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A Guide 

YUKON 

COLD Fields 

• WITH- 
MAP A/ID ILLUSTRATIONS 

LeWMAN & HAMFORD 3 & P. CO PUBUSHEBS 

• SEATTLE 



1? 



PACIFIC COAST STEAMSHIP CO. 




THE PIONEER AND REGULAR LINE 

CARRYING UNITED STATES MAILS 



Opefatiog Six Large Steamers on the Alaska Routei among them 

the Elegant Excursion Steamer 



• • 



QUEEN" 



%mtk 



Steamers Sail every two or three days with oldest and most care- 
ful Commanders on the Pacific Coast* 

DISPATCH LINE FOR THE YUKON MINES 

via all iirincipal points* to Skaguay Bay and Dyea Trails 



For further informatioa see P. C. S. S. Go's printed Folders, also Pamphlets, 
"HOW TO REACH THE GOLD HELDS OF ALASKA." 



Connections made with all transcontinental rail lines, also with Steamers of this 

company plying on other routes. 

ROUTES OPERATED FROM SAN FRANCISCO 

Mexican RoutCi Southern California Coast Route. Northern California^ 

Humboldt Bay Route* Portland and Astoria Route* British 

Columbia* Puget Sound and Alaska Route* 



City Ticket Office: 606 FIRST AVE, SEATTIaE 



GOODALL, PERKINS & CO. 

OINERAL AOKNTS 

SAN FRANCISCO. CAL. 



J. F. TROWBRIDGE 

PUatT SOUND SUPT. 

OeCAN DoeR. ■lATTLI 




(DEQinE 



O 





Our many years of experience in outfitting Alaska prospectors, 
as well as wholesaling extensively to the Alaska merchants, has 
taught us exactly what the climate demands. In many instances 
our clothing and underwear are specially designed and made for 
our trade. You cannot be too careful regarding the quality of the 
clothing you select when starting to the Yukon gold fields, as it 
will be impossible to uprchase clothing while in the interior, so the 
clothing you start with must last you until your return. We do 
not carry inferior or trashy goods. NOT HOW CHEAP, BUT 
HOW GOOD, is what we strive for in our Alaska clothing. 



MackinawSf 

Sweaters^ 

BlanketSf 



Corduroy Clothings 

Artie Underwear^ 

Flannel Shirts^ 

German Socksi Scarfs, 

Artie Soeksi MittSi 

Blanket Lined Duek Clothing, 

Whatever you find in our stock is of guaranteed quality. If 
there was better quality you'd find it here. 



The MacDougall 

L Southwick Co, 

Nos. 717, 719, 721, 723 First Avenue 
Seattle, W^ashington. 



.^^d^ 



COPYRIGHTED 

1897. 



'^^^sr 



GUIDE 



TO THE 



KLONDIKE 



—AND THE— 



YUKON GOLD FIELDS 



•IN- 



ALASKA AND NORTHWEST TERRITORIES. 



CONTAINING — HISTORY OF THE DISCOVERY — ROUTES OF 

TRAVEL — NECES.SARY OUTFIT — GENERAL AND 

USEFUL INFORMATION — LARGE MAP 

CORRECTED UP TO DATE FROM 

LATEST OFFICIAL 

SURVEYS. 



PUBLISHED BY 

LOWMAN & HANFORU STATIONERY AND PRINTING CO. 

Seattle, Washington. 

1897. 






TABLE OF CONTENTS. 



PAGE 

Introductory 3 

Chapter I. History of the Yukon Gold Fields 7 

Chapter II. History of the Klondike 16 

Chapter III. "What the Klondike has Produced 25 

Chapter IV. The Routes of Travel 32 

The Chilkoot Pass Route 34 

The White Pass Route 52 

The Chilkat Pass Route 55 

The Taku Route 56 

The Stickeen Route 56 

Chapter V. The all Water Route 61 

Chapter VI. The Necessary Outfits and Where to get Them . 67 

Chapter VII. Climate and Agricultural Possibilities 76 

Chapter VIII. Game and Fish So 

Chapter IX. Coal and Quartz 82 

Chapter X. Canadian Government's Oppressive Policy 85 

Chapter XI. The American Mines 89 

Chapter XII. The Diseases to be Guarded Against 94 

Conclusion 96 

APPENOIX. 

Table of Distances 97 

Useful Notes for Miners 98 

Seattle Price List 99 

Placer Mining logulations of the Northwest Territories 100 

Alaska Mining Laws 107 

Finis 114 

Amendments to the Mining Regulations of the Northwest 

Territories 115 






INTRODUCTION. 



INTRODUCTION. 



Since the news of the wonderful discoveries upon the 
Klondike River in Northwest Territory has gone forth 
there has been an overwhelming demand, coming from all 
parts of the world, for authentic information, not only as to 
the extent and character of this particular mining district, 
but as to the whole Yukon mineral region in Alaska. More 
especially is there a general request for information as to 
the routes of travel; the means of access to the country; 
the cost of reaching it by the various routes; the necessary 
outfits, their cost and constituents; and, in jreneral, all of 
those particular points about which the intending immi- 
grant to the new gold fields desires to inform himself before 
entering upon the long and hazardous journey to the 
Yukon Country. 

This pamphlet attempts to furnish in a concise form 
and at a small price all such information. The compiler of 
it has made use of all sources of original information upon 
the subject which are obtainable. Every existing work 
upon Alaska and the Yukon Country has been consulted; 
every newspaper article upon the Klondike has been exam- 
ined; letters by the score from those now in that country 
to relatives and friends have been read; nearly every person 
now resident in this state, who has made the voyage down 
the Yukon, or who has a personal knowledge of the new 

Pacific N. W. History D-r5t. 

. PROVINCIAL LIBRARY 

41546 VICTORIA, B.O. 



C.UIDK TO THK KI.ONDIKK. 



gold fields, has been interviewed. A careful examination 
and comparison of the data tluis obtained has been at- 
tempted, and from the vast mass thus collated it is proposed 
to reproduce in this pamphlet a concise, accurate and ex- 
hanstive report, coverin<; every point of imjuiry which 
would naturally sui^gest itself to the seeeker after informa- 
tion upon the subject. 

It is not pretended that this is a work of original re- 
search, or a record of personal experiences. The task set 
to the compiler has Veen more editorial than literary in its 
character. All statements made have been carefully exam- 
ined, compared and tested. The experience of one person 
has been verified by that of others. The principal aim has 
been to secure perfect accuracy of statement, and to make 
this pamphlet of practical value; in short, to furnish in a 
convenient form and as concisely as possible all existing 
information upon the subject. 

The scope of the work includes a brief history of all the 
gold discoveries made upon the Yukon and its tributaries, 
a particular history of the discoveries upon the Klondike 
and tributaries; the best obtainable information as to the 
actual amount so far mined and brought out of the counti'y; 
and the prospective output of Klondike Mining District; 
the various routes of travel, with their advantages and dis- 
advantages; the necessary outfits, their constituents and 
their cost; and the best places for purchasing the same. 
On the general subject of the history of gold discoveries 
upon the Yukon the editor owes a special obligation to 



INTRODUCTION. 5 

iMincr W. Hnicc, whose woik upon Ahi^kji has been i.:^c\y 
drawn upon for inroniintion upon tliis subject. 

The information as to the I'oute of travel down the 
Yukon from Dyea via the ChiLkoot and White Passes is 
largely from personal information obtained from men who 
liave traveled over this i-outc dozens of times in the last 
twelve years. I'se is also made ol' the exhaustive report 
made by George M. Dawson, I). S., F. G. S., to the Domin- 
ion Government, on his surveys and explorations of this 
I'oute from the mouth oC Pelly Hiver to the Chilkoot and 
White Passes, and from later rei)orts by William Ogilvie, 
Dominion Land Surveyor, who lias been in ebarsje of the 
International JUmndary Survey for many j'oars past. In 
many eases where the estimates of distances l^ -twecn points 
on the river h.ive varied. Dawson's estimates have been ac- 
cepted as the final authority. 







^^' 



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1 " •'■ ^-I'^^^tff^'' 

















HISTORY OF THE YUKON GOI,D FIKI,DS. 



CHAPTER I. 



HISTORY OF THE YUKON GOLD FIELDS. 






O 

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The information contained in the following pages as to 
the earlier gold discoveries on the Yukon is largely com- 
piled from the Report of an Exploration in the Yukon Dis- 
trict of N. W. T. and the Adjacent Northern Portion of 
British Columbia, made to the Director of the Geological 
and Natural History Survey of Canada, by George M. Daw- 
son, D. S., F. G. S. 

No refer'^nce is made to the discovery of gold in any por- 
tion of the Yukon waters earlier than that given by Mr. F. 
Whymper, who in his ''Travels in Alaska and on the Yu- 
kon," published in London in 1869, says: "It is worthy of 
mention that minute specks of gold have been found by 
some of the Hudson Bay Company's men in the Yukon, but 
not in quantities to warrant a rush to the locality." 

The first white man who crossed from the coast to 
the headwaters of the Lewes (the Upper Yukon, which 
heads in Lake Lindeman), according to the best obtainable 
information was one George Holt, aftenvards murdered by 
the Indians at Cook's Inlet in 1885. The date of Holt's 
journey was in 1878. He was acompanied by one or more 
Indians and crossed by the Chilkoot or the White Pass to 
the head of the Lewes. He followed the river down to the 
head of Lake Marsh and walked over the Indian trail thence 



HM 



8 



GUIDE TO THE KLONDIKE. 



to the Tcs-liii-to or Ilootalinqiia River. On his return he 
reported tlie discovery of "coarse gold," but none of the 
miners who afterwards prospected the region mentioned 
have been able to confirm his report in this particular. The 
date and route above given are the result of inquiry among 
miners who knew him, followed his route through the coun- 
try named, and came in contact with tlie Indians whom he 
had met. Jn some publications he has been credited with 
having made the journey as early as 18T2. 

8f)me years later, in 1880, a prospecting party of nine- 
tee]! men was organized at Sitka, under the leadership of 
one Kdward Bean. It afterwards received accessions, bring- 
ing the number up to twenty-five. xVmicable relations were 
established with the Chilkat and Chilkoot Indians, through 
the kind offices of Captain (now Admiral) Beardsley, U. S. 
N., and the Chilkoot Pass was crossed to Lake Lindeman. 
Boats were built on Lake Lindeman, and on the 4th of July 
the prospectors set out down the stream. The Tes-lin-too 
was reached; was ascended sonfe distance and prospected. 
Xo encouraging jirospects were met with at this time, 
thougli 11. Steel, who was one of the party, states that he 
found bars yielding at the rate of $2.50 a day in a small 
stream M'hich joins the Lewes fifteen miles above the can- 
yon. This large party was closely followed by two miners 
known as Johnny MacKenzie and "Slim Jim," who reached 
Lake Lindeman on July 3d. It is believed that other par- 
ties entered the country the same year. 

In 1881 a party of four miners, including George Lang- 
try, who was one of the original party of twenty-five, again 
crossed the Chilkoot Pass. Tliese men got as far as Big 
Salmon lliver, which they called the Tyon. They ac- 
cended the J:lig Salmon, according to their estimate, some 
two hundred miles, finding a little gold all along its course- 
and meeting with some remunerative river bars. This was 



HISTORY OF THE YUKON GOI.D FIELDS. 9 

the first discovery of paying placer properties on any por- 
tion of the Yukon or its tributaries. 

In 1882 a number of miners entered the Yukon Country 
by the Chilkoot Pass, and probably during the same season, 
but certainly not before, two prospecting parties ascended 
the Pelly to Hoole Canyon, and some of the men appear to 
have gone even further up. 

Details of tlie mining operations of 188;3 are not obtain- 






^■^::iS^>ii^-:ii^i 



wm^ 










FORTY-MILE CRKEK. 



able, although several small parties were in the country and 
some mining was done. It was this year that Lieutenant 
Schwatka crossed the Chilkoot Pass and descended the 
Yukon to the sea. In 1884 a little mining was done on the 
Pelly and on the Hootalinqua, and possibly also on the 
Lewes, In 1 885 mining was done along the Stewart Kiver, 
and in the following year the greater portion of the mining 
population was engaged on that river. Cassiar Bar, on the 
Lewes, twenty -seven miles below the Hootalinqua, was dis- 
covered in the s))ring of 1880. and actively worked during 
the same summer. 



10 



GUIDE TO THE KLONDIKE. 



ill 

I i I 



i! 



! i 



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A 



Late in the autumn of 1886 "coarse gold" was found on 
Forty-Mile Creek, still further down the main river than the 
Stewart, and the announcement of the fact drew off nearly 
the entire mining population to this place in 1887. 

The first news of the discoveries on Forty-Mile was 
brought to the coast by a man named Tom Williams. 
Williams made the trip out in the dead of winter with a 
dog-team and sled, and was accompanied by an Indian boy. 
His trip was one of the hardest which has ever been recorded 
in the history of the Yukon. The weather was intensely 
cold and stormv. Before reaching Lake Bennett all of his 
dogs had died from cold and exhaustion. While attempting 
to cross the Chilkoot Pass a storm came up, and Williams 
and his companion were compelled to hastily build a snow- 
hut on the summit, and stop there ten days, with no pro- 
visions except a little flour. When the storm passed Will- 
iams was so badly used up that he was unable to proceed, 
but his Indian comyianion carried him out on his back 
through the snowdrifts and down the mountain gorges to 
Dyea, a distance of sixteen miles. Williams died within a 
few days after reaching Dyea, from the effects of his fearful 
trip. This was but one of many like tragedies with which 
the early history of ])rospecting upon the Yukon was filled. 

The object of Williams' journey at this season of the 
year was to communicate the news of the discoveries to Jack 
McQuestion, the agent and storekeeper of the Alaska Com- 
mercial Company at the trading post of that company at the 
mouth of Forty-Mile. McQuestion was in San Francisco, 
from which place he was to return in a few weeks l)y the 
way of St. Michael's and up the river. It was known that 
when the news of the discoveries reached the coast there 
would be a rush to the mines, and unless the trading com- 
panies learned of the fact in time to supply the stores 
heavily, there was a prospect of great suffering and possibly 



HISTORY OF THE YUKON GOtD KIEI^DS. 



II 



starvation before those who ventured into the country with- 
out a full supply of provisions. 

Several hundred men did go into the Yukon on the 
strength of the word brought out by Williams, and in the 
spring active mining operations commenced, and have ever 
since been conducted on Forty-Mile. Upwards of two 
million dollars in gold has been taken out of that stream 
and its small tributaries. The influx to the Yukon caused 




JOK LA due's house, SIXTY-MILE CREEK. 



by the news of the strikes on Forty-Mile led to the prospect- 
ing _, other creeks, on many of which good results have 
been found. Miller Creek, which up to the time of the 
discoveries on the Klondike was the banner district on the 
Yukon, is a tributary of Sixty-Mile Creek, entering it about 
seventy miles from its mouth. The mouth of Sixty-Mile, 
with some fifty miles of the str^-^m and its tributaries, is in 



12 



GUIDE TO THE KLONDIKE. 



I? 






Northwest Territory, but Miller Creek lies wholly in Alaska. 
In 1892 prospecting began on Miller Creek, and many rich 
claims were located. One claim alone yielded thirty-seven 
thousand dollars of the yellow metal, and one clean-up of 
eleven hundred ounces was reported. Until the strikes on 
the Klondike were reported there were about two hundred 
men located on Miller Creek, but the number is consider- 
ably less at the present time, the later and richer discovery 
having called away all except the owners of the richer 
claims. 

Glacier Creek, another tributary of Sixty-Mile, running 
nearly parallel to Miller Creek, has also developed some 
promising claims, although the first prospecting on it was 
not done until the summer of 181)4. Another creek on 
which claims have been located and profitably worked for 
many years past is Birch Creek, Avhicli runs parallel with the 
Yukon for nearly three hundred miles before finally empty- 
ing into it. A portage of six miles across from Circle City 
on the Yukon strikes Birch Creek four hundred miles above 
its junction with the Yukon. In 1894 and 1895 Birch 
Creek and its famous tributaries attracted more attention 
than any other i)ortion of the Alaska gold fields. Three 
hundred miners wintered in there in 1895-9G, and last year 
the number largely increased. As high as thirteen dollars 
to the pan was found, and forty to fifty dollars a day to the 
man was made on some of the claims when they were fciiriy 
opened. Crooked Creek, Indey)endence, Mastodon, Nooly- 
mute and Preacher Creek, all tributaries of Birch Creek, 
have been prospected since 1893, and on each of them fairly 
profitable claims have been worked. 

On Koyukuk River and its tributaries some good dis- 
coveries were made as far back as 1892, and a few claims 
have been worked on this stream and its tributaries since 



HISTORY OF THE YUKON GOI.D FIELDS. 



13 






that date. This is as far down the Yukon as placer mining 
lias been done up to the present time. 

All the streams mentioned above, with the exception of 
a few miles of Forty-Mile and Sixty-Mile Creeks, lie wholly 
within the limits of Alaska. It was not until the year 1896 
that any discoveries of importance were made on the streams 
in the Northwest Territory. Of the streams lying wholly 
in the Northwest Territory which had been prospected up 
until tlio summer of 1896 but Indian Creek and Stewart 
Kiver have come into any prominence, and these latter have 
been so dwarfed by the greater fame which has attached to 
the Klondike that but little is heard of them at present, 
Indian Creek, wliich euipties iuto the Yukon a few miles 
above the Klondike, has beeen prospected with indifferent 
success for the past three years. Colors are found on every 
bar, and a large number of claims have been located on it 
and its tributaries. Some of these tributaries head on the 
opposite side of the divide from Eldorado and Bonanza 
Creeks on the Klondike, and within a very few miles of 
them. The very latest reports from the Yukon indicate 
that on Indian Creek some good discoveries have been made 
the present summer, and some very profitable mines Avill be 
opened within another season. 

Stewart River, the largest of all the streams in Xoi-tli- 
west Territory trilmtary to the Yukon, with the exception 
of Pelly Kiver, is now occupying a fair share of attention. 
Xo definite and reliable reports have yet come from tlie 
Stewart River, although there are many old-time Yukoners 
who look to it as the future great rival of the Klondike 
i-egion. A very large numl)er of those who are now going 
into the Yukon have for their objective point the Stcnvart 
and its tributaries. 

The latest discoveries reported are on Henderson Creek, 
which empties into the Yukon a short distance below the 



14 



GUIDE TO THE KLONDIKE. 



Stewart. On this creek two hundred claims have been 
located the present summer. Prospects are as good as were 
shown on the Klondike at the time of its discovery last 
summer, and well-informed Yukon miners look upon Hen- 
derson Creek as a place from which a large amount of wealth 
will l)c extracted next season. 

Year by year, since 1883, the mining population of the 
Yukon has slowly augmented, without at any time there 
having been any such frenzied rush as marks the first stages 
of development of most new mining regions. Trading posts 
have gradually been established, sufficiently equipped to 
supply the needs of those on the ground, and in- 
creased transportation. During the spring and sum- 
mer of 1896, and during the early spring of the pres- 
ent year, has occurred the first movement which ap- 
proached in its dimensions the nature of a rush. The busi- 
ness depression which has long prevailed left hundreds of 
men out of employment, and as the news of the discoveries 
on the Yukon gradually came to light there was a general 
feeling among those who had failed to procure profitable 
employment in the State of Washington that possibly the 
Yukon might afford them a livelihood, which they were 
having difficulty in procuring at home. A rivalry which 
broke out among the transportation companies accelerated 
this movement. In the spring of 1896 fares from Seattle to 
Dyea were reduced at one time to a point as low as five 
dollars for second-class passage. Thousands took advan- 
tage of the offer, and during the spring and summer of that 
year the Chilkoot Pass was thronged with gold-seekers on 
their way to the Y'ukon. No news of important discoveries 
came out that year, and in the spring of the present year, 
while the immigration was relatively large, it did not wit- 
ness the proportions seen in 1896. During the past two 
years and up to the time that word of the wonderful riches 



■I 



HISTORY OF THE KI.ONDIKR 



15 



of the Klondike came out, the mining population of the 
Yukon was augmented by about four thousand people, of 
whom probably one-half at least were residents of the State 
of Washington prior to their going into the gold fields. 

This chapter is but a faintly-outlined sketcli of the 
mining history of the Yukon. The various rivers and 
creeks named cover a territory twenty-eight degrees of 
longitude by eight of latitude in extent. Scattered over 
this vast territory there are a few thousand miners. Com- 
munication between them has been scanty, and often abso- 
lutely cut off for half a year at a time. Practically no mail 
facilities have existed. Often a discovery has been made by 
a prospector, who has settled down to work his claim, and 
nothing is heard of the matter until he comes down to some 
trading post a year later, to exchange his dust for another 
year's supply of provisions. From the points on the Pelly 
where prospecting has been carried on, to like points on the 
Koyukuk, the actual distance is greater than from Seattle 
to Chicago, and the Journey means thousands of miles travel 
down one swift and turbulent stream, and hundreds of miles 
of like travel up such another stream. 

More than ten thousand miles of water-wavs are tribu- 
tary to the Yukon, in the region where gold is known to 
exist, and on all streams prospected gold has been found in 
greater or less quantities. 

Under such circumstances, all the information which 
can be obtained is necessarily vague, general and somewhat 
indefinite in character, save as to the better-known and 
longest-worked districts. 

There is, however, one mining district in the Yukon, 
and that the one to which public attention is being now 
directed, about which the amplest, fullest, and most accur- 
ate information is at hand. That region is the Klondike. 



■■> 



i6 



GUIDE TO THK KI.ONDIKK. 






CHAPTER II. 



1" 



HISTORY OF THE KLONDIKE. 

The original discoverer of the great placers in the min- 
ing district known generally as the Klondike was G. W. 
Carmach, a native of Illinois. Mr. Carmach was not a ten- 
derfoot, neither were his discoveries made by accident, nor 
in a place which had heretofore been unknown. The Klon- 
dike and its tributaries had been visited by prospectors 
dozens of times before ]\[r. Carmach finally commenced his 
systematic work, which resulted in the uncovering of the 
greatest placer deposits which have ever been found on the 
American Continent. Carmach has been in the Yukon for 
more than ten years. He made that country his home, and 
had it not been for his sudden accession to wealth he might 
have remained there until the day of his death. He is mar- 
ried to an Indian woman of the Stick tribe, and has two 
children born to him. He has worked at all kinds of labor 
such as could be found in a country like the Yukon. He 
has been a hunter, an employe of the trading companies, a 
prospector, miner, fisherman, and was employed for a time 
on the International Boundary Survey. His home for 
many years past has been with the Sticks at Takish House, 
on the chain of lakes that form the source of the coastward 
arm of the Yukon. The Klondike has the name of being 
the greatest salmon stream of any of the affluents of the 
Yukon. Last summer Carmach camped near the mouth 
of the Klondike, and with a number of Indians to assist 
him caught and cured a very large number of salmon. 

After the salmon run was over, in accordance with his 
previously declared intention, he started out to make a sys- 



HISTORY OF THE KI^ONDIKE. 



17 



tematic prospecting trip up the Klondike, from which pre- 
vious prospectors had returned discouraged. In the latter 
part of July he took two Indians and a small stock of pro- 
visions and started up the Klondike. He took the first 
considerable tributary which appeared, to the right, and 
went up it a few miles to where conditions were favorable 
for prospecting. Gold was found in encouraging quantities 
on every bar. For twenty miles or more he followed the 
windings of the stream, panning on every bar, until he 
finally decided upon the spot to locate his claim. He went 
out and returned with provisions enough to set to work, and 
with his wife and two brothers-in-law (Indians) started in 
at systematic mining on August 15. The gravel was carried 
by the three men in a box from the claim to the creek, a 
distance of from thirty to one hundred feet. In eight days 
the three men, in this crude manner, washed out fourteen 
hundred dollars, and the fame of Bonanza Creek was estab- 
lished. 

