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V O Y AGE' 



TO THE 



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PACIFIC OCEAN: 

Undertaken by the Command of His Majesty r 

POR MAKING DISCOVERIES IN THE NORTHERN 

HEMISPHERE, . 




PtRFORMBD UNDER TBE DIRECTION OF 

CAPTAINS LOOK, CLERKE, i-f GORE. 

In he years 1776, 7, 8, 9, and 80. 

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Compiled from the various Auounts of that Voyage 
^ hitherto Published^ 



INFOURVdLUMESl 




VOL. IV. 



EDINBURGH: 

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// 



CONTENTS 



OF 

VOL. IV. 



BOOK VU 



ipstrt from ttanittdliatka, &c.-»Att^pts to |)ias« 
tnsough the ace— Sea-korset— Proceed to the 
southward— Observations on the practicability 
of ji northwest pft«sage— ^Death of captain Clerke 
— Return tb St Peter and St Paul — Damaged 
repaired— Bear-httnting and filling parties—' 
Astronomical tablet— jFurther transactions in 
Awatska bay — General account of Kamtschatkai 
•—^^limate, productions, natives, mariners, his* 
tory, &c.— Of the Kurile! islands— The Kor- 
chi-'-The Tschutskf— Course to the southwird 
— Cape Lopatka~-View of the coast of Japan 
—-Discover Sulphur island-— Chinese pilot-** 
Wcfrk Up to Macao, (0V4 tjft, - • < 



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V O y A G F 



TO TH^ 



PACIFIC OCEAN. 



BOOK VI; 



CONTENTS, 

>9papt from Kamtachatka, &c. — Attempts to pass through 
the ice — Sea-horses — Proceed to the southward — Obser- 
vations on the practicability of a northwest passage-— 
De-ith of captain Clerke-r— Return to St Peter and St 
Pa^i — Damages repaired-rr-Bear-hunting and fishing par- 
ties — ^^Astronomical tables — Further transactions in Awat<- 
ska bay— -Qeneral account of Kamtschatka-^Climate, pro- 
ductions, natives, manners, history, &c. — Of the Kurile 
islands — ^l^he KorcHi — ^^rhe Tschutski^ — Course to the 
southward— r Cape JUopatka — View of the coast of Japan 
— Discover Sulphur island-r-Chin^se pilot-^ — Work up tQ 
Macao, t3'e. t5*tf, 

HE next morning, at four o'clock, we got 

under way with- the ticje of ebb, and, as * 

there was a perfect calm, the boats were dispatcli- 

?d a-head for the purpose of tow}ng the ships, 

|About ten, a south-easterly wind springing up,,an<} 

khe tide having turned, we were obliged to let go 

voi,. iy» - A 



A VOYAGE TO THE 



our anchors again, in seven fathoms, the ostroA 
bearing north half east, at the distance/ of a mile 
from the land that was nearest to us, and the three 
needle rocks being in the direction of south half | 
east. 

Captain Gore and Lieutenant King landed, in 
the aiftemoon, on the east side of the passage, 
where they observed, in two different places, the 
I'emains of spacious villages; and, on the side of 
a hill, they saw an old ruined parapet, with four 
or five embrasures. It had guns mounted on it in 
Beering's time, as that navigator himself informs 
us, and commanded the passage up the mouth ofl 
the bay. Not far from this spot were the ruins of| 
some subterraneous caverns, which our two gentlc" 
men conjectured to have been magazines. 

We weighed anchor, with the ,ebb tide, aboutl 
six o'clock in the afternoon, and turned to wiud- 
ward ; but, two hours after, a thitrk fog coming 
©n, we were under the necessity of bringing to, 
our soundings not affording us a sufiicient direction 
for steering betwixt several sunken recks, situate 
on each side of the passage we were to make, i 
The next morning, (Monday the 14th) the fog in 
some degree dispersing, we weighed as soon as the 
tide began to ebb, and, there being little wind, 
the boats were sent a-head Co tow ; but, about ten 
o'clock, both the wind and tide set in so strong from 
the sea, that we were once more obliged to cast 
anchor, in thirteen fathoms water, th6 high rock 
l)eing at the distance of six furlongs, in the direc- 
tion of west one quarter south. We continued,! 
during the remainder of the day, in this situation, 
the wiitd blowing fresh into the mouth of the bay. 



PACIFIC OCEAN. 



'oward* tKe evening the weather "vas extremely 
lark and cloudy* with an unsettled wind. 

We were surprised, before day-light, on the 15th^ 
•ith a rumbling noise, that resciwbled distant thun- 
ler ; and> when the day appeared, we found that 
hie sidea and decks of our ships were covered, near 
In inch thick, with a fine dust like emery. The 
lir was at tije same time loaded and obscured with 
substance ; and, towards ^hc volcano mouiv- 



us 



lin, which stands to die northward of the harbour, ^ 

was exceedingly thick and black, insomuch th^ 

re were unable to distinguish the body of :thc hifl. 

.bout twelve o^clock, and during the afternoon^ 

|ie loudness of the explosions increased ; and they 

rere succeeded by showers of cinders, which, in 

jeneral, were of the size of peas, though many bf 

fiiose that were picked up from the deck were 

irger than a hazel nut. Several sniall atones, which 

lad undergone no alteration from the action of 

ire, fell with the einders. In the evening we had 

readful cl^ps of thunder, and vivid flashes of 

lightning, which, with the darkness of the sky, 

md the sulphurous smell of the air, produced a 

icry awful and tremendous effect. Our distance 

rrom tlte foot of the mountaiii was, at thi^ tim,e, 

pout eight leaguc^^i 

At day-break, on the 6th, we got up our an* 
;:hors', and stood out of the bay ; but the wind 
tailing, and tlie ebb tide setting across the passage 
m the eastern shore, we were driven very near the 
three needle rocks, situate on that sjde of the en- 
trance, and were under the necessity of hoisting out 
the boats for the purpose of towing the ships clear 
)f them. At twelve o'clock we were at tbe 4is- 

A 2 



A VOYACi: TO THE 



tance of six miles from the land, and our depth of 
water was forty-three fathoms, over a bottom of 
small stones, of the same kind with those which had 
fallen upon our decks after the late eruption of the 
volcano. 

The country had now a very different appear- 
ance from what it had on our first arrival. The 
except what remained on the summits of 



snow, 



some very lofty mountains, had vanished ; and the 
sides of the hills, which abounded with wood in 
many parts, were covered with a beautiful ver- 
dure. 

It being the intentioti of captain Gierke to keep 
in sight of the coast of Kamtschatk:i, as much as 
the weather would allow, in order to ascertain its 
position, we continued tq steer tow^'^ds the norths 
northeast, with variable light winds, till the 18th. 
The volcano was still observed to throw up im- 
mense columns of smoke ; and we did not strike 
ground with one hundred and fifty fathoms of line 
at the distance of twelve miles from the shore. 

The wind blew fresh from the south on the 1 8th, 
and the weather became so thick and hazy that it 
was imprudent to make any further attempts at 
present to keep in sight of the land. However«, 
that we might be ready, whenever the fog should 
clear up, to resume our survey, we ran on in the 
direction of the coj^st, (as represented in the Rus- 
sian charts) and fired signal guns for the Discovery 
to proceed on the same course. At elevefi o'clock, 
just before we lost sight of land, Cheepoonskoi 
Noss, so denominated by the Russians, was at the 
distance of seven or eight }cagueS| bearing north- 
northeast. 



PACIFIC OCEAN. 



At tlircc o'cloc]^9 in tbe morning of the 20tlu 
the weiither hccomiiig dearer; we stood in towards 
jthe laud ; and» in the space of an hour afterwuids, 
saw it a-head) extending from northwest to north- 
northeast at the distance of about five lea^ues^ The 
I northern part we conjectured to be Kronotskoi 
Nosh, its positbnt in the Russian charts, nearly 
agreeing with our reckoning in respect to its lati- 
tude, wluch was .54** \*l' nona, thoiigh, in point oi 
longitude, wc differed considerably from them ; for 
Lhey place it 1** 48' east of Awatska, whereas our 
:omputation makes it 3* 34^ east of that place, t'' 
WP 17' east of Greenwlcli^ The land about r/his 
;ape is very clevat<^ \ and the inland mountains 
^vere at thi^ time covered with snow. There ts no 
ippearancc of inlets or bays in the co^st, aiid the 
hore breaks off in steep cliffs, , . . ^,^ 

We had not Wng be'm gratified with this view 
?f the land when the wind ft^shened from the 
southwest, lpr*ngin;jf on a thick fog, which obliged 
to stand off in the direction of northeast by east, 
'he fog dibpersing about noon, we again steered 
for the laud, expecting to fail in with Kamtschat- 
koi Noss, and gained a iijjht of it at day-break on 
the 2 1 St. The southwest wind being soon after 
succeeded by a light breeze that blevy off the land, 
we were prevented from approaching the coast suf* 
icently near to determine its direction, or describe 
its aspect. At twelve o'clock our longitude was 
i63^ 50', and our hititude bS"" 52/; the extremes 
)f the land bore northwest by west \ west, and 
lorth by west \ west ; and the nearest part was al: 
the distance of about twenty-four miles. 



■<!. • 



:«. 



> 1 

i 









6 A VOYAGE TO THE 

At nine in the evening, when we had approach- 
ed about six miles nearer the coast, it appeared to' 
form a projecting- peninsula, and to extend eleven 
or twelve leagues in the direction nearly of north 
and souths It is level, and of a moderate eleva- 
tion ; the sotrthem extreme terminates in a sloping 
point V that to the northward forms a steep bluflT 
head ; atid between' them, ten or twelve^ miles to 
the south of th-e northern cape, there is a consider* 
able break in the fendv Oh both sides of this break 
the land is low. A remarkable hill, resembling a 
saddle, rises beyond the opening j and a chain of 
lofty mountains, capped with snow, extends along 
the back of the who^ peninsula. 

The coast running in an even dh*ecliorf, we were 

" ^itmcertain with respect to- the position of Kamt- 
schatskoi Noss, whichy according to Mr MuUer^ 
forms a projecting point towards the middle of the 
peninsula ; but we afterwards found, that, in a late 
Russian map^ that appellation is given to the south- 
ern cape. The latitude of this, from several ac- 
curate observatior^, was 56° 3', and its longitude 
163° 20f, To the south of this peninsula the 
great river Kamtschatka runs into the sea. 

r ":" r£Y^Q season being two far advanced for us to 
make an accurate survey of the coast of Kamt- 
schatka, it was the desigti of captain Gierke, in our 
course to Beering's Streights, to ascertain chiefly 
the respective situations of the projecting points of 
the coast. We therefore steered across a spacious 
bay, laid down between ICamtschatskoi Noss and 
©lutorskoi Nosfe, 'with a view of making the lat- 
ter ; which i^ represented by the Russian geogra- 
phers as terminating th« peninsula of Kamtscli^tka^ 



wm 



PACIFIC OCEAN. 



we were 



Ke, m our 



and as bqing the southern limit of the country of 
the Koriacs. 

On Tuesday the 22d we passed a dead whale, 
which emitted a most horrible smell, j>erceivable aft 
the distance of three or four miles. It was cover- 
ed with a very considerable number of gulls, pe- 
trels, and other oceanic birds, which were regaling 
themselves upon it. On the 24l:h, the wind, which 
had shifted about during the three preceding days, 
settled at southwest, bringing on clear weather, 
with which we proceeded towards the northeast by 
north, across the bay, having no land in sight. la 
the course of this day we observed a great number 
of gulls, and were disgusted with the indelicate 
manner of feeding mli^ the arctic guU, which hirs 
procured it the appellation of the T>arasite. This 
bird, which is rather larger than the common guU, 
pursues the latter species whenever it meets them ; 
the gull, after flying about for some time, with.loud 
screamsj and manifest indicationa of extreme terror, 
drops its excrement, which its pursuer instantly 
darts at, and catches in its beak before it falls int«i 
the sea. 

At one o'clock in the afternoon of the 25th, 
when we were in the latitude of .59** 12 V and ia 
the longitude of 168^ 35 V a v-ery thick "og came 
on, about the tine we expected to obtain a view of 
Olutorskor Noss, which (if Muller's position of it, 
in the latittide oi 59° 30', and in the longitude of 
167° 36', is right) could then have been only a 
dozen leagueiJ from us, at which distance we might 
easily have discerned land of a moderate height. 
Our depth of water, at present^ was so great, that 



8 



A VOYAGE TO THE 



we had no ground with a hiuidred and sixty fathoms 
^f line. 

Ttie kg still continuing prevented us from male • 
ing a nearer approach to the lan<^l, and we steered 
east by north at live o'clock, which is a little more 
jcast-erly than the Russian charts represent the trend- 
ing of the coaiSt from Olutorskoi Noss. The nexjt 
•day a fresh gale blew from the southwest, which 
lasted tili noon on the 27th, wheo, the weather 
clearing up, we steered to the north, with an iru 
tention of making the land. Our latitude, at this 
time, was 59° 49', and our longitude 175^ 43 '.i 
Though we 8a>v some shags in the morning, which ' 
are imagined never to fly far from land, yet there 
^yas no appearance of it during the whole day. 
However, the next moi*ning, about six o'clock, 
we had sight of it towards the northwest. The 
coast appeared in hills of a modei-ate elevation ; 
but, inland, others were observed considerably highf 
-er. The snow lying in patches, and no woo4 
being perjceived, the land had a very barren as« 
'pect. 

At nine o'clock, we were ten pr eleven miles 
from the shore, the southern extreme bearing west 
by south, about six leagues distant^ beyond which 
the coast seemed to incline to the west. This point 
being in the longijtude of 174° 18', and in the lati- 
tude of 61° 48', is situate, according |:o the Rusr 
6ian charts, near the mouth of the river Opuka. 
The northern extremity, at the same time, bore 
north by west ; between which, and a hill bear- 
ing northwest by west^ west, the coast appeared 
to bend towards the west, and form a deep bay. 



'. * »» 






PACIFIC OCEAN. 



\;t:' 



At the distance of about eight . miles from the 
land, we observed a strong rippling ; and being un- 
der strong apprehensions of meeting with foul 
ground, we made sail to the northeast, along the 
coast. On heaving the lead, we found the depth 
of water to be twenty-four fathoms, over a bottom 
of gravel. We therefore concluded, that the ap- 
pearance above mentioned was occasioned by a tide 
then running to the southward. At noon, the ex- 
tremes of the land bearing west -south west, and norch- 
northeast, we were a-breast of the lowland, which, 
we now observed, joined the two points where we 
had before expected to discover a deep bay. The 
coast bends a httle towards the west, and has a 
small inlet, which is, perhaps, the mouth of some ' 
inconsiderable river. Our longitude was now 175^ 
43', and our latitude 61^' 56'. 

During the afternoon, we continued our course 
along the coast, at the distance of four or five 
leagues, with a breeze from the west, having regu- 
lar soundings from tv/enty -eight to thirty-six fa- 
thoms. The coast exhibited an appearance of ste- 
rility, a "d the hills rose to a considerable elevation 
inland, b t the clouds on their tops prevented us 
from deter, ining their height. About eight o'clock 
in the evening, some of our people thought they saw 
land to the eabt by north; upon which we stood to 
the southward of east ; but it appeared to be no- 
thing more than a fog bank. At mid-night, the 
extreme point bearing nortlreast J^- east, we conjec- 
tured that it was St Thadeus*s Noss ; to the south 
of which the land inclines towards the west, forming 
a deep bight, wherein the river Katirka, according 
to the charts published by the Russians, is iituate* 



\ /' 



mx- 



V- 



10 



A ^VOYAGE TO THE 



The weadaer, on the 29th was ^insettled, the ' 
wind at the northeast point. The next day, at 
twelve o'clock, our longitude was 180°, and our la- 
titude 61 ° 48'- At this time St Thadeus's Noss bore 
north -northwest, at the distance of twenty -three 
leagues ; and beyond it we perceived the coast ex- 
tending alnnost directly nortlu The easternnvost 
point of the Noss is in tae latitiide of 62° SIX, and in 
tlie longitude of 179°* The land about it, from 
its being discerned at so great a distance, may ju$t- 
ly foe supposed Jto be of a considerable height. 
During this and the preceding day, we saw num- 
bers of sea-horses, whales, and seals ; ajso albatros- 
ses, gulls, sea parrots, guillemots, Bcc^ Taking the 
advantage of a little calm weather, several oT our 
people employed themselves in fishing, and caught 
plenty of exeellerrt cod. Our soundings were fron> 
sixty.~f:ve to seventy-five fathoms^. 

At noon, on Thursday the 1st of July, MrBligh, 
master of the Rjesolution, having mpored a small 
keg with the deep sea-lead, in severity^ftve fathoms 
water, found that the ship made a course to the 
north bv east, about half a mile in an hour ; this 
was .attributed by him to the eiiect of a southerly 
swell, rather than to that of any current.. The 
wind, towards the cyening, freshening from the 
€outheast, we steered to the northeast by east, for 
the point that Beering calls Tschukptskoi Noss, 
which we had observed on tL-e 4th of September 
the preceding year, at the same time that wc per- 
ceived, towards the southeast^ the isle of .St Law- 
rence. This cape, and St Thadeus's Noss form the 
nortlireasteni and south-western extremes of the ex- 
tensive Gulph of A»a<h<'> into the bot^oin of which 



^'■::lt 



:\ lo 






PACIFIC OCEAN, 



IX 



..8,' 



the river of that name discharges itself, se;paratingy 
ias it passes, the country of the Tschutski from that 
[of the Koriacs. 

On the 3d of July, at twelve o'clock, our lati- 
tude was 63° 33', and our longitude 186° 45'- 
Between twelve a'nd one, we descried the Xschu- 
kotskoi Nos8 blearing north half west, at the dis- 
tance of thirteen or fourteen leagues.- At five in the 
afternoon we saw the island of St Lawrence, in the 
direction of cast three quarters north ; and also ano- 
ther island, which we imagined was between St Law- 
rence and Anderson's Island, about eighteen miles 
east-southeast of the former. As we. had no cer- 
tain knowledge of this island, captain Gierke was 
inchned to have a nearer view of it, and immediate- 
ly hauled the wind towards it : but it unfortunate- 
ly happetied, that we were unable to weather the 
isle of St Lawrence, and we were therefore obliged 
to bear up again, and pass them all to the leeward. 

The latitude of the island of St Lawrence, accord- 
ing to the mos-t accurate obsei*vations, is 63° 47' ; 
and Its longitude is 1&8° 15'. Ttlis island, if it» 
boundaries were at present within our view, is about 
three leagues in circumference. The uortlieni part 
of it may be discerned at the distance of ten or a 
dozen leagues. A «? it has some low land to the 
southeast, the extent of which we could not per- 
ceive, some of us supposed that it might perhaps be 
joined to the land to the eastward of it : we were, 
however; prevented by the haziness oT the weather 
from ascertaining this circumstance. These islands, 
as well as the land adjoining to the Tschukotskoi 
Noss, were covered with snow, and presented a most 
dismal aspect. About mid-night, the isle of St 



^^- 



>.\- 



IMP 



12 



A VOYAGE TO THE >^ 



Lawrence was five or six miles distant, bearing 
south-southeast ; and our soundings were eighteen 
fathoms. We were accompanied with sea fowl of | 
various sorts, and observed some guillemots, and 
small crested hawks. 

As the weather continued to thicken, we lost 
si^' t of land till Monday the 5th, when we had a 
view of it both to the northeast and northwest. 
Our longitude, at this time, was 189° 14', and our 
latitude 65^ W, As the islands of St Diomede, 
v-'hich are situate in Beering's Streight, between 
the two continents of Asia and America, were de- 
termined by us the preceding year to be in the; lati- 
tude of 65'^ 48', we were at a loss how to reconcile 
the land towards the northeast, with the position of i 
those islands. We therefore stood for the land till 
three o'clock in the afti^rnoon, when we were within 
the distance of four miles from it, and discovering 
it to be the two islands, were pretty well convinced 
of their being the same ; but the haziness of the 
weather still continuing, we, in order to be certain 
with respect tooui* situation, stood over to the Asi- 
atic coast till about seven o'clock in the evening; 
at which tin^e we had approached within two or 
three leagUes of the eastern cape of that continent. 

Thisxiape is an elevated round head of land, and 
extends about five miles from north to south. It| 
forms a peninsula, which is connected with the con- 
tinent by a narrow isthmus of low' land. It has a| 
bold shore ; and three lofty, detached, spiral rocks, 
are seen off its north part. It was at present co- 1 
vered with snow, and the beach encompassed wit. 
ice. We were now convinced of our having been I 
iin4!cr the influence of 9 strong current setting t« 



PACIFIC OCEAN. 



13 



the northward,' which had occasioned an error of 
twenty miles in our computation of the latitude at 

moon. At the time of our passing this straight the 
last year, \vc had experienced a similar effect. 

Being now certain with regard to our position, 

Iwc steered north by east. At ten o'clock in the 

[evening, the weather cleariiig up, we saw, at tile 
same instant, the remarkable feaked hill near Cape 
prince of Wales, on the North American coast, 
and tlife East Cape of Asia, with the two islands of 

I St Diomede between them 

In the course of this day, we saw sereral large 

Iwhite gulls, and great numbers of very small birds 
of the hawk kind. The beak of the Utter wa3 

[compressed, and large in proportion to the body of 

[the bird ; the colour was 'dark brown, or ratlier 

Iblack, the breast whitish, and towards the abdomen 

la reddish brown hue was visible. 

On the 6th, at twelve o'clock, our latitude was 

167*^, and our longitude 191^6'. Having already- 

massed many large masses of ice, and observed that 

it Adhered, in several places, to the* shore of the Asi- 

latic continent, we were not gieatly surorised when 

we fell in, about three o'clock, with au extensive 

)ody of it, stretching towards the west. This ap- 

)earance considerably discouraged our hopes ofpro- 

beeding much further to the north this year than 
'e had done the preceding. .There being little wind 
[n the afternoon, the boats were hoisted put in pur- 
suit of the sea-horses, great niunbers of which were 
^een on the detached pieces of ice ; but they return- 
id without success : these animals being extremely 
shy, and, before our people could come within gun? 
^hpt i)f them, alwap retreated into the water, 

■ B ' 



14 



A VOYAGE TO THE 



Having hoisted in the boats at seven o'clock in 
the evening, we stood on to the north-eastward, | 
with a^ fresh soiitlierly breeze, intending to explore [ 
the American continent, between the latitudes of | 
68® and 69°, which, on account of the foggy wea- 
ther, we had jiot an opportunity of examining last I 
year. In this attempt we were partly dissappoint- 
ed agjiin : for, on the 7th, about six o'clock in thel 
morning, we were stopped by a large body of ice, 
stretching from northwest to southeast ; but, not 
long aftervt-ards, the horizdn becoming clear, we 
had a view of the American coast, at the distance] 
of about ten leagues, extending from northeast by 
east to east, and lying between 68° and 68° W ofl 
northern latitude. The ice not being high, we were[ 
enabled by the clearness of the weather to see over 
a great extent !* it. The whole exhibited a com- 
pact solid surface, not in the least thawed ; and] 
»eemed also to adhere to the land. 

The weather becoming hazy soon after, we lost] 
sight of the land J and it being impossible to ap- 
proach nearer to it, we steered to the north-north-l 
west, keeping the ice close on board ;^ and h:!ving, 
by noon, got round its western extremity, we foundl 
' that it trended nearly north. Our longitude, at thisl 
time, was 192° 34', and our latitude 68° 22'. We 
proceeded along the edge of th^ ice to the nortli-j 
. northeast, during the remainder of the day, passing 
through many loose pieces which had been separated! 
from the main body, and against which our vessels werel 
driven with great violence, notwithstanding our ut- 
most caution. About eight. in the evemng we pas- 
sed some drift-wood ; at mid-night the wind veered! 
to the northwest: and ttiere were continued skowersl 



PACIFIC OCEAN. 



IS 



fif snow and sleet. The thermometer had now fal- 
len from 38^ to 31°^ - 

The next meaning, at five o'clock, tl^e wind shift- 
ing more to the northward, we could continue no 
longer on the same tack, by reason of the ice, but 
were under the necessity of standing towards the 
west. Our depth of water, at this time, was 
nineteen fathoms ; from which, upon comparing it 
with our remarks on the soundings in the preceding^ 
year, we infen*ed, that our present distance from the 
coast of America did not exceed six or seven leagues ; 
but our view was circumscribed within a much nar- 
rower compass, by a heavy fall of snow^ Our lati- 
tude at twelve o'clock was ^9° ^1', and our longi- 
tude 192° ^^. 

At two in the afternoon, the weather became 
clearer, and we found ourselves close to the expanse 
of ice, which, from the mast-head, was discovered 
to consist of very large compact bodies, united to- ' 
wards the exterior edge, but, in the interior paits, 
some pieces were observed floating in vacant spaces 
of the water ; it extended from wesf-southwest to 
northeast by north. We bore away towards the^V 
south, along the edge of it, endeavouring to get in.- 
to clearer water ; for the fitrong northerly winds had 
drifted down such numbers of TopsE pieces, that we 
had been encompassed wjth them for some time, 
and were unable to prevent the ships from striking 
against several of them. 

On Friday the i^tb, a fresh gale blew from the 
north-northwest, accompanied with violent showers 
of snow and sleet. Tiie thermometer, at neon, was 
at 30 . We steered west-southwest, and kept as 
near the main body of ice as we jcould ; but had 



<;t 



iA 



1 



x6- 



A VOYAGE TO THE 



the misfortune to damage the cut-^water against the 
drift pieces, and rub off some of the- sheathing from 
the bows. The shocks, indeed, '".hich our ships j 
received, were frequently very severe, and were at«| 
tended with considerable liazard. Our latitude, at| 
noon, was G9^ 12', and our longitude 188° 5'. 

Having now sailed almost forty leagues to the 
west, along the edge of the ice, without perceiv- 
ing any opening, or a clear sea beyond it towards 
the north, we had no prospect of making further 
progress to the ni)rthward at present. Captdo 
Gierke, therefore, determined to bear away to the 
south by ez^Rt, the only quarter which was clear, 
and to wait till the season was somewhat more advan- 
ced before he made any further attempts to pene- 
trate through the ice. He proposed to employ llie 
intermediate time in surveying the bay of St l^w- 1 
rence, and the coast situate to the south, of it ; as 
it would be a great satisfaction to have a harbour 
8o near, in case of future damage from the quan- 
tity of ice in these parts. We were also desirous 
pf paying another visit to the Tschutski ; and mere 
particularly since the accounts we had heard of them 
from Major Behm. 

|i. in consequence of this determination, we made 

sail to the southward till the 10th at noon, when 

,\ve passed considerable quantities of drift ice and a 

perfect calm ensued. The latitude at this time, 

avas 68'' r, and the longitude 188^ 30'. This 

;morning we saw several whales ; and in the after- 

|[joon, there being great numbers of sea-horses on 

jthe pieces of ice that surrounded us, we hoisted out 

.^he boats, and sent them in pursuit of those ani- 

mab. Our people had more success on this occa- 

-■.•,-■ ■■■-;: :tw- p^->^s^>^*4,- --.-y^' ■:■'■■'■■■ . ■ ■'»'.,, -w^^:; 






■' *i^':%y 



\J 



y»:>i5wi-A*v.i,. ?-v.*. 






«p 



ip 



pinst the 
hi ng from 
our ships 

were at- 1 
titude, at 

es to the 
: perceiv- 

to wards 
g further 

Captdn 
ay to the 
vas clear, 
ire advan- 
to pene- 
nploy tlie 
St I^w* 
of it ; as 
I harbour I 
the quan-| 
> desirous 
and morel 
J of them 

we made 
)n, when 
ice and a 
:his time, 
)'. This 
iie after- 
I'orses on 
isted out 
lose aiii" 
bis occii- 




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■"^^ :^. < t'^. m As 



■ Wl m iii h n ii«w^w 



PACiriC OCEAN. 



»7 



Uon than they had on the Gth ; for they rcttinied 
Iwith three large oncif aikl a young one, besides hav., 
ing killed or wounded sotnr others. They were 
witnesses of several itrikin^ instances of parental afo 
fbction in these animab* All of them, on ihe ap- 
pipach of the bo»ti towards the ice, took their 
young ones under their fini, ai)d attempted to escape 
with them into the tica# Some whose cubs were 
jjkilled or wounded, and left floating uppn the sur- 
face of the water, rose again, and c*iiiricd them down, 
sometimes just as our men vverc on the point of tak.- 
|ing them into the boat ; and could be traced bear- 
jingthe^n to a considerable distance through the wa- 
ter, which was stained with their blood. Thty were 
afterwards observed bringing them, at intervals, 
above the surface, as if for air, and again ph.nijring 
under it, with a horrid bcllo\ving. 1 he female, in 
particular, whose young one had been killed, and 
I t$ken into the boat, became so furious^ that she evea 
struck her two tusks through tjie bottom of Uve 
-cjitter. 

About eight o^clock in the evening ap easterly 
breeze sprung up, with which we contmued to steer 
to the southward $ and^ at midnight, fell in with 
many extensive bodies of ice* We attempted to 
push through them under an ea^y sail, that the ships 
might sustain no damaec $ and when we had proceeded 
a little farther towards the south, nothing was visible 
but a very large and compatt mass of ice, extendi 
ing to the northeast, southwest, and southeast, as 
far as tbe eye could reacL This formidable ob- 
(Btacle prevented our vi«iting the Tscbutski ; for op 

»S 






•,«'v-,. .' 
; 



»*< 






iS 



A VOYAGE TO THE 



space rcmalned open, except back again to the 
northward. We therefore tacked, at three o'clock, 
in the morning of the 11th, and stood to that 
quarter. The latitude, at noon, was 67^ 49\ and 
the longitude 188^^ 47'. 

- On Monday the 12th we had light winds and 
hazy weather. On examining the current, we found 
it set towards the northwest, at the rate of half a 
mile an hour. Wc continued our northerly couree, 
with a brec/.e from the south, and fair weather, till 
ten o'clock in the morning of the 1 3th, when we 
again found ourselves close in with a solid mass of" 
ice, to which we could perceive no limits from the 
mast-head. This was an effectual discourawment 
to all our hopes of penetrating further ; which had 
been greatly raised, by. our*'having now advanced 
almost ten leagues, through a space, which, on the 
9th, had been found to be occupied by impenetrable 
ice. Our situation, at this time, was nearly in the mid- 
dle of the channel, betwixt the two continents ; our 
p^latitude was 69^ ^7' ; and the main body of the ice 
'Extended from v^est-southwest to east-northeast. 

As, in that part of the sea where we now wen», 
:there was no probability of getting further to the 
iflorth. Captain Clarke determined to make a final 
>litt^mpt on the coast of America, for Baffin's Bay, 
since we found it pi*afticable to advance the furthest 
on this side, in the preceding year. We according- 
ly, during the ire'mainder of the day, worked to 
the windward, with a fresh breeze from the east. 
We observed several ful'mers and arctic gulls, and 
passed two trees, both of which seemed to havie 
lain a long time in the wa^r. 'Th« larger one was, 



I/, 



■''■ "'^•^^"JpACiFIC OCEAN. '' ' '' • " ■' ■-"^ 



■:--.--^> ^. 



in length, ten or deven feet, and in circumference, 
about three, without either the bark or branches. 

We proceeded to the eastward on the 14th, with 
thick foggy weather. The next day, the wind 
blowing fresh from the west, and having, in some 
measure, dispersed the fog, we immediately steered 
to the north, in order to have? a nearer view of the 
ice ; and we were scion close in with it. It extend- 
ed from north-northwest to northeast, and was splid 
and compact : the exterior parts were ragged, and 
of various heights; the inner surface was even; and, 
as we supposed, from eight to ten feet above the 
level oFthe sea. The weather becoming moderate 
during the rest of the day, we shaped our course 
according to the trending of the ice, which, in se- 
veral places, formed deep bays. ' 

The wind freshened in the morning of the 16th, 
and was accompanied with frequent thick showers 
of snow. At eight o'clock in the morning we had 
a strong gale from the west-southwest, whichbrought 
us under double-reefed top-sails ; when, the weather 
in some degree clearing up, we found oursdves, as 
it were, embayed ; the ice having suddenly taken a 
turn to the south-eastward, and encompassing us, 
in one compact body, on all sides but the south. 
In consequence of thii?, we hauled our wind to the 
southward, beiner, at that time, in tvrenty-six fa- 
thoms water, and in the latitude of 70° 8' north ; 
and, as we imagined, at the distance of about five 
and twenty leagues from the Amencan coast. 

At four in the afternoon the gale increasing, we 
got the top-gallant-yards down upon the deck, fur- 
led the mizen-top' sail, and close-reefed the fore and 
main-top'Sails. About eight o'clock, finding that 



.t,.. 



■glW" 



10 



A VGYAQETO XHU 



1 



i 



■ ■,-r: 



V our soundings had decreased to twenty-two fathoms, 
which we considered as an indication of our near ap- 
proach to the. coast of America, we tacked and 
steered to the northward. In the night we had 
boisterous Weather, attended with snow : but, the 
next morning, it was clear and moderate ; and, at 
eight o'clock, we got up the top-gallant yards a- 
cross, and bore away, with the wind still at west- 
southwest. Our latitude, at noon, was 69° 55^ A 
aiid our longitude, 191?° 30'. The wind slackened 
in the evening, and, ^bout midruight, wc had a| 
calm. ^ 1 

A light breeze arising from the east-noitheast, at] 
five in the morning of the 18th, we continued our 
progress towards the north, with a view of regain- 
ing the ice as soon as possible. We saw numbers 
of sea*parrots, and small ice-birds, and also many 
whales 5 and passed several logs of drifi-wood. The 
latitude, at twelve o'clock, was 70° ^6', anc' the 
longitude 194° 54?'. Our soundings, at the same 
time, were three and twenty fathoms ; and the icei 
extended from north to east-northeast, being about] 

" pne league distant. 

At one o'clock in the afternoon, observing that I 

^- we were close in with a firm united mpss of ice, 
stretching from east to west-northwetrt, we tacked, ! 
and, the wind veering to the westvi^ard, stood to the 

' east, along the edge of it, till eleven in the evening. 
A very thick fog thei< coming on, and the depth of I 
watt^ decreasing to nineteen fathoms, we hauled [ 
our wind to the southward. 

Though w€ perceived no sea-horses on the body 
of ice, yet, on the detached fragments of it, they 
were seen in herd§; and in greater numbers than we I 



'T;Wv^^:;':tiVTJf.J^ 



- \ 



w*^^^f;^^^^^;jc 



:) fathoms,! 
ir near ap- 
xcked and I 
t we had 

but, the 

; and, at 

t yards a- 

at west- 

, 69"" 55'A 

slackened 

we had a| 

> v, 

rtheast, at 
inued our 
of regain- 
7 numbers 
also many 
cod. The 
, anc' the 
the same 
id the ice 
ring about 

ving that 
ss of ice, 
e tacked, 
od to the' 
i evening, 
depth of I 
tve hauled] 

the body 
it, they 
s than we 



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PACIFIC OCEAN", -j^ 



?.I 



had ever before observed. About nine o'clock in 
[the evening a white bear swam close by the Disco*' 
Ivery ; it afterwards went towards the ice, on wliic}!? 
Iwere likewise two others. ' -,.-, 

The weather clearing up at one in the morning' 
lof the 19th, we bore away to ilie northeast till twa 
o'clock, when we were again so completely em-^^ 
[bayed by the ice, that no opening remained, except 
[to the southward ; to which quarter we therefore 
[directed our course, and returned througli a very 
[smooth water, with favourable weather, by the san;e 
Way we had come in. AVe were uiabie to pene- 
Urate farther towards the north at this time, than 
when our latitude was 70° 33', which was about 
[five leagues short of the point to which we h?'l ad*:^ 
vanced the preceding summer. We stood to, the 
south-southwest, with light winds from the north- 
west, near the edge of the main body of ice, which 
jwa^ situate on our left hand, extending between us 
[and the American coast. At noon, our latitude 
m 70° 11 ^ and our longitude 196^ 15'; nnd 
[our soundings were sixte^ii fathoms* We supposed 
From this circumstance that the ley Cape waa ui the 
[distance of only seven or eight leagues from us : 
[but, though the weather was, in general, pretty 
[clear, there was, at the same time, a haziness in the 
Ihorizon ; so that we could not expect to have an 
[opportunity of seeing the cape, ^f^«*^??# v; vi.^^4w^.!,fr:, 

Two white bears appearing in the wjiter daring 
[the afternoon, some of our people immediately pui- 
[sued them in the jolly boat, and were so fort unate 
[as to kill them both. The larger one, which was, 
[in all probability, the dam of the younger, being 
[shot first, the other would not leave it, though it 



♦ - 



.1 



,-v«,. 






C J 



mm 



\ 



1 






2Z 



A VOYAGE TO THE 



>S\ 






might have escaped with ease on the ice, while the 
men were re-loading their musquets ; but continued 
swimming about, till, after after having been seve* 

• ral times tired upon, it was shot dead. The lengthl 
of the larger one, from the snout to the end of thel 
tail, AV as seven feet two inches; its circumference,! 
near the fore legs, was four feet ten inches ; thel 
height of the shoulder was four feet three inches; 
and the breadth of the fore paw was ten inches.! 
The weight of its four quarters w^as four hundre4l 
and thirty-i-.ix pounds. The fo\ir quarters of thel 
omallest weighed two hundred and fifty- six poundsJ 
These animals furnished, us with some good mealsl 
of fresh meat. Their flesh, indeed, had a strong 
fishy taste, but was infinitely superior to that of the 
sea-hoise; which, hounever, our people were again! 
persuaded, with no great dijSiculty, to prefer to theirl 
salted provisions. 

On Tuesday the 20th, at six in the morning, ai 

, thick fog arising, we lost sight of the ice for the 
space of two hours ; but when the weather* becamel 
clearer, we again had a view of the main body tol 
the south-southeast ; and immediately hauled ourl 
wind, which was easterly, towards it, expecting- tol 
make the American coast to the southeast, vvhichl 
we effected between ten and eleven o'clock. Thel 
latitude, at noon, was 69^ 33', and the longitude 
l9i'*' 53'. Our depth of water, at the same time,| 
was nineteen fathoms. The land was at the dis- 
•; mce of eight or ten leagues, extending from south! 
V east to south-southwest, half west, being thel 
ba;ne we had seen the preceding year ; but it was! 
at present much more covered with gnow thjin atl 



rr^r*- ,'.-'.•... ;-, 



■v.-^- 



■„">.'■•' 









PACIFIC 



OCEAN. 



^3 



that time ; and the ice seemed to adhere to the 
[shore. -^"■''- "'^"^''" 

We continued to sail in the afternoon through 
la sea of loose ice, and to steer towards the land, as 
near as the wind, which blew from cast-southeast, 
would permit. A thick fog came on at eight 
o'clock in the evening, and the wind abated. Ob- 
serving a ripplingin the water, we tried the current, 
and found it set to the east-northeast, at the i^te of 
a mile in an hour : we therefore resolved so steer 
before the v^'ind, during the night, in order to stem 
it, and oppose the large pieces of loose ice, which 
v/ere setting us on towards the coast. Our sound- 
ings, at mid-night, were twenty fathoms. 

The next morning, at eight o'clock, the wind 
I freshening, and the fog dispersing, we again had 
sight of the coast of America to the south-eastward, 
at the distance of nine or ten leagues, and hauled in 
for it ; but the ice in a short time effectually stop- 
ped our further progress on that side, and we were 
obliged to bear away towards the west, along the 
edge of it. Our latitude, at twelve, was 69° 34' ; 
pur longitude was 193^^, and our soundings were 
|twcnty-four fathoms. 

A connected solid field of ice, thus baffling all our 

I efforts to make a nearer approach to the land, and 

(as we had some reason to imagine) adhering to it, 

I we relinquished all hopes of a northeast passage to 

'. Great Britain . ' -'M'1(. r^ f^ : -^'--^ : 

Captain Gierke now finding it impossible to ad- 

|vance farther to the northward on the American 

coast, and deeming it equally improbable that such 

a vast quantity of ice should be dissolved by the few 

remaining weeks that would terminate the summer, 



^f 



'. \ 



<:r: 



ii 



v> 



24 



A VOYAGE TO TIIC 



.} 



14 



considered it as the beststep that could be taken,] 
to trace the sea over to the coast of Asia, and enJ 
deavourto find some opening that would admit him] 
further north, to see what more could be done upon 
that coast, where he hoped to meet with better | 
success^ * % 

We have already mentioned the reasons which 
determined captain Gierke to make no further at- 
tempts on the American coast, and to make his last 
efforts to discover a passage on the coast of the op- 1 
posite continent. 

In the afternoon of Wednesday the 2 1st of July 
we continued to steer through much ice to the 
west-northwest; but, about ten at night, we dis- 
covered through the fog the principal body of it, 
almost close a-head of us, and being unwiUing to 
take a southerly course, if it could be avoided, we 
stood to the northward ; in less than an hour, how- 
ever, we were obliged to tack to the south-south- 
west, as we found ourselves surrounded by a com- 
pact field of ice. 

It is proper here to observe, that we had twice 
traversed this sea, since the 8th of, this month, and 
that in lines almost parallel with the course we now 
steered ; the first time we were unable to penetrate 
so far north as the second by eight leagues, and. 
that this last time a compact body of ice had been 
observed commonly five leagues further south than 
before. This clearly proves, that the vast and solid 
fields of ice which we had seen, were decreasing, 
or moveable, and entirely precludes any well-ground- 
ed hope of its being practicable to proceed further 
even in the most favourable seasons. 

We steered westward, about seven in |he ev^n-j 



PACIFIC OCEAN. 



25 



ing, as then no ice was to be seen ; but we soon 
aFterwards found ourselves close by the main body 
of it ; we were consequently necessitated to .eer 
again to the eastward, and to keep plying to wind- 
ward during the night, in order to avoid the loose 
pieces of ice, which surrounded us often in such 
quantities as to endanger our being blocked up by 
them. :-»' 

Next morning we found the clear water, in 
which we were attempting to stand to and fro, 
did not exceed a mile and a half, and was speedily 
lessening ; at half past seven we forced our passage 
to the southward, which we accomplished with 
great difficulty. The Discovery was not however 
m fort-unate, for, about eleven o'clock, when she 
had almost got through, several large pieces of ice 
were driven so forcibly upon her, that she fell, 
with her broad-side foremost, upon the edge of a 
large body of ice, upon which she was driven very 
violently, havmg an open sea to windward. The 
mass having in a little time been somewhat moved, 
or broken, she had just got free so far as to make an 
attempt to escape, when she again fell to leeward 
on another fragment. The swell on the sea at this 
time made it dangerous to lie to windward, they 
therefore pushed into a small opening, furled their 
sails, and made fast with ice-hooks, having no pros- 
pect of getting clear. We observed them thus 
critically situate about noon, standing to the north- 
west, about three miles from us, while the body of 
ice betwixt us was fast increasing by a south-easter- 
ly gale. At this time we had twenty-eight fathoma 
water, longitude 18?'' latitude 69° 8^ To add 
to our dismal apprehensions, the weather in a little 



X ■ ( 



■*i 



,T' >■■ 



I 



t. 



I'i 



' f7>i 



I 



26 



A VOYAGE TO THE 



•<5. ; 



became so hazy, that we lost sight of the Disco- 
very ; meantime we kept f\o9e to the edge of the] 
ice, to be as near her as possible. After being 
much alarmed for her fate the whole afternoon, 
about nine we .were agreeably surprised to hear her 
answer our signal of firing a gun, which we had 
continued ever since we had lost sight of her. In 
a little we were hailed by her, and informed that 
the wind having changed to the north, the ice was 
somewhat cleared, she therefore had bent all her 
sails, and forced a passage through ; that, while 
she had been encompassed by the ioe, the ^hip ha J 
drifted to the eastward, with the main body, nearly | 
half a mile an hour. We were concerned to learn 
that the strokes she had received in falling on the 
edge of the ice, had rubbed off a great part of the 
sheathing from her bows, and she had become very 
.Jeaky. 

J Next forenoon the course we had continued to 
the southeast was again obstructed by a large body 
of loose ice, to which we could see no end, though 
the day was clear. We therefore plied to wind- 
wardi our latitude at noon being 6S^ 53', and our 
longitude. 188^, variation of compass 22** 30' east. 
In the afternoon, being calm, we sent out the boats 
in pursuit of sea-horses, of which vast herds were 
on every side of us. They killed ten, which was a 
sufficient quantity both for eating, and converting into 
lamp oil. We continued sailing along by the edge 
of the ice, wliich was almost due east and west, 
till Sunday morning the 25th, when we stood to 
the southeast, observing a clear sea in that direc- 
tion. We forced our way through the shoal to* it, 
and by mid-day there was no ice in sight. We 



;^^. 



1" 



':--/K 



PACIFIC OCEAN. 



27 



continued plying to the southeast till about ten 
next day, when we notiaed a large body of ice, ex- 
tending from northwest to south ; at this time our 
longitude was 188^ to east, latitude 68° north. 
During the remainder of this, and all the succeed- 
ing day, we plied backwards and forwards, endea- 
vouring to avoid the shoals of icp. About noon, ; 
on the 27th, we discovered the coast of Asia bear- 
ing south and south by east ; this afternoon we 
plied to the southwest, with a southeast wind, and 
about four o'clock were encompassed with large 
heaps of ice, with a large body of it in view, ex- 
tending further than the eye could reach in a south 
by east and north by east direction. 

Finding it necessary that some determination • 
should be immediately taken what course was pro- 
per to be ptirsued, the carpenters were ordered 
aboard the Discovery to examine into her situation ;. 
whoseteport, along with that of captain Gore, was, 
that her damages were such as required touching 
immediately at som.c port, and thit they would be ' 
at least three weeks in repairing. Captain Gierke 
therefore determined to steer immediately for A- * 
watska bay, to repair our damages, and if possible 
to explore the coast of Japan before the winter set 
in ; and this be resolved on, not only from captain 
(rore's report of the situation of the 'Discovery, 
but that any attempt to proceed further to the 
northward, or to approach nearer to the continent 
on cither hand, was utterly impracticable. ^-^- = 

The joy which every countenance aboard the 
ship^. expressed en this resolution being made pu- 
blic needs not be concealtrd. Heartily sick of u 
uavigation 30 dangerous, with so little prospect of 



4 



• .■*>''■' 



■"■y -. 



28 



A VOYAGE TO THE 



i 

'Mi 



I 



f 



Jzi., 



,.,■-. 'I.- > 

4. ■•''!!. ■••, 



"P 



success, we turned our faces home-wards with as 
much seeming satisfaction as if we were already at 
the Land's End. 

On the 28th and 29th we made but little pro- 
gress to the southward, the breeze from the south- 
east being pi*etty strong, and passed Cape Serdze 
Kamen, so named on the authority of MuUer. At 
seven in the evening of the I30th we observed Cape 
Prince of Wales, about six leagues distant, bearing 
south by ea&t ; as also the island of St Diomede, 
bear iug southwest by west. Having , altered our 
courbt to the west, we made the East Cape by 
eight. Having steered south-southwest through 
the night, at four in the morning the East Cape 
bore north-northeast, and the northeast conier of ! 
6t Lawrence bay, where we last year anchored, bore 
west by south, at four leagues distance. We re- 
gretted much that we had it not in our power o 
pay another visit to the Tschutski, as we could not 
have wrought up to windward without consuming 
more time than we could either spare or the object 
deserved. ' 

Being hnv- past Beering's Straight, and having 
bid a final i iicu to the northeast coast ^^f Asia, we 
will mention the grounds on which we have ven-! 
turcd to oppose the opinions of Mr Mailer. First, 
that the most easterly point of that quarter of the 
. globe is the promontoiy named East Cape ; or, 
tliHt the most eastern longitude of the continent \^ 
1D8' 22' east ; and agahi, that the latitude of the 
eastern extremity falls to the southward of 70° 
north. As to the first, such land, if it exists, must 
necessarily lie to the northward of latitude 69°) 
>vhere our priiseut discoveries are terminated ; we 



•.i>' 



M^'fH^'^' 



PACIFIC OCEAK. 



29 



will thcitfore, in the iirjit placct cndc^avour to in- 
vestigate the probable direction of the coast. 

The only navigatom of tlicfe leas hitherto havf 
been the Russians, conneqiicntly the charts and 
jonrnals of thoi<e, who have been from time to time 
employed in determining the limita of that empire, 
arc our only direction! aii to the situations of the 
coast beyond Cape North ; and, a proper notion of 
their pretended, much lens their real discoveries, is 
very difficult to be formed from their confused ac- 
counts. Hence arises the disagreement of Russian 
geographers concerning the w/.e and shape of the 
peninsula inhabited by the Tschutski. In Mr Mul- 
ler's map, published in IJif^t Jt is supposed to 
reach the 75th degree of latitude, and 190° east 
longitude of Greenwich, and that it terminates in 
a round cape, named by hiip Tschukotskoi Noss. 
To the southward of this he conceives a bay is 
formed to the westward^ the northernmost point of 
which is Serdze Kamcn, latitude 67"* 18^ The 
whqle peninsula is entirely differently formed again, 
in the map published in 1776 by the Petersburg 
Academy, who place it thus : The north-eastern^ 
most extremity, latitude 7ii% longitude 178° 30'~i. 
The easternmost point, latitude 65'^ 30', longitude 
189° 30'. Any otiier map« we have seen vary 
from both these, probably 1 more from conjecture 
than any solid reasons. In general, however, they 
agree in this, that the East Cape is situate in lati- 
tude 66^. No regard can be paid to the Academy 
map, as to the shape of tlic coast, either to the 
south or north of this cape. Mr MuUer's map in 
general coincides with our survey, so ^ar as ours 
goes, only, to the westward) it does not trend 



.i- 






C 



■ -h' . 



^ 



3^ 



A VOYAGE TO THE 



^s 



enough; in the latitude of 66^ and 69^, it only 
recedes 5^ instead of 10° at least. Between the 
latitude of 69° and 74°, he marks the coast as 
forming a considerable promontory-) by bending 
round to the north and northeast. We shall now 
examine- upon what authoijity. • 

This subject has been much elucidated by Mr 
Coxe, who is of opinion that none ever passed the 
point of the N^ss in question but Deshneff and 
his party in 1648, who are said to have passed 
round it into the Anadir. In Mr Coxe's account 
of Russian Discoveries, the particulars of this na- 
vigation may be seen at large j but as it contains 
no geographical description of the coast, accidental 
circumstances are the only direction for its situa- 
tion ; from these it is however very clear, that the 
promontory which captain Cook named the East 
Cape, is the Tjchukotskoi Noss of Deshneff. Of 
this Noss, he says, ^^ One might sail from the 
isthmus to the river Anadir jn three days and 
nights, wath a fair wind. Now, as the East Cape 
is about one hundred and twenty leagues from the 
mouth of the Anadir, and betwixt that and 69° 
of latitude the~e is no isthmus to the north, it is 
clear he must either mean the East Cape or one 
more southerly.*' Again, he says, " Over against 
\he isthmus there are two islands in the sea. Upon 
which were seen people of the Tschutski nation, 
through whose lips were run pieces of the teeth of 
the sea-horse." This exactly corresponds with the 
two islands on the southeast of the cape. It is true, 
we saw no inhabitants ; but it is far from improba- 
ble that some of the Americans of the opposite con- 
tinent, whom he might readily mistake for a tribe 



'*^i^/j,_J.i'..i^. :.'. ;iy^^^ilv...:..v>»:."^,,:^ 






PACIFIC Ocean. 



^I 



of the Tschiitski, might accidentally be there ; and 
it is noticeable, that this description exactly suits 

We shall now mention some 6fli#r pY66% Which 
tend to conimn the point, though not so cleanly as 
the preceding two, which appear to us conclusive; 
DeshnefF elsewhere says, " To go from the Kovy- 
mar to the Anadir, a great promontory must be 
doubled, which stretches very far into the sea." 
Again, " This promontory stretches between north 
and northeast." In these passages, we probably 
have Mr Mutler's principai authority, for giving 
the country of the Tschutski the form he has done 
in his map ; to invalidate whiph we may notice^ 
that Deshneff is all along speaking* of the same 
place, apd had Mr Muller understood the situation 
of East Cape, and its great similarity in shape to 
tile other, he would not have considered these 

* From the circumstance, which gave nanie to Sledge 
Island, formerly mentioned, it is certain, that the inhabiiauts 
of the continent occasionally visit the adjacent small islands, 
probably for fishing, or in search of furs. PopofTs deposi- 
tion^ which will be mentioned hereafter, given a good rea- 
son for DeshnefF supposing them to be of the Tschutski, frorrt 
the great resemblance between them, and the inhabitants of 
the Islands. He says, that, " Opposite to the Noss, is an 
island of moderate size, without trees, whose inhabitants 
resemble^ in their extericrj the Tsehutsiij although ihey are qulU 
another nation^ not numerous indeer', yet speaking their own 
particular language," Likewise, i.i another place, " One 
may go in a baidare from the Noss, to the island in half a 
day J beyond is a great continent, which can be discovered 
from the continent in ;*erene weather. When the weathef 
is good, one may go from the island to the continent in a 
day. The inhabitants of the continent are. similar to the Tfcbui^ 
ski, cKCfptinv that they *feai another Ijnj^urge, 




ff? 



^-, 



I'i 






m 



I?' 



-3? 



A VOYAGE TO THE 



words a sufficient foundation for strechin.g tiic 
northeast extremity of Asia, cither so far north orl 
east, as he Jias done. Indeed, if Deshneff took 
his bearings frana the small bight, lying to the 

- westward of the cape, his account is by no means | 
contradictory to our opinion. 

V; Besides that just mentioned, we can think of nol 
authority for Mr Muller's opinion, if it be not the 
deposition of Cossack Popoff, taken in 1711, at| 
4he Anadirski ostrog. He, with several other Cos- 
; sacks, had been sent by land, to demand a tribute | 

- from the independent Tschutski tribes living about' 
the Noss, The first circumstance tending to throw 
light on the subject from this journey is its distance 
from Anadirsk ; which, Popoff says, was ten days] 
traveUing, with loaded rein-deer, consequently, 
their day's journey short ! a veiy uncertain method 
of calculation ; but our opinion will at least receive 

. a negative support from it, when we mention, that 
the distance is upw^ards of 200 leagues in a straight 
line, so that it is but a moderate allowance to give 

\ 1 5 miles a day. The deposition then mentions 

5. their travelling by the foot of a rock called Mathol, 
situate at the bottom of a great gUlf. This Mul- 
lif. L supposes to be the bay he laid down between la- 
titude 66° and 72°» and accordingly plaqes Ma- 
thol in the centre of it* But as they behoved to 
touch somewhere in the gulf of A nadir, this seems 
more probable, were there no other reasons to doubt 
the existence of MuUer'sgulf^ f : A 

'"■'■■t But the part of Popoff 's deposition quoted in 
the preceding note giv^s good ground to believe, 
that the cape visited by him cannot be to the 
northward of 69*^ latitude ; for, as at that latitude, 



;.vJ- 



-■t. 



PACIFIC OCEAN*ir ; v; 



33 



[he tw'o continents are more tlian 300 miles separ-" 
ite from each other, that the Asiatic coast should 
lorain trend so much to the eastward, agio be with- 
in sight, is a ridiculous Supposition. 

It is needless to enter further into the arguments 

)n this subject, further than barely n^entioning, 

that Mr Ring is decidedly of opinion that the 

iTschukotskoi Noss not only of DeshnefF, but all 

[the more early Russian navigators, is the East Cape ; 

land that the Asiatic coast nowhere exceeds 70*^ 

northern latitude, before it trends to the westward j 

and conseqiiei'tly that we were within 1^ of its 

Inortheasilc ^' '^emity. "w^t 

It is highly probable, that a northweGC passage 
Ifrom the Atlancic into the Pacific Ocean does not 
exist to the southward of the fifty-sixth degree c£ 
latitude. If, therefore, a, passage really exists, it 
must certainly be either through Baffin's bay, or by 
the north of Greenland, in the western hemisphere; 
or in the eastern, through the Frozen Sea, to-th^ 
! north of Siberia ; and on which ever side it is situ-J^ 
late, the navigator mn^t pass throtigh the straits 
distinguished by :e rame of Beering's Straits. 
Tiie impracticabir". - '*}/'»netrating into the Atlantic 
Or 'nn on either side, ?rf>ugh these straits, is there- 
fort all that now remains to be offered to the read»'^ 
er's consideration* ' '"^' 

The sea to the northward of Beering's Straits^ 
was foL ' jy U3 to be more free from ice in August 
than in July, anf- perhaps in some part of Septem- 
ber it may be s- U. ^>.iore clear of it. But, after the 
autumnal equino^; *b„ length of the day diminishes 
80 fast, ♦^^hat no further thaw can be expected ; ,and 
v;e .::)iinot reasonably attribute so great an effect to 



M: 






,lt. 



• ;?•■.%"«;., 



•^ >■■ 



•>' '. 



vv^ , 



34 



A VOYAGE TO THE 



,;','l! 



1^1 



('V 



:t 



-V';.-V 



the warm weather in the first fortnight in the niontii 
of September, as to imagine it capable of dispersing 
the ice, from the most northern parts of the coast' 
of America. Admitting this, however, to be pes. 
sible, it must at least be allowed, that it would be 
highly absurd to attempt to avoid the Icy Cape by 
running to the known parts of Baffin's Bay, (a 
distance of about twelve hundred and sixty miles) 
in so short a space of time as that passage can be 
supposed to remain open. 

