




Figure 6-5. — Representative photograph of horizon 
definition. 



scientists of MIT. Of the 26 frames analyzed, 
20 have yielded good data and 6 are questionable. 
Figure 6-5 is an example of one of the photo- 
graphs taken during this experiment. The 
densitometer analysis has indicated that the 
earth's limb definition in the blue is very regular 
and this can be seen from the sample photo- 
graph; however, the definition in the red is 
variable due partly to the distorting effect of 
the clouds. It is hoped that a complete analysis 
of these results will yield information on the 
height of the earth's limb; however, at the 
present results are still incomplete. 



1. Slayton, Donald K. : Pilot Training and Preflight Preparation. Proc. Conf. on Results of the First U.S 

Manned Suborbital Spa<>e Flight, NASA, Nat. Inst. Health, and Nat. Acad. Sci., June 6, 1961, pp. 53-60. 

2. Voas, Robert B. : Manual Control of the Mercury Spacecraft. Astronautics, March 1962. 



68 



7. PILOT'S FLIGHT REPORT 



By M. Scott Carpenter, Astronaut, NASA Manned Spacecraft Center 



Summary 

An account of the major events and personal 
observations of the MA-7 flight is reviewed 
by the pilot. Prior to and during powered 
night, launch-vehicle noise and vibration were 
less than expected. As in the MA-6 mission, 
the astronaut quickly adapted to weightless 
flight and remarked that it was more comforta- 
ble and provided greater mobility than under 
normal gravity. Astronaut Carpenter also ob- 
served the space particles and the bright 
horizon band, previously reported by Astronaut 
John H. Glenn, Jr., and secured new informa- 
tion on both phenomena. The final phases of 
the flight, including retrosequence, reentry, 
landing, and egress, are covered in detail. 

Introduction 

The previous papers in this report have con- 
sidered the engineering and operational aspects 
of the MA-7 mission, including a scientific 
analysis of some of my flight observations. In 
this presentation, I shall attempt to give a nar- 
rative account of my impressions during the 
flight. 

A period of more than 2 months, most of 
which was spent at Cape Canaveral, was con- 
sumed in preparing me for the orbital flight. 
My activities during this period were very simi- 
lar to those which I, as the backup pilot, de- 
scribed in a paper on Astronaut Preparation 
for the MA-6 report. The experience gained 
as the backup pilot to John Glenn was valuable 
practice for my own preparation period prior 
to the MA-7 flight. In the discussion which 
follows, I will report my observations, sensa- 
tions, and experiences. 

Launch Phase 

Insertion into the spacecraft was accom- 
plished without incident, except for a minor 



problem with the tiedown of the visor seal bot- 
tle hose to the helmet. The countdown went 
perfectly until the 45-minute weather hold. At 
T-10 minutes it was picked up again and pro- 
ceeded perfectly once more until lift-off. Dur- 
ing the prelaunch period I had no problems. 
The couch was comfortable, and I had no pres- 
sure points. The length of the prelaunch period 
was not a problem. I believe I could have gone 
at least twice as long. Throughout this period, 
the launch vehicle was much more dormant than 
I had expected it to be. I did not hear the clat- 
ter that. John Glenn had reported. Once I felt 
the engines gimbaling. I do not recall hearing 
the lox venting. 

When the ignition signal was given, every- 
thing became quiet. I had expected to feel the 
launch vehicle shake, some machinery start, the 
vernier engines light off, or to hear the lox 
valve make some noise, but I did not. Nothing 
happened until main engine ignition; then I 
began to feel the vibration. There was a little 
bit of shaking. Lift-off was unmistakable. 

About a minute and a half after lift-off, the 
sky changed in brightness rather suddenly. It 
was not black, but it was no longer a light blue. 
The noise and vibration increased so little dur- 
ing maximum dynamic pressure that it would 
not be noticed unless you were looking for it. 
The booster engine cutoff (BECO) was very 
gentle. Three seconds later, staging occurred. 
There was no mistaking staging. Two very 
definite noise cues could be heard : one was the 
decrease in noise level that accompanied the 
drop in acceleration ; the other was associated 
with staging. At staging there was a change 
in the light outside the window and I saw a 
wisp of smoke. 

At tower jettison, I felt a bigger jolt than at 
staging, and it was gone in a second. Out the 
window, the tower could be seen way off in the 
distance, heading straight for the horizon. It 
was rotating slowly, with smoke still trailing 



69 



out of the three nozzles. Just prior to BECO, 
I noticed a low-frequency oscillation in yaw. 
This picked up again after BECO and increased 
very gradually until sustainer engine cutoff 
(SECO). 

At SECO, the dropoff in acceleration was not 
disturbing. Two separate bangs could be heard : 
first, the clamp ring explosive bolts, and then, 
the louder noise of the posigrade rockets. The 
best cues to the end of powered flight were 
weightlessness and absolute silence. 

Orbital Flight Phase 
General Flight Observations 

I began the turnaround and wondered why 
I felt nothing. At this time, the angular accel- 
erations of the spacecraft were not perceptible, 
and only the blackness of space could be seen 
through the window. The instruments pro- 
vided the only reference. The turnaround pro- 
ceeded just as in the trainer except that I was 
somewhat distracted initially by the new sen- 
sation of weightlessness. I followed the needles 
around and soon there was the horizon. 

Following the turnaround, I watched the ex- 
pended launch vehicle through the window as 
it fell behind me, tumbling slowly. It was 
bright and easily visible. I could see what 
looked like little ice crystals emanating from 
the sustainer engine nozzle. They seemed to 
extend for two or three times the length of the 
lannch vehicle, in a gradually broadening fan 
pattern. 

After the initial sensation of weightlessness, 
it was exactly what I had expected from my 
brief experience with it in training. It was 
very pleasant, a great freedom, and I adapted to 
it quickly. Movement in the pressure suit was 
easier and the couch was more comfortable. 
Later, when I tried to eat the solid food pro- 
vided for the flight, I found it crumbled in its 
plastic bag. Every time I opened the bag, some 
crumbs would come floating out ; but once a bite 
sized piece of food was in my mouth, there was 
no problem. It was just like eating here on 
earth. 

Orientation 

My only cues to motion were the instruments 



and the view through the window and peri- 
scope. At times during the flight, the space- 
craft angular rates were greater than 6° per 
second, but aside from vision, I had no sense 
of movement. 

I was never disoriented. I always knew 
where the controls and other objects within the 
cabin were relative to myself. I could reach 
anything I needed. I did have one unusual ex- 
perience. After looking out the window for 
some time, I noticed that when I turned my 
head to the right to look at the special equip- 
ment storage kit, I would get the impression 
that it was oriented vertically, or 90° from 
where I felt it should be. This impression was 
because of my training in the procedures trainer 
and lasted only temporarily. 

At times when the gyros were caged and 
nothing was visible out the window, I had no 
idea where the earth was in relation to the space- 
craft. However, it did not seem important to 
me. I knew at all times that I had only to wait 
and the earth would again appear in the win- 
dow. The periscope was particularly useful in 
this respect, because it had such a wide field of 
view. Even without it, however, the window- 
would have been adequate. 

Unusual Flight Attitudes 

During the flight I had an opportunity to in- 
vestigate a number of unusual flight attitudes. 
One of these was forward inverted flight. 
When I was pitched down close to —90°, I think 
I could pick out the nadir point, that is, the 
ground directly below me, very easily without 
reference to the horizon. I could determine 
whether I was looking straight down or off at 
an angle. During portions of the second and 
third orbits, I allowed the spacecraft to drift. 
Drifting flight was effortless and created no 
problems. 

Alining the gyros consumed fuel or time. The 
horizon provided a good roll and pitch reference 
as long as it was visible in the window. On the 
dark side of the earth, the horizon or the air- 
glow layer is visible at all times, even before 
moonrise. Yaw reference was a problem. The 
best yaw reference was obtained by pitching 
down -50° to -70° and looking through the 
window. The periscope provided another good 



70 



yaw reference at nearly any attitude. The zero- 
pitch mark on the periscope was also a valuable 
reference for alining the gyros since at zero 
pitch, the horizon could not be seen through 
the window. Yaw attitude is difficult to deter- 
mine at night, and the periscope is of little help 
in determining yaw on the night side. The best 
reference is a known star. 

Control System Operation 

For normal maneuvering in orbit, fly -by- wire, 
low thrusters only, was the best system. How- 
ever, I believe for a tracking task, manual pro- 
portional control might be more desirable, al- 
though I did not actually try it for this purpose. 
The fly-by-wire high thrusters and the rate com- 
mand and auxiliary damping systems were not 
needed for the tasks that I had to perform in 
orbit prior to preparing for retrofire. 

In orbit, the operation of the solenoids of both 
the high and low thrusters of the fly-by-wire 
system could be heard. I could hear and feel 
the rate command system, both the solenoids 
and the thruster. When using the manual pro- 
portional mode, I did not hear the control link- 
ages, but again I heard the thrusters. Through 
the window, the exhaust from the pitch-down 
thrusters could be seen. There w T as no move- 
ment, just a little "V" of white steam in front 
of the window. It was visible even at night. 
Balloon Observations 

At balloon deployment, I saw the confetti as 
it was jettisoned, but it disappeared rapidly. I 
saw one of the balsa blocks and mistook it for 
the balloon. Finally, the balloon came into 
view; it looked to me like it was a wrinkled 
sphere about 8 to 10 inches thick. It had small 
protrusions coming out each side. The balloon 
motion following deployment was completely 
random. 

Terrestrial Observations 

There w T as no difference between the appear- 
ance and color of land, water areas, or clouds 
from orbit and the view from a high-flying air- 
craft. (See fig. 7-1.) The view looked to me 
exactly like the photographs from other Mer- 
cury flights. The South Atlantic was 90 percent 
covered with clouds, but all of western Africa 
was clear. I had a beautiful view of Lake 
Chad. Other parts of Africa were green, and 
it was easy to tell that these areas were jungle. 




Figure 7-1. — Examples of interesting cloud formations 
photographed by Astronaut Carpenter. 



There were clouds over the Indian Ocean. Far- 
ther west in the Pacific, it was not heavily 
clouded, but the western half of Baja Cali- 
fornia, Mexico, was covered with clouds along 
its entire length. The eastern half was clear. 
Over the United States on the second orbit, I 
noticed a good amount of cloudiness, but after 
retrofire I could see the area around El Centro, 
Calif., quite clearly. I saw a dirt road and had 
the impression that had there been a truck on 
it, I could have picked it out. I did not see 
Florida or the Cape Canaveral area. 

Celestial Observations 

Because of the small source of light around 
the time correlation clock, I was not fully dark 
adapted, nor was the cabin completely dark; 
therefore, I did not see any more stars than I 
could have seen from the earth. After having 
seen the star, Corvus, during the flight and later 
in the recovery airplane, I am convinced that a 
lot more stars can be seen from the ground than 



71 




Figure 7-2.— Sunset as viewed by Astronaut Carpenter 
in orbital flight. 



I could see through the spacecraft window. I 
could, nevertheless, readily see and identify the 
major constellations and use them for heading 
information. I could not see stars on the day- 
light side if the earth was in the field of view of 
the window. However, I do remember seeing 
stars at the western horizon when the sun was 
just up in the east but the terminator had not 
yet reached the western horizon. The sunrises 
and sunsets were the most beautiful and spec- 
tacular events of the flight. Unlike those on 
earth, the sunrises and sunsets in orbit were all 
the same. The sharply defined bands of color 
at the horizon were brilliant. ( See fig. 7-2. ) 

On the dark side of the earth, I saw the same 
bright band of light just above the horizon 
which John Glenn reported. I measured the 
width of this band in a number of ways, and I 
also observed it through a special "airglow" 
filter. A description and analysis of my obser- 
vations are discussed in the Space Science report 
(paper 4). 

A number of times during the flight, I ob- 
served the particles reported by John Glenn. 
They appeared to be like snowflakes. I believe 
that they reflected sunlight and were not truly 
luminous. The particles traveled at different 
speeds, but they did not move away from the 
vehicle as rapidly as the confetti that was de- 
ployed upon balloon release. At dawn on the 
third orbit as I reached for the densiometer, I 
inadvertently hit the spacecraft hatch and a 
cloud of particles flew by the window. Since I 
was yawed to the right, the particles traveled 
across the front of the window from the right 
to the left. I continued to knock on the hatch 



and on other portions of the spacecraft walls, 
and each time a cloud of particles came past the 
window. The particles varied in size, bright- 
ness, and color. Some were gray and others 
were white. The largest were 4 to 5 times the 
size of the smaller ones. One that I saw was a 
half inch long. It was shaped like a curlicue 
and looked like a lathe turning. 

Retrograde and Reentry Phase 

Retrosequence 

I think that one reason that I got behind at 
retrofire was because, just at dawn during the 
third orbit, I discovered the source of the space 
particles. I felt that I had time to get that 
taken care of and still prepare properly for ret- 
rofire, but time slipped away. The Hawaii 
Cap Com was trying very hard to get me to do 
the preretrograde checklist. After observing 
the particles, I was busy trying to get alined in 
orbit attitude. Then I had to evaluate the 
problem in the automatic control system. I got 
behind and had to stow things haphazardly. 

Just prior to retrofire, I had a problem in 
pitch attitude, and lost all confidence in the 
automatic control system. By this time, I had 
gone through the part of the preretro checklist 
which called for the manual fuel handle to be 
out as a backup for the automatic control sys- 
tem. When I selected the fly-by-wire mode, I 
did not shut off the manual system. As a re- 
sult, attitude control during retrofire was ac- 
complished on both the fly-by-wire and the 
manual control modes. 

At the time, I felt that my control of space- 
craft attitude during retrofire was good. My 
reference was divided between the periscope, 
the window, and the attitude indicators. When 
the retroattitude of -34° was properly indi- 
cated by the window and the periscope, the 
pitch attitude indicator read —10°. I tried to 
hold this attitude on the instruments through- 
out retrofire, but I cross-checked attitude in the 
window and the periscope. I have commented 
many times that on the trainer you cannot di- 
vide your attention between one attitude refer- 
ence system and another and still do a good job 
in retrofire. But that was the way I controlled 
attitude during retrofire on this flight. 

Although retrosequence came on time, the 
initiation of retrofire was slightly late. After 



72 



receiving a countdown to retrofire from the 
California Cap Com, I waited 2 seconds and 
then punched the manual retrofire button. 
About 1 second after that I felt the first retro- 
rocket lire. 

If the California Cap Com had not men- 
tioned the retroattitude bypass switch, I would 
have forgotten it, and retrofire would have been 
delayed considerably longer. Later, he also 
mentioned an auxiliary damping reentry which 
I think I would have chosen in any case, but it 
was a good suggestion to have. 

I had expected a big "boot" from the retro- 
rockets. But the deceleration was just, a very 
gentle nudge. The ignition of the rockets was 
just audible. Retrofire gave me a sensation, not 
of being pushed back toward Hawaii as John 
Glenn had reported, but of being slowed down 
in three increments. By the time the retrofire 
was over, I felt that there had been just enough 
deceleration to bring the spacecraft to a stop ; 
but of course, it had not stopped. 

Retropack jettison and the retraction of the 
periscope occurred on time. At this time, I 
noticed my appalling fuel state and realized 
that I had controlled retrofire on both the 
manual and fly-by-wire systems. I tried both 
the manual and the rate-command control 
modes and got no response. The fuel gage was 
reading about 6 percent, but the fuel tank was 
empty. This left me with 15 percent on the 
automatic system to last out the 10 minutes to 
0.05g and to control the reentry. I used it 
sparingly, trying to keep the horizon in the 
window so that I would have a correct attitude 
reference. I stayed on fly-by-wire until 0.05g. 
At 0.05g I think I still had a reading of about 
15 percent on the automatic fuel gage. I used 
the window for attitude reference during reen- 
try because of the difficulty I had experienced 
with the attitude displays prior to retrofire. 

I began to hear the hissing outside the space- 
craft that John Glenn had described. The 
spacecraft was alined within 3° or 4° in 
pitch and yaw at the start of the reentry period. 
I feel that it would have reentered properly 
without any attitude control. The gradual in- 
crease of aerodynamic forces during the reentry 
appeared to be sufficient to aline the spacecraft 
properly. Very shortly after 0.05 g, I began 



to pick up oscillations on the pitch and yaw 
rate needles. These oscillations seemed about 
the same as those experienced in some of the 
trainer runs. From this I decided that the 
spacecraft was in a good reentry attitude, and 
I selected the auxiliary damping control mode. 

I watched both the rate indicator and the 
window during this period, because I was be- 
ginning to see the reentry glow. I could see a 
few flaming pieces falling off the spacecraft. I 
also saw a long rectangular strap going off in 
the distance. The window did not light up to 
the extent that John Glenn reported. I did 
not see a fiery glow prior to peak acceleration. 

I noticed one unexpected thing during the 
heat pulse. I was looking for the orange glow 
and noticed instead a light green glow that 
seemed to be coming from the cylindrical sec- 
tion of the spacecraft. It made me feel that 
the trim angle was not right and that some of 
the surface of the recovery compartment might 
be overheating. However, the fact that the 
rates were oscillating evenly strengthened my 
conviction that the spacecraft was at a good 
trim angle. The green glow was brighter than 
the orange glow around the window. 

I heard the Cape Cap Com up to the blackout. 
He told me that blackout was expected momen- 
tarily. I listened at first for his command 
transmission, but it did not get through. So 
I just talked the rest of the way down. 

At peak acceleration, oscillations in rate were 
nearly imperceptible, since the auxiliary damp- 
ing was doing very well. The period of peak 
acceleration was much longer than I had ex- 
pected. I noticed that I had to breath a little 
more forcefully in order to say normal 
sentences. 

Landing 

At around 70,000 feet, I may have run out 
of automatic fuel. I do not remember looking 
at the fuel gage, but the rates began to oscillate 
pretty badly, although the rate needles were 
still on scale. My best indication of the oscilla- 
tion amplitude was to watch the sun cross the 
window and try to determine the angle through 
which the spacecraft was oscillating. I could 
feel the change in deceleration as the space- 
craft went to one side in yaw or pitch. I 
switched the drogue parachute fuse switch on at 



73 



about 45,000 feet. At alxmt 40,000 feet, space- 
craft oscillations were increasing. At about 
25,000 feet, I deployed the drogue parachute 
manually when the oscillations became severe. 
I could see the drogue parachute pulsing and 
vibrating more than I had expected. It was 
visible against a cloudy sky. After the drogue 
parachute was deployed, I operated the snorkel 
manually. 

I switched the main parachute fuse switch on 
at 15,000 feet and waited for the main para- 
chute to deploy. At about 9,500 feet, I manually 
activated the main parachute deployment 
switch without waiting for automatic deploy- 
ment. It came out and was reefed for a little 
while. I could see the parachute working as the 
material was stretched taut and then as it un- 
dulated after the peak load. The parachute 
disreefed and it was beautiful. I could see no 
damage whatsoever, and rate of descent was 
right on 30 feet per second. 

I was convinced that the main parachute was 
good, selected the automatic position on the 
landing bag switch, and the bag went out im- 
mediately. I went through the postreentry and 
10,000-foot checklists and got everything pretty 
well taken care of. 

The landing was much less severe than I had 
expected. It was more noticeable by the noise 
than by the gr-load, and I thought I had a re- 
contact problem of some kind. I was somewhat 
dismayed to see water splashed on the face of the 
tape recorder box immediately after impact. 
My fears that there might be a leak in the space- 
craft appeared to be confirmed by the fact that 
the spacecraft did not immediately right itself. 

