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RESULTS OF THE THIRD 
U.S. MANNED 
ORBITAL SPACE FLIGHT 
OCTOBER 3, 1962 




NATIONAL AERONAUTICS 
| AND SPACE ADMINISTRATION 
I MANNED SPACECRAFT CENTER 
PROJECT MERCURY 



December 1962 
Office of Scientific and Technical Information 
NATIONAL AERONAUTICS AND SPACE ADMINISTRATION 
Washington, D.C. 



For sale by the Superintendent of Documents, U.S. Government Printing Office 
Washington 25, D.C. - Price 70 cents 



FOREWORD 



This document presents the results of the third United States manned 
orbital space flight conducted on October 3, 1962. The performance discussions 
of the spacecraft and launch-vehicle systems, the flight control personnel, 
and the astronaut, together with a detailed analysis of the medical aspects of 
the flight, form a continuation of the information previously published for the 
first two United States manned orbital flights, conducted on February 20 and 
May 24, 1962, and the two manned suborbital space flights. 



CONTENTS 

Page 

FOREWORD iii 

1. SPACECRAFT AND LAUNCH- VEHICLE PERFORMANCE 1 

By John H. Boynton, Mercury Project Office; and Lewis R. Fisher, Mercury 
Project Office. 

2. MISSION OPERATIONS 13 

By John D. Hodge, Asst. Chief for Flight Control, Flight Operations Division; 
Eugene F. Kranz, Flight Operations Division; and John Stonesifer, Flight 
Operations Division. 

3. AEROMEDICAL ANALYSIS 23 

By Charles A. Berry, M.D., Chief, Aerospace Medical Operations Office; 
Howard A. Minners, M.D., Aerospace Medical Operations Office; Ernest P. 
McCutcheon, M.D., Aerospace Medical Operations Office; and Richard A. 
Pollard, M.D., Aerospace Medical Operations Office. 

4. PILOT PERFORMANCE 37 

By Richard E. Day, Asst. Chief for Training, Flight Crew Operations Division; 
and John J. Van Bockel, Flight Crew Operations Division. 

5. PILOT'S FLIGHT REPORT 49 

By Walter M. Schirra, Jr., Astronaut. 
APPENDIX. AIR-GROUND COMMUNICATIONS OF THE MA-8 FLIGHT... 57 



1. SPACECRAFT AND LAUNCH- VEHICLE PERFORMANCE 

By John H. Boynton, Mercury Project Office; and Lewis R. Fisher, Mercury Project Office 



Summary 

The Mercury spacecraft and the Atlas 
launch vehicle used in the orbital flight of 
Astronaut Walter M. Schirra, Jr., performed 
extremely well in every respect. All objectives 
of the eighth Mercury-Atlas mission (MA-8) 
were accomplished, and no malfunctions oc- 
curred which compromised the success of the 
mission. The third United States manned 
orbital flight marked another key milestone in 
the Mercury program, in that the period of 
observation in space for both the astronaut and 
the spacecraft systems was twice that of pre- 
vious missions. The only anomaly which 
caused concern during the flight was an elevated 
suit temperature experienced in the first 2 hours 
after launch. This condition was later found 
to have resulted from a foreign substance in 
the control valve, but the flight control task 
was further aggravated by a difference between 
the suit-inlet temperature readings telemetered 
to the ground stations and those indicated to 
the astronaut by the instrument panel gages. 
However, the elevated temperature condition 
was adequately remedied through effective 
system monitoring and methodical control- 
valve manipulation by the astronaut. The 
scientific experiments included in the mission 
provided valuable information regarding physio- 
graphic features of the earth, the selection of 
filters for weather photography, nuclear radia- 
tion in terrestrial space, and the effectiveness 
of advanced ablation materials during an orbital 
reentry. The excellent performance of the 
man-spacecraft system during the MA-8 flight 
provided information and evidence which sup- 
ports the immediate 'advancement of essentially 
this same system into missions of even greater 
duration with more ambitious objectives. 



Introduction 

The eighth Mercury-Atlas mission (MA-8) 
was planned for up to six orbital passes and 
was a continuation of a program to acquire 
new knowledge while extending the operational 
experience in manned orbital space flight. The 
objectives of the flight were to evaluate the 
performance of the man-spacecraft system in 
a six-pass orbital mission, to evaluate the 
effects of an extended orbital space flight on 
the astronaut, to obtain additional evaluation 
by the astronaut of the operational suitability 
of the spacecraft systems, to evaluate the 
performance of spacecraft systems which had 
been modified, and to exercise and evaluate 
further the performance of the Mercury World- 
wide Network and mission support forces in 
order to establish their suitability for extended 
manned orbital flight. 

The Mercury spacecraft, Sigma 7, and the 
Atlas launch vehicle used by Astronaut Schirra 
in successfully performing the third United 
States manned orbital mission were nearly 
identical to those used for the MA-6 and MA-7 
flights. The spacecraft provided a habitable 
environment for the astronaut in space and 
protected him during the elevated heating 
phases of powered flight and reentry. The 
spacecraft also served as a laboratory in space 
where valuable scientific experiments were 
conducted. The intent of this paper is to 
describe briefly the significant changes incor- 
porated into the MA-8 spacecraft and launch 
vehicle since the previous flight and to discuss 
the performance of the spaceborne systems. 
References 1 and 2 should be consulted for 
complete descriptions of the systems discussed 
in this paper. The spacecraft systems include 
those of heat protection, mechanical and pyro- 



1 



Electrical system | 



ord pyrotechnics l : I 



Figure 1-1. — Spacecraft interior arrangement. 



technic, spacecraft control, communications, 
instrumentation, life support, and electrical 
and sequential. The arrangement of these 
systems within the spacecraft is illustrated by 
a simplified schematic diagram in figure 1-1 . 

Heat Protection System 

The performance of the heat protection 
system was satisfactory. Through the use of 
an ablative-type heat shield, insulation in a 
double-wall afterbody structure, and heat- 
sink beryllium shingles on the cylindrical 
section, the Mercury spacecraft is protected 
against excessive heating during exit and re- 
entry flight through the atmosphere. An 
alteration to the heat protection system since 
the previous mission was the bonding of nine 
ablation material samples to the exterior 
surface of the cylindrical section shingles. 
The ablation samples were added only as an 
experimental study, which is discussed in the 
section entitled "Scientific Experiments," 
and were not installed with the intention of 
altering the effectiveness of the beryllium 
shingles for this mission. 

All temperature data, as recorded from 
thermocouples located around the exterior of 



the spacecraft, were within expected ranges 
and were in excellent agreement with measure- 
ments taken during previous orbital missions 
(see refs. 1 and 2). 

Mechanical and Pyrotechnic Systems 

The mechanical and pyrotechnic systems 
consist of the separation devices, the landing 
system, the rocket motors, and the internal 
spacecraft structure. These systems functioned 
normally throughout the mission. The con- 
figuration of these systems was nearly identical 
to that of the previous orbital missions. The 
notable changes from the MA-7 mission were 
the removal of the heater blankets from around 
the retrorocket motors in order to conserve 
weight and the addition of a SOFAR bomb to 
be ejected at main parachute deployment and 
detonated at 2,500 feet below the surface of the 
water to assist in the location of the spacecraft 
after landing. 

The primary separation interfaces are those 
between the spacecraft and the escape tower, 
between the spacecraft and the launch vehicle, 
at the heat shield, and around the spacecraft 
hatch. All separation devices performed effec- 
tively during the mission, including the explo- 



2 



sive-actuated side hatch which was deployed 
by the astronaut after the spacecraft had been 
placed on the deck of the recovery ship. 

The landing system includes the landing- 
shock attentuation system (landing bag) and 
the drogue, main, and reserve parachutes. 
These systems were unchanged from MA-7 
spacecraft configuration. The landing system 
performed satisfactorily; the drogue parachute 
was deployed manually, as planned, at a 
pressure altitude of 39,400 feet, and the main 
parachute sequence was initiated automatically 
at a pressure altitude of 10,600 feet, which 
was within specification limits. The only 
incident of an anomalous nature was the slight 
tearing of the main-parachute deployment bag. 
Both the drogue and main parachutes performed 
properly and were undamaged during descent. 

The escape, posigrade, and retrograde rocket 
motors operated satisfactorily, and their thrust 
levels were within specification limits. The 
internal spacecraft structure was found to be 
entirely normal during the postflight inspection. 

Spacecraft Control System 

In accomplishing the task of providing atti- 
tude and rate control of the spacecraft during 
the orbital and reentry phases, the spacecraft 
control system performed satisfactorily through- 
out the entire flight. The control system was 
essentially equivalent to that which was in- 
stalled in the MA-7 spacecraft with but minor 
changes. These changes include widening the 
limit cycle or deadband of the automatic 
stabilization and control system (ASCS) in the 
orbit mode from ±3° to ±5.5° to conserve 
fuel, incorporating an "attitude select" switch 
for maintaining either retroattitude or reentry 
attitude in the orbit mode of ASCS, providing 
a switch to disable the high (24-pound) thrusters 
in the fly-by-wire mode during normal orbital 
operations (see fig. 1-2), and installing a modi- 




B switch^,,- — k 

■Yaw -I CMl-ll 



•- T I d 24-1 b thruster 



—Fly-by-wire thrust-select-s 
modification. 



cover for the pitch horizon scanner to 
alleviate possible thermal effects during ascent. 
An automatic feature existed which made the 
high thrusters operative at retrofire when using 
fly-by-wire to provide rapid spacecraft aline- 
ment and to control any angular rates which 
might occur. 

Control System Electronics 

One unexpected occurrence of minor signifi- 
cance during the flight was that the deadband 
obtained with the ASCS was greater than ex- 
pected. For example, the deadband was ap- 
proximately ±8° for the initial thrust pulse 
instead of the planned ±5.5° mentioned pre- 
viously. The exact reason for this anomaly is 
unknown, but preliminary studies indicate that 
the duration of the thrust pulses at the given 
attitude limits was less than expected. This 
disparity did not adversely affect control system 
performance or control fuel usage. 

Brief voltage transients were indicated across 
the solenoid valves for the 24-pound automatic- 
system thrusters when the astronaut switched 
from ASCS orbit mode to another method of 
control, but these transients were insufficient 
to operate the solenoid valves and are, there- 
fore, not considered to have been of a serious 
nature. 

Fuel Usage 

The usage rate of hydrogen peroxide control 
fuel was less than had been predicted for the 
MA-8 mission. The mission had been planned 
for minimum fuel usage, a philosophy which 
was incorporated into the schedule of inflight 
activities, and the astronaut adhered strictly 
to this flight plan. This result is especially 
satisfying when the fuel usage of the two previ- 
ous flights is compared with that of the MA-8 
mission, which was of much longer duration. 
The time history of fuel remaining for the 
MA-8 flight is presented in figure 1-3. Al- 
though no additional fuel was included, a 
number of minor changes in equipment and 
flight procedures contributed to the increased 
fuel economy. The addition of a switch to 
disable the high thrusters when they were not 
needed permitted the pilot greater freedom in 
stick motion, since he then was not required to 
restrain his hand movement within a fixed 
range to activate only the economical low 
thrusters. This switch, therefore, eliminated 
the possibility of inadvertently using the fuel- 



Automatic system 

Manual system 

A-ASCS, orbit mode 
R- Maneuver to retroattitude 
MP-Manual proportional rr 

F- Fly-by-wire mode 
RC-Rate command mode 
DA-Double authority 




3 04:00 05:00 06:00 
Ground elapsed time, hr:min 
Figure 1-3. — Fuel usage rates. 



costly high thrusters during situations in which 
the pilot's attention might be distracted. The 
widening of the ASCS deadband was done in an 
effort to reduce the number and duration of 
control pulses per unit time and, therefore, the 
amount of total fuel consumed. The primary 
technique to reduce fuel consumption, however, 
was the fact that the flight procedure included 
long periods of attitude-free drifting flight. 
During some of these periods, very small quan- 
tities of fuel were used at times to maintain 
spacecraft attitudes within the limits of the 
horizon scanners. When it was important to 
have the spacecraft at retroattitude for a possi- 
ble mission abort, the ASCS orbit mode, which 
involves very small quantities of fuel, was 
utilized. Finally, the flight plan intentionally 
excluded control maneuvers which would have 
caused large quantities of fuel to be consumed. 
It must be emphasized, however, that the previ- 
ously mentioned factors were complementary 



to the pilot's discreet management of control 
system operations, for which he alone was re- 
sponsible. Astronaut Schirra's discipline in 
using control fuel was the primary reason for 
the favorably low rate of expenditure. 

Communication Systems 

Performance of the spacecraft communi- 
cation systems throughout the entire mission 
was satisfactory. The communication systems 
used in the spacecraft for the MA-8 flight were 
very similar to those employed for the two 
previous orbital missions . There were , however , 
some notable changes from MA-7. The voice 
system included a more sensitive and effective 
microphone in the astronaut's helmet (fig. 1-4), 
a dipole antenna (fig. 1-5) to be used for orbital 
high-frequency (HF) voice communications, a 
hardline link from the spacecraft to the liferaft 
for possible use after landing, and a miniature 
ultra-high-frequency (UHF) transceiver which 



4 



was added to the survival kit in the liferaft. 
The HF recovery transceiver was removed for 
the MA-8 mission. In addition, one of the two 
previously used command receivers and de- 




Figuke 1-4. — Closeup photograph of microphone 
installed in the helmet. 



coders was removed in an effort to save weight, 
since these units have exhibited a high reli- 
ability in previous missions. The astronaut had 
the capability to switch the HF transceiver to 
either the standard bicone antenna or the dipole 
antenna. 

Voice Communications 

During the launch phase, the background 
noise caused triggering of the voice-operated 
relay within the spacecraft transmitter which 
precluded reception in the spacecraft for brief 




Figure 1-5. — High-frequency dipole orbital antenna. 



periods of ground-to-air communications. This 
triggering or keying was apparently the result 
of the increased sensitivity of the new micro- 
phone installed in lieu of the two less efficient 
units previously flown. During the orbital 
phase, the range of HF reception and transmis- 
sion was considerably improved over that of 
previous orbital missions, undoubtedly as a re- 
sult of the new HF orbital antenna. Most of 
the ground stations around the Mercury World- 
wide Network reported effective HF and UHF 
voice contact with the astronaut, who also re- 
ported that reception from all stations was 
exceptionally good. 

Radar Beacons 
The performance of the C- and S-band radar 
beacons was satisfactory for the MA-8 flight, 
but the C-band beacon experienced slight ampli- 
tude and frequency modulation, as in previous 
missions. This condition, caused by the phase 
shifter and, at times, poor antenna orientation 
during tracking operations, is not significant. 
Good tracking data were acquired whenever the 
spacecraft was over a station with the beacons 
on; however, no usable tracking data were re- 
ceived during the periods- when the beacons 
were turned off. 

Location Aids 

The recovery forces reported that transmis- 
sions from all location aids, with the exception 
of the SEAS AVE HF rescue beacon, were 
satisfactorily received. The SEASAVE beacon 
was tested after the flight and operated within 
specification. The reason for this lack of signal 
reception is believed to be shorting of the 
recovery antenna. The flashing recovery light 
was also reported to have stopped operating 
during the recovery period, but postflight tests 
to date have revealed no malfunctions in this 
unit ; however, the investigation is continuing. 

Command Receiver 

Although it was not required for flight control 
during the mission, the command receiver 
operated normally during the launch and orbital 
flight phases. Calibration signals for correcting 
baseline shifts in the instrumentation were 
satisfactorily received by the spacecraft. How- 
ever, during the deployment of the drogue 
parachute, an all-events-channel indication with 
a signal strength of 3 microvolts was noted. 
This indication was of no significance to the 



5 



mission and is believed to have been caused by 
the planned delay in the deployment of one of 
the radio antennas. 

Instrumentation System 

Performance of the instrumentation system 
was satisfactory, with but a few minor anoma- 
lies, for the MA-8 flight. The system was 
nearly identical to configurations used during 
previous orbital missions. Because of the ex- 
tended duration of this flight, the program for 
operation of the astronaut observer camera was 
modified and the thickness of the magnetic re- 
cording tape was reduced to provide full mission 
coverage. Additional changes include the sub- 
stitution of an impedance pneumograph for the 
breath-sensing thermistor used in MA-7 to 
measure the astronaut's respiration and the 
relocation of the temperature monitoring point 
for the environmental control system from the 
steam vents to the domes of the heat exchangers. 
Finally, an indicator was added to the instru- 
ment panel to display oxygen partial pressure 
in the cabin, and the coolant-quantity-indicator 
transducer was removed. 

While conducting a launch simulation prior 
to flight, the 108-second timer which terminates 
the automatic sequence of the blood pressure 
measuring system (BPM3) failed to operate. 
Since the BPMS could be stopped manually, 
prelaunch operations were continued without 
replacing this unit because of the time involved. 
Postflight analyses revealed that a faulty 
switching transistor in the timing circuit was the 
cause of the malfunction. 

On the day prior to launch, the body tem- 
perature readout on the high-frequency te- 
lemetry channel became slightly noisy, but a 
decision to continue into the launch countdown 
was made because the low frequency channel 
was yielding good data. However, at 6 minutes 
before lift-off, both channels of the body 
temperature readout became erratic. A de- 
cision to continue with the mission was again 
made, since the suit-inlet temperature and the 
astronaut's status report were deemed to be 
satisfactory. The loss of body temperature 
measurement continued until just prior to 
02:00:00 ground elapsed time (g.e.t.), after 
which the readings were in the normal range, 
with some intermitted readings, until com- 
pletion of the flight. Exhaustive postflight 



testing has not revealed any malfunctions 
which would explain the temporary loss of 
this instrumentation. 

During the flight, there were discrepancies 
between the suit-inlet temperature indications 
displayed to the astronaut and those trans- 
mitted to the ground over the telemetry 
channels. The ground readout was as much 
as 8° F higher than that reported by the pilot 
at times during the flight, and improper cali- 
bration and interpretation of the temperature 
pickup is believed to have been the source of 
the error. These and other smaller discrepan- 
cies are currently under investigation. 

Some erratic behavior of the oxygen partial 
pressure transducer was evident during the 
mission. For a period of about 15 minutes, 
beginning at 01 : 14 :00 g.e.t., the partial pressure 
indications were of no value, and, thereafter, 
poor quality data for periods of up to 30 seconds 
were occassionally exhibited. Postflight du- 
plication and analysis of this erratic behavior 
were not possible because of the expiration of 
the lifetime of the instrument sensor. 

Life Support System 

The life support system primarily controls 
the suit and spacecraft cabin environments, 
but the system also includes the food, water, 
pressure suit, and restraint system for the 
astronaut. This system performed satisfacto- 
rily and was of a configuration similar to those 
of previous manned orbital flights except for 
the following notable differences. The molded 
leg restraints were removed, and only small 
lateral supports at the knees and toe-and-heel 
restraints were installed. The manual lockout 
feature of the cabin pressure relief valve was 
deleted. Because the mission was extended, 
it was specified that the cabin leakage rate 
was not to exceed 600 cc/min before lift-off to 
conserve cabin oxygen during the flight, and 
15 pounds of coolant water were added to the 
environmental control system (ECS). The 
final change to the life support system was the 
inclusion of eight radiation dosimeters, five 
of which were of a solid-state type installed 
in the pressure suit and the remaining three 
versions were self-indicating to permit inflight 
monitoring by the astronaut. 

Although the ECS performed satisfactorily 
throughout the mission, its cooling performance 



6 



Figure 1-6. — Suit-inlet temperature and coolant-control-valve setting. 



in the suit circuit was not entirely satisfactory 
during the first 2 hours after launch. Cooling 
in the pressure suit was somewhat less than 
expected after orbital insertion, but a gradual 
advancement of the coolant control valve 
(CCV) by the astronaut adequately corrected 
this situation. The launch setting of 4.0 for 
the suit-circuit CCV was established from 
preflight tests, but after this setting proved to 
be insufficient for proper cooling, subsequent 
inflight increases in half-position increments 
were made to a level of 7.5. This increased 
level of coolant flow resulted in a more satis- 
factory suit-inlet temperature and was essen- 
tially maintained throughout the remainder 
of the flight as shown in figure 1-6. Postflight 
tests revealed that dried lubricant had partially 
blocked the valve orifice and reduced the flow. 
This reduction in flow shifted the preflight 
calibration curve so that the CCV setting at 
launch was no longer valid for proper ECS 
operation in orbit. Effective monitoring and 
management of the ESC by the astronaut 
resulted in satisfactory control of the suit- 
cooling circuit. 

As also experienced during the MA-7 flight, 
the cabin temperature was slightly above the 
desired level, but was still well within acceptable 
ranges. Flight data indicated that the cabin 
heat exchanger was operating efficiently during 
the flight. Drifting flight provided the astro- 
naut with the capability to reduce cabin tem- 
perature by shutting down heat-producing 
components. Because of increased heat loads 
since the original design of the cabin cooling 
circuit, the temperature levels are now above 



those initially specified but are considered nom- 
inal for this flight. 

Electrical and Sequential Systems 

The electrical arid sequential systems per- 
formed extremely well throughout the MA-8 
mission, and only very minor problems were 
encountered. These systems were essentially 
unchanged from the MA-6 and MA-7 missions. 
However, the zener diode panel used on previous 
flights was removed to eliminate voltage tran- 
sients, a number of relatively small but signifi- 
cant modifications were made as a result of a 
single-point failure analysis, and the control 
barostat used for deploying the landing system 
in the MA-7 spacecraft was removed. Each 
of the remaining sets of barostats in the para- 
chute deployment circuit was wired in series for 
improved reliability. 

During the flight, the rate of increase in the 
operating temperature of the 250 volt-ampere 
inverter indicated that little or no cooling was 
present for that unit. The temperatures of this 
inverter were, however, within acceptable limits 
and caused no concern on the ground. Post- 
flight tests showed the coolant-flow orifice for 
this inverter to be partially blocked. 

A very brief delay was reported by the astro- 
naut in the ignition of the first retrorocket. 
Postflight investigation of the sequential ignition 
circuitry disclosed no malfunctions, and a close 
examination of the flight data provided verifi- 
cation that the timing unit operated within 
specification limits. The nominal retrosequence 
period is 30 ±0.5 seconds in length, and the 



7 



data show that the corresponding duration for 
MA-8 did not exceed 30.5 seconds. 

Scientific Experiments 

Four scientific experiments were planned for 
the MA 8 mission which utilized equipment and 
materials in addition to the normal spacecraft 
operation. These experiments were a continu- 
ation of the program initiated during the MA-6 
mission to study the scientific aspects of terres- 
trial space. The experiments to be discussed 
include two which required the participation of 
the astronaut and two which were of a passive 
nature. 

Light Visibility Experiment 

As in the MA-6 and MA-7 missions, an 
attempt was made by the astronaut to observe 
high-intensity light sources at ground-based 
locations. The objective for this experiment, 
as in MA-7, was to determine the capability of 
the astronaut to acquire and observe a ground- 
based light of known intensity. Another loca- 
tion, in addition to Woomera, Australia, was 
provided at Durban, South Africa. During the 
first orbital pass over Woomera, Astronaut 
Schirra was to acquire visually the light from 
four flares, each with an intensity of 1 million 
candlepower. At Durban, be was to observe 
a xenon light of similar intensity for a period of 
about 3 minutes during the sixth orbital pass. 
Both attempts were unsuccessful because of 
extreme cloud cover. The astronaut reported 
that, although cloud formations were prevalent 
around the entire ground track of the orbit, he 
was able to see lightning in a storm over 
Woomera and the lights of a city near Durban 
while conducting the experiment. 

Photographic Studies 

A 70-mm Hasselblad camera with detachable 
film magazines and filters was used in two stud- 
ies of photographic and spectral definition of 
terrestrial surface features. Since a prescribed 
ground rule of the flight was to conserve con- 
trol fuel, only a few selected photographs were 
taken. 

The U.S. Weather Bureau sponsored a photo- 
graphic exercise which involved exposing the 
film through a special filter mosaic. The 
purpose of this exercise was to measure the 
spectral reflectance of clouds, land, and water 
for application to weather satellites. The 



filter mosaic, shown in figure 1-7 and described 
in the following table, consisted of six gelatin 
plates which were mounted just ahead of the 
film plane in a special magazine. 




Figube 1-7. — Filter mosaic slide. 



Num- 
ber 


Color 


Wratten number 


Neutral 
density 
of W-96 
filter 


1 


Blue___ . 


W-47B and W-96. 


0. 1 


2 




W-61 and W-96__ 


. 1 


3 


Neutral. __ 


W-96 


. 2 and . 9 


4 


Yellow... 


W-15 and W-96__ 


. 9 


5 


Red 


W-25 and W-96._ 


.6 


6 




W-70 and W-25.. 





A total of 15 frames were exposed on the U.S. 
Weather Bureau films by the astronaut, and a 
preliminary postflight analysis indicated that 
the yellow and red filters yielded a higher con- 
trast than the other filters, as shown in figure 
1-8. Although certain controls were exer- 
cised prior to launch, such as measuring the 
spectral transmittance of the camera lens and 
spacecraft window, the astronaut reported that, 
when the escape tower was jettisoned, the 
exhaust of the rocket left a light residue of 



Blue Green Neutral Yellow Red Far red 

Figure 1-8.— Weather photograph showing filter comparison. 



indefinable characteristics on the window. An 
investigation of the effect of this residue on the 
photographs, a comparison of these photo- 
graphs with some which were taken on the day 
of launch by the Tiros satellite, and further 
analysis of the exposures are being conducted. 

A series of terrestrial color photographs were 
taken by Astronaut Schirra for two purposes: 
(1) to aid in building up a catalog of space 
photographs of various physiographic features 
of the earth, such as folded mountains, fault 
zones, and volcanic fields; and (2) to obtain 
photographs of cloud patterns for comparison 
with those of other satellite programs. An 
exposure meter was provided the astronaut to 
aid in the adjustment of the camera. A total 
of 14 exposures was made over the western 
United States and Mexico during the third 
pass and over South America during the sixth 
pass. Several of these photographs were either 
overexposed or rendered unusable with regard 
to physiographic studies because of extensive 



cloud cover. An analysis of the remaining 
frames is in progress. 

Nuclear Radiation Experiment 

Two packages of radiation-sensitive emul- 
sions were provided by the NASA Goddard 
Space Flight Center to study the flux and com- 
position of the galactic cosmic radiation out- 
side the earth's atmosphere. It was also in- 
tended that a measurement of the intensity 
and energy spectrum of artificially induced 
electrons at orbital altitudes be obtained. 
The processing of these emulsions consumes an 
extensive amount of time; however, a prelimi- 
nary inspection of the plates indicates that 
valuable data will be derived from both film 
packages. 

In addition to the Goddard emulsion pack- 
ages, two sets of radiation-sensitive films, 
which have been included in spacecraft for pre- 
vious missions, were provided by the U.S. 
Naval School of Aviation Medicine. These 



emulsions will also be analyzed to provide a 
continuing catalog of radiation data for the 
near-space environment. 

Ablation-Material Investigation 

An experiment intended to determine the 
reentry heating effects on various advanced 
ablation materials was conducted during the 
MA-8 mission. These materials are being con- 
sidered for possible use in the design of vehicles 
for future space programs. Although many 
studies of these materials have been conducted 
in the laboratory, the Mercury mission afforded, 
the opportunity to use much larger test samples 
under more realistic conditions. A total of 
eight types of ablation material in nine different 
configurations was supplied by six organizations. 
These samples were bonded to the exterior 
surface of 9 of the 12 beryllium shingles on the 
cylindrical section of the spacecraft. A pre- 
flight photograph of these materials bonded to 
the shingles is shown in figure 1-9. Two of the 
uncoated shingles were instrumented with_ 
thermocouples, and temperature-sensitive paint, 
was applied to the interior surface of each of 
the nine experimental shingles. The ablation 
panels were each 15 inches long and 5 inches 
wide. Most of the samples contained inten- 
tional cutouts to represent repairs and joints in 
order to determine the effectiveness of modifi- 
cation and restoration techniques for these 
materials. 

A close inspection of the panels following the 
flight revealed evidence of normal charring and 
some minor cracking, as expected, but there 
was no indication that delamination from the 
beryllium shingles occurred . The ablation panels 
received little damage during postflight handling, 
and each of the samples appears to have sus- 
tained the reentry heat pulse in excellent 
fashion. An initial inspection of the areas 
which had received purposeful repairs shows 
that they were no more affected by reentry 
heating than other portions of the ablated 
surfaces. An analysis of the temperature data 
and a more detailed investigation of the 
ablation samples are continuing. 

Launch Vehicle Performance 

The Atlas (113 D) launch vehicle which 
placed Astronaut Schirra and his Sigma 7 
spacecraft into an orbit having a perigee alti- 




FiCiUKE 1-9.— Ablation material samples bonded to 
spacecraft beryllium shingles. 



tude of 100 miles performed exceptionally well. 
A significant hardware change since the MA-7 
mission was included for this flight. The two 
booster engines were modified to include new 
baffled fuel injectors which improved the com- 
bustion characteristics, and hypergolic igniters 
were installed in lieu of the pyrotechnic devices 
previously used. Because of these modifica- 
tions, the rough combustion cutoff capability 
and the hold-down delay used in the past to 
allow for monitoring engine performance 
immediately after ignition were discontinued. 
In addition to this change, the insulation 
bulkhead, which was considered to be unnec- 



10 



essary, was removed at the factory. Finally, 
the hydraulic lines associated with pressure 
transducers of the abort sensing system in the 
thrust section were modified to prevent freezing, 
a condition believed to have existed during 
MA-7 (see ref. 2). 

All launch vehicle systems performed satis- 
factorily, and only two minor anomalies oc- 
curred which should be noted. The trajectory 
of the launch vehicle prior to booster engine 
cutoff was somewhat lofted, and this condition 
resulted in an early staging of the booster 
engines and a late sustainer engine cutoff 
(SECO). In addition, a slight overspeed con- 
dition of 15 feet per second at insertion resulted 



in the apogee altitude of the orbit being about 
8.6 nautical miles greater than nominal. The 
guidance system operated within specification, 
and all guidance parameters were acceptable 
during the go — no-go computation immediately 
after SECO. 

A small clockwise roll transient occurred 
immediatly after lift-off, and this roll rate prob- 
ably was caused by a slight misalinement of the 
booster engines and thrust from the gas 
generator exhaust. The magnitude of the roll 
transient was less than the abort threshold 
value, and the condition was satisfactorily 
corrected by the vernier engines of the launch 
vehicle. 



References 



1. Staff of NASA Manned Spacecraft Center: Results of the First United States Manned Orbital Space Flight, 

February 20, 1962. Supt. Doc, U.S. Government Printing Office (Washington, D.C.). 

2. Staff of NASA Manned Spacecraft Center: Results of the Second United States Manned Orbital Space Flight, 

May Si, 1962. NASA SP-6, Supt. Doc, U.S. Government Printing Office (Washington, D.C.). 



670857 O— 63 2 



11 



2. MISSION OPERATIONS 

By John D. Hodge, Asst. Chief for Flight Control, Flight Operations Division; 
Eugene F. Kra^z, Flight Operations Division; 
and Joh> Stonesifer, Flight Operations Division 



Summary 

A discussion of the detailed operational sup- 
port provided during the MA-8 mission, 
including the prelaunch, launch, orbital, and 
recovery phases, is presented. Because the 
prelaunch preparation and the launch count- 
down for the spacecraft and launch vehicle 
were nearly identical to that performed for the 
first two U.S. manned orbital missions, these 
activities are given only minor emphasis. The 
launch phase proceeded almost perfectly, except 
for a brief hold of 15 minutes' duration which 
occurred at T-45 minutes for repairs to the 
Canary Islands radar. The countdown con- 
tinued thereafter without difficulty. The 
powered flight phase was normal, and the 
spacecraft was inserted into a nominal orbit. 
The flight was satisfactorily monitored by 
personnel located at ground stations around 
the Mercury network, and their activities are 
presented chronologically. The only flight 
discrepancy which caused concern was a suit- 
cooling problem during the first orbital pass. 
The astronaut corrected this problem by 
gradually increasing the flow of coolant water 
to the suit heat exchanger. The mission con- 
tinued normally after the suit temperature had 
reached a more satisfactory value, and the 
astronaut's management of the onboard systems 
was excellent. The astronaut used the auto- 
matic stabilization and control system to 
perform successfully the retrofire and reentry 
maneuvers. Initial computations using flight 
data at retrofire indicated that the landing 
point would be very close to the recovery 
aircraft carrier, the U.S.S. Kearsarye. The 
spacecraft was observed visually during descent 
on the main parachute and, after landing about 
4 nautical miles from the carrier, was placed 
1 ship in approximately 40 minutes. 



In the present paper, the flight control and 
recovery operations for the MA-8 mission are dis- 
cussed in detail. Since the launch support 
procedure was discussed in reference 1, it will 
only be mentioned briefly. A very limited 
number of changes in the operational support 
from the two previous missions was made. 
Most of these changes were instituted in antici- 
pation of longer duration missions after MA-8. 
Based on the extended mission for MA-8, the 
recovery support was grouped in a general area 
south of Bermuda and a second support activity 
was provided near Midway Island in the Pacific 
Ocean. The flight plan differed significantly 
from those of the two previous missions, pri- 
marily because of the greater emphasis placed 
on the engineering aspects of the flight. Most 
of the flight activities conducted during the mis- 
sion were designed to establish greater confi- 
dence in the operation of spacecraft systems for 
longer duration missions, to provide a detailed 
check of the long-term operating characteristics 
of the automatic stabilization and control sys- 
tem (ASCS), and to determine if the spacecraft 
window would provide an adequate yaw- 
reference under all conditions. 

Prelaunch Activities 

During the prelaunch period, a total of 7 
days were spent in conducting simulation exer- 
cises. Two days were utilized in conducting 
launch simulations with the Mercury Control 
Center and Bermuda flight control teams and 
the astronauts in attendance. One day was 
spent in performing four reentry simulations, 
which involved the Canton, Hawaii, California, 
Guaymas, and Mercury Control Center sta- 
tions. These simulations were conducted in an 



13 



effort to familiarize the personnel at these sta- 
tions with reentry decision techniques and 
retrosequence procedures when faced with vari- 
ous spacecraft systems problems. Three full 
network simulations were performed in fast 
time. The fast-time procedure primarily con- 
sisted of a real-time mission from lift-off to a 
ground elapsed time (g.e.t.) of 03:20:00. At 
this time, the computers used in the simulations 
were fast-timed until 07:10:00 g.e.t. when the 
mission was resumed in real time. 

The flight control teams at the majority of 
the network stations included one or two new 
personnel, and all simulations were profitable 
in providing detailed training in network opera- 
tions for these new flight controllers. A high 
level of performance was demonstrated b3 r the 
flight control teams very early in the schedule. 
The flight controllers maintained this perform- 
ance level throughout all of the remaining 
network simulations and during the actual 
MA-8 mission. 

The countdown for launching the Mercury- 
Atlas vehicle is conducted in two parts. The 
first part, lasting approximately 4 hours, was 
conducted on October 2, 1962, and was com- 
pleted satisfactorily. The second part of the 
countdown was initiated after the detailed 
hydrogen peroxide surveillance test, and the 
flight control team joined the spacecraft and 
launch vehicle countdown at approximately 
T-3 hours. The astronaut was suited (see fig. 
2-1) and transported to the launch complex for 
insertion into the spacecraft. The countdown 
continued normally until T-45 minutes, at 




Fioube 2-1. — Astronaut Schirra being suited prior to 
launch. 



which time the Canary Islands radar unit 
became temporarily inoperative because of a 
driver-unit failure, and the countdown was 
interrupted for 15 minutes to allow repair of 
this unit. The Canary Islands station is impor- 
tant during the initial phases of the mission, 
primarily because it is the first network station 
to establish radar contact after sustainer engine 
cut-off. The resulting data provide an early 
confirmation of the orbital insertion conditions 
and trajectory. In the case of marginal cut-off 
conditions, the Canary Islands radar data pro- 
vide enough information concerning the orbital 
capability to make any necessary go — no-go 
decision at the end of the first orbital pass. 
With this unit inoperative, the decision from a 
later station regarding orbit capability would 
become time critical. After resuming the 
countdown at T-45 minutes, no further holds 
were experienced, and all systems were "go" 
during the remainder of the period prior to 
lift-off. 

Powered Flight Phase 

Lift-off occurred at 7:15:11 a.m., e.s.t., on 
October 3, 1962, and the powered flight phase 
was monitored routinely. The quality of the 
air-ground (A/G) communications was reduced 
somewhat by the increased background noise 
near staging; however, it improved rapidly and 
was satisfactory during the remainder of 
powered flight. Throughout this phase, the 
astronaut was able to make all the communica- 
tions and observations indicated in the flight 
plan. The "go" capability, as indicated by the 
computers at the Goddard Space Flight Center, 
was confirmed and transmitted rapidly to the 
astronaut at 00:05:44 g.e.t. 

Table 2-1 presents the actual cut-off condi- 
tions, orbital parameters, and maximum condi- 
tions that were obtained. A comparison of the 
planned and actual times at which major events 
occurred is given in table 2-IL 

Orbital Flight Phase 

After separation of the spacecraft from the 
launch vehicle, the astronaut was given all 
pertinent data regarding orbit parameters and 
necessary retrosequence times. As in the MA-7 
mission, the Bermuda voice-remoting facility 
(see ref. 2) was utilized to extend the communi- 
cations capability of the Capsule Communicator 
(Cap Com) in the Mercury Control Center. 



14 



Table 2-1. — Actual Flight Conditions 



Cut-off conditions: 








Space-fixed velocity, ft/sec 




Space-fixed flight-path angle, deg_ 


— 0. 0062 


Orbital parameters: 




Perigee altitude, nautical miles — 


86. 94 


Apogee altitude, nautical miles 


1 52.^8 


Period, mm:sec 






32 "5 


Maximum conditions: 








Exit dynamic pressure," lb/sqft„ 


964 


Reentry acceleration, g units 


7. 6 


Reentry dynamic pressure, 




lb/sq ft 


458 



» Based on atmosphere at Cape Canaveral. 

From the A/G voice communications and 
summary messages received from network sta- 
tions during the early portion of the first orbital 
pass, it became readily apparent that the suit- 
cooling system was not as effective as had been 
expected. The suit temperature, as indicated 



by telemetry, appeared to have increased from 
a value of 74° F at lift-off to a value of 90° F over 
the Muchea station. The suit-heat-exchanger 
dome temperature, a new parameter for this 
mission, remained at approximately 80° during 
this period. The astronaut had gradually in- 
creased the suit coolant valve setting to a scribe 
mark of approximately 7.5, which was almost 
twice the level of 4 established for lift-off. Dur- 
ing most of the orbital phase, the onboard in- 
strumentation indicated suit inlet temperatures 
from 6° to 10° less than values read out on the 
ground from telemetry. In most instances, 
flight controllers relied upon telemetered values 
during the first orbital pass. Consideration 
was given to terminating the flight at the end 
of the first orbital pass because of the elevated 
suit temperature. The environmental monitor 
at the MCC believed that the system should 
have been operating satisfactorily within the 
first hour and that the intended level of suit 
cooling might never be achieved. However, 
during the period between passes over Muchea 
and Canton, the ground readout of suit-inlet 



Table 2-II. — Sequence of Events 



Booster engine cut-off (BECO) . - 

Tower release 

Escape rocket ignition 

Sustainer engine cut-off (8ECO) . 
Tail-off complete 



00:02:10. 8 
00:02:33. 8 
00:02:33. 8 



00:02:08. 6 
00:02:33 
00:02:33 
00:05:15. 7 
00:15:15. 9 



Spacecraft separation 

Retrofire sequence initiation 

Retrorocket (left) no. 1 

Retrorocket (bottom) no. 2 

Retrorocket (right) no. 3 

Retrorocket assembly jettison-- 



00:05:06. 8 
08:50:21. 8 
08:50:51. 8 
08:50:56. 8 
08:51:01. 8 
08:51:51. 8 



05:17. 9 

51:30 

52:00 

52:05 

52:10 

53:00 



0.05g relay 

Drogue parachute deployment 

Main parachute deployment 

Main parachute jettison (water landing) - 



J:05:36. 8 
9:07:02. 8 
3:11:33. 8 



09:01:40 
09:06:50 



15 



temperature had begun to stabilize and indi- 
cated a tendency to decrease. The flight sur- 
geon at the MCC was also concerned with the 
elevated temperature, especially since the body 
temperature instrumentation was at that time 
inoperative. But, since other aeromedical data 
and voice reports indicated that the astronaut 
was in good condition, the flight surgeon be- 
lieved that it would be safe to continue for 
another orbital pass. All other systems per- 
formed extremely well throughout the first or- 
bital pass. The correlation between attitudes 
observed visually through the window and the 
readouts of the spacecraft gyros and the horizon 
scanners was good. This excellent performance 
continued throughout the remainder of the 
mission. The spacecraft was controlled by the 
ASCS in orbit mode throughout the first pass, 
except for brief periods when the astronaut used 
the fly-by-wire (FBW) mode, low thrusters 
only. 

Because the suit-inlet temperature had ap- 
parently leveled off and the possibility that it 
had started to decrease late in the first pass, the 
flight director decided to continue the flight for 
at least one additional orbital pass in order to 
allow the suit cooling system- more time to sta- 
bilize. Upon contact with Guaymas, the astro- 
naut reported that he was feeling warm, but not 
uncomfortable, and that the suit-cooling system 
had apparently begun to function properly. 
He stated that all of the systems were perform- 
ing perfectly, and the telemetry readouts on 
the ground confirmed this observation. Over 
Woomera on the second orbital pass, the suit 
temperature had decreased to a value of 72° F and 
remained in the area of 67° to 72° F, as reported 
by the astronaut, for the remainder of the 
mission. 

Fuel management during the entire flight 
was exceptionally good. The spacecraft fuel 
tanks had been filled to capacity, and at the 
end of the first pass, the gages for both the 
automatic- and manual-system fuel supply 
tanks indicated that there was approximately 
98 percent remaining. In the majority of the 
cases where maneuvers were conducted over 
network stations, the fuel usage was so slight 
that it was difficult to determine if fuel was 
being consumed at all. The fuel usage in both 
the automatic and manual systems was sig- 
nificantly less than had been estimated based 
on the flight plan. Oxygen consumption was 



almost exactly as it had been estimated prior 
to launch. The cabin air temperature re- 
mained reasonably constant, as evidenced by 
its operating range of 105° to 110°F. The 150 
v-amp inverter temperature increased slowly 
to a value of about 110°F, and the temperature 
of the 250 v-amp inverter climbed gradually to 
a value of approximately 1 50° F until the power 
to the ASCS was turned off early in the fourth 
orbital pass. At this time, the temperature 
dropped steadily to a value of approximately 
120° F within one orbital period, at the end of 
which the ASCS was again turned on. The 
250 v-amp inverter temperature again in- 
creased gradually at a similar rate to a value of 
180° F at completion of the flight. 

Minor difficulties occurred in the biological 
instrumentation system; the primary problem 
was the failure of the body temperature meas- 
uring system to read correctly on the ground 
during the early portion of the flight. How- 
ever, over the Indian Ocean Ship during the 
second pass, the temperature readout was re- 
gained and continued to indicate a value be- 
tween 97.7°F and 98.5°F throughout the 
remainder of the flight. The blood-pressure 
instrumentation had displayed minor difficul- 
ties prior to flight, in that the automatic timer 
used to conclude the measurement cycle had 
failed. The astronaut was therefore required 
to use the manual stop button to terminate 
each measurement cycle. 

Activities during the first orbital pass were 
primarily devoted to ASCS checks. Also, the 
manual proportional and the FBW, low, con- 
trol modes were checked, and the high-frequency 
voice system was exercised. After receiving 
the go — no-go decision at the end of the first 
pass, the astronaut performed a series of 
maneuvers designed to test his ability to 
aline the spacecraft about the yaw axis during 
the daylight phase. These yaw checks were 
entirely satisfactory, and the astronaut re- 
ported that he was able to determine a day 
yaw reference very accurately. After comple- 
tion of the yaw checks at approximately 
02:00:00 g.e.t., the astronaut selected the 
manual proportional control mode and began 
limited drifting flight within the limits of the 
horizon scanners. At approximately 02:20:00 
g.e.t., the astronaut began a series of yaw 
checks on the night side, again using the FBW 



16 



low, mode. He reported that these yaw checks 
were also satisfactory. 

A minor clock error of + 1 second continued 
throughout the second orbital pass. There 
was some indication that the error was very 
gradually increasing. At the end of the flight, 
a +5-second error, which is still within speci- 
fied limits, was evident in the clock. This 
error was routinely compensated for in the re- 
trosequence time transmitted to the astronaut. 

After having received the decision to con- 
tinue into the third orbital pass, the astronaut 
turned off the power to the control system and 
the radar beacons and began attitude-free 
drifting flight at approximately 03: 10:00 g.e.t. 
The powering down sequence was considered to 
be normal by the MCC, and the astronaut 
maintained the spacecraft in this configuration 
until the pass over the Indian Ocean Ship. 
The astronaut completed a power-up exercise 
over this station and all systems operated 
normally throughout the remainder of the 
third orbital pass. 

Prior to lift-off, the retrosequence setting in 
the spacecraft clock for a retrofire during the 
sixth pass was set at a nominal value of 
08:50:31 g.e.t. based upon nominal cutoff 
conditions. The astronaut was instructed to 
increase this setting by about 1 minute when 
the spacecraft passed over the Cape Canaveral 
site during the third pass because of the over- 
speed condition at cut-off. At the end of the 
third orbital pass, the astronaut again powered 
down the spacecraft systems, began attitude- 
free drifting flight, and remained in this flight 
mode throughout the fourth pass. At the end 
of the fourth orbital pass, the fuel quantity in- 
dicators read 86 percent for the automatic system 
and 90 percent for the manual system. The clock 
during this period had increased to 3 seconds, 
and the suit temperature was stabilized at a 
value of approximately 70° F. The cabin 
temperature during the third and fourth 
orbital passes indicated a decrease to approxi- 
mately 90° F, and all other systems appeared 
to be functioning normally. 

Throughout the fifth orbital pass, the 
astronaut mainly used the ASCS mode of 
control, and good correlation was maintained 
between the gyro attitude readouts and the 
horizon scanner outputs. The spacecraft-to- 
ground voice communications were somewhat 
inferior to those experienced during the previous 



flight; however, most of the stations were able 
to communicate during their preestablished 
contact period. Patching of the A/G voice 
communications into the Goddard conference 
loop was not as efficient as had been expected. 
In addition, the majority of the stations from 
the Pacific Command Ship to Kano were 
affected by the transition from daytime to 
nighttime frequencies. During the fifth pass, 
the Mercury Control Center was unable to 
communicate with the Indian Ocean and Pacific 
Command Ships in order to relay the decision 
to continue into the sixth orbital pass. The 
Cap Com aboard the Pacific Ship and the 
astronaut apparently had made this decision 
independently, and, as a result, the mission 
continued through the fifth pass and into the 
sixth. 

During the fifth pass, Hawaii relayed the 
correct end-of-mission retrosequence time of 
08:51:28 g.e.t., which was based upon the 
latest orbital trajectory data and the final 
estimated weight loss. This time did not 
include the + 5-second clock error that was 
currently apparent. The clock was corrected 
to include this error over the California station, 
and the correction was confirmed by Guaymas. 
Thus, the final and correct clock setting was 
established as 08:51 : 33 spacecraft elapsed time. 

The mission continued normally as the space- 
craft passed over the remaining two stations 
during the sixth orbital pass. The Cap Com 
aboard the Indian Ocean Ship assisted the 
astronaut in completing his preretrosequence 
checklist. These communications were moni- 
tored by personnel throughout the network 
over the Goddard conference loop. Voice 
communications to both the Indian Ocean and 
Pacific Command Ships were acceptable at 
this time, and, as a result, the Mercury Control 
Center was able to monitor activities during 
retrosequence. Retrosequence was initiated by 
the spacecraft clock at approximately 08 : 51 : 28 
g.e.t. Retrofire was initiated at approximately 
08:52:00, as observed in Mercury Control 
Center; but this time appeared to be about 
2 seconds late. The attitudes at retrofire were 
nominal and remained constant to within ±2° 
during the entire retrofire interval. 

Reentry Phase 

The astronaut reported that the spacecraft at- 
titude, as observed visually, remained constant 



17 



at the desired values and that the retropackage 
had jettisoned automatically at 08 : 53 : 00 g.e.t. 
The retraction of the periscope and orientation 
of the spacecraft to reentry attitude occurred 
on time. The fuel quantity indicators at the 
completion of retrofire showed the fuel remain- 
ing to be 68 percent in the automatic system 
and 84 percent in the manual system. Although 
the reentry trajectory is normally computed by 
Goddard based upon nominal conditions at 
retrofire, the Goddard computers were prepared 
at this time to receive the telemetered retrofire 
parameters in order to process the final landing- 
point computation. This computation is based 
upon the known time of retrofire, the teleme- 
tered spacecraft attitudes, and the estimated 
weight of the spacecraft. Other than voice 
communications with the astronaut and limited 
telemetry information received from the Water- 
town radar ship, no further trajectory data 
were obtained. The Watertown Cap Com gave 
the MCC an ionization blackout time which 
confirmed the initial reentry trajectory compu- 
tation. The final predicted trajectory submit- 
ted by Goddard indicated a nominal spacecraft 
landing about 4 nautical miles from the primary 
landing point. A report from the carrier that 
the spacecraft had been sighted visually before 
landing provided final confirmation of the com- 
puted predictions. The communications relayed 
from the spacecraft by aircraft in the primary 
recovery area to the Hawaii station were ex- 
tremely effective and provided communications 
with the astronaut almost continuously from 
the end of blackout until landing. These com- 
munications gave the Mercury Control Center 
and the entire network confidence that the 
mission had been terminated satisfactorily. 
Because of the excellent performance of the 
astronaut and spacecraft, the flight-control task 
during the second through the sixth orbital 
passes became one of the monitoring, gathering 
data, and assisting the astronaut in his com- 
pletion of the flight plan. After the decision 
to continue the flight at the end of the first 
orbital pass, the remaining end-of-orbit deci- 
sions were made without hesitation, with the 
one exception previously mentioned regarding 
the loss of communications between Mercury 
Control Center and the Pacific Command and 
Indian Ocean Ships during the fifth pass. The 
operations conducted during the entire MA-8 
mission made maximum use of experience gained 



in previous missions, and, as a result, was the 
best coordinated effort of the Mercury program 
to date. 