There appears, on the '1** of Asia, still less pro. 
bability of success, not ol 'rom what came to' 
our own knowledge, relative to the state of the sea 
to the southward of Cape North, but likewise from 
what we have gathered from the experience of the 
lieutejiants under the direction of Beering^ and the 
journal of Shalauroff, respecting that on the north 
of Siberia. -\ , 

«; The possibility of sailing round the north-eastern 
extremity of Asia, is undoubtedly proved by the 
voyage of Deshneff, if its truth be admitted ; but 
when we i^flect^ tliat, since the time of that navi-| 
gator, near a century and a half has elapsed^ dm-ing 
which, in an age of curiosity and enterprise, no per- 
son has yet been able to follow him, we can enter. 
tain no very sanguine expectations of the 'public 
benefits which can be derived from it. But even 
on the supposition, that, in some remarkably fa. 
voutable season, a vessel might find a clear passage 
round the coast of Siberiii, and arrive in stifety at 
the mouth of the Lena, still there remains thcCap' 
of Taimura, extending to the seventy-eighth de^ 
gree of latitude, which no navigator has Uithei^) 
ha4 the good fortune to double. #f 5l4l^i\ 



;■>>■'*.•- ..•-••, 



';^r 



.V'"- 



»': 



4-f, 



PACIFIC OCEAN. 



35 



Some, however, contend, that there are strong 
Ireasons for bcheving, that the nearer approach we 
lake to the pole, the sea is more clear of ice ; and 
that all the ice we observed in the lo\yer latitudes^ 
Iliad originally been formed in the great rivers of 
] Siberia and America, from the breaking up of 
Iwhich the intermediate sea had been filled. But 
leven if that supposition be true, it is no less certain 
[that there can be no access to those open seas, un« 
less this prodigious mass of ice is so far dissolved in 
the summer, as to admit of a ship's making its way- 
through it. If this be the real fact, we made 
[choice of an improper time of the year for attempt- 
ling to discover this passage, which should have 
[been explored in the months of April and May, be- 
fore the rivers were broken up. But several reasons 
Imay be alleged against such a supposition. Our ex- 
Iperience at Petropaulowska gave us an opportuni- 
Ity of judging what might be expected further 
lorthward ; and, upon that ground, we had some 
reason to entertain a doubt, whether the two con- 
tinents might not, during the winter, be even join- 
ed by the ice ; and this coincided with the acco ants 
le heard in Kamtschatka, that, on the coast of 
[Siberia, the inhabitants, in winter, go out from the 
shore, upon the ice, to distances that exceed the 
)readth of the sea, in some part^ from one con- 
tinent to the other, r'.^'.^ 

The following remarkable particular is mentioned 
Kn the deposition above referred to. Speaking of the 
land seen from the Tschutski Noss, it is said, that, 
luring the summer, they sail in one day to the land 
in haularesf a kind of a vessel formed of whale- 
)one, and covered with the skins of seals ; and, in 



f^ 



. ,> 



■*:■ 



••p 



.m 



36 



A VOYAGE TO THE 



the winter, as they go swift wit' rein-deer, thejoi 
liey may also be performed in a day. A satisfa'j 
tory proof, that the two countries were generallj 
connected by the ice. 

Muller's account of one of the expeditions imj 
dertaken for the purpose of disco^ering a supposci 
island in the Frozen Ocean, is still more remarkable] 
His narrative is to the following purport. In 17 Ml 
31 new expedition was prepared from Jakutzk, undej 
the conduct of Alexei MarkofF, who was to set saif 
from the mouth of the Jana 5 and if the Schi^i] 
were not well^dapted for sea voyages, he was d 
build, at a convenient place, proper vessels for pn 
secuting the discoveries without any great risquci 
Upon his arrival at Ust-janskoe Simovie, the pon 
where he was to embark, he dispatched an account 
dated the 2d of February, 1715, to the Chancei] 
pf Jakutzk, intipiating that it was impracticable 
navigate the sea, ^is it was constantly frozen both ii 
winter and su;nnier; ana that, consequently, thJ 
expedition could only be prosecuted with sledgej 
drawn by dogs. ,He - accordingly set out in thii 
manner, accompanied by nine persons, the lOo 
of March, in the same year, arjd returned to Ustj 
janskoe Simovie on the 3d of the succeeding month! 
The account of his journey is as follows : That, foij 
the space of seven days, he travelled with as .muci 
expedition as his dogfe could draw, (which* in good 
tracks, and favourable weather, is from eighty to 
hundred wersts in a day) directly to the north wardJ 
wpon the ice, without observing any island : thaJ 
}ie was prevented from proceeding further, by the 
ice, which rose like mountains ii\ that part of the 
fea : that he had ascended some of the hills of iceJ 



PACIFIC OCEAN. 



37 



rhence he could see 16 a great distance around him» 
)Ut could discern no land : and that, at length, pro« 
visions for his dog« being deficient, many of them 
lied, which reduced him to the • necessity lof vt* 
fuming. ^^'':'' ■ "''if '■^''■^ 

Besides the arguments already mentioned, which 
)roceed upon an admission of the hypothesis, that 
the ice in this ocean comes from the rivers, others 
ly be adduced, whidi afford good reason for 8us» 
ecting the truth of the hypothesis itself. Captain 
'ook, whose opinion with regard to the formation 
>f the ice, h^d originally coincided with that of the 
theorists we are now endeavouring to confute, found 
iufRcient grounds, in the present voyage, for chang- 
ing his sentiments. We observed that the coasts 
)f both continents were low, that the depth of wa- 
^er gmdnally decreased towards them, and that a 
Itriking resemblance prevailed between the two ; 
from which circumstances, as well as from the der 
tcnption given by Mr Hearue of the copper mine 
river, we have room for conjecturing, thsit whatever 
rivers may discharge themselves irito the Frozen 
kean, fram the continent of An^erica, are of a 
mnilar nature with those on the Asiatic side; which 
ire said to be SQ shallow at their entrance, as to ad- 
lit only vessels of incpnsiderable magnitude; where- 
the ice seen by us, rises above the level of the 
t to a height that equals the depth of those ri# 
^ers ; so that its^ntir^ altitude must be, at least| 
ten tiim^ greatei% n i is»k $t i/ju.;. 

Another circumstance will naturally offer itself, 
^n this place, to our consideration, which seems to 
)e very incompatible witn the opinion of those 
r\iQ suppose that lai\d is necessary forthe formatioa 






-.'4 



/■♦■ 






mil 



,v. 



f.r 



f 



p. 



')..' 



3^ 



A VOYAGE TO THE 



m[ 



c 
to 
sto 
ati 
tra< 
anc 
ent 
we 
ed 
teni 






^ , l&f the ice ; we mean the different state of the sm 

vf . «bout Spitsbergen, and of that which is to tht 

\ /' , northward of Beering's Straits. It is incumbent 

■on those philosophers to explain how it happens, 

that in the former quarter^ and in the neighbour. 

.;y: iiood of much known land, navigators annually pc. 

netrate to near eighty degrees of northern latitude; 

.ivhereas, on the other side, no voyager has been 

afile, with his utmost efforts, to proceed beyond 

r .-^ithc seventy-first degree ; where, moreover, the 

''- '^^A /continents diverge nearly in the direction of east 

and ^est, and where there is no land yet knowi^tol^nd 
■^ ;?4cxi8t in the vicinity of the pole. For the furtherBj^ j, 
^isfaction of our readers on tills subject, we referl^Q ^ 
them to Dr Fonter's " Observations round theH^f , 
World," where they will find the question, of thcH^gg 
formations of the ice, discussed in a full and satis^^^jj^ 
iactory manner, and the probability of open polar 
teas, disproved by many forcible arguments, 
:^t^^ To these remarks we shall subjoin a comparative 
view of the progress made by us to the northward, 
at the two different seasons in which we were occu. 
pied in that pursuit ; together with some general 
observations respecting the sea^ and the coasts of 
the two continents, which lie to tlie north ^^JBeerBtij^^ 
'ing'« Straits. .i^^.m'«i|€J#!«^>tj"8*^##^*i.-"ifc^>f«&>^ Bbetw 

' In the year 1778 we did not discover the ice»fc^ 
V till we advauced to the latitude of 70% on the 17tBLjt^|^ 
pf Auffust -y and we then found it in compact bo-l^^ ^ 
dies, which extended as far as the eye could dxscemjl^^^j^i 
^d of waich the whole, or a part, wad moveable ilcoaf 
4ince, by its drifting down upon our sl^ipi ^ we wereBof j! 
almost hemmed in between that and the ^nd« v A^ljce^'i 
tcr we had experienced^ b|^ho.^;&ui^t^4||d4a» 



vane 
land 

lin 
Ii 

on^ 
we f 
coflt 



.1 



^PACIFIC OCEAN, 



<.<J ;s 



3^ 



rcroua it would be, to attempt to penetrate further 
[to the northward, between the land and the ice, we 
Istood over towards the side of Asia, between the 
latitudes of G9° and 70"^ ; after encountering in this 
[tract very large fields of ice, and though the fog» 
and thicicness of the weather prevented us from 
entirely tracing a connected line of it across, yet 
we were certain of meeting with it before it reach- 
ed the latitude of 70®> whenever we made any at* 
[tempts to stand to the north. ^ ' '. ^''"^ 

On the 26th of August, in the latitude 00 G®^| 
land the longitude of 184°, we were obstructed by 
it in euch quantities, that we could not pass eicHer 
to the north or west ; and w^re under the necessity 
[of running along the edge of it to the south-soilth* 
jwest, till we perceived land, which proved: to bo 
[the Asiatic coasti With the season thus fkirad- 
Ivancedy the weather netting in with snow and sleet, 
[and other indications of the approach of winter, we 

ilinquished our enterprise for that time»t^4} §.ir.3f * 
In our second attempt, we did little more thah 

:onfiitn the remarks rhade by us in the first ; for 
Iwe ftetet* had an opp6ytunity of approaching the 
jcoiitinent of Asial hi^^r than 67* of latitude^ nof 
jthat of America in arty part, except a few leagues 
jbetwcen the latitude 6f 68** and 68<^ 20', that we 
Iliad n6t ^^^n in the prec^diilg year. W,e now met 
Iwith o^sttnlction froi^i; ice3*^lower ; 'and our efforts 
Ito itittke f&Vtl^r ^rogresrftO 'the northward, were 
[chiefly ^tmfinedto the n\id^e Space between the two 

:oagt^; ^ We penetrated near^(i® further on the side 
lof Aihericathan'that of A*ftaV coming up with- th^ 
lice both years 8o6ner, and 'in more coftsiderSible 
Iquantities, on the* latter c6b^U As WeisMvaMieed in 



•-» 



*^ f,' 



> S 



.. D 2 



■^:1 



■ ■'*■. 



'*•*. 



11 


Vi 


i 


il^'^ 


III.',/' 






A VOYAG£ TO TM£ 



'K V' 



i- 



^■- 



-#>■■■ 






GUI' northerly course, vre found the iVe more ftolid 
and compact ; however, as in our different traver. 
sea from one side to the other, we passed over spaces | 

' ; iRrhich had before been covered with it, we imagin- 

\^i«d, that the greatest part of what vic saw wasmcl 
.Teable. Its height, on a medium ^ we estimated at 

'eight or ten feet, and that of the highest at sixteen 
or eighteen. We again examined the currents 
twice, and found that they were unequal, though 

. they never exceeded one mile an hour. We Hkewise 
fbund the currents to set different ways, but more 
from the southwest than any other quarter ; y|pt, 
whatever their direction might be, their effect was 
so inconsiderable, that no eonclusions, with respect 

,^to the existence of any passage towards the north, | 
t^ould possibly be drawn from: them, ; .,/ *i*f ,^7. 
V We fomnd July infinitely colder tkattAiiiB^ist. I 
pThe thermometer, in the firnt of these months, was 
once at 28^, and very frequently at 30° ; whereas, 
during the last year, it was very uncoihmi^n in 
August, to have it so low as the freezing point. In 
both seasons we experienced soiftehigh winds', all 
of which Jolew from the southwest. Whenever the | 
wind was moderate from any quatter, we were sub- 
ject to' fog5-; but they were observed |o attend I 
southerly winds metre constantly than otherf^y^ , 

The straits, between the American, and Asiatic! 
continents, at their nearest approach, in the latitude 
of 66^ y were ascertained by Hft to* b*^ thirteen 
leagues, beyond which they diverge to northeast by 
east, and we8t-4iorthw^t t and in the latifude ofl 
69**, their distance from each -other is about three! 
hundred miles. . In the aspect of the two countries 
■^;k to |hQ'jQp|l|h„ pf the §|raife§j.a great reserafelance is! 



f w 






PACIFIC OCEAN. • A , 



4.V 



ob»cVvabIe. Both of them are destitute of wood, ; 
The shores are low, with mountains further inland, 
rising to a great ticight. The soundings, in the> 
midway between them, were twenty-nine and thir- 
ty fathoms, gradually decreasing as we. approached t 
either continent ; with this difference, however^ that r 
the watei" was somewhat shallower on the coast of^ 
America than on that of Asia, at an equal distance* 
fjom land. The bottom, fowardk the middle, wad 
H soft slimy mud ; and neak* either shore, it was a . 
])rowi»4«jh sand, intermixed with ;a few shells, and 
small' fnigltients of bones. We ' found but little; 
tjde or current, and that little came from the west.;* 

We will now resume the narrative of bur vayagCf* 
which was continued till the Slst of July; onwhichi 
day we had proceeded, at noon, eighteen leagues t6' 
the soufthward of the East Gape. We had lights 
airs from the southwest tiH the' fii^t of August, ajbi 
noon, when our latitude was '64«^i23'^ atid our lofi-v 
gitiide 189^ i;5^ ; the Aaia%: coast extending froiti^ 
northwest by west, to west hs|16' st>oth, at the di94\ 
tance of about twelve leagues,' and the land to the) 
Icastward'of Sf'^ Lawrence bearing south half west. I; 

On Monday ^he second, the weather being clear^, 
1 we perceived the same land, at noon, extending from n 
I west-southwest half west to southclast, and forming^V 
many .elevated hummocks, which bore the appear**' 
ance of separate islands. The latitude, at this time^^ ^ 
was 64?® 3', the Ipngitude 189^ 28', and our souni 
dings were seventeen fathoms. We were not neaft 
^nough to this land to ascertain, whether it was a^ 
group of islands, or only a single <5ne. We had > ' 
passed its most westerly point in the evening of the 
third of July, which we then supposed to be tl^ 



r'tf^:' 












.«:• 



:--s:. 



:.iV::^\* 



'I 



^v> 



Mm 



X, 






4X 



mm 



A VOYAGE TO THB 






i»Ie of St La>fv'rence j the cakermost we sailed close 
by in September the preceding year, and this wc 
denominated Gierke's islai^ ; smd found it cumpu* 
sed of a number of lofty cliffs, connected by very 
low land. Though these cliffs, the last year, were 
mistaken by us for separate islandn,. till we made a 
very near aipproach to the shore, we are atill inclin- 
ed to conjecture that the ieie of St Lawrence is 
distinct from Gierke's Island, as there appeared be- 
twixt them a' considerable space, where we did not 
observe the least appearance of rising ground. I^ 
the afternoon, we likewise saw what had the appear- 
ance of a small island, to the northeast of the land 
that we had seen at noon^ amd which, from the 
thickness of the weather, we only had sight of once. 
We supposed its 'distance to be nineteen leagues 
from the isbod of St Lawrence, in the direction of 

niortheast by east hd\^ tas:^i^-^.'ifih-v§pfM'-^> mcmv^ 
; > We had hght variable winA on tbe 3dy and steer- 
ed pound the northwest point of the isle of St Ijiaw- 
rence. The next dtty^ at noon, our latitude wa» 
64^:8', longitude 188^;, the island of St Lawrence 
bearing south one quarter east>^ttW distance of 
^^-ven leag»6s» ,: ,,. .. ■ :': ,i::X'm'''eJH'ir:im(M^'i0 
I ;4ti' the afternoon^ a fresh breeze jtfisiiig from the 
ct^pi we steered to the south-southwest, and quick- 
ly lost sights ©f.St Lawrence, On Saturday the 
seventh, at rWfelve'o'cldck, the latitude was 59'^ 
38', ard the longitude ISiJ^. We hid a calm in 
the afternoon, and caught a great number of cody| 
in seventy-eigrit fathoms of wat^r. From this pe- 
riod to the i7th, we were making the best of our; 
way towards, the south, - without any remarkable 
occurrence, except that the Vviiid blowing from tiie i 



f\: 



»^'i4 



PACIFIC OCEAN. 



43 



west, forced us wore to thr eiAtward than we wish- 
ed, it being our inlention tu make Beering's 

On Thursday t)|c 17tkt between four and five in 
the morning, we descried land to the northwest, 
which we could not approach, ai the wind blew 
from that quarter. At mid-day, the latitude wa» 
53° 49', and the longitude 168° 5'. The land in 
view bore north by we«t» it the diitatice of twelve 
or fourteen leagues. Thk Isuvd we imagine to be 
the island of Medi>oi, which ii placed in the Rus- 
sian charts to the southeast of Beering's Island. It 
is elevated land, and wad at thi» time apparently free 
from snow. We reckon it to be in the latitude of, 
54.0 28', ? ^ the Ionj<itude of 16T 52'. We did 
not strik round with one hundred and fifty ia-t 
thorns of line, ^ ,:, ''Hr,?vnj;,^ •riU^avx''iji'T ,>.; 

Captain Clerko being now no longer able to get 
out of his bed, signifK*d hii de»ire, that the oi!i«v 
ccrs would receive their orders from Mr King ; and 
directed that wc should repair, with all convenient' 
speed, to tlie bay of Awatftka. The wind conti- 
nuing westerly, we steered a southerly course till 
I early in the morning of the 19th j when, after rain 
of a few hours contiuuanccy it blew from the east, 
and increased to a strong gale. We made the most 
of it^rhile it lasted, by standing towards the west, 
j with all the sail we could bear* The next day> the 
wind varying to the southwest, we steered a westj 
I northwest coursfr. The latitude^ at noon, was 5S^ 
7', and the longitude W^"" 49'r On the 2ist, be- 
Itween five and six in the morning, we perceived a 
very lofty peaked mountain on the coast of Kamt^ 
Whatka, ^known by the name of Cheepoonskoi 






« 






.Vjliir 



44 



,,V 



*,*. 



A TOY AGE TO THE 






'm^i 



. e** 



■■•f. 



'% 






;!^ 



'hi 



I, 



Moartain, bearing northwest by rorth, at tlie difi- 
tance of between twenty-five and thirty leajgues. 
At noon the- coast was observed to extend irom 
north by east to west, with d very great haziness 
upon it ; and it was about twelve leagues distant. 
We had light airs during the remaiBC>:ir of this, as 
well as the following dayi and 'found no ground with 
'^ ' . ^ne hundred and forty f^homs of line. '^ 

At nine o'clock in tih^ inorning', on Sunday the 
22d of Augiist, Captam Charles Gierke expired, it? 
. the thirty-eighth year Cyf his age. 'Hi:^ death wa^ 
i ; ■ occasioned by a consumption, which had manifestly 
H ^ commenced before his departure from England, and 
^''\ of which he had lingered, during the whole conti- 
nuance of the voyage. Hife vei^' gradual decay 
*4 .^ had for a long time rendered him a melancholy ob- 
ject to his friends ; but the firmness andequajfi mity 
with which he bore it, the constant flow of good 
spirits, which he retained even to the lafetHouf, and a 
chearfL' resignation to his fat^, futnished theitfwith 
' some consolat^ion/ It was impossible not to fed rtn 
uncommon degree of compassion for a gentleman, 
who had experieJlfced a series of those difHculties 
^ and hardships, which must be the inevitable lot of 
every seaman, and under which he Qt last siinkJ He 
was bred to the navy from his youth, ami had been 
in many engager^ mts dvring the war wmch bald be- 
gun in the year 175G4 In the action between the 
Belion» and Courageu^, he was stationed in the 
mizen-t9p, and was carried over-board with the 
r mast ; but was ^terwards taken up, without hav- 
, ing received the least injury. He was midshipmnn 
on board the Dolphin, commanded by commodore 
Byron, when she fim sailed round the world j nn^ 



% 



#1- 



'ii^^ 



'W 



«^> 



;ar;. 



!;&¥:l.'^l 



.v'.s" 



PACIFIC OCEAN. 



45 



V 



twas afterwards on the Ameri;ar; ftUfion. In the 
year 1768, he engaged in a second voyage -round the 
world, in the situation of master^s mate of the Kn- , 
deavour; and, during the expedUion, succeeded to 
a lieutenancy. In the Resolution he niade a third 
voyage round the world, in the capacity of second 
lieutenant ; and in a short time after his return in 
1775,. he was appointed master and commander. In 
the present expeditiony he was appointed captain of 
the Discovery, and to accompany captain Cook. 
By the calamitous death of the other, he naturally 
succeeded, as hiis.heea <4ready rel<$ted»^ to thechie^ 

command, '-"r*y-H ^ ■^■■'.y -, -■ ^'■■■•■^-':-"}-:. ? ;">^-' -V-^ 'r - 

. It would savonr of injustice and ingratitude to 
his memory* not to mention,, that, during the short 
time he commanded nhe expedition^ he was most 
remarkably zealous for '♦^^s success. When the prin* 
cipal command /evolveu updn him, his health be- 
gan rapidly to decline ; and he was unequal in every 
respect to encounter the severity of a high northern 
climate. The vigour pf his mind, however, was 
not in the least impaired, by the decay of hf& body : 
and though h^ was perfectly sensible th^t hi« de- 
laying to retumi to a warmer climate, wad depriving 
himself of the only chance of recovery ; yet, so at- 
leiitive was he ti^^his duty, that he wa^ detfjnnined, 
not to suffer his own situation to tuati his judgment 
to the prejudice of the service: he therefore perse- 
vered in the search of a passage, till every officer in 
the expedition, declared they were of opinion it was 
impracticable, and that any further attempts would 
be equally ha'iardous and incffectuaL '<rr» s:fei-r^ 

Capt; in Ki&g sent a messenger to captain Gore, 
to acquaint him with the death of captain Gierke, 






i'ij 



v:.. 



^1 



?^ '^. • 



' 






46 



.-.■.y.i.-t'^- 



■■f :•.-*, A 



A VOYAGE TO'^^fiE 



.A- 



X. 



'---I- 



^ivho brought ^ letter froth captain Gore, containing 

; an order for captain King to exert bis utmost enJ 

deavours to keep in company Ti^ith the Discovery, 

and, if a separation should happen, to repair, as 

«o6n as possible, to St Peter and St Paul. Our 

latitude, ai noon, was 53° 8' north, and our longi. 

tude 160* 4(y east ; Cheepoonskdi Noss then beiarJ 

. iijg west,' ''"In the afternoon we' had light airs, 

which continued till noon on the ^3d j when a fresh 

; breeze springing up from the east, we steered for 

,vihe entrance of Awatskabay ; which we saw about | 

, six in the evening, bearing west-northwest, distant 

about f*ve leagues. At eight, the light-house, 

which now furnishied a good light, was about three 

miles distarity dhd bore northwest by west. It Was 

now a perfect calm ; but iis the tide. was favourable, 

] the boats were sent a-head, and towed beyond the 

narrow parts of the entrance.' On the S^th, at 

one in the morning, w. .'-opped anchor, the ebb 

; tide then setting against us. , ;. ' . ^'^ 

We weighed about P'Ait* o*cBtit,'4nd Wtfet tip 
ildit bay with light airs, which 'b^itig afterwards suc- 
ceeded by a fresh breeze, we' anchored before three 
, inthe harbour of St Pet^r iand St Paul ; having up 
.^ pur ensigii half staff, as the' bgdy of our late cap- 
tain was in the vessel r and the [Discovery followed 




y officer of the place) who brought with him a pre- 
>ent of berries, intended for captain 'Clerik.e.'^ '^He | 
f was much affected at hearing of his deaths and set- 
's ing the coSin wherein his body was deposited. As I 
. the deceased captain had particularly requested to 



"*V' 






k/V: 



t* 



■A k 






47 



vM 



■ i' ■ f ' . ^ .■■■ 

Ije buried on shore, ai^d gave tlie preference to the 
church at Paratounca, we embraced this opportu*' 
I nity of consulting with the Serjeant, about the ne» 
cessary steps to be pursued upon the occasion.,.. ; 4* 
After much conversation oa this subject, which 
was very imperfectly carried on, for want of an in- 
terpreter, we gathered intelligcncethatdeX.' Isle, and 
seme other Russian gentlemen, who had died here, 
I were buried near the baiTacke, at the ostrog of St 
Peter and St Paul, and that this place would cer- 
tainly be more eligible than Paratounca, as the 
church was shortly to be removed thither. We 
therefore determine^ to wait the arrival of the priest 
of Paratounca, who was immediately to be sent for, 
as being the person best qualified to give us any in- 
formation we required upon the subject. The ser- 
Ijeant, at the same time depressed his ivitentions of 
sending an express to the commander of Bokhr 
retsk, with intelligence of our arrival; when cap 
tain Gore begged to avail himself of that opportu- 
nity of conveying a letter to him, wherein he re- 
I quested that sixteen head of black cattle might l^e 
I sent with all possible dispatch^ And, as the com- 
I mander was unacquainted with any language except 
ibis own, the particulars of our request were con** 
municated to the Serjeant, who not only imdef- 
took to send the letter, but also an exolanation pf 

[Its contents. ^ // ^f7«iiiOJi<%i mm f CQU^^HHn>ii . vtil 
It was a generaj remark among us, - that, though 
I the face of the country had ii^provedi^ its appear-), 
ance since we had left it, the'Rus^ians loojsjed e;^«a 
[worse than they did^ then. "jThey made the vei^* 
Uame observation with respect to us; and, as nei- 
ther party seemed plejwed wath, the discovery, we 



*. 



,\ 



' / 






*'■ ■ .' 



•V • 



x6..-^ 



J 



'J i- -■ V- \ ■ 



Jk'VQXKCZ TO THE 



t- 



*f^;. 



mutually eonsoled ourselves by casting the blamel 
upon the country, whose verdant and lively com.! 
plexion, had occasioned 2,n appearance of sallowJ 
jtess on our own.- ;^^^-^^^«*^^*^'i^^ ^¥^^ - ' 

?t' '^i'l^ough the eijuption of the volcano was so ex. 
tremely violent whin we quitted the bay, we werjl 
informed that no damage had been received from it 
here. Several stones, however, that were as large 
«s a goose's e^g, had fallen at the astrgg. This 
was the principal news w« had to inquire after, '^ndl 
nil the intelligence they had to communicate to us,| 
excepting thtit of SoposnicofF's arrival from Oona. 
lasUksl, who took charge of the pacquet sent by I 
<:aptain Cook to the Admiralty, and whicii, W(f had 
the pleasure to find, had been forwarded. " 

On the 25th of August, in th»? momirigf ' cap- 
^ain Gore, in consequence of the d^ath of captaiD| 
"Clerke, made out the new commissions. He ap- 
pointed himself t^ the command of the Resolution,, 
-and Mr King to that of the I>iscovery. Mr La, 
nayan, who was master's mate of the Resolution,! 
and who had been in that capacity in the formerl 
voyage, ''on board the Adventure, w;is appointed toj 
-the vacant lieutenancy. The following arrange- 
ments were the consequence of these promotions.! 
Lieutenants Burney and Rickman (from the Disco^ 
very) were appointed first and second lieutenants ofl 
the Resolution ; and lieucenant WiUiamson first! 
•lieutenant of- the Discovery, Captain King, byl 
the permission of cajptain Gore, took in fovir midJ 
'. -ahipm^n, who had rendered themselves ust^ful tol 
him in astrononiical Calculations $ and wV se assistj 
ancc w^ts become the nlbre necessary, as we had n( 
iui ej>hi3ipcri| fuf th^^preaenC year, And| tha^astraj 



P-:^'f. 






,- f 



VAginc OCEAN, f-- 



# 



fiomical observations might not be neglected to be 

[made in either ship, Mr Bai]^ytpok captain King's 

[ylace in the Resohition.'-'^' •' ^' * • '^'^'^-''^'^^ '^^^^ *; ' 

On the same day we were attended by the 

I worthy priest of Pai-atounca, His exprer.sions of 

Uorrow at the death of captain Gierke did honouf • 

to his feelings. He confirmed what the serjeant 

had Mated, witli regard X.6 the intended removal of 

I the church, and assured us the timber was actually 

[preparing, but submitted the choice of either place 

entirely to captain Gore. x- -V -^^^'' « 

As the DiscoTcry had suffered great injury 'fi'om ' 
the ice, especially on the ^d of July, and liad 
continued CKceedingly leaky ever since, it was ap- 
prehended that some of her timbers might have 
started ; the carpenters of the Resolution were 
therefore sent to assist those of the Discovery in 
repairing her, and they accordingly began to rip 
the damaged sheathing from the larboard bow. It 
vras discovered, by this operation, that three feet 
of the third strake were staved, and the timbers 
started. To accommodate those who were to be 
employed on «hore, a tent was erected, and a party 
was sent into tl»e country, norih of the harbour, 
to fell timber. The observatories Were placed at 
the west end of the -villagei near which was erec- 
ted a tent, as an abode for the captains Gore and> 
■King. ♦^^ij^i;p Ji^l^i*>;ix;?'3^a*iT ■*■: ■lol.t^w ijas. ,tei* - 

As we proceeded to remove t(he sheathing, the 
decayed state of the chip's hull became more and 
more apj»arerit. Eight feet df a plank in the wale 
were so exceedingly rotten, tliat we were obliged 
<o shift *kf the neift morning. We wei« now total* 
Jy at a stand, as nothing could be found to replace 












59 



A VOYAGE TO THE 



>V- v.<'. 



■«- • 






m 



it in either ahip, without cutting up a top-maat | whicli 
^ught tQ be the last expedient to have recourse to, | 
In the afterroon, the carpenters /Were dispatched in I 
search of a iree of a proper size for the purpose, for. 
tunately they discovered a birch, which viras proba* 
bly the only one of sufficient magnitude in the vs^holel 
neighbourhood of the bay, and which we had sawed 
down when we were last here; consequently it 
had the advantage of being a Httle seasoned. Thij 
was prepared on the spot, and tato ,|p^ Jg)3^^^^e 
■ jDiscovery the next morningt ^ • '*.....* 

>. The season bein'g now far advanced, captain King 
was unwiUing that any hindrance or delay should 
happen tiirough him to captain Gore's further 
vievy^s of discovery, ard therefore ordered the car- 
penters to rip otf no more of the sheathing than 
should be found absolutely necessary for repairing 
the dam^agesi occasioned by the ice. He was ap- 
prehensive of their meeting with more decayed 
plants, which he thought had bette^r remain in that 
state, than have their places supplied with green 
birch, even supposing it could be procured. ,1^4**^' 
V »>?A11 hands were now fully employed in their 5^vcral 
departments, tlmt we might be perfedlly ready fef ! 
seai by the time the carpenters had completed their 
business. Fqiu* men wei^.set apart to haul the seine 
for salmon, which were caught in immense quanti^l 

'J? ties, and were of a most excellent quality. After! 
the wanta of - both , ships wore Sufficiently supplied, 
iwe daily salted ?down almost a liogshead. We 
had four invalids, who were employed gathering 
greens, a^d, cooking for those who were pn shore. 
Wc ajs9 fended Qifr gQ^dftfi in Qr4er |» have it 






•ifh""f \ ' 



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Y. / 



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TACiriC OCEAN,. 



4.k 



51 



aricrf} and the Mubbcr 6f 1^^ W^-hoi^s; ^vith 
which both ships 1»ad completely furnished them*' 
86lv^, in our passage to the north, was now boiled 
down fx>r oil, and wa« nbw become a very necessary 
aptiisle, having long since ejtpended all our candles. 
The toupQT was also employed in his department, 

BoCh ships' companies were thus fully engaged 
till Saturday afternoon, which was given up to 
every man (except the carpenters) to enable them' 
to wash their linen, and get their clothes in tole- 
rable order, that they might appear decently on the 

On Sunday the 39tn, m the aftefribbn,' we per- 
formed the last sad offices to captain Clerke. The 
officers and crews of the two vessels attended him 
in procession to the grave ; the ships, at the same 
time, liring minute guns ; and, at the cbndusibn of 
the service, three volleys were fired by the n^arhiey. 
tfhe bod jr wai interred under a tree, which stands 
oh a-little eminence in the valley north of the har- 
boib*, whei"e the store^houses and hospital are situ- 
jic ; this being, a^ caj^taih Gore supposed, such a 
iHuatiii^ as was mo^ consonant to the wishes? of the 
deceased, Tlie Priest of Psirtitoundaalsotecommetid- 
cd this spot, imagining it would be very near the 
centre; ot the new church. This worthy pastor 
joined the procession, walking with the gentleman 
who read the service. All the Russian^ m' the gar- 
rison assembled on the occasion, and respectfully aaf- 
sisted in the 8olemnity^/^^-»«^^--"*?n tM^^^^^i^^^y^ 

On Monday the 30th, the several parties 'rea^- 
Bumed thek" respe^live eniproyments, as partioulsirJy 
mentioned in the course of the preceding week ; and 
m the 2d of Septeniber the carpenters proceeded tc 



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5,2 



A VOYAGE TO THE 






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l^p oET such of the. sheathing fis had hiid been Injured 
by the ice, from the starboard side' ; having finl 
shifted, the damaged planks, and repaired and caulk- 
ed the sheathing of the* larboard bow. Four feet 
of f plank were discovered ia the third strake und^r 
the Wi^Ie, so much shaken aft to require to be re« 
placed ^ which was accordingly doijie ; and 'On the 
iklv the sheathing was repaired* Vh^"^.- 

fn the afternoon of the 34, we got soni^ ballast 
on board ; after which we unhung the rudder, aad 
caused it to be conveyed on shore, thfr lead of \tj» 
pintles being much worn, and a considerable pJirt ^ 
the sheathing rubbed off. The carpenters of the 

. Resolution not being immediately wanted, this wa9 
put in order the next day ;. but finding the rudder 
immoderately heavy, (heavier, io^^^^d th^ th^t of 
the Re^lution ) we let it remain on .$hgrQt-to^ -dry, 
and consequently to become lighter* 
^ An ensign aiTived thi» day fron> Bolc^cretsI^ 
with a letter from the commander of that phce to 
captain Gore ; which w:e requested the Serj^nt to 
peruse, and, by his assistance, we at length under* 
stood that proper orders had b^n given respecting 

. the cattle, and that ia a^fewdays we might expect 
4o see them ; and that captain Shnialeff, who siU:* 
' ceeded major Behm in his command, would pay us 
a visit immediately on the arrival of a sloop which 
he expected from Okotsk. The bearer of the let- 
ter was the son of qaptain-lieutenant Synd, who^ 
about eleven years ago, was appointed to the com- 
mand, of .an expedition of discovery between. hm\ 
and America, and now i-esid^d at Okots^, :^^rjH« 
jtold us lie was appointed to receive our directions^ 
^^nd,t,Q supply u.s :wit^ ^very tiding our service might! 



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■ ■•■'''" .''■'■. ^' ■ ' < 1 ''-y ■■■:' ' ■ ■ . ' 

wquirei Tnat Re should' remain with us till it was 
convenient for the cammandcr to irave Bolcheretsk | 
and then he was to return, or the garrison would he 
without an- officer. 't Jij^-nu^'y^'^'h i. 

The RtMlsians, in Kamtschatka, could not fumisl^ 
ti9 with a better account of Synd than Mr Coxe has 
given us 5 tlidugh they €oemed entirely disposed W 
communicate what they really knew. Major Behmf 
could only give us this gonei-$i-Tnfbrfqation, that the 
expedition had miscarried, ?^hd that thh commp.nder 
had been much <iensuf6d. It was evident that h«* 
had bfeen on the coast of America, south of Caipff 
ftrjnce of Wales ; and, as be was too far north to 
meet with sea^otters, which th^ Russians seem to 
have in view in all their attempts at discoveries, it 
is probable that his return without having made any, 
from whence commercial advantages might be reap^ 
ed, was the cause of his disgrace, and on that ac- 
eonnt his voyage is supken of with contempt by alt 
ihe Russians." "' •^'^r*^-'Ji^^'*sa»£K,t.'i*^ 

But, to proceed ; on the 5th of September, all 
the parties that were on shore returned to the ship/ 
and were employed in scrubbing her bottom, and 
getting in some shingle bsdlast. Two of our gunS'y 
which had been stowed in the fore-hold, we now 
got up, and mounted them on the deck, as we were 
shortly to visit those nations, where our reception 
would probably be regulated by the respectability of 
onr appearance. On the Sth, the Resolution haul-^ 
ed on shore, ;n order to repair some damages she 
had received from the ice, in her cut- war ; and oui^ 
carpenters, in their turn, were ordered to assist henv 

We began, about this time, to make a strong de^ 
jBoction from a species of dwarf pine, which is verjl* 

» 3,. ■ 



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A VOYAGE TO THE 



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plentiful in tlni courrtry, jwiging it would hereafter 
be useful in making beer, and that we might per. 
haps be able to procure sugar> or a substitute for it» 
to ferment with it at Cancon. We knew, however^ 
it would be an admirable medicine for tbii scurvy, 
and therefore were particularly desirous of procur- 
ing a considerable supply ; as most of the preven- 
tives with which we had furnished ourselves, were 
either consumed, or had lost their efficacy through 
long keeping. When we had prepared about a 
hogshead of it, the ship's copper was found to^be 
remarkably thin, and that, in many places, it was 
even cracked. This obliged us to desist, and or- 
ders were given thai, for the future, it 'should be 
1j)»ed as sparingly as possible. 

Those who may hereafter be engaged in long 
iroyages, would act judiciously if they provided 
themselves with a spare copper ; or, at least, they 
should be fully convinced that the copper, usually 
furnished, should be remarkably strong and durable. 
These necessary utensils arc employed in so many 
extra-services, particularly in that important one of 
brewing antiscorbutic decoctions, that some such 
provision seems absolutely necessary ; and the for- 
mer appears the more eligible, because a much 
greater quantity of fuel would be consumed in heat- 
ing coppers that were very thick. ,j -H^it-r^^^^irn- 

On Friday the 10th, Uie boats from both the 
ships were ordered to tow a Russian galliot into the 
harbour, which had just arrived from Okotsk. She 
had been no less than thirty-five days on her pas- 
sage, and, from the light-house, had been observed 
a fortnight before, beating up towards the mouth of 
the bay. The crew had, at that tiine, dispatched 












^^r*^"! 



r- ■ A 



■ 

> ,;< PACIFIC OCEAN. A, , 



55 



'.r '^.w. 



their only boat on «hore, in order to procure water, * 
which they were much in need of ; bnt, tVie wind 
increasing, the boat was lost ; the galliot was again 
driven to sea» and those 9% board si.>llerc;d hicon* 
ceiTable bardsh^s* ^ ^ «i . 

On board this galliot there were fifty soldiers^ ' 
their wives, and children ^ lliey had also several pas- 
sengers, and their crew consisted of twenty-five j mak- 
ing, in the whole, upwards of an hundred persons ; 
vrhich, for a vessel of eighty tons, was a great num<> 
ber, especially a& she Was heavily laden with stores 
and provisions* This galliot, and the sloop which 
me saw here in May, are built in the manner of the 
Dutch doggers* i ^ 

Soon after thb vessel had come to" atprfiof, w€ 
were visited by a Put'parouchldky or sub'^lieutenant, 
who arrived in her« and who was sent to take the . 
command of this place, ^amt of the soldiers, w< 
were informed, were intended to reinforce the garri* 
son ; and two pieces of cannon were brought on 
shore to serve as aki additional defence to the town* 
From these circumstances, it is pretty apparent that 
the Russian commanders in Siberia had, from our 
visitieg this place, been induced to attend to the de- 
fenceless situation of it ; and the honest Serjeant 
shrewdly observed, that, as we had found the way 
thither, others might do the same, wlio might not 
be made' so welcome asourselves^ ^5 rn^d ii'r= -^i-t 

Having repaired the damages which the ftesolu^ 
tion had suffered by the ice, she hauled off from the 
shore the next morning; and, in the course of that 
day, we got some pitch, tar, cordage, and twine 
from the galliot. Their scanty store rendered them 






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Uffiablc ta supply us witi) canvas, and they could 
not conrJply^^vltk our application for that article, 
She furnished us, however^ with a huiidit!d and forty 
skins of flour, amounting to 13,7^2 Enghtli pounds. 
Till this day we had a contiimai.couiec of dry 
>veather, but' now a heavy mxH euocccdedH attended 
with strong, squalls of xyindv Which occasioned lu 
tcf-strike wiryardsarid toptmasts. ^ ::;.;:. ;i.» • g. . 

, ; i Sunday the l^h was k,day of ristf 5 bnt,ras,t}j« 
weather eontimicd foul, oii^-' men could not emplby 
themselves in: gathering the betries whick grew\ia 
such vast qu^ntiiica about the coafbt, or amuse thcn» 
scIa cs by any other,pafitimc on shore. Ensign Synd 
left us thi3 day to return to Bolcheretsk, with -the 
remainder.of the soldiers wlia had arrived in • the 
galliot. 1 While he remained; here,. he hadibeen our 
constant guetjt ; and, on hia father's accoutrt, we 
thoiight him in some degree belotigingtous; and,. as 
one of the family of discoverers, entitled to a share 

4n ourestpcm*," •■• . \-*m'^'.^imsm^m''^P^''i.'^'' 
The Serjeant, as being commander of the place, 
had hitherto fbeen admitted to our tables 5 and hit 
company ^yil« additionally welcome to us, because 
he was sensible and quick in: his conceptions ; and 
comprehended, better tham any other person^ the 
few Russian words that we had aicq«ired. Whilst 
ensign 3ynd remained among us, he very politely 
suffered him to enjoy the .same privileges ; but, 
when the licw commander arrived from Okotsk, the 
Serjeant, for what cause we did not understand, fell 
into disgrace, and was ho longer permitted to sit in 
the company of his own officers. Our endeavouraf 
to obtain indulgence for him, we perceived, would 

luLve bijsen ineffectual^ for^ though it would have 



'■•7? 






'1; K 






PACIFIC OCEAM. 



57 



Wn highly ameable to Mt It was, perhaps, inccin<> 
patible with their diicipline* .,,•,..;- * '.' 

On the 15th, we had completed the Stowage of 
[the holds, got our wood and water on board, and 
were ready for sea at a day's notice* But it shouM. 
k observed, that though eircry thinpr on board was 
in this degree of readiness, wti could not thii>k of 
talung our departure, because the cattle were net 
yet arrived from Verchnei | and fresh provisions 
were now bec6mr> the most important article of our 
wants, and essentially necessary for preserving the 
health of our people. As there was a prospect of 
fipe weather, this was conftidered as a favourable op- 
portunity of engaging in some amusement on shore^ 
and acquiring some little knowledge of the country^ 
A party of bear-h^mting waa therefore proposed hf 
[captain Gore> :«'* the proposal was readily ac* 
Iceded to. 1 '-M u\ AMtv^ . ^^^^ ; : . •/ '^^ffeTo3^.3-ia' t' ■' ^ 

On Friday the 17th we fiet out on this expedi* 
[tion, which was defieired till that day, in order to 
give a little rest to the Hospodin Ivaskin, a new ac- 
quaintance who had arrived here 6n Wednesday, 
and who was to be of our party. Major Behm had 
desired this gentleman, who usually resides at Verch* 
laei, to attend ut on otir return to the harbour, and 
assist us as an intetpreter ; and, from what we had 
hesird of him before his arrival, our curiosity to see 
I him was much excited* ' ^,^ ..,^w ...j.'i -... 
He is allied to A considerable family in Russia, 
I and his father wfts a general in the service of the 
ipress. He received his education partly in Ger- 
[many, and partly in France i he had been page td 
empress Elizabeth, and bore an ensign's com* 

lissipn in l^r guards. At sixteen years of age he 









h->n 









if?-- 






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$8 



A VOYAGE TO THE 






'*'• 




was kna^tetU liad his nose slit, axid was banished 
Siberia. He was afterwards transported to Kam 
8chatkay imd had then resided there thirty-one ye&R.| 
!4Hi8 person was taH and thin, and. his visage furt-oir. 
-t fed with deep wrinkles. Old age was strongly* 
picted in his whole figure, though be had bar 
' ^fitei-t'd his fifty-fourth year. ; 

Great-was our disappointment when we discover^ 
■^^led, that he had so totally forgot the French t 
'^0eiinaft languages as not to be able to speak 
, single sentence, nor readily to comj)rehend ai 
^|thingthat was said to hiai'in either of those 1 
; >.|'guages. Thtis were We unlbrtnnately'deprivied 

": what vve ^expected. would have fumisbed a favourj 
' able oppoitunity of acquiringii further informati 
: |;Tespecting this country,/ We also promised o 
;,| selves much satisfaction in hearing the history 
{f this ext/aordinary man, which he might, - pefhapS)! 
v^be induced to rebia ta stranger* who cduld probJt 
bly be serviceable to^ hiin, but who could nolberso] 
, , p^fccd-to tak^. ad'vantage from tN'hiit* he might '^ 
'■ ■ \|yit.his|irej«<iiee. ■ " u .^'^nu:. j„>«i|,^<^!dw, a>ijrfc;'nr4.i 
i The cauiiC of his^bftnish'meiTit^rCTfiaifted 'ft *«def(^ 
,^ C;vety one in this country, but kriwas generally m 
■Imposed he hsfd been gujityrjof issome 'attocioiJs 
''p fence; especially as^ several of thd commanded 
/'^ Kamtachark,ahave Qxerccd their iat ^e&U to g^t 

■ recalled in the reign of the present enAj)refi« j bu 
V 80 far from getting him recalled, they wete not abli 

to obtain a change of his^pla<x*'of banishbieint. 

^^«:* assured us, that, for tu'enty years, he had not tast' 

a morsel of biead, nor had been alio w^ any k»i 

i;:%, of subsistence, but had lived, Ull that 'time, with t 

Kan\t6chadale8j^ on what he had J^ftrcur^tl ^^^ ^ 



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PACIFIC OGEAlt; 4 



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59 



S.i- 



jhase hy his own activity and toil. Aftei*\^'ard8 a 
Imall pension was allowed him, and his sitwatioii 
ism been rendered much less intolerably since Ma- 
Behm was appointed to the command. Being' 

iken notice of by so respectable a character, \vho 
)ften invited him to become his g-uest, others were 
Induced to follow his example. The Major had al- 
occasioned his pension to be increased to a hun- 
ircd roubles a-year, which is an ensign's pay in 
[very other part of tl>e empresses dominions, but 
this province all the cf&Cv'irs have double pay. 

lajor Behm informed us that he had obtained 
jermission fo^. him to^go to Okotsk, where he 
\f&s to reside in future ; but that, at present^ he 

lould leave him behind^ as he might prebably be 
|isef)yd to us sts aninterpreter on our>x«tum toth^ 

Orders having been gpven to the first lieutenants 
^f both ships, that the rigging should be repaired 

far as the late supply of stores would permit^ 
ire proceeded on our hunting party, conducted by 
le corporal of the Kamtschadales'; but, previous 

our looking out for game, we proceeded to the' 
^viid of Behm's harbour, which is an inlet on ther 
rest side of the bay. This having been a fa-^ 
[ourite place of Major Behm's, we named it after' 
officer, though, by the natives, it is called 

As we advanced towards this harbour, we saw 

|he Toion of St Peter and St Paul in a canioe^ 

iving with him his wife and two children, and 

iaother inhabitant of Kamtschatka. He had just 

^iCed two seals on an island in the entrance of the 

rigour, and waa returiiiijg home with them, a» 






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A VOYAGE TO THE 



well as with a Wge quantity of berries which He 
had gathered. The wind having veered to the 
80uthweSt| in • pursuance of his advice we now I 
changed our route, and, instead of proceeding up 
t le harbour, took a northerly course, towards 3 
pool of water, at a small distance from the mouth 

of the river Paratounca, which was much frequeatJ 

ed by the bears ■*■*'** *"''-^Vv;t'^''/vri'^.f*'i^w )»«t4.^jfi4 

r^ As soon as we had landed, the wind unfortuJ 
nately veered to the eastward, and once more desJ 
troyed our hopes of meeting with any game, 1 the 
Kamtschadalvs having often assured m that tiere 
was no probability of our finding any bears, as we 
were to the windward, those animals bting posses. 
eed of extraordinary acuteness in scenting their 
pursuers, which, under such circumstances, enabled 
them to avoid danger. We therefore returned to | 
the boat, and, having provided a tent for that pur- 
pose, passed the night upon the beach. The next I 
day, being governed by the opinion of our gnides, 
^we crossed tho bay, and proceeded to the head of 
Rakoweena harbour, where u-e secured our boats, 
and afterwards went on foot with all our bag* I 

.gage•,,>•■,J:^^{,'.■v^ JAfe- , , -,.ij.j..!,>« ■•■ :■•';■■;•:'* - ^ ^ '■■•?-■"' ■••■ ^^~,-- 

•^ Having walked about five or six mile!?, we ar. 
rived at the sea-side, three miles north of the light* 
house head. From hence a continued naiTOW W^l 
der of level ground, adjoining to the sea, extended 
itself toward >; Gheepoonskoi Noss as far as wel 
could see. It is entirely covered with heath, and] 
produces berries in great abundance, especially thoticj 
which are called crow and partridge berries. ' j 
..^HfWc were told that theie was almost a certaintjfj 
offiixdii^ a number of l>€ar8 feeding i^pon tW 



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Z.VAC1Y1C OCEAN. :ij 



6t 



les, we ar. 



brnies, but, as -the weather was showery, it was 
unfavourable to us. Accordingly, hoVvevcr, we 
pursued our cour^ along tlie plain, and though* 
several bears wore seen at a distance, we could not 
bv any means get* \Vithin shot of them. This di- 
VLToion wa« therefore <:hanged to that of speaiing 
paimon, which we saw in throngs^ driving through 
through the SMvi into a small river. Here we could 
not help remarking the inferiority of the Kamt^* 
schadales, at this kind of fishing, to the natives of 
Obnaiashka; neither w^re their instruments, though? 
pointed with iron, near so well adapted to the pur« 
pose, nor fabricated with that neatnesi? which those' 
gf the Americans were, though pointed only with 
bone. On asking the cause of this inferiority, we 
were informed by the corporal, who had long re« 
sided amongst the Americans, that formerly the 
oativps of . Kamtschatka used such darts and spears 
;i8 those of the Americans, and, like theirs, headed 
a«d*baii>ed with bone, and were as dexterous as the 
latter in the management of them. We oould not 
sufficiently understand each other to discover the 
real cause pf thist change, but suppose it maybf? 
the effect of an intpJerfect state of improvement.- 
Fortujiat)diy, However, the virattt* afforded us a little 
provision' J for ill success H&d not only attended uy' 
in the ^hase by land, but we had failed in our ex* 
pcctations of ghooting wild fowl, after kavii^g al- 
most depended upon a supply of them for Mur 8ub4 
sibtence, umd, on its failure-, began to tljiiik it al-i 
most time to return to our head-quarter«/f ri* • *f^ n 
. The Kamtschadales who attended hs at length 
diicovered that our not meeting with jipPGie.was oc«? 
jfJ^^iofted tlv our going in too large 4 p^ity^ ^and 



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A VQYAGE TO THE 



by the unavoidable noise that was the natural con, 
sequence of it. This judicious remark induced u« 
to separate; captain King, Tvaskin, and the cor. 
pora]^ forming one party, and the other consisting 
of captain Gore and the rest of the company.* 
We passed the night under our tent, and, on the 
morning of the 1 9ih, set out by different routes, 
in order to take a kind of circuit round the coun* 
try, and meet at St Peter and St Paul. 

Captain King, and his party, took the course of 
the river, at whose miouth we had fished for tKe 
salmon ; and, after being completely soaked with 
heavy rains the whole morning, they took shelter, 
about three in the afternoon, in some old baJngansi 
which were the remains of a Kamtschadale village, 
without having seen a single bear in their long and 
tedious journey. ,;.. , . -^^ :. v, ;,/. \.ai.^ *;-',.^ «*-• •- . ■^^'■ 
At first we seemed inclined to contSfue here all 
"night, that we might resume the chase early in the 
morning ; but, as the weather began to clear, and 
a fresh breeze sprung up from a quarter hostile to 
our designs, the Hospodin, whom former severkie* 
had rendered unable to endure fatigue, and who 
was now more particulary distressed from having 
his snufF-box exhausted of its contents, .grew very 
ittiporttinate with us fto return home. Ti» old cor* 
poral was extremely unwilling to consent, alleging, 
that we were at a ^considerable distance from the 
harbour, and that the badness fif the. way w^ould 
probably hinder us from corapletmg our journey 
before night iiad ofvertaken u& Ivaskin^s eBtreailieSj 
however^ at length prevailed^ and the couporal con- 
ducted us by^^thc side of several small lakes^ vthitli 
arey^^y numejaus in the fiat gart. of this coua* 

'-V '■• '■ ' ■ ' • ■? ' - • -■ - 



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rnPACIFlG OCEAN. 



63 



try. , They are from half a mile to two miles long". 



lerally 



Th 



about half a mile in breadth, 
water in them is: very clear and fresh, and they 
abound with red-coloured fish, not unlike a /small* 
salmon, both in Bhape and size. The margins of 
these lakes were usually covered with half-eaten 
Hsh, being fragments' left by the bears, which oc« 
casioned a most intolerable stench. We frequently 
arrived at plader: which had just been quitted by 
the bears, but: were never able to cjome within reach 

or them*. '^..■^V; ^i^iv?^ '*"*'S* *■*■' •■-'" •-•">" 

. At night 4re r^checir the ships, after ha>in'gbecii 
full twelve hours upon our legs* Poor Ivaskin 
seemed perfectly overcome with fatigue, ind was . 
probably the mote, sensibly affected by.it for want 
of a supply of unuff ; for almost at every step hia 
hand sunk mechanically into his pocket, and in-i 
sttetly rose again withi his t huge empty box. Just 
W we arnved at th<* tent, the? weather became ex- 
ceedingly roughs and wet, and we congratulated 
I ourselves ou our not having staid another day from 
onr general j^iidez-voiiSk^ The Hospodin's box was 
immediately repbnished,' and, regaling . Upon a good 
supper, we forgolthc fatigues and disappointments 
of oih- joutTieyfcj'-fii 'ta i>i:iki iiti- /.^d^HjELo/^/ fti> 
'The .next day (Monday th^ 20th) we. received 
the disagreeable intelligence, that our friend, the 
nerjeant, had suffered corporal punishment, which 
had been inflicted on him by i";oiTimand,of the old 
'^utrparomhich None of us could learn the cause 
()f his displeasure; but it was supposed to have 
arisen from some little jealousy, which had been 
j excited by our civility to tlie former. Imagining, 
jhowTOr, tiiaj; Jthei.o&ice, whatever, it might bct 



V.& 



'm 



ti 




II 






'i-f :Hm ■ 



im 



IHf 



64 



X TOYAOE TO TrtE 



r^ 






#' 



ttould not iherit a cHastisemenv so disgracefnl, ir^ 
were both sorry and dngry at what had happened 
The friendship and familiar terms on which we 
had livtfd with himj and the esteem we were knowh 
to entertain for' him, made the afFrdnt appear per- 
sonal to ourselvesi For we had consulted the 
worthy Major Behm, >Vho was likewise the seri 
jeant's friend, how we couM render him some sera 
vice for the excellent order he had preserved in 
the ostrog during our stay> and for his extreme? 
readiness to oblige us upon every occasion that 
presented itself. The major said a letter of; re. 
Commendation to the governorkgeneral would pro* 
bably have a good effect 5. ^^raptain Gierke abcord- 
ingly had given him bneji which, together with his 
own represenfations, he fully expected ^ouLd get 
th^ Serjeant advanced in his professibna* ^ > rir^ ? . 

We were unyirilling to remonstrate on this sub* 
ject till captain Shrtaleff 'sliould arrive.. Indeed^ 
our very imperfect . knowledge of the language 
would not permit us to ent^r ' into any < discussioa | 
upon this busiiaess* Biit when we were next visitJ 
ed by the Put-'parouchichi the: coohiess of aur re<| 
ception must fully have testified our cliagrin*^ ' j i w 

On Wednesday, the 22d of September^ jbtfi^ 
ihe anniversary of the coronation of George III. 
we iii'ed tvvettty-one guns ; and^ in honour of the j 
day, prepared as elegant a feast as dut situation 
ivould allow ofi The arrival of eaptstin Shrrialeff 
was annotinced the very moment we\ were 8ittiri|( 
•-down to dinnen We were equally pleased and | 
furpri^d at this intelligence. Firsts becatuse hvi 
came so opportunely to take a share in the festi- 
vity of the. day j and^ in the next place, having I 



< •- / 



: 'ii.'i 



(^ 



-iV,-'-'. 



-ftAPIFICr OCEAN, ji^ 



65? 



44y ^^^A'^"^^^*^^^ tliat the effects of a severe ^ 
illiiess had rendj^zrd bim unequal to the journey,.' 
vye had the satls^Qtion ^o hear that this had been 
merely an excuse ; that, knowing we were dititregi^ 
e^f^r tea, siigai'. Sec. he ^was hurt at the idea of 
q:i>^iiiig employ -handed., and therefore had deferred 
his setting out, impatiently waiting for the arrivaJL < 
uf a sloop from Okojt^c,j. Jjut hearing up intelH-^ 
gcnce of her, and tea^w^ we should sail before he " 
h^(i visited ua, he \^8 resolved to proseci^tc the 
JQurncy,; though he iiad, nothing to present :|.PjU8. ^ 
but apologies for the poverty of Bolcherets|t, u^;;,«. 
J, He told us, ;at t(ie same _^time, that the reason of 
par hot having received the black cattle, which we, ' 
h^ fec;aeste^ to beseUyt. down, was, that the heavy 
raij^s at Verchnei ha4 absolutely prevented their 
setting out. So iKUcl|i politeness and , generosity 
de^nanded thje test, (an^)iver^ we were capatle o^ 
ip^king, -and he jft;?^^,^l)^ Jiexjt day, saluted with . 