Before the men got fairly to work the news had leaked 
out. In fact, Carmach made no secret of it, and endeavored 
to inform his friends as speedily as possible. By August 
19 seven claims were filed. The news of the wonderful 
discoveries passed down the river, but was at first dis- 
credited. Nevertheless, by the 1st of October, some two 
hundred men were on the ground, and Eldorado Creek, a 
branch of Bonanza, was prospected and demonstrated to be 
as rich or richer than the first discovery. Then commenced 
that wonderful rivalry as to amount of gold to be found in 
a single miner's pan of dirt, which reads, even to this day, 
when the facts have been fully authenticated, more like a 
page out of a romance than a sober recital of actual experi- 
ence. The winter had set in, the creeks were sealed, and 
the only way of getting any portion of the wealth out of the 
ground was by the primitive prospector's plan of panning. 



1 



I! 



18 



GUIDE TO THE KI^ONDIKE. 



I': 
I 111 ■' 



Through a hole in tlic ice water could be obtained in tjiian- 
tities sutTicicnt for this method of working. 

On November 23 L. 11 IJhoads, who had located claim 
No. 21, on Bonanza Creek, took out $65.30 to a single pan 
of dirt. Word of this went down to Circle City, where 
four or five hundred miners were wintering, and then 
commenced the most remarkable exodus which the Yukon 
had yet witnessed. In the depth of winter, with the ther- 
mometer hovering around in the neighborhood of GO de- 
grees below zero, nearly the entire population of Circle City 
at once started for the scene of the rich discoveries. Every 
dog team and every pack animal in the camp were pressed 
into service, and those who had neither, packed their stock 
of provisions on hand sleds and started. Tlie distance was 
300 miles up stream, but every man who started made the 
trip without any other casualty than a few frost bites for 
the especially unlucky or ill-provided individuals- 
Clarence Berry, who was one of the lucky ones to get 
early on the ground in Eldorado Creek, took out one $100 
pan and later a pan w-hich went $280. On March 5, a pan 
taken from the bottom of the shaft on Thorp & Stewart's 
claim showed $282.50, and from fourteen pans $1,565 was 
obtained. On March 20, Clarence Berry took out a $300 
pan, and on Ai)ril 13, one which went $495. Erom that 
time on panning gave way to sluicing, as the thaws had set 
in and water became plentiful. 

In the meantime other tril)utaries of the Klondike had 
been prospected and showed nearly as well as Bonanza and 
Eldorado Creeks. On Tilly Creek 175 claims were staked; 
Bear Creek was pxeity well located, as well as Gold Bottom 
and Hunker Creeks. There is a creek still higher up, 
called by the Indians Too Much Gold Creek, of the richness 
of which the most fabulous stories are told, but about which 



HISTORY OF THK KI.ONDIKE. 



19 



nothino: authentic was really known at the time the last 
news came out of the Klondike country. 

The extraordinary and unprecedented richness of tho 
claims, as demonstrated hy the prospecting and panning, 
was such that the fortunate locators of claims could not 
wait for the sj)ring thaws to commence oj)eratioi s. The 
ground was covered by a coating of moss a foot in thickness 
and under this gravel was frozen solid to bed rock. Bed 
rock was from nine to twenty-four feet down, and the rich 
pay streak was from one to three feet thick just above the 
bed rock. The moss was stripi)ed off the surface and fires 
built to thaw the ground. As fast as thawed, it was shov- 
eled out on the dump and in this manner a shaft was sunk 
to bed rock. From the foot of the shaft, by the same use 
of fires to thaw the frozen gravel, drifts were driven along 
tho bed rock, and the gravel in the pay streak taken to tho 
surface and placed on the dump. Every energy was bent 
to have as much gravel in sight as possible, so that when 
tho water came in the spring, sluicing could commonco 
at once, J'ld the entire force could commence shoveling 
the gravel into the sluice boxes. 

The demand for labor ran high. Every claim owner 
wished to employ as many men as possible, in order to clean 
up as large a portion of his claim as could be done the first 
season. Wages soon reached the figure of fifteen dollars 
per day, and remained at that, at last accounts. At 
these figures some three hundred or four hundred men 
were employed besides the mine owners. In addition 
to mining, sluice boxes were being built, dams put 
in the creek, and ditches dug to carry the water into 
the sluice boxes. Many claims were w<trked on shares, by 
those who did not have the means to employ and pay 
miners at the ruling rate of wages. In most instances, 
however, where men were employed; a few pans taken from 



20 



O.UIDE TO THE KLONDIKE. 



' H 



M 



the dump and panned out at the end of the week, produced 
sufficient to pay the labor bills, and buy the claim owner 
the necessary provisions, as well as to allow him a little 
over with which to take in the attractions of metropolitan 
life, for a city had sprung into being. 

Joseph La Due, one of the pioneer traders of the 
Yukon, who had been in that country since 1882, 
was one of those early on the ground. He had been 
engaged in mining, in trading, in operating a saw- 











STEAMER LANDING FIRST SUPPLIKS AT DAWSON CITY, JUNK. 1897. 

mill, and for a time even had engaged in the appar- 
ently hopeless pursuit of farming. He had attempted to 
raise vegetables in the neighborhood of Fort Selkirk, but 
early frosts blighted his crop and his farming aspirations 
at one and the same time. When the news of the rich 
discoveries broke out he was engaged in running a sawmill 
at Sixty-Mile, a trading post some fifty miles up the river 
from the mouth of the Klondike. Mr. La Due promptly 
moved the sawmill down to the mouth of the Klondike. 
Here he selected a level piece of ground, with a good land- 



HISTORY OK THlv KUONDIKI-:. 



21 



reduced 

1 owner 

a little 

Dpolitan 

of the 
; 1882, 
id been 
a saw- 



897. 

appar- 
pted to 
rk, but 
irations 
lie rich 
sawmill 
le river 
'omptly 
ondike. 
d land- 






ing on the river and established a town, whicli hv named 
Dawsoii City, after the gentleman who had charge of the 
first suiTeying party for the Canadian Government, wliich 
went in to establish th-e international boundary in 1887. 
From tlie time the sawmill was established it had all it 
r-"uld do to supply the demand for Inmber for sluice boxes 
and houses at one liundred dollars ])er thousand feet and 
upwards. Men stood in line to file their orders, and waited 
for days to have them tilled. While the nearest mines are 
three miles away and the richest claims fully twelve miles 
off, Dawson City has been the mining cam]) of tlie counti-y 
ever since it started. Before spring opened it had a popu- 
lation of })robably twelve hundred, housed in tents, in log 
cabins, in rough board houses and in shacks compounded 
in part of all of these. 

Five saloons were running in full blast before the 
spring opened, and each one was taking in from three hun- 
dred to two thousand dolhirs a day, with whisky at fifty 
cents a drink and beer the same. Every conceiv- 
able kind of gambling game was in operation; and dance 
houses wore in full blast, for daring and hardv women of 
the most dissolute character had made their way into the 
camp as early as any one except the original prospectors. 
The town was rogularlv staked off into blocks and lots, on 
the American ]ilan, avenues running one way and streets 
intersecting them at right angles. Town lots were sold at 
city prices. 

While the enormous wealth of the camp was known in 
part from the result of the panning, it was not until the 
spring opened and the sluice boxes commenced to separate 
the gold from the sand and earth with which it was mixed 
on the dump piles, that it became clearly recognizable. 
When earth was handled through the sluice boxes by the 
ton, instead of by the dozen pounds in the pan, then the 



fmm 

e 



22 



GUIDE xO THE KI,ONDIKE 



i^iH 



gold commenced to appear in quantities which fairly daz- 
zled those who thought they had realized the richness of 
the claims. Where it had been seen in omces, it came to 
sight in pounds, even in hundredweights. Where small 
buckskin sacks had sufficed to carry the wealth of the 
ordinary claim owner, coal oil cans came in use. Around 
the cabins of the lucky owners of claims, gold stacked up in 
quantities of which they had never dreamed of poscossing. 
Three or four weeks of sluicing gave from single claims as 
high as ten thousand ounces of gold, while few claims ran 
lower than twenty thousand dollars; the smallness of the 
amount not being due to any inferior richness in the claims 
themselves, but to the smaller size of the dump, represent- 
ing the gravel which had been taken out during the winter. 
W^ith this first clean up, the first epoch in the history of the 
Klondike closed. 

From the report of William Ogilvie, who has been in 
on the Yukon, in charge of the boundary surveys, made to 
the Dominion Government, the following extracts are given 
as being official in character, and, moreover, as giving the 
best idea obtainable as to the extent and character of the 
placer discoveries in the Klondike districts and the dis- 
tricts immediately adjacent thereto: 

The extent of the gold-bearing section here is such as to 
warrant the assertion *hat we have here a district which will 
give one thousand claims of five hundred feet in length each. 
New, one thousand such claims will require at least three thou- 
sand men to work them properly, and as wages for working 
in the mines are from eight to ten dollars per day, without 
board, we have every reason to assume that this part of our 
territory will within a year or two contain ten thousand souls 
at least, for the news has gone out to the coast and an unprece- 
dcntr" influx is expected next spring. 

And this is not all, for a large creek called Indian Creek 
joins the Yukon about midway between Klondike and Stewart 
River, and all along this creek good pay has been found. All 
that has stood in the way of working it heretofore has been 
the scarcity of provisions and the difficulty of getting them up 



:| 



HISTORY OF THE KI,ONDIKE. 



23 



tliere even when here. Indian Creek is quite a large stream, 
and it probably will yield five or six hundred claims. Further 
south yet lies the head of the several branches of Stewart River, 
on which some prospecting has been done this summer and 
good indications found, but the want of provisions prevented 
development. 

Since my last the prospects on Bonanza Creek and tribu- 
taries are increasing in richness and extent, until now it is 
certain that millions will be taken out of the district in the 
next few years. On some of the claims prospected the pay dirt 
is of great extent and very rich. One man told me yesterday 
that he washed out a single pan of dirt on one of the claims on 
Bonanza Creek and found fourteen dollars and twenty-five cents 
in it. Of course, that may be an exceptionally rich pan, but 
five to seven dollars per pan is the average on that claim, it is 
reported — with five feet pay dirt and the width yet undeter- 
mined, but it is known to be thirty feet. Even at that figure 
the result, at nine to ten pans to the cubic foot and five hundred 
feet long, is four million dollars at five dollars per pan. A 
fourth of this would be enormous. Enough prospecting has 
been done to show that there are at least fifteen miles of this 
extraordinary richness, and the indications are that it will have 
three or four times that extent; if not all equal to the above, 
at least very rich. 

There are several cases of hardship now for the want of a 
proper court. Miners' meetings have lost their power, though 
one was held in Forty-Mile a day ago to settle the disputed 
ownership of a placer claim, a thing perfectly within the power 
of the agent here, and why it was held I cannot yet say. If 
some sort of court to satisfy the necessities of the people in 
business here is not at once established serious inconvenience 
will result. The officer appointed will require to be a hale, 
vigorous person, for it is probable that he will have to make 
journeys of considerable length across unoccupied country in 
the discharge of his duty. I have in previous reports intimated 
that some sort of legal machinery is absolutely necessary for 
the trial of cases of contract, collection of debts and generally 
the judicial interests of the country. 

A quartz lode showing free gold in paying quantities has 
been located on one of the creeks, but I cannot yet send par- 
ticulars. I am confident from the nature of the gold found in 
the creeks that many more of them, and rich, too, will be found. 
I have just heard from a reliable source that the quartz men- 
tioned is rich, as it tested over one hundred dollars to the ton. 
The lode appears to run from three to eight feet in thickness 
and is about nineteen miles from the Yukon River. I will 
likely be called on *o survey it and will be able to report fully. 

John Dalton informed me he has found good prospects on 
a small creek nearly midway between the Coast Range and 
Selkirk on his route. His man showed me some coarse gold. 



It 



24 



GUIDE TO THE KL,ONDIKH. 



about a dollar's worth, he found on the head of a branch of the 
Alsek River, near the head of Chllkat Inlet, which is, of course, 
Inside the summit of the Coast Range and, of course, in our 
territory. From this you will gather that we have a very large 
area, all more or less gold-bearing, and will all yet be worked. 

Good quartz has been found in places just across the line 
on Davis Creek (see my map of the one hundred and forty-first 
sent you), but of what extent is unknown, as it is in the bed of 
the creek and covered with gravel. Good quartz is also reported 
on the hills around Bonanza Creek, but of this I will be able to 
speak more fully after my proposed survey. It is pretty certain 
from information I have got from prospectors that all or nearly 
all of the northerly branch of White River is on our side of the 
line, and copper is found on it, but more abundantly on the 
southerly branch, of v/hich a great deal of it is in our territory 
also, so it is probable we have that metal also. 

I have seen here several lumps of native copper brought by 
the natives from White River, but just from what part is uncer- 
tain. I have also seen a specimen of silver ore said to have 
been picked up in a creek flowing into Bennett Lake, about 
fourteen miles down it on the east side. 

Placer prospects continue more and more encouraging and 
extraordinary; it is beyond doubt that three pans of different 
claims on El Dorado turned out two hundred and four dollars, 
two hundred and twelve dollars and two hundred and sixteen 
dollars, but it must be borne in mind that there were only three 
such pans, though there are many running from ten to fifty 
dollars. I think this is enough to show that we may look 
forward with confidence to a fairly bright future for this part 
of our territory. 



WHAT THE KI^ONDIKE HAS PRODUCKD, 



25 



CHAPTER III. 



WHAT THE KLONDIKE HAS PRODUCED. 

While all this excitement was prevailing on the Yukon, 
it took a long time for the news to reach the outside world. 
The rivers were closed by ice, and the dreary semi-Arctic 
winter, with its extreme low temperature, had set in. Prac- 
tically the country was sealed in from the outside world. 
But there are men in on the Yukon whom no hardships, 
no severity of weather can deter. In the middle of the 
winter, a party of five left Dawson City with dog sleds, 
bound for Dyea. During their whole trip the thermom- 
eter ranged in the neighborhood of fifty degrees below 
zero, but they made the trip from Dawson to Juneau in 
forty days. The object of their trip was to arrange for 
heavier shipments of provisions into the country, in antici- 
pation of the rush which would come when the news went 
out to the world; and particularly to get in such provisions 
for themselves and their partners before the snow went 
out of Chilcoot Pass and while sledding was practicable. 
They were followed by other small parties at intervals from 
that time on until spring. Each one of these parties 
brought out glowing accounts of the richness of these great 
strikes. From Juneau the news reached Seattle by 
steamer, and was sent out over the coimtry by wire. The 
story of the rich pans of dirt washed out by Clarence Berry 
was published as early as April 5, and like stories fol- 
lowed it. 

For some peculiar reason, these stories seemed to excite 
but a passing interest, except among those who took an 
active interest in mining. The spring movement to the 



26 



GUIDB TO THE KI^ONDIKE. 



Yukon was not quite as large as it was the previous year, 
and before any such glowing accounts of the richness of 
the country had been received. It was not until the arrival 
of the steamer Excelsior in San Francisco, on Wednesday, 
July 14, that a true realizing sense o^ what the discoveries 
really amounted to was experienced. That steamer 
brought down with her more than a ton of gold, the prop- 
erty of a dozen or more men, and the result of a few weeks' 
sluicing in the spring. Each of these men had behind 
him a claim of which the amount with him represented a 



^\$S>,.~j 



sr^.-= 



■%:. •■""■•■•I ■ '■ - v' ^^^^^^•^:X^X • m '^, ^•'' '''J'''- ^Xf' li 



'^**'^\\*-^fc 



^^^^^.v:,^;^;^--^^<-^~- 



^:V^^i^(Uvi|h^' 




CROSSING THE LAKES ON THE ICE. 



very small fraction of the wealth. The arrival of the 
steamer Portland at Seattle on the morning of July 17 
fanned the excitement into a flame. On the Portland 
there were sixty-eight passengers who had with them con- 
siderably more than a million dollars' worth of gold, their 
share of the few weeks' clean-up. Much of the money 
which had been taken out by them had been reinvested in 
other claims, and with the exception of a few who had sold 
their claims^ the amount in the possession of each miner 



iS^SI 



lous year, 
chness of 
he arrival 
ednesday, 
iscoveries 
steamer 
the prop- 
ew weeks' 
d behind 
esented a 




I of the 
July 17 
Portland 
em con- 
Id, their 
! money 
ested in 
bad sold 
li miner 



WHAT THE KI^ONDIKE HAS PRODUCED. 37 

Avas a relatively small portion of the wealth which he 
actually had. The amount brought out on these two 
steamers was distributed among the passengers as follows: 

Thomas Cook 3 io,ooo 

M. S. Norcross 10 000 

J. Ernmerger lo'ooo 

Con Stamatin g 250 

Albert Fox 5^100 

Greg Stewart 5 OOO 

Thomas Flack 5 Ooo 

Louis B. Rhoads 5 yoo 

T. S. Llppy 65000 

Henry Dore , 50,000 

Victor Lord 15 Oqo 

William Stanley 112 000 

Clarence Berry ISsiooO 

Albert Galbraith 15,000 

James McMahon 15 000 

J. O. Hestwood 5 000 

F. G. H. Bowker 9o|ooo 

Joe Ladue 10 qoo 

J. B. Hollingshead 25 000 

Jack Home g 000 

Douglas McArthur 15,000 

Bernard Anderson 14 000 

Robert Krook 14 000 

Fred Lendesser 13 oqo 

J- J- Kelly ■ ' '_■ lo'ooo 

Others who came down scattered to various parts of the 
country before any figures could be obtained from them. 
Every man who came off the Portland had with him gold. 
Some carried it in grip sacks, under the weight of which 
they staggered, some had it rolled in tbcir blankets. Hardly 
one had less than a full load, while in five or six instances it 
required the assistance of two or three men to take the gold 
ashore over the gang plank. In two rough sacks Clarence 



2S 



GUIDE TO THE KLONDIKE. 



Borry carried $85,000 in gold, this being the amount for 
which the nuggets and dust were actually sold. 

The sight of the gold itself and the stories told by the 
returning miners were sufficient in themselves to create a 
mining furore in Seattle; but in addition to this the Port- 
land brought down hundreds of letters. Many of these 
were from well known and thoroughly reliable citizens of 
Seattle, men whose acquaintanceship extended over the 
whole town. These letters to wives, to mothers and fathers, 
and to intimate friends, all without exception told the same 
story, of the finding of gold in almost incredible quantities, 
of thousands of dollars being washed out in one day. A 
few of the more significant letters are given herewith. 

Captain Francis Tuttle, commander of the revenue cut- 
ter Bear, under date of July 1, wrote io a friend in Seattle 
a letter of which the following are extracts: 

The days of '49 in California are mere sideshows in com- 
parison with the excitement in the Yulcon country. As I write 
St. Michaels is full of miners waiting the first opportunity to 
get down to Puget Sound and to California. Nearly every man 
of them has fifty thousand dollars worth of dust, and there is 
not a man here with less than fifteen thousand dollars. The 
latter are referred to as "poor fellows." 

Captain Tuttle says he cannot alford to lay long in St. 
Michaels or his whole crew will become daft, and he con- 
tinues: 

I feel almost as if I would like to go up the river myself, 
and I would certainly do so were I twenty years younger. 

B. R. Shaw, a young man well known in Seattle, in a 
letter to 0. A. Schade, also of Seattle, from Dawson City, 
under date June 15, gives some particulars as follows: 

There is no night here now. It is light as midday for the 
twenty-four hours, and neither too warm nor too cold; not too 
many flies to bother as yet. This is a great mining strike, 
probably the greatest on the American Continent, or in the 






WHAT THE KLONDIKE HAS PRODUCED. 



29 



lount for 

Id by the 
I create a 
the Port- 
of these 
itizens of 
over the 
i fathers, 
the same 
uantities, 
day. A 
ith. 

eniie cut- 
n Seattle 



3 in com- 
L^ I write 
[•tunity to 
very man 
i there is 
irs. The 



Qg in St. 
i he con- 



ir myself, 
ger. 

fctle, in a 
5on City, 
3ws: 

ly for the 
; not too 
ig strike, 
)r in the 



i 



world. I know you will not believe me if I tell you all about it. 
It is not so extensive as I wish it was, or at least gold has not 
been found in great paying quantities except on two creeks, 
about two hundred claims, but some of them are very rich; 
in fact, some of the pay streaks are nearly all gold. One thou- 
sand dollars to the pan is not an uncommon thing, and as high 
as one hundred ounces have been taken out at a single pan. 
It is no uncommon thing to see men coming in with all the 
gold dust they can carry. 

You would not believe me when I tell you that I went into 
one cabin and counted five flve-gallon oil cans full of gold 
dust, but it is a fact. It is the result of the work of two men 
during the winter, and the dump is not much more than half 
worked out. 

There has been about two million dollars in dust taken out 
so far in the district. At a low estimate there will be fifty 
million dollars taken out during the next year. 

Of course I am in too late to get in on any of the rich 
ground, but hope to get hold of some that I can make wages at, 
or better. 1 am working for the Alaska Commertial Company, 
helping to put up a big store building. Went to work as soon 
as 1 got settled at ten dollars a day for ten hours. Carpenters 
get fifteen dollars a day, and so do all of the men who work in 
the mines. I think I sliall work for a wliile. 

John F. Miller, formerly prosocuting attorney of King 
Coiuity, in which Seattle is situated, and a nepliew of the 
late Senator John F. Miller, of California, in a letter to 
his wife, dated Dawson City, June 14, says: 

I have now written quite at length regarding the trip and 
its features, and, by the way, I may say that no one has any 
right or ought to undertake it unless he is ready and willing 
to put up with anything or everything, at all times, and undergo 
any and all kinds of hardship, privation and exposure. Now, 
as to the country. Well, as far as the wealth is concerned, the 
half has not been told. But, like everything else, the few have 
it and the many are looking, looking and hunting — the same old 
story. Many claims have yielded sixty thousand, eighty thou- 
sand and one hundred thousand dollars from last winter's work. 
One man has three flve-gallon oil cans filled, and is not fully 
washed out yet. But, remember, he is one out of perhaps five 
thousand. The many have nothing, though great wealth doubt- 
less exists. A town has sprung up here at the mouth of the 
Klondike that has killed Circle City, Forty-Mile, Fort Cudahy 
and all of the other towns dead. 

Captain Higgins, of the Excelsior, tells of some of the 



30 



GUIDB TO THE KLONDIKE. 



stories he hoard from tlie returning miners, during the 

fifteen days of ])assage down, as follows: 

On the 29th came our steamer, the Alice, with thirty minera 
and more gold, and we discharged freight immediately and got 
away on the morning of July 1st. The weather had been very 
warm. Think of seventy-five and eighty degrees in the shade, 
close under the Arctic Circle. The first installment of return 
we received was fifteen strong boxes of gold— over a ton in 
weight. This was the company's share. Every miner brought 
his own. 

After the company's lot had been stowed away the passen- 
gers came, and they staggered up the gangplank loaded down. 
Some had their whack rolled up in a blanket and carried it in 
front, bent nearly double with their load. Some had it in a 
strong valise. Several had two valises suspended one on each 
side with a strap over their shoulders. Some had to make two 
trips and two of the party made three trips between the steamer 
to transfer their treasure. 

A few of these men had been in Alaska five years and more, 
some three years. Several, and among these the most fortunate, 
crossed the range last winter into the Klondike mines, which is 
undoubtedly the richest placer ever known. The word Klon- 
dike means Deer River, and is called Reindeer River on the 
charts. It empties into the Yukon fifty miles above the Big 
River. The geographical position of the junction is seventy-six 
degrees ten minutes north latitude, one hundred and thirty- 
eight degrees fifty minutes west longitude. Bonanza Creek 
dumps into Klondike two miles above the Yukon. El Dorado 
is a tributary of the Bonanza. There are numerous other creeka 
and tributaries, the main river being three hundred miles long. 
The gold so far has been taken from Bonanza and El Dorado, 
both well named, for the richness of these placers is truly 
marvelous. El Dorado, thirty miles long, is staked the whole 
length, and as far as worked has paid. 

