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NATIONAL ACADEMY OF SCIENCES. 



MEMOm 



UPON THE FORMATION OF A DEAF VARIETY OF THE HUMAN RACE. 



BT 



ALEXANDER OBAHAM BELL 



99 A— BELL 1 



26/^38 



UPON THE FORMATION OF A DEAF VARIETY OF THE HUMAN RACE. 

A PAPEK VRKKKMTBn TO TItK ttATWSAL ArADKUY OF aOIESdllS AT SKW HAVKN, NOVKMHBK 13, 18S3. 



Intboductoby Kfhabks. 

The infliienoe of selection in in(Nllfyint; our breeds of doinoHtic animals is most marked, and it 
is reasonable to suppose that if we could apply selection to the human race we could also produce 
modifications or varieties of men. 

But how can wo ascertain the susceptibility of the human race to variation produced by selec- 
tion t We cannot dictate to men and women whom they shall marry, and natural selection no 
longer influences mankind to any great extent. 

We can see around us everywhere evidences of the transmission by heredity of characteristics, 
both desirable and undesirable, but at first sight no general selective iniiuonce appears to be at 
work to bring about the union in marriage of persons iwssessing the same congenital peculiarities. 
On the contrary, sexual attractioi: often appears to operate ailer the manner of magnetical attrac- 
tion — " unlike imles attract, like poles repel." Strong, vigorous, and robust men naturally feel 
a tenderness for weak, delicate, and fragile women, and are generally rei)elled by physical strength 
and masculine tniits in one of the opitosite sex. Kven in such characteristics as the color of the 
hair and eyes, i|jflflen appears that unlikes attract. 

Certain disefises are known to be liable to transmission by heredity. But we do not tind epi- 
leptics marrying epileptics, or consumptives knowingly marrying consumptives. Even though 
persons aftlicted with the same here<litAry disease were to intermarry for a number of successive 
generations, it i#iloubtful whether any ))ermanent variety of the race could be formed in this way, 
for the increased tendency to disease inherited by the offspring would probably cause a greater 
tendency to premature death and ultimately occasion the extinction of the variety. 

On the other hand, it is reasonable to suppose that the (continuous intermarriage of persons 
IMissessing cuogcnital defects nut sis80(;iatcd with diminished vitality or vigor of constitution would 
result after a number of generations in the production of a vigorous but defective variety of the 
race. For instance, the absence of coloring matter from the skin and hair is a defect occasionally 
found among human beings, and we may learn from the success of attempts to propagate Albinism 
among animals, that wo would probably produce a pink-eyed, white-haire<l variety of the human 
race by causing Albinos to marry one another ; but this is only speculation. We cannot control 
tlie marriages of men as we can the breeding of animals, and at first sight there seems to be no 
way of ascertaining how far human beings are susceptible of variation by selection. 

S 



4 MEMOIRS OF TIIK NATIONAL ACADEMY OF BOIENOBS. 

Snch » conoliifiion, however, would lie incorrect; mid I desire t4) direet attention to the ftust 
that in this country deaf-mutes marry Aeaf-muten. 

An examination of tlic recordH of Honie of our institutions for the deaf and dumb reveals the 
fact that such marriages arc not the exception, but the rule. For tlie last fifty years there has been 
some selective influence at work wliicli has caused, and is still causing, the continnons selection of 
the deaf by the deaf in marriage. 

If the laws of heredity that are known to hold in the cnon of animals also apply to man, the 
intermarriage of congenital dcnf-niutes through a number of successive generations should result 
in the formation of a deaf variety of the humnn race. 

On the other hand, if it <!an Im^ shown that congenitnlly deaf persons marry one another 
without any greater lial)ility to the pnMluction of deaf oil'spring than is to be found among the 
people at large, then it will be evident that we cannot safely apply to man the deductions that 
have been drawn from experiments u|H)n animals. 

There are g(HMl grounds for the belief that a thorough investigation of the marriages ot the 
deaf and the influence of these marriages u|M)n the offspring will uflford a solution of the problem, 
"To what extent is the human race susceptible of variation by selection T 

Although the statistics I have Iteen able to collect are very incomplete, I have ventured to 
bring the subject to the attention of the Academy, in the hope that the publication of the results 
so far obtnined may lead to the completion of the statistics. 



Chapter I. 



UPON THE MATERUL8 FOB TIIK FORMATION OF A DEAF VASIBTT OF THE HUMAN BAOE AT 

PREHENT EXISTING IN AHBBIOA. 

Tlie first difficulty encountered in the inquiry is that the published reports of our institutions 
for the denf and dumb contain very little information bearing upon the subject, but, judging fVom 
the questions that are asked of the parents or guanlians of the pupils, there must be among the 
unpublished records of our institutions an immense collection of valuable facts relating to heredity 
at present inaccessible to the public. Many of the reports of the institutions contain little more 
of interest in this connection than a catalogue of the pupils. The mere lists of names, however, 
become of value by diiccting attention to the fact that among the pupils who have l)cen admitted 
to many of our institutions, numerous groups of deaf-mutes are to be found who have the same 
surname. 

No one would be surprised by the moderate recurrence of such common names as "Smith" or 
"Brown" or "Johnson" — as the recurrences might be accidental, and have no other significance 
than to indicate the prevalence of these names in the community at large. lint can it be acci- 
dental that there should have been wlmitted iuto one institution eleven deaf-mutes of the name of 
"Lovfjoy," seven of the name of "Derby," and six of the name of "Mayhew." Wliat interpreta- 
tion shall we place ui>on the fact that groups of deaf mutes are to be found having such names as 
" Blizzard," " Fahy ," " Hulott," " Closson," " Brasher," " Gopher," " Oortschalg," &c. t Such names 
are by no means common in the community at large, aud the inference is irresistible that in many 
cases the recurrences indicate blood-relationship among the pupils. 

An examination of a number of institution reports shows that these recurrences are altogether 
too numerous to be entirely accidental, and we are forced to conclude, (1) that deafness runs in 
certain families, (2) that these families are very numerous, and (3) that they are to be found in all 
parts of th(^ United States. 

The following list of recurring surnames, takon from the 1877 report of the American Asylum 
for the Education of the Deaf and Dumb (Hartford, Conn.), will show how numerous these recur- 
rences are among the pupils of our older institutions : 



6 



MHMOIKH OK TUK NATIONAL AOADKMY OF SOIBNOKS. 



T AHLK I.— Recurrence o/Hurniinum among li,MW pupiU ii4mUted between the year* 1817 ani 1877. 
Amerloaii ANyliiin for the etiiiontioii of ileufniiito*, lUrtroril, Conu. 



Nninim 
Naiiiro 

NlllllUH 

NaineH 
NaniuH 

NllllD'll 

Nainea 
Naniei 
NanieR 
NanioB 
Nuiiioii 



ftccMirritiK 

iiocurrin)( 

ncciirriii); 

ocoiirriiiK 

iMM'urritig 

ovourriiiK 

ocourrir 

occiirni.<( 

occiirriiiK 

ocoiirriiiK 

occurring 



!if> tiiiicH 

17 llnicN 
l;i tliucH 
13 timPH 
II tiiiieH 
10 tiimw 
I) timoii 
8 tiiiK'ft ; 
7 tiiiK'H: 
U tiiiieK; 



Names occurring 5 tiuiOH 



Names occurring I times 



Names o«!curriug 'A tinipN 



Names occurring 'i timrs 



Mmith. 

Allen. 

Itrown. 

Cani|iliell, Unvis. 

White. 

('Inrke, Johnson, liovejoy. 

Hmull. 

Fuller, (ireen. West, Williams, WimmI. 

liailey, Kurtlett, IVrkins, KichunlMiin, Hogors, Wright. 

Urrliy, .lack, Marsh, Martin, Merrill, Thomas. 

Herry, BnMi-r, liawley, Marshall, Mayliew, Morse, O'llrien, Wowe, Kus- 
seli, Stevens, Hwett, Taylor, Tri|i|). 

Andrews, Hull, Hiirnuril, lilixxiinl, Chupman, Cook, Curtis, Donnlfoii, 
Fisk, French, llolnies, Howe, Juekson, Kimball, Meaeham, New- 
eomlH!, Packer, I'arker, Tease, I'orler, Heed, HiiN-nm, Sullivan, Til- 
ton, Welister, Wilson, Young. 

linker, llennett, lliKelow, liishop, Unrliee, Chaniller, KIlis, KmerMin, 
Fahy, Fisher, Foster, (iilhert, llummonti, Hill, lloll, lliilett, Hull, 
•lellison, Jones, Kendall, Kennedy, Ijiild, liUee, Mnrr, Maylmrry, 
Miller, Morgan, U'Neill, I'age, I'arsons, I'rior, Qninn, Kohhins, 
Kyan, Srnvell, Stone, Strong, Stuart, Thom|)Mon, Turner, Wake 
Held, Ward, Welch, Wells, Wiswell. 

Aliliotl. Aeheson, Allurd, Alkins, Hadger, Itaitlwin, ItarneN, Barrett, 
Hliikcly, Kliss, Itoardwin, Hiiggs, llriiee, liurnhani. Caution, t.'ar- 
penler. (/'arter, Chmsen, Clongli, Cohit, Cummins, Daniels, Dunnison, 
Drown, Dudley, Kdwards, Fish, Frank, (ioodrieh, dray, Haley, 
lliiHkell, Holilen, Hunter, Ingriiham, Joiilan, Lall'erty, Lumliert, 
Liiraliee, Livingston, Lomlinnl, l.ynnin, Maeonilier, Mahoney, Mann, 
MeCarty, Mitchell, Moore, MiuTiNon, Muwry. .Murphy. Nelson, New- 
ton, Noyeg, Osg(Mid, I'almer, Terry, I'latI, Tratt, Prescott, Kandall, 
Ke^nohls, Koliertstui, Sage, Sawyer, >^hennan, .>^loane, Stebhins, 
Stevenson, Taft, Titeombe, Town, Trask, Wardman, Watson, 
Wentworth, Wheeler, Whitcumb, Wilkins, Wiuslow, Woislward. 

These are too numerous to be quoted here. There are two hnndriMl and 
fiiiiitern of them. 



ji 



\\ 



The following tablt's show that th« i)iii)ils referred to ahnvo foiiHtitiito iDori' than <J.T per cent, 
of the total number of ])iipilH admitted : 

Table II. — Recurrence of Hurnamex among the pupilH of the American Any him for (haf-miites, Hart- 

/<»tl, Vottn, (1877 Report.) 

Nil. iif |iii|iilii 
rrpremuttsl. 

7M nanu's occur 1 time 7ft4 

!iU names occur 'i tinu's 4'iS 

81 names occur :< times 343 

45 naums ocrnr 4 tinu's 180 

37 nanms occur .'> times 13G 

i;i names occur (i times 78 

6 names occur 7 times 43 

6 names occur H limes 48 

r> names occur il tinus ^ 4& 

1 name occurs 10 tin s 10 

;{ names occur 11 limes 33 

1 name occurs 13 times : 18 

3 names occur 13 times 38 

I name occurs 17 times 17 

1 name occurs 30 tinu-s 20 

1 name occurs 3.'> times 35 

1,171 2,10tJ 



THK KOKMATION OK A UKAK VAItlKTV OF TIIK HUMAN RACK. 

Taiilu 1 1 1. — SKowinfi revurrenvn of nHmurnvn and imrt^Uifjen u/ Ihv wkol«, 
(Aiiioriuiiii AHyhiiii, 1M77 |{«|Hirl.) 



Niiiiilicr of hiiriittiiifH. 



7A4 nitiiioH oL'ciir onvo 

VU iiiiiiiea iM.M!ur tw icii 

IWt imiiii'N (M'ciir llinwi or mora ItnieH . 



1,171 



NiiiiiIht of iiiipiU I l'«roHiita|{)< of tlio 
r«|iraiMiiit«Ml. wholv. 



764 
498 
014 

8,106 



w. :< 
4:1.4 

luo.0 



The Aiiiflrienii AHyliim, at llnrtt'onl, Ounii., wiwt UHtabliHlied in 1H17, iiiidtir tliu putroiingo of 
Congress, as u school t4i Iw open to all thu doaf iniiti'M of thu ITnitetl Statoii. Ah mm cuntora of 
instrnction sprung up the Hiipply of pupils fmni the more distant States was prautiually uut off, 
and the institution is more representative of the New England States than of the whole country. 

This will be obvious iVoni the following table (Table IV), which gives a synopsis of 2,100 cases 
admitte<l to the asylum before May, 1877, classified according to residence. 

Taiilk IV.— CUnmiJInation of pupHn in renpect to rmdence. 
(Aiiivricnii Anyliiiii, 1877 I{it|i<irt.) 



Where rniiii. No. 

Maiiio :KtG 

New IIiiiii|mhini till 

Viiriiioiit 'iX\ 

Mnwuicliiim-tlH 7!<1 

KIioiIk IhIiiiiiI 1)7 

New .Kirsfy 7 

Ditttrirt of C'oliiiiiliiu 2 

Vii'Kiniii 11 

North rurolina 4 

Smith Caroliiin 1J> 

GoiirKiik '^7 

Aluhitiiiu -1 

lAiniHiiknii 1 

TexuH 1 

Indiuiiii 1 



Whnro fnini. No. 

CoiiiiKUtiviil 'Mi 

Citlil'oriiiik 2 

ri'iniNylviiiiiit 14 

Mnry Iniid r> 

New York 'M 

llliiioiH ii 

Michigan 1 

WiHlMIIIHill 1 

Ohio « 

HritiNli I'niviiicuH 35 

Wfoi IndifH 1 

Went VirKiiiia 1 

8,100 



In order to show that the immerons recurrence of surnames is not conilned to the deaf-mutes 
of the New England States nor to the pupils of our oldest institutions, I give a list of recurring 
surnames taken from the 18813 report of the Illinois Institution. 

This institution, although only opened in 1846, is now the largest of its kind in the world, and 
it may fairly be taken as representative of a large section of country in the West.* 

Table V. — Recurrence of mrnameft among 1,)»20 pupih admitted between the yearn 1810 and 1882. 
(IlliuoiH IiiHtitiitioii fur tlio Deaf and Diiinli, JackHonville, III.) 
NaiiieH oGoiirring 18 tiiiifH: Smith. 

NuuioH occurring 1(> timoH: Hniwii. 

NniiinH ocoiirrinK 10 tiiii«H: AndorHoii, Millur. 

NamuM occurring DtiuioH: KdwardH, WiUon. 

Names occurring 8 tinicM: tlohuson. 

* A* the American Asylum and Illinois Institution may be tukou ,uh repniHontiitivo institutions, I prusont in an 
appendix a critical analysis of all the casts recorded in the reports referred to. (See TablesA to N, in the appendix.) 

For this analysis I am indebted to Mr. Franck Z. Maguire, of Washington, D. C, and I have ]ieriionally veritied 
his results. 



8 



MKMOIR8 OF TUB NATIONAL ACADEMY OF 80IKNCK8. 



y .m MoiirrlnR 7 MmM 

NaniM (icoiirring 6 tdnM 

Nuninii ncoiirring 5 tiiu<<it 

Nmiim occiirriiiK 4 tiiiiiM 



NaraM uccnrring 3 1! ;*m : 



Da via, JonM, 

Kelly, Mltohfill, M<i«m, WkIuIi, White, WllllaiiiN, WrJKlit. 

Ailania, Allmi, Clark, Hall, \mo, l^»m, Ht<i|ilii<iia, Tiiylor, ThonipMiii, Wolf. 

Bailey, llarnci, llerry, Vox, Uiiiiii, llitrria, lllxoii, lliiiniiaii, Jaooby, JaniM 
MoOllellaiMl, Murphy, HtiirKeuii, Hiilllvaii, Towiiaend, Walker. 

Amiiiona, lluker, liiillnrd, lt<,yil, Hraahrr, KriMiki, Itiiokloy, ('am|ilt«ll, Carroll, 
(Chamberlain, Cuiiii, Coplier, (Crawfitril, Dariirll, I)oy«ir, FonI, Fuller, Qlbaon, 
OiKMlner, GinmIwIii, OorUohalK, Orny, ll»r|)er. Hill, Kuil, Koniimly, I.auKhlin, 
MuParluiKl, MnGary, Hcl.«aii, McNeal, Merrill, MurKan, Nellaon, Nlohola, 
Sliiiiiionila, 8t«rliiiKi Stewart, Htuiit. 
Naiiieii itoourriiiK ^ tiiiio* : Theae are too nnmeroiin to be i|iiote4l here. There iire KiO of them. 

The following tables show that the pupila referred to above ooiistititte more than 41 i>er cent, 
of the whole nnmber of pupils admitted : 

Table Yl.—Reeurrence of immamet among the pupih of the UlinoU Tnntitulion for the Ikaj and 

Dumb. 

(1883 Keport.) 

Mo. of pupllt 
rapnwantcd. 

IKUI uameN occur 1 time iK)3 

IMI name* occur t< timoa :HN) 

3U iiBUiea <iccur 3 time* 117 

16 iiameM occur 4 times tM 

10 iinuieH occur Ti time* 50 

7 nniue* occur (i tiuiea Vi 

2 iiaiiioii occur 7 tlmca 14 

1 name occurs t) timea 8 

12 nnme* occur Vtimes 18 

t numes occur 10 times !i(l 

1 nauio occurs 1(1 timoa 1(1 

1 uauie occurs 18 times 18 

1,184 l.OiU 



Table VII. — Recnrrtnee of surnames and percentages of the whole. 

(IlliuolH luHlilutioii, 1882 Report.) 



Number of snrnnmos. 


Nnmber of pupils 
reprciu-ntcd. 

:wo 
:j67 


Percentage of the 
wliiile. 

fi8.8 
18..'-. 
22.7 






81 names occur three or more times ... 


1,184 


1,G20 


100.0 



The recurrence of numerous surnames among the pupils of very many of our institutions for 
the deaf and dumb renders it highly probable that a considerable proportion of the deaf-mutes of the 
country belong to families containing more than one deaf-mute, and hence possess hereditary tendeneiet 
to deafness. 

The same conclusion is still more forcibly suggested to the mind by a perusal of the few insti- 
tution reiH>rt8 that record the deaf-mute relatives of the pupils. The following tables (Tables 
VIII, IX, X, XI, XII) bearing ufwu this subject have been compiled from the 1877 Report of the 



THE FORMATION OF A DEAF VARIETY OF THE HUMAN RACE. 



9 



Aiiioriuiiti AHyliii'i.* Tlioy hUow tliiit of 2,1(N( piipilH iMlinitUxl to Mint iiiHtitiitioii, U1t>(, or iitmrly 
3.') p«r fluiit., wuru known to liiivi^ ilmil'iiiutu r»liitkui4. Tliu Hl){iiltluiiiioe of tliU hi^aoniOH more 
uppiinMit whon wu lliiil Mint hi tliu iiiikjority of tlioHu <*itH«ri tin* inipilM liuvn mom than ono r«la- 
tivu tlouf untl (luuil), wiiilu in n tuw ciihdm tw mtiny im atlvmti dciir innt«) rultttivuH iire rauonled. 



TAbl.K yill. — l>e<\f'aHd dumb rdntirea of Ihr pupiU of the Amerioan Aiiylum for Iha/MuteM, from 

the 1M77 hcjwrt. 



1 

1] 



I 



f 



J 



139 



Ihwirmiil iliniil) mlntlvoi of piijillit 



1 

It 

« s 



1 |{i'<'<>l K'''*"<""lli''i'- 

1 t(i'i">ill'<>< '■■'■'. fiillixr, iiiotlixr atiilothiirntliilivvN. 
I K>'i)i><ll'iitlicr, litiliiir, :{ I'liililrcii, iiiiil iitbvr rnlii- 

tiVCN. 

I KrniiiiriillK'i', t'lilliiT, mill lirntlii-r. 
I uriiiiilt'iitlii'r, fjitlii'i, mill Niitti-r. 

Iiillii-r mill iiiiitlii'i' 

tut lirr, noil licr, iitiil I lirntlirr. 

fiitlu'r, iiiiiilii'i', mill 'i liriilliiTH. 

fittlii-r, iiiotlii'r, iiihI '^ NiNti'iN. 

I'lilliiT, tiiiillH'r, I liriitlirr, mill 1 NlHtor. 

I'litlicr, iiiiitlii'r, 'i lit'iillici'N, mill 1 itiMli'i'. 

Iiktlii'i', iiiiitlii'i', I lirollii'i', mill 'J hInIitn. 

I'lillii-r, iiiiillii'r, I lii'iillirr, ami r> mirli'H ami 

lllllllN. 

fatlirr, iiiiitlii'i', 1 HJMtfr, 1 iiiirlf, ami I aunt. 

tutlii'r, iiintlii-r, 'J lirollirrN, ami 2 iiiirli-ii. 

I'atliiT, iiiKllicr, 'i HUtrrn, miil I iiiirln. 

fatlii'i', iiiiitlii'r, I liriitliiT, 1 xlHtrr, ami 1 iiiiulu. 

fatlii'i', iiiutlii'r, mill I cniiHiii. 

fatlii-r. Mini, 1 ninIit, '2 iicpliowH, iiml 'i oIIiit nOa- 

lIVfN. 

fatliiT, 'i NinliTN, ami otiirr rrliilivt-M. 

latlirl', I lii'iitlii'i', ami I NUtrr. 

latlii-r, I lii'iitlii'i, I MiNtiT, anil 1 l'iiiinIii. 

Iitlln'r, 4 lii'iitlii'iH, 1 HJHli-r, ami 1 riniNin. 

fatlit'i', II lii'iilliiTs, 'i HiNtiTN, anil 1 iMxiHiii, 

inotlii'r anil I Inollu'r. 

niiitliri' anil '■! hInIith. 

imitlirr, I lirollii'i', ami t hIhIit. 

niiitlirr, 1 lirotlicr, !{ NiHtiTH, ami I roiiMiii. 

niotliur, 'i linillii'iK, 1 NiNli'r, ami 1 I'oiisin. 

inollii'r ami I nm'li>, 

uiiitlivr ami W niicti'H. 
1 chilli. 

1 chilli and 1 lirutlii'i'. 
1 chilli ami I MJHtitr. 
1 cliilil ami 'i NisturH. 

1 chilli ami 1 cmiNin. 

2 cliililrnn ami I lirittlii'r. 

'i cliililri'ii, I linithcr, anil *,{ sistoru. 
» chililriMi. 

3 chililmi ami 1 lirullii'r. 

:t chililn-n, I tirothcr, nml t cousin. 

3 chililrcn ami 1 rniiHiii. 

:i chililruii ami iitlinr rclativi'x. 

4 chililri-n. 

5 cliililri'n anil 1 lirollu-r. 
5 chililri'n ami 'i lirothci-x. 

'y chihlroti, 1 brother, nml 'i MinlorH. 
1 slater. 



1 
1 
1 

:i-i 
U 
4 
9 
'i 
1 

6 
10 
9 
1 
3 



Oi-nfaml iliinili rtlallvra of iin|illi«. 



»1 












































































141 




47 




\'i 





















































xiKlrrii, 
niallTH. 
NiNllTH. 

MihliT aiiiM rnMNiii, 

nixii'i. I riTiiHiii, ami 1 nncle. 

Niiati'i mill :t riiiiMiiiii. 

hImIi-i, :t I'liiiHJnM, ami I nucle. 

Kinlrr mill 4 I'lMINillH. 

hIhIit, li ritiiNiiiM, nml t nncle. 
Hinti't' ami 1 iinri)'. 
NiNiiT mill 1 aunt. 
Ni^tiT, 'i miiitN ami other rulntivcH. 
MiHirr anil iithi-r rclativcN. 
HiMtri' anil 4 ntliiT riilativi-«. 
KiHtiT ami 14 (itlii'r rdalivcfi. 
hIhiit anil 7 iitlicr u-lutivuM. 
siKtiT.i mill I I'linNin. 

HiNtlTN mill 'i COIIHillH, 
HiHtl'I'M anil '.i COIIMillH. 

HixtiTH mill 1 iH'cunil-conaln. 

linitliiT. 

Iirotlii'i ami 1 HiNtxr. 

lii'otliiT mill ij NiNlcrH. 

Iii'ollii'r ami :i NiHtoi'H. 

Iirotlii'r. I MiHliT, ami I riniHiii. 

lirntlii'i', 'i niNtiTN, ami 2 uoiiHiiiH. 

liiiitlii-r, I niHtor, ami :t comtiiiM. 

Iiriilhi'i', I Ni.>ilcr, ami t Hccuml-coiiHiu. 

Iiriillii-r. 1 Ni.iti-r, 1 riiiinln, iiud 1 uncle. 

Iii'iitlirr ami I I'liiiHiii. 

liiotliiT mill '.i I'oiiNinx. 

Iirotlii-r mill 4 cniiHiiiN. 

lii'iitlii'i', 4 riiiiNinH, ami other rclntivoii, 

lii'iitlirr mill 1 aunt. 

lii'iithiT ami t niece. 
t lii'iitliiT ami '.'■ nc|ilicwM. 
1 liriillii'r mill other rcl at ivca. 
I lirotlii-r ami 7 other relntivee. 

1 lirotliri', I slNtcr, ami 1 Hecond-cuuHJn. 
'i liiotlicrx. 

'J lirothiTH mill 1 NiHtcr. 

2 liriithi'i'H mill 'J HiHterH. 
2 liri>tliiTH and 1 coiiHin. 

2 Im'oI'ii-i'h, i rouNiiiH, und 2 unoluti, 

2 brotlii-rN, I wiHtor, and 2 conainH. 

2 liriitlin'H, 2 NiHtiTM, 1 undo, nml 1 nnnt. 

2 lirothcrH, 2 HintiTH, and 11 other relativoa. 
:< lirothiTM. 

:< liriithcrH and 1 Nisler. 
:i lirothorH and '.\ Hiatera. 

3 brothera, 1 NJater, and 3 aecond-oouaiua. 

4 brothera. 



*Sc« "The aixty-liriit annual i-i>|>iirt of tin; diruvtnrH ami otllcurM of the AiiiiM'iuaii Aayluui, at Hartford, for the 
odiioatioD and ioatructiou of the deaf and iliiinl>," preaenteil to the niyl"'" May l.'i, H77, pp. 43-9U. 
99 A- BELL 2 



10 MEMOIRS OF TUE NATIONAL ACADEMY OF SCIENCES. 

TKJihKYUl.— Deaf and dumb reMiveHo/pHpiU of American Axijlum for Dea/■^lutcH, iiw.—Co\ii\uuei\. 







Pnaf and (Innil) relntivM of piipilH. 



4 liiotlnTs iiiid 2 sisters. 

Ti hriiilicrH, 

ft lii'othcrH niul 1 siNtt'r. 

1 ciiiiKin. 

1 toiLsiii mill I iniclo. 

U CDIIHillH. 

'2 cousins iiiiil 1 aiiiit. 

;t <'ousiiis. 

;i t'liiisiiis mill '.\ grpiit-iiiieli'g. 

:i roilHiiis mill 'i iiiirli's. 

:i ciiiisins uikI '-i iitlicr iflatives. 

4 voUHiiiM. 

CousiiiH. 

Severn 1 ciiiisius, 

1 mint. 

1 uncle. 



Pniiils liavi!ij{ (leat'-iniite relatives til'!' 

I'll pi Is reconleil as s]i(irailir cases 1,413 

Total i;, llHj 

Taulk IX. — Ika/viute relaliren of the pupils. 
(American Asylum Cor Deaf-Mutos. Keport for 1877.) 



and 

-1 




"2 " 

« > 

fcta 

II 

■a S 

« 3 




Deaf and dumb relatives of pupils. 

/ 




1 uncle and 1 aunt. 




a iiiicles. 




1 niece 




1 nejihew. 




y nephews, 2 nieces, and lollier relative. 




1 secoiiil-coiiNiii. 




2 si'ioiid-coiisins. 




1 tliirilconKiti. 




I relative. 




•J relatives. 




Relatives. 




4 relatives. 




4 remote relatives. 




(i relatives. 


603 


1 
1 



L 



1 pupil lind one or more ^reat-Kianilptiri'iits deaf and ilumli. 
j> pupils had one or nmre ;;rmiilpai'eiits ileal' anil ilniiili. 
47 pupils had one or more ]iarents deaf and diinih. 
2'.l pupils hail one or more i liildnii ilcif ami dniiili. 
'I'.tit pupils had one or more liriitliers or sisters deal' and diimli. 
1(1(1 pupils had one or iiiiire cousins deaf and diinili. 
:l^ pupils had one or more iiiicles or aniits ileaf and diinili. 

1 pupil had one or more irrcat-iiiicles or aunts deaf ,11111 diinili. 
46 pupils had one or more distant relatives deaf and dumb. 



Table X. — Deaf-mute children of the pupiln. 
(American Asylum for Deaf-Mutes. Keport for lf^77.) 



'i'.t pupils had 1 or more ehildreii diaf and iliiinb, 
1,'') pupils had 2 or mure children deaf and diiinli. 
l;i pupils had :t or iiioie cliililren iliaf and diinili. 

4 )iiipils had 4 or more children deaf and diiiiih. 

:l piipil.s had <~> or more children ileaf ami diimli. 



Tauli; XI. — Denfmvte brothers and nixlers of the pupils. 
(American Asyluin for Deaf-Mutcs. Report for Ifi77.) 