4^^^^]^^^^ ^i^. ^^i^t<^Hn^^^^^ the Resolu^qn: 
samples and ^pecimen§9^ our curiosities were then 
presented to him, tpr which captain Gore added a. 
gold watch,, and a fo whng piece. He wJfs enter- 
t^ned on board tii6 , l)isco very next ^da^. ^^nd .pn 
the 25th he returned tp^Bblcheretsk. -^ 
. No entreaties could.,prpv^il on,him to extend his 
visit, having, as he assured us, some expectations 
that the , sub'^governor-general would arrive in the 
idoop which he expected from Okotsk, as he was 
then on a tour through all the provinces of the. 
governor-general of Jakutsk,. Without any appli-^ 
cation from. U3, he re-instated the scrjcant in his 
command, before his departure, having rcsolved ta 
take the Pui-parouchick with him. We A^, .un- 



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A VOYAtJETO'Trffe 



V. ;\ 



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■ "■" ■ V- 






derstdod'that lie wis ntudh onended ^ith him for 
punishing the Serjeant, as there did not appear to 
be the slightest gfounds* fof inflicting sUch chastise- 

; Encc^uraged by the captain't great readiness to 
oblige U8, We ventured to request a small favoui* 
for Another inhabitant of Kamtschatka* It was 
td requite? an honest old 9Qidier> who kept a kind 
of dpeh ' hotis** for the inferior officers^ both for 
them and the whole crew* The captain obligingly 
complied with our wishes, and dubbed hira ii< 
«tantly a corporal ; telling him, at the saitie time, 
to thank the English o$c0rs for his very great 
promotion. . .u. r.. , t,,., . 

It may not hei*e be unnecessary to remark, that 
the lower class of officers in the Russian army hate 
a greatei* pre-eminence ^bbvt the private men than 
those iTi^h^c British feerVioe Can^ possibly conceive* 
It waiii indeed, a matt^ df Astonishment to 'us, to 
see a Serjeant assume att" ^M state, and' exact as 
much jiomage froni those liien<Jath liim, as though 
he had been a field pffio^, B^siilei,' there are se- 
veral gradations of rank amongst them, of which 
other countries are wholly ignorant j there b^ing no 
less than four intermediate step? between a Serjeant 
and private soldier ; and many considerable advan- 
tages may probably arise from this systjem^ Sub- 
ordinate tanks in the sea-service are known t& pro- 
duce the most salutary effects, by creating emula- 
tion, and officers of superior rank are thereby en- 
abled to bestow an adequate reward on almost every 
possible degree of merit. "^u-^: '-y^sk:::' 

■il The discipline of the Rusisian anmy, though so 
eXtveffidy remote from the seat of government, isi 



'■*^ 



, '■- » vv 



V«-.L 



^• 



-r-.'v'l....'^.-*-*':. 



.K 



re are se- 




* PACIFIC OCEAN* ^ 

rdmarkabltr fo** Its 'Strf«!W|^ ftud. seventy^ hot ^- 
empting even the cntrvmikMotiied officers^ Im{>nsonM{> 
ment, and bread and u^telr diet, is the puni^ment 
of the latter for inconsiihn^e offences* ;: A gDoi.; 
friend of oursy who was'^n cf^sign in this place, ttt4; 
formed U8> that the pdhinhment he^ received for ha4< 
viog been concerned it a -drunkea^ lirolic^ visa three 
mQnths imprisonment irr the biack*hole, with bread 
and water only for his subsistence ^ whick so mft^, 
ted his whole nervous «ysteln« that he has never * 
since enjoyed a si^ciiHii flow of spiriti to ^|aakf ;)r 
kim for a convivisd meetiagwuii i* . v p v-R>i<f^ 

Captain King aU(<ndei^ cspitiin ShmaleflF .as far 
as the entrance of Awatska^river, and Iiaving takea 
leave of him, embraced that opportunity of visiting 
tiie priest of Paratouncai rle attendi^d him, to 
dhurefh on Sunday thd d6th, when hisft^wholecon* 
gregatit>n consisted of lur own family,: t&fee nien^ 
aad the same nui^iber «»f boys, who as»bt&diia the 
^ngiRg, and the whtile of the service Yf^^ftrHju^t^m'' 
edf'With great solemnity and deyotiom ;Jr J (^^^jrT? •/•^' 

Though the church is built of wood, it is iDtfCb 
supetior to any building either in this tOwOf ^if in 
tbn of St ^ter and St Paul. Among the s^Ve^V 
paintings with' -whioh^ k is ornamented, are tn% 
pictures of St Filter ^nd St Paul, wjiich were pre- " 
rented by Ik^^ng, and Which might vie V!^th the; 
first EuropeaHf performahces in th^. intrinsic riches 
of its dtapety» the principal paris of it bdng 
cotnposed of thick plates of resd solid silver, so 
fastened as to imitate the foldings of the robes 
which decorate the figures, and lixed upon the 



canvass. .^ .- ■a*^*.^-;^,;,..-^. 

■ , . " ^ ■ * ■ • ♦ 






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A V^DiYAGE 'I'QiJiHE: 



,. • AiioUicr/ hiinti»g)piii]r»iwti,9ct oh foot the.; i^ej^t; 

" dcvy^uvrl^nicaptstii Khig(iulwiwUeji Ji^im<;lf |/;^«lt^ 

(linectidnjo^ the parjsh^cltrk* • vvho,Jiad acquired 

they.aiTiVed'jit one of the'larger lakes, whcPe it was 
, .(d<JcfcTed iicc€98ary to ixmceul t^mselvies a!j,piftch as 

|Tos^ye«j//tl?wi wis .easily .fcf^Qtrd ^ni^o^g sQirje long. 
girasswaeidv^bcofclijwoodt! «f r whkh tUem W43 ^rcat 
pkntf neau'iheAvjater/g €;dge> ^.i*W.e. b^d n<)«^.,b<*ea. 
longtin tilts fiituMibn^r i*efaJ?e puf^ ^rs vye^c ^grejpfj 
u^y^fi^uied -*witk ttbe \g4>ftv^ii«^M; boprs, • irr . aJ w 9.^1. 
every quarter round abo^t^ius.ii i^nd.'vW'i;- sip^fjii ij^^<i 
th^pka'&iir:of 8tln!alAj»g ^N^.<^.ttiie^ ij( thenyatit;r, 
swixhmynig m a ditrepx vcojiMe io/wijiiere w^ J|vy'j?<)u« 
cealed.v »At.thi* .time, th^ te«pii; shpivv^iis^ja^.jto 
afford ift cOn]9ideral)le'light<r«an^ A0 the aniit^ aflf* 
vaitced towards us, ^r^eiiOf uajfir^ i^t iti> afe^QMi 
at^the saisie instant* livsmodiltely the be^'jtiur^ 
edUhorb'upon one side, aad^^e^Milip a most hprrifefe 
lusiie^ ) f^liich was n^itheifoyelUpg> growlingg^iw^j 
^^•oaring, but a yery-^xtiraordiaaty^ mixture. of tkei 
whole three»f> Ji.«i 'i^. 3|f«icf-fi Siift:. '^i^^^ 4t^^^-»^ " 
:;4ii4We,Gouid e^ily perceive that thij animal wa& $9- 
^ ^yerely wounded, and that it reached the bank, vviti) 
""difficulty; whence it retreated/to tome thick bi»$]b^^ 
' not fat distanjt, still continitiing tw make that dre^irlt 
fid'Hcltte. The. I^mt&chadales supposed it to h^ 
imoTtally wounded, arid thnt it could proceed nq 
further, but judge^ it an act of imprudence to at/ 
jtempt to rouse it again immediately^ It wasthenafter 
iiine o'clock, and as the night became overca&t^ and 
a cliaAge of weather was to^ be' apprehended> wc 
thought it advisable to return home, and wait till 
coming for the gratification of our curiosity; when 



..«;•, 



■V 



4i^AGinG adEAN./^ 



•' ^-■. * 



eg 



w^ i<!cordifigly repaired to the spot^ iind found 0x6 
bear dead from the wpunds :iti had.JteceLvod. It 
vn^ a female^ and larger than the ordinar3r tize; 
But, a$ this account of out hunting party thay; Con- 
vey a wrJng idea oriH'- method usl illy pursued. in 
this sport, a few ecmbviniy Oa acees^arj^.tobe mi^ 
ded on this siib'ioct. • -. ^ o , 

The natives generally contrive to reach the:groiw)di 
frequent^ hy the bears, ^OutJUn-setr Th!ei5; first 
buidiiess^ vrhen they ftrrrire theie^ is to lodit oiKt for 
their tracks, arid to attend particularly to the fresh- 
est of them J alwdys paying a regpird to the situa- 
tion with f^spect! to t!oncbalment, and taking aim 
at the animal as it passes by, ur as it advances or 
goes from them. These tracks an» numerous be- 
tween the woods arid the lakes, and are often found 
among the long sedgy grass and bi^kcs on the mar* 
gin of the water; Hating determined u jnpn a con-* 
veniciit spot for conc&aTment^ thfc hunter»^ tjut their 
crutclf es on i tlve i ground^ ii nrhkfh they nest their 
ficelocku^ pointing teifa in a l^irojler direction* i They 
afterwards kneel or Hef > do^^ as the eirbumfitances 
of their ^tuaticin way requiire.; and, havin? their 
btar-spca«^ «n HeadinesSby theii! lide^ vmt the ar^ 
rival of their gsimei >jvii| v-fnrt^ ^^^y tbi**'!;^ ■ ''l2?ii 

These* precautions an^ extremely nccess^i m 
many accdjantsj that, the hunters may n<ake $iire of 
their: ma^k t/ fot^the price of atamuniuogt: «!/$;>> Migb 
at Kao^tschatkaf that the; tahie gf a b^r will not 
purchase More m it than wiU load a mu9(|uet four 
otiiw times. It is much mdre material on another 
eonsideraMcjte^ for^ if the first shot sbouli not reri* 
der the aninrtal incapable «of; pursuit, fatal conse- 
quences too fitsquently ^nsuci 'J*he enraged beast 



7d 



A ToyACETO THE 



i» 



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i. 






•TV, .< 



V ■■■ 



■■■>' 



mikes immciliatdy towards .the place Troibr whence 
the sotind and smoke issuei ^nd < furiausly attacks 
\m adversafies. They have not sufficient time to re. 
load- their 'pieces, as the bearis ^Idorn fired at till h(| 
coitie^ wkjiin the distance of fifteen yards ; theiv. 
J^e, if( heTshould not happen to fall, ibey inwne> 
■ lately prepare to receive him on their spcaraj ihfir 
safety "depending, ^n . « great measure, oa their 
gi^'ing Mm a mortal atalb -as he advances towards 
themu Should he parry the thrust, (which these 
animals dre sortictimes enabledto do, by the.stneagtli 
^nd agility of their paws) and break in upon his | 
"fopponenis; the conflict' become* dreadfui,^^nd it is 
seldom that the loss of a single life will fatisfy the 
beast's revenge. ;^ortt *?nHT rt^i/ii rnVrl ^'a. 
i The btwiness^or diversion of bear.-hunting is par* I 
%icularly dangerous lat two^spasons of the year ; in i 
%he spring when ! they^ fh^st visfeue from- 1 heir cavesj 
*aftdiJ havmg subsisted the whole wintei* (ar^it ishere 
positivl^ly asserted) solely ohn-sucking their paws; 
^nd'fepecidlynif the frost - should 'Contii}ue to be| 
^vere, and* thiff ice* in the* lakestid notibroken up, 
^jas theyicantiott then have ^recoorse to." their cust6»| 
^^^ars^and«xpectfed food* Thus becoming ejcceed« 
Ingly famished, they grow fierce and savage in pro* 
tyortiQtt^ furstliing thtf inhabitsants by!the icent, and, 
: prowling'^ about at d'^distatfce froni*i|heip usual 
^Itrjijcksv^' dirt' upon 'iheite iinasy^rares^v Undrrr:tlie*| 
^^irciittrtt^Kcei, asthesi^sftiv^ have no idea of shoot- 
, "Ing ^ftyiiigj' ©r even iiiimitig,'tii' in a»y ixfsnancrivvithil 
l<&iiit^f«{*ting fcheiiJpieicp^ftl^y -often j^ll a>«acirfK:^to 
ftheir^itjrty^^ The tinikj-offttteir ci^piifetisn'is the 
Mother dang^rpiis fea^pnito ihitfct^ witlil thcm> and that| 
;78 liBtiaily about ^tiis time" of t)i^'yeai^«A yw^* ^f^^ 



■m^^^- 



.■"S^i-' 






^ 









»gt"<St*>il*H.'i: 



We have alrcadv mtntidncd a i remarkable in- 
i stance of nattiral nftuctibn in these animali. Many 
of ta Biinilar nature^ and equally aitecting, are fre-> 
quenily related by die KamtschadaleRt who, from 
jthM circumstance, deriw considerable advantage in 
huotintf* . They never presume to fire at a ^-oung 
bear ii the dam is upon the spot ; for, ifUhe cub 
I should happen to be, killed, the becomes enraged to 
an immoderate degree, and, if she can oit)y ebtain 
a sight of the offetider, tlie 18 sure to bek-eveiiged 
of uin, ojr^ in the attcrt^t. On the other hand^ 
I if the mother should bfi shoti the cubs continue by 
her side after ehe hat been a bng time dead, exhi- 
biting} by the most affecting gestures and motions, 
the moftt poignant affliction* .TJie hunters, instead 
Ipf commiserating their distressee, embrace these op- 
IportunitiH of destroying them. If the veracity of 
Ithe Kamtschadales it to»bc depended on, the sa- 
Igacity of the hears is as extraordinary ^s their 4i£»» 
tural affection. ' f ■ . ■« ". ? • . . 
Innun«drable are t!ie stot4e^ wiiidi they relate to 
m effect^ ' One remarkable instance, however, ^e 
inot avoid moatiouin^f dfit is admitt^ among 
^he natives as a !well*&ttested ^t. It is thQ strata* 
:m they put in practice to catch the bareins; 
rhich run too swift for them to expect success in 
pursuing then. ;' !Fhesa anini(iil« hdrd together in 
tafr huihbers, < atid / their tknaL l^aunts are lo \v 
tadaiat^e^elirof rocks aiid precipices, wher^^ 
Ihey delight in bfoWsing* 17he bear pursues them 
Wrtf^e s^cnt till he obtains a vieW of them, and 
jhenr advahces vtfarily#fkfeepifig in a situation above) 
[hem^ at thes^me time concealing himself among 
^e.iocka'as he appro^che'i» Uti< he 13 tiknost imme^ 



i', 



fn 



ll^ 



Nj 



in 



7? 



A VOYAGE TO THii 



iiiately over them, and near enough to caiTy lnV 
purpose into exi&cutio*^* Then, witU his paws, he i 
pusneo down large pieces of the rock amongst the 
herd helpw. |t he perceives that he has i5.uf,ceedf I 

' ed in maiining any of the flock, he iminediattlv 
pursues them, and^ aceording tp the injury the poof i 
bareins have received, he eitncr proves kiii^cesfeful iii[ 
overtaking the^i, or they escape by the. ffipidiiy of 
their flight'. ^ 

The Jiatntscha4ales aekngwledjie infinite obligaJ 
^ons to the bears, foriall the iittic pix)gress tliey 

. have hitherto made, a^ well iii the sciehcee a?! :\A 
polite arts. They confess tbediselvea indebted wholly 
to those aaimals fpr all their knowledge Ik pjmiti 
and? surgery; that, by observing what herbs they 
have applied ta the wounds they have received, 
and what methods they hav« purstie?! when they 
were languid and out of order, thfcy have acquired 
u knowledge of most of those simples tvhich theyl 
have now recourse to, either as external t)r uitemall 
applicatio|!8. But, the most sinffulcurpjirpum8tancc| 
pf all is, that *hey admit the bearr to be thejJ 
^ancing-'masters ; though tjie evidence of gur ownl 
senses places this matter beyon'i all disputp, fpr, iif| 
|:hc bear-dance of the Kaiptschadales, eyery gesture! 
and attitude peculiar to. that- attiinal was faithfully 
exhibited. All their .'other daupes are^^s^milar 
thid in many particulars, and those attitudes ar^ 
thought to come the nearest to per£jctio|i ^hic| 
most resemble the motions of the bfcar. fH: Hob 7 
\^Ojfi the 23th of September, captara King 1 
tunied to the ships, not a little pleased w^ith 
exGursiony as it gave him aa opportunity of seeii 
ia part of the cpuntii}', and of observing- the actios 



Ml 



'l*»^f f%^ \ 



PACIFIC OCE.VN*. 



73 



of the Kamtschadalcs when they were under np 
restraint, wliich evidently was not the case whqn 
tk'v w^re in the company of the Russians. ^ V > 

Nothing worth mentioning occurred till the 30th, 
Iwhen captain Gore went to , Paratounca, in order 
tu have an cscutcUeon put up in the church, vralch 
had been prepared by Mr Webber. It h^id an in- . 
scrlption on it, mentioning captain Clerke's age 
and rank, and the nature of the expedition which. 
Ihc commanded at the time of his decease. To iKe. , 
[tree, vmder wliich he was interred, a \^a|ii:i|, ^Mu 
laffixed with u similar inscription on it. ' "'-'- r^ ;» " 

CH}>tHin Gore, before his departure, ord-^red c^^* 

t;un King<to get the diipjs.ov.t of .the harb9ur,,that 

they might be in readiness to aail. This, however, 

Iwas prevented by a violent gale of wiiul on the 

jut of October, which continued the whole day ; 

)Ut, on the 2d, both the vessels warped out of 

\]w. harbour, and anchored in .^;even fathoms water, 

about a quarter of a mile from the osirog, Tlte 

lay before we quitted the harbour, the cattle from 

V'erchnei arrived ; and, that the men might have 

[he full enjoyment of this seasonable supply, by 

btiiig it wiiilst at was fresh, captain Gore deter* 

lined to stay in the same station five or six days 

longer, j.^;^ , •. ■•^, ^r^ ■• -j^\ ^ .,;. s. ^^^ .fx^^-v^t'i-j^^ 'f ..;-., ,.- 

This time was far ffo^ being misapplied, for tlko 
Mmps, sails, and rigging pf ea^^h ship receiv^^d ai) 
Idditional repair. Captain Kiag, having obtained 
fcermission to use the copper belonging tp the Re- 
Llution, and being supplied with molasses by cap- 
lain Gore, wa^ enable 1 to brew a sufficient quan- 
[ity of beer to last the crew a fortnight, and to 
pke ten additional puncheons of strong spruce 

VOI-, IV. ' "^ G • 



1 

„ 








.*., . d 






A VOYAGE TO THE 



easent;;. This supply was the more acceptable, as 
' our last cask of spirits was now serving out, ex. 

cept a small quantity reserved for cases of emer. 
■gency. :..>';>v- 

As the 3d of October was the name-day of the 
• Empress of Russia, we were perfectly inclined to 
show it every possible respect. The priest of Pa. | 
ratounca, Ivaskin, ' and the serjeant, were invited to 
dine with us ; and an entertainment was prepared 
for the two Toions of Paratounca, and St Peter 
-and St Paul, as well as for the inferior officers of 
^ the garrison, and the most respectable of the K^rnt- 
schadale inhabitants. All the other natives were 
invited to partake in common with the sf^fps* coniJ 
' panics, a pound of excellent beef being served out 
to every man, and the remainder of our spirits was 
made into grog, and distributed amongst them.| 
Twenty-one guns were fired upon the occasion 
and, considering we were in a very remote part ofl 
the Empress's dominions, the whole was condactedl 
in a manner not unworthy so illustrious a cha*! 
■ racter. '^,'-^:r-:/r- :--- ■ »^;:^ \''''^iV/;.v'^--;-r;k'''\; _ 
On the 5th of October we received a freslil 
supply of tea, sugar, and tobacco, from Bolchc. 
retsk. Captain ShmalefF having met this present! 
on his return, he sent a letter with it, informing ml 
that the sloop from Okotsk )iad arrived in hifi abJ 
sence, and that Madame Shmaleff had instantly di J 
patched a courier with these few presents, requestj 
ing bur acceptance of them^ ,'^(i^^^>/^v" ft <>^ • 

i On the 6th and 7th of October the appearand 
of foul weather prevented our unmooring, but, oaj 
' the 8th, we sailed towards the mouth of the bay, 
and all the boats were hoisted in; but our progred 



PACIFIC OCEAN. 



75 



■,v '■ ^.' 



Wis stopped by the wind veering to the south, 
which obliged us to drop anchor, the ostrog bearing 
north, at the distance of half a league, /fhe wind 
blowing from the same quarter, and the weather 
being foggy all the ii^^i^on^^^^^^^^s:^ -, 
tinued m our station. ; -■:'■'■' .'•";■" ■':•"'" '^y^^"- ■ ~^- •-■^•■^*^' 

At four in the afternoon of the same day we 
again unmoored ; but, whilst we were raising our 
last anchor, we were informed that the drummer of 
marines had fled from the boat, which had just left , 
the villagf , and that he had been lately seen with 
a Kamischadale woman, to whom he was known 
to have been much attached, and who had frequent- 
ly importuned him to stay behind. This man was 
entirely useless to us, having been rendered lame , 
by a swelling his knee ; and, on that very ac- 
count, captain King was the more unwilling to , 
leave him behind, lest he should become a miserable 
bui'then to himself, as well as to the Russians. 
He therefore apphed to the serjeant to send parties 
of his men in pursuit of him ; and, in the ^mean 
time, the sailors visited a well known haunt of his 
in the neighbourhood, where the drummer and his 
woman were found together. On the return of our 
deserter, we weighed anchor, and immediately fol- 
lowed the Resolution. ,;; -:v ^ '*^;: ,<. v;^-^ ;,r;f;. • 

As wc have now taken our leave of St Peter 
and St Paul, a particular account of Awatska Bay, 
and the adjoining coast, may not be unacceptable 
to the reader, as it is perhaps the safest, and most 
extensive harbour that has ever been discovered, 
and the only one, in this part of the world, that 
can admit vessels of considerable burthen. The 
tenn bay, properly speaking, is rather inapplic^ible 

" Q 2 



-ff 



^-4 . ■ 



A 



.J- 



VOYAGE TO THE 



'fo^F pfecfe % completely sheitered as Awatska ; | 
-but \vhen it is considered how loose and tague 
koride navigators have been, in their denominations | 
of certain situations of sea and land, as harbours,! 
/bkys, roads, sounds, Sccwte are not suHicientlv Vvar.l 
ranted to exchange a popuh\f name for one tliatf 
irnay perhaps seem niore consistent with propriety. 
.•"The entrance into Awatska Bay is in the lati- 
"'tilde of 52° 5i' north, and the longitude of MS" 
48' eiast. It lies in the bight of another exterior I 
b^y, formed by Cape GaVareea to the south, 'aid 
Cheepdonskoi Noss to the nortli. The lattetof 
these h^cCd-lands beafs from the former northeast 
by iJOlth, ^nd is thirty-two leagues distant. Frofii 
'Cat.>e Gavareedto tbe entrance of Awatska Bay, 
the Cd^st takes a nbltherly direction, and extends 

■ ^bout eleven league's. It cbhsists of a chain of 
ragged cliffs and rocks, and, in many parts, pre- 
tents ^n appearance of bays or inlets; but, on a 
nearer view, low ground was seen that connected 

J^the head-lands. -- -^- -;■ ''^;^ ''^'; ^ ^■. -^■''■•^"; . 

*'" *' From the entrance of Awatska Bay, Cheepoon. 

ekdi Noss bears east-northeast, distant seventecnl 

leagues. The sliot-e, on this side, is flat and low, 

'. with hills behind, ';i-adually rising to a considct. 

able height. The latitude of Cape Gavareea isl 

* This remarkable difference of the land on tile 
sides of Awatska Bay, together with their different 
bearings, are very proper g\iide8 to steer for it, 'J)| 

■ cortiing from the southward ; and when it is ap- 
preached from the northward, CheepDOnskoi Nopsi 
beconies very conspicuous, it being a high projec- 
tiWg head-land, and is united to the coiitinent by ' 



PACIFIC OCEAN. 



77 



large extent of level ground, lower than the Noss. 
Whether viewed from the north or south, it pre- 
sents the same appearance. ,*-''^^''V'; V> t '■'..^y"" 

We have been rather particular in describing this 
coast, having experienced the want of ,8uch a de- 
scription ; for if we had possessed a tolenlbly goo4 
account of the form of the coast on both §idcs of A^ 
watska Bay, we should, when we first visited it, have 
arrived there two days sooner than we did, and con^ 
sequently have avoided part of the tempestuous wea- 
ther which we experienced in plying off the mouth 
of the harbour. Besides, as the fogs ar^ so pre- 
valent ia those seas, it often happens that an ob-* 
servation for ascertaining the latitude cannot be 
taken,, It. should also be considered, that lan4 
makes a very decei:)tive appearance when CQyere4 
with snow, or when viewed through an. hazy. at- 
mosphere ; both which circumstances prevail here 
for a considerable part of the year, and render it 
necessary for every mariner to be acquainted with 
as many discriminating objects as possible. . , 

if the WeathejT should happen to be sufficiently" 
clear to admit a view of the mountains, both on the 
coast and its neighbourhood, the situation of A^ 
watska Bay mcf be precisely known, by the twQ 
high mountains to the south of it. That nearest 
the bay i^ in the form of a sugar-loaf; the other, 
which is more inland, is flat at the top, ^nd no(: 
quite so high. There are three very (conspicuous 
mountains to t^he north of the bay: that furthest 
to tl)e. west appears to be the highest ; ^he next, 
tt^hiclii^is a volcano mountain, may readily be kno>yn 
|hy the smoke issuing from its top. The third i^ 
(Jje J^st ROitherly, and jnight^, with some pro- 



78 



A VDTAGE TO THE 



■■■?• 



priety, bfe called a cluster of rtiouiltaiu$, t*s it pre- 
sent sev^ml Mt tops to our view. '*' 

When we get within the capes, and into the out- 
'Mi'd bay, a light-house, on a perpendicular head- 
laiid, \m poirtt out the entrance ot the bay of A. 
watska to the north. Many sunken rocks lie to the 
eastW^r4 of this head-land, stretching two pr three 
miles into the seit, and which, with a moderate sea 
or swell, will always show themselves. A small 
round island lies four tnifes to the soutli of the en- 
trance, prinC:ipally composed of high poihted ro 
one of which is strikingly remarkable, as be 
linger and inore perpendicular than the rest. 

The entrance into the bay is, at firsts about three 
fhiks .wide, and one mile and a half in the narrow* 
ist pkrt ; the length is four miles, in a nortli- 
nofthwest direction. A noble bason, of about 
twenty-five miles in circumference, .lies within ,t}ie 
iTnoujh ; in which are the harbours of RakpWeena, 
to the ca^t, Tarcinska, to the west, and St Peter 
' and St PKul to the north. ':* 

The breadth of Tarcinska harbottfiis three miles, 
ifiA.the lengtb aboiit tweivf-., A narrow neck of 
. land separates it from the sea at the bottom, and 
it sb-etches tb the east-southeast, Afe fer as m| 
lui^Tyed, We never ibttti^ le^s thah ftteVeh fathom; 
%at^^, but the ice hindered us from "^getting to the] 
WtoWi of the harbour. ^. 'V ;;'; i 

^hi teiltririce of thej&r|>b\it of RakbWeena i 
itnpefei^y a^bal ^ tl^J widlWe ^f tH^'Mnnd, 
whtch, fa geiier^ makes it*' nWes^^ to w hf \v 
^nk.^,th^^i^ ^ticuld hapl^n #^B^ a'^leadift^wJiilj 
^^fe;it"iS^i fW ^ '^CUmMnc-, thi^'bfe^r 
"ii'oul31>e pf efctable'td "tits? dtlfer t\vo. Its Wq^ 



»s it prc- 

the out- 
lar head- 
ay of A. 
lie to the 

or three 
ierate sea 

A small 
if the en- 
red TOQ^^ 

as 

St. 

DOiit three 

e narrow. 

a riOrth.| 

of about 

kvi thin the 

I St Peter 



bcinz 





^:-.-^ 



^''^l. 






' '** 



iree miles, 
w neck of] 
ttom, and] 
^r as wel 
h fkthomsl 
0^ to the] 




:b\^^eena ii 
(^hunineiJ 






islift^iK 



)^^^i 



•^ 






* 



••<■. »■' ,■ ^. 



> •^*!:M ;i*.1?rti' 



I'^W!''.. M..'.^.AV.-. 




fr 



of 



tiel 



ever, 
whic 



'of 



awd 



drer 



^ rk 
of th 

the t' 
fonli< 



the' 

tra: 

St 



.Ml 



liSi., 



:^:^ V.*'^ 



l..ldif'ct 



'■<"''. 



>»:**''» !'!£'>/*';■ 



'. i 




mi.. 


f' 






^-^AClFIG dCEAN. ■ 






%' 



1$ from one imle to half a miie,* ai?d" Us len'g^ -^ 
thi'^e miles, running in a southeast ntid easterly dl- J 
tection. It is from thirteen to tjiree fathoms in f-f' 
depth,. -' 

One of the most convenient little harbours we < 
liiave seen, is St Peter and St Paul. Half a dozen 
ships may be commodiously moored in it, head and 
stfem ; and it is, in ever)' resptct, convenient for 
giving them any kind of repairs. The south side^ 
of this harbour is formed by a loV\', narrow, sandy • 
heck, on which the ostrog is built. The mid-chaii- • 
iiel is only tv^^o hundred and seventy feet across, in 
which there is six fathoms and ah half water > the 
deepest water within is seven fathoms, and all over - 
a muddy bottom. Some inconvenience was, how- 
ever,^ occasioned by the roughness of the ground, v 
which often broke the messenger, and made it 
troublesome to get the anchors up. At the head 
of this liarbour there is a watering place* ■J**^*^'*'^^ 
There is a shoal lying off the eastern harbci?r, 
and a spit within the entrance, stretching fr6m the 
southwest ^ore, having oiily three fath6n*is Water 
iivtr itl ^'To steer cl^ar of the latter, a small it?land'/ , 
or rkthei* a large detached rock, on the west shore, 
of the entrance, must be shut in with the land to 
th^'-koiith of it."' In ord^r to steer . tlear of the 
fen1ier,'the thre^ rieedle rocks, neat- 'the light-house 
h^aS; on the <.'ai.^'^'^hore of the entrailfei!^," must be 
Riept o^en with tlie hie&d-lan'd^ to tfie northward of ^ 
th^Yitst sni^Vbfeiidiiij;'6h' th^ eia^'^^^^ of' the ert- 
#atft;^;^'^i$*n enteriti^'ifecl Mrbdur^^ St Peter and 
St P^M, ,f^y?^'i$J9fi^ach^ig-;Wi^ 4'i\hg6\ m^ v^y ne- 




/- 



iT, 



•,'V,/ 



.A' 



.M 



8o A VOYAGE TO IHB . \ / 

/ ■ • f "' V' • ■■'''■' -• ' 

.spit which stretches from the head-land to the 
' southwest of the ostrog. 

The time-keeper on board the Resolution, which 
..was exactly copied from Mr Harrison's by Mr 
j: Kendal, stopped oi> the 27th of April, ap few days 
5 before our first arrival in Awatsica Bay, During 
'the voyage, i^ had, always been carefully attended 
. XOf not having been trusted, even for a moment, in- 
-to any other hands than those of captain Cook and 
/^captain JCing. No accident, therefore, could have 
piappened to it, to which its stopping could be ^t- 1 
7*tributed ; nor could it proceed from the operatiohs 
,sof intense cold, the thermometer being but very 
ylktle below the freezing point. , 

\l. When the failure of the time-piece was first di's- 
|covered, the captains Gierke and King consulted 
^^^ r^iwhat measures they should pursue ; \yhether they 
;|«hould suffer it to remain in a ugele^s state, for the 
i|8atisfaction of the Curious at home, where it would 
Icertainly l^e examined by proper judges, or submit 
,|it to the inspection of a seaman oo board, who had 
;li[)een regularly hre4 a watchn>aker in J^ondon, and 
|iwho had given many satisfactory proofs of his skill 
*|in that prof ession, in repairing several watches upon 
ithe voyage. .Ji^;,.:, ^: .'" 

j^ Having experienced the accuracy of this time- 
Ipiece, we were extremely «unwilling to be deprived 
%:' ;l©f its advaiatages during the rem^ing part of the 
t • , ^^oyage ; and that object appeared to us, of more 
ISmportance than the small degree of probability of 
ii^^*'! deriving any material knowiedge with f«gard to its 
i^ 1 \:fnechanism, by deferring the insp€;c^on 9I it till 
:^^ ^cmr return. J3esides, it should be considered, th^t 
jjj ,*tl^e watd^ h<id ^ready been sufficiently tried, t9 ^ 









1 



!^):- 



,>^' 



;j'.*;i; 









A 



'V,"«r;i^-;V''"1»- '5' 



.nis time- 



V.^ PACIFIC OCEAiT. A 



8t 



vlf 



certain its iffillty; ' aaf WeR'^n* (hi' frtrmtV V<>ySge^is 
during the three years we had now had it ori board ^/ 
the Resolution. Therefore, on the first clear day « 
after we arrived in AwaUka Bay, the time -piece/: 
was opened in the preseiMre of captain Clcrkc arid 
captain King. No part of the watch appeared to 
be broken } but, as the watchihaker was not able 
to make it go, he took off the cock and balance, 
and cleaned the pivot-holesi which were extremely 
foiil. The other parts of the work wetc also dirty. 
He then took off the dial-jilate, and found a piece " 
of dirt between two teeth 6f tbe wheH which carrier ; 
the second hand, and attribtlted its stcyppihg princi- ' 
paliy to this cause. After putting the work togc- 
ther, and oiling it ver^' sparingly^ the wafch* ise^mcd - 
to go with freedom ind l^gularity^ (^^f>£:/fm;^i .. 
Captdin King having orders to go the ni?xt day 
to Bolcheretsk, the time-keeper was left with Mr 
Bailey, in order t6 get its rate by comparing it 
^ith his watch and clock, who inforhied hirai on 
his returrt, that it had ^one very regularly for sonic 
days, never losing more than seventein seconds a- - 
day, and afterwards stopped again. Upon its be- 
idg a second time obenied, its stopping seemed to be " 
occasioned by its having ll^een badly put together 
on the firgt opening of it. When it wa6 again ad« . 
justed it gained above a ♦minute a-day, and the 
watchmAke^ bWike the balance-spring in attempt-, 
iug to alter that and the regiilat- He then made 
a new spring, but the vVatch ven: so h regularly 
afterwards that we could make no further use of 
it. The honest inan was as much chagrined as we 
Were at bur ijl success, which we were convinced t 
was riot so much owing to his want of skill, as to 




.V. _, J. 



X . 




IMAGE EVALUATION 
TEST TARGET (MT-3) 




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Photograpliic 

Sciences 
Corporation 






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23 WEST MAI'i STREET 

WcSJ ■P.N.y. 14580 
(716, 872-4503 



A V^Yi^ftE ; TO THE 

|he nuaerable tocjs lif5^.:had to work ^th, and tliel 

fitiflTDm his hands ^ha4'fs<^t:jf'aQted ^rom hi$ occupa.| 

tion as ^ seamaif. ^ ^ ,;,,,;,, .•■; ■ >^,>,^,,4,,..i; ^. , 

:At,^he fuU and.chjirrgi^of/theinooi^ it was high J 

* .wra%,at thirty*-six i^^iuMtes. after^iouf ; an46vefed 

^Jjcight indies was the grf^test rise^v The tides wercl 

J i;cg ular ^veiy twelve U9urs, 

\ , Tb^ peninsula of jj^mtschatk^ is situate on thel 
eastern, coast pf Asi^ and extends from 52^ to.61°[ 

^ north latitude ; the Icwigitnde of its extrpmitiy toj 
the south being 156® 4?5f,e;|st. The istlimus, jqijq. 
xngi^tx? the continent pq.ihe north, lie? betweenj 
the,gulphs ,of Olutorsl^ and Benshin^k. Its ixtre«| 
, jDiity to the^uthjis Cape Lopatta; sociUedfroml 
its J-ese^ipj^ng the bladerbone, o^ a. niaui, which u tt 
signification of thait wprd^i . '^^ )^hole peninsula isl 
fidmewba^^in the form of a shpe ; and its greatest 

breadth kptwq l^undreA 4"^ Uiirty-six computed 
,ini|t^s, being from. the mouth of the river Tigil toj 
, that pf the river ]^amtsch?^tka ; and towards eachj 
. extremity it gradually becomes narrow,er, 
f . On the north, it is boundeclby the country of the 
JCoriacks ; by th^ north Pacific Qceaiji to the soutb] 
^and east ; and bythe^sea pf Qt^otskto the westJ 
/A chain of high mountains^ from north to southJ 
jext^nd the whole length of the peninsula, and al- 
\ Bnost equally divide itj whence geveial rivers take 
their rise, and make their cour^ mta t|ie P*icific 
Ocean, and the sea of Qkots!^. ,. , , 

The three principal rivers ai:e the Bplchoireka,| 
. or great river ; the riv^r Kamtsch^tka ; and tl 
* river Awatska. The first <li8char|;es jtself into tje 
sea of Okotsk, and is navigable foi< ^he Russian gal 
lio^s five kagues fromjts mouth or within thr? 



fACtt-IC bCEAN^ 



83 



Ikagues of Bolcheretsk wfiich fs situate at l!ie 
confhix of the ttt'O rfvers, 'Coltsoifka arid the Bis**^ 
Itraia, which are Kerfe lost in tKe Bolchoireka* The 
Isoiirce of the Bistraia, which is' "ho irt'conifeiderable 
[river, is derived ffoiVi the same fotrntairi ai' the ViT^r 
[Kaintschatkai btit 'takes' a tjiiite ioniH^ cbirrse j 
by which means the Kanitscfiadales' aii^ enabMd to? 
transport their gcOds by witer, almost acrBss th^' 
peninsula. The river Kamtfechatk* cdntitiiiW ■ a- 
Ibout three hundred miles in the directi^ii of sotitlif 
to north ; and, after winding round 'w tjte' east- 
ward, is received b^ the ocesm, a little to' the i^ontlv. 
w-ard of Kamtschatskoi Noss* To thie^Wohhwes^ 
of the mouth of Kamtschatka, lies the ^^re^t 4ake 
Nerpitsch ; frpm ftgfpi, t seal ; thit felcfe'aboiiuHirig' 
with those animals. A fort, tailed* Nishnei Kamts^ 
chatka ojr/ri/^, is situate -iabbiit twenty mile's up the 
river, where an hospital and barracks have fe^eti 
built by the Russians ; and this place>-WtriideV- 
stood, is now beeome the {rrincipd'mart''iii,th6 
country. • ' • ' ■ ''''*^ ■'- ■ 

The source of the Awatska riVer is from the 
I mountains between the Bolchoireka and the Bis- 
tnfia. After running two hundred mJfes, from 
northwest to southeast, it falls into Awatska Bay. 
ITlie Tigil is likewise a considerable river;' it rises 
amidst some high mountains, parallel with 'Katnt* 
Jchatskoi Noss, and ehnpties itself into the Sea -of 
I Okotsk. 'The other rivers of this peninsula, which' 
I are very numerous, are too inconsiderable to be par- 
[ticularly^mentioned. 

If we may judge of itaf soil fro^ its vegetable 
I productions, it appears to be barren in the cictrertie.' 
Neither about the bay^ubr in our journey to Bol- 



f w.:i- I 



A ypJW^.^'pCjn^THE 



wcifver perqeivetiie sn^Uest sppt 5>£ ground, that 
ij»4?the a|)pearan<;e qf a, g9p4 .gw^. tfirf, or that] 
se^ecjl.^. ipa|i^e , pf improyeroeiit ,b(y cultivatioiiJ 
Stunned f cge$, ;|^^e sq^pfrt^^ -. ^^i rfie whole face 
ot^b^ c.Qiii|t^^,, j^hos^ bottoms fW^j^^ mossy, with a 
ijiixlw of ,lo?y; hef^th ^ ; ^Jv^ . w}iok; resembling Nqw. | 
%n%j3(d in^.^ost strijcipg degi^ee;.! *^ * / - 

^It jpf^^.,^1^ ^dpaittv^d? .K'R^^'^^^F' ^J^*? we saw at I 
Pam|:oi;HC||Jire<B;or foviPf stacks :of t^iiist excellent 
h^jr; aj^ 3^|ia]or .pehm a^Rui^d us, tkat the banks 
of tth? :^:i^t8Gj^tka a.u4; ti>c» BMraia, as well asj 
ni,a»y, ^tj^er.piarts pf the p^ittsnla, produce a quiD.i 
tity ,o£\gKa^s 0^ great strengtlv ^^ ^igli^t, which js 
mqwe^ ^?«^iceiq ^yei^y sunmner ; a^d that the hay if 
P|itica|a^ly^dapted to the fattening of cattle, be. 
iijg q^a yfry sut^cuJfAt, qiwiity,. It, appeared, in- 
4e^d^ ;itffg|i the ,^Z0 and fetness .of the thirty-sii 
wi^v^Wc^eceivj^d fro^ tlve '\?'erchnei cstroj^, that 
tJt^y jnusft^fiav^ haG the advjii^^age of good gras&j 
and hay 5 for when we were supplied i^ith the fir^t 
^T2^^^If.4? wa&ji^st the close of the winter, the snow 
stilfireit^iriing on the grcfund 5, and profcably thtfy 
h?|4;f24^b^ on hay lor, the seven prece<^i:^g months, 
Tfci» ^grtef with KraiacheninicofF^s account, who 
rejj^itesji, that tjie country whijph borders on the river I 
> l^^mt^chatka is much' superior, in point of , fertility, | 
lp,tl]^|i c^dtherthe north or south* Repeated ex- 
peyiaaentSj'he says, have I^een made in diifcrent| 
q^tei^ near this river in the cuUuri? of barley, rye, 
and oats, \yhich sddom failed of success i and he 
sAippo^es, that v^heat" \^oyl9 grow in many parts, 
espe(;i;i% i?0ar t;he sourceof the Bistraia and Kamt- 
sc^atka, as w«ll as in most countrii^a situate in xk^\ 



^ , ^: ■ 



•I . '■immymw 



PACIKIG OCEA!*;/ 



8^ 



dbe lafitiide^rra^hc f^rtiliiy of tlvi« part of the 
country mji^y^f>©rimp8, be Qcc5isioneci'b|F>iit« iTJng'iR' 
the widest part oC the peninsula, sM co»8eqiieatJy<, j 
at tbr^rti^est -distflince'^om the sea m each . sick* 
as chilling fog* ijiud drizzling weather generally prew . 
rlJl along the c^ast^ and cannot fail tci render the 
parti aidjaceiit ihcajJabl^ of improiwnwjit by agri- 

Theseverity of the climate, itmziy?nattiraHy bcsiip- ^ 
pbk ' must he i» prk)pQrtion t.o th^; ateiTlitf , Df the 
»ilvw which it i^ perhaps the catjse»t< r We iirltrsane^ 
th^ cbiintry in the he^niamg of M4y 1 77P» when it 
vi^ covered with ;ei«Aw, fiionR aix to eight feet ia-i 
di^tM^ Oji the 6lih M May isre had anow, with the 
wind from northeast. At noon, on the 8th, the* 
the^ometer $tood»ti^B'2°i; aad-isonrie^of our ni&a ; 
Mcere on that day ordered on shore, to^ndeavour to 
CMftwood; but theb attemplfr \teere fruitles»i the 
8T»s\r fttili lying air deep j*pan the ground ^, Nor 
cmM they proceed iir tHifraecfassary busin^Sii^though 
the 4iai*y ©ausisted :qC stout land able feflo^ vs, till ^ 
tbe iSth. when tl%eri thaw r^^tadually advanced. Iii ) 
sfittae places, the: did^. of tjic hlllij were now free > 
fraoJ^SBOw; and. it was priacipally. melted on tlit^ 
loiclaBid by the begkning of- June. On jthe 1 5tlil' 
of that month, u'te sailed Qut\of. the- harbour; diarfl 
iifg suur stay, thrj-windt g^nen^blew. fr6m tlt^^ 
eistwardr ajiyi tl^ squtl^Q^t^niv^ pfevsb^l 

lent. ■ . ■■'' " ■^^'' '■■ ^-^'^ - ■ ■■ :.tt;):'r ^ ■■./ ^ .ir 

0?l fche ^4th of August, ishsrt we retHimfed, t!ie 
fi^age of the trees, and vegetation in general, ap- 
p^red to he in the heigbt of .perfefitioJSi The wpa- 
tbr, 'dttrittg |he renaainder «f that moiithf asid^ the 
ivhole of \Septexnbfer, WW very changeabk,. but not 



ae- 



A. VOVApB TO. THE 



I 

Rcverpi > Atf?tlie beginning' of the monthvthtf^nds 
were, in 'general, easteiiy ; bwt .a£teTward3^ot T0Ufi4 
to li# yrest. ^ke tljeninoMt?tei>'^cgfwite»t . height 
was 65?, the bvrest^O^i The p-eateat height of 
the barbmeter wa» 50^ the lowest S59^ 3^. So that 
ail - the month of September a moderate kl^rec of 
ten^peramire prevailed. But, wlienOftobo:^ began,* 
the new-fidlen snow again covered the tope of the 
hilbiaiid the wind continued weaiteiiy. 

In competing i the seasons* l^rev fpriftg shoidd 
certainly 1^ Emitted. Summer ;may be said td ex* 
tend from the iniddle of Jime tifUhetmddle of Sep* 
tember ; October noay bfe co3»«idered aa autiuifii 
fram which period to the mldib^i June^ it i« all 
-dteary- winter* ■ '' . ■ ^.^^>ii-J%^^-i''K}^':-K 
. rO'he climate rin^the i?o«rttrjr l^i^cent to the river 
K^mtschatka, is^ 8^"d4o ^Ije as serene and temperate 
at in maiiy pai-ts of Ssbei^tnider^he same; latitude* 
This, probalily^ originaies from t^e same causes, to 
which the fert^ty of the soil i*' that part of ^ the 
country i^sbe^aheady attriBoted. The stenfity. 
of Ihe ground, dioweves, jui not the only consequence 
of the unfavourable temperatuir^f the climate. Tlie 
iafe^bitantis are sometimes prevented, by the uncer- 
tainty blithe summer season, fecto pfowdi^^ afcuf- 
Ikieht atofek oif^fedifoh fot their tood ia the, win. 
ter'j and th«/ai4i8?tiife of fthe air occasions worms to 
l>i«ed in them, whi^frefafntly ^mo^frf^X spoils 
the greatest part. ; .1 

^e* had neither thmider-^nor "hghtaiing during 
ouitfitay at fllamtschatkai excepting the riight of the 
enipticMj bf the irol<^fio I and we were tt^B/by the 
iphabiUBfttr, that- they worenoi often If ^ubbd with 
cither, and Oliver but in a slight degree. The se- 
verity of winter, and the dreadful lairrlcanes of wind 



PACIFIC. OQlEJuifA 



87 



in4 8npw which attend lit* ob%«j the. natives to re- 
imio theiri subterraneoas habitationsi both for theu* 
f^urity 8pd warmth, ... We were informed by Ma- 
j^ Bdimt that the inclemency of tlie winter of 
' J779 l^ai 10 greati that all ifatercoiitse was stop- 
pi kn^^m the m^ihitMnU for several weeks ; no 
doe daring to stir from one. habitation to another^ 
Hi i^f^nlr Wiwe^they of being frostrbitten* Tte ex. 
timt rfgou^Q£ tl^cliiiate, to so low a latitude, 
liiy be %ttnbiitfd tio its being sitwlate to the east 
4i in i!nmffn««uncult«ated country, and to the 
fr^l^n^^of the westerly winds oVer so extensive 
mi Ji^a ? coiitineet, u The impetuQ&ijty of the 
wmds may be attributed to the subterraneous fires, 
tai. fi|l]^hiu[|»p»ft ^xWiations, ,/ \iim ♦ «*, li'^qa 
. y^A^no^^tm numerous [in Aialpewlnsula ;.fonly 
three qfwWch feiy«i ilofefily . bei^n sub|fct to e*niip- 
dd^s. t Thtjt in ^ neighbourhood of Awatska we 
have already meationed ;,and there are^ others equal- 
Ijf r^markabW, according tp Krascheninicof 4 

The volfano.of Tolbatchick is situate, between 
;thfriv<^f IC^mtschatka 'and Tolbatchick,: on a neck 
tuHand. ^ The eruptions proceed from the summit 
of a high mountain, which terminates in pointed 
rocks. , A whiirjwind of flames issued 6'om it in the 
begini^i|)g 9f i7g9,; v?hiich reduced the forests^ofthe 
neighbourbg raountaina to ashes. A cloud of 
imokemqceedcd this, wluch spread darkness over 
the whole country, but was dissipated by a shower 
of cinders, which covered the e?irth to the extent of 
thirty miles. KrascheninikofF, who was tlien tra- 
velling jfrnm Bokhoireka to, the Kamtbcbatka osirogf 
and not far from the mountain, says, tiic eruption 
was preceded by an alarming sound in the woods, 

H 2 



•«& 



A VOYAGE TO THE 



OF huttricane } tiil fhive Buc<;e8«tv^ ^dckft*>6f ah 
^i^hqiiake^. with tonly a n^inute^d interval >)^tw<?«i 
eackf fully coftvinoed him bf its mtA ofltesei but 
that h« ¥fd» faiitder^d^ by the falling of the t^deii, 
from Approdchang n^itrei^the m^)ijmC«it)^X)riMyipro« 
, tending oft his journey. 

' Q^uhd td]]i^^f the mouiitidfi^ K«mll^hatb, 
^supposed to bt by far the highest ih th« imimulij 
'it'tht^t^ird v^i^klitio. A thick ^iikU^ke^ iiiefe^sailtly 
;^^ends fmm itft ftummit^ Htdit 'tfften haft eni|]iti6n^ 
;«f«tbe most dreadful kitid; sem^ o| >whiti^ w^l$: 
tfksh>in thfc mefnorieft of the liaiiiJW^artd lti'^?e!li^ 
tljuently spoken of. * » 

Spring* of hot water aiiB^ saii^tot^ s^^ll^ in thfe 
*<c0Uvitiyi W^t hat/^ ortly thittiati|«lwchfefe!a^ d^ii-ojr, 
vMth has already be^n dcsidnbeil;! ^bWrii 0th^ 
ttfcf^i mentioned %y Kra«h0iiiiic^^ wh^ iiso tak^ 
.-kitiqe of tMto pits o* \*«ll8,^ thfe b^ 
the wa^V boila i^h gteat impetttoftity j a dirtMidfiil 
nois^ issuing from them at the ttaM time, Imd so 
thick a tapour, that olsf^ets Cannot be disee^ed 
through it. 

Among the prift€ij)al tuees ^hidi Ml tindci^ oxtt 
ndtice, are thie birch, the poplar^ the ^der, several 
species of the willow, and twio sbrli ol<d#arfish ce- 
'dare. 0ne of these sorts gr^owsiipon th^ eoast^ ^1- 
dotn exceeding two feet ih lieigiit, ftifid fc^ping 
upon the ground. Of this b^r es&ence for beer was 
made, and proVed to be proper for the pttirpos 
th6 other, whjch grow8 much higher, is fbiihd on I 
the mountains, and bears a kind df nt^ i^t applK 
• The old Tohn U St Peter a^dSt-PaHlmfchlftfed us, 



,ii 



X< 



»*»6f ah 

kse I but 

Clttderi?, 

rtmptQi* 

nijrtidfft 

lih thli 

so tak^ 
4 which, 

» tod 80 

' f oifr 
|y several 
rfish ce. 
ast, iitl 
^ping 

ifpose : 
bulvd on 
appit". 
i*ed us,| 







'-■» 



'I' 







^l1 




that w] 

tbemth 

proved 

cither i 

cause, i 

Oft 

commoi 

them w 

from ea 

the bad 

nativeii, 

tapped* 

they dii 

paFation 

to Bold 

and fou] 

what pu 

for theii 

of this 

Not onl 

the neig 

very swi 

to a CO 

wood of 

Krasc 
which g 
schatka, 
there are 
the s^i^ 
thorn* H 
.Thill 
shrub ki 
Jjushes, ^i 

* - * r ■ 



PACIFIC OCEAN. 



89 



that when Beering lay in that harbour, lie taught 
them the use of the decoction of these cedars; which 
proved an admirable remedy for the scurvy ; but 
either from the scarcity of, sugar, or some other 
cause, it is no longer used amongst them. 

Of the birch, which appears to be the most 
common tree, we ren^arked three soits. Two of. 
them were large, and ftt for timber, and differed 
from each other only In the colour and texture of 
the bark. The third is of a dwarfish kind. The 
natives .apply this tree to a variety of uses. When 
tapped, it yields a liquor in great abundance, which^ 
they diink wijiotit mixture, or any kind of pre- 
paration, as we frequently obseiived in our journey 
to Bolcheretsk. . We drank some of it ourselves^ '^^ 
and found it pleasant and refreshing, though some- 
what purging. '. They cdnvert the bark into vessel* 
fcr their domestic, purposes ; and, from the wood 
of this tree, are made their sledges and, canoes. 
Kot only the birch, but, every other kind of tree in 
the neighbourhood of the bay were stunted, ani - 
very small ; the natives are therefore obliged to go 
to a considerable distance up the country to. get 
wood of a proper size for their caooes,. their !^/a- 
giinsf and many other purposes^ „ : ,i>. „ m ;:. .1 

Krasch^ninikoJT.also n^ntions the Isureh, a' tree 
which grows only on the banks of the river Karat- 
schatka, and those which it receives. . He also says, 
there are firs near the river ~ Berezowa* Likewise 
the service-tree, and , two species of ^ the^ ; white 
thorn. J ' L. • ? 

This. peninsula produces great alnmdaaGe of the^. 
Uriirub kind, as mountain-ash, junipers,, /raspberrffl 
jjushes; nad vi^ rose-ti^es. ,;Al80..* y^tyr^f 






-'.^■'#»; 



90 • 



A VOYAOi: TO THE 



berries, as^ partridge-heirJeft, blue-berries, blick>ber. 
ries, trtin-berriefi, and crow-berrie*. These are ga- 
thered at proper seasons, and preserved by mash- 
ing thetn into a thick jiim. They constitute a coit- 
siderable paft of their winter proviiione, serving as 
a general sauce to their dried fish. They also eat 
them in puddings, and in varions other modes, 
and n\ake decoctions of them for their common 
beverage. ' 

We found great quanthies of ■ wholesome vege- 
tables in a wild sitate, wveh as chervil, garlic, pniong, 
angelic, and wild cellery. We also met with some 
•excellent turnipt^ and tttrnrp-iadttsl^wj, upctiua ^P 
^pots of ground-in the valleys. Ims was the tt- 
mo8t extertt of their ganden cultivatkm ; but, it ia 
profxible, that many of the hardy sorts 'if vegetables 
%riU thrive here, ( particukHy those ^hose roots 
descend) as carrots, parsnip, ■ 6^ c. Major Behm 
told iis, that many other s<Mife'<>f kitchen tregetables 
had been 'tried, but withotit effect j ^bat tbote of 
th* cabbage ot lettuce kihdV'Avbtrid not heitd ; and 
<tkat> though' beans and-pease wcuW^gww vigor- 
ously, and tower fend pod^'^^^^t tHe po5a:s woiiki n^ 
. 'Ver 'fill. He ako told u^ that iti eicperimebts he 
' made in different sorts of. fiti1iM«:eous graiin, a strong 
hi^lr Wad* ipirtiAgllt), «id tivtsh ^oduced'eaiis, but 
the latter aever yielded fiouK . 

Tliis amount of vfegetabtes' only r€*lalte« to sucii 

pitW<^ the»ciotintry as Ml ^it'hi* mir observation ; 

iis^^f' th^ river Kafnt;«*tltatfca, ^ere, as ^eiiavc^- 

ready observed, both the soil an4 climate is tlse bc^t 

"ii^me fumis^i ^(knx^kut^ ^ a^tt«ii%d;ebt and : 

"IplS^iap^' vwtb^fetl-^cess -; fbr^- ^ritfh: tbe ^iiiwi drdte j 



FACIFIC OCEAN.' 



9t 



alio received a present of ':u(?ttmf>ert, cettcrry» sonfQ 
tery large tufnfps, and other g;arden vegetables. 

