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Full text of "A history of American manufactures from 1608-1860 [microform] : exhibiting the origin and growth of the principal mechanic arts and manufactures, from the earliest colonial period to the adoption of the constitution, and comprising annals of industry of the United States in machinery, manufactures and useful arts, with a notice of important inventions, tariffs and the results of each decennial census"

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U    11 1.6 





WIBSTIR,  N.Y.  14510 

(716)  •72-4503 





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■^i\  --''r  fi) '"  f?  iT  T 


yE'^>!  '•i'.""  -ilLA^.P 


T  '  ■  ■ '^^ ■?*?«£*•- -rs? 



m         ^. 










1608  TO  18G0: 





AND     C  O  31  P  n  I  S  I  .N  O 



die  Important  |nl)cutions, f  aritfs, aui)  the  ^lesults  of  ta tlr  5etennial  (Census. 


By  jr  LEAXDEP.  BISHOP,  A.M.,  M.D. 



VOL.    III. 


EDWARD      YOUNG     &     CO., 

Ko.    144    SOUTH    SIXTH    STIIEET. 

L  o  N  n  o  X  : 



1  ^ .  'I'' 


Eiilcred  according  to  Act  of  Congress,  in  tlic  year  1808,  '>y 


In  the  Clerk's  Ollice  of  the  District  Court  of  tiie  United  States,  in  and  for 

tlio  Eastern  District  of  Pennsylvania. 





















In  tlio  two  proceding  volumes  wo  eiideavorod  to  tract-,  from 
sucli  roco-l8  as  laborious  research  could  discover,  the  leading  facts 
iu  llie  histo./  of  tlic  growth  of  the  inanufacturiug  industry  of  the 
United  Slates,  irom  the  cstablislnnent  of  the  finst  Glassworks  at 
Jamestown,  in  10(J8,  to  the  close  of  the  eighth  Decennial  Censu.s. 
As  France  has  a  work  on  her  "Great  Manufactories,"  and  Knuland 
on  her  "  Woi'kshoi)s,"  it  would  seem  that  our  task  would  be  incom- 
plete without  showing  that  the  United  States  has  also  nKuiufactur- 
ing       ; '  lishments  worthy  of  a  permanent  record.     In  ullering  this 
volume  to  the  puljlie,  it  is  but  Just  to  acknowledge  that  it  is  almost 
wholly  the  result  of  the  labor  of  other  hands  than  those  which 
prepared  the  previous  ones.     Having  b,.'en  drawn  into  the  current 
of  military  life  before  the  pidjlication  of  the  second  vuluine,  and 
afterwanl  by  the  force  of  circumstances  prevented  from  immedi- 
ately prosecuting  the  work  to  its  conclusion,  its  completion  was 
intrusted  to  gentlemen  whose  industry,  literary  experience,  and 
practical  acquaintance  with  the  subject  gave  assurance  (jf  judgment 
and  lidclity  in  its  execution.     15/  far  the  larger  and  better  i«ortioii 
of  the  volume  is  the  work  of  Edwin  T.  Freedley,  of  Philadelphia, 
while  the  statistical  portion  has  been  principally  contributed  by 
Mr.  Edward  Young,  late  of  the  Census  Ollice  in  Washingtim  city. 




It  lias  been  the  object  in  these  pages  to  present,  as  clearly  and 
grapliieally  as  possible,  tlie  results  of  American  enterprise  and 
ingenuity  in  organizing  skilled  labor,  and  subordinating  tlic  forces 
of  nature  and  the  mechanical  powers  to  his  service,  in  building  up 
systematic  estalilishmeuts  and  manuliieturing  towns  and  villages; 
thus  bringing  into  view  numerous  remarkable  examples  and  pecu- 
liar phases  of  the  many-sided,  practical  American  character,  as 
displayed  in  individual  or  associate  undertakings.      The  United 
Stutcs,  according  to  the  last  Census,  contains  not  less  than  one 
hundred  towns  and  cities,  with  populations  of  ten  thousand  and 
upward,  engaged  more  or  less  in  manufoetures.     The  constant  ten- 
dency is  toward  the  concentration  of  labor  and  capital  in  large 
towns  where  skilled  workmen,  banking  privileges,  transportation, 
and  other  facilities  are  most  easily  commanded.     As  these  focal 
points  of  industry  extend  and  increase  in  size,  the  methods  of 
business  are  more  and  more  assimilated  to  the  factory  systems  of 
older  and  more  densely  populated  countries,  with  their  divisions 
of  labor  and  handicraft  perfection,  so  far  as  the  more  general  use 
of  machinery  in  this  country  permits.     In  many  of  these  manufac- 
turing communities  we  see  the  operation  of  these  laws  and  affini- 
ties of  trade,  which  tend  to  concentrate  certain  branches  of  manu- 
facture in  iiartieular  localities.     Ilen^e  many  of  these  busy  hives 
of  labor  aie  noted  for  special  kinds  of  production,  which  are  there 
fabricated  to  a  greater  extent  or  in  greater  perfection  than  else- 
where.    The  economy  of  several  branches  of  American  industry 
has  been  so  modified  by  the  genius  and  character  of  certain  in- 
ventors or  prominent  producers  as  to  dilYer  materially  from  the 
methods  employed  in  other  countries.     Other  branches  have  been 
almost  or  entirely  created  by  the  mechanical  improvements  of  men 

INTItuIurTIO.V.  y 

wlio  arc  still  on  the  stage  of  uctiou  or  have  recently  left  it.  These 
and  many  other  interesting  features  of  our  imlustrial  economy, 
with  many  details  of  particuhiv  manufactures,  omitted  in  the  pre- 
ceding historical  annals,  will  be  found  in  this  volume.  While  it 
contains  much  matter  of  a  personal  and  local  character,  we  believe 
no  less  I'egard  has  been  jtaid  to  strict  accuracy  of  statement  than 
in  the  previous  volumes,  and  the  truth  of  history  has  in  no  case 
been  knowingly  sacrificed  to  gratify  the  subjects  '^^  the  sketches. 
Some  of  the  descriptions  have  been  made  from  sources  deemed 
authentic  and  reliable,  without  the  knowledge  of  the  proprietors 
of  the  works  noticed;  though  generally  the  accounts  are  derived 
from  direct  personal  inquiry,  and  have  received  the  corrections 
of  the  parties  interested.  It  is  believed  that  this  volume,  with 
the  A]ipendix  of  the  preceding  volume,  contains  some  account  of 
nearly  all  the  really  extensive  and  noteworthy  manufacturing 
establishments  of  the  United  Stotes,  yet  it  could  with  propriety 
have  been  greatly  extended  if  time  had  been  aflbrded,  and  a  future 
revision  will  enable  us  to  remedy  the  oniissioua  and  defects  of  the 

^Vith  these  explanations  the  volume  is  committed  to  the  indul- 
gence of  the  public,  in  the  belief  that  it  will  be  found  of  great 
])ractical  value  to  manufacturers  in  showinsi;  the  interior  manan'c- 
mcnt  of  large  establishments,  and  to  posterity  in  furnishing  a  land- 
mark and  criterion  by  which  they  may  measure  tlioir  progress  iu 
the  magnificent  future  now  opening  to  the  Nation's  Industry. 

S  T  A  T  I  S  T  I  C  S 

OP    THE    l-KINCirAL 

MAInUFACTUUING  cities  and  towns  IX  THE  UNITED  STATES. 

COMl'II.I'D    FliOM    THE 




In  ]SCO.  the  agents  employed  in  faking  tlio  Eiglitii  Census  reported  there  were  in  I'liilii 
delpliiii  i-ix  tliousiind  two  hundred  and  ninety-clgbt  manufacturing  establislimonts.  with 
n  eiipital  of  $7;),."'1^)''SJ,  employing  sixty-eight  thousand  threo  hundred  and  ni'ly  rniilos, 
thirty  thousand  six  hundred  and  tliirty-tlireo  females,  who  produced  a  \aluo  of 
$I35,97U,77r.  Believing  that  the  original  returns  were  erroneous,  Lorin  lilodget,  Seero- 
tary  of  the  Board  of  Trade,  was  appointed  to  revise  them,  who  reported  as  follows : 



Asrivultuiul  inijilfini'iits 

AU'i'lut!  iinil  raniplu'iio 

Arlificinl  limbs 

Arliliriiil  tcutli 

flakois'  liii'ail  anil  crackers... 

III.'ickinK  anil  ink 

liiillrianil  rivets,  wrought  inin 

Uiino  lilac.t 

Miiiikliinilihsr  nnil  blank  bonks 

l!o"k  jinbli-liin,!; 

Uodts  lui'i  sliiic-) 

IJrass  fiinnilciH 


niitannia  ware 

Ilricks.  cnuiiiiiin  an<l  lU'i'sscil.. 

lirivks  iiie 

Uri'iinis,  corn 


Caps,  men's  nnil  bov.'.' 

Caril:!,  iila\SMH,  ininlers',  etc.. 


Carriages  and  coaelin 

Cars,  for  raihi.ail-- 

Car  wheels  and  nxies 



Ce.fTee,  roaste  1  nml  gnuinil.... 
Combs,  tortoi^^e-shell  amlollicr 


No.  of 



Cost  of 
raw  mato- 
.        .?40.542 



Vnlne  of 


f  142,910 















.     1,314..>!7.... 


..      878 











..      318 





.        100.150 

.        32 

192,0  CO 




,.      CM..,.. 

.      694 





..      003 

,.      241 

,     2,200,400 



.      .,912.0.-|7 

..   0.497 

.   1,937 





,.      310 

.        10 





00  000 

.     1,102.733..., 

..      593 








..  1,870 

.     1,212,190 




51, SCO 









,.     1,393,771.... 







..      384.... 



..  1,925 


,.      320 


,.      755 


2.58,1  ,J0 


.     2,91.5,018 




..   1,038 

.     l,o,51,.371 




..      421...., 





..      120...., 









,.     1,544.310.... 
,.     5,147,*44.... 



..      702 

,.    0,.".09.... 

..        35 

..   8,078 

.     2,709,2.54 

.     9,984,497 





..      250.... 





















i              Fur 

j             Gas 

j             Ga» 

\             Olas 

1             Glo\ 


[              Gold 

1              Gold 

!              Gun 

!             Hail 


















Coopers'  «"rk 

C'lil'Iier  w.ii-U 

Conlai,'!'.  li('ni|i  iiiul  ll;ix.... 
Cotton  K.iiias,  cliitlis,  with 


Cotton  t.'oo(ls,  lianj  looms, 
Cotton  auil  wooloii  goods, 


Cotton  and  wooloii  jroods, 

hand  loont» 

Cotton      wobbiui.',      lapo, 

hraid,  ^-c 

Cotton    and    woolou    i;ia- 


Cured  meats 

Cutlery.filool  tools.fIIcs,&e. 

Distillers  and  rcctiliors 

Dyers,  wool  and  cotton 

Kai'the  aware ... 


Fire  on^'ine.s 

Floar  mills 



Fur  manul'aelnres 

Gas  works 

Glass,  window,  bottles, etc. 

Gloves,  of  bnekskin 

Glue,  curled  luiir,  etc 

Gold  leaf  and  foil 

Gold  wateli  cases  k  cliaina 

Guns  and  pintol.4 


Hats  ;  wool,  silk,  and  fur. 

Hatters'  trimmings 

Hosiery,  woolen 

Hosiery,  cotton 

Ink,  printers' 

Iron  castinc:s: 

Bulldini;  foundrie.s 

Gas  and  water  jiipo  foundiies 

Stoves  and  hollow  waro 

Iron  railins's 

Iron     rolling-mills,      bar, 

sheet,  and  pinto 

Iron  rolled  tubes.  Hues,  &c. 
Iron  wire  and  ornamental 


Jewelers  and  watchmakers 


Lead  pipe,  shot,  and  lead- 

Leather,  in  all  forms 


Jlacliinery,  general, of  iroa 
Jhichiuists'  tool  mauufac's 
Mahogany  mills 

No.  of 

r.,«t  of 



raw  uiate- 











.    f  201, :■:,-,,... 



..     l?is;i,r.t>l 


>4„-.oo  ... 

77,210  .,„ 


Ms, 000 



l:il,:i:i:i..  , 





2,101, nm;)..., 

,     2,0.':!,740,,,. 

.      1,001,... 

..      2,S02.... 

.     4,317,01,1 









.    2,021,813,,.. 

.      1,704,,. 

..      1,0.V1.... 

.     3,,193,3'!G 




7?  ., 




I,o7,^0(  .... 

.        131,0115.,., 











.     3,.-do,41,-i,„, 


.     4,,17.1,Sii7 









,     l,171,.-jlti.... 


.     1,490.031 










1112  .„ 














.     2,04S,01,i.... 


.     3,09b,325 



.       C:i>;,02;),.., 

.     1,G13,... 

14  ,„ 

.     l,So4,4.30 




SO  ... 

10,1  ,., 






.     1,S37,.100 




.      1,099.... 


.     1,050,1,10 




S2,"i  ,., 

.     1,069,000 


20.';  00.... 

'o.OOO  ,.. 






^  ■■  ,0)U).... 





140. 2;o 

73  ... 




741,, ".00..,. 

.     l,lo-.s,-,.! 

c,-;s  ... 


.     l,711,^0(l 


















.     1, 104,222 



?  -jO 





749,0?4,  ,., 


,      1,.'JOO.... 

.     1,738,393 














74,1.10  ,„ 




I.-..-., 000,,,, 

l.'iO.OOO  ,,,. 









000. 000 



.     1,306,700 










.     1,110,000 























.          G2,792 


27.1.000  ... 

.        414,700 


.        63S,,100 



.     2,C01.,304 

.      1,170,... 


.     4,022,S;18 




.      l,2,jj.... 

.     l,4'2O,O0O 



.       737,727 

.     1,G13,... 

.                           t>.. 

,    i,se2,ooo 










20,1  000 




Mar.tilliis  iliuliori'  oloiiks).. 

Shiv'jlo  flitters 


Miitlii'maticiil  aud  optical 


Sfodi  fines 

Milliii.'ry,      l:ieos,     straw 

'joods,  etc 

Mineral  water,  nio:uI,  etc., 

Jlii-rurs  ami  gilt  I'lames 

Morucci)  leather 

Nails  cut 


Nets,  llsli  aud  lly 

l)il«,  animal 

dils,  linseel  aud  nut 

Oils  of  rosin 

Oils,  mineral,  coal  and  po- 


Oil  clotlis 

Ors'au  linilders 

Paints  aud  colors 

I'aper  mills 

I'aper  liam;in:,'s 

rerfumery  a  iid  fancy  soaps 

i'iauos  anil  inelodeous 

I'liin^d  liiiulier  

I'Uiinljers  aud  ijas  litters  .. 
Pocketbooks  aud  morocco 


Printers,  Job  and  card 

Printers,  steel  and  copper- 

Print  works 

Provision       curers       iiud 

Koofs  of  felt  aud   compo- 

Hoofs,  iron 

Saddles  and  liaruess 

Safes  and  liank  l.i"ks 

.Sail  aud  uwniuf;  niiiko's  ... 

Sasli  aud  tiliud  milkers 

Saws;  band  aud  mill  saws 

Sawed  lumber 


Se'viug  in.\cliines 

ShlpdMiildcrs,  iron 

Ship-builders,  wood 

Shins,  collars,  etc 

Shoveln,  spades,  etc 

fSilk-spinuinn  mills 

Silk  friutiOB  and  trimmluK" 

Silk  dyers 

Silverware  (s  did) 

Silver-plated  warn 

Siiuir  >ud  cut  tobacco  aud  '  ludles 

No.  of 

Cosi  of 


raw  niate- 



Value  of 







30  .  ... 





089. SSO 





,     ^010,l■i5 











1                            •.••)> 















.      1,080 















,     1,727,846 







94S,300,  .... 




.     1,741,100 




9  ... 




103,000  ....  ... 




4.)0,ooO , 

.        71.-I.40O..., 



3  ..... 






120,000 , 





200,000  ..... 












ri34,OiHI  ... 


,.     1,101,724 


400,000  .... 

4s2.07.-i  ... 






201.100  ... 









,.        712,.'l00 





410,:,  10 


20s, 2oO 





227,S.)0  .... 
















,.     1,430,420 


24,.'i0r  ... 



,.,                             ••• 




,.     2,S4?  300.... 

...        773..., 


..     4,04S,88S 



.     .3,.'.10,.n3.... 


..     4,570,807 





•    ,                            ,,,, 












.,.       900,7S« 







33,:vio  ... 



u .. 

...        144,000 



...       131, SOO... 

202  .. 


...        330,840 






208. 600 








.     402,700... 

...       mi,240... 

.       1,120... 

....        170  .. 

...    1,228,220 





















...       B,V\787... 


...     .3,180... 

...     l,334,tKU 

li , 










....        217... 







...     1,260,724 



2o,n."iO. . 





,30s, '03.. 





200, soo... 







41. .'.00... 





.        8,-A,333... 

...     1,421,123.. 

....        3i3,. 


„.    8,070,51)0 



Value  of 




















.     1,741,100 



240,1  S6 







.     1,101,724 







410,:.  10 







..     1,43.-|,42,5 



..     4,04S,!-5S 


..     4,575,S07 

•                            •»• 




..       9.-i!>,7!.0 

•  .. 


i; .. 




,                   ... 

1  >3,020 

170  .. 

..    l,22'i,22i) 



•                           ... 


•                           ••• 


.     3,180... 

..     I,3:l4,!i0* 


..        217... 



..     1,200,724 








140,1  SO 


„.    3,070,001) 


^illices.  ground 


bt'H'l  UUVkl'M 

Stui'l  KiniiiKs 

l^tovcsHud  i-iiu:,'i'« 

SiiKiir  ri-'Uuoi's 

i>art.'ii;;il    iiud    d.'uliU    lu- 
st iiiiiioiit.s 

TiiUow  rollucrs 

T  uuior.s  luid  (.■un''"i's 

Tm  luid  shc't-irou 

Trunk',  mid  Ciiriii.t-lJiiK's.... 
Typo  I'uiuidries  iiud  stoveo- 


t'lnli.'  :i\sai;d  iKtr.isoln.ic 


Vi'Uiitiiiu  l)liud.s 


Wii^'.pu  iniikoi-s  iuid  wlieol- 


Wagou-liul.M,  sii.ikcs,  fic... 

W'liito  li';id 

Wliiii-*  Hiul  oauos 

Wi;i>i\v  ware,  codar  ware, 

baskets,  etc 

W,ioleus(,aU  Woo!) 

Yarns,  cottuii 

"       woolen 

"        wovoteu 

"        mixed 

Totals  lu  llio  City 
of  I'liiladelplllii,— 
tucludliii,'  iniKoeha- 
iieous  inaiHil.ietnres, 
uot  above  specl- 
flod,— * 

lu  llie  iim.iedlato  vi- 
ciuity  of  tlie  elty  ;— 
Cotton    and   wo.deu 


Iron,  and  niannl'ac- 

tiiips  of  Iron 


N'.i   of 

Cost  of 

Vale,,    pf 



raw  mate- 





















130,1 1,-.2 
004.1.  t 







6,350, 7p10 









08,0(10  ... 


35  ... 



.     1,443,720 




















21  .... 


.        741,945... 


605  ... 

..    ],2pi7.3i.'0 
















183, .'5  J 


774, 4.W,.. 




997,1 '11 






925,01  pO... 














•  ••                    " 


7  ... 

330,0011  .. 




...    1,002,801) 






...        849,253 

15     . 








21,775  .. 










C,314....  »73,0S7,832....  «72,333,50.^ 69,383.. 

100 5,038,040.. 

3,220,809 3,504.. 

2.-'',009.,   4141,048/:58 

a, 309 0,777,34!) 

13  , 


,    1,003,003.., 
.Est, 250,1100,., 


6,  'p;? *5l,00s,.io2  ...  477,473,077  75 


32,390  . 

...     .3,8';8,151 


,  $l,i2,355.31S 




Tpital  nuinlMTof  persons  piipl.iyed 

Tpp;al  unnilp.'r  of  establislimeuls 

Averap'  produeM.iu  of  each  person _^  ^^ 

Averagu  producliou  to  each  establishment »-,i,.u, . 

.  In  185.8,  Edward  Ypinn^r  &  C.  published  a  work  entitled  "Vlillaplelphla  a,ol  it    MannfactnreV' 

by  v.dwin  T.  Fr lU'V,  wbieh  was  the  lirst  con.prehensWo  accpnnt  that  her  cil./..ns  ever  had  of  llo 

l,,,p,prta,ioe  of  I'bilaplelpbla  as  a  niannf,.  tnrin,'  cnlr,..  Th  •  able  Sp-ere.ary  of  the  lM.lla,lelpbla  Bri.rJ 
of  Trap!e,I.orlnHlod,ett,Es.,.,  tp.  revlso  lb,,  olllelal  slatistics  l,pr  the  (  en««  ■  | 
ISO..  renarVslnhls  Kepp,rt :  "It  Is  also  but  Jns.lco  to  say  that  the  puhlieatlppn  o    the  8tatlst,cs  o, 

•     ■ '    -n  reiiiarkiib.y 

i:i;m.i;v  i  nl- 
liiaple  in  riiilapleliphi.i  m 

nnvnnlactnres  prepare,!  by  Mr  Youn«  and  Mr.  Freedley,  in  1S58,  pr.pvos  to    "'Vo  been  , 
aprnra.e  in  n,  lov  ..1  lb.. ,- ■«.  m,.!  ...lorMlly  i..  b.'  vp.ry  w,01  M,..:iinp..l.        n  Iho,.  M,     n 

.     .  ■  .         I  ..  i'     1  I.  ,       ..>.!     ..1.    ^     t ■>     111      I'll 

lislippl  an  enliir..:.  .1  eplillipli  of  bis  Work,  aiipl  i 
ivli',,  at  j:225,l:.9  011. 

liniiili'l  lb"  *.ilue  p'f  llo  iirtieb 



IN   PlllLADELl'lIIA. 

The  Bridesburg  Manufacturing  Company. 


In  the  first  roluiiio  of  this  history  we  referred  more  than  once  to  the 
important  part  performe.l  hy  tlic  Hon.  Joseph  Jenks,  Governor  of 
Itliotle  Ishvp.'l,  in  tlie  early  fabrication  of  Iron  in  this  country.  A  lineal 
descendant  of  h's,  Mr.  Rarion  II.  Jeidvs,  is  now  proprietor  of  one  of 
tli^^  most  complete  works  for  ti.j  manufacture  of  Cotton  and  Woolen 
Machinery,  and  of  Fire-arms,  in  operation  in  the  United  States,— the 
Bride>l)nrn-  Machine  Works. 

The  founder  of  this  eslahli^liment,  Mr.  Alfred  Jenks,  was  a  pupil  and 
eolal.orer  for  many  years  wiiii  tiie  celebrated  Samuel  Slater,  who  erected 
the   lirst  eotton-mili  in  Rawtucket,  R.I.     In  1810,  Mr.  Jenks  removed 
t..  ll.dmesbnrf.-,  Pa.,  takiiip-  with  him  drawings  of  every  variety  of  cotton 
machinery,  as  far  as  it  ha<l  then  advanced  in  the  line  of  improvemeut, 
and  commenced  its  manufacture.     The  first  mill  started  in  this  portion 
or  the  State  of  Rennsylvania  was  supplied  i)y  machinery  constructed  l)y 
him,  and  was  situated  in  La;_^ran-e  IMaeo,  near  llolmesburt-.  In  iSlC, 
lie  built  a  number  of  looms  for  wcavinj?  cottonades  for  Joseph  Ripka. 
Vnder  the  universal  imi.ctus  -i  .en  to  home  manufactui-cs  during  the  last 
war,  Mr.  Jenks  greatly  extended  his  i)usiness  operations,  mid  in  181!)  or 
ls:iO  removed  to  his  present  desirable  location  in  Rridesbnrg,  the  in- 
creased  growth  of  wldcli  is  owing  in  no  small  degree  to  the  jtersonal 
elVorls  ami  enterprise  of  1  imself  and  the  importance  of  ids  cstablisiunent. 
II.  re,  where  he  possi-<e.l  tlie  necessary  facilities  for  shipping  to  his 
m.u-o  di>tnnt  patrons,  he  conveyed  his  eld  frame  building  from  Holmes- 
burg  on  r.dlers,  whicli  yet  stands  anud  tiie  more  substantial  and  e.xcel- 
leul^<truetul•es  beside  i!.     When  the  demand  lirst  arose  for  woolen  ma- 
chinery in  Rennsylvania,  Mr.  Jenks  answered  it,  ami  at  once  cmmeiued 
it.  manufacture,  and  furnished  the  lirst  woolen  mill  started  in  the  State, 
by  Ilethuel  M.jore,  at  ronshohucken,  with  all  the  machinery  neccs.sary  f-r 

this  inannl'aclure. 