As each claim is live hundred feet along the creek bed there 
is half a million to the claim. So uniform has the output been 
that one miner who has an interest in three claims told me that 
if offered his choice he would toss up to decide. One of our 
passengers who is taking out one hundred thousand dol- 
lars with him has worked one hundred feet of his ground 
and refused two hundred thousand for the remainder, 
and confidently expects to clean up four hundred thou- 
sand dollars and more. He has in a bottle two hun- 
dred and twelve dollars from one pan of dirt. His pay 
dirt while being washed averaged two hundred and fifty dollars 
an hour to each man shoveling in. Two others of our miners 
who worked their own claims cleaned up six thousand dollars 
from one day's washing. There is about fifteen feet of dirt 
above bedrock, the pay streak averaging from four to six feet. 



WHAT THK KU)M)IKK HAS I'RODUCKD. 



31 



ing the 



r miners 
and got 
aen very 
e shade, 
i£ return 
\ ton in 
brought 

! passen- 
3d down, 
•led it in 
i it in a 
on each 
lake two 
! steamer 

,nd more, 
ortunate, 
which is 
rd Klon- 
jr on the 
) the Big 
venty-six 
d thirty- 
;a Creek 
1 Dorado 
ler creeka 
liles long. 
Dorado, 
is truly 
le whole 

)ed there 
[put been 
me that 
ie of our 
ind dol- 
ground 
lainder. 
Id thou- 
ro hun- 
[is pay 
dollars 
miners 
dollars 
of dirt 
Isix feet. 



which is tunneled out while the ground is frozen. Of course 
the ground taken out is thawed by building fires, and when the 
thaw comes and water runs they set their sluices and wash the 
dirt. Two of our fellows thought a small bird in the hand 
worth a large one in the bush and sold their claims for forty- 
five thousand dollars, getting forty-five hundred dollars down, 
the remainder to be paid in monthly installments of ten thou- 
sand dollars each. The purchasers had no more than five 
thousand dollars paid. They were twenty days thawing and 
getting out dirt. Then there was no water to sluice with, but 
one fellow made a rocker and in ten days took out ten thousand 
dollars for the first installm* nt. So, tunneling and rocking, 
they took out forty thousand dollars before there was water 
to sluice with. 

Of course these things read like the story of Aladdin, but 
fiction is not in it at all with facts at Klondike. 

Tlioso nre l)ut snrnples out of tliousaiid*, couched pre- 
cisely in the same vein, and repeating over and over again 
the same story. 

AVhat the district has produced this season cannot be 
iicciuatcly known until the linal shipments are made. Ac- 
cording to the estimates of the best informed men, fully 
live million dollars has been taken out since April 20. 
AVitliout exception, all the returning miners agree that 
there will be fidly ten times as much taken out during the 

coming season. The ground in the pay streak has proven 
of uniform richness all along the creeks. One claim is 
substantially as good as another. On the claims which 
have })een opened about live hundred men were employed 
during the last season, or during some part of it. It is 
agreed that on these claims alone five thousand men can 
be profitably worked, if they can be obtained. In the 
whole district, including all the tributaries of the Klon- 
dike, there is prospective work for ten thousand. It will 
be seen that our estimated product for next season of the 
Klondike mines of fifty million dollars is within the bounds 
of reasonable expectations, and it is not at all improbable 
that the amount may reach double these figures. The 
estimate of work for ten thousand men in the district is 
made by William Ogilvie, chief of the Intemiitional Bound- 
ary Survev, whose experience on the Yukon dates back to 
1887. 

3-S 



3« 



CUIDR TO TIIK KI,ONniKR. 



? 



CHAPTER TV. 



THE ROUTES OF TRAVEL. 

Speaking in general terms, there are two routes of travel 
to the mines. One is by steamship to the Island of St. 
Michael's, situated near the mouth of the Yukon, in Bering 
Sea; thence by river steamer up to the various mining 
camps. The other is by steamer to some point on the coast 
of Southeastern Alaska; thence across the naiTOw dividing 
mountain range to the headwaters of rivers which flow into 
the Yukon, and thence on down the rivers in small boats. 
This latter is called the overland route, but the overland 
portion of the trip is only from twenty-four to sixty miles, 
according to the route taken. As the great body of the 
travel into the Yukon has been by way of these so-called 
overland routes, they will be the first ones taken up and 
discussed. With existing routes of travel, the starting 
point for the Yukon is the city of Seattle. By steamer to 
Dyea or Skaguay, the distance from Seattle is eight hundred 
and eighty-four miles. It is an inland passage all the way, 
and, except across the mouths of a few wide bays, the ordin- 
ary steamship route of travel is as well sheltered as any 
portion of Puget Sound. With the exception of these few 
places, no more rough water can be seen tluiii on any ordin- 
ary land-locked bay on tide water. No more picturesque 
voyage is possible to be selected on any waters in the 
world. The fame of the inside passage to Alaska has 
spread until during the summer season large excursion 
boats have to be put on to accommodate the heavy tourist 
travel from Seattle north by this route. Until the com- 



THK ROUTKS Oi TRAVEI^. 



33 



of travel 

d of St. 

a Bering 

mining 

the coast 

dividing 

flow into 

ill boats. 

overland 

ty miles, 

y of the 

so-called 

np and 

starting 

amer to 

iimdred 

the way, 

le ordin- 

as any 

lese few 

y ordin- 

uresque 

in the 

ska has 

tcursion 

r tourist 

he com- 



mencement of the ])roscnt rush there was but one steamer a 
week to Alaska. The number has now increased until it 
can be safely asserted that from this time forward, so long 
as the demands of travel require it, thoi'e will be one large 
steamer leave Seattle for Dyea and Skaguay every day in 
the week, and more will be put on if necessary. The steam- 



'""It-JlMt^ 




FIRST CAMP ON CHII.KOOT TRAII-. 



ers at present on the route are those of the Pacific Coast 
Steamship Compaii}', the Queen, a palatial excursion boat 
of sixteen hundred and ninety-seven tons register; t!ie 
Willamette, of upwards of three thousand tons burthen; the 
Mexico, a large ocean-going steamship; the City of Topeka, 
of the same class, and the Alki, a smaller ocean steamship. 



34 



GUIDE TO THE KI.ONDIKE. 



The company has a large llect of other vessels to draw upon 
in case of an enieraencv. In addition to this, a large 
numher of smaller steamers, admirably fitted for the work, 
are on the route, such as the Rosalie, with accommodations 
for one hundred and fifty passengers; the Geo. E. Starr, 
with substantially tlie same accommodations. Two freight 
boats, tlie Edith and the Rapid Transit, are also on the 
route. Other vessels are fitting up to meet the demand, if 
it increases. The passenger accommodations of these 
various boats ranges from twelve hundred down to one 
hundred and fifty. The voyage only lasts four days, and 
would be a mere pleasure excursion were it not for the fact 
that there v^-ill some slight discomfort follow from the 
crowded conditions of the ^leame'S. The travel will never 
congest at Seattle. So long as it is possible to cross the 
mountains and reach the headwaters of the Yukon, the 
enterprise of Seattle can be lelied upon to furnish transpor- 
tation to the points wliere the land journey commences. 



THE CHILKOOT PASS ROUTE. 

This is the one through whieli nearly all the miners 
who have yet reached the various placers on tlie Yukon, 
including the Klondike, made their original trip into the 
country. Jt is the shortest pass from tide water to fresh 
water on the lakes which are the sources of the Yukon. 
The actual distance from the beach at Dyea Inlet to Lake 
Lindeman, as instrumentally measured by Mr. Ogilvie, the 
Dominion surveyor, who has been in charge of the inter- 
national boundary work on the Yukon for some years past, 
is twentv-threc miles and a half. It is generally called 
twenty-four miles, the distance being divided as follows: 
Dyea to foot of canyon, seven miles; canyon to Sheep 



mm 



THE ROUTES OF TRAVEI.. 



35 



nv upon 

a large 

le work, 

xlations 

I. Starr, 

freight 

on the 

nand, if 

f tliese 

to one 

lys, and 

the fact 

om the 

11 never 

'OSS the 

on, the 

anspor- 

inces. 



miners 
Yukon, 
nto the 
o fresli 
Yukon. 
;o Lake 
vie, the 
3 inter- 
rs past, 

called 
'ollows: 

Sheep 



Camp, five miles; Sheep Camp to summit, five miles; sum- 
mit to Lake Lindeman, nine miles. From Dyea, the first 
seven miles of the distance is up a M'ide, fiat-bottom valley, 
floored with gravel flats. It runs north and south between 
high mountain walls. The travel up this valL-v is as easy 
as over any ordinary country road, the only trouble being 
that the trail crosses the creek several times before the 
head of the canyon is reached. This valley is V-shaped, 
the point of the V being the entrance to the canyon. Six 
miles up from the head of the inlet, the stream is joined 
by another, which has been dignified by the name of the 
Nou]-se lliver. From that point on the valley closes in 
abruptly, until at the distance of seven miles from Dyea 
the canyon is reached. Here the ascent commences to be- 
come more abrupt. The trail goes througii the woods 
along a steep, rocky and in summer time boggy hillside, 
leading up and down the sides of several deep, narrow 
gullies. Two small detached glaciers occupy hollows in 
the slope of the mountains on the west side of this valley 
and from these a considerable portion of the water of the 
stream is derived. Five miles of travel througii this can- 
yon trail leads to Sheep Camp, the last point where tliere 
is any timber on the trail until the lake on the opposite 
side. From Sheep Camp to the summit is a distance of 
three miles, and this is the hardest part of the whole trail. 
It leads through a narrow rocky gap, and the whole scene 
is one of the most complete desolation, the granite rocks 
rising steeply to partly snowclad mountains on either side. 
The trail leads over huge masses of fallen rock, which alter- 
nate here and there with steep, slippery surfaces of rock in 
jilacc. In one portion of the trail, near the summit, for a 
distance of nearly nine hundred feet, the angle is nearly 
forty-five degrees. Then follows a short l)ench, and a 
further slope of seven hundred feet at an angle of approxi- 



36 



GUIDE To THE KLONDIKE. 



mately thirty degrees. At this a windlass or winze hus 
been established, which is used in hoisting the loaded sleds 
up the slope when there is snow on the ground. A number 
of miners at this point frequently join forces and by splic- 
ing together the rope carried by each party and leading it 
through a block made fast at the summit, haul their loads 
up the slope. Wlien packing is resorted to, this portion of 
the trail usually has to be "doubled," that is, but half the 
usual load is carried up it, and a return is made for the 
other portion. Seven to eight miles of the highest part of 
the pass is entirely destitute of timber, even of a stunted 
growth, such as might be used for firewood. The "stone 
house" often referred to in letters and by newspaper corre- 
spondents consists of several natural, though inconvenient 
shelters, beneath great masses of rock which have rolled 
down from the mountain. The actual elevation of the 
pass at the summit, taking the mean of a large number of 
barometrical observations, is three thousand five hundred 
and two feet. After the summit is passed, the slope of the 
pass is rather gradual, and the total descent to the lake 
not very great, being but thirteen hundred and thirty-four 
feet in a distance of nine miles. The trail is rough and 
crooked, crosses wide areas of shattered rock, making the 
travel, especially with a pack, extremely hard. Some of 
the valleys to the north of the summit and near it are 
deenlv filled with perennial snow, over which the trail runs 
Iv r» •' 'erence, to avoid the rocky slopes. Continuing 
li'-yw''-' the trail follows a little glacial stream through a 
narrow rocky defile. 

It can be seen from this description that the Chilkoot 
Pass, at least so far as the last few miles toward the summit 
are concerned, is impracticable as a pack trail for animals. 
The manner in which supplies have been carried over this 
pass, during the summer season, has been entirely by men 



THE ROUTEvS OF TRAVEL. 



37 



inze bus 
led sleds 

number 
by splic- 
iading it 
eir loads 
Drtion of 
half the 
I for the 
t part of 

stunted 
e "stone 
er corre- 
iivenient 
re rolled 
1 of the 
imber of 
hundred 
DC of the 
the lake 
irty-four 
ugh and 
king the 
Some of 
ir it are 
rail runs 
ntinuing 
rough a 

Dhilkoot 
summit 

animals. 

)ver this 
bv men 



1 




packers. The Chilkat Indians have been acting as packers 
ever since the first gold-seekers went in on the Yukon. 
They have charged for this work from ten to twenty cents a 
pound, the average price for several years having been 
fifteen cents per pound. A strong man can carry a pack of 
one hundred pounds over this trail, and this is about what 
the average Indian packer takes. It takes threr, days for 
the round trip to be made from Dyea to Lake Lindeman, 
two days going over with the pack and one returning, and 






''"wsw^:^^,'^. 







V.:;. I'; ■( 

:r'-^j\, 






m ,. 



%,■'■ . 



nKVIL'S BLT'Kr PORTAl.r., CIIII.KOOT TRAIL. 

it >^ ■ •.: .tfully liard work. With an estimated outfit of 
fifteen n^""lred pounds, it would take one man, working 
alone, fa ty-five days to get his outfit over the pass, if he 
coulr! indeed stand up under such work for that length of 
i ime. Owing to the riisli now going on it will be difficult 
to get Indian packers suflicient to care for more than part 
()f the freight offering. 

In the spring the conditions arc (lifTerml, and it is at 



m 



38 



GUIDE To thp: klondikk. 



r. 



that season that the experienced Yukon miner endeavors 
to get in his supplies. With the lieavy fall of snow usually 
on the Avestern slope, all the boulders, broken rock and 
rough places in the trail arc covered up. On the crusted 
snow five to eight hundred pounds can be moved more 
readily than one hundred pounds can be packed. At the 
very steej) places, ropes are used to haul the loaded sleds 
up the icy slopes, and ropes are again used to lower them 
down the steep slopes on the other side of the pass. Storms 
in the pass are frequent and severe and occasionally inter- 
rupt this work for weeks. The experienced Yukoner, by 
taking advantage of the intervals of good weather, gener- 
ally succeeds in getting bis sup]ilies over the pass and down 
part of the upper chain Ox" s before the ice commences 
to go out of the river. lie i: is his boat built in readiness 
to embark, and as soon as the ice commences to move out, 
follows it down the river, arriving at the mines about the 
first of June. This is the practice recommended to 
all who intend to go into the Klondike or other min- 
ing regions in the Yukon via the overland route. It 
necessitates exposure to storms and to severe winter 
weather, but these experiences will have to be met with in 
any event, and might as well be encountered at the start 
as at any other ]»ortion of the route. If they pi'ove too 
severe, it is not too late to withdraw from the adventure, as 
it would be, if fairly started down the Yukon in a boat. 

A description of the method of getting supplies oyer 
the trail in the early spring, while the road is in a condition 
to travel, is given by a writer in the Alaska Searchlight. 
According to returned Yukoners, this description is the 
most complete, exhaustive and gra])hie of any which has 
been attempted, so it is reproduced here: 

"Going up the Dyea river five miles on the ice, will 
bring one to the mouth of the canyon. Here in the woods 



THK ROUTEvS OF TRAVEL 



39 



mdeavors 
V usually 
t'ock and 
3 crusted 
ed more 

At the 
led sleds 
i'er them 

Storms 
]y inter- 
oner, bv 
V, geiier- 
nd down 
iimences 
•eadiness 
love out, 
bout the 
nded to 
ler min- 
ite. It 
3 winter 
with in 
:he start 
I'ove too 
iiture, as 
boat. 
lies over 
ondition 
•chlio-ht. 
1 is the 
lieli has 

ice, will 
e woods 



a comfortable camp can be easily arranged. The tent is 
pitched on top of the snow, the poles and pins being pushed 
down into it. While some are busily engaged in building 
a fire and making n bed, the best cook of the party prepares 
tlie supper. If you have no stove a camp fire must be built, 
either on an exposed point of rock or in a hole dug down in 
tlie snow; if you have a stove it can be quickly arranged 
on a "gridiron" inside the tent, the gridiron consisting of 
three poles some six or eight feet long, and laid in the snow 
on M'hich the stove is placed. The heat from the stove will 
soon melt a liole underneath, but there will be enough firm 
snow under the ends of the poles to hold it up. For the 
bed hemlock brush is cut an 1 laid on the snow to a depth 
of a foot or more, and this is covered with a large square 
of canvas on which the blankets and robes are put; when 
finished it forms a natural spring bed, which will oft'er 
grateful rest after hauling a sled all day. 

"Dyea C.'anyon is about two miles long and perhaps fifty 
feet wide. A boat cannot go through it, but in the early 
spring miners go through on the ice, bridgincj with poles 
the dangerous places or openings. x\fter the ice breaks 
up it is necessary to go over the trail on the east side of the 
canyon. This trail was built by Captain Ilealy at his own 
expense, but is little used, as most miners go through the 
canyon before the ice breaks up. The camping place be- 
yond the cauyon is a strip of woods some three miles long, 
known as Pleasant Camp. Its name is something of a 
misnomer, for there is not even a log shanty there; some 
woods to give a kind of shelter, and as everywhere else 
along the route, plenty of snow. 

"From here the ascent is gradual, and the next and last 
cam]) in timber before crossing the summit is known as 
Sheep Camp. This is at the edge of timber, and no wood 
for fire can be gotten any higher up. This camp is not 






40 



ouir;/: To thk Klondike. 



usually broken until all of the outfit has been placed on the 
summit. When the weather is favorable, everything except 
what is necessary for camp is pushed a mile and a half to 
Stone House, a clump of big rocks, and then to what is 
called the second bench. Care must be exercised in case of 
soft weather, or everything is liable to be swept from the 
bench by a snowslide or avalanche, and should this happen 
the Indians Mill prove of groat assistance in recovering part 
of the things. AVith long, slender rods tipped with steel 
they feol down in the snow and locate most of the larger 
packages, which, without theui and their feel rods, one 
would never find. At Sheep Camp the summit towers 
above you thirty-five hundred feet, but the pass is some 
five hundred feet lower. Xo further progress can be made 
until a clear day, and sometimes the weather continues bad 
for two or three weeks, the mountain top hidden in thick 
clouds, and icy winds hurling the new fallen snow in every 
direction, or driving the sleet in the face of any one bold 
enough to stir out of camp, and peep up at the precipitous 
wall of snow and ice. But sunshine comes at last, and the 
winds grow still. Xow comes the tug of war — to get the 
outfit to the summit; for six hundred feet every step must 
be cut in the ice, and so steep is it that a person with a 
pack on his back must constantly bend forward to maintain 
his equilibrium. The first load landed on the summit of 
the pass, a shovel is stuck in the snow to mark the spot, 
then back for another pack, and fortunate is he who gets 
his whole outfit up in a single day- Indians may be hired 
to do the packing, and their rates vary slightly, but the 
regular price has been five dollars a hundred-weight from 
the second bench to the summit, or fifteen cents a pound 
from Healy & "Wilson's to the lakes. These prices have 
been shaded a little the past season, and some outfits were 
packed over to the lakes at thirteen cents a pound. The 



THE ROUTES OE TRAVEL. 



41 



3d on the 
ig except 
a half to 

what is 
n case of 
from the 
3 happen 
ring part 
ith steel 
le larger 
ods, one 
t towers 

is some 
be made 
nues bad 
in thick 
in every 
one bold 
Bcipitous 
and the 
I get the 
;ep must 
1 with a 
naintain 
mmit of 
he spot, 
vho gets 
be hired 
but the 
ht from 
1 pound 
;es have 
its were 
I. The 



reasons for this cut in prices are that many miners insist on 
doing their own packing, and that their work lias been 
seriously affected by a tramway device which was operated 
last season with more or less success by one Peterson, whose 
inventive genius led him to believe that a simple arrange- 
ment of ropes and pulle3'^s would greatly help in getting 
outfits up the steeper places. A small log is buried in the 
snow, and to this "dead man" a pulley is attached, through 
which a long rope is passed to the lower end of which a 




tir,^< t- 



£~^^. 



..- ^. .„■%.. 



tT' 'r,^ ' 



])00 TKAM PASSING STONK HOUSF, CHII.KOOT TKAII.. 

Yukon sleigh is attached, and the empty box on the sled 
fastened to the upper end of the rope is then filled with 
snow until its weight becomes sufficient to take it down the 
incline, thus dragging the other one up. The snow was 
found too light, but with three or four men as ballast in 
place of snow it worked well, and saved a good deal of hard 
packing. When the last load has reached the summit and 
the minor stands beside his outfit looking down toward the 
ocean, only twenty miles away, he can feel that his Journey 




42 



GUIDE TO THE KLONDIKE. 



has fairly Ix'giin, and as lie turns lie sees the descending 
slope melting away into the great valley of the Yukon. 

"The descent for the lirst half mile is steep, then a 
gradual slope to Lake I.indeman, some ten miles away. 
But there is little time for resting and none for dreaming, 
as the edge of the timber, where the camp must be made, 
is seven miles from the summit. Taking the camping outfit 
and sullieient provisions for four or five days, the sleigh is 
loaded, the rest of the outiit is packed up, or buried in the 
snow, sliovels being stuck up to mark the spot. This pre- 
caution is necessary, for storms come suddenly and rage 
with fury along these mountain crests. The first half mile 
or more is made in quick time, then over six or seven feet 
of snow the prospector drags his sleigh to where there is 
wood for his camp lire. At times this is no easy task, 
especially if the weather be stormy, for the winds blow the 
new faiicii snow about so as to com})ietely cover the track 
made by the man but little ahead: at other times during 
fine weather and with a hard crust on the snow, it is only a 
pleasant run from the pass down to the first camp in the 
Yukon luisin,. In all except the most sheltered situations 
the tent is necessary for comfort, and the stove gives better 
satisfaction than the camp fire, as it burns but little wood, 
is easier to cook over, and does not ])oison the eyes with 
smoke. It is a noticeable fact that there are fewer cases 
of snow blindness among those who use stoves than among 
those who crowd around a smoking camp fire for cooking 
or for warmth. Comfort in making a trip of this kind will 
depend, in a great measure, upon the conveniences for 
camping, suitable clothing, and light, warm bedding."' 

At Lake IJndenian it is usual .o embark in boats. The 
earlier miners at this point, or at Lake Bennett, where the 
timber is much better, whipsawed the lumber for making 
their boats. At present tbere is a small sawmill estab- 



TlIK ROUTES or TRAVKL. 



ceiiding 
on. 

then a 
; away, 
earning, 
le made, 
ig outfit 
sleigh is 
d in the 
'his pre- 
nd rage 
lalf mile 
\ en feet 
there is 
isv task, 
blow the 
he track 
s during 
is only a 
p in the 
ituations 
es better 
le wood, 
yes with 
rer cases 
[1 among 
cooking 
:ind will 
iiecs for 

s! The 

here the 

making 

1 estab- 




lished, which, however, had dilliciilty in su]tplying the de- 
mand for lumber last season. (Jtlicr mills are, however, to 
be put in at once. 

The present practice, and one which is growing in 
favor, is to have boats built at Seattle, of the best selected 
cedar, "knocked down," shipped north by tlie steamer and 
taken over the pass, to be put together at Lake Lindeman, 
This not only elfects a great saving in time, but the boats 
so built are far superior to anything which even a good 
mechanic could construct out of the snuiU spruce timber 
found on the lakes. Any man familiar with the use of 
carpenter's tools can put such a boat together, while he 
might, unless familiar with boat-building, have some con- 
siderable difliculty in constructing a craft suitable to run in 
swift and rough water, capable of carrying a full outfit of 
supplies for three or four men, and yet light enough to be 
carried around a portage. The style of boats generally 
used are on the Canadian bateau order, iwrrow, flat bottom, 
double-endors, heavy sheer at each end, and a wide Hare 
from the bottom to the top. But everything from a raft 
or a scow, up to a highly finished Rob Hoy canoe, has been 
used on the river. 