Two plants are produced in thi6 peninsula which 
(ktierve particular attention. The first is called 
tarana by the natives, and Liiium Kamtsliahenie 
fore atro tsbenfe^ by bv^tattists. Tlw stent gmws to 
the height of about five inches, and is not larger , 
than that of a tulip ; tou'V^s the bottom it is of 
a purple colour, and green liighcr up. Two tier 
of leaves issue from it, of a \ oval figure^ the lower 
consisting of three leaves and the uppermost «f 
four. A single flower, of a dark red colour, whic»» 
reseftiblefl that of the narcissus in shape, grows fron\ 
,ljic top of the stalk. It has a bulbous rootr like 
that of garlic* an<?, hkc that, has several ck)vec> 
>luifiging together, The plant grows wild, ant* in 
great quan..M;iei : afcout the beginning of August 
many women are employed in collecting the roots, 
wliich) after being dried iw the sfin, are prcHcrved 
foriia^. When t<cc arrived the second time it was 
iW the C€mclu«ion of this harvest, wbich we under- 
itodd liad faUen sho>rt of its usual produce. It is a 
^ihaxim with the K«mtschadale&, that PTovidience 
fjftffver desert* them, for the ^a'sons that are preju- 
{dicki tir-the atrdna are always favourible for fiah- 
id^ ; aw^, on the conttiaryy an nnsucx'es^fcrt. fiijbjiig; 
month is always ^mply compensated by fafl exi^- 
vfant .f^zrdWtf hsarvelt. -^Tbld ittide is ^riouslycm- 
|4o^^ ia cookeryv When roasted in^'ttnbers it is 
a b^tfer substitute for bread than ' ## thing t^e 
vodilntty ]9to>dttces^ Wbett bak*d iiv Jiti oven, and 
ipoiMid^^i4t*'Mip^1ieJr tl^e plade^of flc^ut and meair 
and Itliiteed in all th^ip* *9iipB, and>many-o£ their 
vUthet:di*ii^€;T fcii'S'-^®;tr€^mely ^iHti^hiihg, feaa a 



..■'»!■ 



'il 



92 



A, VOYAGE JPJ'HE 






■t>- 



iiii':iifl»^iL V.' Cc 



:!H'' 



,*; 



V 



v.*- 



iTir pMsant 'l>itter ifavour, ^nd may Be" eafteni Jaily 
; witliQUt cloying. We partook pf these roots, boiI-| 
f^ed in the w, nner of potatoes, and found them very 
' wholesome and agreeable. This plant is also pro- 
^V', diiced at Oonalashka, where the roots o£ it, in 
~il, like manner, constitute a considerable part of their 



dvT 



food. 



y'^^^^iiwed Grass \^\}q^ name of the other plant al- 

|^i|i luded to ; the botanical description of which is, 

fe ;: ,i?^. Hcruchum S'wertcum fol'iis finnatis, foUoHs quints ^ in^- 

tennedits sesjiiibus, coroUulis uniformil/us. HoRT. 

)^rf'^ Up SAL. 65. It was in the month of May that we 

took particular notice of it,, when it vyas/Sibteut 

. -f. (> eighteen inches in height, «tro.ngIy resembled sedge, 

\,'4i;i aiid was covered with a kind of whi^e down, not 

0kL unlike the hoar-frost hanging upon it, and which 

might easily be rubbed off. The taste of it is as 

|;';Vsweet as thatrof sugar, though very hot and pun- 

.;J^^'f,gent. It has. a hollow stalk, which consists' of 

,^;>;' three or four joints, with large leaves issuing from 

■ 1 each. When thjs plant attains its full growth it is 

V^^jjout six feet in height. This plant was formerly 

Vf'ti principal ingredient in cookery, amongst the 

Kamtschadales, but, since the country has been, in 

, the possession of the Russians, it lia^been chiefty 

i;|;|flppropriated to the purpose of distillation. It is 

'gathered, prepared aiid distilled, in the following 

, ....inanner. 'Having, cut tbp 'Stalk* .whkh have leave«i 

Ingrowing <]|n.theui, and pcraped tj^ diftWny su^^aoee 

j6x>m their 8urfaG(f, they are placed in smidi heaps 

> ||ill they begin tO; heat and s^melU WheR 4*7»ii^^€^y 

f;l,;^e put into eacks mI mattings h5?vherejJtHey repajn 

'■ |ai few days, and .are. thenii gradually 'coffered 'over 

«■ ,j>vith a sweet wccharin? powder, which . exsudes 






Ui^K^^^Mfl 






■''^!^ 



PACIFIC XKifeAI^ 



\M' 



*rk 



IC'J- 



i^ '!^.i, 



.^«; 



t 



from tHe lioflow of tni hzjki Duly a qiraf t^r oR 
pGimci 6£ Jj^wdef is obtained from thirty-six ^unds 
o£th& plant in tiii? st:ate«''^\ The wolnen who goA^ 
duct thi« business find it neeessaVy.to deftnd thdi* 
handii.with gloves, whilst they are scraping th« 
stalks, the rind beings of so acrid a quality as evew 
to aliberate the part it toiJches. v MJi'-iH:- ^j-p, 

- In this state the spirit is drawn from the pktit 
hf the foUowing process.-^' Bundles of it are steej^ 
odin hot water, and its fentientation promoted in 
-t'linall vesseU witk berries ©f the |^i«o/oj/, or of tlie 
^hthiffdf care being taken ,to dose the mouth 4^f 
tlie vessel, and to keep it in a warm place whilst it 
r€Otttihtks to fcrm^nt/^ -which is often to so violent a 
deigtfid M to agitate the vessel which contains it, 
«Dd occasion a con9id]brabl& hoisej When thi»> first 
Mifttoiis drawii ofF^ 'm6re ht)t water is poured on, 
It^ fk second made in the same manner. Both li- 
qiiof and herbs ire theti put into a copper still, and 
the spirit is drawn c^ in the usual method. The 
]i^tior,thus prepared, is called by the natives raki^f 
•iul has that stten^th of brahdy. iSsventy-two pounds 
'jof the piknt genef^lly pk'oduce twenty five pints of 
raka. According to Steller, the spirit distilled frt>m 
t!tm^liisitunscrapid h vfery pernicious to healthy anxl 
f:pro4uces sudden nervous disorders. ; > * ; 7 . »> ? 
r KrascheninicofF riaentions several other pk.ts &(5(ln 
, which decoctiotia are prepared, and wiiich, when 
^propprly interminj''kd with their fish, mak^ palat- 
able dishes. -Such is the iipriy with which a plea- 
sant bevtrage is brewed ; and, when this plant and 
the s^et^erb titt boiled together, in the propor- 
tion of one to five of the latter, and properly fer- 
mented, a strong snd excellent viaegar is obtainedt 



'^ ■•» 



,rp» 



..t,.'. 




•Of ■ I 



•'•<f. 



^.r*. 



■ill 



¥7-.^; 






>j 




'V'- 






bb 


■1 ■ J 


)flH| 


'« 


-^M 



m^. 



M 






'i? 






-' *■• 



m 



KmO^yiCETO THE 



fBhe leaves are 'atibstitrited fdr tea, and* tHt .piUi, 
Ivlveio^jdried^ risriiiitroduiced in many of their ti^sheg. 
He alflO' mentions the morka^aii whidi is notitlAifke 
angelic j! the io/iorira, the 'ro<>t of which. k eatea 
g^eiii or- d^ied ; > the* < ikourk^ '■ the utchichlely and ■ seve- 
ral^ oitiiersi r •,:.'■' ,■,■•'■'•-; 

Before the Kamtsehadales were acquainted with 

;i5nl;,arjn>, /it is 8aidv»th«y poisoned their speargiaad 

jB^rrp^ws withta jdicci^itracted from the root of the 

^^ity at»d tliat death, v^as inevitable to fevery atw- 

ihal who,,had received i a wound from theml'fiFlie 

^Tschutskii&re now reportfed to i^ the sam^ drug, 

;ii«dl ibr the Jvei^ aame piirpqse* • vrvBi^K / ^n 

j: 1 Ti^lie materials M alhthenianufacttifrer^ of rS^affit* 

,«ehatkar aceording; to .KraschenimcofF, ar« fttmish- 

edib^ threif l^lants, i •0?ie!:o£>;thetn is ikat^tri^tm 

radkt fferfntii .spicuUs' hmh lanuginosUi which iff tk- 

4e^'di4g^y.piejaty alcMJg the coast* A strtnig kind 

!0(f; rtiiittmg is . fabmcated from the-istrawr^ cf thii 

*gi#s8, which is used fco cover their ifloors^. as wdl 

;^$i/or b^drclothes^- curbains,' sacks, and many other 

domestic purposes; little bigs' and baski^la aife^alao 

made of the same matenals, and are appii^dfto va. 

■rioiiS'Uses.-: i.'->^ .'i,'-.. ' *» ,.•/'. «• -- 

Th^ bolotnam grows in the marshes, and reBcm- 

bles cyperotdes, it is? gathered in the autunui,> aqd 

18 carded ii».the same manner as woolj with ati in- 

strumept made of the bojes -of the sea^wallow; 

With this manufacture their new-born infants are 

swathed, and it is used for a coi^rering next the skin 

after they cease to be infan^ts- A kind of wadding 

is also^fornved of it, which is used to give addition* 

al warmth to diffi^rent parts of their clothing, -^ 



PACIFIC 



OCEAN. 



9i 



^vulgar well-known phut remain^ to b^ taken' 
notice pfi; ^s being, mpre esseqtial to their swbsiatr* 
encfi th^n all which h^ve been mentioned. It i» 
the nettle, which, as neither hemp nor flax are 
produjQed in Kamtschatka, suppUes materials for 
their , fishing nets, and Qn which their existence 
principally depends. For this purpose nettles are 
usually cut down in August, and, after being hung 
in, bundles- under their balagans ,t|ie remainder of 
tfee Quoimer; they are njanufactured like hemp. If. 
is thea spun into thread witu their fingers^ and 
twisted rQynd a spindle ; after which several threads 
may be t^vined together, if the purposes for which 
jt is designed requires it. 

l^any parts of this peninsula would , probably 
admit *of such cultivation as might contribute ta 
the comfprt and convenience of the inhabitants; 
yet, the number of wild animals it produces, must 
always be considered as its t^al riches, and no Ia« 
Wuc caji be So productive 0f advantages as what 
iieinfJpyed Upon their furrieries. ' And, next to 
these^ the animals that supply them are to be con- 
lidered. ,The^ are the fox, the %ilfeline, or sable; 
i^e stoat, or ennine, the jVj//j, or arctic iox ; the 
tf< >S8 mai*niot, the varying hafe, the weasel, the 
gliyt^aiii,;Pr wolverene^ the wild sheep, reili-deer,' 
wolves, dogs. 

*Xhs piost general object of the dhase are foxes* 
with which this country abounds, and among which 
arc a variety of colours. The most common species 
is the same as the European, but their coloura are 
more vivid and shiningc, , Some are of a dark ches- 
nut, others have dark-coloure4 stripes ; the bellies 
of some are black, when the other part of the body 



iU 



i 






'^■^ 






.i-j;v 






•■^V.:%'^ 



mw 



§6 



A VOYAGE TO THE 



/ 



k olF e iight cheanut. Sbtne are Llack, others df a 
^ark brown, others of a stonocolrtur, aiid «oine 
few are entirely white ; the last, however, are Very 
scarce. The quaUty of their fur is* much superior 
t<5i that of the same animals in Siberia or Arafirica. 
Many artifices are put in practice by the hunters 
to destloy them. Traps of various kindr are pre^ 
pared ; iopie to fall upon them, ^therfi^^to securd 
them by the feet^ and others to cat^h thena by the 
bciid. These are the most common fticthods of 
taking them ; but they have many ingenk>Mx:on* 
tHvances for catching them in nets. Poisoned baits 
afe also used, the nux i;$7r//V^i being generally c^i 
ployed for that purpose. Siill> however, the ani^ , 
ittti preserves his character fo# craftine^ andii^un- 
ntiig, in ail ^climates, and upon all occasions. ' 

Before the Kamtschadales had any knowledge of 
the R-ussians, who instructed them in the use of 
lire arras, they cairied bows and arro^^:s to the chase ; 
but, sihce that perioiiv almost every^ rftan *a:m»iigst 
them is provided with a •riile'.bafrel gim ; and, 
though he cannot tis^ it with apy extraordinary 
dexterity, he readily acknowledges its -superiority 
to the fwmer ilistruments. {^ * 

' The Kamtsehatka ^bles are much larger than 
tlioseof Siberia, and tlieirfur is thicker and bri^t^ 
er ; but those in the neighbourhood of the rivers 
Olekma and Vitime are q{ a finer black. The 
8abi?9 of the Tigil and Ouka are said to be the 
best in Kamtsehatka, a pair of these being fre» 
^uently sdld for five pounds sterling. The worst 
are found in the southern extremity. 

A rifle-barrel gun, of a very small bore, a t!et, 
and a few bricku, are tlie wjiofe aj^^ratus of the 



^sjcanc-'OGEAasr. A , , 



97* 



sahle Imntcrsi.' With "the f .st, they somctMnes shoot 
tbm, wheTi tijey ate s^ea on th^ treel; the net 19 
used in 'surromidi ng the hollow tmes, in vvhicji they 
usually take refuge when pwrsued ; nnd the bricks 
ai-e put hot into the^ cax^tiet, in brder to chive thcn| 
oiit with the smoke. ► ' . . ' ^ >rH, 

For an account c^ the hatis^y or arctic fox,, we 
must refer the reader to Mi' Pentiaaat'i Arctic Zoo. 
log-y ; the skin- of this auimal.^ k' ef little value; 
Tiie varyingidiane i* ncglcctedi .©a that accoaiit. 
They are vt5*y numerous, axvd ahviim beroni^e perv 
fectly white duriTvg the winter* In the beginning 
af May we oteerved sevetai of ,tJli& "qdmir^ but 
they were flo eistr^«mely shy, W' j|oiit© Buifer As t^- 
came within >ttnr5hot, ' >■ t^='-^b'-'' if iku */•-' -tiI 

The.-carle83in[>arnH>t, ortRountain rrftr, is a beaiiv 
ttf^il en^artiuife, -miseh siA^r^tihan a squirrel ; and, 
like thiit amiwaJj^^^^ds upon 'roots and befi-ies ; sit- 
tiivg tipon Hi hkd legs whilst he eats, and holding 
\\\t i'ooii JLo its mouth with the paws. Its skin is in 
high estiqiation Qmong the Kamtschadales ; being 
warm, hght, and*^ a bright* shining hue. Lik© 
the pliimage of some bijrds, when it is viewed in dif* 
ferefit lights, it appear^ to be of various cdiours. i : 

The a'lTimgf or stoat, is little regarded here, and 
qonsequently- not much attended to by the hunters, 
its fur being ^ a ver}^ ordinary kind. We obser- 
ved sewv^l of these little creatures running about, 
3nd we ptircfhased some of their skins, which were 
of a dirty yeilaw towards ihe belly, and the other 
parts were of a cloudy white. The weasel is also 
neglected, and on the same account. 

The#vskin of the wolverene f or glutton, on the 
Cejntrary, is in the highest repute ; a Kamtschadalc 






98 



A. VOYAGE. TO THE 



looking upon himself as mdsl splendidly attired, 
when a smajl quantity of tiiis fur appears upon his 
garment/ The women embellish their v hair with 
its )vhlte parts, )v'hich is considered as the most siu 
perlative piece of finery. In short, a superstitioui 
opinion obtains amongst them, that the angels are 
clad, with the sldns of those animals. This crea. 
ture^, it is said, may easily be taimed, and instruc- 
ted in a variety of entertaining tricks. 

All the bears which we had an bpnortumty of i 
seeing, were of ' n -don Irown colour; mey general- 
ly appear in a company of four or five together; 
and are frequently ieen in the season when the iih 
quit the sea, and push, in great quantities, up the 
rivers. Fish is indeed their principal food. In the 
winter months they are seldom visible. Of the 
skins of bears,, .wacm mattresses and coverings 
for beds are made ; together with comfortable bon. 
nets, and gloves, and harness for tlie, sledges. 
The flesh, especially the fat, is held in giieat esti- 
mation. . s ' 

The wolves appear only in the water, when they 
are said to prowl about in large companies in pursuit 
of prey. ' ^ 

Rein-deer, both wild and tame, are found in 
maliy parts of the peninsula, but none in the neigh- 
bourhood of Awatska. It is remarkable, that the 
rein-deer have not been used, in this nation^ for the 
purposes of carriagei as they are by their neigh- 
bours to the north and east. The demands of the 
natives, in their present state, are indeed sufficient- 
ly supplied by their dogs ; and the breed of Rus- 
sian horses \vill probably supply any future n cessi- 
tie8 of the country. But, as the use of dogs, in » 



PACIFIC OCEAN./ 



great degree^ preclndes them from the advsntage of 
rearing other domestic animals, dt appears Very ex* 
triordinary thai they should not have preferred an 
animal so much more powerf^ and gentle*. > 

The wild mountain ilveep^ or argalh. is in great 
fllenty here ; an animal unknbwn in Europe, except 
m Corsica and Sardinia^. Its skin resembles that of 
tli^ dee^y but it nearer aj^ioaches the goat rinP 'its 
pit and general appearance.ii Its head,) is adorned 
wth two Urge, twifllt^d hom^' which> when^ thj? ani- 
mal i&at fidtlgrotfthyvsqai^imes weigh from twenty* 
ire to thirty pduiidi;^ aiid are rested on the crea- 
ture's back whiemit ifiininmii^. i Thejte. animals are 
taoarkMy tcivih and a^ctiye} frequei»t/only tbemost 
^i^ggy ^And/ mountainous parts,. and tmrei^e |he 
steepest rocks with an astonishing agility* Of their 
hotntif sp6on^(reups,t and platters, are fabricated by 
the nati^Bi^iiWho often bave ^e, of the ktter bai»g- 
ing to a b*lt„ terriilf .them to dfiflk out of when 
on their ^lunting.eJS(peditiQns*y This is a grjegari^us 
animal. Itk. eiKtremely beautiful^ iknde its llesh tia 
iweet affid delicately flavoured* 




The dogs .fif this country, as already obsei^ed, 
resemble tne Pomeranian in mean and figure ; but 
they are larger, and the hair is con iderably coarser. 
Tjheir colours are varipii^, but that which most pre- 
vails is a light dun, or a p^ dirty yellow. The 
poor animals. are all turned loose about the latter 
end;of May, and are obliged ^to shift for themsekes 
till the ensuing winter ; but never fail to return to 
their respective homes, when the snow begins to 
make its appearance.. In the winter, their food 
consists wholly of the head, back-bones, and en- 
tmk of sidmpn. wliich me preserved and dried far 









J^' 



aoo 



A. ' VOTAGE » ,1Ca/3ttE 



w / 



that pUrpojMf j.^nd^ T^vcn wltHithk food, tKef tre 
yety^i^Jantily supplied. The dogs inbst certainly be 
irery^numcrpus, no l^i than five' being: y«ked tcr i 
single sledgeii ariidi only one ^persoiii carried in each 
lieage; • in- bur jounjey to BolcKwetskv we had be. 
tmon for;^tte"huhdred'and thirtytnine, at the two 
kages of'-Karatchin and Natcheekin. It ia ob«er- 
vabk t^ that bitiihes areneref-etiipbyed ifa tlm 
busiii^jgt5,^tl<ir d<)g«^^ihat*havJB b^qii castrated*. The 
whclp«;ar& drainedto vhe dimfti iby- being fastened lo 
st4ke^ xvitfeleithcmthoftgaf^nvMkh^^re 'elastic^ and 
hating their fbc)d^placed>fbe)|c»hlitheir'^a<Jh ; and 
thuft % ^i^tinually pjnttingsiatliabouring to obt^n 
It^jepa^^ th6y/<«e^iff^:$ti^gtlian(fi«/habit)of draw* 
iij|| ;'both ipf* whidi ^refmMitiidd^fi hibottssuj for 
theft- ^stiY!ij^ itA:CMipatioii<^^>^ • ^ <'^*w is^l ^ . ; 
^AlittsewH eVery kind of n^itiier n stairfowl freqttmt 
thef Qoa^ ml bay? of Kiaiiiit^clhatki f tmipsmong 
mhffr% th^ fieaMea^leey b%t iN9$|»n soi ^tM pleilty as 
'IM^' Oonalaihka* 'TThe inlar»d^«*ivex[8 are plentifully 
stored iifklk varioiiis species of' i wild duoks ; one of 
which, called by the kai^«» Wir-*ffCr^^f has a moat 
beatmliii |>itimage* Its o^jr i*^*l^*% siifgulaij and 
■'agreeable.- * . ' > '''"■ '-"■■■'■■ • - ' '^^ ^ 

Anothejr species i^ <!alled t^e inopntain duck, 
"^hich^ According to Stellei', is pecidiar k) Kanfit* 
sltiiatkaw The pliitnige 6f thendrake is sii^ularly 
beautifid.' A variety of other water-fowl were 
seen, Dvhich, fhjwi their magnitude* appeared to be 
of the Wild g&bse kind. ; 

We bbsfei^ved, in passing through the ^wroods, 
nowie eagles vof a progidious size*, bUt of what spe* 
ities we coyM not possibly determine. There are 
siid to be tiree' different kiwi*. - The first i« the 



PACIFIC OCEAN. 



IOJ( 



black eagl , with a white head, tall, and legs j the 
eaglets o£. which are perfectly white. The second 
is impropt rly called the white eagle, though, in 
reality, jt is • of a light gray. The third is the 
ttone-coloured eagle, which i^ a very common sort. 
Xiiereare great u umbers of the hawk, ftilcon, and 
bustard kind in th[is .peninsula. 

Woodcocks, snipes, and grouse, are also found 
here. Swans are very numerous, tmd generally 
make a part of' the repast at all public entertiiin- 
n(i,ent«. Xhe vast .abundance of wild fowl in this 
(lountry was sufficiently manifest from the many 
Presents vVe received, i cor\«isting frequently of twen- 
ty bmce at a time, .. 

We saw no amphibious animals on the coast, ex- 
cept seals, which were extremely plenty about the 
bay of Awatska. The othei^s were, at that time» 
pursuing the salmon tha^ were ascendiug the rivers 
in jlarge skoals. ,Some of them, it is said, follow 
^he iish into fresh water, and frequent aU the lakes 
which have a communiGaiion with the sea. 

Tl)e sea-otters fout^d here, and j:ho8e which we 
met with at Noptka^ Sound, are exactly tb^ same j 
«lod l;iave already been particularly described, They 
were fpm^prly i« gwat abundance here j.buti ?iucg 
the l^ssiai^S; have opened a, trade ^h the Chinese 
for their sjkins, Afhere they bear ^a price superior to 
fujy pther ki9dof.fur,,,the hunters have teen ipdu- 
ped; to be «o indefatigable, in the pursuit jqI theni^,' 
th^t very few remain in the country. ^Tll^ey are still 
found amqngsttjhfi^ (Curile islands, thoiigh the num- 
ber is inconsiderable | but they are auperior in qua-^ 
jity to.those<^£ Kamtschatka or Nootka Sound. It 
|l^i ^at har^y a ^ea-ot|ter 13 now to {}e found 



I 



i02 



A VOVAGE TO TME 



either on Mednoi or Bc?enn|J*8 Island^ thottgh 
Muller informs usjthat they were exceedingly plcn- 1 
ttfifiinhis time. 

A great Variety of amphibious animals arc meu- 
tioned by the Russian voyagers as frequenters of 
these cojlsts ; but, as we Saw no other kinds, this 
was probably the season of their migration. ' ■ 

Fish is certainly the staple article of food among 
the inhabitants of this peninsula ; who cannot pes- 
sibly derive any considerable part of their sustenance 
either from agriculture or cattle. Hie «o41, indeed, 
affords some wholesome roots, and every part of the 
country produces great quantities '6f behies ; but 
these alone could not possibly support the inhabi- 
tants ; though they art extremely salutary, as being 
p^i-opcr correctives of the putrescent quality of their 
principal diet, dried fish. In short, fish mky be 
here ca!H<?d the stfttt of liffe, wkfe more proprieiy 
than bread in any other country ; *fbr neither the 
inhabitaflts, ndr the domestic aiiims^ of the canine 

species, cduld pbssibly exist ^hoitt if, ' 
' Whales arii Si'equently ^een in this ^cittery, Jhid, 
Wheritaiken^ serte f»r a imwetjr/^ use*; Of -tU 
skins, the inhahitahts tnak^ the Hel^ of their^oes, 
and belts and straps (tk matiy ^iithesr purpdaes; • The 
flesfh is eaWn, twd the im. h ft^s^St^ f6r c^fnar^r 
lisesV'aMfeedih^ 'their' latYipsi ;>^hc '^^laffs ai4 
highly "sei^defebl e fo^ se^mg tfie • ^seems of fthe ta^. 
fKjaJ'^ ifietitit^'ji^b ihade erf thfcWi ^ the Idrg^'kind 
^f !r^h, aitdkhey shoe th^ir sledges with the tinker* 
ji# bottes. Knives alt? fc^rmed fifeto mahy of their 
^boriesi and ^ charts, whitth faiitetf the dogs toge* 
ther,^%bt^femei^ly -^i+iJ!^^ 8*nrtte materials^ 

i^i^^h irdh tjhes ure tiow gendi^j^^s^i » Aftet 



PACiriC lOCEAN- 



103 



cleaning tHeir intrsttc^ft, <iryin|^ them, and Ibluiiriag 
them like bladdert) tKey di^posit their aai«nd gresmc 
in them ; and thev itudDe eaceilentf snares of their 
serves and vetnc ; in •koitt there is do part of the 
whale that is not useful in this peniosala. 

We caught abundance cif €ne dftat^fish* trottt« 
iDd herringB, from abbist the jhiddle of Ma!/ till 
the 2ith of June, the time of o«r departttrei. Alt 
one ha^il, on the 15tSi lof Mayr, we ^in^gA out 
upwards of three hundred flat^iidi, besi^kn a: C3Qfii»> 
derable <|i^ntity of s^trout.; The fdnnor ire firm 
end well-liavounedy studded «mli' prickly knobs upon 
the b^ck^ like turbot, with dairk brotMi AKeaks, eb- 
teoding froitt the kead^^ifaiiis tbe tail. The fiost 
hetrini^ setison commences about €tKt Iktterh^d ti 
May. Th^y visit the: ^oast in large shaads, but! cehv- 
tiQUe tbei« no cbnsiddn4»le tune* Th^ qwiited the 
liay before vfe sailed <out of k the first itbne,. but 
mife 'm.vimng m October^. 1^ has idxtady tbeen jie- 
mfirked^ ^hlft «he he#nn|^S'bene'Dv;9re exiteleiit, «Bd 
thft^any-of duretafty^caisks'ivccK fiHed with diem, 
Mpgt qiiiiitifte^ o£ «i|ti«Nieiyiiae cad «(erf i{»kel^» 

ftferoftt ti«ii0«y consnieiable qisantilties of tsra^^^^ 
Hrhick^iaid tlbe ^^ea«anc«iof sokeki. . . r > , , i« 

Bui^ iiiMWftlMtttidtlm^ ^fius : abnodance at &^ 
i^oVe itiehtienedj ^tisibn ^t9^'«alnniti' isbievf nWtt^ 
^tart ^H^'iyijbajaiiC^^^idepehd fdr thsiniwiQter ««|t^ei»^ 
lh(^. /&k fhlt ^oist ^ tbei isp^citts tf ^hei^ r|^ 
i»^^4[ii^wm>tb> extvt^ we^aaRtol^rliibad^; Bn4 jv^^ 
^ foi4i«tly«ha»icic«liN^^i^ diitf 
ti^if ^»80itid»«g^ ldietv<«9«^ ^Kftiiatailsq ni^wte^^ i^p 
tSm%h^h^si6f ^lifitointt8oiti>flwe^i^fllAt)i^ 



mi 

•\3 



104 



A VOYAGE TO THE 



i^ch otliier J that! they never fail to retuni to tlicrit 
'ver ip which they w^re, bred, but not till the third 
^mmer ^ that they never li^cto regaiu the sea; that 
particular species frequent certain rivers, and are not 
to be found in others, though the sea receives thna| 
nearly at. the ^me place. 

About the micfile: of'May, the first aho^g of I 
«ihnon .enter the month of the Awatska^ This kind 
is . called; uhavitiif by . the Kamtschadalcs, aind is the 
largest and most esteemed* ; /Three feet and a half! 
41 their u&uatl kngth^;. ind they are moi^e jthan pror 
'portionallii de^; their ayertige vveight beipg^ftorol 
thirty to Ic^rtytpoundsi The backi^ of Ji dt^rM Md^ 
colour^ with blac^ spota^^and the tail- is periedUy 
ttraight. In'«ll other reaped, they resemble pur 
common salmon. They swim with suph .velocity 
^orig the jrivei , that the water is greatly agitatedby 
thtii; motion jtand the oatives, who are ever on thd 
watch for ^ho'm at their accustomed tinier are con- 
vinced of their>pproach^^by this circuipstance, ^m 
4rQ|>?t}ieir nets immediately^ before theix>y.:0iwi)f 
«tb# #81 thai was taken waupvesented U)rmr hut nqt ! 
wit}it^ acquainting ua that i| waa; tbie {lifh^st com- 
pliment they cittld possibly ittonfcr u^us^ W^ 
^re informed, by Kra|ohftniwcofl[i< th^it i^.W«8fo|.j 
Vh^ly the custpm, amphg ^e 'Kamtsi:had9ll^% to eat I 
ihe^iir||t«^te they'caughtf lin ih^ piM rf^great re- 
jj^lffgSr "At^opnipiamed Y^th manyinuperstitioufi^ q^vt^ 
&nisy^( and Jthat^ jaftcsc liheyt beeamer isubjects <?l| 
*ilLtt$Mai^''it ;va8;lorig» miiUer;j«f pontention bet^^A 
^^e**^*iil<y-8lmaldiib«r e^ tH fiilt^roiTi^ 

*fislUn|'^*«»fop^4iiKitU ^pcp«, begipifcf«bo,|it ji? 
<ki<|^iilll|rf|^ ianicoBtin^ )h%ifwl;^iS^^T 



\ 



J PACIFIC ociiur. \ ' 



toS 



tite red ^:!iii, wiiitih atv^^niblis in tHt bitv% ynd ^ 
tteoutht of tbb nvm^><eiidy in ttie month qf 
June. Fcoqt.t^stime Itiil tow&ud|>tbe «nd df JSqs- 
iber, 'vas^ qyanbti^ of them are taluai «p6n'*lft 
»tfni and western coasts, where tbe icar liBOieiwdB 
}y irtdi Water ; and also; up the rivers^ dmiM, to 
fir vfif ftoutme* . • 

!,l!heid!nAihod. of caching tlifeni in thfe !xif of 
itskiii, i8'i» fqiUoWB) dae end of diQ net ti^lio- 
1^ t0 Jl Imnge stone fH t^ %M «f the vntet9Mt& 
nch they |iu8h off about tijirenlry^ ^mxidi iii a c^otf, 
romping tksk net aa'tkey^lMnoeecid^ then they tura» 
exteiid the other p^rt'of iht net Sn a Itiie^paral- 
to the «hbre. Thut |>repind» they oarefuUy 
conceal themselves in the boat^ looking eameMily 
|for the fish, which usually hover about the shore* 
nd whose approach is known by a rippling in the 
[water, tdl' they haw proat«drd:be|ri»Hl the boat. 
lAt that instant, they shoot the canoe to shore, and 
\wti aimdst certain of inbloiing theb puty* vOae of 
!Se ndts is generally Hbaoled by two nura* with lat 
facilitrf as our seines are numaged by a dozen, 
|tiiough oui-s -are ^ much ' snaaHer. Wfr had 'v^ry in- 
ferent fucoess with ovrrOwai' method of hauHng; 
Ihtt, after neccivkg some friendly iastrnctions Ircm 
Ithe Kamtschadaie9> tre were as succeadfiil as they 
|vere. Their suMie of Ashing in tbe TtferBy is to 
it one ' net ackx>BSy tad < haul another ts litxidown 
[the current. • .. ' >- 

All the lakes which communicate with the sea 
[abound with fish which have much the appearance 
lof salfnon, and usually Weigh dx)ut five or six 
pounds* The natives, we understand, did not think 



f ^tim 



■■tm 



'■H'^H 



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V V 



a 



'idS 






A ¥OyAGE TO THE 



.,,,.,-. ^ 






\>^; 



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f 



V 



t^t wortK theirlaboiir to catck them. These laki 
^jeing gencradly shallow, theiish becomes ?Lnm 
iprey to the bears and dogs in the summer season 
and, irom the quantiticB of bones appearing up 

^t the b^^ks^ vast numbei^ of. :hem seem to ha; 
;|Men:devoured# • > :^f-t^^K«H■ r-- -,;.. ^ -ttr m 

* ' The natives: dry the principal part of. their 

'" mon, and salt but very little of it. They cut 

:;a fish into three pieces; they take off. the bellyi 

piece arst, and then a slice alpng each side of 

t%ackr^oiie* !f he belly-piece, which is i esteemed tl 

^f ^best, is dried and smoked. f the other shces are drii 

,in. the air, ^ and either ^en .^hole as a sitibsUti^te f( 

-breads or ' pulverized &^r> paste and cakes. Ti 

^ head, tail, and bones, i^rs' dried ^nd preserved f< 

4 their do£C8*' ■• ''-^ .*j^ud-. i^u/v^iu i^j^->^jf,sitiidJr inf^-^.. 

^t|d At^i, ibex^ reiif, wolf, dfbg,- Arctic fox, E 
vtropean fox, polar bear, in the frozen sea only, bearj 
. Hwolverenct i:oi|imon. weasel, stoat, sable, comirn 
* |<^tterisek blotter, varying hare, alpine hare^ earl 
;i .marmot, boback marmot, water rat, common mousi 
, ,|aCeconomic mouae,^^ red mou^^ ichelag mouse, fcetii 
shrew, walrus, common seal, great seali lepoiim 
,. ceal, harp 8eal,r rubbon seal, "ursine seal, leonine se; 
. im^hale-taOed manati. Kamtschatka had ttb dome 
. '' jip ^nipiUs till the Russians introduced thep, 
^ . 'i^^ ^i if...*-. % r.'^i^Hmu^^/ dtai^ *■-'•' Aii^'^tii li ■ 



-^m-' 



",^ 









'V 



7. 



" ..■.•.4-,.# 




'. ^A ,-.„- ■ 


PACIFIC OCEAMiT 4 V 




%^i : 


'''kv,^„..-.-:.4A-^"-v.. ' :^^Ajj:;'L, 






■ ^■• 






tol<^DS yoONii IN KAMTSCHATKA* 




Land Blrist^ 







V , I ■.;« 



i^ 



Sea eagle, cinereous eagle, white-headed eagle» 
fiug cagkj ospt^y, peregrine.* Iklcan^ ^gbshav^k, 
jle, owl, snowy owl, ravep, magpie^ nuttcracker^ 
uckao, wry*necki nuthatch^ white, gtousi wocmI 
T0U8, water ouzel, fieldfeiie, rcd-^fin^ I^rtisl^y f| 
imtschatkan greenfinch, , gdden bunting, lesser ' 
headed linnet, dun fty-catdior, skyilark, wood-' * 
irk, white wagtail, yellow -.waglafl, Tschutski 
iragtail, yellow wren, red-stai^ longr-failled stapa-' \ 
tina) Awatska matsh titmou^fchimneyv^waliow^ ■, 
irtin, sr»nd«maFtini Enropean goat-stkker^ vf 



] 









., 4 ^^'^il'^Cill hWAtEkt 'f OWL.*' -T'd Jrf:' nnffftq; _^if^ J 

; Cio'oen'Footed Water Fowl* ^ :r'! if/ " 

Gr^at temf KaiWtschatkan blaCk-hcaded gull, k^ 
dttiwake gull, ivory gull^ arctic gull* tarrqcb, red^ 1: 
eggedi fulmar petrel, stormy petrei^ kuiib petrel, 
Hue petrel, goosander, !S!:«rgatiser,^mew> whistling :^ 
iwn, great goose, Caiti??se' goose, snow goosCf 
brent goose, eder duck, Mack duck, velvet duck/ , 

lovelier, goldcL eye, harlequin, mallard^ pintail,.- 
&ng.tailed mouiUon, shield-take, tufted, faicated,*K 

irganey, teal, corvorant, j^ed-faced conrorant, cranei '^ 

irlevv, whimbrel, common sand-piper, gambet^' 

3lden-plover, pied oyster^caftcher* ^| 



.Tte 



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A V©YACkE TO tHE 



Fowl u;'ith f Inflated feet* 
Plain phalarope. 

Fbtvh with 'webhed feet. 



M^^tW"^ '-'jf^i^, , =-t#C„ ^ijiiii/: 



.,»t' 



^cHs^ si;-' 



:> ,t*i 



[•'■r. 



}:'*'*1 



fc®Wi cgM^%nHit|i ibWk ja:aiillemo^ ii^ diver] 

Sbdl®^* wiiffli wasi l«i^ rcddent Jai Akiscwtitn^ aii^ 
who wasviiid»fal%|b^ :i|D'it^ ac^t 

knowledge on this subject, that the KaintschaclaleJ 
are people of , remote antiquity, and have inhabited 
this peninsula for xmtepn^s^fis^d that they doubt^ 
less descended from the Mungali^rs : though scra^ 
have imagini^Ci Aey sptakg Bom tlid Tongusian 
Tartars, and others from the Japanese. 
;fli|e fef MpxvQmiB lo suppikt -tiiejife ppid^nf bn? tin 
I^HovJog srguiiirnts.: tkat tl^cf have n® tiaditic 
^hiOBg jdbftrn . j# ^^^^^^ an) 

i^$k!t3r€imt)^ lth»pi^fkm\mQ t&eyiyere 'created 
oa this particular 8p©t,l>y» their fi^e^ god foi 
kt>it, iwl«Jk pi?e£^9toem«iitill hisf ©thcrcreattMres ; tkl| 
they pre the happiest (4 dAl bf?ings; ; « md that tkii 
country »ar sutpasses any other i aflbrding mean* 
justification which cai^itH be obtained tn other re^ 
gionsb Further, to support hi& opinio&s he says, that;j 
they are perfectly acquainted with all the plantf 
which the peninsula produces, their rnialitics, an^ 




II)), "J 



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tljcir seven 

tb^t their : 
fnt from t 
10 iiumital: 
factory dei 
thems'-'lves 
mh a pitc 
mi and ( 
not the mc 
ccptthe I 
not the srr 
itill later t 
penese ; th 
which was 
tber addsy 
ingin t^^ 

Hesupi 
Iganans, fro 
liiit^ilar tet^i 
isege ; atid i 
[pal of derit 
rally shorti 
broad, the 
liuak, the I 
Iculiarities v 

lans. i 
Ito pcninsi 
leastern con< 
•etreated U^ 

ivances of 

The Rui 
•f that vast 

VOL. xr. 



.'.<u.-''.*>>N'; 



.■■.^ •€': 



mi 



PACIFIC OCEAJT. 



X09 



lljejr several uses ; a species of knowledge of .too 
fjftcnsive a natufe to be acquired in a short time i 
tbiit their instruments and utensils are totaUy differ- 
ent from these of any other nation, and are made 
10 inimitably" neat and dexterous, as ta be a satis- 
factory demonstration that they were invented by 
themselves, and must have been long in arriving at 
iu<^h a pitch of perfection : that before the Rus- 
iiana and Cossacks came amongst them, they had 
not the most distant knowledge of any people, (^id- . 
ccpt the Kureki ; that, till Very lately, they had 
Bot the smallest intercourse with thb Kuriles, and 
itiU later that they had any knowledge of the Ja-- 
pcnese; that being acquired by means of a vessel 
which was uhipwreckid on their. coast: and, he fur- 
ther adds, tliat, when the Russians first got a Tooti 
ing in thg country, th^^aw^^^^^^ 

liPtlS* ; ^ 

He supposes tnem to be descended from the Mun- 
Igalians, from the words . in their language having 
[fin^ilar tei^inations to those of th^ Mungali^n Chi^^, 
hcgej aiid that, in both languages, the same princi- 
mlot derivation is preserved ; that they are gene»« . 
[fally short, their complexions swarthy, the face 
Ibroad, the nose short and flat, the eyes small and 
jsuak, the lega small, 'and they have many other, pa- 
Iculiarities Vnich are to be observed among the Mun- * 
Ig^ianH* He therefore concludes, that they fled to 
Ithig peninsula fpr safety from the rapacity of the 
leastern conquerori ; as the Laplanders and others 
retreated to the extremities of the north, from the 
idvances of the Europeans. ,>4,, ,-s^^:^i^^.;;;,:;.i, p:/: . .. 

The Russians, having made themselves masters ' 
jf that yaat extent of coast of the frq/.en sea, esta? ■ 



TO!,, ir. 






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?a 



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lOI 



A VOYAGE TO T|IE 



?, »*t 



/ .« 



■ ♦'■ 



A-'.' 



olislied posts and colonfe?, ami appointed commit. j 
garies to explore and su!)ject the countries stilt fur- 
ther to the east. They soon discovered that the! 
wandering Kgriacs inhabited part of the coast ofl 
the sea of Okotsk, and they found no difficulty in! 
making them tributar}\ l^ese being at no greiit 
distance from the Kamfschadales, with whom thev 
had frequent intercourse, a knowledge of KamtJ 
gchatka must naturally follow, 
. , To Feodot Alexeiff, a rnepfliant, the honour ofl 
t^c first discovery is attrJouted, about the vearl 
1()4'8. That, being separated from seven other vesJ 
sels by a storm, he was driven upon the coafet oil 
ICamtsjchatka, where he and his companions remair;-! 
ed a whole winter, but they were afterwards cutofFl 
by the Koriacs. -* This was corroborated, in somel 
degree, by Simeon DeshnefF, who was comuianderl 
of one of the seven vessels, and was driven on shore! 
near the mouth of tlie Anadir. But^ as these disJ 
covererS;(if they really were so) did not five to re{ 
late what they Had discOjVered, a cossack, riamec^ 
Volodimir AtlasSpfF, is'tlf^ first acknowledged dis- 
coverer of Kamtschatka. 

vi He was sent, in 1697>. i*^ the capacity of coin-i 
inissary, from fort Jakutsk to the Anadirsk, witfi] 
directions to call in the Koriacs to his assistance, iiil 
order;to di"scover, and make tributan;', the couiitrifsj 
(>eyojid theirs. With sixty Russian soldiers, aui! 
as, many coi^sacks, he penetrated, in the year i6'M 
into the heart of the peninsula, and gained the TiJ 
gil. * In bio progress he levied a tribute upon fiirsj 
and ^oceeded to the river Kamtschatka, on wliicli 
he built aa ostrog, now called Verchnei ; and leaj 
Vlng a garrison of sixteen cossa^ks, returned*, i» tin 



::M ?-• 



.^v 



4&M 



PACIEIIC OCEAN.. 



Hf 



ivear 1700, to Jakiitsik, with va^^t <jua?>titic8 of vaf 
lu^Ic tributary furs. These he very jvidlclously 
acconipaaied to Moscow, and was rewarded for hi^ 
sci'v'ices by the appointment of comninder of ,the 
fart of Jakutsk ; and, at the same time, rr«ceived 
crdera to return to K.amtschatka, with a reinforce- 
flient of a hundred cosiiacki>» ammunition, aodwhatr 
lever might conduce to the comj)letion and settle- 
Imeiit of his new discoveries. Proceeding with his 
[force, towards the Anadir sk, he perceived a bark 
|o|i the river Tungai^ka, >yhich p'-Qved to be laideo 
L'ith Chinese merchandise. He immediately pn-- 
|la;,^ed this vessel, in consequence of \yhich the ovvri- 
lers remonstrated to the Russian court ; he w;as seized 
Ion at Jakutsk, and conducted to a prison^ ^j^ jtA Lt- 
All this time Potoff Serioukofl) wluwn Atlaisolt 
kd left, enjoyed the quiet po8;>cssion of the garri- 
ijon of Verdmei ; and, though his corps wa«i 
Itoo inconsidei^ible to enforce the payment of a tri- 
Ibute from the inhabitants, yet he had tlye address 
land management to traffic with them as a merchant. 
Ion very advantageuu^i terms. His conciliating dis- 
ositioii so fcir gained him the esteem of thc^ natives 
[of Kamtschatkii, that they lamented hir. departure, 
Iwhen he set oQi to return to the Anadirsk, He and 
lliis party, were, however, attacked by the Koriacs, 
land unfortunately cut off in the year 1 703. Seve- 
Iral other commissaries were successively sent into 
iKamtschatka during the dis^jrace and trial gf At-- 

AtlassofF was restorcd to his command in 1706^ 
and intrusted with the management of a second ex- 
Jj)et'ltioi)[ into Kamtschatka, after having received 
ptruwti^iis U> in^^ratiate hiiu,self iii;tp the fftVQur fif 



O 



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t V 



,1 



u^V 



-yr- 



lii 



A VOYAGE TO THE 



V f 



the nati'^^es by all peaceable ^nd amicable means • 
but, on no consideration, to have recourse to com-l 
pulbive measures ; but, so far from paying any at- 
tentioh to these instructions, he rendered the natives! 
extrenfely hostile to theii? n^w governors, by repcat-l 
ed acts of cruelty and injustice ; ind even aliena- 
ted the afflictions of his own people, insomuch that 
it created a mutiny of the Cossacks, who demoded 
a new commander. < ^ ,, . I 

;rhe Cossacks, hav{n|^§W(fcleA!^;ifi' flJsplat^ing 
Atlassoff, took jpossession of his efl'ects ; and hii.l 
ving tasted the sweets of plunder, and hving witb-l 
out discipline or controul, his successors were^j nivf 
able to iteduce them to order and subjection. NolcssI 
than three successive commanders were assassiiiated.l 
Fiom that period, to the grand revolt of the Kamt-I 
schadales in 1731, the history of this country pre- 
sents an unvaried detail of revolts, massacres, and| 
murders, in every part of the peninsula. ^ ' e 

This revolt was principally occasioned by thedis- 
covery of a passage from Okotsk, to the river Bol.j 
choireka, made by Cosmo SokolofF. The Rus- 
sians, before this period, could enter this countryj 
only on thQ side of the Anadlrsk ; which affordci 
frequent opportunities to the natives of plundering 
the tribute, as it was conveyed out of the peninsu- 
la'by so long a journey'. But, when this comniuni- 
cation was discovered, the tribute could be exportec 
with speed and safety ; and troops and militaiyl 
stores might now be imported int.) the very hcartj 
oT the country. The natives were convinced thatl 
this circumstance would give' the Russians so great 
an advantage over them, as must very shortly con. 
firm their dominion ; and therefore they imnvcdiatCfj 



was imme 



>«^.<ir 



W' 



i,»4H<> 



M 



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V, PACi>;iG ocEAi?r, 



113 



iy resolved to^ make one ^rand elTgrt lot* their U:»,. 
berty. ^'' ■ -' f 

Beering had, at this time, a small squadron on 
Itjje coast, and had'<lispatched xvhat troops could be 
spared from the country to join Powloutgki, in an 
I expedition against the Tschutski. The time de- 
termined on, therefore, for carrying tht-ir plan into 
execution, was when Beering should have set sail. 
This was certainly a well-chosen opportunity ; and 
it is matter of astonishment, that, notwithstimding 
tjiis conspiracy was so general that every native is 
said to have had his. share in it, the wliole was con- 
ducted with such secrecy, that the Russians had no 
suspicion that any hostile measures vi^ere meditating 
ajrainst them. 



They were equally judicious in planmng their 
other operations. A strong body was in readiness 
to prevent any communication with the fort of Ana- 
dirik, and detached parties were scattered on the. 
[eastern coast, in order to seize any Russians that. 
might accidentally arrive from O^otsk. Thinga 
were thus situate, when Cheekhaerdin, (who waa 
then commissary) was escorted by the troops of the 
fort, with his tribute, from Verchnei to the mouth 
of the river Kamtschatka, where a vessel wa$ t<^ 
remove it, and convey it to the Anadir. -.l^..^.....^:^,^\- 

It was further resolved on,: that the revolt should 
not commence till this vessel should Jje out at sea ; 
and such resolution was communicated to the differ- 
ent chiefs. In consequence of which, l»}ie moment 
she disappeared, a most dreadful massacre began. 
Every Russian and Cossack, that could be found, 
was immediately put to death, ^nd their habitations 

weiCj r<;duccd to, ashes. A ,tegi party, gf tUtim' 

''■■•- ■/ ■ ■• K 3 . ., :-.•-■ ■;■, '■ ■ . , 



v 






h 



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V*.- 



H: 






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114 



A VOXAGfi TO THE 



■ -^.K 



i,.> 



II • '■ ...■, 



ascended the river Kamtschatka, took possession of 
the fort and ostrogy which had just boen quitted by 
the commissary, and slew all that were in it ; and 
all the buildings were consumed by fire, the fort 
and church only excepted. Here they received in- 
^rmation, that the Russian vessel which had got 
:lhe commissary en board, was still remaining on 
the coast, and therefore resolved to defend them- 
selves in the fort. 

Fortunately the vessel was driven back to tli6 
harbour ; for, had she prosecuted her voyage, the 
litter extirpation of the Russiaus must have ensued. 
The Cossacks, on their landing, finding that tiler 
wives and children had been murdered, aijd their 
habitations consumed by fire, were 'enraged almost 
to madness. They proceeded immediately to the 
fort, and attacked it most furiously ; the natives de- 
fending it with equal resolution. The powder ma- 
gazine at length took fire, the fort wa . blown up, 
and with it almost every man that was in it. Vari- 
ous rencounters and assassinations succeeded this 
event ; till, at length, two of the leaders being 
slain, and another (first dispatching his wife and 
ri?i^dren) having put a period to his own existence, 
J>;.ace was again established. From that period 
no particular disturbances happened till 174-0, 
when a few Russians were slain in a tumult, but nb 
' further consequences ensued ; and every thing has 
;«ince gone on very, peaceably, excepting the insur- 
rection at Bolcheiiet&k, which has been already 
mentioned. • '• ^^:*-¥^:i-'^:^^'0'^^:^«■ ' «f-^- ^^'^^ 

V v"Though a great many of the inhabitants were 

lost in quelling the rebellion of 1731, the country 

, bad afterwards recovered it self> and was become as 



r-'v: 



V :%.,■■' 



PACIFIC OCEAN- 



^^S 



populous as ever in 1767 ; when the smaU-pox was, 
for the first time, introduced among them, by a 
loldier from Okotsk, It broke out with much 
iiuy, and was as dreadful in its progress as the 
plague ; seeming almost to threaten their entire ex- 
tirpation. Twenty thousand were supposed to have 
died by this filthy disorder in Kamtstljatka, the 
Kurile Islands, and the Koreki country. The in- 
habitants of whole villages were sometimes swept 
away ; of which sufficient proofs remain. There 
are eight ostrogs about the bay of Awatska, which 
we were told had been completely inhabited, but 
now they are all become desolate, except St Peter 
and St Paul ; and only seven Kamtschadales, who 
are tributary, reside in that. At the ostrog of Pa- 
ratounca, no more than thirty-six native inhabitants 
remain, including men, women, and children ; tho* 
it contained three hundred and sixty before it was 
visited by the small-pox. We passed no less than 
four extensive ostrogs in our journey to Bolcheretsk, 
which had not a single inhabitant in either of them. 
The number of the natives is now so much dimi- 
ninlied, and so many Russians and Cossacks are 
continually pouring in upon them, and intermixing 
with them by marriage, that, it is probable, very 
fei\' of them will be left in less than half a century. 
We were informed by Major Behm, that those who 
at this time pay tribute do not exceed three thou* 
I sand, including the Kurile islanders.- " ' "'' ^ 

The number of military in the fiye forts of Nich» 
[nei, Vetchnei, TigiU Eolcheretsk, and St Peter 
land St Paul, are about four hundred, including 
Russians and Cossacks. Nearly the same number 
I are said to be; at Ingigaj Vrhich, though in ^he 






♦ •*; 



^ Hi 



-V Jf 



^ ■. 



ii6 



A VOYAGE TO THE 



^>«. 






i'r. 



M-: 



! 

north of the peninsula, is under the commandfr ot* 
Kamtsdiatka. The Russian traders anc ^-migrfints 
are not very considerable. ' 

The government established over fhis country by 
the Rnissians, considered as a military one, is re- 
markably mild and equitable. Tlie natives are suf. 
> fcred to elect their own magistrates in their own 
mude, who exercise the same powers they have ever 
been accustomed' tOb One of these, called a Toion^ 
presides over each ostrogy to who^n all differences 
' j^re ref^irred; and who awards fines and punishments 
'■\i9}' all offences and misdemeanors ; referring to the 
' governi^r of Kamtschatka those which are the 
ciost intricate and enormju?, not choosing to dc- 
■^ vide upon them himself. I'he To'ton also appoints a 
* civil officer undtT him, called a corporal, who a;;* 
sists him in his duty, and oiRciates for him in hi^ 
■". absence, 
p. An edict has beeii issued by the Empress of Rus. 
sia, that no offence shall be puuisha^)le with death. 
But we are told, that, in cases of murder (which 
rarely happens here) the knout is inflictiid with such 
severity, thijt the , offender seldom survives the 
punishment* 



m^ 






'^ V 



■^.v 



At. 



^^^s In some districts, the only tribute that is exact- 
♦ ^d i* a fox's skin ; in otbers, a sable's ; and, 
in tlie Kkirile isles, a 8ea-otter*s ; but, as the lat- 
ter is considerably more valuable, the tribute of 
several persons is paid with a single skii?. The 
tribute is collected by the Towns, : 
, xlistricts, and is so inconsiderable 
b.<? considered in any other liirh 
'ment c 



^ tk 



the Eui;si<ia d^mii 






^^"' ^^^F**i Mv'''M^^-p^^Sf'-^^^^''-'^'^^ 



The R 

the mildn 

titled to a 

[converting 

now but 

I If we fori 

[from the 

suitable p 

I this busin 

[the rehgi 

church, 

I establishei 

I Cossacks 

The ar 

entirely o 

ducted b) 

the empre 

ginally, b 

Besides c 

dictingUisl 

of the em 

are other 

rent partJ 

merchants 

cheretsk, 

entire'y ii 

merly car 

every arti 

ney, no ii 

calaced i.i 

duce a hig 

iife,requij 

a quant it 

were botl 



•'>. 



^t:M 



^'C 



m 



.'' i& 



PACIFIC OCEAN. 



II 



7 



The Russians are not only to be commended for 
the mildness of their government, but are also en- 
titled to applause for their successful endeavours in 
^converting the natives to Christianity ; there being 
now but very few idolaters remaining among them. 
If we fonn a judgment of the other missionaries, 
from the benevolent pastor of Paratonnca, more 
suitable persons could not possibly be engaged in 
this business. It may be necessary to observ?^ that 
the religion inculcated here, is that of the Greek 
church. In many of the ostrogs free-schools arc 
established for the instruction of the natives and 
Cossacks in the Russian language. -;• v^rV:;^iij^ . ,./ 
I The articles exported from this cdtlnfey Consist 
entirely of furs, and this business is principally con- 
ducted by a company of merchants appointed by 
the empress. Twelve was the number of their ori- 
ginally, but three have; since been added to them. 
Besides certain privileges allowed them, they are 
dictingiiished by wearing a gold medal, expressive 
of the empress's protection of the fur trade. There 
are other inferior traders, chiefly Cossacks, in diffe- 
rent parts of the country. Whilst the principal 
merchants remain here, they reside either at Bol- 
cheretsk, or the Nishnei nsirog; the trade centering 
entire y in those two places. This business was for- 
merly carried on wholly in the way of barter', but 
every article is at present purchased with i*eady mo- 
ney, no inconsiderable quantity of specie being cir- 
eul.aced m that wretched countr)'. The furs piu- 
duce a high price ; and tlie natives, from their mode of 
iife,requij'e few articles in return. Our sailors brought 
a quantity of furs from the coast of America, and 
were both pleased and astonished on receiving such 



m~- 



'S\. 



iit.i. 






-,-41 



'*-Vj' 



ri8 



:tr4'-^- 



A^^OYAGE TO THE 



I ft-i; 









a quantity of silver for then; from the ''Merchants ; 
but, as they could not purchase gin or :obaccowith 
it, or any thing else that would afford thcni auyde. 
gva^ of ^ntertJiinment, the roubles were soon cousi- 
dercd as troublesome companions, and they were 
frequently employed in kicking them about the 
deck. Our men received thirty roubles of a mer- 
chant for a sea-otter's akin, and ii: the same propur, 
tion for others ; but understanding they had great 
quantities to dispose oi*, and perceiving that tliey 
were unacquainted witii tfaffic, he aftei'tvards pro- 
cure4 them at a much cheaper rate, ^4^v'^' >■ ' ^ 

European articles are the principal that arc im- 
ported, but they are m)l solely confnied to Rus^iai 
manufactures. They come fiom England, Hollaudj V 
Sibt^ria, Bucharia, the Calmucks, and China. They 
chiefly Qonsist of coarse woollen,^ and linen cloths, 
stQcking6, bonnets, and gloves ; thin Persian silks, 
pieces of nankeen, cottons, haudkerchiefij, both of 
silk and cotton ; iron stoves, brass and copper par.s, 
iiles, guns, powder and shot ; hatchets, knives, look- 
jng.glasees, sugar, iloUr, boots, (Sec. We saw many 
of theae articles in the possession of one of the 
xnercliiints, who came from Okotsk in the empress's 
galliot. These commodities, we obi^erved, swld for 
three tinies the sum tliey might have been purchased 
fo;* in England. And, notwithstanding the mev- 
chants l*ave so extravagant a profit upon theb^ im» 
polled *goods, they receive still ?. greater advantage 
from the sale of the furs at Kiachta, a ct)iisiderable 
market for them on the frontiers of China, 
vamtschatka- the bei>t sea-otter skiuj 



A 



} 



lUally pro* 



W. '■: 



duce about thiity roubles a piece ; at Kiachta, the 
.Q\}incii^ merchant gives more than double that 



jnce, an 
a nuch 
profit is 1 
the origi; 
roubles, i 
thence b^ 
to Kiach 
to Pekin, 
pan, wli 
between 
; above thr 
Furs ( 
across th 

[If a roi 

En,e:l'sh \ 

ine e 
jbtsk; h 
cheretsk 
sand n)ub 

Six vef 
?.re (^mpl 
Okotsk ? 
in trans^. 
cheretsk, 
and the J 
iw;) or tl 
of a pad 
readiness 
.esscls ai 
fur tnic^* 

haibot^i'-' 

■ t 



r 



^ 'PACIFIC OCEAX. 



ii§ 



■chants ; 
:co with 
anyde.] 
11 cousi- 
*y were I 
put the 
a iner.l 
propor. 