In  1S;J0,  he  invented  a  power-looui  for  weaving  cheeks,  and  intro- 
dnced  it  iido  the  Kempton  :\lill  at  Manayunk,  where  its  smress  produced 
su.-h  excitement  amon-  hand-weavers  and  others  opposed  to  labor-saving 
maehineiy  as  to  cauH'  a  large  i.umberof  them  to  go  to  the  mill  with  the 





n  once  to  the 
(Jovuriior  of 
;ry.  A  liiu'iil 
xn'  of  one  of 
aiul  Woolen 
StiUcs,— tlie 

IS  a  pupil  and 
•,  who  ei'octed 
links  removed 
I'ict y  of  eotloa 
n  this  portion 
constructed  by 
urg.  In  islC), 
Oseph  Kipka. 
.luring  the  last 
md  in  1811)  or 
.'sburi,',  tlie  in- 
0  the  jiersoiial 
lippinu'  to  iii^ 
fnini  llolmes- 
tial  and  excel- 
)r  wooU'U  ma- 
ce eommeni'ed 
(1  in  tiu!  State, 
y  necessary  for 

jks,  and  intro- 
ccess  produced 
to  labor-savin, i^ 
e  mill  wilii  the 


avowed  purpose  of  destroying  it,  from  doing  which  they  were  oidy  pre- 
vented liy  the  presence  of  an  armed  force.  Tliis  ami  oilier  improved 
machinery  made  by  Mr.  Jenks  soon  accpiired  an  extended  reputation, 
and  induced  the  erection  of  larger  buildings  ;  and  now  llie  eslabli.-iiment 
is  one  of  th»  most  extensive  ami  important  in  tliis  country.  Since  the 
decease  of  Mr.  Alfred  Jenks,  and  for  several  years  previously,  the  busi- 
ness lias  been  conducted  i)y  his  .son,  Mr.  Barton  II.  Jenks,  to  wiiom,  if 
eulogy  were  admissilde,  we  miglit  refer  as  the  type  of  a  model  manufac- 
turer,—ferlile  in  invention,  skilil'ul  in  mechanism,  lii)eral,  just  and  public 

spintod, one,  indeed,  who  throws  around  the  pursuit  of  manufacturing 

something  of  the  lustre  and  glory  which  the  mercantile  profession  bor- 
rowed from  the  genius  of  Giovanni  de  ISledlci. 

To  attempt  a  recital  of  the  various   inventions   and   improvements 
which  this  lirni  have  made  for  the  benefit  of  cotton  and  woolen  manufac- 
turers, would  carry  us  too  far  beyond  our  limits.     Of  Ijooms  they  man- 
ufacture  a  large  number  of  dilferent  styles,  ranging  from  the  singlo 
shultle   or  ordinary  loom,   through  the  more   intricate   forms  of  two- 
shutlle  looms  for  weaving  checks,  tlr.ce  and  four  shuttle  looms  for  ,veav- 
ing  "dndianis  and  other  faljrics  requiring  a  corresponding  number  of 
colors  in  the  weft,  to  the  more  enlarged  carpet  loom;  and  all  of  these 
cmbracti  in  a  greater  or  less  degree  improvements  and  advantages  not 
possessed  by  looms  manufactured  elsewhere.     The  several  imi)rovemenH 
in  the  looms  are  covered  by  seven  distinct  patents;  and  the  main  fea- 
tures accomplished  l)y  these  inventions,  so  far  as  they  relate  to  the  two, 
three,  and  four  shuttle  looms,  may  be  said  to  consist  in  the  expeditious 
manner  of  moving  the  shuttle  boxes  to  change  the  i)ieks  of  weft,  and, 
byceriain  new  constructions,  combinations,  and    irrangement  of  parts 
essential  to  this  operation,  and  to  others  of  an  important  character,  by 
which  almost  as  many  picks  of  welt  can  be  made  by  these  two,  I  lire.', 
and  four  shuttle  looms  as  by  the  .single  shuttle  lo>.m.      As  an  exempliti- 
cation  of  this  it  may  be  stated  that  so  perfect  is  the  arranuenient  of  the 
various  parts  of  tliCM'  latter  drscription  of  looms,  and  the  principle  upon 
which  they  work,  that  they  make   1:10  picks  ..f  weft  per  minute  where 
the  same  class  of  ordinary  looms  only  make  1  U». 

The  looms  for  weaving  the  more  elaborate  and  fancy  clmracter  of 
goods  an>  also  perfect  iu  their  operati(ms,  particularly  the  loom  for 
weaving  damask  table-cloths,  nai.kins,  and  articles  of  alike  character, 
and  the  curiiel-loom.  This  latter  has  thiily-two  shuttles,  and  is  capable 
of  laying  sixteen  din'erent  colors  in  the  figure,  and  an  '.'iiual  number  oi' 
colors  in  liie  ground  of  the  carpet. 

The  sell-stripping  cotton  and  woolen  carding  eugines  laanufactur.d 



at  tliis  cstablislinient,  are  difTercnt  from  the  eanlin<r  macliines  generally 
used.     Instead  of  delivering  tlie  cotton  or  wool  to  the  main  evlinder  as 
heretofore,  it  is,  after  being  fed  to  the  maeliiiie  by  rollers,  passed  to  the 
"lieker-iu"  cylinder,  by  which  it  is  delivered  to  the  main  evlinder,  whence 
it  is  successively  retaken  with  its  dirt,  redelivered  to  the  main  cylinder 
by  additional  cylinders,  arranged  in  the  same  relation  to  the  periphery 
of  the  main  cylinder  as  the  first-mentioned   "  licker-in"  cylinder,  and 
driven  by  strii)per  heads  at  the  ends  of  the  cards,  at  variable  speeds,  so 
as  to  enal)le  the  dirt  to  detach  itself  from  tiie  -otton  or  wool  during  its 
increased  speed  with  the  additional  card  cylinders,  and  drop  into  °i  re- 
ceptacle be'ow.     In  this  manner  these  cylinders  are  made  to  act  as  self- 
acting  cleaners  to  the  cotton  and  main  cylinder  card,  and  this  avoids  the 
necessity  of  the  usmd  and  constant  hand-stripping  to  effect  this  olyeet, 
and  the  eonserpient  loss  of  time,  besides  enai)ling  tlie  cotton  or  wool  to 
be  more  regularly  laid  and  thoroughly  cleaned/    This  effective  method 
of  cleainng  the  cotton  and  main  card  cylinder  l)y  delivering  the  former 
on  to  the  latter  successively  at  two  and  three  different  points,  was  origi- 
nally  projected  and  patented  by  Messrs.  Gambrill  &,  Burgy,  in  1855,  and 
subsequently  improved  and  brought  to  its  present  perfect  state  by  .Air. 
Btrton  11.  Jcnks  in  1857;    and  in  consequence  he  became  interested 
with  them  under  a  reissued  patent.     He  also  added  doffing-  rollers,  to 
take  the  place  of  the  usual  comb  for  delivering  the  cotton  or  wool.     For 
these  he  has  also  obtained  a  patent.     By  this  system  of  delivering,  an 
increased  speed  can  lie  given  the  card,  without  danger  of  injury  to  the 
staple,  over  that  attained  where  the  comb  is  employed. 

For  several  years  Mr.  Jenks  has  been  experimenting  upon  and  con- 
structing the  necessary  machinery  to  complete  a  cylinder  Ootlon-fjin,  which 
gives  prouiise  of  producing  one  of  the  most  extraordinary  improvements 
in  the  process  of  ginning  the  raw  material  that  has  been  devised  since  the 
advent  of  Whitney's  Saw  Gin.  It  is  well  known  that  in  ginning  cotton 
■vith  the  ordinary  gin  the  violent  action  of  their  teeth  in  dragging  it  be- 
tween the  bars  tears  the  staple  and  injures  it  in  a  corresponding  degree. 
The  injury  thus  done  the  cotton  has  been  variously  estimated  at  from 
three  quarters  to  one  cent  per  i)ound,— a  loss  that  swells  the  sum  total  to 
several  millions  of  dollars  on  a  full  crop  in  this  country.  Now,  the  ,  b- 
jeet  of  tills  new'  form  of  Gin  is  to  do  away  with  the  u^ual  shaft  uf  saws, 
and  suI)stituto  for  them  a  peculiarly  constructed  cylinder,  its  outer 
periphery  consisting  of  numerous  and  regularly  set  angular  steel  wire 
teeth,  imbedded  in  Babbitt  metal,  in  positions  inclined  to  the  direction 
of  the  cylinier's  motion,  so  that  after  the  cylinder,  or  rather  the  outer 
ends  of  the  teeth  are  ground  down  uud  finished,  each  tooth  will  present 



les  generally 
ti  cyliiuler  as 
)a.sseil  to  the 
nek  r,  whence 
lain  cylinder 
he  puriplicry 
ylindor,  ami 
le  sjjcods,  so 
3l  during  its 
jp  into  11  re- 
0  act  as  self- 
is  avoids  the 
^  this  object, 
II  or  wool  to 
tive  method 
J  the  former 
3,  was  origi- 
n  1855,  and 
itate  by  ^Ir. 
B  interested 
J-  rollers,  to 
wool.    For 
livering,  an 
iijury  to  the 

m  and  con- 
i-yjH,  which 
cd  since  the 
ning  cotton 
rging  it  be- 
ing degree, 
ted  at  from 
iiiu  total  to 
ow,  the  ,  b- 
il't  uf  saws, 
,  its  outer 
steel  wii'o 
e  direclion 
r  the  outer 
fill  present 

a  separate,  sharp,  and  smooth  point,  tangential  to  the  periphery  of  the 
cylinder.  These  tectti  are  so  close  together  that  nothing  but  cotton  can 
be  secreted  between  tlioui. 

This  leads  us  to  notice  a  most  ingenious  and  extraordinary  macliine, 
made  at  this  manufactory,  for  puncturing  the  cylinders  of  thick  paper 
and  ])i'cparing  and  setting  therein  the  angidar  teeth  prejjaratory  to 
casting  around  tlieir  inner  ends  the  cylinder  of  IJabbitt's  metal,  in  wliicii 
they  are  imbedded  to  form  tiie  alloyed  cylinder  of  the  cotton-gin.  Wliile 
witnessing  its  operation,  and  its  parts  performing  functions  rc<piiring 
the  greatest  nicety  and  regularity  of  movement,  to  grasp  the  wire  and 
successively  carry  it  througli  a  variety  of  intricate  operations  that  woidd 
seem  impossible  except  to  the  manipulation  by  iiand  of  the  most  skilll'ul 
person,  one  cannot  but  pay  homage  to  the  genius,  skill,  and  patience  of 
its  autlior.  Its  complex  character  will  prevent  us,  of  course,  from  giv- 
ing a  minute  description  of  it ;  but  we  will  endeavor  to  state,  in  tlie 
regular  order  in  wliieli  tliey  take  i)laco,  the  several  operations  necessary 
to  finally  set  these  angular  wire  teeth  in  their  alloyed  base  ou  the 
periphery  of  the  cylinder. 

Tlie  paper  cylinder  in  which  the  teeth  arc  first  set  is  the  same  or  a 
little  greater  lenglli  than  the  alloyed  base  of  the  cylinder,  and  is  designed 
to  receive  1)5,000  teeth.  This  paper  cylinder  is  placed  on  circular  heads, 
througli  which  a  main  sliaft  moves  loosely, — one  of  these  heads,  en  part 
of  the  periphery  of  which  a  screw  is  formed,  so  as  to  actually  make  it  a 
screw  nut,  has  a  cog  or  tongue  on  it,  which  enters  a  longitudinal  groove 
in  tiie  hollow  shaft,  so  as  to  cause  it  to  revolve  with  the  shaft  and  yet 
move  freely  over  its  surface  longitudinally.  Tin's  screw  nut  meshes  in 
gear  witli  the  'licks  on  two  i)arallel  partially  flattened  screw  shafts,  ar- 
ranged on  either  side  of  the  main  shaft  awl  parallel  thereto,  wliieli  screw 
shafts  can  be  turned  on  their  axis  to  disengage  their  screw  nicks  from 
gear  witli  the  screw  nuts,  and  bring  blank  llattened  surfaces  next  it,  so 
as  to  be  run  back  quickly  after  it  has  jierformed  the  necessary  forward 
movement,  through  the  agency  of  a  ratchet  and  gearing,  with  the  ac- 
companying paper  cylinder,  to  set  all  the  teeth  designed  for  it  therein. 
Tiie  wires,  previously  l)rought  to  the  angular  edge  desired,  are  wound 
on  two  reels,  hung  on  journals  above  the  machine,  and  are  passed  be- 
tween movable  nippers  or  pincers,  which  are  caused  to  move  back  ami 
forth  at  intervals  by  a  lever  or  cam,  clam|»ing  or  griping  the  wires,  in 
their  movement  from  the  front,  and  releasing  their  hold  in  returning. 
Tiieneo  the  wires  eontinuo  under  clamps,  by  wliieh  they  are  held  during 
the  return  movement  of  the  nippers,  and  from  which  they  arc  released 
during  the  opposite  movement,  to  allow  the  free  passage  of  the  said 
wires  between  guides,  into  corresponding  openings  in  a  peculiarly  formed 


oscillating  arm  termed  a  carrycr,  whose  oseillating  movement  is  constant 
over  the  extent  of  a  quarter  of  a  circle,  except  a  sligiit  rest  or  stoppatrc 
nt  the  termini  r.f  each  stroke,  sufficient  to  receive  the  wires,  and  allow 
them  to  be  cut  off  at  the  proper  lengths  by  cutting  snips  in  the  <ruiiles 
immediately  next  it,  and  the   punches  to  force  the  cut  teeth  out  of  it 
into  tiie  previously  made  punctures  in  the  paper  cylinder.    This  peculiar 
oscilliitiiig  movement  of  tlie  carrier,  with  its  stoppages,  is  produced  by 
means  of  a  series  of  scroll  cams,  operating  on  a  toothed  or  partially- 
cogircd  wheel  on  tlie  front  end  of  the  carrier-shaft.     Simultaneous  with 
the  inward  movement  of  the  nippers  with  the  wires  grasped  between 
them,  two  horizontal  punches  are  pushed  inward  and  entirely  through 
the  pai)er  cylinder,  on  lines  tangential  with  its  periphery,  in  order  to 
make  the  necessary  holes  or  punctures  for  the  rcccpoou  of  the  tectii,  the 
paper  cylinder  being  clamped,  during  this  operation,  as  well  as  during 
th6  subsecinent  operation  of  setting  the  teeth  therein,  between  the  end 
of  aback  rest  and  n  stationary  head,  to  jirevent  it  from  turning,  from 
whose  grasp  it  is  released  after  the  two  objects  of  puncturing  the  cyl- 
inders and  setting  tlie  teeth  have  been  accomplished.     As  tlie  carrier 
desceud.s,  the  crop-head  containing  the  jmnches  is  raised  so  as  to  take 
the  puncturing  punciies  out  of  range  of  the  pai>er  cylinders,  and  the 
reciprocating  bar  by  which  they  arc  moved,  and  bring  tlie  other  punciies 
on  tiie  same  horizontal  p'a>'e  they  previously  occupied,  so  as  to  force 
the  teeth  from  the  carrier  into  the  punctures  iireviously  made  for  them. 
In  tills  manner  the  several  parts  of  the  uiachine  are  made  to  act  in  con- 
cert from  a  regular  motion,  the  paper  cylinder  being  turned  and  moved 
forward  at  proper  intervals  by  tlie  before-mentioned  ratchet  and  suitable 
gearing,  and  the  several  operations  of  moving  the  wires  into  the  carrier 
the  proper  distance  to  form  tiie  teeth,  cutting  them  off,  puncturing  the 
paper  cylinder  with  suitable  holes  for  their  receittion,  carrying  them 
opposite  these  holes,  setting  them  therein,  and  the  intermediate  duties 
of  the  various  parts  being  performed  at  the  ])roi)cr  intervals  of  time,  and 
in  the  regnlar  order,  to  enable  the  machine  to  set  tlie  extraoidinary 
number  of  two  hundred  and  forty  teeth  in   the  cylinder  per  minute. 
After  this  paper  cylinder  is  set  or  studded  with  95,000  teeth,  it  is  re- 
moved from  the  machine  and  placed  concentric  with  a  metallic  cylinder, 
the  inner  ends  of  the  teeth  which  project  inward  equally  from  the  inner 
periphery  of  the  paper  cylinder,  while  their  outer  ends  are  flush  with 
the  outer  one,  serving  to  keep  it  in  its  proper  relation  to  the  metallic 
cylinder,  during  the  pouring  of  the  Uabbitt  metal  around  the  same  and 
between  it  and  the  paper  cylinder  and  ends  of  the  teeth,  to  which  it 
forms  a  base  or  bed.     In  pouring  the  metal  the  channel  through  which 
it  pusses  is  such  as  to  cause  it  to  lirst  descand  to  the  bottom  of  the  me- 





,t  is  constant 
or  stoppiiu;c 
3s,  ami  n!lo\v 
n  the  <!;ai(le3 
eth  out  of  it 
riiis  peculiar 
produced  by 
or  pivrtitilly- 
taneous  with 
ped  between 
irely  tlii'ough 
,  in  order  to 
he  teotli,  the 
'cU  as  during 
ween  the  end 
turnin<?,  from 
iring  the  evi- 
ls tlic  carrier 
so  as  to  take 
ilcrs,  and  the 
)thcr  pnnclies 
so  as  to  force 
ade  for  them, 
to  act  in  con- 
?d  and  moved 
t  and  suitable 
to  the  carrier 
uncturinpr  tlio 
arryins;  them 
nediate  duties 
Is  of  time,  ai\d 
r  per  minute, 
teeth,  it  is  re- 
allic  cylinder, 
Tom  the  inner 
ire  flush  with 
)  the  metallic 
the  same  and 
th,  to  which  it 
hrough  which 
am  of  the  me- 

tallic cylinder,  and  then  rise  outside  the  same  throuRh  and  between  the 
ends  of  the  teeth,  so  as  to  allow  the  escape  of  the  air  before  it.  When 
the  metal  is  cooled  and  set,  the  paper  cylinder  is  wet  and  softened,  and 
turned  off,  and  the  outer  ends  of  the  tedli  are  trvound  to  give  them  the 
peculiar  sliarp  form  ami  uniform  length  before  mentioned. 

Tiierc  are  numbers  of  other  new  machines  and  improvements  in  this 
cstul)lishmeiit  for  assisting  in  the  work  intended  for  the  madiinery  they 
maimfacturo,  but  we  must  limit  our  notice  to  two  of  tliem.    Tiie  hrst  of 
these  is  an  attachment  of  additional  tools  to  tlie  mandrils  of  drills,  and 
is  so  very  simple  and  effective  as  to  astonisli  the  beholder.     The  design 
of  this  improvement  is  to  finish  the  hubs  of  cog-wheels,  pulleys,  etc.,  and 
the  mandril  is  so  formed  as  to  admit  of  tlie  attachment  of  a  frame  or 
slock  containing  a  facing  tool,  a  cliamfering  tool,  and  a  tool  for  turning 
the  outside  of  the  hub,  arranged  m  sticii  relation  to  each  other  as  to  en- 
able the  entire  operations  nameil  to  l)e  jx'rfurmed  simultaneously,  and^y 
one  descent  of  tlie  mandril.     The  I)oring  ami  reaming  tools  can  also  be 
added,  and  the  drill  made  to  perform  these  additional  functions  at  the 
same  time,  one   man  being   able,  under  tliis   process,  to  attend  to  two 
drills.     This  is  not  only  a  decided  lal)(ir-aving  improvement,  but  is  ad- 
vantageous in  this  respect,  that  the  comi)ined  work  performed  through  it 
is  more  accurate  than  if  the  tools  were  set  separately,  and  each  part  of 
the  work  done  singly,  as  heretofore. 

Tiie  other  machine  referred  to  is  an  automatic  cutting  engine  for  cut- 
ting either  plain  or  ))cvel  cog-wiieels  and  pinions.     Tliis  machine  can  be 
adjusted  to  cut  any  sized  og,  on  any  sized  wlieel,  l)y  simply  detaching 
a  segment  cogged  jilate  or  cur)),  which  acts  to  turn  the  platen  and  liul) 
witirthe  wheels  to  be  cut,  tlie  jtroper  distance  to  correspoinl  with  the 
distance  apart  of  the  intended  cogs,  and  sulistituling  anoliier  of  the 
requisite  size,— the  feature  of  turning  the  pialeii  and  hub  and  wheels  to 
bo  cut  the  required  distance  being  effected  and  regulated  by  the  cogged 
Hogment  or  curb.     Tlie  extent  of  the  up-and-down  travel  of  the  platen 
anil  hub  is  also  adjusted  to  correspond  with  the  thickness  ami  number  of 
wheels  to  be  cut,  by  means  of  a  sliding  box,  to  which  the  raising  chain 
is  attached,  and  which  is  secured  and  capable  of  being  moved  in  a  slot 
or  groove  in  the  oscillating  arm  through  which  the  platen  and  hub 
receive  their  movement.     Any  number  of  cog-wiieols,  whose  combined 
thicknesses  are  not  greater  than  the  movement  of  the  platen,  can  be 
placed  and  secured  on  the  hub,  and  after  the  machine  is  adjusted,  it  can 
be  started  and  left  to  automatically  cut,  without  any  attendance  what- 
ever, the  entire  cogs  of  the  wheels  in  the  most  accurate  and  beautiful 
manner.    In  case  it  is  desired,  the  parts  can  be  modiUed  and  the  machine 
adjusted  to  the  cutting  of  bevel  cog-wheels. 



The  Port  Richmond  Iron  Works.    I.  P.  Morris,  Towne  &  Co.,  Proprietors. 

Tills  is  QUO  of  the  establishments  to  wliich  rhiladclphia  is  indebted  for 
Inn-  reputation  for  ability  to  construet  lieavy  machinery.  Its  existonue 
may  bo  said  to  cover  tlie  whole  period  of  the  manufacture  of  machinery 
by  modern  metliods.  In  1828,  when  Levi  :Morris  &  Co.,  the  prede- 
cessors of  the  present  firm,  commenced  business,  many  of  the  tools  which 
are  now  deemed  indispensable  in  every  machine  shop,  even  those  of  the 
most  moderate  pretensions,  were  scarcely  known.  At  that  time  slide 
latiies  and  power  drill  i)resses  were  not  in  general  use,  and  the  only 
representative  of  the  phming-machine  in  this  country,  it  is  believed,  was 
to  be  found  at  flie  Allaire  Works,  in  \ew  York,  originally  bnilt  for  fiuting 
rollers.  It  was  not  until  1838  that  a  planer  was  purchased  and  fitted 
up  in  the  Ilichmond  works.  In  the  Foundry  department,  the  opera- 
tions were  also  conducted  with  very  imperfect  and  inelhcient  machinery 
compared  with  that  now  in  use.  Anthracite  coal,  which  was  introduced 
here  about  1820,  was  by  no  means  exclusively  used  for  melting  iron. 
The  blowing  machinery  was  of  a  very  primitive  character,  with  unwieldy 
wooden  bellows  and  open  tuyeres.  Tiie  be  it  product  was  not  more  than 
two  thousand  to  three  thousand  pounds  of  iron  in  an  hour,  and  in  the 
course  of  the  heat  an  average  much  below  this.  With  the  present  im- 
proved I)lowing  machinery,  and  improved  furnaces,  eight  tons  have 
been  melted  in  forty-six  minutes,  with  a  consumption  of  coal  of  one 
pound  to  eight  pounds  of  iron  melted. 

In  184G,  the  works  were  removed  from  Market  and  Schuylkill  Seventh 
streets  to  their  present  location,  which  is  on  the  Delaware  Kiver, 
adjoining  the  Reading  Railroad  Coal  Wiiarves  on  the  south.  Tlie 
buildings,  which  are  of  brick,  occupy  a  lot  having  a  front  on  the  Dela- 
ware River  of  145  feet,  a  front  on  Richmond  street,  or  Point  Road,  of 
200  feet,  and  an  entire  depth  or  length,  from  the  Richmond  side  to  the 
eml  of  wharf,  of  1,050  feet. 