Egress 

The spacecraft listed halfway between pitch 
down and yaw left. I got the proper items dis- 
connected and waited for the spacecraft to right 
itself. However, the list angle did not appre- 
ciably change. 

I knew that I was way beyond my intended 
landing point, because I had heard earlier the 
Cape Cap Com transmitting blind that there 
would be about an hour for recovery. I decided 
to get out at that time and went about egressing 
from the spacecraft. 

Egress is a tough job. The space is tight, and 
the small pressure bulkhead stuck slightly. I 



easily pushed out the canister, and I had the 
raft and the camera with me. I disconnected 
the hose after I had the canister nearly out. 

I forgot to seal the suit and deploy the neck 
dam. I think one of the reasons was that it was 
so hot. After landing I read 105° on the cabin 
temperature gage. I felt much hotter in orbit 
than after landing; and although it was humid, 
I still felt fine. 

I climbed out through the small pressure 
bulkhead with the raft attached to me. I placed 
the camera up on top of the recovery compart- 
ment so that I could get it in case the spacecraft 
sank. I left the spacecraft, pulled the raft out 
after me, and inflated it, still holding onto the 
spacecraft. I climbed aboard and assessed the 
situation. Then I realized that the raft was up- 
side down ! I climbed back onto the spacecraft, 
turned the raft over, and got back in. 

Recovery 

The sea was quite calm except for periodic 
swells, but it was not choppy. The time on the 
ocean was very pleasant. I drank a lot of 
water from my survival kit while I was in the 
raft, but as far as temperature was concerned I 
was comfortable. 

The first thing I saw in the water was some 
seaweed. Then a black fish appeared, and he 
was quite friendly. Later, I heard some planes. 
The first one I saw was a P2V, so I took out the 
signaling mirror from my survival kit. Since it 
was hazy, I had some difficulty in aiming the 
mirror, which is done by centering the small 
bright spot produced by the sun in the center of 
the mirror. However, I knew the planes had 
spotted me because they kept circling the area. 
Another aid to the planes in locating me was 
the dye marker which was automatically ejected 
by the spacecraft. There must have been a 
stream of dye in the water 10 miles long. 

Soon there were a lot of airplanes around, 
but I just sat there minding my own business. 
Suddenly, I heard a voice calling from behind 
me. I turned around and there was someone 
swimming up to me. I did not even know that 
he had been parachuted into the water. He in- 
flated his raft, climbed in, and attached his raft 
to mine. He told me he had parachuted from 
1,100 feet and had to swim quite a way to reach 
me. Later, another swimmer joined us. I broke 



74 



out the food and asked them if they wanted any ; 
but they had finished lunch recently, and they 
did not take any. 

More aircraft kept circling over us. From 
time to time, one would drop a smoke bomb 
marker. A 20-man liferaft was dropped, but 
the chute failed to open and it hit the water 
with a tremendous impact. Attached ^to the 
raft was another package, containing the Stull- 
ken collar, a notation device much like a life 
preserver which can be wrapped around the 
spacecraft to keep it floating. It also hit with 
a terrific force which, as we learned later, broke 
one of the C0 2 bottles used to inflate the collar. 
The divers started out to get the collar and it 
took them some time to bring it back. They 
finally got back, wrapped the collar around the 
spacecraft, and inflated it. 

When the HSS-2 helicopter appeared, it 
made a beautiful approach. One of the divers 
helped me put on the sling, and I picked up my 
camera which I had previously placed in the re- 
covery compartment. I motioned to the heli- 
copter pilot to take up the slack in the line, and 
I let go of the spacecraft expecting to be lifted 
up. Instead, I went down! The helicopter 
must have settled slightly, because I am sure 
that there was a moment when nobody saw any- 
thing of me but a hand holding a camera clear 
of the water. 

A moment later, however, I began to rise. 
It was a lift of some 50 to 60 feet. I got into 
the helicopter with no difficulty and took off 
my gloves and boots. I poked a hole in the toe 
of my left sock and stuck my leg out the window 
to let the water drain out of the suit. When the 
helicopter landed aboard the carrier, I was in 
good shape. (See fig. 7-3.) Although I had 
already had a long day, I was not excessively 
tired and I was looking forward to describing 
my experiences to those at the debriefing site. 

Concluding Remarks 

Overall, I believe the MA-7 flight can be con- 
sidered another successful step on the road to 
the development of a useful and reliable manned 
spacecraft system. The good performance of 
most of the spacecraft systems gave me con- 




Figube 7-3. — Astronaut Carpenter coming aboard the 
carrier Intrepid from the recovery helicopter. 



fidence in the vehicle itself, while the spectacular 
novelty of the view from space challenged me 
to make the most of my opportunity, and lured 
me into an unwise expenditure of fuel early in 
the flight. As a result, it became necessary to 
go to extended drifting flight, and I was able to 
demonstrate that there was no problem asso- 
ciated with prolonged drifting flight, a pro- 
cedure we shall have to make use of on the 
longer duration Mercury flights. I was able to 
detect and overcome the one significant systems 
malfunction that might have affected the flight : 
the malfunction of the pitch horizon scanner 
circuit. I understand that many were concerned 
while waiting without word from me during re- 
entry and after landing. However, from my 
position, there was no major cause for concern. 
The spacecraft was stable during the critical 
portions of reentry and the parachute worked 
perfectly. For me, this flight was a wonderful 
experience, and I anxiously await another 
space mission. 



75 



APPENDIX 



MA-7 AIR-GROUND VOICE COMMUNICATIONS 



The following is a transcript of the MA-7 
flight communications taken from the spacecraft 
onboard tape recording. This is, therefore, a 
transcription of the communication received and 
transmitted, as well as some in-flight comments 
made while in a record-only mode, by the pilot, 
Scott CarpenteT. 

The first column shows the ground elapsed 
time (g.e.t.) from liftoff in hours, minutes, and 
seconds when the communique was initiated. 
The communicator is identified, as follows : 
CC — Capsule (spacecraft) Communicator at 

the range station 
CT — Communications Technician at the 
range station 
F— Flight Director at Bermuda range 
station 



P— Pilot 

S — Surgeon or Medical Monitor at the 

range station 
Stony — Blockhouse Communicator 
All temperatures are given as °F; all pres- 
sures are in pounds per square inch, absolute 
(psia) ; fuel, oxygen, and coolant quantities are 
expressed in remaining percent of total nominal 
capacities ; retrosequence times are expressed in 
g.e.t, (hours, minutes, and seconds) . 

Within the text, a series of three dots is used 
to designate times when communiques could not 
be deciphered. One dash indicates a time pause 
during a communique. The station in prime 
contact with the astronaut is designated at the 
initiation of communications. 



00 00 01 
00 00 04 
00 00 06 
00 00 07. 5 
00 00 11 
00 00 12. 5 
00 00 16. 5 
00 00 21 
00 00 24. 5 
00 00 29 

00 00 46 
00 00 47 
00 00 50. 5 
00 00 59. 5 



00 01 44 
00 01 59 
00 02 08.5 
00 02 14.5 



CAPE CANAVERAL (FIRST PASS) 

5, 4, 3, 2, 1, 0. 

I feel the lift-off. The clock has started. 
Roger. [Cape Canaveral] 
Loud and clear, Gus. 

Roger, Aurora seven, stand by for — the time hack. 

Little bit of shaking, pretty smooth. 
3, 2, 1, mark. 

Roger, the backup clock has started. 
Roger, Aurora Seven. 

Clear blue sky; 32 seconds; 9,000 [feet], fuel and oxygen steady; cabin pressure 15.1 [psia]; 

and dropping. A little rough through max q, and 1 minute. 
Roger. You're looking good from here. 
Okay, 25 amps and the power is good. 
Roger. You're looking good. 

Mark, 1 minute. Cabin pressure is on schedule; fuel and oxygen are steady, 24 amps; all 

the power is good. 
Roger. Pitch is 56 [degrees]. You look — 

Roger. My pitch looks good, it's smoothing down a little bit now. I feel the pitch program 
starting over. 

The sky is getting quite black at 01 30— elapsed. Fuel and oxygen is steady, cabin pressure 

is leveling off at 6.2 [psia], 22 amps and the power is still good, one cps sway in yaw. 
Roger. Understand. Pitch is 37 [degree]. You look real good. 
Stand by. 

Roger. There is BECO on time, and — 
Ah, Roger. Understand BECO. 



77 



CAPE CANAVERAL (FIRST PASS)— Continued 



00 02 16 P Roger, I felt staging. Do vou confirm? 

00 02 19 CC Staging? 

00 02 20 P Do jou confirm staging? 

00 02 22 CC Aurora Seven, we confirm staging. 

00 02 24 P Roger, g peaked at 6.3. 

00 02 32 P The tower is way out. It's gone. The light is green. Going over the BECO check now. 

00 02 41.5 CC Roger, Aurora Seven. 

00 02 49 P BECO check is complete 

00 02 54.5 CC Roger. Understand complete. Is that correct? 

00 02 57.5 P That is. Roger. 

00 03 01,5 P At 3 minutes. Fuel and oxygen are still steady; cabin is holding 5.8 [psia]. Power still 

looks good; my status is good. 

00 03 14 CC Roger. Pitch minus, minus 2% [degrees], and you're right on; you're good. 

00 03 19 P Roger. Reading you loud and clear, Gus. 

00 03 29 CC Aurora Seven, . . ., you are good. 

00 03 33.5 P Roger. Still reading you. Broken a little bit. At 30, my status is good. Fuel and 
oxygen are steady. Cabin is holding 5.8 [psia]; Cabin is holding 5.8 [psia]. Power 
is good, 25 amps. 

00 03 47.5 CC Roger. 

00 04 01 P Four minutes. Aurora Seven is Go. Fuel and oxygen steady; cabin holding, 25 amps; 

power is good. 

00 04 12 CC Roger, Aurora Seven. Pitch n 

00 04 15.5 P Roger, Reading you on Bermuda a 

00 04 19 CC Roger. 

00 04 30 P 4 plus 30 my clock. Fuel and oxygen steady, 3^ g's. Cabin holding 5.8 [psia]; 25 amps 

power is good. 

00 04 42 CC Roger, Aurora Seven. You're through 0.8, V over Vk of 0.8. 

00 04 46 P Roger. 0.8. 

00 05 09 P Okay, there is SECO. The posigrades fired. I am weightless and starting the fly-by-wire 

turnaround. Aux Damp is good. 

00 05 25.5 CC Roger. You look good down here. 

00 05 27 P Periscope is out, and .... 

00 05 32 CC We have a Go, with a 7-orbit capability. 

00 05 36 P Roger. Sweet words. 

00 05 38.5 CC Roger. 

00 05 52 P Okay, turnaround has stopped. I'm pitching down. I have the moon in the center of the 

window, and the booster off to the right slightlv, 

00 06 07.5 CC Roger. Understand. 

00 06 09.5 P Fly-by-wire is good in all axes; my pitch attitude is high; coming down now. 

00 06 51 CC Roger. Understand. 

00 06 38 P Roger. The control system on fly-by-wire is very good. I have the booster in the center 

of the window now, tumbling very slowly. 

00 06 50.5 CC Roger, Aurora Seven. Understand. You sound real good. 

00 06 59.5 P It's very quiet. 

00 07 04.5 P A steady stream of gas, white gas, out of the sustainer engine. Going to ASCS now. 

00 07 15 CC Roger. Understand. 

00 07 17 P ASCS seems to be holding very well. I have a small island just below me. 

00 07 26.5 CC Aurora Seven, standby for retrosequence times. 

00 07 29.5 P Standing by. 

00 07 31.5 CC Area 1 B is 17 17. 

00 07 38.5 P 17 17 Roger. 

00 07 41.5 CC Roger, standby for later times. That's all I have right now. 

00 07 50 CC Roger, Sequence time for end of orbit. 

00 07 53.5 P Send your message. 

00 07 55 CC Aurora Seven, retrosequence time for end of orbit— 28 26. 

00 08 00 P 01 2S 26, Roger. 

00 08 04 CC End of mission, 04 32 39. 

00 08 09 P 04 32 39, Roger. 

00 08 12 CC Negative 04 3, 04 32 39. 

00 08 17.5 P Roger, Understand, 04 32 39. 



CAPE CANAVERAL (FIRST PASS)— Continued 

00 08 21 CC Roger. 

00 08 22.5 P Roger, I have copied. , . 

00 08 27 P ASCS looks good, all fly-by-wire thrusters appear to be good in all axes. Going to— beginning 

to unstow the equipment. 
00 08 41 CC Aurora Seven. 

00 08 43 P Roger, and the SECO checklist is complete. She peaked at s|. 

00 08 51.5 CC Cap Com. Over. 

00 08 53.5 P Go ahead, Gus. Loud and clear. How me? 

00 09 01.5 CC Aurora Seven, Cap Com. 

00 09 03 P Roger, loud and clear. How me? 

00 09 07 CC Aurora Seven, Cape Cap Com. Over. 

00 09 16 CC Aurora Seven, Cape Cap Com. Over. 

00 09 18.5 P Loud and clear, Gus. How me? 

00 09 25 CC Aurora Seven, Cape Cap Com. If you read, retro delay to normal? 
00 09 29 P Retro delay normal. Roger. 

00 09 32 CC ... igee 86 [nautical miles]. 

00 09 34,5 P Roger. Copied perigee 86 [nautical miles]. Did not get apogee. 

00 09 54 5 P Mark. One picture of the booster. Going to transmit and record now. 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, . . . 

10, 11, 12 pictures of the booster, traveling right down the center of the booster, right 
down the center of the window. 

00 10 34 p Going over the insertion checklist now. D-c volts is main. Retromanual fuse switch is 

off. Retromanual is off. All instruments are. All batteries okay. The a-c power is 
good. The, let's see, where's the booster? There's some beautiful cloud patterns down 
there. The booster is in front of a large cloud pattern. I seem to be, I seem to be much 
closer to the earth than I expected to be. The booster is approximately 2 miles away now. 

00 11 40 P I have some pictures of the booster, maybe 17 or 18, all together. Then going to the horizon, 

north sweeping south. There is the moon, just setting. Winding the camera at this time. 

00 12 22 P There are some rather large pieces floating around. The flight plan is now out. Gyros are 

going to free at 12 33, and I'm going to fly-by-wire to track the booster. I will— this 
is not a good tracking problem. Our speeds are too close to being the same. I will 
put it in the center of the right window, plus. I have it right in the center— I feel that- 
overshot there. Getting ahead of me in pitch. 

00 13 29 5 P The high thrusters work well, close tracking should be done on— on fly-by-wire low only. 

To follow the booster is a tough job with the highs. Gyros are staying within limits 
pretty well. Elapsed time is 13 56. I have lost sight of the booster at this time. I'll 
pick up a retroattitude at this time for Canary radar. Large piece of— 

00 14 37.5 P Going back to gyros free, or to gyros normal. 

CANARY (FIRST PASS) 

00 14 47 CC Aurora Seven. This is Canary Cap Com. How do you read? Over. 

00 14 51 p Hello, Canary Cap Com. Aurora Seven. Reading you loud and clear. How me? 

00 14 56 5 CC Read you loud and clear also. We have radar track. Please remain in orbit attitude. 

00 15 02' P Roger. Understand. I, my control mode is fly-by-wire, gyros normal, maneuver off. 

I am picking up retroattitude and automatic control very shortly. Over. 
00 15 18.5 CC Roger. Will you verify that your retrodelay switch is in the normal position? 
00 15 24 P Retrodelay is normal. I say again, retrodelay is normal. 

00 15 29 5 CC Roger. Will you please proceed with the short report, fuel and oxygen readings. 

00 15 38 P Roger. Fuel 103-100 [percent]. Oxygen 89-100 [percent]. All the power is good. Aurora 

seven status is Go in all respects. Over. 
00 15 53.5 CC Roger. Say again fuel, please. Over. 
00 15 56.5 P Fuel 103-100 [percent]. Over. 

00 16-01.5 CC Roger. Have copied. 
00 16 04.5 CC Please send blood pressure. Over. 
00 16 07 P Roger. Blood pressure start now. 

00 16 19 P I have, west of your station, many whirls and vortices of cloud patterns. Pictures at this 

time— 2, 3, 4, 5. Control mode is now automatic. I have the booster directly below me. 
I think my attitude is not in agreement with the instruments. It's probably because of 
that gyro free period. Outside of a minor difference in attitude indications, everything 
is proceeding normally. 



79 



CANARY (FIRST PASS) — Continued 



00 17 14 CC Can y 



. operating normal? 



00 17 21.5 P Roger. 
00 17 53 P Roger. Canary, TS plus 5 is verified. Manual is satisfactory in all axes. Fly-by-wire and 

auto is satisfactory, all axes. Aux Damp is okay also. Over. 
00 18 08.5 CC Roger. I have copied. I have new end of orbit, end of mission and 1 Bravo times for you. 

Are you prepared to copv? 
00 18 15 P Stand by one. 

00 18 39.5 P Send your message, Canary. 

00 18 41.5 CC Roger. End of orbit time 01 28 17. End of mission, 04 32 27. 1 Bravo 16 plus 56. 
Did you copy? Over. 

00 19 05 P Roger. End of orbit 01 28 17, Hotel 04 32 39, 1 Bravo 16 56. Over. 

00 19 22 CC Correction. Aurora Seven, correction 1 Bravo. Make that 16 plus 52. Over 

00 19 30 P Roger. Understand. 16 52. 

00 19 33 CC Roger. Apogee altitude is 143 [nautical miles]. Perigee 86 [nautical miles]. Did you 
copy? Over. 

00 19 43.5 P Roger. 143 and 86 [nautical miles]. 

00 19 48 CC Roger. Here are sunrise and sunset times. Sunrise orbit one: 1 plus 21 plus 00. Sunrise, 
orbit two: 2 plus 50 plus 00. Sunrise, orbit three: 4 plus 19 plus 00. 

00 20 16.5 P Roger, Canary. I'm going to have loss of signal before I get these. I want to get some 

pictures. Have Muchea, or, correction, have Kano send these to me in this order: 
Sunset, sunrise, sunset, sunrise, break, break. Did you copy? 

00 20 36 CC — plus 41 plus 20. Did you copy? Over. 

00 20 40.5 P That is negative. I'll have to wait awhile for those. 

00 20 50 P I'll get them from Kano. Thank you. 

00 20 52.5 CC Have a blood-pressure reading. Your first attempt was unreadable on the ground. Over 
00 20 58 P Okay. It's on the air. 

KANO (FIRST PASS) 
00 23 49 CC Aurora Seven. This is Kano on UHF/HF. Do you read? Over. 
00 23 56 P Roger, Kano Cap Com. Aurora Seven reads you loud and clear. How me? 

00 24 02.5 CC Roger, Aurora Seven. Kano Cap Com reads you loud and clear. Welcome back Scott 
00 24 08 P Roger. 

00 24 09 CC Blood-pressure check, please. Hold your button for 4 seconds and then go through the 

short report, 

00 24 16 P Roger. Blood-pressure start, now. My status is good. The capsule status is good. 

Fuel is 99-98 [percent]. Oxygen, 89-100 [percent]. Cabin is holding good. All d-c 
power is good. All a-c power is good, 22 amps. Everything is green and you should be 
reading blood pressure. Over. 

00 24 41.5 CC Roger. We are reading blood pressure. Do you want to check your UHF low? Over. 