Recovery Operations 

Disposition of recovery forces for the MA-8 
mission was very similar to that for the MA 6 
and MA-7 missions. In addition, there were 
three planned landing areas in the Pacific Ocean 
to provide for landings from orbital flight during 
the fourth, fifth, and sixth orbital passes. The 
planned landing areas in the Atlantic Ocean 
were essentially unchanged from the two previ- 
ous missions. As shown in figure 2-2 (a) these 
areas were located to provide recovery capa- 
bility during aborts from powered flight and for 
landing at the end of each of the first three 
orbital passes. The locations of the planned 
landing areas in the Pacific are indicated in 
figure 2-2 (b). Area 6-1 was the primary 
planned landing area. Recovery support was 
positioned in this area to provide for location 
and retrieval within 3 hours of landing. The 
disposition of the recovery forces positioned in 
the planned landing areas is indicated in table 
2-III. The positions of all recovery forces 
were not static, in that certain ships and aircraft 
were required to provide recovery capability 
for more than one landing area during the 
course of the mission. As in MA-6 and MA-7, 
special aircraft were on alert at various staging 
bases in the event of a contingency landing at 
any point along the orbital ground track. 
These aircraft were positioned and equipped to 
locate the spacecraft within a maximum of 18 
hours from landing and render pararescue 
assistance if required. 

All recovery forces were in their planned 
positions at the appropriate times. Weather 
forecasts on the morning of October 2, 1962, 
indicated that Hurricane Daisy might be in a 
position to cause unfavorable recovery condi- 
tions in area 3-1 . Therefore, the recovery ships 
in this area were relocated along the ground 
track approximately 215 nautical miles down- 
range from their corresponding original stations. 
At launch time, weather conditions were favor- 
able for satisfactory location and retrieval of 
the spacecraft in all planned Atlantic and Pa- 
cific recovery areas, including those designated 
in case of a contingency landing. Although 
some redundant transmissions were not re- 
ceived, recovery communications were satisfac- 



18 



45 




West longitude, deg 
(a) Atlantic Ocean. 
Figure 2-2. — Planned landing areas. 



35 


Pass 6 




30 


Pass 5 " — — 
^^^^^ 5-1 6-1 

Midway 




25 


Pass 4 4.2 




20 


Pass 3 


/ Honolulu 

Hawaiian Islands 

Pass 2 —y 


15 




1 1 / 



170 175 180 175 170 165 160 155 

East West 
Longitude, deg 

(b) Pacific Ocean. 
Figure 2-2. — Concluded. 



19 



Table 2-111. — Recovery Forces in Planned Landing Areas 



Area 


Number of 


Number of 


Number of ships 


Alloted access 


search aircraft 


helicopters 




time, hr 






3 




Short 




2 




3 destroyers 


6 


B 


3 


0 


3 destroyers — 


9 


C, E, F- 




0 




6 




1 


0 




3 


2-1, 3-1 


•2 


0 

3 




3 


4-1 


















4-2 


b 4 


0 




3 


5-1, 6-1 


4 


3 












3 destroyers 




Total 


17 


9 


23 













• Two area B search aircraft deployed to area 3-1 after spacecraft passage of area B. 

» Area 4-2 search aircraft deployed to areas 5-1 and 6-1 after spacecraft passage of area 4-2. 



O Aircraft carrier 

□ Destroyer 

O Location aircraft 

A Telemetry aircraft 



SOFAR quick look 




180 179 178 177 176 175 174 173 172 
West longitude, deg 
Figure 2-3. — Landing area details. 



tory throughout the opera tion, and the recovery 
forces were given information regarding mission 
status during the launch, orbital, and reentry 
phases. 

During the sixth orbital pass, recovery units 
in area 6-1 were alerted to expect a landing 
in their area. After retrofire maneuver at 
about 20 minutes prior to landing, recovery 
forces were informed that the retrorockets had 
operated normally, and the landing position 
was predicted to be nominal. Recovery units 
in area 6-1 made contact with the descending 
spacecraft before any calculated landing pre- 
dictions, based on reentry tracking, were avail- 
able from network support. Details of the 

20 



recovery events in the landing area are shown 
in figure 2-3. The U.S.S. Kearsarge, the air- 
craft carrier positioned in the center of area 
6-1, established radar contact with the space- 
craft at a slant range of about 175 nautical 
miles and maintained this contact until the 
spacecraft had descended to an altitude of ap- 
proximately 1,200 feet. Lookouts aboard the 
U.S.S. Renshaw, the destroyer positioned 80 
nautical miles uprange from the center of the 
area, reported that they had heard the noise 
caused by the Shockwave of the spacecraft 
during reentry. A few minutes after the "sonic 
boom" occurred, lookouts using optical aids on 
the recovery carrier reported having first sighted 




Figure 2 4. — Spacecraft landing. 




Figure 2-5. — Motor whaleboat attaching lifting line 
to the spacecraft. 

a contrail and then the spacecraft after drogue 
parachute deployment. Main parachute de- 
ployment and spacecraft descent and landing 
were observed to be about 4 nautical miles 
downrange from the U.S.S. Kearsarge (see fig. 
2-4). In addition to visual sightings of the 
descending spacecraft by ship personnel, the 
search aircraft reported contact with the space- 
craft recovery beacons at ranges of 60 to 280 
nautical miles. The SOFAR bomb signal was 
received by the hydrophone net in the Pacific 
Ocean, and a "quick look" location fix was 
provided as a result of this reception 20 min- 
utes after spacecraft landing. The final loca- 
tion fix from the SOFAR bomb signal was 
provided 45 minutes after landing. Both of 




Figurk 2-6. — Spacecraft being lowered to the deck. 




Figure 2-7. — Astronaut Schirra egressing from 
spacecraft. 



these fixes were within 2 miles of the actual 
spacecraft retrieval position (fig. 2-3). 

After landing, the astronaut reported that 
conditions were normal, that he was comfort- 
able, and that the spacecraft was dry inside 
and floating upright. Helicopters launched 
from the U.S.S. Kearsarge dropped a team of 



21 



three frogmen who installed an auxiliary flota- 
tion collar around the spacecraft. At this 
time, the astronaut reported he preferred to 
remain in the spacecraft and be retrieved by 
the recovery ship. As the carrier approached 
the spacecraft, a motor whaleboat towed a 
lifting line to the spacecraft, as shown in figure 
2-5, and attached it to the recovery loop atop 
the spacecraft. The spacecraft was then hauled 
to a position beneath the U.S.S. Kearsarge boat 
crane, lifted clear of the water, and positioned 
on one of the carrier's elevators at approxi- 



mately 40 minutes after landing. Figure 2-6 
shows the spacecraft being lowered to the 
elevator. After spacecraft positioning on deck, 
Astronaut Schirra opened the explosive-actuated 
side hatch and egressed from the spacecraft 
(fig. 2-7). He remained onboard the U.S.S. 
Kearsarge (see fig. 2-8) throughout a period of 
about 72 hours and participated in medical 
and engineering debriefings. The spacecraft 
was transferred to an airplane at Midway Island 
for return to Cape Canaveral, Fla. 



Figure 2-8. — Astronaut Schirra aboard the recovery carrier. 
Reference 

1. Staff of NASA Manned Spacecraft Center: Results of the First United States Orbital Space Flight, February SO, 

1962. Supt. Doc, U.S. Government Printing Office (Washington, D.C.). 

2. Staff of NASA Manned Spacecraft Center: Results of the Second United States Orbital Space Flight, May 84, 1962. 

SP-6, Supt. Doc, U.S. Government Printing Office (Washington, D.C.). 



22 



3. AEROMEDICAL ANALYSIS 

By Charles A. Berry, M.D., Chief, 
Aerospace Medical Operations Office; 
Howard A. Minners, M.D., 
Aerospace Medical Operations Office; 
Ernest P. McCutcheoiv, M.D., 
Aerospace Medical Operations Office; 

and Richard A. Pollard, M.D., 
Aerospace Medical Operations Office 



Summary 

Astronaut Walter M. Schirra, Jr., incurred 
no detectable physiologic decrement during his 
space flight which included over 9 hours of 
weightlessness. His body functions since the 
flight have remained normal and unchanged 
from their healthy preflight condition. A 
variation of the astronaut's instantaneously ob- 
served heart rate response was noted during 
flight. Immediately following recovery, an 
orthostatic rise in heart rate accompanied 
by a fall in systolic blood pressure was ob- 
served for a brief period. Inflight ionizing- 
radiation monitoring showed that the astronaut 
sustained no significant exposure. 

Introduction 

The aeromedical findings obtained during the 
MA-8 mission amplified those resulting from 
previous manned space flights (refs. 1 to 9). 
The astronaut's state of health and his medical 
fitness for space flight were continuously 
evaluated during his preflight preparation. 
These accumulated data served to familiarize 
the aeromedical flight controllers with the 
astronaut's normal physiological responses and 
also provided a baseline with which to compare 
inflight and postflight findings. These pre- 
flight, inflight, and postflight medical findings 
are presented chronologically in this paper. 
The preflight and flight chronologies are sub- 
divided into two classifications, clinical exami- 
nations and physiological observations. The 
postflight findings are grouped into an aero- 
medical history and physical examinations. 
Finally, a series of special studies for the MA-8 
mission are presented. 



The spacecraft environment materially affects 
the pilot's physiological responses; thus, the 
discussion of the environmental control system 
performance in the Life Support System section 
of paper 1 complements the physiological 
observations presented herein. 

Preflight 

Clinical Examinations 

The clinical examinations of the astronaut 
consisted of aeromedical histories, physical 
examinations, clinical laboratory tests, X-rays, 
an electrocardiogram (ECG), an electroen- 
cephalogram (EEG), and an audiogram. 

Aeromedical history. — Astronaut Schirra 
spent most of the time from June 1962 to the 
launch date of October 3, 1962, at Cape Canav- 
eral, Fla., in preparation for the MA-8 mission. 
During this period, he chose swimming and 
water skiing for preflight physical conditioning. 
In the several days immediately prior to flight, 
he did not undertake direct physical condition- 
ing. A controlled diet which provided a 
balanced menu was begun on September 21, 
1962. A low-residue diet was followed, as 
planned, for the 3 days before flight. The menu 
for meals included in the low-residue diet is 
presented in table 3-1. Astronaut Schirra re- 
ported minimal difficulty in becoming accus- 
tomed to this diet. All of the 325-cc fluid in- 
take on the morning of launch, from awakening 
to lift-off, occurred at breakfast and consisted 
mostly of orange juice. Astronaut Schirra 
reported that shortly before lift-off, he was 
aware of an emptiness in his stomach and the 
possibility occurred, to him that he might 
become nauseated during the flight. This 



23 



Table 3-1. — Low-Residue Diet 





September 30, 1962 


October 1, 1962 


October 2, 1962 


October 3, 1962 


Breakfast 


9:00 a.m. 


6:15 a.m. 


6:30 a.m. 


2:10 a.m. 




Grapefruit juiee 


Orange juice 


Orange-grapefruit 


Orange juice 




Cream of rice 


Baked egg, bacon 




Scrambled egg.s 




Scrambled eggs 


Toast, butter 


Cream of rice 


Fish 














Toast, butter 


Coffee 


Canadian bacon 


Toast, butter 




Jelly 




Toast, butter 


Jelly 




Coffee 




Jelly 
Coffee 


Coffee 


Lunch 




12:00 noon 


11:30 a.m. 








Tomato juice 


Chicken noodle soup 








Noodles with veal 


Meat loaf on toast 








Cottage cheese 


Peas 








Melba toast 


Sherbet 








Butter 


Coffee and tea 








Pound cake and 










apricots 










Tea and coffee 






Dinner 


4:00 p.m. 


5:00 p.m. 


5:30 p.m. 






Shrimp cocktail 


Consomme, crackers 


Pineapple juice 






Crackers 


Steak 


Roast beef 






Baked chicken 


Potato, green peas 


Baked potato 






Rice, pea s 


Hard rolls, butter 


Wax beans 






Hard rolls, butter 


Jelio 


Hard roll, butter 






Sherbet, cookies 


Coffee and tea 


Angel food cake and 






Coffee ai.d tea 




peaches 
Coffee and tea 





sensation is attributed simply to the fact that 
he had not eaten for 5 hours. During the 155- 
minute period after his insertion into the space- 
craft and prior to launch, he voided three times 
into the urine collection device. 

The MA-8 aeromedical countdown differed 
from those of previous orbital flights only in 
the times alloted for each activity and the time 
when the pilot was awakened on launch day. 
A comparison with the countdowns of previous 
orbital missions is provided in table 3-IL 
Such changes reflect not only operational re- 



quirements to complete certain tasks, but also 
represent an effort to provide the pilot with a 
maximum amount of sleep prior to the mission. 
He obtained 5 hours of sound sleep immediately 
before the mission. No medication was given. 

Physical examinations. — Abbreviated physi- 
cal examinations were conducted by the MA-8 
Crew Flight Surgeon prior to each of the 
preflight activities listed in table 3-III. A 
somewhat more extensive examination was 
conducted 15 days prior to flight. Also, a 
comprehensive medical evaluation was accom- 



Table 3— II. — Aeromedical Countdown Summary 
[All times are e.s.t.] 



Pilot awakened 2:20 a.i 

Nominal launch 8:00 a.i 

Time to nominal launch, hr:min 5:40 

Actual launch 9:47 a.i 

Time to actual launch, hr:min 7:27 



7:00 a 
5:20 
7:15 a 
5:35 



24 



Table 3 III. — Abbreviated Preflight Activities 



Date 


Activity 












imu a e ig i > sui e an wi s ^° so ^ 
lmu a e ig , sui e an wi sensors 


15 


rocedures trainer, . , , sui e 






90 


p/ ^ r^tminer" MCC suited 




roce ure= r j"™ ! ''>, - ' SU1 e 


28 


Launc^simulation ^suited and with sensors 


29 


Simulated flight, unsuited 


30 


Began low residue diet 


October 1962: 




1 


Comprehensive medical evaluation 


3 


Aeromedical countdown, flight, postrecovery examination 


4 and 5 


Aeromedical and engineering debriefing 


6 


Departure from debriefing site 


9 


Return to Cape Canaveral 



plished by a team of specialists 2 days before 
the flight. This evaluation included an audio- 
gram, a chest X-ray, and an electrocardiogram. 
An electroencephalogram accomplished on May 
17, 1962, was deemed adequate for purposes of 
comparison with the postflight electroencepha- 
logram and was not repeated before the flight. 
All of these medical evaluations (tables 3-IV 
to 3-VI) revealed a healthy and alert pilot, 
fit for his flight assignment. 

Physiological Observations 

The physiological observations are based on 
data from the sensors on the pilot and sensors 
of the spacecraft environment. Physiological 



data for Astronaut Schirra covering a total 
observation time of 23 hours and 27 minutes 
were obtained from the following sources: 

1. Dynamic tests (treadmill, tilt table, and 
cold pressor) conducted at the Lovelace 
Clinic, Albuquerque, New Mexico, in 
March 1959. 

2. The Mercury-Atlas three-orbital pass 
simulation conducted at the U.S. Naval 
Aviation Medical Acceleration Labora- 
tory (AMAL) in Johnsville, Pennsyl- 
vania, on September 22, 1961. 

3. A simulated flight on May 4, 1962, con- 
ducted at the launch complex at Cape 
Canaveral as a part of the MA-7 pre- 
launch preparation. 



Table 3-IV. — Clinical Evaluation 
(All times are e.s.t., October 3, 1962] 





Preflight at Cape Canaveral 
2:46 a.m. 
« 


Postflight onboard the aircraft 
carrier 6:05 p.m. 


Temperature (oral), °F _ 

Pulse rate, beats/min 

Blood pressure, left arm, mm Hg 

Respiratory rate, breaths/min 
Weight (nude, bladder empty), lb„_ 
Comments 


97.6 

64 (supine) 
120/78 (supine) 
122/85 (standing) 
14 

176% 

Hematoma, right inguinal region; 
otherwise no abnormalities, in- 
cluding KCG, audiogram, and 
chest X-rays performed October 
1, 1962. 


92 (sitting) 
118/78 (sitting) 

172% 

Abrasions of right knuckles; pres- 
sure points over both acromial 
processes; and orthrostasis. 
Otherwise normal. 



d from the several other preflight exaini 
examination on October 4, 1962, did no 
was repeated on October 4 and 5, 1962; 



Table 3-V. — Peripheral Blood Values 



Determination 



Hemoglobin (Cyanmethemoglobin method), 

grams/ 100 ml 

Hematocrit, percent 

Red blood cells, millions/mm 3 

White blood eella/min 3 

Differential blood count: 

Lymphocytes, percent 

Neutrophils, percent 

Monocytes, percent 

Eosinophiles, percent 

Basophiles, percent 

Platelets/mm 3 

Sodium, mEq/1 

Potassium, mEq/1 

Chloride, mEq/1 

Calcium, mEq/1 

Protein (total), g/ 100ml 



+ 5hr +14Hhr +51 hr 



"274, 000 



4. Simulated flights conducted with the 
spacecraft in the altitude chamber at 
Cape Canaveral on April 17, 1962, and 
with the spacecraft at sea level on 
August 14, 1962. 

5. Simulated nights on September 10 and 
14, 1962, and a simulated launch on 
September 28, 1962, all of which were 
conducted at the launch complex. 

6. Records obtained from the biosensor 
checkout in the hangar, in the transfer 
van, and from the blockhouse during 
the launch countdown on October 3, 
1962. 

Biosensor system. — The Mercury biosensor 
system for this mission consisted of two sets of 
electrocardiographic (ECG) leads, a rectal 
temperature thermistor, an impedance pneu- 
mograph, and the blood-pressure measuring 
system (BPMS). Reports of the results for 
previous missions (for example, ref. 8) contain 
most of the details of the biosensor system. 
Changes to this system for the MA-8 mission 
were as follows: The ECG electrode on the 
right lateral chest midaxillary line was moved 
slightly lower to minimize muscle artifact, The 
ECG electrodes were affixed to the skin with 
a double-backed adhesive tape, such as that 



used for a colostomy, and this tape was fitted 
to the rubber ring of the sensor. The sensor 
paste was changed from the previously used 
bentonite-calcium chloride compound to a 
combination of carboxypolymethylene and 
Ringer's solution. Carboxypolymethylene is 
a hygroscopic, polymerized carrier for the ions 
needed to provide electrical continuity, is 
more soluble, and is easier to work with than 
the bentonite paste. The 10-times-isotonic 
Ringer's solution not only retained the necessary 
conductivity and low impedance required, but 
also afforded decreased skin irritation after 
prolonged contact, 

Considerable study and detailed evaluation 
of the BPMS after the MA-7 mission demon- 
strated a definite need to change the criteria 
for adjusting the amplification of the sounds 
picked up by the microphone, which is located 
over the brachial artery. These sounds should 
correspond to those heard with a clinical stetho- 
scope during cuff pressure decay if an accurate 
interpretation of BPMS data is to be achieved. 
Repeated comparisons of clinical blood-pressure 
readings with those obtained using the BPMS 
allowed determination of an optimum controller 
gain setting specifically for the flight astronaut. 
To provide more freedom in the pressure suit, 



26 



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the thickness of the BPMS cuff was decreased 
without change in bladder size. The diameter 
of the hose leading from the cuff to the suit 
connection was also decreased. The micro- 
phone, cuff, and controller were all fitted and 
calibrated specifically for Astronaut Schirra. 
These changes did not affect the cuff filling or 
bleed-down times, and the basic design of the 
BPMS system was unchanged. 

During preflight testing at the launch com- 
plex, the BPMS automatic timer failed. This 
failure made it necessary for the astronaut to 
depress the manual stop button at cycle com- 
pletion in order to return the telemetry signal 
from BPMS to ECG II. This method of 
manual operation was . used throughout the 
flight. 

The body-temperature instrumentation failed 
6 minutes before launch, with the readout going 
to full scale. At approximately the middle of 
the second orbital pass, a nominal value re- 
appeared, but thereafter the signal was some- 
what intermittent. 

The respiratory trace was obtained by meas- 
uring transthoracic impedance which is directly 
proportional to thoracic volume. The variation 
of thoracic impedance correlates well with 
spirometer data, although the correlation is not 
linear. The impedance pneumograph system 
consists of a 50-kc oscillator, a 50-kc amplifier, 
a detector, and a low-frequency amplifier. The 
output of the oscillator is applied across the 
chest by electrodes in each midaxillary line at 
the level of the subject's sixth rib. These 
electrodes, the conductive paste, and the meth- 
ods of attachment are identical to the ECG 
electrode system previously described. The 
oscillator output is varied by means of a po- 
tentiometer so that the inspiratory peaks remain 
on scale on the direct writing recorder except 
during exceptionally deep breathing. Even 
when the range is exceeded, respiratory rate can 
still be determined unless it is accompanied by 
excessive body movement. Body movements 
of the pilot can make the respiratory trace 
difficult to interpret, but the inherent restric- 
tions on such movement of the spacecraft de- 
sign keep motion artifact to a minimum. The 
unit does not indicate instantaneous tidal 
volume, but it does provide a general trend of 
changes in chest volume. Inspiration is dis- 
tinguishable even during the thoracic volume 
changes that occur with speaking. 



Baseline data. — Baseline physiologicai data 
were obtained during the preflight activities 
listed in table 3-VII. This table also sum- 
marizes all available data on heart rate and 
respiration rate. The rates from the dynamic 
simulation at the Johnsville AMAL were 
determined by counting for 30 seconds during 
each minute. Other heart and respiratory rates 
were obtained by counting for 30 seconds every 
3 minutes. Rates for the final 10 minutes of 
the MA-8 launch countdown were determined 
by counting for 30 seconds every minute. 
The mean prelaunch heart and respiration rates 
were similar to those obtained during other 
procedures, and all values were within physio- 
logically acceptable limits. Preflight body 
temperatures ranged from 97.0°F to 97.9°F 
until the signal failed. 

Examination of the ECG waveforms during 
prelaunch activities showed sinus arrhythmia, 
infrequent premature atrial contractions, and 
rare premature ventricular contractions. Dur- 
ing the actual launch countdown, a single 
premature atrial contraction occurred. 

Blood-pressure data are summarized in table 
3-VIII. The values for the "Special BPMS 
Test" of July 25, 1962, were collected from a 
series of comparisons of BPMS readings with 
those obtained using the standard clinical 
technique. These values were obtained early 
in the astronaut's preflight preparation period 
to determine at an early date the proper gain 
adjustment of the BPMS amplifier. Random 
clinical determinations were obtained from 
routine annual physical examinations and from 
examinations associated with various prelaunch 
activities. The preflight clinical values and 
BPMS readings are similar and represent 
normal physiological responses. 

Flight Responses 

Clinical Evaluation 

Data for the inflight clinical evaluation are 
obtained from the voice transmissions of the 
aeromedical monitors and postfhght debriefing 
queries. It is, in the strictest sense, not the 
usual clinical evaluation, because the tele- 
metered physiological responses serve as a 
substitute for a normal physical examination. 

Despite the increase of 4% hours in the 
duration of weightlessness above that experi- 
enced in each of the two previous manned 



28 



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orbital space flights, no untoward sensations 
were reported by Astronaut Schirra, and the 
assigned inflight tasks were performed without 
difficulty. Specifically, he was not nauseated 
and did not vomit. Although the astronaut 
was never hungry during the flight, he ate the 
contents of two tubes containing food, one of 
peaches and the other of beef with vegetables, 
without difficulty. He experienced no urge to 
defecate during the mission, but he did report 
a moderate amount of inflight flatulence 
unaccompanied by eructation. Vision and 
hearing were normal. Astronaut Schirra moved 
his head as required by his scheduled tasks 
during the weightless period, including times 
when the spacecraft was in attitude-free 
drifting flight, but he experienced no vestibular 
disturbance or disorientation. The noise and 
vibration of powered flight were not considered 
abnormally stressful. 

During the flight the pilot drank about 500 cc 
of water. He urinated three times before 
lift-off and three times during the flight, the 
last time just before retrofire. Bladder sensa- 
tion and function were reported to be normal. 
Unfortunately, on landing, the urine collection 
device failed at its attachment to the body and 
all but 292 cc of the urine was lost. 

A few minor problems were encountered. 
Astronaut Schirra was unable to reach some of 
the items in the special equipment storage kit 



located near his right shoulder. This inacces- 
sibility resulted not only from the usual restric- 
tions in motion imposed by the restraint 
harnesses and suit, but also because the equip- 
ment kit had been located nearer the right 
shoulder for this mission. Consequently, he 
was unable to evaluate certain items as planned. 
He also discovered that many items in the 
equipment kit were covered excessively with 
Velcro and were, therefore, difficult to remove 
from stowage. Velcro is a cloth having two 
different but mutually adhesive surfaces. 

During the fourth or fifth orbital pass, a 
fluid was deposited onto the left inner surface 
of the helmet faceplate. This fluid obscured 
the pilot's vision to some degree and forced 
him to turn his head more than usual to look 
through the remaining area of the visor that 
was clear. A postflight analysis proved that 
this fluid was perspiration. 

The astronaut stated he was warm and per- 
spired moderately during the first orbital pass 
when he was subjected to an elevated suit-inlet 
temperature. However, he said he was not 
uncomfortably hot during this period. Medical 
evaluation of telemetered data during this 
period indicated that the astronaut was physio- 
logically capable of continuing the flight. The 
astronaut believed he would be able to control 
the suit-inlet temperature during the next 
pass and did so, even to the extent of becoming 



Table 3-IX. — Results of Orientation Test 



Ground 
elapsed time, 
hr:min 


Target 


Result 




03:15 


Manual fuel lever 
Yaw attitude indicator 

Emergency rate lever 


Manual fuel lever 

Rivet above clock in 10:30 

Emergency rate lever 


None 

VA inches down and right 


05:19 


Manual fuel lever 
Yaw attitude indicator 

Emergency rate lever 


Right of manual fuel lever 
270° mark on yaw attitude 

indicator 
Emergency rate lever 


2 inches right 

% inches left of center of 


08:21 


Manual fuel lever 
Yaw attitude indicator 

Emergency rate lever 


Manual fuel lever 
20° mark on yaw attitude in- 
dicator 

Side of hand hit box for emer- 
gency rate lever. Index 
finger was on target 


% inch right of center of in- 
strument 



31 



"a little cool" during the fifth and sixth passes. 
Otherwise, he was comfortable throughout the 
flight, 

Weightlessness was described as "very pleas- 
ant." but there was no exhilaration, euphoria, 
breakoff phenomenon, or other unusual psycho- 
logical reaction. 

During this flight, in addition to utilizing 
programed times for self-e valuation of orienta- 
tion to his environment, Astronaut Schirra 
performed a specific test of orientation. At 
three different times, he closed his eyes and at- 
tempted to touch each of three instruments 
with his index finger. Results were recorded 
on the onboard tape and are summarized in 
table 3-IX. The results show that, in nine 
attempts, the pilot made five "direct hits" 
and four "near misses," which included a 
maximum error of 2 inches. These errors are 
scattered, but suggest that the third test was 
the most accurate. Astronaut Schirra con- 
cluded that his performance improved with 
practice and that he performed equally as 
well during flight as he had done in the Mercury 
procedures trainer. 

Astronaut Schirra developed slight nasal 
congestion during the final two orbital passes. 
This congestion caused no difficulty in clearing 
his ears and did not affect normal respiration. 
About 4 hours after recovery, he developed 
mild rhinorrhea which completely disappeared 
by the next day. 

Physiological Observations 

The total inflight bioinstrumentation moni- 
toring time was 9 hours and 12 minutes. In 
addition to the continuous records of biosensor 
data recorded on board, information was 
obtained through reports i'rom the aeromedical 
flight controllers around the Mercury network, 
voice reports by the pilot, and, after the flight, 
from the film exposed in the pilot-observer 
camera. 

The inflight physiological responses are sum- 
marized in tables 3-V1I and 3-VUL Heart 
rates in beats per minute were obtained by 
counting 30 seconds of each minute from lift-off 
to 10 minutes ground elapsed time (g.e.t.), and 
from 08:48 to 09:13 g.e.t. Values for the re- 
mainder of the flight were obtained from 30- 
second counts every 3 minutes. Biosensor 
disconnect occurred at approximately 09: 13 
g.e.t. The mean inflight heart and respira- 



tory rates are not significantly different from 
the mean preflight values. The maximum 
heart rate during the launch phase was 112 
beats per minute, with a minimum of 102 beats 
per minute. The maximum heart rate during 
the orbital phase was 121 beats per minute 
which occurred just after orbital insertion. 
Thereafter, it gradually declined, with the 
slowest rate being 56 beats per minute. During 
reentry, the maximum heart rate was 104 
beats per mirlute. These responses are within 
expected physiological ranges. 

Careful observation of the ECG reveals fre- 
quent variations of the R-wave to R-wave 
intervals, indicative of an increase and slowing 
of heart rate. These variations were appar- 
ently unrelated to physical activity, and their 
magnitude was greater than Astronaut Schirra's 
normal sinus arrhythmia. The reason for this 
phenomenon, most marked from the fourth to 
the last orbital pass, is unknown. 

The maximum respiratory rate during pow- 
ered flight of 37 breaths per minute was ob- 
served just prior to insertion into orbit when 
the pilot was experiencing maximum launch 
acceleration. During weightless flight, res- 
piration rates were close to the mean value. 
During reentry at 09:05 g.e.t., the respiration 
rate reached a maximum of 43 breaths per 
minute and was coincident with maximum 
reentry acceleration. Thereafter, the rate de- 
clined to 20 breaths per minute at biosensor 
disconnect. These values are also within 
anticipated physiological ranges. 

As shown in table 3-VIII, a total of 20 BPMS 
cycles were obtained at random intervals 
throughout the flight. The systolic levels 
were easily distinguishable for all 20 cycles. 
Since the automatic BPMS timer was not 
functioning, premature cutoff of the BPMS 
signal by the astronaut made four of the di- 
astolic points questionable, and these values 
are absent from the tabular data. All of the 
values which were observed during the flight 
are considered to be normal for Astronaut 
Schirra. The mean pulse pressure of 57 mm 
Hg does not represent a physiologically sig- 
nificant elevation from the other values. 

Examination of the ECG trace during flight 
showed no change from the pilot's preflight 
waveforms. One premature atrial beat, one 
premature ventricular beat, and one fusion 
beat were the only variants noted in the more 



32 



than 9 hours of continuous ECG monitoring. 
During the initial portion of the flight, the 
body-temperature values were unreadable, but 
they suddenly returned to normal physiologic 
levels at 01:52 g.e.t. as shown in table 3-X, 
During the remainder of the flight, the values 
ranged from 97.7°F to 98.5°F with occasional 
sudden small changes. These later values are 
normal, but their accuracy is questionable 
since proper operation of the system cannot 
be verified following the period of full-scale 
readings, 



Table 3-X. — Inflight Body Temperature Values 



Ground elapsed time, hr:min 


Value, 0 F 


00:00 to 01:52 

01:52 to 02:16 

02:16 to 04:05 

04:05 to 05:24 

05:24 to 09:12 


Off scale 
98.3 to 98.5 

S' 



Postflight 
Aeromedical History 

The astronaut was first seen by a physician 
40 minutes after landing and immediately 
following hatch opening. He appeared active, 
cheerful, and well coordinated. He egressed 
from the spacecraft onto the carrier deck 
requiring no assistance. There was no evidence 
of deterioration of gait or dizziness at any- 
time following the flight. He expressed great 
pleasure at the way the flight had gone with 
such expressions as "I feel fine" and "It was 
a textbook flight." He did not appear un- 
usually fatigued, and was eager to talk. 

Following the initial medical examination 
after recovery, the pilot went to his cabin 
where he ate a hearty meal. He was still 
eager to talk and maintained his usual cheerful 
sense of humor. He retired for the night after 
a busy day of 21 hours and 40 minutes. After 
10 hours of sound sleep, he awoke, urinated, 
talked, read, and smoked for about an hour. 
He then returned to bed and slept for 3 addi- 
tional hours. He appeared well rested and had 
no apparent residual fatigue from the flight. 

Physical Examinations 

The immediate preflight and postflight clini- 
cal examinations were accomplished as close 



together as time permitted in order to maximize 
detection of any physical changes resulting 
from the flight. The postflight physical exam- 
ination and medical debriefing differed from 
those of previous flights in several important 
aspects. Since recovery was accomplished in 
the Pacific Ocean, the entire medical debriefing 
was carried out aboard the recovery ship, the 
U.S.S. Kearsarge. The landing of the space- 
craft within visibility of the recovery carrier 
permitted not only an early recovery, but 
also a very early postflight medical examina- 
tion of the astronaut by an NASA flight 
surgeon. For previous missions, it was not 
possible for a flight surgeon specifically from 
the NASA and familiar with the pilot's medical 
history to reach the astronaut so soon. 

Tn less than 1 hour after landing, the physical 
examination was well underway. Oral tempera- 
ture was 99.4°F, rectal temperature was 100.1° 
F, blood pressure (left arm, sitting) was 118/78 
mm Hg., and the pulse rate was 92 beats per 
minute and regular. The pilot's skin was 
warm and dry, but he showed little other 
evidence of dehydration. His weight loss was 
only 4%±% pounds in spite of the fact that 
he ate and drank very little during the flight. 
From the Mercury pressure suit and the urine 
collection device, 292 cc of urine were recovered, 
and this sample showed a specific gravity of 
1.010. The specific gravity of his urine rose 
to 1.018 within a few hours after recovery, and 
the highest value of 1.021 occurred approxi- 
mately 12 hours after recovery. The 24-hour 
period following flight showed a fluid intake of 
2,580 cc and a fluid loss of 775 cc. The pilot's 
hematocrit rose from a preflight value of 44 
percent to an immediate postflight level of 47 
percent. Twenty-eight hours later, it was 46 
percent and dropped to 43 percent in another 
24 hours. The laboratory findings are sum- 
marized in tables 3-V and 3-VI. These values, 
coupled with the findings during physical 
examinations, indicate that dehydration of the 
astronaut was inconsequential during the flight. 

Careful examination of the areas of sensor 
placement revealed slightly reddened areas 
resulting from pressure, but no irritation from 
either tape or electrolyte paste was evident. 
Two small abrasions were noted over the 
proximal knuckle of the fifth ringer of Astronaut 
Schirra's right hand. These abrasions were 
sustained when the plunger of the explosive 



33 



actuator for the egress hatch recoiled against 
the pilot's gloved hand, and they occurred in 
spite of his specific effort to avoid this injury. 
This injury is nearly identical to the one 
received by Astronaut Glenn during a similar 
egress from the MA-6 spacecraft. The MR-4 
mission was the only other instance where a 
hatch of the same configuration was actuated. 
However, no such physical injury was sustained 
by Astronaut Grissom. Astronaut Schirra also 
had a reddened area at the shoulders over each 
acromial process resulting from pressure applied 
by the couch. This reddening apparently 
resulted from muscle-tensing exercises con- 
ducted during the flight in which he braced 
his feet on the footboard, his shoulders against 
the upper portion of the couch, and tensed his 
back and leg muscles. 

A complete physical examination revealed 
only one finding which is thought to be signifi- 
cant. It was noted that Astronaut Schirra had 
an increased lability of blood pressure and pulse 
with changes in body position. When supine, 
the heart rate averaged about 70 beats per 
minute, but this value immediately increased 
to 100 or greater when he stood erect. Blood 
pressure showed a less dramatic, but still 
significant, drop in systolic pressure when 
changing from the supine to the upright 
position. The reverse was true when he 
changed positions from standing to supine. 
There was no apparent change in the diastolic 
pressure. 

In addition, it was noted immediately after 
the flight that all dependent leg veins were 
engorged. The feet and legs rapidly took on 
a dusky, reddish-purple color following stand- 
ing. Astronaut Schirra commented that these 
color changes were more noticeable than any 
he had previously observed. 

All these findings persisted up to the time 
the astronaut retired for the night. The next 
morning, about 21 hours after landing, ex- 
amination revealed no orthostatic changes. 

At no time did the pilot complain of dizziness, 
lightheadedness, or other symptoms of ortho- 
static hypotension. He did, however, offer the 
information that he had felt lightheaded upon 
egress from the couch in the procedures trainer 
following 4 hours of lying supine in the Mercury 
pressure suit under normal gravity conditions. 
It is impossible with presently available data 
to isolate the true effect of human exposure to 



9 hours of weightlessness as it relates to hemo- 
dj'namics. This phenomenon will be closely 
studied in future orbital flights. 

The aeromedical debriefing team, composed 
of the same individuals who conducted the 
comprehensive medical evaluation prior to 
flight, examined the pilot 30 hours after landing. 
In addition to the actual physical examination 
by physicians, the physical evaluation of the 
astronaut was based upon an electrocardiogram, 
an electroencephalogram, chest X-rays, and 
clinical laboratory studies. A summary of the 
preflight and postflight medical examinations is 
presented in table 3-IV. Aside from the post- 
flight blood pressure findings and the abrasion 
on the right hand, all findings were normal. 

Special Studies 

The special studies conducted for Mercury 
flights are nonroutine medical procedures 
designed to provide information about selected 
body functions and sensations in the spacecraft 
environment during flight. These studies for 
MA-8 comprised biochemical and plasma 
enzyme determinations and three special 
measurements. 

Special Measurements 

For the MA-8 mission, the modified caloric 
test, radiation dosimetry, and retinal photogra- 
phy were the special measurements obtained. 
One of two modified caloric tests was accom- 
plished 6 days before the flight and the other 
2 hours after landing, both by the same physi- 
cian. Retinal photography and the modified 
caloric tests revealed no significant changes from 
the preflight tests. The procedure for the 
modified caloric test is discussed in detail in 
reference 8. In addition to the radiation packs 
(see Scientific Experiments section of paper 1) 
carried in the spacecraft, three self-indicating 
dosimeters were placed on the inside of the 
hatch by the astronaut after launch. Two 
solid-state lithium fluoride dosimeters were also 
installed in the helmet liner at eye level, and 
three dosimeters of this type were placed on the 
inside of the underwear, two of which were on 
the chest and one on the thigh. The self- 
indicating and solid-state dosimeters revealed 
that the astronaut's exposure to radiation was 
insignificant. 



34 



Biochemical Studies 

A comparison of the MA S biochemical 
determinations reveals that the astronaut's 
9-hour exposure to weightlessness resulted in 
no biochemical changes which had not been 
noted after exposure to previous manned orbital 
flights. Peripheral blood values (table 3-V), 
including electrolytes, revealed that blood 
calcium was maximal in the immediate post- 
flight period, but returned to the preflight 
level within 14% hours. Such changes, also 
displayed by the MA-6 and MA-7 pilots, are 
only suggestive because of their very low 
magnitude and may have resulted from a 
number of causes, including dehydration, nor- 
mal physiologic variation, and laboratory vari- 
ation. The urinary findings substantiate a 
minimal dehydration. Intake and output are 
not discussed since the important inflight 
urinary output is unknown. The postflight 
rise in urinary calcium never reached the 
preflight value, and no abnormality can be 
established. 

Plasma Enzyme Studies 

The number and type of enzyme studies for 
this mission were modified in order to obtain 
the maximum amount of useful information 
from a minimum number of determinations. 
The results of these determinations are pre- 
sented in table 3-XI. Many of the postflight 
values are near or above the normal range for 
Astronaut Schirra, as well as for astronauts of 
previous nights. The reason for this elevation 
is most probably the fact that these individuals 
are all of a lean body-mass type. Further 
analysis of the enzyme results, especially heat- 



stable lactic dehydrogenase, suggests that 
these postflight elevations are the result of 
muscular activity rather than the visceral 
pooling of blood. 

Conclusions 

1. There was no evidence of disorientation 
or related untoward symptoms during the 9- 
hour period of weightlessness. The inflight 
orientation test demonstrated no impairment 
of performance during this weightless period. 

2. An orthostatic rise in heart rate, fall in 
systolic blood pressure, and maintenance of 
the diastolic pressure was noted during the 
24 hours immediately after landing. Such a 
hemodynamic phenomenon may have more 
serious implications for a longer mission. A 
prescribed inflight exercise program may be 
necessary to preclude symptoms in case of 
the need for an emergency egress soon after 
landing. 

3. Lability of instantaneous heart rate was 
noted and was not associated with respiration 
or other known physical activity. The cause 
of this phenomenon is unknown. 

4. There were no significant medical abnor- 
malities, other than those previously mentioned, 
during or following this mission. 

5. The radiation exposure was minimal and 
posed no hazard to flight. 

6. There are no medical contraindications 
to embarking on a longer mission. 

Acknowledgments. — The contributions of the 
following individuals were most helpful in the 
preparation of this paper: A. Duane Catterson, 
M.D., David P. Morris, M.D., Robie Hack- 
worth, and Nelson Parsons, Aerospace Medical 



Table 3-XI. — Plasma Enzyme Summary 



Preflight 



+ 5hr + 24^hr +51 hr 



Cholesterol, total, mgm/100 ml_ _ 
Cholesterol esters, percent 

Leucylamino peptidase 

Phosphohexose isomerase 

Lactic dehydrogenase 

Incubated, 20° to 25° C 

Heat stable, 60° C 

Heat stable, percent 

Malic dehydrogenase 



35 



Operations Office, NASA Manned Spacecraft 
Center; Richard D. Hansen, M.D., U.S. 
Air Force Academy, Colorado; Donald Flinn, 
M.D., and W. Bruce Clark, M.D., USAF 
School of Aerospace Medicine, San Antonio, 
Texas; Ashton Graybiel, M.D., USN School 
of Aviation Medicine, Pensacola, Florida; 
Edward C. Knoblock, Ph. D., and Joseph Kelly, 
Walter Reed Army Institute of Research, 
Washington, D.C. ; Charles C Watts, Jr., M.D., 
and S/Sgt. Carlton L. Stewart, Lackland Air 
Force Hospital, San Antonio, Texas; Max J. 
Trummer, M.D., Philadelphia, Pennsylvania; 
Frank L. Mahan, M.D., Fort Worth, Texas; 
Walter Frajola, Ph. D., Ohio State University; 



and the staff of the Armed Forces Institute of 
Pathology. 

The following flight controllers are also 
acknowledged, without whom there would be 
no summary: Roy J. Kelly, M.D., USAF; 
Howard R. Unger, M.D., USAF; Robert R. 
Burwell, M.D., USAF; Clyde H. Kratochvil, 
M.D., USAF; Warren J. Bishop, M.D., RAAF; 
Jacques L. Sherman, Jr., M.D., USA; John C. 
Lane, M.D., Melbourne, Australia; William 
H. Shea, M.D., USAF; Edward L. Beckman, 
M.D., USN; Robert H. Moser, M.D., USA; 
William L. Hall, M.D., USN; George G. 
Luchinna, M.D., USN; Laurence H. Blackburn, 
Jr., M.D., USN; Duane E. Graveline, M.D., 
USAF; and Paul W. Musgrave, M.D., USAF. 



1. Jackson, CaRMault B., Jr., Douglas, William K., et al.: Results of Prefligkt and Postfligkt Medical Examina- 

tions, Proc. Conf. on Results of the First U.S. Manned Suborbital Space Flight. NASA, Nat. Inst. Health, 
and Nat. Acad. Sci., June 6, 1961, pp. 31-36. 

2. Adghison, William S., and Laughlin, C. Patrick: Physiological Responses of the Astronaut to the MRS 

Flight, Proc. Conf. on Results of the First U.S. Manned Suborbital Space Flight. NASA, Nat. Inst. Health, 
and Nat. Acad. Sci., June 6, 1961, pp. 45-50. 

3. Douglas, William K., Jackson, Cabmault B., Jr., et al.: Results of the MR~4 Preflight and Post/light Medical 

Examination Conducted on Astronaut Virgil I. Grissom. Results of the Second U.S. Manned Suborbital 
Space Flight, July 21, 1961. Supt. Doe., U.S. Government Printing Office (Washington, D.C), pp. 9-14. 

4. Laughlin, C. Patrick, and Augerson, William S.: Physiological Responses of the Astronaut in the MR-4 

Space Flight. Results oF the Second U.S. Manned Suborbital Space Flight, July 21, 1961. Supt. Doc, U.S. 
Government Printing Office (Washington, D.C), pp 15-21. 

5. Douglas, William K.: Flight Surgeon's Report for Mercury- Redstone Missions 3 and 4- Results of the Second 

U.S. Manned Suborbital Space Flight, July 21, 1961. Supt. Doc, U.S. Government Printing Office (Wash- 
ington, D.C), pp. 23-31. 

6. Minners, Howard A., Douglas, William K., et al.: Aerornedical Preparation and Results of Postflight Medical 

Examinations. Results of the First United States Manned Orbital Space Flight, Febuary 20, 1962. Supt. 
Doc, U.S. Government Printing Office (Washington, D.C), pp. 83-92. 

7. Laughlin, C. Patrick, McCutcheon, Ernest P., et al.: Physiological Responses of the Astronaut. Results of 

the First United States Manned Orbital Space Flight, February 20, 1962. Supt. Doc, U.S. Government 
Printing Office (Washington, D.C), pp. 93-103. 

8. Minners, Howard A., White, Stanley C, et al.: Clinical Medical Observations. Results of the Second United 

States Manned Orbital Space Flight, May 24, 1962. NASA SP-6, Supt. Doc, U.S. Government Printins 
Office (Washington, D.C), pp. 43-53. 

9. McCutcheon, Ernest P., Berry, Charles A., et al.: Physiological Responses of the Astronaut. Results of 

the Second United States Manned Orbital Space Flight, May 24, 1962. NASA SP-6, Supt, Doc, U.S. Govern- 
ment Printing Office (Washington, D.C), pp. 54-62. 



36 



4. PILOT PERFORMANCE 



By Richard E. Day, Asst. Chief for Training, Flight Crew Operations Division; rand John J. Van Bockel, 
Flight Crew Operations Division 



Summary 

The results of the MA-8 orbital flight of 
Astronaut Walter M. Schirra, Jr., further ver- 
ify that man can function effectively in a space 
environment, in this instance for a period of 
up to 9 hours. The pilot was able to position 
the spacecraft to a given attitude and to com- 
plete attitude maneuvers with a high degree 
of accuracy and a minimum amount of control- 
system fuel by using only visual references as 
seen through the spacecraft window. This 
flight provided additional evidence that man 
can perform primary control tasks and serve 
as an effective backup to the automatic con- 
trol modes provided. During the MA-8 mis- 
sion, the pilot also demonstrated that he can 
efficiently perform the role of an engineering 
test pilot while orbiting in a space environ- 
ment if the pilot devotes his primary attention 
to the management of spacecraft systems and 
the operational aspects of the mission. 

Introduction 

The pilot's primary responsibility during the 
MA-8 mission, as in the previous orbital mis- 
sions, was to monitor and manage systems oper- 
ations and, if necessary, to take corrective action 
in order to achieve the prescribed mission ob- 
jectives. The pilot's secondary responsibility 
during this mission was to accomplish various 
in-flight activities that would further evaluate 
the spacecraft systems as well as provide a 
basis for evaluating man's performance in space. 
Experimental scientific activities were some- 
what reduced for this mission in view of the 
greater emphasis placed on operational objec- 
tives. The purpose of this paper is to report 
on the pilot's effectiveness in achieving the 
primary mission objectives. The pilot's per- 
formance in conducting certain scientific exper- 
iments, secondary objectives for this mission, 
are not described in this paper since they are 
discussed in the Scientific Experiments section 
of paper 1. 



Flight Plan Description 

A flight plan was designed for the MA-8 
flight to guide the pilot in carrying out the mis- 
sion objectives with particular emphasis upon 
systems' management and control-fuel conser- 
vation. Only a few scientific activities were 
scheduled late in the mission on a flexible basis 
so as not to interfere with operational mission 
requirements. Control systems were to be 
evaluated prior to extending the flight duration 
beyond three orbital passes. 

The pilot's adherence to the flight plan was 
excellent, and all major activities were accom- 
plished within the time periods scheduled. The 
spacecraft control systems were completely 
checked out during the first three orbital passes; 
and the drifting flight phase, as well as the auto- 
matic-control-system evaluation scheduled dur- 
ing the final three passes, was completed as 
planned. Observations of the ground flares at 
Woomera, Australia, and of the high intensity 
lights at Durban, South Africa, were attempted 
at the proper times; but, poor weather condi- 
tions prevented the pilot's observation of both 
light sources. 

Preflight Performance 

In preparing for this flight, Astronaut 
Schirra participated in extensive training and 
spacecraft checkout activities. In general, 
his preflight activities were similar to those 
accomplished by the pilots of the previous 
orbital flights, except that more time was 
devoted to becoming familiar with the space- 
craft systems through briefings and discussions 
and less time was spent in using the Mercury 
procedures trainer. 

As a result of the experience gained from pre- 
vious Mercury flights, the pilot was able to 
prepare for this flight in a more efficient manner 
than has been possible in the past. The flight 
plan was more flexible and was finalized at an 
earlier date, operational requirements were 
emphasized, and nonoperational objectives were 



37 




Figure 4-1. — Astronaut Schirra examining hand-held 



reduced. Consequently, the pilot had the 
necessary additional time to become more 
familiar with the spacecraft and launch-vehicle 
systems. 

The major preflight pilot activities in the 
period from July II, 1962, to the date of launch 
are given in table 4-1. During the preflight 
preparation period, the pilot was engaged in a 
diversity of activities often requiring consider- 
able travel and resulting in a crowded schedule. 
As can be seen from this summary table, the 
pilot spent a large portion of his time in briefings 
and meetings concerning every aspect of the 
mission. For example, the pilot became fa- 
miliar with the hand-held camera used during 
the flight (see fig. 4-1). In addition, he com- 
pleted such required training activities as 
recovery training, survival-pack exercises, ac- 
celeration refamiliarization on the centrifuge, 
and review of the celestial sphere at the More- 
head Planetarium, Chapel Hill, N.C. The 
pilot also logged 35 hours in the T-33-, F-102-, 
and F-106-type aircraft during his preflight 
preparation period. Flights to maintain pro- 
ficiency in high performance fighter aircraft are 
considered an important phase of training be- 
cause the pilot must maintain the ability to 



Table 4-1. — Pilot Preflight Preparation History 



July 11. 
July 12. 
July 13. 
July 14. 
July 16. 
July 17. 
July 18. 
July 20. 
July 23. 

July 24. 
July 25. 
July 26. 
July 27. 
July 28. 
Aug. 1. 

Aug. 2_ 

Aug. 3. 
Aug. 4_ 
Aug. 6. 
Aug. 8. 