593 


pupi 


shad 1 


or more 


brothers 


and sisters 1 


leaf and dumb. 


271 


pupi 


s had 2 


or 


more 


lirothers and sisti 


■IS 1 


leaf 


and dumb. 


llli 


piipi 


s had :! 


or 


more 


lirothi rs 


and sisM 


IS 1 


leal 


and dumb. 


r.i 


pupi 


s had 4 


or 


more 


brothers 


and sisti 


■rsi 


leal 


and dumb. 


l.--. 


I"il>> 


s had .'-) 


or more 


brol hers 


and sisters 1 


leul 


and diiiiil), | 


11 


pupi 


U hud 6 


or 


mure 


brotbers and sist 


L-rs dual and dumb. 



THE FORMATION OP A DEAF VARIETY OF TliE HUMAN RACE. 



11 



Tadlk XII. — Showing number of pupiln havUuj one or more dca/mute relatives. 

(Americiin AHyliim for lli'iif-" .tcH. Hoport for 1877.) 

(>'K< piipilH liiiil 1 or iiiorc rolntivoH tlciif itiiil iliiiiili. 

;<74 |iii|iilH liiiil 'i iir iiiorx n^liitivt's dciif iiikI ihiiiib. | 

'tii |iii|>ilH liiitl :i or iiiont rcliilivrH tlciit'iiiid tliiiiili. 

I'JO ])ii|iili« hiul 4 or iiion* rttliitivfs di'itf iitxl (liitiib. 

(!'> |in|iilH liiiil Ti or iiiori* rolalivt-s tli-ariiiiil iliiiiil). 

:<.') |iii|iil.s hud (i or more ruliitivcs deal' 1111(1 (Iiinili. I 

)■') piipils lia<l 7 or more rclativcM d<-af uiid diiiiil). { 

'.) pii|iilN had H or more ruhttiveN deaf and diimh. i 

4 |Mi|iilH had lU or more relalivt'H deaf and d'liid). 

;i impils liad ir> or more relutiveH ileaf and dumb. ! 



Without goiii^' intu detail, the results may be iiuted of sin exauiiimtioii of a few other iiistitutiou 
reports* where the deaf-mute relatives are recorded. 

Tablis Xlll. — Vroportion of the deaf and dumb having deaf-mute relalicen. 



IiistitiitioiiN. 



Ainoricaii AN.yliim 

New York Iiistituliou 

Ohio Iiistilutioii 

Indiana Inst ilut ion. .. 
IlIinoiN In.stitution... 
Texas Institution. 

Total 



Total nuud)er 


pn|)ii.« 


nav- 


of pu)>ils. 


I UK . 
nnite 
tiviiH. 


e a f- 
rela- 


a, IWi 




(i'.t:i 


},im 




^fO 


iM) 




166 


28;j 




103 


l,li20 




3.V5 


HI) 




ai 



Number of Percentaj;eof 
pni)ilN hav- 
iu){ ileaf- 
mutc rela- 
tives. 



:«. i) 
;W. (i 
20.0 
:<li. 4 
21.7 
23. G 



5, &2:i 



1,711) 



•i'X .■> 



The above table shows us thtit out of r»,81i3 deaf-mutes taken from dlB'ereiit parts of the country 
uo less than 1,710, or 2!)A per cent., were known to have relatives deaf and duinl). 

If this proportion holds for the whole country, we must have in the United States about 1(),()()() 
deaf-mutes who belong to families containing more than one deaf-mute.t 

It is to be feared that the intermarriage of such persons would be attended by calamitous re-sults 
to their offspring. 

These are not, however, the only cases in which we would anticipate that the deafness of the 
parents might be tran.smitted to the children. The lessons we have learned from the lower animals 
concerning heredity teach u.s that a certtiin physical peculiarity, which may noinially niidic its 
appearance only sporadically here tind there, may be i)erpetuated and reiulered hereditary, by suit- 
able selection, dtiring a number of generations, of those individuals that haxtpen to possess the 
petiuliarity from birth. 



*The tabluR relating to the deaf-mutes of Ohio, Indiana, New Vork, Te.vas, and Illinois have Itoeu couipilcd from 
the followinj; Houices; 

1. Ohio. " List of jiupils admitted to the Ohio Asvluiu previously to January, 1.'i."i4." Auieriuan Annals of the Deaf 
ami Dumb, Vol. VI, pi>. 101-1 Hi. 

2. Indiana. "Catalogue of the pupils of the Indiana lustitntiou from its eouuneueoment in lc)4:t to November 1, 
lri53." American Annals of the Deaf and Dumb, Vol. VI, pp. 1))2-U)l>. 

;). New York. " List of pupils of the New York Institution, ite., complete from May, 1^18, to .lanuary, 1H,')4.'' 
Auioricau Annals of the Ditaf and Dnndi, Vol. VI, pp. VX>-)ii'). 

4. Texas. " List of pupils in attendaiuc at the Texas Institntiou (1M81)." See Kxhil)it A, twenty-lifth annua; 
report of the superintendent of the Texas Institution for the Deaf and Dumb, Austin, Tex., November 1, I"*-!!. 

5. Illinois. "List of pupils of tin? Illino' . Institution admitted between 184(i and lrS-!2." Twenty-tirst luennlal 
report of the trustees, superintendent, and tveasurer of the Illinois Institution for the Kdiication of the Deaf and 
Dumb. Jacksonville, 111., October 1, 1882. 

t The number is probably greate ■-, even exceeding twelve tlioutjund, as will be seen further on. (8oe Table XVII). 



12 



MEMOIRS OP TRK NATIONAL ACADEMY OF SCIENCES. 



Wo have good renaoii, tliercforc, to fear that the iiiterinarriage of congenital deaf-mutes, eveu 
though the deafness in both cases might be sporadic, would result in many cases in the productiou 
of deaf ottspring. Jt is important, tlien, to arrive at some idea of the numbers of the deaf and 
dumb who are deaf from birth. 

The Compendium of the Tenlii Census of the United States shows us that there were living in 
this country on the 1st of .lune, IMSO, no less than 33,878 deaf-mutes, and that "uioie than' one- 
half" were congenitally deaf.* 

The proportion (!an be obtained nu)re exactly from an address delivered in Jacksonville, 111., 
on the 29th day of August, 1882, before the tenth convention of Ainerica:i instructors of the deaf 
and dumb, by the liev. Fred. II. N\ ines,t who had charge of the deitartment of the census relating 
to the deaf and dumb. Tending tiie full publication of the census returns, the statements of Mr. 
AViues concerning the census of the deaf and dumb must evidently be received as authoritative. 

In the address referred to ]Mv. Wines gave the results of an analysis of 22,472 cases from the 
census, from which it appears that of these deaf-mutes 12,151, or 54.1 per cent., were reported as 
congenitally deaf, and 10,318, or 4r».!» i)er cent., were stated to have lost their hearing after birth. 

If we apply these figures to the total mentioned in the Compeiulium of the Census (.33,878) 
we find that there are probably 18,328 congenital and ]5,.5.">(> non-congenital deaf-mutes in the 
United States. 

Deductions drawn from the breeding oi'aniuuils would load us to expeiit that the congenitally 
deaf would be more likely than those who became deaf from accidental causes to transmit their 
defect to their oflspring. Another indication ])ointing in the same direction is to be found in the 
fact that the proportion of the deaf and dumb who have deaf-mute relatives is very niuch greater 
among the congenital than anu)ng the non congenital deaf mutes. 

The following tables (Tables X\\, XV, and XVI) have been compiled from the reports of 
the American institutions for the deaf and dumb already referred to: 

Table XIV. 






Ciiisf 


of dcafnesH. 

1 


i 

1 




tccident. 



Aincrioaii AmjIhiii IS17 

New York luNrilutidii IHH 

Oliiii luNtitiitiim l.-iJlt 

Iiiiliaiia Instittition 1^44 

Illimiis IiiHtitiitiuu lr*H\ 

Texan Institution ItTiT 



18l7-lf77 •-', m; 

I f^ll-l. %■)-.< ;')(!(! 

H 4-irfr>:! an:) 

lrt4(>-l."WJ 1,(W0 



o 






c 
!<5 



PtiI)ilM icconU'tt to have 
<\i'af-iiiiitii riiltttives. 



I 



Cause of deafueBS. 



'.)r.\ 


1,01(1 


!i:{ 


4-^ 


■\:ii 


'.M.-. 


•Jiw 


•,'(18 


f4 


14it 


121 


III 


418 


'.•47 


->;,-, 


•Jti 


">:( 


10 



6 s 

si: 



c 
H 



:hi 
i()i> 
lii:< 
:i.">() 
•,'1 



it 
a 
o 
u 



•JH7 

7-J 

11)4 

11 



' 


' 


« 




1 o 




0) 




•e 




■5 




o 




a 




h 


"s 


o 


« 






U 


rt 




00 


u 


■w 






a 


SQ 



Total .-,,HJ:t •i,-nv> •i,t^U my 1,711) 1,234 



im ; 


10 


74 ; 


11) 


:w 1 


10 i 


31 :. 


1 


120 i 


42 ! 


H 1 


^ i 


i 


89 



• C'ompeudiiiin of the Toiitli C'bm.hus, I'art II, paRt^ lOtil. 

tSee Proccfdiiijrs of f li(> IVntli (.'oiivt iitioii of AiniTicau Iiistnutois of thi,- Deaf and Dumb, .Jacksonville, 111., 
August, m&i, pp. laa-l-JS, publl«lu-d U.v tho Illinois Iii.stitution for tin- Doaf and Dumb, J.acksonvill.', 111., with the 
tvrcnty-lirst bienuiul report of that lustittitiun. 



THE FORMATION OF A DEAF VARIETY OP THE HUMAN RACE. 

Tablk XV. — Proportion of the nonmngenitally deaf who have deaf-mute relatives. 



13 



lustitiitions. 



Anutriraii AHjliini 

Now V(irk IiiHtiiiition 

t)lij(i IiiHtitiitioii 

Iiiiliiiiiu IiiNtitiitioii . . 
IlliiKiiH InMtitiitioii. .. 
Texas liiMtiliitinii 

Total 



\iiml»'r of Numbrr having Pi'iTontaKc 
iioii-coii^diiital (li'af-iinitt^ rol- liaviiiudcal'-iiiiito 
iluaf-iiiiiteH. ativos. r«, 



2, 864 



3'.t(! 



IIU (leal- III 
•flalives. 



1,040 


131 


la. () 


4»2 


74 


17.1 


!268 


32 


11.9 


124 


31 


•if). 


'.1M7 


120 


12. 7 • 


r.n 


8 


15. 



lit. 8 



Table XVI. — Proportion of the congenitally deaf who have deaf-mute relatives. 



InHlitiitionH. 



NiinilxT Number having Percentage 
of ronKcnitully iloaf-nnite rul- having dfaf-hintu 
dral'iJiipilN. ativos. relatives. 



American A.s.vlnm 

New York Ins itiilii)ii. 

Ohio InMtitulion 

Iiiiliana Institution ... 
IlliiioiH IiiNlitntion. . . . 
Texas Institntiun . ... 

Total 



973 


.552 


.56.7 


4HH 


287 


58.8 


208 


IIH 


56.7 


140 


72 


48. :j 


418 


11>4 


46.4 


26 


11 


42. 3 


2, 262 


1,234 


■'•*•■" 



The above tables (Tables XIV, XV, and XVI) show tliat of L',262 congenital deaf-mutes, more 
than one-half — or MI) per cent. — had deaf-mute relatives; and that even in the case of those pupils 
who became deaf from apparentli/ accidental causes, 13.8 per cent, had other members of their families 
deaf and dumb. 

If we api)ly these results to the total returned by the Tenth (,'eiisiis, we obtain the following 
figiiret, (Table XVII) as a probable approximation to the number of sporadic and non-sporadic 
cases of deafness among the deaf-mutes of the country. 

Table XVII. — Estimate of the probable number of sporadic and non-sporadic cases of deafness among 

the deaf-mutes of the United States in the year 1880. 



Cause of deafneHS. 



Congenital 

Disease or aeeident . 

Total 



Nu in I) or who 
have iilatives Sporadic cases, 
deaf and dumb. 



'.), il-9 
2, 141) 



12, l;to 



8, 3:u» 
l:t,404 



21,743 



Total. 



18,328 
15, .5.50 



:!3,87d 



If to the estimated number of deaf-mutes who have relatives deaf and dumb we add the pre- 
sumed number of sporadic cases among the congenital deaf-mutes we reach a total of 20,474 cases 
where the deafness woidd probably tend to become hereditary by intermarriage. But these are 



14 



MEMOIRS OF THE NATIONAL ACADEMY OF SCIENCES. 



i) I 



not all the cases in which we would anticipate that iuteruiarriage might bo productive ot'deaf ott- 
spring. The late Dr. Harvey L. Peet states, as the result of his researches,* that the hearing 
brothers and sistirs of a doaf-niiite are about as liable to have deaf children as thedeaf-nuite himself. 
It is only reasonable to assume that a tendency towards deafness exists in a family containing 
more than one deaf-mute, so that if hearing persons belonging to such families were to intermarry, 
or were to marry deaf-mutes — or if a consanguineous marriage were to take place in such a family — 
we would not be surprised if souie of the otl'si»ring should be deaf. In addition therefore to the 
20,474 dio/nnttoi refvrnd to above, wc mioit include thcheariiu/ and upcaMng members of their families 
before ice can form an adequate convepiion of the number of persons who possess a predisposition toimrds 
deafness. 

It will thus be seen that we have abundant nuUerials in the United States for the formation 
of a deaf variety of the human ra(;e by selection in nuirriage. 

•Amuriciin Anniilii of the Deaf and Diiiiilt, Vol. VI, p. ->:\:>. 



Chapter II. 

MARRIAGES OF THE DEAF. 

Iliiving shown that ix hirge proportion of the deaf and dumb possess hereditary tendencies 
toward deafness, the question naturally arises: "Do many of the deiif and dumb marry!" 

It Is the custom in some of our institutions to hold periodical reunions of former pupils, and in 
some cases advantage has been taken of the opitortunities thus presented to obtain information con- 
cerning the marriages of the i)upil8, &c. An examination of the reports of the American Asylum, 
New York, Ohio, Indiana, and Illinois institutions, yields the following result* : 

Table XVIII. 



( 



Naino of institution. 



Date of 
opening. 



Date of 
report. 



Total nnniber 
of pupils 
admitted.* 



Total number 
recorded to 
have niar- 



I'ercent- 
age. 





1817 

1818 
THUS) 
1844 
1846 




Aiiiorican Asvliim .. ....... 


1877 


New York Institution 

Ohio Institution 


1854 

18.''.4 




1854 




1882 


Total 













ried. 




2,106 


64S 


30.5 


1,165 


191 


16.4 


.WO 


56 


10.0 


a87 


S6 


9.1 


l,(i20 


174 


10.7 


5, 7;!8 


1,089 


19.0 



*Tlic tot.il imnilior of pupils notod incliidos tlic children wlio wire in nttcndnnio at tbe dntcs of the reports. 

In the Appendix I hiive presented in tabular form a critical analysis of all the cases mentioned 
in the reports of the American Asylum and Illinois Institution, classifying the pupils according to 
the decades in which they were born. Tho labor involved has deterred me from making a similar 
examination of the pupils of the New York, Ohio, and Indiana institutions until more complete 
materials can be obtained than are to be found in reports published in 1854. The American 
Asylum and Illinois Institution, however, as I have stated before, may lie may be taken as repre 
sentative in.stitutions, and an examination of the tables in the Appendix leads to the conclusion that 
a very considerable 2)roporiion of the deaf children admitted to our institutions marry. This will be ob- 
vious, from the following considerations: 

Pupils of the American Asylum, born in the year 1840, were 37 years of age in 1877 (the date 
of the report), and the pujnls of the Illinois In.s'iitiition, born in 1840, were 42 years of age in 1882 
(the date of the Illinois report), hence we nnvy safely assume that, of the pupils of the.se institutions 
who were born before 1840, all, or nearly all, who intended to marry had married before the dates 
ot the reports; and in most cases it is i)robable that the fact of marriage had been recorded. If, 
16 



i? ' 



Iff *• 
I** "I 






16 



MEMOIRS OF THE NATIONAL ACADEMY OF SCIENCES. 



then, wo eliminate from the totals «;iven in the above table, all the pnidln of these institutionH who 
were bora «liice the year 18;J», we obtain the following results: 

Table XlX.—l'roportion of the pupilH of our instituiiomfor the deaf and dumb who marry. 



„ ,, ... ,. Dull- of Datt'df 

Krnno ofiuBtitution. „,,ening. ri-i.ort. 

! I • 

AiiH'ricaii AhvIiiiu IH17 1877 

llliiioi.iliiHtitution 1840 1885J 

Total 



Total niiiiilier 

'"""■'"•"'• Percent- 

liavf mar- " 

riod. I 

I 



Total iiuiiilicr 

;•♦■ {"'l'"" ronlnl to 

lioni iiclorc 
1840. 



1,100 
l.VJ 



49 



I 

I 47.4 



30.8 



i,-r>u 



.-)Tl 



45.4 



\\hat«'ver may be the e.\act jtercentage for the whole country, the indications are that a 
couHUhrahle proitortion of the adult deafmuttn if the United States are married, 

INTEKMAIUMACIES 01' IIIK DEAI" AND DUMB. 

When we attempt ;o form an iilea of tl;e extent to which intermarriage takes place among 
(leaf-mntes, we are met by the (lirticiilry of the imperfection of the in.stitntion record.s. In very 
few cases is it specifically stated that a deaf mute lia.>( married a hearing person.* The record 
usindly stands that the pupil ha.s ''married a deaf mute," or that he is simply "married," leaving 
it tincertain whether the marriage was «'ontracted with another deaf mute or with a hearing person. 
When we eliminate all the nnceitain cases we obtain from the in.stitutioii reports the following 
results: 

Table XX. — I'loportion of the dmf and dumb who marri) deaf-mutes. 



Xaiiir of iii.sliliitioii. 



AniiTifan Ah.vIiiui 

N'cw York liislitntioii. 

Ohio Institution 

Iiicliaiia liiNtitiitioii. .. 
Illinois Institution 

Total 



Dale of 
oiionin^. 



Date of 
ri'iMtrl. 



Ifl7 


ln77 


IHIS 


1854 


1:^^'.» 


IH.^4 


1844 


18r>4 


t84(i 


18M2 



, Total MUiulx-r 


Total iiMuilx'r 


1 


of luipilsri-- 


r<'<'oril)'il to 


Percent- 






<'ll|'<l<'(l to 


have mar 




liavc luar- 


riril (leal- 


age. 


rifil. 


mule!*. 




648 


8« ! 


73.2 


191 


148 


74. :i 


56 


3D 


til). li 


26 


21 


80.8 


174 


l.V,' 


87. :i 


1 1,089 


856 


78. C 



Tiie large percentage of mairiagcs with deaf unites reported from Indiana and Illinois suggests 
the exi)laiiation that iiitcnn(irriii;its amoiuj the deaf and dumb may perhaps harebecome more eommon 
of late yearn. Both institutions are of coiiiparatively recent origin (the one tbnnded in 1.S44, the 
other in ISKi); and the report of the Illinois Institution, wliieh exhibits the largest i)roportion of 
deaf-mute intermarriages, contains the record of much later marriages than those mentioned in the 
Indiana report, for th(> Indiana record stops at l.S.">4, whereas the Illinois report gives the statistics 
of the institution to October, 18.S2. 

Unfortuiiiitely we are unable to a.scertain from the reports Uie dates of the marriages. If we 
assume, however, that jvs a general rule the older deaf-mutes were married before the younger, we 

•Only one ca.su in tlie American AkjIuiu aD(l ten in tlio IllinoiN Institution. It is probable, liowever, tliut in 
most cases where the pupil is simply rocorUcd us ''married" the record means marriage with a hearing person. 



TIIK FORMATION OF A 13KAF VARIETY OF THE HUMAN RACK 



17 



may be able to approxiiimto to tlie onler of the innrriageH by claMHifyiiig the pupils acconling to 
their |H!ri«Ml of birth. Altlioiiffh 1 have not attempted a minute elasHilication, excepting iu the 
caaen «howii in the Appendix, it isconipanitively easy to arrange all the married pupils referred to 
above into four classes: (I) those born before 1810; (2) those Iwrn iu the period 1810-1839; (3) those 
born in the iH3riod 1840-1860; (4) those born since the commencement of 18(M). The results are 
shown in the following table: 

Table XX I. 



I'urind iif birth. 



Ilpfiir.' IHUI... 
IHiOI.) 18:i9 .. 
lH4<(to 185!« .. 
lri(i<) uiiil ufter 



Total 
rt-ronliMl 
to liavi» 
iimrrinil. 



Total 
reconled 

to llOVB 

iimrrietl 
ilent'-iiiut«H. 



I'ercent- 
iige. 



lasi 


72 


5n.H 


7ir. 


.'>77 


80.7 


•j:w 


Utti 


84. t 


12 


u 


91.7 



The number married who were born since 1850 is too small to be relied upon for a percentage. 
It is only to be hoped that the percentage given above is excessive. The indications are very 
clear, however, that of the deaf and dumh ir/io marry, the proportion who marry deaf-mutes ha* 
steadily increaned. This conclusion is strengthened when we find that the above result, which has 
been deduced from a summation of all the cases recorded in the reports of the American Asylum, 
New York, Indiana, Ohio, and Illinois institutions, is also true of the cases recorded in each report 
taken separately. This will be obvious from the following table: 



Table XXII. 



Is 

>n 

le 

of 

he 

;C8 

we 
we 

; ill 



Name of inHtitutioii, with (Into of opening jigjj,„i „|- |,jf,|, 
and of report. 



Total 

recorded to 

have ninr- 

ried. 



I Total 
recorded to 
have mar- 
ried deaf- 
mutes. 



IVrcent- 
nge. 



Ainericnn AHvlnm Before IHIO 

Date of opening, 1617. Date of report, 1810 to 18:J9 

l«77. 1840 to 18,M> 

I 



New York Institution Before 1810 

Date of opening, 1818. Date of report, 1810 to 18;»9 
1854. t 



Ohio Institution 1810 to 1832 

Date of cpouing, 1829. Date of report, 
1854. I 



Indiana Institution 1822 to 1836 

Date of opening, 1844. Date of rejiort, 
1:^54. 



Illinois Institution 1810 to 1839 

Date of opening, 1846. Date of report, 1840 to 1859 
18(tt. 1860 and after 




The only institution that gives any indication of a decrease in tlte proportion of pupils niar- 
rie<l to deaf-mutes is the American Asylum. The pupils born in 1850 were only 18 years of age 
00 A— HKI.L .'$ 



hi 






Id 



MKMOIUS OF TII15 JJATtONAti ACADl-iMY OF BCtKNCES. 



I* * 



in 1877, tli«! date i»f tlio report, so thiit it is certuin tbat a coiisidoriiblo iinml)er of tlio pupiln born 
betwei'ii 1810 and I8."»i> were married after the dat« of tlie report, and ho escaped enumeration. It 
is questioiiablf, however, wliother tliiH eoiild attect the proportion who were married todcafraut«8. 
It is more ivas<iniible to suppose tiiat in liiis vmoi tlie apparent decrease is real, for »n entirely 
diflferont metiiod of investi^ratiou lea«Is to a similar result. In the years 184.1, 1857, 1807, and 1877 
the directors of tlie Amiri«!uu Asylum published in their reports the statistics of the inatitntion, 
giving the names of those pupils who had married. If we assume that the impils who were not 
recorded as married in the 184;{ report, but who were re<orded as married in the 1867 report, were 
married between tlu^ years 184.1 an<l 18.)7, &c., we can divide the marriages reported from the 
American Asvhini into four elas-sos: (1) Marriages contracted before 184.}, (2) nmrriages contracted 
between 1S4;» and 18.'i7, (;{) umrriages contracted between I8.'i7 ami I8<»7, and (4) m a rriages con- 
tracted between 1S((7 and 1877. The results are shown in the following table: 



Taulk Will,— Marriages of the pupih of the American Aiit/lum. 



I'rcHuiiuMl (late of mnrriagc. 



H.'f<.rolH43 

Urtwi'tMi 184:Jiiiitl 1H57 
nctwfcii IH.".? mill lH(i7 
Bftwccii 18<)7 niiil IH77 





Totol 




Tut 111 


recorded 




reconled bh 


to have 


Percentage. 


married. 


innrriud 






deaf-miiteg. 




143 


95 


66.4 


«17 


175 


HO. 6 


i:n 


110 


84. 


UA 


Vi-i 


HO. 8 



In tills case we find that nlthongh the number of pupils presumed to have married between 
1807 and 1877 is greater than the number who married in the preceding decade, the proportion 
who married deaf-mutes is less. 

It is evident from a comparison of all the tables that of the deafmutcH who marry at the present 
time not Ifsn than 80 per cent, marry dea/mutcn, while of those who married during the early half of 
the present century the proportion who married deaf-mutes was much smaller. 

It is of course a matter of iiu|)ortance to ascertain to what extent congenital deaf-mutes 
intermarry, but unfortunately the institution records are too imperfect to allow us to draw con- 
clusions on this point. 8ix hundred and tifty-four ])upils of the American Asylum and Illinois 
Institution are each recorded simply to have "married a deaf-mute," without one word of expla. 
nation as to the name of the deaf-mute or the cause of deafiiess.* 

It will thus be understood that the records of deaf-mute marriages are very imperfect, and it 
is to be hoped that some of our large iustitutions way publish fuller information concerning them. 
In the case of a deaf-nuite partner it should be stated whether the deafness was congenital or not. 

* Since tlu; n-adiiif; uf tliis paper it occurred to me tbat some liglit miglit bo tlirowii upon the subject by the 
theory of Prolmliilitics. I tluMcfuro siibiiiittcd llie ((iiestiou to I'rof. Simon Nowcomb, who not only ugreed with me 
in this idea, but was liiiiil t-iioiigh to present a solution of tiie problem deduced from the data giyeii iu this paper. 
He thinks the most prot)itble eouclnsion to be this: 

1. Of the congenitnlly deaf who married deaf-muleg one-lialf married coiigcnitally deaf and one-half non-con- 
geuitally deaf. 

S. Of the non-eongenitully deaf wli«i married deaf-mutes three-sevenths married congenitnlly deaf and four 
sevenths non-congeiii tally deaf. 

The full text of Professor Newcomb's letters will be found in A4)pendix Z. 



TUB FOUMiM'lON OF A DEAF VAHIKTY OF TlIK HUMAN RACK. 



19 



I would also HUggust tluit, wliorovor posHible, tliu iinmuH of the linabandM iiiul wivoH of tli(< pupils 
should be given, niul tbe fuut recorded im to whether tliey belong to fiiniilics containing more than 
one deaf-mute or not. ThiH is important even in tlie case of nnirriagu with a liearing perHoii, for 
iu most of the cases of snch nuirriagvH tliat liave come niidur my personal observation the hearing 
partner belonged to a family containing deaf-mutes. 

However imperfect nniy be tiie records of the marriages of the deaf it \n abundantly evident, 
(I) that there m « tendency amonfi ilen/muteH to nelect deaf mutes an their pnrtncvH in ninrriage ; (2) 
that thin tendency has Iteen continuously exhibited during the post forty or Jifty yearn, unit (.'{) that there- 
fore there it eeery probability that the selection of the deaf by the deaf in marriatje will continue in the 
future. 

It is evident, then, that we have here to consider, not an ephemeral plK'iiomen<»n, but a case of 
continuous selection. For instance, should it appear that there are in this «iountry any considerable 
number of deaf-mutes who are themselves the offspring of deaf-mutes the iiidicalions are that a 
large proportion of these persons will marry, and that of those who marry, the majority will marry 
deaf-mutes. Thus, there is every indication that in the case of the ileaf and dumb the work of 
selection will go on from generation to generation. 



¥ 



n 



It 



I 



|»') 



i! 



CnAPTEK 111. 

DEAF-MITTE OFKSl'RINO OF DKAF-MVTK MAKHIAOKS. 

Ill a paper upon '< Ucrcditiiry DcafiifSH"* (publishwl in 18()8), llev. W. VV. Tniner, then prin- 
cipal of the American Asylnin, said that " statistics, carofnlly collated from records kept of deaf- 
mutes as they have mot in conventions at Hartford, siiow that in Sti /imilie« icith one parent a 
congenital deaf-mute, one-tenth of the children were deaf; and in 2i/amilit'ti with both parents congenital 
deaf-mutes, about one-third were born deaf. 

In support of this conclusion he presented the following table : 

Table XXIV. 



CIllBH. 



I'lirontH. 



Niinilier iif 
fumilica. 



Oiiu hoiiring and 1 rniigoiiitally (l<-af 110 

Olio iiieiiliMitally and 1 coii(((!iiitiill,v deuf TiA 

Both (-oiigeiiitnlly iluuf '^4 

* 

Ti.tul 110 



NimilxTof 

rliildreii 

dt'uf. 



ir> 

II 
17 



NiiniluTof ' 
cliil<lri<ii 
heuriiiK- 



77 

1211 

40 



as 



aw 



Tolnl. 



92 

12fi 

57 

275 



Dr. Turner cited in connection with his subject tlic case of one woman who lived to see great 
grandchildren, and of these no less tiian sixteen were deaf-mutes. 