^ great 
at they I 
ds pro- 

are p- 
Rus^iai, 
Iollau(l» 
. They 

cloths, 
11 Jiilks, 
)Oth of 
er pans, 
3, look- 
IV jiiany 

of the 
1 press's 
;wld for 
'chased 
le mer- 

antage 
dcrable 
I. i- 

Y pro. 
tij, the 
le tliat 






frid^i 'it'nd disposes of them rc^In. at Fekin for 
a much greater sum ; after which, an additional 
prolit is made of many of them at Japan. If, tlien, 
the original value of a skin at Kamtschatka is thii*t]j^ 
roubles, and it is afterwards transported to Okotsky 
thence by land thirteen hundred and sixty *toiir miles 
to Kiachta, thence seven hundred and si^ty miles 
to Pekin, and after that to be transported to Ja- 
pan, wliat a lucrative trade mjght be e?tabHsl«?d ' 
between Kamtschatka and Japan, which' is not 
above three weeks sail from it e.t the ntniost -^ 'r-^- 

Furs (if all kinds, exported from Kamtschatka 
Across the sea at Okcjsk, pay tenper cent, duty^ ^ 
h'k' -^^hk's twelve. And merchandise, of all deno- 

k; .v-ins, imported from Okot?k, pay a duty of , 
half a rouble for every pood, which is tliirty-six 
En^;Hsh pounds.*'''^' .;^^*l^''^»*.r-<f*^. -^^^-^i^^^^^-i^f ^#^Ailv,^v^ 

Tiie export and import duties are paid at O- 
btsk ; but the tribute which is collected at Bol- 
cheret'sk amounts to the annual sum of ten thou- 
sand n)ubles, as wc v^re informed by Major Behm. 

Six vessels, of the burthen of forty otifihy tons, 
?.re c^mplovt d by the empress of Russia' between 
Okotsk ar Htilcheretsk ; iive of them are occupied 
in tran3u^ *:;; stores, &c. from Okotsk to Bol* 
cheretsk, >: , ';^*.^ that some of them go to Awatska 

I and the Kaoi: -iatka river, once in the 'j!f)ace of - 
l\v:) or three years ; the sixth answerd th^ 'purpose 
of a packet boat, Md is always equipped and in .. 
^readiness 'to convey dispate'hec. About fourteen 
esscls are also employed by the merchants in the , 
fur tnic . amongst the islands to the east. In the 
liarbo^ifv ? 3t* Feter-and h't Paul we saw' one* of 



r'*' 






■-\ ;;■ 



; -■ ;. r. 



- "J- 



'■»-.•« -.,(•■*!■ 



f *r.i. 



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.,''T«c;»''"' 
■(■•'■■' 



120 



A VOYAGE TO THE 



V 



these frozen up, which- was to sail to Oonalasjikal 
^hen the season woukl permit. , ,5 Jr^^: 

|t. It m^y be necessary to observe, that the princiJ 
pal ai;id mo^t valuable part of the fur trade lies a- 
ihong- the islands between Kamtschatka and Ame- 
rica. Beering first discovered these in 174'1, andl 
as they were found to abound with sea-otters, the 
Russian merchants squght anxiously for the otherj 
islands seen by that navigator, southeast of Kamt- 
schatka, named in MuUer's map the islands of Stl 
Ab-.^aham, Seduction^ Sec. They fell in with no 
less than thii?^ grours of islands in these expedi- 
tions. The-^^j about fifteen degrees easti ofl 
Kamtschatka ; a; .her, twelve degrees east of chef 
fqrmer ; and the, third, Oonalshka, and the neighJ 
bourine islands. r vi,,n i ;* -/ - 

These mercantile adveritiifers also proceeded as 
far as Shumagin's Islands, of which KoJiak is the | 
largest., But here they met with so warm a recep. 
tion, for attempting to compel the payment of al 
tribute, that they never ventured^ so far again. The 
three groups before mentioned, however, were made 
tributary., The \yhole sea between K,amtschatka 
and America is, according to .the I}.ussian charts, 
covered with islands ; for as those who were en- 
gaged/in these expeditions frequently fell in v.-ith 
the land, which they supposed did not tally with| 
the situation laid down by the preceding ad^ 
venturers, they immediately supposed it to be a new I 
discovery, ai)d reported it accordingly on their re-? 
turn ; anc}> as these vessels were usually out three I 
or four years, ^jind sometimes longer, such mistakesj 
could not imniediatejy be rectilkd. It is pretty 
pertain, howeyer. ttjat f;?ply thoge irf^ntjs \yhiC'^ have 



*— ■ 



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PACIFIC OCEAN. 



1" ^ . • "■ ! 



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121 



)>ecn enumerated have beert discovered in that sea, 
I by the Russians, south of 60° latitude. 

The sea-otter skins, which art? certainly the most 

|i:aluable article in the fur trade, are principally 

Jrawn from these islauds ; which being now under 

the Russian dominion, the merchants have factors 

hewding in settlendents there, for the solepurpoae of 

bartering with the natives, .i. T^extend this trgde, 

an expedition was fitted out by the adrrjralty of 

Okotftk,. to loake discoveries to the north and north* 

east of the above-mentioned islands, and the com* 

inand of it given to lieutenant Synd. But, as this 

I gentleman directed his course too far north, he did 

[not succeed in the object of his voyage ; for, as we 

loever found a sea otter north of Briatol bay, they, 

I perhaps, avoid those latitudes wl^re lai'ge amphibN 

1 0U8 sea-animals are numerous* The Russians have 

I not; since undertaken any expedition for making disr 

I coveries to the eastward ; but they will, probably^ 

piake an ^dsranjtage^us use of our discovery, of 

C00k*s Jliver.. . Notwithstanding the general inter- 

I course between the natives, the Russians, a^id Cos? 

sacks, the forrtier are as much distinguished from 

I the lat.ter by their habits and disposition, as by their 

'features and general figure, ^ ■^* :*- s4 

The person^ of the natives having already been 
I described, we shall only add, that in their stature^ 
they are? below the common height^ which Major 
Behm, attributes to their ,marrying so very parly | 
bqth sej^es usually engaging in th^ conjugal state at 
thirteen or fourteen years of age. They are ex- 
peedingly industrious, ^nd may be properly con* 
trasted with the Russians and Cossacks, wao fre* 
guently intermany with them^ apparently for a© 



h. 



till 



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122 



A VOYAGE TO THE 



oth^r reasbr , but that they may be supported witii 
laziness and sloth. To this inactivity may be au| 
tributed those Scorbutic complaints which most of 
them are dreadfully afflicted with j whilst the na-l 
lives, who exercise in the open air, entirely escape 
them. V 

. ^heir habitations consist of three distinct sort J 
their joNrtSf hahi^ansi and log-houses, which are her« 
called isljas; they inhabit the first in the winter, 
and the second in the summer ; the third are in. 

. troduced by the Russians, wherein Only the weahhi«?f 
people reside. The jouris are thus constructed, 
A kind of oblong square is dug about six feet d»cp 
in the earth ; the dimensions must be proportioned 
to the numbers w^ho are to inhabit it, for it is usual 
for several lo live together in the stunejourf. Strong 

♦ wooden posts, or pillars, are fastened in the ground, 
at equal distances from each other, an which the 
beams intended to support the roof are extended d 
which is fottn^d by joists, one end of which rests 
upon the ground, and the-^ther on the beains. Be^ 
twe^n the joists the interstices are 'filled up with 
wicker work, and turf is spread over the whole. 
The external appearance otrM!jourt resembled a| 
round «squat hillock. A hole, 8ci*ving for a chirn. 
^irfi window, and door, is left in tlie centre, and I 
the inhabitants go Jn and out by the assistance of 
a long pole, having notches deep enough to afFord! 
« little security for the toe. On the side, smkI eve!v| 
with the ground, there is another entrance, appro* 
priated to the vse of the women ; but if a maul 
passes in or out of this door^ h« brcomes as much 
an object of ridicule as a sailoy who d^sc^nds] 
through; lubberVhQle. ;;:vV , 






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fi jourt consists of One apartment, forming an 
tblong square. Broad platforms, made of boards, 
extended ftlong the sides, at the height oj( ^| 

out six indies from the ground, which serve 
them for sitting on, and on which they repose^ first 
taking care to cover them with mats and skins. 

be fire-place is on one side, and on the othei? . 

leir provisions and culinary utensils are .stowed., 
When they make entertainments, the compliment 

considered in proportion to the heat of the ^ 

\trts; the hotter they aire made, the morc graci- ' . 

us is the reception of the guests considered. Wo 
^ways found them so extremely hot as to be in- 
plerable. They generally retire to their ^'o«;-/x a-, '^ 
bout the middle of October, and continue in tUen^ "^ 
till the month of May is more than half expired/ [. , 

To erect a iala^ariy nine posts are fixed into the ^ 
'earth, in three reg ilar rows, at equal distances > ^ 
roln each other, to the height of about twelve or 
thirteen feet from the surface. About ten f4:et 
fr6m the ground rafters are laid from post to post, 

nd securely fastened by strong ropes. The joists 
re laid upon these rafters, and a turf-covering com- 
plete& the platform or floor of the balagan* A 
roof of a conical figure is raised u^n this, by 
Ifneans of long poles, which are fastened to th^ 
rafters at one end, and meet together in a point at ■ 
the tops. The whole is covered, or rather thatch-. 

»d, with a coarse kind of grass.' These summer. ' 
.labitations have two doors, placed directly oppo- v 
site to each other, to which they ascend by the • 
same kind of ladders that are used in the Jourts^' 
In the lower part, wliich is left entirely open, they : 
dry their ^sh, veejetablcs, and other articles intends 




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A VOYAGE TO THE 



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lfv)us kinds 
liderably th 



*d for the cdri^utnptidh of Afe wiftttr. Though 
six families usually live together in one jourt, a 
ihalagan is seldom occupied by more than one at aHtliat we ne 
r^ time. 

The tslasj or log-houses, are thus erected : — Long 

■■'■ timbers are piled horizontally, with the ends let in- 

, ;• to cRch other, and the seams are filled up or caulk- 

ed with moss. Like those of our common cotta. 

ges, the roof is sloping, and thatched either with 

* grass or rushes. Each log-house has three apart- 
ments in the inside. One end may" be said to be a 
kind 6i entry, which extends the whole width and 

, , height of tilt house, and seems to be a kind of re- 

• ceptacle for their bulky articles, as sledges, hardest, 
^ &c. This has a communication with their best 
t apartment, wjiich is in the middle, and is furnished 

with broad benches, calculated both for eating and 
vi sleeping upoil. A door leads from this into the 
'1^ kitchen, almost half of which is taken up with an 
oven, or fire-place, which is let into the Wall that 
V separates the middle apartment and the kitchen, and 
'is so constructed as to communicate the heat to 
both rooms at the same time. There are two lofts 
/over the kitchen and middle apartment, to which 
^:^' the inhabitants ascend by a ladder placed in the 
U entry for that purpose. Each apartment has two 
small windows made of talc^ and, amoiig the in- 
ferior people, of fish-skin. The boards and beams 
of their habitations are smoothed only with a 
rliatchet, for they are strangers to the plane ; and 
the sipoke has rendered them of a deep shining 
black. 

i^.A towT? IS called an ostrog'm KaSfitlchatka, and 
consists of several houses or habitations of the va« 



[detached fi'( 

land St Pai 

id three jo 

kze. Kara 

Ibg-houses i 

Imd jourts; 

lis the most 

The dress c 

?n describ 

[The upper,- 

frock. Iff 

[if intended i 

Irally that o\ 

l^n^ the hai| 

most. 

ll;....wl cottoi 

neath that, 
red, blue, o 
of long br 
reaching be 
fur cap, h 
close to th 
the should 
Their fii 
Behm*s 
on cei'emo 
shaped lik 
scribed, an 
fiH", cheque 
joined as 
border, of 



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PACIFIC ,eCEAM. 



1-5 



|f;,)us kinds above mentioned. Bahigans arc con- . 
Lderably the moi^ nun^erous, and it is remarkable 
Itiiat we never Syiw a bouse of ,uiy kind that was 
Idetacbed fiom iln oitrog. There are, in Si Peter 
[and St Paul, seven log»houses, nineteen lulagans^ 

id three jourts. Paratounca is nearly of-the same ' 
|iize. Karatchin and Natehetkin have not so many 
llog-houses as the former, but rather more balagans 
mi jourtf ; whence it may be concluded that such 
h the most general size of an oslrog, 

Thedressof thelCnmuch ulale womenhavingalready / 
[been described, we shall proceed to thit of the men. 
[The upper garment resembles that of a waggoner's 
Ifrock. If for summer wear, it is made of nankeen ;, > 
if intended for winter, it i$ made of a skin, (gene-*, ' 
rally that of a deer or dog) having one side t.i:v.{?d, , 
m^ the hair preserved on the other, which is w rn. . 
most. A close jacket of nankeen, or some 

A..-i cotton stuff, is the next under this; and be- 
jneHth that, a shirt made of thin Persian silk, of a, 
red, blue, or yellow colour. They wear also a pair, 
of long breeches, or tight trowsers, of leather, 
reaching below the calf of the leg. They have a 
fur cap, hairing two flaps that are usually tied up , 
close to the bead, but are permitted to fall round 



|the shoulders in bad weather. * iv *;.;.*^ , 

Their fiir dress, w^hich was presented by Major 
|Behm*s son to .captain King, is one of those worn 
oil cei*enionIous occasions by the Tolons* It is 
shaped like the exterior garment we have just de*^ 
bribed, and consists- of small triangular pieces of 
fiH", chequered brown and white, and so ingeniousl^j ' 
I joined as to appear to be of the same skin. A'l 
te^^o|: ||^^_ Jirca^th of^slg in^lj^ij^^uTiQwdy 



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126 ! '■ A VOYAGE TO THE ^> f 

"■■■■_ '' ■>■," ,'t ■ , '■ ■ ,' ■'t-itn'!!' " ■ '■". *,- ,,' .■', t 

\vroug!it with difFerent'teoloiired threads of leather, 
surrounds the bottom, and produces a rich effect. 
A broad edging of the sea-otter's skin is suspended 
to this. The sleeves are ornamented with the same 
materials. An edging of it also encircles the neck, 
and surrounds the opening at the breast. It is 
lined with d beautiful white skin. And the pre- 
sent was accompanied wi*h a pair of gloves, a cap, 
and a pair of boots, executed with the utmost 
neatness, aud composed of the same materials. The 
Russians who reside in Kamtschatka wear the Eu- 1 
ropean drei s ; and the uniform worn by the troops 
here is of a dark green tmfted up with red. iThej 
people, situate to the north and south of* this 
country, being but imperfectly known, we shall 
give such information as we have been able to ac-l 
quire respecting the Kurile Islands, and the Ko- 
reki and Tschutfiki. 'm:*'<^m^S:^^mm'^^^^m^m^ 
' The Kuriles are a. chain of islands extending 
from latitude 51° to 45°, run iin^j from the south- 
em promontory of Kamtscha!tka to Japan, in a| 
southwest direction. The inhabitants of the neigh- 
bourhood of Lopatka, who were themselves called i 
Kuriles, gave those islands the same naSme as soon 
as they became acquainted >vith them, Spanberg 
says they are twenty-twdinl number, exclusive of 
the very small ones. The northernmost island, which! 
is called Shoomska, is about three leagues distant 
from the jromontory Lopatka, and its inhabitants] 
Consisting of a laixture of natives and Kamtscha- 
dales. The next, which is named Paramousir, is| 
considerably larger than Shoomska,* and is inhabit- 
ed by the real natives ; whose ancestors, they say,! 
came from an ishnd, caUed Onectitati^ a little fui^ 






Pacific ocean. 



127 



ther to the south. The Russians paid their first 
tisit to these two islands in 1713» and added it to 
the dominions of the Empress. The others, a^ far 
as Obshesheer inclusive, are now made tnbutary, 
if we may rely upon the information of the worthy 
ptor of Paratoimca, thtir missionary, who pays 
them a visit once in three years, and mentions the 
islanders in • the most Respectable terms, extolling 
[them for their generosity, hospitality, and humani- 
|ty; and that they excel their Kamtsciiadale neigh- 
Ibours as much in the gracefulness of their persons 
[as in their docility and understanding. - .-J^f^l-;v-j 
Though the island of Ooshesheer is the furthest 
(to the south of any under the domifiion of Russia, 
[yet they are said to trade to Ooroop, which is the 
eighteenth in order, and is the only one that has a 
good hai'bour for vessels of burthen. Nageedsdi 
lies to the south of this, and is said to be inhabited 
by a race of men who are remarkably hairy, and 
who live in a state of perfect independence like 
those of Ooroop *. ''■''■'■ ^''nt: :*f ;*fVK'c^^r'-fs^r>rvrH ,-. 

Nearly iti the same direction lie a group 'of 
I islands ^called Jeso, by the Japjinese ; a name als6» 
[given by them to the chain of islands betwceiY 
Kamtschatka and Japan. That called Matmaiy 
I which is the furthest to' f he south, belongs to the 
Japanese, and, has a garrison and ' fortifications on: 
the side towards the continent. The isla* ders of 
Kunachir and Zellany, to the northeast of Matmai, 

* Spanberg, speaking of these people, says, their bodies 
ire covered ail over with hair, that they wear a loose strip- 
ped silk gown, and many of them have silver rings pendent 
from the ears. Their being hairy iill over the body is also- 
liehtloned in the journal of the Castiicom. ' '■ ^ 












■ X .'^■-: 



•^■. ."'" 



1^8 ; 



,.>;■■ 



A VQYAGE XP THl. 



> 



:M^ 



and three otliers, called The Three -Sisters, still 
further to the nortlieast, are entirely independent. 
The inhabitants of Matmai barter with those of the 
islands last mentioned, as well as with those of the 
Kuriles to the northward. 

Many of the inhabitants of those islands that are 
junder the dominion of Russia are now converted to 
Christianity. And perhaps the tinie is "not far dis- 
tant when an advantageous commerce will be car* ! 
ried on between Kamtschatka and this extensive 
chain of islands, which may after\vards produce a 
communication With Japan itself. This intercourse 
nay probably be facilitated by a circumstance whiclr I 

' Major Behm related, that sevc ral Russian?, having 
been taught the Japanese language, by two natives | 

I of that country who had been shipwrecked on the 
coafit of Kamtschatka, had been sent among those I 
islands. The advantages tV»at must infallibly accrue 
to the Russians by establishing a commerce with 
the Japanese, have "been already adverted to, and are | 
sufficiently obvious. 
fi^ The KoreV' country consists of two distinct m-l 

. tipns, whicL iire, called the wandering and fixed 

Koriacs. Part of th^ isthmus of Kamtschatka is 

inhabited by tue former, as well as all the coast of 

'the Eastern Ocean, from thpnce to the iVnadir. The 

. nation 6f the wandering Koriacs extends westwarill 

A towards the river Kovyma, and along the north- 
e '^t of the sea of Okotsk, as far as the river Pen- 
skina. " * 

The resemblance between the fixed Koriacs amll 
the Kamtschadalcs is vei:y siriki.ig; both countrirsl 
too depend alike on fishing for subsistence. Tb/^irj 
^Juthing and ^ *bitation a»*e er ally simil«ir.^. Tlwl 



. in 



.'"■;v,t;ihi'"'v''^'j'' ■ 



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PACIFIC OCEANT. ^ 



12 



ad are tributary to Russia. 

The ^^rariderinj; Koriacs are wholly employed in " 
hreeding and pasturing deer, and are said to hayfi ^ 
[inmense rtuitibei^s in their possession, it being com- 

jn for a single chief to have a herd of four"i)f 
[live thoiisaridi Deei* is the food they subsist upon, 
|tnd havfe an aversion to evrfy kind of fich. They . 

:t no halagans: their only habitations being some-i 

?hat like the Kamtschadale jdurtsy except that, in 

Iwinter, they ar^ covered with raw deer-skliis, -^indj 

lia 8ummerj( with such as have been tinned. Their 

edges ar6 drawn only by deer, and those which 
|tfe used ih drawing them feed ih the same pasture 
nth the others. If they are Wanted^ the herds^ 

m m2(kc8 use of a certain cry which is familiar 
ltd them, which they obey by quitting t?ie h^rd in - 
lioediately. The two nations of the Koriacs, (as 
pe wei'e informed by the priest of Paratounca) and 
tee Tschutski, make use of diff<?rent dialects 'c^ the 
lame language, but it has not the smallest afiinity 
Itothat of the Kamtschadale* 

Th& country inhabited by the Tschutski Is 

mnded by the Anadir on the south, and extciids 
to the Tschutskoi Noss. Their attention, like that 
bf the wandering Koriacs, is confined chiefly to 

sir deer, with which their country abounds. They 
are a courageous, well-made, warlike race of people, 
irid are formidable neighbours to the Koriacs of 
both nations, who often experience their dcprada- 
Itidns. The Russians have long endeavoured to 
bring them under their dominion; and though tliey 
^ave lost a great number of men in their different 



m: 



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A VOYAGE TO THE 









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expeditions to accomplish this purpose, they have] 
never yet been able to effect it. > 

As the Lords of the Admiralty, , in the instrucl 
tion? which they, had given for tiic regulation oif| 
the present voyage, had intrusted the commandiiml 
officer of the expedition with a discretionary poweiJ 
in case of not succeeding in the discovery of a pah.j 
sage from the. Pacific Ocean into the Atlantic, tol 
make choice, in his return to England, of whateverl 
route he should judge best adapted for the improve, 
jnent of geography, captain Gore desired that the 
principal officers would deliver their sentiments, inl 
writing, relative to the mode in which these in- 
structions might most effectually be carried^ intol 
execution. The result of their opinions, which, tol 
his great satisfaction, he found unanimous, and per- 
fectly agreeing with his own, was, that the condi- 
tion of our vessels, of tl/j sails, cordage, &c. ren- 
dered it hazardous and unsafe to make any at- 
. tempt, as the winter was now approaching, to n?*| 
vlgate the sea between Asia and Japan, which woul4| 
otherwise have opened to us the most copious field 
for discovery ; , that it was therefore most prudent! 
to steer to the eastward of that island, and, in our 
way thithei', to sail along the Kuriles, and examine, 
in a most particular manner, those islands that arel 
situate nearest to the northc n coast pf Japan, which! 
are said to be of considerable extent, and not vsuh-j 
ject to the Russians or Japanese, Should we havel 
the good fortune to meet with some secure and! 
commodious harbours in any of those islands, we| 
supposed they might prove of considerable import- 
ance, as convenient places of shelter for subsequent! 
navigators, who might be employed iU exploring tlid 



'/ 



'ii'^ 









■f:\ 



:,v,-^iPACFFIC OCEAl^''^ 



13 






[teas, or*ar*ne means of proaucing a commercial' m« 
lourse among the adjaceiit dominions of the two 
[ibbve-meritioned empires. Our next object was to 
Iftke a survey of the coasts of the Japanese isles ; J' 
mtr which we designed to make the coast of China, 
lufar to the north as w-as in our power, and pro- 
•d along it tb Macao. 

This plan of operation Jjeing adopted, captain 
[jng was ordered by captain Gore, in castf the two 
[ibips should separate, to repair without delay to 
facaoi and on the 9th of October, about six o'clock 
the afternoon, having cleared, the entrance of the^ 
[by of Awatska, we made sail to the southeast- 
yard, the wind blowing from the northwest and by • 
pat. A pei*fect calm ensued at midnight, and con^ 
llbued till the noon of the following day ; at which' 
lime the lighthouse w^as at the distance of fourteen 
w fifteen miles, bearing north half west ; and Cape 
ivareea bore south by west half west. Our pre- 
knl dejpth of water being sixty and seventy h^ 
Ijoms, our people ^^ere very profitably engaged ia 
ling * codj which were extremely fine, and iri 
[Treat abutidance. A breeze springing up from the 
pest about three o^clock in the afternoon, we steered 
the south ilong the coast. ' ' 

A headland now opened with 'Cape Gravareea, in 
[he direction of south by west, situate about twen- 
l)'-one miles beyond it. Betwixt them are too nar- 
row, though deep inlets, which may perhaps unite 
ehind what has the appearance of an elevated island. , 
ihe coasts of tlicse inlets are rather steep and clif-4. 
The hills, which break with abruptness, fojin, 
^asms and valleys that are plentifully fanjiihcd with 



.y ■ 






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'1>9^- 



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A VOYAGE TO THE 



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'■ : ,]Je.twcci} Aw^tska Bay and CapeQavarega, wjiicilj] 
lies in the longitude of 1 58^ 38', and in the latiJ 

/^ude of 52° 21', there appear to be several inleuj 
which may, at first sight, flatter the, navigator wiij; 
hopes, of procuring shelter and good arjphpnige 
but v/e were assured by the Russian pilotu, thaj 
there are none that wiU admit vessels ev^p of th 
smallest size, as the spaces which seem fyacant bcj 
^weeu the, lofty projecting headlands- are ^ed m 

.^itUlowJ^d. . , } ,-r.^ ■ ■ ^aL 

-^ We.agaifi had a calm towards the evenipg « butJ 
^tout midnight, a light breeze sprung up frpoi tl 
north*, which gn^duuUy augmented to a strong gale] 
Jpn J4oi.ida,y the i 1th, at noon,, we were in th^ lati 
tudcj of ,5i^°i4'.', and in, the longitude of 1^8" 31' 

vCape Gavarieea bearing north oy \yest a iqu^rt 
wesit, and the southern extremity southwest hal 
sn'cst, A^f* were now at tj^e distance of ,ni?>e orteJ 
mjieo from the nearest- part of the coast, aod perj 
ceived |;}ie whole inland country cpveied with |now| 
JV point 0^ land ttp wards tjie south, whid^H'^ judge 
to be in tbe^la^ituds^ of ^JL^.jlj^/, cpnstituted thJ 
pprthern sid,e of .a deep bay, distinguished by thJ 
name of Achachinskoi, in whose distant bottom wJ 
imagmed that a large river discji^rged itself, as tl 
land b.el;iind appeared remarjiab\y Ipw.^yci the sout 
j^'ard of ^chacl>inskoi.Bay the land did not exhiblj 
j^ucji^a rugged and barren aspect as w^s obseryablj 
ia that part of th>e cpuntj-y which we had befor 
passed, 

f We had variable winds (during the night, accor 
panied with rain ; ' but, the next momiiig, a^ fou 
b'clocki the wind began to blow with such. violenc 
from ^hg uprthc^t quarter, that we v^^r^ obliged i 



.>«f; 



;'\vl" 



^l/ • ♦^1, 



PACIFIC OCEAN. 



33 



>,,«- 



[(|oi)Ue reef the top-sails, and thought proper to 

itiind to a greater distance from the' land. A fe\Y 

lliours after the weather became more moderate and 

|(«r ; ill consequence of which we again stood in for 

tbc land. Our latitude at twelve was 51 "^^ and our 

longitude 157"* '^5'. The most northerly land in 

mWf being the point which we have already metiT 

Itioned as first opening with Cape Gavareea, was in 

Itbc direction of north-nortiieast. A head-land, 

kaviiig a flat summit, which is situate in the lati- 

Kudc of 51** 27^, and forms the southern point of an 

[ifllct, ilamed Girowara, bore north a quarter eastj, 

[ind the most southerly land in sight .vyas about 

eighteen miles distant, bearing west thrte qu:u cers 

[north. We could at this time faintly, perceive low 

[land extending from the southern extremity ; but, 

u: tlie vs^ind shifted to the northwesjLj , ^|j j^gre ;iaiiy 

[able to obtain a nearer view of it. , :fT./r.\.: i 

^t six o'clock, in the afternoon we discernedt 
I from tt^c mast head^ Qape I^opatka, which is the 
hnost southern point of. Kamtschatka. fhis Cape^ 
phich is very low aod flat»and gradually ^pes from 
Ithe elevated level land that vve had sight of at noon^ 
[bore west halfvnofth, at the distance of ^fteen^ oi: 
sixteen miles $ and the high land, at^the same time, 
bore northwest by' west half west. This point of 
land forming so distinguished an object in the geo- 
givphy of the eastern coast of Asia,, we were glad 
of an opporti^nity of ascertaining, by accurate ob- 
lervations, its true position, which isi in the longi-. 
tude of 156^ 4.G', and in the latitude of 31" ? We. 
lyercclved, to the northwest of it, a very lofty moun- 

in, whose summit was lost in the clouds. At the 
liame instant the^first of the Ki^rile I^lan^s, n^med 



'^4 



»" .rt V-, 



• .r f.- 



'If ••■ 






> 



'■,- ^ 



134 A VOYAGE TO THE . * ; 

Shoomska, made its appearance in the direction 
lii-est lialf^Boiith. ' 

The passage between Shoomska and Cape Lo. 
*|mtka is t^pivseiited by the Russians as being one 
league in biH;a<ith, aiid extremely dangerous, us well 

. .tin account of the rapidity of the tides, as of the 
'Sunken rockt? which lie off the Cape. The coai?t, 
from Cape Gavareea to Lopatka trends to the 
south-eastward; The land to the south of Acha. 
chinskoi is not so elevated and broken as betwixt 
that bay and the entrance or the bay of Awatska, 
being only of a moderate height towards the sea, 
with liilla rising gradually further inland. Tlie coast 

.is of considerable steepness, and abounds with \vvhite 

%halky patches. 

l! Having a calm at noon, We had an opportunity 
of catching some excellent cod. Our depth of w .. 
ter at this time was forty fathoms ; and our distance 
from Cape Lopatka wis between five and six league . 
During the night we stood to the south-southwest, 
under an easy sail, with a westerly wind. We 
«orthded at midnight, and found ourselves in sixty 
fathoms water. ■ ^:^%^k^.^i^i^iiilp^l,^^^f^i:l^^ %-' 

■]v On the 13th, at break 6f day, we descried the 
second of the Kurile Islands, named Paramuusir by 
the Prussians, extending fr(>m west half south to 
northwest by west. This land wai exceedingly high, 
and almost \vholly covered with snow. At tw*ve 
o'clock its extremiti»»s bore from west-northwest 
iialf west to north-northwest half west ; and a lofty 
peaked mountain, from which some of oiir beoplf 
imagined they beheld smoke issuing, was at tlie di 



j t^nce of twelve or thirteen leagues, bearing norti- 


AVesi by west half west. Oar Jatitu4e at this time 


\^:^''}^-S-,'^f'p^^mr. . \ ■ -v'-:'.. 



IITACITIC OCEAN. 



1.^5 






«rafi 49^ 49', and our longitiule 157^. We ob- 
served, in the course of the day, several whaler, 
and a considerable number of Albatrosses and gulls. 

The island of Paramousir is the largest of the 
Kuriles that are subject to the dominion of th^ 
Russians, and is worthy of a more accui;^te sjtrvey 
than we were on this occasion enabled to take. For, 
in the afternoon, the westerly wind increasing to a 
brisk gale, it was not in our power to make a nearer 
approach to it than we had made at noon ; we were, 
therefore, obliged to content ourselves with endea- 
j.vonring to determine its position at that distance. 
The southern extreme of the island stan^Sj, accord- 
ing to our computation, in the latitude of 49° 58', 
the northern extremity we place in the latitude of 
50'' 46', and in the longitude of 10' west of Cape 
Lopatka ; and as this situation does not hnaterialJ}' 
differ from that which the Russians have assigned, 
it i-j in all probability very near the truth. M'^m^^ 

While we were abreast of Paramousir, w^e had a 
ver^' violent sjwell from the north* e^^Bt ward, though 
the ^viud had continued for some time in the western 
quarter ; a circumstance which inc^re than once oc- 
curred to our observat on during the course of the 
voyage. * In tlie night we sounded, but did not 
reach the bottom with f.fty fathoms of line. The 
two following days the wind blowing fiesh from the , 
west, obliged us to steer to the southward, and co!i- 

scquently prevented us from seeing any ,more of the 
Kurile^ v^^-'^'ii W^/?..^iiM»rff#v>'-:^t--' ■.^. , , cc^ 

On Saturday th.e ICtb, at noon, our latitude was 
45o 27'; our longitude, deduced from many lunar 
ohsorvations taken during the three preceding days, 
was 155'' S0\ and the variation was 40^ 3U'easU 



.^.• 






m: 



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. 4 




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f- 



> „ ^' A VQXAXJE TO THE < ^ 

1 n this situation we were almost encompassed by the 
real or pretended discoveries of prior navigators, anc 
could not readily deteimine to which we should di- 
rect ©ur course. Towards the south and the south- 
west a ^oup consisting of five islands, named Ku^ 
nashir, Zeliany, and the Three Sisters, were placec 

. in the French charts. Accoi*ding to the same chartsj 
we were now about ten leagues tc the west of Df 
Gama*8 Land, which in April last we had passed tc 

. the eastward, at a. distance somewhat less than the| 
present, without observing the least appearance of 
it ; from which circumstaoce it may reasonably be 

• inferred, that if such land has any existence, it must 
be an island of very small extent. If, on the other 
hand, we adopt the original position of this land» 

' as fixed by Texeira, it was situate to the west 
by south ; and the Company's Land *, Stater 

. Island f , and the bnd of Jeso, were likewise ima- 
gined to lie nearly in the same direction. 

•) i With respect to the famous land of Jeso, whicl 
lias for a long time proved a stumbling block tol 
modern geographers, it may be observed, that it wasl 
first brought to the knowledge of Europeans byj 
the Castricom and Breskes. The name, from the 
earliest accounts, appears to have been well knownj 
to the Kamtschadales and Japanese, and indiscri- 

: «t * The Dutchmen who sailed in the Castricom and Bresk-^ 
esj had sight of this land, which they supposed wus a part 
of the American continent ; but there now remains ver 
little doubt of its being the Islands of Nadeegsda and Ooi 
roop. 

f This land, which was also discovered by the Castricom,! 
seems, from the situation assigned to it in the journal oi thatj 

, vessel, to be the islands called the Three SUters. 






■«,,.... x 



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■,■+> 



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" PACIFIC OCEAN.*; >.' 



I 



itni^iatc!)' ns"d hy them .f-)r all the islandj that are 
htuate between Japan and Kamtschatka. It han 
Iken since aiiixed to an extensive imaginary island 
[iir continent, pretended to have. been discovered by . 
jlhe two Dutcii shipB above mentioned ; and there*. 
||are it may not perhaps he.deomed improper to tak<?; 
Ilhe grounds of this error into our consideration, - 
[The expedition in which those vessels were engaged* 
ras luidertaken with a view of exploring the eastern 
[coast of Tartaiy ; hut a storm separating the two 
hhi|)8 off the southeast point of Japan, they sailed 
hlong tlie eastern side of that island in different 
Itrackj ; and passing its northc*rn extreme, proceeded 
[singly on their vo\ age. De Vrics, commander of 
the Castricom, steering a northerly course, fell in 
kith land on the third day, in the 42d degree of 
Initude. He sailed (according- to the journal of 
tbe expedition V along the southeaster coast 'in a 
continual fog, for the space pf about sixty leagues ; 
?nd haying brou'^ht his ship to anchor in several 
places, had a friendly communication.with the na* 
tives. Now, as the islands of Zellany, Kunashir, 
and Matmai appear, from the discoveries of cap« 
tain Spanberg, to stand exactly in this situation, it 
|i^ more than probable that they are the same land ; 
and the error of De Vries, in supposing them to be 
I one continent, seems to be sufficiently accounted for 
irom the circumstance of the fog, without our a« 
Idopting the supposition of an earthquake, by which 
Mr MuUcr, desirous of reconcihng the general opi- 
nion with tlie later discoveries of the Russians,* ima- 
giiies the several parts to have been separated. The 
lioulnal afterwards mentions the discovery of Staten 
isliTid, the Company's Land, r^8i£^6tuig.wUi<;h^we 



■>^ 



■:i-^Q^^^P^^ 



.<■-: 



'■.>■.(,?(.■, 



m 



\\ ;:> • 



'.^ « 






S 



isifr 



.;^^^ 



# A VOYAGE TO THE 



V • 



\K 



■A' 



have alreatly d<»clarecl our sentiments. When tlityl 
liad passqd through the Straits of t)e Vries (com! J 

' nues the journal), they entered an extensive, wild,! 
and tempcstuoas sea, in \yhich they proceeded, with 
dark misty weather, to the 48th degree of northcni 
latitude ; . after which, being driven to the south by 
adverse winds, they again fell in with land towards 
the west, in the latitude of 45°, which they still 

• supposed was a part of the continent of Jeso • 
whereas, if any person will examine Jansen's map 
oF their discoveries, which appears to be very ac- 

' curate, he will not, we think, entertain a doubt of 

' their being^ at this time on the coast of Tairtary. 
After they had traced this land four degrees ti :he 
northward, they returned towards tlie south, thro' 

^ the same straits they "had before passed. 
*v But, to return to the narrative of our voyage;! 
the wind having veered, in the afternoon of the 
16th, to the northward, we hauled round to the 
west. In the course of this day we observed several 
albatrosses, fulmars, and numerous flocks of gulls ; 

, we^so saw a number of fish, which were called | 
grampuses by, our sailors ; but we were rather in- 
chncd to judge, from the appearance of those who I 

. passed close by our vessels, that they were the ka^l 
satka^ or sword-fish, mentioned by KrascheninikofF, 
who has given a curious account of their mode of| 
attacking the whales. In the evening, being visit- 
ed by a small land bird, about the size of a gold- 

.finch, and not unlike that bird in plumage andj 

- shape, we thought proper lo keep a careful look- 
Out for land. Ho wever, upon our trying for sound- 
feigs at iiiid-Tiijght, we did not strike ground with I 
forty-five fathoms of line^ , ' i x. 

I 



we were tr 



'■•*;", 



tA.Clii6oCEMtt • 



139 



*-. * 



The next day, at noon, our longitude was 154'**^ 
ind our latitude 4-5** ?'• The wind again becom- 
ing westerly, we were under the neceBMty of steer- 
a more southerly course ; and about mid-night 
fe had a fresh gale from the same qt^artcr, attend- 
ied with heavy rain* In the course ot the morning 
we saw another land-bird, and several flocks of pe* 

Is and guUs directing their course to ihe south*'' 
westward. ' r-i 

The heavy northeast swell, which fiai cimSfaftt- 
iy been observed by ua since we had passed Lopat- 
b, now ceased, and suddenly changed to the south-^ 
cast. On the lotl^in the forenoon, we saw con- 
siderable quantities of rock-weed> frofti which, aa 
well as from the flights of birds already tnentioned, 
we imagined that the southernmost of the Kurile 
Islands vvna at no great distance from us } and about 
the same time, the wind shifting to the southward, 
we were enabled to steer for it. At two o'clock 
*e set studding sails, and stood to the westward •; 
but, the wind augmenting to a gale, we were quickw 
ly obliged to double reef the top-sails ; and, at 
mid-night, we deemed it necessary to examine our 
depth of water. We accordingly soi^nded ; but^ 
meeting with no ground at the depth, of seventy-five 
fathoms, we again bore away to the^westj "with thtf 
wind in the southeast pcint. - ' *■ l*^M>*'^'^''i^ 

This course we continued till two in the morn- 
ing of the 19th, when the weather becoming thick 
and gloomy, we hauled our wind> and stood to the 
South-westward till five o'clock^ at which time a 
violent storm reidu(ied Us to our courses. Though,* 
from the unfavourable state of the weather, there^ 
^as but httk probability of o«f making the land, 




1 


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1 










ira 


'i 


*i 




Off 


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M 



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■•}* ' 



I'-- 



■>'*'•■■ 



140 



A^ VOYAGE TO THE 



Dur attention was still anxiously directed to tli'J 
object ; aiid, on the appearance of day -light, wA 
ventored to steer west by south. We proceededl 
on the same course till ten o'clock in the forenoonJ 
xvhen the wind suddenly veered round to the south-l 
west, and was accompanied with clear weatherj 
i^Ciirce had we availed onrselves of this, by letting! 
out the reefs, and setting the top-sails, when it be, 
fr-dn to blow with such vehemence, that we were! 
under the necessity of close-reehn;^ again ; and,! 
about noon, the wind shifting more to the wcbtJ 
we were prevented from continuing any longer onl 
this tack ; we therefore put about, and stood to,| 

■ wards the south. ^-'^:,:';^jM't::^^^,^f^i..,:^^^.i!^xi);^>^ \ 

,^ our latitude, at this time, was 44^ 1^*, and oiirl 

longitude 150^^ 40'; so that, after all our exertionsj 

we had the mortification of hndiiig ourselves, acvl 

. cording to r.he Russian charts, upon the same n^eJ 
ridian with Nadeegsda, v.hich they represent as the! 
most aouthtrly of all the Kurile Islands, andaboutj 
sixty miles to the southward. -^.^,.,.;^ i.. .,v «;r; , 
i_. Though the violent and adverse wi.ids that w^l 
had inet with for the last six d'lys had deprived iigl 
of an opportunity of getting in with these islands,] 
yet the course on which we had been oV lipped tol 
proceed, did not prove altogether destitute of geoJ 
graphical advantages. For the group of isiaiids,! 
comprehending Zeliany, Kunashir, and the Threel 
Sisters, which, in the map^ of Monsieur D'AnvilleJ 
are laid down in the track we had jutit crossed, arc,| 
by this means, demonstrably removed from that po» 
sition ; and thus an additional proof i; obtained of| 
their being situate to the west, where captain Span, 
berg has placed them, between the lonjritudeii 

-^ ... .,, ... ,- , .^ • *: ^^ 



; ■ 



''\i. 



) ■ ■':, 



PAClFid bCEANi 



141 



mT and 14t®. But this space? being Occupied, ih 

|lie French dharts, by Staten Inland, and part of 

lie land of Jeso, the opinion of Mullet becomes 

[fcighly probable, that they are all the same lands ; 

ad, as we have no reason to call in question the 

lie acJCuracy of Spanberg, we have, in our general 

ip, re-instated Kunashir, Zellany, and the Three 

Slaters, in their proper situation, and have totally 

nltted the rest.-'.': .- . ■..; ,:^...ix..^ v u,-* ...^ . t ^■}'i . 

When we reflect on tlie liiattne'r** Itt ifWcR tte 

[Russians have multiplied the islands of the Northern 

[Archipelago, not only from the want of accuracy 

pi ascertaining tlieir real position, but likewise from 

k desire natural to mankind of propagating new 

[discoveries, we shall riot be surprised that the same 

Icauses should produce siiliilar effects, It' is thus 

[that the lands of Jeso, which appear, as well from 

[the earliest traditions among the RQssians, as from 

[the accounts of the Japanese, to be no other thaa 

[the southern Kurile Islands, have bfeen imagined to 

Ibe distinct from the latter. De Gama's Land is nextf 

|«n record ; and this was originally represented as 

being nearly in the same situation with those we 

lliave just mentioned ; but it was afterwatds remov- 

|ed, in ordef to make room for Staten Island and 

[the Company's Land ; and, as Jeso, and the most 

Isoutherly of the! Kuriles^ had likewise possession of 

[this space, that nothing might be lost, the former 

liiad a place provided for it to the westward, and the 

liatter towards the east. ^^^"^ " f'^-j * ^> .. it 

As> according to the Russian charts, the isles of 
I Kunashir and Zellany, were still to the south, we 
entertained some hop^ of being able to make 
lliem, and, with this view, kept our head towards 



■, 




, 


X''ftJ| 




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A VOYAGE TO THE 



» ■■'■. 



* 



,the west as mucli as the wind would permit. 
twelve o'clock, on the 2()th,. our^ latitude was iM 
47'» and our longitude 150° SO', and we were thel 
standing to the west by south, with a gentle hree/J 

-^from the southeast, and, soon aft^r, were, in a] 

^pn^babiHty, not more than four and twenty leaguf 
to the east of Zellany ; but this good fovtnne w; 
npt of long duration ; for, about three in the afti-i 
noon, the wind shifting to the northwest point, be 

; gan to blow with such violence, that we were brougli 
under our mizen stay-sail and fore-sail. ; 

^. For the next twenty-four hours we had hea- 
rain and vehement squals ; after which, the weitlic 
"becoming moderate, and the horizon being iii somi 
measure clear, we were enabled to set our top-sailsl 
but as the wind continued to blow from the nortif 
•west, all our -attempts to make the land were rer 
<lered abortive^ and we were at length obliged tl 
relinquish all further thoughts of discovery to tli| 
jiorthward of Japan. To this disappointment w 
submitted with the greater reluctance, as our curl 
osity had been considerably excited by the account 
that are given of the natives of these islands. 
. Ap accident befel the Resolution in the aftei] 
lipon of the 21 st i for the leach-rope of her f(i 

vvtop-sail gave way, and split the sail. As this h 
frequently happened during the life of captain Cookl 
he had, on such occasions, ordered tlie fi)ot anj 
Jeachrropes of the top-sails to be taken out, aiil 
larger ones to be fixed in their room ; and tlics 
likewise proving incapable of supporting the strii 

.,,.tliat was on them, it manifestly appears, that m 

^J^t.^iirppprtion «f ^tr^ug^^^ betwtiw the'e^iilaw 



x^ 



.. V, 



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■p|5?^, 



■'I » 



.•»\ 



jiose ropes is extremely miscalcirhted in our ser- 



re tbei 

bret/l 

in ai 

eagm 
ine w! 
e aftfj 
int, h 
M'ougl: 



L'e. 



iifc^Vii*:>i-t6 



. heavi 
Mc'itlie 
somi 



I 



p-sail 
nortii 
re ren 
[iged tl 
to thl 
lent w 
iir curl 
ccount 
s. 

i afteil 
ler for 
;his h 
1 Cookj 
)ot and 
lit, anj 
id tlici 
le St rail 
hat 111! 
sail alK 



This day a land-bird, somewhat larger than ^ 
arrow, but greatly resembling one in other re- 
cts, ^>erched on our rigging, and was caught. 
the gale now gradually abated ; so that, on Fri* 
y tlie 22d, in the morning, we let out the reefs 
ot our top-sails J and carried more sail. Our latii 
de, at twelve o*clock, was 40" 58', and o^r Ion* 
tilde 14-8^ 17' ; the variation 3-* eant. ^ * "' '^ - 
During the afternoon, another land-bird pitciied 
n one of our ships, and was so exhausted with 
fctigue, that it sunered itself to be taken instanta- 
leously, and expired a few hours afterwards. Its 
jze did not exceed that of a wren ; it had on it$ 
bead a tuft of yellow feathers, and the rest of it* 
plumage was similar to that of a linnet. - The bird 
lat we mentioned before as bearing a resemblance 
to a sparrow, lived a long time after it was taken. 

These birds affording clear indications that we 
were not at any very considerable distance from the 
,nd, and the wind, after varying for a little time* 
lettled at the north point in the evening, our hopes 
I falling in with the land again revived, and we 
itcered to the west-northwest ; in which direction 
were situate, at the distance of about fifty leagues^ 
le southermost islands, seen by captain Spanberg, 
ad said to be. inhabited by hairy men. The wind, 
wever, did not keep pace with our wishes, but 
w in such iiglit airs, that we made little pro- 
fess till about eight o'clock the following morn-- 
iig, when a fresh bree^.e jjprung up from the south- 
thwest, with which we continued our course to 
e west-nprtliwest till the evening. The htvtaie 



V. / 



* . I. . ^ 



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4-, 



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A.'. . 



'I' 



^ A VOYAGE TO THE 



l..«;-. 



at noon was <0? 35', and the longitude, dfducd 
from several lunar observations, was 146*^ 4-5'. TlJ 
variation of the needle- was 17' east. 
>v.In the evening we had violent squally gales, ac 
companied with rain ; and, as we had in the coursj 
of this day passed some patches of green grass, anj 
observed a number of small land birds, a shag, and 
many flocks of gulls, we did not think it consistenl 
with prudence, having all these signs of the vicinitj 
of land, to stand on for the whole night. WJ 
therefore, about midnight, tacked, and, for thl 
space of ^ ,few,..i^oma, steered tp the sputhej 
ward* '■■'■ •••■:■'? ,:t«d' t.:,''' '' '■'" ■' tt'i-if ;' 

On the 24th^ al' four in the mprning, we Wail 
jbore away to ;thei west-northwest, and carried apresl 
of sail till abbut seven o'clock in the evening, whe( 
jthe wind veered roynd from south-southwest to tbj 
north, and blc^^ a fresh gale. Our longitude 
this time w^s 145^ 20', and our latitude 40^ 57'. i 
t'vThis second disappoiiitmi?nt in our attempts i\ 
get to the north-westward* the tempestuous we 
ther with which we had been harassed, and i\ 
»mall probability, at this season of the year, of itl 
becoming more favourable to our designs, were thj 
motives that now induced captain Gore finally tj 
abandon all further search for the islands situatj 
,tQ the fiOrth ward of Japan, and to dii^ect his cour 
to th0 west-south wcst^ for the northern part of tha 
island. ■ W'i^^--.diim^^ mBt- ifMm,:.JH^^bih ^^i^r^v/e 
*^y*.|riiei;wind, during the night, shifted to tli| 
northeast, and blew a brisk gale ; and, at the sar 
time, we had heavy rain, and hazy weather. Oj 
the' 25th, at noon, we were ii? the latitude of 
l8'| and ia the longitude of IM'*. FhgUs of \vil| 

*» • ' # ',■ 4.. ■ ■— * ■ ' ( ■ . ,U,. , :,.,y .;. t • >'.J. ' s ■' -^ ' » 

■ ^•/■■■. -■ ■ , > , , .V 111 :\i* ■!•■■., , ^ 



S^'lf?'' 



PACIFIC OCEAN. 



145 



jcks were this day, observed by us; a pigeon light- ^ 
upcm our rigging ; and many birds, resemblmg J 
jnets, flew about the ships with a degree of vi- ' 
fcour that gave us reason to imagine th?y^ had not , 
een long on the wing. We aho pa^std a piec^ ' 
icr of bamboo or sugar-cane, and several patchei/* 
long-grass. These indications of oul* being at 
great distance from land, determined ab' to try 
lur soundmgs; but we could, not reach the bottonj 
fith ninety fathoms of line. On the approach of 
?ening, the wind gradually veering round to soutli^i , . 
ith which we continued our course to the west* 
ithwest. . ' . ' 

On Tuesday the 26th, at break of dafy, we hadv^ ..' 
|(he sati^-^faction of perceiving high \^i}d Awards the 

»sC, which proved to be Japan. At eight o'clock^ . . 
Ik was at the distance of ten or twelves miles, andf 
Extended from south *by west to northwest. A ^ ^ t 
m flat cape, which apparently Qonstituted th^^:^- 
r^uthern part of the entrance of a bay, bore north*>>l , / 
[west three quarters west. Near the south extre*| >« ' 
ity, a hill of a conic figure appeared-, bearingf (" 
5uth by west three quarters west. To the nort^J , ^ 
ftf thib hill there seemed to be an inlet of ver/^'?^t^ 
jnsiderable depth, the northern side of verbose eiiH&: ^ 
jlrance is formed by a low point of land 5 and, as 
fell- a» W6 were etiabled to judge by the assistance - 
of our glasses, ha^ a small island' neaii it towards '» 
k south. 

Having stood on till nine o'clock, we had by 
|that time approached within five or sis: miles of th^ 
id, which bore West three quarters south. Gut 
tpth of water jiira*^ fifty-eight fathoms, with a^bot« *^ 

VOL. IV, '^ }H 








mmm 



mm 



146 



A VOYAGE TO THE 



torn composed of very fine sand. We now tacked^ 
^ikI stood off J but, as the wind failed us, we hat 
proceeded, at noon, to no greater distance fror 
the shore than about three leagues. This part of 
the coast extended from, northwest by north tc 
south half east, and was principally bold and cliffy;. 
The low cape above mentioned was about six leaguei 
distant^bearing northwest by wrest ; and the nortncr 
point of the inlet was in the direction qf soutli tht 
quarters west. Ovu* latitude, by observation, wag 
40" 5', and our longitude 142^ 2W. The most 
northerly land in view, was supposed by us to b? 
the northern extreme of Japan*. It is somewhalj 
lower than the other parts ; and, from the iaag^i 
©f the efevated lands that were discerned over it 
from the mast-head, the coast manifestly appearec 
IK) trend to the v/estward. The northern point 0^ 
the inlet Was imagined by u« to be Gape Nambu 
and We ^conjectured that the townf stood in a breai 
Qf the high land, towards which the inlet appa- 
mn^Y directed itself. The neighbouring cbuntr 
is of a moderate elevation, and has a doi^le range 
of mouwtjains; Jt is well, furnished with wood, anc 
exhibits a pleasing variety of hills and dales. W< 
perciefved the smoke arising from several villages or 

♦ .The ftioat accurate survey of the, eastern coast of J«J 
pan ati|>ear$ to be ^hat which was published by Janien inj 
nit Atlas, and compiled with a great degree of exactness from" 
the Journals and Charts of the Castricom and Bresken. W< 
have, therefore,- thought proper to ado](^, wherever we 
could nearly ascertain the indenty of the situations, thi 
names affixed in J aiisen's map to the corresponding hea ' 
lands and points observed by us along the coast. 

f Jaisien calls tl^i^town Nal>«. 



PACIFIC OCEAN. 



M7 



jwna, and saw many houses in delightful and cul- 
^ated situations^ at a small distance from the 



me. 



While the calm continued, that we might: lose 
BO time, we put our fishing-lines overboard in . ten 
ittboms water, but met with no success. ;^his 
being the only diversion which our present circum- 
ices permitted us to enjoy, we very sensibly fdt 
tlic disapp«>intment ; and looked back with regret 

the cod-banks of the dismal regions we had 

ely quitted, which had furnished us with so many 

utary n^ale, and, by the amusement they afford* 
had given a variety to the tedious recurrenG* 
I the same nautical and astronomical observations^ 

d the wearisome succession of calms and gales. 

At two o'clock in the afternoon, the wind blew 
\m\i from the sojith, and, by four, had reduced 
b to cloflie-reefed top-sails, and obliged us to stand 
to the south-eastward, in consequence of whick 

urac, and the gloominess of the weather, we soon 

St sight of lijind. - We kept on during the whole 
sight, and till eight o'clock the following morning, 

wn the wind shifting to the north, and becoming 

odcrate, we made sail, and steered a west-southj* 
vest course towards the land, which, however, we 

id not. make before three in the afternoon; at which 
itlme it was seen to extend from northwest half west 

west. The most northerly extremity was a cont- 
inuation of the elevated land, which was the mouther- 
most we had observed the preceding day. Tnc 

d to the westward we conjectured to be the 
Hofe Tafel Berg, (or High Table Hill) of Jansen. 
"he coast, betwixt the two extremes, was low, and 

N 2 - 



'■'■i=a 



148 



A VOYAGE TO 1HE 



I 'f-. 



6ould scarcely be perceived, except from the mast- 
head. 

We proceeded towards the coast till eight in th< 
evening, when our distance from it was' about fivol 
leagues ; and having shortened sail for the night, 
we steered in a southerly direction, sounding every! 
four hewn $ but onar depth of water was so great,! 
that we did not find ground with a hundred ai.d| 
sixty fathoms of line. „ ^ 

We again saw land on the 28th about six o*clockl 
in the morning. It lay twelve leagues to the south.! 
ward of that which we had seen the day before,] 
ami extended from west by north to west-sopth- 
SUfisiL Steering southwest obliquely with the syor^J 
we saw, at ten o'clock, more land in that direc- 
tion. To the west of this la/nd, which is low and 
level, were two islands, as we supposed, though 
sofne doubts were entertained whether they were 
not united with the neighbouring low ground. The 
haziness of the weather, as well ^s our distance,] 
•rendered it likewise impossible for us to ascertain, 
whether there were not some inlets or harbours be- 
tween the projecting Jioints, which here seemed to I 
promise tolerable shelter.' 

At noon, the ndrthern extremity of the land in] 
vicw:-bore northwest by north, and a lofty peaked 
liill, over a steep- head-land, was fifteen or sixteto 
miles distant, bearing west by north. 

4[)ur present latitude, by observation, was 38" 
16^ and our longitude 142° 9'. The mean of the 
variation was found to be 1° 20' east. 

The land disappeared from our view between 
three and four o'clock in the afternoon ; and, from 
its breaking-off so suddenly, wc imagined, that wliat 



PACIFIC OCEAN. 



M9 



had seen this day was an island/ or, perhaps, a 

up of islands, situate off the main land of Ja» ' 

I ; but, as the inlands called by D' Anville Matsi- 

, and by Jansen the Schilpads, though repre-, 

ated as being nearly in the same situation, are-un* 

ual in extent to the land seen by us, we must 

ave this point undetermined. 

We continued our course to the southwest dur*,- 

g the remainder of the day, and, at midnight,v 

nd our depth of water to b^ seventy fathoma(,, 

iver a bottom of fine brown sand. . We therefore- 

uled up towards the east, tiU the next morning, 

hen we again» had sight . of land, about eJeveriA 

agues to the south of that which we had seen th^ 

rec ding 4ay, At eight o'clock w'e were with* 

the distance of about two leagues from the shore, 

aving had regular soundings from sixty-dve tqf,^, 

enty fathoms*; over gravel an4 coarse sand. 

It unfortunately happened that there was 9 haze 

iver'the Und, which prevented us fromdistinguishi^-^^v . 

|jng small object^ on it. The coa§t was straight . 

land unhrol^en, running nearly in the direction of 

Inorth and south. The ground wae low towards #,iy; 

;lie sea, b^t gradually swelled into l^ills of a mode-l^v T 

nte elevation, whose suinmita were pi'etty even, an4. |' ;L" 

covered with wood. 