Wed._ 
Thurs. 
Fri.._ 
Sat... 

Tues„_ 
Wed._ 
Fri... 
Mon_. 

Tues__ 
Wed_. 
Thurs. 
Fri_„ 
Sat___ 
Wed — 



Wed. 



Flight plan meeting, flight film meeting 

Fligh: plan review 

Scheduling meeting 

Flying (T-33) 

Flight, plan review 

Scientific panel meeting 

Mission rules review; flying (T-33) 

Camera and onboard equipment briefing 

A.m.: Flight activities discussion, scheduling meeting 

P.m.: TV interview (Telstar) 

Blood pressure cuff discussion, systems briefing (ASCS) 
Systems briefings (ASCS and RCS) 
Systems briefing (sequential) 
Flight plan presentation 
Flying (T-33) 

A.m.: Systems briefings (communications and environmental 

control system) 
P.m. : Ultraviolet camera briefing 
A.m.: Systems briefing 
P.m.: Weather briefing 
Geology briefing (terrestrial photography) 
Flying (F-106) 

Scheduling meeting, flying (T-33) 
Flying (T-33) 



Table 4-1. — Pilot Preftight Preparation History — concluded 



Aug. 10 

Aug. 11 

Aug, 12 

Aug. 13 

Aug. 15 

Aug, 17 

Aug. 20 

Aug. 21 

Aug. 22 

Aug. 23 

Aug. 24 

Aug. 25 

Aug. 27 

Aug. 28 

Aug. 29 

Aug. 30 

Sept. 1 

Sept. 4 

Sept. 5 

Sept. 6 

Sept. 7 

Sept. 8 

Sept. 10 

Sept. 11 

Sept. 12. 

Sept. 13 

Sept. 14 

Sept. 15 

Sept. 17 

Sept.. 18 

Sept. 19 

Sept. 20 

Sept. 21 

Sept. 22 

Sept. 24 

Sept. 25 

Sept, 27 

Sept. 28 

Sept. 29 

Sept. 30 

Oct. 1 

Oct. 2 

Oct. 3 






Tues.. 
Wed.. 
Thurs. 




r of contractor documents 
Systems tests 
Systems tests concluded 
Sequential system checks 
Sequential system checks concluded 
Survival equipment meeting, flying (F-106) 
Recovery training 
Weight and balance 

Mercury procedures trainer, flying (F-106) 
Survival pack exercise 

Flight plan activities meeting 
P.m.: Mercury procedures trainer 
Mercury procedures trainer 

Johnsville centrifuge Atlas "g" refamiliarization 
Morehead Planetarium celestial review 
Meeting on checklists 

Mercury procedures trainer, flying (F-106) 
A.m.: Mercury procedures trainer 
P.m.: Scheduling meeting 
Flight plan meeting 
Flying (T-33) 
Flight controller briefing 
Flying (T-33) 

Systems briefings (ASCS and RCS) 

A.m.: Systems briefings (electrical and sequential) 

P.m.: Launch vehicle meeting 

Mercury procedures trainer 

Mercury procedures trainer 

A.m.: Simulated flight no. 1 

P.m. : Brief the President of the United States; Mercury procedui 



A.m.: Readiness e 
P.m. : Mercury procedures trainer 

Flight plan activities review, checklists review, flying (F-102) 
Simulated flight no. 2 and flight acceptance test, air-ground com- 
munications check 
Mercury procedures trainer 

Questionnaire review, air-ground communications check, flying 
(F-102) 

Mercury Control Center-Bermuda simulation 
Flight configuration sequence and aborts 
A.m.: Mission review 
P.m.: Mercury procedures trainer 

Launch simulation and RF compatibility, flying (F-102) 
Network simulation 

Training facilities meeting (Houston), flying (T-33) 
Mercury procedures trainer 
A.m.: Flight plan discussion, mission review 
P.m.: Mercury procedures trainer 

Launch simulation and RF compatibility, flying (F-102) 
Simulated flight no. 3 
Mission review 



A.m.: Mercury procedi 
P.m.: Physical 
Pilot briefing, study 
Launch 



39 



Table 4— II. — Pilot Time in Spacecraft 16 During Hangar and Launch Complex Tests From August 11, 
1962, to Flight Date 



Spacecraft tests 



Aug. 11 Systems tests (Hangar S 

Aug. 12 Systems tests concluded.. 

Aug. 13 Sequential system checks.. 

Aug, 14 Sequential system checks concluded. . 

Sept. 11 Simulated flight n 

Sept. 14 Simulated flight no. 2 and flight acceptance ti 

Sept. 19 Flight configuration sequence and aborts. . 

Sept. 28 Launch simulation and radio frequency compatibility.. 

Sept. 29 Simulated flight n 



02:15 
05:15 
02:45 
02:17 
03:25 
02:20 
03:20 
03:20 



make rapid and accurate decisions under actual 
operational conditions. 

Astronaut Scbirra achieved a high level of 
skill on the procedures trainer in performing 
the turnaround and retrofire maneuvers. Use 
of the transparent gyro simulator and a very 
good understanding of the spacecraft control 
systems and their operation prepared him 
adequately for scheduled in-flight activities, 
such as control mode switching, flight maneu- 
vering, drifting flight, and the gyro caging and 
uncaging procedures that cannot be properly 
simulated on the procedures trainer. Prepara- 
tion in such areas as emergency procedures, 
mission anomalies, egress from the spacecraft, 
and recovery procedures was also satisfactorily 
accomplished. 

Active participation in spacecraft checkout 
activities enabled the pilot to become familiar 
with the systems of the MA-8 spacecraft and 
the Atlas launch vehicle. This familiarity 
permitted him to manipulate and evaluate 
his flight equipment along with the various 
modifications to flight systems and switching 
procedures specific to the Sigma 7 spacecraft. 
Table 4-II summarizes these activities from 
August 11 to October S, 1962, during which 
period the pilot spent 31 hours and 27 minutes 
in the spacecraft itself and many additional 
hours before and after each checkout operation 
in preparation, observation, troubleshooting, 
and discussion. In addition, Astronaut Sehirra, 
as the backup pilot for the MA-7 misson, 
spent 45 hours in the Aurora 7 spacecraft 
during the MA-7 pre flight period. This ex- 
perience added significantly to his knowledge 

40 



of the Mercury spacecraft and launch vehicle 
systems. 

The pilot's training activities using the Cape 
Canaveral procedures trainer from August 20 
to October 1, 1962, are summarized in table 
4-III. This table does not include the 28 hours 
spent in this trainer during the MA-7 preflight 
period, or the 8 hours spent in the Langely 
procedures trainer during June 1962 in which 
manual control of possible reentry-rate oscilla- 
tions was practiced and flight plan control tasks 
were evaluated. During the training period at 
Cape Canaveral, the pilot spent 29 hours and 
15 minutes in the trainer accomplishing 37 
simulated missions which included 40 turn- 
around maneuvers, 53 retrofire maneuvers, and 
68 simulated failures. The pilot devoted 
nearly as much time to briefings and debrief - 
ings in conjunction with each training session 
as he spent in the trainer. The greatest em- 
phasis during these simulations was on the 
more basic operational aspects of the mission 
because of their relative importance and 
because the procedures trainer is best equipped 
to accomplish these requirements. The pilot 
participated in several simulated launch aborts 
and network exercises during which the mission 
rules were rehearsed and discussed. 

The pilot received three series of formal 
briefings w T hich were oriented as much as 
possible towards the operational requirements 
of the mission. In addition, he spent well over 
100 hours in reviewing informally the operation 
of spacecraft systems with specialists during 
the 2 months prior to launch in order to estab- 
lish mission operational procedures. 



Special 
training 
aetivitica 1 


L--3 O » tBCOM^^tS M O O ■* 

^ ^ N - c-f «f «T to" to tx ui- <n 
^ M - w cn ci <n « !N -r ~ * ~ 




! 
1 

1 
i 


i 

o 


; : i- | W - : : ; | 




ml 


: ; i- i i i : i i 




ill 
ai l 






pi 
S"i 






I 


: i j ; '« ; i ; 




1 


. weq 

; ; ; : ; : ; 


2 






55 






m nmmim 


I 


Type of training 


■ i 

it 


1 • 


it 
i 

i 


1 


! 
I 


in if mumm 



Control Tasks 

Several in-flight maneuvers and control tasks 
were programed for the MA-8 flight to obtain 
additional information on possible orientation 
problems in space and the ability of the pilot 
to perform various attitude control tasks using 
accuracy and fuel expenditure as the primary 
criteria of performance. These tasks are dis- 
cussed in the following paragraphs. 

Turnaround Maneuver 

The primary purpose in accomplishing a 
manual turnaround maneuver using the fly-by- 
wire control mode, low thrusters only, was to 
conserve control-system fuel. Therefore, it was 
planned that, if the flight was proceeding 
normally, the turnaround would be executed 
at a leisurely pace using a 4-degree-per-second 
rate about the yaw axis. 

The pilot performed this maneuver identically 
as it has been practiced on the procedures 
trainer prior to the flight. Figure 4-2 shows 
the spacecraft attitudes as indicated by the 
gyros and a background envelope of five turn- 
around maneuvers accomplished on the pro- 
cedures trainer for comparison. The pilot 




Figure 4-2. — Turnaround maneuver. 

42 



performed the maneuver smoothly and with 
precision. Only 0.3 pound, or less than 1 per- 
cent, of the automatic-control-system fuel 
supply was used. This quantitj" amounts to 
approximately 10 percent of the total control 
fuel typically required by the automatic control 
system for accomplishing this same maneuver. 

The pilot reported that the turnaround 
maneuver proceeded just as it had on the 
procedures trainer. In accordance with prac- 
tice in the trainer, Astronaut Schirra used 
only the rate and attitude indicators for 
reference, and he resisted the temptation to 
look out the window when the horizon first 
came into view. 

Yaw Maneuvers 

A series of yaw maneuvers were planned for 
this flight to obtain quantitative information 
on the use of the window and periscope as 
independent references for determining and 
acquiring the proper spacecraft attitude about 
the yaw- axis. The yaw indicator was to be 
covered and the spacecraft displaced in yaw. 
However, this maneuver was planned so that 
the yaw attitude would be retained within 
gyro and repeater stop limits . These maneuvers 
were to be performed during both daytime and 
nighttime phases of the orbit in which the 
views through the window and the periscope 
were used independently as external references. 

The pilot stated very early in the flight 
that he could accurately estimate jw attitude 
during periods when either the automatic 
stabilization and control system (ASCS) mode 
was operating or when in a drifting flight mode. 

The first yaw maneuver on the daylight side 
of the earth in which the view through the win- 
dow was used as a reference was performed at 
a ground elapsed time (g.e.t.) of 1 hour and 41 
minutes over Bermuda during the second orbital 
pass. This maneuver was followed at 01:50 
g.e.t. by a similar exercise using the view through 
the periscope as a reference. In addition yaw 
maneuvers on the night side of the earth in 
which the view through the window was again 
used as a reference were performed in sequence 
over Muchea, Australia, during the second 
orbital pass at 02:26 and 02:28 g.e.t. The re- 
sults of these yaw maneuvers are presented in 
figure 4-3, which gives the variation in space- 
craft roll, pitch, and yaw attitudes. Table 
4-IV lists the fuel usage, time required, control 



Table 4-1 V. — Yaw Maneuvers 



Maneuver 


Visual reference 


Control mode 


Automatic fuel 
usage, lb 


Gyro switch 
position 


2 
3 
4 


Wndow__ 

Periscope... 

Window _ . 

Winow .. _ 


Fly-bv-wire, low 

Flv-by-wire, low . 


. 32 
. 23 
. 30 


Free 
Free 




(a) Day 
Figure 4-3.— Yaw maneuvers. 



(b) Night 
Figure 4-3. — Concluded. 



mode, and visual reference used for these yaw 
maneuvers, which are discussed below in the 
order tabulated. 

The first yaw maneuver on the day side of 
the earth consisted of three separate yaw dis- 
placement and realinement maneuvers accom- 
plished in rapid sequence. The pilot did not, 
however, record an attitude "MARK" on the 
voice tape until the end of the final maneuver 
of the sequence. The pilot yawed the space- 
craft approximately 8° to 10° from 0° in each 
case, holding pitch and roll attitudes reasonably 
close to retroattitude as intended. At the 
termination of this maneuver yaw misalinement 
was +4°, with roll and pitch attitudes at the 
nominal 0° and —34°, respectively. As a re- 
sult of this maneuver, the pilot reported that 
yaw errors could be readily recognized and 
corrected by using the terrain features or any- 
available type of cloud formation through the 
window. The pilot reported, and the results 
of this maneuver verify-, that yaw realinement 
could be accomplished while holding the nomi- 
nal retroattitude of —34° in pitch. This atti- 
tude in pitch makes the horizon available for 
maintaining proper attitudes in pitch and roll 
while the spacecraft is being oriented in yaw. 

In the second yaw maneuver on the daylight 
side of the earth, the pilot yawed 23° to the 
right while holding pitch and roll within ±5° 
of the desired attitudes. At the termination of 
this maneuver, the spacecraft was in error by 
only +2° in yaw, with pitch and roll at —33° 
and 0°, respectively. 

The pilot reported that yaw mis aline me nts 
were readily apparent and that realinement to 
0° could be effected rapidly by using only the 
periscope reference. However, as a result of 
the two daytime yaw maneuvers, he reported 
that the window provided an adequate yaw 
reference and that the periscope constituted a 
redundant external reference system. 

In the third and fourth yaw maneuvers 
accomplished on the nightside of the orbit, the 
astronaut employed the window as a reference 
because he found the periscope to be ineffective 
at night. In performing each of these maneu- 
vers, the pilot yawed approximately 20° left 
and then was able to realine in yaw very close 
to 0°. At the termination of the third maneu- 
ver, the yaw error was +3°; and at the end of 
the fourth maneuver, the yaw error was —1°. 
In the course of completing both of these 



maneuvers, pitch attitude was increased from 
the nominal —34° to approximately —22°; 
however, pitch attitude was returned to about 
— 34° by the end of each maneuver. Excur- 
sions in roll were somewhat larger for these 
maneuvers than they had been during the 
daylight yaw maneuvers; however, these errors 
were also reduced to nearly zero at the comple- 
tion of the maneuver. The pilot used the 
Moon and the planet Venus as visual references 
in performing both of these maneuvers. 

Astronaut Shirra reported that yaw determi- 
nation on the nightside was more difficult than 
during the daylight phase because of the small 
field of view available for the acquisition of star 
patterns. He reported that only through 
concentrated effort could he acquire attitude 
alinement about all axes by using the airglow 
layer as his reference in pitch and roll and a 
known celestial body for yaw reference. 

The results of these four maneuvers indicate 
that for yaw misalinements of the order 
obtained during this flight, the spacecraft can 
be realined in yaw during the day or during 
moonlit night conditions by using the window 
view as the only visual reference. Quantita- 
tively, these maneuvers were accomplished in 
a 2- to 3-minute time period with an average 
usage of between 0.2 and 0.3 pound of control 
fuel, and realinement of spacecraft attitudes to 
within ±5° of the nominal retroattitude was 
readily achieved. Yaw alinement on the day- 
light side in which the periscope was used 
required approximately the same amount of 
control fuel and time as was required when the 
window reference was used with little or no 
improvement in accuracy. 

Drifting Flight 

The spacecraft was permitted to drift com- 
pletely free in attitude on two different occa- 
sions to conserve control fuel. During this 
time, power to the ASCS was switched off 
(powered down) to conserve electrical power. 
On three additional occasions, the pilot main- 
tained the spacecraft attitudes within the limits 
of the horizon scanners with a minimum 
amount of control inputs. This flight mode is 
referred to as limited drifting flight. A total of 
2 hours and 29 minutes was spent in both types 
of drifting flight during this mission, with the 
longest continuous period extending for 1 hour 
and 42 minutes. Most of the drifting period 



44 



was devoted to flight in the attitude-free state. 
The total control fuel usage directly associated 
with the drifting flight phases was approxi- 
mately 1 pound, and this was almost entirely 
consumed in reestablishing attitudes at the 
termination of each period of drifting flight. 
Drifting flight was not disturbing to the pilot, 
and the flight results verify that this operational 
technique provides an excellent means of con- 
serving fuel and electrical power. 

Gyro Realinement Maneuvers 

The gyros were realined to an earth reference 
through the window by using fly-by-wire on 
two different occasions. At the completion of 
both maneuvers, the gyros and horizon scan- 
ners were alined quite closely, and torquing of 
the gyros to the horizon scanners quickly cor- 
rected any remaining disparities. The first 
gyro realinement required 1 .7 f pounds, but the 
second maneuver required only 0.66 pound of 
automatic control fuel. 

The first maneuver was accomplished entirely 
during the night period of the orbit and required 
two separate gyro caging and uncaging opera- 
tions to obtain the correct alinement. The 
procedure used was to determine attitude by 
observing available star patterns and to acquire 
and track the horizon by using 2-degree-per- 
second rates or less until the proper position 
was indicated in the window. The gyros were 
then caged and uncaged. At this point, roll 
and pitch were quite well alined; however, an 
error of approximately 35° in yaw attitude ex- 
isted at this time. By using the constellation 
Cassiopeia as a visual reference, the pilot quickly 
recognized this yaw error and maneuvered to 
the proper heading.' 

The procedure used by the pilot in perform- 
ing the second gyro realinement was: (1) to 
cage and uncage the gyros at —34° in pitch 
and 0° in roll and yaw, and (2) to pitch up to 
an indicated attitude of +34°, while simultane- 
ously holding roll and yaw attitudes at 0°, and 
again cage and uncage the gyros. The maneu- 
ver was performed during the daylight phase 
of the orbit, and again the earth horizon refer- 
ence through the window was used. The errors 
in slaving the gyros to the horizon scanners 
were within ±7° for all axes at the completion 



of this maneuver, and the scanners required less 
than a minute to correct remaining gyro errors. 

Pitch Maneuvers 

On four occasions during the flight, the pilot 
maneuvered from retroattitude to reentry 
attitude in pitch prior to selecting the automatic 
reentry-select control mode. Typical fuel 
usage for this pitch attitude change was 0.20 
pound of the automatic fuel supply. During 
the final pitch maneuver to reentry attitude, 
the pilot simultaneously checked his fly-by-wire 
high thrusters, and this action resulted in a 
much higher fuel usage than the previous pitch 
maneuvers. The pilot performed these maneu- 
vers with precision, and at the completion of 
each maneuver he engaged the automatic 
control system without actuating the high 
reaction control thrusters. 

Retro fire 

The pilot completed stowage of the items on 
the preretrofire checklist and was prepared well 
in advance of the retrosequence event. Just be- 
fore the last sunrise prior to this event, the pilot 
used Jupiter, Fomalhaut, and the constellation 
Grus to verify that his gyro indicators were 
functioning property. As planned, the auto- 
matic control system was used to control the 
spacecraft attitudes during retrofire, with the 
manual proportional control mode selected as 
a backup had it been required. During retro- 
fire, he cross-checked his -window reference and 
reported that his attitudes were constant within 
less than 1 0 about all axes. Just prior to retro- 
sequence, he reported that the glare of the sun 
through the periscope was blinding and there- 
fore placed the dark filter over the lens. 

Reentry 

As planned, the pilot used the rate stabiliza- 
tion and control system mode for controlling 
the reentry phase of the flight. Although this 
system was consuming large quantities of con- 
trol system fuel at a rate which was expected 
(for example, 50 percent of the manual supply 
was expended from O.Oog to drogue parachute 
deployment), this fact almost led the pilot to 
select the auxiliary damping control mode of 
the ASCS. 



45 



Systems Management and Operational 
Procedures 

Throughout the mission, the pilot exhibited 
an excellent monitoring technique and opera- 
tional procedure in managing the spacecraft 
systems. During the entire flight, the pilot 
reported clearly and accurately on the status 
of systems and maintained a verbal commentary 
on the in-flight activities, such as the yaw 
maneuvers, control mode usage, spacecraft 
elapsed time, and visual observations. The 
pilot exercised sound judgment and procedure 
in resolving the suit-circuit-temperature control 
problem. The procedure for switching off 
(powering down) and switching on (powering 
up) the ASCS inverter was performed exactly 
as planned. The pilot maintained an effective 
surveillance for possible discrepancies between 
true vehicle and gyro attitudes as well as the 
overall operation of the spacecraft's electrical 
systems. The proper fuse control switch posi- 
tions were selected throughout the mission, and 
the drogue parachute and snorkle inlet valves 
were manually activated at the proper time. 



Control Mode Switching 

The pilot's use of his control systems, as 
well as his control mode switching operations, 
was excellent. He was able to accomplish these 
switching operations with a very minimum 
amount of fuel usage. 

Table 4-V lists the control modes and com- 
binations of control mode configurations 
together with the total time and frequency that 
each control system was used during the flight. 
The pilot used a total of 14 single or dual con- 
trol combinations and switched control modes 
54 times during the mission. The automatic 
control system controlled the spacecraft during 
60 percent of the total orbital flight time, 
whereas the pilot manually controlled the space- 
craft 16 percent of this total. During the 
remaining 24 percent of the flight, the space- 
craft was permitted to drift in an attitude-free 
mode. 

The pilot selected the automatic control 
system on 23 different occasions. Only in one 
case did he inadvertently activate the automatic 
control system high thrusters, and this was 



Table 4-V. — Control Mode Utilization 
[Does not include gyro switch position] 



Control mods configurator 



ASCS, retroattitude select- 
Free drift 

FBW, low 

ASCS, reentry select 

Drift and FBW, low 

MP 

RSCS -- 

FBW, normal 

ASCS, orientation, low 

MP and ASCS 

FBW, low, and RSCS 

ASCS, orientation, high.___ 

MP and FBW, low 

ASCS, auxiliary damping __ 



04:57:34 
02:11:56 
00:40:59 
00:35:09 



00:1 



-.00 



(approx.) 
00:07:05 
00:06:28 
00:02:17 
00:01:06 
00:00:53 
00:00:31 
» 00:00:36 
00:00:07 
00:00:04 



01:15:29 
01:41:56 
00:06:36 
00:19:11 
00:09:22 

00:02:54 
00:06:28 
00:01:21 
00:00:10 
00:00:53 
00:00:31 
00:00:23 
00:00:07 
00:00:04 



ASCS— Automatic stabilization and con 
ESCS— Rate stabilization control syster 
MP— Manual proportional. 
FBW— Fly-by-wire. 

Hetroattitude and reentry sri wt— Pitch ; 
ASCS orientation— Orients spacecraft tc 
rates and attitudes from those cotnrr 
Includes the 23-seeond retroflre period. 



in dependent upon de 



46 



because he engaged the automatic control 
system while the spacecraft was in proper retro- 
attitude, but the attitude-select switch was in 
the reentry-attitude position. The only other 
time that automatic control system high 
thruster operation occurred, other than during 
the retrofire period, was just prior to O.Oog. 
This activation resulted when the ASCS in 
orbit mode failed to keep the spacecraft 
attitudes within the attitude limits. 

The pilot selected double authority control 
on four occasions during the flight. Only the 
first case was inadvertent and occurred when 
the pilot changed from the manual proportional 
control mode to the fly-by- wire mode, low 
thrusters only. The pilot noticed the greater 
than normal response for the fly-by-wire, low, 
and immediately returned to a single control 
configuration. 

The second case of double authority control 
occurred just subsequent to the single instance 
in which the pilot inadvertently actuated the 
automatic-control-system high thrusters. The 
pilot analyzed the situation as a stuck thruster 
in the automatic control system and therefore 
selected rate command in conjunction with 
ftV-by-wire, low, to counteract the effect of the 
automatic-mode high thrusters. 

In the third case, the manual proportional 
system was intentionally utilized to override 
the automatic system in order to correct for an 
error of approximately 10° in roll at the end of 
the horizon scanner test. 

The final case of double authority control 
occurred during the ignition period for the 
retrorockets. The pilot selected manual pro- 
portional control, as planned, to back up the 
automatic control system in case it failed to 
control the spacecraft attitudes properly during 
this event. 



Fuel Usage 

The amount of fuel used during the ma- 
neuvering flight phase and control-mode switch- 
ing exercises was much less than the amount 
which had been predicted from calculations 
based on the prescribed flight plan. A fuel 
usage history is presented in paper f in the sec- 
tion entitled "Spacecraft Control System." 
The fuel reserve at retrofire was approximately 
80 percent of initial levels for both the manual 
and automatic fuel supplies, which represented 
a total fuel consumption of only 12 pounds for 
almost 9 hours of flight. The automatic con- 
trol system controlled the spacecraft attitudes 
during 60 percent of the mission, and all of the 
scheduled maneuvers and control system opera- 
tions were accomplished. The fuel economy 
exhibited on this flight can be attributed to the 
following: 

1. The pilot performed the turnaround 
maneuver using only the fly-by-wire, 
low-thrust, control. Fuel usage for 
this maneuver was approximately 10 
percent of that nominally required by 
the automatic control system to ac- 
complish the same task. 

2. The high thrusters of the automatic 
control system were activated only on 
two very brief occasions prior to retro- 
fire, only one of which resulted from an 
oversight on the part of the pilot and 
which he quickly corrected. 

3. The fly-by- wire mode, low thrusters 
only, was used for most of the manual 
maneuvers. 

4. The pilot executed each nameuver 
smoothly and with minimal control 
inputs. 

5. The pilot used a systematic procedure 
for fuel conservation, particularly dur- 
ing control system checks. 



47 



5. PILOT'S FLIGHT REPORT 



By Walter M. Schirra, Jr., Astronaut 



Summary 

A personal narrative is presented by Astro- 
naut Schirra of his flight experiences during 
the MA-8 mission. In many instances. -his 
observations are coincident with those of the 
astronauts for the two previous orbital missions. 
However, two notable differences should be 
mentioned. Astronaut Schirra observed a 
hazelike layer that was different in both char- 
acter and size from that described by Astro- 
nauts Glenn and Carpenter, and, although both 
of these pilots spoke of the expended sustainer 
stage of the launch vehicle as silvery in appear- 
ance, Schirra described it as having appeared 
black. The pilot witnessed both types of 
space particles which had been observed by 
Glenn and Carpenter. After reviewing the 
details of the turnaround maneuver, the pilot 
discusses the possibility of rendezvous with the 
launch vehicle immediately after separation 
from it. Despite the fact that the MA-8 
orbital phase was twice the length of the pre- 
vious Mercury flight, Astronaut Schirra easily 
adapted to the space enviroment and suffered 
no ill effects from the long periods of attitude- 
free drifting flight. The astronaut's candid 
evaluation of the systems' performance through- 
out the flight is a reflection of the greater 
emphasis placed on the engineering aspects 
and was extremely valuable in making the 
postlaunch investigation of the flight results 
a comprehensive one. 

Introduction 

One of the main objectives of this flight 
was an engineering evaluation of the spacecraft 
systems to determine their capabilities for an 
extended mission. Tn line with this objective, 
we wanted to demonstrate that the consumable 
supplies could be conserved sufficiently to 
permit longer duration flights in the future 



using the Mercury spacecraft. Of course, most 
of the consumables, such as water, electrical 
power, and contaminant filters, will have to 
be increased, but it is still important to deter- 
mine the long-term consumption rates. 

Since this was to be an engineering evalua- 
tion, the name chosen for my spacecraft was 
that of the mathematical symbol for summation, 
sigma, with the number 7 added to it for the 
seven-member Mercury astronaut team. Thus 
was derived the name and symbol that was 
painted on the spacecraft, Sigma 7. 

The camaraderie of everyone concerned with 
the flight preparations and equipment meant 
a great deal to me. For example, it was cer- 
tainly a thrill while entering the spacecraft 
on launch day to see a dummy "ignition key" 
on the control stick safety pin. This and other 
small gestures really helped to make me 
realize that there are many other people who 
were interested in what I was doing. We know 
this inherently, but these visible examples 
of it mean quite a bit. Here again, sigma 
symbolizes the summation of the great efforts 
exerted by each and every man in the vast 
Mercury team. 

The following comments are my observa- 
tions and impressions of the flight from the 
countdown to recovery. In the previous paper, 
the flight plan was described and my per- 
formance in completing the assigned tasks was 
discussed. In this report, I will amplify that 
discussion, as well as describe my own flight 
sensations. In the period since the flight, 
I have taken the opportunity to refine and 
analyze my flight experiences. In many 
instances, I will submit comparisons of my 
observations with those of astronauts who 
preceded me into space. It was their pioneer- 
ing efforts which helped so much to make my 
flight a success. 



49 



Countdown and Powered Flight 

The countdown was conducted very success- 
fully; there were absolutely no problems. The 
only delay was that resulting from a temporary 
loss of signal from the Canary Islands' radar 
system, but waiting for what proved to be a 
rapid repair was worthwhile since they had 
good radar acquisition during the first orbital 
pass, The tracking task is critical at this time, 
because it provides early definition of the space- 
craft trajectory. 

The boosted flight itself was disappointingly 
short. Considerable training was conducted 
to prepare me for emergencies which might 
occur during powered flight. We so often 
practiced system failures and aborts, either 
in the procedures trainer or by coordinating 
the trainer with the Mercury Control Center 
and Bermuda stations, that this practice made 
a very pronounced impression upon me. 

This launch, in contrast, was a successful, 
normal flight where I encountered many new 
experiences. I still believe that the, amount 
of practice we had for the period prior to in- 
sertion is important, in that here the pilot 
must be prepared for reaction to an emergency, 
rather than thinking one out. 

There is no doubt about when lift-off oc- 
curred. If anything, I was somewhat sur- 
prised because it occurred earlier than I had 
anticipated. I heard the vernier engines start, 
felt them thrusting, and then heard the main 
engines start. During ascent, the communi- 
cations with the Cape Capsule Communicator 
were perfect except for the few seconds when 
the noise of maximum dynamic pressure 
triggered the voice-operated relay and pre- 
vented the ground transmissions from reaching 
me. I never felt rushed, and all the events 
during launch were in order. 

I had more than the anticipated time avail- 
able to me to make my system checks. My 
scan pattern of the instrumentation panel was 
developed to where it was instinctive. I 
thought from my training that I might have 
missed on making a good electrical check prior 
to 3 minutes but subsequent to tower jettison; 
however, I found that I had completed that 
in time. There was absolutely no question 
as to when booster engine cutoff (BECO) 
occurred. The change in acceleration was 
quite obvious; whereas in the trainer, I could 



only wait for the accelerometer indication to 
decrease. There is no doubt, whatsoever, 
when these forces decrease in actual flight. 
Since beginning this mission, I had become 
familiar with checkoff points for various emer- 
gencies; for example, a no-BECO abort, a 
no-staging abort, and an abort at 3 minutes 
and 50 seconds after lift-off, It was a very 
pleasant feeling to check each of these off 
and put them behind me. 

I knew that the launch vehicle staged with- 
out having to wait for confirmation from the 
(.'ape Cap Com, which, by the way, did come in 
rapid order. You can see the flashback of 
smoke from the booster engines as they part 
from the sustainer stage, and you can see the 
escape rocket when it is jettisoned. Unfortu- 
nately, the escape rocket blast left a light film 
on the window. 

It did seem that the buildup of acceleration 
during the sustainer period was rather slow. 
As I look back, the forces I experienced while 
being accelerated in boosted flight seemed to 
be much less than the later forces of reentry. 
This comparison, I am sure, is best explained 
by the fact that you have a breathing point 
at BECO, in between the accelerations, while 
at reentry there is a long continuous buildup 
of accelerations which are equally as exciting 
as those during boosted flight. 

Orbital Flight 

At sustainer engine cutoff (SECO), the 
sequence panel light did not seem to help very 
much. All the lights were somewhat dim, and 
I was made aware of these events better by the 
feel and sound than by the sequence light 
itself drawing my eye to it. After SECO, I 
immediately selected the auxiliary damping 
mode knowing from my previous training that 
there was no rush, selected fly-by-wire, low, on 
the thrust select switch, and commenced turn- 
around. I resisted every impulse to look out 
of the window at this point, as I wanted to 
make this a fuel-minimum turnaround by 
strictly monitoring the gyro instruments. I 
was pleased to note that I got exactly the turn- 
around I wanted in the fly-by-wire low control 
mode, including approximately 4 degrees per 
second left yaw. I had no trouble with any of 
the low thrusters at this time or at subsequent 
tines during the flight. I attained retroattitude 



50 



at about 6 minutes and 50 seconds after lift-off 
and then selected ASCS, dropping into this 
automatic-pilot mode without any high thruster 
action. 

After turnaround, I observed the sustainer 
stage right where it had been predicted to be, 
and I was very intrigued. I was somewhat 
surprised to see the sustainer engine pointing 
toward me. By this, I mean that it was 
basically in an attitude where it must have 
turned lengthwise 180°. It was moving very, 
very slowly in relation to its insertion attitude, 
although it had managed to make a 180° turna- 
round during the time I had made mine. I 
was also impressed with the fact that it was 
almost black in appearance, rather than the 
shiny silvery vehicle that Astronauts Glenn and 
Carpenter had seen at this time and that. I had 
observed on the launching pad. The white 
belly band of condensed moisture, the frost 
itself, was apparent to me. The sustainer fol- 
lowed the path that was predicted, and this 
knowledge helped to satisfy me that the atti- 
tude gyros and horizon scanners were operating 
properly. I did not see any crystalline material 
exhausting from the sustainer engine which 
Scott Carpenter had described. The sustainer, 
in retrospect, appeared slightly to the right of 
the predicted position which indicated a slight 
error to the left in my indicated attitude about 
the yaw axis. 

It was a very real satisfaction to receive the 
statement from the Cape Cap Com that I had 
at least a seven-orbit capability. As I pro- 
ceeded on to the Canary Islands, the flight was 
textbook already. I never did feel rushed; in 
fact I could send a blood pressure, for example, 
and have little else to do. I got a good 10- 
minute check when the tower jettison and cap 
sep lights indicating spacecraft separation went 
out. I had loss of voice transmission with the 
Cape Cap Com just prior to 10 minutes. 
Although I had everything under control, I did 
store a\va.y all events and switch positions to 
transmit to the Canary Islands Station, since 
their relaying of these data would, in turn, 
update the flight director and the flight control- 
lers back at the Cape. 

At about 10 minutes 30 seconds, I went 
back to fly-by-wire, low, and tracked the sus- 
tainer as it traversed down through the window, 
and it was a thrill to realize the delicate touch 
that it is possible to have with fly-by-wire, low. 



This touch is an art that a pilot hopes to acquire 
in air-to-air gunnery for getting hits. In this 
case the control system was so effective that it 
just amounted to a light touch and maybe a 
few pulses in either axis to get the response I 
wanted. I could point the spacecraft at any- 
thing I wanted to. I could see the sustainer 
and track it, but I do not believe the relative 
motion problem would be so easy to solve that 
I would be able to steam along and join up with 
it. Although the relative velocity was on the 
order of 20 to 30 feet per second, it was enough 
to cause a problem, particularly at a time when 
one is becoming acclimated to a new environ- 
ment. These problems would be difficult to 
solve by one's own inherent trajectory analysis, 
since there were no systems aboard to aid the 
pilot in solving the problem. I think that 
when we build up to the rendezvous technique, 
one will need more time than that just at the 
point of insertion to effect this rendezvous, 
even with proper training. The use of time 
while orbiting in space is only earth relative, 
therefore if a rendezvous is not hurried, the 
task should be relatively simple. 

At the Canaries, the flight itself had settled 
into a very normal pattern. I was content 
with the autopilot function, although I was 
convinced by this time that I had a small dis- 
crepancy between indicated and actual yaw 
attitude. During the sustainer tracking exer- 
cise, I had disabled the yaw reference system, 
and I knew that I had to wait for it to precess 
out the errors before I misjudged it. Having 
pitched up with manual proportional control, 
I was content that the system was exactly as I 
felt it would be. The greatest effect I did 
notice in manual proportional control was the 
tail-off in thrust, rather than the response to 
control input. As a result, you have a ten- 
dency to overshoot, and you cannot park the 
spacecraft in the attitude you want without 
having to counteract and then recounteract a 
tail-off. As a result of this effect, almost every 
time 1 went from manual proportional back to 
automatic mode, I switched to fly-by-wire, low, 
to reduce these small rates to a level at which I 
could effect this transition without using high 
thrusters. 

I did not have much chance to assess Africa, 
as a viewing sight ; I was much more engrossed 
in what was happening within the spacecraft. 
I did, of course, notice the color of Africa's 



51 



desert terrain; it was difficult not to notice it. 
The country itself was exactly as I had an- 
ticipated from the orbiial charts. At this 
time, 1 was well aware of the fact that we were 
working up to a slight suit-system cooling 
problem, I decided then to devote my primary 
attention to solving this situation before it be- 
came necessary to end the flight prematurely. 
I was well aware of the fact that people on the 
ground were probably quite concerned and 
were thinking in terms of previous missions 
when cooling problems had persisted. There- 
fore, I decided I had better solve this one. 

1 did not want to increase the valve setting 
for the suit circuit too rapidly. 1 had said 
before the flight that I wanted to increase the 
flow settings about half a mark every 10 min- 
utes, and this technique had been agreed upon 
by the system specialists.. I had to go from 
a setting of 4 to S, which represents about 
eight half marks. This procedure would there- 
fore take about 80 minutes. At a setting of 
about 7. I had arrested the increase in the 
suit and dome temperatures, and I needed about 
another 10 or 15 minutes to get the cooling I 
wanted. I did not want to increase the set- 
ting too rapidly and freexe the system. I had 
everything monitored closely, and while I saw 
the temperature was still going up as I increased 
flow, the rate of change of the temperature 
was decreasing. 

Even though it seemed to me that the Mer- 
cury Control Center die. not have as much 
information as I did on this temperature prob- 
lem, their request that 1 decrease the suit set- 
ting back to 3 was valid. [ later decided that 
they might have made an analysis that I had 
not and subsequently backed down to the num- 
ber 3 position as requested. I gave the sys- 
tem about 10 minutes to respond and saw that 
both the dome temperature and the suit inlet 
temperature were increasing again, so I imme- 
diately went from there up to about 7.5, which 
again arrested the temperature increases. 

Once the suit circuit temperature was under 
control, no other problems demanded such care- 
ful attention. Continually, I metered the alti- 
tude control fuel and attempted to conserve 
its use. Electrical power, which is stored in 
six batteries, is another consumable that I 
wanted to conserve. There were scheduled pe- 
riods during the flight where I powered down 
electrical systems. In addition, I conserved 



electrical power by recording my observations 
with a voice operated relay "record-only" mode, 
rather than transmitting out of range of the 
Mercury tracking stations. Although we don't 
have a system for measuring the actual power 
remaining, battery 7 voltage readings are a good 
indication, and I was very impressed that the 
voltage readings did not drop during the flight. 

I do not believe I need to discuss the weather, 
the sun, or the stars. It seems more appropri- 
ate to discuss the events within in the spacecraft. 
Each network station got as much information 
as I had available to give them. Once we had 
solved the suit circuit problem and I had begun 
to feel cool, I knew we were in a "go" status 
and I had achieved my goal of using minimum 
fuel up to this point. I had stated long ago 
that I wanted to do some control maneuvers 
other than in fully automatic mode. I also 
had stated that I wanted to use the automatic 
mode when I did not need to employ manual 
modes or when I was too busy to fly the 
spacecraft, since this is why we have an auto- 
pilot. Admittedly, we have taken a system 
that, was designed to be completely automatic 
and then tried to build some versatility into 
it and give the pilot the capability of control- 
ling the vehicle as he desires. I had become 
satisfied with my capability of controlling the 
spacecraft before I got to the Canaries, a fact 
which I reported to the ground. From that 
time on, I merely wanted to make observa- 
tions that seemed to have merit and to use 
the control system only during those periods 
when I had to reestablish the attitude within 
the limits required to drop back into the auto- 
matic mode. 

I was discouraged by the tremendous quantity 
of cloud coverage around the earth and realized 
that it may always be a problem for certain 
space flight requirements. Africa, on the 
first and second passes, was ceiling and visi- 
bility unlimited (CAVU). The southwestern 
United States was also CAVU after I crossed 
over the ridge along the Baja California penin- 
sula. I had a very good view, and I could 
easily determine yaw attitude by reference to 
the ground. 

When I reestablished orbital attitude as I 
came over Muchea on the third pass, I was 
very pleased when I talked to the Muchea Cap 
Com, and he and I agreed on yaw attitude 
exactly except for a possible 4° error in left 



52 



yaw, which was also indicated by my instru- 
ments. The telemetered scanner readings were 
coincident with the spacecraft attitudes, and 
I hud just acquired these attitudes shortly 
prior to Muchea by using the Moon and the 
planet Venus adjacent to it for visual references. 
They actually showed up over the Indian 
Ocean Ship and were very easy to work with. 
They both lined up to give me a roll, pitch, 
and yaw reference. 

A smog-appearing layer was evident during 
the fourth pass while I was in drifting flight 
on the night side, almost at 32° South latitude. 
I would say that this layer represented about 
a quarter of the field of view out of the window, 
and this surprised me. I thought I was looking 
at clouds all the time until T saw stars down at 
the bottom or underneath the glowing layer. 

Seeing the stars below the glowing layer was 
probably the biggest surprise I had during 
the flight. I expect that future flights may 
help to clarify the nature of this band of light, 
which appeared to be thicker than that reported 
by Scott Carpenter. 

It was a real treat to pass over each station 
and realize that they were as excited as I 
was and as envious as anyone could ever be. 
I saw the particles that John Glenn reported, 
and I also saw what Scott Carpenter reported 
as having seen. I believe that both phenomena 
are varied in appearance because of lighting 
conditions at sunrise and during bright dav- 
light. 

Retrosequence 

I checked the high thrusters in fly-by-wire 
prior to retrosequence, and on the first demand 
for each high thruster in all three axes, they 
worked and reacted beautifully. It was a 
tremendous feeling to know that I had no 
problem with the high thrusters becoming cool. 
At the nominal retrosequence, the Pacific 
Ocean Ship Cap Com gave a perfect count. Se- 
quence and attitude lights actuated on time. 
1 was sitting there ready to punch the retro- 
sequence button. I did have the safety cover 
off the button and put it back on again. At 
the time of retrofire, the delay by a fraction-of 
a second in firing the first rocket seemed agoniz- 
ingly long. This time is probably the most crit- 
ical of the Might, at least subsequent to insertion ; 
and you know that these rockets have to work. 
Again, f was poised to punch off' the retrofire 



button to back up the automatic system. I 
had its safety cover off, and I guess I put it 
back on again sometime later. The rocket 
iginition was crisp, clean, and each one actuated 
with a definite sound. There was no doubt 
as to when each rocket was firing. The space- 
craft did not seem to vary as much as half a 
degree in attitude during the period of retrofire. 
I was also cross-checking out the window ana 
had plenty of visual cues in case things did go 
wrong with the automatic mode. I could see 
stars that did not even quiver. Because of 
these cross-checks, I was aware that the ASCS 
was working well throughout this period and 
did not require any manual control imputs. 

Subsequent to the retrofire maneuver, I 
controlled the spacecraft with fly-by-wire. I 
had the retrojettison switch armed in time, and 
the retropackage subsequently jet tisoned. Con- 
trol seemed somewhat loose. I guess I was 
probably excited about the fact that the retro- 
rockets did ignite and did not have the cool 
head that I should have had. Therefore, I 
allowed the attitudes to drift off by perhaps 
10° or 15° in roll and probably the same amount 
yaw and pitch. The flying was not really of 
poor quality, but it was not up to my usual 
standards. I then brought Sigma 7 up to 
reentry attitude on fly-by-wire and intentionally 
actuated some of the high thrusters to see what 
it felt like. They reacted very well. At this 
time, I did not want to stay in the rate com- 
mand mode and use a large quantity of fuel 
needlessly. I have always believed, with re- 
gard to full consumption, that the rate stabili- 
zation control system (RSCS) was the most 
expensive mode of the spacecraft. I came into 
retrosequence with 80 percent of fuel in each 
tank, which was higher than my mark, and I 
was quite pleased that I had that much. 
After retrofire, the automatic fuel was some- 
where around 52 or 53 percent. I easily got 
into reentry attitude and felt very confortable 
with it. The periscope retracted on time. I 
noticed that my control of the spacecraft was 
still loose, so I tightened it up and then went 
into ACSC orbit mode. I wanted to see if the 
logic had picked up for reentry, and it dropped 
right in and held beautifully. Then, I set up 
rate command to give it a small check. It 
responded very well, and T was satisfied that 
that the system was working. 



53 



Reentry 

The beginning of the actual entry into the 
sensible atmosphere, with the attendant cues, 
was a very thrilling experience. Because my 
vision was somewhat obscured by perspiration 
on the inside surface of the visor, the cue for 
occurrence of the important event, 0.05g, was 
my visual sensing of the roll rate that was 
automatically induced by the control system 
rather than by the 0.05g event light on the 
panel. The spacecraft with a roll rate is some- 
thing you just cannot effectively visualize in 
your mind. It is a very nice series of slow 
rolls, and you really feel as if you are back in 
the old fighter seat, just playing games. 
Looking out at the sky and at the surface of 
the earth which was starting to brighten up, I 
observed that the roll pattern was very slow 
and deliberate. You could integrate your atti- 
tude out of this very easily, and T knew that the 
spacecraft was as stable as an airplane. 

The accelerations during reentry were not 
severe in the sense of bothering me, but it 
seemed to take much longer than I had antici- 
pated. This was predictable, but it is just one 
of those things that you cannot seem to approxi- 
mate in real time, even on the centrifuge which 
I bad trained in just before the flight. It is 
difficult to store all these cues and inputs into 
your mind and just pull them out quickly. 
Physiologically, I never felt any strain as far as 
the reentry went. Each event came into place 
as closely as I could have wished. 

As the acceleration buildup began, I could 
see external cues which were of great interest. 
I missed the hissing that John Glenn and Scott 
Carpenter described, possibly because I was 
concentrating so much on how the RSCS 
system was performing. 1" was prepared at any 
time to throw it into the auxiliary damping 
mode. As expected, an enormous amount of 
fuel was consumed during reentry before the 
drogue parachute was deployed. After drogue 
parachute deployment, of course, the fuel was 
jettisoned normally. But before the drogue 
parachute was deployed, that system must have 
been down to approximately the 20 percent 
level. This level corresponds to a total fuel 
consumption from the manual tank during 
reentry of some 60 percent, or approximately 
14 pounds. 



There were two occasions when I nearly 
switched from RSCS to the auxiliary damping 
mode. One was while I was monitoring the 
fuel gage; it looked just like a flowmeter. 
The indicator for the manual tank was visibly 
dropping. Yet, I continued with RSCS because 
I wanted to give it every chance to complete 
the reentry control task in order to evaluate it 
sufficiently. The second time that I thought 
about going to the auxiliary damping mode 
was when the yaw rate left the nominal 2.5 to 
3 degrees per second and went off-scale (6 "/see) 
to the left. Soon after this occurrence, it 
held to about 5 degrees per second and then 
did the typical needle fanning that we have seen 
in the reentry training at Langley. Since it 
had started to hold again, I did not switch to 
auxiliary damping because I still wanted to 
allow the RSCS a full demonstration. How- 
ever, I was perfectly content that the ASCS was 
working properly and it was good to know I 
had this powerful system ready to be switched 
on if needed. 

I did see the green glow from the cylindrical 
section. It was a very pretty color, probably 
best described as a shade similar to limeade 
(a little green and chartreuse mixed together). 
This shade included a slightly stronger yellow 
cast than 1 had anticipated from earlier 
descriptions. One opinion which was ventured 
that might explain the green-yellow color is 
the copper treatment on the beryllium shingles. 
In fact, burning copper in a Bunsen burner 
flame is a good approximation to the effect 
that I saw. I did not see any distinctive color 
differences resulting from the different ablation 
panels that had been bonded to the beryllium 
shingles. There were no variances in color, 
such as a chromatic or a rainbow effect. 

The altimeter came off the peg very nicely. 
I manually deployed the drogue parachute at 
40,000 feet. There was a definite, strong 
thrumming accompanied by the drogue de- 
ployment, somewhat like being on a bumpy 
road. Although it is of no consequence, I 
was probably about 10 or 15 seconds slow in 
turning the hydrogen peroxide jettison fuse 
switch on, and this I can only blame on the 
intrigue and interest in looking at the drogue 
parachute up there straining and pulsating. 
The window definitely was further occluded 
during reentry. 



54 



I armed the recovery arm switch at about 
15,000 feet. The main parachute opened at 
about 10,500 feet, and it was just as pretty as 
astronauts of previous flights had described 
it. It sort of puts the cap on the whole thing. 
I prepared for landing but did not hook up 
the survival raft to the suit. 

Landing and Recovery 

On landing, Sigma 7 seemed to sink way 
t own in the water. It also seemed as if I 
were horizontal for a while, f allowed the 
main parachute to be jettisoned by punching 
in the main-parachute disconnect fuse. Then, 
I actuated the recovery aids switch to the 
manual position. The spacecraft seemed to 
take a long time to right itself, but again time 
is merely relative, and in actuality, the space- 
craft righted itself in less than 1 minute. When 
Sigma 7 had finally started to right itself, it 
was a very, very pleasant feeling, and at this 
point I knew I could stay in there forever, if 
necessary. The suit temperature was 75° F or 



76° F, and the highest point reached prior to 
egress was 78° F. 

1 had very good communications with the 
Cap Com at Hawaii. The recover}' carrier, 
which was probably the nearest thing other 
than the recovery helicopter, was really "down 
in the mud" as far as communications are 
concerned. Communications from the carrier 
were very weak, but legible, as evidenced by 
the fact that my request for permission to 
come aboard was immediately granted. 

Sigma 7 deserves some nonengineering closing 
remarks. Aviators are known to acquire an 
affection for their aircraft when it performs 
well, and now, in the space age, an astronaut 
should convey his personal thoughts about his 
spacecraft. I definitely fell in love with 
Sigma 7, and it is the first vehicle in my history 
of flight that finally replaced the F8F, a Navy 
propeller-type fighter, as the one on the top 
of the list. This spacecraft, the crew that 
prepared her, and the flight itself, truly combine 
to make this MA-8 experience the high point 
in my life. 



55 



APPENDIX 



AIR-GROUND COMMUNICATIONS OF THE MA-8 FLIGHT 



The following is a transcript of the MA-8 
flight communications taken from the space- 
craft onboard tape recording. This is, there- 
fore, a transcription of the communications 
received and transmitted, as well as some 
inflight comments made by the pilot, Walter 
M. Schirra, Jr., while in a record-only mode 
(VOX record). In some instances, ground-to- 
air communications were not decipherable 
from the onboard tape. Where possible, these 
communications were extracted from the God- 
dard-Mercury Control Center Conference loop 
tape recording, and are included in the text in 
brackets followed by the superscript G. 