Regarding intermarriage, he said : " It is a well-known fact that among domestic animals cer- 
tain nnusual variations of form or color which sometimes occur among their otfsiiring, may, by a 
careful selection of others similar and by a continued breeding of like with like, be rendered per- 
manent, so as to constitute a distinct variety. The same course adopted and pursued in the human 
race would undoubtedly lead to the same result." He concluded with the remark, " that every 
consideration of philanthropy as well as the interests of congenitally deaf persons themselves should 
induce their teachers and friends to urge upon them the impropriety of intermarriage." 

It is reasonable to suppose that, whatever intiuence Dr. Turner's statements may have exerted 
upon the marriages of the deaf throughout the country, his conclusions and beliefs must have had 
considerable weight with the pupils of his own institution, and this may perhaps have been the 
cause of the decrease in the proportion of intermarriages noted among the pupils of his institution 
since the date of his paper. (See Table XXIII.) 

In the report of the New York Institution, published in the American Annals of the Deaf and 
Dumb, July, 1854 (vol. vi, pp. 193 to 241), Dr. Harvey L. Peet gave the following table, showing 
the number of pupils of the New York Institution married, as compared with the married pupils 
of other American institutions, and compared with the marriages of the deaf in Eiirojie, no distinc- 
tion being made between those who were congenitally deaf and those who became deaf from acci- 
dental causes. 



• 8co ProceediiiKH Nutioiml CoiifureiiKC of Priiiuipuls of IiiHtitiitioiiH for the Deuf niid Dumb, Wiishington, D. C, 
IHfW; me, also, Aiiiciii'im Aiiiiiilt for lh«! Deaf and Utiiiih, WtH, Vol. XIII, p|i. 3i4-24ii; alwi article "Deaf and Duiuh" 
Eiicyclopiedia llritaiiiiiea. 
20 



THE I'OUMATION OF A DEAK VAItlKTV Or TIIK HUMAN UAUE 



21 



Dr. IVet «tatp(l that of nil tlie fainilit's <'mlniict'<1 in tlii' tiil)lt« "«6(»«^ one in hcentu hate 
den/mute chihlren irhnrhoth /uirrntK are tleit/iiiuttn, uict uhnnt iinv in onr hnndn-il onti thirtyjiee 
where only one in a ilea/ mule; and that the hrolhcrM ami MiMteiM of a ilea/ mnfe are about an liable to 
hare ilea/ mute children an the ilea/ mnir himnel/ HnppoHimj inch to marry into /lunUien that have or 
or each into /anul ten that have not nhoirn a predinpoiiition toward ilea/dumbnfHH," 

Tahle XXV. 



Nniiio of iiiKtitiltioii, 



I'lipilM of till' Ni'w Yiiik IiiHlitiitioii* 

I'lipilN of llir IIiii'K'iiril AmvIiiiii' 

l*til>il» of till' Oil id Any I iiiii 

I'lipilH lit' llii> (ti'i>iiiiiiit{i'ii liiHlitiition (llolliiml) 

t'ity of I'miH 

ItolKJIIIII (CI'IIRIIM of 18:1")) 

Irttliiiid (ci'iiHUH of 1H,')1) 

VorkHliir« IriNtitiitioii i^KmkIiukI) 

Ki'i|iNi(' Iimtitiitiiiii ((iniimn.v) 

I'niKiio IiiHtUiitioii (Itolifiiiiit) 

Liixi'iiiliui'); limtitiilioii (Netlii'rluiiilH) 

I.yoiiH IiiHtiliitidii (KriiiK'tO 

(iuiiuvii IiiHlitiitioM (SwitzorlaiKl) 

K'liHNiii IiiHtitiitioii (iiK'iili-iitiil iiiitin-H) 

liiivariii ItiNtitiitioii (iiii'idfiitiil iiolicvH) 







• 




1 


MiirrU'il 


111 


iii'itiK 


Miirrii'd iluiif-miit'M. 


|M>rHOIllt. 








MnUn. 


l'\li\ilU'n. 


Mill,'. 


Frmaltt, 


1!» 




y.t 


III! 


77 


1:1 




y'l 


104 


m 


1:1 




4 


\H 


■i\ 


•^s 




H 


(1 


H 


II 




1 


15 


15 


* 






I 


1 
5 


If) 




:w 


1 




I 






4 


::::;::::; :::;::;::;i 


11 






'i 


2 


!j 


... 





Total 

Dudiict thn Miri-o AiiicrioHii iiiHtitiitiuiiH. 



75 



58 



IHH 



an 

187 



RuinaiuH for Kiiropo 1 i:i 



\H 



:io 



:wi 



•Soiiio marriiij{on liavi) l)oim (ItMltietoil from tin- llarlfinil list that apiirar also in tin- New York 

lint. TliiTii liavi' al«o lii-en iiiarriaf,'i's Imtwi'i lurali-il anil uni'iliiralcil iiiiitoM, or Imtwueil dimf- 

luutuM of our Holiool.i anil Ni^iiii-muti's not impilpi. 

From tliis tiiblc it tippears that at the time 0/ the inrcHtiijution (IS.")!) marriaijeH 0/ dea/muteH 
and fftpceially between two den/ mutes, were /ar more eommnn in .Vmeriea than in Hnrope ; and that, 
except among the pupils 0/ the New York Institulion, there were twice as many ilea/mute men xcith 
hearing wires, as dea/nmte women with hearimj hnsbands. 

PriiH-ipals of iiistitiitioiis for the deaf and (liiiiib iiavo, pttrsoiial kno\vh'(1t,'i' of their pupils, and 
may therefore be able to arrive at eorrect coiiciusions lenurdiiifj tlie results of intt^'iuarriage. 

It is extremely difHciilt, if not impossible, for others to arrive at an independent conclusion 
from the data published in the institution reports. It is even impossible to ascertain from these 
reports the mere number of the deaf oftspriiif? n^eorded as born to tiio pupils. The nature of the 
difliculty will be understood by an example. From the 1.S77 re|iort of the American Asylum we 

find that— 

Georye W. A (born about 180;!) "'married a deaf-mute" ami had 3 deaf children. 

Mary R (born about 1808) ''married a deaf-mute" and had .'? deaf ciiildren. 

Jonalhan M (born about 1814) "married a deaf-mute" and had .'? deaf children. 

Paulina li (born about 1817) "married a deaf-mute" and had .{ deaf children. 

Now the (piery presents itself, "how many deaf children were born to tiu'se pupils J" Perhaps 

Mary 11 was the wife of (Jeorgo W. A , tind Pauliim 1? the wife of Jonathan M , 

in which case there are only (5 deaf children in all. It is possible, however, that in such cases the 
nuiles ami females were not related in marriage, and upon this supposition there were 12 deaf 
children. 



I 



I 



22 



MKMOIKH OF THK NATIONAL ACADBMY OF HOIBNCBS. 



lii 



TLuru Ih Koiivntlly nothing in tliu iiiHtitiiliitii re|N>rtH to giiitio iih to a Roliitloii of th« problem. 
If the iiitiiieH of tlut liiiHbitiMiH nnil wivcN of tliw piipila wuru rtHionlod it would be |MiMlbl« to nrrivu 
at Home ooiicbiHion. Ah it iH, tlie inoHt wo can do in to iiHct^rtaiii the nunibor of deaf ohildren reoorded 
ud the onWiiriiiK of tliu iiiiile piipilH aiul tliomt iiotod hm lM>rii to the female piipila. Kveti thooffb it 
were inxwibio to iirrivv at a corrtntt coiicliiHioii reKnnliiiK the total nninber of deaf offapring reoonled 
ill the re|>ort8, Htill ww would not bo abiu to amnTtain th» luttunl niimlier of deaf children born to 
the pupila. For it Im obvioiiH, from th(< followiiiK couHiderationH, that the number reoonled ia ao 
much leM8 than tho numlH^r born nn to lead to tiio infcrfnco that in a considerable proportion of 
caaea the deaf otfttprini; are not n>rorded at all until aome of the children make their ap|iearanoe 
in the iufltitution m pupiU. TIiIh uivhuh that they may not be recorded until 10, 20, or even 25 
yearH alter the date of their birtli. I may be wroiiK in auch a auppoaition, but I do not know how 
otherwiae to account for the imperfi'ctioii of tli«> recordH: 

(1) In the 1877 report «>f the American AHvliim the married male pupila were reconled to have 
had 30 <lc<if <rliildrun born to Ihem and the married female pupila 28. Whereas 61 children of 
deaf-mute inarriaReH have already been admitted into the institution as papila (November, 1883*), 
all of whom were liorn before the 1877 report was isaueil. This doea not include a number of deaf- 
mutea who have been admitted into ntluT in.stitutionH in New Kngland whose parenta were pupila 
of the American ANylmn, nor docs it include childnui too young to be sent from home. 

(2) In the 1882 rep<»rt of tiie lllinoia Inatitution the married male pupils were recorded to have 
had 10 deaf children born to them and tlie married female pupila 8. Whereas 14 children have 
already been admitted into the IlliiioiH Institution (November, 1883t) one or both of whoae parents 
were deaf. 

(3) A coinpariHon of tlie four reports of the American AHylum containing the atatiatics of the 
institution mIiowh that only a Nniall proportion of the deaf ottapring of the later marrieig^ arc 
recordeil in the 1877 re|>ort. Tliis will lie obvious from the following table: 



Taulk XXVI. — VoHffinitally deaf pupila tcho married dva/mutet. 



PruHiii 



.■e.l .l»t.- of nmr- Xni..lM.,o|- >m«1.h '''r'TI^'ll'lV'n'I'i'n^ Numlmr of leumlcn R«^"'^««/ ."»•»>•«' of 
-:„,,„ . .„..,.,.i.wi '•' "' < liil'l"'" "<>rn ,„„,,i„,i Jesf cliildren born 

"»«"• n.oiiLMl. to tli- nnilM. nmrried. to tho female.. 



, U«f<.r«19i:» 

I Iti-twran liMiiiindld')*. 

Betwpon IWVTamllrt^i*. 

Between lH(i7 and H77. 



-a 



4 



17 
46 
30 
916 



11 
h 
1 



* Dfducetl fniiii a ouiiipariHciii of tliii Tour ri'piiitH ol' lli« Aiupriian Aiiylniii. (Sna Introdootion to Table XXIIt.) 

From this table it appears tliat IK* congenital deaf-mutes (males and females) have married 
deaf-mutes since the 1857 report was issued and that only one deaf child resulted from these 
marriages (!). This is most extraordinary, in view of the results obtained by Dr. Turner, which 
were based upon the marriages of the pupils of the same institution, and we must conclude that 
the records of the later marriages are tlcfective so far as the deaf offspring are concerned. 

An examination of the tables in the appendix shows that of all the pupils of the Americau 
Asylum and Illinois Institution 445 inalcH and 371 females are recorded to have married. In the 
445 families formed by the males there were (according to the reports) 40 deaf children, or 10.3 
deaf children for every 100 families; and in tlie 371 families formed by the females there were 30 
deaf children, or !t.7 in 100 families. 

* Ropoi'led to tln! writer liy Mr. WilliuuiH, tlio i»re:out print'ipul of the institiitiou. 
t Reiiorted to the writer by Dr. Uillott, the i>ru8ont ])rincipal of Illinois lustitutioii. 



THK FORMATION OK A l»KAF VAUIKTY Ol' TIIK llirMAN UA(!K. 



23 



If we «U1 together the t«)tiil iiiinil>er (if iniileM untl ruiiniltw leportMl to hitvo married hikI the 
tottti number of <l(wf children HtnttMl to liuvn lieuii Itorii In tliciii, wi^ obtuiii the tuliowiiiK tlKiireo! 
MIO individuikiN iiiarriwl, and H2 detil' oflfMiirinK- ^Vo (uitiiior tunu'liide Iroiii tliin that the reoonU 
indicate that 82 deaf chihiren were tN)rn to tlie Hid iMipiiM rt>l'crr«>d to, Tor niiiny of the male popil« 
meutioned had undoubtedly niiirried fuinule deaf iiiiitcH «<4liwiilfd in tliv Hitinu inntitntion with 
ttieniaelvea. In nuch oaiteM the do»f oft'Hprinf; wi'iv prolialil.v it'cordtMl twi*-«> — once under the name 
of the father and once under the name of the niutlior. IT wf d«'Mii-e to olttain, not the luttual 
number of deaf ohildreu recorded to have Imhsu Ihiiii to tho inipilit, but the proportionate number^ 
we may safely add together the children rcconleil to lmv<> Im'^h lH>rn to the ninlu and female pupili*; 
for, if 810 famillea have 82 deaf children, the proportionate niinilter of deaf cliildren (10 for every 
100 familiea) in a mean between the tchuUh obtaiufd from tlic iniriiikK* h of the nialeM and femulcH 
considered separately, and Ih more reliable than eitliiM- from Uuing baHt^l on larger numlierit. 
In Ibe following tables this plan of addition lian been mloptett, and it mnxt be rememlMtred that 
tbe number of families noted and the number of deaf rhildifn bom, nH deduced from the reiiorts 
of the American Asylum and IllinoiH luHtitution, intiHt not ))*• luktMi to indicate the nctual numlter 
of families formed by the pupiln of thcMc inHtitntioiis, nor the lutunl uumlter of deaf children born 
to them. They simply indicate a pro)HH'tion, whi<-li is e\pi'(>MM«-d in the third columy by a percentage. 

If none of the males nnirriod fenuiles recorded in the Hame reports, then the figures in the 
following tables would indicate avtuni an well on proportionate niimberH; but this is not the cimc. 



Tablk XXVII. — Proportion of flea/ offHpring resulting from the marriagen of deafmutea. 
[Ueduoed from tbe reports of tli« Amuricau Aayliiiii ami llliiiom Iimtltiitioii.') 



Married vou|il«ii. 



I NniiilM'r of rikiiiili<>M. 



N.i.ul...r <.!• .Inif ^".''i'*:," *»/.".]," ""!.''•' 



Both partiea deuf-mutea. 
Oni' party a deaf-ninte . . 






cliililrrii. 



m 

l*i 



iif (li'iil cliildrcii to 
every lUOfuiiiilicit), 



in. 1 



One or both parties deafimitnH. . . 



Mlti 



»i 



10.0 



The following tables enal»lo us to compare the above reanlts with tliOHc obtained fr<»m each 
institution, considered separately : 

Table XXVIII.— /Vo2)or(u»» ofdeafnfHprinij as deduced from reportn of IIUnoiH Tmtitution and 

' American Anylum, 

IL1JNOI8 INSTITUTION. 



Married couples. 



Both partk. 'Vaf-iiiiitos. 
One party a deaf-mute. . 



Number of fumilieH. 



SB 



., , I- I r roroentucK (nuuilior 

M,H.U«r of .leaf „f ,,„„,f;,,,hareu to 

cuiuirou. I every lOOfaiiiilicH). 



One or both parties deaf-uiutes 1*4 

. .^.I„__ 

AMERICAK ASYLUM. 



Both parties deaf-routes. 
One party a deaf-mute.. 



SOS 

140 



One or both parties deaf-mutes. . 



64-i 



17 
1 



Irt 



4» 
15 



M 



11.2 
4.5 



10. :i 



It.S 
10.1 



10.0 



24 



MEMOIRS OP TIIK NATIONAL ACADEMY OP SCIENCES. 



11 



il( 



The perc.(Mitiijje.s obtniuiMl indicate, of course, tlie number of deaf children for every 100 fam- 
ilies OH reoordrd in the reports, and not the actual uninbcr of deaf children for every 100 families 
(wliich is known to be jrreater). 

Tlie general results obtained fiom the two institution reports are remarkably concordant. 

In the case of the American Asylum, however, it appears that the pupils who nmrried hearing 
persons IkuI a larger proportion of deaf children than those who married deaf-mutes (!) Such a 
remarkable result requires explanation. Tiie ])Upils assumed to have married hearing persons are 
simply recorded in the report as "married," but from private correspondence with the present 
principal [M . Williams) I find that in most, if not in all, cases so recorded the record is really 
intended to indicate marriage with a hearing person. 

Even in the case of the congeiiitallj- deaf pupils of the American Asylum it app ^ra that 
those wlio married hearing persons had a larger proportion of deaf offspring than those who mar- 
ried deaf-mutes. The following table shows that this result can be deduced not only from the 
tables in the appendix, but from the table quoted above from Dr. Turner's paper on Hereditary 

Deafness : 

Tahi.e XXIX. 



Dr. Turner's results (1868) „ u r , u-, . .i „<• 

for iiiipilH ,.f the Aiiieri- '^''''"V'* ^'9'" '1'^ "'' 
\ ,,,... . Aiiifncnii Asylum. 



Mairi.a}'<'s of the oonm'iiitdlv dciif. 



can Any 


llllll. 


•.- >. 




























r. 


t 




if, 


l^ 


t« 


'^ ^ 


i" 


s 


1- 


= •- 


5 




Oi 


C- j; ? 














c -r 


IclS 


Cm 

o 


u 


u 


Percent.-! 
deafch 
1(K) fani 


U 


1 


i 


M 


1 




a 



One parent loiifji'iiitiill.v ileiif iiiitl the 
other a lieariiij; ])er.sciii 

Both parents ih'al'-niiites(oiii' ;'(inf;eii- 
it.illv ileaf and the other iiiiitleii- 
tally'deaf) 

Uotli parents deaf-mutes (hotli coii- 
){eiri tally di-af) 

Both parents deaf-mutes (one or liotli 
cougenitttlly .ieat) 



8U 



15 



riO.o 



57 



14 



r> 


10.7 


(f) 


(f) 


/ 


70.0 


(0 


(?) 


:i 


38.7 


2:J9 


31 



I 4) 



Jji 2 

2:5 a 



24.0 

(?) 

(f) 

14.2 



* Class 1 y;ives siiminatioii of elas.ses 'i and 3. 

I have already stated that in the majority of the cases that have ftillen under my personal 
observation where i\ deaf-mute was married to a hearing person that the hearing pernon belonged 
to a family containing deufmutes, aiul this is significant in the light of the results deduced above, 
especially when we remember that the late Dr. Harvey L. Peet found that "the brothers and 
sisters of a deaf mute are about as liable to havedeaf mute children as the deal-mute himself, suppos- 
ing each to marry into families that have or each into families that have not shown a predisposition 
toward deaf dumbness." If we examine the cases of the pupils who are presumed to have married 
hearing persons in the light of this idea, separating the sporadic cases from those who have deaf- 
mute relations, we obtain the following results: 

We find from the tables in the appendix that 162 deaf mutes were "married," presunuvbly, to 
bearing persons. Of these deaf-mutes o,; are stated to have had deaf-mute relatives, and they are 
recorded to have had 15 deaf children, or more than 27 deaf chihlren for every 100 families; on 
the other hand, 107 of these deaf mutes were notc<l tis sjioradic cases, and only one deaf child is 
recorded as the offspring of the marriages ! 



sp 



THE FORMATION OF A DEAF VAKIETY OF THE HUMAN RACE. 



25 



We have liore a clear indication that n hcredilary lendencij towards den/Hess, «s indicated by the 
possession of deaf relatires, is a most important clement in determining the production of deaf off 
spring. The following table shows that it may eren be a more important element than the mere fact of 
congenital deafness in one or both of the jiarints. 

Table XXX. — Deafmvie offspring of deaf-mute marriages. 

[UusiiUh (loduced from the tables in <lio appoiidix, cninbiniiig tbo tigurcs obtainod from Uio reports of llie Amcricau 

AH.vliim and llliiiuis Institution. 1 



Description of married couples. 



(1) 

(2) 

(3) 
(4) 
(5) 

(6) 

I ''' 
I (8) 

I 

1 (9) 
(10) 

(H) 

(13) 
(14) 
(15) 



Fatber known to be a doaf-muto (snmmutioii of all cases wbcre tlie canse of 

fatber's d;>nfne,ss is staled): 

(n) Fatber recuirded to be eoiigenitally deaf 

(h) Fatber recorded to be iion-eongenitally deaf 

Motber known to be a deaC-niute (summation of all cases where the cause of 

motber's deafness is stated): 

(a) Motber recorded to be eoiigeni tally .'.eat 

(fc) Mother recorded to be n(Uiconneni tally deaf 

Fatber known to be a deaf-mute (sunnnation of all sncb cases): 

(a) Fatber known to bave deaf- mute relatives 

(ft) Fatber recoided as a spin ad ic ca.se 

Motber known to be a deaf-mntn Csummntion of all bncb cases): 

(a) Motber known to bave deaf-mute relatives 

(ft) Motber reecnded as a sporadic case 

One parent known to be a deaf-mute (sumnmtionof all cases wberetbecau.se 

of deafness was stated): 

(rt) Deaf-mute parent recorded to be con}i;enitally deaf .. 

(ft) Deaf-mute parent recorded lo be noii-eoiigenitally deaf 

One ])arent known to lie a deaf-mute (summation of all cases): 

(a) Deaf-mute parent known to bave deal-mute relatives 

(ft) Deaf-ninte ])areiit lecoided as a spor.idic case. 

One parent recmded to be connenitally di af (sunnnation of all cases): 

(«) Congenitally deaf parent known to bave deaf-mute relatives 

(6) Congenitally deaf jjarent lecorded as a sporadic ca.se 

Oiie parent recorded to lie non-con;;< uilally deaf (summation of all cases): 

(a) Non-confienitnUy deaf parent known to bave deaf-niiite relatives 

(ft) Nou-counenitally deaf parent recoided as a sporadic case 

liotli jiarents known to lie deaf-mutes (sunnnation ol' all cases): 

(«) One parent known lo bave deaf mute relatives 

(ft) One parent recorded as a sporadic case 

Both jiareuts known to be deaf-mutes and one recorded as cougenitally 

deaf: 

(fl) Conjjenitally deaf iiarent known to bave deal-mute relatives 

(ft) Oonjjeni tally deaf parent recorded as a tporadie case 

Hotb parents known to lie denf-mntes, and -me recorde<l as non-eongeuitally 

deaf: 

(o) Noncongcnitally deaf parent known to bave dcaf-innte relatives 

(ft^ NonconKenitiilly deaf parent recorded 6s a sporadic ease; 

One parent known tii be a deaf mute and tbe otber presunu'd to be a bear- 

iuff person (sumimitiou of all cases'): 

(n) Tbe deaf-unite parent kn<iwn to bave deal-mute relatives 

(6) Tbe deaf-mute jiarcnt recorded as a sporadic iiise 

One |iarent i-ecorded to bo a congenital deaf-mute, tbe otber presumed to be 

a beariu); (lerson: 

(n) Congenitally deaf parent known to bave deaf-mute relatives 

(6) Congenitally ibaf parent recorded as a sporadic case 

One parent rceo'rdcil to lie a non-ccmgenital deaf mute, tbe oilier presumed 

to bo a beariiiu iierson: 

(rt) Noii-coiigenital dear-mute parent known to bave deaf mute relatives 

(ft) Non-congenilal deaf-mute parent recorded as a sporadic case 

Oener.'il results (snmmalion of all cases of marriage recorded): 

Average 





, 


fE-^ 






i <- r 


c 


.a 


.^ m i- 




5^ 

<« 1 


m 


a 




S-c e 


.■" 


"* 


S~£ 




- P 


• -ar 


o 


= £ 


6JD. * 


0/ 


1. 


"S S t»> 




.a 


«; - S 


B 


B 


f^ > 


B 


s 


So* 


^ 


iz; 


fri 


187 


25 


13.3 


2:}7 


18 


7.6 


17:i 


31 


17.9 


17!t 


4 


2.9 


i:!a 


23 


17.4 


:U3 


23 


7.3 


ir.3 


25 


Hi. 3 


218 


11 


5.0 


:«io 


56 


15. 5 


41(i 


22 


.5.3 


285 


iS 


Hi. 8 


531 


34 


<).4 


230 


41 


17.8 


130 


15 


11.5 


53 


5 


!t.4 


31i3 


17 


4.7 


2:^0 


33 


14.7 


424 


33 


7.8 


18t) 


27 


14.5 


112 


15 


13.4 


43 


4 


9.3 


288 


10 


5.5 


55 


15 


27.3 


lt)7 


1 


O.U 


44 


14 


31.8 


18 


None. 


(»). 


10 


1 


10.0 


75 


1 


1.3 



81ti 



82 



10.0 



•The percentages are given as deduced from tbe institution reiiorts. The true perccutiiges are probably mncU 
greater, hut propoHionally greater. 
J»9 A— BELL 4 



26 



MEMOIRS OF THE NATIONAL ACADEMY OF SCIENCES. 



% 






(a) The largo proportion of deaf otfsprinK resulting from marriages where the father was 
known to have deaf-mute relatives, and from those wliere the mother was known to have deaf- 
mute relatives, and the comiwratively small proportion where either parent appeared to be free 
from hereditarj- taint, seem to i)oint to the conclusion that in a large proportion of cases in icliich 
the marriages were productive of deaf offunring both parents had deaf-mute relatices {even in the ease 
ichere one parent was a hearing person). 

(b) A similar process of reasoning leads to the conclusion that in a large proportion of 
marriages tchere deaf offspring resulted both parents were probably congenitally deaf where both were 
deaf mutes, and one parent congenitally deaf where only one was a deaf-mute. 

(e) It is thus highly probable that a large proportion of the deaf offspring of deaf mute mar- 
riages had parents who were both congenitally deaf and who also both had deaf-mute relatives. 

(d) Non-congenital deafness, if sporadic, seems little likely to be inherited. 

(e) Another deduction we may make is that more of the deaf offspring ichose parents had deaj 
relatives will marry than of those whose parents were recorded as sporadic eases, for there are more of 
them; and they will have a greater tendency than the others to transmit their defect to the grandchil- 
drmi. 

These results are in close accordance with the experience of the venerable principal of the 
Pennsylvania Institution, as expressed in the following letter: 



Pennsylvania IxsTrn tiox fok Deaf and Dumu, 

rhiladetphia, Noi'emher 14, 1883. 
A. Gkaiiam Bell, Esq. : 

Deak .Sir; Continued ill liealtli lias preveiitfd an earlier comi)linueo with your request of October 15. The list 
I uow send is full and ncenrate, iiceording to the rceords of the institution and my recollection. In regard to numt 
of the eases, I know of no place where fulle.i- infonnatiou can be obtained than our books furnish. 

A residence of more than forty years in this institution has afforded me abiiudant opportunity for observation 
in rojjard to the subject of your research. A statement of the ennclusious I have arrived at may be of some interest 
and use to you. 

In regard to the marringo of deaf mutes with each other, if both the nuiu and the woman are deaf from birth, 
there is very great danger — I should say a strong probability — that some of the olfspring will be born deaf. I know 
a family, however, where the mother is omi of three congenitally deaf children and the father one of five, anil the 
seven children they have had are all without def 'ct. In the list sent you all the parents, except in two cases, were 
born deaf In one of these two eases the father could hear; in the other the mother is a semi-mute. 

Where both parents became deaf adventitiously, there sceinsto bo no more probability of the olfspring being born 
deaf than there is where both parents hear. 

Where only one of tl e parents is congenitally deaf, "le children almost always hear. 

' Any further information 1 can give will be furnishe<l willingly. 

Yours, reapectfullv, 

JOSHUA FOSTKK. 

My attempts to deduce from the records of the marriages of the deaf the influences that 
cause the production of deaf ottspring have met with only partial success. Valuable iiulications 
have been obtained, but precise and accurate restdts are unattaimible, on account of imperfect 
data. It occurred to me some time ago that a different method might lead to an exhaustive exam- 
iuation of the subject. It is known that few of the deaf and dumb married before the establish- 
ment of educational institutions in this country, and nearly 78 i)er cent, of all the marriages re- 
corded in the reports of the American Asylum (the oldest institution in the country), seem to have 
been contracted since the year 184.'}. The probabilities are, tlierefore, that tlie vast majority of the 
deaf offspring born are still living, and from them may be obtained an accurate account of their 
ancestry. It also appeared probable that the majority of these deaf-mutes would at some period 



If 



THE FORMATION OF A DMAF VARIETY OF THE HUMAN RACE. 



27 



of their lives, make tiieir appearance in institutions for the <leaf and dnuib, and from the institution 
records might be obtained their names and addresses. Such considerations as the above led me 
to send to all the institutions in the country a circidar letter of inquiry requesting the names and 
addresses of all the pupils who had been admitted who had deaf-mute parents, and returns have 
been received from a number of institutions.* 

A starting point has thus been gained for a new investigation of the subject. The cases re 
turned are sufficient in number to throw some light upon the i)roi)ortion of deaf ofl'spring born to 
deaf-mutes as compared with the proportion born to the (tommunity at largo. The total number 
of deaf-mutes in the country, according to the recent (iensns, is 33,878, which gives us a proportion 
of one deaf mute for every 1,500 of the population. If, then, the proportion of deaf mutes, origi- 
nating among the deaf mutes themselves, were no greater than in the community at large, they 
should constitute only 1 in 1,500 of the deaf^nute population. In other words, we should not 
have more than 23 deaf-mutes in the United States wlio are themselves the cliildren of deaf-mutes. 
The returns received from the institutions, however, siiow that no less than 315 such children have 
already been adviitted as pupils into 35 of tiie 58 institutions of the country (23 in-stitntions not re- 
plying to my queries). Pupils are rarely admitted before they are 10 or 12 years of age and many 
do not reach the institution until they are much older. Hence it is evident that this number does 
not at all express the total number of such cases in the United States. Even if we suppose that no 
more than 230 such cases sire to be found in the country, the proportion is ten times greater than in 
the community at large, or 1 in 150. But when we consider that nearly all of these children were 
born deaf, whereas nearly half of the deaf mutes of the country (15.9 per cent.) became deaf from 
accidental causes, we realize that the liability to the pioduction of congenital deaf-mutes is more 
nearly twenty times that of the population at large than ten times. It is evident that whatever 
may be the actual number of deaf-mutes in the country who have one or both parents deaf, the true 
number is much greater than that assumed above. From which it follows that the liability to the 
production of deaf olJspring is also greater. While, then, we cannot at present arrive at any per. 
centage, it is certain that the proportion of deaf-mute offspring born to deaf-mutes is many times greater 
than the proportion born to the people at large. 