00 24 47 P Roger. Going to UHF low now, stand by 15. 

00 25 10.5 P Hello, Kano. Hello, Kano Cap Com. Aurora Seven UHF low. How do you read? 
00 25 17 CC Aurora Seven. Kano Cap Com reads you loud and clear. Over. 
00 25 20.5 P Roger. Reading you the same. Going back to UHF high. 
00 26 22 CC Aurora Seven, Kano Cap Com. How do you read? Over. 
00 26 28 P Loud and clear, Kano. Send your message. 

00 26 32 CC Roger, Aurora Seven. Are you going to be doing your caging, uncaging procedure now? 



00 26 


37.5 


P 


Roger. I — am a little behind in the flight plan at this moment. I have been unable at this 
time to install the MIT film. I finally have it. I'll go through the gyro uncaging pro- 
cedure very shortly. 


00 27 


01 


CC 


Roger. 


00 27 


34 


P 


Okay, the MIT film is now in. 


00 28 


00 


P 


ASCS is operating okay. 


00 28 


12.5 


CC 


What mode are you on now? 


00 28 


14.5 


P 


Roger. My mode is auto, gyro normal, maneuver off. 


00 28 


21.5 


CC 


Aurora Seven, Kano Cap Com. Be sure you're on fly-by-wire before going through the 
procedures for uncaging. 


00 28 


27 


P 


Roger Roger. Understand. 


00 28 


54.5 


P 


I'm going to be unable to complete the MIT pictures on this pass, I believe. Negative, 



i fix the problem. Too much film v 
Film is now in tight. The small back going o 



KANO (FIRST PASS) — Continued 
00 29 43.5 P At 00 29 43, the first time I was able to get horizon pictures with MIT film. Set at F8 and 

125th. A picture to the south into the sun, directly down my flight path is number two. 

Number three, 15 degrees north at capsule elapse 00 30 17. 
00 30 29.5 P Stowing the camera at this time. Going to the gyro uncaging procedure at this time. 

Fly-by-wire, now. Gyros going to cage. Maneuver at this point is on. 
00 31 02.5 P Pitching down, yawing left. 

INDIAN OCEAN SHIP (FIRST PASS) 
00 31 36 CT Aurora Seven, Aurora Seven, Aurora Seven. This is I.O.S. Com Tech on HF and UHF. 
How do you read? Over. 

00 31 49 P Roger, Indian Com Tech. Aurora Seven reading you weak but readable. Go ahead. 

00 32 10 CT Aurora Seven, Aurora Seven. This is I.O.S. Com Tech on HF and UHF. How do you 
read? Over. 

00 32 19 P Hello, Indian Ship Cap Com. Aurora Seven. Loud and clear. How me? 

00 33 59 P Hello, Indian Cap Com, Indian Cap Com, Aurora Seven. How do you read? 

00 34 17 P Hello, Indian Cap Com, Indian Cap Com, Aurora Seven. How do you read? 

00 34 26.5 P At 00 34 28, I'm increasing the cabin water valve and the suit valve to 6 [degrees]. Steam 

vent temperature now reads 65 and 75 [degrees], 
00 34 47 P Mark African coastal passage, about 20 seconds ago. 

00 35 02.5 P I'm using the airglow filter at this time. Visor is coming open for a better look at that. 

Hello, Indian Cap Com, Aurora Seven. Do you read? 
00 35 39 P Maneuver [switch] is going off at this time, and I'm going to aline manually to retroattitude. 

00 38 04 P Station calling Aurora Seven. Say again. 

00 39 28 P Okay. That took me some time to aline my attitudes properly. Three more pictures with 

MIT film: 2, 3, directly into the sun at an elapsed time of 00 39 42. 
00 40 12.5 P Okay, going through .... 

00 42 30.5 P The big back is going on the camera at this time. There was a period there when nothing 

was recorded because I was in VOX power off, instead of record. The big ... . 
00 43 02.5 P At 00 43 02, I think my gyros are properly alined. 

00 43 15.5 P What in the world happened to the periscope? 

00 43 25 P Oh, its' dark, that's what happened. It's facing a dark earth. Sunset F16 to F, okay ; we'll 

start with F16. Up north, coming south. Try some at 250. 
00 44 12.5 P It's getting darker. Let me see. Muchea contact, sometime. Oh, look at that sun. 

00 44 31 P Fll. 

00 44 45.5 P F5.6 That was those last four, were F3.8. It's quite dark. I didn't begin to get time to 

dark-adapt. 

00 45 15 P Photo lights are off. Cabin lights are going to red at this time. Oh, man, a wide, a beau- 

tiful, beautiful red like in John's pictures. Going to fly-by-wire. 
00 46 01 P It is a reflection. It is a reflection in the window. That's too bad. 

00 46 10 P I see at this point; I'm not sure I am recording on VOX record. I will go to transmit. I 

have Venus, now approaching the horizon. 
00 46 37 P It's about 30 degrees up. It's just coming into view. Bright and unblinking. I cannot — 

I can see some other stars down below Venus. Going back to ASCS than at this time. 
00 47 05 P Bright, bright blue horizon band as the sun gets lower and lower— the horizon band still 

glows. It looks like five times the width of the— the diameter of the sun. I'm at— 

now at 00 47 34 elapsed. 
00 47 46.5 P It's now nearly dark, and I can't believe I'm where I am. 

00 48 08 P Oh, dear, I've used too much fuel. 

00 48 22 P Well, I'm going yo have to increase. Let's see, going to ASCS at this time. 

00 48 38 P My fuel reads 75-100 [pereent] at this time. The window — is Venus occlude. No, t hat- 

that is not correct. Venus did not occlude. I'm getting out the equipment to measure 
Venus occlusion. 

00 49 15 P There is too much red light in the cockpit from the time correlation. Venus at above the — 

horizon. 

MUCHEA (FIRST PASS) 

00 49 28.5 CC Aurora Seven. This is Muchea Cap Com. How do you read? 

00 49 34 P Hello, Muchea Cap Com, Aurora Seven. Loud and clear. How me, Deke? 

00 49 39 CC Rog. Coming in very good, dad. Sound very good. How's things going? 



81 



MUCHEA (FIRST PAST) — Continued 

00 49 45.5 P Roger. Things are going very well. My status is very good. The capsule status is very 

good. The control mode is normal. Automatic gyros normal and maneuver off. Fuel 
is 72-100 [percent]. Oxygen 88-100 [percent]. Everything is normal with the exception 
of — the fact that I am a tad behind in the flight plan. Over. 

00 50 11.5 CC Roger. Understand. 

00 50 13 P Blood pressure is starting now. 

00 50 17 CC Okay. Blood pressure starting. We suggest that you do not exercise during the blood 
pressure since your temp is up. 

00 50 23.5 P Roger. This is the story on the suit temp. I have increased two 10-degree marks since 

lift-off. And now about — well, 15 degrees above launch mark. My steam vent temper- 
atures read 69 and 80 [degrees]. I'll take one more stab at increasing or decreasing 
temperature by increasing flow rate. If this doesn't work, I'll turn them off and start 
lower. Over. 

00 50 59 CC Rog. Understand. I'll give you some retrotimes while you're sending blood pressure. 

End of orbit is 01 28 18. End of mission is 04 32 28. 
00 51 15.5 P Roger. Understand. End of orbit 01 28 "18 and 04 32 28 for end of orbit. Over. End 

of mission. 

00 51 26 CC That's affirmative. We indicate your clock is 1 second slow and this is compensated for. 
00 51 31 P Roger. Thank you. 

00 51 34 CC G.m.t. time hack at this time— we're coming up on 13 36 57. Mark. 

00 51 41 P Roger. My G.m.t. — my backup G.m.t. are right in synch, with G.m.t. Over. 

00 51 49 CC That's very good. 

00 51 51.5 CC Okay, if you're ready, I'll give you the emergency voice check. We will turn off UHF and 

HF transmitters for this so that you will not have to change volume. 
00 51 59 P Roger, standing by. 

00 52 04.5 CC Aurora Seven. Muchea Cap Com. 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 5, 4, 3, 2, 1 command voice. How do you 
read? 

00 52 12 P Roger, Deke, Read you loud and clear, loud and clear emergency voice. 

00 52 16.5 CC Very good, Very good. Switching back to UHF. 
00 52 20 P Roger. 

00 52 25.5 CC Aurora Seven, Muchea Cap Com on UHF. How do you read? 

00 52 28 P Roger. Muchea Cap Com. Loud and clear. Tell Jerry and Gus and Lewis and — every- 

body else there, that I worked with "hello." John Whittler, if you see him, tell him to 
saddle Buteh up. Break, break. Is your cloud cover such that I can expect [to] see 
light — or flares at Woomera? Over. 

00 52 52.5 CC Roger. The cloud coverage here is 3,000 [nautical miles] overcast stratus, and we think 
you'll probably see them through the clouds. Woomera is clear. 

00 53 03.5 P Roger. 

00 53 18.5 CC Seven from Muchea. Would you send us one more blood pressure? 
00 53 21.5 P Roger. Starting now. 

00 53 28.5 CC We're going to send you a Z cal at this time. 

00 53 31 P Roger. And — go ahead and send it. I'll — you'll be interested to know that I have no moon, 

now. The horizon is clearly visible from my present position; that's at 00 54 44 elapsed. 
I believe the horizon on the dark side with no moon is very good for pitch and roll. The 
stars are adequate for yaw in, maybe 2 minutes of tracking. Over. 

00 54 01.5 CC Roger, Understand. Sounds very good. Z cal off; R cal coming on. Mark. 

00 54 12 CC Suggest that you back the fuel control back to your first black mark. 

00 54 18 P Roger. I'll try that. Going all the way off and back up a little bit lower than where I was. 

00 54 28.5 CC Roger. Your suit temperature is down a bit at this point. 
00 54 31.5 P Say again, Deke. 

00 54 33 CC Your suit temperature is down, which is good. 

00 54 36.5 P Well, that's a result of an increase in flow lately. I would think that — I'll try increasing 

rather than decreasing. 
00 54 55.5 P Hello, Woomera Cap Com, Aurora Seven. Do you read? 

00 55 00 CC Roger. This is Woomera. This is Woomera Cap Com. Reading you loud and clear. 
How me? 

CC This is Muchea Cap Com. They will not be contacting you for another 3 minutes. 
00 55 08 P Roger. Go ahead, Deke. Just trying to get the word on the flare. 

00 55 12 CC Roger. Understand. I'll give you the settings, correction, the attitudes for the first flare 

at this time. It would be plus 80 [degrees] yaw, minus 80 [degrees] in pitch. 
00 55 28.5 P Roger Understand, Deke. Plus 80 [degrees] yaw, minus 80 [degrees] pitch. 



82 



MUCHEA (FIRST PASS) — Continued 
00 55 37 CC Roger. Okay. The Cape now advises to keep the suit setting where it was since it's coming 
down. 

00 55 44.5 P Roger. I- — for your information, I have increased it just slightly. My readings now are 

7 [psia] and 7 [psia] on suit and cabin. What are my inverter temperatures and thruster 
line temperatures, Deke? Are they okay? 

00 56 04.5 CC Rog. We are losing you. We are losing you on air-ground. Would you care to contact 
Woomera at this time? 

00 56 11.5 P Roger. 

WOOMERA (FIRST PASS) 

00 56 14.5 CC Aurora Seven, Aurora Seven, this is Woomera. Read you loud and clear. How me? 

00 56 18.5 P Roger, Woomera. Reading you loud and clear, also. I'd like readout on ray inverter 

temperatures — and mark on your flare. Over. 

00 56 29 CC Roger. We're going to have the flare in approximately 2 minutes. We'll give you a read- 
out on your temperatures. 

00 56 37 P Roger. And for your information, Rate Command is also working in all axes. Over. 

00 56 47.5 CC Roger. Rate — rate Command in all axes. 

00 56 52 P That— that signifies that all control systems are operating satisfactorily. Over. 

00 57 00 CC Roger. Understand. All systems okay. We have your temperatures. Your 150 inverter, 

152 [degrees]. Your 250 inverter, 167 [degrees]. Do you copy? Over. 
00 57 13 P Roger. Copied, thank you. Standing by. 

00 57 16.5 CC We're going to have the flares. All four of them go at approximately 00 [plus] 58 plus 30. 

We do have an eight by eight coverage. 
00 57 24 P Roger. I am at— plus 80 [degrees] yaw, minus 80 [degrees] pitch now. 

00 57 35 CC Roger. We'll give you a time hack when we come up to flare test. 
00 57 41 P Roger. 

00 57 47 CC This is Woomera Cap Com, Seven. Surgeon reports all systems look good down here. 

And Systems reports everything okay on his panel. 
00 57 57 P Roger. Thank you. It looks good to me, also. 

00 58 00 CC Roger. You are loud and clear. Coming up on the flare test— in approximately 25 seconds. 

00 58 05.5 P Roger. 

00 58 09.5 CC Good air-to-ground. 

00 58 12 P Roger. Going to fly-by-wire. It doesn't cost so much. 

00 58 17.5 CC Roger. Fly-by-wire, Manual on. Is that affirmative? 
00 58 21,5 P Manual is— no, I'm, my control mode is pure fly-by-wire now. 

00 58 26 CC Roger. Flare test coming up. Stand by. Mark 00 [plus] 58 plus 30. All four flares away. 
00 58 52 CC Aurora Seven, Aurora Seven, this is Woomera. How do you read? Over. 
00 58 55 P Roger. Reading you loud and clear. Searching for your flares. Stand by. 

00 59 02 CC Roger. We still have approximately 60 seconds left. 
00 59 11 CC You're up to minus 50 [degrees] on roll. 

00 59 15 P Roger. Backing off. Thank you, thank you. Backing off. 

00 59 27.5 P I do not have your flares. I'm sorry, Woomera. 

00 59 31 CC Say again, Seven. 

00 59 33.5 P No joy on your flares. I do not have your flares visible. 

00 59 37.5 CC Have copied. Evidently the cloud coverage is too tight. 
00 59 43 P At this time I have extensive cloud coverage — wait. 

00 59 49.5 CC Did you try Aux Damp when you're in fly-by-wire to see if you are holding attitudes? 

00 59 54 P Negative. I have verified that Aux Damp is operating satisfactorily. Over. 

01 00 00 CC Roger. Understand. 

01 00 02 P I have some lights on the ground underneath me. Stand by, I'll try to identify them. 

01 00 12 CC Roger. Wilco. 

01 00 42 CC Aurora Seven, Aurora Seven, this is Woomera Cap Com. Do you read? Over. 

01 00 46 P Loud and clear, Woomera. Go ahead. 

01 00 49 CC Roger. Could you give us a short report at this time? 

01 00 52.5 P Roger. My control mode is fly-by-wire, gyros are free, and the maneuver switch is off. 

Fuel reads 75-85 [percent], oxygen 88 and 100 [percent]. Wait till I pick a washer out 

of the air. And everything is very good. Over. 
01 01 23 CC Roger. Y'ou're intermittent. What is your suit temperature? Over. 
01 01 29 P Roger. Suit temperature is now 70 [degrees]. Suit temperature is 70 [degrees]. Steam 

exhaust is 70 [degrees]. The cabin exhaust is 80 [degrees]. 
01 01 43 CC Roger. Do you confirm— do you have your — back down to the black scribe mark? 



83 



WOOMERA (FIRST PASS) — Continued 
01 01 51 P That is negative. I have then both set on seven at this time and— 

resulted in a decrease — in suit temperature. I think I'd like to try — try them at this 

settiug a little while longer. Over. 
0102 11 CC Roger. Understand. I believe at this time you're supposed to have vour midnight snack. 
01 02 18 P Roger. I'll get to that shortly. 

01 02 21.5 CC Roger. You're starting to drift or fade slightly. 
01 02 26.5 P Roger. 

01 02 31.5 CC Are you prepared to go into drifting flight before too long? 
01 02 34.5 P Roger. I can do that at this time. At night yawed— 

01 02 40 CC ... is that affirmative? 

01 02 41.5 P I am going to drifting flight at this time. Over. 

01 02 46.5 CC Roger. 

01 02 53.5 P Gyros are caged. I have about a 2-degree-per-second yaw rate. All gyros are zero. I 

have Corvus directly above me I'm yawing over the top. I feel that my attitude is — 
the line of sight is nearly — nearly vertical. 

01 03 55 P I am in VOX record only now. The time is 01 04 00 elapsed. I'm searching the star 

01 04 19 P The finish on the star chart is so shiny that — it's impossible to read because of reflection. 

01 04 44.5 P I've got to turn white lights on, that's all. 

01 05 03 P At 01 05 00. 

01 05 14.5 P Attitudes are of no concern to me whatsoever. I know I'm drifting freely. The moon 

crossed the window not too long ago. 

01 05 51.5 P Let's see, now what can— I am at this moment rocking my arms back and forth and I can 

make this show up in the roll, yaw, and pitch needle. By moving my torso, I can make 
the pitch rate needle move up to 1 degree per second. Roll is, needle, rate needle is very 
sensitive to this. Yaw is also. Let's see, am going to open the visor at this time. Have 
a few crumbs of food floating around in the capsule. 

01 06 58.5 P At 01 06 106 — at 1 minute, 1 hour and 7 minutes elapsed, I'm going above the scale to 

approximately 8 on cabin and suit. 

CANTON (FIRST PASS) 

01 07 16 P Hello, hello, Canton Com Tech, Canton Com Tech, Aurora Seven. Weak but readable. 

Go ahead. 

01 07 40.5 CT Aurora Seven, Aurora Seven. This is Canton Com Tech, Canton Com Tech. Do you 
read!' Over. 

01 07 46.5 P Hello, Canton Com Tech, Aurora Seven. Loud and clear. How me? 

01 08 23.5 P The food— hello, Canton Com Tech, Aurora Seven. How do you read? 

01 08 33 P Hello, Canton Com Tech, Aurora Seven. How do you read? 

01 08 41 P This food has crumbled badly. 

01 08 50.5 P First meal at 01 08 52. 

01 09 21 P Hello, Canton Com Tech, Canton Com Tech, Aurora Seven on HF. How do you read? 

01 09 39.5 CT Seven, this is Canton Com Tech. Do you read? 

01 09 45 P Canton Com Tech, Aurora Seven. Loud and clear. How do you read Aurora Seven on 

HF? Over. 

01 10 07 CT Aurora Seven, Aurora Seven. This is Canton Com Tech. Do you read? Over. 

01 10 13 P Roger, Canton Com Tech. Loud and clear. How me? 

01 10 33.5 CT Aurora Seven, Aurora Seven. This is Canton Com Tech. Do you read? 

01 10 57 P Hello, Canton Com Tech, Canton Com Tech, Aurora Seven. Loud and clear. How me? 

01 1104 CC This is Canton. Loud and clear, Aurora Seven. Can you begin with the short report? 

01 11 10 P Roger. I've been reading you for some time. I've tried to contact you on HF with no 

success. My status is good; the capsule status is good; control mode is fly-by-wire; 

gyros caged; maneuver is off. The fuel reads 74-85 [percent]. Oxygen is 87-100 [percent]. 

The cabin temperature is a bit high at 104 [degrees]. The suit — steam vent temperature 

is 70 [degrees], and cabin is 80 [degrees], but I believe they're coming down. Over. 
01 1149 CC Roger. Did you wish to check your attitude readings with our telemetry? Over. 
01 11 56.5 P Roger. My — my gyros are caged at this time. Stand by one. 

01 12 05 CC Standing by. 