The first column shows the ''capsule elapsed 
time" (c.e.t.) from lift-off, in hours, minutes, 
and seconds at which time the communication 
was initiated. (The c.e.t. was obtained from 
the recording of the spacecraft clock eommu- 
tated time segments which were on the onboard 
tape. This time was decommutated to analog 
form and recorded on a special tape, which was 
processed through a computer.) Accuracy of 
this computed c.e.t. is ±}i second. 

At various times throughout the flight, the 
pilot or range station communicators indicated 
the precise time of an event by the word 
"MARK." The exact time at which the word 
"MARK" was transmitted was determined 
from the computer and is indicated by the time 



enclosed in brackets followed by the superscript 
T. 

Communicators are identified as follows: 
CC — Spacecraft Communicator at the range 

station 

CF — Flight Director at Cape Canaveral 
CT- Communications Technician at the 

range station 
P— Pilot 

R Recovery helicopter from the U.S.S. 

Kearsarge 

S — Surgeon or medical monitor at the range 
station 

Stony — Blockhouse Communicator 

All temperatures are given in °F; all cabin 
and suit pressures are in pounds per square 
inch, absolute (psia) ; fuel and coolant quanti- 
ties are expressed in remaining percent of total 
nominal capacities; oxygen is expressed in 
hundreds of pounds per square inch (psi, 
hundreds). Retrosequence times are expressed 
in "ground elapsed time" g.e.t. (hours, minutes, 
and seconds). 

Within the text, a series of dots is used to 
designate portions of the communication which 
could not be deciphered. One dash indicates 
a pause during a communication. The station 
in prime contact with the astronaut is designa- 
ted at the initiation of communications. 



CAPE CANAVERAL (FIRST PASS) 





Stonv 


5. 4, 3. 






00 00 02 


P 


I have the lift-off. Clock has star 


■ted. 


And she feels real nice. 


00 00 OS 


CC 


Wally, you g0 T a pin for this flight 






00 00 10 


p 


Yeah, I got the pins on my office i 


,vall. 


Altimeter's off the peg. 


00 00 15 


CC 


Standby for 20 seconds. 






00 00 16 


p 


Okay. 






00 00 IS 


CC 


2, 1. MARK. [00 00 20] T . 






00 00 21 


p 


Roger. Backup started and rum 
Ah, she's riding beautiful, Doke. 




good. I'll give you a hack at my 30 


00 00 20 


CC 


Looks real fine from here. 






00 00 30 


p 


MARK 30. Okay. Fuel is okay 




)xygen is okay. All systems appear go, 



57 



CAPE CANAVERAL i FIRST PASS)— Continued 



00 01 28 
00 01 37 
00 01 45 

00 01 54 
00 01 55 
00 01 57 
00 02 00 
00 02 05 
00 02 07 
00 02 16 
00 02 17 
00 02 25 
00 02 27 

00 02 35 

00 02 37 

00 02 41 

00 02 43 

00 02 51 
00 02 52 
00 02 54 
00 03 05 
00 03 10 
00 03 14 
00 03 21 
00 03 22 
00 03 24 
00 03 29 
00 03 31 
00 03 33 
00 03 36 
00 03 39 
00 03 41 
00 03 46 
00 03 48 
00 03 51 
00 03 54 
00 04 00 
00 04 01 
00 04 03 

00 04 14 
00 04 22 
00 04 25 
00 04 29 
00 04 34 
00 04 49 
00 04 51 
00 04 53 
00 04 59 
00 05 IS 
00 05 20 



Xot at. all too noisy. Easy to talk through. 
Main cabin pressure is remaining on schedule. I 

pressure, 10 psi, and she's really moving. 
Cape Cap Com, Sigma Seven. Do you read? 0\ 
Cape Cap Com, this is Sigma Seven. How do yov 



Cape Cap Com, Sigma Seven. I read y 
Cape Cap Com, Sigma Seven. I read. 

All systems are go here. 
Roger. How do }'OU read now, Wally? 
I read you beautiful. 
You had your transmitter keyed, that's 
I'll be darn. I'm push-to-talk now. 
Stand by for staging. 
I have a BECO. I could see the flash. 
Staging. 

Roger, Staging. Standing by for towei 
Roger. Start a new flight. 
Okay. I'm on push-to-taik. and the su 
goes the tower. 

Auto retrojett off. This towi 
That pitch should be about - 



Ovei 



I a 



i broadcasting in the blind ; 



Fuel looks good. Oxygen looks good. 



i the window now. Okay. Ther 



: really is a sayonara. 
10 [degrees]. 



Roger. I have about - 
psia. 

And I'll give an electrical check n 
Roger. 
Okay, a 

I'll go back on VOX again. How do you read me on VOX n 



— 5 [degrees]. Cabin pressure is holding very well a 



a the green. It looks real good. 



Okay. I'm back on push-to-talk. 

Roger. You have a go from Control Center. 

Roger. You have a go from me. It's real fat. 

Roger. Have a go from here. 

Roger It looks real good. 

Are you a turtle today? 

Going to VOX record only. You bet [Correct ansv 
Just trying to catch you on that one. 
Xope — okay. I've finished VOX record. 
Coming up on 4 minutes. I'll give you a hack. 
Good lead. 

MARK. [00 04 00]T. 

Roger, Right on the nose ... 3 pitch. 

Okay, and I've got good fuel, about 101-95 [perce 



it]. Oxygen is fat 65-52 [psi 



r of the window, just peeking it 



She's starting to build up now. 
Roger. 

Sunlight's in my upper right hand 
Roger. 

How's the V/V r ? 
I get a 0.8 V/V r . 
Good show. 
Standbv for SECO. 
SECO. 

I have SECO. Cap sep, and in aux damp, and 

low. Going to fly-by-win-. 
Roger. Fly-by-wire. 

Yaw is answering very nice! v. Roll answers nicely. She's 



pleasant. Going to fly-by-wi 
around very nicely. 



58 



CAPE CANAVERAL (FIRST PASS) — Continued 



00 05 44 CC You have a go, 7 orbit capability. 

00 05 46 P Say again, I like that kind. 

00 05 54 P I see little ice crystals. I'm sure that's what it is, around me now. 

00 06 01 CC You're a little garbled. 

00 06 02 P Okay. Got a good view of the earth now. 

00 06 07 P Coming around to retroattitude. Coming into retroattitude; and a good shot of the 

sustuiner here. It : s right in the window where it belongs. I am pitched up a little bit. 
00 06 26 CC Roger. 

00 06 40 P Okay. Just about into retroattitude. 

00 06 46 CC Roger. We have full communications. Tell me, can you confirm retrojett off? 

00 06 54 P That's affirmative. Retrojett is off. 

00 06 57 CC That's fine. 

00 06 58 P Okay. I'm getting set up for yaw. I can see yaw at [ — 34] already. 

00 07 10 CC You say you still have some yaw? 

00 07 13 P Roger. I just went into ASCS at about 7 minutes and 10 seconds. The sustainer is sitting 

very steady above me. I should say above the horizon. And I'm in chimp mode right 
now and she is flying beautifully. 



00 


07 


34 


CC 


I'll give you [contingency recovery area] 1-B retro 16 22. 


00 


07 


43 


P 


Roger. Understand 16 22. Is that correct? 


00 


07 


47 


CC 


Roger. 16 22. 


00 


07 


51 


p 


Okay. I've got my chart case out. I'll put that in. I'll send the blood pressure now 










for the medics. 


00 


07 


59 


CC 


Roger. 


00 


08 


02 


p 


Bov! That sustainer looks real cute. I'll pick her up in a moment and track her. 


00 


08 


09 


CC 


For your information, you are slightly garbled — slightly garbled. 


00 


08 








00 


08 


16 


CC 


Roger. 1 11 ^ 0X PUSh 10 aS mUCh ^ P ° SSlbl6, 


00 


08 


21 


p 


Okay, I'm stopping that blood pressure run. Boy! This ASCS made tracking very nice. 










The sustainer is very stable. It is not oscillating at all. I see no vapors; it looks very 










clean. 


00 


08 


48 


CC 


28 25. 


00 


08 


51 


p 


Say again, Deke. 


00 08 


56 


p 


Cape Cap Com, Sigma Seven. Say again. 


00 


09 


03 


CC 


Seven, Cap Com. You arc fading — you are fading. 


00 


09 


08 


p 


Roger. 


00 09 


15 


p 


Cape Cap Com. I read you loud and clear. 


00 


09 


29 


CC 


Sigma Seven, Sigma Seven, Cape Cap Com. How do you read? 


00 


09 


34 


p 


Cape Cap Com, this is Sigma Seven. I read you loud and clear. How me? 


00 


10 






Cape Cap Com, Sigma Seven. How do you read? 


00 


10 


31 


p 


This is Sigma Seven. Squib off. Three retro fuse switches on. Fire-arm on. Going to 










fly-by-wire, low. 


00 


11 


30 


p 


This is Sigma Seven. Tracking sustainer very easily in fly-by- wire low. 


00 


11 


56 


p 


Am going to manual proportional. 


00 




58 


p 


This is Sigma Seven. I am now in ASCS auto, retroattitude. Manual proportional works 










very well. 










CANARY ISLANDS (FIRST PASS) 


00 


14 


31 


p 


Canary Cap Com, this is Sigma Seven. Over. 


00 


14 


40 


CT 


Sigma" Seven, this is Canary Com Tech. Transmitting HF/UHF. Do you read? Over. 


00 


14 


46 


p 


Roger. Canary Cap Com, this is Sigma Seven. Do you read me? 


00 




50 


CC 


Sigma Seven, this is Canary Cap Com. Reading you loud and clear. We have valid radar 












00 


14 


55 


p 


Roger. Good show on radar. Awfully sorry our friend Julian couldn't be with us. 










I would like to give you my report on control mode. First off, manual and fly-by-wire, 










low, are excellent; aux damp works excellent. I am now in auto mode; retroattitude. 










Attitudes holding beautifully. I am go. My suit temperature is going up a bit. I 










have set it at 4.5. Over. 


00 


15 


29 


CC 


Roger. I copied suit temperature at 4.5. What does your suit temperature read? 


00 


15 


33 


p 


Negative. That was suit dome — is reading 75 [degrees]. I have set the suit at 4.5. 



59 



CANARY ISLANDS (FIRST PASS)— Continued 

















15 


44 


p 


I° ge ''h k'n n - b' I '- -11 ' 
am c ec-ing on m> ca ui. t s a ou [ egree&J. am going to eave it a 












ca Jin eat exc anger it. a lout [ egrees]. 




00 


15 


54 


CO 






on 






p 


C ' ■ f T - 


•as slightly 










^lu^'ish 5 er ^edicte^'biit "better Than° / have^een ^ ^ 6 mamla " 






16 


14 


CO 


s uggis a;, pre ic e u e er an ^a\e seen 
T,° ge '.' I 6 J ° U ° n , ~ *5 a . ',!* lmC l T[ ._, 




00 


f 


' 


p 


1 hat is affirmative, and will be switching to UHF-low for a check with you si 


tortly 


00 








Roger. 




00 


16 


30 


p 


I have made an electrical check. We had communication problems on the w 


ay across. 










An:i all the systems cheeked out very well. Oxygen is holding up very wt 


.'11. I Will 










give the suit circuit a little more time to cool down. 












My s ..lit temperature at this time is 68 [degrees]. I am not worried about it ye' 




00 


16 


"6 


cc 






no 




no 


p 


very mg e se is green. 






17 






0gP! ' 






_ 


' 




I am going to go to gyros Uce for a T 6 +5 check. 










cc 






00 




20 


cc 


f have a [recovery area] 2 1 retrosequence time if vou want it 




00 




">4 




Roge 1 * Stand bv 




00 


' 


26 


cc 


01 2S 21 




no 


1 






Koge". Correction to 2-1. 01 28 21. 










cc 


That s confirm. 




00 


' 7 
1 




p 


0 gel ' . . . 






' 






Okay. Looks like the dome is coming down a little bit. I 11 stick with this 


setting for 














00 


18 


00 


cc 


Wh'^hd ' h ? 




00 






p 


T 10 ■, th™ 6 TV , . , . 




00 


18 


Oi- 


cc 


Roge-. 5. 




00 


18 


lO 




Canary Cap Com. this is Sigma Seven. Do you read? 




00 


18 


12 




I copy cabin dome setting at 5.5 and suit dome at 4.5. 




00 


18 


18 




Now those are not settings. Let me go over that. Suit dome temperature is 7i 


5 [degrees]. 










Caoin dome temperature is 56 [degrees]. Suit setting on the coolant valve is 4 


.o. Cabin 










setting is 4. Do 3 T ou understand? 




00 


18 


40 


cc 






00 


18 


41 


r 


Okay. Going back to gyres normal. T,-r 5 confirmed. 




00 


18 


46 


cc 


Roger. 




00 


18 


57 


p 


I see we're coming across the coast. I haven't used the periscope too much as 


yet. 


00 


11) 


04 


cc 


Roger. Are you on UHF-high yet— or low yet? 












Negative. 1 T*iU switch to low now before I lose you. \ OX off. 




00 


19 


37 


p 


ana.v ap om, Mgma ,_e\ en. n - ow. ow ojourea . 












KANO (FIRST PASS) 












Ivano Cap Com. this is Sigma Seven. On UHF-low. How do you read? Ove; 












Kano Cap Com. Kano Cap Com, Sigma Seven. UHF-low. How do you read? 




nn 




> 

~ 




Sigma Seven, Sigma Seven, this is Kano Com Tech transmitting on UHF/HF. 


Do you 










read? Over. 




00 


21 


19 




Roger. Kano Cap Com. Do you read me? UHF-low. Over. 






~ 




CT 


Roger. Standby this frequency, Seven, for Cap Com. 




nn 




9- 




2 k ^ y 'o. - 




00 


21 


33 


cc 


eo igma be\en, this is Kano ap Com. standing ;by for your short report. 




00 


" 


38 


p 


Roger. 1 am go. All systems are go. I am in ASCS auto; maneuver is off. 


. ly T t -10 










her» aSS \ would like a Je't ^ time^heek ^ ^ ^ green ' tjVerj ' tnin ? is g ree 'i. 


am at 














00 


22 


00 


cc 


Understand you want a c.e.t. ground check. 




00 




02 


p 


That's correct. 




00 


22 


04 


cc 


Roger. At my mark it will be 22 10. MARK. [00 22 10] T . 




00 


22 


12 


p 


Roger. I am right on. 




00 


22 




p 


I am changing my suit setting to almost 5. Over, 




00 






cc 


Unde -stand. Changing suit setting to number 5. 





60 



KAXO ( FIRST PASS ) — Continued 



00 22 27 P That is correct. The dome temperature is at this time approximately 77 [degrees]. I 

will leave it at number 5 for at least 10 minutes. 
00 22 54 CC Kano Cap Com standing by for any further reports, Sigma Seven. 

00 22 57 P Roger. Kano. Looks like you got good weather down there. 

00 23 01 CC That's affirm. Do your attitude displays check with your visual reference? 

00 23 10 P Very well. I noticed that the yaw reticle is performing quite well. I've been using it 

crossing land here. 
00 23 19 CC Roger. Understand. 

00 23 23 P I am going to try some of the periscope now. Rather unusual sight through the periscope. 

Xot as thrilling as through the window, I'll have to admit. 
00 23 42 CC Understand. 

00 23 44 P Looks like we are coming up on some cloudy weather. 

00 24 07 CC Seven, our telemetry pitch attitude shows about 27 [degrees] minus and your scanner 

output shows about. — oh, —36 [degrees]. 
00 24 17 P Roger. I'm right on -34 [degreesl. It correlates with the window reference mark and I 

feel quite content we are right on. 
00 24 28 CC Very good. 

00 24 30 CC How is your suit temperature doing now? 

00 24 32 P The suit temperature is now . . . still going up a little bit, it's about 72 [degrees]. I am 

setting at suit . . . number 5 and I'll give it a little more time to try to cool down. 

00 24 5,5 P As soon as we have got a reverse in flow of this dome temperature we'll have a cut at it, 

I think. 

00 25 00 CC Roger. 

00 25 01 P Okay, we are picking up some pretty fair clouds now. 

00 25 13 P My inverters look real good. 

00 25 15 CC Roger. Understand. What does your suit dome temperature look like now? 

00 25 20 P It looks like it is holding. I may have to increase it after a little while. I'll let it sit for 

awhile. 

00 25 34 CC All the T/M systems look good, Seven. 

00 25 36 P Roger. I think the only problem I have is the suit, circuit. I'll work on it for awhile and 

see how we are. 

00 25 43 CC Takes a wee bit of time for that to stabilize? 

00 25 46 P Right, That's what I am trying to do. 

00 25 57 P The dome now is still holding at 78 [degrees], I think I will let it set for a little bit longer. 

00 26 06 CC Say again that temperature. 

00 26 08 P The suit dome is 78 [degrees]. 

00 26 11 CC Understand. 

00 26 17 P Cabin dome is 60 [degrees]. 

00 26 48 P Cabin dome— Kano, this is Sigma Seven. Do you read? 

00 26 52 CC LOS, Seven. 

00 26 54 P Roger. Cabin dome is working very well. It's just fluctuating. 

00 27 04 CC Roger. 

00 27 05 P It goes between 52 and 58 [degrees]. And I owe Frank Samonski, so far at least, 50 cents. 

00 28 48 P At this time, I have three axes practically on retroattitude. The yaw through the reticle 

usually observed as a rate and I am now trying to check for a change in attitude in yaw. 
I do notice that one cloud, even, gives you an attitude immediately as a reference. It's 
almost too accurate for the actual observation that I have within the capsule. 

00 20 39 P I am now going to iow mag. Correction, high mag on the periscope [to] see how it looks 

. . . yawed right about 5 degrees. See how she matches up with the periscope at this 
point. Say, we have the yaw axes [indicator] at about 10 degrees right, at this time, and 
clouds are tracking right up the line, as if the yaw axes might be off by as much as 5 to 
6 degrees. Xow this may be a minor problem; we will have to observe it. 

ZANZIBAR (FIRST PASS) 

00 30 28 CT Sigma Seven, Sigma Seven, ... HF and UHF. 

00 30 35 P Hello, Kano. This is Sigma Seven. You are both coming in broken but clear. Over. 

00 30 42 CT Sigma Seven. Standby for Cap Com. Over. 

00 30 44 P Roger 

00 30 47 CC Sigma Seven, Sigma Seven, this is Zanzibar Cap Com. Over. 

00 30 53 P Kano Cap Com, you are coming in weak and broken. Over. 



61 



ZANZIBAR ( FIRST PASS) — Continued 



00 


30 


59 


CC 


This iis Zanzibar Cap Corn, Zanzibar Cap Com. Over. 






00 


31 


03 




Roger. Zanzibar. Sorry I miscalled you. I am going to set my . . . setting o 


n the suit 










coolant valve to 5.5. Over. 






00 


31 


23 


P 


Zanzibar, this is Sigma Seven. Do you read? 






00 


31 


27 


CC 


Seven, this is Zanzibar. You were cutting out. I didn't get your last message. 


W 


ill you 
















00 


31 


32 


p 


Roger. Standby, I'm switiehing to UHF-high. 






00 


31 


36 


CC 


Roger. 






00 


31 


58 




Hello, Zanzibar, this is Sigma Seven. How do you read? Over. 






00 


32 


02 


CC 


Seven, this is Zanzibar Cap Com. Read you loud and clear now. Go ahead. 






00 


32 


05 


p 


Roger. I have set my suit control valve to 5.5. The suit dome temperature is 80 


|[de 


grees]. 


00 


32 


19 


CC 


Over. 

Roger. Understand. 






00 


32 


20 


p 


The cabin dome is 55 [degrees] and is apparently under control. 






00 


32 


2 ' 


CC. 


Roger. Understand. 






00 


32 


30 


l> ^ 


My suit temperature has come down to 75 [degrees] at this time. 






00 


32 


36 


CC 








00 


32 


38 


p 


In fact, that's a correction, it hasn't come down. It's just going there. I would 


like to 










give you a briefing on my control mode. I am in auto mode, the bypass switch 




ormal. 










maneuver off. Fuel is in the green. Oxygen is way in the green. All electric: 


,il is 


in the 










green. 






00 


33 


03 


CC 


Roger. Seven. Your [recovery area] 2-1 retrosecmence time is 01 28 21. Ov< 






00 


33 


20 


CC 


Seven, Zanzibar. 






00 


33 


21 


p 


Roger. I'm sorry I was trying to get my card out. I understand 01 28 21. 






00 


33 


25 


CC 








00 


33 


27 


p 


Okay. 






00 


34 


39 


CC 


. . . Zanzibar. 






00 


34 


41 


p 


Go ahead, Zanzibar. 






00 


34 


44 


CC 


All systems are green here on the ground. We get a good T/M. 






00 


34 


52 


P 


Roger. Zanzibar. I'm all green here. I'm still working on the suit currei 




circuit. 


00 


35 


02 


CC 


Roger. How do you feel? Uncomfortable? 






00 


35 


05 


p 


I feel quite comfortable. I'm a little warm. Particularly from sunlight but othei 


r than 










that I feel fine. 






00 


35 


13 


CC 








00 


3o 


14 




I am holding the suit control setting at 5.5 for a little longer. 






00 


35 


22 


CC 


Roger. You changed that over Kano awhile ago. Affirmative. 






00 


35 


24 


p 


That':; correct. Looks like vou got pretty good weather down there, too. 






00 


35 


33 


CC 


Very good. 






00 


35 


34 


p 


I've got a lot of good clouds for yaw checks. I'll say that. 






00 


35 


37 


CC 


Right. 






00 


35 


38 


p 


Would you check your yaw reading on what you read for me in yaw at this time 






00 


35 


48 


CC 


Roger. We are getting about a -f 5 degrees. Over. 






00 


35 


51 


p 


Roger. Concur. I am trying to come back toward 0 [degrees] now. 






00 


36 


01 


CC 


Roger. We are pulling you right back to 0 [degrees] now. 






00 


36 


03 


p 


Okay. That's the — that's the ASCS system doing it for me, of course. I'rr 


i going to 










have to increase the suit setting. I'm just barely breaking even. I'm going 


to set 










the suit control valve to number 6. 






00 


36 


18 


CC 


Roger. Understand. It's oeen about 10 minutes. 






00 


36 


22 


p 


Roger. Thank you. The cabin is holding veiy well on settings, and I'm perfi 


■ctl; 












fortable there. 






00 


30 




CC 


Seven, this is Zanzibar. We have LOS in approximately 1 minute. Anythi 


ng 


else to 


00 


3; 


03 




report? 

Nothing. I will keep the suit'setting at this point until it gets a little hotter. 


If i 


t does, 










I miy have to go up another half notch at about 45 [minutes], before I get to W 








3" 




CC 


Roger. Understand. I would like a reading on that before we get LOS please. 






00 




19 


p 


Roger. My system is 6, The dome is 81, 81 [degrees]. 






00 


37 


44 


CC 


Seven. All" systems are still performing well here on the ground. 






00 


37 


47 


p 


Roger. 






00 


38 


11 


p 


This is Sigma Seven. Somebody broadcasting in the blind. I do not read you t 




.veil. 


00 




18 


CC 


Seven, this is Zanzibar. Read you 5 by 







62 



ZANZIBAR (FIRST PASS) — Continued 



00 38 20 P Roger. You are garbled. I will give you an IIF call shortly. 

00 38 25 CC Roger. 

00 38 48 CC Zanzibar Cap Com. Li the blind. How do you read? Over. 

00 38 57 P This is Sigma Seven. I read you. It's rather . . . very garbled. I did not observe 

my IIF antennas on turnaround. The rates were just too much smaller, I assume. 

I am going to switch now to VOX off and go to IIF. 
00 39 45 P Canary Com Tech, Canary— correction. Zanzibar, Zanzibar, this is Sigma Seven. On 

IIF. How do you read? Over. 
00 40 11 P Hello Muchea, hello Muchea Cap Com, this is Sigma Seven. TIF. How do vou read? 

Over. 

00 41 00 P This is Sigma Seven. I have noticed minute objects that I can knock off the capsule 

one or two, in the bright sunlight at c.e.t, 41 10. 
00 41 17 CT Seven, this is Zanzibar. I barely read you IIF check. Over. 

00 41 23 P Roger. Zanzibar. I read you loud and clear at this time. That is at 41 30, Zanzibar, 

getting IIF loud and clear. 
00 41 43 P Muchea Cap Com, Muchea Cap Com. Sigma Seven HF. Over. 

00 41 49 P I am switching to push-to-talk. 

00 42 00 P Muchea Cap Com, Sigma Seven. HF check, push-to-talk. Over. 

00 42 36 CT ... 

00 42 51 ? 12 53 00. He talked to Guaymas after wc finished and IOS picked him up. Out. 

00 43 01 P The last .station that talked on HF, I could not identify. It came in very clear and should 

be recorded aboard the capsule at approximately 43 minutes, 10 seconds elapsed time. 
00 43 24 P I have switched to VOX transmit and record. I am satisfied that I can see yaw through 

the window on ASCS without the use of the reticle by letting images come up from all 

sides. It's only a niatter of a short period of time before objects show translation 

immediately. 

00 44 07 P The pitch scribe mark does indicate up a little bit and as a result matches the retroattitude, 

which at this time, is 30 degrees. I am now yawed right approximately 10 degrees, 
and it looks like T am tracking right down the line. 

00 44 35 P I am at 45 minutes. 1 am going to increase the suit setting knob just a small amount, 

about a quarter of a turn. I think we almost have control of the situation. I have 
set the suit knob at 6.25. The dome temperature at this time is 82 [degrees]. Suit 
inlet is 76 [degrees], 

00 45 10 P I definitely can see a right roll at this time of about 5 degrees, and I noticed the periscope 

is dark, meaning we arc coming into the dark side. I will attempt to look for the changes 
through the periscope for any observations. At this time, I can see nothing through 
the periscope for night observation, at least in this attitude. I'm not even sure when 
I have low mag, other than the position of the lever. The window is cloudy. I have 
sunlight on it now and it definitely has been clouded over by the escape tower rocket, 
not to a groat degree. I am seeing the so-called fireflies drift dramatically at this point, 
I tried a couple of knocks and they definitely have a relative velocity to the vehicle, but 
apparently are part of the same orbital system. I definitely see them as white objects. 

00 46 39 P I would like to take some water to drink at this point, but I would rather keep the visor 

shut to keep the system attempting to cool down. We may make some progress on 
the cold side. It looks like I am going to have to decrease the cabin, it's gone down to 
45 [degrees] dome. I'm coming to 3.5 on the cabin. 

00 47 03 P Checking on inverters at this time. They look very good. 150 is 102 [degrees]. 250 is 

approximately 107 [degrees]. Going back to cabin heat exchanger. 

00 47 24 P Coming into the night side now at approximately 47 minutes elapsed time. I set the 

cabin suit to 3.5. The suit dome is now just, correction — the cabin dome is nearing 
50 [degrees] again. I will leave that setting at 3.5 for a period of time. 

00 48 19 P With this much sunlight, 1 cannot see stars at all. Sun is off to my left and I am getting 

close to sunset at approximately — 49 is the schedule time. That's just about right on. 
I'm approaching 49 and the cabin lights are on white. I am going to switch the cabin 
lights to red. And turn off that blasted lift-off correlation clock light. 

00 49 03 P Oh, I almost missed my first sunset trying to get the right cabin light off. It is rather 

rapid as I was told it would be. 1 am not able to — there I have got Arcturus right on 
the right side where it belongs. Very nice. I should be able to pick up Muchea 
shortly, at 50. Having trouble seeing the clock at 49 minutes. 



63 



MUCH FA (FIRST PASS) 



00 49 44 
00 4!) 49 
00 49 54 



00 51 36 CC 



00 51 56 P 

00 52 04 CC 

00 52 06 P 

00 52 08 CC 

00 52 15 CC 

00 52 18 P 



00 52 



CC 



00 52 54 CC 

00 52 58 P 

00 53 05 CC 

00 53 lti P 

00 54 09 CC 

00 54 13 P 

00 54 23 CC 

00 54 29 P 

00 54 43 CC 

00 54 57 P 

00 55 08 P 

00 55 13 CC 



Sigms. Seven, Sigma Seven, this is Muchea Cap Com. Do you read? Over. 
Muchea Cap Com. Sigma Seven. HF. I read you loud and clear. Over. 
Roger . You are loud and clear also. How do you feel? 

I feel very good, Gene. I am on HF at this time with the dipole. The — I've readjusi 
the cabin setting. It — the dome went down to about 45 degrees. I set the cabin at 
as the cabin coolant valve setting. Do you understand? 

You set the cabin at 3.5. Is that correct? 

That' 5 right because it is reading a little low. On the suit, I am now at 6 and I am go 
to increase to 6.5. I am not making much progress. I went to about 6.25 abou 
mh-.utes ago and I'm now setting the suit control to 0.5. The dome is reading 82 | 



00 


50 


50 CC 


Checked tht 


; dome temperature on the si 








6.5. Do 


you feel too hot or anything? 


00 


50 


58 V 


No. I have 


beads of perspiration on my 




51 


07 CC 


Can we hav 


e a suit temperature . .? 


00 


51 


10 P 


Say again. 




00 


51 


12 CC 


Roger. Go 


ahead with status report. Ov 


00 




15 P 


Okay I an 





s 82 [degre 
. That's a 



switch is off. The syster 
problem area is the suit 
Roger. Sigma Seven, I'll ii' 
will be on emergency voit 
Roger. 

Sigma Seven, Sigma Seven, 



This is Sigma Seven. R 
I am setting it down 

I'll give you a blood pre- 



cting perfectly. The n 



mitoring very carefully, 
iec check. The n 



a on emergency vol 
emergency ' 



They v 



l1 breaks. 



L good. 



Has tnybody asked you yet to drink water, Sigra 
Negative. I've tried not to get into that. If I can get the suit temperature down a little 

bit. I'll open the visor and get some water then. 
Roge-. Understand. Status of the Woomora flare test is okay. They are going to light 

them, but there is broken clouds and light rain. No Kghtni 

Are flare. 

Is the place covered with clouds? Over. 

Negative. Broken clouds --the last estimate I got was 0.8 and si 
Roger. Understand. 

Sigma Seven, will you give us a cabin heat exchanger temperature, please. 
Roger. That is 41 degrees. Over. 

Roger. Understand. Your body temperature readouts on the ground : 
We are not paying any attention to your body temperature readouts. O' 
Roger. I understand. 

Sigma Seven, this is Muchea. What is your suit dome temperature again? 
It is ::iow holding at 82 [degrees], at a coolant setting of 6.5. Over. 
Say t.gain — being interfered with there. Will you repeat? 
Roger. My dome temperature is 82 [degrees]. My coolant ... 82, numb 
Sigma Seven. Your transmissions are now very noisy. We will stand by ai 
you for awhile. You are due to contact Woomera in about 3 minutes. 

Woomera, this is Sigma Seven. Over. 
Go aViead. Sigma Seven. 
Is th:.s Muchea or Woomera? 
Muchea. You are coming in much better now. 

Roger. I have the moon right in the center of my field of view. It's a n 
reference. Just no sweat on it at all. 
Roger. Understand. Very good yaw reference. 

That's affirmative. I'm S':ill on automatic control. I'm going to switch 
shortly. 



) fly-by- 



64 



MFCHEA (FIRST PASS)— Continued 



00 


5.5 


41 


CC 


Roger. We will standby and expect you to report control mode when you change to 










fly-by-wire low, and gyros free. 


00 


•54 


49 


P 


I am switching — My cabin to working okay. The suit is okay. I'm going to go down 










for the yaw check. Correction, for the Hare check now. I'm pitching down in fly- 










by-wire low. 


00 


06 


Oo 


CC 


Roger, Understand. 


00 


06 


12 


p 


Fly-by- wire low working very well. Trying to hold —40 [degrees in pitch]. Correction, 










— 50 [degrees]. 


00 


"6 


9 7 


CC 




00 


56 


29 


P 


Setting is -50 [degree?]. Gyros are free. Holding at -50 [degrees]. Standing by for 










flare. Roll, and yaw are holding. I see the flare on my left which is kinda wrong, I 










think. I think I saw a flash of lightning. Probably — that is lightning I'm seeing, not 










the flare. I'm seeing more lightning. It's going to be hard to tell what I am seeing, 










whether it's lightning or flares. 










WOOMERA (FIRST PASS) 


00 


-I 


09 


CC 


Sigma Seven, this is Woomera Cap Com. Over. 


00 




12 


P 


Roger. Woomera. Go ahead. 


00 


57 


15 


CC 


This is Woomera Cap Com. Flare ignition will be in 1 minute 20 seconds. 


00 


01 


20 


p 


That's one reason why I can't see it. because I am looking at lightning, obviously. 


00 


-1 


25 


CC 


And I didn't receive your gyro switch position. 


00 


°l 


29 


p 


Roger. I am in fl_v-by-wire low and I have gyros free. 


00 


V 


3< 


CC 


Roger. 


00 


58 


08 




There appears to be no trouble at all in tracking the gyros. The — there was a large 










problem for me in trying to get the right cabin light dimmed down to red.. It's very 










hard to reach due to ditty bag. I have not even messed around with the camera. 










I don't intend to until I have the suit circuit under control. 


00 


58 


35 


CC 


Roger. You have 5 seconds to flare ignition. 


00 


58 


.59 




Roger. I am tracking —50 degrees pitch. 


00 


58 


4 - 


c c 


Ignition now. 


00 


58 


43 


p 


Roger. I have lightning only. It looks like you're just about socked in. I'll stay here 










for a while and then come back up to ASCS shortly. I think I saw lightning right 










below me but it couldn't have been the flare. It should burn steadily as I understand it. 


00 


a 9 


03 


CC 


C orrect. 


00 


59 


07 


P 


The lightning looks like a big blob, rather than a jagged streak we are use to seeing when 










earthbound. Just looks like a big — almost like an antiaircraft shot. A big blob of 










bright light, and then it fades out almost instantly. It definitely looks like you are 










overcast. By the way, how is my HF coming through to you all? 


00 


59 


35 


CC 


Clear at Woomera. 


00 


59 


37 


p 


Very good. I am on HF and dipole, as you may know. 


00 


59 


41 


CC 


In fact, we picked you up when you began working Muehea. 


00 


59 


44 


p n 


You did? Very good. Well, looks like we got the poles out. 


00 


59 




CC 


R ° g ? r . 0 . 


00 


59 






I think I'm going to — between you and Canton, will make another attempt at the suit 










temperature control. We, definitely, aren't making much progress. I'm holding my 










own. That's all. 


01 


00 


15 


CC 


Roger. You're picking up a little plus yaw now. 


01 


00 


19 


p 


Roger. I concur. I was looking for the flare. Are you lit now? 


01 


00 


24 


CC 


From heresay. Have you found it? 


01 


00 


26 


p 


Roger. I've got a steady light in sight. That's because I've pitched up though. Xow, 










it looks like we're getting much clearer weather here. 


01 


00 


3 1 


C C 




01 


00 


41 


p 


Must have some ground lights in sight here. 


01 


00 




CC 


Picking up some plus roll now. 


01 


00 


00 




Very good. I've been searching around a little bit for this. Okay, I'm going to hold that 




















flare. I'm going to start pitching for ASCS. 


01 


01 




CC 


We have 10 seconds of flare left, and Cape requests your suit temperature. 


01 


01 


3G 


p 




01 


01 




CC 


Requesting your suit inlet temperature and dome temperature. 



65 



WOOMERA (FIRST PASS) — Continued 



01 01 49 P Roger, my suit inlet is 78 [degrees], my dome temperature is 82 [degrees]. 

01 02 00 CC Sigma Seven, this is Woomera Cap Com. Your transmission was not received. 

01 02 06 P Roger, my suit inlet is 78 [degrees]. 

01 02 07 CC What is your suit and dome temperature? 

01 02 22 P This is Sigma Seven. I sav again. My suit inlet temperature is 78 [degrees]. My suit 

dome is 82 [degrees], 
01 02 33 CC Okay. We got that. 

01 02 34 P Roger. I'm going to increase my setting to 7 on the coolant control on the suit. I'm 

now in automatic mode, gyros arc normal. 
01 02 50 CC Suit setting at 7. 

01 02 52 P The suit coolant valve setting is 7. That is correct. 

01 02 56 CC Scanners and attitudes agree here. 

01 02 58 P Roger. I'm in orbit mode and tracking very well. 

01 03 03 CC Roger. We had T/M LOS. Correction, we've got it back. 

01 03 07 P Roger. I'm going to decrease the cabin setting. It's still running a little cool. 

01 03 20 CC Roger. 

01 03 22 P I will set the cabin at setting number 3. 

01 03 27 CC Roger. Number 3 for cabin, 

01 03 30 P I just set now, MARK, [01 03 31] T at number 3. and the suit is riding at number 7. 

01 03 38 CC Roger. And Woomera has had T/M LOS. We are standing by HF. 

01 03 47 P Roger. Am definitely see some white at this time under the overcast, and I'm sure it 

must be one of your major cities, possibly Brisbane. I'm not sure. 
01 04 06 CC All wo got was, "under the overcast", on that transmission. 

01 04 10 P It looks like a city under the overcast. I'm not sure. At about — almost right in the middle 

of the window at this time. 
01 04 26 CC Sigma. Seven, Woomera read your last transmission. 

01 04 57 P This is Sigma Seven. Going to fly-by-wire low and pitching up to reentry attitude. 

Selecting reentry on attitude select. 

01 05 56 P I'm now in reentry attitude. Standing by to go into automatic mode. Fly-by-wire 

tracks absolutely beautifully, just as it worked in the trainer. Very positive results 
from using the procudures trainer. There is no doubt about it, time does pass rather 
rapidly. Going back to automatic mode. I got pitch down signal, just a slight low 
thr uster, and everything seems to be all right. This probably was a slight error in the 
corrected readout. I was right on, I believe, in all three axes. The capsule logic is 
working very well, and is tracking very well in reentry. 

01 06 50 P I will check my time as 1 pius 06 plus 50 seconds when I went into n 

sta:-s are very easy to see. I see quite a few, but am bothered by a 
of red light. I, now, am going to devote some attention to the suit circuit for a minute 
or so. Then prepare to go back into retroattitude for Canton. 

01 07 28 P One definitely gets the illusion of looking way up above you at this attitude, and if there 

is no horizon, it's just a black sky. The amount of light in the cockpit is quite high. 
On^e one gets adapted and it can be reduced, of course, by the cabin light. At this 
point, I am somewhat reluctant to reduce the light level in here, due to the problem 
with the suit circuit. I'm using my fingertip lights liberally. It is observed that, in 
future flights, we must have some catch-all device that we can stuff objects into, and 
have them trapped there for a period of time. I'm driving at the problem of the washer 
and small crimped piece of metal. I . . . believe I finally got them stuffed into the 
little bag on the hatch. Suit temperature is just holding its own. I am hot, and prob- 
ably will have to decrease the setting. I am sure I don't understand why the suit 
circuit takes so long to react. My cabin circuit works beautifully. I'm going to go 
back to fly-by-wire low; <elect retroattitude; and fly to retroattitude. 

CANTO X (FIRST PASS) 

01 09 16 CT Sigma Seven, Sigma Seven, this is Canton Com Tech. Do you read? Over. 

01 09 21 P Canton, this is Sigma Seven. I read you. At this time, I am in fly-by-wire low, pitching 

down to retroattitude for ASCS. Over. 

01 09 35 P Canton Cap Com, Canton Cap Com. Sigma Seven. 

01 09 42 CT Sigma Seven, Sigma Seven, this is Canton Com Tech. Do you read'? Over. 

01 09 46 P Canton Com Tech, this is Sigma Seven. I read you loud and clear. How me? 

01 10 03 CT Sigma Seven, this is Canton Com Tech. Do you read"? 

66 



CAXTOX I FIRST PASS)— Continued 



01 


10 


07 


P 


Canton Com Tech, Sigma Seven. Read you loud and clear. 


01 


10 


24 


CT 


Sigma Seven, Sigma Seven, this is Canton Com Tech. Do you road? Over. 


01 


10 


28 


F 


Canton Coin Tech, this is Sigma Seven. Read you loud and clear. How me' 


01 


10 


39 


P 


Canton Com Tech. Canton Com Tech. Sigma Seven. Loud and clear. How me? 


01 


10 


49 


cc 


Over. 

Sigma Seven. This is Hawaii Cap Com. 


01 


10 


52 


p 


This is Sigma Seven. Go ahead. 


01 


10 


59 


cc 


Sigma Seven, this is Canton Cap Com. Over. 


01 


11 


03 


p 


Canton Cap Com, this is Sigma Seven. How do you read me? Over. 


01 


11 


46 


p 


Canton Com Tech, Canton Com Tech, this is Sigma Seven. UHF-high. Over. 


01 


11 


54 


CT 


Sigma Seven, this is Canton Com Tech. Do you read? Over. 


01 


11 


58 


P 


Canton Com Tech, this is Sigma Seven. I'm on UHF-high. How do you read? Over. 


01 


12 


27 


P 


Canton Com Tech, Canton Com Tech. Sigma Seven. Over. 


01 


12 


34 


CT 


Sigma Seven, this is Canton Com Tech. I read you 3 by 3. Over. 


01 


12 


39 


P 


Roger. Status report. I have sent you a blood. All systems are green, but for suit 










circuit, which I am working on carefully, I am in ASCS retroattitude ; gyros 










normal; maneuver off. I am working on the suit circuit. I am still holding setting 










number 7. Over. 


01 


13 


05 


CC 


Sigma Seven, Repeat. I got your status green; ASCS retro; gyros are normal; holding 










at 7. Repeat all others. 


01 


13 


17 


P 


Roger. I am holding the suit coolant valve setting, George, at number 7, Over. 


01 


13 


25 


CC 


Say again. Holding suit at what and what? 


01 


13 


29 


p 


The coolant valve setting is at number 7, The coolant control valve for the suit circuit. 


01 


13 


39 


cc 


Roger, Sigma Seven. Would you give me your standard report again. Over. This is 










Canton Cap Com. 


01 


13 


47 


p 


Roger, Canton. You did read that I was in ASCS retro? You did read that I had my 










maneuver off? You did read my gyros were normal'' I'd iike" to get the suit circuit 










discussed. Everything else is green. 


01 


14 


05 


cc 


Roger, Sigma Seven. Go ahead. 


01 


14 


08 




I have the suit setting for the control valve at number 7. I have the suit dome temperature 










of 82 [degrees]. I have suit inlet of 78 [degrees]. Do you understand? 


01 


14 


26 


cc 


Roger, Sigma Seven. I understand. 


01 


14 


29 


p 


I am increasing my suit: setting at this time to 7.5. Over. 


01 


14 


37 


cc 


Roger, Sigma Seven. Understand increasing your suit setting to 7.5. Over. 


01 


14 


44 


p 


That is affirmative. 


01 


14 


55 


cc 


Sigma Seven. Request you push stop button on your blood pressure. Over. 


01 


15 


00 


p 


I have done that. I just didn't come through right. Did that clean up the trace? Over. 


01 


15 


12 


cc 


Say again. Over. 


01 


15 


13 


p 


Is your EKG okay now? 


01 


15 


17 


cc 


Roger, Sigma Seven. 


01 


15 


30 


cc 


Sigma Seven. How do you feet right now? Are you hot? 


01 


15 


35 


p 


Not uncomfortably hot, but just a little warm. I'm trying not to take a drink of water 










until I can get this suit circuit under control. If I can't get it under control right away, 










I will be drinking some water. 


01 


15 


48 


cc 


Roger, Sigma Seven. 


01 


17 


05 


p 


Canton Cap Com. Sigma Seven. Over. 


01 


18 


27 


p 


Boy, this is a wrestling job with this ditty bag. 


01 


18 


33 


p 


I'd just as soon not even go into it. Finally got one dosimeter out, and will have to put 










it up on the hatch and it's the — let me Mark, wait one, I can't even see anything on it 










HAWAII (FIRST PASS) 


01 


IS 


59 


cc 


Sigma Seven, Sigma Seven. Hawaii Cap Com. Calling HF. 


01 






p 


This is Sigma Seven. Sigma Seven on UHF-high. Does anybody read? Over. 


01 


19 


19 


cc 


Sigma Seven. Sigma [Seven. Hawaii Cap Com on HF. 


01 


10 




p 


VOX off. 










This is Sigma Seven on HF. Hawaii. Do you read". Over. 


01 


20 




cc 


Roger. Sigma Seven .... 


01 




14 


p 


Hawaii. You're coming in broken. I cannot read you. I'm handling IFF at tins time. 


01 


20 




p 


Over. 
There's Jupher. 



67 



HAWAII (FIRST PASS ) ■ — Continued 



Guaymas Cap Cora, Gtiaymas Cap Com. this is Sigma Seven. On HF. Do you read me? 
Over. 

Hello. Guaymas Cap Com. Guaymas Cap Com. Sigma Seven. HF. Over. 

I'm inw starting to see the sunrise in the periscope. First light in the periscope during 
this particular orbit as a result of the night side. It is obvious that the periscope has 
no function whatsoever in retroattitude on the night side. First light that I get is right 
now at a c.e.t. of practically 1 25 — 1 hour and 25 minutes. The sunrise is coming in 
rather rapidly through the periscope. I do have the lighted objects that John men- 
tioned, and I can create some by knocking them off. I definitely have a sensation 
of their being a field and varying in size from small to bright. The periscope itself is 
blinding me. I'll have to put the chart on it, so I can see out the window. I am in 
condition for retro at any time, so I have nothing else to do but look out this window, 
assuming that the suit circuit is satisfactory. That chart helps no end to cover up that 
blasted periscope. Quite a large field of these objects. Definitely is confirmed that 
you can knock them off the hatch, as Scotty said. And they stream off at. defmitely 
there is no problem in judging that they are going away from the capsule, at a different 
rate than you are. They are definitely going slower, in velocity, than the capsule itself. 
Oni rap, and you can see them sliding aft. They are too small an object for photography. 
I would not even attemp: to take a picture of them. Retroattitude s beinig held very 
well by the ASCS. I should be able to reach Guaymas by now. 

GUAYMAS (FIRST PASS) 



01 


26 


52 


CT 


Guavmas Com Tech on HF/UHF. Do you read? Over. 


01 


26 


56 


P 


Guaymas Cap Com, Guayn 


ias Cap Com, this is Sigma Seven. Over. 


01 


26 


50 


CC 


Guaymas Cap Com, readin 


g you 3 by 3. Give me a quick rundown on how you feel. 










Wally, and suit and dome 


and inlet temperatures, please. 


01 


27 


0!) 


P 


Right, Scott. I feel fine. 


I'm sure we're getting in on this suit circuit. The dome 










temperature is holding no 


•w. It's just about 81 [degrees]. I'm making a change in it. 










The suit inlet temperaturt 


; is at about 78 [degrees]. I think another cut at the' controls 










will solve this problem. 




01 


2" 


■X) 


CC 


Roger. Say again your su: 


t inlet temperature, please, and what is your control setting'' 


01 


27 


34 


p 


Roger. The suit inlet is 78 


—78 degrees. The setting is exactly 7.5 on the circuit control 


01 


27 


46 


CC 


valve. 




01 


27 


50 


p 


Scott, I feel we're in very good shape for one more orbit at least, and we'll see how we can 










hack this suit circuit here 




01 


27 


58 


CC 


Understand, Wally. We h. 


ave a go. Are you ready to copy [recovery areas] 3-1 and 










6-1 times'' 




01 


28 


03 


p 


Roger. Stand by. 




01 


28 


10 


p 


Okay Scott- 




01 


2S 


12 


CC 


Roger. 3-1 is 03 01 20. 




01 


2S 


18 


p 


Oh, back to 20 now. 




01 


2S 


19 


CC 


Roger. 




01 


28 


21 


p 


Okay. 




01 


28 


23 


CC 


6-1 is OS 51 33. Read th& 


se both back and give me a standard report, please. 


01 


28 


20 


p 


Will do. Okay. 3-1 is 03 


01 20. 6-1 is 08 51 33. 


01 


28 


41 


CC 


Right. The report, please. 




01 


28 


42 


CC 


Okay stand by. I'll stow 


• this pencil. I'm in chimp configuration. The capsule is 










flying beautifully. All fi- 


rusters are working well. The gyro switch is normal. Maneu- 










ver switch is off. Allsyste 


ms are green on green; and I'm bird dogging the dome tempera- 










ture at. this time on the si 




01 


29 


08 


CC 


Okay, Wally, give me your 


cabin dome and cabin temperature. Also, your flow control 










setting on cabin, too, 




01 


29 




p 


Okay. I have cabin temp-. 


•rature of 100 [degrees], cabin dome. 40 [degrees]; cabin heat 










exchanger is 42 [degrees]; 


the setting on the cabin is 3 and it's holding steady for a long 










period of time. I'd rath.:- 










CC 


Okay. And now your fuel 


and oxygen, please. 


01 


20 


43 


p 


Okav. You want number? 




01 


20 


44 


CC 


Roger. 





68 



GUAYMAS l FIRST PASS ) — Continued 



01 29 45 P Okay. The numbers on fuel 100 [percent] for auto, 95 [percent] for manual, oxygen is 

62 primary, 72 [psi, in hundreds] secondary. 
01 30 01 CC Roger. And on my mark the ground elapsed time will be 1 hour, 30 minutes, and 10 

seconds. Stand by. HARK. [01 30 11] T . 
01 30 13 P I am exactly 1 second slow. Correction, 1 am 1 second fast. 

01 30 18 CC Roger. Understand. One second fast, and looks like you're good for another one, Wally. 

01 30 24 P Okay. And I saw some of John's friends up here; I'm afraid to say, although 1 knocked 

them off the way you did it. Ha! Ha! 
01 30 33 CC Roger. Interested in your report. 

01 30 34 P I imagine. John listening to gome of that, too? 

01 30 38 CC Roger. 

01 30 41 P Basically, what I saw was the firefly color that John saw, which I could create at other 

times as white color. I'm definitely convinced it's capsule — a capsule derivative and 
once in a while, even now, I see one go by. 

01 30 59 CC Roger. That's good to hear. 

01 31 02 P I'm getting a very good yaw check with the yaw reticle in the ASCS mode. Having no 

trouble with that at all. 



01 


31 


12 


CC 


Wally, are the particles luminous 


or reflecting? 