A large number of the miners have preferred, however, 
to continue packing until Lake Bennett is reached, and at 
this point to build boats, or, as in many instances, rafts, 
in wliich to continue their journey. The total length of 
the route from Lake Lindeman to the site of old Fort Sel- 
kirk, at the mouth of the Pelly, is three hundred and fifty- 
seven miles. It is in this portion of the route that all the 
difficulties in navigation occur. From the Pelly down the 
Yukon is a broad stream, unvexed by rapids, although flow- 
ing with a swift current. The scenery around Lake Ijinde- 
man is wild and fine, although solitary and alpine in the 
extreme. 

Lake Bennett occupies a continuation of the same valley 




44 



GUIDE TO THE KI,ONDIKE. 



in which Lake Lindeman lies, but is separated from that 
lake by a small, rapid stream, three-quarters of a mile in 
length. This stream falls about twenty feet between the 
two lakes and is rough and rocky. The portage is on the 
east side. Over this the greater portion of the goods are 
carried, while, after the boat has been considerably light- 
ened, it is let down through the rapids, with lines attached 
to it. 

Lake Bennett is twenty-five and eight-tenth miles in 
length, and from here to the lower end of Marsh Lake there 
is still-water navigation, the rivers connecting the chain 
of lakes being slack, with practically no current. These 
lakes constitute a singularly picturesque region, abounding 
in striking points of view and landscapes pleasing in their 
variety, or grand and impressive in their combination of 
iiigged mountain forms. Connecting Lake Bennett with 
Tagish Lake is a narrow arm called by the miners Cariboo 
Crossing, but on tlije Canadian maps it is set down as Lake 
Wares. This is two and seven-tenth miles in length. 
Lake Tagish is sixteen and six-tenth miles in length. Here 
the voyagers are often detained by high winds and rough 
water caused thereby. "Windy Arm" of the Tagish is 
well named, for it is through this arm that the high winds 
come, particularly in the spring of the year. Another por- 
tion of Lake Tagish is the Tako Arm, to which further 
reference will be made when the White's Pass route is being 
described. 

From Tagish Lake a wide, tranquil reach of river con- 
nects it with Lake Marsh. The current is very t-lack and 
the depth is from six to twelve feet at mean water. The 
river is bordered by low terraces, which are particularly 
wide on the west side and are covered with open woods, 
chiefly consisting of white spruce and cottonwood. A mile 
above Lake Marsh, on the east bank of the river, is a small 



45 



THIi ROl'THS OF TRAVEL. 



from that 
a mile in 
itween the 
! is on the 
goods are 
ibly light- 
s attached 

I miles in 
jake there 
the chain 
t. These 
ibounding 
g in their 
nation of 
nett with 
s Cariboo 
1 as Lake 
1 length, 
th. Here 
tid rough 
ragish is 
gh winds 
ther por- 
further 
is being 

Lver con- 
lack and 
r. The 
ticularly 
woods, 
A mile 
a small 



village Oi the Tagish Indians, consisting in the main of two 
roughly-built houses, in which the Indians reside during 
the winter. 

Lake Marsh (so named by Schwatka) called !Mud Lake 
by the miners, is twenty miles in length, with an average 
width of two miles. The valley is quite wide, and the 
country surrounding the lake quite low, consisting of ter- 
race flats or low rounded or wooded hills and ridges. The 
diversified forms of mountains in view from this lake ren- 
der it particularly picturesque. The shores of the lake are 
generally rather shoal. There is no warrant in any pe- 
culiarities of the lake itself, for the name Mud Lake, applied 
to it by the miners. 

Between Marsh Lake and Lake Lebarge lies the most 
dangerous portion of the whole trip. The first portion of 
the river l)etween these points is, however, perfectly safe 
and easy. For the first six miles the current is quite slack, 
but from that time on a considerable current sets in. The 
immediate river-trough narrows in, being closely bordered 
in by terraces a hundred or more feet in height. At a 
distance of twenty-three miles from Lake Marsh, Miles 
Canyon and "White Horse Kapids are encountered. 

Miles Canyon and White Horse Eapids form together 
the most formidable obstacle which will be met with on 
the whole voyage down the river. The interruption to 
navigation here is two and three-quarter miles in total 
length. At Miles Canyon the river flows with great veloc- 
ity, but is unimpeded in its course, and is not risky to run 
with a good boat. A portage of five-eights of a mile is 
sometimes made, however, and as a usual thing the boat is 
lightened at this point and some portions of the oiu'il 
carried around. The canyon is cut through a horizontal, 
or nearly horizontal flow of basalt, and is not more than 
one hundred feet in widtli. To make the portage, a very 




M 



THK ROUTKS OK TRAVKI.. 



47 







. -5? 








2=1 :^ 



v.v 



stoGf^ Hsci'iil lias to be overcoiiR'. Warning notices in tho 
8lia[)o of ilags tied to sticks on the bank have been placed 
by the miners to warn strangers as to the difTiculties ahead 
of them. This, in fact, has been done at every dangerous 
place on the river. When such a warning is noticed, it is 
advisa])le to land and reconnoiter the route ahead for some 
distance. Three-quarters of a mile below tho canyon the 
river is very swift and the set of the stream is strong around 
a rocky point. There is no diiTiculty here, however, to any 
person accustomed to tlie use of a boat. A mile and three- 
quarters from the foot of Miles Canyon comes the dreaded 
White Horse Rapids. This rapid is three-eighths of a mile 
long. The worst rapid is at the lower end of the White 
Horse, where the river scarcely exceeds a hundred feet in 
width, with low basaltic banks, and the force of the water 
is very great. In the upper part of White Horse, the water 
flows between low basalt clilfs, about twenty feet in height, 
and the mid channel is well strewn with rocks. The White 
Horse Kapid has been run by miners and with safety. On 
the other hand, it has been the scene of more mishaps than 
any portion of the river. Several prospectors and miners 
have lost their entire outfits in attempting this run and 
there have been a few lives also lost at this point. It should 
not be attempted, at least save by those who have had long 
experience in handling boats in swift water. The portage 
is on the west bank, and caution would prompt that both 
the boat and the cargo be carried around it. The practice 
is, however, to portage the cargo and lower the boat 
through by lines, managed from the top of the low cliffs. 

Thirteen miles below the foot of White Horse Rapid 
the mouth of the Takena is reached. This is a consider- 
able stream, which is wide and slack at its confluence with 
the Yukon. From here on down to Lake Lebarge, a dis- 
tance of eleven miles, the current of the river is quite slack. 

4-S 



48 



GUIDE TO THK KIvONDIKlt. 



;$v 



Lake Lebarge is a little over thirty-one miles in length. 
It lies nearly north and south, but is somewhat irregular in 
outline. It is about two and one-half miles in width at 
the lower end, narrows in somewhat in the middle, and 
finally increases to a width of five miles near Richtofen 
Island. Its elevation above sea level is approximately 
twenty-one hundred feet. From the outlet of Lake Le- 
barge to Fort Selkirk, at the mouth of the Pelly, is a dis- 
tance of two hundred miles, in which the total descent is 
five hundred and ninety-five feet, or at the rate of two and 
ninety-seven one-hundredths feet to the mile. 

Twentv-seven and one-half miles down from Lake Le- 
barge, the mouth of the Tes-lin-too, called by the miners 
the Hootalinqua, is encountered. The river down to this 
point is very crooked. The current for the first three or 
four miles after leaving the lake is slack, but gradually be- 
comes stronger, i.ntil at the Hootalinqua it is very rapid, 
averaging six or seven miles an hour. Large boulders occur 
in the bed in some places. The Hootalinqua will probably 
be on the route of travel on tlie new Canadian route to the 
Yukon, being laid out via tlie Stickeen and the Cassiar 
mining region. Between the Hootalinqua and the moutli 
of the Big Salmon, a distance of thirty-one miles, the river 
continues narrow and deep, with a swift current. At a 
point nine miles below the mouth of the Hootalinqua, tlie 
width of the river by actual measurement, was four hun- 
dred and eighty-three feet, and the current (in August) 
was at the rate of four and eighty-four one-hundredths 
miles per hour. A number of auriferous gravel bars have 
been worked along this part of the river, including the Cas- 
siar, one of the richest bars struck during the earlier period 
of mining. There has lieen some considerable Ijar mining 
done on the Big Salmon. 

From the mouth of the Big Salmon River to the moutli 



THE ROUTKS OK TRAVEI*. 



49 



in length, 
irregular in 
n width at 
aiddle, and 
• Richtofen 
proximately 
f Lake Le- 
ly, is a dis- 
1 descent is 

of two and 

n Lake Le- 
the miners 
own to this 
rst three or 
radually be- 
very rapid, 
Lilders occur 
ill probably 
oute to the 
the Cassiar 
the moutli 
?, the river 
nt. At a 
linqua, tlio 
four hun- 
n August) 
lundredths 
1 bars have 
g the Cas- 
lier period 
|)ar mining 

the mouth 



of Little Salmon the distance is thirty-four miles. The 
course of the river is far straighter than for any stretch 
above or below this point. The current is not quite so 
swift at this portion of the river, although at a point about 
midway between Big and Little Salmon both river and its 
valley are more than usually narrowed. 

For a few miles below the mouth of the Little Salmon, 
the valley widens out for a few miles, but from that point 
on until the Eink Eapid is reached, the valley becomes 
irregular and somewhat narrow. About forty miles below 
the mouth of the Little Salmon, the Nordenskiold enters 
the Lewes on the west side. Fifty-three miles below the 
mouth of the Little Salmon the rapids called by Dawson, 
Eink Eapids, but known to the miners as Five Fingers, 
are encountered. On the bluff, about five and a half miles 
above Eink Eapids, there is an outcropping of coal visible 
on the bluff, about sixty feet above the base. Four rocky 
islets divide the stream into live channels, the water in each 
of which is swift and turbulent. The channel to the ex- 
treme right is the one to take. It is well, however, before 
running this, to make a landing and thoroughly recon- 
noiter. While the water is swift, the rapid presents no 
serious difficulty. The usual danger signals will be found 
posted on the bank of the river above this point. The 
channel is deep and unobstructed. 

Below the main rapid there is a second riffle, or minor 
rapid, wliieh appears to be somewhat strong. The river 
along from here to the moutli of the Polly is pleasing in 
appearance. It is usually wooded, but the southern ex- 
])osures of some of the hills are partly open niid dry, grass- 
covered terrace Hats are frec^uent. liircli i?; moderately 
al)undant. Tatshun Eiver, a mile and a half below Five 
Fingers is the first stream passed. The other tributaries 
down to the mouth of the Pelly are but small brooks. At 



Wf^ 




o 

> 

< 
u 

tr 






I 



THE ROUTES OF TRAVEL. 



51 



o 

< 
u 

Ed 

iJ 

i 



a point six miles below Five Fingers, where the course of 
the river is uninterrupted by islands and its velocity and 
width about normal, the rate of flow was found to be four 
and eight-tenth miles per hour, the width seven hundred 
and thirty-two feet. It is fifty-five miles from Five Fin- 
gers to Fort Selkirk. There are numerous islands in the 
last portion of this stre^ ''h of the river and about ten miles 
above Fort Selkirk these islands are particularly numerous 
for a distance of five miles, and the distance of the river, 
from bank to bank is increased to nearly a mile. This 
group was named by Schwatka the Ingersoll Islands. 

From the mouth of the Pelly down, the river is placid 
and there is no rough water, although the current is uni- 
formly swift. It is a quarter of a mile wide just below the 
mouth of the Pelly, but gradually increases in width. 
The ruins of Fort Selkirk, formerly a post of the Hudson 
Bay Company, stand in a partly open Hat, on the south 
side, at a short distance back from the river and about a 
mile and a half below the mouth of the Pellv. 

From Fort Selkirk to the mouth of White River, the 
distance is ninety-nine miles. This portion of the trip is 
simply drifting down stream, through a picturesque coun- 
try', with a swift current, smooth water, a' \ no dangers to 
be feared. Owino; to the swiftness of the -tream, it is a 
matter of some small difficulty occasionally to elTect a land- 
ing at precisely the point aimed for, but this is about all the 
difficulty to be encountered. 

Three miles below the mouth of ^Vliite River, the Stew- 
art River empties into the Yukon, twenty-one miles below 
that comes Sixty-Mile, and forty-nine miles below Sixty- 
Mile is Dawson City, near the mouth of tlie Klondike, 
probably the objective point for most of those who are 
entering the Yukon country at present. 

From Dawson City to Fort Cudahy the distance down 



52 



GUIDE TO THE KI^ONDIKE. 



stream is fifty two and three-fourths miles and Circle City 
is two hundred and forty miles still further down the 
stream. 



THE WHITE PASS ROUTE. 

The descriptioii already given of the Chilkoot Pass 
route answers fully for that via White Pass, with the excep- 
tion of the crossing over from tide water to the lakes. The 
Wliite Pass route commences at Skaguay, five miles distant 
from Dyea, the terminus of the Chilkoot route, and up an- 
other arm of the same inlet on which Dyea is situated. 
Steamers which land passengers at Dyea take them also for 
Skaguay, and at precisely the same rate of fare. White 
Pass, though used heretofore less than the Chilkoot, offers 
many points of advantage over the latter. Within the past 
year a large amount of work has been done upon it by par- 
ties interested in establishing a packing trail; and it is now 
readily passable for pack animals, with fair mountain trail 
loads. It is estimated that an expenditure of fifty thousand 
dollars would suffice to construct via this pass a wagon road 
over which freight wagons could replace pack ponies, and 
bring the freight rates down to some reasonable figures. 
It is also asserted that the terrible storms which prevail in 
the Chilkoot Pass during the spring and winter are not 
felt in the White Pass, or at least, are nothing like as 
serious. 

This pass leaves the coast at the mouth of the Skaguay 
River, five miles south of the head of Dyea Inlet, and runs 
parallel to Chilkoot Pass at no great distance from it. The 
distance from the coast to the summit is seventeen miles, of 
which the "^Tst five miles h level bottom land thickly tim- 
bered. The next nine miles in in a canyon-like valley, 
where considerable work has been necessary to make a 



THE ROUTKvS OK TRAVF.L. 



53 



passable trail. The remaining three miles to the summit 
is comparatively easy. The altitude of the summit is esti- 
mated at twenty-six himdred feet or nine hundred feet 
lower than the summit of Chilkoot. Beyond the summit 
a wide valley is entered and the descent to the first little 
lake is not more than one hundred feet. The mountains 
rapidly decrease in height and abruptness after the summit 
is passed and the valley bifurcates, one branch leading to 
the head of "Windy Arm of Tagish Lake, the other (down 
which the water drains) going to Tako Arm of the same 
lake. It is to the Tako Arm that the trail is constructed. 
The total descent from the summit to Tako Arm is rather 
less than five hundred feet. Xo engineering difliculties are 
presented to making a first class wagon road by this route, 
or even if occasion arises, a railroad. The distance to Tako 
Arm from Skaguay by the White Pass trail is (estimated) 
thii'ty-five miles, somewhat longer than by Chilkoot, but a 
much easier route. The Tako Arm is, from where the trail 
reaches it, to Lake Tagish proper, about twenty miles in 
length (estimated). From Lake Tagish, tlie remainder of 
the voyage down the Yukon is precisely the same as here- 
to fore described. 

The White Pass route apparently would be an admira- 
ble one to adopt for sledding supplies over on the snow in 
the winter or early spring, as is done over the Chilkoot 
route. 

This route has never been used to any extent until this 
year. While the grades are very much lighter, and the 
altitudes very much lower, than by the Chilkoot Pass, a 
considerable amount of work was necessary to make a trail. 
No government assistance eoukl bo had; there is no organ- 
ized government of any description in Alaska authorized to 
expend a cent in building roads, and these is no machinery 
for the collection of taxes for such a purpose. It requires 




tft 



? t^ 



as 



THK ROUTES OF TRAVKI,. 



55 



private enterprise to make all such roads or trails as are 
projected in Alaska. This year some enterprising in- 
dividual, who desiied to put on a pack team of ponies and 
transport supplies for miners, at their own expense have 
opened the White Pass trail. Recent reports from those 
who have gone over this trail are to the etl'ect that it is in 
every way preferable to the Chilkoot Pass route, and offers 
no more difficulties than are presented in every ordinary 
mountain pack trail. In view of these facts, it is recom- 
mended that White Pass be selected by all who intend to 
go in by the overland route. Work in improving the trail 
will be carried on from this time forward, in such a manner 
as not to interfere with the present use of the trail for pack- 
ing purposes. 



f! 



THE CHILKAT PASS ROUTE. 

But little is really known about this pass, othei- than it 
is claimed by the Indians to be much lower and more open 
than that by the Chilkoot. It starts from an inlet north 
of that on which Dyea is situated. By this route the chain 
of lakes referred to is altogether avoided, and the rivtr 
is reached about the mouth of the Takena. At least 
this is the supposition, as the Indians say tliat it 
takes twelve days to carry packs by this route, as 
against two days via Chilkoot Pass. The Indians 
themselves have used this route but very little on account 
of the long carry passage. It is in the neighborhood of the 
Cliilkat Pass th^t the Jack Dalton trail, by which cattle 
can be driven into the Yukon country, starts. This trail 
reach 'o the river in the neighborhood of Fort Selkirk, and 
passes for its entire distance, according to accounts, 
through a good grass country. 



56 



(.I'lDE TO THK KI.ONDIKK 



THE TAKU ROUTE. 



A proposed new route, which, according to the best in- 
formation at hand, promises well for the fntiire, although 
it is not yet in use, is one by Takii Inlet, np the Taku River, 
thence by portage to Lake Altin, thence by connecting 
river to the Tako Arm of Lake Tagish, the remainder of 
the route being tlie same as by Cliilkoot and Wiiile Pass. 
The length of }»ortage from the licad of this lake to the 
Indian houses on tlie Taku River is variously stated by the 
Indians as from t\\ o to four days. There is an Indian trail 
over this route, said to be good, and with no heavy grades 
to cross, the only ascent being simply to reacli the elevation 
of the lakes. 



THE STICKEEN ROUTE. 

Tliis is tlie one which the Dominion Government is aid- 
ing by appropriations to have established. It is yet under 
construction, and no one except the builders and explorers 
have as yet passed over it. By the late spring of 1898, it 
will be in use. By this route steamers from Seattle are 
taken to Fort Wrangel, Alaska, at the mouth of the Stickeen 
River. There one of the stern -wheel river boats takes the 
passenger up the river some three hundred and fifty miles 
to Telegraph Creek. From there a trail of one hundred 
and fifty miles readies Teslin Lake, in which the river 
called by the miners the Hootalinqua heads. Boating 
down the Hootalinqua is the same as described in other 
rivers. It is believed that stern-wheel steamers can oper- 
ate up the Hootalinqua clear to Lake Teslin. Undoubt- 
edly a good deal of travel will in time go in by this route. 

The Stickeen is one of the swiftest and most turbulent 
streams which empty into the Pacific. It abounds in bars^ 
rapids and rifllos. The steamers which ply up it have a 



THE ROUTES OK TRAVIU,. 



3/ 



slow and dangerous trip. At many places on the river 
cables are made fast to shore "anchors," and carried to 
a steam capstan aboard to enable the steamers to get over 
the rapids. The "White Horse" Rapids of the Yukon has 
dozens of counterparts in the Stickeen. The trip up the 
river by boat is exciting, picturesque, but dangerous. It 
requires about two weeks' time to ascend the river in a good 
season, and about two days to come down, the steamers 
backing water all the wav. After arrivirii? at the head of 
navigation a land journey of one hundred and fifty miles 
brings the passengers by this route just n])out as far on 
their journey to the gold fields as they are when they have 
crossed the White Pass on the route by Skaguay Inlet. As 
this route lies almost entirely within Canadian territory, 
and as the steamers on the Stickeen river are owned by 
Canadian capitalists, every effort is being made by the Ca- 
nadian authorities to divert trade to this route. To this 
end they are imposing many petty restrictions upon the 
passengers by way of Dyea and Skaguay; are levying cus- 
toms dues upon their personal outfits, and, in fact, have in 
general adopted a policy of petty persecution toward those 
who are attempting to reach the country by the established 
rentes of travel. They also refuse to permit persons to 
enter their territory by this route who have less than 
one year's provisions. So far, liowever, not a single 
party outfitting for the Yukon has attempted to reach 
that country by the long, dangerous and expensive 
route via the Stickeen river. The ice goes out of 
the Stickeen about the same time as it does out of 
the Yukon, so it will be at least two weeks later in the spring 
before passengers can reach the mines by the Stickeen 
route t])an by eitlier the White Pass or the Chilkoot routes. 
The foreiroinfT covers all of the land routes to the Yukon 
from ports on the Pacific Coast, which are a? yet known 



I 



58 



C.UIDR TO THK KLONDIKE. 



Of these, liowever, none save those by the Chilkoot and the 
"Wliite Pass have ever ])een used I'or actual purposes of 
travel; and they are the ones recommended to be taken. 
The land journey is the shortest by them by a very large 
distance, and the river trip presents no obstacles which are 
not likely to be encountered on each of the other routes. 

It should be kept in mind that all the foregoing in- 
formation as to the various routes of travel by the so-called 
inland route applies to conditions as they exist at present, 
in the early part of August, 1897. Before the end of the 
summer 1898 a decidedly different condition of affairs will 
exist, and the trip will be a very much easier one to make. 
There are already quite a number of transportation com- 
panies organized for the purpose of building stern- wheel 
steamers to ply on the waters of the Upper Yukon; and 
there are also many schemes on foot for increasing the 
number of steamers on the lower river. The probabilities 
are strong that before next summer is over a prospector or 
miner can take a steamer at Lake Bennett, or more proba- 
bly at the Taku Arm of Lake Tagish and proceed to Daw- 
son with only one short portage, that around Miles Canyon 
and White Horse liapids, already described. The trail 
across White Pass by the same time will probably be broad- 
ened out into a practicable wagon road. As compared 
with roads into the mountain regions of Colorado or Cali- 
fornia, the grades are lighter and conditions much more 
favorable across White Pass than in many places in those 
states, where all the freighting is done by wagons. It is 
estimated that fifty thousand dollars would convert the 
White Pass trail into a good road, across which "trailer** 
waffon trains could be driven; thus not onlv reducins]r the 
cost of freighting very materially, but enabling the traffic 
for the mines to be handled over this route, in competition 
with the all water route via St. Michaels and the mouth 



THE ROUTES OF TRAVEL. 



59 



of the Yukon. When a practicable road is thus opened, 
and when steamers are put on the upper river, as will in- 
evitably be done, and that during the next twelve months, 
it will be possible for a passenger to reach Dawson City 
from Seattle within a week, if close connections are made. 

On this overland rouic, the question as to cost depends 
very largely on the manner in which the trip is made and 
somewhat also depends upon the season of the year. The 
fare from Seattle to Dyea and Skaguay will amount 
to from twenty-five to forty-five dollars." If the party 
going in is unprovided with horses, and the trip is 
in summer, the cost of packing the outfit over the 
summit will vary from ten to twenty cents per pound. 
On an outfit weighing twelve hundred pounds it would 
be safe to estimate an outlay of one hundred and 
eighty dollars for this. Then at prices which have 
heretofore prevailed, a boat at Lake Bennett, suitable for 
carrying four men and their outfits down the river would 
cost sixty dollars. On the other hand, if horses are taken, 
the fare for each horse to Skaguay would be twenty-two 
dollars and fifty cents, the price of the horse in Seattle 
being from twenty to thirty dollars. A "knock-down" 
boat, ready to put together, would cost about twenty dollars 
in Seattle. A party doing their own packing, with horses, 
would thus save the item of packing at fifteen cents a 
pound, and could probably sell their horses to other parties 
for all they cost, or even more. 