01 12 17 P I am beginning to pick up what I believe is a — yeah, it's very definitely a cloud pattern 

equally low. 



84 



CANTON (FIRST PASS) — Continued 

01 12 31.5 CC Roger. 

01 12 42 P I am— let's see, Canton, do you have the exact sunrise time for the first orbit? Over. 

01 12 55 CC Say again, Aurora Seven. 

01 12 57 P Sunrise time for first orbit. Over. 

01 13 03 CC I have a sunrise time of 1 plus 21 plus 00. 

01 13 10 P 1 plus 21 00. Roger. Thank you. 

01 13 13.5 CC Did you — could you comment on whether you are comfortable or not— would you . . . 

a 102 [degrees] on body temperature. 
0i 13 21 P No, I don't believe that's correct. My visor was open; it is now closed, I can't imagine 

I'm that hot. I'm quite comfortable, but sweating some. 
01 13 38 CC Roger. Can you confirm then that the faceplate is closed, and will be closed for the pass 

over Guaymas. 

01 1344 p That is correct, George. I'll leave the faceplate closed. I have had one piece of the inflight 

food. It's crumbling badly and I hate to get it all over, and I have had about four swallows 
of water at that time. 

01 14 04.5 CC Roger, four swallows of water. 

01 14 11 CC You wish to start your comment now on the haze layer— there was the . . . pitch, and at 
the same time confirm that the flight plan is on schedule. 

01 14 16,5 P Roger. I cannot confirm that the flight plan is completely on schedule. At sunset I was 

unable to see a separate haze layer—the same — height above the horizon that John 
reported. I'll watch closely at sunrise and see if I can pick it up. Over. 

01 14 48 CC Roger. 

01 14 53.5 CC All readings appear to be normal down here. The capsule looks good from down here. 
01 15 01.5 P Roger, the— 

01 15 02.5 CC ... queries, you can continue on with your observations. Over. 
01 15 05.5 P Roger. Thanks, George, see you next time around. 

01 15 10 CC Okay, Scott. Good luck. 

HAWAII (FIRST PASS) 
01 15 30.5 CT Aurora Seven, Hawaii Com Tech. How do you read me? Over. 

01 15 40 P I am in VOX record now. I heard Hawaii calling, ha ha, Hawaii calling. I will go to 

transmit directly, and see if we can pick up Hawaii. 
01 15 54 P Hello, Hawaii Com Tech, Aurora Seven on HF. Loud and clear. How me? 

01 16 17.5 P Hello, Hawaii Com Tech, Hawaii Com Tech, Aurora Seven. Loud and clear. How do 

you read HF? Over. 
01 16 32.5 P Going now to record only while I switch back to UHF. 

01 17 30.5 P Hello, Hawaii, hello, Hawaii Com Tech, Aurora Seven. Weak but readable. Go ahead. 

01 18 00 CT Aurora Seven, Aurora Seven, ... on HF, UHF. How do you read? Over. 
01 18 05 P Roger. Hawaii Com Tech. Aurora Seven reading you loud and clear. How me? 

01 18 30 CT Aurora Seven. Hawaii Com Tech. How do you read? 

01 18 51.5 P All right. My — I am at 01 19 02. Have been several times completely disoriented. 1 

There, I have Cassiopeia directly in the window and am yawing around for the sunrise- 
photographs. The sky is quite light in the east. 

01 19 51 P Excess cabin-water light came on at that time. I'll have to go back all the way down and 

off. Suit is— still high. The cabin-water gage is reading— plus 9, which is hard to believe. 

01 20 15 P My temperature, my body temperature doesn't feel . . . feel bad at all. My suit— yes, 

my suit temperature is down now, also. 

01 20 32.5 P But the steam vent temperature is — still about — 70 [degrees]. 

01 22 03 P I have the fireflies. Hello, Guaymas. 

01 22 18 P I have the particles. I was facing away from the sun at sunrise— and I did not see the 

particles— just— just yawing about— 180 degrees, I was able to pick up— at this.— Stand 
by, I think I see more. 

01 23 00 P Yes, there was one, random motions— some even appeared to be going ahead. There s 

one outside. Almost like a light snowflake particle caught in an eddy. They are not 
glowing with their own light at this time. 

01 23 32 P It could be frost from a thruster. 

01 24 01.5 P Going to transmit to— record only, at this time. 

01 24 11 P The weightless condition is a blessing, nothing more, nothing less. 

01 25 43 P I am now photographing large cloud banks over the Pacific on a southerly direction. 

01 26 08.5 P I'm drifting slowly to retroattitude at this time. 

1 Astronaut Carpenter stated that the disorientation was with respect to the earth, 
and this occurred only when no visual reference was available. However, he remained 
oriented with respect to the spacecraft. See footnote 4. 



GUAYMAS (FIRST PASS) 

01 27 22 P Hello, Guaymas Com Tech. Aurora Seven. Loud and clear. How me? 

01 27 29.5 CC Roger. Aurora Seven, this is Guaymas Cap Com. How me? Over. 

01 27 33.5 P Roger, Guaymas, loud and clear. My control mode is now fly-by-wire; gyros are caged, 

I'm in — maneuver is off. I'll go to automatic mode directly. My status good; the cap- 
sule status is good. The fuel is 69-69 [percent], oxygen is 88-100 [percent]. The cabin 
steam vent has gone to plus 10, I believe that's a bad gage reading, and suit temperature 
steam vent is coming down slowly, now reading 68 [degrees]. Over. 

01 28 16 CC Roger. Understand 68 [degrees]. How is your temperature comfort? Over. 

01 28 19 P Roger. My body comfort is good. I am tracking now a very small particle, one isolated 

particle, about — there is another, very small, could be a light snowflake. 

01 28 40 CC Roger. We're reading— we're having a— a bad body temperature reading on you, 102.4 
[degrees], probably erroneous. 

01 28 48.5 P I can't believe it. My suit temperature shows 60 [degrees) and I feel quite comfortable. 

I'm sure I would be sweating more than this if my temperature were 102 [degrees]. 

01 28 59.5 CC Your suit-inlet temperature, near 61 [degrees], so it looks pretty good. 

01 29 04 P Roger. 

01 29 06.5 CC Roger. It looks like we have a go for the second orbit as everything appears all right for you. 
01 29 13 P Roger. I was hoping you'd say that, Gordo. 

01 29 16 CC You start to conserve your fuel a bit and maybe, perhaps, use a little more of your manual 
fuel. 

01 29 22 P Roger. Can do. 

01 29 24.5 CC Roger, are you ready for Z and R cal? 

01 29 27 P Roger, send them. 

01 29 28.5 CC Z cal coming on now. 

01 29 31 P And, mark, coastal passage. 

01 29 35 CC Say again. 

01 29 36 P Mark, coastal passage coming over the — Baja. 

01 29 41 CC Good. 

01 29 43 CC How does it look? 

01 29 46 P Half covered with clouds, and — and the other half is dry. Will you pass on — this message 

for me, Gordo, to all the troops at Guaymas? 
01 30 05 P Hola, amigos, felicitaciones a Mexico y especialmente a mi amigos de Guaymas. Desde 

el espacio exterior, su pais esta cubierto con numbes — and — es — also — se muy bello. 

Aqui el tiempo esta muy bueno. Buena suerte desde Auror Siete. 2 
01 30 33.5 CC Roger, muchas gracias, amigo. 
01 30 35.5 P Ha ha, okay. 

01 30. 37.5 CC Give us a blood pressure. 
01 30 39 P Here you go. 

01 30 50 CC Roger, do you— I'd like to pass your 2 Alpha time on to you, Scotty 
01 30 54.5 P Roger. 

01 30 56 CC Roger, 2 Alpha time is 01 36 13, with a G.M.T. of 14 21 30. That takes into account your 

01 31 08.5 P That's 02 36 13? 

01 31 12.5 CC Roger, 01 36 13. 

01 31 15.5 P Roger, 01 36 13 for 2 Alpha. 

01 31 19.5 CC For Golf, 03 00 31. 

01 31 25 P Roger, 03 00 31 for Golf. 

01 31 28. CC There's a G.m.t. on that of 15 45 48. 

01 31 33.55 P Roger. Standing by for the . . . my mark on the radar test over White Sands. 
CC 

01 31 46 P Roger. 

01 31 52.5 CC Roger. Command roll now. 

01 31 55 P Roll now. 

01 32 02 P No, I'll have to get in a better attitude for you first, Gus. It'll mean nothing this way, I 

mean Coop. 

01 32 10 CC Roger. 

01 32 58.5 CC You still reading us, Scotty? 

01 32 59.5 P Roger. Loud and clear. 

2 Translation: Hello, friends, greetings to Mexico and especially to my friends of Guaymas. 
From outer space, your country is covered with clouds and is very beautiful. Here 
the weather is very good. Good luck from Aurora Seven. 



86 



GUAYMAS (FIRST PASS) — Continued 
Hearing you also. Have you done your roll for the radar yet? 

That's negative. I'm afraid I'm not going to make it, Gordo, unless I get the attitudes- 
down close. 



01 


33 21.5 




Roger. Vhs re r ^ dm § your^attitudes all right at zero now. 


01 33 26.5 




oger. e gjros ar 








CAPE CANAVERAL (SECOND PASS) 


01 


33 41 


CC 


Aurora Seven, this is Cape Cap Com on emergency voice. 


01 


33 44 


P 


Roger, Cape. Loud and clear. How me? 


01 


33 48 


CC 


Loud and clear. I'm going back to HF/UHF. 


01 


33 52.5 


P 




01 


33 55 


CC 


Are you ready for your 2 Bravo time? 


01 


33 58 


p 


Roger. Send 2 Bravo. 


01 


34 00.5 


CC 


01 49 30. 


01 


34 07 


p 


Roger. 01 40 30. 


01 


34 12.5 


CC 


Roger. And 2 Charlie time is nominal. 


01 


34 15.5 


p 


Okay. Stand by one. 


01 


34 37.5 


p 


Okay, Gus, my status is good; my control mode is fly-by-wire; the gyros 



e still caged; 

Fuel is 62 and 68 [percent]. A little ahead on fuel consumption; fuel 

quantity light is on; the excess cabin-water light is on. I'll try and get auto mode here 
directly. 

01 35 04.5 CC Roger. Can you give us a blood pressure? 
01 35 07 P Roger. Blood pressure coming now. 

01 35 13.5 CC And after the IOS voice has dropped, will use Zanzibar in that area. 
01 35 20 P Roger. I heard IOS calling, but I couldn't raise him. 

01 35 24 CC Roger. 

01 35 30 CC Aurora Seven, use a normal balloon release. 
01 35 34 P Roger. 

01 35 41 P And are you going to give me a mark for that? 

01 35 47.5 CC Roger. One at an elapsed time of 01 37. 
01 35 51 P 01 37. Roger. 

01 36 00 CC Roger. In 2 minutes, Echo will be almost directly overhead. 
01 36 05 P Roger. 

01 36 08 C Could you give us a cabin steam and suit temperature, please? 

0136 11 P Roger. Suit steam is 69 [degrees] and cabin is plus 1 1 . That dropped down very suddenly 

when the excess cabin-water light came on. I think I'm going to— increase . . . I'll try 
to increase suit-water flow one more time. If that doesn't work I'll drop — down— to 
closed and start over again. 

01 36 46 CC Aurora Seven, cut back your cabin water. 

01 36 49 P Okay. Cabin water going back. I'll start now at two. This is 20 degrees below launch 

value. 

01 36 58 CC Roger. I'm going to give you a Z cal. 
01 37 00.5 P Roger. 

01 37 07 CC Okay. I'm going to give you an R cal. 
01 37 10 P Be my guest. 

01 37 35 CC Aurora Seven, Cap Com. Do you read? 
01 37 37 P Roger. Loud and clear. 

01 37 38.5 CC Roger. Everything looks good down here, except for your fuel usage; you better watch 

that a little bit. 
01 37 44 P Roger. 

01 37 50 CC Aurora Seven, have you deployed the balloon? 
01 37 52 P That is negative. Stand by. 

01 38 03 P Balloon deploy, now. The balloon is out and off. I, I see it way out, but it^I think now 

it is way out, and drifting steadily away. I don't see the line. I don't see that any 
attempt was made to inflate the thing. It's just drifting off. 

01 38 38 P I have only the rectangular shape tumbling at this point about 200 yards back, barely 

visible; and now wait, here is a line. That was the cover, the balloon is out. 

01 39 01 CC Understand. The balloon is out. 

01 39 02.5 P That is Roger. 

01 39 09 P There is very little acceleration here. 

01 39 17 CC Aurora Seven, did the balloon inflate? 



87 



CAPE CANAVERAL (SECOND PASS) — Continued 





















ril a - v °° n 1& ^"b tt 5 ' m d ate V t] Sn ° 18 ' Ve ost 11 at 1 1S moment - Wait one, 
giv e v ou a e er rea ing s or j . 


01 


39 


50 






01 


39 


54 r > 


CC 


Thhls'an'o 03 "!! V ^"b'^f 9 


01 


39 


56 5 


p 


Yes" ^ an ° SC1 a m 1 6 a 


01 


40 




p 


1 he line is still not taut. 1 have some pictures of the line just waving out in back. I would 










How n-^nv^vc^^^r^niite^' 6 Per " minUte oscmation ' 14 s botn in P itc h and jaw. 


01 


40 


38 r > 


CC 




01 


40 


40 


p 


OnTcvde^per minute "r'mavbe 1 cvcle in a minute and a half 


01 


41 


01 


p 


The moon is just above the horizon at this time. 


01 


41 


J I 


p 


I have a picture of the balloon. 


01 


41 


25 


CC 


Aurora Seven, Cap Com. Repeat your last message. 


01 


41 


28.5 




Roger. I've got a washer to put away. 


01 


41 


33 


CC 


Roger. 










BERMUDA (SECOND PASS) 










Aurora oeven, Aurora Seven, this is Bermuda Flight. How do you read? Over. 


01 


41 


45 " 




Roger. Bermuda Flight, reading you loud and clear. 


01 


41 


49 






01 


41 


51 5 


p 


Ro'er 1 ^Phas^shiftTr ^ ^ 


01 


41 


54' 


p 


M rk' ' Br 


01 


41 


56 


p 


Phase' -hifter is off 


01 


42 


18 


p 


Phase shifter is on now. 










Aurora Seven, Cap Com. W hat control mode? 








(Cape) 




01 


42 


26 5 




Flv-bv wire 


01 


42 


28 


CC 


Thank vou 








(Cape) 




01 


43 


01 




Bermuda Fli ht How do vou read 9 


01 


43 


02 5 


p 


Hello Bermuda Fli ht Re idin 1 d d 1 H ' 


01 


43 


07 


F 


w e .,°'. . ermu a ' ea m S y° u °^ c ^ ar - ow me. 
1 vou run a 00 pressure, p ease, ead you loud and clear. 


01 


43 


10 




1 1 00 P re ?™ re s ar mg nol f ; 


01 










01 


43 


34 


P 


Roger 6 ° S ° ' 6 °° n at m mute. 


01 


43 


56 


P 


Also, Bermuda, the balloon not only oscillates in cones in pitch and yaw, it also seems to 










oscillate in and out toward the capsule; and sometimes the line will be taut, other times 












01 


44 


20.5 


P 


It's now about 50 degrees off of the flight path. 


01 


44 


32 


P 


Pictures of whirls taken, just east of Bermuda, now the balloon line is tight. 


01 


45 


27.5 


P 


At 01 45 30, I have turned the cabin, or the suit-water valve all the way off and back up 


01 


47 


18 


P 


I'm taping now the fuel quantity warning lights in preparation for the dark side, I think 










also excess cabin water I'll tape. It's not a satisfactory lighting arrangement to ... . 










CANARY (SECOND PASS) 


01 


47 


48 


P 


Hello, Canary Cap Com. Aurora Seven. Loud and clear. How me? 


01 


48 


10.5 


CC 


Hdlo^C^nar 1 ' Ca^or^^uroraVev^n^lT '"d** 'd 0 "! H °H ^° 0ver - 








P 




01 


48 


21 


CC 


Ro er You're eomin into UH France Proce^ C 'thth ^ O- 


01 


48 


27 




Roger Canary 6 ^Iv'status i« good -The^capsule statuses good^my^o^tro^mode^automat'c 










gyros normal; maneuver off. Fuel 51—68 [percent], oxvgen 85—100 [percent]' mv cabin 










steam vent temperature now is picking up and reading about 19, suit steam vent tempera- 










ture still reading 70 [degrees], I have backed it off to zero and reset it at one. Over. 


01 


49 


09 


CC 


. . . cabin exhaust temperature. Over. 


01 


49 


11.5 


p 


Cabin exhaust temperature is climbing back up to 19. Over, 


01 


49 


18 


CC 


Roger. Have you been doing any drifting flight? Over. 


01 


49 


23 


p 


That is Roger. I did quite a bit of drifting flight on the dark side over Woomera and Canton, 
Over. 


01 


49 


34 


CC 


Roger. Did you observe any haze layers? Over. 



CANARY (SECOND PASS) — Continued 

01 49 40.S P Roger, I did observe haze layers but not the ones that were separated from the horizon that 

we expected, and that John reported. I'll keep a sharp lookout next time and try to see 
them after sunset. On the light side there is nothing more than the bright, iridescent blue 
layer, which separates the actual horizon from the deep black of space. Over. 

0] 50 15.5 CC Aurora Seven, you are fading rapidly. You are fading. MCC [Mercury Control Center] is 

worried about your auto fuel and manual fuel consumption. They recommend that you 
try to conserve your fuel. 

01 50 28.5 P Roger. Tell them I am concerned also. I will try and conserve fuel. 

01 50 41.5 CC Aurora Seven, Aurora Seven, I cannot read you. Do you read Canary Cap Com? Over. 
01 50 48.5 P Roger. Canary, copied your message. Over. 

01 50 52 CC Roger. Understand copied message regarding fuel and consumption. 
01 50 56.5 P That is Roger. 

015101.5 CC Surgeon here has requested a blood-pressure transmission. 
01 51 05.5 P Blood pressure is coming your way now. 

01 51 20 CC We are receiving same at Canaries and it looks good. 
01 51 24 P Roger. 

01 51 41.5 CC Canary Systems indicates all telemetry readings look good. 
01 51 46.5 P Roger. That's good to hear. 

01 51 56.5 CC Aurora Seven, do you have anything to report on your balloon test? Over. 

01 52 02.5 P Roger. The balloon is oscillating through an arc of about 100 degrees. It gets out of 

view frequently. At this moment, it's nearly vertical. Mark a coastal passage at this 
time — it seems to — what I'm trying to tell you is that it oscillates 180 degrees, above and 
below. Over. 

01 52 40 P It also oscillates in and out. Sometimes the line is tight and other times it is not. 

01 53 52 P When I look over to the right side, I have the sensation that — 



1 05.5 P Hello. 



KANO (SECOND PASS) 



01 54 15 CC This is Kano. How do you read? Over. 

01 54 17 P Hello, Kano. Aurora Seven. Loud and clear. How me? 

01 54 32.5 CC Aurora Seven, Aurora Seven, this is Kano. How do you read? Over. 

01 54 37 P Hello Kano. Loud and clear. How me? 

01 54 52 CC Aurora Seven, Aurora Seven, this is Kano. How do you read? Over. 
01 54 59 P Kano, this is Aurora Seven. Reading you loud and clear. How me? 

01 55 04 CC Aurora Seven, Kano Cap Com. What is your status? Over. 