01 


31 


16 


P 


Scott, I think they are reflecting. 


I'm going to go ahead now, Scott, and do some yaw 










check as long as I've got some 


good terrain to look at and leave the particles off for a 










while. 




01 


31 


27 


CC 


Okay. We are just about . . . lc 


ising T/M. We're reading roughly 0, 0, and [minus] 34 










[degrees] at this time, 




01 


31 


38 


P 


Roger. Understand. 




01 


32 


26 


p 


This is Sigma Seven. I am now 


■ commencing day yaw checks. I am — ■Guaymas. Do 










you read'. 1 Over. This is Sig 


ma Seven. I'm going to send a blood pressure at this 














01 


32 


42 


CC 


Sigma Seven, Guaymas Cap Com 


. Reading you on HF. 


01 


32 


47 


p 


Roger. I'm going to fly-by-wire 


low at this time. 


01 


32 


52 


CC 


Roger. You're loud and clear on 


HF now, Wally. 


01 


32 




p 


Roger, Scott. 




01 


33 




p 


I moved my left arm too much < 


m that last transmission. I'll give another one a little 














01 


33 


20 


CC 


Roger. 





69 



CAPE CANAVERAL (SECOND PASS) 



01 33 23 CC Sigma. Seven, Cape Cap Cool. How do you read 1 * 

01 33 25 P Hi, Deke, I read you loud and clear. How me? 

01 33 27 CC You're coming in fairly good. 

01 33 32 P This reticle is working very well for yaw, as well as for almost any other attitude. 

01 33 49 CC Sigma Seven, Sigma Seven, this is Cape Cap Com. 

01 33 5 1 P Go ahead, Cape. 

01 33 55 P Cape Cap Com, go ahead. Cape Cap Com, this is Sigma Seven. I read you loud and 

clear. How me? 

01 34 11 P Sigma. Seven, Sigma Seven, Cape Cap Com. 

01 34 14 P This is Sigma Seven. Go ahead, Cape, I read you loud and clear. 

01 34 18 CC You are coming in about 3 by. 

01 34 20 P Okay. 

01 34 23 P I'm okay. Stand by. I'm going back to ASCS. It's gotta hold me up [delay me]. 

The capsule — I'd like to straighten out this problem that you are — obviously have seen 
on ;he suit circuit. I have had very little luck in bringing it down. I'm going to in- 
increase the setting to 8 at this time. I am on 8 now — the suit dome is now about SI 
[degrees]. It has dropped about a degree. Do you understand? 

01 35 02 CC Understand suit dome is 81 [degrees]. 

01 35 07 P That is correct, Suit dome is 81 [degrees]. The suit inlet is about 76 [degrees]. I'm 

making a little ground on it. 
01 35 15 CC That sounds promising. 

0135 16 P Yeah. I think it is. I didn't want to rush into it, and I didn't get too hot. I know you are 

concerned. I'd rather come up on the right setting than dicker around going back and 
forth. 



01 


35 


27 


CC 


Roger. 




01 


35 


28 


P 


Now all the systems are working very well. I'd like to give you a rundown on 
systems. Mv ftv-bv-wire is excellent. Manual was slightly sluggish but 


the control 
very good. 










The capsule at this time is in auto mode, maneuver off, gyros normal. T a + 5 did check 










out very well. The fuel is holding up as you can see, as well as the oxygen. 




01 


35 


57 


CC 


Okay, sounds good. 




01 


35 


58 




Okay I'm going to continue with my day yaw checks now. 










CC 


Next transmission will be on emergency voice. 




01 


36 


06 


p 


Rogei. 




01 


36 


14 


CC 


Sigma Seven, Cape Cap Com, transmitting emergency voice. Over. 




01 


36 


IS 


p 


Roger. I read you loud ar.d clear. I'm going to send you another . . . [bloo 
hera, because I moved too much on the last one. 




01 


36 




CC 


Roger. 




01 


36 




CC 


Seven, Cap Com. 




01 


36 


54 


p 


Go ahead, Deke. 




01 


36 


56 


CC 


Your [contingency recovery area] 2 Bravo retro. 




01 


36 


58 


p 


Stand by 'til I finish my blo:>d here. Okay, I'm done. Okay, go ahead with yoi 


ur 2 Bravo. 


01 


37 


11 


CC 


2 Bravo, 01 48 32. 




01 


37 


15 


p 


48 32. Is that correct? 




01 


37 


22 


CC 


01 48 32. 




01 


37 


25 


p 


32 Roger. Understand. CI 48 32, 2 Bravo. 




01 


37 


32 


CC 


We suggest you have a drink of water if you haven't had one recently. 






37 


36 


p 


No, I haven't. I've tried not to open the visor. I want to get the circuit g 
I think we might have a chance to take a quick one. I'll get ready for one. 


oing down. 


01 


37 


46 


CC 


Okav. If you're reading this, I want to clear you on one item. 




01 


37 


49 


p 


Okay. 




01 


37 


51 


CC 


You indicated high thruster action at Bermuda and Muchea on switch over f 
to rly-by-wire. Has this been apparent to you? 


Tom ASCS 


01 


38 


01 


p 


Negative. It has not. I have one case where I went into reentry attitude aft 
tiou, before — Canton bur this was to check the stars at night after Woome 
got a twitch then, which I think was a high thruster. 


ra. And I 


01 


38 


20 


p 


Otherwise, it dropped in beautifully on transition from control mode to control 




01 


38 




CC 


You're pretty poor transmitting, let's try UHF once. 




01 


38 


32 


p 


Okay. Standby, VOX off. 




01 


38 




CC 


Sever., Cap Com, UHF. How do you read? 




01 


39 




p 


Deke I read you loud and clear. How me? 




0! 


39 


14 


CC 


How you reading now'' 





70 



CAPE CANAVERAL (SECOND PASS)- 



01 39 17 
01 39 21 
01 39 25 
01 39 26 
01 39 27 
01 39 33 
01 39 3S 
01 39 40 



01 40 15 

01 40 26 
01 40 30 
01 40 36 
01 40 38 
01 40 39 
01 40 53 
01 40 56 
01 40 57 

01 41 08 

01 41 09 

01 41 18 

01 41 21 

01 41 40 

01 41 44 

01 41 45 

01 42 04 

01 42 05 

01 42 07 

01 42 12 



01 42 40 

01 42 42 

01 42 47 

01 42 50 



I read you fir 
Roger, loud a 



id clear 



e water and it does feel kinda good. 



01 



i UHF. 

around the pad. 
tig data for you i: 



bar, time 15 23 Zulu. 



Looks more readable o 
Okay. We'll use that 
Have some Echo sight 
Yeah, I'd like to hear about 
In the second orbit over Zai 

elevation 83.25 [degrees], 
Roger, we'll see if we can take a peek at i 
Our recommendation is that you decrease 
perature for 15 minutes. If this doesn' 
Deke, I finally got a grasp on this thing. 

suit inlet temperature is now down to 7f 
Roger. Understand you would prefe 
No, I've been sneaking up on this thing for almost a whole orbit 
Roger. 

Do you understand? 
Roger. 

Cape Cap Com, Sigma Seven. 
Go ahead. 

I really do feel I am getting cooler. The suit inlet 

making progress. Over. 
Roger. Understand. You are getting a slight dec 



nh should be 2.30 [degrees], 



suit valve to position 3 and observe dome tem- 
; help, then go back to 7. 

I'm beginning to feel a little cooler. And the 



about 75 to 76 [degrees], so I a 



n the sponge on the settings I ha 
it stabilize a while longer, 
.v checks. 



ister action on switch over to fly-by-wire, 
because if — I'd be leaping all over — I'd be leaping all over 
this point. I haven't used more than, oh, li degree per 



affirmative. I would rather not throw 
Roger. Understand. You would prefs 
Right. I'm going to go back to some i 
Going to fly-by-wire low. 
Fly-by-wire low. 

Sigma Seven, Cap Com. 
Go ahead, Deke. 
Bermuda again shows high t 
I'm positive I'm not getting 

the sky if I were getting high; 

second. 
Sigma Seven, Cap Com. 
Go ahead, Deke. 
Go ahead, Cape Cap Com. 

Roger. You are fading. We are about at LOS. Flight would still prefer that you 

going to position 3 after evaluating 8 a while longer. 
Roger. Understand. 

Roger. I'm now getting into attitude. Stand by for 0 [degrees] yaw, and pitch 

This will be • 

Yaw is now approximately 0 

degrees left. Correcting ii 

straightened out, gyros are 
Rates are just about right o 

1 44 50 approximately, wc 

LOS at Bermuda; next stat 



On 



'5 [degrees], dome is still high, 
the 0 — on the 0 to 50 — on the 0 t. 
practically no reading at all. 



it this time— MARK. [01 43 31] T . I will look— about ^ 
pitch, yaw is okay, going to go back to ASCS to get gyros 
normal at this time. I'm setting up into the tight pattern 
, attitudes right on, going to fly-by-wire, gyros normal. Ai 
are back into chimp configuration. Understand I will have 
m is Canaries. At this point suit temperature is now down t^ 



50 Roentgen scale at 01 hour 46 



CANARY ISLANDS (SECOND PASS) 

Sigma Seven, this is Canary Com Tech, transmitting UHF/HF. Do you read? Over 
Hello, Canarv Com Tech, this is Sigma Seven. I read vou loud and clear. How r 
Over. 

Roger, Sigma Seven, this is Canary Cap Com, reading you loud and clear. We'd like 
get some temperature readings from you. Cabin suit and cabin dome and suit doi 



71 



CANARY ISLANDS ( SECOND PAS! 



01 


49 


OS 


P 


Okay, I'll give you a readout. Suit dome is 80 [degrees], suit inlet temperat 


ure is 75 










[degrees], cabin dome is 41 [degrees], cabin temperature is 97 [degrees], sui 


t coolant 










setting is 8, cabin is 3. [ will follow- .... 




01 


40 


40 


cc 


Do vdu feel that these settings now are giving you adequate cooling? 




01 






p 


I am going to take Flight's suggestion, and reduce my setting to unit 3 for a few 


minutes. 










and then trv at back 7 if this does not work. Over. 




01 


4') 


50 


cc 


Roger. I copied. 




01 


40 


57 


p 


I am now going to setting number 3 on the suit temperature control. 




01 


50 


04 


cc 


Roger. 




01 


50 


09 


p 


At 1 hour and 50 minutes. 










cc 


Roger. What is vour present control mode? 




01 


50 


23 


p 


I am in ASCS. I have completed yaw checks with the window. I am going to 


trv some 










yaw checks with the periscope at this time. 




01 


50 


34 


cc 






01 


50 


39 


P 


Switching to fly-by-wire low, gyros free. 




01 


51 


20 


p 


I car. definitely see a yaw pattern in the window, in the periscope, in the reti 


cle. The 










window itself is satisfactory at [ — ] 34 degrees, I've covered the gyro and am nc 


■w coming 










back to the left to remove yaw. 




01 


51 


44 


cc 


Roger. Did you, how far did you have to come back on yaw? 




01 




4S 


p 


I am not there yet. I'd st.y about 25 to 30 degrees, I'm stopping yaw at this ti 


me. The 










periscope checks with the window and the reticle and I'm going to give a mark shortly, 










to try to get all the rates stopped. I am just about in retroattitude now, 


and yasv 










locks real clean. I'm going to pull off and look. It's about 1 degree of ya 


w, to the 










right — MARK. [01 52 20] T . Okay, I'm satisfied with that kind of day y; 


iw check. 










That was done in retroattitude. I had a real good cloud layer, that was wha 


t was the 


01 


5 9 


32 


cc 


Roger. How do you feel about systems at the present time now ? 




01 


V2 


33 




All systems are green except for the suit cooling and it definitely is — the dome 


tempera- 










tu:*e is going up at this rime. I'm going to go back on ASCS for a while and hack out 














01 


52 


5 


cc 


Roger. 




01 


5? 


56 




I will not go to ASCS. Ah, by the way, how about taking a look at my high 












Have you seen any high thruster action at all? 




01 


53 


04 


cc 


Stand by. 




01 


53 


06 


p 


I shouldn't have had any at all. 




01 


53 


12 


cc 


Wally, did you already switch to ASCS? 




01 


53 


16 


p 


Negative. I have not switched. 




01 


53 


18 


cc 


Do it now. 




01 


53 


20 


p 


Say again. 




01 


53 


24 


cc 


Go ahead and switch. 




01 


53 


26 


p 


I'm going — have I had any high thruster action so far? 




01 


53 


29 


cc 


Negative. 




01 


53 


30 


p 


Okay, that's good. I'm still in fly-by-wire low, standby switching now, flop. I'm f 


roing .... 


01 


53 


41 


p 


Say again. 




01 


53 


42 


cc 


No high thrusters. 




01 


53 


44 


p 


Okay, good deal going, gyros normal. 




01 


53 


46 


cc 


Roger, that is affirmative. 




01 


53 


40 


p 


I have completed my day yaw checks. I am very satisfied with the technique 


of taking 










care of roll as I ... . 




01 


53 


58 


cc 


Sigma Seven, Sigma Seven, this is ... . Do vou read? Over. 




01 


54 


05 


p 


This is Sigma Seven. I hud to give up on this Sower temperature. Everything's 


going \ip. 


01 




11 


cc 


Okay, I'll report that to the Cape. 




01 


54 


13 


p 


I'm going to set in to number .... 












KANO (SECOND PASS) 




01 


54 


15 


CT 


Sigma Seven, this is Kano Com Tech, transmitting on I'HF/HF, do you read? 




01 


54 


20 


p 


Roger, Kano. I read you loud and clear. How me? 








24 


cc 


. . . read you here. Report . . . setting number. 




01 


54 




p 


Okay. I've set it back to 7.5. 




01 




32 


cc 


Roger. I copied 7.5. 





72 



KANO (SECOND PASS) — Continued 



01 




34 


P 


The suit dome went up to 82 degrees. 










CT 


Sigma Seven, this is Kano Com Tech, transmitting on UHF/HF. Do you read? Over. 


01 


"4 


44 




Could you read me. Canaries? 




01 


54 


49 


P 


Hello Kano, hello Kano. 




01 


o4 


o2 


CT 


Sigma Seven, Sigma Seven, this is Kano Com Tech, transmitting on UHF/HF. 
read? Over. 


Do you 


01 


54 


58 


P 


Kano, I read you loud and clear. How me? Over. 




01 


55 


09 


CT 


Sigma Seven, Sigma Seven, this is Kano Com Tech, transmitting on UHF/HF. 
read? Over. 


Do you 


01 


11 


16 


P 


Kano, this is Sigma Seven. Read you loud and clear. How me? Over. 




01 
01 


DO 


18 
24 


CC 
P 


Roger Seven, I read you weak but readable. Stand by this frequency for . . . 
Okay. 




01 




32 


CC 


Sigma Seven, . . . how do you read? 




01 


55 


34 


p 


I read you loud and clear. I wonder whether Canaries got my last on the sui 
I've got 82 degrees on the dome and went back up to a setting of 7.5 on the cooh 
Over. 


t system, 
mt valve. 


01 


06 


00 


CC 


Sigma Seven, Kano Cap Com. 




01 


-*! 


03 




Go ahead, Kano. 








}t 




Kano Cap Com, Sigma Seven. Go ahead. 




01 


"6 




p 


Hello, hello Kano Cap Com, Sigma Seven. Over. 




01 


56 


55 


p 


Kano Cap Com, this is Sigma Seven. Go ahead. 




01 


5 ^ 


o9 


CC 


Sigma Seven, Kano Cap Com 




01 


-1 


08 


p 


Kano Cap Com, this is Sigma Seven. Go ahead. 




01 


-1 


14 


CC 


Sigma Seven, we don't read you. 




01 


n7 


16 


p 


Roger, Kano. This is Sigma Seven. I read you loud and clear. Sigma Seven 
to II F. 


switching 


01 


57 


31 


CC 


Sigma Seven, Kano Cap Com. 




01 


57 


43 


p 


Kano, this is Sigma Seven. Over 




01 






p 


Hello, Kano Cap Com. Sigma Seven. Over. 




01 






CC 


Roger, Sigma Seven. I have not read your transmissions. Over. 




01 


57 


55 


p 


Roger. I had to switch to HF at this time, and am in VOX at this time. HF. 
you read? 


How do 


01 


58 


04 


CC 


Negative, Seven. Would you say again? 




01 


58 


07 


p 


I'm on VOX— correct, I am going to push-to-talk on HF. Do you read me non 




01 


08 




CC 


Roger. I read you better now. 




01 








Okay. Do you want some suit stuff? 




01 


58 




CC 


Roger. How is your suit doing? 




01 


58 


20 


p 


Okay. I've already caught the dome temperature. Went up to about 82 
I've got it back to 81 [degrees]. The suit inlet went up to 80 [degrees]. I' 


[degrees], 
've got it 










back to 78 [degrees]. I am back at the setting of almost 7.5 on the suit set selector. I'm 










going to sorting number 8 at this time. 




01 


58 


4 ^ 




Understand. You are going to number 8 on suit setting. 




01 


58 


4 ' 




That is correct, 




01 


58 


50 


CC 


Would you say again your suit temperature. 




01 


08 


o2 


p 


Suit temperature at this time is dropping slowly. It is now 77 [degrees]. 




01 


08 


o9 


CC 






01 


59 


01 


p 


Negative. It is dropping — lowering. 




01 


59 


03 


CC 


What is your dome temperature? 




01 


59 


06 


p 


It is coming down. It is now 81, 81 [degrees]. 




01 


59 


10 


CC 


Roger. I copied. 




01 


59 


11 


p 


Okay, I think we got locks on it by going higher in settings. 




01 




17 


CC 


Say again. You were garbled. 




01 


59 


19 


p 


I think we have the situation under control. 












I am now in ASCS, gyros normal, manuver off, all systems green. I am green. 




01 






CC 


Roger. Understand. Auto retro. 












That is affirmative. 




01 




40 


CC 


Ous telemetry shows pitch attitude of 25 [degrees] negative and our scanner : 
[degrees] negative. 


shows 36 


01 






p 


Roger. Your scanner i- correct. I am indicating 30 [degrees]. Negative that 
with the window. 




02 


00 


11 


CC 


Sigma Seven, 





73 



KANO (SECOND PASS) — Continued 



02 00 13 P Go ahead. Go ahead. 

02 00 17 CC Stanc. by for a [contingency recovery area] 2 Charlie retro time. 

02 00 25 GC Sigma Seven. Kano Cap Com. 

02 00 27 P Go ahead. I'm ready to copy. 

02 00 34 CC Sigma Seven, do you read? 

02 00 36 P I read. Go ahead, Kano, 

02 00 40 CC Sigma Seven. 

02 00 43 P Kano. this is Sigma Seven. Go ahead. 

02 00 47 CC This Xano Cap Com transmitting in the blind, Sigma Seven. 2 Charlie time is 02 04 30. 

02 01 03 P This is Sigma Seven. Roger. 02 04 30, for 2 Charlie. 

02 01 16 CC Sigma Seven, come in please. 

02 01 19 P This is Sigma Seven, I read you loud and clear. How me' 

02 01 22 CC I read you now. Did you get my 2 Charlie time? 

02 01 26 P Roger. 02 04 30. 

02 01 32 CC Would you say it back to l ie. 

02 01 34 P Roger. 02 04 30. 

02 01 41 CC That is Roger. 

02 01 47 CC How is your suit temperature now, Seven? 

02 01 52 P It is now coming down to about 76 [degrees] and the dome is 80 Ldegrees], We're going in 

the right direction. 

02 02 00 CC Is yo.ir cabin temperature holding? 

02 02 04 P Cabi::i temperature is under control. It is 95 [degrees]. 95. 

02 02 11 CC Roger. 

02 02 17 CC How do you feel? 

02 02 20 P I feel very comfortable now. I'm cooling off at last. 

02 02 24 CC Very good. 

02 02 26 P I am going to manual proportional at this time. 

02 02 31 CC Are you going to power down? 

02 02 32 P Negative. This is manual proportional. 

02 02 34 CC Roger, understand. 

02 02 41 CC T/M LOS, Seven. 

02 02 46 P Roger. 

02 02 54 CC Seve::i, do you read? 

02 02 57 P This is Sigma Seven. I read you still. 

02 03 00 CC I read you very clear, Wally. 

02 03 02 P Roger. 

02 03 12 P Gyres are free. 

ZANZIBAR (SECOND PASS) 

02 04 53 CT Sigma Seven, Sigma Seven, Zanzibar Com Tech transmitting HF/UHF. How do you 
read? Over. 

02 04 59 P Sigma Seven on HF. Read you loud and clear. How me? 

02 05 21 P Zanzibar, Sigma Seven. Over. 

02 05 25 CC Sigma Seven, Sigma Sever,, this is Zanzibar. I am not reading your signal. What are 

you transmitting on, please? 

02 05 34 P Sigma Seven on HF. 

02 05 41 CC Sigma Seven, Sigma Seven, this is Zanzibar Cap Com. Do you read? Over. 

02 05 51 CC Sigma Seven, Sigma Seven, this is Zanzibar Cap Com. Do you read? Over. 

02 05 55 P Zanzibar, this is Sigma Seven. I read you loud and clear. How me? Over. 

02 05 58 CC Roger. I'm not reading you. I'm not reading you. Very, very weak. Will you report 

the suit control setting now, and how do you feel? 

02 06 12 P This is Sigma Seven. I feel marvelous and I have finally knocked suit control. 

02 06 35 P This is Sigma Seven. I had a slight, case of double authority here. I got very bored with 
lf.nual proportional during the drifting period and forgot to put the rate command 









switch to auto, . . . it's about one stroke in pitch. 


02 06 


52 


P 


Zanzibar, this is Sigma Seven. Over. 


02 07 


01 




Zanzibar Cap Com, Sigma Seven. Over. 


02 07 


19 


P 


Zanzibar Cap Com, Sigma Seven. Over. 


02 07 


30 


CC 


Sigma Seven, this is Zanzibar. Over. 


02 07 


41 


CC 


Sigma Seven, Sigma Seven, this is Zanzibar. Over. 


02 08 


53 


P 


Zanzibar Cap Com. Sigma Seven on UHF, Over. 


74 









INDIAN OCEAN SHIP (SECOND PASS) 



02 09 57 P Indian Ocean Ship, Indian Ocean Ship, Sigma Seven. Over. 

02 10 45 P Indian Ocean Ship, Indian Ocean Ship, Sigma Seven on UHF-high. Over. 

02 11 11 P Indian Ocean Ship, Indian Ocean Ship, Sigma Seven. Over. 

02 12 04 CC Sigma Seven. 

02 12 09 P Indian Ocean Ship, Indian Ocean Ship. Tliis is Sigma Seven. I read you. How 

02 12 15 CC Read you now. Do you have anything at this time? Over. 

02 12 IS P Roger. I have good news. The suit dome temperature is now 70 degrees. 1 

inlet temperature is now 70 degrees. Over. 
02 12 51 CC Sigma Seven. Sigma Seven. Surgeon wants to know if you feel particularly hot. 

02 12 57 P No, I feel very comfortable. Did you read what I've got for the suit temperature 

02 13 04 CC Roger. Understand. 

02 13 18 CC Sigma Seven, this is IOS Cap Com standing by. Over. 

02 13 22 P Roger. I want you to read back what temperatures I gave vou on the suit dome 

the suit inlet. Over. 

02 13 30 CC Roger. The suit temperature is 70 [degrees]. The suit inlet temperature is 70. 

02 13 38 P Roger. The dome is now about 63 degrees and is holding fairly steady. I will 

it so it doesn't go too low. 
02 13 50 CC Roger, 63 [degreesj, dome, holding steady. Over. 

02 13 54 P Roger. I think we've got that problem licked. 

02 14 47 CC Sigma Seven. I have about 1 minute to LOS. Over. 

02 14 54 P Roger. Everything is good here. Thank you very much for waiting for me to come by 

again. 

02 16 32 P IOS, this is Sigma Seven. I'm not sure whether you realize but I have been in auto 

mode retroattitude. Over. 

02 16 58 P At last we have solved the suit circuit temperature problem. 1 can see why Scott was 

concerned about this record position only. There is no side tone as well. The suit 
temperature at this time is— c.e.t. 2 17 20 MARK. [2 17 20] T — is 68 degrees and I'm 
feeling marvelous. The suit dome is about 72 degrees again. Apparently, it does 
fluctuate, and wc arc going into the night side at this time. I believe we have the 
suit circuit under good control. I will go back to VOX push-to-talk. Standing by for 
Muchea at 25 [minutes]. Gotta watch one sunset. 

02 17 55 P Sunset is rather striking. I don't think that I need to waste much time looking at them. 

They are very interesting. The other thing, it's fascinating is how black it is when your 
eyes are not adapted. I definitely can see some coating on the window. Going back to 
VOX at this point in UHF-high to transmit. Opening visor to wipe off the right micro- 
phone. I licked it. Closing visor. Visor was sealed immediately for the suit circuit 
to go to work for me. I don't want to get fouled up with it again. The suit inlet is 
holding very nicely at about 68 [degrees]. So the dome again is going to go back up. 
It's now up at 76, 75 [degrees]. Apparently this higher setting is the one we want. 
Think I'll put in another half a mark on that now and we may have her locked. She's 
getting kinda coo! at last so I know where J want to go with the setting, I have set the 
coolant quantity for the suit and control lever at 8.5 at 2 hours 19 minutes 28 seconds. 
The readout the dome at this time is 75 [degrees]. The suit inlet is 68 [degrees]. Very 
pleasant. I can feel cool air crossing my face. The oxygen quantity looks real good, 
60 and 75 [psi, in hundreds]. I have been watching the 250 inverter. It is approaching 
140 degrees, and the 150 contrast is down to about 100 degrees. Standby is about 100 
[degrees] which is cabin temperature. Thirdly, the 250 — that one's suffering, and I 
will keep an eye on it. Cabin heat exchanger is definitely settling out at 40 degrees, 
and its given me a hard time because I obviously owe Frank Samonski 50 cents. I'm 
pleasantly surprised. Cabin fuel too, is reading a little high. Let me see now, we're 
carrying 5.5 psia, it's reading about 5 point, correction, 5.3, that's not too high for this 
cabin. It's getting nice and dark out, I think I'll take a peek out at the stars at this 
point. The cover for the battery for the flashlight on the left glove is coming loose. 
Only where — where the switch is, is no problem, just a case of wearing out before they 
should. Drifting, checking my wrist watch as a backup and I have 2 hours and 51 
minutes. Correction, that's 2 hours and 21 minutes. Check that, 2 hours and 21 
minutes and 35 seconds. Right on. We're not too bad, we better get a c.e.t. check at 
Muchea on this trip. 



75 



INDIAN OCEAN SHIP (SECOND PASS)— Continued 



02 22 25 P Going for the computer. Clock is reading about 2 hours and 23 minutes. We'll say 

2 24. At 2 24 we should pick up Muchoa, also pick up a yaw check. 2 24 we have 
05 36 on the other set. 

02 23 13 P Perth should be coming into view and it should be — oh, what a beautiful yaw check this 

is, and it's approximately 10 degrees left of path. Better make that about 12 degree* 
left to path. Just, on the edge of the window, and that should give us 0 [degrees] yaw. 
I cannot see anything through the periscope that would help me. It is too — it is too 
cloudy. I'm coming out on VOX 1, 2, 1, 2. VOX is now coming in very well. 

MUCHEA {SECOND PASS) 

02 24 03 CC Sigma Seven, Sigma Seven, this is Muchea Cap Com. How do you read? Over. 

(12 24 07 P Muchea, this is Sigma Sewn. Read you loud and clear. How me 9 

02 24 11 CC Read you loud and clear also, Wally. How about a standard report? 

02 24 15 P Okay, Gene. I'll give you the suit thing first so everybody is off the hook. We have a 

dcme on the suit of 72: that is, dome temperature [degrees], I have a suit inlet of 06 
[degrees] on the suit and the suit setting is 8 and I am very happy with the suit circuit 
at this time. I am very comfortable. 

02 24 43 CC Roger. Cape advises they are very happy with the whole situation at this time. Partic- 

ularly, the ECS systems solved itself, and they seem to think you have a good handle 
on the whole situation there. 

02 24 55 P Roger. I lost it for a while when I went back to the 3 setting, but I didn't stay there 

very long. It definitely should be about 74 to 8. At this point, I am on ASCS auto 
reroattitude. I am going to go to fly-by-wire shortly. I had been on gyros normal, 
and maneuver has been off. All systems are green. I snapped off about 2 percent 
of manual [fuel] one time by hitting RSCS. It was double authority. It was my 
boo-boo. It was just one pitch down motion. 

02 25 34 CC Roger. Understand and stand by. 

02 25 37 P Okay. I would like to go ahead with my night yaw check on fly-by-wire low. 

02 25 42 CC Roger. We'll stand by. 

02 25 44 P Okav. Now I'm using the moon which is to the left of me, and it's a real good fix for it. 

I'm just gonna go ahead and cover up the attitude indicator and you can watch the yaw. 
I'm going to gyros free, trying to select to fly-by-wire low at this time. I'm gonna put 
the moon in the center of the window first — and holding roll and pitch and then put the 
moon back where it belongs. The Moon is approaching the center of the window at 
this point. Okay. I'n: gonna stop it there, and we'll put the roll control in to get that 
balanced out. Okay. At this point, I will get 0 roll. I have overshot the Moon and 
ai:i picking tip the planet Mercury which is nice and bright, and that's a little bit far to 
the right. Now take a cheek off and we'll see how many degrees we've got here in yaw. 
About 20, which is enough for a quantitative check. We'll bring her back now. And 
I have to go ahead with slight roll motion each time I do this. This is to track the horizon 

02 27 00 CC Roger. Understand. 

02 27 1 1 P Okay. We're coming to the right as you may be able to see, and we're coming around 

very well. I still have to correct my roll out. Coming up on yaw attitude very shortly 
here. I'm quite satisfied with both day and night checks. I've been real pleased with 
it. I have to say this has been a real treat to see these bears flow into place. 

02 27 30 CC Rog^r. Everything checks out just as you say on the ground indication, Wally. 

02 27 44 F Okai-. I'm gonna give you a mark on the moon now for a yaw reference. I would say 

this is now zero yaw." MARK. [02 27 51] T . 

02 27 50 CC Fine. We had a —4 on t:ie ground. That's pretty good. 

02 27 50 P —4. Okay, I'll check here. Looks about right. I could have come right a little bit more. 

Oiay. That's about all I need for the night yaw checks, and, as far as I'm concerned, 
I'..l go back and give the guys some more ASCS time. I don't see any reason to burn 
up too much fuel. Now I'll give one you one of those things for your Sir John. 

. Can you see anything 9 
Wal. 





28 26 


CC 


Rogar. Understand. Tin 


ero's a few lights on i 


02 


28 33 


s 


We ?eem to be getting rea; 


sonable body temperat 


02 


28 36 


p 


Oh, verv good. Warren, i 


lice to hear from you, 


02 


28 40 




Me too." How are you, Sa 


^nd Groper? 


02 


28 41 


p 


Oh, great sport. Underst; 


itid some suds are on 1 


02 


28 50 


P 


I might as well look down 


and see if you fellows 



a the way back. 

own and see if you fello\ 

the blood pressure. 



76 



MT'CHEA (SECOND PASS ) — Continued 



02 28 55 CC Shannon runs out of furl, ... he doesn't get bogged down in the sand. 

02 2.S 59 P Ha! Ha! I still have black skid marks on my swim fins from your trip into the bush. 

Okay, you can see I've yawed right again. I need to come — correction, yawed left. I 
need to come right, the moon is right on the horizon. I'll put it right on again, just to 
show you how easy it is to acquire. I seem to be holding up on my fuel minimum so I'll 
go ahead and play with it a little bit here. Okay, we're just about on in yaw. and still 
off in roll. I'll slap her in and we'll have it made. Here comes roll to straighten her up. 
Coming up on roll — . Okay, I'm quitting right there. That's about as good as I'll ever 
give you. Little off in roll here. There we go. Xow, that's what I would give your 
Okay, I'm gonua go back to gyros normal, and let them come back on the line. I'm 
going to set up now and uncover the instruments for chimpanzee configurations. Dam- 
mit, I'm sorry, auto mode. 



02 30 


13 


CC 


Roger. I understand. 


02 30 


15 


P 


I broke my promise. 


02 30 


22 


CC 


We had you on a +5 [degree] roll when you uncovered. 


02 30 


26 


p 


Right. That's about right. Oh! I've got some lights down there. How about that? 


02 30 


33 


CC 


Good, that's us. 


02 30 


34 


p 


That's a great deal. Sure thank you all. I've got a washer in here. I captured a washer 
















or something. Better not be. 










02 30 


54 


p 


Okay, let me get back into configuration here. I'm going to ASCS at this time. And she 








walked in without any high thrusters, I believe. Will you double check that? And for 








that, I'll give you a blood pressure. 


02 31 


09 


CC 


Roger. 


02 31 


1 1 


p 


Got to cheek the Sanborn, I guess, for that one. Coming up on BP MS. Gene, I'm real 








pleased with the suit temperature now. I've got a real steady 65 [degrees]. Although 








the dome is reading just about 70 [degrees] as a steady number. 


02 31 


37 


CC 


Roger. 65 and dome 70. 


02 31 


39 


p 


Right, The cabin is just sitting here fat, dumb, and happy. I haven't had to do a thing 








to it. Now, have you been watching my 250 inverter? 


02 31 


54 


CC 


I've got 55 [degrees] on the ground. 


02 31 


57 


p 


I've got 140 (degrees] here. And the trend has been very slow building up. I don't think 








I'll change the cold plate settings. The 150 is holding about .... 


02 32 


OS 


CC 


This is Muchea — recommend you go over to Woomera. 








WOOMERA (SECOND PASS) 


0 2 32 


10 


p 


Roger. Woomera Cap Com, Sigma Seven. Over. 


0 2 32 


15 


CC 


Sigma Seven, Woomera Cap Com. Loud and clear. Over. 


0 2 32 


18 


p 


Roger. Nice to be back over Woomera. 


0 2 32 


21 


CC 


Same here. And. . . . 


0 2 32 


22 


p 


I'm a little bit. . . . 










0 2 32 


24 


p 


Okay. 


0 2 32 


25 


CC 


. . . condition. 


0 2 32 


26 


p 


Roger. I am in ASCS auto, in other words a normal mode. Gyros are normal, maneuver 








is off, all systems are green. I'm real happy with the suit circuit at this time. 


02 32 


41 


CC 


Roger. We received your last reports from Muchea, and is that auto retro? 


02 32 


46 


p 


That is auto retro. Would you give me a time hack at 33 minutes. Over. That's 2 








hours, 33 minutes. 


02 33 


06 


CC 


You want fo get your blood pressure stopped 1 


02 33 


OS 


p 


Roger. Can you read me? 


02 33 


10 


CC 


Affirmative, we are reading you. 


02 33 


12 


p 


I need a mark on capsule elapsed time. Your ground elapsed time, give it to me at 30 








seconds. 


02 33 


20 


CC 




02 33 


26 


CC 


5 4, 3, 2, 1. MARK 02 33 30. [02 33 30] T . 


02 33 


34 


p 


Roger. I read 31. I'm 1 second fast. That 's very good. 


02 33 


39 


CC 


Your T'M readout on your capsule elapsed time occasionally reads out 1 second fast and 



then comes out to be correct with our time, then it gains a second again. 



77 



WO 031 ERA (SECOND PASS) — Continued 











Welcome to the Quiver elub. 


02 


33 


52 


CC 




02 








Okav" I think I gave vou some good old blood for that one Thank? for the -nvap 


02 


34 


0? 




Roger, That was the stop button. The stop button, we're still getting it. 


02 


34 


07 


p 




02 


34 


09 




Roger 1 U St ° P 


02 


34 


10 


p 


I'll try to give you the full bit. 


02 


34 


13 






02 


34 


14 


p 


You^vere so nice asking fo- it I had to give it to vou 


02- 


-34- 


-17 




We meant the stop button. 












02 


34 


23 




Ha'l Haf It never quit. 


02 










02 


34 


26 




Looks good now 


02 


34 


27 


P 


Good show. Okay, I feel happy about the fuel condition. We've got —I'm reading 95 


02 


34 


3S 


CC 


Reading 98 [percent] auto and manual 94 [percent]. 










Well how about that. 


02 


34 


48 


CC 




02 


34 


50 


CC 


Okay, Spacecraft Commander, this is Woomera Systems. Do you have any high thrust.er 
actions during your last pass over Woomera and Muchea? 




34 




p 


I don't think so, because 1 was just cruising over you that time in fly-by-wire low and 
ASCS. I had one. . . . 














V 


U 


p c 


I'm cjuite sure it was because I would have noted it rather rapidlv. I made one large 
thrust application in the night so far, where I was going back from manual propor- 
tional to flv-bv-wire and I forgot to move the rate command switch to auto. I had one 
pitch function and vou really know it. So if I had a high thruster, I'm sure I would 
have known it. 


02 


„. 


3~ 


CC 




02 


35 


38 


p ' 


Verv^ood Thanks for looking out for me 


02 


35 


43 


CC 


Everything looks green down here. 






1-* 






0*> 


35 




CC 


Standing bv' t ^ 


02 


35 


48 


p 


Righto. I'm seeing a lot of your lightning now. 










\eah, we got a bunch. ^ ^ ^ ^ t 


09 








!i»htnin° U all^e tinie^ ^ " S66 J ° Ur aro • ,Us oug saw ' u 1 s JU> 


02 


36 


03 


CC 


Ma^be^exAime 6 ""^ 


02 


36 


05 


p 


Okav. I see Africa. Looks pretty good down there. We'll give them a whack at it. 
Don't give up though, I think the flare will help us some day. 


02 


36 


19 


CC 


We'll let Gordo take a look at it. 


02 


36 


23 


p 


Right. I'm gonna do a little star gazing now. 


02 


36 


29 


CC 


Woomera has T/M LOS. 


02 


36 


30 


p 


Roger, Woomera. 


02 


36 


34 


CC 


Sigma Seven, Woomera. 


02 


36 


36 


p 


Go ahead, Woomera. 


02 


37 


38 


p 


There's the old Corona Australia, shows in beautifully, and we've got Xunki. We've 

0 yaw, 5 degrees left roll, in retroattitude, I sure would like to know why it's so com- 
plicated. And up above those boys I should pick up another brighty. That must be, 
has to be Altair. Very good. You actually get the feeling that you aren't really going 
over Australia on this fight. Okay. Now let's see, we finished yaw check for those 
boys, coming up on Canton, They get more ASCS than they reckoned for this time. 


02 




53 


p 


That's right, on HF at 3 plus 20, everything else is in order. Take another look at that 
dome there, over there. Suit temperature is 64 [degrees] and I'm really happy. 



78 



WOOMERA (SECOND PASS)— Continued 

T r -10 back to normal. I've done that earlier. Okay, we got — got suit pressure. Go 
ahead and take a look at the inverters again here. 250 is 141 [degrees], 150 is about 
107 [degrees]. Well enough alone. Standby is ... 7. Just about ambient. Nega- 
tive, it's even a little. . . . The cabin pressure is about 5.3 [psia], which is perfect. 
Suit dome is 72 [degrees]. Cabin dome is 45 [degrees] and cabin is holding. Suit 
temperature is about 04 [degrees] and I like it. Oxygen is 60 [psi, in hundreds]. Cabin 
0 2 is 5.3 [psi], and a complete electrical. 

All batteries are reading about 231^ [volts] or higher; ammeter is just about steady at 
20 amps. Wanted to check before we power down, ASCS is 115 [volts]. Fans is about 
115 [volts], standby 0 [volts]. Okay, the cockpit is clean. It's obvious that that 
damn antenna situation is no good. Just brought HF back in bicone again. 

CANTON (SECOND PASS) 



02 


42 


06 


CT 


Sigma Seven, Sigma Seven, this is Canton Com Tech. Over. 


02 


42 


12 


P 


This is Sigma Seven. I read you loud and clear. How me? 


02 


42 


21 


P 


Okay. We're back in dipole. 


02 


42 


23 


CT 


Seven, Canton Com Tech, how do you copy? 


02 


42 


27 


P 




02 


42 


34 


P 


Canton Coin Tech, this is Sigma Seven. Read vou loud and clear. How me? 


02 


42 


39 


CT 


^v-ou cc-Tv"' Over- 8, i,6 ^ en ' ' S Canton Com fecn ' Canton Com Tech. How do 


02 


42 


51 


p 


Canton Com Tech this is Sigma Seven I read vou loud and clear How me' Over 


02 


43 


02 


CT 


Sigma Seven, Sigma Seven, this is Canton Com Tech, Canton Com Tech on IIF. Over. 


02 


43 


10 


P 


Canton Com Tech, this is Sigma Seven. How do vou read me? Over. 


02 


43 


16 


CT 


Sigma Seven, Sigma Seven, this is Canton Com Tech on HF/UHF. Over. 




43 


30 


CT 


Sigma Seven, Sigma Seven, this is Canton Com Tech Canton Com Tech how do vou 
copy? Over. 


02 


43 


38 


P 


Canton Com Tech, this is Sigma Seven. I read you loud and clear. How me? 


02 


43 


46 


CT 


Sigma Seven, Canton Com Tech. I read vou 5 bv. Over to Cap Com. Over. 


02 


43 


52 


P 


Roger. I'm here too. 


02 


43 


57 


CC 


Sigma Seven, this is Canton Cap Com. Over. 


02 


44 


00 


P 


Roger, Canton. All right, I'll give you a short report. I am in auto retro mode, gyros 


02 


44 


26 


CC 


Roger^Cari— l^oeer° Sigma* Seven S ^ gr6en ' circmt is under P 0bitive control. 


02 


44 


30 


p 


This is Sigma Seven' I am read • at this time for a retro^e uence if re uired All 1 
have out is one star chart and^hat's it ""^ 01 & Te T ° BeCIUenCe ' rec l ulre ' • 


02 


44 


43 


CC 


Roger, Sigma Seven. 


02 


44 


45 


P 


And you'd better not give me one. Ha, Ha, Fla. 


02 


44 


50 


CC 


Say again, Sigma Seven. 


02 


44 


51 


P 


I don't want one. Ha, Ha. 


02 




53 


CC 




02 


44 


55 


P 


She is really performing like a jewel right now. 


02 




03 


CC 


Say again, Sigma Seven. 


02 


45 


05 


P 


I said she is performing like a little jewel. 


02 


45 


OS 


CC 


Roger. That's great. 


02 


45 


10 


p 


Now, the only thing we had trouble with so far is the suit circuit, and we've got that 
pretty well licked. 


02 


45 


17 


CC 


That's what I understand from listening over the Goddard conference [network communi- 


02 


45 


20 


p 


Now, just for your briefing, I've got a suit inlet [temperature] now of about 63 degrees, 
and the dome is holding steady, at 70 degrees. 


02 


45 


33 


CC 


Roger. Understand. 


02 


45 


34 


p 


I'm perfectly comfortable. I'm gonna quit with that thing while I'm ahead. 


02 


45 


39 


CC 


Roger. 


02 


45 


44 


p 


Some of that reason that I've lost HF communications, I believe, is that I keep bumping 
that switch from dipole to bicone. Vou understand? 




45 


54 


CC 


You say you keep bumping the switch from dipole to bicone? 


02 








That is correct. So on the II F check here, I'm set up for it. I think we can probably 
get a good one this time. 


02 


46 


06 


CC 


Roger. 



79 



CANTON ( SECOND PASS) — Continued 



02 


46 


07 


P 


That's at 3 hours and 20 minutes, of course. Apparently I've got to keep cheeking that 










thing for bicone. Correetion — for dipole. 




02 


46 


17 


CC 


Roger. Understand. 












I just have to move my elbow to the right, and I knock it. 






ii- 


">4 


cc 


1 see ' . , 






46 




p 


It's not critical. It's just a way of doing business. I had compared the night yaw che 
over Muehea and Woornera, and am very satisfied with the results. With knc 
objects it is absolutely no problem at all to aeqmie ya« . In addition, vie can watch 
down through the window. 


,wn 




46 


^ 7 


cc 


Roger. That's what I heard. I heard your report at \^ oomera. 




^7, 


46 


53 


p 


Roger. There is nothing new up here then. 




IY> 


47 




cc 


Roger. We have nothing. Xo questions here. 




02 


47 


06 


p 


Rogei. Apparently the 2j0 in\erter is not going up \ erj much. M\ reading is 
remaining about 140 degrees. 


still 


02 


47 


19 


cc 








47 


33 


p 


I guess Frank Samonski knows I owe him a half a dollar by now. 




02 


47 


38 


cc 


Roger. 












For j our information, because \ou cant read it, my retro [package] temperature at 
time is 72 degrees. 


this 


0° 


48 


01 


cc 


Roger. Understand 72 decrees. 




02 


48 


05 


p 


That is correct. 






48 


00 


p 


Thank you. 72 degrees. 

Seventv-two degrees for the retro heater. Retro-rocket, rather. There are no heaters 




02 


48 


49 


p 


I'm opening the visor just for a moment to scratch my nose. 




02 


48 


55 


cc 


Roger. 




02 


48 


56 


1' 


And closing visor. I missed on that; I'm gonna have to reseal that. Okay, it's reseal 
I'd just as soon not stay on that cabin any longer than necessary. 




02 


49 


12 


cc 


Roger. 

HAWAII (SECOND PASS) 




0' 7 


49 


35 


CT 


Sigma Seven, Hawaii Com Tech. How do you read? Over. 




02 


48 


38 


p 


Hello, Hawaii Com Tech. I read you loud and clear. How me? 




02 


49 




p 


Hawaii Com Tech. This is Sigma Seven, read you loud and clear. How me? Over. 








50 




Sigma Seven, Hawaii Cap Com. 




02 


49 


52 




Hi, Gussie, how ya' doin'? 




02 


49 


56 


CT 


Sigma Seven, Hawaii Com Tech. 












Hawaii Com Tech, Hawaii Cap Com, this is Sigma Seven. I read you loud and ch 
How me? 

Sigma Seven, this is Hawaii Cap Com. How do you readr 


>ar. 








p C 




02 
0'' 


50 
50 


09 
15 




I read you loud and clear. 

Hawaii Cap Com, I will start a standard report for you. I am in auto retroattitude. 
have gyros normal, maneuver off, all systems are green, and go for the next orbit. ()\ 


I 

"o 










Roger, Wally. Understand all systems are green and go. We indicate you have a 
down here. 




02 


50 




P 










45 




Could you give me a c.e.t., please? 




02 


50 




P 


Roger". Stand by for a mark at 50. MARK 50. [02 50 o0] T . That s 2 hours 50 n 
utes plus 50 seconds. 




02 


50 


52 


CC 


Roger. We indicate you're 1 second fast. 










p 


Roger, Gus. I think everybody's got the reading on the suit circuit : I won t boT 
bringing that up any more. 


her 


02 


50 


59 
04 


CC 


Roger. I'd like to have a cabin temperature and a cabin dome temperature. 
Okay. Cabin temperature is 97 [degrees]. The dome is 45 [degrees]. 




02 


51 


08 


CC 


Say again dome temperature. 












45. 




tP 


51 


20 


cc 






02 


51 


22 


P 


And the setting has not benn changed for a long lime. 




02 


51 


20 


cc 






02 


51 


27 




I have not changed the setting on the inverters. I'll give you a recap on those. Invert 
art at 4. That's the [coolant control] valve setting. The cabin is at 3. The suit is a 


t 8. 


02 


51 


43 


cc 


Roger. 




02 


51 




p 


And it's working all very tine. I've got about 62 [degrees] inlet now on the suit. 





80 



HAWAII ( SECOND PASS) — Continued 



02 


51 


52 


cc 


Would you push your blood presssure stop button. Wally? 


02 


51 


56 


p 


Roger. 


02 


52 


01 


p 


Now you don't have to ask me for it, you have to tell me to stop. This is horrible. Ha! 


02 


52 


06 


cc 


I'd rather ask you to give it. 


02 


52 


08 


p 


I liked your dispatch the other day. It helped. 


02 


52 


14 


cc 


I almost forgot. Aloha, from Hawaii. 


02 


52 


16 


p 


Oh! Aloha. 


02 


52 


24 


p 


Got some real good night yaw checks, Gus. It just slops right in. 


02 


52 


28 


cc 


Roger. 


02 


52 


29 


p 


And, your reports on manual proportional, just about right. The tail-off is what you see 










more than anything else. It's a little sluggish. 


02 


52 


51 


cc 


Wally, Cape seems to think you're in good shape also. 


02 


52 


53 


p 


Roger. I feel fine. This old bird is really performing up here. 


02 


52 


59 


cc 


Good show. 


02 


53 


25 


cc 


Wally, give rae a reading on your attitudes now. 


02 


53 


29 


p 


Okay. I am rolled left about 7 degrees. Yaw right, 2 degrees. Pitched up about 4 degrees. 


02 


53 


41 


cc 


Roger. Pitch up, 4 degrees, 


02 


53 


43 


p 


That's affirmative. 


02 


53 


45 


cc 


Roger. 


02 


53 


46 


p 


We have a ± 51 '-degree envelope on this one, Gus. 


02 


53 


51 


cc 


Roger. 


02 


53 


59 


p 


She's tracking beautifully. I haven't had a thruster one problem. Really nice. 










Roger. Give 1 me vour pitch attitude again, Wallv. We don't agree with that 


02 


54 


09 


p 


Okay, I have an indicated [ — ] 30 degree pitch, and it checks with the window just about 










right on the button, Gus. 


02 


54 


18 


cc 


Okay, Roger. I misread you then. 


02 


54 


21 


p 


I'm sorry I said +4. I was going up from the retro mark which would probably confuse 


02 


54 


29 


cc 


you. 
Yes, you did. 


02 


54 


30 


p 


I can imagine. 


02 


54 


31 


p 


Okay, I'll read them out the way I see them instead of the way the SEDR [Service Engi- 










neering Department Report] boys do it. I'm getting the old fireflies again. I guess 










John is relieved. I haven't been looking for them — they're just there. 


02 


54 


49 


cc 


Okay. 


02 


54 


52 


p 


They're just freebees. You can see some big ones and some little ones. They're almost 










impossible to photograph. Most of them are of a less magnitude than I'd say a good star. 










Every once in a while you see some of the big ones. 


02 


55 


08 


cc 


Do you see them close to you? 


02 


55 


11 


p 


Oh, yeah, you can actually see relative motion, Gus. Y r ou can see them right by the window, 










then have them drifting way away. Looks like you see them way out because the 










velocity 7 between you and fireflies is definite. 