In the spring, before the thaws come, provisions are 
taken across the divide on hand sleds, work which the trav- 
elers themselves are usually compelled to do, in the absence 
of any regular supply of labor. This is laborious work, 
but it has the advantage of being inexpensive. By getting 
on the ground early, and taking advantage of the pleasant 
weather, all the necessary supplies can be safely taken over 



6o 



GUIDE TO THE KLONDIKE. 



the pass and landed at the lake at no actual outlay in 
money. This latter is the plan pursued by all of the expe- 
rienced Yukon miners, who have been going into the coun- 
try for years. 



, '*^..., 




THK AIJ. WATKR ROHTK. 



6l 



CHAPTER V. 

THE ALL WATER ROUTE. 

Until such time, however, as good roads are built across 
the passes to the lakes at the headwaters of the Yukon, or, 
indeed, until a railroad is built into the country, by long 
odds the most comfortable, and probably in the long run 
the cheapest route into the gold fields of the Klondike and 
those on the various other tributaries of the Yukon, is by 
the way of the mouth of the Yukon, and by river steamers 
up from ihat point- Even at the present time this trip 
can be made cheaply and at a minimum of discomfort. It 
is .neither longer, more arduous nor more expensive than 
was the voyage from New York to San Francisco by the 
way of the isthmus, after the completion of the railroad 
across the isthmus, and before the railroad era. The hard- 
ships, diiTioultles and dangers of the trip into the new gold 
fields, so ofron described, apply solely to the overland route. 
The all-water route is by ocean steamships from Seattle to 
St. Michael's; thence by river boat up to Dawson City, 
Circle City, or, in fact, to any river point. Tlie North 
American Transportation & Trading Company, which has 
its head offices in Seattle, has developed this route, and has 
now improved its transportation facilities to the point, that 
even delicate women who desire to take a brief glimpse at 
the wonderful life of a new and uncommonly rich mining 
camp, can make a summer excursion to the Klondike and 
return, all the time enjoying all the comforts which can be 
had on any steamer. 

The North American Transportation & Trading Com- 
pany has at present two ocean steamers plying between Se- 






63 



GUIDE TO THK KI.ONDIKE. 



attle and St. Michael's— the Portland, uitli a passenger 
capacity of 125, and the Cleveland, M'liich can accommo- 
date 350. At St. Michael's these steamship connect with 
the river boats of the company, a fleet of three large stem- 
wheel steamers, the P. B. Wearc, the J. J. Healy and the 
Charles H. Hamilton. The latter of these is 195 feet 
long, 20 feet beam and has a registered tonnage of 1,000. 
She is equipped with powerful machinery and can make 
the trip to Dawson City against the strong Yukon current 
in about twelve day*-. The other river boats are but slightly 
inferior. These river boats were built at Seattle ship- 
yards, were sent north in sections and put together at St. 
Michael's, the Hamilton having been launched in July, 
1897. Xor is this all. Foreseeing the rush, the same 
company has let the contract in Seattle for six more boats, 
four the same size of the Hamilton, one somewhat smaller, 
and the sixth a powerful river tugboat to tow barges laden 
with freight up the river. 

The company has also announced that it will imme- 
diately build on the Atlantic coast three large, commodious 
and swift ocean steamers, which will be brought around by 
the Straits of Magellan, t<^ be put on the route between 
Seattle and St. Michael's, these steamers to airive before the 
river reopens to navigation in the spring. This will insure 
the sailing on this route of one steamer every week, car- 
rying 1,200 passengers and upwards. 

The Alaska Commercial Company has also a route to 
the moutli of the Yukon, with San Francisco as the point 
of departure. The Excelsior, a powerful but somewhat 
slow freight boat, has been chartered by the company, and 
makes summer trips to San Frauciscc. The Excelsior, 
with her heavy planking and timbering, was enabled the 
present year to break through the ice and bring out the 
first of the returning Klondike miners with their golden 



THE ALI^ WATER ROUTK 



63 



frci<;lit. The Alaska Couniiercial Company has also tliree 
of four small stcrn-whecl steamers on the river, designed 
primarily to carry goods for the company's various trading 
posts, hut which can he used as passenger hoats. 

These two companies have heen engaged in the trans- 
portation and trading husiness in the Yukon for years. 
They will now, however, have to meet with active competi- 
tion, all of which will redound to the advaiitago of the 
traveling puhlic. From jiresent indications, hy next spring 
there will he half a tlozeii additional ocean steamers on the 
route from Seattle to St. Michael's, and there will certainly 
be an addition of fifteen or twenty to the fleet of river 
steamers. 

'i'he Yukon Transjiortation Company, organized in 
Seattle and with a sufhcient capital, luis purchased 
the steamer Eliza Anderson and put her on the route 
between Seattle and St. Michaels; the stern-wheel steamer 
AV. K. Merwin has also been sent north, in tow of 
a tug boat, to run on the river in connection with the Eliza 
Andersdn. The lyierwin was built expressly for river work 
and will be able to make better time on the up river rim 
than any vessel now on the river unless it be the new large 
steamers of the North American Transportation & Trading 
Company. 

The Seattle & Yukon Commercial Company is the lat- 
est to enter the field. This corporation has but just been 
organized, but it will have one steamer to St. ^lichaels, and 
one up the river this season. Next season it will increase 
its transportation facilities largely. This company has 
recently chartered in San Francisco the nund)()l(lt, a new 
steamship of about 1,000 tons burden, just completed, and 
which, it is claimed, is one of the fastest vess(»ls in Pacific 
waters. A ])owerful steam barge belonging to the com- 
pany will carry passengers from St. ^Michael's to Dawson 



,s-s 



64 



GUIDE TO THE KLONDIKE. 



City. Other boats will be put on by this company in 
in the spring- It is impossible to furnish informa- 
tion which will be fully up to date as to the trans- 
portation facilities which will be offered by the out- 
side route, the coming season. In the very brief interval 
between the writing of the manuscript and the time when 
this pamplilet appears, half a dozen different transporta- 
tion schemes, now inchoate, may and quite likely will ma- 
terialize. This much is certain, however, that the various 
transportation companies now organized or being organ- 
ized, will be able to handle next season all the travel which 
may offer for the Yukon by the outside or all-water route, 
and that there will be not less than one steamer each week 
leave Seattle for St. Michaels, makinir close connection 
with the river boats. 

The time during wliich the Yukon River is navigable 
varies with the season. As a general rule it may be stated 
that the river is open from about the middle of April until 
the latter half of September. In 1896 the river did not 
close until about September 25, at wliich time & heavy 
snow storm set in, wliich chilled the river so it closed in 
a few days. Between these dates the all-river route fur- 
nishes, under existing conditions, the most comfortable 
route to the mines by all odds. 

The objections whicli have heretofore existed to tliis 
route are that the two companies, the Nortli American 
Transportation & Trading Company, and the Alaska Com- 
mercial Company, which controlled both the transportation 
lines, also owned all the trading posts which have yet been 
established on the Yukon. The freight capacity of botli 
their ocean and river l)oats, as well as of the barges whicli 
the river boats take in tow, was all needed for their own sup- 
plies. They have heretofore been compelled, in conse- 
quence, to refuse to tak'3 freight, even the outfits of intend- 



L'*//* 



THE At,!-. WATER ROUTE. 



65 



ing miners and prospectors, and have limited the amount 
of personal baggage for each passenger to one hundred and 
fifty pounds. On the other hand, however, and to obviate 
any inconvenience which might be occasioned by the failure 
of the passengers to get their own supplies into the country, 
the North American Transportation & Trading Company 
has obligated itself to each passenger to supply him from 
the company's trading posts with all supplies which he may 
require for his own personal use at Seattle prices, with 
freight added at the rate wliich the company would have 
charged had it carried freight for individupls. 

The new transportation companies which have entered 
the field, however, are willing to carry a full year's outfit of 
clothing, provisions and tools for each passenger. This is 
what the Eliza Anderson does this season, and what all the 
newer transportation companies will probably do next 
season. 

As against the greater ease, convenience and comfort 
of the all-river route there is to be offset the fact that the 
route by Dyea or Skaguay and the upper river permits ac- 
cess to the country earlier in the spring. Those coming 
down the river from its headwaters, follow the ice down, 
while the steamers which have to come up the river have 
to wait until the ice is pretty well out before starting. 

As to time, it takes from ten to fifteen days for a steam- 
ship to make the run to St. Michael's, dependent, of course, 
upon the speed of the vessel and the character of weather 
which she encounter?. The distance is ron^jhly estimated 
at three thousand miles. The distance up the Yukon from 
St. Michaels to Dawson City is estimated at seventeen hun- 
dred and twenty-two miles. As there is a heavy current to 
contend with, the usual estimate of the time which it takes 
to make this trip is fifteen days. 

At the commencement of the summer season of 1897, 



66 



GUIDK TO THK KLONDIKE. 



the fare from Seattle to Dawson Citv bv the steamers of 
the North American Transportation & Trading Company 
was one hnndred and twenty-five dollars second class, one 
hundred and forty dollars first class. On the Cleveland, 
chartered by the same com]iany, sailinji; August 5, the fare 
was raised to two hundred dollars for all classes. The latest 
quotations for the season Mere three hundred dollars for 
each ])assenger and his outfit, on steamers of the Seattle & 
Yukon Trading Company, just organized. What the price 
will be in the coming s])ring, when tliis route is again 
opened for use, cannot be predicted. With the number of 
coni]ianies which are projected, and which will be in the 
field at that time, it is safe to say that the fare will not ex- 
ceed one hundred and fifty dollars and may fall below that 
figure. 

Seattle will be the point of de])arture for nearly all of 
these transportation lines. The shortness of the season 
makes it necessary to reacli railroad terminals in the short- 
est space of time, so that as many trins as possible may be 
made before ice closes the river. It is about two days 
shorter trip from Seattle to St. Michael's by the steamship 
routes, and thus the majority of tlie steamship lines to the 
Yukon will terminate here. 



NKCKSSARY OUTFITS AND WHERK TO GET THKM. 



67 



CHAPTER VI. 



THE NECESSARY OUTFITS AND WHRRE 
TO GET THEM. 

The most serious and iinportaiu (question which cou- 
fronts the iiitouding iininigraiit to the Yukon jrold fields 
is as to what amount and eharacter of an outiit sliould be 
taken with liim on his journey into that country. It should 
be remembered that there lias been a slow and gradual de- 
velo})ment of the mineral resources of the Yukon, during 
which the mining population has increased year by year by 
a few lnindred-3 at a time. Xearly every one of those who 
went in carried with him on the start sup})lies to last hiin 
for from six months to a year. With this gradual increase 
in po])ulation, the trading posts and transportation com- 
panies have kept ])ace, and have had no difficulty in supply- 
ing the wants of the newcomers, after their first stock of 
provisions has been exhausted. Xow, however, the move- 
ment toward the Yukon is in the nature of a "rush," tlie 
dimensions of which no one can accuratelv forecast. The 
enterprise of merchants and transportation companies can 
be relied on to ])rovide ultimately for the wants of all the 
mining population which may pour into the Yukon, no 
matter how extensive tliat population may be. Tliis takes 
time, and in tlie rush for the new country it is safe to sav 
tluit the would-be miners and ]>rospectors M'ill bo on the 
ground ahead of the traders and merchants. There will 
be a period of pro1)al)ly nine months, possibly a year, dur- 
ing which tliose who go to the Clondyke or any other of 
the mining regions on tlie Yukon will be compelled to rely 




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NECESSARY OUTFITS AND WHERE TO GET THEM. 



69 



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for their subsistence entirely upon such supplies as they 
may take into the country. Good sound judgment would 
dictate that every man who intends to go into the Yukon 
now, or any time within the next year, should take with 
him at least one full year's supply of food and clothing. 
This is the advice given by every single man who is mining 
upon the Yukon, without any exception. It is the one 
point on which they all dwell the longest, Tliey feel a 
personal interest in pressing this home on the new immi- 
grants, for the reason that there is practically six months 
in the year during which no provisions can be got into the 
country. If there is a rush of new men in there, unpro- 
vided with food, and the inevitable shortage of provisions 
follows during the Arctic winter, those who have provisions 
will be forced to the alternative of sharing them with the 
unprovided, at the cost of considerable suffering to them- 
selves, or of seeing men starve before their eyes. They 
realize this better than any one else, and hence the earnest- 
ness with which they impress this home on all who consult 
them in regard to the matter of outfitting. 

There is still another point which must be taken into 
consideration. The amount of provisions which it is esti- 
mated will be necessary to last a man for a year looks at 
first sight to be exhorbitant, especially to men who have 
been in the habit of purchasing their own family supplies, 
and who have kept a close watch on their family expen.ses. 
It is, however, the uniform experience of the men who have 
wintered in the Arctic or in regions like the Yukon, where 
there is, for months on a stretch, an extremely low range 
of temperature, that during the winter there is a demand 
for and a consumption of food, which would bo considered 
as abnormal, measured by the standard of more temperate' 
climates. This excessive amount of footls, particularly of 
llio animal fats, seems to be necessarv to ]u'rniit the body 



70 



GUIDE TO THE KI^ONDIKE. 



to endure the extremely low temperature. Every work 
on Arctie explorations makes note of this faet, which is 
borne out l>y the experiences of the Yukon miners. Esti- 
mates by the dozen have been made and published by ex- 
perienced men. They vary little in aggregate amount, the 
dilVerence being mainly in the smaller items. Among the 
men who have had the largest experiences upon the Yukon 
is A. 0. Carr, who carried the mail into that country on 
several dilu'rent occasions, lie has had occasion to outfit 
several dill'crent times, and has spent many winters on the 
Yukon. The following is Can's estimate of the outfit of 
one ninn for a year. As far as the ])rovisi()ns are 
concerned, it is precisely the outfit whicli Carr himself 
purchased here in Seattle for his own use befort^ proceeding 
north. The tools and hardware are those whicli he already 
has on hand in the Yukon country: 

Flour, pounds 400 

Cornmeal, pounds 50 

Rolled oats, pounds 50 

Rice, pounds 35 

Beans, pounds 100 

Candles, pounds 40 

Sugar, granulated, pounds '. 100 

Baking powder, pounds 8 

Bacon, pounds ^00 

Soda, pounds 2 

Yeast cakes (6 in package) , packages 6 

Salt, pounds 15 

Pepper, pounds 1 

Mustard, pounds Vz 

Ginger, pounds V* 

Apples, evaporated, pounds 25 

Peaches, evaporated, pounds 25 

• Apricots, evaporated, pounds 25 

Fish, pounds 25 

Pitted plums, pounds 1<> 

Raisins, pounds 10 



NECESSARY OUTFITS AND WHERE TO GET THEM. 



71 



^ 

y* 



Onions, evaporated, pounds 50 

Potatoes, evaporated, pounds 50 

€offee, pounds 24 

Tea, pounds 5 

Milk, condensed, dozen 4 

Soap, laundry, bars 5 

Matches, packages 60 

Soup vegetables, pounds 15 

Butter, sealed, cans 25 

Tobacco, at discretion 

Stove, steel 1 

Gold pan 1 

Granite buckets, 1 nest of 3 

Cups 1 

Plates (tin) 1 

Knives and forks, eacli 1 

Spoons — Tea, 1 ; table 2 

Whetstone 1 

Coffee pot 1 

Frying pans 2 

Saw, hand 1 

Saw, whip 1 

Hatchet 1 

Shovel, y^ spring 2 

Nails, pounds 20 

Files 3 

Drawknit'e 1 

Ax and handle 1 

Chisel, i/^-inch 3 

Butcher knife 1 

Hammer 1 

Jack plane 1 

Square 1 

Yukon sleigh 1 

Lash rope, l^-inch, feet 60 

Rope, Va-inch, feet 150 

Pitch, pounds ^^ 

Pick and handle ^ 

Oakum, pound^ ^^ 

If one is not going to build a boat, tiio oakum, pitch 



1 



12 



CUIDK TO THK KLONDIKE. 



and tools can be dispensed with. In summer a sled is not 
necessary. Those going on a steamer by way of St. Mi- 
chaels are recommended to take plenty of delicacies, costing 
little but greatly appreciated. Above all, the caution is 
given, "take plenty." 

Very rarely is sui!icient importance attached to the 
medical chest, which should have a place in every pros- 
pectors pack. In case of emergency, drugs and appliances 
for the relief of ])ain are invaluable. A supply of citric 
acid should be carried for the relief of scurvy. The a-strinj:- 
ent property of tlio lime or lemon is due to this acid. A 
few drops mixed with water and sugar makes excellent lem- 
onade. The drug store can furnish saccharin tablets in 
place of sugar; three-quarters of an ounce of this concen- 
trated sweet is equal to twenty-five pounds of sugar. It 
will be easily seen what a saving this would effect. One 
hundred pounds of sugar at five and one-half cents per 
pound would be five dollars and fifty cents. Add to this 
twenty-two cents per pound for packing over the summit at 
the pass, and the total cost is twenty-seven dollars and fifty 
cents, besides the room it would take. Saccharin costs but 
one dollar and fifty cents an ounce, and three ounces, equal 
to one hundred pounds of sugar, would cost but four dol- 
lars and fifty cents, the cost of packing being nominal for 
such small bulk. 

The following articles would each be found of use, to 
be purchased in quantities according to the judgment of 
the individual: Liniment for sprains and cold on the 
lungs, tincture of iron to enrich the blood, extract of Ja- 
maica ginger, laudanum, vaseline, carbolic ointment, salts, 
cough tablets, mustard and adhesive plasters, surgeon's lint, 
bandages, liver pills, powder for bleeding, absorbent cotton,, 
surgeon's sponge, needles and silk, quinine capsules and 
toothache drops. 

The estimate as to amount of clothing, etc., requii\'d 



NECKSSARY OUTFITS AND WHERE TO GET THEM. 



73 



varies considerably with different men and is largely a 
matter of individual opinion. The following will give a 
fairly accurate idea of the necessities in this direction: 

Woolen clothes — 1 suit. 

Boots and shoes — 1 pair gum boots, 1 pair heavy leather 
shoes. 

Snow-glasses. 

Tent, 10x12 feet. 

1 tarpaulin, 7x14 feet 

5 yards mosquito netting for each man. 

3 suits heavy underwear. 

1 heavy mackinaw coat. 

2 pairs heavy mackinaw pants. 
Vz dozen heavy wool socks. 

Vz dozen heavy wool mitts. 

2 heavy overshirts. 

3 pairs of blankets. 

4 towels. 

4 pairs of overalls. 
Oilskin No. 3. 

In purchasing an outfit, especially the clothing, care 
should be taken to purchase the very best. The difference 
in price between good and poor articles is a small matter, 
when the cost and labor of getting an outfit into the Yukon 
country is considered. The best is necessary, and it is econ- 
omy to purchase it. At a rough estimate such an outfit of 
provisions and clothing as is enumerated above, would cost 
in Seattle about one hundred and twenty-five to one hun- 
dred and fifty dollars, according to quality of goods. 

There is one final word, and this an important word, 
about outfitting. The peculiar needs of the miners on the 
Yukon, both as to supplies and clothing and also as to the 
manner of packing outfits so as to have them in shape to 
stand tlio rough usage which they will encounter on the 
pack trails and in boats was not learned by even the miners 
themsolvos until after they had long experience. Seattle 



wm 



74 



GUIDE TO THK KLONniKE. 



iiu'ivhants liavo luul loni;- ('.\i)L'rit'iu'o in eatoring to thia 
li-ado. Of the iiicn wlio wore in the Yukon Country at the 
linio tlu' I'londyko strike was made, by far the greater niim- 
IxT jxircJiased tlieir ^ll|)|»lies in this city. Tliose who came 
out to get new outlits for another year also traded exclu- 
sively in Seattle. JJefore the strike on the Clondyke was 
made the Yukon trade with Seattle had grown to such 
projjortions thai {\w recjuirenients of the Yukon miners 
and ])rosi)eetors were thoroughly uiuleistood. Special arti- 
cles of I'iothmg, man u fact u red e.xnii'ssly for this trade, 
were kept in stock here in all the clothing stores; and the 
l)Utting up (>[' an outlit for the Y'ukon was a mat- 
ter of daily, and an occasion of hourly, occurrence, in all of 
the leading groc«'ry stores. So thoroughly e(piipped were 
Seattle nu-rcliants in this respect that when the Clondyke 
rush cauM' they were enabled, without replenishing their 
stocks, and simply by adding a few extra men to their forces 
for a few days, lo thoroughly ecpiip twelve hundred men 
with a year's supply of provisions and clothing, thoroughly 
ada])ted to tiie climate into wjiich these men were going, 
within the lii'st two weeks. After the Clondvke excite- 
ment broke out, ami at the eml of that tinu\ as their tele- 
gra])hif oi'ders for further goods commenced to be filled, 
the stocks carried were heavier than when the first rush 
commenced. 

Seattle merchants have handled this trade for years, and 
expect to retain the bulk of it for years to come. No busi- 
ness man in Seattle could alford to ]mt up a bad outfit. A 
man's life might depend upcm the duiracter of the pro- 
visions with which he is su])plied. The news of spoiled 
goods among any outfit sent out would pass from mouth 
to nu)nth among the miners of the Y'ukon, and their 
indignation would take the prompt form of a boycott upon 
the offending tradesman. Xeither is this Yukon trade a 



NECKSSARY OITFITS AND WHERR TO C.V.t THEM. 



75 



matter siini)ly of todny. It is looked ii|»(»ii to incroiiso and 
develop yenr by year; and to he a iierniaiient souico of trade 
to be carefully luinsed and cultivated. The man who de- 
sires to i}({\u\) himself with an outfit for the Yukon can put 
himself with ])erfect confidence in the hands of the leading; 
finus, or, indeetl, in any one of a dozen or more houses in 
Seattle, and leave it entirelv to their discretion as to the 
amount and character of the outfit. On the average, prices 
in Seattle will be found as cheap as those in anv city. 

For })ackin^^ across the pa.«<s, and for the boat voyage 
down th(! river, it is nece.<sary for outfits to be })Ut up, in 
the iirst i)lace, in convenient form for i)ackin<i:, either by 
man or bv horse; and, in the second place, that thev mav 
be thoroughly ])rotected against water or snow, to which 
they most certainly will be e.\|)osed. Tctrtions of an outfit 
may lay for days in a snow drift, as, indeed, is the common 
and almost universal occurrence in crossing Chiikoot or 
White Pass in the early spring. Flour, sugar and the like 
arc conseipiently jnit up by Seattle outfitters in oiled bags, 
carefully ])rotected, however, from giving off any unpleas- 
ant taste to the enclosed goods. All of these matters as to 
the pro})er handling of outfits reouire a certain amount of 
experience which is only to be acquired in handling this 
particular trade. As a iirst and last word of advice, every 
man going to the Yukon by the way of Seattle should await 
until his arrival here before buying his outlit. lie will have 
no occasion to regret his action if he does so. 

It is reasonably certain that, as far as going to estab- 
lished mining centers is concerned, the year 1S*>8 will be 
the last in Mhich it will be necessary for a visitor to the 
Yukon or an immigrant to that country to carry in his own 
supplies. Lines will be established in numbers on the 
strength of the heavy increase in the mining population, 
and, with the improved transportation facilities now as- 
sured, living on the Yukcm will, after next year, be little 
more expensive, if any, than in any mining camp uncon- 
nected by rail with the centers of trade and ])opulation. 



76 



GUIDE TO THB Ki:,ONDIKE. 



CHAPTER VII. 



CLIMATE AND AGRICULTURAL POSSIBILITIES. 