* See Tables S, T, U, ami W of the Appendix. My best tkniiks are clue to the priucipals and superintendents for 
their assistance in this investigation. 



5: 



;\ 



Chafteb IV. 



FAMILIES OF DEAF-MUTES. 

The reports of the American Asylum, Ifuw York, Oliio, Iiuliann, and Illinois Institutions 
show that in each institution deaf-mutes have been received who belong to families containing 
five, six, or even more deaf-mutes ; and there is abundance of evidence to indicate that such fam- 
ilies are very numerous in the United States, In cases where there are five or six children of one 
family deaf and dumb some of them marry when they grow up, and in many cases they marry 
persons who belong, like themselves, to families cofitaining several deaf-mutes. Thus it happens 
that we have here and there, scattered over the country, groups of deaf-mute families connected 
together by blood and marriage. 

The probability is very strong that the deaf mute children of deaf-mute marriages will at 
some time or other make their appearance in the educational institutions of the country, and we 
might reasonably hope to be able to trace the family relations from the published reports of the 
institutions. Unfortunately, in the nuijority of cases, the information that can be gleaned in this 
way is very fragmentary and uncertain, for the names of the husbands and wives of the pupils are 
rarely quoted, so that it is impossible in the greut majority of cases to trace the connections. A 
female deaf-mute, when she marries, changes her name to that of her husband; the new name is 
not recorded iu the iustitutiou reports, and we lose track of her branch of the family. Should she 
have deaf ofl'spiing they make their appearance in the institution under another family name, and 
the connection is not obvious. So far as mj- researches have gone they indicate the probabdity 
of a connection by blood or marriage between many of the largest of the deaf mute families of 
the New England States. 

In the following diagram (Fig. 1) I exhibit the results of an attempt to trace the connections 
of the Brown family, of Henniker, N. H., in which there are known to be at least four generations 
of deaf-mutes. 



O Iiidioutcs n heoriug and speaking porgoii. 
^ Ii):1icntt>M n deaf-mute. 
iB Tmticati'H marriago. 

.Brou/n.. 
O 



.ifcaJhetuJfj 



f f r ? f O 



u 



Smith. 



tHO 



0=*i 



Swett. 



111 (21 ^ 



rh 



Siveit. 



TZTh 




2» 



Fio. 1.— Tbe Ui'ovrn family uf Uenuikor, N. H., and a foir of its connKOtions. 



THE FORMATION OF A DEAF VARIETY OF THE HUMAN RAGE. 



29 



The Brown family^ of Henniker, V. H. — Tlie ancestor of this fainily was one of the early 
pioneers of New Hampshire. He left Stowe, in Massachusetts, sou)ewhere about the year 1787, 
and settled in Henniker, N. H. 

His deaf-mute son Naham (born in 1772) married a hearing lady, by whom he had a son and 
daughter, both deaf and dumb. His son Thomas, when he entered the American Asylum as a 
pupil, was recorded to have had "an aunt and two cousins deaf and dumb." (This branch of the 
family has not yet been certainly identified.) Thomas married a deaf-mute (Mary Smith, of Chil- 
mark, Mass.), by whom he had two children, Thomas L, (a deaf-mute) and a hearing daughter who 
died young. The son Tliomas L. married a hearing lady ( Alinira G. Harte, of Burlington, Vt.), and 
removed to Michigan, where he became one of the teachers of the Michigan Institution for tlie Deaf 
and Dumb. I have no information concerning his descendants. 

The deaf mute daughter of Nahum married a hearing gentleman, Mr. Bela M. Swctt, of Hen- 
niker, N. H., by whom she had three sous (Thomas B., William B., and Nahum). The eldest sou, 
Thomas, was born deaf; the second son, William, was born deaf in one ear, and lost the hearing 
of the other in childhood from measles; and the third son, Nahum, could hear. The eldest son, 
Thomas, married a dciaf-mute, and his three children (Mitchell, Charlotte E., and Mary S.) are 
deaf-mutes. The second son, William, married a deaf mute (Margaret Harrington) by whom he 
had Hve cliildren, all of whom could hear at birth, but two of them (Persis H. and Lucy Maria) 
lost their hearing so early in life as to ne«!essitate their education in institutions for the deaf and 
dumb. Two others died young and one has retained her hearing into adult life. The eldest 
daughter (Persis, born 1852) has married a deaf-mute. It will thus be seen that three families 
of deaf-mutes have sprung from Nahum Brown, and in two of these the deafness has descended 
to the fourth generation. In the other family it descended to the third generation, beyond which 
I have been unable to trace the family. The deaf-mute connections of the Brown family have onlj' 
been partially worked out. 

1. The wife of William B. Swett was Margaret Harrington, who had a deaf-mute brother, 
Patrick, who married a deaf-mute (Surah Worcester), who had a twin deaf-mute brother ( Frank), who 
married a deaf-mute (Almira Huntington), who had a deaf-mute sister (Sophia M.), who married a 
deaf-mute (James H. Hines).* Frank Worcester, one of the twin deaf-mutes has a deaf-mute son — 
the other twin (Susan) lias a child who hears. 

2. On the other side of the family, the wife of Thomas Brown (Mary Smith, of Ohilmark, 
Martha's Vineyard) had a hearing brother (Capt. Austin Smith), who had two deaf-mute children 
(a son and a daughter). The son (Freeman N.) nnirried a deaf-mute (Deidama West).t Mrs. Brown 
also had a deaf-mute sister (Sally), who " unirried a hearing man of Martha's Vineyard (Hariif 
Mayhew) who had 5 deaf-mute brothers aiul sisters." 

The Lovejoy family. — This is another New England family in which deafness has been banded 
down through four generations. Benjamin Lovejoy, a deaf-mute, of Sidney, Me., is recorded in 

• Tho fiitluT aiiil mother of Jamos U. Hines (iHiiiie and Sopliia) wciu both (Icaf'-iniitcs, and he ha.s a deaf-inuto 
son (Eddio), and a eousin deaf and dumb. His iiiDther (Sophia Uowlcy ) also has a deaf-mute cousin. 

t They bad a deaf-mute daughter (Loviua). Deidama West hud a deaf-mute mother, Deidama (Tilton) West, and two 
maternal uueU-s deaf aud dumb (Franklin aud Zeno Tilton) who married deaf-unites. She also had three brothers and 
one Bister deaf aud dumb (Ueorge, Henjamiu, .Joseph L., and Kebeeca). (ieorge married a deaf-mute (Sabriua Rogers), 
and has a deaf-mute child (Eva 8. West). Henjamiu married a hearing lady (Mary Hathaway). I have no informa- 
tion couceruiug their offspring. Rebeeca nuirried a deaf-mute (Eugene Trask), who had a deaf-mule brother (John 
Trask) who married a deaf-mute. George Trask, a deaf-mute, born about 1H80, is 'probably the sou of Eugene 
Trosk and Kebeeca West. 



I 



80 



MEMOIRS OF THE NATIONAL ACADEMY OP SCIENCES. 



the reports of the American Asylum to have had " a graiidfather, father, and 3 children deaf and 
dumb." There are other families of deaf-mutes of the same name which are obvionsly connected. 
(See Fig. 7.) 

The Ouat family, of Tllimin. — Two members of tbi? family onttreu the Illinois Institution in 
1859 and 1862. It was recorded of them in the 1882 report that there had been deafness in the 
family for five generations. No particulars, however, are given. 



O Iniliontes a hearing person 
9 Intiicnlen n rteaf-mnte. 
^ ImUcatos marriage. 



Sbagland, 

■ to. 



HJoagumd, 

{LtxMfUmBrand^ {OtdUiin Co, SraneK) 

Reed. 



^ 



Blaunti 



6T7^ 



{No informedian 
eotuerrUnif ih» 
ilescendaiU4) 



{^o information eoncsmiru/ 
the dtcendants^ ' 



Fig. 2.— The Uoaglunrt family of Ki-utucky. 

The Roagland family, of Kentucky (Fig. 2.) — This is one of the most remarkable of tha deaf-mute 
families of America. In the above diagram \ have attempted to show the family connections 
so far as they are known to me. In 1853 this family was stated to consist of a father, himself deaf 
and dumb, with 7 deaf mute children. He had 2 deaf-mute nephews, one of whom was married 
and had two deaf-mute children. He also had a hearing s'ster who had two deaf-mute sons, one 
of whom iiad 3 children, all deaf mutes.* 

The principal of the Kentucky Institution has kindly furnished me with the following addi- 
tional particulars concerning this family. He says: 

*-In 1822 two brothers, Thoums and William Hoagland, entered our institution. Thomas 
never married, but William married a deaf mule. He had a son and two daughters, all of whom 
were mutes aiul married mutes. Jesse, the son, has five children, all of whom can hear. Mrs. 
Blount, the eldest daughter, has one son, a mute ; Clara, the other daughter, is childless. This 
may be called the Lexington brancli, as their home was there. Another, the Gallatin Co- nty 
branch, contained seven deaf-mutes. In another branch, the Reeds, the fattier and his three 
children are mutes. Only a part of all these mutes have been at school, and it is diilicult to trace 
n the scanty records the exact relationship between the different branches." 

The AdkitiH family, of Kentucky. — This family was stated in 18.j3 to contain nine deaf-mutes.t 

The Orisson family, of Kentuoky. — I am indebted to the principal of the Kentucky Institution 
for the following very instructive particulars concerning this family: 

"There were three or four deaf-mute brothers and sisters of this family who were pupils here 
(Kentucky Institution) about the year 1828; one of them, William, married a deaf-mute lady and 



• Aniericau Auiials of the Deaf and Dumb, vol. vi, p. 255. 
t Americau Annalg of the Deaf aad Dumb, vol. vi, p. 25ti. 



I 



THE FOllMATION OF A DEAF VAKIETY OF THE HUMAN RACE. 



31 



bad a numerous family, all of whom could hear. One of his sous married his cousin, also a hearing 
person, and all of their Jive children are dcafviutes." 

In 1870 Mr. Benjamin Talbot, then principal of the Iowa Institution, published in the American 
Annals of the Deaf and Dumb (vol. xv, p. 118) an account of some fainilies of deaf-mutes residing 
in his State. One or two of the most remarkable cases umy be noted which are of a i)articularly 
suggestive character. 



O Indicateiin lieai-iiig penion. 
A Indicates a doaf mute. 



JTw Lurber Family 
Iowa. 



1 



^iFather had dtxxf and dumb 
relatives in Indiana) 



66 <!> i i i 6 il 6 6 A 

(JTo infiirmcUian eonetrrung th* dttetndaittt) 



Fio. 3.— The Lurbor family of Town. 

Tlie Lurber Jamily, of Iowa (Fig. 3). — " The father ia a deaf-mute, without education, who came 
to Iowa from Indiana, where there are, or have been, several deaf-mute relatives. Of twelve 
children in this family only one, and slie the eighth, was born deaf. Four others, the fourth, fifth, 
sixth, and ninth, have lost tlieir hearing in wiiole or in part, and have been sent to school hero 
(Iowa Institution)." 



^Euston. 



6 



iiroihcrg, 

or 
Sin tars. 








O Inilicntesft liearingporson. 

@ Tndicntea n partially deaf person. 

9 Indicf.trs a deaf-mnte. 

=^ Indicates marriage. 



^*'i-^!:r^) 









II ths brothers an^\ 
tisttn became deaf, 
or hard of hearinci 
earltf In life. 



6646 6 4 6444 

(So information eoneemintf the deaeeniUmte!^ 



Fin. 4,— The iliiston family of Iowa. 



The Huston, family, of Iowa (Fig. 4). — "There have been ten children in this family, of whom 
the third and eighth lost their hearing by disease, while the sixth, ninth, and tenth were born deaf. 



32 



MEMOIRS OF THE NATIONAL ACADEMY OF SCIENCES. 



J 



Mr. Iliistou's j^rniKliiintlierfl were nisters, and tlio pr.andfatlicr luid graiidinotlier of this family were 
ftrnt (>oiiM<iis. Mr. Huston's brotluM'H, like liinisolf, woru lioaltliy and lonR lived, but, Iii<e him, they 
all bemme don/, or at io is', Imnl of iicuiiig, eainivirativcly o rly in life." 



rullerton. ^^^ 

(Ifoinforiitatian> conctrning ih9\ 



(iVu informalion oonetrning 
the iluetmkmtt ^ 



ludlcn'on n deaf iniito. 
Indlcaica innrringo. 



Ii 



Fio. 5.-Tli« t'lillortoa family of (lobroo, N. Y. 

The Ftillerton famili/, of Hebron, X. Y. (Fig. 5). — Sayles Works, born 1808 (a presiiined con- 
genital deaf-mute of the New York Institution), married Jane FuUerton, born 1800 (a congenital 
deaf mute educated in tlie same institution), who bad six brothers and sisters deaf and dumb. 
All of their six children were deaf and dumb. Tiiere were thus fourteen deaf-mutes in this family. 
I have no information concerning the descendants. 



O Indicates a hearing person 
^ Indicates a doaf-inuto. 
=z Indicates mniriage. 



(Harriiori^ 



I (Amohl) 



(Amohl) (WycTcaff:) (WiUiama.) 



TVi 



(JVo informaiion 
concerning ths 
dfseenilantt) 



Fig. f».— a family indicati-d in tlie 18.*»4 report of tlie Xew York inntitntion. 

A remarkable family reported from the ¥ew York InsHlution for the Deaf and Dumb. — The 
particulars of this family, as gleaned from the 1854 report of the New York Institution, are shown 
in the above diagram (Fig. 6): As the descent is in the female line, this genealogical table could 
not have been made had it not been for tiie fact that the New York report gives the names of the 
husbands and wives of some of the pupils. 



TIIK FORMATION OF A UK.VF VAKIOTY OF TIIK HUMAN UACH. 



33 



(I 
I 






Tlus Mien. Family, 
of Hartford, Me. 

E!i!-iiu „ilu:i nl 'ivvs deaf and Jumli. 

JtKliWiA Al.LF.N, mliiiillU'l In Aini'iiraii AMVliini in If^i.!, \v^vi\ iX ycurn. 
Slit: 1h roi'oi'ili'il iiH liuviii^ "Iwn Itiollii ih, \\\i\ slNlfis. uimI ('U^\4mi nthcr 
ivliitivfs tti-at'uiid iliiiiiU," and tt> have ' nmiiicil it dcnt'nnitc." 



im 



The Lovejoy tb/nilj/, 
ef Fayette, We. 



^ 



■f/- 



The Lmejay Family, 
tf Sidney f Me. 



♦O 



The Lw^aif Family, 
of Concord, tl. If, 



■^^ 



(^^ 



R^ 



Till' Lo\ I'joYn lit' Now Hiiiii|p«lilni iiiii liini Kniupixl with Ihi^ UiviuoYB 
(if iMiiiiii', iilllioiijili wo buvu no uuiluin oviiUiito tluit Uioy mo ciiniiected. 



"Tl 



Th« Howe Family, 

afyewaioucttter,Mi. 



. us tltaf-multt initio famUy\ 
(7 dtaf-mutet in a fnmilij . 5 marriei to deafmutn) ^4 married 10 dtaf-mutt$, I 



The CurtU Family, 
of Leedt, Me. 



f*f*f-f-^^H^f-f-* 



The lloyers Family, 
of Freeport, Ale. 



The Wdkefleli FamUy. 
af Oardiner.lUi. 






The Seidtirs Family, 
of TValdaioro.lUi. 



Kmma Si:n»Ki;s. iiiliiiittnl l^.'.S. a-fd 
yraiH; liiul ' onr sister, iin<- lnotln'r, 
OHH uiiclf, on'M'tmsiu, drat' and dumb." 



father relatives.) 

• • • 



Of wan 



Ehthku '.VAKiiKii:i.i>, ailiiiiilcd lH4d. 
ttfied II yrai-H; bad "niu' sister, ime 
uncle, three e(^u^^ins, Mini nilier relrt- 
tive.s deaf.iml dnnih." 



The WUliurnsoTt Fanuly, 
ofyorthport, Afe. 







r^ 



Ti 



KiTA J. AVii.i.iAMsox, adniitlod 18r>l», 
ayed 11 years: Iiad '•I\vi» unclcu anil 
tureo ciuiainH deai" and dumb," and she 
married a (leafmuto. 



The Small Favuly, 
ofWaat SaiwillttfMe. 



[Sevrn relnth'ps 
flfof ami {lumh) 

••••••• 



The Jack Family, 
ofjackaan, Me . 



DusnAii.lACK. adniitlod lK"i8, 
a^edH yiR; Iiad 'twt) brolbiTS, 
two mules, and twit couhIus 
deofainl dumb." 



J 



ll 



!i 



i 



99 A— BKLL- 



Fk;. 7.— a c'"!!)! of lUiafniiitr fiiiiiiliOH fniiii Maiim. 



M 



MKMOIIIS OF THK NATIONAFi A(3A1)KMY OK 8CIKNCB8. 



A firoup of tiea/mutc fnmilien from Maine. — MemluTs of tlio (leiif-initti^ faiiiilit'S rIu>wii in Fijf. 
7 liavo Ik'cii iidinitti'il into tlic AiiuM'icivii Anvliini iit Huittbrtl. donn. There in no u'<ronl Hliowiii); 
Hiiy ii'lationMliip betwt'on tlio fainilii'H, hut their eloso pntxiiiiit.v to one another Im extremely huk- 
(•eHlive. Tlie fact tlnit there are fonr generatioiiH of tleaf ninten in the Lovejoy family Huj;jj;»'»tH 
tlie i(h'a tliat some of tiie otiier faiiiiiieH may periiaps he deHeeixled from it thron(;li the female line. 
Whatever tlie explanation, it is at all eventH remarkable that ho many large deuf-mnte families 
should have originated in small plaees within a few miles of one another. 

It must not be supposed that I have attempted to give an exhaustive list of the large deaf- 
mute fiiinilies. I have simply given specimen cases to i)rove that in many different parts ot the 
country deafness has been transmitted by heredity. There are nniny more largo fanulies known 
to me wliich are not alluded to above. 






1 



CUAPTEU v^ 

I'l'ON THR OUOWTH OF TlIK DKAK MTTK POlU'l-A'I'IoN. 

Tlio full iTtiirim of llio 1880 cimihuh, ho far as n-;;anls tlio dwif anil (liiiiib, Iiiivc not y«t been 
published; but, as Htatcd bi'.fori', Uev. FrcihTick II. Wiiu'H, who luul cliargo of tliis dopaitiiKMit of 
the conHUH, prcneiitud to the tenth convention of American iiiNlriK^torN of the deaf and dumb the 
rcHultM of an analysis of -'2,472 cases of deaf-muti'.s reported in the census returns. The tables 
presented by Mr. Wines have been reproduced in the Appendix. (See Tables N, (), I', Q.) 

It will be observed that the cases arc classitled aticordiu); to the period when deafness occurred 
and accordinjj to the cause of deafness (whether coii>,'enital or not). I have rearraiifjed these cases 
into decades, so as to correspond with the classilicalion of the ])npils of the American Asylum 
and Illinois Institution, and have represented tiie results ^M'a|)hi«;ally in tlie followinj; tlia^nam: 



900 










































aoo 


WO 






































L 


— 


eoo 


400 




































/ 


V 


400 


zoo 




































1/ 


\ 


V 


zoo 


aooo 




































/ 


\ 
V 




3000 


<MO 


































/ 


' 


\ 




aoo 


«00 


































' 


\ 


V 


eoo 


400 


































/ , 






\ 
\ 


400 


ZOO 
































/ 


/ 






V 

\ 
— \ 

% 


ZOQ 


SOOO 
































/ 


/ 






aooo 


aoo 






























/ 




/ 








800 


900 






























/ 




/ 








600 


400 




























/ 




y 


/ 








400 


zoo 


























/ 






/ 










ZOO 


1000 
























^^ 


/ 




/ 












1000 


aoo 






















^ 


y 




.A 


^ 












800 


eoo 




















^ 






y 


y 














600 


4O0 


















^ 






^^^ 


y 
















400 


£00 












^ 


^^ 




___ 


— 




















' 


ZOO 










, 


^-^ 




. — - 






























R, 




1 




1 

1 

1 




i 




i 

1 




1 




t 




1 








1 

1 




1 

1 


'S 






* 




s 




s 




s 

> 




s 




s 

s 




1 




5 




« 




5 


1 1 


■II 

^■3 




1 




1) 




5§ 




^ 
Si 




N 
^ 




^^ 




i 




1 




i 




o 
i 





FlQ. 8.— lleliition between tbn congeiiitJil nnil non-oDKuuital ilenl'-iimtes of the coniitiy, iiccoidinK to the l!«v. Fred. H. \Viui'«. 
The congeuitol (leaf-mutes are Inrticatcil by tlio dark line; the iion-cout;enital, by the ligbt lino. 



36 



MKMOIUR OF TMK NATIOVAli AOADKMY OF HdlFNOKS. 



' »1 



Tim oidiiiiitoH of llio (MirvoH roprtimMit, r»'H|M'<itivt>ly, tlio iiiiinbcr of roiiKdiiihtl mid iioiicoii 
Kt'iiitnl <l<>iir-iniit«m who l)cciiriio <h>at' in (lit« iltuiaili's iixliciittMl by Mii> iibMciMMiH. In tlit> vnm of the 
(Mtn^'ciiitiil (It'iit'iinitcH till' oriliniit«'M iilxo i-<>|irof«Mit tlir iiiimiImm' wIio \v<>n« born in tlitHl(>ni(l<>H Ki^'*^"* 
but this is nut true of thi< iion(!oiiK<>nitiilN. It will lut olm«>rv<'il that the iiiiiiibor of ilfiil iiuitoH rt>- 
tunifil who bfcaint' ib'af in liii' lant (it'cadf, IH7I-'«(I, Ih h-HH than th«^ nuuibcr who bccanit' ib'nf in 
tlu' pr.'ct'ilinj; lict^iKh'. TIiIm does not iifWHwuily uinin that the iiiinibor iictnally wiih 1('Hh, but in«»ro 
probably iiidicatcM that the n'tnrii.s for the hint di'caib' art' iiiipcitfct. Mr. VViiu's miys that "In 
pioporlioii to the di'^n't' of their youlii the yoiiiiKt'r deaf nuite.s arc not I'liimitMatt'd. Ft-wer di-af- 
niiiti'N wlio arc liabcM in arms are »'iinnu'ratcd than at tin* a>,'i' of tliire years, and ftuver at three 
yearH than at seven. The apparent niaxiinum nt Hoven is not the actual nni.xiuiiini ; the actual 
inaxiiiiuin is at some younger a^u not yet ascertained." 

In the aitove diagram those portions of the curves that are believed to be nnreliable from this 
cause are indicated by dotted lines. 

It will be observed that ainonj; the older deaf mutes the con(;enitals are more numerous than 
tho noncoiifjenitals; whereas amoufj the ymiiiKer the reverse appears to bo the case. There is no 
apparent diminution in the numbers of the confjenitally deaf born of late years; and the reversal 
of the relation liet ween tlie two classes must be attril)iitcd to an abniiriiial increase in the number 
of those who became deaf from disease or aiu^ident. It looks as if a wave of deafneMsi)roducing 
disease had swept over the continent about the time of the late civil war. 



so 










































St 


w 








Amt 


riean 


^y' 


im. 














JBit 


oi* u 


nititu 


H»n. 








S9 


M 






































/ 




40 


20 






































/ 


'( 


19 


300 






































( 




300 


m 






































1 




SO 


so 






































1 

1 


1 


it 


40 






































1 
1 


1 


40 


20 






































1 


\ 


?« 


200 
















/ 


\ 


















/ 






200 


m 














/ 


% 


\ 
\ 


















/ 






w 


go 












y 


V 


\ 


\ 

V 


















/ 






(0 


40 








i 


>y 




/ 




\ 
















I 








40 


20 








/ 


A 


/ 






\ 
















/ 


1 


\ 
\ 




30 


100 








// 


' 








\ 
\ 
















/ 




1 


'. 


100 


so 








/ 


























/, 


1 




\ 
\ 


80 


so 






} 


r 


























// 






\ 


SO 


40 






/ 


























) 


' 








44 


to 




y 


^ 

'^ 


























/ 








! 


80 






^ 


























^ 


7 












hi 


1 
1 


1 
1 


\ 


f 


f 

>> 


f 
1 


1 




I 


i 


! 
1 


1 

1 


f 
1 


1 
1 

i 


1 

1 
1? 


1 


1 

j 


\ 

1 


1 

1 
* 


1 

1 
1 




t\ 


v> 


Si 


^ 


S 


s 


^ 


^ 


^ 


S2 


1 


1 


1 


1 


»( 


f; 


JJ 


'^ 


1 


^ 


Si 


ii 


'^n 


"I 


?^ 


8 


^ 


^ 


§ 


^ 


1 


§ 


1 


1 


1 


1 


«i 


q 


? 


^ 


!5 


§ 


^ 


41 



Fi'i. I). — Tho iliirk linen in<Uciitc tlioBc inipilH who wnn Ihiim dciif. and the li^lit lines tlio.se wlin Itenune dent' from diHeane or accident. 



TIIK FORMATION OK A DKAK VAItlKTY OK TIIK HUMAN IIAOK. 



87 



Tlituit aru inilUnitioiiN uIho of li Himiliir tlinii)r|i Ionh diNtiirlmncc in tlu^ iiiiiiiIhm'h of tlioH« who 
loHt tlu'ir licariiiK from «liHt>aMt> iliiriiiK tlio tlocaUo \H\ I to 1M1*0. Ai> cxaiiiiiiatioii of Mm> icportH of 
tlic^ AiiHTiaiii An,vIiiiii aiiti lllitioiH iiiHlitiition may throw liglit upon tlitt iialiint of IhcHc ilJNturh- 
an<!tm. li.v claHMifyiuK tl>*< pii|)ilH of thi'Hc iiiHtitiitionH a<roi'(liii); to thi^ir period of hirtli, wi; obtain 
thu i-eHiiltH tliat ai'u t^xiiil)it«Ml (;rapi>icall.v in l\w fori>(;oinK ilia^M'am {Vi^(. 0). 

Th(^ appanuit th'ci'caMtt in tiit* nnmh(M' of piipilH horn in tlio last two tUMMulcH \n Niiscoptihh' nf 
niiiiplc ttxplanation. Very few pupilN arc hmumvimI into iiiMtitntionH for tint th>af uihI dnrnh liefori^ 
tlicy ar» tiMi uv twclvu yt^arH of a^*^*, whiK> it in not nncommon for pupilH to Itti admitted ut twuniy 
or twi^nly-rtvo years of ngo or even older. 

A pupil born in thu year IM(lt) would only be l.'t years of af^e in IHH'J (the date of the Illinois 
report). It Ih evident, therefore, that of those deaf mutes \vh(» were horn in the decade 1H(J(> to 
IMiil) who will ultimately make their aitpearanee in thu Illinois institution all had not been received 
at the date of tlu' report. 

A similar explamition can be given in the case of the American Asylum. Thu dotted linoH 
indicate those portions of the curves which are known to bo inaccurate on this account. 

In repird to the American Asylum the abnormal increase in th(> number of pupils who became 
deaf from disease or ac(Mdent who were born during the decade IHIO-'IO is very marked. Another 
uimtrmal increase is observable in the luimber of those who became deaf in the decadc! 18(i(>-'ti0. 
Indeed, the relations of the coii{j;enital and nonconjfenital deaf-mutes are revermed in a similar 
manner to that shown in Ki(j. 8. In regard to the Illinois pupils (see Via. '•) it will be observed 
that the increase in the numbers of the non-congenitally <b'af is so enormous, that of the i)Upils who 
were born in the decade 1800-'(5!> there were more than three tinu's as many uoncon^renitally deaf 
as there were congenitally deaf, and of those born in 1870-70 more than four times, whereas the 
census returns show that more than half of all the deaf-mutes living in this country (1880) were 
born deaf. 

In the reports of the American Asylum and Illinois institutions the year when each i)upil was 
admitted and his age when admitted are noted, with few exceptions. From these eletm>nts the 
l»eriod of birth has been calculated. The peiiod when hearing was lost has also been ascertained 
in all cases where the age of the pupil when deafness occurred is stated in the rei)ort. 