02 


55 


27 


cc 


Roger. Wally, I think we're losing you. Will you stand by for California? 


02 


55 


31 


p 


Okay, Gus. I want to talk about this to John. He's the one that's been waiting. I guess 










we're gonna have them all the time. 


02 


57 


54 


p 


Sunrise over the West Coast, It is rather disappointing because it is just about socked in 










completely; smog and cloud conditions. I am seeing breaks as I approach the coast 










line. Someday, I'll get a flight across the Pacific without clouds underneath me. 


02 


58 


26 


p 


The attitudes check out very well. No doubt about it . Yaw can be seen with the periscope. 










And it can be acquired very rapidly. It can also be seen through the window without 










any device. 


02 


59 


05 


p 


Covering up the periscope again. Standing by for John. 










C\IIFORNI\ (^FCOND PASS) 










Hello Sigma Seven, Cal Cap Com. Do you receive? Over. 


02 


59 


12 


p 


Hi there, John. I read you loud and clear. How me? 


02 


59 


16 


cc 


Hello Sigma Seven, Cal Cap Com. Do you read? 


02 


59 


19 


p 


Cal Cap Com, Sigma Seven. Loud and clear. How me? 


02 


59 


22 


cc 


Roger. Loud and clear, Wally. Looks like things are leveling off pretty good up there 



Looks like it's going fine now. Y r ou got a status report? 



81 



CALIFORNIA (SECOND PASS ) —Continued 



02 59 28 P Yes sir. I'm real happy with this bird. I am in ASCS auto mode, retro attitude, I have 

gyros normal, maneuver off, all systems are green. I've got the suit circuit under control 
as you probably know by now, and a delightful report for one John Glenn. I do see 
fireflies. 

02 50 52 CC Good boy. 

02 59 54 P And they were your eolor, John. That was a very good description. Although during 

the bright side, if I rap them, they're definitely white. While on the sun center sunrise, 
they come out the true firefly color you described. 

03 00 1(3 P John, did you read all that? 

03 00 18 CC This is Cal. Now reading you very weak, Wally. You faded after that first good trans- 

mission there. I got that you were seeing the fireflies and then you faded out on your 
description. Repeat please. 

03 00 29 P Okay. How do you read me now? 

03 00 31 CC Loud and clear again. 

03 00 32 P Okay, we're back on UHF-high. They were definitely the fireflies that you described at 

sunrise. I haven't been looking at sunsets particularly. As we get brighter, for example, 
now when I'm in the daylight and I rap it, I get white crystals which look like ice. 

03 00 53 CC Roger. Got that all okay. Understand as described at first, and they got whiter as you 

into better light. 

03 00 59 P Right. I've got white ones right now that are sort of drifting around. Look like little 

bits of frost. 

03 01 05 CC Roger, Sounds good. Are you read to copy [recovery area] 4-1 retrosequence? Over. 

03 01 11 P Roger. Go ahead, John. 

03 01 13 CC Roger. Incidentally, you aave a go for the next orbit in case you were wondering. Cape 

concurs with that one. Your retrosequence time for 4-1 is 04 32 36. Over. 
03 01 25 P 32 36. 

03 01 26 CC Roger. 04 32 36. And Cape advises just proceed with normal flight plan. Looks like 

things are going fine. 

03 01 33 P Yeah. I feel real happy wi:h everything. I stopped everything to get a hold of that suit 

circuit and that seemed "0 fix it up. 
03 01 40 CC Roger. That had everybody concerned for a while, but looks like it is in good shape now. 

03 01 44 P I was sure everybody was jumping up and down on that one. 

03 01 46 CC You were right. 

03 02 09 P It's kind of hard to describe all this, isn't it, John? 

03 02 12 CC Yeah, it sure is, Wally. Can't describe it. 

03 02 16 P No— real, real thrill. 

03 02 20 P Too bad you're all socked ,n. I hope to see you pretty soon though. 

03 02 24 CC Haven't even looked outside. 

03 02 25 P Ha, ha. ha. That was my problem when you were going over. 

03 02 32 P I guess you heard my yaw reticle is working out very well. 

03 02 36 CC Yeah, that's real good. Glad to hear it. 

03 02 54 P I definitely did detect some fogging on the window from the tower rocket, John. 

03 03 00 CC Roger. Got that. Some fogging on the window from the rocket. 

03 03 04 P Yeah. 

03 03 12 P I'm gonna try your idea on pitch technique here for drifting. I think that'll be fun. 

03 03 18 CC Say again, Wally. Didn't get it. 

03 03 19 P I'll try your technique on the drifting period for this orbit by using — I think that will be 

a lot of fun. I just had a hole out here with an island. Looks like that might have been 
San Clemente, I'm not sure. Yeah, I'm over land now. 

03 03 39 CC Roger. 

03 03 40 P I'm getting a good sight ot the U.S.A. We just got the typical California fog belt behind 

me and looks like I'm getting a watch at the Salton Sea, I believe. 

03 03 53 CC Roger. That's where Scott and I both picked up loud and clear over here. Seems to be 

always clear back in there. 

03 03 59 P Yeah, just as soon as you get over the ridge line. 

03 04 03 P I don't see anybody water skiing today. Is it cold? 

03 04 08 CC Not that cold. 

03 04 10 P Ha. ha, ha. 

03 04 14 P That's about as far north as I can see is the Salton Sea. You get a real good look at. 

Uaja California. And 1 probably can see Guuymas loud and clear, the way it seems. 



82 



CALIFORNIA (SECOND PASS)— Continued 



03 


04 


56 


CC 


Looks like you have pre 


tty good visibility today, if you see all that area. 


03 


05 


00 


P 


\eah. I can see just a 


bout as far as the Salton Sea north. I can see the Mt. Whitney 










area, but not. much of 


it for the snow-capped peaks that are just about on the horizon now. 


03 


05 


15 


CC 


Right. 




03 


05 


1C 


v 


And I can see with a lit 


tie craning, around almost the southern tip of the Baja peninsula. 


03 


05 


25 


CC 


Sounds like you've got a 


. real good view today with not much cloud cover up there over a 










lot of it. 




03 


05 


30 


p 


Xo, just the coast is all 


that's socked in. The rest of it's CAVU [clear and visibility un- 










limited]. As long as 


I get some ASCS time I can look. I've got some roads down here 










that are pretty obviot 


is to me right on the flight path. I'm really talking to you for a 










long way, John. 




03 


05 


58 


p 


Cape Cap Com, Sigma ; 




03 


06 


16 


p 


Cape Cap Com, Sigma ; 












GUAYMAS (SECOXD PASS) 


03 


06 


22 


p 


Muchea Com, correctioi 


i-Guavmas, Sigma Seven. 


03 


06 


26 


CC 


Roger. Go ahead, Sign 


ta Seven. 


03 


06 


28 


p 


Okay, Scott. Things ar 


e going real well up here. Gonna get a grip on that coolant system, 










and your comment ws 


is very valid. If a guy has time, he can usually work it out. 


03 


06 


41 


CC 


Roger. Wally, you faded out at the last. Understand everything is good up there; 










you have another good trip. 


03 


06 


48 


p 


Right. I think I had a 


good look at your station going over. 


03 


06 


51 


CC 


Roger. Understand. 





83 



CAPE CANAVERAL (THIRD PASS) 



o:; 07 


10 


P 


Cape Cap Com, Sigma Seven. Over. 


03 07 


21 


CC 


Sigma Seven, Sigma Seven. Cape Cap Com. 


03 07 


24 


P 


Roger, Doke. I'm on push-i:o-talk at this time. How do you read? Over. 


03 07 


29 


CC 


Roger. Reading you 5 by. 


03 07 


30 


p 


Roger. This is UHF-high. 


03 07 


33 


CC 


Roger. 


03 07 


34 


p 


Going to VOX. 


03 07 


40 


p 


Cape Cap Com. Sigma Seven. On VOX. 


03 07 


42 


CC 


Roger. You're good on VOX. 


03 07 


44 


p 


Okay. I'm sending you one. Contiol mode is ASCS; auto retro; gyros normal; maneuver 
off. All systems are greer . I'll give you a readout on the domes here, if you'd like. 


03 OS 


11 


p 


Cape Cap Com, Sigma Seven. 


03 OS 


13 


CC 


Sigma Seven, Cape Cap Com, 


03 OS 


15 


p 


Did you read the report? 


03 OS 


17 


CC 


I read the report. Awaiting the dome temperature, particularly suit. 


03 OS 


20 


p 


Okay. Suit dome is 70 [decrees]. Cabin dome is 45 [degrees]. That blasted cabin heat 
exchanger is 40 [degrees]. Suit inlet is 62 [degrees], and I'm very comfortable. 


03 OS 


3S 


CC 


Excellent. 


03 OS 


40 


p 


Are you ready for me to make a power down yet? 


03 OS 


43 


CC 


Very good. Would you givj us all three inverter temperatures at your leisure. 


03 08 


49 


1' 


Okay. I'll give you those, and then I'll power down. 


03 08 


52 


CC 




03 08 


53 


p 


250 is 143 [degrees]. It's gone up about 2 degrees in the last 40 minutes. The 150 is 
about 105 [degrees]. The standby is about, ha, 110 [degrees] I'd say. A little warmer. 


03 00 


12 


CC 


Roger. 


03 Oft 


13 


p 


And the retro heaters, the retropackage temperature is about 74 [degrees], and it's stayed 
three almost all this time. 


03 00 


21 


CC 


Roger. That's very good. 


03 09 


22 


p 


Okay. I'm gonna go into a power down. 


03 00 


25 


CC 


Roger. Understand. 


03 09 


26 


p 


I'll give a readout, on how I do it. Selecting fly-by-wire. Going to gyros caged. Judging 
gyros caged. I'm going to 0. 


03 09 


44 


CC 


Roger. 


03 09 


45 


p 


Going to ASCS bus, turning it off, and that's 0 volts. And ami clear to kill my beacon? 


03 09 


56 


CC 


Affirmative- 


03 09 


57 


p 


Okay. Beacon off. The rates are . . .. 


03 10 


03 


CC 


Hit your blood pressure stop button, we're still getting BP. 


03 10 


06 


p 


Yeah, instead of getting iisk;d for it, I'm gotta asked to stop it now. 


03 10 


11 


CC 


That's a welcome changeover. 


03 10 


13 


p 


There go the beacons off. 


03 10 


15 


CC 


Roger. 


03 10 


10 


p 


I caught your Z Cal. Okay, the rates are nice and zeroing. I'm going back to normal 
position instead of fly-by- wire. 


03 10 




CC 




03 10 


29 


p 


Gyros are caged, and the VOX is off. I'm going to select reentry for the attitude, so I 
got that set up for the powering-up procedure. 


03 10 


38 


CC 


Very good. 


03 10 


40 


p 


Okay. I've got hY-by-wire low, and the normal on the ASCS mode, auto, gyros caged, 
maneuver is still off. And the bea — and the beacons are off. Here she's ciuising along 
very happily. 


03 11 


01 


CC 


Very good. Are you ready for a [contingency recovery area] 3-C retro [time]? 


03 11 


03 


p 


Say" again. 


03 11 
03 11 


04 
OS 


CC 

p 


Are you ready for your 3-C retro time'.' 
I'm sorry. You're" very garbled. 


03 11 


12 


CC 


Are you ready for your 3 Charlie retro time'' 


03 11 


15 


p 


Okay. I'll try to get it from you, Deke. I — you're garbled, say them very slowly. 


03 11 


20 


CC 


03 39 36. 


03 11 


26 


p 


Okay. You came in loud and clear. 


03 11 


2S 


CC 


All righty. 


03 11 


29 


p 


03 39 36 for 3 Charlie. 


03 11 


35 


CC 


That's affirmative. 


03 11 


36 


p 


Okay. 



84 



CAPE CANAVERAL (THIRD PASS)— Continued 



03 


11 


39 


CC 


Let me give you a G.m.t. time hack; see how we are there at this time. 


03 


1 1 


42 


P 


Yeah. That's probably all fouled up. Okay. You give it to me. 


03 


11 


46 


CC 


On my mark, I'm 15 27 00 — MARK. (03 11 50^ T - 


03 


11 


52 


P 


27? 


03 


11 


54 


CC 


Affirm. 


03 


11 


55 


p 


Holy Malone! That's got a, okay, that thing is really a pile of gabog. I've got 24. 


03 


12 


05 


CC 




03 


12 


07 


p 


Well , let me try that G.m.t. on my backup clock here. Any time. 


03 


12 


15 


CC 


Want a mark on the backup? 


03 


12 


17 


p 


"i eah. 


03 


12 


19 


CC 


Okay. 03 12 25 on my mark. — MARK. (03 12 26) T . 


03 


12 


30 


p 


That was 15 47 30. Is that correct? 


03 


12 


36 


CC 


I gave you a mark on c.e.t., c.e.t. 


03 


12 


40 


p 


Oh, oh, oh. I'm sorry, I was looking at my backup. 


03 


12 


43 


CC 


Okay. 


03 


12 


45 


p 


Let's try for c.e.t. again at 50 [seconds]. 


03 


12 


47 


CC 


Roger, in 3 seconds. MARK. [03 12 51] T . 


03 


12 


o2 


p 


Okay. I am a second and a half fast. 


03 


12 


53 


CC 


Very good, 


03 


1L 


55 




G.m.t. — of 28 coming up. Actually, I've passed it. 


03 


13 


01 




Give me 28 15. 


03 


13 


05 


CC 


MARK. [03 13 05] T 


03 


13 


07 


p 


Very good, I'm about 3 seconds slow on the backup. That's the best one. 


03 


13 


14 


CC 




03 


13 


15 


p 


Say again. 


03 


13 


17 


CC 


Roger. Did you see Echo 9 


03 


13 


10 


p 


Negative. I could not get to it. I was trying to conserve some more fuel there, and 
couldn't get pitched up in the right attitude for it. 


03 


13 




CC 


Roger. How about Mercury 9 


03 


13 


30 


p 


Mercury? Loud and clear. I used Mercury and the moon for my night yaw check. 


03 


13 


37 


CC 


Roger. 


03 


13 


38 


p 


Xo, this thing has, ah, practically no rates indicated, Deke, but I'm now, I'd say rolled 
over, oh, probably 30 degrees to the left. Pretty close to pitch attitude, and of course 
it's pretty hard to tell what yaw is under these conditions. 


03 


13 


58 


CC 


Roger. Eat and drink — you're also fading. 


03 


14 


04 


p 


Okay. I think I'll try some of that. 












03 


14 


00 


p 


Okay. That might be fun, too. I'm now going to go ahead and do an orientation test. 


03 


14 


13 


CC 




03 


14 


14 




Okay. Thank you. 


03 


14 


31 


p 


Okay. On the orientation test, I touched the manual lever: I touched the clock, a rivet 



above the clock at about 10 30 just between the clock face and the yaw indicator. On 

the emergency rate lever, I touched it right on the button. 
03 14 53 CC You're coming in garbled. You must have your mouth full. 

03 14 55 P Xo. I'm just, ha ha, I'm talking about, my orientation test. 

03 15 01 CC Roger. 

03 15 10 P Okay. We finally got the right scale for this. I've got to go to VOX record. Got the 

right scale for the dosimeter — and it is reading — about, less than 0.1, exactly 0.04. I 
am now putting the dosimeter back on the hatch — which is the lowest scale reading. 

03 Hi 00 P I'm back on VOX transmit now. Do you read, Deke? I've ended up with a beautiful 

90 degree roll to the left. Boy, what a nice eight-point roll this is. Coming up for HF 
reception. Going to transmit HF, VOX off. 

03 10 38 CC Sigma Seven, Cape Cap Com. Do you read? We are approaching LOS. 

03 10 50 P This is Sigma Seven broadcasting on HF. Deke, how do you read this now? 

03 18 30 P It should be noted that the ammeter is reading 12 amps as advertised — apparently, some- 

body is getting to me with a R Cal on the cabin 0 2 . The ammeter is just about exactly 
on 12 amps. 

03 18 50 P There is a slight rate in yaw about a half degree per second, it's almost impossible to take 

out without having to fly it out. This does look like an appropriate time to get ready 
for an HF check. Turning the VOX to push-to-talk. 

03 20 04 CC Sigma Seven, this is Cape Cap Com. Transmitting HF, for a voice check. At 03 10— 

MARK. (03 20 11) T . 

85 



OAP10 CANAVERAL I THIRD PASS )— Continued 



03 


20 


18 


CT 


Sigma Seven, this is Canary Com Tech. Transmitting HF cheek at 03 20 21, MARK, 










out. (03 20 24) T . 




03 


20 


32 


CT 


Sigma Seven, this 03 20 30 Kano. 




03 




49 


P 


Going to VOX record. Looking at the window with sunglow all over it. It definitely 










is a smoked pattern with streaks of light. Powdery debris on it— some of it has 












color, sort of a pinkish-orange color. Probably from the RTV 90 sealing device 


s that 










were around the rings and sealing parts of the system — the tower jettison system 




03 


23 


25 


P 


Definitelv have a reduced visibility as a result of this. The rates, at this point, at 3 23 35, 










MARK (03 23 35) T are almost all zeros. 












CANARY ISLANDS (THIRD PASS) 




03 


23 


49 


CC 


Sigma Seven, this is Canary Cap Com. Transmitting on UHF/HF. 




03 


24 


00 


P 


Hello, Ca 




03 


24 


06 


CC 


Sigma Seven, this is Canary Cap Com. Transmitting on HF./UHF. How do you 


read? 


03 


24 




p 


Canarv Cap Com, this is Sigma Seven. UHF. Do you read me? Over. 




03 


25 


26 


p 


This is Sigma Seven. OnHF. Canary Cap Com, I read you. Did you read me? 


Over. 


03 


25 


36 


CC 


Roger. Sigma Seven, this is Canary Cap Com. 




03 


25 


42 


p 


Roger. I'm having a ball up here drifting. Enjoying it so much I haven't eaten yet 


. I'm 










going to start to eat now. Over. 




03 


25 


55 


CC 


Sigma Seven, this is Canary Cap Com. Do you still read? 




03 


25 


58 


p 


That's affirmative, Canary. Do you read me? 




03 


26 


01 


CC 


I read you about 4 by 4. 




03 


26 


03 


p 






03 


26 


05 


CC 


How's everything now? 




03 


26 


06 


p 


Very good. 




03 


26 


24 


p 


At this point, I definitely have a feeling of flying along yawed, 90 degrees, rolled ri 


ght 30 










degrees, and pitch almost right on the horizon. 




03 


26 


30 


CC 


Roger. Sigma Seven. I did not read. 




03 


26 


33 


p 


Roger. I have a slight yaw rate about a half degree per second. I'm recording i 












as transmitting, naturally, and I appear to be yawing right around into proper yaw 


angle. 


03 


26 


54 


CC 


Sigma Seven, this is Canary Cap Com. You're unreadable. 




03 


26 


57 




Roger. 




03 


27 


33 




In VOX record. I've just checked the stick out — while in drifting flight — to see if I 












get any rates built up by stroking the stick, and I did not. It's working beautifully. 


03 


31 


11 




Visor open — now. 












KANO (THIRD PASS) 




03 


32 


14 


p 






03 


32 


18 


CT 


Sigma Seven, this Kano Com Tech. Transmitting on HF, Do you read? 




03 


32 


22 


p 


Kano Cap Com, this is Sigma Seven. On HF. I read you. Do you read me? 


Over. 


03 




43 


CC 


Sigma Seven, this is Kano Cap Com. How do you read? 




03 32 


50 


CC 


Sigma Seven, this is Kano Cap Com. How do you read? 




03 


33 


07 


p 


Kano Cap Com, this is Sigma Seven. I read you loud and clear, How me'.' Ove 




03 


33 


12 


CC 


Roger, Seven. I read you — fairly weak and a little garbled. 




03 


33 


20 


p 


Roger. How do you read me now? I'm on push-to-talk, HF. Over. 










CC 


[I read you very weak, Seven.] G 




03 


33 


41 


CC 


Sigma Seven. How do you read? 




03 


33 


43 


p 


This is Sigma Seven, I rea:l you loud and elear. How do you read me'.' Over. 




03 


34 


06 


CC 


Sigma Seven, this is Kano Cap Com. Do you read? Over. 




03 


35 


59 


CC 


Sigma Seven, this is Kano Cap Com. Transmitting on UHF. 




03 


36 


08 


CT 


Sigma Seven, this is Kano Com Tech. Transmitting on HF, Do you read'.' Ove 






36 




CT 


Sigma Seven, Sigma Seven, This is Kano Com Tech. Transmitting on HF. Do yoi 


i read? 



03 30 35 
03 36 40 
03 36 46 
03 36 54 



This 
Sigm 



is Sigma Seven. I read a station on HF. Say again. Over. 
i Seven, this is Kano Cap Com. Transmitting on HF. Do you read? 
Com Tech, this is Sigma Seven. I read you loud and clear on HF. Hi 



INDIAN OCEAN SHIP (THIRD PASS) 



03 



. 29 



03 42 20 

03 43 07 

03 43 12 

03 43 23 

03 43 30 
03 43 32 
03 43 40 
03 43 46 
03 43 49 
03 43 51 
03 43 55 
03 43 58 
03 43 59 
03 44 02 
03 44 04 
03 44 06 
03 44 12 
03 44 28 
03 44 55 
03 45 02 
03 45 18 



03 45 27 
03 45 34 
03 45 3S 
03 45 42 
03 46 28 
03 47 55 
03 52 08 



03 54 09 
03 54 37 



Indian Ocean Ship, this is Sigma Seven. Over. 
Indian Ocean Ship. Sigma Seven. Over, 
Indian Ocean Ship. Sigma Seven. Over. 
Indian Ocean Ship. Sigma Seven. Over. 
Sigma Seven, Sigma Seven, this is I OS Com Tech. 
Indian Ocean Ship, this is Sigma Seven. I read yc 
Sigma Seven, this is Indian Com Tech. I read yoi 
Cap Com. Over. 



This 



Roger 



i IOS Cap Com. 

s Indian Ocean Ship C< 

i Cap Com, this is £ 

. I read you, too. 



Do you read? Over. 
i loud and clear. How me? 
loud and clear. Stand by for Indian 



Go ahead, please. 



Ovei 



u got T/M on me? Over. 
That is Roger. 

Okay. I'm going to power up the ASCS bus. 
Say again? 

I'm going to power up. 

Roger, Understand. You're going to power 
Inverter on. All okay. Turned it on at 44 h 
I'm on fly-by-wire at this time. 
Sigma Seven, Sigma Seven. I've lost eommu 



-n, this is Indian Com Tech. Do you read? Over, 
n Tech. Affirmative. I heard you loud and clear, 
lis is IOS Cap Com. Standing by. Over. 



visual sighting at this time. Ove 



Sigma Seven. We have just been advised that w 
Roger. I'll have to go by and say hello. 
Roger. 

Sigma Seven. Sigma Seven, this is IOS Cap Com .... 

On the powering up. I went to gyros normal, finally, after getting gyros set at approxi- 
mately three zeros with the maneuver off. There was no high thruster transition. 
Then, when I set up for three zeros, I did get a high thruster transition in the reentry 
select attitude. However, this is probably due to the no rate gyro run up case. 
I am flying at three zeros on ASCS mode at this time, to see if this helps me reestablish. 

At approximately 4 hours, I just find out where I am as far as the moon goes. 
Having little trouble getting stars oriented as to which ones they are, and this is going to 
be the problem. Particularly with two gadgets to hold in your hand for a computer. 
This doesn't help one bit- 
There is a star that occurs at 3 hours and 53 minutes. What it is, is going to take a while 
to find out. Read the computer, set up, 3 hours and 53 minutes, and the time at 55, 
set up to a standard — 56 minutes . . . standard .... 



—and do not. Therefore, I better go searching 



- Muchea at what ti 



I should have the moon-— in sight— by no's 
for it. 

Going to fly-by-wire low. Gyros free. 
Going to gyros caged. Gyros are caged. 
There's Cassiopeia which is to the north. 
There's our friend the moon. We're due 

Gyros are going to be ... . 

MUCHEA (THIRD PASS) 

. . . Muchea. Over. 

Muchea Cap Com, this is Sigma Seven. 

Hello. Hello, Muchea Cap Com. Sigma Seven. 

Sigma Seven, Sigma Seven, this is Muchea Cap Com. Do you read? 
This is Sigma Seven. I read you loud and clear, Muchea. How me? 
Muchea Cap Com. Sigma Seven. I read you loud and clear. How 



87 



03 50 10 
03 59 15 
03 50 10 



03 50 55 

04 00 02 
04 00 12 
04 00 21 
04 00 24 
04 00 31 



04 01 IS 

04 01 27 

04 01 33 

04 01 36 



04 02 11 
04 02 13 
04 02 14 
04 02 15 
04 02 43 
04 02 47 

04 03 07 
04 03 09 
04 03 21 
04 03 26 
04 03 30 



MUCHEA i THIRD PASS i —Continued 
How do you read? 

Sigma Seven, Sigma Seven, ihis is Muchea. Bo you read? 
Muchea Cap Com, this is Sigma Seven. On UHF. How do you i 
Sigma Seven, Sigma Seven, this is Muchea. On UHF. Do you r< 
Sigma Seven. I read you loud and clear, Muchea, How me? 
Roger. Read you and clear also. I called you two or three tin 

answer. You're loud and clear on UHF. How's your status? 
Roger. My status is fine. 
Are all systems under control? 

That's affirmative. I just u->ed the moon to lock on. T will give y. 
just going to go on the ASCS ... if you watch my thrusters. 

ASCS; reentry attitude. 



u a short report. I 'r 



1 will go on 
Roger. Y< 
Roger Ft 



;ordin 



Oka 
Okay . 



•, Ger. 



l just about going 
going ir 



I'n 



ri 



give 



readout o 



what 



Ha, Ha. 
l going to go to 
re've got up her 



leaver is off; all configuru- 
Give you a fuel readout, 
ive you a read on the suit 
The suit temperature is 60 [degrees]. My dome 
o back it off a half a notch. I'll go to 0 and then 



First off, I'm in auto reentry; I'm in auto; gyros are normal; mi 

tion is of reentry; bypass switch for rate gyros is in normal. 

the auto tank is 90 [percent], manual is about 00 [percent], 

which has been very comfortable now 

is down to 45 [degrees]. I'm going t< 

come back up again. Over. 
Okay, Wally. Stand by. 
Sigma Seven. How about blood pressure? 
On the way. 

Roger. John Glenn suggests that you have time when the numerous particles first appear, 
at sunrise, to tap the side of the capsule, and test his favorite theory. 

Roger. I have done that, Gene, and they do come from the capsule. 

Roger. And he suggests later on, when they appear like white particles, that you do the 
same and this might prove that they are the same particles. 

I tried that too. 

You got the same result? 

That's affirmative. 

Roger. 

Sigma Seven. If you're not doing anything, can you give us an attitude readout? 
Okay. My indicated attitudes are 0 degrees pitch, 10 degrees left yaw, 0 degrees roll. 
Over. 

We concur. Very good. 
Roger. How do the scanners look? 
Within 4 degrees, Wally. They are consistent, also. 
Roger. I think I got the bear lined up pretty well, then. 
Roger. Everything looks very good here. You sound v 
for 0. I think from here I'll just ask the doctor in. 



v good, and it looks like go 



04 03 39 


P 


Okay. 






04 03 41 




How do you 


feel? 




04 03 42 


P 


Very good. 


I'm enjoying the ride very much. 




04 03 46 




Excellent. 






04 03 54 


P 


You can tell 


Chris I got bored racking around and I just decided 






retro. Actually auto reentry attitude at this point. 


Over. 


04 04 06 


cc 














WOOM ERA (THIRD PASS) 




04 04 27 


cc 


Sigma Seven 


. Woomera Cap Com. 




04 04 30 


p 


Hello, Woom 


era. Go ahead. 




04 04 35 


cc 


Sigma Seven 


. Woomera Cap Com. Did you say you 


were going t< 


04 04 41 


p 




'm in auto reentry at this point. 




04 04 45 


cc 


Roger. We 


received your Muchea report, and we're s 




04 04 51 


p 


Roger, Wooi 


nera. Thank you. 




04 04 57 


cc 


What is youi 


- comfort control valve suit setting? 





88 



WOOMERA (THIRD PASS. I —Continued 



04 05 03 


P 


Roger. It is now set at 7.5. I went back to 0 


and came 1 


>ack up again. Over. 


04 05 15 


cc 


[Roger,] G Would you repeat that last part'.' 






04 05 17 


p 


Say again? 






04 05 19 


cc 


We received you going to zero, but we didn't ki 


low what it 


, was set at. 


04 05 24 


p 


Roger. 7.5. 






04 05 26 


cc 


[All systems] G green at Woomera. 






04 05 29 


p 


Roger, My suit dome is 62 degrees at this tini' 






04 05 37 


cc 


Suit dome 62 [degrees]. 






04 05 38 


p 


Correct. 






04 05 41 


cc 


Thank you. You .... 






04 05 50 


cc 


You reported t-he suit dome at 45 [degrees] over 


Muehea. 


Is this correct? 


04 05 55 


p 


That's correct. It moved that fast. 








cc 


[Good.] G 






04 06 28 


cc 


We are about to have 1,08 here at Woomera. 






04 06 32 










04 06 33 


cc 


Anything else for the Cape? 






04 06 35 


p 


Negative. Everything's going along fine here. 






04 06 39 


cc 


Roger. 






04 08 29 


p 


Roger. At this period, I'm looked ahead at the 


flight plan. 


. I frankly feel that a lot 



star information is needed, for nailing down i 
rapidly working here when I shouldn't have to b 
At 4 11, it is 1 15 on the star chart computer, . 



04 11 44 P I have Jupiter off on the right side, right corner of the window. 

04 12 07 P ... Altair 

04 12 15 P I can see the double stars of Grus all forming a line — coming right into the center of the 

window. Jupiter, of course, is a real bright one. I can see Ankaa and— correction Al 
Xa'ir, and that, this must have been Peacock, Al Xa'ir is slightly to the right of the 
flight path. I'm flying, but that must be her. Jupiter shows up in the corner of the 
window. Proper head position, Fomalhaut shows up to the right of flight path. Jupiter 
in the right corner. It checks at this time. Very nice. 

04 15 21 P .... 

04 15 58 P Don't tell me this compass is working? I should talk more. What I have been doing, 

I have been getting the standard source of light out. At this point, for the capsule, 
for my face because I am looking straight up at the compass is really rolling in the plane 
of the roll axis. I have a North pointing toward my right elbow. The compass defi- 
nitely takes a swing when I move. 

04 17 32 P The compass is too much affected by the attitude instruments and gyros behind them. 

That's why I can't bring it too close to them. I am holding it just about halfway 
between the instrument panel and my face and in reference to a line halfway between 
the glove box and the pack. At the c.e.t. of 4 18, it is pointing directly at the forward 
hatch clamp line. It seems that this is the restraining pin link for the hatch. I guess 
they can stow that for future reference. 

04 18 57 P ... get rid of that for awhile. 

04 19 04 P We are on time 4 hours and 19 minutes. On ASCS and I will pitch down. At this point. 

going to fly-by-wire low — to reentry attitude for Hawaii. 
04 19 35 P Selecting reentry attitude. 

04 19 45 P Always surprising when you finally see some object and the rate really shows up. 

04 20 09 P I am stopping the capsule in reentry attitude. Taking roll out. Yaw is zero; roll is coming 

out. I want to acquire this, and then watch it. Roll looks good. Pitch is coming in; 

Yaw is coming in. Rates and attitude are good. . . . ASCS a little low thruster 

tweek and very nice. I will warm up the T r -10 gyros for their benefit. And starting 

to get some light on the scope, just barely. 
04 21 49 P I have a feeling I am off in pitch, but I think it is that damn horizon airglow line. Makes 

you think it's higher than it is. I still have the feeling, though, that I am pitched down 

about 10 degrees further than I want to be. If we are that close, we will Set the si 

work on the problem. 

04 22 44 P Xow we are indicating retroattitu.de. We are fairly close to it. So the s 

torquing it up about 5 degrees I'd sa}'. 



89 



HAWAII (THIRD PASS) 



04 2-1 28 CC 



04 24 43 CC 



04 24 58 
04 25 00 
04 25 04 
04 25 06 
04 25 08 
04 25 11 
04 25 45 
04 25 48 
04 25 52 
04 25 55 



04 25 57 



04 26 32 
04 26 35 
04 26 37 
04 26 41 
04 26 45 
04 26 47 



04 27 15 
04 27 18 
04 27 52 
04 27 56 
04 27 59 
04 28 01 
04 28 06 
04 28 OS 
04 28 10 
04 28 13 
04 28 21 



Sigma Seven. Hawaii Cap Com. 

Roger Hawaii Cap Com, this is Sigma Seven. How do you read? 
We are reading you okay now. How about giving a short report'.' 

Okay, good. I am in ASCS; retroattitude; gyros are normal; the maneuver switch is off. 

I am warming up the T,.-10 bypass for the rate gyros. I still have fly-by-wire low 

selected. All quantities and systems are green. I am green. 
Roger. Could you give me your cabin dome temperature, and cabin temperature, and 

Roger. The suit dome is 68 [degrees]. The cabin dome is 48 [degrees]. The suit setting 

is 7.5. The cabin setting is 3. Over. 
Roger. Give me your cabin temperature, suit temperature, and inverter setting. 
Okay. Cabin temperature is 92 [degrees], and I'll give you inverters. Stand by. Main 

inverter is, 250 inverter is about 143 [degrees]. The 150 is 102 [degrees]. Standby is 

about 115 [degrees]. 

Wally, I cut you out there. Give me your water valve setting on your inverter. 

On the inverter it is 4. 

Roger. 

That seems to work pretty well so far for the whole flight, Gus. 

Okay. Fine. Cape feels you are in good shape, Wally, and so I have good news. They 

give you a go for 6 orbits. 
Hallelujah. 

They request you stay in retroattitude, and go ahead and prepare for retro like you would 

normally. 
I understand. 

And remain in retroattitude until yo 
I understand. 

And then proceed with your flight plan. 
Okay, Gus. I will see you out there shortly. 

These attitudes look honest as can be, Gus. 
Roger. 

How do the scanners check out with you? 
You're looking real good down here, Wally. W' 
Good deal. I use the moon and then, later . 

A little too dim to bet or. every time. 
Roger. 

The star computer device 1 have helps a lot t 
them to begin with. 

I guess the only thing I don't have is your 
that? 

Roger. 62 [degrees]. 
62 [degrees]. That sounds good. 
Yeah. It's been very comfortable since I finally g 
Roger. 

How much water have you had, Wally? 
I took a big sip awhile ago, and then I just had a 



r [re 



nothing wrong. 
Jupiter, to line up some of the < 



i confirm stars, but it's a little hard to acqui 
suit inlet temperature. Could you give i 

ally got that final setting. 

ube of peaches and a couple of the 



itibes. 



Okay. 



Good. 

Now it looks like a good tin 

Visor open? 

My visor is open now, 

Roger. Visor open. 

Wally, give me your pressu 

Just a second, Gus, I am tr 

Okay. 

Partial pressure oxygen. 
Say again. 

Are you asking for P0 2 ? 
Roger. 

Okay, stand by. That ii 
Roger. 



d take a drink of v 



ibout 4.2 [psij and I a 



90 



HAWAII i THIRD PASS)— Continued 



04 


28 23 


P 


That is actually as pure as we normally would have i 


t. That 








on too long. 




04 


28 29 


CC 


Roger. Chock your visor close. 








p 




or bottle i 


04 


28 40 


CC 


Roger'. ' ^ W Cl0S ° d S6aled VIS ' 




04 


29 09 


p 


Well, Gus. We — at least we got some fuel coming c 


iver here 1 








CALIFORNIA (THIRD PASS) 




04 


32 12 


CC 


Sigma Seven. Cal Cap Com. 




04 


32 14 


p 


Cal Cap Com, this is Sigma Seven. Read you. Do ; 


you read r 


04 


32 18 


CC 


Roger. Read you loud and clear, Wally. Looks liki 


3 it is all g 








concur? 




04 


32 25 


p 


Roger. Everything feels good here, John. 




04 


32 32 


CC 


Roger. Standing by for your report. 




04 


32 34 


p 


Roger. I am in ASCS auto at this time; in reentry attitude; 








neuver is off; all systems are green, Auto fuel is 


89 [perce 



the gyros are normal; ma- 
rt], manual is 90 [percent]. 

My temperatures at this point are very comfortable. The suit inlet is 62 [degrees], 
the dome is 69 [degrees]. I believe I am all set to power down. Over. 
04 33 12 CC Roger. That s next on the flight plan here. You are all set to power down if you concur. 

And I would like to check your clock setting. What do you have on the clock there? 

04 33 21 P Okay. I will give you a mark at 30 seconds. 

04 33 24 CC Your ECT I have here. What's vour setting for retrosequence? Over. 

04 33 27 P Roger. OS hours + 50 + 21. 

04 33 32 CC Roger. Thank you. 

04 33 38 CC What is your cabin pressure, Wally? 

04 33 40 P Roger. The cabin pressure is just about 5.1 psia. 

04 33 45 CC Okay. Sounds good. 

04 33 47 P Right. Not much time for that one for this orbit is there, John? 

04 33 56 CC What? Say again, please? 

04 33 57 P There wasn't much time to get ready for coming down, coming down this time was there? 

Sorry I couldn't go back to Hawaii for you this way. I'll see you out there, I guess. 
04 34 09 CC Wally, yeah. Right here at the end of six. Do you have any comment with regard to 

relative motion of those particles that you saw? Did you see any of them moving past, 

or did you see any of them coming toward you if vou were facing in the direction of 

flight? Over. 

04 34 23 P I never had the direct opportunity of them coming toward me, John, but they definitely 

were going away from me. I could get a big blast of them, either green fireflies or white 
ice crystals, by rapping on the capsule almost any time. 

04 34 38 CC Roger. If you happen to have a chance at sunrise, any time between now and end of 

flight, you might see whether you can see any coming toward vou during that period also 

0-1 34 47 P Roger. Understand. 

04 34 49 P Okay. I am going to shove off for a relaxation period. 

04 34 53 CC Good show. Understand you are going to power down. 

04 34 55 P That's affirm. I'll give vou a readout on it, so vou can watch it. 

04 34 56 CC [Roger] G . 

04 35 03 P Going to flv-bv-wire. Going to gyros caged. 

04 35 09 CC Roger. 

04 35 U P Gyros are three zeros at this time. ASCS bus off. I have 0 volts. 

04 35 23 P Roger. Powering down the beacons, ground command. 

04 35 26 CC T/M's dropped. 

04 35 27 P Roger. I have 12 amps at this time. 

04 35 31 CC Roger. That's what we show. 

04 35 32 P Roger. Okay, I am going from fly-bv-wirc back to normal now, so I can keep a cold stick. 

04 35 42 CC Roger. 

04 35 44 P Okay. I am in normal, and I am going to reentry attitude select for powering up time. 

04 35 59 P And she's all set. 

04 36 17 CC ... this is Caj, you are looking good. ... see you next time around. 

04 36 21 P Righto, John, and thanks so much for vour help. 

04 36 23 P Roger. 

91 

570857 O — 63 7 



CALIFORNIA (THIRD PASS)— Continued 



04 36 35 
04 36 47 
04 36 51 
04 36 57 
04 37 00 
04 37 02 
04 37 03 
04 37 49 
04 38 02 
04 38 04 



04 38 51 
04 38 55 
04 40 10 



At 04 36 37. I took a light reading, and the light value is 13 for ASA 160. 
Roger. Got it. 

I'll see if I can flounder around with the camera now and get a picture of the Baja. 
Roger. I understand getting a picture of Baja California. 
I am just breaking out the camera now, John. 
Okay, very good. 

Right. I'm sure I'll be ready for it though. 

Okay. Setting in 11 — and we can look down towards the Salton Sea again — on infinity. 
Yeah. That's a pretty good setting from up there. 

Yeah. . . . actually, I am looking north of the Salton Sea because of the yaw effect I 
must have in here. There is just a slight yawing effect just left of the capsule. Maybe 
about a quarter of a degree per second. Enough to bring me up towards the U.S.A. 

Roger. Understand. Little slow yaw rate to the left. You are beginning to fade a 
little bit here. Probably won't get you much longer. 

Okay. I'm yawing to the right. Sorry I misled you. 

Going to VOX record. 



92 



CAPE CANAVERAL (FOURTH PASS) 

04 40 14 P Roger. Stand by 1 second, Deke. 

04 40 41 P Roger. Made a dosimeter check, and it is still less than the last reading 

04 40 46 P Cape Cap Com, Sigma Seven in UHF-high. Go ahead. 

04 40 59 p Ca P e Cap Com, this is Sigma Seven, UHF-high. Go ahead 

04 41 04 CC Go ahead, Sigma Seven. This is Cape Cap Com. 

04 41 10 p Cape Cap Com, Sigma Seven UHF-high. How do you read? 

04 41 13 CC You are now coming in about 4 by. 

04 41 17 P Roger. I am in drifting mode, everything is working beautifully 

04 41 24 CC ... 

04 41 26 P Say again. 

04 41 29 CC ... 



04 41 

04 41 35 CC Here a 



n garbled, Deke. 



j, if you are ready. 



04 41 38 P Roger. I think I will be through in a second. I will take them 

04 41 41 CC Roger. 

04 41 45 CC [Recovery area] 4-2 is 05 44 05. 

04 41 53 P Do that one over again and I will be right on. You're in clear now 

04 41 57 CC Okay. 4-2 is 05 44 05. 

04 42 04 P Okay. 4-2 is 05 44 05. 

04 42 09 CC Right, [recovery area] 6-1 is 08 51 24 

04 42 14 P 24. 

04 42 16 CC [Contingency recovery areas] A and B are nominal and I'd like to give you a G.m.t. hack 

and see what your clock is doing now. Give you one at 16 57 35. MARK (04 42 26) r . 
04 42 28 P Roger. I'm reading 55 45. 

04 42 31 CC Pretty good. 

04 42 32 P Let's check the backup clock and we will hack that 

04 42 35 CC Roger. 

04 42 37 P Any time. 

04 42 41 CC For your information, we are going to start calling you Venus. IOS visually sighted you 

on the last pass. 

04 42 49 P How about that? 

04 42 52 CC Did you have your steak? 

04 42 54 P Yeah. Did you? 

04 42 56 CC Yeah. It was okay. Did you eat it? 

04 42 59 P Would you do me a time hack again on G.m.t,? 

04 43 02 CC Okay, G.m.t. 16 58 15. MARK. (04 43 06) T . 

n! fo °! ™ 15 ° kay ' rm 15 ~ that was just about 3 seconds slow on my backup clock. 

04 43 15 CC Very good. Flight would like to talk to you now 

04 43 17 P Okay. 

04 43 19 CF Wally, we have some Echo sighting data. You prepared to copy? 

04 43 24 P Just get my pencil out. Standby. Okay. Go, Chris. 

04 43 28 CF 00 17 30 is contact time for 4 minutes. Azimuth 99.5 [degrees], elevation 90 [degrees] 

Echo will be in the light, the capsule in the dark 

04 43 46 P That should be fun, shouldn't it? 

™ tl tl o F T R ° ger - Been a r6al g00d Sh0W Up there - 1 think we are P rovin S our Point, old buddy 

04 43 52 P I hope so, Chris. I am enjoving it 

04 43 55 CF Roger. 

04 44 09 CC Sigma Seven . . . standing by 

04 44 12 P Roger. 

04 44 34 CF Sigma Seven, Cape Flight. 

04 44 35 P Okay, Flight. 

04 44 38 CF We are ready to go into fast time if you are 

04 44 40 P Ha, Ha, Ha, Ha, Ha! That's a good one. Very good 

04 45 08 CF Sigma Seven, Cape Flight. 

04 45 10 P Go ahead there, Chris. 

04 45 12 CF The . . . retrosequence now shows 08 51 21 which means you can advance it exactly 1 

n , , c „ minute and that would be the correct time. You can do that any time you want to 

04 45 25 P Advance it 1 minute? 

04 45 28 CF Affirmative. That would be 08 51 21 

04 45 32 P Okay. I will throw a minute in now. You reading me all right? 

04 45 36 CF Affirmative. g 

04 45 37 P Okay. 



93 



CAPE CANAVERAL (FOURTH PASS)— Continued 

That's a trick. Okay I got 08 5 i 20. I'll throw another second in. I'v 
51 plus 21. 

04 45 46 CF Roger. We concur. 



04 46 00 
04 46 01 



Ah boy, I just happened to drift into an inverted position right i 

or another, you can tell that the bowl was upside down. 
Cape Flight, Sigma Seven. 



04 46 56 1 
04 47 00 C. 

04 47 04 P You can tell Cape Sir John that we have practically nothing on the naval engagement. 

04 47 27 CC Sigma Seven, this is Cape Cap Com. We did not get your message to Sir John. 

04 47 31 P Roger. Never mind. 

04 47 33 CC ... Cape Cap Com. 

04 48 24 P I took picture 4, —4a at 4 48 29, which is the coast of United States. I assume— 1 will 

have to look at my map shortly and see where we are. A rather large cloud mass at 
this point. We will stow the camera again. The drift rate isn't consistent enough that 
you can just take a picture and then put the camera away. Plus, the camera is a little 
hard to take out and put back in again. 

04 49 23 P At 4 hours and 50 minutes, I can't get that camera back out of that box again. Time to 

take a picture. Better stay in there for awhile. 

04 50 01 P Camera will not work in [to] the glove box favorably. 

04 50 21 P Reading at light value 13!-, and a . . . inside. 

04 50 36 P • • ■ t 

04 50 51 P I punched the wrong button twice. I did not get a picture of the iris. 

04 50 57 P I am just about straight down. We will take some cumulus pictures. The time hack is 

4 hours 51 minutes. The picture will be a 5a color. 

04 5 2 13 p The dome [temperature] is holding at 70 degrees. Cabin dome is 50 degrees. Suit inlet is 

comfortable at 62 [degrees]. Suit pressure is steady at 5 psia. Very interesting cloud 
formation for picture 6b on the color back. Rather nice collection of circular clouds. 

04 52 46 P ■ ■ • shot at 250 5 6. [1/250 second at f 5.6]. 

04 53 52 P At 04 53 53. Bit of in a rolled over attitude with the nose fairly high. ... the light 

value [setting] was 13. 

04 54 iv p I can actually see the little object that looked like a snowflake this time, going away from 

the capsule; in the same flight path, of course. Definitely, looked like a piece of white, 
but it is quite visible against the black sky that I see now. ... the stars that go 
away from us. Definitely has a different velocity than the capsule itself. 

04 55 29 P 4 55 and still am sighting some of the snowflake effects. 250 inverter is now approximately 

135 degrees. Suit dome [temperature] is 72 [degrees]. The cabin dome is about 46 
[degrees]. 

04 56 47 P Sun right in view again . . . that should be the proper yaw angle, approximately, because 

that's where the sun would be at sunset. 
04 57 02 P Coining up on 5 hours, so I'll be getting prepared to copy the intermediate report at this 

time. I will not put the camera all the way in the case at . . . 

04 58 2! P Capsule is working very well at this point. 250 [inverter] is 132 [degrees], 150 [inverter] 

is ... 5. Standby [inverter] is 120 . . . thrusters . . . right, over 100 [degrees] 
left. Pitch down [thruster] is 105 [degrees]. Pitch up [thruster] is 100 [degrees]. Cabin 
heat exchanger [setting, is 4.0. Roll left manual [thruster] is 79 [degrees]. Roll right 
auto [thruster] is 1 10 [degrees]. Roll left auto [thruster] is 105 [degrees]. Think we will 
go back and pick up the retro. Temperature is 80 [degrees]. This is at almost exactly 5 

04 59 m p Re^dy for the 5 o'clock report. Fuel is 89-90 [percent]. Oxygen 56-75 [psi, in hundreds]. 

Suit inlet is .... Dome [temperature] is 70 [degrees]. Cabin dome [setting] is . . . O.S. 
That should be enough for now. 

05 00 50 P Got more targets of opportunity. 

05 00 59 P At 5 hours and 1 minute I am shooting pictures of weather almost vertically. I here is a 

light value of 13»4. Gives me 250 and 5 6 [1/250 second and f 5.6] roughly. Infinity 
is the setting. 

05 01 46 p Light value of 13 for that same subject. I shot at 13)4. Seems like a very low setting. 



94 



CAPE CANAVERAL (FOURTH PASS)— Continued 



05 03 00 P If I don't talk much more than this, it won't be very long to real time this tape recorder. 

Coming up on IOS at 5 hours and 15 minutes. Quite obvious that you don't care really 
what attitude you are in. There is always that concern about trying to get back into 
the attitude you must be in. Particularly, when you are coming around at the end of the 
third orbit to buy off on a go or no-go. 

05 04 20 P When I get much more, I look at the earth. Rates at this time, having powered down at 

approximately 4 hours and 35 minutes, are almost exactly 0. There is a very, very 
slight pitch rate. Approximately maybe }i degree per second. 

05 05 1 6 P ... stowing the camera again ... to get out until after .... 

05 06 2S P Okay, should be coming up on Africa pretty soon. Tip her over and see how she looks 

without light. 

05 06 43 P ... sunlight in my eyes now. Get a tan on this flight at last. 

05 07 39 P Hello Ascension, hello Ascension. This is Sigma Seven. Over. 

05 07 52 P Hello, Ascension, hello Ascension. This is Sigma Seven. Over. 

05 OS 10 P Hello, Ascension, hello Ascension. This is Sigma Seven. Over. 

05 08 3S CC Sigma Seven, Sigma Seven, Ascension Cap Com on HF. Do you read? 

05 08 46 P This is Sigma Seven. I read a station, very garbled, please identify. 

05 09 46 P At this point in time, which is of course just prior to sunset, we are coming up with a 

batch of the white particles. They show up in the blue sky. I have the horizon almost 
in sight. And they are drifting away from me. 

05 10 OS P Let's check and see if we actually do get yaw out of these. They are tending to go up in 

relation to me, rather than tending to draw away aft. With this kind of lighting I 
can really see the illusion of visibility, due to the external problem of having smoke 
on the outer panel. Definitely is not on inner panels. It is quite easy to see by changing 
panels through reflections that it's the outer panel. 

05 11 05 P We are now going into night coming up on 5 hours 11 minutes. Suit dome is setting at 

7.0 very happily. Suit itself is at 62 [degrees] and I am happy. 

05 11 2S P Testing, 1 2. 