The  remarkable  feature  in  this  establishment  is  the  extraordinary  size 
of  the  tools  in  use,  and  the  perfection  of  the  machines  employed  in  the 
various  shops.  In  tlie  Foundry  there  are  three  Cupola  Furnaces,  the 
largest  of  which  will  melt  twelve  tons  of  iron  per  hour.  In  the 
Machine  tihop,  there  is  a  Rlaning  Machine  capable  of  planing  castings 
eight  feet  wide,  six  feet  high,  and  thirty-two  feet  long;  a  Lathe 
that  will  swing  six  feet  clear,  and  turn  a  length  of  thirty-four  feet ;  and 
a  Boring  Mill,  possessing  also  the  qualities  of  a  horizontal  lathe,  which 
will  bore  out  a  cylinder  sixteen  feet  in  diameter  and  eighteen  feet  long. 
This  is  believed  to  be  the  largest  in  America  or  Europe.     In  their 

I.    p.    MORRIS  AND  CO.  'S  WORKS. 



ilcbted  for 
he  pi'ede- 
Dols  whicli 
oso  of  tlie 
time  slide 
I  the  only 
ieved,  was 
for  fluting 
and  fitted 
lie  opera- 
Iting  iron. 
I  unwieldy 
more  tluiu 
and  in  the 
(resent  im- 
tons  have 
lal  of  one 

ill  Seventh 
ire  Kiver, 
uth.  Tiie 
I  the  Dula- 
-j  Road,  of 
side  to  the 

dinary  size 
jyed  in  the 
rnaees,  the 
'.  In  the 
ig  castings 
;  a  Lathe 
■  feet ;  and 
ithe,  which 
feet  long. 
In  their 

Boiler  Shop  they  have  one  large  Riveting  Machine,  and  facilities  for 
making  boilers  or  plate-iron  work,  of  every  description  that  may  bo 
desired.  But  a  few  years  i^'o.  Steam  Boilers,  made  of  plate-iron,  were 
riveted  exclusively  with  hand-hammers ;  and  when  the  City  Water-Works 
were  located  at  Centre  Square,  the  st-am  boilers  were  built  of  wood, 
with  cast-iron  furnaces.  At  the  present  time,  in  this,  as  in  the  best 
shops,  circular  boilers  are  riveted  in  a  machine,  by  pressure  produced  l)y 
a  cam  operating  upon  a  sliding  mandril.  In  their  Smithery,  they  have 
a  Nasmyth  Steam  Hammer  for  heavy  forgings ;  a  \  -t  Hammer  for  light 
work  ;  and  throughout  the  establishment,  the  minor  tools,  consisting  of 
Lathes,  Boring  Mills,  Slotting  and  Shaping  Machines,  Planing  Ma- 
chines.  Horizontal  and  Vertical  Drills,  etc.,  etc.,  are  all  of  the  best 
description,  and  combine  the  latest  improvements. 

The  monuments  of  this  firm's  engineering  ability  are  found  in  all  parts 
of  the  country.     Probably  the  largest  engines  for  producing  iron  with 
anthracite  coal  ever  built  in  this  country,  are  the  product  of  their  works. 
For  the  Lackawanna  Iron  Works,  at  Scranton,  Pa.,  they  built  two 
Blowing   Cylinders,  nine  feet  bore,  and   ten  feet  stroke,   and   Steam 
Cylinders  fifty-four  inches  In  diameter  and  ten  feet  stroke.  •  For  Seyfert 
McManus  &  Go's,  furnace,  at  Reading,  they  built  a  direct  high  pressure 
Blowing  Machine,  the  steam  cylinder  being  forty  inches  in  diameter, 
and  blowing  cylinder  one   hundred  and  two  inches,  both  seven  feet 
stroke  of  piston.     For  the  Lehigh  Crane  Co.,  they  built  •.  Beam  Con- 
densing  Engine,  having  a  steam  cylinder  fifty-eight  inches  diameter,  and 
a  blowing  cylinder  ninety-three  inches,  both  ten  feet  stroke  of  piston. 
The  l)eam  of  this  engine  works  on  a  column  of  cast-iron  thirty  feet  high, 
and  the  whole  is  set  upon  a  heavy  cast-iron  bed  plate.     For  the  Thomas 
Iron  Works,  they  supplied  two  very  large  beam  engines,  the  steam 
cylinders  being  sixty-six  inches  in  diiiuieter,  and  the  blowing  cylinders 
one  hundred  and  eight  inches  diameter,  and  ten  feet  stroke.     These,  it 
is  believed,  are  the  heaviest  ever  made  for  the  purpose.     The  large 
eno-ines  of  the  United  States  Mint,  and  the  lever  beam  Cornish  Pump. 
ing  Engine  at  the  Schnylkill  Water  Works,  sixty  inches  diameter,  ten 
feet  stroke,  were  constructed  at  their  works. 

This  firm  also  built  the  Iron  Light  House  for  the  ship  shoal,  in  the 
Gulf  of  Mexico,  which  was  put  up  on  screw  piles,  in  water  fifteen  feet 
deep  and  at  a  distance  of  twelve  miles  from  land.  The  whole  height 
of  the  structure,  from  the  water  to  the  top  of  the  spire,  was  one  hundred 
and  twenty-two  feet,  and  from  the  water  to  the  focal  plane,  one  hundred 
and  seven  and  a  half  feet.  The  structure  above  the  foundation  to  the 
deck,  a  height  of  ninety-three  feet,  was  erected  in  their  yard,  complete 
in  all  its  parts  before  shipping 



For  Lousiana  and  the  West  Indies,  they  have  manufactured  every 
variety  of  sugar  apparatus  and  engines  for  sugar  mills;  and  Nortii 
Carolina  they  have  supplied  with  a  large  ^urabcr  of  their  celebrated 
Gang  Saw  Mills,  by  which  a  log  of  yellow  pine  can  be  converted  into 
flooring-boards  by  once  passing  through  the  mill.     The  gangs  consist  of 
twelve  to  twenty-four  saws,  driven  by  direct  connections  with  a  steam 
engine  at  a  speed  of  one  hundred  and  twenty  to  one  hundred  and  forty 
strokes  per  minute.     They  are  not  much  known,  except  at  the  South, 
but  we  think  they  would  be  found  highly  useful  in  the  pine  forests  of 
New  Jersey,  and  the  Middle  and  Western  States.     Recently  this  firm 
has  been  largely  employed  in  building  engines  for  government  vessels— 
the  gunboats  Itasca,  Scioto,  and  Tacony ;  the  Ericsson  batteries,  San- 
gamon and  Lehigh,  and  the  Iron-clad  batteries,  Monadnock  and  Ag- 

The  firm  of  I.  P.  Morris,  Towne  &  Co.,  is  now  composed  of  Isaac  P. 
Morris,  John  H.  Towne,  John.  J.  Thompson,  and  Lewis  Taws.     The 
first-named  gentleman   was  born  in   1803,   was  one  of   the   original 
partners  in  the  firm  of  Levi  Morris  &  Co.,  who  commenced  business  in 
1828.  and  sioce  that  period  has  been  identified  with  the  manufacturing 
interests  of  Philadelphia.     In  his  business  career,  he  has  been  distin- 
guished  for  a  discriminating   intelligence,   inflexible    honesty,   and   Ji 
laudable   public   spirit.     Mr.  J.  H.  Towne   was    formerly   engineering 
partner  of  the  firm   of  Merrick  &   Towne,  and  is  an   engineer  of 
unquestioned   ability.     Mr.  Thompson,  wlio  has  been  connected   with 
the  establishment  for  many  years,  has  under  his  charge  the  finances 
of  the  firm.     Mr.  Taws  has  been  connected  witli  the  concern  since 
1834,  and  until  1861,  when  Mr.  Towne  joined  the  firm,  had  exclusive 
control  of  the  mechanical  department  of  the  establishment.     He  served 
his  apprenticeship  with  Rush  &  Muhlenberg,  the  successors  of  Oliver 
Evaos,  and  in  early  manhood  went  to  New  York,  where  he  entered  into 
tiie  employment  of  the  West  Point  Foundry  Association,  then  under  the 
superintendence  of  Adam  Hall,  a  distinguished  Scotch  engineer.     The 
present  arrangement  of  the  Port  Richmond  Works  is  the  result  of  his 


The  firm  of  I.  P.  Morris,  Towne  «fc  Co.  have  a  capital  invested 
in  their  business  of  over  $400,000,  and  employ  about  400  hands. 
Their  list  of  manufactures  includes  every  description  of  heavy  machinery 
except  locomotives. 



The  Southwark  Foundry.   Merrick  &  Sons,  Proprietors. 

This  is  another  of  tlie  remarkable  machine  cstablisliraent  s  of  Pliila- 
delphia.  It  was  st-.irted  in  183C  as  a  foundry  for  castings  only,  but  was 
soon  enlarged,  and  now  the  entire  space  occupied  by  buildings  is  63,050 
feet,  with  a  yard-room  of  80,550,  maiiing  the  entire  space  occupied  by 
the  establishment  144,200  square  feet.  In  addition,  it  has  a  tract  of 
land  on  the  Delaware  Iliver,  about  400  feet  front  and  1,100  feet  deep, 
aifording  ample  space  for  extensive  iron  boat  yards  ;  and  on  this  tract 
there  is  a  line  pier,  fiO  feet  wide  and  250  feet  long,  with  a  very  powerful 
shears  at  tlie  end,  capable  of  lifting  fifty  tons. 

A  brief  description  of  some  of  the  objects  of  interest  in  this  establish- 
ment will  show  that  the  arrangements,  tools,  and  appliances  in  use,  are 
on  a  scale^roportionate  to  tlie  capaciousness  of  the  buildings. 

The  foundry  has  two  Cranes,  capable  of  lifting  fifty  tons  each,  and 
three  others  of  thirty  tons  lifting  power,  by  which  any  object  may  be 
transferred  from  one  extremity  to  the  other,  or  to  any  point  on  the  floor. 
Two  fifty-inch  Cupolas  arc  used  for  melting  the  iron,  and  are  supplied 
by  a  pair  of  131ast  Cylinders  forty  inches  in  diameter,  and  three-feet 
stroke.  Twenty-five  tons  of  metal  can  be  melted  in  three  hours.  The 
Ovens  for  drying  the  Cores  are  of  immense  size  and  capacity. 

In  the  Smith  Sliop,  the  blast  is  obtained  by  an  Alden  Fan.  There  are 
two  Nasmyth  Steam  Hammers,  one  of  ten  hundred- weight  and  one  of  five 
hundred-weight  of  ram.  There  are  also  in  this  shop  Bolt  and  Ilivcl 
Macliines,  for  the  manufacture  of  these  articles,  large  numbers  of  which 
are  annually  used.     The  Brass  Foundry  has  a  Cupola  and  four  Crucible 


The  lower  Mochine  shop  has  a  Boring  Mill  which  will  bore  a  cylinder 
eleven  feet  in  diameter,  and  fourteen  feet  high  ;  a  Planing  Machine, 
believed  to  be  the  largest  in  the  world,  capable  of  planing  eight  feet 
wide,  fifteen  feet  deep,  and  thirty  feet  long,  besides  other  lathes  and 
planers,  of  various  dimensions  and  power ;  two  Slotters,  Drill  Presses, 
etc.,  etc.  The  upper  Machine  Shop  is  well  stocked  with  Smaller  Latlies. 
Planers,  Shaping  and  Drilling  Machines,  Vices,  etc.  The  Boiler  Shop 
is  provided  with  a  Riveting  Machine  capable  of  riveting  a  boiler  forty 
feet  long,  and  of  any  diameter;  with  u  Treble  Punching  Machine  of  im- 
mense strength  ;  with  heavy  and  light  Shears  and  Punches ;  an  Air 
Furnace,  for  heating  large  plates;  Rolls,  for  bending;  Cranes,  etc. 
The  largest  Erecting  Shed,  used  for  putting  up  sugar  apparatus,  has  a 



traveling  Crane  extending  its  whole  length.  The  business  of  making 
Sugar  Apparatus  forms  a  large  item  in  the  i)rocUictions  of  this  establish- 
ment ;  and  for  a  list  of  some  of  the  extraordinary  machines  that  have 
been  constructed  here,  \vc  must  refer  the  reader  to  the  work  on  Pliila- 
dclphia  and  itti  MiDutfadures,  to  which  we  are  jirincipally  indebted  for 
these  facts.  Ordinarily,  from  tliree  hundred  and  lifty  to  five  hundred 
hands  receive  constant  employment  at  these  works. 

William  Sellers  &  Co.'s  Machine  Tool  Works. 

In  the  manufacture  of  Machine  Tools,  Philadelphia  has' a  peculiar 
and  deserved  celebrity.  Iron  being  comparatively  cheap,  by  reason  of 
proximity  to  the  sources  of  its  production,  the  Philadelphia  builders 
use  it  freely  in  the  beds  and  other  important  parts  of  their  tools,  which 
are  consequently  remarkable  for  solidity  and  freedom  from  injurious 
vibration  when  in  active  use.  The  weight  of  metal,  however,  is  not  so 
much  their  distinguisliing  characteristic  as  the  excellence  of  the  work- 
manship. Any  one  who  will  visit  the  establishment  of  William  Sellers 
&  Co.,  cannot  fail  to  be  astonished  at  the  extreme  pains  taken  to  insure 
accuracy  in  all  i'rfs  of  the  machines  which  they  make.  The  wearing 
surfaces  are  iscioped  together — a  slow  and  laborious  process,  which, 
however,  secures  alisolute  contact  at  every  point.  The  bolt-holes  are  all 
reamed,  and  the  bolts  turned  and  driven  home.  The  gearing  is  cut  to 
a  perfect  form  of  tooth  in  every  case.  All  the  parts  are  made  to 
standard  guages,  whereby  each  will  fit  its  corresponding  part  in  a  hundred 


The  firm  which  we  have  named  has  attained  a  reputation  that  is  truly 
enviable.  We  know  of  no  other  that  in  so  short  a  period  of  time  has 
built  up  a  mechanical  reputation  so  wide-spread,  resti.ig  on  a  basis  of 
unquestioned  substantial  excellence.  In  1S48,  the  firm  of  Bancroft  & 
Seller^;  commei,L?d  business  in  Philadelphia,  and  in  a  very  few  years 
their  intluen-e  was  lelt  in  all  branches  of  the  machine  manufacture. 
Tools  from  their  shop  were  ordered  from  Russia,  and  supplied  to 
other  parts  of  Europe.  Early  in  18.")5,  Mr.  Bancroft  died.  Since  his 
decease,  the  firm  has  been  composed  of  two  brothers,  William  and 
John  Sellers,  Jr.,  names  that  at  this  time  are  everywhere  regarded  as 
a  sufficient  guarantee  of  the  excellence  of  whatever  they  manufacture. 
In  w  orkmanship,  mathematical,  not  proximate  accuracy,  is  their  standard. 
A  variation  of  a  hair's  breadth,  if  it  can  be  overcome,  is  not  left  unremedied. 

Besides  Machinists'  Tools,  this  firm  manufactures  a  number  of  special 









Articles  which  arc  in  extensive  demand.  The  Self-adjusting  Hanger, 
made  by  them,  is  of  great  value  in  the  construction  of  shafting,  inasmuch 
re  it  allows  the  sluifl  complete  control  of  the  bearing,  so  as  to  insure  an 
equal  amount  of  pressure  on  every  part.  By  means  of  this,  they  are 
enubl.;d  to  use  a  long  bearing  without  danger  of  binding  the  shaft,  thus 
reducing  the  pressure  per  square  inch  upon  the  bearing,  and  consetiuently 
requiring  less  oil,  as  the  pressure  does  not  force  out  the  oil  so  as  to 
bring  the  surfaces  of  iron  in  contact  and  cause  them  to  heat  and  cut. 

About  six  years  ago,  the  firm  introduced  a  new  p'an  of  coupling 
shafting  together,  which  obviated  entirely  the  necessity,  before  existing, 
of  fitting  each  shaft  to  its  proper  coupling,  and  also  enabled  them  to 
adopt  a  new  style  of  hanger,  of  much  cheaper  construction  than  any  in 
use,  the  whole  completing  a  system  at  prcsei>t  unequalod,  all  parts 
being  interchangeable.  The  ability  to  interchange  the  parts  in  any 
system  of  construction  is  a  matter  that  manufacturers  can  fully  appre- 
ciate; but  in  shafting,  it  not  only  greatly  facilitates  its  first  introduction, 
but  it  enables  any  subsequent  alterations  or  repairs  to  be  readily  made, 
and,  what  is  of  prime  consequence,  reduces  its  first  cost  whilst  it  ini 
proves  the  article. 

Tliev  also  manufacture  a  Turn-Table,  for  turning  an  engine  and  tender, 
of  wliich  the  largest  size  is  llfty-four  feet  in  diameter,  and  weighs  32,000  lbs. 
It  consists  of  a  quadrangular  centre-piece  or  box,  upon  which  the  arms  for 
carrying  the  rails  arc  keyed  in  a  very  s.ibstantial  manner.     At  the  outer 
end  of  the  arms  are  placed  two  cross-girts,  carrying  four  truck  wheels, 
which  are  intended  to  take  the  weight  when  the  load  is  going  on  or  off. 
The   centre   rests  upon   Parn/s  Patent  Ant, ■-Friction  Box,   and   the 
power  of  one  man  is  stifficicnt  to  turn  the  table  and  its  load  easily, 
without  the  intervention  of  any  gearing.     They  arc  so  constructed  that 
water  in  the  pit,  within  eighteen  inches  of  the  top  of  the  rail  on  the 
road,  will  not  impair  their  elBciency  or  durability.     Twenty-five  of  these 
Turn-Tablcs  are  now  in  use  on  the  Pennsylvania  Central  Railroad,  and 
the  orders  for  them  require  the  firm  to  complete  one  in  every  four  days. 
Some  three  years  ago,  Messrs.  Sellers  &  Co.  introduced  GiffarcVs  Patent 
Self-acting  Water  Injector,  for  feeding  boilers,  of  which  they  are  now- 
sole  manufacturers  and  licensees.     This  is  an  apparatus  which  is  intended 
to  dispense  with  pumps  in  feeding  boilers  and  the  various  movements 
for  working  them  in  all  classes  of  engines.     It  is  an  adjunct  to  the  boiler 
and  entrrcly  independent  of  the  engine,  and  its  application  is  rendered 
especially  easy  by  the  fact  that  it  can  be  placed  in  any  position,  vertical, 
horizontal,  or  otherwise,  and  near  to,  or  at  a  distance  from  the  boiler, 
and  at  any  reasonable  height  above  the  line  of  the  feed  water.     This 
Injector  will  supply  itself  from  the  hot  well  of  a  condensing  engine,  and 



is  connected  with  tlie  boiler  by  two  pipes,  one  leading  from  the  steam 
space,  and  the  other  conducted  to  the  lowest  convenient  point  of  the 
water  space.  By  using  this  apparatus,  those  having  boilers  save  not 
only  liie  iirst  cost  of  all  pumps  and  the  jiarts  to  connect  them  with  the 
engine  and  boiier,  but  the  power  requiv.d  to  woi'lc  them,  and  their  wear 
and  tear,  which  in  high-pressure  engin..  j  is  very  considerable.  Since  tiieir 
introduction,  and  the  improvements  which  they  have  made  upon  them, 
this  firm  have  sold  more  than  i;iree  thousand,  and  we  believe  with 
entire  satishiction  to  the  purchasers.  They  have  now  forty  hand.^  con- 
stantly emi)loyed  in  manufacturing  them,  and  tlieir  orders  are  at  the 
present  time  fully  up  to  their  capacity  for  producing  them.* 

Tiiis  firm  are  now  manufacturing  the  Morrison  Steam  Hammer  in 
this  country.  It  is  largely  in  use  in  England,  being  nmnufactured  at 
Xew-Castle-upon-Tyne,  by  Messrs.  Robert  Morriijon  &  Co.     These  ma- 

"  As  this  work  will  probably  bo  perused 
by  It  largo  number  of  manufacturers,  and 
others  who  have  boilers  and  steam  engines, 
wc  probably  cannot  il  '  our  readers  ■'.  greater 
piiictieal  service  thmi  in  calling  their  atten- 
tion to  this  valuable  iinprovomcnt.  The 
Oeiiornl  Superintendent  of  tlio  Pennsylvania 
Central  Uailroad,  Sir.  Enoch  Lewis,  writes: 
"  Wo  have  a  b'rgo  number  of  Gill'ard's  Iiijee- 
ti  a  upon  our  stationary  anil  locomotive 
engines,  and  they  continue  to  give  us  entire 
snlisfaction.  Upon  all  tho  now  engines 
buill  for  us  daring  tho  past  year,  and  upon  being  tuih  for  us  at  this  time,  we  are 
using  Ihem  to  tho  entire  i  elusion  of  pumps. 
Wherever  pumps  reipiiro  renewal,  we  use 
Injectors  in  place  of  them.  AVo  lliid  them 
loss  liable  to  derangement  than  pumps,  anu 
at  least  equally  efScient." 

Robert  Kennio,  proprietor  of  the  Lodi 
Print  \7orks,  Bergen  cuunty,  N.  J.,  cerlilies  : 
"The  UitVnrd  I'jcctor  has  no\y  been  in  uso 
on  one  set  of  my  boilers  for  nearly  two 
montha.  It  ia  a  perfect  success,  and,  al- 
though I  have  some  of  tho  best  known 
steam  pumps  on  my  other  boilers,  I  intend 
to  take  the'.i  all  out,  and  supply  their  places 
with  Injeitors.  They  are  tho  most  perfect 
boiler  fccilor  over  invented,  and  a  blessing 
to  any  on )  that  has  as  many  boilers  as  I 

Isaao  Hinckley,  PnperintenJont  of  tho 
Merrimack  Manufacturing  Corporation  at 
Lowell,  writes :  "  Tho  No.  0  (liffarJ  Injector, 

which  we  rece'ved  in  November  last,  baa 
never  failed  to  perform  its  duty  perfectly. 
It  takes  .eed  water  at  about  125°  Falir't, 
from  a  tank  placed  about  thirty  inches 
below  tho  •vater  line  of  tho  boilers;  and 
feeds  in  the  most  satisfactory  manner  a 
Ijniler  of  sevoi  feet  diameter  and  tionty-fivo 
feet  long,  and  carrying  stoam  at  about 
twenty-four  pounils.  Tho  second  Injector 
of  the  s:ime  size,  lately  receiveil,  is  also  in 
successful  operation,  feedingancst  of  boilers, 
where  steam  is  carried  at  forty  pounds.  Wo 
shall  want  in  April  three  more  Injectors; 
and  I  low  see  no  reason  to  doubt  that  this 
Company  will  eventually  api'ly  this  appa- 
ratus to  their  whole  system  of  boilers,  which 
is  of  an  extent  to  rei|Uiro  nine  thousand 
tons  of  coal  per  annum." 

Oarsod  &  Rrother,  proprietors  of  tho 
Wingohocking  Mills,  write :  "  Wo  have  used 
no  Force  Pump  since  the  Injector  was  put 
up.  Tho  average  pressure  of  our  steam  ia 
eighty  poumls  ;  and  wo  are  so  well  salislied 
with  it  that  wo  would  not  bo  without  it  for 
double  its  cost." 

(i.  Dawson  Coleman,  proprietor  of  tho 
Lebanon  Furnaces,  writes  :  "  No  ono,  after 
seeing  the  operation  of  tho  Injector,  can 
hesitate  as  to  wliiih  to  adopt  when  ordering 
a  now  engine  ;  and  most  persons  would 
decide  to  abandon  tho  pumjis  on  an  old  ono. 
They  arc  particularly  valuable  at  blast  fur- 
naces, whero  wo  havo  bo  little  time  for  ro- 



the  steam 
lint  of  t'uc 
save  not 
11  witli  the 
tlieir  wear 
<iiico  tlieir 
pon  them, 
lievc  with 
laiut.-,  eou- 
ire  ut  the 

aninier  ia 
leturcfl  at 
TIkjso  ma- 

bcT  last,  baa 
ity  perl'octlj-. 
125°  Fftlir't, 
liirty  inches 
boiler? ;  anil 
y  manner  a 
(1  t\cnty-fivo 
im  at  about 
ond  Injector 
mI,  is  also  in 
est  of  boilers, 
pounds.  Wo 
ro  Injectors ; 
iibt  that  this 
y  this  appa- 
loilcr.",  which 
ine  thousand 

jtors  of  tho 
Wo  have  used 
letor  was  put 
our  ptcain  ii 
well  Bnlislied 
without  it  for 

rietor  of  tho 
No  one,  after 
Injector,  catj 
■hen  ordering 
•rsons  would 
•n  «n  old  one. 
I  nt  blast  fur- 
I  timo  fur  to- 

chines  differ  principally  from  other  Steam  Hammers  in  having  the  piston- 
rod  and  piston  forged  in  one  solid  mass,  and  of  a  size  sufficient  t'>  give 
the  required  weight ;  the  rod  or  hammer  bar  passes  througii  both  ends 
of  the  steam  cylinder,  which  forms  the  only  guides ;  the  space  under- 
neath the  cylinder  is  thus  entirely  clear,  giving  great  facility  for  handling 
the  iron. 

The  celebrated  Armstrong  guns  have  all  been  forged  under  this 
hammer,  and  tht;  English  lirm  are  just  completing  an  immense  machiue 
of  this  kind.  The  weight  of  the  hammer  bar,  which  has  just  been  com- 
pletely finished,  is  40  tons,  its  fall  l.T  feet,  having  a  piston  of  18  inches 
diameter  forged  solid  upon  it,  the  bar  itself  being  20  inches  in  diameter, 
and  38  ftet  long.     This  is  the  largest  forging  ever  made. 

These  hammers  are  of  two  kinds ;  in  one  the  valve  is  worked  by  hand, 
and  may  be  either  single  or  double  acting,  that  is,  the  steam  may  be  ad- 
mitted to  the  under  side  of  the  piston  only,  or  l)y  a  slight  additional 
niovoment  to  the  same  valve,  can  be  admitted  upon  the  upper  side  also ; 
in  the  other,  the  valve  is  under  the  control  of  the  hammer  itself,  which 
erables  the  workman  to  obtain  very  rapid  blows,  the  intensity  of  which 
are  entirily  under  his  control. 