The term "Arctic" has been applied to the climate of 
the Yukon rather inappropriately. It is true some por- 
tions of tlie Yukon basin lie within the Arctic circle, and 
that the best kncAvn gold fields whic)i nave as yet been un- 
covered are not at any groat distance south of the circle. 
It should be, however, remembered tiiat the entire gold dis- 
trict of ii\& Yukon lies in the latitude of Noi-thf^rn Central 
Russia. A glance at a map of the world o/ glo)).> I'scloses 
this. It should further be remembrn'd, as )^. poiuted out by 
Dr. Dawson in his report, to which re ference i.as ]\eretofore 
been made, that the climatic conditions on wo.'.tem and 
eastern sides of the continent aie by no means, comparable, 
and that the isothermal lines representing the n;6cn annual 
temperature trend northwestward from the Manitoba 
region. According to the same authority, the climatic con- 
ditions of the basin of the Yukon are substantially identical 
with the inland provinces of Russian, to which allusion has 
already been made. The province of Vologda, in European 
Russia, appears to offer the mean parallel. It i.s circum- 
stanced relatively to the western shores of Europe, as is the 
Yukon country to the western shores of the North Ameri- 
can continent. Its area is 155,498 square miles, situated 
between the 58th and G5th parallel of latitude. The cli- 
mate in both cases is a continental one, in which severe 
winters alternate with warm summers, and the actual de- 
grees of boat and cold are not dissimilar. There is no heavy 
rainfall in eitiier region, such as is found near the western 



CI^IMATE AND AGRICUIvTURAL POSSIBILTIKS. 



77 



coasts bordering on the Atlantic and on the Pacific respec- 
tively. The agricultural products from the province of 
Vologda are oats, rye, barley, hemp, flax and pulse. The 
population of that province is 1,161,000. 

The winter season on the Yukon is beyond all question 
long and severe. As early as August severe frosts occur, 
and the actual winter usually sets in the latter part of 
September. During the dead of winter, along in Janu- 
ary, the sun is above the horizon for only two hours a day. 
The nights, while excessively long, are not dark. The dawn 
and twilight hours are long, and even durinjj the middle of 
the night in clear weather the stars and moon, reflecting 
from the snow-covered ground, give sufficient light to en- 
able ordinary outdoor avocations to be pursued, when the 
weather otherwise permits. The display of the Aurora 
liorealis is frequent, the whole heavens being lit up. While 
the cold is, as stated above, excessive, so far as the readings 
of the thermometer are concerned, it is not felt severely. 
The entire absence of humidity in the air renders the in- 
tense cold easily supportable to persons warmly clad. The 
.ureatest danger incurred is that of having ears and nose 
frost-bitten, a matter of common occurrence, as, indeed, it is 
in Kussia. 

The summers, while short, are hot. As higli as 100° 
Fahrenheit lias been recorded in the valley of the Upper 
Yukon in the neighboriiood of Forty-^Iile. For a few weeks 
during the summer tliis excessively hot weather lasts, and 
as there is pretty nearly twenty-four hours of sunsliine in 
each day, vegetation makes wonderful growth during iliat 
])eriod. 

It will not be ])retended tliat the Yukon will ever l)e a 
farming country, but it has possibilities considerably in ad- 
vance of wliat it has been credited as possessing. There is 
an abundance of grass during the summer months, which 




;i a 



CLIMATK AND ACRICULTURAl, I'OSSmil.ITl KS. 



79 



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can be and is cut and used for liay. ^Ir. Ogilvie, Dominion 
land surveyor, in a report dated June 25, 189(5, sav^. 
Horses tliat liave been in use here, packing to tlie mines in 
summer and hauling wood in the winter, for several years, 
are still serviceable, notwithstanding they live only on the 
coarse grasses of the country. They pack 200 pounds 
apiece from Forty-:Mile River, at the mouth of Moose Creek, 
to tiic mines on Miller Creek (alumt Yi\ or 18 miles), and 
climb some very steep, long hills on the way, taking two 
days with loads and one day without; all they g^X to eat is 
what they find. In other ro])orts Mr. Ogilvie says: *'I made 
a survey of another island for a man named Gibson. This 
is in tlie delta of Forty-]Mile Creek, and he intends to make 
a ijiaiket garden for the growtii of such vegetables as the 
country will ;.ro(iiice. In my final re})ort I will deal as fully 
as my exjiericnce hero will permit on (hat ])hase of the coun- 
try's character. Many here have small gardens and are fair- 
ly succ: V ''m1 with ordinary vegetables." 'J'his was under 
date of J'!! e ">, LS'.H). hater in the same month he records 
that the gardens were do'ug well, and that scnne persons 
were experimenting with fodder ])lants. From all this it 
would a|)|)('ar that where suitable soil can be found it is 
quite possible, on tlu^ N'ukon, to raise the ordinary garden 
vegetables which are of (piick growth and not particularly 
susce|)tible to frost. This may ultimattly be a matter of 
considerable ini|)()rtance, as it will be somi) years, and trans- 
portation facililies will luive to be vastly improved, bi'fore 
fresh vegetables can be taken into tlic country in the quan- 
tity needed. 

All persons going in to the mineral district of the Yu- 
kon w(uild do well to ])rovide themselves with a few garden 
^k'<''(\^ of (he hardy and (|ui<'k-growing varieties of vcgc- 
tabl(>s, such as lettuce, radishes, ln-als. turnips, green peas 
and the like. The ))roduce woidd be worth, literally, their 
weight in gold, if not for sale, to the grower liims<'lf. The 
])robabilities are strong that such seeds would grow and 
produce eatable vegetables where the poli is good. 



6-S 



So 



GUIDK TO THE KLONDIKE. 



CHAPTER VIII. 



GAME AND FISH. 

Game is far less abundant than it was before mining be- 
gan; and it is diflieult, in fact impossible, to get any, except 
ducks and geese, close to the river. On the uplands, fifteen 
or twenty miles up the small streams, vast herds of caribou 
used to wander, but they are becoming scarcer year by year. 
Moose, which were very numerous along the river a few 
years since, are now seldom seen there. According to Mr. 
Ogilvie, there are two species of caribou in the country, one 
the ordinary kind, found in most parts of the Northwest 
and said to much resemble the reindeer; the other called the 
"wood caribou," a much larger and more beautiful animal. 
Excepting that its antlers are smaller, it closely resembles 
the elk. The ordinary caribou runs in herds, often 
numbering hundreds. It is easily approached, and 
when fired at jumps around awhile as though unde- 
cided what to do; it then runs a short distance, but 
as likely toward the hunter as from him, stops again, 
and so on for a number of times. At last, after 
many of them have been killed, the remainder start 
on a continuous run, and probably do not stop until they 
have covered twenty or thirty miles. When the Indians 
find a herd they surround it, gradually contracting the 
circle thus formed, when the animals, being too timid to 
escape by a sudden rush, are slaughtered wholesale. 

There are four species of bear found in the district — the 
grizzly, brown, black and a small kind, called by the miners 
the "silver-tip," the latter being gray in color, with a white 
throat and beard, hence its name. It is said to be very fierce, 



game; and fish. 



Si 



and Indians and white men both give them a wide berth, 
unless specially well armed. Wolves are scarce; a few only 
of the common gray ones being seen in the country. 

The common rabbit or hare is in some seasons quite 
plentiful; at other seasons they are rare. The Arctic hare 
is occasionally seen. 

Mountain sheep and mountain goats exist through- 
out the entire section of the country, but, as they 
frequent the mountains, they are seldom seen from the bank 
of the river. Wild geese and ducks are extremely plentiful 
during the season. A shotgun is an indispensible article of 
equipment for this reason. More gane will be secured by 
it than by the rifle. 

Accounts as to the fishing in Alaska differ greatly. Men 
who have passed many years in the country report fish as 
abundant and the fishing excellent. Mr. Ogilvie, however, 
in his report to the Dominion government, says that with 
the exception of a small species, locally called the Arctic 
trout, fish are not numerous. This so-called trout seldom 
exceeds ten inches in length, and has fins very large for its 
size, which give it, when in motion, the appearance of hav- 
ing wings. Its dorsal fin is very large, being fully half the 
length of the body and very high. It is of a brownish gray 
color on the back and sides and lighter on the belly. It is 
found in large quantities in the upper part of the river, espe- 
cially where the current is swift, and takes any kind of bait 
greedily. The llesh is somewhat soft and not very palatable. 
Lake trout are caught in the lakes. They take a troll bait 
readily. The largest will weigh six or seven pounds. Sal- 
mon ascend the river as high as Lake Labarge, but arc gen- 
erally in poor condition when they reach that point. Dur- 
ing the season of 1895 the salmon run all along the river 
was light. Indirectly the light run of salmon was responsi- 
ble for the discovery of the Klondike, for Cormack, the 
first discoverer of the rich deposits, went pros])ecting up 
the river because the salmon fishery, in which he was en- 
gaged, proved to be unprofitable. 



8a 



GUIDE TO THE KLONDIKE. 



CHAPTER IX. 



COAL AND QUARTZ. 

Both coal ami quartz ledges have been discovered on the 
Upper Yukon, in Northwest Territory, within the past year, 
the former of which will go far toward settling the fuel 
problem in that section, while the latter insures a perma- 
nent mining population, even after the placers are ex- 
hausted, if ev(?r. In regard to the coal discoveries, Mr. 
Ogilvie's report reads as follows: "A couple of coal claims 
have been staked and applied for, which I will survey in the 
spring, and at the same time make an examination of the 
coal area where they are. I may anticipate this to a certain 
extent by saying that a few days after I reported to you last 
fall I went up Coal Creek to search for this coal, to which 
I referred in my report of 1887 and 1888. I found it about 
seven miles up the creek, overlaying a coarse sandstone and 
under drift clay and gravel. The seam is 12 feet 6 inches 
thick. It seems to me to be of a good quality of lignite. I 
have packed out thirty or forty pounds of the best specimens 
I found a few feet in and will send them to you in the spring 
that a test may be made. That exposure has now been 
staked and ap])lied for to the agent here. Both exposures 
furnisli, so far as external features show, the same chai - 
acter of coal and are about the same level, so that it is fair 
to assume that they are the same seam. I will make a search 
in the intervening distance to determine this when I make 
a survey of the claims. Coal is reported in the drift on 
Chandinn, about thirty miles up the river from here, which, 
would go to show that there is another area or continuation 



COM, AND QUARTZ. 



83 



of this one there." This report was under date of January 
8,1896. 

In a later report, under date of June 6, Mr. Ogilvio re- 
cords other discoveries made. An expert in the employ of 
N. A. T. & T. Co. discovered extensive deposits of coal on 
Twelve-Mile Creek, about twenty miles above its mouth. 

Prospecting for quartz has never been carried on to any 
extent, or in fact at all, until within the last two years. The 
recent rich discoveries in the Klondike will serve to give 
an impetus to prospecting in this direction, especially since 
it is known that some discoveries of good gold-bearing 
quartz have been made. The theory still finds plenty of 
adherents among mining men that all gold found in river 
benches and bars comes from quartz ledges, disintegrated 
by weather and water, and the gold deposited, nature acting 
in this matt(!r precisely as art does in the extraction of gold 
from free-milling ore. I^* this theory be correct, the original 
ledge from which the gold in the Klondike came would be 
the wonder of the world when found. So far, however, the 
quartz ledges which have been found are of low grade, and 
require capital on a large scale to be enlisted before they 
can be profitably worked. The mountains which hem in 
the valley of Sixty-Mile Creek are composed principally of 
quartz and schists, which no doubt originally held the gold 
found in the valleys. If thoroughly prospected, as undoubt- 
edly they will be within the next few years, some wonderful 
discoveries may be made. 

In the early part of 1896 the most important quartz 
discovery so far made on the Yukon was struck in Cone 
hill, which stands midway in the valley of Forty-^nie river, 
two miles above its junction with the Yukon. The quantity 
in sight rivals the Treadwell, and the quality is better, so 
much so that it is thought it will paj to work, even at the 
present high rate of wages. The whole hill is of metallifer- 



84 GUIDE TO THE Kl,ONDlKB. 

ous rock. Assays of the Cone hill quartz are reported to be 
good, but their values have not been published. Five tone 
of the rock have been shipped out for a mill test. 

An expert in the employ of the N. A. T. & T. Co. found 
a ledge of gold-bearing quartz in the spring of 1895 on 
Twelve-Mile Creek, about two miles up, and located two full 
claims on it. He reported to Mr. Ogilvie that the assay he 
had made of the specimens of it was much more satisfactory 
than that of Cone Hill, and that on this ledge was where 
quartz mining should commence in the Yukon country with 
no fears of the result. 

Copper has been found near Fort Eeliance, and some 
specimens of native copper have been brought in from the 
head of White River, near the international boundary line, 
but on which side is not yet known. Some poor specimens 
of asbestos has been found in the vicinity of Fort Cudahy, 
but none as yet of commercial value. Sufficient from this, 
however, appears to warrant much further prospecting for 
ledges of quartz. 




CANADIAN GOVERNMENT'S OPl'REvSSIVE I'OMCY. 



85 



CHAPTER X. 



CANADIAN GOVERNMENT'5 OPPRESSIVE 

POLICY. 



rv^ 



The Klondike, Stewart and Indian Rivers and their 
tributaries, to which attention is now being so largely at- 
tracted, and from the former of which such enormous 
amounts of gold have already been extracted by a relatively 
small number of men, lie wholly within British territory, 
being part of the Northwest Territory. These districts, 
as, indeed, all of the other mineral districts upon the Yu- 
kon, were discovered and opened to the world almost ex- 
clusively by American prospectore. They opened the passes, 
which had always before been jealously guarded by a power- 
ful and warlike band of coast Indians; they whipsawcd lum- 
ber out of tlie trees and built boats, or lashed logs together 
in rafts, and, launching themselves upon the waters of a 
practically unknown stream, descended it for hundreds of 
miles, and ascended hundreds of its trilnitaries for a dis- 
tance aggregating thousands of miles. Along the rapids 
and canyons of the Upper Yukon are the graves of dozens 
of such prospectors, who lost their lives in braving the un- 
known torrents. Up to the present time none of this work 
of exploration has been aided l)y a dollar of government 
money from any source. Nearly a decade passed in this 
work before really profitable mines were discovered. As 
soon as it developed that in this unknown wilderness a 
handful of American pioneers liad o|<ened a new gold region, 
the Canadian government sent in surveyors to locate the 
international boundary line. It proved lliat >ome of the 



86 



GUIDK TO THE KtOXDIKK. 



claims were in Canadian territory. Forthwith a detachment 
of mounted police and a gold conimisaioner appeared upon 
the ground, accompanied hy customs oilieers. Each miner 
was i)roini)tly taxed the sum of lil'teen dollars as a fee for 
his license, and one hundred dollars anmially thereafter; 
while the customs oilieers proceeded to collect duties from 
the goods im|)orted into the country to feed the mining 
])opulatiou. This was naturally to be expected, and no com- 
l>laint was heard from the miners. 

When the news of the wonderfully rich discoveries on 
the Klondike went forth, the Dominion govern nient at 
once proceeded to consider measures hy which some con- 
siderable jiortion of the wealth which the miners Wti'e pro- 
ducing might be turiunl into the Dominion coll'ei's. Vari- 
ous schemes havt> been jjrojiosed. The one which has 
received the most favorable considci-ation, and which, in- 
deed, it has lu'cn announced the honiinion cabinet has de- 
cided upon, is to is>ue orders in council imposing a royalty 
of ten ])er cent. u|>on the gross product of all mining claims 
which i)roduce live hundred dollars ])er montii or upwards, 
and twenty ])er cent, on mines whose ])roduct is in excess 
of that amount. ^i'his is in addition to the $100 a year 
license fee. It is also ))ro])osed to reserve eacli alternate 
claim to the government. The only o))jections which the 
Canadian government are considering to this pro])osed pol- 
icy is the extreme diliiculty to b<' found in collecting the 
revenue, and in learning what the amount of product of 
each claim might be without a resort to inquisitorial meas- 
ures which would create intense friction. The question at 
present turns whether this roy^ilty shall be imposed or 
whether the same result may be arrivt^d at by the imposition 
of an export duty on gold. 

They have also stationed customs officers at the in- 
ternational boundary line to collect duty from all Ameri- 



CANADIAN C.OVKRNMKNT'S OPI'RILSSIVK POI.KY. 



«7 



can miners npon their personal outfits of food and clothing, 
wliich they are compelled to take with tliem into the coun- 
try. As long as the American exploration of the country 
in search of gold brought nothing to the exi)lorers except 
hardsiiip, suH'ering and often death, the country was freely 
o[)ened to them, and they were encouraged to do a work of 
exploration and prosi)ccting, which will directly and in- 
directly result in adding countless millions of dolhirs in 
value to Canadian territory, and which will result in the 
building up in a region which had heretofore ranked as a 
desolate waste, of settled communities, witii thousands of 
inhabitants. They have created in Canadian territory, or 
at least they have opened to the world, an industry which 
will result in a golden stream being poured out to the world 
for generations to come. 

This work of exploration and exploitation having been 
successfully accom])lishod; the eyes of the world having 
been opened to the riches of the Yukon ])ortion of the 
Xorthwest Territory, and the stream of immigration having 
been turned that way in such a resistless volume that noth- 
ing can arrest its onward flow, the Canadian government 
now proceeds to ''cinch" the American miners and pros- 
pectors in a manner which has never been witnessed in a 
civilized country. The Boers of South Africa did not en- 
courage English miners to exploit the mineral wealth of the 
Transvaal; they protested against it; they did not invite, but 
endeavored to repel the immigration which resulted in un- 
veiling the riches of South Africa. Yet their treatment of 
the British miners in South Africa was liberality itself as 
compared to the manner in which the Canadian govern- 
ment has elected to treat the explorers, prospectors and 
miners of the Xorthwest Territory. In literal sober fact, 
without the faintest exaggeration, their conduct in this re- 
spect is precisely what might have been exi)ected from the 



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88 



GUIDE TO THE KLONDIKE. 



wild chief of a South African negro tribe, who had force 
sufficient to carrj^ out his plans. The Canadians plead re- 
taliation as a possible excuse for this action. They claim 
that the laws of the United States which forbid an alien 
from acquiring title to mining property are justification for 
the imposition of this enormous income tax upon American 
miners in Canada. If retaliation is the plea, why not retali- 
ate in kind, by excluding American miners who refuse to 
take the oath of allegiance to the British crown? The 
answer to this is simple. They did not exclude American 
miners from the country, for the good and sufficient reason 
that, had this been done, their mineral country would Jiever 
have been explored and opened for generations to come. 
They preferred to encourage the Americans to invest their 
brains, their capital and their energies in opening to 
the world the Canadian mines, and then to relieve 
them of a heavy percentage of their hard-earned wealth 
on the plea of retaliation against a law, which in prac- 
tical effect never excluded a British-born subject from 
the ownership of a foot of American mineral land; 
for the courts were always opened, and the naturalization 
oath is a meaningless form to many who have sought our 
shores, and to none more than those who claim England and 
Canada as their native homes. 



the; AMERICAN MINES. 



89 



CHAPTEK XI. 



11- 



THE AMERICAN MINE5. 

Whilp Klondike is now engaging the attention of the 
majority of those who are seeking the Yukon, it should not 
be forgotten that up to the time of the accidental discovery 
of the Klondike by an American miner, it was the mines 
on the American side of the boundary line which were pro- 
ducing the greatest wealth. On the upper creeks of Sixty- 
Mile and Forty-Mile, within the boundaries of Alaska, are 
placer mines by the hundred, which in any other country 
in the world would be considered as fortunes to the lucky 
owners. Down the river from Dawson City 240 miles, ia 
Circle City. A short porage from the Yukon at this point 
will bring one into the headwaters of Birch Creek. There 
are dozens of tributary streams in this creek from which 
gold has been extracted in large quantities. Hundreds of 
claims have paid as high as $40 a day to every man em- 
ployed; and claims which ran as low as an ounce or $16 a 
day were not looked at. Far down the Yukon, the Koya- 
kuk, one of the most important tributaries of the lower 
river, has its mouth. On this stream, for some years past, 
the Indians, working with crude rockers, made in imitation 
of those used by the white men, have been taking out ten 
to fifteen dollars a day to the man. Last summer a small 
party of miners from Circle City went down to prospect 
this river. When returning miners from the Klondike were 
passing down this river on the steamer tliey were hailed 
from the bank by one of this party, who wished to send out 
mail. lie was told of the rich strikes on the Klondike, and 



90 



GUIDE TO THP: KI.ONDIKE. 



in turn told of equally rich strikes made by his party. 
There is no improbability about this story, and a few weeks' 
time will probably prove or disprove it. Whether this par- 
ticular story be true or not, it is absolutely unquestioned 
that there are on the American side of the international 
boundary thousands of claims on which good wages can be 
made, and hundreds are known which in a very few years' 
working would yield fortunes to their owners. 

The writer stated in a preceding paragraph that the 
upper creeks of Forty-Mile were in American territory. As 
a matter of fact, there is a strong probability that the entire 
creek, from its mouth up, is American. Only a short dis- 
tance from the mouth up is claimed by the Canadian au- 
thorities to be within their borders. 

A recent report of the United States surveyors as to the 
boundary line in this connection said: "In substance these 
determinations throw the diggings at the mouth of Forty- 
Mile Creek within the territory of the United States. The 
whole valley of tliis rich creek is also in the United States. 
Most of the gold is to the west of the crossing of the one 
hundred and forty-first meridian at Forty-Mile Creek. If 
M'e produce the one hundred and forty-first meridian on a 
chart, the mouth of Miller's Creek, a tributary of Sixty-Mile 
Creek, and a valuable gold region, is five miles in a direct 
line, or seven miles according to the winding of the stream, 
all within the territory of the United States. In substance, 
the only places in the Yukon region where gold in quantity 
has been found are all to the west of the boundary line be- 
tween Canada and the United States." 

"The gold," said General Duflfield, Superintendent of 
the United States Coast and Geodetic Survey, in discussing 
the question, "has been ground out of the quartz by the 
pressure of the glaciers which lie and move along the 
courses of the streams, exerting a tremendous pressure. 



THE AMERICAN MINKS. 



91 



The force is present to a more appreciable extent in Alaska 
than elsewhere, and I believe that, as a consequence, more 
placer gold will be found in that region than in any other 
part of the world.'' 

General Duffield thinks the hunters on the American 
side have made the mistake of prospecting the large streams 
instead of the small ones. "When gold is precipitated," 
he said, "it sinks. It does not float fax- down stream. It is 
therefore to be looked for along the small creeks and about 
the headwaters of the larger tributaries of the Yukon. 
There is no reason why as rich finds may not be made on the 
American side of the line as in the Klondike region." 

Again, it must be remembered that the value of a placer 
claim depends to a great extent upon the number of men 
who can profitably be put to work upon it. The gross tax 
levied by the Canadian government upon the products of 
Canadian placers will render it unprofitable to employ men 
upon any except the richest of the mines. For example, a 
claim which paid twenty dollars a day to the man would 
produce, worked by one man, enough to render its owner 
liable to the twenty per cent penalty. For every man he 
employed he would be compelled to pay to the government 
a monthly tax of one hundred and four dollars, in addition 
to wages. With wages at fifteen dollars a day, the net result 
to the owner of a Canadian claim paying twenty dollare a 
day to the man would be just ten dollars; in other words, 
the claim would be unprofitable to work except alone and 
single-handed, until at least wages reach a very much lower 
level. On the American side of the line claims of the same 
class, at the same rate of wages, would net to the owner $130 
a month for every man employed. Claims producing less 
than $20 a day on the Canadian side of tlie lino will be 
practically valueless for many years to come. Xot only 
this, but in other respects the American mining laws are 



92 



GUIDB TO THE KI^ONDIKE. 



more liberal. In Northwest Territory claims are limited to 
five hundred feet in length. A license fee of fifteen dollars 
a year is imposed for the first year and after that a fee of 
one hundred dollars a year. Neither has a miner any vested 
interest in the mine. He simply has a license from the 
government which is good for but one year. After the year 
runs on it will have to be renewed. In the meantime addi- 
tional restrictions such as those recently imposed, may be 
put on at any time. The royalty may be doubled, or the 
license fee raised to five hundred dollars a month, in par- 
ticularly rich districts. There is absolutely no security for 
capital or labor invested in any placer mining proposition 
in the Northwest Territory for any longer period of time 
than one year from the date of the original location. 