In tables K and L of the A|)pen(lix the non congenital pupils of both institutions ure (flass- 
ifled ac<H)rding to the period when hearing was lost and according to the disease that caused 
deafness. In regard to the Illinois re|)ort it is unfortunately the case that the age of the pupil 
when deafness occurred is not stite<l in .'J27 cases out of 047, so that we an^ only able to classify 
about two-thirds of the cases in this way. The results are shown graphically in the upper dia- 
grams of Fig. 10. 

F'rom the tables in the Appendix we have clear evidences of two ei)ideniicsof ''spotted fever,"* 
or epidemic cerebro si)inal meningitis. One epidemic during the decade ISIO to 1810, reaching a 
maximum in the year 1815, and the other (a great epidemic) in the decade 18(50 to 18(10, continuing 
in the last decade, 1870 to 1870, 

The pupils who Ijeciamc deaf from cerebrospinal meningitis and from scarlet fever are clas- 
sitied according to the period when deafness occurred in the lower diagrams of Fig. 10, 

The numbers of the nonconyenUally deaf are evidently subject to great and sudden fluctuations on 
account of epidemical diseases which cause' deafness, ivherea,i the growth of the congenitaUij-deaf popula- 
tion seems to be much more regular. "^ 

'AcconUiiK to Dr. RuHsell Koynolds "spottoil'fcver" is n'popnlar name for epidemic cerobro-spiiial meningitis. 
See "A System of Medicine," ICWO, Vol. I, pp. 296-7. 



38 



MEMOIKS OF TIIK NATIONAL ACADKMY OF SOIKNOES. 



:)tl 



>0 








































» 


60 








































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iFld. 10. 



THE FOUMATION OP A DEAF VABIErY OF THE HITMAN RACE. 



39 



In Table T of Hie Appendix I have classified 215 cases of deaf-nmtes who are the ott'-spring 
of deaf mntos according to their period of birth, separating those who have one i)arent deaf from 
those who have both. The results are shown graphically in Fig. 11. 



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Fin. 11. — Tlir dark line indtcateH the deHfiiiutri) who have both parents deaf. The lower light line reprosont.s those who have one parent 
(leaf, and the upper line the total number of deaf-mutes retnrneil who have one or botli pnnnts denf. 

No deaf-innte having both i)arents deaf has been returned who was born before the year 1832. 
rt seems probable, therefore, that the oldest deaf-mute in the country whose jtarents wore both 
deaf mutes is (uily now a little past middle age. We have therefore received into our institutions 
only f/te/jvjfi/PwtTfl^Vtt of deaf-mutes born from the intermarriage of deaf mutes. The apparent 
decrease in the number born since 18(il does not necessarily indicate a real decrease, for many of 
the deaf-mutes born in the decade 18r»l to 1870 have not yet been admitted to institutions for the 
deaf and dumb. Those portions of the curves that w know to be unreliable from this cause 
arc represented in dotted lines. 

In concluding this portion of my subject it may be well to institute a compiirison between the 
deaf-mute population and th(! total population of the country as returned by the census of 1880. 



40 



memOieb of the national academy of sciences. 






5*1 



iSIl 



In Table U of the Appendix I have classified the people of the United States according to the 
decades in which they were born, and have reduced the number burn in eacli decade to a percent- 
age of the wliole. In the same table 1 have cla8>^ified the 12,154 congonital deaf mutes uientioned 
by Mr. Wines in a similar' manner, and also the deaf-mutes who have both parents deaf-mutes. 
We can tlius examine upon the same scale the distribution of the three classes according to age. 
The results are siiown graphi(!ally in the diagram, Fig. 12. 

The ordinates represent the percentage of the whole svho were born in tlie decades indicated 
by the .ibsciasfe. 

If we assume that the numerical relation now existing between congenital deaf-mutes and 
hearing persons of the same age approximately represents the proportion of the congenitally deaf 
to the wliole population born at the period when they were born, we have a means of comparing 
the growth of the congenitally deaf pojiulation with that of the population at large. 

The indications are ihat the congenital deaf-mutes of the count^-y are increasing at a greater rate 
than the population at large; and the deaf-mute children of deaf-mutes at a greater rate than the con- 
genital deaf-mute population. 



!! 



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1821-1830 



S. MIS. 110. 1.48, 



Fio. 12. 




1871 - 1880 






I III 
III 



J- 






. 



1 



H 



Chapter VI. 



UPON THE CAUSES THAT DETERMINE THE SELECTION OP THE DEAF BY THE DEAP IN MABBIAGE. 

In the preceding cliapters I have shown that sexual selection is at work among the deaf and 
dninb, t«nding to produce a deaf variety of the human race. 

Those who believe as I do, that the production of a defective race of human beings would be 
a great calamity to the world, will examine carefully the causes that lead to the intermarriages of 
the deaf with the object of applying a remedy. 

It is a significant fact that "before the deaf and dumb were educated comparatively few of 
them married";* and intermarriage (if it existed at all) was so rare as to be practically unknown. 
This suggests the thought that the intermarriages of the deaf and dumb have in some way been 
promoted by our methods of education. When we examine the subject from this point of view a 
startling condition of affairs becomes apparent. 

Indeed, if we desired to create a deaf variety of the race, and were to attempt to devise 
methods which should compel deaf-mutes to marry deaf-mutes, we could not invent more complete 
or more efiicient methods than those that actually exist and which have arisen from entirely 
different and far higher motives. 

Let us, then, consider how we might proceed to form a race of deaf-mutes, if we desired so to do, 
and let us compare the steps of the process with those that have been adopted by philanthropists 
and others, from the purest and most disinterested motives, to ameliorate the condition of the 
deaf and dumb. How would we commence? 

1. With such an object in view, would it not be of importance to separate deaf-mutes from 
hearing persons as early in life as possible and make them live together in the same place, care- 
fully guarding them from the possibility of making acquaintances among hearing persons of their 
own age? This is what we do. W^e take deaf children away from their homes and place them in 
institutions by the hundred, keeping them there from early childhood to the commencement of 
adult life. 

2. It would also be of importance to promote social intercourse among them in adult life, so that 
the boys and girls of former years should meet again as men and women. We might, for instance, 
hold periodical reunions of former pupils at the institutions. This again is what we do. 

Indeed, the graduates of our institutions now commonly organize themselves into societies or 
associations lor the promotion of social intercourse in adult life. Societies of ileaf-mutes are to be 
found in all large cities and in many of the smaller ones. Booms are hired in a central locality, 
which become the rendezvous of the deaf-mutes of the neighborhood. After the business of the 
day is done, the deaf-mutes of the city meet together for social intercourse and on Sundays for 
public worship. Not only do local societies exist, but there are State associations for promoting 
social intercourse between the deaf-mutes of a State. Periodical conventions are held in different 



•See "The Causes of Deuftiess," by the Rev. W. W. Turner, American Annals of the Deaf and Dumb, vol. i, p. 32. 
99 A— BELL 6 41 



42 



MEMOIRS OF THE NATIONAL ACADEMY OF SCIENCES. 



h 

[3 



Ik 




parts of the State, atteiukul by deaf-niutCH of both sexes. At these meetings they anniHe them- 
selves in various ways. Sonietiinea they hohl fairs; have theatrical representations in dumb 
show, spectiujular tableaux, daniMug, &c. 

Not only do these State attaociations exist, but a National Association has been formed for 
the purpose of promoting social intercourse between the scattered deaf-mutes of the country. The 
Second National Convention of DciifMutes met only a short tinu! ago in New York, and was 
attended by hundreds of deaf-mutes from all parts of the United States. 

3. Another method calculated to foster chissfeeling among the deaf and dumb would be to 
provide them with newspapers antl periodicals of tlieir own, which should make a specialty of 
"personals" relating to the deaf and dumb — newspapers that should give full accounts of the deaf- 
mute conventions and reunions, and keep their readers informed of the movements of deaf mutes, 
their marriages, deaths, &c. Quite a number of such newsi)apers have come into existence;* the 
majority being supported by the educational institutions of the country, with the benevolent object 
of teaching the deaf mutes the art of printing. These papers, I understand, are generally edited 
and printed in the institutions, umler the sui)erintendence of the teachers. It was only natural 
to include among the items "personals" (ioncerning former pupils, and that former pupils of the 
institution should take pleasure in reading them. In addition to the periodic^als printed in the 
institutions, others have appeared edite<l and niamiged by adult deaf-mutes not connected with 
any institution. These latter i)ai»ers became the organs of communication between the adult deaf- 
mutes, and were afliliated with the conventions and associations above referred to. 

4. The methods specified above, while they serve to facilitate social intercourse between adult 
deaf-mut«s, do not necessarily prevent them from also associating with hearing persons. As there 
are 1,500 hearing persons for every one deaf-mute, it seems diflicult to fornuilate any plan which 
would restrict their choice of partners in life to deaf-mutes alone or to the hearing member.} of 
deaf-mute families. Let us consider how this could be accomplished. 

What more powerful or efficient means could be found than to teach the deaf-mutes to think 
in a different language from that of the people at large ? This is what we do. In the majority 
of our institutions for the deaf and dumb a special language is u.'.ed as the vehicle of thought, 
a language sis different from English as French or (ierman or Knssian. The English language is 
confined to the schoolroom, and is simply taught as a school exercise, much as French and German 
are taught in the public schools. 

The deaf-mutes think in the gesture language, and English is apt to remain a foreign tongue. 
They can communicate with hearing persons by writing, but they often write in broken English, as a 
foreigner would speak. They think in gestures, and often translate into written English with the 
'idioms of the sign language. The constant practice of the sign language interferes with the mas- 
tery of the English language, and it is to be feared that comparatively few of the congenitally deaf 
are able to read books understandingly uidess couched in simple language. They are thus in a 
great measure cut off from our literature. This is another element in forcing them into each other's 
society. They are able to understand a good deal of what they see in our daily newspapers, 
especially if it concerns what interests them personally, but the political speeches of the day, the 
leading editorials, &c., are often beyond their knowledge of the English language. 



'These must not be confounded with the Anii-i iciiii Aiiimls of tlie Deaf and Dumb, a journal of a very different 
character, not intended to be read specially by deaf-niutes themselves. This journal iHaipiarterly uiagnzine, devoted 
to the discuHsiou of subjects connected with the education of the deaf and dumb, and forms the otlicial organ of com- 
munication between teachers. It is one of the most admirably conducted special journals in existence, and contains 
within it« pages almost the complete literature of the world relating to the edneatiuu of the deaf and dumb. 



THE FORMATION OF A DEAF VARIKTY OF THE UUMAN RACE. 



43 



? 



6. Another method of couHolidatiug the deaf mid dumb into a distinct class in the community 
would be to reduce the sign-language to writing, so that the deaf-mutes would have a common 
literature distinct from the rest of the world. Such a 8i)ecies of writing would constitute a form 
of ideography like the Egyptian hieroglyphics. This, I understand, has already been accomplished 
by the late Mr. George Hutton, of Ireland, afterwards principal of the Institution for the Deaf and 
Dumb in Halifax, Nova Scotia.* The full publication of his method was prevented by his prema- 
ture death; but a committee was appointed by the Indianapolis Convention of American Instruct- 
ors of the Deaf and Dumb, to act in conjunction with his successor and son, Mr. J. Scott Hutton, 
to attempt the recovery of the system from the iiosthumous pajiers of Mr. George Hutton. I have 
not yet seen the report of the committee. 

6, Another and very powerful method of obstructing intercourse with hearing persons and 
compelling deaf-mutes to associate exclusively with one another would be to disseminate through- 
out the community incorrect ideas concerning the deaf and dumb, so that people should avoid and 
even fear them. The growth of erroneous ideas is favored by collecting deaf-mutes into institu- 
tions away from public observation. People rarely see a deaf-mute, aud their iuibrmation cou- 
cerning them is chiefly derived from books and periodicals. 

Whatever the cause, it is certainly the case that adult deaf-mutes are sometimes hampered by 
the instinctive prejudices of hearing persons with whom they desire to have business or social re- 
lations. Many persons have tlio idea they are dangerous, morose, ill-tempered, &c. Then again 
people do not understand the mental condition of a person who cannot speak and who thinks in 
gestures. He is sometimes looked upon as a sort of monstrosity, to be stared at aud avoided. 
His gesticulations excite sur))rise aud even sometimes alarm in ignorant minds. In connection 
with this subject I may say that as lately as 1857 a deaf-mute was shot dead in Alabama by a 
man who was alarmed by his gestures.! In fact fallacies concerning the deaf and dumb are so 
common ivs to touch us all and to suggest the advisability of seriously examining the fundamental 
ideas wo hold concerning them. — — — -^ 

I have elsewhere discussed the subject of '"Fallacies concoruiTig the deaf and the influence 
of these fallacies in i)reventing the amelioration of their condition," and shall n(»t therefore en- 
large upon the subject here. I shall simply give a few of the conclusions at which I arrived in the 
paper referred to.J 

"1. Those whom we term 'deaf-mutes' have no other natural defect than that of deafness. 
They are simjdy persons who are deaf from childhood, and many of them are only ' hard of hearing.' 

"2. Deaf children are dumb not on account of lack of hearing, but of lack of instruction. No 
one teaches them to speak. 

"3. A gesture-language is developed by a deaf child at home, not because it is the only form 
of language that is natural to one in his condition, but because his parents and friends neglect to 
use the English language in his presence in a clearly visible form. 

"4. (a) The sign-language of our institutions is an artificial and conventiouiil language derived 
from pantomime. 

"(&) So far from being natural either to deaf or hearing persons, it is not understood by deal 
children on their entrance to an institution. Nor do hearing persons become sufficiently familiar 



^\^.o^'^ 



v^-' 






J^'U ^c\- i" 









^ 



/- 



* Set) Mr. Hnttoii's articlo " Upon the Practicability and Advantages of Miinography," American Annals of the 
Deaf and Dumb, vol. xiv, pp. 157-182. 

tSee American Auuals of the Deaf and Dumb, vol. x, p. 116. 

X See Bulletin Philosophical Society of Washington, D. C, October 27, 1883; also American Annals of the Deaf and 
Dumt), January, 1884. 



44 



MEMOIRS OF THE NATIONAL ACADEMY OP SCIENCES. 



b 
J- 






7 




with the language to bo thoroughly qunliQed as teachers until after one or more yearn' residence 

in an institution for the doaf and dumb. 

;J^(c) The practice of the sign language hinders the acquisition of the English language. 

"(d) It makes deaf-mutes associate together in adult life, and avoid the society of hearing 
people. 

" {e) It thus causes the intermarriage of deaf-mutes and the propagation of their physical defect. 

"5. Written words can be associated directly with the ideas they express, without the inter- 
vention of signs, and written English can be taught to deaf children by usage so as to become 
their vernacular. 

"G. A language can only be made verimcular by constant use as a means of communication, 
without translation. 

"7. Deaf children who are familiar with the English language in either its written or spoken 
forms can be taught to understand the utterances of their friends by watching the mouth. 

"8. The requisites to the art of speech-reading are: 

" (a) An eye trained to distinguish quickly those movements of the vocal organs that are 
visible (independently of the meaning of what is uttered) ; 

"{&) A knowledge of homophenes — that is, a knowledge of those words that present the 
same appearance to the eye ; and, 
I "((•) Sufficient fiimiliarity with the English laiigu.ige to enable the 8))eech- reader to judge by 

( /Context which word of a homophenous group is the word intended by the speaker.'' 

7. From what has been said above it will be seen that we have in actual operation the elements 
necessary to compel deaf-mutes to select as their partners in life persons who are familiar with the 
gesture language. This practically limits their selection to deaf-mutes and to hearing persons 
related to deaf-mutes. They do select such partners in marriage, and a certain proportion of their 
children inherit their physical defect. We are on the way therefore towards the formation of a 
deaf variety of the human race. Time alone is necessary to accomplish the result. 

If we desired such a result what more could we do to hasten the end in view ? We might 
attempt to formulate some plan which should lead the deaf children of deaf-mutes to ma.ry one 
another instead of marrying deaf-mutes who had not inherited their deafness; or to marry hearing 
persons belonging to families in which deafness is hereditary. If, for instance, a number of the 
large deaf-mute families of the United States — families in which we know deafness to be heredi- 
tary — were to settle in a common place so as to form a community largely composed of deaf-mutes, 
then the deaf children born in the colony would be thrown into association with one another and 
would probably intermarry in adult life, or marry hearing persons belonging to the deaf-mute fam- 
ilies. Though fewer in number than the original deaf settlers, they would probably be more prolific 
of deaf offspring; and each succeeding generation of deaf-mutes would increase the probability of 
the deaf-mute element being rendered permanent by heredity. Such a result would certainly ensue 
if the numbers of the deaf and dumb in the colony were constantly kept up by the immigration 
of congenital deaf-mutes from outside; and if a large proportion of the hearing children born in 
the colony were to leave and mingle with the outside woi^ld. Under such circumstances we might 
anticipate that a very few generations would suffice for the establishment of a permanent race of 
deaf-mutes with a language and literature of its own. 

Plans for the formation of a deaf-mute community have a number of times been discussed by the 
deaf-mutes themselves. The idea originated in the action of Congress in endowing the American 
Asylum for Deaf-mutes at Hartford with a tract of land. Mon, Laurent Clerc, in conversation 
with some of the earlier pupils of the American Asylum, remarked that it would be a good 



V 



X 



THE FORMATION OP A DEAF VAUIKTY OP THE HUMAN RA(3B, 45 

plan to sell a portion of the liuiil tor tho bcnoltt of tho inHtitiition and retain the roniaindor as 
head-quarterH for thu deaf and dumb, to wiiiuli tlioy could eniigrato after heinf; educuted.* ThiH 
idea took root in thu niindH of the pupilH of the Anieriuan AHyluni, and afterwardn developed 
into a naniber of indepcuidont and eccentric HclieineH for tiiu f(»rmation of a deaf mute community. 
Borne of the pupilH before their {graduation formed an agreement to emigrate to the West and 
settle in a common placet 

Then a number of yearn afturwardn a deaf-mute publicly urged tho formation of a deaf-mute 
commonwealth. Congress was to be (tetitioned to form a deaf-mute state or territory, &c. The 
details, though quite impracticable, i>rought forwur<l the fact that a numbur of schemes of some- 
what similar character were in the minds of deaf-mutes in different parts of the country. One 
deaf-mute publicly offered to contribute $5,()U<) towards such a scheme if others could be found to 
join him. It was urged that the natural affection of the parents would lead to the distribution of 
- the land among their children, and that as the miijority of their children could hear and speak the 
land would soon pass out of tho control of the deaf-mutes themselves. This was to be remedied in 
various ways — as, for instance, by legislation — so as to secure descent in the deaf-mute line -iloue. 
The American Annals of the Deaf and Dumb became the channel of communication between 
the various thinkers.^ The scheme that received most sipprobation was the purrhase of a tract of 
land by a few of the wealthy deaf-mutes, who were to agree to sell out the land in small blocks 
to other deaf-mutes. The whole scheme was afterwards discussed at a convention of tho tleaf- 
nmtes of New England, and was overthrown by the influence of the Kev. W. W. Turner, Mr. Lau- 
rent Clerc, and other teachers, in conjunction with the most intelligent of tlie deaf-mutes them- 
selves. Since then the subject has not been publicly discussed, to my knowledge; but such a 
scheme is still favored by individual deaf-mutes, and may therefore be revived in organized shape 
at any time.§ 

CONCLUSION. 

I think all will agree that the evidence shows a tendencj' to the formation of a deaf variety of 
the human race in Americii. What rciiuMliul ini-asurcs can be taken to lessen or check this tend- 
ency f We shall consider the subject nuder two heads: (1) rejjressive, (2) preventive measures. 

(1.) Repressive vieasures. — The first thought that occurs in this connection is that the infermar- 
riage of deaf-mutes might be forbidden by legislative enactment. So long, however, as deaf-mutes 
of both sexes continue to associate together in adult life, legislative interference with marriage might 
only promote immorality. JJut, without entirely prohibiting intermarriage, might not the mar 
riages of the deaf be so regulated as to reduce tho probabilities of the production of deaf offspring 
to a minimum? For instance, a law forbidding congenitally deaf persons from intermarrying 
would go a long way towards checking the evil. Such a law might, however, become inoperative 
on account of the impossibility of proving that a person had been born deaf. 

Legislation forbidding the intermarriage of persons belonging to families containing more 
, fj. than one deaf-mute would be more practicable. This would cover the intermarriage of hearing 

persons belonging to such families, and also the case of a consanguineous marriage in a deaf-mute 
family. 

In order to justify the passage of such an act, however, the results of intermarriages of this 
kind should be more fully investigated than is possible at the present time on account of limited 



t 



' See speech by Laiireut Clerc, "American Annals of the Denf and Dumb," vol. x, p. 212. 

tSee "American Annals of tbe Duuf and Dumb," vol. x, p. 73. 

t See vol. X, pp. 72-90; 136-160; 212-215. 

i Since this paper was read, a Kuropean philanthropist has commenced the colonization of a tract of land in 
Manitoba by dcaf-mntes. I am informed by a friend who resides in Winnipeg that about 24 deaf-mutes, with their 
families, have already arrived from Kuropo and have settled upon the laud. More are expected next year. 



f 



46 



MKMOinS OP THE NATIONAL ACADEMY OF SCIENCES. 







\m 



X/) 












!'■ 



data. Stops ahould be taken towanls the collection of Hiieoial ntntiaticH, immI tlie hint itiitionH hIiouI«1 
be urgtul to publiHh the innterialH in their poflHesHion. I wntte to the priucipiilH of all the iuHtitu- 
tiona in the country, rc<|ueHting them to forward to me hucIi of their publiHhed ruporlH >im (;ontainc*l 
any of the required MtatiHtiua. Although my requeot was honored by a renponHe from a lar(;e num- 
ber of institutions, the information contained in the reports in reference to the subject of iiuiuiry 
was generally of the most meagre description. 

Among repressive measures should perhaps be included the influence of fViends to ]>revent 
undesirable intermarriages. While such action might ailect individual caseH it could n(»t greatly 
influence the general result. For there is no subject on which a man will so little brook interfer- 
ence as one of this kind where his afl'ections are involved. 

A due contideratwn of all the objections render* it doubtful whether legialutive Intcrfrrenve with the 
marriafje of the de<\f would be adri»iible. 

(2.) Prerentive meaturei. — The most promising method of lessening the evil ai)|>earH to lie in 
the iwloption of preventive measures. In our search for such measures we shouUl be guided by the 
following principle: (1.) Determine the vautee that promote intemmrriageit among the deaf and dumb; 
and (2) renwrc them. 

The immediate cause is undoubtedly the preference that adult deaf-mutes exhibit for the com- 
panionship of deaf-mutes rather than that of hearing persons. Among the caus es that (contribute 
to bring about this preference we may note: (1) segregation for the purposes of education, and 
(2) the use, as a means of communication, of a language which is ditferciit from tliat of tliu people. 
These, then, are two of the {wints that should be avoided in the adoption of preventive measures. 
Nearly all the other causes I have investigated are ultimately referable to these. 

Segregation really lies at the root of the whole matter; for from this the other causes have 
themselves been evolved by the operation of the natural law of adaptation to the environment. 

We commence our efibrts on behalf of the deaf-mute by changing his soiiial environment. 
The tendency is then towards accommodation to the new conditions. In proccKs of time the 
atlaptntioii becomes complete; and when, at last, we restore liiiii to tlie world as an adult, he finds 
that the social conditions to which he has become accustomed *lo not exist outside of his school life. 
His eflbrts are then directed to the restoration of these conditions, witli the result of internuirriage 
and a tendency to the formation of a deaf-mute community. 

The grand central principle that should guide us, then, in our search for preventive measures 
should be t he retentio n of t he normal environment during the period of education. The natural tend- 
ency towards adaptation would then co-operate with instruction to produce accommodation to 
the permanent conditions of life. 

The direction of change should therefore be towards the establishment of small schools, and 
the extension of the day-achool plan. The practicability of any great development of day schools 
will depend upon the possibility of conducting very small schools of this kind economically to the 
State: for the scattered condition of the deaf and dumb in the community precludes the idea of 
large day schools, excepting in the great centers of population. The principle referred to above 
indicates that such schools should be of the minimum size possible ; for the school that would most 
perfectly fulfil the condition required would contain only one deaf child. It also points to the 
advisability of coeducation with hearing children — but this is not practicable to any great extent. 
No instruction can be given through the ear, and complete coe<luoation would oidy therefore be 
possible by a change in the method^f teaching hearing children. It is useless to expect that such 
a change would be made for the benefit of the deaf and dumb on account of their limited number. 

Partial coeducatioD is, however, possible, for some studies are pursued in the common schools 
in which information is gained through the eye. For instance, deaf-mutes could profitably enter 



It 



I 

■ 



THK FORMATION OP A DKAF VAUIBTY OF THE HUMAN RAVA). 



47 






th« same olAsmm with liuiiriiit( ohildrun for practice in writiiiKi drawing, ninp-dmwint;, Hritlimntio 
on tliM black-buani, Huwing, &«. For other Hubjeotfl Rpecial methmlH of inHtrnotion would be neo- 
eHHary, and tlioHO demand the employment of Hpecial teachetH. They do not, however, neoe«Uiitat« 
Hpvuial m^lioolK or biiildiiiKH, and a Hniall room in a public school bnihiing would acconinuMlatu as 
many deaf children an one tea«;her couhl Huccessfully instrtuit. ConsidorationH of «H!uiiomy render 
lulviHable the api>ropriation of a room of this kind, as the appliances of a large scluMtl might thus 
be obtained without special outlay. 

Tlic average ;>/'>' capita cost of the education of a deaf child in an American institution if, (223.28 
per annum.* Very sunill day schools c/ould be maintained at no greater cost. The iM>Ht, at an 
iiiNtitution, however, inctludes l)oard and industrial training. On the day-schuol plan the parents 
woultl generally aNsuine the expense of nnvintenance, and some special provision would have to be 
made for industrial training. This need give no concern, for so many deaf-mutes are earning tbeir 
livelihood by trades which they were not taught in the institutions as to demonstrate the practi- 
cability of apprenticing deaf-mutes in ordinary shops. 



i 



The indications are that in all places wbere three or four deaf cliildren could bo brought to- Lfi- ^[.^ 
gether near their homes the cost would be no more to form them into a class in the nearest public ^ 

school building under a special teacher than to send them to an institution. On the basis of the 
avurage per eapitn cost at an institution the sum of $069.84 would bo received for three, and 
ji8{)3.12 for four pupils; and sucli sums would probably be sufUcieiit to pay the salary of a special 
teacher, as well ns to cover incidental expenses. 

If this is so the day school system could be made to penetrate into the smaller centers of popu- 
lation as well as into the large cities, in which case it would exert a considerable iutluence as a 
remedial ngent. The plan of forming small classes of deaf children in public school buildings 
recommends itself as afibrding the closest appro\ iinatiou possible, on the largo scale, to the normal 
conditions of life. 

Segregation during education has not only fa\ ored the tendency tor^ards the formation of a 
race of deaf-mutes, but has led to the evolution of a special language adapted for the use of such a 
race — "the sign-language of the deaf and dumb." This is especially true in America where the 
sign-language is employed by a large majority of the teachers in instructing their pupils. In for- 
eign countries the vast majority employ, for this purpose, the ordinary language of the people. 
This will fully appear by reference to Table V in the Appendix. 

The lack of articulate speech should also be noted as an indirect cause of segregation in adult 
life, operating to separate deaf-mutes from hearing persons. Hence, instruction in articulation and 
speech-reading should be given to every pupil. 

This is done in Germany. Indeed, in 1882, more than 65 i)er cent of all the deaf and dumb in 
foreign schools wore being taught to speak and understand the speech of others, whereas in 
America less than 9 per cent, were to be found in oral schools.! 

According to more recent statistics compiled by the Olarko Institution j: we find that in May, 
1883, about 14 per cent, of the deaf and dumb in American institutions were using speech in the 



Y 



* See Table X in the Appendix. 

t See American AnnalH of the Deaf and Dnmb, vol. xxviii, pp. 47-01 ; also, Table V, in the Appendix — from 
which it will ap|)oar that of 7,155 Ainericau deaf-mutes, only 584, or less than 9 per cent., were to bo found in oral 
schools ; whereas of 19,318 deaf-mutes in foreign schools, 13,662, or more than 65 per cent., were taught to spe^k in 
purely oral schools. 

t See Appendix to Sixteenth Annual Report of the Clarke Institution. See, also, Table Y in the Appendix. 
Complete returns were not obtained, but the cases noted number 0,232, thus comprehending the vast majority of the 
pupils under instruction in May, 1883. Of these 886, or 14 per cent., were under oral instruction; 1,105, or 18 per 
cent., received occasional instruction in speech in sign institutions; and 4,241 received no instruction in articulation 
whatever. 



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48 



MEMOIR? OF THE NATIONAL AOADEMY OF SCIENCES. 



Hchool-rooin as tlie language of communication with their teachers; 18 per cent, were taught to 
speak as an accomplishment, and 68 per cent, received no instruction whatever in articulation. 

Nearly one-third of the teachers of the deaf and dumb in Ame ric a are themselves deaf,* and 
this must be considered as anotherelei^ueut favorable to the formation of a deaf race — to be 
therefore avoided. 

The segregation of deaf-n)utes, the use of the sign language, and the employment of deaf 
teachers produce an environment that is unfavorable to the cultivation of articulation and speech- 
reading, and that sometimes causes the disuse of speech by speaking pupils who are only deaf. 