The  works  of  Wm.  Sellers  &  Co.  are  located  at  Sixteenth  and  Hamil- 
ton streets,  and  consist  of  a  muchine  shop  320  by  83  feet,  and  a  new 
three-story  fire-jtroof  building  110  by  S.'j  feet,  for  the  storage  of  finished 
work  and  patterns.  This  latter  building  contains  their  offices,  drawing 
rooms,  etc.  Adjoining  the  above,  the  firm  have  two  foundries,  in  one 
of  which  the  moulding  floor  ia  80  feet  square,  and  is  entirely  devoted  to 
heavy  castings  ;  in  the  other,  the  moulding  floor  is  80  by  lO,  with  a  wing 
of  80  by  20,  all  of  which  are  devoted  to  the  lighter  clas.s  of  work. 
Beside  the  above  are  the  requisite  l)uildings  for  pattern  shops,  smithy, 
and  brass  foundry.  The  engine  and  boiler  for  driving  these  works  are 
located  in  smaller  buildings,  distinct  from  the  main  ones,  so  as  to  make 
the  whole  as  nearly  fire-proof  as  possible. 

The  future  of  American  progress  in  the  arts  and  manufactures  depends 
hr.-gcly  upon  the  perfection  of  tho  tools  with  which  her  machines  stre 
made  ;  and  it  is  a  source  of  National  uride  and  congratulation  that  such 
a  great  degree  of  excellence  has  been  attained,  and  that  the  general 
standard  of  manufacturing  is  so  far  advanced  as  to  maintain  a  demand 
for  such  a  superior  class  of  machiuory. 



The  Pascal  Iron-Works,  Morris,  Tasker  &  Co.,  Proprietors, 

Is  the  most  extensive  manufacturing  establishment  in  the  &.>utl)ern 
part  of  IMiiiadelphia,  and  tlie  largest  of  its  class  in  the  country.  The 
buildings  cover  an  area  of  about  four  acres,  and  in  the^n  are  employed 
1,100  men,  a  much  larger  number,  we  think,  than  is  at  this  time  em- 
ployed in  any  other  iron-works  in  the  city.  The  machinery  of  the 
most  approved  description,  mucli  of  it  original  with  the  firm,  and  sur- 
passes, it  is  said,  any  that  can  be  found  in  any  similar  establishment  in 
England.  This  is  propelled  by  five  steam  enginjs  of  great  power,  whose 
boilers  are  supplied  with  water  from  two  artesian  wells.  Over  twenty  thou- 
sand tons  of  anthracite  coal  are  annually  consumed  in  the  establislunent. 

The  predecessors  of  the  present  firm  were  the  pioneers  in  this  country 
in  the  manufacture  of  wrought-iron  Tubes  and  fittings  for  gas,  steam, 
and  water.  The^y  commenced  this  business  in  1836,  in  which  year  they 
made  00,000  feet  of  tubes,  and  so  greatly  has  the  demand  increased  that 
the  firm  now  manufacture  nearly  five  millions  of  feet  annually.  Subse- 
quently they  aaded  to  these  the  manufacture  of  cast-iron  Giis  iind 
Water  Mains,  Lap-welded  Flues  for  boilers,  and  more  recently  Driving 
Pipes  and  Boring  Tools  for  oil  wells,  of  which  large  quantities  have 
been  furnished  since  capital  his  been  so  largely  directed  to  the  develop- 
ment of  this  wonderful  product. 

One  of  the  specialities  of  this  firm's  manufactures  is  that  of  apparatus 
for  warming  public  and  private  buildings,  l)oth  by  hot  waior  and  by 
steam.  Mr.  Thomas  T.  Tasker,  Sr.,  one  of  the  original  partners,  is  the 
inventor  of  a  very  popular  Self-Regulating  Hot  Water  Furnace,  by 
which  the  temperature  in  a  house  can  be  maintained  at  any  recpiired 
degree  of  heat  for  an  indefinite  period  of  time,  without  further  attention 
than  an  occasional  supply  of  coal.  Mr.  Tasker  is  also  the  inventor  of  a 
process  by  which  the  circulation  of  steam  is  kept  up  through  heating 
pipes  to  any  extent,  the  condensed  steam  returning  back  to  the  boiler 
by  its  own  gravity,  thus  saving  the  heat  which  was  formerly  lost  in  run- 
ning off  the  water.  Messrs.  Morris,  Tasker  &  Morris  made  the  first 
public  experiment  to  test  the  value  of  this  discovery  at  the  Pennsylvania 
Hospital  in  184fi,  and  since  then  they  have  warmed  many  houses, 
factories,  and  other  buildings.  The  original  inventor  neglected  to 
patent  his  discovery,  and  others  have  made  fortunes  by  its  adoption  and 
application.  Mr.  Tasker's  list  of  Inventions  also  includes  one  of  a  cast- 
iron  Hydrant  with  a  coc'c  so  arranged  that  it  can  bo  renewed  or  repaired 
without  disturbing  the  pavetrient,  an  advantage  that  those  who  do  not 
hn.'oit  will  best  appreciate. 


Thf  *P' 

W  -rkf 

|i)(,(    Mfii 


1    ;, 

1  :t,!;;    t  •■    i\'^ 








ifhiiv  - 



Is  one  0 

erected  ii 
artielet  ; 
eludes  a 
is  locatet 
sixty  thoi 
slate  rool 
used  hen 
at  the  1 
with  the 
The  es 
for  the  n 
so  compl( 
o''  finishi 
and  whic 
trate — a 
the  moul( 
and  the  i 


MCHRIS,    TA8KER   &   CO.'S.,  AND   STUART   &   PETERSON'S   WOUKS.        33 

Tliis  house  dates  its  origin  back  to  tbe  year  1821,  when  Stephen  P. 
Morris  couinienced  the  manufacture  of  Stoves  and  Grates  at  the  corner 
of  Market  and  Schuylkill  Seventh  streets.  In  1828,  he  removed  to 
Tliird  and  Walimt  streets,  whore  he  erected  a  foundry,  and  not  long 
afterward  was  joined  by  Henry  Morris  and  Thomas  T.  Tasker,  establish- 
ing the  firm  of  S.  P.  Morris  &  Co.  Subsequently  S.  P.  Morris  retired 
and  Wistar  Morris  became  a  member  of  the  firm,  when  the  name  was 
p  changed  to  Morris,  Tasker  &  Morris,  which  continued  until  185(!,  when* 
the  present  style  of  iNlo.ris,  l.isker  &  Co.,  was  adopted.  The  partners 
in  the  firm  at  this  time,  are  Stephen  Morris,  Thomas  T.  Tasker,  Jr., 
Stephen  P.  M.  Tasker,  and  Henry  G.  Morris — young  men,  but  who  have 
the  advantage  of  capital,  and  of  the  experience  of  their  predecessors. 




Stuart,  Peterson  &  Co.'s  Foundry 

Is  one  of  the  few  extensive  establishments  that  have  as  yet  been 
erected  in  America,  for  the  manufacture  of  the  great  variety  of  useful 
article^  ;no\vn  as  Hollow  Ware,  a  term  so  comprehensive  that  it  in- 
cludes a  diminutive  saucepan  and  an  immense  Caldron.  The  foundry 
is  located  on  Noble  street  above  Thirteenth,  and  occupi"fi  :.n  area  of 
sixty  thousand  square  feet,  requiring  to  cover  it  an  acre  and  a  half  of 
slate  roofing.  The  moulding  floor  is  iu  the  form  of  a  squnrc,  having  a 
superficial  area  of  22,500  square  feet.  The  quantity  of  iron  iinnually 
used  here  is  about  4,000  tons,  consisting  principally  of  that  produced 
at  the  Thomas  Iron-Work'^,  at  Catasauqua,  which,  in  conil)ination 
with  the  Leesport  iron,  is  found  to  make  a  superior  metal  for  fine 
castings.  About  three  hundred  workmen  are  furnished  employment 
throughout  the  year. 

The  establishment,  however,  is  not  so  noteworthy  for  its  extent  as 
for  the  new  and  improved  processes  adopted,  especially  in  finisliing, 
enamelling,  and  tinning  iron  ware.  In  these  particulars  this  firm  have 
so  completely  surpassed  their  foreign  competitors,  that  articles  of  their 
manufacture  have  a  marked  preference  in  all  nmrkets.  In  the  process 
0*'  finishing,  preparatory  to  enamelling  or  tinning,  this  firm  liave  a 
peculiar  advantage  in  consequence  of  owning  the  monopoly  of  an  in- 
geniously constructed  lathe,  on  which  they  expended  over  $20,000, 
and  which  performs  its  work  In  a  most  satisfactory  manner.  To  illus- 
trate— a  vessel,  whether  it  be  a  saucepan  or  a  kettle,  when  it  leaves 
the  mould  is  necessarily  rough,  requiring  the  exterior  to  be  improved 
and  the  interior  to  be  bright  and  unifonuly  smooth.     This  process  in 



Eiiglaiul  is  performed  in  a  hand  lathe,  the  workman  using  a  chisel  or 
tool  with  his  hand  upon  a  rest ;  but  this  has  the  disadvantage  of  not. 
securing  entire  uniformity  of  surface,  and  the  workmen  thus  employed 
suffor  ill  liealth  from  inhaling  minute  particles  of  the  iron.  In  Messrs. 
Stuart  &  Peterson's  foundry,  however,  a  vessel,  after  having  been  an- 
nealed is  put  into  the  lathe  referred  to,  in  which  a  tool  is  fixed  that 
conforms  to  all  the  irregularities  of  the  surface,  automatically  making 
•he  inside  bright  and  smooth,  and  when  this  work  i^  done  stops,  as  if 

of  its  own  accord. 

The  enamelling  process  is  also  peculiar  to  this  establishment,  and  to 
describe  it  we  will  borrow  the  language  of  one  who,  being  himself  a 
foreigner,  wrote,  it  may  be  presumed,  without  partiality,  in  favor  of 
American  manufactures : 

The  interior  of  the  hollow  ware,  as  prepared  by  the  steam  lathe,  is  covered 
with  a  white  paste,  and  put  into  the  oven  to  be  dried.  After  drying,  it  is 
tran'^ferred  to  an  enamelling  oven,  where  a  white  heat,  sufficient  to  melt  glass, 
is  applied,  which  fuses  this  coating,  making  it  soft  as  liquid  glass.  While 
in  this  state  it  is  swiftly  taken  from  the  oven,  rapidly  covered  with  a  white 
powder  and  immediately  returned  back  to  the  oven,  where  it  is  again  sub- 
jecte.l  to  a  white  heat,  and  finally  taken  out  to  be  gradually  cooled  in  the 

open  air.  i  ,        j 

Tlie  enamel  is,  in  fact,  a  regular  coating  of  porcelain  upon  the  metal,  and 
with  ordinary  care  is  imperishable.  On  the  contrary,  the  enamelled  iron  ware 
made  in  Kngland  (which  has  been  nearly  driven  out  of  American  consumption 
by  Stuart  &  Peterson's  manufacture)  Anally  runs  into  an  infinitesimal  number 
of  minut,.  cracks,  which  chip  oft'  and  render  the  vessel  quite  useless. 

Hollow  iron  ware  is  tinnnl  in  the  following  manner  :  The  best  Government 
Banca  tin  is  melted  in  a  cast-iron  vessel,  with  a  portion  of  sal-ammoniac,  and  is 
then  rubb.Ml  on  the  inside  surface  with  a  cork,  after  it  has  left  the  lathe,  until 
a  thorough  amalgamation  takes  place  by  the  chemical  affinity  of  both  metals. 
The  outside  of  each  vessel  is  Japanned  with  a  preparation,  fixed  by  heat, 
which  leaves  no  smell,  while  the  ordinary  gas  tar,  generally  used,  invariably 

"tIio  variety  of  vessels  to  which  the  patent  enamel  is  applied  is  very  great , 
saurepans,  boilers,  stewpans,  sugar  moulds,  evaporating  dishes,  kettles,  glue 
pots  skillets,  pie  plates,  porringers,  stove  spiders,  wash  hand  basins,  soup 
and  saucepan  digesters,  milkpans.  spittoons,  and  so  on,  far  too  numerous  to 
reckon  up  here.  The  tinned  or  patent  metal  hollow  ware  also  includes  a  large 
variety  of  vessels.  As  for  the  plain  turned  hollow  ware,  the  number  of  articles 
is  great  indeed.  What  is  called  "ton  hollow  ware"  is  made  chielly  for  the 
Southern  market,  and  so  called  because  it  is  sold  by  the  ton  of  2,240  lbs. 
Cauldrons,  sugar  pans,  counter  scales,  twine  boxes,  copying-presses,  furnaces, 
coffee  roasters,  waffle-irons,  sinks,  lamp  posts,  street  lamps,  fire  dogs,  etc., 
are  all  made  here  of  cast-iron  ;  so  are  corn  and  cob  and  meal  mills,  and  lever 
;nill9,  chiefly  used  South. 

Besides  hollow  ware,  Messrs.  Stuart  &  Peterson  are  largely  engaged 

jin  the  manu 
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ialhe  manufacture  of  Stoves,  of  which  they  make  as  many  as  five  hun- 
dred a  week,  or  twenty-seven  thousand  a  year. '  Th.s  ,s  a  branch  of 
nianufacturcs,  ir  which  Philadelphia,  by  reason  of  her  proxmuty  to  the 
ore  beds,  producing  the  iron  best  adapted  for  the  purpose,  has  peculiar 
advantages,  and  it  is  estimated  that  at  least  fifteen  thousand  tons  of 
[stoves  are  annually  made  in  this  city. 

Bement  &  Dougherty's  Industrial  Works 
Lave   attained  a  national  celebrity,   by  reason  of  the  very  superior 
class  of  Machinists'  Tools,  which  have  been  produced  in  them    and 
distributed  to  all  parts  of  the  United  States  and  to  foreign  countries^ 
T    y   are  located  on  the  square,  bounded  by  Callowhill   street  and 
Pennsylvania   avenue,   and   Twentieth   and  Twenty-first  streets    and 
cover  nearly  the  entire  block.      The  main  Shop  has  a  fron   on  Callo^^  - 
hill  street  of  three  hundred  and  seventy-two  feet  and,  with  the  excep- 
tion  of  the  office,  is  two  stories  in  height.     The  aggregate  floor  room 
of  he  various  shops,  including  Smithery,  Brass  and  Iron  Foundry  is 
about  sixty-five  thousand  square  feet,  which,  with  the  contemplated 
extensions,  is  equivalent  to  a  one  story  building,  eighteen  hundred  feet 
in  length  by  fifty  in  width;  with  yard  room  for  stoi-age  of  Coal,  lion 
and  Flasks  sufficient  for  all  the  requirements  of  the  business.     The 
location  is  peculiarly  advantageous  for  obtaining  Coal  and  Iron,  which 
are  delivered  by  the  Philadelphia  and  Reading  Railroad,  from  branches 

entering  the  premises. 

Seventeen  years  ago,  a  single  stone  shop  of  a  somewhat  imposing 
aspect,  stood  in  nearly  the  centre  of  the  s.iuare  now  occupied  by  these 
imposing  structures.      This  was  owned  by  Mr.  B.  D.  Marshall,  who 
carried  on  the  machine  business,  in  connection  with  the  engraving  of 
rolls  for  printing  Calicoes  and  other  Fabrics.     In  1851,  Mr.  Marshall 
associated  with  himself  Messrs.  William  B.  Bement  and  Gilbert  A.  Colby, 
formerlv  from  the  Lowell  (Massachusetts)  Machine  Shop,  under  the 
firm  of"  Marshall,  Bement  &  Colby.     Under  somewhat   unpromising 
circumstances,  the  new  firm  started  out  in  a  comparatively  new  branch 
of  the  Machine  business,  the  manufacture  of  Machinists'  lools-com- 
ing  at  once  into  direct   competition   with   older,    and   by   no   means 
unsuccessful,   establlshments-with  the  single   object  prominently  m 
view  of  turning  out  the  best  Tools  that  skill  and  genius  could  produce. 
In' 1853  Mr.  James  Dougherty  became  a  partner,  the  immediate  re- 
suit  of  which  was  the  erection  of  a  Foundry;  his  experience  in  this 



line,  ill  a  numbor  of  first-class  establishments,  having  peculiarly  fitted 
him  for  taking  charge  of  this  department.  In  1855  Messrs.  Marsiiall 
and  Colby  retired  from  the  firm,  and  Mr.  George  C.  Thomas  entered  It, 
thougb  his  connection  with  it  was  of  short  duration,  and  in  1857  Mr. 
Bement,  an  engineer  of  rare  mechanical  .skill,  and  Mr.  Dougherty, 
an  experienced  Iron  Founder,  bx'amo  solo  proprietors,  and  under  their 
nianagement  the  Works  have  grown  until  now  they  are  scarcely 
second  in  extent  and  importance  to  any  in  the  Union. 

Among  the  remarkable  Tools  in  these  Shops  is  a  Planer  that  will 
take  in  and  piano  a  piece  forty-five  feet  long,  ten  feet  wide  and  eight 
feet  high  ;  a  horizontal  and  vertical  Planer  that  will  plane  twenty-four 
feet  wide  and  twelve  feet  high  ;  a  Kadial  Drill  with  a  swinging  arm 
projecting  ten  feet ;  a  Boring  Mill  to  swing  eight  feet  diameter ;  all 
heavy  and  massive  Tools.  At  convenient  distances,  throughout  the 
shops,  are  powerful  Cranes  attached  to  the  columns  of  the  building,  that 
move  with  ease  and  safety  the  heaviest  pieces  to  any  required  position. 

The  Foundry  is  fitted  with  two  improved  Cupolas,  designed  by  Mr. 
Dougherty,  capable  of  melting,  the  one  twelve  thou.sand  and  the  other 
eighteen  thousand  pounds  per  hour.  All  the  modern  improvements 
are  here  combined  to  produce  the  heaviest  work  of  the  best  character. 
A  Corliss  lingine  of  ninety  hor.<o  power  drives  all  the  machinery,  in- 
eluding  fans  for  Foundry  and  Smithery. 

The  character  of  the  work  done  at  this  establishment  will  compare 
favorably  with  that  produced  by  any  similar  one  at  home  or  abroad  ;  not 
only  in  its  usefulness  but  its  general  appearance.  The  Works  are  rep- 
resented by  their  productions,  in  nearly  every  State  in  the  Union,  as 
well  as  in  Cuba,  South  America,  France,  Spain,  Austria  and  Russia. 
Their  growth  and  success,  however,  have  not  been  due  to  any  great  or 
peculiarly  striking  invention,  though  invei>tive  genius  has  not  been 
sparingly  applied  in  the  production  of  the  model  Tools  and  appliances 
that  have  given  the  establishment  its  reputation.  Among  the  most 
noticeable  of  Mr.  Bement's  improvements  may  be  mentioned  a  Patent 
Cotter  and  Key  Seat  Drilling  Machine  now  used  extensively  in 
Machine  Shops ;  a  Patent  Pulley  Turning  Machine  ;  a  Prtent  open, 
ing  Die  Bolt  Cutter ;  and  the  Patent  Adjustable  Hanger  and  other 
bearings  with  Ball  and  Socket  Boxes,  which  are  not  excelled  by  any 
in  use.  As  an  illustration  of  the  ready  adjustment  of  these  Hanger 
Boxes  it  may  be  mentioned,  that  a  shaft  that  had  become  accidentally 
bent,  was  found  to  run  without  heating  for  some  time,  the  box  ac- 
commodating itself  to  the  irregularities  of  the  bearing  with  every  revo- 

Among  the  specialities  of  this  firm's  manufactures  may  bo    men- 

tioned the  "^ 

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tionod  the  Vertical  Railway  and  Elevator  now  in  use  in  the  Continental 
HI  in  Philadelphia.  Standing  on  «  substantial  foumUtion,  ui  th 
has  n  ent  is  a  Re  tangular  Cast  Iron  Column,  thirteen  by  seventeen 
Sr  diameter  and^ighty-nine  in  height,  made  >n  six  se^u>n^ 
accurately  planed  and  bolted  together,  and  connected  by  --siv  Iron 
^•ders  to  the  floor  timbers  of  the  building.  Two  iron  rails,  also  pa  ed 
are  bolted  to  the  Girders,  one  on  either  side  of  the  column   and  lei 

with  it  whi.h  serve  as  guides  for  the  car  in  ascending  and  descending. 
Atta'ched  to  the  column  by  appropriate  bearings,  is  the  Bcrovv^  eo- 
posed  of  seven  sections,  permanently  coupled,  making  one    ont  nuou. 
spiral  of  eighteen  inch  pitch,  from  the  basement  to  the  roof,      ihe  di- 
ameter  of  this  screw,  exclusive  of  the  thread    is  twelve  inches,  with 
the  thread,  seventeen  inches,  turned  and  polished  the  -^je  1^  ^^tl.  ^f 
eighty-four  feet.     The  thread  forms  a  smooth  inclined  spi  al  tvvo  and  a 
half  Lhes  wide   up  and  down,  which  the  nut  travels;  ^I'-et  e  ntact 
being  avoided  by  the  introduction  of  numerous  friction  rolls  of  bras  . 
T    t'is  nut  the'car  is  suspended,  or  forms  a  part  of  the -me.  with 
guiding  wheels  that  press  against  the  Parallel  Rails  on  either  side    o 
Lady  the  ear  and  prevent  oscillation.     A  heavy  weight  attached  to 
the  car  by  a  wire  rope  passing  over  a  pulley  -unterba  ances  it    and 
so  snvooth  and  regular  is  its  motion,  that  one  hardly  f-'l^  »t  ^h^n 
ated  within   the  car.     The  finished  weight  of  the  screw  ,s    fitteen 
ousand  pounds,  and  it  rests  on  a  step  of  peculiar  construe  ion   so 
arranged  that  no  difficulty  is  ever  experienced  in  the  wearing  or  heating 

of  the  surfaces  in  contact.  ,  i.„n^,v= . 

The  entire  finished  weight  of  the  different  parts  is  as  follows . 
Main  Column.  17.870  pounds  ;  Parallel  Tracks.  11  815  pounds  ;  Screw 
15,000  pounds;  Girders  and  other  work,  61,517  pounds;  Total 
106,232  pounds,  or  over  fifty-three  tons. 

But  the  reputation  of  this  firm  does  not  rest  upon  specialties  or 
patented  improvements ;  it  stands  on  the  enduring  foundation  of  general 
ToSlrkmUship.  In  their  Machine  Tools,  all  the  ^^f^^^^^^^ 
of  producing  perfect  joints,  such  as  scraping  using  surface  pla  e  and 
working  to  gauges  and  making  the  parts  of  similar  machines  inter- 
Zngeable,  are  practiced,  and  no  pains  or  expense  is  spared  to  secure 
absolute  accuracj  and  perfection  in  the  articles  manufactured  to  adapt 

them  to  their  required  purpose.  ,       i  ;„  +v,„;- 

About  three  hundred  and  twenty-five  hands  are  employed  in  their 
Works  at  all  times,  and  the  value  of  the  annual  product  exceeds  a  half 
million  of  dollars. 

be   men- 



A.  Whitney  &  Sons'  Car  Wheel  Manufactory 

Is,  wo  bolievo,  tho  largest  establishment  in  the  United  States  devoted 
exclusively  to  the  nianufacturo  of  Car  Wheels.  The  works  are  located 
on  Callowhill  street  and  Sixteenth,  and  have  a  capacity  for  niakinc  | 
seventy-five  thousand  wheels  per  annum.  The  ?  loulding  room  is  four 
hundred  feet  long  and  sixty  wide,  and  we  know  of  none  larger  in  tlic 
country.  Two  railways  extend  its  entire  length,  on  which  carriage 
cranes  trc  propelled  and  used  for  removing  tho  molten  iron  from  the 
furnaces  to  the  moulds,  and  the  wheels  from  the  moulds  to  the  cooling- 
pits.  There  are  five  largo  furnaces,  three  of  which  communicate  by 
tubes  with  an  immense  caldron  for  containing  melted  iron.  Theie 
are  thirty-six  cooling-pits,  having  a  capacity  for  holding  at  a  time 
two  hundred  and  fifty  wheels. 

In  1848,  Mr.  Asa  Whitney,  as  we  have  elsewhere  stated,  patented  a 
process  for  cooling  wheels,  which  secures  results  of  the  greatest  im- 
portance. It  has  been  described  as  follows  :  The  wheels  are  taken 
from  the  moulds  as  soon  after  they  are  cast  as  they  have  become  cool 
enough  to  bear  moving  without  changing  their  form.  In  this  state 
they  are  put  into  a  circular  furnace  or  chamber,  which  has  been  pre- 
viously heated  to  a  dark  red  heat.  As  soon  as  they  are  deposited  in 
this  mrnace  or  chamber,  the  opening  through  which  they  have  been 
passed  is  closed,  and  the  temperature  of  the  furnace  and  its  contents  is 
gradually  raised  about  as  high  as  that  of  tho  hottest  part  of  the  wheel 
when  taken  from  the  mould.  All  the  avenues  to  and  from  the  inte- 
rior of  the  furnace  are  then  closed,  and  the  whole  mass  is  left  to  cool 
as  slowly  as  the  heat  will  pass  off  by  permeating  through  the  exterior 
wall  of  the  furnace,  composed  of  brick  four  and  a  half  inches  thick, 
enclosed  in  a  sheet-iron  case  one  eighth  of  an  inch  thick. 