On the American side of the line the general mining 
laws of the United States are in force. These permit the 
entry of twenty acres of land except in cases where the 
miners of a district, by adoption of local regulations of their 
own, limit the amount of the claim. The only expense or 
tax connected with it is the payment of a recording fee, the 
amount fixed by the miners themselves, to the recorder of 
the district elected by themselves. Subject to further local 
regulations prescribed by the miners of a district, a man's 
right to a claim attaches the instant he files, and no law of 
the United States could ever be passed to divest him of that 
right, or to impose further restrictions upon him than were 
contained in the law at the time he filed. Should he desire 
to do so, he can, after expending five hundred dollars' worth 
of work on a claim, have it surveyed and can receive a patent 
from the United States to it. No license fees are extorted 
from him; the claim is his, and no royalty is or ever can be 
imposed upon the gold which he takes out. 

It would seem clear that in the present rush to the 
Yukon gold fields, men who really desire to acquire placer 



THE AMERICAN MINEvS. 



93 



mining property for their own use and benefit, and not for 
the benefit of the Canadian Government, will exercise a wise 
discretion if they confine their prospecting and locating to 
the American side of the international boundary, where 
there are placers rich enough to satisfy any moderate ambi- 
tion, and where there may be new Klondikes discovered any 
day which will rival or surpass the discoveries made in 
Northwest Territory last year. 









94 



r.UIDE To THE KLONDIKE. 



CHAPTEE XII. 



THE DISEASES TO BE GUARDED AGAINST. 

As a final word to those who have made up their minds 
to sojourn for a few years on the Yukon, in the hope of 
acquiring wealth, some information about the diseases 
which are prevalent in the country and against which pre- 
cautions will have to be taken may not be amiss. This 
information is contained in the report of Assistant Surgeon 
A. E. Wills, who was stationed at Fort Cudahy, with the 
detachment of Canadian mounted police. The climate in 
summer is wet. The rainfall last summer (1895) was heavy. 
Although there is almost continuous sunlight during the 
summer, evaporation is very slow, owing to the thick moss, 
which will not conduct heat, in consequence of which the 
ground is always swampy. It is only after several years of 
draining that the ground will become sufficiently dry to 
allow the frost to go out, and then only for a few feet. Dur- 
ing the winter months the cold is intense, with usually con- 
siderable wind. A heavy mist rising from open places in 
the river settles down in some of the valleys in calm, ex- 
tremely cold weather. This dampness makes the cold felt 
much more and is conducive to rheumatic pains, colds, etc. 

Miners are a very mixed class of people. They represent 
many nationalities and come from all climates. Their lives 
are certainly not enviable. The regulation "miner's cabin" 
is twelve by fourteen feet, with walls six feet and gables 
eight feet in height. The roof is heavily earthed and the 
cabin is generally very warm. Two and sometimes three 
or four men will occupy a house of this size. The ventila- 



THE DISKASKS TO UK OlARDKn AGAINST. 



95 



tion is usually bad. The minors who do not work their 
claims during the winter confine tliemselvcs in these small 
huts most of the time. 

Very often they become indolent and careless, only eat- 
ing those things which are most easily cooked or prei)ar{Hl. 
During the busy time in summer when they are ''shoveling 
in," they work hard and for long hours, sparing littk? time 
for eating and still less for cooking. This manner of living 
is quite common among beginners, and soon leads to debility 
and sometimes to scurvy. Old miners have learned from 
experience to value health more than gold and they there- 
fore spare no expense in procuring the best and most varied 
outfit of food that can be obtained. In a cold climate such 
as this, where it is impossible to get fresh vegetables and 
fruits, it is most important that the best substitutes for these 
should be provided. Nature helps to supply these wants by 
growing cranberries and other wild fruits in abundance, 
but men in summer are too busy to avail themselves of these. 

The diseases met with in the country are dyspepsia, 
anaemia, scurvy, caused by improperly cooked food, same- 
ness of diet, overwork, want of fresh vegetables, overheated 
and badly ventilated houses; rheumatsm, pneumonia, bron- 
chitis, enteritis, cystitis and other acute diseases from ex- 
posure and wet; debility and chronic diseases, due to ex- 
cesses. Venereal diseases are not uncommon. One case of 
typhoid fever occurred at Forty-Mile last fall, probably due 
to drinking water polluted with decayed vegetable matter. 

Men who intend to go to the Yukon gold country should 
be sober, strong and healthy. They should be practical 
men, able to adapt themselves to their surroundings. Spe- 
cial care should be taken to see that their lungs are sound, 
that they are free from rheumatism and rheumatic tenden- 
cies, and that their joints, especially their knee joints, are 
sound and have never been weakened by injury or disease. 



7-S 



95 



GUIDK TO THK KI^ONDIKE. 



It is also important to consider the temper. Men should 
be of cheerful, hopeful dispositions and willing to work. 
Those of sullen, morose natures, although they may be good 
miners, arc very apt, as soon as the novelty of the country 
wears off, to become dissatisfied, pessimistic and melancholy. 



COIS^CLUSION. 

Seattle bankers and merchants are prepared to buy all 
the gold which comes down from the mines at its actual 
mint value. Some of the banks have already procured 
the services of expert assay ers, so that this value may be 
determined. A strong effort is on foot to have a govern- 
ment assay office established in this city. If this is done, 
as there seems every reason to believe will be done at the 
next session of congress, every dollar of the gold which 
comes out from the Klondike next season, and which 
reaches Seattle by the transportation lines, will be pur- 
chased in this city. All of this gold, with the exception of 
unimportant amounts, will come down the Yukon, and out 
by the way of St. Michael's. Whatever the route for going 
into the mining country may be, the "all-watei-" route is 
the one wixich miners with gold will adopt in leaving the 
country. 



APPENDIX. 



97 



APPENDIX. 



TABLE OF DISTANCES. 



VIA CHILKOOT PASS. 

Miles. 

Seattle to Dyea 884 

Dyea to Foot of Canyon 7 

Canyon to Sheep Camp 5 

Sheep Camp to Summit 3 

Summit to Lake Lindeman 9 

Lake Lindeman (length) 6 

Portage to Lake Bennett 1 

Lake Bennett (length) 25.8 

Cariboo Crossing to Lake Tagish 2.7 

VIA WHITE'S PASS. 

Seattle to Skaguay 884 

Dyea to Tako Arm 35 

Tako Arm to Lake Tagish 20 

Tagish Lake (length) 16.6 

River to Lake Marsh 5 

Lake Marsh (length) 20 

Head of Lake Marsh to Miles Canyon 23 

Miles Canyon to White Horse Rapids ^V* 

White Horse Rapids % 

Foot of White Horse Rapids to Tahkeena River 13 

Tahkeena River to Lake Le Barge HV^ 

Lake Le Barge (length) 31 

Lake Le Barge to Hootalinqua River 27i^ 

Hootalinqua River to Big Salmon River 

Big Salmon River to Little Salmon River 

Little Salmon River to Five Fingers 

Five Fingers to Pelly River 

Pelly River to White River 

White River to Stewart River 



31 
34 
53 
55 
9 
9 



98 



OUIDK To THE KI.ONDIKK. 



Miles. 

Stewart River to Sixty-Mile River 21 

Sixty-Mile River to Dawson City 49 

Dawson City to Forty-Mile 52 

Forty-Mile to Fort Cudahy % 

Fort Cudahy to Circle City 240 

Total Dyea to Circle City via Chilkoot Pass 762.6 

Total Skaguay to Circle City via White's Pass 759.1 

VIA ST. MICHAEL'S AND YUKON RIVER. 

Seattle to St. Michael's 3000 

St. Michael's to Kutlik 100 

Kutlik to Andreafski 125 

Andreasfki to Holy Cross 145 

Holy Cross to Koserefsky 5 

Koserefsky to Anvik 75 

Anvik to Nulato 225 

Nulato to Narikatat 145 

Narikatat to Janana 80 

Janana to Fort Yukon , 450 

Fort Yukon to Circle City 80 

Circle City to Forty-Mile 240 

Forty-Mile to Dawson City 52 



USEFUL NOTES FOR MINERS. 

Gold and silver are bought and sold by Troy weight: 24 
grains 1 pennyweight, 20 pennyweights 1 ounce, 12 ounces 1 
pound. 

The price established by the United States government for 
pure gold is $20.67 per ounce. That is for gold 1,000 fine or 24 
karats. 

The term karat is used by jewelers to express the degrees 
of fineness of gold, dividing it into 24 degrees or karats. 

Pure gold is 24 karats fine and worth $20.67 per ounce. 
22 karat gold..$18.94 16 karat gold..$13.78 10 karat gold..$8.61 
20 " " .. 17.22 14 '• " .. 12.05 8 " " .. 6.89 

18 " " .. 15.50 12 " " .. 10.33% 6 " " .. 6.16 



APPENDIX. 



99 



Gold in jewelry is seldom less than 6 karats fine 



Per oz. 
Gold 1000 fine is worth ?20.67. 

Gold 900 18.60 

Gold 800 16.53 

Gold 700 14.47 

Gold 600 " " " 12.40 



Per oz. 
Gold 500 fine is worth $10.33 

Gold 400 8.26 

Gold 300 " •* " 6.20 

Gold 200 4.13 

Gold 100 " " " 2.06 



Many persons are mistaken in thinking all ounces to be 
alike. An ounce Troy or Apothecaries' weight contains 480 Troy 
grains. An ounce Avoirdupois weight contains 437i/^ Troy 
grains. 

The grain is the unit of Troy and Apothecaries' weight, 
and the ounce is the unit of the Avoirdupois weight. 

One pound Troy or Apothecaries' weight contains 5,760 
Troy grains. One pound Avoirdupois weight cuxilains 7,000 
Troy Grains. 

All natural gold— that is, gold extracted fron rocks or 
washed from the beds of streams— contains sor* ' alloy , gener- 
ally silver, but sometimes platinum, copper and telluriam, and 
it varies in amount in different localities. This if tht. reason 
some liuaers are disappointed when they sell their gold, as they 
imagine all gold to be pure. 



SEATTLE PRICE LIST. 

Following are the retail market prices in Seattle on August, 
5, 1897, for the provisions and hardware which go to make up 
a Yukon miner's outfit: 

Flour, per sack of 50 pounds, ?1.10. 

Bacon, S^^c to ll%c per pound. 

Beans, 2c per pound. 

Rolled oats, 3c to 3i^c per pound. 

Tea, 25e to $1.00 per pound (sealed in cans). 

Coffee, 15c to 35c per pound (sealed in cans). 

Sugar, 5^^c per pound. 

Evaporated potatoes, 20c per pound. 

Evaporated onions, 50c per pound. 

Salt, Ic. 

Pepper, 25c. 

Evaporated fruits, 8c to 10c. 

Rice, 5c, best quality. 



^lia-:^^J:.£^feaMgKBir, . 



lOO 



GUIDE TO THE KLONDIKE. 



HARDWARE. 

Yukon stove, $6.50. 

Gold pan, 35c to 50c. 

Axes, handled, lpl.25. 

6-inch files, 10c. 

Picks with handle, ?1.25 to $2.25. 

Shovel, $1.00. 

Drawing knife, 60c to $1.00. 

Jackpiane, 75c. 

Hammer, 50c. 

Whipsaw, $4.50 to $6.00. 

Nails, 4c per pound. 

Yukon sleds, $6.00. 



PLACER MINING REGULATIONS IN FORCE ON THE YU- 
KON RIVER AND ITS TRIBUTARIES IN 
NORTHWEST TERRITORIES. 

The following are the placer mining regulations which ap- 
ply to the Clondyke and other mining districts on the Canadian 
side of the line: 

NATURE AND SIZE OF CLAIMS. 

1. Bar diggings, a strip of land 100 feet wide at higii- 
water mark and thence extending into the river to its lowest 
water level. 

2. The sides of a claim for bar diggings shall be two 
parallel lines run as nearly as possible at right angles to the 
stream anu shall be marked by four legal posts, one at each 
end of the claim, at or about high- water mark; also one at 
tj&ch. end of the claim at or about the edge of the water. One 
of the posts at high-water mark shall be legibly marked witli 
the name of the miner and the date upon which the clafm waa 
staked. 

3. Dry diggings shall be 100 feet square, and shall have 
placed at each of its four corners a legal post, upon one of 
which shall be legibly marked the name of the miner and the 
date upon which the claim was staged. 

4. Creek and river claims shall be 500 feet long measured 
in the direction of the general course of the stream, and shall 



APPENDIX 



lOI 



extend in width from base to base of the hill or bench on each 
side, but when the hills or benches are less than 100 feet apart 
the claim may be 100 feet in depth. The sides of a claim shall 
be two parallel lines run as nearly as possible at right angles 
to the stream. The sides shall be marked with legal posts 
at or about the edge of the water and at the rear boundaries of 
the claim. One of the legal posts at the stream shall be legibly 
marked with the name of the miner and the date upon which 
the claim was staked. 

5. Bench claims shall be 100 feet square. 

6. In defining the size of claims they shall be measured 

horizontally, irrespective of inequalities on the surface of the 
ground. 

7. If any person or persons shall discover a new mine, and 
such discovery shall be established to the satisfaction of the 
gold commissioner, a claim for bar diggings 750 feet in length 
may be granted. A new stratum or auriferous earth or gravel 
situated in a locality where the claims are abandoned shall for 
this purpose be deemed a new mine, although the same locality 
shall have been previously worked at a different level. 

8. The forms of application for a grant for placer mining 
and the grant of the same shall be those contained in forms 
"H" and "I" in the schedule hereto. 

9. A claim shall be recorded with the gold commissioner 
in whose district it is situated within three days after the loca- 
tion thereof, if it is located within ten miles of the commission- 
er's office. One extra day shall be allowed for making such 
record for every additional ten miles or fraction thereof. 

10. In the event of the absence of the gold commissioner 
from his office, entry for a claim may be granted by any person 
whom he may appoint to perform his duties in his absence. 

11. Entry shallnot be granted for a claim which has not 
been staked by the applicant in person in the manner specified 
in these regu^.^'ons. An affidavit that the claim was staked 
out by the applicant shall be embodied in form "H" of the 
schedule hereto. 

12. An entry fee of $15.00 shall be charged for the first year 
and an annual fee of $100.00 for each of the following years. 
This provision shall apply to locations for which entries have 
already been granted. 

13. After the recording of a claim the removal of any post 



I02 



GUIDE TO THE KLONDIKE. 



by the holder thereof or by any person acting in his behalf 
for the purpose of changing the boundaries of his claim shall 
act as a forfeiture of the claim. 

14. The entry of every holder for a grant for placer mining 
must be renewed and his receipt relinquished and replaced 
every year. The entry fee being paid each year. 

15. No miner shall receive a grant for more than one min- 
ing claim in the same locality, but the same miner may hold 
any number of claims by purchase, and any number of miners 
may unite to work their claims in common upon such terms as 
they may arrange, provided such agreement be registered with 
the gold commissioner and a fee of $5.00 paid for each regis- 
tration. 

16. Any miner or miners may sell, mortgage or dispose 
of his or their claims, provided such disposal be registered with 
a fee of $2.00 paid to the gold commissioner, who shall there- 
upon give the assignee a certificate in form "J" in the schedule 
hereto. 

17. Every miner shall during the continuance of his grant 
have the exclusive right of entry upon his own claim, for the 
miner-like working thereof, and the construction of a residence 
thereon, and shall be entitled exclusively to all the proceeds 
realized therefrom; but he shall have no surface rights therein; 
and the gold commissioner may grant to the holders of adjacent 
claims such right of entry thereon as may be absolutely necesr 
sary for the working of their claims, upon such terms as may 
to him seem reasonable. He may also grant permits to miners 
to cut timber thereon for their own use, upon payment of the 
dues prescribed by the regulations in that behalf. 

18. Every miner shall be entitled to the use of so much 
of the water naturally flowing through or pae*^. his claim, and 
not already lawfully appropriated, as shall, in the opinion of 
the gold commissioner be necessary for the due working there- 
of; and shall be entitled to drain his own claim free of charge. 

19. A claim shall be deemed to be abandoned and open 
to occupa^^'on and entry by any person when the same shall 
have remained unworked on working days by the grantee there- 
of or by some person on his behalf for the space of seventy-two 
hours, unless sickness or other reasonable cause be shown to 
the satisfaction of the gold commissioner, or unless the grantee 



APPENDIX. 



103 



is absent on leave given by the commissioner, and the gold 
commissioner, upon obtaining evidence satisfactory to himself 
that this provision i° not being complied with, may cancel the 
entry given for claim. 

20. If the land upon which a claim has been located is 
not the property of the crown, it will be necessary for the 
person who applied for entry to furnish proof that he has ac- 
quired from the owner of the land the surface rights before 
entry can be granted. 

21. If the occupier of the lands has not received a patent 
therefor, the purchase money of the surface rights must be paid 
to the crown, and a patent of the surface rights will issue to 
the party who acquired the mining rights. The money so col- 
lected will either be refunded to the occupier of the land, when 
he is entitled to a patent therefor, or will be credited to him on 
account of payment for land. 

22. When the party obtaining the mining rights to lands 
cannot make an arrangement with the owner thereof for the 
acquisition of the surface rights, it shall be lawful for him to 
give notice to the owner or his agent or the occupier to appoint 
an arbitrator to act with another arbitrator named by him, in 
order to award the amount of compensation to which the owner 
or occupant shall be entitled. The notice mentioned in this 
section shall be according to form to be obtained upon applica- 
tion from the gold commissioner for the district in which the 
lands in question lie, and shall, when practicable, be personally 
served on such owner, or his agent, if known, or occupant; 
and after reasonable efforts have been made to effect personal 
service without success, then such notice shall be served by 
leaving it at, or sending by registered letter to, the last place 
of abode of the owner, agent or occupant. Such notice shall 
be served upon the owner, or agent, within a period to be fixed 
by the gold commissioner before the expiration of the time 
limited in such notice. If the proprietor refuses or declines 
to appoint an arbitrator, or when, for any other reason, no 
Arbitrator is appointed by the proprietor in the time limited 
therefor in the notice provided for by this section, the gold 
commissioner for the district in which the lands in question 
lie shall, on being satisfied by affidavit that such notice has 
come to the knowledge of such owner, agent or occupant, or 



104 



GUIDE TO THE KI,ONDIKE. 



that such owner, agent or occupant wilfully evades the service 
of such notice, or cannot be found, and that reasonable efforts 
have been made to effect such service, and that the notice was 
left at the last place of abode of such owner, agent or occupant, 
appoint an arbitrator on his behalf. 

23. (a) All arbitrators appointed under the authority of 
these regulations shall be sworn before a Justice of the Peace 
to the impartial discharge of the duties assigned to them, and 
they shall forthwith proceed to estimate the reasonable dam- 
ages which the owner or ooupants of such lands, according to 
their several interests therein, shall sustain by reason of such 
prospecting and mining operations. 

(b) In estimating such damages, the arbitrators shall de- 
termine the value of the land irrespectively of any enhance- 
ment thereof from the existence of minerals therein. 

(c) In case such arbitrators cannot agree ,they may select 
a third arbitrator, and when the two arbitrators cannot agree 
upon a third arbitrator the Gold Commissioner for the district 
in which the lands in question lie shall select such third arbi- 
trator, 

(d) The award of any two such arbitrators made in writ- 
ing shall be final, and shall be filed with the Gold Commis- 
sioner for the district in which the lands lie. 

If any case arise for which no provision is made in these 
regulations, the provisions of the regulations governing the dis- 
posal of mineral lands other than coal lands approved by His 
Excellency the Governor in Council on the 9th of November, 
1889, shall apply. 



FORM "J" 

CERTIFICATE OF THE ASSIGNMENT OF A 

PLACER MINING CLAIM. 



No 

DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR. 

Agency 189. . 

This is to certify that (B. C.) has (or have) filed 

an assignment in due form dated 189 . . , and accom- 
panied by a registration fee of two dollars, of the grant to 
(A. B.) of of the right (insert de- 



APPENDIX. 



105 



189. . , the said (B. C.) shall be enti- 

use of so much of the water naturally flowing 



scription of claim) to mine in 

for one year from 189 . . 

This certificate entitled the said (B. C.) to 

all the rights and privileges of the said (A. B.) in 

respect of the claim assigned, that is to say, to the exclusive 
right of entry upon the said claim for miner-like working 
thereof and the construction of a residence thereon, and the 
exclusive right to all the proceeds therefrom, for the remaining 
portion of the year for which the said claim was granted to the 

said (A. B.) that is to say. until the day 

of 

tied to the — — — , , . ,. , 

through or past his (or their) claim and not already lawfully 
apropriated as shall be necessary for the due working thereof, 
and to drain the claim free of charge. 

This grant does not convey to the said (B. C.) any 

surface rights in said claim, or any rights of ownership in the 
soil covered by said claim, and the said grant shall lapse and 
be forfeited unless the claim is continually, and in good faith, 
worked by the said (B. C.) or his (or their) 

asociates. , tu t\ 

The rights hereby granted are those laid down in the Do- 
minion Mining Regulations, and no more, and are subject to 
all the provisions of the said regulations, whether the same 
are expressed herein or not. 



Gold Commissioner. 



FORM "H." 

APPLIICATION FOR GRANT FOR PLACER MINING 
CLAIM AND AFFIDAVIT OF APPLICANT. 



I (or we) of hereby apply under the 

Dominion Mining Regulations, for a grant of a claim for placer 
mining as defined in the said regulations, in (here describe 

... -, and I 

locality) 

(or we) solemnly swear: 

1. That I (or we) have discovered therein a deposit of (here 

name the metal or mineral.) 

2. That I (or we) aiu (or are) to the best of my (or our) 



if. ; 



liH 



io6 



GUIDE TO THE KI^ONDIKE. 



knowledge and belief, the first discoverer (or discoverers) of 
the said deposit; or, 

3. That the said claim was previously granted to (here 
name the last grantee), but has remained unworked by the 
said grantee for not less than 

4. That I (or we) am (or are) unaware that the land is 
other than vacant Dominion Land. 

5. That I (or we) did, on the day of mark 

out on the ground, in accordance in every particular with the 
provisions of the Mining Regulations for the Yukon River and 
its tributaries, the claim for which I (or we) make this appli- 
cation, and that in so doing I (or we) did not encroach on any 
other claim or mining location previously laid out by any other 
person. 

6. That the said mining claim contained, as nearly as I 

(or we) could measure or estimate, an area of square 

feet, and that the description (and sketch, if any) of this date 
hereto attached, signed by me (or us) sets (or set) forth in 
detail, to the best of my (or our) knowledge and ability, its 
position, form and dimensions. 

7. That I( or we) make this application in good faith, to 
acquire the claim for the sole purpose of mining, prosecuted 
by myself (or us) or by myself and associates, or by my (or 
our) asigns. 

Sworn before me at this day of 

, 189.. 

(Signature) . » 

P^ORM "I." ~" 

GRANT FOR PLACER CLAIM. 



DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR. 

No Agency 189. . 

In consideration of the payment of the fee prescribed by 
Clause 12 of the mining regulations for the Yukon River and 

its Tributaries by (A. B.) of accompanying his 

(r their) application No dated 189. . 

for a mining claim in (here insert description of locality), 

the Minister of the Interior hereby grants to ihe said 

(A. B.) for the term of one year from the date 

hereof the exclusive right of entry upon the claim (here 



APPENDIX. 



107 



describe in detail the claim granted) for the miner-like work- 
ing thereof and the construction of a residence thereon, and 
the exclusive right to all the proceeds realized therefrom. 

The said (A. B.) shall be entitled to the use 

of so much water naturally flowing through or past his (or 
their) claim, and not already lawfully appropriated, as shall 
be necessary for the due working thereof, and to drain his 
(or their) claim, free of charge. 