About nine o'clock, the sky being in some de- 
gree Overcast, and the wind veering to the south, 
we tacked, and stood off to the eastward. Not loiig 
ifter, we observed a vessel, close in with the land, 
standing to the north along the shore ; and we aibO ' 
Jaw another in ^he offing, coming down on us be- 
fore the wind. The reader will easily conceive, 
that objects of ^ny kind| belonging to a cpuntrr 






■i: 

k. 



»S 











|l}^' ,\ Ij ^Vif! 1 






, 


ij^^^st^l^ 


. 




Sk '' 


J 








H'l'i 




W^wti 




Wiifnytl 


t 


(Mm Ki 


■ '* *" 


1 J^m 


1 



m 



ISO 



A VOYAGE TO rilE 



80 celebrated, and yet so imperfectly known, mur>t 
have excited a general eagerness of curiosity ; in 
consequence of which, every peVson on board came 
instantaneously upon deck to gaze at thtm. As 
the vessel to windward approached us, she hauled 
off to a greater distance from the shore ; upon 
which, being apprehensive of alarrtxing tbose who 
were on board of her by the appearance of a pur- 
suit, we brought our ships to, and she sailed a-head 
of us, at the distance of four or five furlongs. We 
might have spoken to them with great facility ; butl 
captain Gore, perceiving, by their manceiivres, that! 
they were highly terrified, was unwilling^to incj-ease 
their' appeehensions; and, imagining that we might! 
have many better opportunities of commuhic;:Lion| 
-li^tk the Japanese, suffered th?^ i to retire witheut] 

We Were not sufficiently near this vessel to reJ 

t!\9vk kvtj particulars respecting^ the' meiv on boRrdl 

'of her, who seemed to be six or' seven in numJ 

;^ilil!| -^speciaH as the use of our glasses was pre.[ 

^eluded by the thickness of the wejither. Accord-| 

ing to the most probable conjectures we were en- 

V abkd to form, the vessel was of the biirthen oi 

tibout forty tons,. She had only one mast, onl 

^^ which was hoisted a quadranguljtr sail, extended! 

aloft by a yard, the braces of which worked forJ 

wards* Three pieces of black cloth came half-wayl 

down the sail, at an equal drstance from each other.l 

The vessel was lower in the middle than at eachi 

end 5 and from her figure and appearance, we sup- 

^ posed that she could not sail othetwise than hrge. 

, { - The wind blew fresh at noon, and was accom* 

- pumed wkh mu^h jmin» By three in- #ie afternoonj 



», ' 



PACIFIC OCEAN. 



151 



had increased in so great a degree, that we were 

idiiced to our cour8e8. Tl»e sea, at the same time,/*; ; 1, 
as high as any of our people ever remember-Vi 

d to have seen it. 4% ' 

If the vessels of the Japanese are, as Kcempferr 
ias described them, open in the stern, it would; 
[liave been impossible ^or tho.,e which vfe 8aw> tar 

ave endured the violence of this storm ; hut, as ' 
the appearance of the weather, during all the for^. 
Dier j>art of the day, had prognosticated its ap-" 
proach, and one of the sleeps had, nevertheless, ,. 
ftood a considerable way out to sea, it may safely^ , 

e inferred, that they are very capable of sustaining 
the fury of a gale of wind. Spanberg has, indeed^; 
mentioned two sorts of Japanese vessels 4 one cor*j^ ^ 
responding with Kcempfer's description, while thc^l ' 
[other, \thich he deaominati s busses, and in which^'. ^ 
he says, the natives make voyages to the adjacent 
islands, perfectly agrees with those that were seen 
Iby us. . . : ■ . . . , . .:„ /;■ 

About eight o'clock in the evening, the gale> 
[without the smallest diminution of its violenceW^ ^; 
shifted to the west, and, by producing a sudden swelli^ „ - 
I in a dire ctioa contrary to that which had before '^f 
prevailed, caused our ships to strain and labour tXm 
tremely. During the continuance of the storm^i^ 
the Resolution had several of her sails split. Thejp^^ • 
had, indeed, been bent for such a considerable time, 
and were worn so thi^, that this accident had late- 
ly happened in both our vessels almost daily ; par»i^ x 
ticularly when the saik were stiff and heavy with 
rain, in which case, they became less capable of 
beariug the shocks o£ the boisteroQR and variable 
windxS wc occasionally experienced. 



:tff 






H. 



V- T 


















'Ay. 



.^% 



> 



u 












15?' 



A VOYAGE TO THE 



r 



?<<■'-'■ ' 



■V^ 



The gale at length abating, and settling in the 
western quarter, we steered a southward course ; 
and on Saturday the 30th, at nine o'clock in the 
morning, we saw the land, extending from west 
by north to northwest a quarter west, at the dia- 
tance of fifteen or sixteen leagues. It showed it-i 
self in detached parts, but we were not near enough I 
to ascertain whether they were small islands or parts 
of Japan. ^ , ^ 

■v. At hioon the land extended from west to north, 
west, and the nearest part of it was twelve or thir- 1 
teen leagues distant, beyond which the coast ap. 
peared to run in a western direction. Our prdsriit 
latitude, by observation, was 36° 41', and our lon- 
gitude l^^® 6'. The point to the north, which we 
imagined was near the southernmost land seen the 
preceding day, was supposed by us to be Cape de 
Kennis ;. and the break to the south of this point, 
^iwas thought to be the mouth of the river,- on which 
the town named Gissima is said to stand. The 
next cape is, in all probability, that which is called 
Boomtje's Point in the Dutch charts; and the most 
southerly one, off which we were abreast at noon, 
we conjectured to be near. Low ?oint (termed by 
Jensen, Lage Ifoecl^, and placed by him in the lati- 
iude of 30*^40'), and that our distance was too 
great to admit of our seeing the low land, in which 
it probably terminates, toward the east. 

The wind, in the afternoon, shifting to the north- 
east, we stood tQ the south, at the distance of se- 
iirenteen or eighteen leagues from the coast. As 
We passed along we tried for soundings, but did 
not find any ground with a hundred arid ffty fa- 
thoma of linct ■ i 



PAOiJ'IC OCEAN, x" 



v«5i 



m 



V 

* \ 



On the Slat, at two o'clock in tlie moming, tlie^ 
^ind veered round to the wegt, and blew in violent 
juails, accompanied with lightHing ai^d rain, la 
cou*"8e of this day several little birds of a browa 
(lumage, resembling linnets, which had been driven ;. 
the land by the strong westerly gales, flew about • 
sliips. Oq tin? approach of eveuing, the wind 
jnaing to tlie northwest point, we directed our . 
use, with the birds, to the west-southWest, with . 
iview of regaining the coast. . . 

The next morning, which was the lat ©f No- : 
ember, the wind shifted to the southeast, and was/i 
Utendedvvith fair weather ; Jn consequence of which, t 

obtaihed, with four different quadrants, forty* 

ro sets of distances of the moon from the sun 

Bji stars, each set comprehending six observations. 

These nearly coinciding with each other, fix, with 

eat accuracy, our situation, at twelve o'clock thia 

ly, in the longitude -of HP 32' ; the latitude, by 

jrvation, being 35° 17'. . In our reckonings of 

he 31st of October, we found an error, with rc- 

pect to latitude, of eight miles, and of seventi^en 

this day's computations ; from which circum- 

mce, as well as from our being much more to 

he eaat than wc: expected, we inferred, that there 

ad been a violent current from the south-west* 

Fard. , ' 

We agairt made the land towards the west, at 

10 o'clock in the afternoon, at the distance of 

[waive or thirteen leagues. The most southerfy, 

and in view, w^hich we imagined was White Point 

[or Whife ^HcecJt^ placed by Jansen in the latitude 

pf 35^* ^4?'), bore west-southwest half-west. A 

kummock to the northward, which hud an insular 



>«■ 



i. 



K 



I. 

% 






V ^ - ruc^j'-s* 



^54 



A VOYAGE TO THE 



■*i. 



appearance, bore north -northwest half- west ; anl 
within this We discerned from the mast-head sornl 
low land, which we supposed to be Sand-dowj 
Point, called Sandi^nege Hoeck by JanSen, who ha 
placed it in the latitude of 35*^ 55'. 

We stee»*ed for the land till between five and sd 
when we hauled our wind to the south. We ol 
served, at this time, many Japanese vessels close ij 
with the land, some standing along the shore, an| 
- otb 2rs apparently occupied in fishing. We no^ 
descried to the westward ^ mountain ol" extraordi 
iaary height, with a round summit, rising farinlanc 
There is no high ground in the ne^ghbourhqod ol 
? k^ the coast being of a modeiate elevation, aid, al 
fer as the haziness of the horizon permitted us t( 
judge, much broken and indented by small inletsj 
But, to the south of the hummock island abov| 
.mentioned, there appeared, at a considerable dis 
tance up the country, a ridge of hills, which exl 
tended towards the mountain, and might perhapl 
join with it. > 

Thi being the most remarkable hill seen by \\\ 
\ jiear t\.i coast, we were desirous of ascertaining iti 
I precise situation ; but as we had only gained thi| 
single view of it, we were obliged to content ourJ 
, selves with such accuracy as our circumstancd 
wouid admit of. Its latitude we judged to be SSi 
I V> '^'>^JK*s and its longitude, 140° 26', the latter bein^ 
V :; ^: estimated by its distance from our ships, at thiij 
! ii,^ ii time fifteen leagues. 
I ^ ;^. As the coast of Japan is represented, in the 
S "^7 ../ Dutch charts, as extending nine or ten leagues tt 
Vi V ■ A the southwest of White Point, we tacked at eight 
r . :: P ", c^'clock in the evening, and stood off to the er'st- 









■i.X^l 



'.■/■■. 



W' 



gFACIFIC OCEAN. ^ 



'/'■hy^^^feiif^t-** 












155 



ird, with a view of weathenng tbat point. We 

lin tacked, at mid-night, to the south-westward, 
uder the expectation of faUing in with the coast 

the south, but were surprised, at eight the next 
torning, to see the hummock at no greater distance 
tan three leagues, in the direction of west-north- 
E8t. We were, at first, almost inclined to doubt the 
vidence of our senes, and afterwaiids began to sus-. 

:t some deception from a resemblance of land ; 
lit, at noon, we found, by observation, that we 
bere actually in the latitude of 35"^ 43/ at a time 
(rkenj according to our reckonings, it was 34^ 48 It 

therefore appeared, that, during the eight houra 
i which we imagined we had proceeded nine leagues 

the south-westward, we had really been canied 
^ht leagues from the situation we left, in a to- 
)y opposite direction ; which occasioned, upon th4' 
^hole, a difference of seventeen leagues in our com^, 
itation in that considerable space of time. Fronfl^ 
is error we estimated that the current had set at 
He rate pf at Icasit five knots an hour to the 
ortheast by north. Our present longitude waSr 
ti° 16'. " 

As tiie weather had now a very threateniug ap- 
farance* and the wind was at south-southeast, we 
)ught It advisable to quit the neighbourhood of 

shore, and stand off towards the east, that the 

>8 might not be entangled with the land. W^' 

tre not deceived in cvu prognostic? tions, for, not 

Bng afterwards, a hCAvy gale began to blow, which 

itimied till the sucaeeding day, and was attended 

ith rainy and* hazy weather. 

On Wednesday the Sd| in the morning, we found 

brselvcs, by our reckoning, at the distance of up-i 






J 



' 'i^Jn 



'if!''?"'-*-' 



u 






»^ 



^t 






;. 


<,-M ' 








i 




1; [ 


■ i 


v^J^H 


fj- ■* 


J ■ 


^H 


i 


rt >. 
■f 






fi* 



• 11 



-*f'v 



:''i-^,/ :f t" ft 



15^ 



A V6YAi3fi TO-THE 



.;;('*■ 



.V 



1^'ards (>f fifty leagues from lli^ coast ; which cir 
cumstance, united to the considferation of the ver 
uncommon effect of currents we had already o 
perienced, the advanced period of the year, the val 
fiable and uncertain state of the weather, and th| 
small prospect we had of any alteration for thJ 
better, induced captain Gare to forn> the resoluj 
' ■* tion of leaving^ Japan and prosecuting om- voyagJ 
•i ta China; particularly as he entertained hopes, that] 
v»yV$iftce the track he intended to pursue had not yet 
^. -been explored, he might perhaps find an opporJ 
;:|t unity of making amends, l^y some new and imj 
,^^^^^ for the disappointments wejhaii 

■ sustained upon this coast. 
, ;1^ If any of our readers should be inclined to sup] 
vv ; ^ pose that we relinquished ♦^his object too hastily, i^ 
'!; ftiay be observed, m addition to the facts befbrq 
\^^ ■ftated, that the coast of Japan, according to KGemp] 
' ffr's description of it, is the most dangerous in ulj 
the known world*: that it would hav*e been ex| 
Ceedingly hazardous, in case of distress, to have ru 
jrtto any of the harbours of that country, where, i 
' we may credit the most authentic writers, theaversio 
of the natives to a communication with strangerS; 
* -has prompted them tor l^e commission of the mos' 
; flagrant acts of barbarity ; that our vessels were i 
> a leaky condition, that the rigging wa.8 sa rotten a; 
^ ^to require continual repairs, a'^d that the sails wen 
.almost entirely worn out, aild incapable of with 
standing the veheraeuce of a gale of wind. 

As rfie violent currents, which set along th 



J / 



'.t" /■ 



t\>^ '^v-..^l:'':;'^*e'^<V^.??v 






mm 



fACIFlC OCJEAN. 



■A 



;•»•/,* , 



'.4' 



h 157 

islent shore of Japait may perhaps be attended witli. 
mgerons cC>nsequeiiccs to those navigators who are - 
acquainti^d with thtir extreme rapidity, we will 
Ere subjoin a summary account of their directio» 
jind force, as remarked by us from the 1st day of 
)vember to the 8th of the same month. On the 
|]&t) at a tin^e when we were about eighteen bagues 
the east of White Point, the Current set at tlie 
ite of three miles in an hour, to the northeast and 
north. Ort the 2d, as we made a nearer ap- 
roach to the shore, we observed that it continued 
* similar direction, but was augmented in its ra- 
adity to five miles an hour. As we reced&d from 
ie coast, it again became more moderate, and in- 
Idined towards the east. On the 3d, at the di3tance 
sixty leagues from the shore, it 'set, at the rate of 
three '''»8 an hour, to the east-northeast. On the 
ioiiowing daya it turned to the southward, and 
a hundred and twenty lea^ea from the coast its. 
action was southeast, and its rate did not exceed 
le mile and a half in an hour. It again, on the 
th and 7th, shifted to the northeast, and its force 
liiminished gradually till the 8th, at which time we 
puld no longer perceive any current. 

We proceeded to the south-eastwrard during the"" 
[4th and 5th of N<*vember, with very unsettled wea- 
ker, and much lightning and rain. On each 6f 
lose 4^ys we passed considerable quantities of pu- 
[ftice-stone, some pieces of which were taken up by 
fiur people, and found to weigh from an ounce to 
pree pounds. We iinagined that these stones had 
l^een thrown into the water, by eruptions at diffe** 
tent periods^ as many of them were entirely bare/ 






^'> 



'1 •'. ■ ■:. 



I. •/? 



ll 



; .-M 



I !i 






■•* 






•'Vf- 



i=;8 



A VOYAGE TO THE 



I*.; 






and otWs covered with barnacles. At the samel 
time we had a number of porpoiaes playing round.] 
our ships, and saw several small land-birds and two 
wild ducks. .a . 

At break of day, on Saturday the 6th, we changed I 
our course to the south-southwest ; but, about eight 

lock in ^the evening, we were taken back, and 



o'c 



obliged to stand towards the southeast. The next- 
day, at noon, we saw a small land-bird. At thi»| 
time our latitude, by observation, was 33^ 52', and] 
aur longitude 148° 42', 

On the 9th we had a great swell from the east- 1 
southeast, and .oux longitude waa 146^ 20^. and 
latitude 31^ 46^. In the course of this day we ob- 
served another little land-bird, a tropic bird, some 
flying fish and porpoises. The wind blowing from 
.the northward, we continued to steer a southwest 
course,, without any memorable occurrence, till 
\,f riday the 12th, "when, from the .lame quarter, a 
most violent gale arose, which reduced us to the 
mizen stay sail and fgre-sail. The weather being 
at the same time so hazy that we could not see a 
cable's length before usj and a number of shoals and 
small islands being represented in our charts as ly^ 
ifig in this part of the ocean, we brought to with 
our heads turned to the southwest. Tills day, at 
noon, our latitude, by account, was 27° 36', and 
our longitude 144° 35 • 

On the 13th, iu the morning, the wind veered 
to the northwest point, and was accompanied with 
fair weather ; but though we were at present nearly 
in the situation attributed to th^ island of St 
Juan, we perceived no appearance of la'id» We 
•now bore av/ay towards th« 8outhwest> and set syr 






'■•">..'■■ 



v;^ PACIFIC OCEAi^. "^ 



15^ 



^^iA 






[top-sails, the gale still blowing with i^dhsidirable 
Ivoleiio^. At twelve o'clock, our latitude, by ob- 
servation, was 26°, our longitude 143® 40', and 
the variatton 3® 50' east. In the afternoon we»aw 
some albatrosses and tropic birds, also several dol- 
phins and %ing fish. 

We continued to pass much pumice-stone ; ama- 
liing quantities of which substance floating in the 
ica betwixt Japan and the Bashec Isles, give reasoA r 
to suppose that in this quarter of the Pacific Ocean f 
jome great volcanic convulsion must have happened j 
and consequently afford some degree of probabihty .•• 
to the opinion of Mr Muller (which we have men- ^ 
tioned in a former part of this chapter), relative to 
the separation of the continent of Jeso, and the dis- 
appearance of StateiT Island and tht Company's 
iLand. ' 

About six o'clock in the afternoon we steered i 
I to the south-southwest, captain Gore deeming it* 
useless to stand any longer towards the south-south- 
west, as we were nearly in the same meridian with - 
the Ladrones or Marianne Islands, and at no very 
considerable distance from the track of the Manilla 
[galleons. , , ' 

In the morning of .Sunday the 14th wc^had fifjc* : 
[weather, and the wind, which blew moderately, 
jkifted by di^grees to the northeast point, and proved ^ 
to be the trade-wind. At ten o'clock Mr Trevenen, ' 
pneof the young gentlemen who accompanied cap- 
tain King in the Discovery, after the death of 
captain Gierke, saw land in the direction of south- 
[weet, which had the appearance of a peaked moun* 
[tain. At noon the longitude was 142° 2^ and the 
Ikitude 24^ 37^' . ^•^.■■^^■^^.^ ■..^^'^- 



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The land in view, which we ik)W discovered ta| 
be an island, was nine or ten leagues distant, bear- 
ing south west ha\f west; and, at two o'clock in th«| 
fttternoon, we descried another to the West^uorth- 
westward* This secorid iskod, when viewed at a| 
distance, appears like two ; the southern point con* 

, ^atljig cf a lofty hill of a conk figure, united by al 
narrow neck to the northern bnd, which is of al 
ITioderate €levatibn. This island being mamftatlfj 
of greater extent than that to the southward, we 
flirected our course towards it. AtfoUPr i^Vlock it| 
^ ibore northwest by west } but, as we had not suifi- 
cient day-light to examine its cbasty we stuQ(L do* I 
ring the night, upon our tacks. [ 

The next morning, at six, we made sail for the] 
aouthpra point of the larger island; and, about | 
v^^.-^his time, discovered another high island, in the di« 

iJi^^ction of north three quarters west ; the island to I 
the southward being on the same rhomb hi!c, aod 

,. the south extreme of tiie island a-head bearing weist 
fby north. At nine o'clock we were abreast of the 

'middle island, and within the distance of a mile 
from it : but captain Gore, finding that a boat could 

^^ijot land without running some risk from the heavy 
,iurf that broke against the shore, continued his 
courae to the westward. Thc/latitude at noon, by 

.^ pbscrvatioja, was 24^ 50', and the longitude 140S j 

The length of this island, in the direction of | 

|outh»8outhwest, and uorth-oortheaBt, is about fiv« 

ftniles. Its south point is an elevated barren biijf 

lyuther |at at tlie summit, and whien seen^ iwm tbf 

w^st-soiithwcst, exhibits an evident volcanic crater. I 

The sand, earth9 or rock, Cfor it was diiikult ta 



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itinguisli of vi'hich of these substances its 3urfai:e 
fai composed) displayed various colours ; and we *. ' 
|jBagined tl(at a considerable part was sulphur, not I ^ 

ly from its appearance to the eye, but from thd^> ,? 
strong sulphureous smell perceived by us in our ap-/ • 
proach to the point. The Resolution having pas- -^^^ 
led nearer the land, several of the officers of thatU 
^ip thought they discerued streams proceeding from : r 
the top of the hilh These circumstances induced ^ 
eaptajn Goi=e to bestow on this discovery the ap- >: ;^ 
pt'llation of Sulphur Island. " <^ 

A low and narrow neck of land unites the hill " 
we have juBt described with the south end of thei 
island, which extends itself into a circumference ofiv 
between three and four leagues. The part border* 
iog on the isthmus has some bushes upon it, and; 
presents an aspfect^of verdure ; but those parts that? ; 
irc situate ti> the northeast are extremely barren^v "^ 
and abound, with large detached rocks, many ofe 
which are of great whiteness. Some very danger- 
wi breakers extend about. two miles and a half to ^ 
the ea&tward| and two miles to the westward of the 
middle part of the island, against which the sea 
bir'^ks with a gi'eat degree of violence. 

The north and south islands had the appearance -i 
of single mountains, of^a considerable elevation ; the 
former was peaked, and of a conic form ; the lat- 
ter more square and flat at the summit. > - 

Sulphur Island we judge to be in the ktitude of. 
9A'^ W, and the longitude of 14-1° 12'. The 
I north island we place in' the latitude of 25^ 14', and* 
«i the longitude of 141° 10' ; and the south is]ahd| 
[ii the latitude of 240 22', and the longitude ofk* 



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A VOYAGE TO THE 



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Captain Gore now thought proper to direct hi$ 
course to the west-southwest, for the Bashee isles, 
with the hopes of procuring at them sudi a i'upply 
of refreshments as might render it less neoeseary to 
continue long at ^^Licao. These islands receive>i a 
visit from captain Darapier, who has gi/ea a vf.ry 
favourable account, as well of the civility ojf the na- 
tives, as of the abundance of hogs and vegetables 
with which the country is furnished. They were| 
afterwards seen by commodore Byron and captain 
./ Wallis, who passed them without landing. 

For the purpose of extending our view in the i 
day time, our ships sailed at the distaiice of betwetia 
two and three leagues from each other ; andduri>ig 
^ ^the night we proceeded under an easy sail ; so that 
V 'tit was scarcely possible to avoid observing any land 
'v^that Jay in the vicinity ofiZkur course* In this man* 
;! "^oer we continued our progress without any into* 
resting occurrence, having a fresh. breeze from the I 
'.., northeast, till Monday the ,22d, when it augmented 
• to a strong gale,, with vehement.squ^ls of wind audi 
4>rHiin, which reduced us to close^ieefed top-sails. 
: The following: day, at. twelve o'clock, our lati* 
- tude, by account, v^as 21^ 5% and car longitude | 
;12S° ^. About six in the afternoon, being at i 
ithe distance of 6nly one and twenty leagues iwtal 
\*^the Bashee Islands, according to their position in 
^"Mr Dalrymple's map, and tht weather being gqual* 
4y, with a thick haie, we handed the fore-top«ail, | 
and hauled our wind towaixis the north-notthwest. 

Oil the 24th, we had constant rain during the I 
^^hole day, and the weather Was still very tempo 
|tuoii8 ; a heavy sea joUed down u^n us frosi the 
4tonbvvai:d, and, in the eourse of the after^oon^ w9 



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Tivid flashes of lightning from the same quar^ 
jfr. We continued to stand to the north-north- 
Iffst till niue» when we tacked, and steered to the 

uth-southeastward, till four o'clock in the morn-* 
ig of Thursday the 25th, at which timewe wore, 
|la the night there was an eclipse of the moon, but 

were prevented by the rain from making any ob 

ration^ It unfortunately happened that one of » 
DiecoTei-y's people, being bccupied at the time ,^ 

the greatest darkness in stowing the main-top- j^ 
ast-stay-sail, fell overboard, but immediately catcfi- *' 
hold of ai nope, which was providentially hang- 
out of the fore-chains into the sea, and the ship' ; 
being birought into die wind without delay, he wa» 
rot on board with no other hurt than a trifling: > 
bruize on one of his shoulders, 

Th^ weather becoming clear at' eight o'clock, we J 
lore away, but the wind still blew with such vio- 
lence, that we did not carry any other sail than the^ ;^ 
fore-sail and the main-top-«ail close -reefed. . Wc 
observed about this time a sugar-cane and a land* 
bird that resembled a thrush. At noon our longi* 
tude was 121^ 35', and our latitude 21° 35'. 

Our present situation, with respect to longitude^ - 
being to the west of the Baahee Isles, according to 
Mr DaliTmple's charts, we perceived that captain- 
Gore was influenced, in the course he was now steer* 
jj^, by the sentiments of commodore Byron and 
captain Wallia, with whom he !iad sailed when they ^ 
passed these islands, which are |^ced by the former 
near four degrees to the westward, or m the longi-^; 
tiiiide of 118"^ 14»'. In consequence of this opinion^* 
»re stood towards the south at two o'clock in the 
i&eaiQi»)t with SB intention of gettmg iuto the same 



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parallel, of latitude with the Baahees, before wel 
should run down our longitude. We had nearlyj 
arrived in that aituatibn by six o'clock, and ought, 
in consequence, to have been within sight of the! 
land, according to the account of captain WallisJ 
who places these islands near three degrees more tol 
J the east than commodore Byron. 

The fury of the gale had not at this time r«ceived| 
the least diminution, and captain Gore being stiUl 
of opinion that the Bashees were situate to the) 
westward, brougjit the ships to, with their headsl 
turned towards the northwest, under the fobT3-sail 
and balanced mizen. 
>v*/On the 26th, about six in the* morning, the windl 
having, in a great measure, abated, we set our topJ 
sails, let out the reefs, and bore away to the west- 
ward. At twelve o'clock our latitude^ by obsei-va- 
tion, was 21^ 12', and our longitude 120^ 25'. I 
In the course of this day we saw many tropic birds 
and a flock of ducks ; also porpoises and dolphins ; 
and continued to pass several pumice-stones. We 
spent the night on our tacks ; and the following 
morning, at six o'clock, we agam made sail to the 
west, in search of the Basliee Isles. 
'# Captain King began now to entertain apprehen. 
sions, lest, in the prosecution of our search for those I 
islands, we should get so far to the south as to be 
under the necessity of passing to leeward of the 
Pratas ; in which case it might have proved ex- 
tremely difficult for such bad sailing vessels as ours I 
to fetcli Macao, especially if the wind should con- 
tinue to blow {as it now did) from the north- ilorth- 
east and north. The captain having some doubts! 
^yi'hcthcr |dfc:DalrympJe'|,i?a^.w^ on board the 



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tesoiution^ made ^, aud baUcd her ; anid having 
(nformed captain (Jorp. (>f die wtuation of these 
koals, ami bis appr-ehensiojis (jf btijig* jd^iv-en too 
BVich to tlie southward, the latter gave himto uii- 
stand tiiat he should^ continue his course dwring 
it day, beiag still not without hopes of finding 
Ir Byron'« longitude right ; and therefore ordered 
uptain'King to spread a few miles to the south.. 
The weather at twelve o'clock became hazy : 
Utitjude at that tim? was 21^ 2', apd the lon- 
ikude 118** 30'. At six in the afternoon, having; 
tp ihe west of the Bashee Inlands, according to 
<iral Byron's account, captain Gore hauled the 
rind to the north-westward, under an easy sail, the 
blowing with great vehemence, and there be- 
every prospect of a tempestuous night. - 

"On the 28th, at four o'clock in the morni(<gj t1ie 
)lution, which was then half a mile a-hcad of 
Discovery, wore, and the crew of the latter 
ip, at the same time, perceived breakers clobc un- 
pr their lee. On the approach of day-light we had 
light of the island of Prata ; and, between the 
)ur8 of six and seven, stood towards the shoal, but 
ling ourselves uuable to weather it, we bore away, 
|%td ran to leeward. As we passed along the south 
Bde, within the distance of a mile fiom the reef, we 
hw twi) remarkable patches on the edge of the 
Ibfcakers, that had the appearancef of wrecks. ;Mfc 
At Hooji, the latitude discovered by double alti- 
wa«20° 39', a»i the longitude was 116^ 
\W* The island oi Pn :a was now three or four 
Ikgues distant, beaiiii^- nor^h three quarters cast. 
|)f«ar the soutlieiti extremity of the island, and on 
Uie fiputhweste^ side^ of the reef, we imagined that 



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Corporation 



23 WEST MAIN STREET 

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1 66 A VOYAGE TO THE 

we saw from the mast-heaid s&verkl ojpenings in 
reef," which seemed to'prbniisc^sfecufe aBthorage. 

The extent of the Prata shoa! ^Mecrnsiderablej 
for it is about six leagues from rior th to south, 
extends three or four leagues to the east of tl 
island 5 its limits to the westwaiki we had not 
opportunity of ascertaining. We judge its nortl 
eastern extremity to be in the latitude of 20> 58J 
and the longit^ide of 1 17" ; and its southwest enj 
we place in the latitude of 20° 4&$ and the lonj 
tudeof 116°44'. <^' • '" 

We carried a press of siail during the ren^aim 
of the day, and kept the wind, which iiow bl 
from the northeast by north, in order to «eeure oi 
passage to Macao. It was a fortunate circumstaiic 
|hat the wind favoured us towards the evening, b) 
veering two points more to the eastward ; for, if thj 
v^|vind and Weather had continued the same as the) 
had been in the preceding week, we think we shoulc 
scarcely have been able to have fetched that por 
in which case we must have repaired to Bataviti 
a place we had good reason to dread, from the terj 
, rible havock which the' unhcalthiness of the climatj 
Jiad occasioned among the creWs of the former ves) 
sels that had been employed in voyages of disco] 
very, and had touched there. 

In the morning of Monday the 29th, we pass 
some Chinese fishing-boats, the creWs of whicl 
eyed us with marks of great irtdifference. In fishj 
in g they make use of a large dredge-net, resemhlin| 
a hollow cone in shape, with a 'iat iron rim fixed 
the lower part of its mouth. The ^t is fasteni 
with cords to the head and stern of the boat, whicW 
bting left to follow the imirulae of the wind, drawl 



PACIFIC OCEAN. 



167 



fe-nct |fter it, with the iron rim dragging along 
i^ bottonv Wc found the sea, to our great re- 
el, covered with the wrecks of boats which had 
lost, as we supposed, in the late stormy wea- 
er.' ' /. ' '. • . 

>ur latitude at twelve o^clock, by observation, 
22** 1' ; and since the preceding noon we had 
a hundred and ten miles upon a noTth west course. 
we were now nearly in the latitude of the Lema 
ids,* we made sail to the west by north, and, 
ler we had proceeded two and twenty miles, 
ried one of them nine or ten leagues to the 
tst. 

A% six in the afternoon the extremes of the 
ids in view were in the direction of north north- 
St half west, and west-northwest half west ; and 
iwere four or five leagues distant from the nearest ; 

soundings being twenty-two fathoms, oyer a^^ 
addy bottoi^. We liow slackened sail, and kept 
m our tacks for the night. The Grand Lema, * 
>rding to Mr fiayley's time-keeper, bore, from ;^ 
island of Prata, north 60*^ west, a hundred and 
ty-three miles ; and, by our run, north 57^ west, 
[hundred and forty-six miles. 
The next morning we ran along the Lema Isles, 
lich, like the other islands situate on this coast, 
destitute of wood, and, as ^r as we had an op- 
tunity of obsemng, devoid of cultivation. About 
o'clock a Chinese boat, which had before been 
Ith the Resolution, came along side the Disco* 
with offers of a pilot, which, however, captain 
ig declined, as it was incumbent upon him to 
>w his consort. Not long afterwards we passed 
westermost of the Lema rocks ; but^ instead of 



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hauling up to the north of the Grand Ladro? 
Island, as was done by Lord Anson in the Ceali 
rion, wc sailed to leeward. 

We scarcely think it necessary to cautio» the 
vigator against taking this course, as the danger i| 
eufficiently manifest ; for, if the wind should blo\ 
irioleHtly, and the current set with it, it wtU 
highly difficult to fetch Maeao. We might, 
deed, by the direction of Mr Dalrymple'* chat 
have safely gone cither between the Lema ish 
or entirely to the northward' of them, and have h%| 
^e wind faYom*abl«» for our reaching Macao.l Fro! 
jpur apprehensions of missing that port, and beinJ 
jbbliged to repair to Batavia, added to the stroni 
and ardent desires of liearing intelligence from Ei 
rope, we were the more inclined to rqoice, on ol 
w-^ferving the Resolution soon after f?ine a gun, anJ 
\|display her colours as a signal for a pilot. On thj 
: *Jl^epetition of tl signal there was an excellent 
! l5et\veen four Chinese boats ; and captain Gore ci 
j^aged with the persow who aniseed fij^, to condt 
Jihe ship to the STypa, for the sum of thirty dollar 
pending word, at the same time, to captain Kii 
ihat,, as he could easily follow him with the Disc 
,veryj that expence might be saved to him, 
' In a short t'me afterwards a second pilot gettini 
on .board the Resplutton, insisted on guiding tl 
ship; and immediately laying hotd of the wh« 
began to order the sails to be trimmed. This gaM 
rise .to a violent altercation, which was at Ifen^ 
compromistd, by their agreeing to divide the mfl 
ney between then^. 

Al twelve o'clock our latitude, 43y obscrvatioii 
was 21^ 5V lionh, am^Qur longitude^ 114^ S'easj 



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iThe Grand Lad rone islaoc! was at this time four 
(liles distant* extending from northwest half nortK| 

north half west. The la^d, whose beaHngs wet 
ive here mentioned, was supposed by u» to be Oiii^ 
Island ; btit we afterwards found that the westemj- 
ill was an island kid down in Mr DalrynipleVf 
iart of part of the Chinee coast,. &c, which w^ 
id not at preaent on board. i% 

Tn pursuance of the instnictions which had beew^'' 

to captain Cook by tlie Lords of the Admi«* 
ilty, it now became necessary to desire the ofHcert 
id men to- deliver up their journals, and all otliei* 
ipers they might have in their possession, rehtivii 

the history of the voyage. Some degree of de^ar 
icacy, a& well as firmness, seemed to be requisite \^ 
le ext?cutioa of these orders. , Our comraartdersJ 

ild not be ignorant that most of the oificers aii<^. 
tveral of the seamen had amused themselves, in thcin* 
eiziire hours with writing accounts of our proceed^ 
iigs, for the purpose of gratifying their friends, oi^- 
br their own private satisfaction, wliich they mighi*' 
Bot wish to have submitted, in their present form, 

the inspection of strangers. On the other hand^ , 

le captains could not, consistently with the \v\^^ 

tmcttoos they had received, leave papers in theiy* , 

istody, which, either by accident or design, mighc^ 

into the hasnds of pnnters, and thus give nse to "- 

Mch spurious and imperfect narratives o^ our voyage^i. 

might tend to the disparagement of our labours^;- 
ind, perhaps,' to the prejudice of officers, whi' 
light, tliough unjustly, incur the suspicion of havi- 
ng been the authors of such publicatioaa. *! 

Captain King, therefore,, assembled the Disco* 

ry's people oa decfc> and iofopned them of tK^ 



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orders that li%d been recelt^i and the rcadons wluch, 
iri his opinion, ought to indace them to yield a per-l 
feet obedience. He, at the same time, gave the 
^o understand, that whatever papers they wished not! 
to have sent tb the Lords of the Admiralty, should 
b6 sealed up in their own presence, and preserved inj 
his custody till the irrtentions of their Lordships, 
respecting jthe publication of the history of the 
voyage, were accomplished ; after which he said 
they should be faithfully restored to them. 

Captain King had the satisfaction to find that 
his proposals met with the approbation an4 thej 
ready compliance not only of the officers, but also 
of the rest of the ship's company ; and every scrap 
of paper that contained an account of any transac- 
tions relating to the present voyage was imme- 
diately given up. The captain observes upon this 
occasion, that it is but doing justice to> the seamen 
of this ship to declare, that they were the best dis- 
posed, and the most obedient meq he ever knew, 
though the greatest part of them were very young, 
and had never served before in a ship of war. 

.Captain Gore made the ^ame proposals to the 
people of the Resolution, who instantly complied 
with them, and delivered up all their papers which 
had any reference to the voyage. 

We continued working to windward till about 
six o'clock in the afternoon, when we let go our 
authors, by the direction of the Chinese pilot on 
board the Resolution, who was of opinion that the 
tide was now setting against us. In this particular, 
however, he was greatly deceived ; for, upon our 
making the experiment, we discovered that it set 
t^wacd^ the north till ten o'clock. The m&t mora* 



PACIFIC OCEAN* 



it 7 1 



[&g (Wednesday the 1st of December) he fell in- 
to un error of a similar kind ; for, at five, on the 
ippearkncc of slack water, he directed that we 
ihould get under way j but the ignorance he had 

fore manifested had put us upon our guard. 
We were therefore willing to be convinced, by ottr 
[fiwn observations, before we weighed anchor ; and, 
\fi\i examining the tidcj we found a strong under- 
tow, in consequence of which we werp obliged to 
keep fuSt till eleven o'clock. It .appears from- these 
circumstances, that the tide had run down fpr the 
space of twelve hours. 

We stood on our tacks, during the afternoon, 

tween the Grand Ladrone and the island of Potoe, 
having passed to thcrjeast of the latter. The tide 
beginning to ebb at nine o'clock, we again cast 
anchor i^i six fathoms water ; the town of Macao 
being at the distance of nine or ten miles, in a north- 
west direction, and the isle of Potoe bearing soutiy^ 
half west, six or seven miles distant. 4^ 

Potoe is sijtuate about two leagues to the north- " 
northwest of that island, which, as we haVe already 
jnentioned, we at first considered as a part of the 
Grand Ladrone. It is rocky, and of small extent; 
and off its western extremity there is said to be foul 
ground, though, when we passed near it, we did 
»pt perceive any. v ,, 

On the 2d of December, in the morning, one of 
the Chinese contractors, who are known by tlic ap- 
j)ellation of C<j/w^r<7</(r/rj', came on board the Reso- 
lution, and sold to captain Gore as much beef as 
weighed two hundred pounds, together with a con^ 
siderable quantity of e^gs^ oranges, and greens. 
The Disc over j' received a proportioned shfirc ^f 



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these articles ; and aa agreement was made wit!^ 
the Comprader to provide U8 a daily supply, foi 
wbkh^ however, he insisted on our ^aji ng him bej 
forehftnd. . 

As our pilot now pretended that he^ could con^ 
duct tlie ships no further, captain Gore was unde^ 
the necessity of dischargmg him; and we wer 
left to our own guidance and direction. At twc 
o'clock in the afternoon, the tide flowing, we tooi 
VLp our anchors, And worked to windward; and, all 
»even, anchored again in 'three fathomd and a halj 
of water ; at which time Macao bot^ west, ^ tl 
distance of one league. This was, indeed, a ver 
•ineligible situation; for it was exposed tbthenorthJ 
east, and had shoal water, not exceeding two fa^ 
thorns and a half in depth, to leewafd ] hut as, ir 
the narrative of Lord An&On's voyage, n(> nautical 
description is given of the harbour' wherein the 
Centurion anchored, and Mr Dali^^mpk's general 
map was on too sm&ll a scale to be , of much serJ 
Tice in directing us, our ships were obliged to conJ 
tinue there during the wliole night. 

Captain Gore, in the evening, dispatched caj 
tairi King^to Macao, to pay a visit to the Portuj 
guese governor, and to request the favoUr of lii^ 
assistance in supplpng our people with provisions] 
which we imagined might be done on more mode] 
rate terms than the Comprador would undertake to 
furnish them. Captain King, tX tlie same time] 
took an account of the naval stores, of which boti 
our ships were in gr^^at want, with an intention oi 
repairing immediately to Canton, and makiyig apj 
plication to the servants of our East-Jndia Compnoyj 
K^ho resided there at Xhax time. ^ 



^^ 



'PACIFIC OCEANS. 



7.3 






Upon Mr King's arrival at the citiidcl, he wai 
iformcd by th'e fort-major, that the governor was 

[ispoeed, and was therefore unwilhng to receive 
|iwitor8, h)ut that we might depend on meeting with 
every at^sistauce ii) their power. This, however, 
^Ir King understood would be very inconsiderable» 
knee they were perfectly dependent on the Chinese, 
even for their daily support. Indeed, the answer 
fcat was returned to Mr King's first request, fur» 

ihed a" sufficient proof of the reduced state of the 
Portuguese power ; for, on his signiiying to the 

lajor his deuirejof proceeding to Canton as soon 
k possible, the latter acquaiated him that ihey 

)uld not presume to provide a boat for him till 

jrmission had been obtained from \.\iQ HoppOi or oHi- 
[cer of the customs } and that it was necessary to 
ipply, fgr this purpot^e* to the Chinese government 
It Canton. * 

CaptxMn King's mortification at so -unexpected a 
[delay could be equalled only by the eager impa- 
[tience with which he had so long waited for an opi 
pprtunity of gaining information with revSpect to 
Europeaii affairs. It not unfrequently happens, 
that, amidst the ardent pursuit of an object, we 
neglect the most obvious means of attaining it. Tlijs 
pas, indeed, Mr King's case at present ; for he 
[was returning to the ship in a state of great (Jejee- ■ 
tion, when the Portuguese officer, who accompanied 
him, asked him whether he did not intend to visit 
the English gentlemen at Macao. It is unnecessa* 
try to add with what transport Mr King received ' 
jthe intelligence conveyed to him by this questiowi 
m well as with what anxioua hopes and fears, ,vh|it 
U.<:9nflict between curiosity . and apprehension hit^ 



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174 



A VOYAGE TO THK 



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immd was agitated, as he and his companions walkJ 
^d towards the house of one of their countrymeui 
The reception they met with was by no means de- 
ficientirt <:ivility or kindness, though, from the state 
of agitation they were in, it appeared to them ra- 
ther cold and formal. In their inquiries, as far as 
regarded objects of privjite concenip they obtained^ 
as \va^ mdeed to be expected, little or no satisfac- 
tion ; but the occi\rrence« of a puWic nature, whicl 
liad happened since the period of our departui 
from England, and which now, for the first timej 

• burst all at once upon them, overwhelmed alllothei 
feelings, and almost deprived them, for somte time 
i)f the power of reflection. 

The information uow received by Mr King 7mi 
his attendants, being communicated to those wlio| 
remained on board, we xohtinued, for several days 
to question each other with respect to the ' truth oi 
it, as if desirous of seeking, in doubt and suspence, 
for that consolation which the reality of our mis- 
fortunes seemed entirely to exclude. To these sen- 
?8ation6 the most poignant regret succeeded, on find- 
ing ourselves- cut off, at so great a distance, from! 
the scene where, we supposed, the fete of con- 
tending fleets and armies was continually deciding. 

The intelligence we had gained concerning the 
%tate of affairs in Europe, rendered us the morel 

* Anxious to accelerate our departure as much as vrt 
possibly could. Captain King, therefore, renewec 
kis endeavours to procure a passage to Canton, but 
did not meet with success at,pre^nt. He was no«r| 
informed, tl**t the difficulty arising from the set- 
fled policy of the country, would, in all probability, 
be greatty augmented by an tnci<^M whi<^ had ifi' 



commerci; 



PACIFIC OCEAN. 



»75 



aired a few weeks before our arritrsL Captaiki 
[panton had been sent from Madras in a ship of war 
twenty-five guns, called the Seahorse* for the 
purpose of urging tjjc payment of a debt which 

lie Chinese merchants of Canton owed to privates 
kitish subjects in Europe and Indiay and which 

lountcd, as we understood, to almost a miftlion 
iiterling, including the principarand compound in» 

rest. With this view, he was directed to make a 
[peremptory demand of an audience of the viceroy 
of Canton, which, after some delay, and not before 

:ourse had been had to menaces, was at length 
[granted. The nnswer he received, with regard to 
the subject of his mission, was fair and satifactory: 
but he had no sooner departed, than an edict was 
jtuck up in the"public places of the city, and on the 
houses of the Europeans, prohibiting all foreigner* 
\lrom lending money, on any pretence wliatever, to 
the subjects of the emperor of China. 

This procedure had given occasion for very seriw 

Ions alarms at Canton. The Chinese merchants* 

! who had contracted the debt^ in opposition to the 

I commercial laws of their country, and partly denied 

the justice cf the demand, were apprehensive lest 

some intelligence of this should be conveyed to Pe« 

kin; in which case theemperor^ who is represented 

as a just and rigid prince, might j^rhaps punish 

thetn with the confiscation of their property* if not 

with the losi ^f their li^es; On theother hatid> the 

Select Committee at the Emglifeh- f^^tory^ tio whom 

die Presidency of Mad^s had recommended, in 

etVomg terms, the cau&e of thfe claimants, entertained 

'Violent apptthetisiooa of eiail»t)iling thiimselves with 

tbe Chinese government «t Canton^ and of occt^ 



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A VOYAGE TO THE 



•ioninp, by that means, great und perhaps irreparj 
uble (ietrimejit to the Eaat-India Company's aftain 
in China. For the MaiidarincSf as captain Kin; 
was further infofmed, were con3tan|!ly prepared t( 
take occasion, even on th<^ most trivial grounds, tc 
obstruct their commerce ; and, it was frequently 
very difficult matter, and always attended with ex- 
pence, to get such restraints taken ofF. These iin^ 
positions were continually aujjmenting, and, indtfedJ 
Mr King found it the general opinion, in ell jdn 
European factories, that ^hey should, probably, iiJ 
a short time, be reduced to the mortifying altcnia] 
tive, either of quitting their commercial intercourse 
with China, or enduring the same indignities t( 
which the Dutch aj*c subjected in the Japanese do- 
minions. * 

The arrival of our two hipf?, at such a time, 
could not fail of giving rise to fresh alarms. Cap- 
tain King, therefore, finding there was no prospect 
of his proceeding to Canton, dispatched a letter to| 
the Committee of the English S'percargoes, to in- 
form them of the reason of our putting into thel 
Tygris, and to request their assistance in procur- 
ing him a passport, as well as in forwarding thcl 
stores we had occasion for (of which Mr King sent] 
them a list) with a)- possible expedition. 

The following morning captain King was ac: 
companied on board by our countrymen ; who ac- 
quainting us with the situation of. the Typa, wel 
weighed anchor between six and seven o'clock, and! 
steered towards it $ btit the wind failing, we again 
'came to at eight, in three fathoms and a half; the 
.^prand Ladrone bearing southeast lyys^iciutb, aoil 



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PACIFIC oGKaW 



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farad wcrt*northwe«t, ftt the distance of tiircc 
nilcs. - • ■ • 

The Portugese fort v;^8 hefe itehitipd by the 
tcsolution wifh eleven gufts, apd the compliment 
IS returned by an equal number. Early in the 
Borning of the 4th, we "weighed ag^in, and stood 
nto the Typa, where we Ynborod with the stream 
ichor and cable to the \(rekt. 
As the Comprador^ with whom we at fint en- 
gaged, had taken the Ifl erty of getting ofF with a 
[imall sum of money, which he had received from 
beforehand for the purchase bf provisic r' i«e 
[entered into an agreement with another, who \ «|J* 
llied both our vessels during the whole tiwe uf our 
[continuance her^. This was done with «ecrf»cy.j 
[and in the nigra, oh pretence of its being cont^iry 
to the eaiablished regulations of the port ; totil we 
Iwere inclined to suspect that all this caution aas 
[practised either with a view of enhancing- the price 
of the articles provided by him, or of securing 
[to himself the emoluments of his contracu, without 
[being under the necessity ^f sharing them with tht* 
[Mandarines. • ' - - '• 

On Thursday the 9tu, captain Gore received ani 
[answer from the English Supercargoes at Canton, 
in which they promised to exert their most strenu^ 
pus endea^oui's in procuring the supplies of whidh 
we were in Want, with all possible dispatch, and 
assured him that a passport should be sent for one 
'of our officers, expressing ♦heir hopes, at the samtf 
time, that we were sufficiently acquainted with the 
character of the Chinese administration, to impute 
any delays that might unavoidably occur to their 
tn^e cause. • 



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The next dayi an English merchant, from oiJ 
•f the East-Indian settlemens, made application J 
captain Gore focfhe assistance of^ few of Lis pec 
pie to navigate as far as Canton, a vessel which hi 
had purchased at Mac^o. Captain Gore, consider 
ing this as a good opportunity for Mr King to n 
pair to that city, gave order? that he sho^iid tak 
with'him, his second lieutenant, the lieutenant of ma 
pnes, and ten sailors. 

Though this was not the exact mode in whicj 
captain King could have wished to visit Cantor 
yet as it was highly unccr|:ain when the passpor 
would arrive, and his presence might be oi greal 
service in ejcpediting the requisite supplies, he dJ(f 
not scruple to go on board the vessel, having Icf 
prders with Mr Williamson to prepare the Pidl 
5:overy for sea with all convenient speed, and maW 
jpuch additions and improvements in her upper works] 
as might contribute to render her more deft^nsiblvl 
That the series of our astronomical observation^ 
might not be interrupted by hip absence, he intrust] 
ed Mr Trevenen with the care of continuing them 
as he reposed a perfect confidence in the abilities anc 
assiduity of that gentleman. ^^■■^:^,^i^:-^-;.,:^ 
i Mr King and his attendants quitted the harbour 
of Macao on JSatunlay the 11th; and sailing romuj 
the southeastern- ejctreme of the .island, steered 
northerly course, leaving on their right baud, as 
they passed ?ilong, Lantao J^intin, and several isles 
of smaller extent. All these islands, as well as that 
of Macao, which Is situate to the left, are totalhj 
destitute of wbod f the laud is big] i and unfertile, 
;ind is not ii^habitcd, cxcrpt occddionally by fii>Iu;' 



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As iliey approached tlie Bocta Tygrit;, which i# ; 
far forty miles distant fr( m Macao, th« coast of 
China appeared* to the eastwdrd m dteepi white chfFs. ; :• '% 
fhe two fortfe that dommand the moiith of the river, 

ere at this time exactly in. the sairte state thcyfi,, r . 

ere when iiord Ati6on was here. That which! 

inds to the left is a fine old castle^ environed byi; .^^, 
1 grove of tireesy^and has a pleasing and romantiO§^;;b^ 
spect. .*■::%;■" . z"'}:^ 

The vessel w«s here visited by 2ln officer of theS^ ; ' 
wtoms; upon which occasion, the person to whom^ * 

belonged being apprenhensi^i'e that, if our party^' 
iould b^ discovered on board, it would producc^^^^ 
time alarm, and might perhaps be attended withjt/v 
Dine disagreeable consequences, requested them t<^ * 
Btire into the cabin below* 1& :^ 

Above these forts the breadth of the river irt^ ^ 

rlable^ the banks being fiat and low, dnd subject*^ "^ 

great inundations from the tide- Tlie land, oi% 
3th sides, is level, and laid out in fields of rice |fv 
kut, as our party advanced, it was observed to risdl| 
radually into' hills of considerable decHvity^ whosel^ 
ides were cut into t^rratees, and planted with sugarH 
anes, yamsj swcetrpotatoesf^ the cotton-tree, and^}^ 
bntains. They also perceived many lofty pagodaA^^ 
Hspersed about the country, and sevdra* «.owns at »^, 
Stance, some of which seemed to be of great mag-'\. 
Btude. -* , ■ % 

Their ptagreiss being retarded by contrary winds^ 

ad the lightness of the vessel, they did not arrive 

:Wampu, which is no more than nine leagues from 

[he Bocca Tygris, till the 18th. Wampu is a smalli 

awn, off which the ships of the various nations^ 

10 traJe with the Chinese are gtationcd, in ordeiJ 









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KJ receive their I'espcctive ladings* It ia ilsertcc 
by Mansimir Sionnei*at, that the river, higher up, ji 
not sufficiently deep for the adnHssioa of vesael] 
"that are heavily laden, even if the policy of th^ 
Chinese had permitted Europeans to navigate thei 
up to Canton. With respect to this-circumstancel 
however, "we cannot pretend to decide, as no stranj 
^cr, we believe, has been allowed to inform himselJ 
with certainty of the truth. The little islauda thai 
are situate opposite the town are appropriated tc 
the several factories, who have erected wavehousej 
for the reception of the various articles of meurchaiJ 
dise which are brought dovyn from Cantcvif. * 

^3, At Wampu captain King eraibarked in a sam\ 
fane, or Chinese boat, and immediately proceedet 
to Canton, which is eight or;nine miles higher u| 

., the river. These jdf/ff/^«^/ are the neatest and mos^ 
commodious boats for passengers that Mr Kin J 
ever saw. They -a^- of different sizes, of great 
breadth updn the beam, nearly fiat at the bottom j 
and narrow at the head and stern, which are ele^ 
vated, and embellished with ornaments. The mid- 
dle part, where Mr Kitig 9»t, wa& arched over itl 
a roof made of bamboo, which may, at pleasuv 
be raised or lowered ; in the sidet were small win 
dows^ which had shutterg to them j: and the apart^ 
nvent was furnished with tables, chairs^ and hand-j 
some mats. A small waxen idol was placed in the 
Uem^ in a caec^ of gilt leather. Before this image 
atood a pot that contained lighted tapers made oi 
matches, or idry chips and gum. The fare of this 
boat amounted to a Spanish dollar. 

Captain King reached Canton in the eveningJ 
tad didexnbairked at the Engl^^ factory^. wl^ereJ 



ijome consi 



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PACIFIC OCEAN. 