01 55 08.5 P Roger. My status is good; fuel reads 51 [percent] and — and 69 [percent]; oxygen is 84 

[percent] and 100 [percent]; cabin pressure is holding good. All d-c and a-c power is 
good. The only thing of— to report regarding the flight plan is that fuel levels are lower 
than expected. My control mode now is ASCS. I expended my extra fuel in trying to 
orient after the night side. I think this is due to conflicting requirements of the flight 
plan. I should have taken time to orient and then work with other items. I think that 
by remaining in automatic, I can keep — stop this excessive fuel consumption. And the 
balloon is sometimes visible and sometimes not visible. I haven't any idea where it is 
now, and there doesn't seem to — and it seems to wander with abandon back and forth, 
and that's all, Kano. 

01 56 44 CC Roger, Aurora Seven. Will you give us a blood-pressure check again—. Over. 
01 56 49 P Roger. Blood pressure is on the air. 

01 57 01 CC Aurora Seven, how are you feeling? Your body temperature is up somewhat. How do 
you feel? Over. 

01 57 07.5 P Roger. I feel fine. Last time around I — someone told me it was 102 [degrees]. I don't 

feel, you know, like I'm that hot. Cabin temperature is 101 [degrees]. I'm reading 101 
[degrees], and the suit temperature indicates 74 [degrees]. 

01 57 38. 5 CC Are you perspiring any? 

01 57 41.5 P Slightly, on my forehead. 

01 57 50 P Since turning down the suit water valve, the suit steam vent temperature has climbed 

slightly — am increasing from one to two at this time. This should bring it down. The 
cabin steam vent temperature has built back up to 40 [degrees]. 

01 58 27.5 CC Roger, Aurora Seven, everything looks okay now. We seem to have lost the body tempera- 
ture readings from previous stations. We are reading 102 [degrees] right now, but as long 
as you feel okay right now. 

01 58 42 P Roger, I feel fine. 



89 



KANO (SECOND PASS) — Continued 
01 58 46 CC Can you see anything of the Gulf of Guinea? 

01 58 49.5 P Roger. I just— just passed the coastline, and I am over a solid cloud cover at this time 

01 59 05 CC Roger, Aurora Seven. Would you care to send a greeting to the people of Nigeria? 
01 59 09 P Roger, please send my greetings and best wishes of me and my countrymen to all Africans 

Over. 

01 59 21 CC Roger. Thank you very much. I'm sure it will be appreciated. Over. 
01 59 24.5 P Roger. 

01 59 54.5 CC Aurora Seven, Kano. Are we still in contact? Over. 
01 59 57.5 P Say again, Kano. 

01 59 59 CC Roger. Would you repeat in a few words why you thought the fuel usage was great? Over. 

02 00 06 P I expended it on— by manual and fly-by-wire thruster operation on the dark side, and just 

approaching sunrise. I think that I can cut down the fuel consumption considerably on 

the second and third orbits. Over. 
02 00 32 CC Roger. Understand. Over. 
02 00 43.5 CC Have you started your night adaptation? Over. 
02 00 46 P Roger 

02 01 08 CC Aurora Seven, Kano. Just for your own information, the 250 inverter is on 180 degrees 

right now. Over. 
02 01 18 P Say again, please. 

02 01 21 CC .... Over. 

02 02 43.5 P At this time, oh-oh, this doggone food bag is a problem. 

02 03 00 P Actually, the food bag is not a problem, the food inside it is. It's crumbled. I dare not 

open the bag for fear the crumbs will get all through the capsule. 
02 03 43 P Things are very quiet. 

ZANZIBAR (SECOND PASS) 
02 04 03.5 P Roger. Zanzibar. Loud and clear. How do you read Aurora Seven? 

02 04 17 CT Aurora Seven, Aurora Seven, this is Zanzibar Com Tech, transmitting on HF/UHF. Do 

you copy? Over. 
02 04 26 P Roger. Loud and clear. How me, Zanzibar? 

02 04 31 CT Aurora Seven, Aurora Seven, this is Zanzibar Cap Com. Read y.ou weak, but readable. 
Do you have a short report for us? 

02 04 38.5 P Roger, My status is good; the capsule status is good; my control mode is automatic; 

gyros are normal; maneuver is off. Control fuel is 51 [percent] and 69 [percent]; oxygen 
is 82 [percent] and 100 [percent]. That's about all except I have, so far, been unable to 
get my suit steam vent temperature down much below 70 [degrees]. Steam vent, or the 
water control valve, setting at this time is 4 at the prelaunch mark. It may be too high. 
Turning it off at this time and going to three, which is where the cabin is set. Over. 

02 05 40 CC Aurora Seven, Zanzibar Cap Com. ^toger, Roger. Do you have the latest — contingency 

02 05 49 P Roger. I have them. 

02 05 51 CC Very good. Are you going to start your balloon test? 

02 05 55 P The balloon is out. I don't see any reason for not leaving it on through the dark side, 

and I just saw a particle going by at about 2 or 3 feet per second. 

02 06 13 CC Roger, understand. According to flight plan, you're supposed to go to FBW about now, 
and he says you're on auto mode and I wondered if you plan to go through with this. Over. 

02 06 25.5 P That is negative. I think that the fact that I'm low on fuel dictates that I stay on auto as 

long as the fuel consumption on automatic is not excessive. Over. 

02 06 39.5 CC Roger, Aurora Seven. Congratulations on your trip so far and I'm glad everything has 

02 06 44.5 P Thank you very much. 

02 06 50.5 P I now have the wide, blue horizon band. It looks to be, at this time Capsule elapsed 

02 0700, to be about the diameter underneath the sun. It seems to be the same thickness 
underneath the sun as the sun's diameter. North and south it becomes less distinct and 
lighter. It extends up farther from the horizon. 

02 07 29.5 CC Roger, Aurora Seven. That's a hard one to pronounce, anything that we can do for you .... 

02 07 38 P Negative. I think everything is going quite well. 

02 07 41.5 CC Roger, We'll be waiting. Out. 

02 07 43.5 P Roger. See you next time. 



90 



INDIAN OCEAN SHIP (SECOND PASS) 



02 


07 


48 


cc 


Aurora Seven, this is Indian Ocean Ship. Over. 


02 


07 


50.5 


p 


Roger, Indian Cap Com. Loud and clear. How me? 


02 


07 


54.5 


cc 


Roger. Loud and clear. We have had transmitter trouble on your previous run. We 
just got a message from the Cape . . ., to conserve fuel. I monitored part of your trans- 
mission to Zanzibar and understand . . . the situation. 


02 


08 


12.5 


p 


That is Roger. 


02 


08 


14.5 


cc 


Do you have retrosequence times for 2 Delta, 2 Echo and Golf? 


02 


08 


19 


p 


That is negative. I have the nominals. 


02 


08 


23.5 


cc 


Roger. 2 Delta and 2 Echo are still nominal. Area Golf is 03 00 29, 03 00 29. 


02 


08 


35 


p 


Roger. 03 00 29. 


02 


08 


39 


cc 


Roger, Aurora Seven, I read you loud and clear. Do you have any comments for the 
. . . Ocean? 


02 


08 


46.5 




That is Roger. I believe we may have some automatic mode difficulty. Let me check 
fly-by-wire a minute. 


02 


09 


07 


p 


All thrusters are okay. 


02 09 


11 


cc 


Roger. 


02 


09 


17.5 




However, the gyros do not seem to be indicating properly. 


02 


09 


25.5 


cc 


Roger. 


02 


09 


27 




And that is not correct either. The gyros are . . . are okay; but on ASCS standby. It 
mav be an orientation problem. I'll orient visually and . . . see if that will help out the 
ASCS problem. 


02 


10 


11.5 


cc 


Aurora Seven from Indian Cap Com. Your blood pressure on your . . . fairly high and 
you are supposed to, if possible, give a blood pressure over Indian Ocean Ship. 


02 


10 


23.5 


p 


Roger. I've put blood pressure up on the air already. Over. 


02 


10 


29.5 


cc 


Say again, Aurora. 


02 


10 


31 


p 


Blood pressure is on the air now. 


02 


10 


35 


cc 




02 


10 


40 


s 


Blood pressure is coming through fine. 


02 


10 


42.5 


cc 


Your blood pressure is coming through fine. 


02 


10 


44.5 


p 




02 


10 


58 


cc 


Aurora Seven, this is Indian Cap Com. We have lost telemetry contact. How do you 


02 




04.5 


p 


Roger. Still reading you okay. 


02 




07.5 


cc 


. . . report to Cape you have checked fly-by-wire and all thrusters are okay. Is there 
anything else? 


02 


11 


13 


p 


That is negative. Except this problem with steam vent temperature. I'm going I'll 
open the visor a minute; that'll cool — it seems cooler with the visor open. 


02 


11 


26 


cc 


Roger, Did you take xylose? 


02 


11 


28.5 


p 


That is negative. I will do so now. 


02 


11 


35 


cc 


Roger. 


02 


11 


45 


cc 


Aurora Seven, confirm you've checked fly-by-wire and all thrusters okay. 


02 




51.5 


p 


Roger. Fly-bj'-wire is checked; all thrusters are okay. 


02 




56 


cc 


Roger. 


02 


12 


28 


cc 


Aurora Seven, Indian Ocean Cap Com. I do not read your transmission. 


02 


12 


32 


p 


Roger. Indian Cap Com, Aurora Seven. 


02 


12 


35.5 


cc 


Out. 


02 


15 


11.5 


p 


Well, I have — I am in record only, and I am getting warm now. 


02 


15 


34 


p 


Don't know what to with the cabin. 


02 


15 


45 


p 


I'll turn it up and see what happens. 


02 


16 04.5 


p 


I have gotten badly behind in the flight plan now. 


02 


17 


06 


p 


Okay, evaluating capsule stability at this time. The capsule is most stable. 


02 


17 


24 


p 


I seem able to put it at zero rates. All right, I will do that now. At capsule elapsed 
02 17 32, I will zero out all rates. 


02 


17 


45 


p 


That's as close to zero as I can make it. At 02 17 49, my rates are zero and attitudes 
are zero plus, or at zero, minus 3, minus 48. Let those rest awhile, and I'll see what we 
can do about suit temperature. 


02 


18 


14 


p 


Cabin is rising. Suit temperature seems to be rising too. I'm going to let it go out until 


02 


18 


49 


p 


I don't need to exercise. I really don't feel I need the exercise. I would get too warm. 


02 


19 


02 


p 


We'll be getting to Muchea shortly. 


02 


19 


08.5 


p 


Have a slight pitch up rate at this time, at 02 19 13. I'll zero that out, now. Fly-by-wire— 
have a slight yaw left rate — I'll zero out now. Attitudes at this time are minus 30. 



664533 O— 62 7 



INDIAN OCEAN SHIP (SECOND PASS) — Continued 



02 


19 


57.5 


P 


Both busses are okay. All — let's see — number two battery is down to 22. One, is 24; three, 
is 24; standby one and two, are 24; isolated, is 27; main, is 23; main IBU, is 27. Two — 
two is now up. Main battery number two is up. 


02 


20 


34,5 


P 


I am over the dark side now. The moonrise has not occurred and although I still see the 
lighted area from the setting sun behind us. 


02 


22 


16.5 


P 


Now, E do have the haze layer at this time. It seems to be brighter than — it's good to open 
the cabin, open the visor. 


02 


23 


07 


P 


The reticle now extincts at about 5.6. 

MUCHEA (SECOND PASS) 












02 


23 


26 


CC 


Read you loud and clear also. What's your status? 


02 


23 


28 


P 


Roger. My status is good; control mode is fly-by-wire; gyros normal; maneuver off. Fuel 
is 45-6-70 [percent], that's 45-70 [percent], and oxygen is 84-100 [percent]. I have 
only one minor problem, and that is my inability to get the suit steam vent temperature 
down, Deke. 


02 


23 


56.5 


CC 


Roger What's it running now? 


02 


23 


58.5 


P 


Well, I'm reading 70 [degrees]. I'm really a little at a loss as to how to get it down, my 
suit — water valve is set now past the marks. This doesn't seem to being it down, and 
neither does putting it . . . negative. That's wrong. The cabin was past the marks. 
The suit temperature is at prelaunch value of about four. I'm going to go to a setting 
of plus 6 at this time and see if that will bring it down below 70 [degrees]. Over. 


02 


24 


40.5 


CC 


Okay. Fine. We're indicating 84 [degrees] suit which is a bit high. 


02 


24 


44.5 


P 


Roger My gage shows 7, 76 [degrees] on the suit. 


02 


24 


50 


CC 


Rog. 








CC 


is^OS ... 29; Hotel 04 32*26. ^ 


02 


25 


10 


P 


Roger Understand 26, 


02 


25 


13.5 


CC 


We're including your clock is still one second slow. 


02 


25 




p 




02 


25 


20 


CC 


G.m.t. hack of 15 10 42 — mark. '(02 25 25 c.e.t.) 


02 


25 


26 


p 


Roger I'm right on and so is the backup. 


02 


25 


29.5 


CC 


Roger. Would you send us a blood pressure, please? 


02 


25 


33.5 


p 


Starting. Roger. Starting now. 


02 


25 


53.5 


CC 


What mode of communications are you using at this time? 


02 


25 


58.5 


p 


I am cm UHF high, Deke. 


02 


26 


01 


CC 


Fine. Roger. Would you try using your mike button once instead of your VOX. See 
how this comes in. 


02 


26 


05.5 


p 


Roger. Soon as I get through the blood pressure. I can do it now. 


02 


26 


11.5 


p 


This is using the push to talk. 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 4, 3, 2, 1. How now? 


02 


26 


18 


CC 


I see no difference. They're identical. 


02 


26 


20 


p 


Roger is the modulation pretty good? 




26 


23 


CC 


Very good. 


02 


26 


24 


p 




02 


26 


26 


p 


Capsule stability, Deke, is very, very, good. I've noticed that I can put in a 1-degree-per- 
second rate on the needle just by moving heads and arms, — my head and arms. Over. 


02 


26 


42 


CC 


Very good, excellent. For your information, there will be no flares at Woomera on this pass, 
since the cloud cover won't allow you to see them anyway. 


02 


26 


50 


p 


Roger. I was unsuccessful last pass. 


02 
02 


26 
26 


55.5 
59 


CC 

p 


Okay, I'm going to send you a Z cal at this time. 


02 


27 


02.5 


CC 


Mark* 


02 


27 


15.5 


CC 


Z cal is coming off. 


02 


27 


17.5 


p 


Roger. 


02 


27 


18.5 


CC 


On with R cal. 


02 


27 


20 


p 


Roger. 


02 


27 


33 


p 


Blood pressure stop. 


02 


27 


34.5 


CC 


Blood pressure stop. Okay, we're going to oscillate R cal a couple of times here in attempt 



to reset our temperature problem. 



5 Editor's note 

92 



MUCHEA (SECOND PASS) — Continued 



02 27 53.5 
02 27 57 
02 28 00.5 
02 28 04.5 
02 28 07 
02 28 10.5 



02 2 



23 



02 28 32 
02 28 40 
02 28 41.5 
02 28 47 
02 28 48.5 
02 23 54.5 
02 28 59 
02 29 01.5 
02 29 04 
02 29 09 
02 29 12 
02 29 23.5 

02 29 31 

02 29 33.5 

02 29 35.5 

02 29 38.5 

02 29 40 

02 29 41.5 

02 29 47.5 

02 29 50.5 

02 29 57.5 

02 30 05.5 

02 30 09.5 



02 30 30 
02 30 41.5 
02 30 44.5 
02 31 23.5 
02 31 26 
02 31 28 
02 31 30 
02 31 33.5 



02 32 08 
02 32 12 
02 32 17 
02 32 20.5 

02 32 26 
02 32 49 



Okay, R cal off. We suggest you go to manual at this point and preserve your auto fuel. 

Low at this point. 
Roger. Going to manual now. 

At this time I'm reading 45-70 [percent] on fuel. 
Rog. Understand 45-70 [percent]. 
Cabin temperature is 107 [degrees]. 
Cabin 107 [degrees]. 

I don't believe you've ever received any sunrise, sunset times. 

Roger. Give me the whole lot of them, Deke, or the ones that are coming. Give me rise, 
set, and rise. 

Roger. Will do. Your next sunrise will be 02 50 00. 
Roger. Copy. 
Sunset 03 41 20. 
Roger. 

Sunrise 04. 19 00. 
Roger. Copy. 

Well, it sounds like you're doing real well up there, Dad. 
Roger. It's a little warm. 
I suspect so. 

Been riding your horse the last couple of days. 
Good. 

For your information, Cape informs that if we don't stay on manual for quite a spell here 

we'll probably have to end this orbit. 
I'll be sure and stay on manual. 

You've got a lot of drift left here yet too. 
Say again. 

You've got drift capability left yet, too. 

Did you see any lights over the Australian . . . ? 

I did. That is, Roger. I did see some lights. I couldn't identify them, however. 
Roger. Understand. 

Would you give us another readout on your suit steam temp? Has this changed any? 

It may have gone down just a tad. It's about zero now; I mean about 70 [degrees] now. 

It was a little bit higher. The visor is closed and I'm beginning to feel a little cooler. 
Very good. 

We indicated 2-degree drop at suit inlet, so it sounds like you're making out a bit. 
Roger. My control mode now, Deke, is manual; gyros free; and the maneuver is off. 
Roger. I understand. Manual; gyro free; and maneuver off. 

Aurora Seven, this is Muchea Cap Com. Are you reading? 
Still reading, Muchea. 
Very good. 

We are just kind of leaving you alone. How is your balloon doing, incidentally? 

I haven't found it since it got dark. It's — it's — it rambles quite a bit, Deke. It's not 
inflated fully, and it doesn't stretch out on the line tight like I expected. It bounces 
in and out and oscillates tip and down and sideways. Have no good tensiometer read- 
ings yet. 

WOOMERA (SECOND PASS) 

Aurora Seven, Aurora Seven, this is Woomera Cap Com. How do you read? Over. 
Hello, Woomera. Aurora Seven. Loud and clear. How me? 
Roger. You are loud and clear, also. 

We copied your transmission over Muchea. Understand you still have the balloon on. 
Is that an affirmative? 

That is affirmative. I have the balloon on. However, I haven't seen it for some time. 

It wanders quite a bit and I do not have it in sight at this moment. I believe that— it 

might be visible against the earth background at this time. 
Roger. Do you see the moon at all? 



93 



WOOMERA (SECOND PASS) — Continued 



02 


32 


52 


P 


I am laced the wrong way and limited in maneuverability I have left because of mv fuel 










state. I can see the terminator between moonlit side, and unmoonlit side. Over. 


02 


33 


08.5 


cc 


Roger. Understand. 


02 


33 


15 


cc 


You are manual control. Is that right? 


02 


33 


16.5 


p 


That is correct. My control mode is manual; gyros free; maneuver off. Over. 


02 


33 


22.5 


cc 


Roger. Could you give us . . . could you give us cabin temperature? 


02 


33 


31.5 


p 


Roger. Cabin temperature is 102 [degrees] at this time. 


02 


33 


37 


cc 


Roger. What is the suit temperature? 


02 


33 


41 


p 


Okay, stand by. 


02 


33 


49.5 


p 


Suit temperature is 74 [degrees]; suit steam exhaust is 71 [degrees]. 


02 


33 


58.5 


cc 


Roger. Understand. Are you feeling a little more comfortable at this time? 