By  this  process  very  part  of  each  wheel  is  raised  to  the  same  tem- 
peratui-e  before  coo!ii:g  in  the  furnace  commences,  and  as  the  heat  can 
only  pass  off  throu;:;!!  the  medium  of  the  wall  and  case  enclosing  it,  all 
parts  of  the  wheel  cool  and  contract  simultaneously.  The  time  required 
to  cool  wheels  in  this  way  is  three  days.  In  this  manner  wheels  of  any 
form  can  be  made  with  a  solid  hub,  free  from  all  inherent  strain,  and 
without  the  hardness  of  the  chill  being  in  the  least  impaired. 

The  furnaces  used  in  performing  this  process  of  prolonged  cooling 
are  so  constructed  that  the  combustion  of  fuel  used  in  heating  them 
may  be  rendered  more  or  less  active  at  pleasure. 

This  firm  employs  one  hundred  and  seventy  hands,  and  manufactures 
over  two  hundred  car  wheels  per  day. 

Arc  the  lai 
west  side  of 
May,  18(53, 
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William  C.  Allison's  Car  Works 


Are  the  largest  of  the  manufuctorios  of  Philadelphia  located  on  the 
west  side  of  the  Schuylkill.  They  are  new,  having  been  erected  since 
May,  1803,  when  the  former  works,  were  destroyed  in  a  most  disa^-trou? 
conflagration.  As  an  illustration  of  what  we  believe  to  be  the  mosi  , 
complete  establishment  that  has  as  yet  been  erected  in  the  United  States 
for  building  cars,  it  will  be  appropriate  to  devote  some  space  to  the  de- 
tails (if  its  construction. 

The  works  occupy  an  enclosure  of  about  five  acres  of  ground,  situ- 
ated between  the  West  Chester  and  Junction  railroads,  and  extending 
from  Walnut  to  Spruce  streets,  in  West  Philadelp'.ia.  Nearly  all  of 
this  extensive  area  is  covered  with  buildings,  generally  of  brick  and 
stone,  one  and  two  stories  in  height.  The  greater  portion  of  the  build- 
ing fronting  on  Walnut  street  is  devoted  to  painting  cars,  the  shop  for 
the  purpose  being  two  hundred  and  fifty-nine  feet  long  and  eighty-one 
feet  wide.  Many  of  the  workmen  employed  in  this  department  are 
not  merely  good  mechanical  painters,  but  artists,  whose  productions,  if 
on  canvas,  would  be  entitled  to  a  place  in  a  gallery  of  Fine  Arts.  On 
the  second  fluor  of  this  building  are  the  varnishing  rooms,  and  also  a 
room  eighty-one  by  forty  feet  used  as  an  erecting  shop  for  city  passen- 
ger cars. 

Adjoining  the  building  just  mentioned  is  a  fire-proof  structure,  the 
lower  floor  of  which  is  appropriated  to  offices  and  counting-rooms,  in- 
cluding a  fire-proof  safe,  which  is  a  small  room  In  itself,  being  si.xteea 
feet  long  by  nine  feet  wide,  and  on  the  upper  floor  are  the  upholstering 
department,  pattern  rooms,  and  rooms  for  the  storage  of  valuable  ma- 
terial. All  the  doors  and  girders  in  this  building  are  of  iron,  and  the 
structure  is  believed  to  be  indestructible  by  fire.  The  inner  office  is 
arranged  with  a  view  of  facilitating  the  clerk  who  acts  as  time-keeper. 
AH  the  workmen  make  their  entrance  and  exit  through  one  gateway, 
and  each  man,  as  he  enters,  receives  a  metallic  number  which  he  cturns 
when  he  leaves  the  yard.  By  means  of  a  spring  the  clerk  in  charge  of 
the  gateway  can  close  it  without  leaving  the  office,  and  all  workmen 
who  come  late  are  known  and  registered. 

A  large  space  of  ground  between  the  painting  and  erecting  shop  is 
appropriated  to  the  transfer  table,  over  which  is  an  arched  bridge  con- 
necting  the  second  stories  of  the  two  buildings.  Beyond  is  the  erect- 
ing shop,  two  hundred  and  forty  feet  in  length,  eighty  feet  wide,  and 
where  may  be  seen  Cars  in  their  various  stages  of  progress,  among 
them  some  of  the  first  class,  with  raised  roofs  and  facilities  for  ventila- 
tion, such  as  approach  as  near  perfection  as  the  art  has  as  yet  attained. 
Adjoining  the  erecting  shops  on  the  south,  are  the  wood  working 


Bhops,  ....e  for  hard,  another  for  soft  lumber;  and  also  the  repair  shop, 
the  machine  shop  and  engine  room.  The  greater  portion  of  the  floor 
above  these  shops  is  appropriated  to  pattern  and  cabinet-making,  for 
which  it  is  equipped  with  all  of  the  most  approved  tools  and  be^t 
machines  West  of  these  buildings,  and  detached,  are  the  black  mith 
shops  la  the  bending  room  is  a  boiler  in  which  wood  is  steamed 
preparatory  lo  being  bent  into  the  various  curvclincar  and  irregular 
forms  desired.  All  of  the  rooms  arc  heated  in  winter  by  means  of  steam 
pipes  of  which  there  are  about  eight  miles  distributed  in  coils  through 
the  diflerent  apartments.  The  condensed  water  of  all  these  p.pcs  is 
brought  back  and  collected,  to  be  used  again  to  supply  the  boilers. 

In  this  extensive  establishment  about  three  hundred  men  are  em- 
plovcd  though  doubtless  nearly  double  the  number,  if  needed,  could 
operate  without  inconvenience,  and  it  has  a  capacity  for  tuning  out 
every  week  three  large  passenger  cars,  ten  street  cars,  and  thirty 
freight  cars,  without  interfering  -with  the  General  Jobbing  and 


Henry  Disston's  Saw  Manufactory, 

On  Laurel  street,  Philadelphia,  is  undoubtedly  the  most  extensive  in 
the  United  States,  and  probably  the  largest  in  the  world.  All  the  ope- 
rations  incidental  to  the  manufacture  of  Saws  of  all  kinds  are  earned 
on  here,  (including  the  Steel  making,)  on  a  scale  of  unsurpassed  mag- 
nitude, and  not  only  Saws,  but  all  the  minor  constituent  parts  and 
adjuncts,  from  a  saw  Screw  to  a  saw  File.  ,  ^^     ,,  i 

The  buildings  on  Laurel  street  cover  two  hundred  and  fifty  housand 
square  feet  of  g-ound,  and  comprise  a  Rolling  Mill,  two  hundred   and 
forty  by  seventy-live  feet;  a  warehouse  for  the  reception  ol  raw  :tock, 
one'hundrcd  and  twenty  by  seventy  feet ;  a  Machine  Shop  ami  Main 
Saw  Factory,  two  hundred  by  one  hundred  feet,  three  stones  in  height ; 
a  Wood  wm-king  depar.ment  seventytiyo  by  forty  fc^'t,  lour  stories 
high;  a  Rlacksmith's,  Hardening  and  File  Shop,  and  Brass  Jound.j, 
two  hundred  by  one  hundred  feet,  and  sundry  other  bui  dings  of   ess 
dimensions.      In  the  Lumber  Lepartment,  a  stock  ot  ,  .ree  hundred 
thousand  feet  of  Reecli  and  Apple  wood  for   Saw  handles,  is  at  al 
linu.s  in  process  of  seasoning.     On   the  north  side  of  Haydock  street 
there  is  another  building  fifty  by  two   hundred  and   fifty    eet    three 
Htories  high,    iu   whiel,   Uutcher    Knives  and   Trowels   and   Reaping 
Knives,  etc,  are  nuulo. 

vir  shop, 
the  floor 
dng,  for 
and  bc^t 
aek  niith 


of  steam 
>  through 

pipes   is 

1  are  em- 
ed,  could 
riing  out 
nd  thirty 
sbing  and 

itensive  in 
.11  the  ope- 
ire  carried 
issed  mag- 
parts  aud 

y  thousand 
indrcd   and 

raw  ^tock, 
[)  and  Main 
i  in  height ; 
four  stories 
9  Foundry, 
ings  of  less 
•ee  hundred 
es,  \3  at  all 
ploek  street 

feet,  three 
id   Heaping 



These  works  are  no  less  remarkable  for  the  wonderful  efficiency  of 
their  tools  and  machines  than  for  their  extent.     To  illustrate  : 

To  toothe  five  dozen  Wood-Saws  in  an  hour,  is  rapid  work  for  the 
best  mechanic  in  the  world  ;  Mr.  Disston  has  machinery  by  which  one 
man  can  toothe  thirty  dozen  in  the  same  time.  Ho  can  toothe  perfectly 
a  sixty  inch  Circular  Saw  in  two  minutes,  which  by  the  old  process  would 
require  the  labor  of  one  man  two  hours.  The  tempering  process,  which 
is  patented,  is  most  complete,  and  saves  at  least  one-third  the  labor 
ordinarily  required,  or  in  other  words  sixty  men  can  do  as  much  work 
MS  one  huudred  formerly  did.  The  apparatus  for  grinding  is  novel, 
inasmuch  as  it  includes  machinery  that  will  g-ind  both  sides  of  a  saw 
at  on.,  operation,  and  long  uk  well  as  short  saws.  We  believe  that  the 
machines  in  the  Grinding  Department  are  the  only  ones  of  the  kmd  in 
the  world.  Mr.  Disston  has  also  a  new  process  for  stiilening  saw  blades, 
or  in  other  words,  refining  the  grain  after  tempering,  by  repeated  blows 
of  a  steam  hammer. 

In  the  Rolling  Mill,  there  are  forty  melting  holes  for  making  Cast 
Steel,  and  three  sets  of  rolls,  the  largest  being  capable  of  turning  out 
a  saw  phite  sixty-four  inches  in  diameter.  This  mill  gives  its  pro- 
prietor  the  ability  to  fill  an  order  for  any  saw,  however  extraordinary 
the  size,  iu  a  few  days,  that  would  otherwise  have  reqni.-e-.l  months. 
The  steel  is  made  from  the  best  brands  of  Swedish  and  Norway  Iron. 

Mr.  Henry  Disston  is  a  man  of  remarkable  force  and  energy  of 
character,  aiid  possesses  administrative  and  executive  abilities  of 
high  order.  ITe  commenced  the  business,  without  the  advantages  of  a 
capital,  and  it  is  said  wheu  he  began,  he  wheeled  the  coal  he  required 
from  the  wharf  in  a  wheelbarrow.  He  was  the  first  manufacturer  who 
..(Tectnallv  checked  the  importation  of  foreign  saws,  and  competed 
successfuily  with  the  Knglish  in  Hand  and  Hack  Saws.  While  en-nged 
in  this  contest,  he  sold  saws  at  a  profit  of  only  seven  cents  per  dozen, 
over  the  cost  of  manufacture.  He  possesses  a  highly  original  and 
inventive  mind,  and  has  so  far  revolutionized  the  details  of  manufac- 
turing saws,  that  a  Shefiield  workman,  however  experienced  m  tho 
methods  practiced  abroad,  would  be  lost  amidst  the  new  and  labor- 
>aviiig  machinery  of  this  establishment. 

Mr.  !>isstoii's  name  appears  in  the  records  of  the  Patent  Onicc  in 
connection  with  more  than  twenty  improvements,  in  this  branch  of  inanu- 
fiiduivs  In  isr)it,  he  patented  a  novel  combination  Saw,  with  S(inaro, 
Rule  Plumb  and  T.evel,  Scratch  Awl  and  (Jauge  attachments.  He  has 
made'  improvements  in  Vhru\u  Saws,  with  movrnhh  or  mxrr/ed 
Irrlh  and  has  reeentlv  devised  a  form  of  tooth,  only  deep  enough  to 
receive  the  .lust,  which  will  so  much  iiwrcas(!  the  endurance  and 
.llVelive  power  of  saw.s  that,  by  its  aih.ption,  it  is  believe.!  a  million  of 



dollars  in  saw  plates,  may  be  saved  to  the  country  annually.  He 
claims  that  the  points  of  saw  teeth  should  he  varied  aceordinf;  to  their 
use,  whether  for  hard  or  soft  wood,  and  that  tiie  old  method  of  making 
the  teeth  of  one  uniform  shape,  for  all  kinds  of  wood,  is  enti'-ely 
erroneous.  Among  bis  recent  patents,  is  one  for  grinding  Ilolls  either 
flat,  round  or  hollow,  without  the  necessity  of  taking  them  from  their 

Mr.  Disston  is  one  of  the  few  men  who  combine,  in  their  mental 
organization,  creative  and  executive  faculties.  His  inventive  genius  is 
shown  in  the  improvements  he  has  originated  ;  his  practical  sagacity  is 
demonstrated,  by  the  magnitude  of  his  Works,  which  now  prod"co 
nearly  one  fourth  of  all  the  saws  annually  rctpiired  in  the  United 
States.  He  employs,  in  the  various  departments,  over  four  hundred 
men ;  consumes  over  three  thousand  tons  of  coal  yearly,  and  produces 
in  the  same  time,  a  value  of  nearly  two  hundred  tbousauu  do'.  ,m-  in 
Steel  and  three  quarters  of  a  million  of  dollars  in  Saws. 

The  Harrison  Boiler  Works 

Have  recently  been  greatly  enlarged,  and  arc  entitled  to  rank  among 
the   important   Iron   works  of    Philadelphia.       They  arc  owned  and 
managed  by  Joseph   Harrison,  Jr.,  an  eminent  engineer,  and  are  em- 
ployed exclusively  in  making  a  Steam  Boiler  of  his  invention,  involving 
entirely  new  i)rineiples  of  constru;'tion.     it  is  formed  of  a  combination 
of  cast^iron  hollow  spheres,  each  eight  inches  in  estcrn;il  diameter,  and 
■Jirce  eighths  of  an  inch  thick,  connected  by  curved  i.oc!:s,  and  held 
together  by  wrought-iron  tie  bolts.     No  punching  or  riveting,  which 
les-sens  the  strength  of  wronglit-iron  boiler  plates  forty  per  cent.,  it= 
required  in  its  construction ;  and  every  boiler  is  tested  by  hydraulic 
pressure  at  three  hum'red  pounds  to  the  siiiinre  inch.     Mr,  Harrison, 
the   invcnt(.r,  is  no  le'^s  distinguished  for  his  scientific  attainments  than 
for  his  long  and  varied  experienc.>  as  a  manufacturer,  and  he  has  not 
hesitated  to  claim  for  this  form  of  Holler,  after  practical  tests  for  a 
series  of  years,  aiisoi,i;te  sai'kty  KiioM  kxi-i.osk.n.     His  claims  are,  in 
.ucl.  HO  bold  and  original,  ami  so  important  to  all  manufacturers  using 
steam  power,  that  it  will  not  be  amiss  to  set  them  forth  nt  length.     He 
savs  of  this  IJoiler: 

'"  It  cannot  be  burst  under  uny  praetirablo  steam  pressure.     Under 
pressure  which  might  cause  rupluro  in  ordinary  boilers,  every  point  ii; 

this  become 
property  of 
thus  preven 
"It  is  n 
"  It  has  ( 
nniy  be  use 

"  It  prod 
not  liable  t( 
"  It  is  e 
need  weigh 
largest  boil 
"  It  is  re 
it  is  k"pt 
out  uiu'.er  I 
"It  requ 
parts  cuu  1 
and  size. 
Tlie  great! 

"  A  Jjoil 

width,   aii( 

remains  tl 

one  half  tl 

increased  i 

"  As  an 

ture  of  a  \ 

whole  con 

;i  ed  pouni 

It'    timo. 

I    :s,   but 

Under  the 

closed,  the 

water,  ste 




.Mr.    Hi 


have  ta''ei 

twenty  mi 


)  their 
1  their 

[lius  is 
leity  is 
rod  "CO 
li.ii.-  in 

ed  and 
xre  eni- 
ter,  and 
nd  licld 
,  wliidi 
tent.,  is 
nl  mil  lie 
its  than 
has  not 
its  for  ft 
s  are,  in 
•a  using 
til.     lie 

point  ii; 



this  becomes  a  safet}'  valve.  No  other  steam  generator  possesses  this 
property  of  relief  under  extreme  pressure,  without  injury  to  itself,  and 
thus  preventing  disaster. 

"It  is  not  seriously  alTected  by  corrosion,  which  soon  destroys  the 
wrought-iron  bo'ler.     Most  explosions  occur  from  this  cause. 

"  It  has  economy  in  fuel,  equal  to  the  best  boilers.  Any  kind  of  fuel 
jnay  be  used  under  this  boiler,  from  the  expensive  to  refuse  coal 

"  It  produces  superheated  steam  without  separate  apparatus,  and  is 
not  liable  to  priming  or  foaming. 

"  It  is  ea.siiy  transported,  and  rnay  be  taken  apart  so  that  no  piece 
need  weigh  more  than  eighty  pounds.  In  diificult  places  of  access,  the 
largest  boiler  may  be  put  through  an  opening  one  foot  square. 

"  It  is  readily  cleaned,  inside  and  out.  Under  ordinary  circumstances 
it  is  k'-pt  free  from  permanent  deposit  by  blowing  the  water  entirely 
out  under  full  pressure  once  a  week. 

"  It  recjuires  no  special  skill  in  its  management  or  erection.  Injured 
parts  can  be  renewed  with  great  f>iciiily,  ao  they  are  uniform  in  shape 
and  size.  When  renewed,  the  entire  boiler  remains  as  good  as  new. 
Tlie  greater  part  of  the  boiler  will  never  need  renewal,  unless  unfairly 

"  A  boiler  may  be  increased  to  any  extent  l)y  simply  adding  to  its 
width,  ttud  l)eing  the  multiplication  of  a  single  form,  its  strength 
remains  tiie  same  for  all  sizes.  It  has  less  weigiit,  and  takes  less  than 
one  half  the  ground  area  of  the  ordinary  cylinder  boiler,  without  being 
increased  in  height. 

"  As  an  evidence  of  its  safety,  in  one  instance,  by  the  accidental  rup- 
ture of  a  water  pipe  (not  a  part  of  the  Imilerbut  connected  wi*h  it),  its 
vviioie  contents  were  discharged,  under  a  pressure  of  about  one  hun- 
■  I'd  pounds  to  the  square  inch,  a  full  tire^eing  in  active  combustion  at 
It'  time.  Means  w^-re  taken,  as  soon  as  practicable,  to  deaden  the 
t  ^s,  but  the  boiler  became,  as  a  matter  of  course,  unduly  heated. 
Uuiler  these  circumstances,  and  as  soon  as  the  ruptured  pipe  could  be 
clo.sed,  the  iioiler,  without  giving  it  time  to  cool,  was  relilled  with  cold 
water,  steam  was  again  raised,  and  all  went  on  as  before,  the  boiler 
sustaining  no  injury.  What  would  have  hapi;ened  under  tiie  Kaine 
cirennistanees  with  an  ordinary  wrought-iron  boiler  may  be  easily 

Mr.  Harrison's  Boilers  have  been  in  use  since  \^M,  and  mnnv 
extensive  manufacturers  in  Philadelphia,  New  York,  ami  New  Kngiand 
have  ta'en  out  their  old  boiler^'  and  ado])ted  these.  One  hundred  -md 
twenty  meti  are  at  this  time  employed  in  tiiese  Wjrks,  which  are  now 



making  six  tons  of  boilers  every  day,  with  a  constantly  increasing  de- 
nmud      It  would  really  seem  that  the  desideratum  so  long  sought  for 
in  boiler  making-safety  from  explosion-has  been  attained,  and,  li 
further  experience  establishes  this  as  a  fact,  Mr.  Harrison  will  deserve 
the  rewards  and  honors  due  to  all  who  are  the  World's  Benefactors. 

The  M'Culljugh  Iron  Company 

Have,  in  Philadelphia,  the   largest  works  in  the  United  States,  for 
manufacturing  Galvanized  Iron.      This  is  a  material  formed  from  a 
combination  of  Iron  and  Zinc,  and  possesses  the  valuable  property  of 
being  impervious  to  oxydation.     The  sheets  of  Iron  used  by  this  Com- 
pany, are  manufactured  in  their  own  mills,  in  Cecil  county,  Maryland 
ThJy  are  rolled  very  smooth,  then  well  trimmed  to  the  sue  required, 
and  cleansed  from  all  impurities,  by  a  weak  acid.      The  elVects  of  the 
acid  are  in  turn  removed  by  immersion  in  a  tank  of  clear  water,  and 
then  the  sheets  arc  dried  in  an  oven.     The  iron  thus  prepare!  is  plac.>d 
in  contact  with  the  zinc,  and  the  two  metals,  being  brought  to  the  same 
temperature,  combine  and  fuse,  and  form  a  material  that  will  not  rust, 
and  requires  neither  paint  nor  any  preservative  agent.     The  proper 
regulation  of  the  temperature  of  the  zinc  and  the  iron  is  a  point  of 
great  nicetv,  re.piiring  in  the  manufacturer  much  previous  experience. 
'   The  principal  managers  of  this  Company  were  the  pioneers  in  the  man- 
ufacture of  tialvanized  Iron  in  the  United  States,  having  commenced 
il  in  1852,  with  skilled  workmen,  brought  by  them  from  England,  ex- 
pressly for  the  purpose.    Among  the  advantages  they  possess,  in  addi- 
tion to  their  enlarged  expeneiice,  is  the  exclusive  right  of  Mr.  E.  A. 
Harvey's  valuable  I'atent  for  cleaning  iron  and  other  metals  from  dust, 
dirt  or  oxi.le,  which  must  in  time  become  invaluable.     The  black  dust 
from   the  bituminous  coal  used  in  the  jirocess  of  manufacturing,  has 
JR.retofore  ivmained  on  the  sheet  when  finished,  and  was  ahvay  objec- 
tionable to  the  work.'rs  in  this  article.     My  this  pntcnt,  process  the 
sheet  pass.'s  through  a  cleaning  machine  of  Mr.   Harvey's  invention 
(consuming  but  a  moment)  when  it  comes  out  as  free  from  dust  and 
dirt  as  a  sheet  of  tlio  linest  paper.     This  is  a  great  desideratum  with 
11,0  worker,  and  must  in  time  allogelher  supcr-sede  the  old  method  of 

nKinutaclure.  .  ,.    ,       i 

Ko,  an  account  of  the  mills  in  which  their  Sheet  Iron  is  manulaclured, 
K'»-  article  on  the  (Jiu;.vr  Ikon  Wouks  of  The  Univkd  States. 

WILLIAM    divine's     FACTORIES. 


Passing  from  the  ^reat  Iron  Works,  for  which  Philadelphia  is 
famous,  to  the  manufactories  of  Textile  Fabrics,  we  find  few  that  will 
compare  in  extent  with  the  largest  of  those  in  New  England,  hut  many 
convenient  and  well  arranged  establishments.  Philadelphia,  it  is 
claimed,  is  the  centre  of  a  greater  number  of  factories,  for  the  pro- 
duction ct  Textile  Fabrics,  than  any  other  city  in  the  world.  There 
are  within  its  limits,  or  adjacent  thereto,  over  two  hundred  and  fifty 
distinct  establisiimcnts,  where  Cotton  and  Woolen  goods  are  made,  while 
tlie  hand  loom  production  is  equal  to  that  of  seventy  additional  factories 
of  average  size. 

William  Divine's  Factoiies 

Are  a  fair  representative  of  the  establishments  that  have  gifcn  Phila- 
delphia her  prominence  in  this  branch  of  manufactures.  They  consist 
of  a  Cotton  Factorv,  a  stone  building  of  four  stories,  one  hundred  and 
tifty  by  two  hundred  feet,  located  on  Twenty-Fifth  street,  between 
Spruce  and  Pine  streets;  and  a  Woolen  Factory,  at  Twenty-First  and 
Naudain  streets,  whicli  is  thirty-six  feet  by  one  hundred  and  fifty,  and 
four  stories  high.  Those  faetoric.  contain  two  hundred  loom.s  five 
thousand  spindles,  and  employ  three  hundred  and  fifty  hands.  In  ad- 
dition Mr.  James  Divine  runs  two  sots  of  Woolen  Machinery  in  the 
upper'  rooms  of  William  Struthers'  Marble  Mill,  Twenty-Fourth  and 
Walnut  streets,  for  producing  .loans,  Flannels,  etc. 