This grant does not convey to the said (A. B.) 

any surface rights in the said claim, or any right of owner- 
ship in the soil covered by the said claim; and the said grant 
shall lapse and be forfeited unless the claim is continuously 

and in good faith worked by the said (A. B.) or his 

(or their) associates. 

The rights hereby granted are those laid down in the 
aforesaid mining regulations, and no more, and are subject 
to all the provisions of the said regulations, whether the same 
are expressed herein or not. 



Gold Commisioner. 



ALASKA MINING LAWS. 

The Act of Congress of May 17, 1884, providing a civil 
government for Alaska, provides that: "The laws of the 
United States relating to mining claims and the rights in- 
cident thereto, shall, from and after the passage of tliis act, 
be in full force and effect in said district." The further 

mining laws applicable are as follows: 

United States Revised Statutes. — Sec. 2318. In all cases 
lands valuable for minerals shall be reserved from sale, except 
as otherwise expressly directed by law. 

Sec. 2319. All valuable mineral deposits in lands belonging 
to the United States, both surveyed and unsurveyed, are 
hereby declared to be free and open to exploration and pur- 
chase, and the lands in which they are found to occupation 
and purchase, by citizens of the United States and those who 
have declared their intention to become such, under regula- 
tions prescribed by law, and according to the local customs or 
rules of miners in the several mining districts, so far as the 



xo8 



GUIDE TO THE KLONDIKE. 



same are applicable and not inconsistent with the laws of the 
United States. 

Sec. 2320. Mining claims upon veins or lodes or quartz 
or other rock in place, bearing gold, silver, cinnabar, lead, 
tin, copper, or other valuable deposits heretofore located, shall 
be governed as- to length along the vein or lode by the cus- 
toms, regulations, and laws in force at the date of location. 
A mining claim located after the tenth day of May, eighteen 
hundred and seventy-two, whether located by one or more 
persons, may equal, but shall not exceed, one thousand five 
hundred feet in length along the vein or lode; but no location 
of a mining claim shall be made until the discovery of the vein 
or lode within the limits of the claim located. No claim shall 
extend more than three hundred feet on each side of the 
middle of the vein at the surface, nor shall any claim be 
limited by any mining regulation to less than twenty-five feet 
on each side of the middle of the vein at the surface, except 
where adverse rights existing on the tenth day of May, 
eighteen hundred and seventy-two, render such limitation 
necessary. The end lines of each claim shall be parallel to 
each other. 

Sec. 2322. The locators of all mining locations heretofore 
made or which shall hereafter be made, on any mineral vein, 
Icde, or ledge, situated on the public domain, their heirs and 
and assigns, where no adverse claim exists on the tenth day 
of May, eighteen hundred and seventy-two, so long as they 
comply with the laws of the United States, and with state, 
territorial, and local regulations not in conflict with the laws 
of the United States governing their possessory title, shall 
have the exclusive right of possession and enjoyment of all 
the surface included within the lines of their locations, and 
of all veins, lodes, and ledges throughout their entire depth, 
the top of apex of which lies inside of such surface lines 
extended downward vertically, although such veins, lodes, or 
ledges may so far depart from a perpendicular in their course 
downward as to extend outside the vertical side lines of such 
surface locations. But their right of possession to such out- 
side parts of such veins or ledges shall be confined to such 
portions thereof as lie between vertical planes drawn down- 
ward as above described, through the end lines of their loca- 
tions, so continued in their own direction that such planes 



APPENDIX. 



109 



will Intersect such exterior parts of such veins or ledges. 
And nothing in this section shall authorize the locator or 
posession of a vein or lode which extends in its downward 
course beyond the vertical lines of his claim to enter upon 
the surface of a claim owned or possesed by another. 

Sec. 2324. The miners of each mining district may make 
regulations not in conflict with the laws of the United States, 
or with the laws of the state or territory in which the dis- 
trict is situated, governing the location, manner of recording, 
amount of work necessary to hold possession of a mining 
claim, subject to the following requirements: The location 
must be distinctly marked on the ground, so that its bound- 
aries can be readily traced. All records of mining claims 
hereafter made shall contain the name or names of the 
locators, the date of the location, and such description of the 
claim or claims located by reference to some natural object or 
permanent monument as will identify the claim. On each 
claim located after the tenth day of May, eighteen hundred 
and seventy-two, and until a patent has been issued therefor, 
not less than one hundred dollars' worth of labor shall be 
performed or improvements made during each year. On all 
claims located prior to the tenth of May, eighteen hundred 
and seventy-two, ten dollars worth of labor shall he per- 
formed or improvements made by the tenth day of June, 
eighteen hundred and seventy-four, and each year thereafter, 
for each one hundred feet in length along the vein, until a 
patent has been issued therefor; but where such claims are 
held in common, such expenditure may be made upon any 
one claim; and upon a failure to comply with these condi- 
tions, the claim or mine upon which such failure occurred 
shall be opened to relocation in the same manner as if no 
location of the same had ever been made: Provided, That 
the original locators, their heirs, assigns, or legal representa- 
tives, have not resumed work upon the claim after failure 
and before such location. Upon the failure of any one of sev- 
eral co-owners to contribute his proportion of the expendi- 
tures required hereby, the co-owners who have performed the 
labor or made the improvements may, at the expiration of 
the year, give such delinquent co-owner personal notice in 
writing or notice by publication in the newspaper published 
nearest the claim, for at least once a week for ninety days, 



WWI 



no 



GUIDE TO THE KU)NI>IKE. 



and if at the expiration of ninety days after such notice in 
writing or by publication such delinquent should fail or refuse 
to contribute his proportion of the expenditure required by 
this section, his interest in the claim shall become the prop- 
erty of his co-owners, who have made the expenditures. 

Sec, 2336. Where two or more veins Intersect or cross 
each other, priority of title shall govern, and such prior loca- 
tion shall be entitled to all ore or mineral contained within 
the space of intersection; but the subsequent location shall 
have the right of way through the space of intersection for the 
purposes of the convenient working of the mine. And where 
two or more veins unite, the oldest or prior location shall take 
the vein below the point of union, including all the space of 
intersection. 

Sec. 2335. A patent for any land claimed and located for 
valuable deposits may be obtained in the following manner: 
Any person, association, or corporation authorized to locate 
a claim under this chapter, having claimed and located a piece 
of land for such purposes, who has, or have, complied with 
the terms of this chapter, may file in the proper land-offlce an 
aplication for a patent, under oath, showing such compliance, 
together with a plat and field-notes of the claim or claims in 
common, made by or under the direction of the United States 
Surveyor-General, showing accurately the boundaries of the 
claim or claims, which shall be distinctly marked by monu- 
ments on the ground, and shall post a copy of such plat, to- 
gether with a notice of such application for a patent, in a 
conspicuous place on the land embraced in such plat previous 
to the filing of the application for a patent, and shall file an 
affidavit of at least two persons that such notice has been duly 
posed, and shall file a copy of the notice in such land-office, 
and shall thereupon be entitled to a patent for the land, in the 
manner following: The register of the land-office, upon the 
filing of such application, plat, field-notes, notices, and affida- 
vits, shall publish a notice that such application has been 
made, for the period of sixty days, in a newspaper to be by him 
designated as published nearest to such claim; and he shall 
also post such notice in his office for the same period.The 
claimant at the time of filing this aplication, or at any time 
thereafter, within sixty days of publication, shall file with 
the register a certificate of the United States surveyor-general 



ArPKNDIX. 



irr 



that five hiinclred dollars' worth of labor has been expended on 
improvements made upon the claim by himself or grantors; 
that the plat is correct, with such further description by such 
reference to natural objects or permanent monuments as shall 
identify the claim, and furnish an accurate description, to be 
incorporated in the patent. At the expiration of the sixty 
days of publication the claimant shall file his affldavit, showing 
that the plat and notice have been posted in a conspicuous 
place on the claim during such period of publication. If no 
adverse claim shall have been filed with the register and the 
receiver of the proper land-oflice at tlie expiration of ihe sixty 
days of publication, it shall be assumed that the applicant is 
entitled to a patent, upon the payment to the proper officer of 
five dollars per acre, and that no adverse claim exists; and 
thereafter no objection from third parties to the issuance of a 
patent shall be heard, except it be shown that the applicant has 
failed to comply with the terms of this chapter. 

Sec. 2327. The description of vein or lode claims, upon 
surveyed lands, shall designate the location of the claim with 
reference to the lines of the public surveys, but need not con- 
form therewith; but where a patent shall be issued for claims 
upon unsurveyed lands, the surveyor-general, in extending the 
surveys, shall adjust the same to the boundaries of such pat- 
ented claim, according to the plat or description thereof, but 
so as in no case to interfere with or change the location of any 
such patented claim. 

Act of Congress of January 22, 18S0. — An Act to amend 
sections twenty-three hundred and twenty-four and twenty- 
three hundred and twenty-five of the Revised Statutes of the 
United States concerning mineral lands. 

Be it enacted, etc.. That section twenty-three hundred and 
twenty-five of the Revised Statutes of the United States be 
amended by adding hereto the following words: "Provided, 
That where the claimant for a patent is not a resident of or 
within the land district wherein the vein, lode, ledge or de- 
posit sought to be patented is located, the application for pat- 
ent and the affidavits required to be made in this section by 
the claimant for such patent may be made by his, her, or its 
authorized agent, where said agent is conversant with the 
facts sought to be established by said affidavits: And provided, 



tm 



XX9 



GUIDK TO THK Kl,ONDIKK. 



That this section shall api)ly to all applications now ponding 
for patents to mincM-al lands." 

Sof. 2. That section twenty-three hundred and twenty- 
four of the Revised Statutes of the United States be amended 
by adding thereto the following words; "Provided, That the 
period within which the work required to be done annually 
on all unpatented mineral claims shall commence on the first 
day of January succeeding the date of location of such claim, 
and this section shall apply to all claims located since the tenth 
of May, anno Domini eighteen hundred and seventy-two," 

Act of Congress of February 11, 1875. — An act to amend 
section two thousand three hundred and twenty-four of the 
Revised Statutes, relating to the development of the mining 
resources of the United States. 

Bo it enacted, etc., That section two thousand three hun- 
dred and twenty-four of the Revised Statutes be, and the same 
is hereby amended to that where a person or company has or 
may run a tunnel for the purpose of developing a lode or lodes, 
owned by said person or company, the money so expended in 
said tunnel shall be taken and considered as expended on said 
lode or lodes, whether located prior to or since the passage ( 
said act, and such person or company shall not be required to 
perform work on the surface of said lode or lodes in oider to 
hold the same as required by said act. [See page 43. J 

United States Law. — Sec. 2323. Where a tunnel is run for 
the development of a vein or lode, or for the discovery of mines, 
the owners of such tunnel shall have the right of possession 
of all veins or lodes within three thousand feet from the face 
of such tunnel on the line thereof, not previously known to 
exist, discovered in such tunnel, to the same extent as if dis- 
covered from the surface: and locations on the line of such 
tunnel of veins or lodes, not appearing on the surface, made 
by other parties after the commencement of the tunnel, and 
while the same is being prosecuted with reasonable diligence, 

shall be invalid; but failure to prosecute the work on the tunnel 
for six months shall be considered as an abandonment of the 

right to all undiscovered veins on the line of such tunnel. 



PLACER CLAIMS. 
Sec. 2329. Claims usually called "placers," including all 
forms of deposit, excepting veins of* quartz, or other rock in 



APPRNDIX. 



1X3 



place, shall be subject to entry and patent, under like circum- 
stances and conditiohs, and upon similar proceedings, as are 
provided for vein or lode claims; l)ut where the lauds have 
been previously surveyed by the United States, the entry in its 
exterior limits shall conform to the legal subdivisions of the 
public lands. 

United States T.avv,— Sec. 23150. Legal subdivisions of 
forty acres may be subdivided into ten-acre tracts; and two 
or more persons, or associations of persons, having contiguous 
claims of any size, although such claims may be less than ten 
acres each, may make joint entry thereof; but no location of 
a placer-claim, made after the ninth day of July, eighteen 
hundred and seventy, shall exceed one hundred and sixty 
acres for any one person or association of persons, which loca- 
tion shall conform to the United States surveys; and notliing in 
this section contained shall defeat or impair any bona fide pre- 
emption or homestead claim upon agricultural lands, or au- 
thorize the sale of the improvements of any bo.ia fide settler 
to any purchaser. 

Sec. 2331. Where placer-claims are upon surveyed lands, 
and conform to legal subdivisions, no further survey or plat 
shall be required, and all placer mining claims located afler 
the onth of May, eighteen hundred and seventy-two, shall 
conform as near as practicable with the United States system 
of public-land surveys, and the rectangular subdivisions of such 
surveys, and no such location shall Include more than twenty 
acres for each individual claimant; but where placer-claims 
can not be conformed to legal subdivisions, survey and plat 
shall be made as on unsurveyed lands; and where by the seg- 
regation of mineral lands in any legal subdivision a quantity 
of agricultural land less than forty acres remains, such frac- 
tional portions of agricultural land may be entered by any 
party qualified by law, for homestead or pre-emption purposes. 



PLACER CLAIMS CONTAINING LODES. 

United States Law.— Sec. 2333. Where the same person, 
association, or corporation is in posession of a placer-claim, 
and also a vein or lode included within the boundaries there- 
of, application shall be made for a patent for the placer claim, 
with the statement that it includes such vein or lode, and in 
such case a patent shall issue for a placer-claim, subject to the 



114 



GUIDK T0]^THE KI.ONDIKE. 



provisions of this chapter, including such vein or lode, upon 
the payment of five dollars per acre for such vein or lode 
claim, and twenty-flve feet of surface on each side thereof. 
The remainder of the placer claim, or any placer claim not 
embracing any vein or lode claim, shall be paid for at the rate 
of two dollars and fifty cents per acre, together with all costs 
of proceedings; and where a vein or lode, such as is described 
in section twenty-three hundied and twenty, is known to exist 
within the boundaries of a placer-claim, an application for a 
patent for such placer claim which does not include an applica- 
tion for the vein or lode claim shall be construed as a conclu- 
sive declaration that the claimant of the placer claim has no 
right of possession of the vein or lode claim; but where the 
existence of a vein or lode in a placer-claim is not known, a 
patent for the placor-claim shall convey all valuable mineral 
and other deposits within the boundaries thereof. 

United Staies Law. — Sec. 2332. Where such person or as- 
sociation, they and their grantors, have held and worked their 
claims for a period equal to the time prescribed by the statute 
of limitations for mining claims of the State or Territory where 
the same may be situated, evidence of such possession and 
working of the claims for such period shall be sufficient to es- 
tablish a right to a patent thereto under this chapter, in the 
absence of any adverse claim; but nothing in this chapter shall 
be deemed to impair any lien which may have attached in any 
way whatever to any mining claim or property thereto at- 
tached prior to the issuance of a patent. 

United States Law. — Sec. 2321. Proof of citizenship, under 
this chapater, may consist, in the case of an individual, of his 
own affidavit thereof; in the case of an association of persons 
unincorporated, of the affidavit of their authorized agent, made 
on his own knowledge, or upon information and beliel; and in 
the case of a corporation organized under the laws of the 
United States, or of any State or Territory thereof, by the filing 
of a certified copy of their charter or certificate of incorpora- 
tion. 



T.ATKST RULKS I-OR THI-: YUKON 



15 



LATEST RULES FOR THE YUKON. 



[ Since this book has gone to press tlie following has been received :] 

Ottawa, Out., Aug. 13.— Major Walsh, who com- 
inanded the Northwest mounted police during the Riel 
rebellion, has been appointed administrator for the 
Yukon district at a salary of $5,000 a year. 

The department of the interior has forwarded the 
following notice to the Yukon : 

" Clauses 4 and 8 of the regulations governing placer 
mining on the Yukon river and its tributaries arc 
amended by reducing the length of a creek and river 
claim to 100 feet, and the length of a creek and river 
claim to be granted to the discoverer of a new mine to 
200 feet. The fee for the renewal of an entry for a claim 
has been reduced from $ico to $15. 



Seattle Hardware 60. 



(WHOLESALE AND RETAIL) 



819, 821, 823 First Avenue 
Seattle, Washington 



The miners in Alaska must have the best goods 
made. We know what they want and carry in stock at 
all times sufficient goods to meet the largest demands 
that can be made upon us, either at wholesale or retail. 

We are well aware that the demand for miners' sup- 
plies will be enormous. Seattle, because of her com- 
manding situation, must supply the great bulk of the goods 
that go into the Yukon gold fields. We are equally 
confident that in all lines of Hardware, Tools, Guns and 
Ammunition we can meet this unusual demand. The 
fact that our purchases and sales of these goods are vSo 
large enables us to make prices that are always as low as 
good goods can be had anywhere. 

The outfits that we recommend to prospectors going 
to the Yukon have been examined and approved by T. 
S. Ivippy, former Secretary of the Y. M. C. A. of Seattle, 
and who now owns one of the best claims on the Klon- 
dyke. In buying from us, you run no risk of getting 
anything superfluous or useless. 

Send us your orders, or call and see us when in our 
city. 

Seattle Hardware Co. 

819, 821 L 823 First Avenue 

Seattle^ / ^ ^ ^ Washington 



OUR EXPERIENCE 

IN OUTFITTING MINERS 

Covers many years. In fact we are the Pioneer Outfitters 
in the grocery line. Time and experience have prepared 
lis to handle this trade in entire accordance with the wants 
of the Alaska miners. We are prepared to outfit almost 
an army; our establishment heinjjjone of the largest in the 
United States. The essential features of these outfits are 
Lightness in Weight, Greatness in Sustenance. Packages 
specially suited for rough handling ami exj)osure to 
weather. 

We cure the 1888 Brand of Bacon, 
Specially suited to Alaska's climate 

Write us for further information. 

LOUGH, flUGOSTISE & GO. 

Wholesale and Retail 

Grocers and Miners' Outfitters 

815 d 817 First Avenue 

SEATTLE, WASHINGTON 

Seattle Woolen Manufacturing Coi 

PIONEER ALASKA CLOTHING and 
BLANKET MANUFACTURERS 

Having Our Own Mill we can make the special Kxtra Heavy Wookii'f'.oods 
needed for the Yukon. Blanket Clolhinj;- of the heaviest kind: Heavy Wool 
Knit (ioods for the head, hands and feet; Double Woven all wool Mackinaw 
Rlankets, weighing from twelve to twenty po\nids; Mackinaw Suits, the best 
that wool and loom will make. 

DON'T MAKE A MISTAKE BY BUYING A POOR CLOTHINU OUTFIT 

Salesroom ^ ^ 1119 First Avenue, Seattle, Wash, 

If you want to keep posted 
On the Great Alaskan Gold Fields 

THE SEATTLE POST-INTELLIGENCER 

The Largest and Best Daily Paper in the State, 
Special Correspondents on the ground. 

Address JAHES D. HOOE, Jr., flanager 
POST-INTELLIQENCER, = » - - SEATTLE, WASH. 



FORTOE_KLONDIKE 

AND YUKON GOLD FIELDS 

♦TAKETHE^^ 

nortbern Pacific Railway 

Running from St. Paul to the cities on the North Pacific 
Coast. Its line is the DIRECT ROUTE for parties going to 
the Gold Fields. 

Every train has Pullman Cars, Dining Cars, Tourist 
Pullman Cars, and everything conducive to a pleasant trip. 

Before starting West be sure to call on or address any 
of the Northern Pacific Agents as shown below, who will 
give full information in regard to this line as well as the 
Yukon country, and book you through to Dawson City, 
Dyea, Skaguay or any other Alaskan points. 

GENERAL AND DISTRICT PASSENGER AGENTS 

F. A. GROSS. Dist. Pass. Agent 2150 Washington Street, Boston, Mass. 

THOS. HENRY, Can. Tass ifc Fr't Agent r2S St. James vStreet, Montreal, Que. 

J. H. ROfiKRS, Jr , Dist. Pass. Agent 47 S. Third Street, Philadelphia, Pa. 

Iv L. lULIJNClSLKA, Trav Pa.«s Agent 47 So. Third St., Philadelphia. Pa 

WM. G. MASON Dist. Pa.ss. Agent 215 Kllicott Sq , Buffalo, N. V. 

CHAS. K. JOHNSON 817 Carnegie Building, Pittsburgh, Pa. 

WH. WHITAKHR " " " lo:{ Jeffirson Ave, Detroit, Mich. 

J J FKRRY " " " .a Carew Building, Cincinnati, (). 

JNO. K TURNPIR " " " 42 Jack.son Place, Indianapolis, Ind, 

C. Gt. T.EMMON " " " 208 So. Clark St.. Chicago, ni. 

C. CMOKUOUGH " " " 377 Broadway, Milwaukee, Wis. 

P. H. NOKIv " " " 210 Commercial Bldg. St. I.ouis, Mo. 

GKO. D. ROGERS " " " Fourth and Hroadwav, St. Paul, Minn. 

G. W. JONES " " " 503 W. Locust St', Des Moines, la. 

GEO. W. McCASKF;Y" " " ._. Butte, Mont. 

F. O'NEH.L " " " 255 Morrison St., Portland, Ore. 

p: L RAYBURN, Trav. Pass. Agent 255 Morrison St . Portland, Ore. 

W. K. MERSHON, Cieneral Agent Pass'r Dept 310 Broadway, New York Citv 

F. H. FOGARTY, Getieral Agent.. 208 S. Clark Street, Chicago 

R. A. f;va General Agent Duluth, Minn. 

F. C. JACKSON, Assistant General Agent West Superior, Wis. 

H. SWINFORD, General Agent Depot Building, Water St., Winnipeg, Man. 

A. D. EDGAR. General Agent Cor. Main and Grand Sts., Helena Mont. 

W. M TUOHY, General Agent 23 E. Broadway, Butte, Mont. 

J. G. BOYD, General Agent _ Wallace, Idaho 

F. D. GIBBS. General Agent Spokane, Wash. 

I. A. NADEAU. General Agent ...Seattle, Wash. 

A. TINLING, General Agent 925 Pacific Avenue, Tacoma, Wash. 

T. K. STATELER, Gen'i Agent Pa.ss'r Dept (K38 Market St., San Francisco, Cal. 

G. F. McNElLU, Citv Ticket Agt.. 19 Nicollet House Blk . Minneapolis, Minn. 

O. VANDERBII^T. City Ticket Agt.._. 162 E. Third St., St. Paul, Minn. 

A. D. CHARI^TON, Asst Gen'l Pass. Agt 255 Morrison St. Portland, Ore. 

A. L. CRAIG. Asst. Gen'l Ticket Agt St. Paul, Minn. 

CHAS. S. FEE. Gen'l Pass and Ticket Agent St. Paul, Minn. 

J. M. HANNAFORD, Gen'l Traffic Manager St. Paul, Minu. 






; 



DIRECT TO KLONDYKE ON PALACE STEAMERS. 



noni) Hmerican 



Cransportation and trading €o. 



MERCHANTS AND CARRIERS 




Operating Steamer lines from Seattle, Washington, direct to all of the 
Gold Fields of the Yukon River in the Interior of Alaska and the Northwest 
Territories ; and has well stocked and complete Stores at all of the principal 
mining towns on the Yuk..i, 

Che only old cstaDlisbed Cottipany runnind Steamers from Seattle, 

and always reliable. 

Tor m Season of i$^$^^- 

We will have large, fast, new, and commodious 
steamers leaving Seattle, June 10, and every fifteen 
days thereafter during the season^ connecting at 
St, Michaels with our palace river steamers for 



All points 
on the 



You can engage passage now for Season of 1898. For rates 
and further information call on or address any of the offices of 
the company. 

San Trancisco Office: ebicago Office: Seattle Office: 

$ California Street. Room 200 Old Colony Bldfl. 6i$ Tir«t Jloenue.