02 


34 


02.5 


p 


I don't know. I'm still warm and still perspiring, but not really uncomfortable. I would 










like to — I would like to nail this suit temperature problem down. It — for all practical 










purposes, it's uncontrollable as far as I can see. 


02 


34 


26.5 


cc 


Roger. Understand. You might have to wait a few more minutes before this takes effect. 










You are on No. 6. Is that right? 


02 


34 


34 


p 


That is right. Suit temperature is No. 6. 


02 


34 


39 


cc 


Roger. Systems reports that your suit temperature has dropped 2 degrees over station, if 










that's any encouragement to you. 


02 


34 


44.5 


p 


Roger. Thank you. It is. 


02 


34 


46.5 


cc 


Roger. 


02 


34 


50 


cc 


Have you taken any food thus far? , 


02 


34 


53 


p 


Yes, I have. However, the food has crumbled badly; and I hate to open the package any 










more for fear of getting crumbs all over the capsule. I can verify that eating bite-size 










food as we packaged for this flight is no problem at all. Even the crumbly foods are 










eaten with no, with no problem. 


02 


35 


20 


cc 


Roger. How about water? 


02 


35 


22.5 


p 


I had *,aken four swallows at approximately this time last orbit. As soon as I get the suit 










temperature pegged a little bit, I'll open the visor and have some more water. Over. 


02 


35 


37 


cc 


Roger. You are still coming in very loud and clear. 


02 


35 


43 


p 


Roger. 


02 


35 


45 


cc 


. . . out at this time. 


02 


37 


11 


p 


For the record now — 


02 


37 


32. 5 


p 


One of the labels for a fuse switch has slipped out, and sideways, and has tied the adjoining 










fuse switch together with it. This happened to emergency-main and reserve-deploy fuse 










switches. 


02 


38 


06.5 


p 


I caged the gyros. They are too critical. I will try and navigate on the dark side without 










the gyros. 


02 


38 


30 


p 


The fuse switch should be glued in better so that turning off one fuse does not turn off the 










adjoining one. 


02 


39 


35 


p 


I guess I'd better try to get that xylose pill out. I hate to do this. 


02 


40 


57.5 


p 


Oh yes. There is the xylose pill. It didn't melt. All tfee rest of the stuff in here did melt. 


02 


41 


31 


p 


Okay. Xylose pill being consumed at 02 41 35. The rest of the food is pretty mueh of a 










mess. Can't stand this cabin temperature. 










CANTON (SECOND PASS) 


02 


43 


39.5 


p 


Hello, Canton Com Tech. Aurora Seven reads you loud and clear. How me? 


02 


43 


44.5 


cc 


This is Canton Cap Com. Read you loud and clear. Could you begin your short report, 


02 


43 


51 


p 


please? 

Roger, George. My control mode is manual. The gyros are caged, maneuver is off. 










Fuel is 45 and 64 [percent], a little ahead of schedule. Oxygen reads 82-100 [percent]. 










Steam vent temperature in the suit is dropping slightly. It's a little below 70 [degrees]. 










Cabin is 4.6 [psia]. Suit temperature has dropped to about 71 [degrees] now. All the 










power is good, and here is a blood pressure. Over. 


02 


44 


30 


cc 


Okay, standing by for blood pressure. 


02 


44 


44 


cc 


We are receiving the blood-pressure check. Over. 


02 


44 


47 


p 




02 


44 


50 


cc 


Do you plan on eating as called for by ... . Over. 



94 



CANTON (SECOND PASS) — Continued 

02 44 57 P I did have the visor open a short time ago for the xylose pill. All of the rest of the food 

that I have aboard has either crumbled or melted. It's unusable in its present state so 
I think the xylose pill will eonstitude my last zero g meal. However, the first one, before 
the food crumbled, was quite easy. It's no problem to eat this bite-size food — in a 
weightless state. I also drank some water at that time, which was no problem. 



02 45 32.5 


CC 


Roger. I take it, from what you said then, that you have confirmed that your faceplate is 






closed for the decision on the third orbit. 


02 45 42.5 


P 


That is correct. My faceplate is closed. Also, what is the trend of my cabin pressure 






on the ground? Over. 


02 45 51 


CC 


Stand by, please. 


02 46 08 




We are checking on your request there, Scott. Could you hit that button again? We 






Oh° St ou°want blood ressure or EKG? 


02 46 15 


p 




02 46 17.5 


CC 


No' we lost the EKG Possibl ou could ress on those sensors Oka Sur eon informs 






me that the EKG is now returnin Your other uestion cabin ressure is sta in at 
me a e is now re urning. our o er ques ion, ca m pressure is s aying a 








02 46 36 5 


p 


Ro° er NoTh^n^Tn readin since launch Is that correct? 


02 40 40 


CC 


N f t It' f <i s r ' 1 h t ' ' r " " 
ega lve on a . s gone rom . [psiaj a aunc o approxima e y . Ipsiaj m very, 






very gradual descending trend. 


02 46 52 




Roger. My cabin pressure indicator is reading 4.8 [psia] at this time. 


02 47 02 


CC 


Roger, I have no comment on this, just that the trend appears to be good here on the 






ground. 


02 47 09.5 




Roger. 


02 47 16.5 


CC 


Do you have any specific comments on your balloon experiments; for example, the best 






color contrast with the . 


02 47 36.5 




Yes, I would say the day-glow orange is the best. 


02 47 41 


CC 


Roger. For your information, the second sunrise should be expected in approximately 3 to 






4 minutes. 


02 47 47.5 




Roger, thank you. 


02 47 50.5 


or 


Everything continues to look very good here on the ground. I've got a reading here on the 






ground for cabin pressure. This is for your information, is 4.8 [psia]. Now, this does 






take the trend that has been set up considerably. The suit pressure comes in at 4.9 






[psiaj. 


02 48 10 




° g ^f" i. u x. ^ i ■ ■ 


02 48 14 




We find now that the — the Oj partial pressure is fluctuating slightly, and the — hanging 






around 4.2 [psia]. 


02 48 26.5 


CC 


Did you ? 


02 48 29 5 






02 48 35 


P 


Roger, copied, George, thank you. 


02 48 39 


CC 


As I said before, everything looks very good here. Surgeon is after me here for you to try 






another blood pressure. Is this convenient? 


02 48 47.5 


P 


Negative. I won't be able to hold still for it now. I've got the sunrise to worry about. 


02 48 52.5 


CC 








down here. 


02 49 00 


p 


Negative. I have a beautiful sunrise through the window. I'll record it so you can see it. 






HAWAII (SECOND PASS) 


02 49 07.5 


CC 


Aurora Seven, Aurora Seven, Hawaii Com Tech. How do you read me? Over. 


02 49 12.5 


p 


Roger, Hawaii, Aurora Seven. Loud and clear. How me? 


02 49 17.5 


CC 


Aurora Seven, this is Cap Com. Can you give me a short report, please. 


02 49 22 


p 


Roger. My control mode is manual; gyros caged; maneuver off. Stand by one. My 






status is good and the capsule status is good. I want to get some pictures of the sunrise. 






Over. 


02 49 37.5 


CC 


Roger. Give me the short report first. 


02 49 40 


P 


Roger. Fuel is 45-62 [percent]. Over. 


02 49 48 


CC 


Roger. 45 and 62 [pereent]. 


02 49 50.5 


p 


Roger. 


02 50 31 


CC 


Aurora Seven. Did you drink over Canton; did you drink any water over Canton? 


02 50 36 


p 


That is negative. I will do, shortly. 


02 50 40.5 


CC 


Roger, Surgeon feels that this is advisable. 


02 50 44.5 


p 


Roger. 



95 



HAWAII (SECOND PASS) — Continued 
02 SO 45.5 CC Do you have an auto-fuel warning light? 

02 50 48 P That is right. I have reported it, and I believe I reported it a long time ago. It is covered 

with tape at the moment. 
02 50 59 CC Roger. 

02 51 24.5 CC Aurora Seven, Aurora Seven, Cap Com. Cape Flight advises me that we — that they ex- 
pected the cabin to do such. 
02 51 31.5 P Roger, thank you. 

02 51 43 CC ... temperature exhaust . . . steam exhaust? 

02 51 39 P Roger. Suit exhaust is 70 [degrees]. Cabin exhaust is 49 [degrees). 

02 51 46 CC Roger. 

02 52 20.5 CC Aurora Seven. This is Cap Com. Would like for you to return to gyros normal and see 
what kind of indication we have; whether or not your window view agrees with your gyros. 
02 52 34 P Roger. Wait one. 

02 52 47 P I have some more of the white particles in view below the capsule. They appear to be 

traveling exactly my speed. There is one drifting off. It's going faster than I am as 
a matter of fact. 

02 53 11.5 CC Roger. Understand. 

02 53 15 P I haven't seen the great numbers of these particles, but I've seen a few of them. Their 

motion is random; they look exactly like snowflakes to me. 
02 53 29 CC Roger. Have you tried returning .... 
02 53 33 P Negative. Let me get within scanner limits first. 

02 53 39 CC Say again. 

02 53 40 P I must adjust my attitude to within scanner limits first. 

02 53 46.5 CC Roger. 

02 54 18.5 P There were some more of those — little particles. They definitley look like snowflakes this 

time. 

02 54 26 CC Roger. Understand. Your particles look like definite snowflakes. 
02 54 32 P However— 

02 54 33.5 CC Can we get a blood pressure from you, Scott? 

02 54 34.5 P Roger. Blood pressure — start — now. I have the balloon — now — pretty steadily below 

me, not oscillating. And go to gyros normal. Gyros normal now. 
02 55 07.5 CC Roger. TM indicates your — zero pitch. 
02 55 15 CC LOS, Scott, we've had LOS. Can you read me? Over. 

CALIFORNIA (SECOND PASS) 

02 58 16 CT Aurora Seven, Aurora Seven, this is California Com Tech, California Com Tech. Do you 
hear me? Over. 

02 58 22.5 P Hello, Cal Com Tech, Aurora Seven. Loud and clear. How me? 

02 58 45 CT Aurora Seven, Aurora Seven, this is California Com Tech, California Com Tech. Do you 
hear? Over. 

02 58 51. 5 P Hello. California Com Tech, Aurora Seven. Loud and clear. How me? 

02 58 56 CT We're reading you loud and clear, also. Stand by for Cap Com. 
02 58 59.5 P Roger. 

02 59 06.5 CC Aurora Seven, California. How do you read? 

02 59 09.5 P Hello, Al, loud and clear. How me? 

02 59 12.5 CC You're loud and clear, Scotty. Short report. 

02 59 16.5 P Roger. Control mode is manual, gyros normal, maneuver off. Fuel is 45-50 [percent]. 

Balloon is out. Oxygen 81-100 [percent]. And my status is good. The capsule status 
is good, except I'm unable to get a reasonable suit steam exhaust temperature. Still 
reading 70 [degrees]. Over. 

02 59 42 CC Roger, seems to me as long as suit inlet is going down that you could continue to increase 

flow until you feel comfortable. 
02 59 52.5 P Roger. 

02 59 55 CC Understand you're GO for orbit three. 

02 59 58 P I am — Roger. I am GO for orbit three. 

03 00 00 CC Seven, this is California. 
03 00 12 P Go, California. 

03 00 15 CC General Kraft is still somewhat concerned about auto fuel. Use as little auto; use no auto 
fuel unless you have to prior to retrosequence time. And I think maybe you might 
increase flow to your inverter heat exchanger to try to bring the temperature down. They 
are not critical yet, however. 



96 



CALIFORNIA (SECOND PASS)— Continued 
03 00 38 P Roger, I have gone from 4 to 5 on the inverter at this time. And I think I'll increase just 

a tad on the suit. 

03 00 49.5 CC Roger. You're sounding good here. Give you a period of quiet while I send Z and R cal. 
03 00 55.5 P Roger. 

03 01 06 CC Seven, this is California sending Z cal on my mark. 

03 01 09.5 P Roger. 

03 01 11 CC One, Mark. 

03 01 25 CC Z cal off. 

03 01 26.5 P Roger. 

03 01 29 CC Stand by for R cal 3, 2, 1. 

03 01 35 P All right now, I'm beginning to get all of those various particles, they — they're way out. I 

can see some that are a 100 feet out. 
03 01 52.5 C Roger. R cal off. 

03 01 55.5 P They all look like snowflakes to me. No don't— they do not glow of their own accord. 

03 02 12 CC Roger, Seven. Do you — have you . . . perspire or have you stopped perspiring at the 

moment? 

03 02 20 P No, I'm still perspiring, Al. I think I'll open up the visor and take a drink of water. 

03 02 27 CC Roger. Sounds like a good idea. 

03 02 42 CC Seven, would you give us a blood pressure, please, in between swallows. 

03 03 27 P Okay, there's your blood pressure. I took about 20 swallows of water. Tasted pretty 

good. 

03 03 38 CC Roger, Seven. We're sure of that, we're getting Alpha times and— Hotel. You have 

Hotel, I know. How about 3 Alpha? 
03 03 48 P Roger, and Mark now a tensiometer reading. It's as tight as I've seen the string. Mark 

another tensiometer reading. 
03 03 59 CC Roger. We have those. 
03 04 01 P Now say again your last question? 
03 04 06 CC Do you have 3 Alpha of 03 11 00? 
03 04 12 P 03 11 00. 

03 04 16 CC That is correct, 
03 04 22 P Roger. Copied. 

03 04 45 CC Seven, this is California. Do you still read? 
03 04 47 P Roger. Loud and clear. 

03 04 50 CC Roger, we have no further inquiries. See you next time. 



t 53 



GUAYMAS (SECOND PASS) 



03 05 11 CC Aurora Seven, Guaymas Cap Com. 

03 05 13 P Hello, Guaymas. Go ahead. 

03 05 15 CC Roger, we're reading you loud and clear. We'd like to conduct a wobulator test here. We 

use White Sands whenever you give us the word. 

03 05 23 P Roger, I have one; it's the yaw gyro on the stop at this time. 

03 05 31 CC Is your wobulator on now? 

03 05 33 P Yes, the wobulator is on. 

03 05 35.5 CC Roger. 

03 05 43 CC What was that on your yaw? 

03 05 45.5 P I have the yaw needle on the 250 stop. 

03 05 50.5 CC Roger. 

03 05 52.5 P I will not cage until after I get rid of the balloon, and then I can start a slow yaw to the 

left to pick it off the stop. 

03 06 04 CC Roger. 

03 06 12 CC Roger. Can you turn your wobulator on now and leave it on? 

03 06 15.5 P Roger. It has been on, and I haven't touched it. 

03 06 19 CC Roger. Understand. 

03 06 20.5 P Do you want it off? 

03 06 24 CC Roger. On and off in approximately 20-second intervals. 

03 06 29 P Okay, wobulator going off — Now. 

03 06 38 CC Roger. We're relaying this. 

03 06 46.5 P Am I in a position to do a 360 [degree] roll for them at this time? 

03 06 51 CC Your 00 yaw; you do have a yaw input in. 

03 06 57 P Could we do this 360 [degree] roll on this pass at White Sands? 

03 07 03 P Gordo. 



97 



CAPE CANAVERAL (THIRD PASS) 



03 


07 


12.5 


CC 


Aurora Seven, Cape Cap Com. 


03 


07 


15 


P 


Roger Cape. Loud and clear and break, break. Guaymas, the wobulator is back on now. 


03 


07 


24.5 


P 


Roger Cape. Go ahead. 


03 


07 


26.5 


CC 


Roger Aurora Seven, Cape Cap Cora back on HF. Give me your report. 


03 


07 


32 


P 


Roger Control mode, manual; gyros normal; the maneuver switch is off. Fuel is 45-45 
[percent]; oxygen is 70 [percent], or, correction, oxygen is 80 and 100 [percent]. Suit tem- 
perature is 68 [degrees], now and coming down pretty well. Suit steam vent temperature 
is 69 [degrees], and beginning to be a little more comfortable. Over. 


03 


08 


12 


CC 


Roger, and how do you feel, now? 


03 


08 


15 


P 


I feel pretty good. Still warm. 


03 


08 


18 


CC 


Okay, sounds like you'll be all right. 


03 


08 


23 


CC 


Did you — your normal balloon release time will be 3 plus 34, Scott? 


03 
03 


08 
08 


28.5 
31 


p 

CC 


3 plus 34, Roger. 

Roger, can you describe the balloon and its actions a little to us? 


03 


08 


35 


p 


Yes, it has a random drift. There is no oscillation that I can predict whatsoever. The — 
the line leading to the balloon sometimes is tight; sometimes is loose — loose enough, so 
that there are loops in it. ItST-its behaviour is strictly random as far as I can tell. The 
balloon is not inflated well either. It's an oblong shape out there, rather than a round 
figure; and I believe when the sun is on it, the day-glow orange is the most brilliant, and 
the silver. That's about all I can tell you, Gus. 


03 


09 


28.5 


CC 


Roger. Surgeon suggests that you drink as much water as you can. Drink it as often as 
you can. 


03 


09 


38.5 


p 


Roger. 


03 


09 


40 


CC 


Retrosequence times for area 3 B and 3 C are nominal. 


03 


09 


43.5 


p 


3 B and 3 C nominal. Roger. 


03 
03 


09 
09 


50.5 
55 


CC 

p 


And we recommend you go to normal on your gyros with the maneuver switch off. 
Roger. The gyros are normal and the maneuver switch is off. 


03 


09 


59.5 


CC 


Roger. 


03 


10 


11.5 


CC 


Would you give us your — your temperature control valve settings, please? 


03 


10 


20 


p 


Roger, suit is 7.5, cabin is about 10. That's 10 on the cabin and 5 on the inverters. Over. 


03 


10 


35 


CC 


Roger. 


03 


10 


37.5 


CC 


Stand by for Z cal. 


03 


10 


39.5 


p 


Roger, standing by. 


03 


10 


46 


CC 


R cal. 


03 


10 


53.5 


p 


Mark a tensiometer reading. It's as tight as I've — as it gets. 


03 


11 


29.5 


CC 


Aurora Seven, Cap Com. 


03 


11 


32 


p 


Go ahead, Cap Com. 


03 


11 


33.5 


CC 


. . . drifting flight yet? 


03 




35 


p 


Say again. 


03 


11 


36.5 


CC 


Have you done any drifting flight? 


03 


11 


38.5 


p 


That is Roger. And if I am to save fuel for retrosequence, I think I better start again. 


03 


11 


49 


CC 


Roger, I agree with you. 


03 


11 


52 


p 


My control mode is now manual; gyros are caged, and I will allow the capsule to drift for a 
little while. 


03 


12 


04 


CC 


Roger, and John suggests you try to look back, towards the darkness, at sunrise to see those 
particles. 


03 


12 


14 


p 


Toward the darkness. 


03 


12 


16 


CC 


Roger. At sunrise, try to look toward the darkness. 


03 


12 


18.5 


p 


Okay, I have done that, and — and — tell him no joy. 


03 


12 


24 


CC 


Roger. 


03 


12 


36.5 


CC 


Aurora Seven, are you in drifting flight? 


03 


12 


38.5 


p 


That is Roger. 


03 


12 


40.5 


CC 


Roger. 


03 


12 


46.5 


p 


I am looking down almost vertically. It's possible to distinguish, I believe, four separate 
cloud layers. 


03 


12 


57 5 


CC 




03 


13 


07 


p 


Balloon — I'll maneuver enough to get the balloon out in trail so I can photograph its de- 


03 


13 


35.5 


CC 


Roger. 