Mr.  William  Divine  belongs  to  that  class  of  self-made  men,  whose 
history  presents  an  encouraging  example  to  aspirants  for  fortune,  by 
straightforward  and  legitimate  enterprise.     Itis  father  was  a  manufac- 
turer of  linen  goods,   in  tlic  county  of   Tyrone,  Ireland,   where  Mr. 
Divine  was  born  in  the  first  year  of  the  present  century.     At  an  early 
age,  he  learned  the  Linen  business  with  his  father,  and  afterward  re- 
moved to  Belfast,  where  he  paid  ail  apprentice  foe  to  learn  Muslin  Weav- 
ing     In   1822,  he  went  to   Manchester,  England,  where   he  was   for 
several  years  engaged  in  the  Silk  manufacture.     The  Old  World,  how- 
ever, did  not  present  suflici(>nt  scope  and  encouragement  for  the  exercise 
of  his  powers,  and,  in  1827,  he  resolved  upon  trying  his  fortune  in  the 
New.    After  a  tedious  passage  of  twenty-one  weeks,  he  arrived  in  New^ 
York,  where  he  remained  but  a  few  days,  when  he  proceeded  to  Phila- 
delphia, which  has  since  been  his  h.mie.     He  commenced  work  on  a 
hand  loom,  for  one  dollar  per  day,  the  average  wages  of  weavers,  at 
that  period.    But  in  less  than  a  month  he  was  able,  by  his  superior  skill, 
to  earn  two  dollars,  besides  paying  his  bobbin  winder,  double  the  usual 
wages.    lie  was  next  employed  on  a  broadcloth  loom,  in  the  Peiin  Fac- 



tory  on  T  Jventy-Fifth  street  near  Spruce,  of  which  he  is  now  propri- 
etor'   By  unremitted  industry  and  rigid  economy,  he  secured  sufficient 
capital,  after  eleven  years  spent  in  others'  employment,  to  procure  one 
set  of  woolen  machines,  and,  renting  a  room  with  power,  ma  mill  on 
Pine  near  Twentieth  street,  he  began  the  manufacture  of  Kentucky 
Jeans      His  intimate  and  practical  acquaintance  with  the  details  ol 
manufacturing  gave  him  advantages,  his  products  commanded  a  ready 
sale  in  the  markets,  and  in  a  few  years  he  was  in  possession  of  sufficient 
capital  to  erect  a  mill.    About  1841,  he  built  the  Kennebcck  factory  on 
Naudain  street,  .ear  Twenty-First,  and  equipped  it  with  four  sets  of 
machinerv,  which  have  since  been  increased  to  eight  sets.     In  184(3  he 
purchased  the  "  Penn  Factory,"  in  which  he  had  been  employed  as  a 
weaver  and  foreman,  and  began  the  manufacture  of  Cotton  Goods,  spin- 
ning his  own  yarn,  and  producing  Checks  and  Printing  Cloths.     His 
subsequent  career  has  been  one  of  continuous  prosperity.     He  has  pro- 
duced a  great  variety  of  both  Cotton  and  Woolen  fabrics,  adapting  his 
products  to  the  wants  of  the  market,  and  notwithstanding  tiie  periods 
of  disaster  which  have  attended  manufacturing  enterprises,  from  want 
of  uniform  and  protective  legislation,  he  has  always  met  his  financial 
obligations  with  punctuality,  and  preserved   a  name  unsullied  m  all 
business  transactions.     He  is  now  possessor  of  a  '''^'•t^/'^  ^"ffi^''^';^'-^ 
large  to  entitle  him  to  a  place  among  the  wealthy  men  of  I  hiladelph.n. 
Mr  Divine,  besides  being  a  manufacturer,  is  entitled  to  recognition  as 
an  improver  of  Mnchinery.    The  six  treadle  loom,  for  weaving  Kentucky 
Jeans,  now  manufactured  by  the  Bridesburg  Manufacturing  Company 
was  remodeled  by  him,  as  was  acknowledged  by  Mr.  Jenks  the  President 
of  tha.   Company,   at  a  recent  meeting  of  the  stockholders.      Ihough 
not  an  active  politician,  he  has  been  a  strong  advocate  of  protection 
to  American  Industry,  known  as  the  American  system,  and  for  a  period 
of  four  years,  from  1840  to  1850,  was  a  member  of  the  Common  Council 
For  several  vears,  he  was  also  a  Director  of  the  Girard  College,  and 
during  the  late  rebellion  his  patriotism  was  evinced  by  large  contn- 
butions  to  the  Union  cause,  and  in  sending  five  sons  into  the  held,  one  of 
whom  was  slain,  and  another  brought  to  a  premature  grave 

Recently  an  association  of  the  manufacturers  of  Text.lo  Fabrics, 
in  the  City  of  Philadelphia,  was  formed,  and  Mr.  Divine  was  chosen 
its  President,  a  position  he  continues  to  hold.  For  many  years,  he  has 
l.en  a  prominent  member  of  the  Methodist  Episcopal  Church,  to 
which  he  has  made  large  contributions.  In  al'  these  varied  relations 
1,0  has  maintained  the  character  of  o,n  honest  man,  and  discharged  h.s 
duties  with  such  fidelity,  as  to  command  that  respect  from  h.s  fellow 
citizens  to  which  his  well  tried  integrity  and  upright  course  entitle  him. 

ure  one- 
mill  on 
tails  of 
a  ready 
;tory  on 
r  sets  of 
184C  he 
^ed  as  a 
ds,  spin- 
lis.     His 
has  pro- 
[>ting  his 
3  periods 
cm  want 
ed  in  all 
inition  as 
r  a  period 
n  Council, 
illege,  and 
ge  contri- 
eld,  one  of 

0  Fabrics, 
as  chosen 
ars,  he  has 
;?hurch,  to 

1  relations 
charged  his 
J  his  fellow 
SDtitle  hint. 

-  i.-  c  t-  jvyr" ,  %,^ 


r-Hi  L,\i'n-:i.t.mi-^ 


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'.^'■'■V  .•--*• 



The  Wingohocking  Mills-R.  Garsed  &  Brother,  Proprietors, 

Are  th.  largest  iu  the  manufacturing  town  of  Frankford  and  amons  the 
Tartest  of  the   Cotton  Mills,  in  the  consolidated  city  of  Ph.ladelph 
Th^y  are  eo.nparatively  new,  having  been  built  in  1853,  and  as  m-arl 
lire-proof,  as  a  stone  structure,  with  stone  floors,  can  be  n.ade^      1  hej 
consist  of  several  buildings,  the  main  one  being  hve  hundred  eet  k  ng 
and  sixty-six  feet  wide.     It  contains  twenty  thousand  spindles,  that 
turn   out  about  four  thousand   pounds  of  yarn  per  day.   ^^^Y^] 
chinery   is  of   English  and  A.n.u-ican    manufa.^ture,    with     he   late^t 
improvements,  and  is  propelled  by  an  engine  of  three    hundred  horse 
power.     About  three  hundred  hands  are   employed   in  the  spinning 

*^'irrnot!litr  structure,  owned  by  Mr.  Richard  Garsed,  the  weaving  of 
fancy  fabrics,  such  as  pantaloonery.  cottonades.  etc.,  is  earned  on  ex  en- 
s^velv  This  building  .s  a  substantial  stone  str^Kure,  one  hundred 
feet  lonn-,  forty  feet  wide  and  five  .stories  in  height,  and  is  entirely  new, 
having  been  erected  during  the  year  ISfifi,  on  the  site  of  a  former  mill, 
destroyed  by  fire.  About  one  hundred  looms  and  seventy  operators 
are  employed  in' this  department. 

Richard  Garsed,  the  senior  proprietor,  has  been  connected  vvith  tht 
cotton    manufacture   since   early  boyhood,    having  commenced   as  an 
operator  in   a  mill  at  New  Hope,   Bucks    County,   when  only  nine 
years  of  age      In  1830  his  father  removed  to  Delaware  county,  and 
;m'barked  in  the  manufacture  of  Power-Looms,  employing  h.s  son  as 
an  apprentice.     On  attaining  his  majority,  young  Richard  succeede.l  to 
the  business  bis  father  had  established,  and  also  commenced  the  manu- 
facture of   damask  Table  and  Piano  covers,  by  power-looms.      Ihis 
was  in  1842  and  it  is  believed  that,  previous  to  that  time,  no  articles  ot 
this  description  had  been  made  on  power  looms  in   Pennsylvania  and 
probably  not  in  America.     In  1843  he  removed  to  Frankford,  where, 
while  continuinir  the  manufacture  of  damask  covers,  he  gradually  e.x- 
tended  his  operations  until  they  included  cotton  spinning,  and  other 
branches  of  the  cotton  manufacture.     For  several  years  the  Wingo- 
hocking  Mills   were  large   producers  of   Osnaburg,  and  other  goods 
adapted  to  the  Southern  market. 

Mr  Garsed  is  distinguished  for  the  active  interest  he  has  manifested 
in  introducing  improved  machinery  into  cotton  mills,  and  has  labored 
in  this  field  with  a  zeal,  not  inspired  by  the  hope  of  profit  merely,  that 
is  worthy  of  all  eulogium.  His  experience  and  reliability  havo 
Kained  him  the  confidence  of  manufacturers,  and  he  permits  no  inveii- 
lion  or  improvement  in  textile  manulacture,  either  at  home  or  abroad. 



to  osrapo  examination;  and  if  suited  to  American  wawts,  rcedninieiid-* 
its  immediate  adoption. 

Mr.  Gar.sed  has  also  jjiven  evidence  of  fossessing  the  faculty  of 
ori}i;iiial  invention,  and  has  made  improvements  on  various  macliints 
tluu  liave  been  of  j^ieat  value  to  manufacturers.  From  18;n  to  1840 
his  improvements  cnaUled  manufacturers  to  increase  the  speed  of  their 
power  looms  from  eighty  picks  per  minute  to  one  hundred  aiul  forty 
picks  per  minute.  In  1841)  he  invented  the  Scroll  Cam,  whidi  very 
much  simplified  the  power  loom,  and  its  value  was  evidenced  by  its 
almost  universal  adoption  on  the  sliding  cam  loom.  In  1848  he  in- 
vented a  loom  for  weaving  Seamless  Bags,  and  exhibited  Salt  Bags 
made  by  this  loom  at  the  Franklin  Institute  exhibition  in  Philadelpliia. 
and  at  the  American  Institute,  New  York.  Subsequently  another  i)er- 
son  attained  fame  .ind  profit  for  a  similar  adaptation,  which  he  patented. 

Mr.  Garsed  has  also  been  a  zealous  advocate  and  active  promoter 
of  municipal  improvements.  When  the  subject  of  Passenger  Railways 
in  the  streets  of  Philadelphia  was  being  agitated,  he  advocated  their 
adoption  through  the  columns  of  the  daily  newspapers  and  did  not  cease 
his  efforts  until  their  success  and  popularity  had  been  assured.  The 
Fifth  and  Sixth  street  Railway  Company,  which  waa  the  pioneer  of 
these  corporations,  elected  him  President,  and  he  is  thus  er  d  to 
.the  credit  of  having  been   the   first  President  of  the  first  I  'cr 

Railway  in  Philadelphia. 

Benjamin  Bullock's  Sous'  Factory, 

At  Consliohocken,  is  probably  the  most  notable  Woolen  manufactory  in 
the  vicinity  of  Philadelphia.      It  is  a  structure  two  hundred  and  eighty- 
five  feet  long,  and  eighty-five  feet  wide,  and  contains  ten  Vi!  sets  of 
machinery,  for  making  woolen  cloths.     Attached  to  the  main  building, 
are  the  dye-house,  wool-house,  fulling-room,  engine  room,  and  the  build- 
ing containing  the  apparatus  for  making  gas  fron\  crude  petroleum, 
which  is  supplied  not  only  to  the  factory,  but  to  the  dwellings  of  the 
workmen  in  its  vicinity.     In  addition,  the  firm  have  built  around  the 
mill  a  small  town  of  neat  and  convenient  dwellings,  including  a  church, 
and  having  a  fine  macadamized  road  as  its  main  avenue,  and  a  park 
with  walks  and  flower-beds,  and  a  central  fountain  as  its  ornament.  That 
the  oi)erativea  in  this  factory  appreciate  the  liberality  of  their  employers 
and  the  efforts  made  to  promote  their  comfort  and  well  being,  was  evi- 
denced in  a  very  flattering  and  public  manner  by  their  presenting 



on  Fobrnarv  1,  18r..'5,  to  Ckoroe  Hut.i/.ck,  tlio  pviiinpi.l  niannircr,  a 
s.'i-vicc  of  liio  pmvst  silver,  linc.l  '.vitli  gol.l.  consisting  of  n  pitclH-r 
twonlv-two  inchfs  i-i  hciiiht,  a  siilver,  goblets,  and  otlior  articles,  ilii- 
plicates  of  lliose  vvhicli  received  the  I'rize  ftt  tlio  late  Tntoriiatio.ial 
Exhibition  held  in  Paris,  weighing  four  hundred  ounces,  and  purchased 
at  a  cost  of  one  thousand  dollars. 

The  motive  power  that  propels  the  machinery  is  derived  mainly  from 
an  engine  of  one  hundred  horse-power,  though  additional  piwer  is 
obtained  from  the  stream  on  which  the  mill  is  located.  The  descrip- 
tion of  goods  made  hero,  includes  Doc-skin  Heavers,  Moscow  Heavers, 
Chinchillas,  Coalings,  Cloakings,  etc.,  of  a  very  superior  cpiality. 

The   founder  of  the  firm   operating   this   mill,    was   Mr.  I'.kn.iamin 
BuLUioit,  who  was  born  at  Yeadon,  near  Bradford,  in  l-^ngland,  in  the 
year  !"!)(;.     Ai)prenticed  to  a  grocer  in  Bradford,  he  discharged  bis 
duties  so  faithfully  that  his   employer   left   him    a   legacy  of  twenty 
pounds,   which   sum   he  used  to  pay  the  expenses  of  emigration  to  the 
United  States.     Arriving  here  at  the  age  of  nineteen,  he  commenced 
his  career  of  industry  in  this  country  as  a  wool  comber  in  the  estab. 
lishment  of  Henry  Korn,  then  a  weaver  of  woolen  laces  and  fringes, 
and  a  manufacturer  of  military  goods.     In  18J2,  having  ac.'umulated 
some  capital,  he  a.ssociated  himself  with  Amiiony  Davis,  nmler  the  firm 
style  of  Hullock  &  Davis,  and  commenced  the  business  of  wool  ])ulling 
oii  Front  street,  above  Poplar.     In  the  succeeding  year  he  removed  to 
the  store  32  north   Third  street,  where  lie  renuiincd  for  a  period  cf 
nearly  years.     The  first  consignment  of  wool  ever  made 
from  "west  of  the  Alleghanies  was  sent,  it  is  said,  to  this  house,  and 
consisted  of  a  lot  of  three  hundred  pounds.     The   entire   sales,    how- 
ever,  during    the    first  year  of  their   business,  did  not   exceed   five 
thousand  pounds,  which,  contrasted  with  the  fact  that  his  succes.sors, 
the  present  firm,  have  received,  used  and  sold,  during  eight  months  of 
a  single  year,  five  millions  of  pounds,  shows  in  a  striking  nmnner  how 
vastly  the  traffic  in  wool  has  increased. 

Perceiving  a  favorable  opportunity  to  embark  in  manufacturing 
woolen  goods,  Mr.  Bullock,  in  1837,  commenced  the  business  in  the 
"  Spruce  Street  Factory,"  now  owned  by  Mr.  William  Divine,  who  was 
then  foreman  at  this  mill.  Subsequently,  he  purchased  the  "  Franklin 
Mill,"  on  Haydock  street,  near  Front,  and  at  a  later  period  bought  the 
property  of  Bethuel  Moore,  near  Conshohocken,  which,  as  has  l)cen  pre- 
viously stated,  was,  it  is  believed,  the  first  woolen  mill  started  in  the 
State  of  Pennsylvania,  and  probably  the  first  supplied  with  woolen 
machinery  from  Jenks'  works,  then  located  at  Ilolmesburg.  His 
operations,  compared  with  those  of  the  present  firm,  were  limited  ;  but 
he  laid  broad  and  deep  the  foundations  of  commercial  integrity  upon 


Zr^y^,  i"  which  three  thousand  persons  were  employed. 

Hobert  Patterson's  Mills 

..    i    •„  ^j"  Tfivtilo  Fiibrics  in  Philadelphia 

or  Its  vicmity.     He  is  tne  piop  .._,.,  .1,,.,.,.  and  four  millions 

which  have  the  capacity  lor  ^^^^^^^^^'^^^'^^  ,„  .,,eh  the 
of  yards  of  Cottonadcs,  annua  1>.  ' "^  "  J  fort  v-five  feet  wide, 
weavin,  i.  done,  is  one  lu.ndred  ands  xt  J-      .  j  ,.^.^,,^, 

six  stories  in  height,  and  contains  s,x  ';-';- ^.  ^1^  /'.^^  „„a  ,our 
,,.,  there  is  a  l^^'P^jf  ^^^J  ^  ^^^  l^:!::^  spindles.  The 
other  buildings  in  -^  '/>;;.,,  „,  ,,,  turbine  wheel,  which 
machinery  is  propelleu  b>  ion,  oveisn  n  ^^  ^^.^^,_ 

have  an  aggregate  of  f^mr  hundrc.   -'<^^   >^  ^^^  \2.^n.^. 

.,e  number  of  ''-'J -';;>  l!^:' I^  r;^^'^  u^     iCLry.  erected  on 
In  18.-,7,  (Jeneral  I  atte,  .on  1    '       'J^J  ^,,^^^.  f,„,,.      „,,,  „j,o,  and 

the  Urandywine.  in  the  h  ate  o  ^^^  '^  D.iawai'e  county,  where 
in  1858  removed  ihe  machinery  to  ;»;  ;  'l/^;':  ,^  ,,,,,,,  ^^^tains 
H  is  now  known  as  ^^''^^^'^y'^'^;^,,  .ired  and  eighteen 
three  thousand  live   hundi.d  ^V^^^^^^  .l'^^^.^^,  ,,.,,,  Mills.- 

looms.  In  18<-.2  1-  pu"chn«ed  >^  ^  ^  -'  ,^  ,^  „,.,  ,,.,,  .,,.  an  L- 
an  extensive  three  story  bnck  ^-^^^^^  ,^,,,  ,,„  f,,t,  and  ex- 
..aving  a  .out  0.  1  n>a     s  n.     o^^.o  ^n  1  ^^^^^  ^^  ^^  _^^^  ^^^      ^,^^ 

lending  >»-''-"'  ;^,^,,\;  „,,,,,,„  construction,  and  includes 
»,achi,.ery  foi  spinning  is  nev  -;         »  ^,  .^  ,^,,„      „„  i,,nared 


Cotton    Mill,  three   hundred   and  sixty    '-     ^        J^..^,,^  ^„  ,i,„,y. 
wide,  with  walls  ranging   ""       ^^  1!;^^,  "^i^^Lnd  two  hundred 



1  hand- 
le time, 
[•   army 

■  millions 
'hicli  tlie 
root  wide, 
,  and  fouv 
lies.     The 
•ol,  wliioli 
The  avor- 

orectcd  on 
s  ago,  and 
ity,  where 
y  contains 
d  eighteen 
eet  Mills/' 
n  of  an  |., 
■ot,  and  ex- 
feot.     The 
nd  includes 
no  hundred 
for  weaving 

id  very  lino 
eventy   feet 

to  twenty- 
wo  hundred 
11  building  is 

is  sot  apart 
,  tools      Tlie 

weaving  is  done  m  the  second  story  while  the  third  is  "-^  f^';  :;-;;;;|^ 
r    innincr      Trestle-work  forms  the  .sumnirt  ot  the  root.      1  Ix,  mil 
::  tl         :^  ^^  -a   twenty-eight  looms,  and  seven    thn.sau 
I       The  machinery  is  impelled  by  a  Corliss  engine  ot  Iano  huu- 

heating  steam  direct  from  the  boilers  Mills,  about  six 

In   these  three  factories,  known  as  the  lattii^ou  -lu 

Jeans,  etc.  ...  ,    p,  j,,  the 

Coiiuly  Tyrom-,  Irola,.,!,  J>mu,u>    '-"■'-,.„.,.  ,,„,„„|„  ,„  n,il»- 

-;;;;;:::\;:r:'::tr,:::,,":;ri :;..  .■«-;-- 

:lnn,  1,,,.,, U...0,.,  »„  „„.ce,i  in  u,« »--«;;;"-;' J^'. 

r:;-:':r;;^^:::"-= -:b;;-'^^-,:;,;;;: 

TT  •.  ,1  <,.itos  Vrmv   ami  subsequently  became  a  Captain.      \\  iku    n. 
t:    ^^t  t  i;a;ked  largely\u  various  commercial  enterprise,    ut 
^^,r^l  his  eonneclion  with  the  militia  forces  of  tl.  8,.U.^^^^^^ 

::!; ::    ^  uil  iti  ..ivw .r «....  uoo„„ ,.  ,.»m i...... 

;  1        io.>  foi-  ...ore  ,l>,m  r„r,y  y.vs.     At  tl.o  oo,„„,o,.c.- ".  "' 

v,.l.  J.»lw«.     >'  .  ^^  „,.„„„|  i„  ,1,,  ,„,„y  „( 

:  ;":,,;;.    r,lc;  ,-™»n..  T.ylor,  ..,,,.,.0,1  .,«.■:».»,.,„,, 

mandcd  the  expedition  against  Tainpico. 

r,  ir  (lonenil  Scott  his  comman<l  partook  of  the  severe  labo  a 
v":  C  u.,  and  the  hard  lighting  at  Cerro  (^-rdo.  It  was  here  t  .U 
0  ral  I'aterson  caused  himself  to  be  lifted  on  horseback  Iron,  as  k 
bud  1.1s  gallant  conduct  in  command  on  that  occas.o.i,  ehe,  ed  t  c 
nn  ulatiois  of  the  General-in-chief.  AVIien  the  war  ended  he  ro- 
Id  to  his  counting  house  and  engaged  in  manufactunng  and  u.  com- 
Loree  with  the  energy  he  httd  displayed  on  more  heroic  tields. 

52  nV-<ARKAm,K   MANtFACTORTF.S    OF    pniLAl.Kl.T.nA. 

On  tiK.  cunhroak  of  tho  Rebellion,  in  1801,  General  Patterson  tcnderca 
his  Lr  iees  to  the  Government  and  was  placed  in  conunand  of  tb 
D;:  nt  of  Washington,  wbieb  included,  besid..  tl.  >. -t  ^ 
?i.ubia,  the  States  of  Maryland,  Delaware  "-\1^-^^^^  :^^,:^ 
undertook  the  herculean  task  of  or^aniz.ns  an  nm.)  ^^>  bout  ^  »*-l<;  - 
an  c  tablished  communication  with  the  Capital  -'«/^"""l'''' ;•  .  ''^ 
Bcticcs  o  twentv-five  thousand  of  the  men  whom  be  bad  called  f  on, 

r  ^: :  ;:;r:a  ^::i":u;rs:: «.,  i.  co.i.e.d . 

..  .P  .ther  of  this  valiant  and  efficient  body  of  troops.     ^\  itb  the  .est 
ori'  ;;;:;c:  ;i:;:^>  a^ayed  by  tl.  ...  of  artmery,  and^eontnu^u.ory 

^::E:r  ;;:  :t     r!  t::^:^    on  U.  expiration  of  tl.  three  months 
J'Sbt  Division  bad  enlisted  they  were  mustered  out  of  serv^ 
dneral  Patterson  returned  to  devote  himself  to  b.s    arge  pr.vat 
"    n"  The    failure    to  prevent  a  coalition  between  the    orces   of 

«^:  ,s  .ohuston  and  neaur..,ard  was  attributed  to  h.m  and  severdy 
^U  iscd  .bil.  the  nati..n  was  smarting  under  the  l'"-"'^;     ;  ^  '- 
T  uU  llun  disaster,  but  though  bis  vindication  was  easy,  be  to 
^:^  .U       .  .rue  history  of  the  alVair  until  the  eonllict  bad  en.,rely  en  c^ 
"Z.  be  is.ued  a  pan.phlet  showing    bat  he  bad  ^-^'-P-;;-^-^ 
first  du.v-obedience  to  orders-a.ul  which,  u,  tho  op.n.on  of  the  ab    s 
nil.arv..ri.ics,bas  so  eon.pletely  exculpated  bim  from  respons.lMlu 
?  :  nnsf.u.une  that  further  animadversihn  is  a  slander      U  .s  now 

e    .u    fron.  oflicial  docun.ents  n.ade  pu.dic,  that  bad  General  l^mc.on 
been  allowed  to  carry  out  bis  own  plans  and  go  to  Leesburg.  >vheie  !u 
Idle  checked  Johnston,  and  at  the  san.e  t^me  ^-    '^ '^ 
supporting  distance  of  M.^Dowcll,  the  iirst  battle  of  Uull  Kun  vNould 
Ipwe  been  a  glorious  victory  instead  of  a  defeat. 