05 11 30 P I have some pretty stars in sight, and also I have the little white objects that seem to come 

from the capsule itself and drift off. If they are a yaw check, it's fantastic. I suspect 
that the star I see is Arcturus. It would be very interesting — it is neither. It is one 
of the white objects. . . . two stars are staying quite still. The white object actually 
looked like it came toward me, but it wasn't. I can actually see the particle now, flying 
off as John described it, as a lathe shaving. It's a very good description of it. 

05 12 39 P My rates are now just about 0 in all three axes. I still have light in the periscope, of 

course. I am looking straight up and yet at this point which is . . ., that my attitude 
is — let me get into the couch here. I really can't pick it too well, I am just about in- 
verted at this point, and that my nose is above the horizon. As a result I notice that 
these particles keep tending aft of me, relative to me at any time, 

05 13 48 P Periscope is blacking out rather rapidly at sunset. 

05 13 57 P It is almost bLaeked out completely at this point. It is really not usable. 

05 14 45 P Getting a real burst of light in the window. I really don't know what it is. At this point 

I should be coming up on the sunset. Five hours 15 minutes. Periscope is dark. I 
must be just getting a last look at the horizon; yet I'm not down on it. Here we go 
into night rather rapidly. Now we're into the night side. I am apparently pointed 
towards the surface of the earth, as I can see clouds with lightning in them. 

INDIAN OCEAN SHIP (FOURTH PASS) 

05 15 53 P Indian Ocean Ship, this is Sigma Seven. How do you read 1 ' Over. 

05 15 58 CC ... with a little bit of background noise. Over. 

05 16 05 P Roger. I have to run my volumn up to read you. I am talking UHF-high at this time. 

I am drifting, and I suppose dreaming. I understand you saw me last time, over. 
05 16 20 CC That is Roger. We had a 5 minute visual sighting for about 9 degrees or over. 

05 16 28 P Very good. Looks like you've got some lightning down your way now. 

05 16 33 CC Do you have an intermediate report for me at this time? 

05 16 36 P That's affirmative. Are you ready to copy — all systems were green at the time. At 5 

hours fuel was 89 [percent] auto, 90 manual. Oxygen 56 [psi, in hundreds] primary, 75 
secondary. Were you copying? 

05 17 07 CC Roger. I have your load and oxygen only at this time. 

05 17 12 P Roger. The fuel quantity, did you get that? 

05 17 15 CC Negative. 



INDIAN OCEAN SHIP (FOURTH PASS ) — Continued 



05 


17 


16 


P 


Okay, 89 [percent] automatic, 90 manual. 


05 


17 


24 


CO 


Roger. Your gyros and maneuver switch? 


05 


17 


27 


P 


Okay, gyros are caged, maneuver switch is off. I am powered down. 


05 


17 


35 


cc 


Roger. We have request from the Cape for a blood pressure reading since they did not 
get one at pass over at MCC. Over. 


05 


17 


41 


p 


Okay. You deserve one anyway. Coming up. In addition, I would like to give you the 
suit inlet temperature, which was 62 degrees. 


05 


17 


54 


cc 


Roger. 


05 


17 


55 


p 


The suit dome [temperature] is 70 degrees and the circuit is comfortable. 


05 


18 


03 


cc 


Wonderful. We also have a request from the Cape. On your next pass over California, 
between 6 08 and 6 10, they are going to pass your voice to live TV. Over. 


05 


18 


19 


p 


Roger, understand at 6 08 to 6 10. 


05 


18 


23 


cc 


They would like you to say something to the live TV audience at that time. Over. 


05 


18 


27 


p 




05 


18 


39 


p 


At this time I will perform an orientation test. Missed the manual fuel [handle] by 2 
inches, and capsule repressurization [handle]. 


05 


18 


58 


p 


Try to touch the yaw attitude [indicator], touched the yaw attitude [indicator] at 270 
degree indication. Try to touch the manual emergency rate lever. And I will — I 
put my hand right on it. I believe I am through on this test over the other [yawning] — 
I'm yawning — by considerable margin. 


05 


19 


39 


cc 


Sigma Seven, this is IOS Cap Com. 


05 


19 


41 


p 


Go ahead. 


05 


19 


42 


cc 


Readouts at this time? 


05 


19 


44 


p 


Say again. 


05 


19 


45 


cc 


Anything you want from the ground readouts at this time? 


05 


19 


49 


p 


Negative, looks like everything's clean. I guess there's not much sense in giving me 
scanners because I'm pretty well cruising along here. 


05 


20 


00 


cc 


Roger. Do you have your time on your intermediate report? 


05 


20 


05 


p 


That was at 5 hours 00 mii: utes 00 seconds. 


05 


20 


09 


cc 


Good. 


05 


21 


39 


V 


I can see my attitude now. I am — looks like it's pretty good attitude. It's pitched down 
about 55 or 60 degrees. 


05 


21 


54 


p 


No, that's all wrong. I can now see that I must have been inverted. The horizon is 
coming into view, and so:ne stars. 


05 


22 


59 


cc 


Sigma Seven, IOS Cap Com. 1 minute to LOS. 


05 


23 


02 


p 


Roger, IOS. Thank you for your cooperation and enjoyed talking with you. 


05 


23 


28 


p 


IOS, I'm going to try HF again after I leave you just to see how we do. 


05 


24 


16 


p 


Indian Ocean Ship, this is Sigma Seven on HF. How do you read? Over. 


05 


24 


47 


p 


IOS, this is Sigma Seven or HF. How do you read? Over. 


05 


25 


04 


p 


This flight I think I can take a whack at this photometer at last. 


05 


25 


25 


p 


Turn off the cabin lights firrt. It's off. Extincted— total loss. 


05 


26 


33 




Getting — getting a good look at Orion at this time. Beautiful view of it. There are 
the Pleiades, Aldebaran. I'll look at Aldebaran and see what I can do with that. 


05 


27 


18 


" 


I have extincted Aldebaran to read at 05 27 27. Now this experiment isn't going to be 
valuable; I need cabin ligats to see. It's awfulh hard to find the extinction photometer. 
Let's see if I can do it now. Contrasted Aldebaran, the standard source, under the 
same lighting conditions. Extincted at 3.8. 


05 


28 


08 


p 


I'm unable to run any more tests on stars at time. I am coming back to the view of the 
surface of the earth. There's quite a bit of moonlight, and as a result the horizon is 


05 


28 


29 


p 


I'll put the photometer in an area where it may be available again. At 05 28 48. the rates 
are almost exactly — negative — yaw is 0; pitch is — Vr, and roll is roll left We defin- 
itely have a cold stick. 


05 


30 


59 


p 


This quiet time must be getting to a lot of people on the ground. I think we should prob- 
ably put some more data in here. Gathered at 5 hours and 31 minutes. And about 
this time tbey want an intermediate report. We'll get it for them. 


05 


32 


57 




Okay. We'll take an electrical check. Main bus is 24 [volts] — isolated bus is — clicking 



because of the clock, of course — and that's 27 to 27}4 (volts). 



96 



MUCHEA (FOURTH PASS) 

05 33 27 P Hello Muchea Cap Com, this is Sigma Seven. I read you. How me, over? 

05 33 36 CC Sigma Seven, this is Muchea Cap Com. I think I read . . . say again. 

05 33 44 P Roger . This is Sigma Seven. I read you loud and clear, Gene. There is no change in 

05 33 56 CC Sigma Seven, this is Muchea. I did not read you very well, but would request blood 

pressure. Doctor Berry would appreciate blood pressure during last three orbits. 
05 34 13 p Roger, Gene. I say there is no change in my status since the last report at 0500. Over. 

05 34 26 CC Roger. Understand no change in status since vour last report 

05 34 32 P That is correct; all quantities are the same. 

05 34 36 CC All quantities are the same. 

05 34 38 P Roger. And temperatures. Gene, I do have one change. The 250 inverter is now 

120 [degrees]. 

05 34 59 CC Roger. Check, 250 inverter is now 120 [degrees]. 

05 35 05 P Very good. 

05 35 11 CC Roger. We do not have telemetry, so if you pressed your blood pressure button, it isn't 

doing us any good. If we get telemetry, we'll give you another call. 

05 35 21 P I was wondering how the heck you were gonna get it. It will go onboard (tape recorder) 

though. All d-c power is 25 volts or greater. Over 

05 35 33 CC Say again. 

05 35 34 P All d-c power, d-c, is 25 volts or greater. Over. 

05 35 48 CC Did you say d-c volts are 25? 

05 35 52 P That is affirmative. All of them— they are all in good shape. 

05 36 40 P This is Sigma Seven, at 5 hours, 36 minutes, 45 seconds. No yaw rate, a slight left roll 

rate of K degree per second. A slight pitch up of M degree per second. 

05 37 23 CC Sigma Seven, this is Muchea. I have not read your transmissions for the last minute 

Hand vou over to PCS. 

05 37 32 P Roger, Muchea. 

PACIFIC COMMAND SHIP (FOURTH PASS) 

05 37 47 P Hello, Pacific Command Ship, Pacific Command Ship. This is Sigma Seven on HF. 

OS 38 05 P Hello, Pacific Command Ship. PCS, this is Sigma Seven. HF Over 

05 42 20 P Hello PCS, PCS. This is Sigma Seven. How do you read? Over. 

05 42 30 CC Sigma Seven, PCS. We read you weak but readable. How me? 

05 42 33 P I read you loud and clear, Al. And nice to talk to you todav 

05 42 40 P . . . 

05 42 44 P I am talking on HF at this time. 

05 42 52 CC Stand by, Seven. 

05 42 53 P Roger. 

05 43 10 CC Seven, this is Cap Com. Anything you want to say. 

05 43 13 P Nothing in particular. Wanna say hello to you though. AH the systems are perfect. 

There are no changes in quantities since the 05 00 summary. Over. 
05 43 30 CC Roger. We have one message for you. Tliey would like to attempt to contact you over 

Hawaii through the relay airplanes. So, would you please go up to UHF prior to 

acquisition of Hawaii"' Over. 
05 43 46 P I understand, Al. Roger. 

05 43 53 CC We do not have T'M as yet. We might pick it up in a couple of minutes. 

05 43 57 P Right. I'm— very far south of you as you know. How's the weather there? 

05 44 04 CC You sound a little scratchy to me, Wally. 

05 44 06 P Roger. We're still prettv far apart. How- is your weather there? 

05 44 13 CC Sav again. 

05 44 14 P How is the weather there? 

05 44 18 CC Weather actually is fairly good here in location. I think on your next pass you might be 

able to see the typhoon. I'll give you a bearing and distance when you come over next 

05 44 27 P Very good. We had quite a flap on this suit circuit for the first orbit as vou may know 

05 44 40 CC Sorry, Seven. Not reading you very well. 

05 44 42 p Roger. I said we had a lot of trouble with the suit circuit in the beginning of the flight. 

05 44 53 CC Sigma Seven, you're breaking up too much. 

05 44 55 P Roger. I'll be back. 



97 



PACIFIC COMMAND SHIP (FOURTH PASS ) — Continued 

05 45 00 CC Why don't you — why don't you take a rest for awhile, you've been talking quite a bit. 

05 45 06 P Good show. 

05 46 00 CC ... Hawaii. 

05 46 10 P That is correct, Al. And we'll talk better next time around. 

05 46 16 CC Roger. See you next time. 

05 46 18 P Roger. It's real nice up here today. 

05 47 33 P At this point I'm in VOX record. I'm going to switch to UHF for relay aircraft in Hawaii 

area. The time is 05 hours 47 minutes 44 seconds. 

05 47 49 CC ... I'll give you a mark on g.e.t. of 05 48 00—3, 2, 1. MARK. (05 48 02) T g.e.t. 

05 48 00. 

05 48 08 P Roger. I had that 03 seconds. I am 3 seconds fast on you, Al. 

05 48 16 CC Understand 3 seconds fast. 

05 48 18 P That is correct. 

05 48 20 CC Roger. 

05 48 22 P I am going to switch to UHF at this time. You are really crystal clear here. 

05 48 28 CC Roger. See you next time. 

05 48 29 P Roger. 

05 48 51 P This is Sigma Seven, broadcasting in the blind on UHF-high. Does anybody read? Over. 

05 49 05 ? ... 

05 49 21 P Hello Huntsville, hello Huntsville, this is Sigma Seven. Do you read my UHF-high? 

05 49 46 ? 

05 50 09 P At 05 hours, 50 minutes, I !mve a yaw rate of H degree per second right, a pitch rate of \i 

degree per second up, a roll rate of 14 degree per second left. 

05 50 41 CC Sigma Seven, Sigma Seven, this is . . . Cap Com on HF, do you read? 

05 50 47 P This is Sigma Seven, station calling, I can just barely hear you over. 

WATERTOWX (FOURTH PASS) 

05 50 56 CC Sigm£ Seven, Sigma Seven, this is Watertown Cap Com on HF. If you are copying me, 

Cape Flight requests that you go to UHF, go to UHF, and try to contact the relay 
aircraft. I say again — in the blind, Cape Flight requests that you go to UHF and 
attempt to contact the relay aircraft. 

05 51 20 P This is Sigma Seven, read you loud and clear, Watertown. I have been on UHF, 

05 51 26 P Relay aircraft, this is Sigma Seven. Please patch in Hawaii. Over. 

05 51 40 CC Sigma Seven, Sigma Seven, this is Watertown Cap Com. Cape Flight requests that you 

go to UHF — go to UHF — and attempt to contaet relay aircraft. 

05 51 51 P This is Sigma Seven. I am on UHF. Understand requirement. 

05 51 57 P Relay Aircraft, Relay Aircraft, this is Sigma Seven. Over. 

05 52 14 P Relay. . . . 

HAWAII (FOURTH PASS) 

05 52 15 CC Hawaii Cap Com. 

05 52 16 P Hi, Gussy. How are you reading me? 

05 52 20 P Hawaii Cap Com, this is Sigma Seven. I just read you loud and clear. 

05 52 38 CC Sigma Seven, Sigma Seven, Hawaii Cap Com. 

05 52 42 P Hawaii Cap Com, this is Sigma Seven. Read you loud and clear. How me? 

05 52 54 P Hawaii Cap Com, Sigma Seven. I read you very clear and loud. Over. 

05 53 09 CC Sigma Seven, Sigma Seven, this is Watertown Cap Com on HF. If you read, go to UHF, 

go to UHF, and attempt to contact relay aircraft. 
05 53 29 P Hawaii Cap Com, Hawaii Cap Com, Sigma Seven. Over 

05 53 56 P Hello, Hawaii Cap Com. This is Sigma Seven. Over. 

05 53 59 P Hawaii Cap Com, Hawaii Cap Com, this is Sigma Seven. Over 

05 55 56 P This is Sigma Seven, giving the effects of flying inverted in a sunrise, 90 degrees yaw. 

It is the most obvious thing to you, what your direction of path is. Like looking out of 
a railroad train window. You see the terrain going by you. There are clouds of all varied 
types. I can see them sweeping by me just by the 90 degree plane — in the — 90 degrees 
to the longitudinal axis of the vehicle. Very, very graphic display of yaw. As I swing 
around now, my blunt end is starting to go into proper yaw attitude although I am 
inverted. I see a small island at this point. And it's nice and bright in the cockpit 
again. We have light a', approximately 5 56 this pass. There, we're almost swung 
around into yaw now. 



98 



HAWAII < FOURTH PASS) -Continued 




99 



CALIFORNIA (FOURTH PASS) 
06 05 48 F California Cap Com, this is Sigma Seven. Over. 

00 06 04 CC Hello Sigma Seven, this is Cal Cap Com. How do you feel? Over. 

00 06 07 P Read you loud and clear, John. How me? 

06 06 09 CC You're: loud and clear. Everything's solid down here. I guess you got the word on the 

6 OS bit. Is that affirm": 

06 06 14 P That's affirmative. You have T/M or. me now? I'll power up before all that jazz. 

06 06 20 CC Okay. Roger. T/M is solid. 

06 06 21 P Okay. I have gyros normal auto, gyros caged. I am going to power up and then go- 

correction — gonna power up and fly-by-wire. Monitoring the a-c bus at this time. 
She comes up to 115 [volts]. I have 25 amps, in good shape. 

06 06 45 CC Roger. We confirm. 

06 06 47 1' I'll hold off on my beacon. Clock's at 6 06 approximately I guess, when I powered up, 

so that it would be good at about 6 11. I have no change in consumables, John. It 
looks real good here. 

00 07 06 CC Roger. Everything's looking fine here. We have T/M solid and we confirm your actions 

00 07 11 P Roger. I got a real weird attitude at this point. I'll clue you. Ha, ha, I'm looking 



.-on head firs 



06 07 23 CC Roger. You can pick your own up from that standpoint. 

06 07 26 P Yeah. You really get the illusion you're ready for a split S 

06 07 33 CC Right. 

06 07 40 CC Wally. I'll give you a conn 

on for 2 minutes begitm 
06 07 46 P Okay, John. Sounds tike fan. 

06 08 04 CC OkaV. Sigma Seven. This is Cal Cap Com. You're at 6 08. Two minutes on live TV. 

Go ahead, Wally. 

06 08 10 P Roger, John. Just came out of the powered down configuration where we had the ASCS 

inverter off. It came up in good shape and will stay on now for the rest of the flight. 
The amps and volts are leading properly. The amps are now down to about 19 amps, 
after we powered up. They were up to 25 at first. I'm coming toward you inverted 
this time, which is an ur usual way for any of us to approach California, I'll admit. 
00 08 44 CC Roger. Wally, you got anything to say to everyone watching you across country on this 

thing. We're going out live on this. 
On 08 50 P That sounds like great sport, I can see why you and Scott like it. I'm having a trick 

now. I'm looking at the United States and starting to pitch up slightly with this drift- 
ing rate. And I see the moon, which I'm sure no one in the United States can see as 
well as I right now. 



06 


09 


08 


CC 


I thir.k you're probably right, 








09 


09 


P 


Ha, ha.' I suppose an old song l):.ft 
but at this point I don't have a chai 


ing and Dre 
ice to drean 


aming" would be apropos at 
.1. I'm enjoying it too much. 


06 


09 


22 


CC 


Things are looking real good from here 


, Wally. 






09 


24 


P 


Thank you, John. I gties^ that what 
maims across the United States. 


I'm doing 


right now is sort of a couple 


06 


09 


37 


CC 


Roger. Wally, have you had a enancr 






06 


09 






Yes, I have. It's quite fascinating; i 
the feeling that you are pitched dow- 


n fact, it's 
n quite far. 


misleading in the evening. 
Have you noticed that'? 


06 


09 


54 


CC 








06 


09 


55 


p 


n's projected up much higher in the ei 






06 


10 


06 


p 


Ah, I see you got me on a Z Cal. 






06 


10 


12 


CC 


Negative. Did not send Z Cal. Over 






06 


10 


14 


p 


Oh, somebody did, Maybr Scotty. 






06 


10 


18 


CC 


May have. 







100 



GUAYMAS (FOURTH PASS) 



00 10 22 1 ^oi it t b -in t U TMth me cm ^ )u txott' T gut the P0 a [oxvgen partial 

pn-n. ] vG,i,h ^ to 0 vhei iou do tint ()ka\ R C il How's that? Anvbodv 
want blood pressure'. 

06 10 31 CC Sav again, Wallv. 

06 10 36 P Okav, I'll send vou blood pressure now 

06 10 40 CC Roger, star ding bv. Cal coming off. 

06 10 44 P Blood pressure on. 

06 10 54 CC W. hm bio. d ji -urL St Hiding b\ toi i -tand ird report. 

06 10 58 p RoS". ^ott. I am m drifting flight, but I have powered up the ASCS a-e bus. It has 

lomo on the line «ell. I will power up the beacons later. The control mode 

selected is fh -by -iv ire, although I in not controlling m it. The auto switch is auto, 
^ios -uit h - -till titred Tin ietntr\ Utitude is selected maneuver is off. The 
quint ti it ill m tb gre, n Suit temperature i- t bout 60 [degrees]. I'm quite 
: * Electrical is green and a-c is green 

have one more blood pressure, please. I didn't get the last. Your 
ORF [time of retrofire] I have. Are you ready to copy? 
Then I'll give you the blood pressure. 

18 10, and for your information, Ascension copied you on your 
standing by to copy vou again this time. 
BP MS. 



re have LO!5 before we read the last of your blood pressure, don't 



06 


11 47 


CC 


R Offer. A; 


d could ^ . 


06 


12 00 


P 


Let me get 


u. i] 5-1 I 
Vat fir-t 


06 


12 03 


CC 


Rom r (r 


IS 10. 


06 


12 06 


p 


07 IS 10. 




06 


12 10 


CC 


Thit - Ro 


rer. At 07 








h-t pi- 


i id the! tr, 




12 21 


P 


Roger. I'l 


1 send vou a 


06 


12 23 


CC 






06 


12 27 


p 


I have voui 


• 07 18 10. 


06 


12 31 


CC 


Hi i - li , 


>« r 07 IS 10 


06 


12 35 


p 


Roger. 




06 


13 03 


CC 


Incidental^ 


■, Wally, if v 








forget to 




06 


13 12 


p 


Roger. Thank you. 


06 


13 22 


p 


Going to VOX record oi 




13 26 


p 




dosimeter el 


06 


14 40 


p 


[Picture] Able 8 taken r 












06 


15 23 


p 


All color s:k 


)ts have been 










of a cloud si 


06 


15 37 


p 


Go ahead. 


Go ahead. 



inly momentarily. 

heck, it is still reading less than So cm the lowest scale, 
at 06 14 40. A coastline. It should have been the co. 



I'm going to try to take another 



101 



00 15 47 
00 15 50 
00 15 54 
06 10 05 
06 10 07 
06 16 25 
06 10 27 
06 16 35 
06 16 38 
00 17 04 
06 17 06 
06 17 09 
06 17 11 



CAPE CANAVERAL (FIFTH PASS) 



Sigma Seven. Cape Cap Com. 

This is Sigma Seven. Go ahead, Deke. 

■eak and intermittent. Can you read us? Over, 
his time at — just across the Yucatan peninsula here. 
tVe're still not reading you. 



Roger. Yo 
Roger. I'm c 
Sigma Seven. 



; coming tr 
mning up a 
Stand by. 



Cap Co 



Le 



Deke,. this is Sigma Sevei 



n peninsula. 



still weak ai.d intermittent. 



Roger. 

Sigma Seven. Cap Com. How do you read now? 
I read vou loud and clear. How me? 

Roger. You are loud and clear. You were very garbled before. 

Roger. I'm doing partial control on fly-by-wire low. Will acquire ASCS when I get in 

retrcattitude. No problem., just the "bird's flying beautifully, and give her a break. 
Roger. . 

When vou have a vaw of 90 degrees, it's just like looking at a train window— that s ail 
there is to it. That's abort what I'm going through now. Just walking right around 
the horizon, Deke. 



06 17 51 
06 17 52 
06 17 54 
06 IS 01 
00 18 02 
06 18 06 
06 18 08 



Let's put a little .... 
. . . pressure for environm 
Say again, Deke. 
Give us ft cabin pressure. 
Roger. Stand by. Okay 



00 18 15 


cc 


06 18 IS 


p 


06 18 20 


cc 


06 18 23 




00 IS 42 




06 18 40 




06 18 50 


cc 


06 18 52 




06 IS 54 


cc 


06 19 01 


p 


06 19 13 


cc 


06 19 15 


p 


00 19 25 


cc 




[Auto lj 


00 19 39 


cc 




[Auto 1] 


06 19 41 


P 


06 19 49 


cc 


00 19 55 


cc 




[Auto 1] 


06 20 01 


cc 


06 20 16 


CC 




[Auto 1] 


06 20 20 


P 


06 20 24 


CC 




[Auto 1] 


06 20 33 


CC 


06 20 35 


CC 




[Auto 1] 



Roge 
Okay. 

Have 

That's affirmative, I had 
all up in one batch. 

That's a good idea. 

Spread it out a little bit, you know. 

How are you feeling in general? 

Very fine, Deke. It's the first time I' 
been exercising a little bit to get n 
around but a little bit of stretching. 



It's about — just about 5 [psia] o 
We haven't been able to confirm this. 



peaches and a couple of cubes. I didn't 



d had a chance to relax sin 
■ muscles toned up as well 



. [Yo- 



what?] 



Did you say you'd like to get up and walk around? 
I did a little exercise. 
Roger. Understand. 

I'm just about in retroattitudc now. Just about made 
[Roger Seven, Cape Cap Com . . ..] G 
I'm going to pick up pitch very shortly. 
Cape Cap Com. Auto One, do you read? 



mplete 180 [degrees] 



Sigm 



This is Sigma Seven. I 
Hello. Cape Cap Com . 
Sigma Seven, Sigma Se\ 



Auto One. Do you read? 
I you loud and clear. How m 
Auto One. Do you read? 



Go ahead. Cape Cap Con.. 

Sigma Seven, Sigma Seven. Auto One 



Do j 



u read? 



This is Sigma Seve 
Roger. Sigma Se\ 



Roger, Cape Cap Co 



I read you loud and clear. 
. Cape Cap Com. Auto One 



o One. Contact . 



102 



CAPE CANAVERAL ( FIFTH PASS ) — Continued 







. . . Cape Com Tech. How do you read'' 


06 20 44 


rr 


How do you read Auto One? 


nfi on =!> 








pt m 


Did you call Com Teeh? 


55 


y' 




06 21 03 




Sigma Seven. Auto One, Do you read Cap Com? 




[Auto 1] 




06 21 05 




That's affirm. What's your problem? 


06 21 Id 


r , 


Sigma Seven, Sigma Seven, this i* Auto Otie. Can you read Cape Com Tech': 




U u .0 j 






lhat s affirmative. For God sakes. 




ocT are ' 


Auto One. Warfare. Do you read me? 


06 n 34 




Roger, Auto One. Reading Warfare loud and clear. 








06 21 38 




R C 
oger. 10 ra\o then. 


06 


rr 


Roger. Bravo. 




[Auto 1] 




00 21 46 


?^ 




or I! 08 


: 


1 lereury vi ill pick it up. 




v\ arr are 


Auto Two. Warfare. Do you read? 


9 2 12 




Auto Two reads Warfare. 




[Auto 2J 




nr 99 U 


Warfare 


Roger. Give Sigma Seven a call. 






Sigma Seven. Auto Two. Do you read? 




[Auto 2] 








This is Sigma Seven. I read you. What do you want? 


99 9 
— _ 




Sigma Seven. Auto Two. Do you read? 




[Auto 




06 ^2 SI 




Hello Sigma Seven. Cape Cap Teeh. How do you copy? 


22 'U 


p ' 


I copy you loud and clear, Murph. 


00 ''2 36 


CC 


Roger. Stand b\ for Cape, please. 


06 22 




aj " 


06 ,;> 2 4' 


rr 


bigrna Seven. Cap Com. How do you read now? 


06 '"2 48 




Read you loud and clear, Deke. How me'. 1 


06 ^2 "0 


rr 


Much better. Got you through Grand Turk relay now. 


06 w 53 


p 


Oh! How bout that. I'm now in auto reentrv mode. Over, 


06 ^3 03 


rr 


Understand. Auto retro mode. 


06 ^3 0" 




Negative. Auto reentrv mode. 


or ~>\ rm 


cc 


Roger. I'nderstand. Reentry. 


06 _3 11 




Roger. And she looks like she's really well lined up. 


06 23 16 


cc 


Sigma Seven, Sigma Seven. Auto One. Do you read? 




[Auto 1] 




00 23 2b 


CC 


Sigma Seven, Sigma Seven. Auto One. Do you read? 




[Auto 1J 




06 9 3 36 








CC 


Sigma he ven, Sigma Seven. Auto One. Do you read? 




[Auto 1] 




06 23 59 


CC 


Sigma Seven, Sigma Seven. Auto One. Do you read? 




[Auto 1] 


06 24 06 


P 


Auto One, ihi* i> Signm Seven. I read you. How do you read me? Over. 


06 24 15 


P 


This is Sigma Seven on VOX record only. I have reestablished auto mode in n 



And I feel, now that 1 am on ASCS, I can do some experiments where before I was not 
able to. I will now pitch the capsule down on rly-by-wire low. First I will cheek to 
see — if I turn on my beacons, nobody down here can get to me on those. At 6 hours and 
25 minutes — if anybody has a beacon in South America they deserve to hear it. Beacons 
are on, for a good 3 amps. Opening visor to wipe off chin, and I think I'll take a drink 
of water. 



1 Relay aircraft communicator at Cape Canaveral. 

103 



CAPE CANAVERAL (FIFTH PASS)— Continued 



06 20 22 P Closing visor. Okay. Let'* take a look and see where we are. At this point we made 

a dosimeter check. I will pitch down on fly-by-wire to reentry attitude. Xow let's 
give it a manual proportional go this time. 

00 27 3V P In manual proportional, with manual lever pulled o. it, and having selected rate command. 

I'm slowly but surely coming into retroattitude. All axes are working very well. 
Setting up in roll. Getting yaw- rates, pow, pow. And I want this to count — I'm going 
to go back to fly-by-wire low. 
P That was stupid. Now we go to fly-by-wire low. I had a case of double authority am; 

really flotehed it. But better conserve our fuel. It's much too easy to get into double 
authority, even with the tiemendous logic you have working on all these systems. The 
pitch is in; yaw is in: selecting reentry attitude; roll is in; going to ASCS, reentry now. 
And she's in. 

00 29 5S P Okay. I think we can change back, and get some weather bureau pictures if it's possible. 

Shoot up the rest— the rest of these, just lightly. That's A 10 at 6 + 30 hours, and 11 
is coming up, and 6 + 30 hours with a cloud bank off to the left. Okay. I'll get thr> 
plate back on, and save this at A. Take the plate back out again, zap. Okay. That 
wound up, A 12 to go. 

06 31 23 P The capsule at this point is, at 6 hours and 31 minutes, it is under chimp configuration. 

I've used manual proportional to a great degree. I now have 79 [percent] in manual 
[fuel] and 81 [percent] auto. Let's see how we stand. Ah, 81, 80 auto. 71 manual. 

06 32 25 P I fouled up, oh shucks. 

06 33 07 P That's clever. Weather bureau back is finally out. First shot not worth using, so I'll 

change that. Okay. We got slider out. Weather filter in, if I can get it. This side 
toward lens. There, we got a filter in. I'm going to shoot at ASA 64. 

06 34 42 P Take i. light value at 06 35, and that light value is 13 for 64 ASA. Very good. 

Fairly bright. . . . I'll g.ve her 13, and we'll punch off a couple quickies because of 
the first bad one. First shot taken at 6 35 25. 

06 35 47 P Second shot 6 35 45. 

06 36 47 P Capsule is in perfect attitude. Ideal shots for weather bureau. Think I even put on finder 

at this time. Shooting bh-ck and white of the clouds. 
06 37 01 P In the white. Ready to shoot at 6—06 37 07. That was an oblique. Shot number 3 

I'll take shot number 4 almost as straight down as I can sight. Beyond a little bit of 

shadow as we approach sunset. Okay, that was 6 37 34. 
______ P That's capsule elapsed time. At 6 38 we will copy the manual intermediate report and 3 

can do that at this time. 

06 38 48 P Okay, at 6 hours and 35 minutes we are at 81 [percent auto fuel]— 79 [percent manual fuel], 

. . . cabin 90 [degrees] . . . suit 63 [degrees], . . . Dome 71 [degrees], 
06 40 25 P We're now at 6 40. Going to map two. 

06 41 43 P At this point, I made a complete electrical check. All electrical systems are green. The 

amps are about 19 amps. This is very logical after we've been inserted. The load has 

been diving over release of relays at T F + 5. 
06 42 04 P All the equipment is in good order. Coming up over IOS for 6-50, in the night, and this 

time I want, to go down the star charts to check this bear out. That is why I am on 

ASCS. 

06 42 27 P Had the fun with experimenting and now will get the fun of being ready for reentry at any 

time. Okay. Let's see— we got IOS at 6 40. 6 40. . . . same as 0 52. 

06 44 03 P There is a nice interesting horizon. The sun is off to the left about— oh I'd say 40 degrees. 

There's a dark line of the surface of the earth, orange at the clouds — a light yellow, a 
light white and a blue band. A very light blue and I have the planet Mercury in sight 
at this point. Before the sun has set. And it's in the proper position, 

06 44 37 P Describing the blue band. There's a relatively dark blue band right at the surface of the- 

earth and a light blue band, and another dark blue band, and a large white band which is 
the airglow, and then a deep black one and sorta goes from a grayish blue into a dense black. 
Almost looks like underneath a rain elcud as far as the transit ion from the blue band to the 
total darkness. And I'll bring up my fingertip lights. And at 06 45 52 Mercury is 
right on the horizon. Arcturus should be in view, but I guess we can't get her. 

06 45 45 P Okay, [ [06-45 46] t see Mercury going through the— airglow. We'll see if she holds up. 

When I said "I see" that was the beginning of it. MARK, [06 46 10] T the first change 
of color, which is now a light blue. And it's still visible. MARK, [06 40 12] t a darker 
blue. Visible MARK, [Of 46 16] T into the yellow orange of the surface of the Earth, 
This was — Mercury, dropping over the horizon. I should be picking up the Moon 
and Venus fairly soon. At 6 46— and at 6 48 I'm over IOS. 



104 



CAPE CANAVERAL ( FIFTH PASS i — Continued 



06 49 12 P Okay, n looks hie we are getting some hahted areas over the southern tip of Africa. I 

denmtelv nave a eitv in sight, and — tins is Sigma Seven. On transmit, I've had on 
\OX -record or.lv, I definitely have a cttv m sight in Africa. It first showed up at 
Ob 49 Mi seconds. The lights come up verv clear. I m in retroattitude at this point 
to give a mark on mv position, and the moon is on my flight path for yaw reference. 

06 50 07 P I'll bet von anv mouev that citv on mv left was Port Elizabeth. 

INDIAN OCEAN SHIP (FIFTH PASS'! 
06 50 43 P Indian Ocean Cap Com. this is Sigma Seven. Over. 

06 51 06 P Indian Ocean Cap Com. Sigma Seven. Over. 

06 51 26 CC Sgmi \\ a SuniSmn I nabie to re id \ our truiimi -.ion Over. 

06 51 34 P Indian Ocean Cap Com. Sigma Seven. Over. 

06 51 37 CC Roger. I read you now. Over. 

06 51 39 P Roger. I read you weak. 

06 51 43 CC Do vou have a short report for me? Over. 

06 51 45 P Roger. Ill give vou my configuration. I am m auto, retro control mode; gyros are 

normal: maneuver switch is off: all consumables aie m the green; electrical is checking 
out verv well: capsule is tracking well. The moon is perfect reference at this point. 
It is right on the predicted path as well as Venus, as vou probably know from down there. 

06 52 IS CC Roger. Wo have a e.i-.t. You have about a plus 3 second lead on your e.e.t. 

06 52 27 P Would vou give me a countdown on c.e.t.. please. 

06 52 30 CC Roger. On mv mark it will be 06 52 33. MARK [06 52 36] T 

06 52 38 P Thitui'. —tint il jut \ 4 sec md difettnce I see \ o l hi\ t some good ole' lightning 

06 52 51 CC Sigma Sever. Not to mention the word, but will vou send a BPr [blood pi essure] Over. 

06 52 56 P Okay. 

06 53 35 CC This is IOS Cap Com. Standing bv. 

00 53 38 P Roger. It vou 11 stand bv I'm going to take a cheek on Venus, at this point, for extinction, 

to see how she looks. 
06 53 45 CC Roger. 

06 54 26 P Okav. Verms is extincted at 06 54 29. at a value of 5.2. 

06 54 40 CC Seven. W hat was the time vou stated? 

06 54 44 P I'm just recording data. 

P The standard light is al-o extincted at 3.8. 

06 56 04 P Picture taken. 06 56 27. black and white, of the moon. With the weather bureau filter 

pulled out. Picture number b. And as the moon sets we 11 try one more at a lower 
shutter sneed. Trying to hold it carefully, lhats the second picture taken of the 
moon at moon set. At this point the camera back will be reinstalled and the camera 
stowed m case of retro attempt. 

06 57 12 P Hello! A prettv flash of light. 

06 57 52 P Camera is going to be stowed in the space dome. 

07 00 12 P .... 

07 00 24 I' Auto beaeon>. Beacons are on power now. Camera is stowed. 

07 03 31 P Oku will 1 m t< i 1m liistiuminfs the ..50 e* 14t [degree-,] Tint i- the 250 inverter. 

I Ik 150 m\ ilti i 101 [degms] u d tU ~nndb\ m-wrHr is 110 [degrees]; retro 
temperalure is 75 [degrees]. Yaw riglr.. 100 [degrees]: vaw left. 90 [degrees]; pitch 
down. Of) [degrees]: pitch up. 102 [degrees]: cabin heat exchanger. 42 (degrees]; roll left 
manual. !»g [degrees]: roll right auto. 108 [degrees]: roll left auto. 108 [degrees], samey, 
samev. Verv good. And this report was made at 07 04 40. 

07 06 07 P All systems look verv good at this point. This is as tight a vehicle as anyone can imagine. 

07 10 20 P At 07 hours 10 minute- and 30 seconds. 1 see a lighted area. Verv well lighted. It shows 

up more like an airport. Better identify where that would be — that should be the 
Philippines. Possible it's at Zamboanga, and that s 07 hours 10 minutes and 30 seconds. 
\ir\ f .riplu ii < f hctits \in us\ to-.ee 

07 11 38 P Correction, at 07 hours and minutes put me over. 

07 11 18 P ... It s marked on the chart at 07 hours and 10 minutes. I was looking down at — 

almost m retroattitude. It showed up verv clearly. 

07 12 25 P Now we're got tine a planet in sight. Roger. Jupiter. I can see a string of stars for 

(irus. and good ole 1-omalhaut — there m the upper corner. Cms coming down through 
the middle. And 1-omalhaut coming right down middle. Verv good. 



105 



IXDIAX OCEAX SHIP (FIFTH PAPS) — Continued 













>i\ we . 1 eao. ant couc i wit i sen »• me norfr. 










M "reticle n^Thi- 0 uicVc'icck oiTil^ ' 




u ' 




_ 




U i- Mi' 1 l'i m ivt'ie'l- •ufflcientlv for a 


ni 'lit -ice uisition M\PKa^ u'n Cr 1 1 a i 










of "t lie s'-ir" Ih'om elve ' in ' the winder 


mg it acqtusiuon. ^ . ^^.^'^"^ ^^.^ tVrouglL 










the (.-enter line. Could ynw right ab< 


nit 5 degrees which would satisfy dead reckoning. 










Then roll left about 3 [degrees] which 


is quite graphic. For retro, this looks like a very 










good setup. Be no problem at all fl; 


ving attitude here with the moon bright . . . ligh- 










which would be dawn's light. Ocea: 


sionally you can see a ground light, particularly, 










along the island chain at this point, 












PACIFIC OCEAX SHIP !1 


FIFTH PASS) 


°1 








Sigma Seven. Sigma Seven, this is PCS < 


Dora Tech, PCS Com Tech. Do you read'.' Ovei . 


°- 


lo 


oS 




This is Sigma Seven. Read you loud a 


nd clear. How me? 


°1 




02 




Roger. Sigma. Seven. Reading you 5 


by, 5 by. Going to Cap Com. 














n- 




a 




Hello Seven. Standing by lor your report. 








j ' 


Roger, Al. I am in auto; retro; the gyi 


■o switches arc normal; manuever is off. The cap- 










sule is prepared for retrosequence but for stowing two charts. I'm sure we're go. I 










have SI percent auto [fuel]. 80 petee 


ut manual [fuel], which is the same as my inter - 










mediate report. They di 1 not char.j 


a;e. I have 52 [psi, in hundreds] on primary, 75 










[psi. in hundreds] on secondary oxygen. Suit is go at 62 [degrees]. Same as before. 




If 


"3 


CO 


Roger, Seven. I did not catch your i 


nanual fuel reading. You broke up a little bit. 










Will you give that to me please? 












Roger. Manual is 80 fpercent]. 








ni 


or 


Roger. I have 81 [percent] auto, SO [p 


ercent] manual, oxygen 5.200 [psi] and 7.500 [psi;. 


tr 








That is correct. 








13 


CO 


Well, I would say you were definitely j 


go. We are out of contact with the Cape at the 










moment, but looks like you are good for the full route. 


°: 


17 


20 


p 


Right you are. Xow my c.o.t., I guess. 


is about 3 seconds fast, as you know. 


°i 








Roger. Why don't you give me a time 


hack on it? 


u i- 








Okay. I'll give you'a 35. MARK 35. 


[07 17 35] t. 


0, 








Roger, You are about 3 seconds fast. 


I show your TORF [time of retrofire] as OS Volum- 


1 .1 




44 




1 21. 

Roger. That is what I have in. 








' 




Your T/M on e.e.t. is also v seconds fa 


st. The retrosequenee for (contingency recovery 










area: 5-Eeho is nominal. 












Roger. 5 Echo, Al. It's a real ball. 








ni 




Man— sound like you're really enjoying 


it. I'll give you a few seconds of silence while 1 










send through a calibration. 




07 


IS 


07 


p 


Okay. 






IS 


50 


cc 


Seven, this is Cap Com. 






IS 




p " 


Roger, I see you are still on R Cai. 










or 


Affirmed. The R Cal is now off. 








r '., 




Roger. I have it coming oil. 






1 


00 




We've been comparing the free surface t 


.-fleet of liquid on the center of gravity of the cap- 










sule. and we recommend That you dr-J 


ita the bilges prior to reentry. 










Ha! Ha! Ha! 




t- 


10 


11 


cc 


It's during the coming orbit 




1 








I'm concur. 




1 ' 


IS) 


', 
lb 




Also. Seven. At LOS, which should oci. 


•ur about 07 21. the typhoon will be located about 










400 miles about 45 degree, left of you 


r track. So you should be able to pick it up. 




p) 


31 


p 


Oh, very good. I'll look for it. 




1 




31 


cc 


And we are reading you lour, and clear ; 


md will be standing by for your HP check at 7 20. 






( 


p 


Roger. 




0" 


19 


4 9 


cc 


If you have nothing further, I'll see you 




07 


19 


45 


p 


Okay. I'll drop in. 






1!) 


49 


cc 


Standing by. 




07 


19 


50 


p 


Roger, Al. " Thanks a lot. 




07 


20 


00 


p 


Gvros are free. 




07 


20 


10 


cc 


Seven. PCS. 




106 











pacific ocfan ship ( fifth fassi— <-<miinue<i 

07 20 22 P ThisisSgm S, m Dnlff Tin i ^uuSui, On HF. Giving a short count at 

07 hours, 20 iiimuti-5, o4 seconds cel. Ihis is to check for HF coverage on the world 
w i i r in^ The lur ttn n of tin tT m mi «u is to 1 i-t GO seconds. I wish I knew what 
else I could say to eat up the time. It I breathe hard enough this might help. The 
capsule is wurkms wry well and 1 believe we are just about coming up on the end of a 
00 second mark. I sing HF transmit and record throughout the world wide range. And 
this is Sigma seven. Checking out. 

07 21 31 CC Seven, this is PCS. Do you still read? 

07 21 34 P That is affirmative on HF. How do von read me. Al? 

07 21 38 CC Loud and clear, W ally. Could vou. if vou have time, give us a readout on how you are 

commg on vour orientation tests? Over. 
07 21 44 P I seem to be improving. V\ hat I am touching is ]ust these three items, but I get closer to 

them each time I whack at it. 
07 21 54 CC Yery good. The head shrinkers will be delighted. 

07 21 58 P I guess thev are out of a job altogether. 

07 22 01 CC Okav. Wallv san. See you next time 

07 22 02 P Righto. Al. Thanks again. 

HUXTSVILi.U AM.) WATEIlTOWNi (FIFTH PASS) 
07 22 05 CT Signal St\Hii signu S ( \ n this is Huiits\ile Com Tech 

07 22 10 P Hunt \ ill ( r m Tech this , s Sigm i Seven On Ht Do you read? Over. 

07 22 15 CT Sigma Seven, Sigma Seven, this is Huntsville . . . . Sigma Seven, Sigma Seven, this is 

Huntsville Com Tech. 
07 22 38 CC Sigma Seven. Hawaii Cap Com. Could vou read me? 

[HAW] 

0" '-' 2 41 P Huntsville Com lech. This is Sigma Seven. On UHF. Hawaii Cap Com. I read 

vou. Over. 

07 22 48 CC Sigma Seven, this is Cap Com. Over. 



07 : 



Roger. Huntsville, this is Sigma Seven. Read vou loud and clear. Have you anything 
to relay to the Cape.' Over. 

Negative. Everything here is going hunkv-dorv. Apparently I am committed for six 
and 1 am very happy about it. The whole rig is running beautifully. In case Al couldn't 
relay in; fuels. I have 81 [percent] auto, 80 [percent] manual, I am in auto, retro control 





23 


30 


CC 






i Pleast - v 












[HAW] 


















P 


Oktv 


I an 




o control mode at this point. Gvros are free for the scanner test. 








CC 


sigm i 




\\ ill v u 


i\e it to m, HI i 










[HAW] 












07 


23 




P 


Hawai 


! Cip 




mil itad mi I HP 


? Roger, switching to HF. Stand by for 












m up. 










24 


15 


CC 




Se\, j 


stv igun 


UHF. 










[HAW] 














24 


24 


P 


1 his , 






i HF. Do you rea: 


.1 me HF? Over. 




24 


31 


CT~ 






. this is Wat, 


it urn ( om T ch 


I read vou UHF. Over. 






34 


p 


Thi i 


i Sign) 


i Se\ n \\ 


atertown. On HI" 


. I read vou UHF. How do you read me? 


07 


24 


48 


CT 


Sgnn 






n thi is V\ iti rtov, 




07 


24 




CC 






Till t, 1 l\ 






07 


24 


58 


P 


Hi i 


M-,n 


i ^ \ n I 


im go s 1[3 , n t s v 


n. switching UHF. 


07 




13 


CC 






i. Are vou : 


till cn? sit,im S 


\ u M„un Seven. Are you still go? Are 












till 












P 


Hawai 


i f i, 


( urn Hu i 


n Cip Com '■i,!! 


la Seven. On UHF. I am very much go. 


0/ 






CC 








u this i> V\ iteitow 


n Cap Com. How do you read HF? Over. 


07 


2(3 




P 


\\ itt r 




til i Mgn 


i Seven On HI — 


tmr aim I am on UHF-high. I read you 










II F 


loul 1 


md clear. 




07 


20 


00 


CT 






till is \\ It 


rtwn Con T di i 


ailing II F. How do you read? Over. 


07 


2G 


10 


P 


Y\ it i 




Signu - 






07 


2(5 




CT 


Sigma 




s,gmt Si\ 


u this is V it n jrvu 


:i Com Tech. How do you read HF? 



107 



HUXTSYILLE AND WATERTOWX I FIFTH PASS) — Continued 





■'6 


36 


p 


Watei 


rtown Cap Com, this 


0" 


^, 


47 


CT 


Sigm; 


i Seven, Sigma Seven. 




~h> 




p 




i Seven reads you lone. 






0^ 


CT 


Sigmt 


i Seven, Sigma Seven, 


07 


o- 


08 


p 


This i 


:* Sigma Seven. "Read 


07 


27 


15 


CT 


Sigim 








;si 


CT 


Signii 


i Seven, Sigma Seven, 








P 


Ilawa 


di Cap Com, Hawaii C 






17 


P 


Haws 


lii Cap Com, Hawaii C 


07 






CT 








29 


28 


CT 


Sigm! 


,. Seven, Sigma Seven. 



! Sigma Seven. 1 read you loud and clear UHF 
this is Watertown Com Tech. On HF. How 
and clear. Out. 

this is Watertown Com Tech. II F. How do y 
you !oud and clear. Out. 

this is Watertown Com Tech. HF. How do y 
this is Watertown Com Tech. HF. How do y 
ap Com. Sigma Seven. Do you read^ Over, 
ap Com. Sigma Seven. Over, 
this is Watertown Com Tech. HF. How do y 
this is Watertown Com Tech. HF. How do y 

HAWAII (FIFTH PASS) 

07 29 46 CC Seven. Hawaii Cap Com. Go ahead. 

07 30 07 CC Seven. Hawaii Cap Com. . . . over. 

07 30 12 P Hawaii Cap Com, this is Sigma Seven. How do you read now? 

07 30 34 P Hawaii Cap Com. Sigm 

07 30 41 CC Sigma Seven, Sigma Seve 

07 30 15 P This is Sigma Seven. I read yo 

07 31 01 P Hawaii Cap Com. Sigma Seven. Over. 

07 31 07 CC Sigma Seven, Sigma Seven. Hawaii Cap Com. 

07 31 10 P Roger. Hawaii Cap Com, this is Sigma Seven. 

07 31 20 V Hawaii Cap Com. Sigma Seven. Hawaii Cap Com. Sigma Seven, I HF-high. Over 

07 31 30 p Hello. Hawaii Cap Com. Sigma Seven. UHF-high. 

07 32 00 CT Sigma Seven, Sigma Seven. Hawaii Com Tech. On HF/UHF. How do you read? Over 

07 32 04 P Hawaii Com Tech. Sigma Seven. Loud and clear. How me? 

07 32 21 P Hawtii Com Tech. Sigma Seven. Loud and clear on UHF/HF. Over. 

07 32 32 CT Roger, Sigma Seven. Read you on HF/UHF. Stand by for Hawaii Cap Com. 

07 32 37 P Roger. 

07 32 30 CC Sigma Seven. Hawaii Car. Com. Over. 

07 32 42 P Roger, Cms. I've been reading you for a long time. Over. 

07 32 45 CC Ah, that is good. We lost all contact with you. I have correct retrosequence time fo 

[recovery] area 5-1. Are you ready to copy? 

07 32 57 P Stand by 1 second here. 

07 33 00 CC Are you ready to copy retrosequence time, Wally? 

07 33 02 P Okay, go. 

07 33 03 CC Roger, 08 51 27. 

07 33 07 P Roger, 08 51 27. 

07 33 11 CC That's correct. 

07 33 12 P Okay. 

07 33 15 CC Give me your status. 

07 33 16 P Roger. Mv status is go. I could receive all the stations in the Pacific, but they app:ir 
enr.ly weren't receiving me. Would you advise them to transmit in the blind. 1 hai 
ery good communications with the Pacific Command Ship. 



07 


33 


33 


CC 


You say you had good con 


.munications with PCS? 


07 


33 


36 


P 


That is affirmative. Ideal 




07 


33 


39 


CC 


Roger. You are cutting t 
munications with PCS? 


iut here. It's difficult to understand you. Th 


07 


33 


45 




That is affirmative. 