Hkviug shown the tendency to the formation of a deaf variety of the human race in America, 
and somo of the means that should be taken to counteract it, I commeml the whole subject to the 
attention of scientific men. 



* See American Anuals of the Deaf and Diiiiil) (January, IHS'.i), vol. xxviii, pp. 56-57. Out of 481 teachers 1.54, 
or 32 per cent., were deaf. 



A^PFEN^DIIJC. 



1. Tables A to M give an analysis of 3,726 cases of deaf nintes from the American As.vlnm 
and Illinois Iiistitntion. For this analysis 1 am indebted to Mr. Franck Z. Magnire, of Wash- 
ington, D. C; and I have personally verified his resnlts. The relation of the tables to one another 
will be understood from the following classification : 

Classification of Tables A to K. 

'whoHB .lonfness wasstntert to bo covqenilalS ^^T\f%\' Lave deaf-mute relatives (see 

(sec Table H). ' J „ f'^" 

^ ' ( Hecorded Jii 



Total numborof pnpilB of the 
Aniorican Asylum uud Illi-< 
iiois Institution (sfe Table 
A). 



jis sporadic cases (see Table 1'"). 



Whose deaf>.es3 was state.l to be non-congen-S ''■'•■;:;;i';,';:',V)" '""'" ''""'"■"' "^"^ r..latives (soo 
ital (see Table C). '^ KiToi'd'cd as sporadic cases (see Table H). 

The cause of whose deafness was ml ntatcdS '^';;;":'''"'K*" '''■"'" 'l*''''-"'"^" r''l"tivcs(Kee 

(SCO Table D). ■) i. i' i-*' r / t i r tx 

^ ' . ( uccordod as sporadic cases (see 1 able . I). 



Table A gives the summation of Tables B, C, and I). 

Table B gives the summation of Tables E and F. 

Table C gives the summation of Tables G and H. 

Table D gives the summation of Tables I and J. 

In Table K the non-congenitally deaf pupils are classified according to period of birth and 
according to period when deafness occurred. 

In Table L the non-congenitally deaf pupils of the American Asylum are classified according 
to the period when hearing was lost, and according to the diseases that caused deafness. 

In Table M the non cougenitally deaf pupils of the Illinois Institution are classified according 
to the period when hearing was lost, and according to the diseases that caused deafness. 

2. Tables N, O, P, Q relate to the Tenth Census of the United States (1880), and give the 
results of an analysis of 22,472 cases of deaf-mutes from the census returns. (See commnnication 
by the Eev. Fred. D. Wines upon the 1880 census of the deaf and dumb; proceedings of the 10th 
convention of American instructors of the deaf and dumb, Jacksonville, 111.. August, 1882, pp. 
122-12", published with the 21st biennial report of the Illinois Institution for the Deaf and Dumb.) 

Table N gives an analysis of 22,472 cases of deaf-mutes living June 1, 1880, showing the 
number who became deaf each year since the year 1770. 

Table O shows the number of these deaf-mutes who became deaf each year since 1873, sepa- 
rating the congenital from the non-congenital cases. 

Table P classifies the 22,472 cases by periods of five years and reduces the number who became 
deaf in each quinquennial period to a percentage of the whole on a basis of 10,000 cases in all. 

Table Q classifies the 22,472 cases by periods of five years and separates the congenital from 
the uon-congenitiil cases. 

3. Table R shows the number of deaf-mutes in the United States living June 1, 1880, arranged 
according to race and sex and according to cause of deafness. The materials for this table have 

09 A— BELL 7 49 



50 



MEMOIRS OF THE NATIONAL ACADEMY OF SCIENCES. 






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been furnished in advance of the publication of the census returns by the courtesy of General 
Seaton, General Superintendent of the Census. (See "Science," vol. iii, p. 244; and "American 
Annals of the Deaf and Dumb," vol. xxix p, 160.) 

4. Table S shows («) the number of schools and institutions for the education of the deaf and 
dumb in the United States, 1883; (6) the date of opening of each institution; (c) the number of 
deaf children under instruction, 1883; and (<?), the total number of pupils that have been received 
into the institutions. These particulars have been obtained from the "American Annals of the 
Deaf and Dumb," vol. xxix, pp. 90-94. The table also shows (e) the nmuber of deaf children 
whose parents were deaf mutes who have been received into the institutions. These particulars 
have been received directly from the principals or superintendents of the institutions and schools in 
answer to a circular-letter of inquiry. The total number of such pupils cannot be ascertained from 
the table as some of the institutions have not yet made returns. 

5. Table T gives an analysis of 215 cases of deaf-mutes whose parents were deaf. 

6. In Table U the total population of the country, the congenitally deaf population, and the 
deaf mutes who have both parents deaf, are classified according to their period of birth, and the 
number of persons born in each period has been reduced to a percentage of the whole. 

7. Table V contains a tabular statement of the institutions of the world iii 1882, showing the 
methods of instruction employed. This Table is taken from the "American Annals of the Deaf 
and Dumb," for January, 1883, vol. xxviii, p. 61. , 

8. Table W jjives a list of those pupils of our institutions for the deaf and dumb who are stated 
to have deaf parents. The information has been obtained directly from the principals and super- 
intendents (if 1 lie institutions in answer to a letter of inquiry. 

9. Table X shows the j'c capita cost of the education of a deaf child in an American institu- 
tion. This table was prepared by the principal of the Illinois Institution from materials jjublished 
in the American Annals of the Deaf and Dun)b, and from other materials privately collected and 
published in the Twenty-first Biennial Report of the Illinois Institution (1882), pj). lfi-17. 

10. Table Y contains a tabular statement concerning the teaching of articulation in the insti- 
tutions of the United Stati'S in May, 1883. The information was obtained by the principal of the 
Clarke Institution, Nortliampton, Mass., directly from the principals of the other institutions iu 
reply to a circular of inquiry. See Appendix B, Siyteenth Annual Report of the Clarke Institu- 
tion for Deaf Mutes, September 1, 1883. 

11. Appendix Z contains an examination of the marriages of the i)upils of the American Asy- 
lum and Illinois Institution by the light of the theory of Probabilities, with the object of determin- 
ing approximately the i)roportion of the congenitally deaf who marry congenital deaf-mutes. This 
investigation has been kindly undei taken by Prof. Simon Newcomb, to whom I am indebted for 
the results obtained. 



r 11 



THE FORMATION OF A DEAF VARIETY OF THE HUMAN KACK. 



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THE FORMATION OP A DEAF VARIETY OP THE HUNT AN RACE. 



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THE FOKMATION OF A DKAK VAK'FTY OK TIIF HUMAN HACK. 



57 



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68 



MBMOIH8 OF THK NATIONAL ACADEMY OF aOIKNCKS. 



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TUH FOHMATION ^)V A DHAK VAttlKTY OK TUK HUMAN RACE. 



59 



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Period of 
birth. 

1760-1769.... 


1780-1789.... 

1790-1799.... 

1800-1809.... 

1810-1819.... 

1820-1829... 

1830-1839.... 

1840-1849 .... 

1850-1859 .... 

1860-1869.... 

Uiiknown ... 


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MI<!M()II{H or TIIK NATIONAIi AOADKMY OV HOIIONCKH. 






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TIIK KOltMATION OF A UKAl" VAltlHTV OKTIIK HUMAN UAi'K. 



61 



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Daap(|i('.> ,|«.i(i JII i>M(iiinii ii.i(i.iii.i.i)| I 



uiJiiiiqa juaii 9iiii| 0| |i.itMu.')j]| 






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-tl((llllll .11(1 III il.loi( 

Ud.ip|(t[.i .|iti>(i JO joquinii |i.){U»a.t>{ 

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a.ij(i(|i(3 j«<ip JO a.iiiiiMiii [i.iiiiojoy 



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ii.i.ipnqa »() JII aoqiimii (i.i(i.io.)0]i 



'a».il>l|il.i Jiiap e&«qo| papjosa)); 

IBJOX 

•«[|iliiil oqj u) n.ioi( 
aajpoqn jo.qi Jo J.iquiiui pnpaoaog 

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MBMOIlta OP THE NATIONAL ACADEMY OK S01EN0B8. 



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n»..pi)qD jnop JO Jsqiuuii p3piuDa^_ 




















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Married to deaf-nrates. 


1 


•saiumsj aqi oj naoq 
nojpitqo JBap Jo anqiunn p3juo33a 

■najpiiqa jnap 9A8q oj p3iuo39g 


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najpiiqo juap jo jsqiunu p9pj039g^ 

■aajpiiqa j«9p 9ABq oj p9pjo39g 




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Period of 
birth. 

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■t I- 


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THE FORMATION OF A DEAF VARIETY OF THE HUMAN RACE. 



63 



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Not recorded to have married deaf, 
mutea. 


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aaapuM:) niop .1" a,i(iimiii p.ip.inD»}i : 










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■uajpipia juep »Awr| o( popjoaag j 


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Married to deaf-mntes. 


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■aajpiiip jBap aAnq a% papaoaoy ! 










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iiaapuHO jnop jo joqiuim papaonoa 


























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najpiiqa jBap jo jaqninu papjoaay 








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aajp(iqa jwap j'» j-iqmnu pap.ioaay; 






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•iiaipijqa jKop aAwq oi papjoaa^ 










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64 



MEMOIES OF THE NATIONAL ACADEMY OF SCIENCES. 



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a(up||i|.i j«.)|) JO joqiiiiiii p.)p.io.)aji ! 

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j m«z I 

'«l!>Iiul ai|) (t) iLioq I 

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aajpiiqa j«3p 9a«i{ o) popjooag i 
I •l»loi I 



■89inui9j 9qi 0% ojoq 
nupnqa juap J<> J»qiunn pspjoaa}); 

'uajpijqa jujp OAoq o) papaoaajj 

nnoi 






1 



■sainui aq) o) ujoq 
najpnqa jvap }o jgqiuiia pa|uoaaa 



'aajpiiqa jsap 9A«q o) papjoaas 



■1»J0I 



■eijdnd aqt o; oioq 
nsapiiqa jxap jo joquiim pjiuoaas 



'aajpiiqa jnap aAsq o} papjoaag 



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■Haimuai aq) o) niaq 
aaapiiqa jnap jo .laquinu pap.ioaay 



'najpiiqa jsap aAsq o) irapaoaa^ j 



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uaapiiq.) ,|uap jo .ia<iiuaa paiuoaa}^ 

'uajpijqajnapaAeq 0) papaoaag ' 

moj, 



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THK FORMATION OF A DEAF VARIETY OF THIi HUMAN RACE. 



65 



t 



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I 

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a 

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u 


Not recorded to have married deaf, 
mutes. 


i 
1 
1 


'us|uuioj eqini iiioci 
n.>jpi!q» j»3p JO .lannmci iMpjoaaj]; 

■najpiiU^ juap "Ami oj l>.>p.iooaii 








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'iiajpiiqa joap o.vnq o} papjossg 

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nsjpijqo jHop JO .loquiuu p.»paii,i.i}i 

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'B0(»ui9j aq) n| nioq 1 
Ui/jpiiqa JVtip ju .iai|Uiim popjuoag ; 

■aajpiiqa jsap OASq o) papjoaa^ 

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aa.ip[|qa j«ap j(i joqiuiui popaoaan 






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■nejpiiqa jsap OAvq o) papjnaa}]: | 

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najpiiqa jiiap jo joqiuna pap,iaaa}{ 

'aajpnqo jnap a.\ni( o) pap.ioaa!{ 


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'saisntaj eqj oi tuoq 
aejpiiqa Jtiap jo jaqitina papjoaag 








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■najpiiqo jnap OAiiq oj papioaaa 






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najpiiq.i jitap jo .loiiiiuiii p.ipao.iJ}i 

■iiAipUqo jD.ip o.\«q 11) p.ipao.ioa 


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Period of 
birth. 


1 

1760-1769.... 

1770-1779.... 
i 1780-1789.... 


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99 A—BELL 29 



66 



MEMOIRS OF THE NATIONAL ACADEMY OF SCIENCES. 






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I 'll<Mp{)lt<> J1J<*p t)Altl| O; poplOO^ 



s 



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-Hi)|uiu <iq) (I) tuott 
najpiiqs jtup jo .luiiiimn p3pio<)3){ 

'O'lipiiqii .)V9p aAH(| 1:) paiMoaog 

■Hlldiul uq) ot ii.i(iq 
na.ip||q» j«.)p jo .loqiuiiii papaoaa}! 

'aajpiiq.i juap a.vuii (i| papjooag 



moz 



C4 94 M 



IN 40 « 



'Baimuai aqi o) ti.ioct 
najpiiqa ,fUt>p Jo aaqiuiui papjoaa}^ 

'aajpiiqa ^nop aAvq o) papjoaag 
WOX 



I 



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'tiaieiii aqi 0| njoq 
naipiiqa juap }o j.i(|uiiiii paiuoaag 



naipigq:) jvap aAnq <y\ papjoaag 

I 

mox I 



'ii||(Iii(t ai|) o) iiioq I 

aajpiiqa jwap jo jaquiiin paiuoaag | 



'OMpiiqa jsap aAvq o) papjoaa}{ 



I 



loioi 



'Baintunj oq| o) tuoq 
najpiiqa jnap jo jaquina paiuoaag 



'iiajpiiqa jBop aAuq oj papjoaa^ 



•mox 



M t* M a 91 



ta at t- 



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uaipiiqa jii>>p ,10 .ijqtiiiiii papj09a}{ 
'iio.ipi!i|.> juap aAuq o) papjoaay 

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■«|llln<l ni|( »l >Muq 
najpiiq.) JiMp .1" '''q""'" papaD.iajl 

•iKLipiiq.! .|v.q» .>At;ii o\ fhquo.ia^ 



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THE FORMATION OF A DEAF VAliliyfY OF THE HUMAN KAOE. 



67 





g 
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ll-l.l|l[jl|.l ,|ll'>|) ,)ll .l>HtlUtllt |l.l[lll).l.)}[ 

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'Hjplllll H\\\ o» IIHKI ~ 

ua.ipipia jiMp JO .Mnuiim popioaaji 
'aa.ip|p[» jBap a.\m[ o) papioaajj 








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aajpi;i|j iii.ip ,|u .laipuiiii p.ip.in»aj{ 

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n9.ip{p(a Jitap jo .iai\iuim popjoon}{ 












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nejp|;q» j«jp jo .m(iiuiiii pop.ioaaj£ j 






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■aaipiiqa j»ap OAsq oj papjoaajj | 








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najpiiil!> J"-'!' J" i.'qiumi papjo.i^Ji 


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-najpiiqa joop OABq ar\ papioaaa 






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naipjiqa jnap jo .laqaiim papjoaag 






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68 



MEMOIRS OF THE NATIONAL ACADEMY OF SCIENCES. 



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1 

I 






I Stiimiui) iMn I)) ii4i>q ~l 

I uajpiiqa jiirfp jo .i.)c|uiiiii iiopaoaag | 

I 'aojpima jngp a.iuq o) psiuoMH 



•lotox 



3 



■aaiHiu all) o) ojoq | 

uoipijiia jDdp ,)(> .101)1111111 ii<ipjn»»]{ 

'aajp||i|j juup oAUi( o( papio33}{ , 
•l«»0X I 



■a 
1^ 



'kiidiid >ii|t n) ii.ioi| I 

*l]djpiU{J JlIOp <}AIII( O) p<)p.lU3a^ 

i IBIOI ! 

I *Ba(V[adj ail) o) luoq J 

najpiiqa jwjp j» .i.)(iiiiiiii papaoDag ! 

I 'ndipi|ip jnop o.viii[ 01 pjpioaag 
•P'1"X 



I -tioitiui miJ «i ii.ioq 

I aa,ip||i{o jiiap ju .13(11111111 po|MO»a]{ 

'uojp|!i(.> jiiap 3A«r| o) papjoaa^i 



•pnoi 



1 



■9I|dnd ai|) o) aioq 
naipiiqa j»ap jo joquina papjoaag 

■uaipiiqa jnap 8ABq o) iK)p.io.)og 

' 'et>{uin.)j iiqi 0) iiioq 

najpKqa jBop jo .i.tquiiui p.q>iOi»i>}i 

'a9.iiqiq.i ,tu.q) .)Aiiq 01 \».>p.io.).>jf 
•I»»0X 



I '«o[tim .iqi 01 ii.io() 

najpiiqa jn.ip jo .i.iiimiiii p.)p,io,iB}i 

'adJpiiqo jii.ip .lAiM) 114 p.ip.iu.>.)^ 



'Biidiid oqi oj n.ioq 
oajptiqu jU'ip ,!<' .I'tqiuuii P'lpioaa^ 

•QBjp 1.1 juap a.vttq on'^P'o'^a | 






i2i 



I 

•a 

a 

e 
o 



•l«)0X 






■IBjoi I 
■seisniaj 



•saiBM 



•T»»oi 






CI 00 <e CO r^ 



CI lA t« CO tH 



rt »-l ^ « « « M 



rH 04 00 <e CO ^ 



)H 01 IN lA t« m iH 



1^ m i^i CO 09 to ?i 



O 0> A A 0> A 



00 


00 


CO 


s 


s 


s 


co 


3 


00 


rt 





•H 


i 




s 



a 

e 



N OF A DEAF VAKIKTV OF TUB HUMAN BACE. 



69 



I 



O 









8 



u 

1-9 

CO 

•I i 



^ 



"^ 






I 



.J 



MARRIED. 


3 

k 

sa 
1 




H.i|tiiii,i| oi|) (>) luoq I ; ; 
aai|i||i|.> .|«.i|i JO Jiii]iiiim poiuooa}! | ; ; 


• * 1 


1 






^i 


-; 


T' 


— 


■aajp|)<(:)j«ap aA»iio)paii.:o3d}X 1 ! i 


: : : 








■ni»ox ' : : 


• •_ n r^ 


■ : - 




— : 


^ 


1 


Htiiviu 01(1 0) iij<)c\ j ; , 
naipiic),) jitnp ,|u j.iiiiiinu papaon»}{ i ; ' 


; i i 




' 






- 


— - 


■iiiMpiiipjnnp n.wi) u) papjo.^njl ; ; 












■pnox 1 : -• 


1 tl fH p4 fH i • ^ 




»• 


1 


'findnil oqi <>) aioq , ; 


i i : ; 


; ; ; 




- 


'iiajpiiqajuop U.VVIIO) papjoaay 1 ; 


: : i : 


: i ; 






•nrjox : -• 


• Tl m M iH i j M 




a 


Married to deaf-mates. 


u. 


'89inni8j oi|| o) njoi) ; 
nniiniij.i |iM|i .|ci .1.11)1111111 p)pio.iii>f 


- — :— - 


1 • VH • 




"i 


^ 


*ih»i\)ipi.i,ii<np o.\iit{ II) p.t(i.iii.).)}[ ; 

•|«t"x : 


.* 


M ^ ^ f^ rN 






« 


TotaL Males. 


•ii.i[Biiinii) 01 ".>"<1 i 
iioapinio jBiip JO a.iiiiunii p.ip.iojo}i | 


; 1 














'iiajpipp) jvap a Mill o| papaoaaji 


i i 


1 : 
•i«iox ' ; 

1 ; 


. I ■* « « ; i 






00 


'H|idiiU ui|4 0) uio({ i ; 
aojpiiqa juap jo joqiuna papjoaa^ : 


; ; 












£ 


■aaapiiqa juap aASq oj p q>ioa.)}i ; 


i i 






iH 






fH 


m'Kl \ 


^ 


* « 


ri -H « 


— ' 


S 


1 


Females. 


■BoiBiiiaj oqi 01 naoq ■ ; 
riojpiiqo jiiap JO .uKiiuim papioaa)! : 


i ; 






" i 




prf 


■nejpnqa jnap aAMq oi papiooaH ; 






" i 






.H 


•mox 

(. 1 '■ 


• CI n rH iH ^ CI 




2 1 


Total. Males. 


-H.qcui <)i|) III il.liiq ; 
iiaipiiq) Jiwp .1" "M"'"" li'>P'0"H • 

■iLupuqj j«.)p a.\uq oj pjpjoaajl ; 


""": -\'—- 


^- 


■ -; -!- 


'- 




1 


\ 1 


•i«ioi i 


* n lo CO <o • * r-* 


■« 


■Rlldud aqj oi n.ioq | ; 
aajpiiqa jwtp J" .loqiiuiii papiODOH j 








I I ; 






£ 


■u.miiici.i jii.ip .).m:ii "1 pipiii.).)!! ; 


\ \ 






«H • 




»-l 


> CI ^ 


9 Ci 


> ^ 

9 9 


h *H f.4 C3 




3 


1 


ii 

if 




•B9lMni3J ! i 


1 t M c 


4 • CO a 







« 


•«.>iiirc 


i . »H Ift « 


3 -t "^ M ^ 


5 to r 




imox ! i 


. nacci iSftDttor 


* : 


— 


1 




■saivmaj ; 


', 1 M L-i to M ^ ■* © 




Si 

" 1 


■mmn 1 ; 


H • 09 O C 


»!>•*•«*-« 


3 C- 


■t»»ox i 


1 ^H ^ 


5 i 


5 u, t- . 


5 ■■ 


3 e 

s t. 


3 






11 ' 8 '■ 

1 - ' 


17H0-1780 

1790-1709.... 

1800-1809 

1810-1819.... 


1830-1839.... 
1840-1849.... 


i 1 i 

3 



! 

1 




^ * 




i 




3 




f^ \ 








a > 




{ 




.«• 




4 








I 




a ' 




9 


iflH 




4 






ri 







70 



rs 
v 

d 
a 

•c 

§ 

9 






5i 



1^ 















MKMOIR8 OF THK NATIONAL ACADEMY OF SCIENCES. 



1^ 

•= a 



1 1 



-Hopniio) (M|) (>| iriuq 
n9jpnt|j jutiji jo .i.it{iiiiiii |)ii{).io;>.>)[ 

•U8.iiil|H3j>i»li i>A»ii i)> |)aiMnaa}{ 



'H.iptm •)i|) o) n.ioq 
iia.i|i||i|^i jiM|> .1" J<>i|iiiiiii |in|MOaa){ 

'iiaji>||i[» jiMp 9A«i| n) impjoao}] 

*Ml|iln(i Ofl) u) lUnq 
aoipipp ,)V<tp jn .uqillllll p9pio3i}){ 

'ii9.ip||il.> jti.ip 3.\ni| o) pop.iora}{ 



•pnox 






■119111 maj aqi n) luoq 
n9.ipiii|i' .l«>>P ,l<> lociiiinii p.lp.l<>^9^ 



'n9jp|)i|9 jnap 9a«i| o) p9|U(ij.i}i 
TWJOX 



■a9|eai aq) o) <uoq 
najpipis jBop JO .I9qtnnn p3pios>a]{ 

'ii<>.ipi!qa jB9p aA«q o) papjoas}{ 



WOl 



o 

H 

b 

H 

H 
m 

?; 

M 

3 
S 



5 

o 



-Biplnd oq) o) (i.ioq 
aajpiiqa ju9p jo j;iqiiinii p9pjaD<i}{ 

■U9jpi;qa jnap OAiiq O) papjoaag 



■aeiBmaj eqt o) >uoq 
I aajpiin^ i^<>P JO 'i9qinna p9pjou3}{ 



'u.)jpi)qaj«8paA«q o) papjoooa 



'S9[Bni oq^ o) aioq 
najpiiqa Jt)<>p ju .i9(|iiiiin papjnasH 



'a.upi)q» jsap OAsq o% p9pj039}i 

•max 



I 



'8[idnd itqi o} ti.iuq 
najpiiqa JB9p jo laqiiimi p3paojaa 

'aa.ipiiq3 jV9p 9ABq o} pepj033S 

_i 

•puoi I 



r< « I-) 



« M * 



CO ra lA 



'sapBnraj i 



iH ^ in t- 



taxajl 






S S S S3 






1-4 W •* p 



•BOI«H 



»H O ■* O 



•WOI 



3 ?i 

9 a & 



ii 

S3 

P4 



<i <^ <:l <:t <j, 



a 

o 
H 



TJIE FOltMATION OF A J)KAF VARIETY OF THE HUMAN RACE. 

Table K, — Non-congenital pupils. « 



71 



Period. 


Aiiioricuti 

ClaHHilied accord- 
inic to period of 
birth. 


Afiyliiiii. 

CluHHilicd accord- 
ing to period 
wliuii liciu'iiig > 
wuh lost. 


Illinois Inatltutlun. 


CluNHilicd accord- 
ing to period 
of birth." 


ClunHifled accord- 
inn '" period 
when hearing 
ns loBt. 


1760-1769 




j 






1770-1779 










1780-1/89 

1790-1799 


1 

12 
70 
147 
124 
140 
182 
224 
133 


1 

10 

- 42 

151 

112 

138 

167 

196 

168 

17 

38 






... 




1800-1809 

18'0-1819 

1820-1829 






2 
11 
58 
164 
817 
304 
129 


\ 

91 
110 
133 
384 
190 


1830-1839 


1840-1849 

1850-1859 


1800-1869 

1870-1879 


Unkuown 


1 


2 327 


Total 


1,040 


1,040 


947 


947 



Tablk L. — Non-congenital 2>upiU< of the American Anylum, classified according to the period when 
hearing teas lost and according to the disease that caused deafness. 



Canse of deafness. 



s? 


99. 


. 




I-. 


r* 






y-* 




y^ 




i 






1-H 


l> 






O) 


rH 


1-t 


iH 




— 











Scarlet fever ' 

Brain fever' 

Epidemic cerebro-spinal nicninf^itis '. 

Mcasbts . 

Whooping-cough 

Hydroceplialns* 

Typhus fevor 

Convulsions' 

Hisense of ear" 

Diseases of lungs and air passages".. 

Miscellaneous diseases" 

Accident'-' . 



Diseases not sprcilied . 



lit 



Total 

Period when hearing was lost unknown 



10 



8 

4 

35 



()4 



151 



I 



13 
15 
4 
4 
<i 
3 
4 

24 
1 



a> o> 



f.l 
7 



t) 
4 
6 
1 
3 
22 
2 
6 
9 



11 



i 

s 



72 

21 
1 

10 
5 
1 
2 
3 

23 
6 



11 



84 
12 



8 
t> 

:! 

2 

4 
28 

<i 
11 
15 
17 



112 138 



1(17 



62 

14 

4 

2 

4 

2 

1 

4 

13 

14 

13 

13 

22 



; i 


1? 




^ 


' 5 


311 


Si 


75 


2 1 


54 



I'.Mi KiS 



38 

29 i 

19 

17 I 

17 ; 
124 

30 

49 j 

53 
186 



17 1,002 
.... 38 



Total 1,040 



•Inclmlescaiikei-rash (I!) cnsos). Tncludea intliiimiintioii of brain, iiillaiiniiiilion of head. 'TiicluilBSHpotted fuvei- (51 cast's), ineiiliigitis 
leases). «Inelu(Iostlroiis.v in liwul, clioiisy iu lirain, wator uii lirain. "IiicliiiliM Him, panilvUr lit (1 case), paialyHi.f and couviilslons (1 easel. 
^ Ini'lndes disease in liead, liunior in lieud, aliseess in liead, eruption in lieiid. KiitlieriiiK in IicmiI, ..lerofiila in liead. sores in liend, nieers in liead, 
iileera in cars, sores in cars, diseliari;e from ears, jiatlierin;; in ears. ' IinMides Inns fever (11 lases), eold (IS eases), iiillueu/.a (1 ease). "In. 
eludes small-pox, ehicl<en-pox, diptluTia, eroup, bilious fiver, catarrlial lover, erysipelas, palsy , salt rlieuui, nuinips, spasmodie eougli, mar- 
asmus, rickets, teetliins, eliolera infantum, inllamnnitiiui of bowels. » Ineludes full (:i!t eases), diselmrste of eannon, pistolsliot. seald (2 eases), 
fright (2 eases), Idow on In'nd, run over by eart, sealialliina. 



72 



MIOMOIKS OK TIIK NATIONAL AUADKMY OK 8(3lKNOE8. 



'fe'» 



V 



Table M. — Non-congenital pupilH of the lIUnoiH ItmtUution, claHHified according to the period when 
hearing wax lout and acvoriling to the dineaHc that cauxcd (Uafnem, 



CiiiiMo (if (li'afiieHA. 






Spotted fdvor • 

MeninnitiH" 

Scarlet fever 

Bruin fever 

Intlaniiimtion of brain 

CongeHtidii of brain 

DiseaHO of our ' 

DiHoascHuf hin^sand nir iiaHaageH'^ . 

Accident " 

MeaHles 

Typhoid fever 

Wlioo])inj;-congli 

ConvniNionH ■* 

Qninino 

Hydrooepluil iiH 

Dipbtlioria 

MiHctdlanooHM diHeases''' 

DiseasoB not Hjiecilied 



3 



1 ! 



' 



18 
6 
6 
1 
7 
7 
(> 
4 
3 
4 
5 
1 



24 



k i 



22 

I) 

2 
U 
6 
9 
6 
8 
2 
8 
(i 
4 
1 
14 
:io 



27 

li 

28 

:ii 

4 

:i 
ir. 

f. 
11 

8 
14 

:i 

6 

3 

2 

4 

17 



i 


i 


12 


7 


2!) 


143 


<) 


27 


17 


10 


2 


18 





5 


:» 


38 


12 


17 


r. 