An.  .  the  .Iseof  the  war  (Jeneral  I'atterson  made  another  important 

;,  't      u  ion  to  the  nation's   prosperity  by  loaning  freely  to  Southern 

.      t        on  liberal  credits  to  aid  then,  in  developing  thc.r  s  atter  d 

roe.      Now,  at  the  advanced  age  of  seventy-H.x,  rcBpccted  and 

:::    he  is  «sing  bis  large  accumulated  capital  in  a  way  a 

;;;  ;nrni:h  enn>b>yment  to  over  a  thousand  persons  and  advance  tho 

manufacturing  interests  of  the  nation. 



A.  CampbeU  &  Co.'s  Factories, 
vuJk,  now  bcloJcd  »ill.i,.  U,c  -'1'""' .       '       °^,        ,„,,  Ir  .,»- 

inadcquato.  to  tbo  for  H-"  ral..K>,  tinj 

,„,.vi»  tl,>.  ,aaol,in»y  of  oU.or  ;"»"'; -['^^^l^^,,,,,  „,  ,,„„,,„,,  ,,„,„g 

(in  average  width  of  foitj  i.(t,  am      _  ^^^^^ 

spiudU's  ami  Mi  looms.  .  on";  n''^.  no^^' 

elginos-tl."  fii-a.  being  »■"""">«■        J    '"i:  r   „,  ."vo  water 


Tiw.  Pnttniiadcs  luadi-    u-re  iiicUulo  all  gi.KH  >  <>i  «a... 


almost  ™tmly  ccasc.l).  «iHl  oMoii.t   >  lla     ">  ' 

I-    I     •    ,     'iM.i.v  'ivi'  (Mill  DiuHl,  i» rDViiliMi,  aim  muui."^ 
on  in  those  factoru't^.     I  lu\\  au  • 'i"MM"  »'  i  ,vlw.nt,.r  it   lie 

lor  th..  hialllyeolor...!   ocpo  boo.I»  soo..-!,!   !■>«<  He  »' 

„„.,or  .tyk..  re,,,mv,l  l.v  .1,,.  '";"■''"    /^^  ^      "  ,    ^„„.  ,.:„.,h,„.l, 

of  ,„o,l,-a,„l  ,™,.<.„,„.,„ly.  «l.e>.  Oto  '       "  "' ,    \      .s,  ,■„,„  . -ll'. 


Lust  n.naer\he.u  of  great  a.-eo,un.oaat,on  to  -rf^;.^^-^, 
instance,  .le.iving  the  control  or  exe  -^  «  ;;^j^^;,!^;;,;,  ^he 
brand  of  goods,  can  have  their  orders  execut  d  1^^^  th  s  fi  m  ^^^^^^ 
n.onoi>oly  of  the  brand  secured  to  them         he      o^puc 

heretofore  manufactured.  r.,ninl)pll  and 

.,»to  of  trade,  .h»u  numuf.cturcrB  who  are  .lopcmlcal  to,  such 
upoQ  tlio  advicos  of  agents  or  commteiiiOD  mcrclmnls. 

M.  landenberger  4  Co.'e  Factory 

1.  ,™l,al,lv  the  host  representative  that  couUl  he  selected  of  a  elass 
U  l"»''»'»y  «"•  I  '„  ^,.,„  established,  within  twenty-hve  years, 

I'r      r     io         woollen  .,o,,iery  and  Faney  Knit     Kven 

thiV  u    uit  fron.  Us  conunencement.  is  Martin  LANnENnKUOER.  and    . 
;;:,"'  Tit  1---H.nt  is  used  i.riuci,ally  for  the  storage  of  wool  and 



IB  applied  to  tins  loom,  »nu    ,  .,i„ri.,|„  „f  combination, 

a„y  dosi«n  oai,  bo  P^'-^IJ^^;  ,  ^  „,';  l,„,„i,„o  of  IW.hor 

'"%Z.  arc  employed  in  this  manufaetovy,  in  the  busy  .eason,  about  five 
::;;:  :;*c.o'l!:S  a™  .aao  >„  ab„utei.„t  ba„d.a  ai.Cciu 

is  pvovulcd  with  '^;.'^"^^^/^'  "         ^^^.^^^,1      ri,,,i,  i,  eomparatively  a 
is  employed  in  nuikmg   Sbetland  ^^  "^  ^",  oavantapc  of  having 

«'  " '-\X!:tZ  U^ul^rS;:;  one  buna,.,,  aiKt  ninoty. 

jr::r,,iri';;e:»:r..e.n™ ,.  u„.oo.,  ..0.  ..^.o...., 

products  exceeded  seven  millions  ol  dollars. 


„KMAI.KA»Lr.   MANUFACrOlUES  OF   rinl.AI.E..rlUA. 

The  Ol.™.ter  Prmt-Woik.  and  W«.hinglon  Mills. 
,„,o  anO  a  halt  mile.  bol»w  .1.-^  •      ■         ','-,.  ^|„,,     „.„„,„,  „,l 

Mills,"  consist  .if  t\NO  1)1  Hlv  MUiti  two-8torviiiekins  '•'>o'» 

«,,  ,et,  iu  wiaU.,  n.l  ^  ;^-;^^  :;:Ul.a  .na  In  ...  l.i.h. 
.Uached  to  -'^''^»^^.^^;:^,  r;i,;a„ws  in  those  l.uil-lin.s,  wl.icl. 
.l.Ucrc-  arc   =^  >->.  /^\''\      'j^  on  tbc  pronus-s,  pn-s.nt 

,  ,evy  vv/.iiant  and    '-1--'°^,    f;/      .,  i^^Uvil  and  lif.y  horse- 

^-'''' ''  r.:::";;  •;:::":o^^^^  i:,>  ti.  .......0. 

power,  one  of  them   IK in„  ci  seven  Imndred  per- 

„,,  hi,h  „*u.c  ro.- u»  o»„o,,,y  ,.>      „.^;  -\V,„,,„,„,  „,,„„„,     . 
«"«  »c  !"»r'»y->  ;      .      ™"  ,,„,„„,  „.,..  of  »uou  .,■»  oo„. 

.  nd  dressing,  and  ovei   tlunj 

^T^::::^^  .it.  t..  ..s,  tv^^e  i. .  ^^^--ix 

bleaclnng,andlnu.lun      L  ^^^^^^^^^^  j, ^^.  ^^^^.^.^,  ^^^^.,^,^  ,„,i 

arc  attaining  an  >    '    ^^'^  ^^^^.j^^  ,,.,     ,,a„eing  of  Prints 

fast  colors.     At  the  present  '^^'^^     ^,,,,,^.  ;,„„,„,  pieces  per 
.even  tl-sand  pieces  per^  W  -         -a  ^  ^^^^^^^^  ^^  ^^^^_  ^^^^^^,^^,^,^,^ 

week  of  fancy  dyed  good>-lHint,  a  ^^^    bleaching 

of  the  estahlishmont  in  pruUing  ^^^^"^^^^llJ^^  ,.,,,,i,,,v  of  the 
..d  finishing  of  white  gojnU,  ^^^^  ^^^^ of  -n-ing  on!  twenty 
hest  description,  were  added,  it  vo  I  ^^^^  ,,i,,.lislnneut 


of  three  hundred  horse-power,  ">;;;,,„,  ^^  ,4,^  .orse-power. 

nailv  use,  thirteen  other  engines,  v  a  g  ^^^^^^^^,^  ,,.,,,  the 
riu;-e  are,  in  all.  ahout  ^-:'%^^^'^Z  boilers  tlJt  generate 
main  boiler  house  contanung  f-nit         1  u  u  ^.,^,,,5,,,^  for 

•  ii,r      Huo   etii'ine  anu  uomi    n' 
fitenm  very  rap'-.U.  ^/^"^     ' '  " „  „•,,,,.  which  was  found  to  be  supe- 

pumping  water 

;,^\\T       >  ine    ensi     '■   """   "   , 

■£,„  u'c  l.da:varo  rlv.r,  which  «,  .ou.ui  .•■  W  »«,. 



,  nliout 
of  ten 
(iiis  all 

Et  long, 
ijjr  room 
■et  high. 
,  which, 
,  pvoHont 

is    IH'O- 

V  horse- 
IpmI  por- 
are  cou- 

rcry  large 
y  dyeing, 
iits,  which 
styles  and 
'  of  Prints 
pieces  per 
u'ry  of  the 
out  twenty 
ations  than 

y  an  engine 
iscs,  and  in 
ipaeity,  the 
iTii  generate 
clusivoly  for 
I  to  be  supe- 

rior for  both  dyeing  and  bleaching,  and  of  which  a  large  quantity  is 
used.  The  annual  consumption  of  coal,  of  the  best  quality  of  an- 
thracite, varies  from  five  to  six  tiiousuiid  tons  annually.  This  is 
delivered  from  canal  boats,  on  the  wharf,  by  the  side  of  the  main 
boiler  house,  and  thus  very  little  handling  is  required. 

Among  the  interesting  machinery  employed  in  the  printing  of  cali- 
coes, is  that  which  produces  the  figure,  in  the  copper  rollers,  with 
matchless  accuracy  and  delicacy.  The  pantograph  machine,  which  is 
elsewhere  described  in  detail,  is  extensively  used,  and  such  is  the 
facilitv  it  atTords,  that  females  are  employed,  and  found  in  many  respects 
to  be  the  best  adapted  in  skill  for  executing  some  of  the  processes. 
The  greater  portion  of  the  hands  employed  in  the  printing  department, 
however,  are  males,  and  include  some  of  the  most  skilful  workmen  thau 
can  be  obtained  for  the  highest  remuneration.  They  vary  in  number 
from  one  hundred  and  fifty  to  two  hundred. 

The  apparatus  employed  for  singing  the  goods,  at  the  same  time  that 
they  pass  through  the  shearing  machine,  is  most  complete,  there  being 
but  few  establishments  in  the  country  provided  with  equal  facilities. 
The  singing  is  performed  both  by  gas  and  copper-plate— the  gas  being 
manufactured  on  the  promises,  in  works  of  sufficient  magnitude  to 
supply  all  that  is  required  for  this  purpose,  and  also  for  lighting  the 


The  proprietors  of  these  works  are  nearly  all  residents  of  1  hiladcl- 
phia,  the  President  of  the  company  being  DAVin  S.  liuowN,  of  Phila- 
delphia, whose  brothers,  Jeremiah  and  Moses  Brown,  were  among  the 
earliest  established'  drv  goods  commission  merchants  in  the  country, 
and  the  agents  of  Samuel  Slater,  of  Providence.     For  nearly  a  half 
century  Mr.  Ikown  has  beeo  actively  engaged  in  the  distribution  of 
American  goods,  and  aiding  to   advance  the   interests  of  American 
manufactures.    The  establishments  over  which  he  now  presides,  exten- 
sive as  thev  are,  have  capabilities  for  far  greater  development,  if  the 
policv  of  the  government  should  be  firmly  established  in  favor  of  the 
protJction  of  its  skill  and  industry.     They  constitute  one  of  the  great 
art  sch..ols  of  the  country,  for  the  education  of  designers  and  chemists, 
whose  genius  we  mav  reasonably  anticipate  will  ere  long  elevate  the 
art  products  of  America  to  a  level  with  those  of  Franco  and  Great 



WiUiam  H.  Horstoann  &  Sons'  Manufactory. 

Lture  of  Kibbons.  Military  '^^^^;;^^i^Z.,  «ot  only  of  the 
It  is  one  that  adds  to  t  .e  --;»     ^   ^  ^^  "^  j,,  productions  rival  in       . 
city  iu  which  it  is  located,  bu   «     '       -■  '^,;,,,,  l^  Switzerland,  and 


^te  X^der  of  this  house.  ^^  WilH^- ^^^  d^ ^  1" 
in  the  workshops  of  ^'^"-l-;  J ^^  ^,  Ip  .fore  an  apprentice  could 
production  of  a  masterpiece  of  ^  «'^  "^"^^  ^  ^^,k,„,„.     He  was  a 

Live  a  license  to  practice  h.  tn  d    a   a.  ma  ^^^^^^^^  ^^^ 

native  of  Germany,  but  came    «J^^    ^"^ ^ Jf^.^ure  of  trimmmgs.     At 

1815  commenced  in  ^'^-'^'^'^'';^J^^^^^^^ 

that  time  there  were  »->*  ^^^  ^^^  J^^  ^^  ^^X^  „  and  Monroe.     Naturally 
which  were  called  after  the  l>res^e.^s-Je^^^^^^  ^^  ^^^^  p^,^.^^,, 

ingenious,  Mr.  Horstmann  -  ;^  ^  . ^  ^^^.^^^  .^^e  than  to  any  other 
in  which  he  had  embarked,  and  to  u     i  'f,,^ion  in  this  conntry. 

,an.  the  business  is  indebtecUor«pr--^^  ^^  ^^^^^^  ^,. 

In  1824.  he  introduced    rom  ^<^^^J  ^  ,„,,,ines.     Gold  laces 

chines,  and  in  the  succeechnge^tb^^        l^^^^^  ^^^^^^   .^   ,,, 

were   made  by  power  >« /  '"^^^  l;^  '  f^r  making  fringes  may 

attempted  in  E-ope    and^  h^^^^^^^^    ^ ^^^  ^^^^      j,.  ,,,,  we  believe 
be  said  to  have  been  first  g«"«^^'  ^        \  ,        wer  to  the  general 

this  firm  was  the  first  m  '^"^  ^"^J  ^^^f  J/.^itmann.  the  business 
n^anufacture.  Since  th«  .^^-  «  «J^/  ,,  what  ability  they  have 
hns  been  conducted  by  h>s  ons  and  w  ^_^^^^^^  .^  ^^^^  ^^^^^^^^ 
discharged  the  trust  comm  t    d  to  U  ^^^^^^  ^^^^^.^^  .^^^^^^^^„, 

in,portance  of  their  estabUshn   nt      1     >^  ^^^^  ^,^^.^  ^.^^  ^^  „,, 

inventions,  as  we  ^-'^  ^'^^^^  ^':^,  W  silk,  silk  and  worsted, 
factures  en.braces  a  wul    en ck  o   ^a  ^^^^^^   ^^^^ 

mohair,  cotton,  gold  ."^"V.mmtv   besides  every  variety  of  military 
not  made  elsewhere  in  tins  --^  y-  ^^^  ^,^,  J,,   ornaments.    Silk 

trimmings,  not  ^^^^^^;^  ^^'iJ':;::^  in  all  respects,  not  only  u. 
vibhons  are   made  here,  which  are     i  .^^  ^^^,,^,^^^^   ^f 

brilliancy   of  coloring   «- J^t^^/  ,  C:.  .ul  St.  Etienne.     The 
manufacture  to  those  o      he  loom  ^^^^^^^^^  .^^  ^^^^.^  ^,^.,,„rt_on 

D.    &  C.    KELTiY'S   FACTORIES. 



of  the 
L'ival  in 
xn\,  and 
ign  im- 

ded  the 
ce  could 
le  was  a 
I,  and  in 
igs.     At 

0  pursuit 
any  other 
J  country, 
ding  Ma- 
3old  laces 
re   it   was 
inges  may 
wc  believe 
lie  general 
3    business 

they  have 
he   present 

t  of  raanu- 
nd  worsted, 
■  of  military 
ments.    Silk 
not  only  in 
evenness   of 
Liennc.     The 
ir  lie  port  on 
as  presenting 

an  example  of  system  and  neatness  rarely  found  in  manufactories  in 
which  handicrafts  so  varied  are  carried  on. 

The   manufactory  is   situated   at  the   corner  of  Fifth  and  Cherry 
streets  formerly  the  burying  ground  of  the  German  Lutherans,  ami 
bo'glU  of  the  congregation  owning  the  old  church  (built  1743)  on  the 
opposite  side  of  Cherry  street.     The  building  forms  an   L,  a 
front  of  one  hundred  and  forty  feet  on   Fifth  street,  one  hundred  feet 
on  Cherry  street,  and  fifty  feet  wide,  containing  six  Hoors      i  be  engu.e 
house  and  machine  shops  are  in  a  detached  building  m  the  yard.      1  hi' 
machinery  m  operation  in  the  factory  is  new,  much  of  it  or.gmal,  and 
includes  one  hundred  and  thirty  Coach  Lace  Power  Looms,  one  hun- 
dred Power  Looms,  making  five  hundred  and  fifty  stripes  or  rows  ot 
goods,  three  hundred  and  thirty-six  Silk  Spindles,  and  other  complete 
silk  machinery,  four  hundred  Plaiting  or  Braiding  Machmes,  fifty  Hand 
Looms  using  over  one  hundred  and  sixty  Jacquard  machines, 
from  forty  to  eight  hundred  needles;  besides  all  the  auxiliary  ma- 
chinerv  necessary  in  the  business. 

Adjoining  the  manufactory  on  Cherry  street,  the  firm  own  an  ad- 
ditional lot,  bought  of  the  Friends,  having  a  front  of  seventy-five  eet 
on  that  street.  The  building  on  this,  formerly  a  Meeting-house,  they 
ha  e  converted  into  a  salesroom. 

in  18.5T  Messrs.  Horstmann  purchased  the  entire  stock,  materials, 
looms,  and  patent  rights  of  the  Clinton  Company,  of  Clinton,  Mass.. 
who  were  the  largest  mauufacturers  of  Coach  Lace  m  America.  1  he 
designs  of  the  best  qualities  of  the  laces,  iu  which  silk  is  freely  used. 

are  unsurpassed.  ,     ,  . 

During  the  late  Rebellion,  the  Military  Depot  connected  with  this 
manufactory  was  a  general  and  most  popular  resort  of  the  volunteers 
of  the  Federal  army,  especially  officers,  who  were  there  able  to  tind 
every  article  necessary  to  equip  them  for  active  service  or  holiday 
display  The  immense  manufacturing  facilities  of  the  firm  enabled 
them  to  meet  promptly  a  sudden  and  pressing  demand  and  supply  a 
national  want. 

D.  &  C.  Kelly's  Factories, 
Located  on  the  Darby  Creek  and  West  Chester  Railroad,  at  Kelly, 
ville,  near  West  Philadelphia,  must  complete  the  «o>»Pl^;;;«"t  «    ^'le 
Rcpresent^-cive  Manufactories  of  Textile  Fabrics  in  which  Philadelphia 

abounds.  ,  ^    »     •       •., 

The  Kellv  familv  has  been   identified  with  the  manufacturing  in- 
terests of  tlie  city  from  tlie  beginning  of  this  ...entury.     As  early  a. 

by  a  wide    circle   of  fnendb.      ^'^^J'  ^^  ^^^  „f  the  repre- 

eLte.y  no  less  t.aa  for     « J^^^^    f;:;,  ,raU,fally  cherished, 
seutativo  men  whose  fame  is  as  t  a  ^^^  ^  ^^^  .^^  ^^^^^^. 

Ue  emigrated  to  this  «°"»7  "\'''';/"'  "jghty-one,  live  stories  in 
facturin«,in  a  structure  f'^^^y-f';^,^;^^^^,,!'^!,  and  around  which 
l,eight-to  which  additions  were  Bubsequently  nu      ,  ^^^.^. 

Lmevous  dwellings  were  .-ectedconsut^^^^^^^^^  ^^^^.^  ^^^. 

village,  now  kno^  n  as  Kdlyv d  e-     Ihe  o.ig  ^^  ^^^^  ^  ^^^^^  ^^^^^^ 
qtroved  by  lire,  March  Uh,  ISOb  ,  out 

ll  more'substantial  building  ^-  '^---f.t  a  front  of  fifty  feet,  is 

The  main  edifice  of  ^»?^  P^^^^  ^;^ff;, Tories  in  height,  and  is 

two  hundred  and  thirty-one  feet    ong     v  ^^^^  ^^^^     ^^.^  ^.. 

divided  by  a  stone  wall  ^-'^^''^''l^ZllVo.o  of  which  the  carding 
vides  the  building  into  two  -P-f  ^^^^  ^^  j"^^^  ,,,  weaving,  etc.  The 
and  spinning  are  performed,  ^^-^  -J^^l^  The  lirst  floor  contains 
vooms  communicate  by  means  ot  ion  do  -^^^^  carding  room  ;  the 
woollen  machinery  ;  the  second  ^^^^^'^  ^,,  „.anufactured ; 

t,h.d  floor  is  the  ^P--f/-;;."^':^rsforr^^ 

the  fourth  floor  contains  -'^f-.^^-^J^^^^^^   ^,,  the  weaving  side,  the 

the  flfth  floor  contains  ^^^\^'^\'^''^X  upper  story  the  beaming. 
..t  four  floors  contain  tue^looms,^^^^^^^^^^^^^  spindles  alto- 

::;:::?;  t'flory.  and  Uiree  ^-^^^^  ,,,  ,,„dred  thousand 
The  space  in  and  around  the  ^^^'ll'^^l^      ^^^        j,  ;,  performed 

-r  S:fS:er^r:tr:ie  n^i  the  Cloth  is  pro- 
^"st^:i^:"whoie .  p-t-i;^:::^:-:::^! 

of  one  hundred  and  fifty  ^^^^^^::;:^J^^  equal  to  two  hun- 
Uundred-horse  power;  -^"|^^^^^;,t be  hvown  into  every  ^  iu 
dred  and  fifty  horse-power.     Ste'ini  c.  i  be  ^^^^  ,,  a  further 

the  building,  at  a  moment's  "^y^^^' »  ;;^:;J,  ^ing  its  envire  length, 
pvotection,  the  fifth  floor  ^^-/-^^J^  f  ^^^^t,  'ntly  kept  filled  with 
Iwo  hundred  and  thirty-one  foot,  wl  c^  a  «  -^  /^_^^i,,  ,  ,,ppiy 
water  by  means  of  a  force-pump  attached  to  b 



jc  war 
A-t  the 
uver  in 

ily  aud 
>  rt'pre- 
,1  nmuu- 
tories  ia 
id  which 
rt'cre  de- 
:h  larger 

Ly  feet,  is 
it,  aud  is 
This  di- 
le  carding 
etc.     The 
r  contains 
■ooni  ;  the 
ufactured ; 
,  etc.  ;  and 
,g  side,  the 
B  beaming, 
indies  alto- 

;d  thousand 
3  performed 
}loth  is  pro- 

■wheels  of  a 
to  two  hun- 
•ery  room  in 
as  a  further 
mire  length, 
pt  filled  with 
A'ilh  a  supply 

of  ho.o.  within  and  without  the  buiUling-that  is  capable  of  throwing 
several  thousand  gallons  of  water  per  mmute  ,^^  ,,,,,,,,, 

The  consumption  of  cotton  in  these  mdls  ,s  about  f^^-t^  ^'^'^^  ; 

and  of  wool  about  twenty  bale.     The  ^^^^^J^ZZ. 
ploved  is  three  hundred  and  seventy,  of  whom  two  thjab 
^Th;  aggregate  production  amounts  to  ^^^^^  ^  ^ ^^ 
annually,  consisting  of  a  large  -'^  f,^^  ^^'^itKevUle  Tickings." 
denims,  Canton  Uanncls,  and  the  well-known     Kcllj  vUle  g 

Lockwood's  Paper  Collar  Manufactory. 

The  discovery  that  paper  could  be  used  as  a  substitute  for  linen  in 

the  manufacture  of  Collars  and  Cuff,  ^^l --'-"<  -^t  Te'n 
of  verv  modern  and  purely  American  ongm.     It  belongs  to  a  eia 
0    h  venlns  that  are  not  at  all  appreciated  at  first-fact  .s,  regarded 
with  con  -pt-and  which  subsequently  become  of  such  importance 
hat     hey  nJt   only  enlarge    the    fields    of   human    labor,  but    affect 
f ,  iVhnd  trades    It  is  conceded  that  the  present  enormous  consump- 

.r  fiftv  toas  weekly,  has  contributed  to  enhance  the  price  of  that 

nSv   an!  cons  quently  affected  the  interests  of  book  publishers 

::r  U  wL  consuTe    ne  p^ers.     Both  the  invention,  and  the  means 

Z:  wl:X.a  to  ov^come  .pu^  ^^^  eol|^  - 

2:::;;.  Ta^;;:ntf"::^^^ne  th^r  lcess.lin.odu. 
t  on  in  o  popular  favor  must  be  accredited  to  the  enterprise  of  a  citi.en 
of  Phtadelphia,  of  whose  establishment  we  propose  to  give  some 

" Chistory  of  the  invention  is  briefly  as  follows  :  In  185B  M.  Wal- 
ter Hunt  a  verv  ingenious  and  prolific  inventor  m  the  city  of  ^ew 
Yorfwho  haV  been  defeated  in  litigation  concerning  a  sewing  ma- 
lice of  which  he  claimed  to  have  been  the  original  inventor. 
InnoUdt  the  foreman  of  his  machine  shop  tbaj  ^  woi  d  m^ke 
a  stitch  that  would  supersede  the  sewing  "-^^"^f  j'^J;;"t        of 


(.0  UEMAaKABI.E    MANUFACT01UE8    OF    Pim.ADEl.VHIA. 

uu>nt  n.uslin,  or  other  like  material,  to  the  paper,  for  the  purpose  o<- 
i  or  as  .1^  it  Btren^th  and  oh.tieity.  On  July  25th  1854.  he  reco.vecl 
Xt  or  shirt  ctilars  of  this  kind,  as  a  new  article  ot  -^^^ 
IL  his  clai>us  to  priority  of  invention,  after  h  vn>g  undergone  the 
ordeal  of  litiLration.  have  been  conUrmed  and  establislieU. 