03 


13 


55 


p 


I, inciclently, have those little particles visible in the periscope at this time. 



98 



CAPE CANAVERAL (THIRD PASS) — Continued 



03 


14 05 


CC 


Roger. Understand the periscope. 




03 


14 22 5 


CC 


Aurora Seven, Cap Com. 




03 


14 24 


P 


Roger. Go ahead. 




03 


14 26.5 


CC 


We're still fairly happy with your fuel state now. Don't let — we 
either get down below 40 percent. 


i'd like for you not to let 


03 


14 33 


P 


Roger. I'll try. I have balloon jettison on and off, and I can't % 


;et rid of it. 


03 


14 41 


CC 


Understand that you can't get rid of the balloon. 




03 


14 43.5 


P 


That's right. It will not jettison. 




03 


14 48.5 


CC 


Okay. 




03 


15 19 


CC 


Aurora seven, Cap Com. 




03 


15 21.5 


p 


Go ahead, Cap Com. 






15 23 


CC 


Give us your blood pressure and fuel reading. 




03 




P 


Okay. Fuel is 45-42 [percent]. Blood pressure on the air. 




03 


15 32 


CC 


Rog. 




03 


15 58 


P 


I have the particles visible still. They're streaming aft, but in 
or 130 degrees. 


an arc of maybe a 120 


03 


16 16.5 


CC 


Aurora Seven, Cap Com. Say again. 




03 


16 19 


p 


Roger, I have these particles drifting aft again, but they do not parallel the line J.o the 








balloon exactly. They drift aft within an arc of maybe 120 


to 130 degrees. 


03 


16 36 


CC 






03 


16 41 


CC 


Aurora Seven, Cap Com. Can you give us a comment on the z 


;ero g experiment? 


03 


16 53.5 


p 


Roger. At this moment, the fluid is all gathered around the s 


standpipe; the standpipo 



appears to be full and the fluid outside the standpipe is about halfway up, There is a 
rather large meniscus. I'd say about 60° meniscus. 
03 17 27.5 CC Aurora Seven, Cap Com. Repeat as much of your last message as you can. 
03 17 32 P Roger. The standpipe is full of the fluid. The fluid is halfway up the outside of the 

standpipe — a rather large meniscus, on angle of about 60 degrees. Over. 

CANARY (THIRD PASS) 

03 20 31 CC Aurora Seven, Aurora Seven, this is Canary Cap Com on HF. Do you read? Over. 

03 21 00 P Hello, hello, Canary Cap Com, Aurora Seven. Reading you loud and clear; HF. Trans- 

mitting HF. How do you read? Over. 

03 21 32.5 CC Aurora Seven, this is Canary Cap Com on HF. Do you read? Over. 

03 21 40.5 P Roger, Canary Cap Com. Reading you loud and clear; HF. How me? Over. 

03 22 04 P These pictures of the — small groups of closely knit clouds are south of Canary, third orbit. 

03 22 48.5 P This must be crossing [Intertropical Convergence Zone] (ITCZ) . I have never seen weather 

quite like this. 

03 22 34 CC This is Canary Cap Com on HF. Do you receive? Over. 

03 23 36.5 CC Aurora Seven, this is Canary Cap Com. We had no transmissions from you. This is 

Canary Islands, signing out. 
03 24 33 P I have the Voasmeter out at this time. 

03 24 53 P Hello. 

03 25 01 P Hello, Canary Cap Com, Aurora Seven. Reading you loud and clear. How me? 

03 25 08 CC Aurora Seven, this is Canary Cap Com. Do you read? Over. 
03 25 12.5 P Go ahead, Canary. Reading you loud and clear. 

03 25 18.5 P I am going— I am in the record only position now. I think the best answer to the auto- 

kinesis — is that there is none. I noticed none — and I tend to aline the horizontal with my 
head — it — a horizontal line under zero g is a line parallel to the line drawn between your 
eyes. I don't get autokinesis. I don't get — -now wait a minute, maybe I'm beginning to. 

03 26 40 P I should remark that at 3 26 33, I have in the sky, at any time, 10 particles. They no 

doubt appear to glow to me. They appeared to be little pieces of frost. However, 
some appear to be way, way far away. There are two — that look like they might be a 
100 yards away. I haven't operated the thruster not for some time. Here are two in 
closer. Now a densiometer reading on these that are in close. Extinct at 5.5, the elapsed 
time is 3 27 39. I am unable to see any stars in the black sky at this time. However, 
these little snowflakes are clearly visible. 

03 28 13 P The cabin temperature has dropped considerable now, and the setting I have on the suit is 7. 

03 28 20.5 P Am going to increase it just a tad more. 

03 28 40 P My suit valve, water valve temperature now is — about 8. 

03 28 53 P Hello, hello, Kano Cap Com, Aurora Seven. Reading you loud and clear. How me? 



CANARY (THIRD PASS)— Continued 



03 29 24 P I've noticed that every time I turn over to the right everything seems vertical, but I am 

upside down. 
03 29 34 P Now, for the record. 

03 29 43.5 P I still feel that, I could easily feel like I am coming in on my back. 

03 30 03 P I could very easily come in from another planet, and feel that I am on my — on my back, 

and that earth is up above me, but that's sorta the way you feel when you come out of 
split; S, or out of an Immelmann. 

KANO (THIRD PASS) 

03 30 48 CC Kano on HF. If you read me, the surgeon requests that you take a blood-pressure check 

now, a blood-pressure check for the onboard record. Over. 
03 31 00 P Roger. Reading you, Kano, loud and clear. Blood pressure start at this time. 

03 31 10 P Visor is coming closed now. 

03 31 39 CC Aurora Seven, Aurora Seven, this is Kano Cap Com. If you read me, would you do a 

blood-pressure check for the onboard records. Over. 
03 32 55 P Okay. I'm taking the — I've taken the big back off; going to record only, at this time. 

Have taken the big back off of the camera and trying to get some more MIT film at this 

time. The filter is in. The cassette — is in the camera. 
03 33 43 P The zero g senta sensations are wonderful. This is the first time I've ever worn this suit 

and had it comfortable. 
03 34 07.5 P I don't know which way I'm pointed, and don't particularly care. 4 

03 34 23 P Roger. At this time I am hearing Kano calling for a blood-pressure check. I will give it 

to him now. Let's see, I have fuel 45-43, still would like to get just a little rate — just 
a little one. 

03 34 49 P Let's see, we wanta go back that way. 

03 35 35.5 P I can'i; see any relationship between thruster action and the fireflies. 

03 35 43 P Mark MIT pictures to 3 35 36, crank two by— at infinity. 

03 36 36 P Coastal passage over Africa. 

03 38 33 P I'm taking many MIT pictures, at capsule elapsed [time] 03 38 38. It will be the only 

chance we have. I might as well use up all the film. 

INDIAN OCEAN SHIP (THIRD PASS) 

03 38 54 P Hello, Indian Com Tech, Aurora Seven. Loud and clear. How me? 

03 39 13.5 CT Aurora Seven, this is IOS Com Tech, on HF and UHF. How do you read? Over. 

03 39 18.5 P Roger. Loud and clear. How me, Indian Cap Com? 

03 39 24 CC Aurora Seven, this is Indian Cap Com. I did not read all of your transmission, but the 
part I monitored was loud and clear. Go ahead. 

03 39 31.5 P Roger. My status is good, the capsule status is good. I am in drifting flight on manual 

control. Gyros are caged. Tjhe fuel reads 45—42 [percent], oxygen 79-100 [percent]. 
Steam vent temperatures both read 65 [degrees] now; suit temperature has gone down 
nicely. It is now 62 [degrees], and all the power is good. The blood pressure is starting 
at this time. I've just finished taking some MIT pictures, and that is all I have to report 

03 40 16.5 CC Roger, Aurora Seven. I copy your control mode manual; gyro caged; fuel 45-42 [percent]; 

oxygen 79-100 [percent]; and I did not hear the last part of your transmission. How do — 
03 40 31.5 P Roger. My status is good; the suit temperature has reduced considerably; steam vent 

temperatures now read 69 [degrees] on cabin and suit, suit temperature is 62 [degrees], 

and cabin temperature is 101 [degrees]. Over. 
03 40 12.5 CC Roger. Suit temperature 62 [degrees], and cabin temperature 101 [degrees]. Your blood 

pressure is starting — and understand you are on the manual. Understand also you are 

drifting for awhile. 
03 41 10 P That is Roger. I am. 

03 41 12 CC Confirm. 

03 41 13 P I am on manual control. I am allowing the capsule to drift. Over. 

03 41 18 CC Roger. 

03 41 19 P Also another departure from the plan is the fact that I have been unable to jettison the bal- 

loon. The balloon is still attached — should be no problem. 



4 In paper 7, Astronaut Carpenter is quoted as follows : "Times when the gyros were 
caged and nothing was visible out the window, I had no idea where the earth was in 
relation to the spacecraft. However, it did not seem important to me. I knew at all 
times that I had only to wait and the earth would again appear in the window " 



100 



INDIAN OCEAN SHIP (THIRD PASS) — Continued 

03 41 33 CC Roger. Understand no problem expected, but balloon is still attached. Stand by. 

03 42 04 CC Aurora Seven, this is Indian Cap Com. All our retrosequence times are nominal. Do you 

want me to call them out to you? Over. 
03 42 13 P Negative. I have them all, thank you. 

03 42 19.5 CC Aurora Seven, your last transcription was unreadable. You are fading badly, although 
intermittently. I will read retrosequence times in the blind. Area 3 Delta, 04 12 32, 
04 12 32; Echo 04 22 27; 3 Echo 04 22 27; and the last ... we have is 04 32 26 . . . now 
and your capsule clock is still within 1 second. 

03 43 05 P Roger, Kano. I copied all that. 

03 43 08.5 CC Roger, Aurora. You were loud and clear. 

03 43 20 P The sunsets are most spectacular. The earth is black after th; sun has set. The earth is 

black; the first band close to the earth is red, the next is yellow; the next is blue; the next 
is green; and the next is sort of a — sort of a purple. It's almost like a very brilliant 
rainbow. It extends at some — 

03 43 54 CC Indian Cap Com. Cheek you see about all colors between the horizon and the night sky. 
You seem to see more layers than Friendship Seven. 

03 44 05.5 P Roger. These layers extend from at least 90 degrees either side of the sun at sunset. 

03 44 14.5 CC Aurora Seven, I did not hear your whole sentence. Will you repeat, please? Over. 

03 44 19 P Roger. This bright horizon band extends at least 90° north and south of the position of the 

sunset. 

03 44 45 CC Roger. Understand. About the balloon, does Mercury Control Center know you did 

03 44 52 P Yes. I tried to release it over their station and was unable to do so. You might remind 

them that the balloon is still on. 
03 45 02 CC Roger, Aurora Seven. Understand. 

03 45 25.5 CC Aurora Seven, Indian Cap Com. Your inverter temperatures are 183 [degrees] for the 150, 
and 195 [degrees] for the 250. All your other primaries check out okay on telemetry. 
03 45 38 P Roger. Thank you very much. 

03 46 15.5 CC Aurora Seven, do you read? Over. 
03 46 18.5 P Go ahead, Indian Cap Com. 

03 46 21 CC Our medical monitor says that we are reading your respiration. I believe this is almost the 

first time it's come across. 
03 46 28 P That's very good. I guarantee I'm breathing. 

03 46 35 CC Roger. Understand. 
03 46 48 P The eye patch is in place, this time. 

03 48 16.5 P Going to record — record only at this time. 

03 48 50 P At 3 hours and 48 minutes and 51 "seconds elapsed, I'm taking a good swig of water. It's 

pretty cool this time. Stretching my legs a tad. It's quite dark. I'm in drifting flight. 
Oh, boy! It feels good to get that leg stretched out. That one and the right one too. 

03 49 40 P I drank an awful lot of water and I'm still thirsty. As a matter of fact, I think there — 

there is a leak in the urinal, I'm sure. 

03 50 38 P Okay, line touch. 

03 51 13.5 P Okay. I'm shaking my head violently from all sides, with eyes closed, up and down, pitch, 

roll, yaw. Nothing in my stomach; nothing anywhere. There is now — I will try to poke 
zero, time zero button. Well, I missed it. I was a little disoriented ! as to exactly where 
things are, not sure exactly what you want to accomplish by this but there is no problem 
of orienting. Your — your — inner ears and your mental appraisal of horizontal, you just 
adapt to this environment, like — like you were born in it. It's a great, great freedom. 

03 53 25.5 P Don't let me forget about the shiny finish on the star chart. It makes it very hard to read. 

03 53 40.5 P At 3 53. 

03 55 30 P I'm using the — photometer now — to try and get — a reading. I saw a com — no, it's the 

balloon that I see, still drifting aimlessly, lighted by moonlight at this time. 
03 56 09.5 P None of the colors are — particularly visible. I think 

03 56 19.5 P Excess cabin water light is on at this time, 03 56 24. Am going to turn it down just a tad— 

so it will be just about where the suit is. I would say, let's see, from that, that it jumped 
down to freezing. 

t is the same under lg and he describe® no difficulty in re-estab- 



101 



MUCHEA (THIRD PASS) 



03 


^1 






Hello, Muchea Cap Com, Aurora Seven. Loud and clear. How me? 


03 


^7 






Coming in loud and clear h- th • 




57 


n« 


p 












°M 6r fuei e read™ y 45 0 and°42 CL r > rcentp* the oi^en iTreadin ' 76 ar^lOn^ SW ■.. B ° 










v nt tern Matures are 68 fde'reesl on thTsu^andT'' 'st ot^ lP erc entj, steam 










the needle 6 dro^ed^Iown to^ZO^ Reset cabin water aTabout^and 0 ]!! tni" c " 'f 










seeing 6 o timumsettin iiTare ri ht between eTand 7 Outside of^haT l^th**' 811 6 U 










tem ar od And blood r sur i tartin n w ' & ' & ln ^' * 




58 




CC 


^^sys^en«are blood^es^ure 116 ^ & & ^ 








p 


TheTvisor ha^been V en for some^tTmfT I've been takin some readin s on tar thr 










hazeTa eTwftlTth^^oto^e^er^The^isoris comin ^cl s n ngS ° n S aFS r ° Ug 1 6 
aze ayer wi ep o ome er. e visor is coming c ose now. 








or 


oger. n era an visor coming c ose . 


03 


58 


20 




give you re ro lme or en o mission an wou e o ave you se t e clock to this 










a is lme. 


03 


58 




J, 




n-! 


^ft 














p 


Understand, 04 32 34. 










Ok° d It' ' ' t th 1 k 




0 






ay. s g° ln g m ° e c oc now w oop. 


03 








We indicate 35. 




0 




p 


I do, too. I overshot. Stand by. 




to 


nn 




at s pro a y c oseenoug or governmen wor . 


fV? 










03 


59 




p° 


Roger. Still you indicate 1 second slow on g.e.t.; we indicate you on, on retrotime. 






205 




Roger I am reading 04 32 34. 


m 


"W 




CC 


Would you^please ^ e ^^ e c ^ i °^*° d y °"^f g C °^ t^^me 688 ™" 6 ' 










oger. give you e ea i ra e exereise a s lme. 








CC 




03 


59 


38 5 


p 


Exercise start now 


04 


00 


111 
■ 


p 


Ok blood niressure start now That was 60 cvcles in 30 eco ds o th 

ay, p , . y s n n e exerciser. 














nn 






60 cycles m 6^ secon ^ Ca e on our 1 t ? 


n 4 


nn 


an ^ 




T 'h^W ^ ° T* 56 ^ t eying °. ver 6 ap ^ on you f pass. 
I thin . 1 may ave to mar lme or ensiome er rea ng on t e balloon. 


04 


nn 
00 


40.5 


rr 


TT el 7 g °° h fit h th h 11 -• h If 'hi -f ^ 


04 


00 


43 




Understan you s i ave e a oon wit you. s possi e i you go to deploy position 










and back to release, you can — 


04 


00 


51.5 




Roger. I ve tried that a, number of times, Deke. I just can t get rid of it. 


04 


00 


57 


CC 


Okay, Well, she 11 probably come into your face on retronre; but I m sure you 11 lose it 










shortly after that. 










Yeah, I figure. I hope so. 


°4 
04 


01 


06 


CC 












Port Moresby; so if you see some lights up in that area, we'd like to know about it. 


04 


01 


18 


p 


Roger, I'll let you know. 


nl 






p G 






m 


97 




Roger ^C (ft^on my ^ark^ll^e^nours 1 minute 35 seconds standby MARK 4 0135 


!u 






CC 


Roger. Still one second off; that's fine. 




01 


45 5 


CC 


The flight plan calls for you to have a drink of water over here. Do you feel like you need 










one- ^ ave had tllree j on brinks 0 f a t er The It I th' k b t 10 










°miri t s^aV Deke 6 & ^ ^ S ° Wa er ' 6 ^ 0De WaS ' ln ' a ou 
minu es ago, e e - 






nn 




ou re pro a y oa e or ear, en. 


04 


n9 


m r; 


p 


oger. 


04 


0 


14 






04 


02 


17 


p 


' ■ I. VT 

Roger. Deke, the haze layer is very bright. I would say 8 to 10 degrees above the real 










horizon. And I would say that the haze layer is about twice as high above the horizon 










as the — the bright blue band at sunset is; it's twice as thick. A star, stars are occluded 










as we pass through this haze layer. I have a good set of stars to watch going through 










at this time. I'll try and get some photometer readings. 


04 


03 


12.5 


CC 


Roger. Understand. It's twice as — sunset. 


04 


03 


14.5 


p 


It is not twice as thick. It's thinner, but it is located at a distance about twice as far away 










as the top of the— the band at sunset. 


04 


03 


29 


CC 


Understand. 



102 



04 05 


55.5 


CC 


Roger. Standing by. 


04 06 


01.5 


P 


Visor coming open. 


04 06 


03.5 


CC 


Roger. Visor open. 


04 06 


27.5 


CC 


Aurora Seven, this is Woomera. 


04 06 


29.5 


P 


Roger, Woomera, loud and clear. 


04 06 


32.5 


CC 


You say visor is open? 


04 06 


35.5 . 


P 


That's negative. I did not open 



MXJCHEA (THIRD PASS) — Continued 

04 03 33 P It's very narrow, and as bright as the horizon of the earth itself. 

04 03 41 CC Rog. 

04 03 59.5 P This is a reading on Phecda in — in the Big Dipper prior to entry in the, the, into the haze 

layer. It occludes — it is extinct at roughly 2.5. The reticle extincts at 5.5. TM mark 
for the time in the middle of the haze layer. Spica — stand by. 

WOOMERA (THIRD PASS) 

04 05 02 CC Aurora Seven, Aurora Seven, this Woomera Cap Com. How do you read? Over. 
04 05 05.5 P Roger. Stand by, Woomera. 

04 05 08.5 CC Roger. Standing by. 

04 05 15.5 P In the middle of the haze layer, Phecda will not — I can't even get a reading on it through 

the photometer. Phecda is now below the horizon, or below and mark about 5 seconds 
ago, now it emerged from the brightest part of the haze layer. It is now clearly visible. 
Woomera, my status is very good, fuel is 45 and 42 [percent]. Standby, I'll give you 
a full report very shortly. 