7 


8 


11 


6 


6 


1 


8 


i 


' 3 


■....• 


3 







1 4 

111 

H IH 



^ 



48 
179 
110 
73 
35 
11 
63 
50 
40 
37 
37 
30 
17 
14 
10 
10 
81 
122 



Total 



5 I 21 lU! i:i:! 



2^4 



120 :i2r 



947 



"Kpideinic cerebrospinal meningitis. 

' Includoa gatlioriuf); in lienil (3 cases), scrofnln (10 cnso»), Kntlici'iiig in oars, Hon> tKWH, eiiraclic. i'iT«in;; in iH^ail. risings, swolling in liead, 
grmlual loss, iutiamnintion of UetHl, sickness in iiesd. 

"Inciudes coid (31 cases), IiiD}; fevor. pueunionia. broiicliial atlertiitn, inllnen/n, ratin-i-li (T) cases). 

^Includes siioclt af ligii tiling, sniislroke, exposare tti lieat, fiOl intii water, sea sicliiu'ss, liiii-n. scald, spr.'iinin necTt, tnr rap for scald*1ieftd, 
wasliiug in coid spring, friglit {'2 cases), fail (22 cases), drinking lye (1 case). 

* Inciiides spasms and tits. 

•Inciiides iniiinps (7 cases), bilious lover (0 cases), nervous fever ((1 cases), congestive cliiii (7 eases), winter fever (8 cases), remittent 
ever (3 cases), teething. Jaundice, pernicious fever, worms and fever, ague, paralysis, vaccination, small-pox, ehieken-pox, eliolera, croup, 
cramps, chills, cold plague, worm fever. t\]ihns fever, <-liidera iiifantuiii, inllaiiiniiition of bowels, disease of kidney, cancer, rickets, erysip- 
elas, siiinul disease (11 cases). 



TIIK FORMATION OF A DIOAF VAUIKTY OF TIIK HUMAN KACK. 73 

Taiilk N. — Analjfuiti o/L'li,472 mxex of tlmf- mutes from the renstm retnrnn, Hhittpinji thenumber of 
these ikaf-mutvH living .lune 1, ISHO, who became tiraf each year ninve th^ year 1770. 



Year. 



187!»-'80. 
1H7H-'7'.I. 

1W77-'7H. 
lH7(i-'77. 

l-7ri-'7(i. 

li"74-'7r). 
IH7;»-'74. 
Irt7'^-'7H. 
lH71-'7-^. 
1H7()-'71 




Year. 



No. 



1(11 
Wl 
•M) 
114 

An 

7r.o 

1(>H 
(1(17 
7(!!l 



18fi0-'70 
lH(|r<-'(ii) 
lM(i7-'(|H 
lH(;tl-'ti7 
lH(ir.-'(i(i 

18(14-'(!5 
lH((;i-'t)4 
iwia-'iiM 

IHtil-'C'i 

iHiumi 



7r)t 

(iti'i 

7'-' I 
710 
7!»» 
7'.I7 
77ti 
lil»-J 
M-i 
47(1 



YtMir. 


No. 


Ytiur. 


No. 


irtr.o-'t;fl 


mi 


iM4i>-'.in 


45.1 


l*'>H-',-,i» 


■VMS 


lH.lH-'4i» 


aiii 


iHr,7-''>M 


IHI 


H47-'lrt 


UM 


iHr.<! '-.7 


40'J 


lH4ti-'47 


avi 


iHr),-.-.':.!! 


4-^a 


li4.'-|-'4ti 


w:«» 


iH,'-,4-'r)-> 


:i4!» 


If-M-M,-, 


:ioH 


iMr):t-':.i 


M-i 


lH4:i-'44 


!i:i7 


lrt.vj-'-.;t 


:i(i:i 


|H4'i-'4:i 


aw> 


lHr.i-',->a 


:Mi» 


lH41-'4-^ 


•2ir. 


iHr)U-'r)i 


«(«) 


l«4(i-'41 


i.'.:t 



Teiijoin-8 :>,:m ' 7,0lri :»,i»l4 1. 



1h:«»-mo.. 
H:tH- ':)!».. 
lH;n-':w.. 
is«;-';i7.. 
lH:tr>-':i(!.. 
18;M-';t.'... 
1h:):i-':)4.. 
lH:t-i-';i:i.. 
IKU-'IW.. 
18M0-':U.. 



:!18 
i;t!» 

i:i-i 
i-^'^i 

IH-I 

141 
1.'.7 

Kir. 



Ten yoiirH l,.^!^a 



179Jt- 18(H). 
171>H-'i>i». 
17il7-".tH. 
171)(^"J7. 
17U.5-'!)(). 
17'.)4-"J.'. 
17'.):{-".I4 . 
17D2-".i:t. 
1791-'!h>. 
1790 -'91 . 

Ten yearH . 



10 
11 
(! 
4 
4 
8 
1 

:i 
I 



lf<'Jli-';io 
l^a8-'•io 

lH'^7-'-^8 
18'.i(;-"27 

I8'.4r>-'a(i 

18-2 1 -Vfi 

\n-i:\-'-iA 

X'-i-i-'-iA 
1H'.!0-'^1 



17rtt-'90 

ITH.-i-'Hi) 
1787-'88 

17H(;-V7 

17H,-)-'H(l 
1784-Vr> 

178:i-V4 
178'j-',H;i 
17.-<1-'H-J 

17NI-'81 



■Jim 

9;i 

111 

U.'i 
9.5 
120 

HM 

H9 

1(10 

(17 

1 , 0.-|8 



IHlil-'-^O 
1"'18-.'19 
1«17-'I8 
lrtl(i-'17 
I81.'',-'l(l 
ISl l-'15 

iMi;i-'i4 
18 1 -.'-'l;! 
IHU-'l'J 
HlO-'ll 



177it-'8(l 
177>'-7!) 
1777-78 
177(l-'77 
177.'.-'7(i 
1774-7;'. 
177:!-'74 
177'J-'7:t 
1771-7-J 
1770-71 



147 
ri4 
7:t 
77 
7:t 

8:1 
49 
4;-. 
."i.'i 
4:1 



1809-'10 
l'-08-'09 
1H07-'08 
l-(lt>-'07 
IHOfi-'IK) 
lH()4-'or) 

lH():i-'(}4 
l-ii-j-'o;! 
l»OI-'0-i 
18()0-'01 



ii,509 



81 

:Mi 

4(1 
15 

y7 
:i7 
2;i 
u 
u 
7 



(i<)i) 


294 






































1 




1 



Table O. — Analysis o/" 22,472 cases of deaf mutes from the census returns. 

[This table sliowH tliiit tlii' (locline in llic iiuiMlicr oC tlicsc (It'iit'-iiiiid'N icfmiu'd who liiMiimt! deaf 
siuco lh7H iidVcts till' ci)iij;ciiital, us well us (li»^ noii-eoii'fciiitiilly ileal'.] 



Yt-ar in wliich deafness ocenrred. 187:i. \ 1874. ! 187.''). I87(i. 1877. 1878. ' 1879. 



Total nTimber 

Con^tAiitall.v deaf 

Nou-congenitally deal'. 



1,168 
:t48 
820 



7.'')0 
271 
479 



472 

20:1 

209 



414 
202 
212 



300 207 

l:io lor. 

170 102 

I • 



IHl 

4(i 

U5 



99 A— HELL- 



-10 



74 



MKMOIUS OF THK NATIONAL A(5AI)KMY OF SOIRNdKa. 



Taiilk I*. — AnalyHiM of '2'2^il2 caneH of deufmulcH Utkcii from trnitUH rrtmns, rltistiijiid hi/ pniudii of 

Jirr i/carM. 

[Tito iiiiiiilii-i' wild liiM'iiiiii* (U^iif ill I'lu'.li i|iiiiii|iii'iiiiiiil pciiixl U rt'diu'xd to a |H'i('i<iit.a>;i' of tlii< wlinUt on it liaHiH of 

10,110(1 ('iiNi'H III all.] 



I'cridil. 



17H1-I78.'i 
l7H(>-17iK) 
I7i»l-17!».'i 
170(1-18(10 
Irt01-1H(I5 
IWKi-lMK) 
1H1|-Irtl5 
181(1-1820 
iKv'I-lHA'-) 
1820-1830 



Nliliilii'r. I'd- ccnl. 



17 
54 
80 
205 
275 
424 
404 
504 



. ((()(l-J 
.0(1(12 
. (KKIH 
.(1(12-1 
.(101(1 
. (Mini 
.(1122 
. (IIH'.I 
.(120(1 
. 0200 



I'Drlod. 


Niinilior. 


Per cent. 

. oaio 
.o;«80 

.0400 
.0017 
. 07:11 
.1011 
. 1603 
. 1020 
.1881 
.0481 


18:tl lKt5 


717 

875 

1122 

i:w7 
i()4:i 

2271 

:i:»77 
:t(i4i 

4220 
lUtS 


|H:t(i- 184(1 


IH4I-1HI5 


184(1-18.->(I 

IH.'jl-H.V) 


|.<i(l-|H(;o 


1^01 -iH(ir> 


i'^(;(i-!H7() .- 


i87i-iM7r) 


j 1870-1880 



Table Q. — Annli/nis of'2'2,\'2 citxts from thr (rn.siis returns, chinsljicd hy perioth of Jice yearn, and 
separatiiuj the eoiujenital from the non congenital canen. 



I'erioil. 



1781-1785. 

1780-170O. 

1701-17!t5. 

170(1-1800. 

1801-1805. 

Ih0(l-1810 . 

1811-lHl.'-,. 

Hl(!-182(). 

1821-1825. 

182(i-18;i(). 

18:tl-18:i5. 

18:1(1-1840 

1841-1845. 



184(5-1850. 

Hr.1-1855. 

18,'.(>-18(10. 

IHOl-lrti,'-, . 

18(H!-1870. 

1871-1875 

1870-1880. 



Total. 



Coiijjouital. 


Noii-{M)ii- 
gmiitul. 


Total. 


4 







4 


5 







5 


15 




*> 


17 


48 







54 


70 




10 


80 


102 




4:! 


205 


10:l 




fl 


275 


270 




145 


424 


328 




i:i(i 


404 


423 




171 


.594 


477 




240 


717 


001 




274 


875 


710 




40;i 


1, 122 


805 




402 


i,:iH7 


ilO-i 




(145 


1,(14;? 


1, 1(12 




8(li( 


2,271 


i,(i;Ht 


1 


7118 


:i,:i77 


1,7,50 


1 


HH2 


;i,(i4l 


L.W) 


2 


(141 


4, 22(1 


48;! 




500 


1,082 


12, 154 


10 


■MS 


22, 472 



Taule li. — 'total number of deof-mulcs in the United Staten lirinij June 1, l.SSO, eldsnified aecording 

to ruee and /ic.v. 



CuimuM of (luufiiojiifi. 



Conjjciiitiil. ... 
injury to (Nir. . 
iJiNoaso of ear. 
Otlitjr (liHca.sus. 
MIhvcIIiiiii'oiis . 
Not Ntatod 



Colored. 



Foroi^jii ^vllit(^ Native white. 



Total. 



Males. Fcnialt'8. MaU'H. Keiiiales. Males. Feinnles. I Males. K ales. 

I 

0,488 I 5, .5.51 

40 21 

221 181 

4,(m(1 :i.7(i7 

704 52 

0, 3-0 5, 203 




18,507 t 15,;U1 



TIIK KOKMATION OF A DHAK VAItlKTY OK Till; HUMAN KAOK. 



75 



Tahi.k. S — fnnlituliom/or the dm/ nnd (limh in the Vnited Statin, IMSM. 

A.— I'UHI.IC iN'HTn'O'l'KINH. 



1 
t 

a 

4 

6 
(I 
7 
t* 
9 
10 
11 
12 

: lit 

14 
' 15 

I l" 

w 

20 
21 
22 
23 
31 

85 
86 

27 
2H 
2!) 
30 
31 
32 
33 
34 
3,-1 
3() 
37 
31 
31) 

40 
41 

42 

43 
44 
45 
46 

47 

48 

49 
50 

50 



Niiiiiii. 



Aiiifi'ii'iiii AhvIiiiii 

Ni'w Ydik IiiNtilutiiiii 

I'l'iiiisyl VII Ilia limit III ion. . 

Ki'iitiick.v Iiistitiiliiiii 

Oliiii Iiislitiilicpii 

\'ii')iiiiia Iiiisllliitiiiii 

Iiiiliaiia IiiNtiliitioii 

'rciiiu'Hscn Si'IkmiI 

Niirtli (!aniliiia IiiNtitiitloii.. 
I llliiiiiis IiiNtiliition 

O»'oi>;iii liiHtitiitioli 

I 811111I1 CiiKiliiia Institution 

MiHMiiiii'i Ins itntiiiii 

I.oiiisiaiia Institution 

I \Visi'<nislii Instilnlioii 

I Alii'lil^an Instiliition 

Iowa liislitntion , 

I Mississippi Insliti'tion , 

Texas Asylinn 

C'oliiiiiliia I II St it II til III 

Aiabania Inslitntiini 

Ciilifoinia Institution 

Kansas Iiisiitntimi 

Ln C!i)nt<'nlx S . Mar.v's Iii- 
Htitntiiin. 

Minnesota ScIkiiiI 

Iiistitiilion for Iniprovcil In- 
sti'iiciion. 

Clarlvc Institution 

Arkansas Institiitr 

Maryland Siliiiol 

N' Iniiska Inslilniii 

Horace Mann Silinol 

St. Jostpli's Inst it nil' 

AVi'st Viijiinia Institution .. 

Oregon Sc Imol 

Institution lor ( olorril 

Coloiado In-tiliKo 

Erie DayStliool 

Cliieano Day-Sdiool 

Central New York liislitn- 
tion. 

{'incinnati Day-Selioul 

Westi'rn Pennsylvania In- 
stitution. 

Wi'steni New York Institu- 
tion. 

I'ortland Dav-Seliool 

Kliode Island Scdioid 

Saint I,(Hiis Day-Sidioo! 

New Enj;laiid Iiidiis'rial 
School. 

Dakota Seliuol 

Oral Hraneli Pennsylvaiiiu 
Institution. 

Scranton Oral School 

New Jersoy Institution 



Location. 



Ihirtrord.Cunii 

i \Vasliin;rt( n H'ts, 
New Y'l- k, N. Y. 

riiiladelpliia, I' i . .. 

I'anvi'li, Ky 

('olnnili'is, Oliio 

Stairitiin, Va 

Indiaiiap dis, Ind. .. 

Kniisville.Tenii 

Nalc,ri|,\.c 

1 Jacksniiville, III 

''live Spring, (ia 

'ar -priii^, S. C. 

i. ".-V" 

' B' '"MKP, I-ii- .. 

I Del "Vi^ 

I Flint 



Niinilier of pupils 



1 11 II I , .' ...... 

(,'oiinc',l bliitiK, luwa 

Jackson. Miss ... 

.\iistin, Tex 

WasliiiiKton, D. CJ 

Talladc^ra. Ala ' 

Herkclcv, Cal 

Olatlie, Kansas. 

I!iillal..,N.Y 

I 

Fiiriliiiult, Minn j 

New York, N. Y ' 

Nortliiinipton, Mass. 
I-itlle Hii(k, Ark ... 
I'lederiik City, Md. 

Oiiialia, Ntdir 

Huston, Mass 

Kdidliain.N. Y 

Honiney, \V. \'a 

.•^aleMi, On ;;oii 

lialtiiiiiire, .\ld 

Coliirado .Sp's, Colo. 

Ki ie, I'a 

Chicajio, III 

Uonie,N.Y 

CiiKdnnati, Ohio ... 
Turtle deck, I'a ... 

Koc. ester, N. Y.... 



1863 
lf67 



I'lirtland.Me.... 
I'ruvidcnec, H. I. 
.•^aint 1/ mis, Mo . 
ISeverly, Mass... 



Sioux Fall.s, D.T... 
riiiladclphia, Pii... 

Scranton, I'a 

Trenton. N.J 



Piihlic InstitutiouH . 



1876 
1m77 

1S78 
itifiO 

lt»80 
1881 

1883 
1883 



3D 



I 
M 

a 

•c 

s 
A 



210 

4iiH 



1820 


3C.2 


1-23 


167 


1 2!» 


nor, 


1839 


81) 


1844 


•f2s 


lci45 


147 


H4I 


111 


1816 


,110 


1816 


93 


18.(9 


.'■18 


I8!.l 


2.-)0 


)-52 


43 


1 .12 


237 


1854 


271 


18.5.-. 


21HI 


18,->() 


78 


18.-)7 


97 


l8.-)7 


100 


1860 


.')1 


1860 


12(i 


4 ()1 


190 


1862 


167 



1867 


94 


18(i8 


^0 


l-(>8 


108 


I'^tiO 


115 


1869 


91 


lw69 


279 


H70 


71 


1-70 


33 


1872 


15 


1.-74 


49 


1874 


12 


1875 


58 


1875 


180 


1875 


3.'') 


1876 


120 



47 
187 



1876 162 



35 
33 
49 
19 

2.3 
73 

14 

82 



A 

9 



126 
310 

206 
98 

274 
44 

175 
90 
,-•.6 

325 
53 
26 

152 
25 

134 

14.'> 

170 
35 
65 
83 
30 
80 

102 
94 

»2 

108 

49 
47 
60 
74 
41 

125 
41 
16 
8 
19 
9 
30 

111 

21 

79 

81 

17 
10 
32 
11 

14 
45 

7 
47 



.6,991 3,898 



fa 



"4 

178 

1.56 
ti9 

231 
36 

153 
.57 
48 

250 
40 
32 
98 
18 

103 

126 

120 
43 
32 
17 
21 
46 
88 
73 

65 
79 

45 
33 
48 
41 
50 
1.54 
30 
17 

7 
30 

3 
28 
69 

14 
41 

81 

18 
17 
17 

8 

9 

28 



35 





i 


Admit ted Hlucctlio 


s. 


* ^ 


ope 


liii); 


f tllM 




tal nuiulier of pupils 
have received instnictini 


iiisl 

a 

> , 


ii iition. 


1 

• 

1 


Ii 

~ 


h 

a-d 
> S 

-31 


«« 

? 


11 


Is 


2 1- 


jC 


5 


9 


s 





6 


2,32.1 


83 


35 


H 


174 


58 


»(i9 


2, 1(93 


31 


22 


5:1 


■iiw 


2, 079 


2 


19 


81 


136 


8:io 

2,008 








107 


2 


11 


1:1 


74 


.546 
1,495 








312 








118 










104 








.501 


1,700 


5 


9 14 


85 
48 


325 
185 


'""6 


t> 


"'ii' 


199 


835 


3 





3 



'.iH 

208 

266 

2I>0 

76 

86 

88 

51 

121 

157 

154 

129 
161 

91 
.52 
99 
93 
80 

237 
60 
20 
13 
43 
10 
48 

I. -.3 

28 
102 

143 

35 
25 
42 
19 

21 

66 



12 I 
81 ! 



665 

948 
(!.57 



203 
4h9 
185 
262 
369 
350 

330 

311 



220 
95 
78 
81 
12 

:i3 
99 
72 
39 
70 



125 

243 

82 
184 



219 1 3 



.37 
45 
73 
30 

28 
73 

14 

82 



1 


8 


(1 





1 








1 


4 


1 








2 


1 



278 





"""5 


,5 


181 . 








212 





1 


1 


:i:t3 . 








199 








2 


72 











39 . 


. . . . 







3,093 5,993 



83, 119 



83 I 138 815 



76 



MEMOIRS OF TEE NATIONAL A(UDKMY OF SCIENCES. 



T4ULE 8. — ImtitutionH for the deaf and dumb in the United States, 1883 — Contimicd. 

H.— UKNOMINATIONAI, and I'niVATK IN8T1TUTION8. 



51 
52 

5S 
54 
5' 
50 
57 
58 



Nuiuc. 



Location. 





Ni 


P'llx'l' 


of |m]> 


iH. 






«.- 










« 




M 






^H 




















vN 




•^ 






ft> 


.5 


g 






a 1 


a 


>> 






e 


I 


T 








e 








O 


•s 


« 




■K 




« 


'u 


'J 


2 




n 


s 


71 


~ 


2 


« 


Q 


0?i 


b 


^ i 



Whipple's Home Suliool .... Mystic Wlvci.Conii.' IHfii) 

Gcriiiaii Kvjiiii;('lical Lii- , NorriM, Midi ' 1875 

thcriin liislitiitioii. | i 

St. .)<!lin's(;atlioli(; Iniititiito ' Saint Fruiicis, Wis . 187(5 

F. Kiiapii's IiiKtitiitd Miiltiri '-<', Mil 1877 

j'lionolo-iical S'liool ..... Mil\vaiil<.'e, Wis lH7rt 

St.,Jos<>|)li's Iiislitntc ll:iniii!)al, Jlo lH8'.i 

A. Gial.aiii IScll's Siliool Wasiiinjjton, 1>. (.".. ISH'A 

Voico and Hearing l^iliool..! CliicaKo, 111 lrt-i:t 



41 

48 
'M 

8 

H 



14 

•J8 

5 

/ 

1 

7 



2 
)6 

18 

II 

:i 

II 

1 

1 



8 i Dciioininationnlandiirivato ' 
I institutions. I 

I I 

58 I Institutions in tlic U. S. .. 

I National Colle;;e* 



Wiishiugton, D, U ..; 18ti4 



178 11 fi 


(;:{ 


7,l(i'.) 4,(ti:i 


;i, mti 


1 45 45 

! 


^ 



10 
44 

43 

30 

H 
17 



11)2 



a 

o . 
^ a 
if .2 
St 

o 



I Admitted since the 
openiiij; of th«f 
iiistituliuu. 



a I J^'z S 



a » 

at 



^ 



51 
100 

127 
50 
50 

18 ! 
2 i 

8 I 



ta 


u 


e 


g 


a 


s. • 








> . 


>«^ 


tcS 


e8 *■ 


c8 :5 




a 


= ■0 








rzi " 


7^ X 


c8 t2 


^ 5 


52 


•3 g 


V rt 


>« rt 


•^ A 


|i 


II 


15 






g* 


^ 


1 



406 



8;i 



34 



252 



r<2 i 1215 



* The Xatioiial DciilMiili' Colli'iii' is :v ili«tiiiit or^ii.iiz'itiou within tip '.'oliimh'i lu 
the Htatt'iiu'Lf if th' Cohiniliiii IriHTiliitiuii given alio\t'. 

tKliiiii'iatiiU' aticH ^vlu'It^ t*-i:nv ittipiliH iciiiiueil tVoin nioio tlian oiio institiiticiu; h',i 

total, -m. 



'itutioii. Its <>flicer.s and atiideiits am inclnileil in 
liavi' (Hie jiarmit deafj 1J4 Iiavu both parouta deaf; 



Table T. — Dea/miite offupriiu; of (Icof- mute parents.* 
[Ai.iil,v.si.s of 21.') 1 iiiscs ieccivi'<' into Ami.rica:'. ii'stitiitions for the Deaf and Uirnli before Novenihi r, 18a3.] 



Pern a of Uiitli. 



1771-1780 

178l-17iiO.. 

1701-1800 

1801-1810 

1811-1820 

1821-18;t0 

I8:ti-l84i: 



Deaf-uintes Deaf-iiKites ' 
who have wlio li.ivc 
one par- lioth par- 
ent deaf. ■ rits ilciif 



Totii 



1 

:! 
t; 

20 



I'triiMl of iiirtli, 



184i-l8.-.0 

ls.-|l-l,-i()li 

18iil-187(l 

1871-IS80 



Tol'il 



Denf-inuti;s Deaf mutes 

who h.ivi- who have 

, one )ar- . botl. par- 

' eut doaf. ! entti deaf. 



18 
14 



20 
42 
41 
10 



82 



io;t 



Total. 

38 
(i7 

iV) 

215 



*A nliftlit t-rnir Iiiih lici'v .tiMctivcici] ii. tlm taM" iwiiig to ilM|iIii-ii i- m-(iiii.m in K i'iihi-s. 'J'he m'tirnil reMiilt, howevm*, ^ft not utTeoted. 
The I'lirrwt fl;;nri'.< lor 'harniiiteK liimng hoili |iaunis d.af (r(ailiii;;<lo>- n Ilif iiiluiini) rtlmuld hr II, L'U, .ifi, Ti, 2:i ; total. rj4. 



'rn 



THE FOHMATION OF A DEAF VARIETY OF THE HUMAN RACE. 



77 



Tablk U. — J )eaf -mute population cnmpareiJ with the population at large. 



Period of bi It b. 



Population of tbo Uhitcd 
.Stat.M(lHr-d), clnsNilicd 
U('(<irdiri}; to iicriod of 
mrlli, aiul ttit> iiiiiiibci: 
of persons boi ii in Piich 
l»'iiod rcdnccd to a per- 
itintagi! of tlii< whole. 



13,154 couf^i'uit.il (Icaf- 
nintcH liviiif^ .Tunc 1, 
1880, classiliiMl aciMird- 
ioK to period of liiith, 
and the nnmherof deaf- 
niMtes horn in each 
period r.'dnied to '. per- 
cmitagu of the wh(do, 



Deaf-mutes both of whose par- 
ents were deaf-ninles, elas- 
silied aicordiii); to period of 
birth, anil the number of 
deaf-mntes born in each 
period reduced to a pereent- 
njiv of the whole. 



Number of 
pcrsoUH. 



1871-1880 IS, 304, 176 

1861-1870 10,72(),ii()l 

1H51-18<)0 t>, 16f^,3;):i 

1841-1850 (>, 3(>0, :lt;2 

l«;n-1840 4,55r<,y,-)(i 

1821-1830 3,111,317 

1811-1820 ),830,00r. 

1801-1810 776, .■)07 

1701-1800 106,107 

1781-1700 2(»,H63 

1780 4,016 

Total 50,155,783 



• 

Pereenlaf^i^ 


Con;;enital 
deaf-muteH. 


Poreentage. 
/ 


Deaf-mutes both 
of whoso i)ar- 
ents were deaf 
and (hnnb. 

19 
41 
43 
20 
11 


Percentage. 


26. 7051 
21.3866 
H.27i)8 
12. 6ini2 
0. 0882 
6. 2033 


2,068 

3, 308 

2,460 

1,614 

1,078 

751 

472 

241 

63 




17.015 

27. 0.58 

20. 240 

13. 280 

8.870 

6. 170 

3. 8K! 

l.OKt 

(>.518 

0. 074 


14.3 
30.8 
31.6 
1.5. 

8.3 


3 Vy\>*iH 




1.5482 




0. 3012 




0.0416 




0. 0080 





100.0000 



12, 154 



100. 00(1 



133 



100. 



Table V. — Tahular statement of the innfitutions of the world for the ediirotion of the deaf and dumb. 



Couutry. 



Australia 

AuHtriallniignry 

Belixiuiii 

Bni/.il 



Canii'ta 

Seuniaric 

France 

fieiiisMDy 

Grjat tiritai!! and Irulaud 

Italy 

Japan 

LttxeinlHmrf; 

Mexico 

Netl.orhuMla 

New Zualaud 

Korway... 

Portacal 

Basnia (iiicluiluiK Coiniand 

and l^'inlaud) 

Spain , 

Sv.odeu 

."Switzerland 

United States 



17 

lU 

1 

7 

4 

U7 

00 

4(i 

:ir. 



.■1 ' 
1 

7 

1 

10 



7 I 
17 I 

11 ; 



Total 307 



NUMll 


Kli OK 1' 


a'nji. 






Manu 






HKTIlOnf 


OF LNbTllDCTlOS. 


d. Not 

1 


rcpurtcd. 




.1. 




Oral. 






Doinbiue 


Tiitnl. 


Male. 


l''e.iialo. 


2 

11 


j 

.1 


'5. 


1 


1 

B 

T. 

a 


— 




a 


3 






B 


pupils, 
teachers. 











= 


s 


























e 








c 


3 


s 


i 


6 


i 


i 


i 


>5 


6 


i 


6 1 <i 


147 


S2 


O.'i 
4.54 


11! 

64! 


1 


14 


2 














2 


133 


9 


1,147 


17 


1,147 


64 








H04 


482 
32 


382 










5 


330 




5 


625 










32 


;i 












32 


3 


803 


307 


400 


84 


1 






1 


150 


27 


.1 


(i.-.3 


!J7 








,T.>8 


ISO 


ITIi 


41 


1 

4 


142 
254 


15 


2 

28 


150 
1,!p62 


23 








18 


34 

395 


3 


3, 4IS'J 


17 


871 




C} t)08 


1,042 
1,413 


90». 
1, 237 


58(1 
244 


8 


558 


54 


00 
20 


5,008 
406 


580 
50 






t 






2, (KiO 


13 


1,356 


too 7 


243 2S 


1, 401 


815 


e70 


237 








34 


1,405 


227 


1 


80 


10 L. 




05 


37 
I.l 
2:1 
2.')(> 
111 


28 
14 

7 
20!l 

11 
]2^ 


7 
3 
7 

40 
2 

M 


2 


05 
30 


7 
7 

















'JO 


1 


20 


3 








30 








4U5 


3 
1 
6 




405 

22 

224 


40 

2 

2.S 




1 i 






22 




1.....: 








2(t3 




.... 