07 


33 


46 


CC 


Roger. Roger. 




07 


33 




p 


I could hear Watertown, I: 


.untsville, and you, loud and clear all the time. 


07 


33 


58 


CC 






07 


33 


59 


P 


I still have ample fuel. T 
81 [percent] auto and 80 


he capsule is tracking beautifully in auto, retro 
[percent] manual. 


07 


34 


13 


CC 


Wally. 




07 


34 


14 


p 


Go ahead. 




07 


34 


15 


CC 


Would you reset your cloc. 




07 


34 


17 


p 


Roger. To 08 51 27. St 


and by. Roger. It is set to 08 51 27. Do yo- 


07 


34 


33 


CC 


Roger. I have that settin 


g- 


07 


34 


37 


p 







108 



HAWAII FIFTH PASS ) — Continued 

07 34 39 CC Y\ hen % ou t , L. n t g lc i mt \oui eimr m , t it -hould be -a at 08 51 31 Cape advisor 

07 34 47 P Roger. This means I have to punch retrosequence. Right"' 

07 35 03 CC Will vou give us a blood pressure? 

07 35 05 P Roger. 

07 35 35 CC Wallv. aive ::ie a c.e.t. 

07 35 4 i P Rogei In — I 11 _>i nn4) \HPk 07 35 44] t 4 , econd- Tint's 07 hours, 35 

minutes 45 seconds. Kid vou read. Gus'.' 
07 36 00 CC \\ dl\ \u 1 . t ,u 1 ink \ our tun-nut , i i- tiding out I 11 give \ ou a c.e.t. at 07 

30 10. MARK 07 30 10. [Computed mark garbled, unobtainable.] 
07 30 18 P Rog. r Is \ m muk I mi 4 -eeond t i-t Did \ ou re id m 1 

07 36 27 P HiwuiCip( mi I m. 1 econd- ft-t M ^mi ->t\ i n trm-mitting m thr blind . 

CA Id FOR \ I A ,'KIFTH PAHS) 

07 40 20 CC Hi llo -igm i -i in bill SmihSmii thi i ( iHip Com C il C lp Com Broadcasting 

in the blind. We have had a power failure on our receiver. I am broadcasting in the 
hlmd R n . ui lit ck tur r. tio-cqumc. u 0\ 51 33 Tin tike- mto account your 
clock ( r n it 1 t -t r ( 1 mt \ on Ind 1 i t n port h id 27 seconds -el m This should be 
^3 b\ 1 i~t f t cn<a \ hid Mth inu f jpe y, nit- \ ou to re-et that it 33. This is 
Cal broad carina in the blind. 

07 41 10 P Roger. Cal. I have set in 05 — correction. OS hours. 51 minutes, 33 seconds. Guavmas 

07 41 35 P Guavmas Car. Com. Sigma Seven. Over. 

07 41 44 CC Siijnn -• \< tin- i L d ( ip ( om Rep Lting broide i-t m the bhn I Cape advises 

ie-et%oni rl k tu US d1 md 13-icond-. md 3 ! -econd- C U ou 

07 41 59 CC Sigma Seven, this L s Ctd Cap Com. in the blind again. Make sure face plate is closed. 

Face plate closed. 

07 42 17 CC All right. This is-- Sigma Seven— this is Cal. We have vour change on T/M of OS 51 

and 33. showing good, This is correct setting. 

GUAYMAS (FIFTH PASS) 
07 42 33 CT M„m i Se tin- i- Gu \ mi, Com Tech Do^ouietd (Hti 

07 42 37 P Roger. Guavmas. How do vou read me? Over. 

07 42 39 CC Roger. Sigma Seven. Guavmas Cap Com. Loud and clear. Thev had a power failure 

up the Cahfomia ivov. W e re reading vour correct retrosequence time OS ol 33. On 
m\ nn-k I t -it \uu cip-,ul. ehp-td tinif i- at tin- moment 4 seconds fast, Wallv. 
This— this takes into effect this error. Over. 

07 43 09 P Roger, Scott. [ understand. Excuse me. Just hnished niv beet and vegetables. I am 

m good shape up here. I have had good communications with Al. The clock is set 
properlv. The capstue is tracking well. 

07 43 29 CC Roger. \ err good. Remember to close vour face plate at this time. Remember also do 

it prior to reentrv. 

07 43 39 P Roger. I have done that. 

07 43 41 CC Okav. at this time. 

07 43 42 P Roger. Face plate is closed and I have had a naval maneuver. 

07 43 48 CC Roger. 

07 43 50 P Everything looks real good. Scott. 

07 43 52 CC It looks real good dowi, here, Wallv. Doing a good job and we are looking forward to 

seeing vou shortly at Midway wav. 
07 44 00 P Roger. We'll get some boat duty in. too. 

07 44 10 P Scott. Do vou have horizon scans on me? 

07 44 13 CC Roger. Walt one. Wallv. 

07 44 16 P I would like to have vou check mv roll attitude. 

07 44 23 CC Roger, c.e.t. on mv mark will be 7 hours. 44 minutes. 30 seconds. MARK. [07 44 30] T 

07 44 31 P What? Is that ritcht? That's what mv clock says. 

07 44 36 CC Right. That was c.e.t, The Cape asked for that. We are showing 4 seconds behind 

you. Wallv 

07 44 43 P Oh. okav. That was richt on. Now what is mv roll attitude on your scanner? 

07 44 50 CC Okav. Vour roll scanner shows minus— minus— minus 10 [degrees]. Wallv. 

07 45 03 P Roger. T concur. Believe I am a little bit steeper than 10 [degrees] left. I'll bring that 

out with the manual axes and then let her flv it again. And see what she does. 



109 



OUATMAS (FIFTH PASS ) —Continued 



07 




20 


CC 


Wally. How about one more blood pressure before you leave? 


07 




28 


P 


Roger. Stand by. 


07 


45 


34 


CC 


Sigma Seven. On my mark, the ground elapsed time will be 7 hours, 45 minutes, 40 
seconds. Stand by." MARK. [07 45 44] T 


07 


45 


46 


p 


Roger. I concur. 


07 




47 
09 


CC 

p 


Roger. 

Going to fly-by-wire low a: this point. Manual lever in. The capsule attitudes appe > - 
to be very good. 


07 


46 


30 


CC 


That's fly-by-wire low at this time. Sigma Seven? 


07 


40 


33 


p 


That's correct. I just want to check this roll out during the daylight side. Pitch is 
real honest and so is van - . I think I've got to correct about 6 degrees worth of roll 
though. 


07 


46 


50 


CC 


Roger. Gyros are normal? Is that correct? 


07 


40 


52 


p 


That's correct. 


07 


47 


10 


CC 


Wally. we also show a gyro free position on the ground. 


07 


47 


14 


p 


Roger. I just went to that free. Standby. 


07 


47 


20 


CC 


Roger. And do you plan to return to ASCS shortly? 


07 


47 


25 


p 


Momentarily. 


07 




26 


CC 




07 


47 


27 


p 


Just coming on to it. 


07 




30 


CC 


Okay. Stop the blood pressure. We got a good one. Wally. 


07 


47 


32 


p 


Okay. Stand by— normal ASCS. 


07 


47 


39 


CC 


Roger. We're reading — g\ros normal. 






43 


p 


Roger. The scanner test was what the problem was. And the roll went off as we antici- 
pated it would. And I am going back to gyros normal, at this time, which is <U>rr.it 
2 minutes early. This is the routine that was on the flight plan, if you'll see it. 


07 


4S 


00 


CC 


Roger. 


07 


4S 


04 


p 


Okay. We should pick up this roll problem that I had there now that we've got the ««&»- 
ners back on the line. Looked pretty good for pitch though, it's beautiful. 


07 


48 


IS 


CC 


Roger. And the gyros art showing, at this time, only a 4 degree difference, and that is 
decreasing. 


07 


4S 


26 


p 


Roger. That's the deal. That's what I wanted you to check for me while I was o\er 
your station. Scott. Thank you. So it looks like the ASCS is pure. I am now in 


07 






CC 


Scanners are also in agree — pitch scanners in agreement with your gyros, and we have 
T M LOS. 


07 


4S 


45 


p 


Roger. I'm happy here. 


07 




12 


p 


This :s Sigma Seven. A 30 second HF check, at 07 50 minutes commencing at 10 seconds 



aft-T that. This is a 30 second duration test, as I pass down through the coa>1 of Raja 
California, en route to So. Oh — South America. Every system is working very properly. 
I have o more seconds of check to go. Test out. Sigma Seven. Switching to IT IF 
for relay. 
Warfare. Auto Two. 



110 



07 


51 


48 


CT 


07 


51 


51 


P 


07 


51 


57 


cc 










07 




00 


p 




52 


12 


p 










07 


52 


24 


CT 










07 


52 


38 


CC 


07 


52 


44 


p 


07 


52 


50 


cc 


















07 


53 


12 


p 


07 


53 


19 


cc 


07 


53 


27 


p 


07 


53 


44 


cc 


07 


53 


49 


p 


07 


53 


54 


cc 


07 


53 


57 


cc 








[Auto?] 


07 


53 


59 


P 


07 


54 


03 


cc 


07 


54 


05 


p 


07 


54 


10 


cc 


07 


54 


13 


p 










07 


54 


18 


cc 








[Auto 1] 


07 


54 


23 


P 


07 


54 


28 


CT 


07 


54 


34 


P 


07 


55 


09 


cc 








[Auto 1] 










07 


55 


18 


CT 


07 


55 


24 


P 


07 


55 


28 


CC 


07 


55 


33 


P 


07 


55 


42 


CC 








[Auto 1] 


07 


56 


03 


CC 








[Auto 1] 


07 


56 


10 


P 



CAPE CANAVERAL (SIXTH PASS) 

Sigma Seven. Cape Com Tech. Do you read? Over. 

Roger, Cape Com Tech. I read you loud and clear. How me? 

Warfare. Auto One relay. 

Cape Com Tech. Sigma Seven. How do you read, UHF relay? 
Cape Com Tech. Sigma Seven. On UHF. Over. 
UHF relay is good. Do you read? Over. 

Sigma Seven, Sigma Seven. Cape Com Tech, Cape Com Tech broadcasting 1 2 3 4 5 4 

3 2 1. How do you read? Over. 
I read you loud and clear, Murph. How do you read me? Over. 

QUITO (SIXTH PASS) 

TMS calling. Repeat please. ... Did you receive Cape Com Tech? Over. 

Hello, Quito. This is Sigma Seven. Can you relay to Cape that I read them loud and 
clear? Over. 

Yes. you are coming through fine. Any traffic you have, be glad to take it. Go ahead. 
Everything here is all set. Would you relay to the Cape, I have everything under control. 
We are all set here, 

Very fine. Thank you very much. You don't have any word to pass on? Can you say 

anything in Spanish to the fellows down here? 
I'm afraid I can't. Except I would like to come clown and visit you. I'm enjoying a 

beautiful sight of the country. 
Certainly nice to hear that, but could you say just a few greetings to them? They would 

appreciate it so much. They want to put you on their radio down here. 
I must send my greetings to the other people of our same area. The fact that we are two 

hemispheres joined is even proven today by our capability of flying over each other's 

countries realizing that we are one and the same. 
Would you say, -'Buenas dias," or something like that back to them? 
Right, All I can do on that now- is say, buenas dias you-all. 
Ha, ha. Thank you so much. I think they'll love that. 
. . . Cape Com Tech? Over. 

Would you relay to Cape Com Tech— Cape Com Tech that I can read htm? 
Who can you read? 

Would you relay to Cape Canaveral Com Tech that I read him. 
That you do read Cape Canaveral right now? 
That's affirmative. 

Okay, will tell him. Thank you a lot. 

Sigma Seven. Auto One Cap Com. Did you receive Cape Com Tech? Over. 
Sigma Seven. Affirmative. 

Sigma Seven, this is Cape Com Tech. This is Cape Com Tech. How do you read? 
Over. 

Sigma Seven. Loud and clear, 

Sigma Seven. Auto One Cap Com. Do you read? Over. 

This is Sigma Seven. Affirmative. I do read. 

Sigma Seven, Cape Com Tech UHF/HF. How do you read? 

Sigma Seven. Loud and clear. 

Were you calling Quito or Cape Com? 

Trying to talk to the Cape. But apparently they don't realize I am still talking. Quito, 

I can hear them all loud and clear. 
Cap Com. Did you read Cape Com Tech? Over. 

Sigma Seven, Sigma Seven. Auto One Cap Com. If you read, give a short count. Over. 

This is Sigma Seven. We don't have a transmitter exercise. I do read 1 2 3 4 5 5 4 
3 2 1. Sigma Seven. Out. I'm tired of carrying on, Com. 



Ill 



QUITO (SIXTH PASS (—Continue! I 



07 56 33 CO Sigma Seven, Sigma Seven Auto One Cap Com. Can you read? Over. 

(Auto 1) 

07 59 00 P At 7 hours, 59 minutes, 10 seconds, light value reading, for the black and white film, is 13 

for ASA 64. Setting light value of 13. Taking picture number 7 with filter. The 
continent of South America is difficult to photograph because of all the weather. I will 
take a panorama at this time. Starting at 7 59 almost 8 hours. In fact, it will be 8 
hours. MARK [08 00 OOF, 7, 8, 9 black photographs, black and white film. Ten 
photographs, black and white film. The shots are being taken at 250, 5.6 [1/250 second 
and fo.6] at infinity. Taking number 11, looking to the left. I am coming across the 
South American continent at this point, I have a large river in sight. Take a picture, 
camera facing down as much as possible. I believe I got the capsule window very 
nicely there. I'll come back to— B-l now. I've shot the 12 first pictures. I'm on 
B-l, shooting at the cloud streaks. I've shot B-2 and these are all black and white 
shots, with Weather Bureau filter in at 08 02. I will take the last pictures of this series. 
That is the end of the Weather Bureau pictures. I believe we've taken enough to 
satisfy the requirements. Pulling out the filter. Restoring the slide to the back. 
Removing black back. 

°8 OH 37 P Bring out color back. Taking a light value reading of the South American continent at 

08 04 commencing, gotta change the ASA number. ASA number changed to 160. 
Light value being measured at this time. Light value is 15. 

08 05 01 I' Very interesting terrain pictures. I will take one of the horizon Just for posterity. At 

this time, that picture was A number 12, resetting to B and now have B-l. Taking 
some colored pictures of the South American continent. I don't think we'll have much 
luck with them. 

OS 06 09 P That was at B-2. Coming up on B-3, Piteh down at this time to approximately 10 

degrees. The roll error i hat developed during the period where we had the scanners 
off has disappeared. At this point, I am going to increase the suit Mow to approxi- 
mately — just a tad to increase the cooling for reentry. See if I can bring it down a 
little bit more. There is almost perfect attitude. Yaw- is good. Pitch is down a little 
steep. It's definite that 1 he yaw reticle is not good for night work. 

OS 07 46 P I'm gcing to stow the earner* now for the cheek on the Durban light. As we did not have 

any luck with the flare. 

08 08 44 P Camera is stowed. Photon.eter is light enough to take out and leave out. I will make 

another check on a low-l.'vel gadget here before we terminate. And it has gone u» 
about the thickness of one line. Is now reading 0.06, that is, less than 0. 1 . All of these 
will now be stowed in the ^love box; they have been on the hatch, adjacent to the hatch 
detention spring nearest t,ie emergency rate handle. In a vertical plane parallel to the 
bag that holds the extra goodies that can't lie shoved other places. 

08 10 52 P At 08 hours and 10 minutes Going to pitch up to reentry attitude shortly. Xo reason 

to keep glove box open at this time. Have to get the standard source of light. I may 
be able to get it. Put that away in a hurry. That'll stay there. That is the yaw 
cover. Everything else is readv. 

08 12 02 P Skies are getting darker. 

08 12 30 P Fly-by-wire low and pitclu lg up to reentrv attitude. Going to fly-bv-wire low, now 

[08 12 39]. T 

08 13 19 1' Attitude okay. Pitching back down to reentry attitude, correction retroattitude. Xo 

reason to stay at reentry attitude. Xo reason to stay at reentry attitude, when we can 
see so well in retroattitude. And this is truly the attitude we need to fly. Coming 
up on retroattitude. Roll checks out. Yaw checks out. Reentry attitude is on select. 
Stopping pitch shortly. [Pitch is drifting in very slowly.] Pitch is stopped— on pitch. 
Going to ASCS auto, gyro- are normal, maneuver is off. 

08 14 34 1' Closed face plate. Opened it momentarily, merely to wipe my nose, and try to clear .i 

lens, which I cannot do. Reentry select. Camera is stowed. I will now extinct the 
standard light source-— and cannot move the cabin light on the starboard side; there- 
fore. I will extinct it as a continual reference. There, it is now extinct, at 3.3. Cabin 
source extincted at 3.3 at 08 hours 15 minutes and 35 seconds c.e.t. 

08 16 06 P Fly-by-wire low did check out very well, 

°8 J 8 02 P Moving suit setting to 8 at this time. That is the suit coolant quantity settings to 8 

Suit inlet is now- 65 [degrees], which is comfortable. In fact, I was quite cool before, 
but ['d like to get cool again. And the dome is about 73 [degrees]. 



112 



QUITO (SIXTH, PASS ) — Continued 

08 18 23 P Cabin is ail set, I don': want to lower the dome anv more. It's been verv good. Check- 

ing on time IS minutes. Okav on the clock. Thrusters— roll left auto is 110 [degrees] 
Roll right auto is 1 15 Metroes]. Roll left manual is 100 [decrees]. Cabin heat exchanger 
is 43 [decrees]. Pitch up auto is 95 [degrees]. Pitch down auto is 95 [degrees]. Yaw 
left auto is 80 [degrees], "iaw right auto 100 [degrees]. 250 inverter, oh how nice, less 
than 180 i degrees], l'he 150 inverter— is J 10 [decrees]. Standby is 125 [degrees]. Turn- 
ing to cabm heat exchanger. 

08 19 -12 P (hccking, H rl ^ jlt~ ,t this time Mini bus 24 [volts] i-oDtedbus 27 1 [volts] one is 

25 [volts ty . is 2~ [\ jits] thi.e is 25 [Wts] st indbv one is 2? [\ oits] .tindbi tuo 
is 25 [volts:, isolated is 2S [volts]. Back to mam. ASCS and fans are both 115 [volts]. 
Drawing 20 amps. Oxygen remaining 50 [psi, m hundreds] primary. 75 [psi. in hundreds] 
secondary. 

08 20 47 P Will putorm m ori< nt ition test f t this tun while I m on \sC^ ind not so bus\ Rt «h 

ing for manual handle — and on it. exactly on it. Reaching for yaw attitude. I hit it 
at 20 degrees, right 20 degrees. Reaching for emergency handle. Right on it. negative, 
that one— slightly off touched the side of the box first. I didn't hit it exactly. I'm sure. 
That is completion of the orientation test. 

OS 21 29 P J have the Moon in sight. There is Venus. The Moon is tracking beautifully. Right on 

in yaw. right on in pitch, right on in roll. All three axes are very beautiful. 

08 22 07 P Seems so sad just a little less than a half an hour left to plav with this. I am now going to 

fly-bv-wire low, Gyros free, to pitch down to observe the Durban light, Oyros free, 
fly-by-wnv low. correction, I am going to manual proportional at this point. I have not 
charged anv rates so 1 will go back to Abbs. Clean. Over to rate command. Manual 
proportional out. I will try this mode out for size. Down a verv small amount, 23 

INDIAN OCEAN SHIP (SIXTH PASSj 



08 


23 


05 


P 


Indian Ocean ship, this is bigma beven. Do you read.' Over. 


08 


23 


15 




Indian Ocean bhip. Sigma beven. Do von read.' Over. 


08 


23 


28 


P 


Indian Ocean ship, Sigma Seven, Do vo l read? Over. 


08 


23 


40 


P 


Indian Ocean binp. bisrna Seven. Do you read? Over. 


08 


23 


49 


cc 


. . . how do vou read? Over. 


08 


24 


05 


p 


Indian Ocean bhip. bigma beven. Do you read? Over. 


08 


24 


08 


cc 


Roger, bigma beven. R.ead you 5 by 5. 


08 


24 


12 


p 


Roger, Indian Ocean Ship. Have not seen the flare. I am pitching back up to retro- 










attitude. 


08 


24 


20 


cc 


Roger. Were you able to check the Durban lights? 


OS 


24 


22 


p 


I mean the Durban lights. I was not able to see them. I see some lights on the ground — 










at this time — in the middle of the window, which is just about the time for the Durban 










lights. They are underneath clouds and are not good enough for complete recognition. 
Over. 


08 


24 




cc 


. . . short report. 


OS 


24 


56 


p 


Sav again. Over. 


08 


24 


59 


cc 


Could you give us. a short report? Over. 


08 


25 




p 


Roger. 1 am back in — retroattittide. I'm going back to chimpanzee configuration. 










The gyros are normal. Everything is stowed but the photometer, which will be stowed 










shortly. 


08 


25 


22 


cc 




08 


25 




p 


I have set my suit circuit cooling valve to position number 8 just to precool a little bit, 










and it is working properly. 


08 


25 




cc 


Roger. Car, we have one more blood pressure at this time'. 1 Over. 


OS 


25 


44 


p 


Roger. Coming up. 


08 


25 


59 


cc 


Sigma Seven. Did you say that your att- your mode was ASC8 retro? 


08 


26 


05 


p 


I'm coming to that just now. 


08 


26 


06 


cc 


Roger. 


08 


26 


15 


p 


I have the moon setting at this point. 


08 


26 


21 


cc 




OS 


26 




p 


The moor, just set. And I have lighting in sight over this area. 


OS 


26 


25 


cc 


Roger. Are you about ready to go through your preretrosequence checklist? 



113 



IXDIAX OCEAN SHIP i SIXTH PASS) — Continued 











That s affirmative. .Just st:.nd bv 1 second. W ill go to ASCS, 


OS 


26 


37 


CC 


Okay. 










Oka\ . Read} for preretrosequence checklist. 


iv 




tn 


cc 


Uo yoa want some help with it. 


-, 


OF 




p 




os 




5? 


cc 


DYyoTwam -ome hel ; with the checklrt" 


os 


26 


54 


p 


Negative. I am in attitude at this time. I will give you the rest of the checklist for yoi.r 
reading. 






01 


cc 








0" 


p 


Roger. Have got that done. I've got attitude select retro. 








cc 




OS 


0" 




p 


Fve^ot retro correction th rubers on normal instead of low I'm 

HF^antenna tobLonTaltl^ou^ m g°mg 0 smtc to 


08 


27 


32 


cc 


Roger. 










I am oil bicone, and the \iaoi is closed. All other items aie in their proper position. Ovei . 


OS 


^7 


48 


cc 


OS 


97 


5'? 




Ch kl' t It ' f - ,.'ti. 


OS 




56 


cc 


ec^- is ^ompe e excep or sqm stti c l arm. ^ ^ 

oger. ou > ou us <. ca m pressure an *ui rea out . ^ 


„ 
1 




00 




Roger, otand by. the cabm pressure is 4.9 [psiaj almost a. i he suit temperature 
inlet is 63 Idc-greet]. The cabin temperature is 92 [degrees]. 






20 


cc 


lgma e\en. ay again ca Jin pressure. 1 no reac vou. 










Cabin pressure is 5, 5,0 [psiaj. 


c 




„ 




? 0ger ' 


0^ 














no 


cc 


lgma ^even. verj thing looks good. & standing b\ . 


OS 


9Q 






^ ger ' / \y°J > ? °° nCre 


n-> 


xn 




cc 




OS 


30 


4« 


p 


Roger ^ am completetv^e^ur^he^e tiid readv for retrofire on comma d 


OS 


30 


49 


cc 


Roger. 












OS 


31 


27 


p 


This is Sigma Seven. I will check fly-by-wire high thrusters at this time. 


OS 


34 




cc 




OS 


34 


32 


cc 




08 


34 


50 


p 


At this time. I have completed the high thruster checks. A delayed report. Each axk 
worked beautifully. I now have 75 [percent] auto [fuel] and 75 [percent] manual [fuel]. 


08 
08 


35 
36 


41 
35 


p 

I' 


All attitudes are responding very nicely. Suit heat dome is about 72 [degrees], suit inlet, 
is about 63 [degrees], coming down just a tad. Definitely it — optimum flight setting of 
about 7'2 to 8 for this vehicle. I will crack it up another notch to 8. I have set the-- 
suit regulator for the cooh.nt quantity to position 8, at c.e.t. 08 36 23. 

That's a more accurate reading on fuel. If I can get my fingers up to, it would be 78, 78 



[percent] — prior to retro. I am set up to have retro performed — automatic control- 
subsequent to retro — I will switch to fly-by-wire and pitch up to reentry axis — correction — 
subsequent to retro jettison, switch to fly-by-wire, pitch up reentry attitude and select 
rate command at 08 . . . 



08 40 35 P Cabin, at this time, is monitcring at about 4.8 [psia]. The suit apparently about 4 [psia], 

and the suit pressure gage is reading 4.9 [psia]. This is the suit pressure gage on the 

08 41 03 P The index finger— finger-tip light, left hand, finally failed. They really do not have the 

longtime durability that we're looking for. 
08 41 19 P The horizon is very clear. Roll and pitch look very good. Yaw looks good. I believe 

we've got a medley of stars coming into sight now to give us a fix. 
08 41 37 P One gets the illusion that you're on a train or some other vehicle, due to the humming, 

and you feel that you should be on a track of some kind and you're driving down. 

Much like the sound of the ship when you're under way at sea. The blower noise. [ 

assume, and the inverters 31 ve you the same illusion. 
08 42 14 P Okay. We -got Grus, and we got Jupiter in the right position. So our yaw reference is 

right on the money. Xo problem with that. When I lean way down I can pick up 

Jupiter, and Fomalhaut should come down very shortly after. 
08 42 36 P Have a slight roll to the right, which is indicated by the gyro as well. Coming on 8 

minutes and 50 seconds. 



114 



INDIAN OCEAX SHIP ( SIXTH PASS) — Continued 



08 


43 


24 


P 


T r -10 relay must have set in, although I have no clues — other than the ASCS rate gyros 










coming up and I can't bet on those since they're in anyway by the switch being selected 










to Tr-10 bypass, 


08 


43 


49 




G} 7 ros normal. Attitude — fty-by-wire. Retrofire armed, the 3 fuses are armed. We are 
fat! 


08 


44 


04 


P 


There is Jupiter, and there is Fomalhaut in the middle of the window, this time around. 










Attitude is real stiff now. Just by chance, I assume. Roll is right on, yaw is right on. 


08 


44 


11 


p 


Cabin P0 2 at this time is about 3.9 to 4.0 [psi]. Cabin heat exchanger is about 50 










[degrees], at this time. Dome just happens to be on an upswing now. 


08 


4o 


01 




Dome, cabin dome is about 57 [degrees]. Cabin temperature is 90 [degrees]. Suit inlet 










is 62 [degrees]. Oxygen remaining 50 [psi, in hundreds] primary, 75 [psi, in hundreds] 










secondary. All electrical looks good. Fuel remaining, still is, 78, 78 [percent]. 


08 


45 


53 


P 


Coming up on the 5 minute to go to retrograde light. 


08 


46 


34 




Five minute to go retrograde light is on. 


08 


4 ' 


01 




Attitude looks very good, nice and stiff. Pressure is holding ver\' well. Vehicle looks very 












08 


47 




P 


Roll left, not so good. Let s see what we have, rive degrees roll shows up very readily. 


08 


48 


21 




Checking over the other systems. They all seem to be fairly constant. Suit dome is 










still about 71 [degrees], suit inlet is 62 [degrees], which this time is comfortable. Cabin 










pressure and suit pressure and suit pressure gauge all match within about Via of a psi. 










Getting some light in the periscope at this time. 


08 


48 


54 


P 


About 2 minutes to go to retrofire. I'm in L'HF-high, transmit and record, R/T. All 










fuse switches are in the proper position but for the landing switch fuses. 


08 


49 


17 


P 


Here comes some sunlight. 










PACIFIC COMMAND SHIP (SIXTH PASS) 


08 


49 






Pacific Command Ship, this is Sigma Seven. Do you read? Over. 


08 


50 


04 


CO 


Sigma Seven, this is Pacific Command Ship. Do you read? Over. 


08 


50 


08 


cc 


Affirmative, Seven. Are you reading me? 


08 


50 


09 


p 


Roger, Al. Read you loud and clear. 


08 


oO 


12 


cc 


Understand you're ready to go home, Wally. 


08 


50 


14 




Roger. I've got everything all set, Al, except for the squib switch, which I'll put on your 


08 


50 


20 


cc 


count. , . 
very gooo. lou re going to use ASCS retro, and manual proportional standby. 


08 


50 


20 


p 


That is affirmative. The handle is sitting in at this time; I'll pull it out. 


08 


50 


31 


cc 


Okay. Your attitudes look very good, Wally, and your clock is 5 seconds fast. So with 










the present setting, we should time out right on time. 


08 


50 


39 


p 


Roger, Al. I've got-- I'm coming up on 30 seconds to go. I'll give you my light. 


08 


~° 


46 


cc 


Okay. 


08 


oO 


49 


p 


I've got the 5 minute light on. This is the 30 second light — 5, 4, 3, 2, 1, LIGHT [08 51 










02] T . There it is. I've got a light and a tone. Tone is out. 


08 


51 


07 


cc 


Very good. The timing is right on, Wally. I'll count down to retrosequenee, and you'll 










arm the squibs at 5. 


08 


51 


14 


p ^ 


That's correct. 


08 


51 


22 


cc 


Here we go at 10, 9, 8, 7, 6, 5. 


08 


51 


28 


p 




08 


51 


30 


cc 


3,\ 1. SEQUENCE [08 51 32] T . 


08 


51 


34 


p 


I have sequence, and capsule is nice and tight. Got attitude green. She sitting here 










like a tight rock, Al. 


08 


51 


42 


cc 


Roger. Attitude looks very good from here, Wally. 


08 


51 


44 


p 


Yeah. They looked beautiful here, too. Oh boy! She's a good little capsule, I'll clue 


08 


51 


52 


r*r 


you. 
Here you go. 


08 


t l 


53 




Roger. 








p° 


5, 4, 3, 2, 1, 0. [08 52 02] T 


08 


52 


04 














attitudes are right on the money. I've got 3. 


08 


52 


17 


cc 


Very good. We confirm on T/M. Retros 1, 2, and 3. Attitudes holding very well. 










Retro jettison switch to arm. 


08 


52 


24 


p 


Roger. 



115 



PACIFIC COMMAND SHIP (SIXTH PASS) — Continued 



08 


52 


25 


CC 


Emergency retro jettison fuse switch is on. 




08 


52 


28 


P 


Roger. They are ail on. Retro jet is armed. Got sunlight. Everybody's ve 


ry happy. 










I'm going to fly-by-wire, Al, to pitch to reentry attitude. Manual is going in. 




08 


52 


41 


CC 


And we show you have about 68 percent auto and 84 percent manual fuel left. I 


think our 










readings are probably a little closer than yours. 




08 


52 


50 


p 


I've got 68 [percent] auto and 78 [percent] manual. 




08 


52 


56 


CC 


Roger. 




08 


53 


00 


p 


Standing by for retrojett, I have retrojett, and light is green. I could hear it, b. 


y the way. 


08 


53 


10 


CC 


Very good. We confirm retro jettison. 




08 


53 


12 


p 


Okay. I am using fly-by -wire low to pitch up to reentry attitude. 




08 


53 


18 


CC 


Okay. We're following yo.i here. 




08 


53 


20 


p 


Roger. I am a little sloppy on the roll as you may see. Xo strain. I'm going 


to put her 










right into ASCS when I get up here. Okay. She's in reentry as far as roll goes. Okay. 










The scope is coming in. I'm on the gyros. 




08 


53 


40 


CC 


Roger. We confirm scope retract on T/M. 




08 


53 


43 


p 


Roger. 




08 


53 


44 


CC 


And you're very close to reentry attitude. 




08 


53 


47 


p 


Roger. I'm in reentry attitude now. 




08 


53 


51 


CC 


Roger, Understand you will go to RSCS prior to 0.05g, with aux damp as i 


t back up. 


08 


53 


57 


p 


That is affirmative. I'm now going to ASCS at this time. And she's tight an 


d holding. 


08 


54 


05 


CC 


Understand you are in ASCS. 




08 


54 


07 


p 


That is correct. I want to see if the reentry logic was in. 




08 


54 


11 


CC 


Roger. And you will go to RSCS prior to 0.05g. 




08 


54 


15 


p 


That is correct, Al. I want to give her a checkout. Those retros were real cute 


, and right 










on the monej r . 




08 


54 


25 


CC 






08 


54 


26 


p 


I'd say attitudes didn't vary 1 degree. 




08 


54 


29 


CC 


Real tight. Real tight. 




08 


54 


30 


p 


Righto. I think they're gonna put me on number 3 elevator. 




OS 


54 


35 


CC 


Ha, ha. Good show. Stand by. I'll call the Cape. See if they have anythir 


ig- 


08 


54 


39 


p 


Okay. Al. 




08 


54 


4S> 


p 


Okay. Post retro, I read 65 [percent] auto [fuel],, and about— 78 [percent] mai 


:mal [fuel]. 










Manual lever is in. I'm in ASCS at this time. 










CC 


Understand you are still in ASCS but the manual lever is in. 




08 


55 


14 


p 


That is correct. What is my nominal time for O.Oog. 




08 


55 


19 


CC 


Standing by, Wally. We have LOS. See you later. 




08 


55 


22 


p 


Roger, Al. 












WATERTOWN (SIXTH PASS) 




08 


50 


57 


CT 


Sigma Seven, Sigma Seven, this is Watertown Com Tech. UHF. How do yoi 




OS 


57 


02 


p 


Roge-. Watertown Com Tech, this is Sigma Seven. Read you loud and clear. 


How me? 


08 


57 


07 


CT 


Sigma Seven, this is Wat oi town Com Tech. I read you weak, I read you wea 


k. Please 










make another transmission. 




08 


57 


13 


p 


Roger. I read you loud and clear, Watertown, How do you read me now? 




08 


57 


W 


CT 


Sigma Seven, Sigma Seven this is Watertown Com Tech. I read you broken u 


p. I read 










voj broken up. Please make another transmission. 




08 


57 


27 


p 


Roger. Watertown. I read you loud and clear. Please make your transmits 


ions to me 










in the blind, if I do not acknowledge. 




08 


57 


37 


CT 


Sigma Seven, Sigma Seven this is Watertown Com Tech. I read you 3 by 3. 












I'll turn you over to Cor.i — Cap Com. 




08 


57 


45 


p 


Roger. 




08 


57 


55 


CC 


Sigma Seven, this is Watertown Cap Com. 




08 


57 


58 


p 


Roger. Watertown Cap Com. How do you read me? 




08 


58 


02 


CC 


Weak and unreadable, at he moment. Rut I will transmit in the blind. Please check 










to make sure your face plate is closed and sealed. Do you read? 




08 


58 




p 


Roge-. Face plate closed and sealed. 




08 


58 


13 


CC 


Will \-ou verify that your scope is fully retracted and the door closed- Does it 


look dark'.' 


08 


58 


18 




The -^cope is retracted, and I think you'll have to confirm that for me. 




08 


58 




CC 


Understand — I just barely understood you, but I'll go ahead. Will you confin 


m that the 



UHF/'DF switch is in tht R/T position, 
116 



AVA.TERTOWX (SIXTH PASS)— Continued 



08 58 32 P That is correct. 

08 58 37 P I am standing bv to check out my RSCS mode at. the proper time. 

08 58 47 CC Sigma beven. Did not understand the last transmission but assume you read that we 

should have l'HF/DF switch in the R/T position. I do not have any landing recovery 
information for vou at the moment, but I'll pass it on to you if I can. 

OS 59 03 P Roger. Have- vou acquired track? 

08 59 09 CC Expect LOB blackout anvtime. I'll keep transmitting in the hope that it will get it on 

your tape recorder. 
08 59 16 P Roger. 

08 59 22 CC At main chute deplov if vou get a chance, will you shut off your three water controls to 

help out tne data reduction people? 
08 59 28 P Wilco. If I get a chance. Ha. ha. 

08 59 36 CC Sigma Seven. Don t forget to watch your cabin pressure and your altimeter. If they do 

not check, pull your decompress or your snorkle handle. 
08 59 45 P Roger. Understand. 

08 59 50 CC Sigma bevei:. I ll keep on talking in the hope that we can clear this blackout problem. 

At 17K. your Oi emergency light should come on. At that time, pull your snorkle. 

09 00 01 P Roger. Understand. 

09 00 04 CC \ou should have sent vour blood pressure. 

09 00 07 P I did. 

09 00 11 CC I still have vou on T'M. No blackout yet. 

09 00 13 P Roger. I'm going to check out rate command at this time. 

09 00 18 CC Roger. T. nderstand. Checking out rate command. 

09 00 29 CC Sigm i -.e\ e„ D > \ou > ill read? 

09 00 31 P Sigma Seven. Read vou loud and clear. How me? 

09 00 34 CC Clear. 

09 00 35 P Roger. 

09 00 40 CC Wallv, by the wav. how do you feel? All your systems okay at this time' 

09 00 43 P Oh, they're beautiful — verv good. Every control mode has worked perfectly. 

09 00 53 CC Lost vou on TjM. 

09 00 55 P Roger. 

09 01 19 P I have selected aux damp and rate command at this. The window is almost completely 

occluded. It would be impossible to see out of it at this point. 

09 01 38 P I m seeing tl n„- tome < If but I can't see them very clearly. There we go into 0.05, a 

green. I am hands oft at this point. In rate command, in aux damp. And I have a 
roll rate started. A slight pitch rate, not bad at all. I can see out the window for some 
strange reason ax last. There goes another long spiral like looking device. I will give 
another olood pressure at this point, subsequent to 0.05g. All rates are very nominal. 
Rate command is working quite well I would say. 

09 02 44 P Going back into g-held. And the attitude looks very stable. I'm rolling right around the 

horizon. 1 m going to stop my blood pressure at this time — and sit back here and 
regroup. I can see the ion layer. I'm inverted at this time. 

09 03 14 P Attitudes are controlling very well. Seems to be plenty of manual fuel. I'm still at 72 

percent. Definitely has the cyclic rate in pitch at this point. Yaw is fairly stiff; g is 
building up. Capsule is quite stable. There is a green flow — and looks like orange 
streaks every once in a while. RSCS is doing very well on reentry. Rather unusual 
slow roll, iSuildmg un to zg s. I have plenty of fuel in rate command. Seeing sparkles 
coming bv now. A definite green glow, like a limeade; g's building up. Oscillations are 
verv good at this point. About 3g. 

09 04 IS P Mill in a relatively horizontal attitude. Rate command working well. Glad she's holding. 

Doing verv well. Coming up to o' L -j [g]. Rate command still holding, fuel is still 70 
[percent], seems low. Coming up to 61i> [g], 7g's. Coming up to Sg. Rate command 
holding. lakmg a pretty big yaw out. Not too bad, I have it pretty well. Manual 
[fuel] is tiO p i cuit ^he s fh ing it very well. 

09 05 29 P Coming off. Peak-g was an indicated 7! i [g]. 

09 05 38 CC I read vou weak. How do vou read? 

09 05 40 P Roger. Read vou well, loud and clear. I still have about 3g on. Capsule performing 

verv well. Rate command holding pretty well. Altimeter off the peg. Attitudes 
holding verv well. 



117 



HAWAII (SIXTH PASS) 



09 06 05 CO Sigma Seven, this is Hawaii Cap Com. 

09 06 07 P Roger. Go ahead. 

09 06 09 CO Everything appears to be nominal. 

09 06 11 P Roger. Seems nominal here. Everything looks good. Got 55 percent auto fuel. Passing 

through 70,000 feet, 65,000. Attitudes are very stable. Coming up on 60 [thousand]. 
Rate command oing very well. Coming up on 50 [thousand]. She looks like a sweety. 
Coining up on 45,000. I'm down to about lg. Preparing to punch the drogue, at 40, 
41 [thousand]. I'm punching drogue, and the drogue is out. You can hear it, I can't 
see it because of the clouds. Attitudes are holding well. Manual lever is in. RSCS 
fuel is going pretty fast. I can see the drogue now. Drogue looks very good. I'm 
going to aux damp too. Actually don't need it. Rate command is burning itself out. 
And aux damp is doing nothing, just sitting there. I'll put in auto mode just to let her 
pump out. 

09 07 30 CC — about 3 seconds. 

09 07 31 P Roger. I'm coming down on 20,000 [feet]. Standing by for snorkle. Cabin pressure is 

increasing. Snorkle should go. I believe snorkle lid blew. I felt them. I will pull 
it anyway. I have an emergency rate. I think I led the snorkle a little bit on that one. 

09 07 58 P I'm dumping H a Oj. Switch fuse on. Standing by. Recovery arm is "arm". Standing 

by for main chute. All switches are in proper position. Manual fuel is almost all gone. 
There goes drogue and main is out. It's — she's out beautiful. Bright blue sky. And 
it's dereefed, and looks like a sweety pie. Auto fuel is dumping. Rate of descent is 
abcut 35 [fps] at this time. I see no problems at all. I'm going to get prepared for 
impact. Auto fuel is dumping out. Cabin pressure is increasing properly. All systems 
look real good. I am cool, I am not hot. Main chute looks delightful. Rate of descent 
is 35 feet per second. I have no reason to select anything else. Landing bag is out. 

09 09 09 CC Roger, Wally. How do you feel? 

09 09 10 P I feel marvelous. This is r. beautiful flight, wasn't it? 

09 09 15 CC Understand, you feel marvelous. 

09 09 IS P That is affirmative. I'm opening visor at this time to relieve my ears. 

09 09 26 CC Did you get the weather in the recovery area? 

09 09 29 P I prooably had too much to say. What do you fellows have? 

09 09 32 CC Roger. Weather is 2,000 broken, visibility 10 miles, 3-foot seas. We don't have any 

tracked IP yet but you should be very close to the Kearsarge. 

09 09 42 P Roger. Sounds good, Gus. It's a beautiful chute here. I want to get a good description 

out before we got into the — the drink here. I'm preparing for impact by disconnecting 
the visor hose. 



09 


10 01 


CC 


What's your altitude, Wally ? 


09 


10 03 


P 


Say again. 


00 


10 06 


CC 


Altitude? 


09 


10 07 


p 


I'm row at about 6,000 feet. 


09 


10 12 


CC 


Understand, 6,000. 


09 




p 


That's correct. I'm not rolli 



on this chute. Okay, I've got that darn visor 1 
off and the Velero strap loose. Visor seal is dumped. I take off the exit hose from 
helmet— and stuff that up in the tuleries. I'm not even hot here, Gus. 
09 10 55 CC You say it's hot. 

09 10 56 P I am not hot, I am very comfortable. 

09 11 01 CC Say again here. Just don't read. 

09 11 03 P I am very comfortable. 

09 11 07 CC Talk slow. You come in clear then. 

09 11 09 P Roger. I am very comfortable. 

09 11 14 CC Very good. We understand. 

09 11 17 P I want to stay aboard. 

09 11 22 CC .... 

09 11 24 P I am turning off ASCS bus. I'm going to get rid of these coolant valves that the fell 

wanted, they're all going to 0. And I hear the aux beacon already. 
09 11 5S CC .... 

09 13 06 P I am about ready to impact now. I'm just about on the water. 

09 13 46 P Oh! Stay dry, baby. 

09 13 52 P Okay. It's taking a while to right itself but I think I've got the small end out of 

water here. Can you read? Over. 



118 



HAWAII i SIXTH PASS ) — Continued 



09 


14 


01 


Flag 2 


Roger. Sigma Seven. Flag Plot, Are you stable and on the water? 








Plot 




09 


14 


05 


P 


Looks like I'm stable on the water. The whip antenna is up. I can see it. I will switch 










to whip antenna. 


09 


14 


13 


P 


1 am definitely canted over pretty far, but there seems to be no water in the capsule, 










and I am very comfortable. She is righting herself very nicely, at this time. 


09 


14 


23 


CC 


Roger. Carrier has you visual and the helos are on their way. 


09 


14 


28 


P 


How about that? That's great. 


09 


14 


32 


CC 


Do you still feel better? 


09 


14 


33 


p 


Oh! I always feel better. There, she's getting nice and straight now. 


09 


14 


42 


CC 


Say again, Wally. 


09 


14 


45 


p 


She's getting up there nice and straight now. 


09 


14 


49 


CC 


Talk very slowly. I have difficulty reading. 


09 


14 


51 


p 


Okay. She's almost erect in the water at this time. I'm going to put up the whip an- 










tenna, Gus, and turn the squibs off. Stand by. 


09 


15 


05 


CC 


I'm sorry, Wally. I didn't read that. 


09 


15 


09 


p 


Okay. I have put the whip antenna up, and I'm turning off the arm squibs. 


09 


15 


17 


CC 


Whip antenna is up. You're turning off the squib arm. 


09 


15 


20 


p 


That is correct. 


09 


15 


22 


p 


Okay. I'm going to check the cockpit, to be sure we don't, get the boys in trouble. Every- 










thing looks real good, Gus. This is a real sweetie pie of a capsule. 


09 


15 


34 


CC 


Roger. I agree. 


09 


15 


36 


p 


I am in comfort, absolute complete comfort. The suit inlet is now 72 [degrees], the cabin 










is about 98 [degrees]. That's all. I feel very comfortable. 


09 


15 


51 


CC 


Roger. Repeat the last part before the very comfortable. 


09 


15 


55 


p 


The suit inlet temperature is 72 — 72 [degrees]. The cabin temperature is 98 — 98 [degrees]. 










I'm going to retract the scope manually to get it out of the way for the boys when they 










come around. 


09 


16 


27 


CC 


Wally. You landed about 9,000 yards from the carrier. How about that? 


09 


16 


30 


p 


That's pretty close, isn't it? 


09 


17 


33 


p 


Boy, this is a sweet little bird. I just can't get over it. 










Wallv Hawaii Cap Com. 


09 


18 


12 


p 


Go ahead. 


09 


IS 


16 


CC 












antenna, and they arepn the way. 


09 


18 


22 


p 


Very good. I am very comfortable. 










RECOVERY (SIXTH PASS) 


09 


18 


33 


Rl 


Hello Astro, hello Astro, this is Swiss One. How do you read me. Over. 


09 


18 


37 


p 


Roger. Swiss One, this is Astro. How are you today? 


09 


18 


40 


Rl 


Fine, fine. Got your squibs off. Give me a short count, please. 


09 


IS 


44 


P 


Roger. A short count follows: 1234554321. This is Astro. Sigma Seven. Very 










happy to be back in the Pacific league. 


09 


18 


57 


Rl 


Good. Glad to be able to talk to you. 


09 


19 


00 


P 


Oh, it's a good habit. 


09 


19 


06 


Rl 


Hello Astro, this is Swiss One. We have you on sight. You're looking good from hero, 










on the green dye. 


09 


19 


16 


P 


Roger. I seem to be bathing in it, don't I? 


09 


19 


20 


Rl 


Roger. I'm going to fly overhead, come back around and drop the swimming team. 


09 


19 


2S 


P 


Okay. Good show. 


09 


19 


32 


Rl 


Wally. You look fine. 


09 


19 


34 


P 


Good show. How's it? She looks pretty erect to me. She's canted off a little bit towards 










what would be my left side, Is that correct? 


09 


19 


42 


Rl 


That's affirmative. 


09 


19 


43 


P 




09 


19 


46 


Rl 


Okay. We're going, now coming in with the swimmers. 


09 


19 


48 


P 


Roger, Swiss One. 


09 


19 


54 


P 


I can hear you now. 



" Communicator on board the recovery vessel, U.S.9. Kecrsarge. 



119 



RECOVERY ( SIXTH PASS) — Continued 

















fO 




Ol^th '11 °d Ve ° UI " ' 1C ° PterS OV6r ea ' 


09 


20 


18 




T 11 th f ° -« I lv 


09 


9 0 


99 


Rl 


Understand 0 ^ 5 am P er Cl t .V com 01 a e - can wait as, long as thev want. 


09 


20 


23 


p 


Okay 1 " 3 FJon't tell them Don't let them et their hands cut on m th'i 










at it casuallv ' g ir n s cu on some mg on ere go 


09 


20 


30 


Rl 


Roge- 


09 


20 


31 


P 


Thank you. 


09 


21 


12 


Rl 


Okav, Astro. The swimmers are in the water. 


09 


21 




P 




09 




30 


p 


I^seoa little old strin liar in alon down the <-ide here Oh' That's mv dve mark t 


09 


21 


36 


Rl 


I see vour dve marker is ver bright green " ' a ■ *> mv vemar or. 


09 


9 1 


39 


p 


Yeah" I can see it throu h^art of m - window \ arentlv what I wr 1 kin ' 










the pieceTof strin incTthat was^the dvemarker * ll^-d-f'ir ^ °° mg at " ah 


09 


21 


51 


p 


Do thev knowVm all ri lit 0 I assume I heard them knock on the -a 


09 


21 


54 


Rl 


A°tro e> Understand you requested "-ou— oTwan^to remainTn thVca^sule' You want 










to inow if we know that 1 U S }0 ™ you vvan o remain in ecapbue. ou want 


09 


22 


00 


P 


I assume they do. Don't rhey? 


09 


22 


03 


Rl 


Right. 








p 1 




09 


2'> 


■'4 




Okay' ikvt' 8 I think Two jl^'refer to^ta^in^nlTrr _ three " quart j r ^ of a mlle ~- closlr »S- 










and usin -our cllar routin ^f ^ ^ S ^ t ^ e & d h C0I ? e & ^r^] ° 


09 


29 


38 


Rl 


Ro^er US Understand " Yot^want Tm^s' snrnlf^at 116 Will a ^ mg h as U , P ' d ^ ^u' 
rs n on w n s lp s sma oa . i give em a wor rig 


09 


2^ 


41 


P 


OkaT^'l think thev are briefed to make a— attachment with a small b at and th h ' t 










me aboard' ^ 


09 


22 


51 


Rl 


Please say again, the last. 


09 


22 


54 


P 


I understand that this is the Kearsarge, is that correct? 


09 


22 


57 


Rl 


Affirmative. 


09 


22 


59 


P 


She is briefed, I understanc, to bring me and the capsule aboard together. 


09 


23 


05 


Rl 


I'll wait one. 


09 


23 


06 


P 


Okay 



120