Do you read? Over. 

it. I won't open it until I get through with these readings. 
Phecda now extincts at 1.7 in the mid, in mid position between the haze layer and the 
earth. Okay, Woomera, my — my status is very good. The suit temperature is coming 
down substantially. Steam vent temperature is not down much, but the suit environ- 
ment temperature is 60 [degrees]. I'm quite comfortable. Cabin temperature is 101 
[degrees]; cabin is holding an indicated 4.8; oxygen is 75-100 [percent], all d-c power 
continues to be good, 20 Amps; both a-c busses are good; fuel reads 46 and 40 [percent]. 
I am in drifting flight. I have had plenty of water to drink. The visor is coming open 
now. And blood pressure is coming your way at this time. 
04 08 00.5 P Hello, Woomera, Woomera Cap Com, this is Aurora Seven. Did you copy my last? Over. 

04 09 27.5 P Cabin temperature, cabin water flow is all the way off and reducing back to about 7.5 now, 

a little bit less. At this time cabin steam vent going to record only. 
04 09 52.5 P Cabin steam vent is 10; suit steam vent is 62. I would like to have a little bit more pad on 

the temperature, but I can't seem to get it. The suit temperature is 60 [degrees]; the 
cabin temperature continues at 102 [degrees]. I have 22 minutes and 20 seconds left 
for retrofire. I think that I will try to get some of this equipment stowed at this time. 
04 11 07.5 P There is the moon. 

04 11 31.5 P Looks no different— here than it does on the ground. 

04 11 51 P Visor is open and the visor is coming closed now at this time. 

04 12 28 P I have put the moon — in the center of the window and it just drifts very, very little. 

04 12 49.5 P There seems to be a stagnant place in the, my helmet. The suit is cool, but along my face 

04 13 51 P And there is Scorpio. 

04 14 46.5 P All right, let's see. 

04 15 04 P It's very interesting to remark that my attitude — and the — is roughly pitchup plus 30 

[degrees], roll right 130 [degrees], and yaw left 20 [degrees]. The balloon at this time is 
moving right along with me. It's keeping a constant bearing at all times. There is the 
horizon band again; this time from the moonlit side. Let me see, with the airglow filter, 
it's very difficult to do this because of the lights from that time correlation clock. Visor 
coming open now. It's impossible to get dark-adapted in here, with that light the way 

04 17 23.5 P All right for the record. Interesting, I believe. This haze layer is very bright through 

the airglow filter. Very bright. The time now is 4 17 44. 
04 18 00.5 P Now, let me see, I'll get an accurate band width. 

04 18 21 P That's very handy, because the band width — there is the sun. . . . The horizon band 

width is exactly equal to the X. I can't explain it; I'll have to, to — 



103 



WOOMERA (THIRD PASS) — Continued 



04 19 


22.5 


P 


Sunrise. Ahhhhh! Beautiful lighted fireflies that time. It was luminous that time. 
But it's only, okay, they — all right, I have— if anybody reads, I have the fireflies. They 
are very bright. They are capsule emanating. I can rap the hatch and stir off hundreds 
of them. Rap the side of the capsule; huge streams come out. They — some appear to 
glow. Let me yaw around the other way. 


04 20 


25 


P 


Some appear to glow but I don't believe they really do; it's just the light of the sun. I'll 
try to get a picture of it. They're brilliant. I think they would really shine through 9 
on the photometer. I'll rap. Let's see. 


04 21 


39.5 


P 


Taking some pictures at F 2.8 and bulb. The pictures now, here, one of the balloon. The 
sun is too bright now. That's where they come from. They are little tiny white pieces 
of frost. I judge from this that the whole side of the capsule must have frost on it. 

HAWAII (THIRD PASS) 


04 22 


07 


CT 


Aurora Seven, this is Hawaii Com Tech, how do you read? 


04 22 


10 


P 


Hello, Hawaii, loud and clear. How me? 


04 22 


19 


P 


Hawaii Com Tech. 


04 22 


21 


CT 


Seven, Hawaii Com Tech, I read you momentarily on UHF. How do you read? Over. 


04 22 


26 


P 


Roger, reading you loud and clear Haw T aii. How me? 


04 22 


31.5 


CC 


Aurora Seven, Hawaii Cap Com. How do you read me? 


04 22 


35 


P 


Roger, Do you read me or do you not, James? 


04 22 


39.5 


CC 


Gee, you are weak; but I read you. You are readable. Are you on UHF-Hi^ 


04 22 


44.5 


P 


Roger, UHF-Hi. 


04 22 


47.5 


CC 




04 22 


53.5 


p 


Roger, Will do. 


04 22 


59 


p 




04 23 


13 


CC 


Aurora Seven, Aurora Seven, do you copy? Over. 


04 23 


16 


P 


Roger. Copy. Going into orbit attitude at this time. 


04 23 


24 


CC 




04 24 


11 


CC 


Aurora Seven, Hawaii Cap Com. Do you read me? Over. 


04 24 


14 


P 


Roger. Go ahead, Hawaii. 


04 24 


15 


CC 




04 24 


18 


P 


The maneuver switch is off. 


04 24 


20 


CC 


Roger. Are you ready to start your pre-retrosequence checklist? 


04 24 


23.5 


P 


Roger. One moment. 


04 24 




P 


I'm alining my attitudes. Everything is fine. I have part of the stowage checklist taken 
care of at this time. 


04 24 47 


CC 




04 25 


11.5 


CC 


Aurora Seven, do you wish me to read out any of the checklist to you? 


04 25 


17 


p 


Roger. Let me get the stowage and then you can help me with the pre-retrograde. 


04 25 


24 


CC 


Roger. Standing by. 


04 25 


55 


CC 


Aurora Seven, can we get on with the checklist? We have approximately 3 minutes left 
of contact. 


04 26 


00 


p 


Roger. Go ahead with the checklist. I'm coming to retroattitude now and my control 
mode is automatic and my attitudes-standby. Wait a minute, I have a problem in 


04 26 


33.5 


p 


I have an ASCS problem here. I think ASCS is not operating properly. Let me — . Emer- 
gency retrosequence is armed and retro manual is armed. I've got to evaluate this 
retra — this ASCS problem, Jim, before we go any further. 


04 27 


04 


CC 


Roger. Standing by. Make sure your emergency drogue deploy and emergency main 
fuses are off. 


04 27 


13.5 


p 


Roger. They are. Okay, I'm going now to fly-by-wire, to Aux Damp, and now — attitudes 
do not agree. Five minutes to retrograde; light is on. I have a rate of descent too 
of about 10, 12 feet per second. 


04 27 


46.5 


CC 


Say again, say again. 


04 27 


49 


p 


I have a rate of descent of about 12 feet per second. 


04 27 


54 


CC 


What light was on? 


04 27 


56.5 


p 


Yes, I am back on fly-by- wire, trying to orient. 


04 28 


06 


CC 


Scott, let's try and get some of this retrosequence list checked off before you get to California. 


04 28 


12.5 


p 


Okay. Go through it, Jim. 


04 28 


26.5 


p 


Roger. Jim, go through the checklist for me. 


04 28 


29.5 


CC 


Roger. Squib switch armed; auto retrojettison switch off; gyros normal; manual handle 



out; roll, yaw and pitch handles in. 



104 



HAWAII (THIED PASS)— Continued 
04 28 42.5 P Roll, yaw, and pitch are in. 

04 28 46 5 CC Retroattitude auto; retract scope auto; maneuver switch off; periscope lever up; Urlf -tli 
power; transmit on TJHF; beacon continuous; VOX power on transmit and record; all 
batteries checked. Do you copy? 

04 29 10 P Roger. It's complete. 

04 29 15.5 CC Transmitting in the blind. We have LOS. Ground elapsed time is on my mark, 4 hours 
29 minutes and 30 seconds. Transmitting in the blind to Aurora Seven. Make sure 
all your tone switches are on; your warning lights are bright; the retro manual fuse switch 
is on; the retrojettison fuse switch is off. Check your faceplate and make sure that it is 
closed. 

04 29 59 CC Aurora Seven. Did you copy? 

04 30 00.5 P Roger. Copied all; I think we're in good shape. I'm not sure just what the status of the 

ASCS is at this time. 

CALIFORNIA (THIRD PASS) 
04 31 36 CT Aurora Seven, Aurora Seven, this is California Com Tech, California Com Tech. Do you 

hear? Over. 

04 31 42 P Hello, California Com Tech. Loud and clear. How me? 

04 31 45-5 CT I'm reading you loud and clear also. Stand by for Cap Com. 
04 31 50 CC Seven, this is Cap Com. Are you in retroattitude? 

04 31 53 P Yes, I don't have agreement with ASCS in the window, Al. I think I'm going to have to 

go to fly-by-wire and use the window and the scope. ASCS is bad. I'm on fiy-by-wire 
and manual. 

04 32 06 CC Roger. We concur. About 30 seconds to go. 

04 32 21 CC About 10 seconds on my mark. 

04 32 23.5 P Roger. 

04 32 28 CC 6, 5, 4, 3, 2, 1. 

04 32 36 P Retrosequence is green. 

04 32 40 CC Roger. Check ASCS quickly to see if orientation mode will hold. 
04 32 47 CC If your gyros are off, you'll have to use attitude bypass. 
04 32 51 P Gyros are off. 

04 32 54.5 CC But you'll have to use attitude bypass and manual override. 
04 32 58.5 P Roger. 

04 33 14.5 P Okay.' Fire 1, fire 2, and fire 3. I had to punch off manually. I have a little bit of smoke in 

the capsule. 
04 33 30 CC Attitudes hold, Scotty. 

04 33 31 5 P Okay, I think they held well, Al. The — I think they were good. I can t tell you what was 

wrong about them because the gyros were not quite right. But retrojettison— 3 fuse 
switches are on. 

04 33 51.5 CC Roger. We should have retrojettison in about 10 seconds. 
04 33 55 P Roger. 

04 33 56.5 P That was a nice gentle bump. All three have fired. Retroattitude was rea. 

04 34 05.5 CC Roger. Should have retrojettison now. 
04 34 10 P Ah, right then at 34 10, on time. 

04 34 15 CC Roger. How much fuel do you have left both tanks? 

04 34 19 P I have 20 and 5 [percent]. 

04 34 23.5 CC Roger. I guess we'd better use— 

04 34 26 P I'll use manual. 

04 34 27.5 CC —on reentry, unless ASCS holds you in reentry attitude. 
04 34 31 P Yes, it can. I'll have to do it with manual. 

04 34 39 CC Roger. Recommend you try Aux Damp first; if it's not working, then go to fly-by-wire. 
04 34 45 P Okay, I'll have to do that. 

04 34 53 P The balloon is gone [out of sight]. I am apparently out of manual fuel. I have to go to 

fly-by-wire to stop this tumbling.' 
04 35 13.5 CC Roger. Using fly-by-wire to stop tumbling. 
04 35 24.5 CC Aurora Seven. Understand RSCS did not work. 
04 35 27.5 P I am out of manual fuel, Al. 



6 Tumbling here refers to low rates of all axes ; however, the spacecraft was returned 
to proper attitude by the pilot before it had made Vi revolution. 



105 



CALIFORNIA (THIRD PASS) — -Continued 



04 35 31 


CC 


Roger. 


04 35 34.5 


P 


.05 g should be when? 


04 35 37.5 


CC 


Oh, you have plenty of time. It should be 04 44 elapsed time 


04 35 45 


P 




04 35 46 


CC 


You have plenty of time. Take your time on fiy-by-wire to get into reentry attitude 


04 35 50.5 


P 




04 36 05 


CC 


f^was just looking over your reentry checklist Looks like vou're in pretty good h 






You'll have to manually retract the scope. 


04 36 14.5 


p 


No. I didn't. The scope did come in, Al. 


04 36 18.5 


CC 


Roger. I didn't get that. Very good. 


04 36 29.5 


CC 


How are you doing on reentry attitude? Over. 


04 36 32.5 


p 


Stowing a few things first. I don't know yet. Take a while. 


04 36 46 


p 


Okay. 


04 36 54 


p 


Going to be tight on fuel. 


04 37 02.5 


CC 


Roger You have plenty of time; you have about 7 minutes before .05 g so take 


04 37 10 


p 




04 37 28 


p 


Okay. I can make out very, very small — farm land, pasture land below. I see individual 






fields, rivers, lakes, roads, I think. I'll get back to reentry attitude. 


04 37 39.5 


CC 


Roger Seven, recommend you get close to reentry attitude, using as little fuel as possible 






and stand by on fly-by-wire until rates develop. Over. 


04 37 50 




Roger Will do 


04 38 03 


CC 


Seven, this is California. We're losing you now. Stand by for Cape. 
Roger. 


04 38 08.5 


p 






CAPE CANAVERAL (THIRD PASS) 


04 40 50.5 


CC 


Aurora Seven, Cape Cap Com. Over. 


04 40 52.5 


p 


Hello Cape Cap Com, Aurora Seven. Loud and clear. 


04 41 08 


CC 


Aurora Seven, Cape Cap Com. Over. 


04 41 10 


p 


Hello, Cape Cap Com. Go ahead. 


04 41 12.5 


CC 


Roger, Do you have your face, faceplate closed? 


04 41 16 


p 


Negative. It is now. Thank you. 


04 41 18.5 


CC 




04 41 20 


p 


FueTis lMpTrc^ntj'auto^V medicating 7 [percent] manual but it is em tad' ff t' 


04 41 27 


CC 


Roger. You have a few minutes to start of blackout. 


04 41 33 


p 


Two minutes, you say? 


04 41 49 


CC 


Aurora Seven, Cap Com. 


04 41 50 


p 


Go ahead, Cap Com. 


04 41 52.5 


CC 


Just wanted to hear from you. 


04 41 54 


p 


Roger. It's going to be real tight on fuel, Gus. I've got the horizon in view now Trv- 








04 42 10 


CC 


. . . checklist. 


04 42 12 


p 




04 42 18.5 


CC 


Aurora Seven have vou comrileted 


04 42 20.5 


p 


Roger ' 


04 42 22 


CC 


Check. 


04 42 28.5 


CC 








knots of wind; 10 miles visibility; and the cloud bases are at 1 000 feet 


04 42 39 


p 




04 42 45 


CC 


WtiTgive you some more as soon as we et an IP 


04 42 47 


p 


Roger 150011 aS We ge a ° 


04 43 05 


CC 


Aurora Seven, Cap Com. Will you check your glove compartment and make sure it's 






latched and your .... 


04 43 10.5 


p 


Roger, it's tight. 


04 43 12.5 


CC 


Rog. 


04 43 16 


CC 


Starting into blackout anytime now. 


04 43 18 


p 


Roger. 


04 43 21.5 


CC 


Roger. We show you still have some manual fuel left. 


04 43 24.5 


p 


Yes, but I can't get anything out of it. 


04 43 28.5 


CC 


Roger. 


04 43 40 


CC 


Aurora Seven, Cap Com. Do you still read? 


04 43 42.5 


p 


Roger. Loud and clear. 



106 



CAPE CANAVERAL (THIRD PASS) — Continued 



04 43 52 P I don't have a roll rate in yet. I'll put some in when I begin to get the g buildup. 

04 44 07.5 P I only was reading 0.5 g's on the acoelerometer. Okay, here come some rates. 

04 44 28.5 P I've got the orange glow. I assume we're in blackout now. Gus, give me a try. There 

goes something tearing away. 
04 44 52.5 P Okay. I'm setting in a roll rate at this time. 

04 45 06 P Going to Aux Damp. 

04 45 13,5 P I hope we have enough fuel. I get the orange glow at this time. 

04 45 30.5 P Bright orange glow. 

04 45 43.5 P Picking up just a little acceleration now. 

04 46 17.5 P Not much glow : just a little. Reading 0.5 g. Aux Damp seems to be doing well. My fuel, 

I hope, holds out. There is 1 g. Getting a few streamers of smoke out behind. There's 

some green flashes out there. 
04 47 02.5 P Reentry is going pretty well. Aux Damp seems to.be keeping oscillations pretty good. 

We're at 1M> g's now. There was a large flaming piece coming off. Almost looked like 

it came off the tower. 7 
04 47 36.5 P Oh, I hope not. 

04 47 47 P Okay. We're reading 3 g's, think we'll have to let the reentry damping check go this time. 

Reading now 4 g's. The reentry seems to be going okay. The rates there that Aux 
Damp appears to be handling. I don't think I'm oscillating too much; seem to be rolling 
right around that glow — the sky behind. Auto fuel still reads 14 (percent) at 6.5 g's. 
Rates are holding to within 1% degrees per second indicating about 10 degrees per second 
roll rate. Still peaked at 6.8 g's. The orange glow has disappeared now. We're off 
peak g. Still indicating 14 [percent] auto fuel; back to 5 g's. 

04 49 18.5 P And I'm standing by for altimeter off the peg. Cape, do you read yet? Altimeter is off 

the peg. 100 [1,000] ft., rate of descent is coming down, cabin pressure is — cabin pressure 
is holding okay. Still losing a few streaming. No, that's shock waves. Smoke pouring 
out behind. Getting ready for the drogue at 45 [1,000 ft]. 

04 49 58 P Oscillations are pretty good. I think ASCS has given up the ghost at this point. Emer- 

gency drogue fuse switch is on. 

04 50 20.5 ? 

04 50 29.5 P Roger. Aurora Seven, reading okay. Getting some pretty good oscillations now and 

we're out of fuel. Looks from the sun like it might be about 45 degrees. Oww, it's 

coming like — it's really going over. 
04 50 51 P Think I'd better take a try on the drogue. Drogue out manually at 25 [1,000 ft.]. It's 

holding and it was just in time. Main deploy fuse switch is on now, 21 [1,000 ft.] 

indicated [altitude]. 

04 51 12.5 P Snorkle override now. Emergency flow rate on. Emergency main fuse switch at 15 

[1,000 ft.], standing by for the main chute at 10 [1,000 ft.]. 
04 51 33.5 P Cabin pressure, cabin altimeter agree on altitude. Should be 13,000 [feet] now. Mark 10; 

I see the main is out, and reefed, and it looks good to me. The main chute is out. 

Landing bag goes to auto now. The drogue has fallen away. I see a perfect chute, 

visor open. Cabin temperature is only 110 [degrees] at this point. Helmet hose is off. 
04 52 39.5 P Does anybody read. Does anybody read Aurora Seven? Over. 

04 52 54.5 P Hello, any Mercury recovery force. Does anyone read Aurora Seven? Over. 

04 53 04.5 CC Aurora Seven, Aurora Seven, Cape Cap Com. Over. 
04 53 07.5 P Roger. Say again. You're very weak. 

04 53 13 CC Aurora Seven, Aurora Seven, Cape Cap Com. Over. 

04 53 16 P Roger. I'm reading you. I'm on the main chute at 5,000 [feet]. Status is good. I am 

not in contact with any recovery forces. Do you have any information on the recovery 
time? Over. 

04 54 14 P Hello, any Mercury recovery forces. How do you read Aurora Seven? Over. 

04 54 27 CC Aurora Seven, Cape Cap Com. Over. 

04 54 29 P Roger. Loud and clear, Aurora Seven reading the Cape. Loud and clear. How me, 

Gus? 

04 54 41.5 P Gus, how do you read? 

04 54 56.5 CC Aurora Seven ... 95. Your landing point is 200 miles long. We will jump the air rescue 
people to you. 

04 55 06 P Roger. Understand. I'm reading. 

04 55 27 CC Aurora Seven, Aurora Seven, Cape Cap Com. Be advised your landing point is long. We 

will jump air rescue people to you in about 1 hour. 
04 55 36 P Roger. Understand 1 hour. 

' Tower here refers to cylindrical section of the spacecraft.