1 


50 


11 








K 


7 
303 


1 

221 


I 
50 


3 


122 


10 


5 


217 


26 








1 


H 


1 


.OM 


2 


245 


23 


222 


125 
421 


07 
250 


16 

711 


2 


111 










7 
5 


2L'2 
324 


18 

;)5 








WO 


D 


3 


m 


in 


7 


177 


n 


380 


183 
4,0fi5 


108 

3, 070 


30 


8 


iM6 




:;o 


11 
12 


;,80 

.184 


;io 
•12 






' 






7 LIS 


35 


«, 225 


393 
















20, 473 


*10, 731 


'8,545 


2, 020 


112 


1, 042 


1:10 


230 


13, 24U 


1, 182 


01 


10, r^s 


054 37 


1,010 


03 



> The reports from France and V' uaiila d'l nut indicate t lie dux uf tbo pupils. 



wl 



78 



MKMOIRS OF THE NATIONAL ACADEMY OF SOIENOKS. 



Table W. — A partial list of deaf children of deaf parents. 



Namu. 



Wlu!r« oiliu'iiteil. 



Achosoii, Climlos Aincricuii A s\ liiiii 

Acbvsoii, Uiitt't! W Now Kii;^'an<i liidUHtrinl School 

AchoHoii, EujicnP A Aiueri(MUi Aftvliiiii , 

Acheson, Uoortjo W do 

AolieBOU, Paalino M Horaon Mann School 

Do Amoi icaii Asyliiin 

Aoheson, Uobort do 

Allard, Hattie M do 

Alien, Asa W do 

Allen, Eliza do 

All™, Mahel H do 

Allen, Sarah do 

Arnold. Fanny New Vork InHtitiition 

Arnold, Jane do 

A therholt, Clohinel Ohio lUHtitiitiun 

Ballin, Albert ... Now Vorli Institution 

Barnard, LucretiaH Anierieau Asyliun 

Barnep Rosa I Western Nw Yoik InHtitiition. . 

Bayne, Mary E PennHylvania Institution 

Beleke, Charles Iilinoi« Institution 

Berry, Franci.s Xow En^litnd Industrial School. . 

Bender, Caroline New York Ii, titntion 

Bennett Mary L Ponusylv.tnia Institution 

Do New Vork Institution 

Bontz, Anna De II Pennsylvania Institution . 

Bodine, Charles Van W New York Iiistitntiou 



Brasher, Fanny C Illinois Institutiou 

Brown, Susan F American Asylum 

Brown, Thomas do 

Brown, Thomas L. . , do 

Brown, Helen II do 

Brunei', Harry A. Western New York Institution 

Buckltni, Simeon D New York Institutiou 

Bnekleu, Martha Ann do 

Burgess, W. Taylor \Ve8t Viri^lnia Institution 

Burcess, Jane E do 

Hurt, Harrison A New York Institution 

Butler, Pluelie M do 

Cairnes, \Villiani T Maryland Scho(d 

CaninbiU, Lizzie Clarki' Institution 

Churchill, Anna R New Yiuk lustitution 

Cook, Klizabeth do 

Cooper, \VilIiani E Minnesota School 

Crawford Josephine h do 

Culver, Annit; J Anterican Asylum 

Culver, John do 

Culver, Hemnn M do 

Daniels, Willie E New England Industrial School 

Derby, Ira II Anieriean Asylum 

Diamond, Albert Le Couteaux St. Mary's InstiUiti(m. 

Dlthii™, Mary E Pennsylvania Institution 

Driskell, Elsie A Illinois Institution 

Dnniz, Caroline New Ytirk Institution 

Dnpec, Franklin L , Oral Hr.iU'h I'inn lusliluluiu 

£dwaid.s. Walter I) .. Illinois Institutiou 

Edwanls, Mary E do 

Fe'.lon, John Wisconsin Institution 

Genet, William F Now York Iiistilutrou 

OeorKe, Dudley ^V Columbia lustltultoii 

Oetnian, Ida New Y(uk Institution 



1? 




Komarks. 




^ 




1804 


10 


Both parents ilrafinutes. 


1881 


8 


Do. 


1870 


8 


Do. 


1804 


11 


Do. 


1872 


5 


Do. 


1878 


11 


Do. 


1888 


10 


Do. 


1871 


8 


Do. 


184,5 


9 


Do. 


1849 





Do. 


1881 


8 


Father a deaf-mut«. 


184:i 


10 


Both parents deat'-niutes. 


18:).-) 


10 


Mother a deafiuute. 


183J 


15 


Do. 


1851 


13 


Mother a deaf-mute. 


18118 


7 


Father it deaf-mute. 


1803 


10 


Both iiarents deaf-mutes. 


188;i 


6 


Do. 


1878 


10 


Do. 


187S 


9 


Do. 


1883 


12 


Do. 


18.W 


14 


Father partially deaf. ' 


187.'; 


9 


Both parents deaf-mutes. 


1882 


16 


Do. 


1809 


11 


Do. 


1807 


7 


Both paK -ta ■ hard of bear- 
ing." 


1882 


13 


Do. 


lao.i 


14 


Father a deaf-mute. 


1822 


18 


Do. 


1851 


12 


Both parents deaf-mutes. 


1855 


13 


Mother a deaf-mute. 


1870 


10 


.Mother somewhat den.f. 


1812 


12 


Father a deaf-uiute. 


1»38 


12 


Do. 


1878 


21 


Both parents deaf luntes. 


1880 


19 


Do. 


1803 


15 


Mother partially ilea!'-. 


1878 


18 


Katlicr deaf in one ear. 


188! 


10 


Mui'i }Mtrents (leaf mutes. 


1877 


10 


M.itbi'r parti.illy deaf. 


18.58 


12 


Father "hard of hearinK. " 


1851 


13 


Both uarents deaf-mutes. 


18(1:. 


11 


Ihitli parents slii,htly deaf. 


1879 


21 


Mother somewhat deaf 


1878 


9 


Both imrents deaf iiitilt^s. 


1883 


11 


Do. 


IH8I 


9 


Do. 


1882 


7 


Do. 


1801 


11 


Do. 


1807 


9 


Do, 


18.'in 


10 


Do. 


1K07 


8 


D". 


18,'i5 


0) 1 


Father deaf in 4»ne ear. 


1882 


10 


Moth. 1 slinbtly deal. 


1864 


8 


Both parents deafnuilett. 


1807 


19 I 


Do. 


180!) 


14 


Mother a deaf mute. 


18,-)ll 


13 


Both iia'eiiUt ditaf-niutos. 


1871 


10 


Do. 


1874 

i 


7 

1 


Do. 



"" W. ' "WMBW "' 



THE FOllMATION OF A DEAF VAEIETY OF TUK HUMAN RACE. 



79 



Table W. — Aparllnl list of (kaf children of deaf parents — Coiitimied. 



Xfune. 



WluTe pduciiled. 






Oloyni', Mary Xow Toik Institution 1808 

Gooilnt'HR, Alex | WiscniiMJii In.stitutioii 1S74 

Ualiii, Miiximilinn New Yoik liiBtitutiim IHOH 



Hull. William Kraiiklin 

Hall, Floi ilia 

HeniU'ickK, Henry 

Hine, Janies 



ilo ISO'i 

Western Xew y rk IiiRtitution 1HS;I 

MinnetiDta Seliiiol 1870 

American Asylum 1840 

UineH, Wlliani W 1 Uhio Instil nt ion 1878 

Ho.d, Kilwin. 1 Misscmrl Institution 1864 



Horil, Mary E 

Howell, Wallaee F 

Howell, William L 

HouHol, Helen Kstelle . . . 
Jones, Floreneo Harriet . 

Kersliner, John It 

Kersliner, Kninni U 

Kindred, Maria ,T 

Kindred, Elizabeth , 

Kinysley, Isabella 

Eotf man, Ahey 

Kotlman, Saninel 

KotTman. Lewis , 

Laird, James V 

Laird, Elizabetli I 

Laistcr, Eleanor Jane — 

Lancaster, Lneaa C 

Lloyd. John, ,ir 



do 1866 

Now York Institution 186,5 

do 1808 

do 187.5 

do 1804 

Pennsylvania lustitutiiui 1880 

do 188:1 

Illinois Inst 'ition 1800 

do 186U 

American Asylum ISM 

Now York Institution 1808 

do 1808 

do 1808 

I'ennsyhanla Institution 1802 

. ...do 1807 

.'ow York Institution 1849 

do If77 

do. 1878 

/American Asylum 1844 

1851 

1851 



Lovo,joy, Ilenjamin 

Lovejoy, Hartwell do 

Lovejoy, Sarah \ d 

Love.jfty, Emma I do 1851 

Lovejoy, Erastus { dit ^.800 

Lovc.joy, Abigail j do 1800 

Love.joy, Lydia A i do 1867 

Lovejoy, Hatlio M j do 18711 

Lovejoy, I'oacoe 1' I New 10n;:land Indiist.ial Scluud 18811 

Marsh, Catharine H American Asylum i 185'J 

Marsh, r,aulina N | do 18,55 

Marsh, .Tonathan F 

Mar.shall, delude W 

Mai shall, llenjamin F 



do 1860 

Illinois Institution 180;i 

ilo 1866 

Marshall, Edith II I American Asylum 1870 

Marshall, (iilbert F j ,|<- 1870 

Marshall, Leslie (1 I do 1882 

Mayhew, llen.janiin do 1858 

Maylunv, Jareil i do 1804 

Mayo, Ilawes I ilo 1805 



: II. 



McClave, R(d)ert. 
MctMurj^. Drueilhi 

Metfre^or, Hessie 

MeliS i;;littn, .Vinamla 
Meacham, V ' y O. ... 
Meacham, ; .rcellia A 
Meaeham. (ieorjio 



Ohio Institnlicui 1.S65 

rcnnsylvania Institution 1877 

Ohio Institution 188;i 

Western New Yolk institution 1870 

American A»;,'lum 1806 

do 1866 

ilir 1868 

Meacham. Allen H do 1872 

Meade, rdarjiarit MiniU'sotn Suliool 18711 

Metrash. Uebert L. G American Asylum 1872 

Miiiison, Lizzie New York Institution 1870 

Ormsl.y, Edwaril E New York Institutiou 1870 

I'ark, tlames M (*olnmbiti Institulion . . 1871 

Oo ' Uhln Institiifiun 1804 



7 

17 

13 

12 


20 
8 


14 

11 

10 
9 
7 
7 

11 

10 

15 

13 

13 

15 

12 

10 

14 

11 

12 

14 

17 

15 

17 

15 
10 
17 
12 
10 
i| 
15 
10 
10 

11 

10 

9 

11 



8 

12 

II 

10 

12 

12 

5 

6 

14 

9 

8 

11 

10 

S 



i:i 

19 
12 



Remarks. 



Mother "hard of hearing." 
Father a deaf-mute. 
Father pattially deaf. 
Itoth parents deafmutes. 
Mother a deaf-nnit*'. 
Father very deaf. 
Until parents deafniutes. 

1)0. 

Father a deaf mute. 
Do. 
Do. 
Do. 
Both parents deaf niufeg. 
Do. 
Do. 
Do. 
Father a deaf-mute. 

Do. 
Mother a deaf mute. 
Father "hard of hearing." 
Do. 
Do. 
Both parents denf-mntes. 

Do. 
Father a deaf mute. 
Mother deaf in one ear. 
" Father deaf I'rom old age." 
Father a deaf mute. 
Du. 
Do. 
Do. 
Do. 
Do. 
Do. 
Do. 
Do. 
llolli parents deaf mutes. 
Do. 
Do. 
Do, 
Do. 
Do. 
Do. 
Do. 
Ilo. 
Do. 
Mother a ileal". mute. 
Holli parents deaf mutes. 
Do. 
Do. 
Do. 
Mother » deaf mute. . 
Do. 
Do. 
Both paieiiis deaf ivntea 
Mother very hard of boariii};. 
Both parents deaf mutes. I 

.Mother iiavtiallyilei-.fdeeint). j 
Mollicr ■lialil of hcaiiuK." I 
Bolli naicnis deaf mutes. 

Do. i 



80 



MEMOIRS OF THE NATIONAL ACADEMY OF SCIENCES. 



Tabi,id W. — A partial list of deaf children of deaf parentn — Continued. 



Naino. 



Wlioro ciliicatcd. 



Pier, John Vr 

PliU'o. LnriHHii 

Pinini, .Jiislmn K 

Piiiiiii, Kiichfl A 

Pimm, Mai'tliu 

Pimm,(;imrlen AiijjiistMH 

Purvis, Jiimi'S II 

Purvis. A mtuxla J 

Purvis, Knti' L 

Purvis, Mary 

Purvis, Mary A 

Purvis, Tinidtliy 

Purvis, James M 

RiKK", Cliarli's A 

Hamscv, Ann K 

Kedmouil, lltMiry 

Ricliftiilsim, Gicirci' E 

Rislcy, I.uniau L Xcw Vcirk Instituliim 

Uisloy. Clnn l«8 K i <li> 



Ohio Institution 

Now Yorlt lustitution 

do 

do 

do 

.. do 

Coluniliia Institution 

Pennsylvania luHtitutiou . 

do 

do 

do 

do 

.... do 

Auiericr ■» Asylum 

rcnnsylvaiiiu Institution . 
NfW York Institution .... 
t'liirki' Institution 




do . 



Soutli Carolina Institution. 



Roberts, John .lames . . 

Rogers, .June I 

Rogers. AVilliani H do 

Rogers, David S ilo 

Do i Cidumliift luHtitutiou 

Rogers, Laura A ' Soutli Caridinn Institution . 

Rogers, Clara A i do 

Rogers, Nettie S., daughter of \Vm. II. Rogers.: do 

Sawhill, Cidlins S ' Columbia Institution 

Do Ohio Institution 

Do I't'inis\lvaiiia -....ititutien , . 



Ohio Institution 

Columbia Iustitnt:oii 



Sawhill, Isane II 

Do 

Sawhill, Jes.se U Ohio Institution 

Sawbill.Willhiin I- ! do 

Sawb'ill, Lavinia A do 

Schroeder, Antli(Ui,y Minm'sota Sehool 

Scovel, Harriet E .. ' Ainerieau Asylum 

Scovel, Steven \ do 

Scovel, tjlive , do 

Sbannou. WilUaiu New York Tustitutiou 

Sl'"lsy,J(dm | do 

Stevenson, Charles W i Columbiii Institution 

Do ! Mar> hind Sehnol 

Steveusor, Georgiaua \ Colnmbi.i Institution 

Stiles. Penniab Anna New York Institution 

Strattnn, .Sarah C Pemi.s^lvania Institution . 

Strattnn, .lames WV.ls . New Yoi li InNtitnti(>n 

Straw, Mary ; Ohio Instilniion 

I Stiart. Kunna M ; Illim)is Iu.stiinti(ui 

I Suait.MabelC ! do 

! Sutton, Ros.H I' Ohiolustit'itiou 

Swett, IVisiH II AmericaD Asylnin 

i Swett, Charlotte £ do 

Swett, Mitehel do 

I Swett, I.ney Maria Clarke Institution 

S'.vect, Margaret S Anu-rienn Asylum 

Tato. Margaret :di»..<onri Institution 

Taylor, Anna R * Amerieau Asylum 

Towusend, Alliert M Illinids Institution 

Tuner. Luey M Ameiiean Asylum 

Van Kirk,Joseph 8 : Pennsylvania Institution . 



1876 


8 


i8o;i 


14 


l«.-i8 


« 


1801 


11 


1804 


13 


1807 


(f) 


1803 


10 


180.J 


12 


1870 


12 


1872 


13 


1871 


a 


1872 





I88U 


u 


1878 


10 


1840 


12 


1883 


7 


1880 





1850 


13 


1870 





1877 


8 


1855 





1858 


10 


1800 


u 


1808 


17 


1807 


10 


1809 


10 


1880 


7 


1878 


21 


1871 


14 


.86» 


12 


1870 


12 


1878 


20 


1871 


fi 


187:i 


10 


1878 


8 


1877 


10 


1818 


14 


1838 


23 


18:i8 


13 


1870 


12 


18.5.J 


15 


1803 


12 


1808 


14 


1863 





1808 


n 


1m7 


12 


1874 


7 


18011 


12 


1883 


12 


1883 


11 


1883 


10 


1803 


11 


1872 


11 


1S73 


11 


18hl! 


18 


1875 


8 


1870 


(?) 


1851 


13 


1873 


12 


1804 


15 


1880 


11 



Both parents deaf-nintes. 
Father a deat'.niuto. 
Both \) irents deaf.mutes. 

Do. 

Do. 

Do. 

Do. 

Do. 

Do. 

Do. 

Do. 

Do. 

Do. 

Do. 
Mother a deaf-mute. 
Both parents deaf-mutes. 
Mother partially deaf. 
Both parents tleaf-miites. 

Do. 
Father deaf in one ear. 
Both parents deaf-nuites. 

Do. 

Do. 

Do; 

Do. 

Do. 

Do. 

Do. 

Do. 

Do. 

Do. 

Do. 

Do. 

Do. 

Do. 
Father very deaf. 
Father a tleaf-miito. 

Do. 

Do. 
Mother "hard of hearing.'' 
Mot Iter bei'omiug (leal. 
Both parents deaf-mutes. 

Do. 

Do. 
Father a little deaf. 
Mother a deaf-nmte. 
B;db parent.-* deaf-mutes. 
Father a deaf-mute. 
Motl'.or paitially deaf. 

Do, 
Both parents deaf-mutes. 

Do. 

Do, 

Do. 

Do. 

Do. 
Mot hern deaf mute. 

Do. 
Both iiar'Pis deafmutcs. 

Do. 

Bo. 



THE FORMATION OF A DEAF VARIETY UF THE HUMAN RACE. 
Taulk \V. — A partial list of deaf children of deaf parents — Continued. 



81 




Van Kirk, John ' Pennsylvania Institution 

Van Kirk, Cliarlofl H do 

Vaughn, Emily W lilimiis Institution 

Watson, Frcilerick AV ' California lustitntlon 

Wehstflr, Josopli i Now York Institution 

Wells, Anna E : Illinois Institution 

WoUs, Helen D ! Maryland School 

West, Rebecca T A nicrican A sylum 

West, George I do 

West, Benjamin D do , 

West, Deidama J do 

Wildfang, Daniel Wisconsin Institution 

Wlldfang, Addie do 

Williams, Laura Now York Institution 

Williams, Elizabeth do 

Williams, Harriot do 

Weldt, William Louisiana Institution 

Weldt, A do 

Weidt, Annie do 

Wise, Oeorgo A , Now England Industiial School , 

Wise, Lottie do 

Wolpert, David II ] Colorado lustitntlon 

Woolevor, Margaret Ann New York InHtltutlon . . 

Worcester, Ira E I American Asylum 

Works, William S I New York Institution 

Works, Martha Jane .1 do 

Works, Mary Ann \ do 

Works, Charles H do 

Whittlngton, Louis : Columbia In.' titution 

Wyncoop, Cora A New York 1 istitutlon 

Wyncoop, Frederick Wt'Stern Xe^.' York Institntioi 

Zimmerman, Alice Maryland School 

Zimmerman, Jennie do 



18511 
1801 
1877 

i%n 

1850 

180,1 

lgH» 

18r.U 

1801 I 

1808 I 

1808 I 

1800 j 

1883 I 

18;)3 

1840 

1830 

1883 

1883 

1883 

1881 

1881 

1874 

1883 

1879 

1848 

1848 

18,51 

1855 

1800 

1856 

1877 

1870 

1883 



It 
11 


15 
12 
10 

8 
12 
13 
13 
12 
12 

e 

12 
12 
12 
13 
11 

8 
U 

8 

7 
12 


13 
13 
13 
(!)• 



Uiiih par(mts ilcar-inutos. 

Do. 

1)0. 
Motlior a dcaf-muto. 
Father a (Ical'-uiuto. 
Mother deaf adult lilb. 
liotli paicuts dcafniutOH. 
Mother a tlcaf-muto. 

Do. 
IJuth parents deaf-mutes. 

Do. 
Mother <'i deaf-inuto. 
lloth ]iareuls deaf-mutes. 
Father a deiif-ruutt*. 
Both ]>ai'euts deaf and dumb. 

Do. 

Do. 

Do. 

Do. 

Do. 

Do. 
Father deaf In one cox. 
Mother partially deaf. 
Ihith parents deaf-uiutes. 

Do. 

Do. 

Do. 

Do. 
Mother a deaf-muto. 
Father a deaf niuto. 
Jlothera deaf-mute. 
Both parents deaf mutes. 

Do. 



99 A— BELL 11 



82 



MEMOIRS OF THE NATIONAL ACADEMY OF SCIENCES. 



Taule X. Showing per capita cost for the education of a deaf chili in an American institution. 






■;» 



■i I 



Nnnio of Institution. 



Knmber of pupils I Amount expended 
Deo. 1, 1881. I fur mtppoi't. 



Per oapitA. 



Amoricau A»)luni, ITurlfDid.Conu 

Now Yolk IiiHlitiition, New Yolk City 

IViiiifiylvniiiii Inatilution 

Ki iiliu'ky InHtitution 

Oliio Institution 

Virginia XuHtltution * 

Indiana Institution 

Tennessoe Institution 

Nortli Carolina Inmitution 

liiinois Institution 

Goorgia Institut ion 

South Carolina Institution 

Iowa Institui ion 

Wisconsin Inst itution 

Micliigau Institution 

Mississippi Institution 

Columbia Institution (including tlio Xiitional (Jollcgp) 

Alabama Institutiim 

Cnlii'ornia Institution i 

Missouri Institution 

Kansas Institution ; 

Le Coutoimx St. Mary's* 

Minui'sota Institution 

Improved Instruction Institution, New York 

Clarke Institution, Massaclmsetts 

Arkansas Institution 

Maryland Institution 

St. Joseph's Institution* 

West Virginia Institution 

Uregou Institut ion 

Colorado Inst itution 

Central Now York Institution 

Western Penn.*ylvania Institution 

We.steruNcw York Institution 



I 



Total. 



180 

481 

819 

139 

432 

85 

325 

103 

99 

BOS 

47 

87 

192 

478 

249 

67 

117 

44 

108 

100 

14S 

VIS 

112 

137 

88 

69 

84 

260 

78 

20 

39 

100 

104 

116 



5,247 



* Conducted by sisters of charity ; no salaries paid. 

t Has a blinil department. 

J Superintendent's last report states per capita cost $183.05. 



$47,641 
131,307 
71,301 
26, 705 
79, 612 
10, 185 
54,831 
24, 360 
34,000 
85,000 
14,241 
8,092 
37, 359 
40,888 
43, 603 
10,610 
51, 108 
12, 500 
35, 352 
43,410 

19, rm 

19, 100 

24, 425 
35, 454 

25, 437 
13,600 
23, 180 
27, 58K 
19, 472 

4,000 

7, ,579 

34, 287 

19,011 

27,901 



1,171,571 



$204 67 
273 00 
223 51 
192 12 
184 28 

225 70 
165 48 
230 59 
344 44 
167 32 
230 00 
218 70 
194 57 

229 14 
175 11 
149 25 
400 64 
284 09 
327 30 

226 40 
133 56 
148 43 
218 03 
258 78 
287 00 

230 55 
276 02 
110 35 
249 64 
153 84 
104 33 
214 29 
182 79 
240 52 



223-28 






THE FOKMATION OF A DEAF VARIETY OF THE HUMAN RACE. 



83 



'iio|iaii.iiM 
■11) .)o «nut)iu n HV, i| 
SiilDii inii )ii<| 'iiu|| 

■ll|U3||4V )l(»ll«| ux 



IS !3 






'ui>i);iui)iin| JO 
•uiuuiu mi)] :tu|iiii ox 



'ao||H|ii»|).iii ni no|i 



•non 
-iil|)(u| u| ii||<I'<>' '"X 



'pe.Coiiliiij Mon aoiiui < 
■noiiu JO uai(.)Da| -o^ I 



i oaufa 



i S? 



SS § 



S8 28 



'A 'A 



'A 'A. 



o o S 

y, A 



A 


« 


3? 


« 


lA 


^1 


,t 


^ 


ii 


» 


V 


S 


M 


1^ 


l) 




















a 

































o 














*A 




1^ 




f I 


1- 




'A 


X 

f? 




« 




1^ 


/. 


i 




'i 


oi 


« 


o 


^ 


T-I 


































o 


o 


D 














3 


o 








'A 


'A 


>^ 


/* 


k; 












^'h 


y-^ 









-^ "* m "^ «■' ^ *' '■^ <5 ^*. <5 '^ •*5 *■' 

S a r«i Q 

3 3 C 



^1 ^- * 



O (O I- « I 



^v^ss&^sss 



^. ^ 



CI .- ^ 



^ n X 

;« X ;, 



^ 





>< 


^, 


^^A 




g 


00 


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84 



MH.MOlltS OF TIIK NATIONAL ACADEMY OF SCIENCES. 



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*• APTENDIXZ. 

The following table, coiubiiiing all the cases of luarriago rocor»l(Ml in Tables A to J, was sub- 
mitted to Prof. Simon Ncwcomb for Lis opinion regarding the nnmber of congenital deaf-mutes 
who had married congenital deaf-mutes. The Reports of the American Asylum and Illinois Insti- 
tution give no information bearing on this point; but it seemetl possible to determine the proba- 
bilities from the data given in the table, especially as tlie intermarriages, in a large proportion of 
cases, undoubtedly occurred between deaf mutes who had been educated in the san.o Institution, 
and who were therefore 6o</t included in the table: 



OauBe of iluiifuess. 



Congenital 

Non-t!(ni>;( nitiil 
Not stivted 



Total 



Deaf-iiintPH wlin am VLvordotl to 
liavo inaniod (Icar-iiiiiti's, 



Males. 



ir)0 

14 



343 



FoiualeB. 



148 

ir.a 

11 



Total. 



ai)8 

:i;u 



311 



(54 



Dcaf'-iimtrs Mlatcil to liavo inanicil, 
but who arc not rfc()r(lc<l to liavc 
niai'i'ii'd deaf- in u tea. 



Malc'H, 



■.!7 



\&> 



KeniaU's. 



Total. 



ur. 


(n 


'i7 


a') 


8 


1,-1 


(iO 


\(i-i 



The main question proposed was this : Of the congenital deaf-mutes who are recorded to have 
married deaf-mutes, what proportion have married congoiital deaf-uuites ? 

Professor Newcomb has beeu kind enough to send the following letters in reply to the query: 



I 



Nautical Almanac Office, Navv DkI'autment, 

llushingtoii, I). C, May W, 1884. 
Dkar Mr. Bkll: AUhougli the (lucstion you usk seeniH to admit of a satisfactory answer, I notice a singular 
defect iu the statistical table. It contains not a single case of a doaf-niuto being reported as having married a hearing 
person. If this is an accidental omission iu making the copy for you it ought to bo correilrd. If there is really no 
such record the case is very singular.* It would look as if the parties were ashamed to state that tbey had married 
hearing persons, or tho recorders bad rejected all such cases. 

The main question you ask cau, I think, be answered by the tlieory of probabilities. Your table, if I understand 
it correctly, shows that out of 629 persons in the institution (of whom 32!) were males and 300 females) a little less 
than one-balf (298) were congenital deaf-mutes. Now, I see no reason for supposing that the persons whom tbey 
married would be divided in any essentially different proportion between the two classes. 

It is true that could wo learu from the census tables how the entire deaf of the country of marriageable ages, say, 
between tho ages of twenty and thirty, are divided between the two classes, our conclusions might bo nioililied. If, 
for example, it should be found that of the total number of deaf alluded to only one-third were congenital caso.s, wo 



•Only eleven deaf-mutes were specittcally stated to have married bearing persons, and 1.51 were recorded 

simply as " married." 

8.') 



be 



MEMOIRS OF THE NATIONAL ACADEMY OF SCIENCES. 



t 



might be allowed to luppose that the marriages reported wore divided according to this ratio, rather than according 
to the approximate ratio of equality found in the asylum. But wo should consider that this surplus of non-oon- 
genltal deaf would indicate a class who associate principally with hearing persons, and who would, therefore, bo loss 
likely to marry deaf-mutes than others would. I think, therefore, that under the circumstances, wo should regard 
the ratio given by statistics of the institution as the most probable one. Of course the reason for this is strengthened 
if, as yon intimate, a largo proportion of the statistics may be mutual. Allowing for a probable slight tendency of the 
two classtw congenital and non-congenital to choose ouch other, I think the most probable conclusion would be this: 

Of the congenital doaf one-half married congenital and one-half non-congenital deaf. 

Of the non-congenital three-sevenths married congenital doaf and/our-»«i>«n«A» non-congenital deaf. 

And I consider these results sufflcieutly probable to form the basis of conclusions In oases whore slight chaugoa 
in the numbers would not change tho general result. 

If you wish your table returned please inform mo. 

Yours, very truly, ^ NEWCOMB. 






Washington, D, C, May 26, 1884. 
Deau Mr. Bell: The remarkable agreement between the ratio of congenital and non-congenital cases in the 
census reports, and in tho numbers married, affords a strong confirmation of the probable soundness of the conclusion 
I iudicRted to you. The small discrepancy to which you allude probably arose from the twenty-five " not stated" 
oases. I return you the tables. 

Yours, very truly, S. NEWCOMB. 






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