181 



ough his arrival was wholly unexpected, iti web 
ceived with every mark of civility and respect', 
essrs Fitzhugh, Bevan, and Rapier, composed, at 
Ms time, the Select Committee ; and the former of 
[these gentlemen acted as President. They imme* 
lately gave Mr King -an inventory of those stores 
th which the East-India ships were able to sup* 
ly us ; and though he did not entertain the smaf- 
St doubt that the commanders were willing to as» 
list us with whatever they could spare, consistently 
ith a regard to the interest of the employers, &$ 
[well as their o,wn safety, yet it was a great disap- 
pointment to him to observe in their list scarcely 
any canvass of cordage, of both which articles we 
'Were chiefly in want. It afforded him, however^ 
some consolation to find that the stores were ready 
to be shipped, and that the provisions we had oc-? 
jion for might be had at a day's notice^*^"-^^ ' ' ;^" ' 
Mr King, being desirous of making his stay here 
98 short as possible, requested that the gentlemen 
would endeavour to procure junks or boats for him 
(the next day, as it was his intention to quit Can- 
ton the following one : but they gave him to un-. 
tlerstand, that a business of that nature; was not to 
be transacted with such quickness' in the Chinese 
dominions ; that leave must previously be obtained 
from the Viceroy; that application must be made to 
the HoppOy or principal officer of the customs for 
chops, or permits ; and that it was not customary to 
grant such favours without mature deliberation ; in 
ehort, that patience was a virtue essentially neces* 
sary in China ; and that they hoped they should 
\vft the pleasure of rendering the factory agreeably 
Vol. IT. ... ■'.- ■ - , a ^v. - -• ', 

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, A VOYAGE Tb THE 



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to hinr, for a few dayft longei' tnan he seamed If 

dined to favour them with his company. 

i; Though captain King was not much disposed tj 

( be pleased with this compliment, he cowld not avoij 
being diverted with an incident which occurred ver 
seasonably to convince him of the truth of theil 
representations, and of the suspicious character tha 
distinguishes the Chinese. Our readers will doubt 
less recollect, that it was now upwards of a fortl 

' night since captain Gore had written to the genl 
II illemen of the factory, to solicit their assistance iJ 

* gaining permission for one of his officers to\ repal| 
Mytb Canton. In consequence of this application the) 

had mentioned the affair to one of the principa 
Chinese merchants of that city, who had promise 

* V^o i'^^crcst himself in our behalf, and to petitioJ 
» x^ |the Viceroy to grant our request. This persol 

came to visit Mr Fitzhugh, the President, while hj 
and his colleagues were conversing with captair 
yK.ing on the subject, and informed him, with grea 
,complacency and satisfaction in his countenance! 
'%hat he had at length met with success in his soli] 
citations, and that a passport would be issued in 
few days for one of the olficersf of the LadroiKj 
ship, or pirate. Mr Fitzhugh immediately desired 
him not to give himself any further troujjle in thi^ 
business, as the officer (pointing to captain King] 
jwas already arrived. The consternation. with whicl 
^|ie old Chinese merchant was seized on hearing 
this intelligence, is almost inconceivable. His head 
gViiik instantaneously upon his breast,, and the sofa^ 
:pn which he sat, shook, from the violence of his 
emotion; Whether the.Ladrone ship (as he called 
it) v/as the object of his apprehensions, or hi§ jfwii 



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..•:/*: ■::^V*^PACIFIC• OCEAN. ^■fT:^''i. tSXM 

)yernment, captain King ccrald ' not deterniine''f^^ 
it, after he had continued a few minutes in tjiirf', 
ste of agitation, Mr Bevan begged him lidt' td^i 
espair, and acquainted him with the manner frj^l 
jrhich tlie Captain had passed from Macao, the niloi^;^ 
Ives of his jomiiey to Canton, and his wishes t<i| 
iit that city as soon as possible. As this last cir-J 
Btnstance s<?emed to be particula|ly agreeable t64, 
b old man, Mr King llattei-ed himself that he*:;^ 
buld find him disposed to accelerate hisdepartiirei^l 
It he had no sooner recovered from his constenia-*; 
)n, than he began to recount the unavoidable de-l;, 
^8 that would occur in our business, the difficulty^^ 
obtaining an audience of tne Viceroy, the jea*^ 
^usies and suspicions entertained by the Mandarine^f 
ith regard to our real designs, which, he affirmed^^* 
ad risen to an uticommon height, from the strange^l. 
bcount that we had given of ourselves. '*;> 

After captain King had waited several days^^^; 
pith great impatience, for the issue of his negbcirf.* 
iion, without finding that the affair wai in the| 
Itast advanced towards a conclusion, he made ap4 ./ 
fication to the commander of an English countryl ^.,, 
who intended to sail on the 25th, and wh^*; i, 
iereJ to take on board the men ^nd stores, and ttf* '-■ 

to, unless the ' weather should prevent him, off 
iacao, t.liwe could dispatch boats tb receive thei*lt " . 
It of his v^essel. He at the same time apprised^ ^ 
iptain King of the danger he*- might ptriiaj)^ in*^ 
]r of being driven with t'liem out to^sea. 
While Mr King was considering what step^'^'^ 
mid take, the commander of another count^y^v 
lip presented him with a letter from captain Gor^/^ 
^rti^ig |hat he had engaged this <^ommanderc^' 

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A yOYAGE TO THE 



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bring our party from Canton, and to deliver ou! 
auppliesy at his own hazard, in the Typa. All 
difficulties being then rsmoved, Mr King h^d lei 
wire to bestow some attention on the purchajic oi 
our stores and provisions which he completed o 
t^e ^6th ; and, on the succeeding day, the whol 
sjiQck was conveyed on board* 
s Captain Gore being of opinion that Canton woul 
be the most advantageous market lor furs, had de 
sired Mr King to take with him ^bout twent 
skins of sea-otters; most of which had been thi 
property of our deceased commanders, and to di 
pose of them at the best price he could obtain ; 
comnvission which furnished him with an opportu 
nity of becoming acquainted, in some degree, wi 
tjie genius of the Chinese for trade. Mr Kin^ 
having informed some of the English supercargoe 
of these circumstances, requested that they wouL 
r^on^niend him to some reputable Chinese mer- 
chant, iw^bo would at once offer him a reasonabl 
pi^ioe for the skins* They accordingly directe 
hin?i. tjO a member of the Hongy (an appellation givei 
to a society of the principal merchants of the city^ 
who being fully apprised of the nature of the busi 
ness, seemed to be sensible of the deKcacy of Mr 
Kfing's situation, and assured him that he might 
rely pn his integrity, and that, in an afiPair of this 
kind, he should consider himself as a mere agent) 
MrithQut seeking to acquire any profit for himself. 
The skins being laid before this merchant, he 
ea^rained them over and over again with particular 
attention, and at last infomried captain King that 
\^ ^ou}d not think of offering mure than three 
hundred dollars for theni|^- 4^^ the captain was 






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nVinced, ' irojii the price.* at ivMcht mr sklfiif liad 
n gold in Kkihtschatka, th&t, he^had. hot Jof^ 
red onp haiH^dfr th^r valuti, he^ found himself ^b-c- 
gcd to drfyB,„a bargain. He' therefore, in his tuTni* 
fmandedTi^ thousand doHfirsj tfheOhinese merchant 
hen advan'^ddvto five hundred f: after which 'he cJTn 
red Mr K'm^ a private present of 'porcelain .apd tea/ 
hich 'ampiittisd toaliuhdred'nrore j then he '^vp*^ 
sed^td give the s?irae sun^ irf^mon^y ; and atlength: 
rose to seven hundred dyilarsv'uj/oa -which the qqp^ 
tain lowered Ms demands: to' wiHe < hundred. HtVe, 
acii of them declaring thafc^^ ^would. not recede*^ . 
[tiiey parted;, but tlie Ghiiieseispeedily returnedwitli',^ 
hat of . East^Indian CQinnibditiid:«i wtjidh he ;n6w. , A 
dcsii^ed that Mrf Kiagvwould-takein exjtihaaig^, and ' 
which .(as iithe'ca^ain; vi'as, afterwards informed) " ' 
[WuM have cHnototed in vmlue, if ^taithfwlly deliver* >» 
ti^.M daublf ■ itiie sum l^the merchant had before ;, 
•ffered. Finding j the captain unwiUing to deal- ii^ 
this mode> he finally jiropdsed that they should di-i»r:. 
Tide the difference, w'hich Mr Kjrig^ weary of the*/ 
contest, agreed to, and received the eight hundred- " 
dollars. .:;«|i: }v.i. ^ . I ^ ■ ^ - 

Captain King, from the ill health inder whid^^: 
he at present laboured, had l"^iit little reason to- la->: . 
ment the very narrow bounds, vyithin wiuch everyi ; 
European at Canton is obliged*^ Ife^y the suspicious _' 
policy of the Chinese, to confipafe hm curiosity.; ^' 
He would, otjierwise, doubtless, ^IjjU^ felt himself*. • 
extremely tantalized with living ufider the walls of,;*' 
a city of such magnitude, and so replete with ob-p-v 
jects of v^p,Tpltyi without being permit|ed %o enter' 



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A VOYAT&i 'TO THE 






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% The acconnU of tJanton, as well as of the other 
parts of'China» by* Le Comte and Du Halde, inQ^t 
^f our readers have, in all probability, perused, j 
Tbese authors have lately been charged by Mon. 
sieur Soanerat with having been guilty of great ex-^| 
aggeration ; for which reasofi the subsequent re« 
marksy collected by captain King frbm the intel-j 
ligei[ice which he received from several English gen- 
tlemeiiy who had resided a long time at Cantooi { 
may not improperly be introduced. 
?^ The circumference of Canton, including the old| 
and new'town, and also the suburbs, is about ten 
miles. With regard to its population, Mr King, 
judging of the whole from what he saw in the sub- 
urbs, is of opinion, that it falls considerably short 
of an European town of equal magnitude. Le 
Comte has estimated the number of its inhabitants 
at jne million five hunjdred thousand ; Du Halde 
at a million y and M. Sonnerat affirms he has as- 
certsuned that their number does not exceed seven* 
ty-five thousand^ : but, as this gentleman has not 
thought proper to communicate to us the grounds 
on which he founded his calculation, and, besides, 
seems to be as much inclined to depreciate what- 
ever relates to the Chinese nation, 9a the Jesuits 
H^ay be to magnify, his opinion does not lay claim 
to an implicit assent. The following particulars 
may perhaps ens^>fe our readers to form a judgment 
•n this poiiit with some degree of accuracy. 
^ It is certain/ that a Chinese house, in general^ 



f:*;^-^: \ 



;. •IT^ 






■■%.. 

h^'*^' pai v*/^/moi-meme, avec plusietirf GKinoIs, lapo* 
fiulation de Canton,*' &c. Voyage aux Indes OrlenUleij tt a 
fa CktMgf par M*SQnn(rat^ vol. iju b. 14, 



■■•- '•■'*■ 



V 






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wm 



PACIFIC OCEAN. 



187 



joccupica mofe space than is commonly^ taken up 
by houses in Europe ; but the proportion of £oxkr 
[or five to one, suggested by M= Sonnergt, must be 
|icknowledged to gd far beyond tlie truth. T<> 

^is we may add, that a considerable number of 
[buses, in the suburbB of Canton, are kept only 

)r the purposes of commerce, by merchants and 
[opulent tradesmen, whose families reside entit«ly with* 
the walls. On the other hand, a Chinese fami« 
\\f, upon an average, is^ more numerous than an 
[European. A Mandarine, in proportion to his 
[rank and property, has from five to twenty wives. 
JA merchant has from three to five. A person of 
[the latter class at Canton, htid, indeed, five and 
[tixrenty wives, and six and thirty children ; but this 
[was mentioned to captain King as a very uncom- 
jmon circumstance. A wealthy tradesman has ge- 
[cerally two wives ; and people of an inferior sta- 
llion very rarely have more than one. They ha e, 
|av least, double the number of servants employed 
m Europeans of the same rank. If, therefore^ 
Iwe suppose a Chinese family to be larger by one- 
(third, and an European house less by two-thirds, 
jthan each other, a city of Chin^ will comprehend 
(only half the number of people contained in a town 
jof the same extent in Europe. According to these 
hostuiaiay the city and suburbs of Canton may con- 
itain, in all probability, about a hundred and fifty 
[thousand inhabitants.: ^ * 

Captain King found various opinions entertained 
[respecting the, number of inhabited sampanes : but 
none computed them to be under forty thousand. 
They are moored in rows., close to each other, a 
narrow passage being left at intervals, for the boat« 






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A. VOYAGE TO THE 



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ta pass and repass on tlie river.' 'The Tygrk* at 
Canton, being of greater width thah the ThainesI 
at^'London^and tho whole river, for the space of] 
at^east a niile, being covered in this manner, it does! 
not appear that this estimate of their number is at| 
all exaggerated j and if it be alliowed, the inhabi- 
tants ill \.\iQ samptines alone, each of which ;containa| 
ene family, must amount to almost thrice the num. 
ber affirmed by M; Sonner^t to be* in. the whole! 

city. ^ ■' - ... i.f , ■'-':,; 

4 Fifty thousand men constitute the military forcel 
of the provinte of Quangtong, of wljidh Cai^ton is 
the capital. It is asserted, that twenty thousand] 
are- stationed in the city and its environs; and cap- 
tain King was 'assured,' thati on occagion of some I 
commotion v^^hich had hiappened at Canton, thirty 
thousand troops had been drawa together in the] 
course of a few hours. 
, The streets of this city are long, t and most of] 
them are narrow and destitute of uniformity. They 
are well paved with large stones,, and,' in general,! 
kept extremely clean. The houses are built of 
brick, and are only one storey high. They have, 
for the most part, two or three courts backwards,] 
in which are erected the ware-houses for the recep- 
tion of merchandise, and, in the houses within the] 
city, the apartments for tiie females. Some of th( 
meaner sort of people, though very few, have their] 
habitations composed of wood. 
_ The houses of the European factors are buJt on | 
i fine quay, having a regular facade of two storeys 
towards the river. They are constructed, with 
respect to the inside, partly after the Chinese, an4 
jpartly after tjie European mode* ■^djoining m 






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tWse arc a ccinsideraWe number of houses which 
belong to the Chinese, and are let out by them to 
the commanders of vessels, and to merchants who 
I make only an occasional ^tay. 

As no European is permitte4 to take his wife 
lyith him to Canton, the English supercargoes live -^ 
together, at a common table, which is maintained^ 
m the company ; and*each of them has also an . 
apartment appropriated to himself, consisting of 
three or four rooms. The period of their residence ,■ 
rarely exceeds eight months in a-year; and as, dur- 
ing that time, they are almost constantly occupied » 
in the service of the company, they may submit, \ 
vith the less uneasiness and regret, to the restric* ' 
tions under which they live. They very seldom v 
make any visits within the walls of Canton, except 
on public occasions. Indeed nothing contributed , 
more to give captain King an unfavourable opinion '. 
of the character of the Chinese, than his finding, 
that among so many persons of ingenious and libe- 
ral minds, as well as of amiable manners, seveial of ' 
whom had been resident ih that country for near ' 
fifteen successive years, they had never formed any ^ 
|jociar connection or friendship. 

As soon as the last ship departs from Wampu, y 
I they are all under the fiecessky of retiring to Ma- 
cao 5 but they leave behind them all the money 
they possess in specie, which, Mr King was inform- •. 
ed, sometimes amounts to a hundred thousand pounds . - 
Sterlipg, and for which they have no other security '^ 
than the seals of the Viceroy, the Mandarines^ and 
the merchants of the Hong: .a striking proQf of the 
I excell^o t police maintained in China. . j^; ^^^^^^ :^§s 



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Captain King, during his continuAncc at Can- 
ton, accompanied one of the English gentlemen on 
a visit to a person of the first distinction in the, 
place. They tvere received in a long room or gal- 
lery, at the furtlier end of which a table was pla- 
ced, with a large chair behind it, and a row of chairs 
eTctending from it, on both sides, down the room. 
The CaptJiin having been previously instructed, that 
the point of politeness consiste'd in remaining un- 
seated as long as possible, readily submitted to this 
piece of etiquette ; after which he and his friend 
were treated with tea, and some fresh and preserved 
fruits. Their entertainer was' very corpulent, had 
a dull heavy countenance, and displayed great gra- 
vity in his deportment. He had learned to speak 
a little broken JEngli^'.h and Portuguese. After 
his two guests had taken thtjir refreshment, he con- 
dlicted them about his house and garden ; and 
when he had shown them all the improvements he 
. was making, they took their leave. 
^ Captain King being dtsirous of avoiding the 
trouble and delay that might attend an application 
for passports, as well as of' saving the unnecessary 
expence of hiring a sampane, which he was inform- 
ed amounted at least to twelve pounds Sterling, had 
Iritherto designed to go along with the supplies to 
Macao, ki the country merchant's ship we men- 
tioned before; but receiving an invitation from two 
g^entfeltien-, who had found means to procure pass- 
j)i)rfS for four, he accepted, together with Mr Phil- 
lips, their offer of places in a Chitiese boat, and en- 
trusted Mr J^annyon with the superintendance of 
the men and stoR^s, which were to sail the follow^ 






-■. , ■,■- ■ 






■(-■ A- 

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;• 



PACIFIC OCEytN. 



lOl 



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On Sunday the 26th, in the evenings captain 
I King took his leave of tlic supercargoes, after hav- 
ing returned them thanks for their many favours ; 
among which must be mentioived a present of a 
considerable quantity of tea, for the use of the 
Icompanies orboth 'sliips, and a copious collection 
M English periodical publications. The latter 
Iproved a valuable acquisition to us, as they not 
[only served to beguile our impatience in the prose- 
Icution of our tedious voyage homewards, but also 
[enabled us to return not wholly imacquainted with 
Iwhnt had been transacting in our native country 
Iduring our absence. ' . 

At one o'clock in the morning of the 17th, 
[Messrs King and Philips, and the two English 
[gentlemen, quitted Canton, and, about the same 
[hour of the succeeding day, arrived at Macao, hav- 
jing passed down a channel situate to the west of 
jthat by which Mr King had come up. 

During the absence of our party from Macao, a 

[brisk traffic had been carrying on with the Chinese 

Tfor our sea-otter skins, the value of which had 

[augmented every day. One of our sailors dispo- 

[jed of his stock alone, for eight hundred dollars i 

and a few of the best skins, which were clean, and 

liad been carefully preserved, produced a hundred 

and twenty dollars each. The total amount of the 

lvalue, in goods and cash, that was obtained for 

]the furs of both our vessels, we are confident, was 

Dot less than two thousand pounds Sterling ; and 

wzs the general opinion, that at least two-thirds 

dF the quantity we had originally procured, from 

pe Americans, were by iliis time spoiled and worn 



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' Wise disposed of in Kamtschatka. If, in addition! 
to these facta, we consider, that we at first collected! 
the furs without having just ideas of their real value; 
that most of them had ha i worn by the savages] 
from whom we purchased them 5 that little regarc 
was afterwards shown to their preservatioii ; that 
they were frequently made use of as bed-clothes J 
and likewise for other purposes, during our cruist 
to the northward ; and that, in all prpbability, wej 
never received the full value for them in China 
the benefits that might accrue from a voyage tc 
that part of the American coast where we obtaihec 
them, undertaken with commercial views, will cerj 
tainly appear of sbfficient importance to cjaim the 
_,.|)ubbc attention, ■■--'• v.-.-....:-i»;.. i^v^j-..^'. ^.^^..^a 

^ So great was the rage with ""which our seamer 
Vere possessed to return to Cook's River, and there 
J)roGure another cargo of skins, by which thej 
might be enabled to make their fortunes, that, at 
one time, they werb almost on the point' of proJ 
Geeding to a mutiny. And captain King acknowj 
ledges, that he could not refrain from indulging 
himself in a project, which was first suggested tc 
him by the disappointment we had met with in be-j 
ing compelled to leave the Japanese archipelago, a^ 
well ad the northern coast of China, unexplored 
and he is of opinion, that this object may still bfl 
happily attained, by means of our East-India Com] 
pany, not only with trifling ex pence, but even v/itl 
the prospect of very beneficial consequences. Thj 
state of affairs at home, or perhaps greater difficulj 
ties in tlie accomphshment of his plan than he hac 
foreseen, have hitherto prevented its being carried 
into execution J but, as {|ie schcqjc seems to hi 



/^ 



<. -; 






■», "... ■!* • 



Pacific ocean. 



^93 



well rontrivcd, we hope the reader will not be did* 
pleased with our inserting it here, , ;<; 

In the first place, captain Kin^ proposes, that 
the East-India Company's China t^nips should, each, 
\cixry an additional* number of men, making one 
hundred in the whole* Two vessels, one of two 
hundred tons, and the other of a hundi*ed and fifty, 
might, with proper notice, (as Mr King was in- 
formed) be purchased at Canton ; end, as victual- 
ling is as cheap there as in Europe, he has calcu- 
lated that they might be completely equipped for 
lea, with one year's provisions and pay, for the sum 
of six thousand pounds, including the purchase.. 
The expcnce of the requisite articles for barter in 
I ?ery inconsiderabler ■ ' ■cSM/<^:-:': if;, ^-M: - ^ :r'i>d^^^:^''im ■;*■ 

Mr King particularly recomniends that each of 
I the ships should have a forge, five tons of unwrought 
iron, and a skilftil ^mith, with an apprentice and 
journeyman, who might occasionally make such tools 
as the Indians should appear to have the greatest 
inchnation for possessing. For, though half a do- 
zen of the finest skins, obtained by us, were pur- 
chased with twelve large green glass beads, yet it is 
very certain, that the fancy of these people, for or- 
namental articles, is extremely capricious and vari- 
able ; and that the only sure commodity for their 
market is iron. To this might be added several 
[hales of coarse woollen cloth, two or three barrels 
I of glass and copper trinkets, and a few gross of 
[large pointed case-knives. 

The captain proposes two vessels, not only for 

the greater security of the voyage, but because 

I single ships ought never, in his opinion, to be sent 

Out for the purpose of discovery. Tor where risks 



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A VOYAQE^i^^J^i^ 



are fre^Tjently to be run, and uncertain aiid daiigser-l 

oiis experiments tried, it can by no meana .be ;€X- 

peCted that single ships should venture,, s«i far, as 

^ where some security is provided against an unfortu-| 

nate accident.. . v^^j^tl^vw^^*!*'' 

^ When the ships are prepared for sea, tHey will I 
$ail with, the first southwest monsoon, which usual- 
ly sets jn about the commencement of the month 
J of April. They will steer a northward course, 
with this wind, along the Chinese coast,' btginning 
to make a more accurate survey from the mouth of 
the Nankin river, o/ *^^he pyer Kyana, ia the SOth 
degree of latitude, which is supposed to be w^a re- 
motest limit of this^coast hitherto viMted by Euro- 
pean vessels. ■tMMj$l[:.^'*:'^:x^:'i&^^ ../^if^^Hf^jb,:^;^^^!?: v^<jv 
^i^ The extent of the g^eat gujph called WhatiA 
Hay 9 or the Yellow Sea, being at .present unknown, | 
it may be left to the conunander^s discretion, to 
proceed up it ^s far as he may think proper: he 
must be c.'utlous,' however,, b^ t ,to entangle him-| 
self in it too far, lest he should not have sufficient 
time left for the prosecution of the remainder of I 
his voyage. The same discretion may be used when 
he has i:eached the straits pf^Tes^oi, with regard to| 
the islands of Jeso, which, if the wind and wea- 
ther shQuMtefeyPMraJfe |^e.,niw#|t »pt. ^^cyp 
^plore.^r-',V--" '.'? r^J- ' ^r ' ,-'>^ ■r:^ ' ':■-:-.*' ■Tl:-i-.. .. 
' Having arrived ill th^ liatitude of 51° 40', where 
he "'''ill make the most sbutherly point of thfeislie 
of Sagaleen, beyond which we have a considerabie 
knowledge of the sea of Okotsk, he wiU 8te0f to- 
wards the south, probably about the beginning of | 
June, and exert his endeavours to fajl m, >sri.tl); tlic 
most southern C>f the Kurile' islands. - If^hc a^'- 



.A'--~i^ 



•.». 



•^'PACIFIC OCEAN. 



^95 



of the Ri^ia^s'rifftt^ M^ifep^rfed m, t)o^' 
roopj-or Ni'leschda, will- furnish the ships with a 
commodious harbour, where they may recruit their 
wood and Water, and provide themselves with such 
refreshments as the place may afford*.- 'f-t-.^'^^-ij**'*^, 

About the end of Jtine the comniaTider will di- 
Irect his course to the Shummagins, whence he will 
proteed to Co{>k*s River, purchasing, in hi» pro- 
IgresSj as many skins as possible, without losing too 
much time, since he ought to sail igain to the 
louthward, -and trace the coast with the utmost ac- 
curacy between the ,56th and 50th degrees of latr- 
(ude, the sj^ace where contrary winds drove u« out 
[of sight' of land,'-«if<Mf.*^'i**^lMi^*»-^^¥^^ 

It must here be observed, that captain King 
[considers tH<fe purchase of skii^' in this expedition, 
[as a secondary concern, for defraying the expence ; 
and, frorA ciur expei'ience in the present voyage, 
lere is no reason to^^oubt that two hundred and 
jfifty «kins^ t^h worth a h«ndred dollars, may be - 
[obtained without loss of time ; particularly as they 
ItlflJjih all pi'obability, be tjiet with along the coast 
|to the south of Cook's River. - :-i, .' -'.^^w 

The' topnmand^'r', after having continued about 
[three months on the Ameritin coast, will eet out 
len! 'to ij^urn toChitta tnthe former part of Octo- 
per,* tkktng care, -in- hts 'ttHite, to avoid, as much 
m possible-, '^he tracks oi preceding navigators. 
[All $hii remains to - be added on- thig subject^ is, 
pat if the fur trad* shbuld' become 'an' eStaWished 
flbject «aif' 'Indian 'Comiiierce, many opportumties . 
[will odcbi* of completing whatever may have been 
[feft UFi-Hmshed, in the -voyage of which the . out? 
liues are here delineated, i^;.,.^, Jt*^.-;., -/ f%r t :: ' 






f 



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A VOYAGE TO THE 



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A very ludicrous alteratian took place in tl 
dress of all our crew, in consequence of the barte 
which the Chinese had carried on with us for our sea- 
otteV skins. On our arrival in the Typa, not onlyl 
the sailorSy but likewise the younger officers were| 
extremely ragged in their apparel; for, as tlie voy. 
age had now exceeded, almost by a year, the timJ 
it was at first supposed we shoiild continue at sea,! 
the far greater part of our original stock of Euro-I 
pean clothes had been long ago worn out, or re- 
paired and patched up with skins, and the differei 
manufactures we had met with in tlie course of tl 
expedition. These were ns^w mixed and eked cnti 
with the gayest silks and cottons that China coul4| 
produce. ■^^;. , ,i^->>/.: ::m^<f^4^y. 'si^ t'^^i^i^wmi:-'- . 

Mr Lannyon arrived on the SOth, with the storea] 
and provisions, which, without delay, were 8tow< 
in due proportion on board of our two vessels.] 
The fojilowing day, in compliance with an agree* 
ment made by captain <Jore, Mr King sent tl 
Discovery's sheet anchor to the country ship, ai 
iq returni received the guns by which she befat 
rode. %:i^^Aa:'.^^.^^'^K -..m^P^^ms^w^'^'^^^^''^^ 

While we remained in the Typa, captain Kinj 
was shown in the garden of an English gentlema 
at Macao, the rock, under v/hich, according to tl 
traditional accounts, Camoens^ the celebrated Por- 
tuguese poet, was accustomed to sit and compose 
his Lusiad. It is an arch of considerable height, 
consisting of one solid stone, and fonning tlie en- 
trance of a grotto dug out of the elevated ground! 
behind it. Large spreading trees overshadow the! 
tQskf mhiok camA^auda ^ ^eai^i&U ,|»d e^x^vej 



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197 



ospect of the sea jlind the' islands dispersed about 

On- Tuesday the 1 1th of .Taffiiaty lfgO,'two 
!sailor& b^-longing to the Resolution went off with 

ik -oared cutter ; and- though the most diligent - 
search 'wap made, both thikt and the succeeding 
day, we never could gain any intelJigenGC of uer. ' 
h was imagined that these seamen had been sedu- 
ced by the hopes* of acquiring a fortune, if they 
Ishould return to the fUr islandby iu**^ji».i ,^M»ii, jti***- 

AvS, daring our continuance in Ihe Typa, we 
heard nothing with respect to the measurement of 
the ships, v^e may reasonably conclude, that the 
point ^' ^strongly contested^ in Commodore An- 
0n's tirtie, by the Chinese, has, in consequence of 
his coujc^^ and firmness, never since been insisted 

According to the observations that were made 

while our vessels lay here, the harbour of Macao 

is situate in the latitude of 22^ 12' north, and 

the longitude of 113° 47' east; our anchoring- 

place in the Typa, in the latitude of 22° 9' 20" 

north, and the longitude of 113° 48/ 34" east; and 

jhe variation of the compass was 19' v/est. It was 

kigh-water in the Typa, on the full and change 

^ys, at a quarter after five o'clock, and, in the 

larbour of Macao, at fifty minutes: past five: the 

greatest rise was six feet one inch. The flood 

seemed to come from the southeast ; but, on ac-' 

count of the numerous islands lying off the mouth 

«f the river of Qaoti^, We pQiUduot properly ascer- 
tain that point. -' *v^i^^-■.•Lf^,.2^.4c:;i4.;.^•" ?^-' i\;;..,«.^.y 

We. unmoored on the 1 2th of January, at twelve 
iid scaled- the Q;unft,' which, < 



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Discovery, amounted at ftii$ ilme to tctfj' eo tlrattl 
her people, by means of four additional ports^ 
could fight seven on a side. In the Resoiution>{ 
likewise, the number of gung had been augmented 
from twelve to sixteen ; and, in each of our vessels^ 
a strong barricade had been carried round the up- 
per works, and all other precautions taken to give 
our inconsiderable force a respectable appeai'ance. 
>^' We considered it as our duty to furnisn ourselves 
.with these means of defence, though there was some 
reason to believe, that they liad, in a great measure, 
been rendered superfluous by the generosity ofiour 
enemies. Captain King had been informed at Can- 
ton, that, in the pubhc prints, which had last ar* 
rived from Great Britain, mention was made of the 
iflstructiotis having been found on board all the 
French ships of war that had been taken in Eu/^ 
rope, importing, that their commanders, if they 
should happen to fa^ in with the ships which ha4 
sailed from England under the conunand of cap- 
tain Cook, should suffer them to proceed upmolest* 
ed on tiieir voyage* It was also repotted that the 
American Congress had given similar orders to the 
vessels employed in their service. This intelligence 
being further confirmed by the private letters of 
some of the supercargoes, captain Gore deeped it 
incumbent on him, in return for the liberal excep- 
tions wluch our enemies had ma4e in our favour, ta 
refrain from embracing any opportunities of cap* 
ture which these might affordy, and to maintain 
the strictest neutrality daring the whole of hit 

..^Having got under sail, about two o €ipck in the 

afternooti, the Resolution saluted the fort pf Maca^ 



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':'''-K\y^ACiiiic ©CEAN. A ■ igg 

#. ■ ■ V'"' .^ ''■' '. ■ f- ' -- ■ ^ -■ . ■ ' ■,-■■ • fc- . 

with >lei?eh gund^ Jtnd tnft sdutatidt! wttis fetumea 
with an equal nuniber. The wind faihng at five, 
the ship missed stays, and drove into shallow wa- 
iter ; but an anchor being quickly carried out, she 
was hauled ofF without sustaining any damage, ^w 

The calm continuing, we were under the neces. 
Isity of warping out into the entrance of the Typa, 
which we gained by eight in the evening, and 
remained there till nine o'clock the following 
morning ; when, being assisted by a fresh easterly 
[breeze, we stood to the south between Wungboo 
land Potoe. At twelve a Swedish vessel saluted us 
as she passed us on her way to Europe At four 
in the afternoon, the Ladrone was about two leagues 
[distant in an eastern directio'n. ^ i^ 

We now steered south half east, having a fresh 
I breeze from the east-northeast point, without any 
reniarkable occurrence, till the 15th at noon ; at- 
which time, our latitude being 18°^ 57\ and our 
bngitude li4°- 13', and the wind shifting to the 
Borth, we directed our course rather more to the- 
eastward, with a view bf striking soundings over 
khe Macclesfield Bank. This we accompHshed on 
the 16th, at eight o'clock in the evening, and 
fpund that the depth of water was fifty fathoms,. 
pver a bottom consisting t)f v/hite sand and shells^ 
We judge this part of tlie Macclesfield shoals to be 
in the latitude of 1^^ 51', and the longitude of 
114>^ 20' 5 which computation exactly coincides 
I with the position assigned in Mr Dalrymple's map, 
whose general accuracy was confirmed, in this in-- 
iHance, by many lunar observations. The varia- 
U^n was found, in the forenoon, to be Ji^'jvest* 









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A VOYAGE -m^Wk 



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We had strong gales from the east by ndith; on 
the 17th, with a rough txirbnlent seti, and g^oojViv 
weather. On the sricceeding'dayi the sea bontirtuinr 
to run high, and the vC^iiid to blow with violence, 
we changed our course to southwest by south ; and, 
at twelve o'dloek, being in- the'hingitude of I'l^*^, 
and the latitude of 1.2^ ; 34 V we began to' ^t^er 
jnore to the westward for PlvIo Sapata, of which 
W£ had sight on the 19th, about foiir irf the after- 
noon. It was, at that timei' tNvelv'^ 6r- fbtli'teen 
miles distant, bearing northwest by west. 

This island, which is denominated Sapatay] from 
its resembhng a shoc^, in figure^ is sm^lf, elevated, 
and unfertile. According tox)!!!* 'ob^ei^v^ions, it is 
situate in the latitude of 10^ ■'^'' north, and' the 
longitude of 109° 10' east. ' ^^^^' 

The fury of the gale was now so miich aiigrifient- 
ed, " and the' sea ranso high, that we were obhged 
to close-reef the top-sails* Our ships, diiring thtf 
three last days, had out-run their reckoning' at tW 
rate of tweiity miles in a day; and, as this could not 
be wholly attributed- to the effects of a: following 
sea, we partly ascribed it ta a current, which, ac* 
cording to captain King's calculations, had set be- 
tween the noon of the 19th, and the noon of the 
•^Oth, forty-two miles to the south-southwest ward ; 
and is taken into the account in fixing the position 
of Sapata, > ^"* '\ ""f ' 

Having passed this isMid^'lii^e wbod" to the west- 
ward, and, at midnight^ sounded, and found a bot- 
tom of line sand at the depth 6f fifty fathoms. 
The violence of die wind abating in the , morning 
of the 20th, we let out the reefs, and directed (mi 
course to the v;est by south for Pulo Coiidore* 



Ibui* latitude, at noon, was 8^ 46' north, and our 
llongitude 106° 45' east j and, between tweWe an4 
bae, we had a view of that island, in a western di- 
Irection. 

At four o'clock in the afternoon, the extremes 
of Pulo Condore, and the islands that are situate 
it, bore southeast and southwest by west ; and 
lonr distance from the nearest islands was about two 
Imiles. We sailed to the northward of the islands, 
Ijind stood towards a harbour at the southwest end 
lof Condore, which, havingr its entrance from the 
northwest, affords the best shelter during the north- 
kast monsoon. At si^ o'clock we anchored in six 
hathoms water, with the best bower ; and the Dis- 
[qovery was kept steady with a stream anchor and 
cable towards the southeast. When moored, the 
extremities of the entrance of the harbour bore 
pest-northwest a quarter west, and north by west ; 
the opeaing at the upper end bore southeast by 
past three quarters eas^ ; and we were about two 
furfongs distant from the nearest part of the shore. 

We had no sooner let go our anchors, than cap- 
Itain Gore fired a gun, with a yiev\^ of giving the 
liahabitants hotice of our arrival, and drawing them 
towards the shore; but it had no effect. Early the 
laext morning parties were dispatched to cut wood, 
las captain Gore's principal motive for touching at 
this island was to supply the ships with that arti- 
cle. During the afternoon, a sudden gust of wind 
[broke the stream cable, by which the Discovery 
rode, and obliged her people to moor with the 
|t)Ower anchors. 

As none of the islanders had yet made their ap- 

ir4ncet,;j^9twath|):aBdittg the fiiang of. f jecQud 



Mi. 



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gun, captain Gore thought k advisal'Ie to go aJ 
ahore in search of tliem, that we might lose no time 
ill opening a traffic for such provisions as the plac 
could furnish, us with. For this purpose hedesirtnl 
captain King to accompany liim in the moniing oi 
the 22d; and, as the wind ^t that time blew vie 
'■] lently from the eastward, they did not think it con^ 
Bistent with prudence to coast in their boats to tli< 
"'■ town, which stands on the eastern side of the islandj 
. but rowed round the northern point of the har- 
bour. 

^ They had proceeded along the shore for thd spat 
of about* two miles, when percriving a road that lee 
^ into a wood, they landed. Here capls^in King left] 
captain GoVe, and, attended by a niidBhipman am 
/ four armed saiIore(, pursued the path which app^faredj 
to point directly^ across the island. They passed! 
through a thick wood, up a' hill of considerablel 
' ' steepne'ssjj' to the distance of a mile, whc?n,. after| 
,^ they had descended tlirottgh gi wood of eqiuA ex- 
^nt, bri^hi^ other side, they arrived ih an b^en)%| 
v' '"Vel, sandy country!', interspersed with groves' of cab- 
bage-palm and cocoa-nut trefesi aad Cukiv^d* spots! 
...., of tobacco and;nce.-- 'r--^^^--^' i-'^ :>'■': -^ ; •V'':d^-''r: 
^ •* -Here they descried^t^wo^Wit^, ^fltiife on the ex- 
, tWrnity- of the wood, to which' they directed tMrl 
march. Before they cameiup to thes^ habitations, 
^ .,Vthey were observed by' twbifi^'n, who* instantane- 
ously ran away from tliem, tir^twithstatnding all thel 
/ peaceable and supplicating geytiir^s ouf party could 
■> devise. On reaching the, huts Captam King* ap- 
prehending that the sight of s» many armed men I 
'' fiiight terrify the natives, commaTide^d" his^'attfeVid- 
: ants to remain without, while' he entered' and' rc^ 
V . connoitred alone. In one of tlic huts h^ found <m\ 



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klJ(^rly in^n, who was in a great consternation, and, 
pas preparing to retire with the most valuable of hia 
fets that he was able to carry. Mr King, liow- 
iver, found means, in a very short time, so entirely 
dissipate his terrors, that he came out, and called 
jto tlxe two islanders, who were running away, to re- 

I Captain King and the old man now quickly came 
Bo a perfect understanding. A few sig^s, particu- 
urly that significant one of slwwing a handful of 
iollars, and then.pointing to a herd of buiTalocs, as 
^uil as to the: fowls that were running in consider^j , 
ble TiUmbcrs about the huts, left him under no' 
)ubt3 with respect to the real objects of the c^p^ 
in's yjsit,, He immediately pointed to the spot 
iriiere the town was situate, and niade Mr King 
)mprehend that, by repairing thither, all his ne- 
cessities would be supplied. ^^ , 
JBy this time the two fugitives had returned, and. 
one of tljiem was ordered by the. old man to conduct 
lour party to the town, as soon as an obstacle, oC 
irhich they were not aware, should be removed. On 
|llieir first leaving the wood, a herd pf bu^aloes, con.t 
psting of ajt least twenty, rau towards them, toF- 
king up their heads, snuffing the air, and making a 
lideous roaring. They had followed our people to 
le huts, and now remained at a small distance drawn 
bp in a body ; and the old man signified to captain 
king, that it would be extremely dangerous for our 
irty ta move till the bufFaloes had been di^iven in- 
|to the wnoods ; but these animals had became so,ent, 
iged at the sight of them, that this vv^as not ac^ 
fcoi^plished y/ithout. Eonae difficulty. The men, in^ ' 
Ideed, were u^aj^le tQ effect it ^ but, to the suiTnse 



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A VOYAGE TO THE 



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of captain King and his connpanions» they cal!e( 
some little boys to their assistance, who speedih 
drove the animals out of sight. It afterwards ap. 
peared that, in driving the buffaloes, and sccurini 
them, which is done by putting a rope through 
hole made in their nostrils, it was customary to em. 
ploy little boys, who, at times when the men woulc 
not venture to approach them, could stroke anc 
^andlc them with impunity. 

After the buffaloes had been driven off, our part^ 
were conducted to the town, which was about 
mile distant ; the road to it lying through \a deej 
wliitish sand. It stands near the aea-side, at the 
bottom of a retired bay, which affords good shekel 
during the prevalence of the southwest monsoon. 

This town is composed of between twenty an< 
thirty houses, which are built contiguous to eacl 
other. Besides these, there are six or seven others 
dispersed about the beach. The roof, the two ends, 
^nd the side that fronts the country, are constructec 
of reeds in a neat manner. The opposite side, whicl^ 
faces the sea, is perfectly open ; but the inhabitants^ 
hy means of a kind of screens made of bamboo, cai 
exclude or admit as much of the air and sun as tlie^ 
think proper. There ?.re likewise other large screens 
or partitions, which nc^iTc to divide, as occasion ma^ 
•^^I'cquire, the single r om, jof which the habitationj 
properly speaking, consists, into separate apart^ 
jtnents. 

The islander, who acted as a guide to our partyij 

'J'tonducted them to the largest house in the townJ 

belonging to the chief, or (as the natives styled him] 

the Captain. At each extremity of this house wa^ 

a room^ separated by a partitiop of recd^ from the 



T f I 



PACIFIC OCEAN. 



20$ 



onddle space, which was uninclosed on cither side, ■ 
aud vva^ furnished with partition-screens like the o- * 
tliera. There was also a penthouse, which projected . 
to the distance of four or five feet from the roof, and 
ran the whole length on each side. Some Chinese 
paintings, representing persons of both sexes in lu- 
jdicrous attitudes, were hung at each end of the 
[middle room. In this apartment our people were 
requested to seat themselves on mats, and betel was ' 
presented to them. 

Captain King, fey producing money, and point- , \ 
ling at different objects that were in sight, met with 
no difficulty in making one of the company, who 
seemed to be the principal person among them, com- 
prehend the chief design of his visit ; and as readily 
understood from him, that the chief or captain wai ^ 
at this time absent, but would quickly return ; and^ 
that no purchase of any kind could be made with- * 
|)QUt his concurrence and approbation. 

Our party took advantage of the opportunity af*^ 
[forded them by this circumstance, to walk about the> 
town ; and did not omit searching, though inef- 
fectually, for the remains of a fort, which some of 
lour countrymen had built in the year 1702, neacf 
the spot they^were now upon *. On their returq? 

• Thef English settled on this island in I7pa, and brought 
[with them a party of Macassar soldiers, who were hired to 
contribute their assistance in erecting a fort ; but the presi- 
dent of the factory not fulfilling his engagement with them, 
ihey were determined upon revenge, and one night took anr ' 
[opportunity of murdeHng all the English in the fort. 'X'ho«# 
[who were without the fort, hearing a noise, were greatly 
fiarmed, and, riuining to their boats, narrowly escaped witll'>^ 
m^ix livef to the Johore dominioosi whetuc they met witlir; 



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A VOYAGE TO THE 



to the house of the captain, they v ^i*e sorry to find 
that he had not yet arrived, particularly as tJie time 
which had been fixed by captain Gore for their re- 
turn to the boat was nearly expired* The inhahi- 
tants desired them to protract their stay, and even 
proposed their passing the night there, offering to 
accommodate them in the best manner they were 
able. 

Mr King had observed, when he was in the house 
before (and now remarked it the more), that the 
person above mentioned frequently retired into one 
of tlie end rooms, where he continued a short time, 
before he answered the interrogatories that weilp put 
to, hi^^ This induced Mr King to suspect that 
the Captain had been there the whole time, though^ 
for reasons with which he himself was best ac- 
quainted, he did not think proper to make iiis ap- 
pearance. He was confirmed in this opinion, by 
being stopped as he attempted to enter the room. 
At length it evidently appeared that Mr King's 
suspicions were well founded ; for, on his preparing 
to depart, the person w^ho had passed in and out so 
many times, came from the room with a paper in 
his hand, and gave it to him for his perusal ; and 
he was not a little surprised at finding it to be a 
kind of certificate, written in the French language, 
of which the following: is a translation :— - * W ' 

W ■ ^ • ■ . ; '' ■ i ■ . . ■...*. ■ • ._ r r- : ' .'i • ' 1 . \ 

' Peter Joseph George, Bishop of Adran, Apoc- 
tolic Vicar of Cochin*China, &c. The little Man- 
darin, who is the bearer hereof, io the real Enyoy 

very humane treatment. Some of tftese afterwards repaired 
to Benjar-Massean, in the island of Borneo, for the purpo^i 
of forming a settlement. , • , . x c ' { 






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PACIFIC OCEAN. 



207 



of tlie Court to Pulo Condore, to attend there for 
the reception of all European vessel^ jyho&e deslina- 
tion is to approach this placC| &c.^' ^ " • ".'^l^vf 

Jug. la 1779. i'K*^ te "B^:l#^^•>;*v'i;,•i..vi1 ' i A'f ^--^ ^ 



Captain King returned the paper, with iriany pro- 
testations of our people being the Mandarin's good 
/riends, and requested he might be inforn^ed that 
they hoped he would do them the favour to pay 
them a visit on board the ships, that they might 
convince him of it. They now took their leave, be- 
ing, upon the whole, well satisfied with what had 
happened, but full of conjectures with regard to 
this extraordinary French, paper. Three of the in- 
habitants proposing to attend them bac'i, they rea- 
dily accepted th'e oiler, and returned by the way 
they had Gome<ir.i^#t*''i?^;'-t^;j&*^,M0*;-fcs^'' «f -a^.'^ |;*«'?^^«.>i*=,v,,> . 

Captain Gore was extremely pleased at seeing 
them again ^ for, as they had exceeded their ap-* 
ppinted.time by almost an hour, he began to en- 
JtEtain apprehensions for their safety, and was pre- 
paring to march after them. He and his party had, 
during Mr King's absence, been usefully occupied, 
}n loading the boat with the c£.bbage-pa!m, which is 
.very plentiful in this bay. The three guides were 
each presented with a dollar, as a compensation for 
their trouble ; and a battle of rum for the Mandarin 
was entrusted to their care. One of them thought 
jjiToper tp accompany our people on board.i* > '^ 

The captains Gore and King rejoined the ships 
at two o'clocI| in the afternoon ; and several of our 
^hooting parties returned from the woods about the 
mm titne, having met with no great success, thou^i 

s , 2 • 



.41 



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a68 



A VOYAGE TO THE 



they had seen k considerable vaiiety of olrds dnd 
other aninials. some of which will he noticed here- 

•Iter* ,- ij -t ■ ■■■ '^Li.,\:i J'i* "-•.'. *i; , if : ' ■ ,■■, vv/v *ro'«7.;.-4»,%'' ,■>■■. V y^. v. '■.♦•;., "j.trn 

Six men, in a proa,' rowed up to the snips at five 
o'clock, from the upper end of the harbour ; and 
one of them, who was a person of a decent appear- 
ance, introduced himself to captain Go.re with an 
ease and politeness which indicated that he had been 
accustomed to pass his time in other company thaw 
v/hat Condore afforded. He brought with him the 
French certificate above transcribed, and gave ds to 
understand that he was the Mandarin mentioned in 
it. He could speak a few Portuguese woi'ds j biu., 
•HS none of us had learned that language^ wc 'V'. 
under the necessity of having recourse to a black 
man oli board, who was acquainted with the Ma- 
layan tongue, which is the general language of the e 
islanders, and was understood by the Mandarin. 
***After some previous conversation, he informed ift 
that he professed the Christian faith, and had been 
baptized by the appellation of JLuco ; that he had 
been sent to this island in the preceding August, 
from Sai-gon, the capital of Cochin-China, and ht 
waited since that time in expectation of some French 
vessels, which he was to conduct to a safe harbour, 
on the coast of Cochin-China, not above ouv: day's 
sale from Condore. We told him that vve were not 
of the French nation, but of the English ; an(f 
asked him whether he had not heard that those two 
kingdoms were now at war with each otl '<-. He 
replied in the affirmative ; but intimated to us at the 
same time, that it was a matter of indifference tQ 
him to what nation the ships he was directed to wait 



i 



ipY appc 
into a tr 

He ni 
quested 
and add] 
«' ships 
suppose, 
frenckj 
^il Euro 
our read 
that it V 
the cert 

Its C{ 
"That 
f< gence 
" woulc 
,'* in coi 
« on til 
" to Pi 
" vesse 
« ther. 
" accoi 
f* to th 

it i ">,«■' ^1 
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" at I- 
" prop 
" uthei 
i* a let 
*.* occas 
** comr 

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at five 
r; and 
ppear- 
ath an 
d been 
y than 
lim the 
re dsto 
jned in 



black- 
le Ma- s 
)f thcc e ■ 
irin. 
Tnedi^fis 
id been 
he had 
Lugust, 
and ht 
French 
arbour, 
It day^s 
'ere not 
fi ; and 
ose two 
r. He 
18 at the ^ 
jnce tc g 
to wait ^ 



fi)r appertained, provided their object was to cuut 
into a traffic with the people of Cochin-Cliina. . .{ .. 

He now produced aiiot her paper, which he re-i. 
quested us to peruse. This was a letter sealed up. 
and addreosed " To the Captains of any European 
M ships that may toqcli at Coiidpre." Though we 
suppose that this letter was particularly inttadcd for 
french vessels, yet, as the direction coipprehended 
^11 European captains, and as Luco was desirous of 
our reading it, we broke the seal, and perceived 
that it was written Jby|h^|.|a^ i^i^^op v/ho .wit^tf 
the certiliipate. ' , ','./ '1^^'' . .. -...i;. 

Its contents were to the following purport :— -r 
,^' That he had reason to expect, by some intelli- 
f< gence lately received fiom Europe, that a ship 
" would, in u short time, come to Cochin-China^ 
,'< in coiisequeiice of which nevvS, he had prevailed 
<^ on the Court to dispatch a Mandarin (the bearer J 
<* to Pulo Condore, to wait its arrival : that if the 
" vessel shoulci touch there, the captain might ei- 
f^ ther send tp him, by the bearer of this letter, an 
" account of his having arrived, or trust himself 
i* to the direction of the Mandarin, who would pi^. 
" h*; the ship into a commodious port in Cqphin- 

^^/•na, not exceeding a day*s sail frpm Pulo Con- 
' i r« : that if he shoujd be inclined to coiftinue 
" at l-+i8 inland till the return of the messenger^ 
" proper interpreters should be sent back, and any 
" other a distance, which might be pointed out in 
." a letter, should be furnished : that there was no 
f* occasion for being i^ipre particular, of which the 
^* commander himself must be sensible." Thi^ 
oiftle had the same date with the certificate, 



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A VOYAGE TO THE 



was returned to Luco, without our taking any copy^ 
of it.'^'='' ■-•■•-•- 

From the whole of the Mandarin's conversation, 
as well a8 from this letter, we had little doubt that 
the vessel he expected was a French one. We found, 
at the same time, that he was desirous of not losing 
Jiis errand, and was not unwilling to become vour 
pilot. We could not discover from him the pre- 
cise business which the ship he was waiting for de- 
signed to prosecute in Cochin-China. The black, 
indeed who acted as our interpreter on this occa- 
sion, w*^ ;eedingly dull and stupid: we should, 
therefore, - sorry, having such imperfect means of | 
information, to run the hazard of misleading our 
readers by any of our own conjectures, relative to 
the object of the Mandarin's visit to Pulo Condore. 
We shall only add, that he acquainted us that the 
Frenck vessels might perhaps have touched at Tir» 
non, and from thence sail to Cochin-China ; and, 
ad no intelligence of them had reached him, he ima- 
gined that this was most likely to have been the I 



case. 



^^MMv^^C'^^-yMm^'^m^^^^^'^^^m^'^i^'^-'^^^ 



' V Captain Gore afterwards inquired, what supplies 
could be procured from this island. Luco replied, 
that there were two buffaloes belonging to him, 
which were at our service ; and that there were con- 
siderable numbers of those animals on the island, 
which might be purchased for four or five dollars 
each ; but captain Gore thinking that sum veiy mo- 
derate, and appearing inclined to give a much greater 
for them, the price was speedily augmented to sc- 
fen or eight dollars. ^ w 

' On the 2Sd, early in the morning, the launches 
Off both our ships were dispatched to the town, to I 



J . ? 



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.'.>■■■"' 



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PACIFIC OCEAN. 



211 



bring away the fcufFalof s which we had given orderl 
for the purchase of ; -but they were under the ne* 
cessity of waiting till it was higk water, not being 
able at aay other time to make their way through 
the opening at the head of the harbour. Upon their ; 
arrival at the town, the surf broke against the beack 
with such fury, that it was not without the greatest 
difHculty that each of the launches brought a buf* 
faloe on' board in the evening ; and the officers em» 
ployed in this service declared it as their opinion, 
I that, not only from the violence of the surf, but al* 
80 from the femcity of the buffaloes, it would be 
highly imprudent to attempt to bring off^any more 

this way. . - .p. ^ .,^\,m-'-- „ >r :.;r •. '»'/-'*' 

We had procured eight of ifct^' sftdmi^' anct 
were now at a loss in what manner we should get 
them on board. We could not conveniently kill 
more than just served for one day'6 consumption, a«, 
ia the climate in which we now were, meat would 
not keep till the oext day. After consulting with 
I th» Mandarin on this paint, it was determined that 
I the remainder of the bufMoes shoY^d be driven 
through the wood, and over the hiU down to the 
bay, where our two captaina had landed the pre-? 
ceding day ; whiefi being sheltered from the wind^ 
was consequently more free from surf. - ^ 

This plan was accordingly executed^ but the un- 
tractableness and atnaztng strength of the animah 
rendered it a slow and difficult operartion. The mode 
of conducting them Was, by putting ropes through 
their nostrils, and round their horns 5 but whca, 
they were once enraged at the sigl . of our people, . 
ihey became so furious, that they sometimes tore 
ftsunder the carlil^^ ?f -^ Bostri!, through whic^ . 



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212 



A VOYAGE^ TO, THE 



^ ^he ropes passed, and set themselves at liberty • at 
r > ptHer times tbey broke the trees to which it- whs 
frequently found necessary to. fasten themo On such 
' pccasioHS all the endeavours of ourmen^^for the re- 
'■ covery of them, would, have been unsuccessful, with- 
- ' put the aid of some little boys, whom the bulFaloes 
■ ,; would suffer tp approach them, and by whose pue- 
rile managements their rage was quickly appeased ; 
\ ^nd when, at leiigth, they had been brought down 
to the be^ch, it w-aB tjy; their assistance, in twisting 
, ropes about their legs, in the mangier they were di- 
rected, that pur people were enabled to thfow them 
, . . down, and by, tlm|,in^^5»^,to,.^?r^t^^^ 
, boats. : ^ ^ ' 

; %^ A circumstance relative to these animals, which 
•we considered as no lessi singular than their gentle- 
ness towards childr^ni and seeming afi^ctipn for 
them, was, 'that they had npt been a whple day on 
boarid before they were as tame a^ possibly. Cap- 
tain King kept two of them, one -of each sex, for 
a coBsideriible tine, which became great fdvpurite» 
► with the seamen. Thinking that, a breed of ani- 
- mals of $uch magnitude and jtrength, some of which 
weighed, whqn dressed J seven hundred pounds, 
•would be an acquisition of scmc' value,, he intended 
to have brought tjiem with him to England ; but 
that design vvas frustrate^ by an incurable hurt which 
.-';,. one of thcm^received at sea. „;^,.|^s^^')i:^^|^^t, *•:•;?■ 
. ''.[ -^^ The buffaloes were not allbrouglit qn board be- 
1. V fore the 28th,. We had no reason, however, to re- 
r gret the time occupied in this service, since, in that 
. , •, interval, two wells of excellent water had been found, 
- - in c(^5^equetice of which discovery, part of the com- 
•^V^. ponies of both ships had beeu employed ia providing 

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PACIFIC OCEAN. 



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i competent supply 6f it. We likewise procurcd( 
i quantity of wood ; so that a shorter stay would 
be requisite in the Straits of Sunda, for recruiting 
our stock, of these necessary articles. A party had 
also been engaged in' drawing the seine at the head 
of the harbour, where they caught a great number 
[of good fish ; and another party had been busiedt 
fti cutting down the cabbage-palm, which was boiled 
jttid served out with the meat. Besides, as we oh- • 
tained but an inconsiderglble supply of cordage at 
Macao, the repairs of our rigging had become an^ 
c/bject of constant attention, and demanded all the 
time we could convenieiltly spare; , . „ . ^ 

Pulo Condore is elevated and uiotAi^aiuCrus, Ibd 
is encompassed by several islands of inferior extent* 
some of which are abtout two miles distant, and o* 
thers less than one mile. Its name signifies the 
island of calabashes^ being derived from two Malay 
words, Puio implying an island, and Condore a ca- 
labash ; great quantities of which fruit are here pro- 
duced. It is of a semi^circular form, and extends 
seven of eight miles from the most southerly point, 
in the direction of northeasl. Its breadth'^ in any 
part^ does not exceed two milesi " ' - , *y * . .; 

From the westermost extreme the land; for the 
space of about four niiles, trends to the southeast* 
ward ; and opposite this part of the toast stands anr' 
island, called, by Monsieur D'Apres, in the Nep" 
tune Orientaie, Little Condore, which extends two 
miles in a similar direction. This situation of thb 
t\«^o islands affords a secure and convenient harbour, 
the entrance into which is from the northwestward/ 
The distance of the two oppbsite coasts front eaclr 
other is ai)out three quarters of a mile, exclusive of 



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A VaYAGE TO TH^ 



a border of coral rock, running along cacli side, anc 

'- " ftre;tching about one hundred yards from the shore.! 

f ^ . The anchorage in this harbour is very good, the 

l^ ' " .depth pf water being from five to eleven fathoms : 

> but the bottom is so soft and clayey, that we met 
: ^ .with considerable dijjiculty in weighing our anchorsJ 
~ • fThere i« shallow water towards the bottom of thj 
Jiarbour, for the extent of , about half a mile, be- 
^ ^yond which the two islands make so n^ar an ap- 
proach to each other, that they Jeave only a pas- 

■ s - ,.^3gC ^ higfifWater for boats. The most commo- 
; If; j^ious watering-place is ^t a beach on the easternl 

' ^./ side, where we found a small stream that subpliedl 
; jus with fourteen or fifteen tons of water in a day. I 

' :\ , ^^With regard both to animal and vegetable pro-l 
Auctions, Fulo Condore is greatly improved sinccl 
Jthe time when it was visked by Dampier. Neitherl 

t^""" that navigator, 'nor the compiler of the East-India! 

J V ^Directory, nsjention any other quadrupeds than hogs, 
// (which are said to be extremely scarce), lizards, 
and guanoes ; and the latter asserts, upon the au. 
thority of Monsieur Dedier, a Frenoh engineer, who! 

^ ^- surveyed this island about the year 17^0, that none 
of those fruits and esculent plants, which are so 
frequently met with in the other parts of India, are| 
to be found here,- except chibbsls (a small so^t o( 
onion ),water-melons,iittIe black beans,§mall gourds,! 
and a few potatO|B8. At present, besides the buf- 
faloes, of it(v^hich animals we were informed there [ 
were several large herds, we purchased frorn tjie in- 
habitants some remarkably fine hogs, of the Chinese I 
breed. They brought us three or four of a wild 
.fpecies ; and our .sportsmen affirmed^ that they perj 



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PACn'ljC OCBAH. 



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1 
irbich likfewlsc abounded witli nVonkies and squir* 

tels ; these, however, were 90 shy, that it was dif-A^" < 

Scftlt to shoot them. .' '. 

One species of the stj^itlrrel, here observed, way , 
)f a beautiful glossy black ; and another sort had^ > 
jrown and white stripes. This is denominated the 
lllying squirrel^ from its being furnished with a thin'"^ 
lembrane, resembling the wing of a bat, ,which ex- 
tends on each side of the belly, from the neck to' 
me thighs, and, on the animal's stretching out itsf- 
legs, spreads, and enables it to fly from one tree to V 
another at a considerable distance. Great numbers 'I i 
)f lizards were seen ; but we do not know that any> '' 
lof our people saw the guario, or another animal"^ 
[which Dampier * has described, as resemWing the' 
guano, though far superior in size. , -,»',' :> - 

Among the vegetable improvements of Pulof^ 

mdore may be reckoned the fields of rice that 
?ere observed : cocoa-nuts, pomegranates, oranges/ , 
[shaddocks, plantains, and various sorts of pompions, w 
[were also found here; though, except the shad- 
pcks and plantains, in no great quantities. ■ 

From what we have already mentioned, respect- v 
Ing the Bishop of Adran, it is probable that the:* 
I sland is indebted to the French for these improve- t ' 
lents, which were introduced, perhaps, for the 
purpose of rendering it a more convenient place of' 
efreshment for any of their vessels that jnaybe de-V - 
kined for Cochin-China or Cambodia. Should they'^ 
ive formed, or intend to form, any settletnent in ^ 
khosc regions,' it is undoubtedly well situate for that ;' 

.i . 1 T "iff! i&A*' ' i-^ •* I i i ' ''~'\ • 









I, 



., • Dampier'8 Voyage,' Vol I. p. 39 i^ ,'' '' 



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purpose^ as well as for annoying the Commerce ol 
their enemies in time of war. 

Though the woods are plentifully stocked with 
the feathered game, our sportsmen had very litit 
success in their pursuit of them. One of oiir gen- 
tlemen was so fortunate as to shoot a wild hen; 
and all our shooting parties were unanimous in de. 
claring that they heard the crowing of the cocb 
on every side, which they said resembled that of 
our common cock, but was more shrill. They ob- 
served several of th^m on the wing, which, how. 
ever, w»?re extremely shy. The hen that was sliot 
was of a speckled hue, and of the same shape with 
a full grown pullet of this country, though some- 
what inferior in magnitude. Monsieur Sonnerat has, 
in a long dissertation, endeavoured to prove that h 
yiras the first person who ascertained the country to 
which this useful and beautiful bird belongs, and 
denies that £)ampier met with it at this island. 
' . The land near the harbour is a continued lofty 
hill, richly adorned, ' from the summit to the edge 
of the water, with a great variety of fine high trees. 
Among others we saw jthat which is called by Dam- 
pier the tar-tree ^ ]but perceived none that were tap. 
ped in the manner described by him. 
;' ^.The inhabitants of Eulo Condore, who are fugi- 
tives from Cochin-China and Cambodia^ are not nu- 
merous. They a^e very swarthy in their complec- 
iion, of a short stature, and of a weak unhealthy 
aspect J and, as far as we had an opportunity of 
judging, of a gentle disposition. «; 

We continued at this island till Friday the 28 
of January ; and, when the Mandarin took his lea 

; 9i m 5*»Ptaia Gore gave him. at to jreque«|, 



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PACIFIC OCEAN. 



217 ^ 




tetter of recommcndaltien to th^ commanders of any 
other vessels that might put in here. He also be* 
stowed on bim a handsome present, and gave him 
a letter for the Bishop of Adran, together with -a 
telebcc^e» which he desired might be pre«ented to 
Wm aa a compliment for the hvonHi/rh had h? 
S€xvedf through his meansi at Pulo Condore* * 

*rbe.l3U:itude of the haiijour at Condore is B^ 40' 
jiortb I its longitude, deduced fmm miiny iutiir O]^- 
servations, 106^ W 46^ ' east ; and the? vatiatibn 
Cf£ the compass was 14' west. At the f\ill arid chai 
of the moon it was high water at 4h. 15 ml appai 
time ; after which tm water eohtlnued' for tw< 
hours without any perceptible alteration, vii, tfll' 
i6h. I5m. apparent time, wfiea tKe el»bcoiiittieiiced 5 
and at 22 h, 15 m. apparent tirtie it was l6lv watelp 
The transition from ebbing to flowing wks ^etf 
quicki being in Jbss than fife fnitiut€fli;\T%e vmifr 
rose and fell seven feet four inches petjlendicuter. 

We weighed anchor on fhe I^Bth, tmd had np 
sooner cleared the harbpur, than v/e stood to thir 
«oilth*8outhwe6t, fpr Ptdo Timoan* On iSunaay 
the 30th> at twelve o'cMk, our latitude, by dS,!» 
servation, being 5^ nprthj and bur longitbde 1 04^ 
45' east, we ^ cihapged' our Course to sotiih three 
quarters .west, having a gentle northeasterly bree^e^ 
attended with fair wea^her^ "^ '^ *;1 '^'^#^ 

The next morning, at two o'clock^ our depth Cff 
water was forty-five fathoms, over t bottom of fire 
white sand. The latitude at this timp, was 4'* / 
north, the longitude 104^ $9' east, and t^ vtrit- 
tion of the cpmpass 31 'east. We had sight of Pulo 
Timoan bx. one m the afternoon ; and, at three, it 
yfzs nine or ten rail^$ distant, bearing south-iouth- 



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2lS ^ A yOVAd£ TO TIfE ^ . B " 

wcft, three quarters west. This island is Viigh anAof l-'ing^ 
well furnished witU woody* an^ has »e^ral Kinallflnorth 80 
Uilcfr lying ofi" it to the wesU »' Imilei. 

At live o'clock^ Pulo Fuissang' was seen, in tbeB At thi 
direction of south by east, thlKe qbiai>ters caat > andyldrifting t 
sA nine, the weathet heing: f^ggy*^ and having, fromla/temoor 
the effect of some current, outrun our rtckoning,Uirection 
wrc wept olose upon Pulo^ Aor, in the latitude of '2°ltant. It 
46' north, and the IwigitVidc of I04t^ 37' east, b<?-lpeaks, ai 
fiii:e we were perfectly aware ©f it ;» in cwisequenceBit. Whci 
)S which- we hauled the wind to the east 'toutheasvftQgs wei 
rd. This couise we prosecuted till inid-4iight,ltliis and 
d then steefed'* south-southeast, for the Straits ofldf a scur 
nca. ^ Ithe sea. 

At noon, on the >«t day of February, the lari J We hi 
tude wa» 1° 2(X norths and the longitude,^ deducedloh the 3< 
froisi a- considerable number of lunar obf?ervation8,lHill, in 
^|p^l05^ east.. We atiitod to the south by f t Jthis hill, 
^nd,J towards sunset, the weather being, clea <ilentrance 
fine, we had a view of Polo Panjaug ^ the body ofl^istaut? ] 
the island- bearing, Wfst-northwest, and the littielof water 
islands, situate ta the southeast of it, west halfllatitude^ 
south/ at the distance of seven leagues^ Otu" latp'ltude 10^ 
4|ude at the same time was 5S^ north. Ivariation 

1^, Qn Wednesday the 2d,, at eight o'elosk in thelof the iii 
morning, we tried for soundings, continuing theltHej^rail 
same practice every hour, till wc h<id passed theltpwardi»i 



Straits of Sunda,^ aiud struck ground with twenty- 
three fathoms of line. At twelve, when our lati- 
tude, by observation, was 22' soutli, our longitude 
183° 14' east, aiid our depth of water twenty f» 
thorns, we arrived in sight of the small islands known 
by th? name of Dominis, lying off the easterapart 



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PACiriC OCEAN. 



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igb ant 
il Kinall] 

in the 
If and J 

gf froml 
kuningJ 
de of 2^ 
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tmits of 

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deducedl 
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ay f ^t 
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body oil 
he littiel 
est half] 
hiX lati?" 

L in the 
ling the 
ssed the 
twenty- 
our latT* 
jngitude 
enty fah 
s known 
:era part 






Ling«n, and Jieanng from north 62® wcat t»« 
north 80*^ weH, at the distance of fifteen or sixtecti 
miles. 

At this time we passed a great quantity of wood"" » • 
drifting on the water; and, at one oMock in the . 
afternoon, Pulo Tya made its appearance, in thc' 

rection of sottf^hwest by west, seven leagues <!«• 
tant. It is a amaU elevated island, with two round '. 

aks, and two detacbed rocks to the northward of >^ 
jit. When we were abreast of this island, ©irt* sound- v < 
ngs were fifteen fathoms. We observed, during v'v 
tliis and the preceding day, considerable quantitie^ s 
|df a scum or spawn, of a reddish hue, Aoatiug onV 
the sea, in a southern directioxi. ;^i -.*- .- »?; • , 

We had sight of thf three islands at idaY-bneat-i 
n the 3d ; and, not. long afterwards, saw Motiopin « . 
Hill, in the island of Banca. At twel^ - o'ciockr' 
this hill, which forms the northeastern^^ uint of the.- 
entrance of the Straits of Banca,' was six league*^ ^: 
Ifeant, bearing southeast half south. Our depth |- 
of water at that time was seventeen fathoms; our^ 
latitude, by observation, 1° AW south ; our longi-,*v 
tude 105° 3' east; ami there was no perceptible"; 
|variation in the compass. Haying gotjto the west* ^ 
of the shoal^ named Fre4eric Endnic, we : entered -1, 
the, straits between two and three, and bore away/ 
towards, the south ; and, in the course of the after-J. ' 
noon, Monopi:i Hili btiaring due east, we aficcr*»v -' 
tained its latitudt to be 2^ 8' south, and its 4an^i-> 
tude 105 '^^ 1 8 ' easti . .; ^ ;^' Ij-iUv^'. i^tidiiJisi. mm^t 'm^^ '■ . ' 

About nine in the evening ^ boat came oft froml /», 
the Banca shore ; but, 3ft<?r tlie, crew kad rowed* • 
round the shipa, they injmediately went sway. We^St ;;;; 
fciiled them ill tlie Malayan tongue, to <:ome oai^ ^' 

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A VOYAGS: -TO THE 



t»ear4» but uo ain^wer was rt? turned. At midaight^ 
fin^ifig tlittre was a strong %idf>' against us, we let 
go our anchors in twelve fathoms water, Monopin 
Hill Waring* north 29^ wort. f / 

In t^e xnOxlading of the 4thi after •netting with 
$Qmc d'iSe^sltf in weigisin^ our aiichor^^ by ceason 
of tfee stiff t^nactoiis quality of the gi^und^ we pro- 
cteded down the straits willi the tide, the incon. 
sideijable /wind we litad from the north dying away 
^as the ^f advanced. At twelve o'clock the tide 
beginning^ i3» wake against tisy and theii? (being a per- 
hsii cai^ir^ ' wfe ' calt anchor In thiiteen fathoms wa* 
terv nt dielliijstanc^ of rhaai^om^ league from what 
is denominated the Third Eoint, on the Sinatra 
«h)bre;j; ^fcnftpiii Hill feeariag north 5^^ liirest, ibi 
owl, lafeitude being 2® $S' sobthj biigitUd^ 1<)S^ 
2$^ em* '- ' 

We weighed at three in the aftcfn^ron, aod cen- 
timted out eonrse throfij^htth<?' stfiuts w^ith a gentle 
bi^ezc. u^t eight o*clodlr we tsnsre abrs^st of the 
Secoryi Fothi^ which we passed within two miles, 
in aevehtecn fathoms water j a suificicftit proof that 
vcadels may border upon this point with safety^ A* 
bout midnight we anchcMred again, on account of the 
tide,;, in thirteen fathoms; Mount Permiseang, in 
tbr iiland of Banca^ being in the direction of north 
7*^ east, and the First Pont bearing soiyth d^*' east, 
at the distance of nine or ten rfiilel. ' ^ > > 

Th^ next maming we weighed anchor, and stood 
on to the scitheastward 5 and at ten b^clock we 
pasised a smail shoals situate in a line with the island 
df.Lusdpara and the First Point, and about five 
mil^ distant from the latter. At twelve, Lusepara 
bearing doutk 574^ ea^ti at' ihe di^ance of fbor 



PACtfic oceaSt; 



221 



mS^s, it$ latitude was determined by xii to W 3** 
18^' aouth, and its longititde 106° 15' east. ,The 
idifFerfetK^e of loiigkiide between the idand of Luse- 
para, which stand* in the southern entrance of the 
Straits of Banca And Monopiii Hill, which forms 
one side of the northern entrance, we found to be 

lx\ passing these straits, ships may miake a nearer 
apjprOach^ to the coast of Sumatra than to that of 
Banca* There att^ ten, eleven,^ twelve, or thirteen 
fathoms, free from shoals and rocks, at the distance 
oi two or three miles from the coast: the lead, 
however, is the mbkt certain guide. The country, 
evenr tt> the edge of the water, is covered with wood; 
and the shores are so , low, that the land is, over* 
flowed ty the sea, which washes the trunks of the 
trees, Ta,this flat and marshy situation of the Su* 
matra shore may be ascribed those thick fogs and 
vapoU^ which were every morning perceived by us, 
not iwithout some degree of dread amd horror, to 
hang over the island, till they were dissipated by 
the solar rays. The shores of Banca are .much 
bolder, and the inland country rises to a moderate 
elevation, and seems* to abound with wood. We 
frequently observed fires on his island duiing the 
night J but' notte on the opposite coastF The tide 
nms ^t the rate of between two and three miles dn 
hour through t^he straits. 

On Sunday the 6th, in the morni ^.g, we' passed 
to the west of Liisepara^ at tKe distfince of four or 
five miles ; oUr soundings, in genera!, being ^\t oc 
six fathoms, and never less than four. We /after-, 
wards 8too4 to the south by east ; and having in* 
crease^ our depth of water to seve fathoms, and 



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brought Ltt^ep^r^ to bear tfue nortK> m^ cliangfei 
oiir Qours^jtcr •oUth' by wfsti ffenuetitiy making u^ 
of (the ile^jiuftd hauling oUta tittle whenever we 
happt^ied to sho^ 9"Ur wat^r. We stjU found the 
soundings i6n the aide of Sfun^tra tot>er^g!alar, and 
shoaling gtadually a^we came nearer the fksove. 

At five o'clock in the afiernoon we descried the 
Sisters, in the direction df sourir by weet ha^west^ 
andy at setenr we cast anchor in ten lathoms water, 
near three leagues to tBe'northward of those isl^s. 
The wfeather w^'efiwe rfhd sultty, with light wands 
blowing, for *the «K3!«t partj iraiii,the nor^hwes^, but 
occasionaSf Wfting round to the^ northeast ; and, 
in the'c6«i»e of the flight, njueh lightning was ob- 
«erved'^v^ Sumatra* ' 

The fdHowittg morning, at fiye, we >reighed and 
madeiailf tmd in thre^hoUr^ afterw^ds we were 
close ittuwith the Sisters; These are two islands of 
very femaft extent, plentifully stocked yith wood, 
situate m the fetitude of, 5° south, and the longi- 
tude of I'O^ W east, nearly ,iouth and north from 
cadi oth«;r, and encompassed by a recf^ of corj^ 
rocks' J the whole circuit of which is four or iive 
-mHes,' At twelve o'clock we had sight of the 
island of Java 1^^ the northwesterrt extreme of whic^ 
♦ (Cape Si Nicolas) bore south ; North Island, ^ar 
th» shore of Sumatra, south ^7^ ^st ; and the Sis- 
ters north 27°, east, at the diataa^e <>f twelve or 
diirieen Rxilcsv \ Our latitude^ at the same timey was 
5<> i^F aouth, and our longitude 105^ 57^ east.^ 

'ASoutfoiir in the afternoon we percfeived two 
vessels in the. Straits of Sunda ; one of which lay at 
anchor near the Mid«char; 1 Island^ the other 
ilearer the ^dfc of Java j and, as we did not know 



w^^ 



'^mm 



PA£lf IC ?0CEAN. 



io wKat nati©ii thtf mjghl; Wcmg^ wc tKdcght pro- 
pef t<> jpr^par^ our fthips £cir action. At six o'clock 
wc dropped our anchors in twenty-five fathoms 
water, .about fourmiles. east by south from North 
I^nd^ Hett we femaiofd the whole mght* during 
which we had very heavy thimder and lightning to 
the i;iort^hW€fttj; th^ ^^^b4 blowing in light breezes 
from the .«aJne quarter, attended with violent rain. 

On the 8th, about eight o'clock in the mornings 
we w^ejighedi aiid proceeded through the Straits' of 
JBt^?» j^he tide settling towards the south, as it had 
done all liihe precedir^ night. At ten, |he wind 
^ling, we anchored again in thirty-fiv(^ fathoms 4. 
an ekvale^ i^and, or rather rock, named the Grand 
To^ue, Rearing south by east. Being, at that time^ 
not above two miles from the ships before mention* 
ed^ which now hoisted Dutch coloms, captain Gore 
sent a boat on ^oard to procure intelligence. The 
rain istill continued, accompanied with tb mder and 
lightning. 

The boat re^uhied easily in the oon, witW 

infomiation, that the larfifer of the two v sf^' wa#* 
a Dutch East^ndiaman, bound for £uu id' 

tl^e other, a packet fVom Batavia, with insttu^ .ions' 
for the sevei-al' ships lying ip tlie Straits. It' is Cus- 
tomary for the Dutch ships, when their cargoes arr 
almost completed, to quit Batavia, on account of itb^ 
very unwholesome climate^ and repair to some of the 
mor^ healthy islands in the Straits, where they wai^ 
for their dispatches, and the remainder of their la- 
din^^.' ^he Indiaman, notwithstanding thi^ precau- 
tion, had lost four i|ien since she had left Batavia 
and had as many mm'e whu^e lives were despaired* 
of. -.gi^ had remained here a fortnight, and w9i» 



f 



I'fn ' 






^•^ 



^24 



A VOYAGE TO THE 



■'^■f'.'^f 






•jM-. 



now on the point of pfb<!c?^dJiiig to Cracatoa td take 
in wat^r, having just received final orders by the 
packet. . w ,. , .. 

At seven o'clock the next morning we "^weighed 
anchor, and steered to the southwestwaiti thirougJi 
the Straits, taking care to keep close in with the 
islands on the Sumatra shore, for the Jiiiroose of 
avoiding a rock near Mid-chiknnellsland| which was 
«ituate on our le^t. :v,»^ , ^ 

Between ten and e!even, captain King was order- 
ed by captain (rore to make sail towards a Dutch 
Vessel that now came in sight to the south wardi and 
\vhich we imagined wus from Europe ; a.id, accord- 
ing to the n?iture of the information that migiit he 
obtained from her, either join him at Ctacttoa, 
where he designed to stop, in order tb^furfjish the 
ships with arrack ; pr to proceed to the southeastern 
Extremity of Prince't Island, and there provide a 
fupply of water, and wait for him. In compliance 
i||rith these instructions, captain King bore down to- 
%vard8 the Dutch ship, which, in a short time after, 
cast anchor to the eastward ; when the current set- 
ting with great force in the Straits to the southwest, 
and the wind slackening, Mr King was unable to 
fetch her : having therefore got as near her as the 
tide would alloye, he also anchored. He immediate- 
ly sent Mr Williamson ift the cutter, with orders 
to get on board the Dutch vessel, if possible; but, 
as she lay at the distance of almost a mile, and the 
tide ran with great rapidity, the boat dropped fast 
astern; in consequence of which, captain King hav- 
ing made the signal toreturtt, began j without delay, 
..tO'Veefc uw^y the cable, and sent^ out a buoy astern, 
tl> assist the boat's ci"evv in get^ng on board agaico 



:*/. 



lil 



FAcirjc oQi^m. * 



aas 



*!,■ 



Cto poverty, with respect to cordage, wa$, on 
this occasion^ Yer]^< conspicuous ;t for there was notv 
ih fcbe Bsiscovery'* store-room, a single 4:oil of rope 
to fix to the buoy ; so that hjer people were under 
the necessity of veering away two cables, and the 
grelfcter part of their running rigging, before the 
boat, which was driving very rapWy to the , south- 
ward j could fetch the buoy. 

Captain King was now obliged to wait till the 
force of Uts tide should abate ; and thi^ did ^not 
ha|^n till the following morning, when* Mr 
W^Hiamson went on board the Dutch ship, and was 
informed, that she' had been seven months fjipm 
Europe, and three from the Cape of Good Hope ; 
that^ibefore her departutie, the fcing« of Fijaijce and 
Spain hi^dedlarcd,. war against his Britannic Ma- 
jesty ; and that shfe had fcft Sir lEdwa^* Hughes at 
the Cape with a squadron of men of war, and also 
a 4ket of East-India shifts* Mr Williamson beings 
at the same time, assured, that the water of Cracatoa 
was extremely good, and that the Dutch always 
preferred k to that of Prince's Island, icaptaia King 
determined tOi rejoin the Resolution at the fwrmer 
places He therefore, taking the advantage of a 
fair fcreeze, weighed, and made sail towards the 
island of Cracatoa, where he soon aft^r perceived 
her at anchor ; but the tide setting forcibly against' 
him, and the wind fading, he again thought, proper 
to casiti anchor at the distance of near two' leagues 
from the Resolution, and immediately dispatched a 
boaft'on libard, to communicate to captain Gore the 
int^igence p^ciilfed by Mt Williamsom 

When the Resolution saw her consort preparing 
to come, she fired her gunsi and displayed th|;<siga% 



m 
111 



•V 



5»46 



A totisOE ire THE 



k-„ 









Ibr leading/af^head, fey hokthigiW En^lisfe^'atei^^t 
the ensign staff. Thi« wa« intended to prevent tiie 
Discovery's Siiiehoring^ on auxount of tlie tou! 
ground, which the maps on board the Kesolution 
placed in this situation. However^ as csq^ain King 
met with noiie, but, on the contrary, found a muddy 
bottom, arid good ^nchoring^ground at th^ depth 
of sixty fathoms, he remained fast till the return of 
the'bo^t, whicih brought him orders to proceed to 
Prince's Island the ensiung morning. He was at 
this time aboiit twO miles diattant from the shore; 
t^e Peak of Gracatoa bearing northwest by north, 
Frirjce's lelarid southwest by west, and Bantam 
Point east-northeast half «ast. !, 

Cracal^^ is the southermosttyf a cluster of islands 
lying in the entrance of theStraits of Sunda. It 
has a lofty petiked liill at ks southern extremity*, 
which is situate in the ktitude «if 6^ .^- south, and 
the bn'gkudefof 105*^ 15' ^ssit. The whole circnm* 
fj*rence 'dp the inland d^es not exceed nine miles. 
Off its northeastern extreme is a smatt island, for- 
nxift^' the rd;^. where the Resolution anchored ; and 
within a re«^f running off the southern end of the 
latter there is tolerably shelter, against all northerly 
winds, with twcnty^seven fathoms water in the mid^ 
channel, >^nd eighteen near the reef. Towards the 
northwest' there igi a^ isarh)5iv- passage between the 
two intends fot boats*' ' ^ i^ * ^ > 

IJjie shot^ that domtitutei ihe west side erf the 



t^-\ ; 



- • * . ■ 



:m._/ 



sff l^i^undiof Sainbo«riooti,.or^rTamaritv which stands 
twelve or thirteen miles 19 the/northward of jCr^catoa, may 
easily be mistaken for the, latter, since it ha» a hill of nesurly 
■^''- ■■ figure and dimensions, situ|ite I^ewisie near its 



^'e same 



'■^. 



bank o 
of the 
ficult i 
but tH< 
of rnci 
ed a SI 
the sou 
distsuic 
is a «p 
used b^ 
eff the 
ashore^ 
had Ion 
out siic 

Crac 
mg on 
edwitl 
cleared 
rice fie 
inconsi( 
of Ban 
islands 
reefll af 
refresh] 
a very 
as .very 
cbuntri 

Tht 
east an 
vation, 
keeper 
pass w 
and cb 



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^ 



ihi^^cmc oct^. 



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atckat 
tit t*i« 
? 6»ul 
lution 
King 
uddy 
depth 
Lirh of 
jed to 
nras at 
shore ; 
north, 
kntam 

fsilands 

a. It 

mity*, 
:hy and 
;irc»m- 
miles. 
d, for- 
d; and 
of the 
rtherly 
te mid'* 
ds the 
en the 
> 
off the 

' •. / . • 
1 stands 
pa, may 
r nejirly 
dear U$ 



r6tfd tnx\% m t a^ north we Aevly dkectioiif and has a 
bank of coral extending into the sea about a third 
of the Iciigth of' a cahie^ whiclt rcndefs knding dif- 
ficult iot boattty ex«£ept a^ the time of highrwater f 
butthe anchoring-grounil » very good, and clear 
ofi«pcks. Ilie place where the Re8olutL>n procur- 
ed a s«pply lof water is a t^mall spring abreast of 
the southenV extreme of the small island^ at no great 
distance from. the. jsea-sicfe. To the southward there 
is a 8|>ring, whose water i% extremely ho€y and is 
used by the inhabitants a» a bath^ Whilst we lay 
e£F the south end of this island, the master was sent 
ashore^ in a boat^ to search for water v l>u«> after he 
had landed with some difficulty,' he returned with* 
out success^ ' , , i 

Cracatoa consists of elevated land, . gradually ris- 
ing en all sides from the sea j and is entirrly cover- 
ed with treeSy excejpt a few spots which have beeit 
cleared by the natives i^ the pwpose of forming 
rice fields. The population of the island is very 
inconsideraye. its chief is dependentt on the King 
of Bantam, to whom the chiefs of all the other 
islands in the Straits are also subject. The coral 
recfil afford snmll turtles in abundance > but other 
refreshments are exceedingly- searcse,. and are sold at 
a very exorbitant price. This island i> ^nsidered 
as very iiealthy, in eompariaou of the neighbouring 
countries. '^^ ; 

The latitude of the road where the Resolution: 
east anchor is 8° 6^ south > its longitude, by obsei'4^ 
vation, i05*^ 36' east, and, by Mr Bailey's time*- 
keeper^ 105*^ 48' eastv The variation of the com- 
pass was 1^ west, k i« high- water,' on the full 
and«{iaug« days,^at leveq o'dock in the moroingri^ 



^^-I'yy 



'^■>;t 



'5f 



.&' 






iL;. ^J 






7^i 



^ W9Y\OZ 'BO THS 



tnc^ih^^ Water m^a three feet two inches pes^^ndb. 
^ulat*. 

' Abdul eight in the evening the wind i>egtd to 
blow fresh frdm the westf accompanied virith vioJeat 
thundery 'li^htning^ Und rain. The next morning 
(the Itlt'*) at three o^clock, captain King weighed 
anchor, and ^steered for Prince'* Iilandj but the 
Westertjr'«^riiui dying away, a breeze from the south- 
east sucteeded^ and the tide, at the same tiine^ set- 
ting with great force to the eoutbwestward^ rhte was 
prevented from fetching the isia^, and obliged, at 
two in the afternoon, to anchor «ifc the distance of 
niiie or ten miles from it, in sixty-iivie i^hom& water, 
over '^ muddy bottom; the elevated hill bearing 
southwest by south, and the peak of Craeatoa 
north by fast. ' i' -^-i 

-< Light airs and calms prevailed till six o'clock the 
following rnioriung, at which time the Disfiovery 
Weighed and made sail, thoiigh, in heaving tlie an- 
chor out of the ground, the old messetiger was twice 
broken, and also a new one^ This, -however, was 
entirely owing to the miserable .state of the jiDrd* 
age^ since th« strain was not very considerable W^i.' 

The wind being fair, she came to. an anchoi*, at 
twelve o'clock, off the soiiftheasteni extremity of 
Prince's Island, ki twenty-six fanhdms virater, over a 
bottom of sand, at the distance of half a jnile from 
the liearest part of the shore ; the east end of the 
islarid bearing north-northeast, the high peak axHth- 
wt^tlralf-west, and th^ ai<i^ southerly point io view 
ffouthwest by «otlth. *^ ,^' ; , 

The Discovery had no sooner anchored, than 
Xieuteniant I>aimyo$i| who had been at this isknc^ 
p4^ feir 177p9.witk'ci^ta^ Cook, Was distatchi 



m 



'S t* 



^^'^i^AGIFIC dCEAl^r.-^ 



< 4 



ping 



ed, in company with the master, to search {of the 
watering-place. The brook from whi<;h the En- 
deavour, according to the b^st of Mr Lannyon's 
n^collection, had hitn furnished, was now found wt- 
tremely salt. "I^ey observed further inland a dry- 
bed where th*'W«ite4-had probably lodged in rainy 
seasons; and another run, about a cablets length 
below, supplied from a spacious pool, whose bottom^ 
at w^ll as surface, was covered with dead leaves. 
This, though somewhat brfeckish, being far superior 
to the other, the Discovery's people began water- 
ing here early in the momitig of the 1 3th, and fi- 
nished that scrvide tho same day. 

The inhabitants, who came to them soon aftw 
they had anchored^ bft)ught a considerable quantity 
of fowls, and some turtles 5 the last, hbweter, were 
In general very small. During the night it rained 
with great violence ; and on M6nday the 14th, at 
day-break, the Resolution was seen to the north 
steering Jtowards the island^ and about two o'clock 
ki the afternoon she cast anchor close tp the Dis- 
covery. ' ' 

As captain Gore had not eoiqplet^ his stock of 
water at Ci'acatba) he ^nt his men at^hore on the 
1 5th, who repaired to the brook that was first men- 
tioned, which was noW becoiiie perfectly sWcet in 
Consequence of the fain, and flowed m great abun- 
dancCi This Hb^iiig a treasure too valuable to be 
disregarded, captain King gave orders, that all the 
casks which the seamen of his ship haa before lille^ 
should be st^irted, and replenished with the fresh 
water. This was accordingly performed b^r twelve; 
t>'^leck the next day ; 4nd iri the evening the decks 
were cleared, aod b^ vessels pre|)are^ foyr 9^ 



..' .-t 






# 



■ "V 






(■■•■ V - «» 



^. .^> 









.,v-. :■.■■. 



•"jK"- •■•si v,^ ■ -Y "'■ ■'■-'"*"'' lis 



>f3P 



;*.?•'■ 



A VOYAGE TO THE 



♦ ^■' 



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: We had heavey rains, and variable ^winds, hi the 
morning of the 18th, which prevented us from get- 

,^ing under way till two o'clock in the afternoon, 
when a light i>ortherly wind arose j but this bciu^ 
of short duration, we were und^ the necessity ofj 
anchoring again, at eight in the^ e^eiung, in fifty fa- 
thoms watert -The lollowifcv mornings at the tianie 
hour, being favoured by a kiorth westerly breexe, 
we broke ground, to our extreme satisfaction, for 
the last time in tlie Straits of Sunda ; and on the 
20th, we. had totally lost sight of Prince'? I&land. 

As this island has been described by captais 
Cook iq the narrative of a fanner voyage, w^ »h'd\\ 
4)nly add, that We weit uncommenly struck with 
the great general resemblance of the natives in point 
of complexion, figure, manners, and even language, 

^^o the inhabitants^ of the various islands visiti^d by 
us in the Pacific Ocean. 

The country is so plentifully furnished with wood, 
that, notwithstanding the quantities annually cu^ 
down by the cj*ews of the vessels which touch at 
this island, there is no appearance of its diminution. 
We were Well supplied with fowls of a moderate size, 
and small turtles ; the former of which we purcha-' 
8ed at the rate of a Spanish dollar for ten. Th? na- 
tives likewise brought us many hog-deer, and an a* 
mazing number of monkies, to our great annoyance, 
as the greater part of our sailprs found means to pro^ 
cure one* ifnot twp, of these troublesome and mis- 
chievous animals., 

itr' If Mr Laanyon had not been with ws we should 
Jrobably have met with some di^hculty in finding 
the watering-place : it ' may, tbereforey notbe im- 
proper til' give a particular dfi»cfiptio(|i ©f its, skua- 



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tion, Tor tTi'eliencfit of subsequent na vigatort. The 
peaked hill on the island bears northwest by north 
from it ; a remarkable tree, which grows on k. io* 
ral reef, and is entirely detached from the adj%;ent 
shrubs, stands just to the north of it ; and a small 
plot of reedy grass, the only piece of the kind that 
appears hereabouts, may be seen close by it. These 
marks will indicate the place where tibe po6l ^iih* 
charges itself into the sea- ; but the water here, as 
well as that which is in the pool, being in genetaft 
salt, the casks must be filled about fiffty yatds high*^ 
er up ; where, in dry seasons, the frelh water which 
descends from the hills is in a great measure lost a^] 
mong tlie leaves, tmd must therefore be searched for 
by clearing them aw?^y. .) ., : .kj 

V The latitude of the anchoring^jJace at Prince^i^ 
Lslanrd is 6* SG' 1 5^' south, and its Wngttude 105*** 
IT 30" east. The variation of the compass wais 
54' west ; and the mean of the thermometer 83°/-^ 
We had begun to experience, from the time of 
cfur entering the Straits 6f Ban^a, the pernicious ef*- 
fects of this noxioufr climate. Two of the IJiscdi^^ 
very^s people becaiTfie! dangerously ill df mattgnaiflf' 
putrid fevers ; which, however, were prevented froi^ 
being communicated to others, by putting the p?.* * 
tients apart from the rest of the cre^y i*^ the tndit' 
airy births. Many of us were attacked with disi** 
greeable coughs ^ several complained of violeht pailis ' 
in the head ; and even the most healthy persons' a* 
mdng us felt a sensatioii* of suffocating heat, accoift^* 
panied with an extreme languor, and ^ total kiss of « 
appetite. r - - t - '*",:"■ 

though our ifttiiltlon, however, unik' for a time 
tkiis uneasy, and even alarming, wehad^-at last, thtf 






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1 



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l|g^^ A VOYAGE TO THE 

jncxpreasable sa^tisfaction of Escaping from these de- 
structive few )yithout the lots of a aingle lifc. This 
circumstance, in all probability, was partly owing to 
tl|^ vjigoi^s l^^kh of tlie shipp' qonjpanies, on pur 
fiafftt arrival in th^ae parts, as wejl as to the unremit* 
ting attention} that was now become habitual in our 
nacn, to tju? prudent and saluury regulations intro- 
duced Ainong tUt by captain Cook. 

At^be tiiB# 9f our departure from Prince's Island, 
and during ou^ whole pasa;^ge fro^ thence to the 
C^.oif Good Hope, the peoj^e of <the Resolution 
wje^ in >^:&r(?5>ore sickly cpnditipn thaxji those of 
the Discovery,. For though many of Uie crew of 
U^ l^t^ 6|)dpjC9n^nue4> for some time^ to coni- 
plain of the effects of the' pestilential clinaate they 
had \s&ki tji^y aii.ha|ipily recovered- Of the two 
who had l^^en «/{lic^4 ^^^^ f^vers^'one, after having 
b^n seized^ on the 4;2th of February, with violent 
convulsions, whidi reduced him to ^ verge of di9# 
soliition, ohtained suqh relief ,from the application 
g£ blister^, ^t >e wa^ 4>¥t of danger in a short time 
afterwairdft J. Aq .other recovered, bu^ by more slow 
degree^. On \fmA |he Res€^ution, .besides the fe- 
vers and eaughs under which ^he gjneater part of the 
crew Ulpour,^ many were at|i!|cjte4. wi^ fluxes, the 
nfp^bier pf wh(>in,con|irary taour ^expectations, con- 
tij^uedfcp iwgBpie«t |^li.<Mir:#r^va|^^^^^^ Cape of 

Gt^iJop^ ''\ f 

T^Thij d^eiedee wajs paitly 5^s?,iSae<l by captaio 
G^fe, imd probayy j|(>t wi^Pi^t good reason, to 
the JDi^jefyvery's jire-place>jing -between decks; 
the heat and smoke of which, he was of opinion, 
Q$»iitril%ut&d tio^nnitigate the n^^o^s eiffects of the 
ifeinp nocturnal air. But capt^ip^ KiRg was rather 



;." 



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v>-v. 



-f 



1% 



jAcine ociAV/ 



"233 



.*♦<■. - 



inclinec! tcTimagiw, tTi'at his peopfc escaped ihe flux 
by the precautions which were taken to prevent 
their receiving it from others. For, if some kinds 
of fluxes be, as he apprehended they were, conta- 
gions, he thought it not impv->babk that the crew of 
the Resolution cauglit this disorder from the Dutch 
vessels at Cracatoh. For the purpose of avoiding 
this danger, Mr Williamson, wnen he was dispatch* , 
ed to theEast-lndiaman in the er trance of the Straits 
of Sunda, was strictly commanded to suffer none of 
bis people, on any account whatever, to go on board: 
-ind afterwards, whenever the Discovery had occa- 
sion to have any communica\ion^ with her consort, 
the same caution was coiitinnally observed. 

As soon as %ve were clear of Prince's Island, we 
had a light breeze from the west-northwest point. 
This, howevei*, was not of long duration j for, on 
the 20rh, the wind again became variable, and re.^ 
» ained so till the 25th at noon, when it blew fresh 
froni the northward, with squalls. 

On Tuesday the .22d, about t\velve o'clock, wheii 
our latitude wat 10" 28' south, and our longitude 
\{W^ 14' east, we perceived great numbers of boo- 
bies, and other birds that seldom fly to any great 
distance from land. Hence we conjectured, that 
we were not far from some small unknown island. 

The wind, iff the evening of the 25th, shifted 
suddenly to the south, attended with heavy rains, ' 
and blew with very considerable violence. Durinpj/ 
the night almojt all the sails we had bent gave way^ 
and most of them were split to rags ; the rigging ,.. 
likewise sustained material injury ; and, the follow* v 
ing day, we i^^ere und^r the necessity of bending ourl^ 
]^\ suit of sai^ and of knotting and splicing thij ?• 



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cd. We ascnbpd this suddeii tempest to the change 
from the ^^ns<HM| to the regular trade wind. ^We 
had made, aceoirdaitg to our reckonii\g, about 4^ of 
longitude west from Java Head, and our latitude 
was about 13° 10^ 80i;th. 

^ From the 26th of February to the 28th of thp 
succeeding month, we had a regular trade wind from 
jthe southeast t^ ea$t by south, accompanied witt^ 
fine weather ; and, as we sailed in an old beaten 
•tfrack, no iu/cident worthy af notice occurred. On 
the 28th of March, in the forenoon, our latitude be- 
ing *il ° 4t2' south, and our longitude 35° 26' ^ast, 
the trade wind quitted us in a violent thunder storm. 
From this time to the Sd day of April, when we 
>Vere in the latitude of 35^- 1 ' soiah, and the longi*. 
tude of 26^^ 3' east, we had moderate winds# blow- 
ing principally from the south. A fresh easterly 
breeze then ar^se, wh'.ch continued' till the afternon 
of the .4th ; and, for the two following days, a calm 
prevailed.'. ^ *' #^; *■-»'■' ' ^ . ,.«» . 

..Captain* Gore had hitherto designed to proceed 
directly to f€he inland of St Heleiia, without stop- 
ping* at the Cape of Good Hope ; but as the Reso- 
lution's ruddf^r had been, for some time, decaying 
and, on eiuui^ination, was found to be in a dan- 
gerous stai^e, he formed the resolution of repaying 
immediately to the Cape, as being the most eligible 
place, both for providing a new qiain-piece to the 
rudder^ and for the recovery of his sick. 
4; From the 21st day of March, when ouit latitude 
Was 27° 22^ south, and oiir longitude 52° 25' east, 
tix' th^ 5th of Aptil, when we were in the latitude 
af4JU° 12' south,aad thelongitu;ej«j^22° 7 east, 



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icpend- 

:hange 

We 

atitude 

of thp 
dfrom 

beaten 

. On 

Lide be- 
S' ^ast, 
' stonn. 
I en we 

longi^ 
, blow- 
jasterly 
fternon 

a caliii 

irocee^d 
t stop- 
j Rieso- 
caying, 
ladaa* 
pacing 
eligibly 
to the 

latitude 
25' east, 
latitude 



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we $trangly felt the iuflefcnce -of the currents, whicbr 
set -towscds the south-^southweBt, and ftouthwest hjftrj 
\v?f?^t>r8Qme(times at the rate of eighty miles in a day*/ 
Byit^ o;i the 6th pf April, we totally lost them,hay-l * 
ipg. got iindiT tlie lee of th^ Coaet of Africa. -jJ^ 
. , Ip the ,fore»oon of the Gtih a vet^cl appeareiftw 
the sDUtKwest, standing towiatrds us ; and the wind^f ' 
i\otlo^g aft^, beginnijVij to blow froaa the saitnq - 
q^artevt we prepared our ships for action. Wenawl 
perceived, from the masthead, five more sail on ouffl" 
l^e-bow, steering an easterly course ; but the wca*) 
the*" becoming hazy, we lost sight of them all in thtti, 
space of an hour. At twelve x)'clock :the latitudes a 
was 35^ 49 'south, and tlie longitude 21"* 32^ east;?/ 

The fojlcwing morning, at seven o'clock. We de-| 
scried the land to the .^lorth at a considerrWe dis*'! 
tance. . On the 8th, the windblew^ fresh from thcf- 
norihwestj with squalls. The next day it settle<fe 
iu the western point, and we made a pretty near- 
appioa k to ;the vessel seen QU the 6fch, but did not 
hail her. Though she was clumsy in figure, . andi 
to aU appeai'auce> wa^ unskilfully managed, ^hef 
gjfeatly put-$ailed ,U8# The colour? which she hoislH 
ed differed from any we had seen, and were suppos-*^ 
e4 by some of us to be Imperial; but others,iraa«J| 
gine^ they w«re Portuguese. fi^smi'**! 

On Monday the 10th, at break of day, the lan«J 
again made its appearance tp the north-northwest^l* 
ward ; ai;*d, in the course of the mprfmng, a.i»npwf: 
was seen bearing dowu to us. She proved :to i?e anr. 
English East-India packet, whicli h^d quiUciii 
Title Bay three days before, and was nowcruijliji^*^ 
with instructions fpr the fJhinaflt^et, and other india^ 



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Squadron, co^sistii^ 
; the Cape about three weeks before, and was gone 
to cruise off St Helena, in sem*ch of our East-India 
fleet. From this intelligence we conjectuted, that 
the five vessels )we had seen steering toiiheeastMVard, 
probably belonged to the French squadron, which, 
in that case, had relinquished their cruise, and were 
peihaps, proceeding to tlii? island of Mauritius. 
Having communicated our conjectures to the packet, 
and likewise mentioned the time we understood the 
i China fleet wa§ to sail from Canton, we left her, 
and continued our progress towards the Cape.- In 
the evening. False Cape bore east-northeast, and 
the Gunner's Quoin north by east ; but we w^ere 
' prevented by the wind from getting into False Bay 
", , till i the evening of. the liith, when we let go our 
anchors abreast of Simon's Bay. We observed a 
f strong current setting to the west, round the Cape, 
which, for some time, we were barely able to stem, 
with a breeze-that Vtould have carried ua lour aiiks 
: ; an. hour, . - .^- ' -^ ^■- '"'' ■> -•^'* '■-■•■ 

We weighed the iiext morning, and stood into 
Simon's Bay. At eight o'clock, we came to an-r 
' chor, at the distance of one third of ^ mile from 
^, the nearest shore; the southeast point of the bay 
' bearing south by east, and Table Mountain north- 
east half north. We found the Nassau #hd South- 
ampton East-Indiaman lying here, in expectation of 
a convoy for Europe. The Resolution saluted the 
fort with eleven guns, and was complimented with 
>- an equal number in return. 

^^'^*A» soon as we had cast anchor, Mr Brandt, the 
; governor of this place, favoured us with a visit ^ 
A hjs gentlepian had the highest reojard a»d cste^t^ 



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237 



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foi" li^ipttm'Cook, who ma oe^n ms cotistant ^.le^ 
whenever h6 had touched at the Cape ; arjd |hoi)gh> , v,>^ 
he ha4, som^ time befoire, received intelligence of 
his unfortunate catastr<^phe, he was extreoicly af- 
fieqtq^ ;|t jthe aight of* oi^r vessels returnif>g without ; 
their ^d cqmmandei'^ ,fje was gri^^y surprised at 
s^i^g mp^ of our pepple in so robust and heialthy 
a state, as the Dutch sl% which had quitted Majca^Qi? 
at the time of cur arriyaj ther^, ai^4 had afte!r^yard#^^ , . 
stopped at the Cap,^^ repofte^ that we-wer^ iH a^ - •> 
iflost wretched (•'onditioqj th^ff^ beii^g only fourjt^j?n ^^ * 
persons left .on boav^ .the J^esolutiofn^ and seven in. ^ 
the Discovtry. It isdifHc^ll ^o cq^c^ive whaitjJip^ ' 
tiv« ^uld have jndjiced thcye peopje to propagaite* , ;, 
so wanton and infamous a falsehood. 

Captain King, on Saturday the 1 5th, accompani* , 
ed captain Qor^ to Capc^Town ; and^ the follow* 
ing morning, they waited on Baron Plettenberg, the ; 
Governor, who received th|?m; with every possible 
demonstration of civility and poUteness. H^ ^on; 
tiertained a great person^ affection for captain* ; 
Copks and professed the highest admiration of hi$ 
character ; and, on he^ng ihe. recital of his miefoir*^ > 
tune, broke fbrt|i intp /ij^ny pj^^pressions of unaffect- 
ed sorrow. In one of the principal apartments of * 
the Baron's house, he ^^weA our gentlemen two 
pictures^ one <af De Ruyter, the ^ther o£ .Vao; 
Trump, with a vacant spaiae Jeft between themy^V • 
whicht he said, he intended to rfiU up with the por-t 
trait of captain Cook ; and, for this purpose, he re^t- 
quested that they would endeavour to procure one 
for him, at any price, on ihj^ir arrival in Great Bri4 

• * ■ 

The Governor afterwards informed them, thtttiB?' 



/ 



•|1 



ft!*^ 



138 



A VOYAGE TO THE 



1-^ 



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the TUitionis then at war vnth England had iisued 
orders to their respective cruisers to suffer iwto patw 
without molestation. With regard to the French, 
there vtas sufficient reason to consider this as true 
Ibr Mr Brandt had already delivered td catptain 
Gore a letter from Mr Stephens, Secretary of the 
Admiralty, enclosing a transcript of MbrtSieil^ dc 
Sartin^'fi orders, taken on board theLicdrne.' The 
il^air, however, with respect to the Americians, still 
rested on report : butp a* to the Spaniards, * Baron 
Plettenberg assured our gentlemen, that he had been 
expressly told by the captain of a Spanish vessel 
'Which had stopped at the Cape, th^t he, and aM tlie 
oHicers of his nation, had received injunction^ of the 
same nature. -bt ^ i ? -, -^ 

• 'By these assurances, captain Gore was tbrifirnfed 
ifi his resolution of maihtaittingi oh tiis partf 'a neti- 
tlral conduct $ in^ coilsequetice of which, WH^ii, iip^ 
tiie arrival of the 8ibv!> to'c*drivoy the East-India- 
m?m home,' it was proposed ^to Kim to attend thenv 
on 4;heir voyage, he Vhottg^ht proper t6 deelrne an 
<llfer; th$ acceptance of whi^h might iperhfeips h<te 
bl«o<ight^him 'into a v**^ ismbaifrassing dife!nm^,"ic 
cdsfe df '6*uf falliiig ift With aity ^f tiie ships beloijg^ 
ifrg tlf-oUiP-^emSe9;i^''**i-: •-•^■■«-' '■ ■ ' . •.'^""•^: ;-; 
r>vDiirin^ our contihiilttieB'it the Cape we" met wM' 
fM tnC^st frieridly treatraentV not only from theGo- 

' vemor, Ijut dso fi*om tte'otti^r priricipal persons of 
the-plaiie, iis Vl-feU Africans as Etirdpeans. On oftr 
first af rivals Colonel O^rdott, the commander of the 
I>u%ch troops, was absi^nt on a joufney into the in* 

* land parts or Africa^ biit'Mumed before ^^ Ifeftthe 
Cape'. Upon this occasion he had penetrated iRAr- 
tber into the interior ^parts of the coui^^t^thdit' stay 






PACIFIC OCEAN. 



H9 



ma,-ie> 



preceding traveller, and m^de coAsickr^ble additions 
to tlie excellent collection of natural curiositiei^ with 
which he has contributed to enrich the Museum of 
the Prince of Orange. ^ Indeed hisloiig residence at 
the Cape, and the great assijstance he h^ derived 
(ix^m his rank and station there, joined to an ardent 
desire of knovkrledge, and. an active^ indefatigable 
spirit, have enabled him to gain a more perl«ct 
knowledge of this part of Africa than any other 
person has had an opportunity of HiL-quiring ; and it 
i^^Avith pleasure we congratulate the public; on 
his intentipns of publishing a narrative of his tra- 
vels. • ,. , : ^ . . , ?'i. .. V : 

Faljie Bay lies to the eastward of „^he ^[^ape of 
Good Hope, and is frequented by vessels during the 
prevalence of the nortwesterly winds, which begiB 
t<» e3(^rt> their iuHuence in May, and render it danf 
gerous to remiaiu in Table Bay. It is termintited 
to the eastward by False Cape, and to the westward 
bvrthe Cape of Good Hope. It is eighteen mile| 
wide at its entrance, and the tw^o Capes bear due 
east and west from each other. Sj 

,At the distance of eleven or twelve miles fi;om 
the Cape^of Good Hope, on the western side, is 
situate Simon's .Bay, the cmly commodious station 
ftir iihipping to be in ; for> though the road without 
it affords tolerable ancliorage, it is rather too opeot 
and not well ^adapted for procuring necessaries, the 
towfi being small, and supplied with provisions from 
Cape Town, which stands at the distance of about 
twenty four miles. To the north-northeastvyard of 
Simon's Bay, there are some others, from which^ 
however, it may, with ea§e be distinguished, byare- 



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M_ -^m^-. 



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% VOYAGE TO THE 



markiable s^ndy* way to the north of theHown, Mfhich 
forms a cotlsptciioiis object. 

In meeting ft- the I|arbour, along the western 
afidtti thtte is a small tot rock, known by the name 
of Noih** Ark 5 and about a mile to the north-east, 
ward of it tnerfe are sieycral othere. which are de- 
iHM^iftaited *fhe Romairf Rocks. ^ Thede are a mile 
ittd a half distant from the anchoring-pljice ; and ei- 
thilp to the northward ojp them, or between thetii, 
there is a safe passage ittia the Bay. • / 

Wlieh the Vj6rth*weM:erly gales aiie sei in, the na- 
vi^tot, by the following beafings, will be directed 
to a secure and convenient, station ; Noah's Ark, 
SQvtth 51^'east, and the ietltre of the hospital south 
5^ west, irt seven fathoths witer. But, if the south- 
easterly #iitds should ftot have ceased blowing, it is 
niore advisable to remain further nut in eight or nine 
tefhoms* ' T^^ bottom consists of sand, and the an- 
^to^, be^fore they get hold, settle considerably. The 
latidj oh the northern side of the bay, is lev? and 
feandy ; but the eastern side'is very elevated. About 
two leagues to the easti^ard df Noah's Ark stands 
Seal Island, whose southern pait is said to be dan- 
gerous,, ^nd not to be approached, With safety, near* 
(^r thjlft ih" tWenty«two fathoms water. There art 
ifnany sunken rocks off the Gape of Good Hofrei 
«ome of which^inake theii* appearance at low*water i 
arid others constantly haVe breakers on them. 

The anchoririg-place in Simon's Bay is situate 
in the ktitude of 34** 2(y south, by obsetvation ; 
utiitt longitude it l^^ 2^' east. It was high^wa* 
t^ry Oil tliefull and ehaftge days, at5hi 55m. app^- 
rfefattitnc. The tide roseand fell five feet foxinchetj 



:m< 



PACIFIC OCEAN, 



341 



dnd» «it the nfap tides, the wat^ rose only four 
£cpt oneii>ch./ 

Acttordin^Fto tlie phservations made by captain 
King and Mr Baileyt on the Ikk.of April, when 
the Cape, of Good Hope bore due* west, ita latitude 
13 34- 2 J^' south, which ia 4Vto the north waid of 
the Abbe de la Caille's position of it. 

Having provided the necij^sauy quantity of naval 
stores, .ao4 completed our victualhngy we quitted 
SNuon's Bay^oii Tuesday the 9th of May. On the 
14th of the same month we gikt into the soutliea^t 
trade wind, and stood to the wesjt^df the islands of 
Ascension arid St Helenat i On Wednesday the 31st, 
Yfc were in the latitude o£ 12® Ij8' south, and tlve 
longitude of 15°, W west. On the 12th of June 
>/re passed the equinoctial line for* the fourth tinie 
during our voyage, in the longitude of 26** 16' 

Jpf Col • ' ''•■'■-■ u > . . 1 ' . i » ' 

i:' We now percfeiyed the efFectSs^^ a current setting 
north by east, at the rate of hii^f a mile in aa hour. 
After continuing in the ^^wnediiectioa till the mid- 
dle of July^ it began to set a little to the southward 
of the wejJt. ; , Qn. Saturday, the 12th of August, we 
descried tbe , western coast of Ireland, and endea; 
youred to get inJ:o Pont Galway, from whence cap^ 
tain Gore, intended to have dispatched the joum^s 
and pnarts of our - voyage to. London, Thi^ at- 
iempt, h9Meeyer> proved incfFeetnal ) and WQ >vere 
j^ompeUei^ijky niolent southerly win^s, to stand to 
ithe nofth. 

ya Pw^ m$X design vraa to put into l<ough Sv^illy^ 
but the wli^ continuing i<) th^ «ame quarter, we ' 
h the nprthward of the island of Lewiax 



^teei«d 



«Mid QB Tuesday, the 22A of August, about clevea 



' \ 



a42 



ArVOYAGE TO THE 



(.• 



m'clock in the forenoon, both our^wsseh anchored 
at St|*omne8s. From this place captain King watf 
lent by captain Qare to Inform the Lords of the 
Admiralty xxf Jour Ihliva] ; and, on W^iineaday the 
4ih of October^ the shijM reached *he^orc in safe- 
ty, dEter an absence of four yegU-s^ t«b0 mootl^s, and 
.Iwo and twenty day*. : > i;f "i 

Wlien captain Kan^ quittidd ^^^Jdiseonpeiy at 
Stromness, he had the satisfaction of kaving the 
whole ship's 0(»npahy in perfect heal^ <; aind>' at 
the same tiitve, the liijimberof sack persons «n board 
the Resolution did not exceed two-«r three;, only 
^e «f whdm i«ras incapable xd scrvktk "in the 
ivliok course of >liie voyage the 'iRe^luttoni lost 
no more than ftwsimen by sickness, ihrejeof whom, 
at the time of bur 'dei)arture froni Oti^t Emain, 
were in a precario^p state ^«f health: the Discovery 
did not lose one individual. A strict attention to 
|he excellent relations est^bli^d by captain 
Cook, with"^ which 0ur readers are, douotless, aU 
r^dy acquainted,' may justly be deemed the chief 
tause, under the Messing of Divine Brav^dentie, &i 
Ihis extrabrdina^ success. But, notwithstanding 
Ihiesi^ snaiutiiYy pr^utions, we Dnlftift^ perhaps, in 
Ihe end, hme lelt the i^nticious elfectls i^f sak pi^- 
i^^isions, had we not availed oii!«elv#s^ 4f every ^ub- 
«titute which' our v^tuMion, ^* dijSbrebt ihto^^ ^ 
fordeA US'. As these were sohletimes extregnely 
tiauseoUs, fr^quentl^ c^onsi^ing c^f ij^iS&i ^rhtea 
pur people had not been accustomed to edUiMer aft 
]f^ for inen^ it beciMie ne^esSa«*f» fe ^t^ p^tpos^ 
m i;en«ivii]ig their pr^udice$, and Goifetteifinjg the^ 
, idisgusts, to eififdoy the uiiited ^M' of ^svteisi#, 
txwi^lej an »:, 'i C: - 



■■■*ii#'v.'i**- 



v't.'*''-:* 



< 



^At^IC O^fiAKTiA 



Hi 



chored 
g wa§ 
of the 
ay the 
n safe* 
^8, and 

*erf at 
ig the 
ndi' at 
board 
?; onlv 
m the 
mi lost 

^litain, 
covery 
lion to 
:aptaiti 

»8Sy alA 

^ chttC 
we, of 
anding 
ip8, in 

i^^ «f>> 

recndy 

^irhich 

ei^er 9» 

j^pos^ 
^ the^t: 



Poitable toup and 80Uf ' Icrottt A^re tti# pt«tiHit 
lives we principally depended on. W^ had lib oppofi 
tunity ' of trying the effects of the aiitiscofbtttuf 
remedies, '%ith which we were plentifully fximishe^ 
as (here did not ap{iear,> during our whole voyatgvf 
the slightest 'symptoms of the stUrVy amon^ tki 
crew of eitliil' ^lup. ' 

Our nklt^and hope had likev^isi? bei^ti kepi ai -» 
resource ixi ^ case of sickness ; but^ on b^ng «^ 
amined at tine Cape of Good Hope, they ^eiN^ 
found t^Uy spoiled. About the sain^ time ^;v4 
opened some casks of oatmettl» ip^iie» groat s^ ildttl| 
biscuiti and mait» which, for the sake of expeii^ 
ment, we had put up in small casks, linked with 
tin-frail; and all the articles, eatcept the pease^ 
were found in a much better condition than could 
have been expected in the ordinary mode of pack* 
age. ^ 

On this occasion, We t^not bmit recommending 
to the coQsidexation of gotemment, thb necessity 
of furnishing such of his M^sty's ships a^ may' 
be exposed to the iniSulence of unhealthy climates^ 
with a sufficient quantity of Peruvian bark. It 
foi%unately happened in the t>i9covery, that only 
one of the men who were attackqd with fevers in 
the Straits of IF^unda stood in need of this valuabk, 
medicine ; for i;he whole quantity that surgeons ar^ 
accustomed to carry out in such veMjds as ours wat 
Consumed by him ^one. tf xhot^ prisons had been 
affected in the same mannety it is probable that 
they would all have jprrished^foV i^nt bt the only 
Tfemedy that could effectually have relieved thenrJ 

We shall conclude our narra^ivi^ t)f this Vbyage 
i^nth the mention of a icircuroitancey whr^h| if we 



A^ 



■#*■ 



■■?:.- 



144 



AVtm^z^ £cc. 



C0Bskiflr iUrloQlp dxumi^n^ Vid the mHure of the 
•crHce in i^Kkhwe were employedi seems scarcely 
IfiH. itfVUirkliUe th«ii t|ie uncqmmpn hoUthiness 
of tlie ships* compantfs. This was, that, pur ves- 
9elfit no^v.W sight of <MM;:h pthcf for a Whple 4ay> 
^ctjgf, pi| twQ p^jcaeions ; the iirst pf which was 
the consequence of an accident, th^t Mtel the Disr 
coirery off the €!oa$t of Ow^yhec ;and the secpnd 
wmf^ caving to t|ie fogs we ^et with at the entrance 
«|,|Jie bav of Awatski^ At ibis fhare of merit 
l^opgs ahnpst entirely to the inferior officers, it 
§mni^e9 9^ ^tpm^ff pi^f of thpir skill s^lfl yigi, 
fWft. ' ••.■••: idi ,.. ./• ■ . 



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oi the 

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lIx was 
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secpnd 
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