Tl     h  s  ory  of  the  introduction  of  these  collars  as  a  marketable  eom- 
,nX   is  no  less  interesting.     Previous  to  the  issue  of  letters  patent 
r^ier  Hunt,  he  disposed  of  one  half  his  intercut  ,n     he  san.  ^ 
John  W   llidgwav.  of  Boston,  for  four  thousand  dollar.,  and  subsc 
;        Uy  sc^d  the  0  her  undivided  h  df-interest  for  three  thousand  do  la. 

E  II  Valentine  &  Co.,  who  eonuneneed  the  manufacture  .n  the  t h  rd 
s  or;  of  a  building.  No.  408  Uroadway,  New  York.     The  eommumty 
b^vcn-  d  d  not  regard  these  new  collars  with  favor,  and  the  paten 
:::^:;p.ently  sold,Ld  resold,  with  diminishedvaUn.none^^e^^ 

chasers  seeming  pleased  with  their  bargain.     In  lbo8,  M  .  William  iu 

Lolwood    a  yVung  dry  goods  merchant  of  ^^f^^J^^ 

the  interest  formerly  owned  by  Valentme,  --«- ^  k's    n  "1111^ 

Pbil.delohia  and  commenced  the  manufacture  m  the  keys  one  Mill., 

a        F— t.     His  experience  during  the  fust  six  months  was  by 

no  mean     encouraging,  and  he  was  compelled  to  suspend  operat  ons, 

ti::;:ei::ccumLL.  ^r  want  of  a  market.     When^eons^s 

that  millions  of  these  collars  are  now  made  and  sold  an  m^  y ,   t  -  - 

incredible  that  less  than  eight  years  ago  '^  -qun'od  perM  tent  eff  rt  to 

overcome  the  prejudices  of  the  commun.ty  ^S-^  ^  ^^^^  ^  J;;';,  ,  . 

e    al  used  in  a  linen  collar,  only  more  clean  and  pure  in ,  s  present  form 

hau  err  before.     His  accumulated  stock  was  then  soon  disposed  of  his 

facto  y      opened,  and  n.  less  than  two  years  his  facilities  for  manutactu  - 

rgwere  found  inadequate  to  supply  the  demand,  and  »-  -"^  ^  ^;^ 
,       .•       o;;r;„n.loriq  South  Third  street,  where  be  lias  now  pro- 

C"llTr«;  .^Vl;  I^plo^e  e.a.U*.ent  or  .h.  .,esc.,..„  iu 

*TlltM?„rbavc  .  front  on  Third  aod  Levant  .trect  ot  forty-Be^ 
,ee  a  op  h  f  on«  bundrod  and  eighty  .even  feet,  and  are  vo  stone,  ,n 
teitltt  I  .different  apartments  there  are  about  ninety  nmchme,  useu  ™ 
to   arious  processeMo  whieh  power  is  eommanioated  by  moans  of  over 



niachincs  are  novel,  and  some  of  them  costly. 

T         rst  process  in  making  cloth-lined  collars,  is  to     k 
paper  and  mLlin.  which  is  accomplished  by  means  of  a  -;;;';-;- 
L    est,  with  the  various  improvements  necessary  to  "^^r  ?^..c  the 
«ae.^.al  expansion  and  contraction  of  the  two  substances  nea)  U  nty 

„„,c,;  .„a  after  ,..t  to  U,c  W'''"^,-*""-;  "^  „  »  ^  :,!..  of 

^"r^""'''\LtwUhTe' Collar  manufactory,  there  are  apartments 
In  connection  with  tne  t.oiia  ^^^^.^^ 

appropriated  to  the  manufacture  of  l^^nlX^;'^^,  bottoms  of 
thousand  are  made  daily,  or  over  '^  "'1  «  ^  ^  J^  ^^  ^^^,^„  ,,,,ks, 
thP^o  boxes  are  constructed  largely  ot  thin,  circular  w 

?  K  thP  firL  have  found  to  be  a  satisfactory  and  economical  substi- 
which  the  film  have  louiu  ^^^^     ^^^^  .^  ^^^^  ^^ 

,,te  for  P-^*^^-"\/"  tX     itheir  business,  that  ten  printing- 
the  premises;  and  so  ^^''^^'l^'^'  ,^^^  j^  this  department. 

.esses,  -?^;-^J"    ;Vrchin:s::;.  Jhere  all  repairs  to  the 
There  is  also  a  f^'ge,  a  a  a  ^^^  ^^  ^.^^^^  ^^  ^^^^^^ 

'"t'";;;:::^r  rand  fif  g  Hs  aivl  women  employed,  none  of  whom 
as  two  bundled  ana  niij  f,  .  certificates  of  character. 

,re  t.kon  without  specal  -<''»"-;^;; -»  ";,"„„,,  .ecommoOatiou. 
Dinner  .ml  drcsuig-rooms  are  P'»  'lieatioa  between  tite  diHerent 
Klevator,  arc  used  a,  a  "«"^;';;7;  J^^td^y  means  ot  dogs  that 
:,;;riltrrretrhrtl^Tdrtrat"anArio:,  .eideotrrou,  the 


faeture  of  patent  direction  labels,  commonly  called  "tags."  The  large 
amount  of  cuttings  necessarily  produced  in  the  col  ar  depar  men  , 
being  as  much  as  three  thousand  pounds  weekly,  is  all,  or  nearly  all, 
converted  into  tags,  made  under  a  ^oecial  patent,  and  which,  from  their 
strength,  ready  absorption  of  ink,  and  neatness  of  appearance,  have 
been  adopted  as  the  standard  tag  by  the  Transportation  Compames  of 
the  city,  and  are  used  largely  by  merchants  of  all  classes^  Ihe  sales 
of  these  alone  amount  to  $25,000  per  year,  while  of  the  collars  as 
many  as  three  hundred  thousand  have  been  sold  in  a  single  week. 

In  18G2  Mr  Lockwood  purchased  the  entire  interest  in  the  original 
patent,  which  was  subsequently  re-issued  in  four  divisions,  including 
both  collars  made  of  white  paper,  imitating  starched  linen,  and  collars 
composed  of  paper  and   muslin,  or  an  equivalent  fabric.     1»  /«G^' 
Mr  E   D   Loekwood  became  associated  with  his  brother,  establishing 
the  firm  of  W.  E.  &  E.  D.  Loekwood.     llecently,  the  firm  have  du,- 
posed  of  their  interests  in  the  original  patents  to  the  Union  Paper 
Collar  Company,  organized  with  a  capital  of  three  millions  of  dollars, 
but  they  still  continue  the  business  on  a  larger  scale,  working  under  a 
license  from  the  Union  Company,  and  paying  a  royalty  monthly  on 
their  entire  production.     It  is  estimated  that  the  annual  sales  of  paper 
collars  in  the  United  States  now  amount  to  between  three  and  tour 
millions  of  dollars. 


la  the  preceding  pages  of  this  work,  considerable  space  has  been 
devoted  to  recording  the  progress  of  America  in  Nava    Architect uro 
and  mention  has  been  frequently  made  of  the  early  sh.p-builders  o 
T'hilaUelphia.     The  Government  Navy  Yard,  located  at  this  point,  has 
been    .markably  successful  in  constructing  fine  vessels,  among  which 
we  n.ight  mention  the  ships  of  the  line  "  Pennsylvania,"  3,241  tons  u.ul 
..  North  Carolina,"  2.635  tons ;  the  frigates  "  United  States"  and    Kau- 
tan  ;"  the  screw  steamers  "  Wabash,"  3,200  tons,  and  "  Lancaster,   2,300 
tons;  the  side  wheel  steamers  "  Mississippi,"  1,092  tons,  and  "  busque- 
hanna"  2,450  a.ns;  the  "Arctic,''  memorable  for  her  connection  'Mth 
the  Kane  expedition;  the  "  Shubric,"  used  on  the  Coast  Survey ;  the 
..  Noshamonv,"  and  others.    One  of  the  «hip  houses  in  this  yard  is  two 
hundred  and  seventy  feet  long,  one  hundred  and  three  feet  high,  ami 
tightv-four  feet  wide,  and  is  said  to  be  the  largest  of  its  kind  in  the 
United  Slates.     The  Sectional  Floating  Dry  Dock,  constructed  by  the 



The  private  ship  yards  have  also  turnea  o 
a.  will  be  seen  in  the  record  of  the  operations  of  two  or 
most  prominent. 

William  Cramp  &  Sons'  Ship  Yards, 

T«„  in  number,  .re  .n.eng  *e  ..rge.t  in  fti,  coun.ry  and  oquippea 
and  wooden  vessels.     1  he  iron  snip  y a    ,  ,      ^^.^  river, 

-r.  ""■  ri;  rinin^irruirwie ;":'»,.. ...., 

and  has  an  area  ot  SIX  nunuieu  .„„  f„rtv  bv  three  Imftdred 

f„„.  of  four  bunared  feet     7;™-7;,  "''^f:'^  ^  „.  nngbt 

feet,  contains  some  tools  of  unusual  am   on      fc 
iostanee  the  bendine  roll,,  we.Rlnng  7"  «  "^  \7';  °  „  „„„ve 
,vlll  bend  .beet,  of  iron  an  '«  ;  ^^^^  ^       "^^^^^^^^^^^^^  ""* 

comparatively  cool.     As  an  insi  ^.^^  ^^^^^^ 

firm  for  rapidly  executing  work,  it  may  be  sated  ^bat 

;i:'r:difrr::ri:"  tr'Ab„ut?neb:nd„d  and  .t, 

-^Zr^:;:^^  L=7o=:;:e.,  near  .1,0 
•.of  Pcnn's  TreL  ground,  and  has  a  front  on  the  river  of  three  hun- 

also  constructed  ten  steamers,  each  one  hn.ndred  and  e,ghty-hvc  Icct 


Ions  for  the  Cuban  trade,  and  which  weiH.  found  to  be  so  superior  for 
the  purpose  for  which  they  were  designed,  that  they  entn-ely  superseded 

aide  wheel  vessels.  ,         p  a 

Within  the  last  four  years  this  firm  constructed  a  number  of  fine 
vessels  for  the  United  States  Government.     The  "  Ironsides,    famous 
ia  the  annals  of  the  late  Rebellion,  was  built  by  them  at  a  cost  of  nme 
hundred  thousand  dollars.   Her  dimensions  are  two  hundred  and  thirty, 
five  feet  in  length,  fifty-eight  feet  beam,  and  twenty-seven  feet  hold, 
and     nnage  3,250  tons.     The  "  Chattanooga,"  one  of  four  of  pecuhar 
ns  ruction  oi-dered  by  the  Navy  Departme.*,  was  by  th.s  ^ 
Ita  cost  of  a  million  of  dollars.     Her  dimensions  are  three  hund  ed 
ad  twl    -five  feet  in  length,  forty-six  feet  beam,  and  depth  twenty- 
two  f"t  three  inches.     The  light  draught  monitor  "  Yazoo"  was  budt 
hire   in  accordance  with  designs  furnished  by  the  Navy  Department 
but  vhich,  when  the  vessel  was  ready  to  be  launched  ^un     to 
be  so  defective,  that  it  involved  the  necessity  of  rebu.ldmg.      1  he  hgh 
dLug      monitor ''Tunxis"  was  also  raised  twenty-two  mches,  and 
r  bun   by  this  firm.     Besides  these  may  be  mentioned  t  e  transports 
'  Stanton  "  "  Foote,"  "  Welles,"  and  "  Porter,"  and  the  doub^  ender 
..Wy  lusng,"and  others,  costing  in  the  aggregate  five  mdbons  of 
dollar       Dm-ing  this  period  many  vessels  were  also  constructed  for 
prilat^  parties  amounling  in  the  aggregate  U>  about  fifty  vessels,  of 
various  sizes,  with  a  tonnage  of  twenty-five  thousand  tons. 
Th    firm  i    composed  of  William  Cramp  and  his  five  sons  Charles, 
W  M  C  amp,  S.  H.  Cramp,  J.  C.  Cramp,  Theo.  Cramp.     The  semor 
Itne'r  1  as  I'en  identified  with  the  pursuit  for  more  than  forty  years 
and  ^ivanced,  bv  regular  gradations,  from  a  journeyman  sh.pwnght   o 
a  mas    1   mide;    He  constructed  the  first  propeller  tug-boat  ever  buUt 
in  the  UnUed  States.     This  was  the  "  Sampson,"  which  was  used  as  a 
gunboat,  during  the  late  Rebellion,  by  the  South. 

John  W.  Lynn's  Ship  Yards 

Are  located  in  the  southern  part  of  the  city,  below  and  adjacent  to  the 
Xvvy  Yard.    They  cover  an  area  of  over  five  hundred  thousand  square 
feet  and  are  provided  with  all  the  facilities  necessary  for  the  proseeu- 
on  0    the  business  on  the  most  extensive  scale,  as  wdl  be  mferred 
when  we  state  that  during  180.3,  Mr.  Lynn  built  and  laut.ched  a  vesse 
Tvery  sixteen  working  days.     The  majority  of  these  vessels  w  re  of 
course  of  the  ordinary  class,  including  Transports  and      ugs;  but 
Jong  them  were  some  fine  steamers,  as  the  "  Continental,'  sixteen 
hundred  rs ;  the  "  Liberty."  fourteen  hundred  tons  j  and  the  Revenue 

JOHN    W.    LYNN'S    SHIP    YARDS— U.    F.    LOPKR. 


Cutter  "  Mahoning,"  which,  on  a  trial  of  speed,  made  in  accordance 
with  orders  from  the  government,  from  Boston  to  Cape  Ann,  a  distance 
of  sixty  miles,  surpassed  all  her  competitors. 

Mr.   Lynn  was,   we   believe,  the  first   lo   appreciate   and    use  the 
Knowlton  Oscillating  Patent  Saw,  which  is  now  spoken  of  by  sbin- 
wrights  as-'  worth  its  weight  in  gold."     It  is  really  one  of  the  most 
vahuil)le  machines  ever  introduced  into  ship  yards  for  sawing  frames 
of  any  desired  crook  and  bevel,  enabling  three  men  to  do  the  work  that 
formerly  required  twenty,  and  to  do  it  better  than  it  can  be  done  with 
the  adze  or  axe,  with  the  additional  advantage  of  economizing  time  and 
material.     He   is   also   aiding   to  perfect  and  introduce  another  re- 
markable invention  of  the  same  inventor,  for  grinding  and  polishing 
shot  and  shell  bv  steam  power.    It  consists  of  a  quadrangular  series  of 
arms  or  levers,  that  hold  the  ball  in  a  central  position  over  a  revolving 
emery  grindstone,  and  by  its  means  a  fifteen-inch  shell  can  be  converted 
into  a  perfect  sphere  in  less  than  a  minute.     Commissioners  appointed 
by  the  Government  to  examine  it,  have  reported  strongly  in  its  favor, 
and  no  doubt  it  will  soon  be  introduced  in  all  foundries  where  shot  and 
shell  are  manufactured. 

Mr  Lynn  was  formerly  of  the  firm  of  r>irely  &  Lynn,  and  during 
this  copartnership  designed  and  built  the  vessel  which  subsequently 
became  notorious  as  tlie  "pirate  Sumter."     She  was  originally  called 
the  "  Ilabana,"  and  engaged  in  the  trade  between  New  Orleans  and 
Havana.     During  his  career  as  a  shipbuilder  he  has  constructed  no 
less  than  thirty  ocean  steamers— among  them  the  "Emily  B.  Souder," 
fifteen   hundred  tons;  "Star  of  the   Union,"  fourteen  hundred  tons; 
and  "  Noshammock,"  seventeen  hundred  tons,  which  made  the  outside 
voya-e  between  New  York  and  Philadelphia  in  the  unusually  short 
period  of  seventeen  hours   and  twenty  minutes.     Thus,  he  presents 
another  example  illustrating  that  in  a  country  unfettered  by  commercial 
guilds  or  governmental  restrictions,  a  young  man,  by  the  force  of  con- 
structive genius  and  faithful  application,  may  to  the  front  rank  m 
his  profession. 

R.  F.  Loper,  Philadelphia. 

It  would  bo  impossible  to  do  full  Justice,  within  the  limits  of  a  few 
pages  to  a  subject  that  atfords  materials  for  a  volume  ;  but  we  cannot 
dismiss  it  without  some  tribute  to  one,  who,  though  not  a  shipwright 
by  profession,  has  built  many  vessels,  and  contributed  most  efficiently  to 
the  advancement  of  the  merchant  murine  of  the  country.  We  refer  to 
Captain  R  F.  Loper,  of  Philadelphia.  Ho  was  probably  the  first  man 
who  undertook  the  responsibility  of  contracting  to  furnish  to  owners  a 


•  A  Mr,  Tn  the  five  years  between  1847  and  1852, 
"7^- '^' Vo™  in  T^orTotv^Zl,^^.  two  hundred  vessels  of 
"  :"  Ui  s  nd  di  U  b'^^^^^  among  the  mechanics  not  less  than  two 
''^!,o  dollar  Up  to  the  present  time  he  has  constructed  about 
Turh  ndvedt"-ls  of  different  descriptions,  the  largest  being  the 
S  S  l>wis"  fifteen  hundred  tons,  for  the  Boston  and' L.verpoo 
'  fe.   b.  l^twis,  ..«*„vnf  the  Sc  th"  twelve  hundred  tons; 

S'"»'-'"P  C»'".-y  i;'-„2  Vi  C^plny,  of  flv.  hundred  ton, 
'°^ '':::;te^.  Crft„,!;'r.ho  Nowfo.l.a„a  Telegraph  C«n,p»ny. 

"      r  .^  ta  latetL  in  which  the  United  State,  have  been  engaged 
th    "o    °n,n,ent  found  in  Mr.  Loper  a  most  efflci.n   eoadjutor.     At  the 
.,:  !w  of  the  Mexiean  «ar,  he  hnilt  in  thirty  days  a  hundred  and 
m    tta    ,*whieh  the  American  troop,  were  l«nded  at  Vera 
aflyhuil  lioaia  ,„„,,,ipe|  ,he  mvernment  with  eight  light- 

Crur.;  and  m  1841    be   supp  lea  in     i,  constructed 

rornred  ntuch  vaiuabio  ^^Z!^:::::^^^^'^^'^' 
rXr'^r'f  tire  P:,r:  under'  «e„era,  McCeiian,  to  the 


to  benefit  the  commercial  mai  ine,  ana  desi<rned  and 

supremacy  on  American  waters. 

la  the  upper  part  of  the  city,  at  the  foot  of  Palmer  street,  on  the 
1,'ale  river.  I  a  very  extensive  and  notable  estabUshment  for 
building  Steamers  and  Marine  Engines,  known  as  the 

Peiin  Works-Neafie  &  Levy,  Proprietors. 

,,0  f-'-' f^^'tr  roprlt.  rfUresoworU,  have  constructed 
existence  as  a  firm,  the  piopi  ^^^g^. 

„,er  four  1>»''^-''  ™»7\X't ^n/a  d  »         u„.  of  experience, 

NEAFIE    &.    levy's    I'ENN    WORKS. 


tiac"   "  Neshannock,"   "Liberty,"   "Electric  Spark,"   "John    I'vico," 
"Thomas  Scott,"  " BoUo  Yeruon,"  and  others.     During   the  hue  re- 
bellion, the  engines  for  about  one  hundred  and  twenty  vessel^  of  all 
classes,  were  built  here,  some  of  them  among  the  largest  in  the  service. 
The  area  of  ground  occupied  by  this  establishment  is  about  seven 
acres,  and  within  these  limits  are  the  buildings,  tools,  and  facilities 
necessary  for  constructing  not  only  marine  and  stationary  engines, 
high  and  low-pressure  boilers,  heavy  and  light  forgings,  but  for  build- 
ing all  sizes  of  iron  and  wooden  vessels.     Having  a  front  on  the  river 
of  over  four  hundred  feet ;  docks  in  which  twelve  ships  can  rule  abreast 
in  safety;  a  marine  railway  capable  of  bearing  a  ship  of  a  thousand 
tons;  shears  and  tackling  that  will  lift  a  hundred  tons;  a  machine  shop 
one  hundred  and  sixty-five  by  sixty  feet,  three  and  a  half  stories  high  ; 
a  boiler  shop  one  hundred  and  eighty  by  sixty  feet ;  a  blacksmiths'  shop 
one  hundred    and   thirty  by  forty  feet;  an  erecting  shop  eighty  by 
seventy  feet ;    a  foundry  one   hundred  and  fifty  by  sixty  feet-all 
equipped  and   nrovided  with  the  best  tools-their  facilities  arc  un- 
questionable.     Or,  if  other  evidence  were  wanting,  it  is  presented  in 
the  iron  ships  "  Oriental,"  of  fifteen  hundred  tons  ;    the    "  Havana," 
twenty-two  hundred  tons  ;  the  "  General  Scott,"  eleven  hundred  tons ; 
the  "  Union  "  four  hundred  tons ;  and  many  others  built  here,  that 
have  added  to  the  glory  and  efficiency  of  the  Americtin  marine 

laouc  special  but  important  branch  of  naval  architecture,  this  hrm 
have  a  pre-eminence  amounting  almost  to  a  monopoly.  Among  the, 
or  probably  the  first,  to  engage  in  building  Propellers,  and  ownmg  the 
patent  for  the  curved  propeller  wheel,  more  of  this  description  ol  vessel 
have  been  built  at  the  Penu  Works  than  in  any  other  in  the  country. 
It  has  been  said  that  at  least  two  propellers  may  be  seen  on  their 
stocks  at  all  times;  and  on  the  western  lakes,  probably  two  hundred 
are  performing  valuable  service.  win 

Besides  its  advantages  of  location  and  equipment,  the     Penn  Works 
has  another,  in  the  practical  skill  of  its  proprietors,  Jacob  G.  ^cafie 
and  John  P   Levy.     Mr.  Neafie  served  his  apprenticeship  m  the  ma- 
chine shop  of  Thomas  Ilolloway,  the  first  marine  engine  builder  m 
Philadelphia,  and  thus,  from  boyhood,  has  been  identified  with  tho 
pursuit  in   which   he   is  now  engaged ;    while  Captain  Levy  has  a 
thorough   and  practical  knowledge   of  hulls,  rigging,  and   outfit  of 
Bteamers-a   combination  that  completes  the  resources,  both   men- 
tal  and  material,  necessary  for  constructing  any  vessel  of  wood  or 
iron,  and  furnishing  it  with  all  machinery  and  equipments  ready  for 




Tn  the  City  of  Chester,  fourteen  miles  below  Philadelphia,  there  is 
ano^hel  ve^  extensive  'establishment  for  building  iron  vessels  and 
marine  engines,  known  as  • 

The  Pennsylvania  Iron-Works, 

Whieh  were  founded  by  one  of  the  original  owners  of  the  Penn  Works, 
Which  were  toun  i  Archbold  are  now  proprietors. 

£;r  ;t1^:.5!S-tl^-  acres,  meluding  about  twelve 

a       e      u  stf  m  hLnier,  and  a'Nasynith  clouble-acting  steaui     am- 
niei   re  entlv  imported  from  England,  at  a  cost  of  one  thousand  dolla 

'  Ti!    pL  strike  a  blow  equal  to  the  force  of  forty-five  hundred 
ir^OoirndsBsils  these' there  is  the  boiler  «hop.  one  hundre 
ltd  htvrt  long  by  sixty  feet  wide,  with  wing  attached  eighty  feet 
i  2;i  itvfee?wicle-,  a' foundry  one  hundred  and  sixty  feet  long 
•xtv  Tl  wide,  and  thirty-two  feet  high,  in  which  are  two  cranes  each 
sixtj    oetw  1  -  ^  ^^i^b   cupolas  capable  of  making  a 

'''^:^::^^^f^m^^^^-^^^^^  *— ^^^  ^^^^^  hundred  feet 
Z^VX^'^li  with  a  wing  attached  of  eighty  in  lengUi ; 
r  CO'  per   ;hop   and  brass   foundry,  and    numerous    buildings      on- 
neeted  with  the  boatyards,  in  which  are  kept  punches,  shears,  roll  i 
Is  and  furnaces  capable  of  doing  the  heaviest  work  required  in 
ron  sh  n-building.     To  the  uninitiated,  the  ease  with  which  one  of  the 
Iict  sw    ghhissome  twelve  tons,  can  force  a  three-inch  hole  through 
a  U>i  lip  ate  of  iron,  is  marvellous,  and  not  less  so  is  the  facili  y 
tith  w  ich  the  huge  pair  of  shears  near  by  can  clip  a  piece  of  iron  an 
l^  :        ll  in  thickness.     Besides  the  buildings  that  be  on g  to  the 
manvLturing  depav.u.ent,  the  firm  erected  about  sixty  dwe  hng-hnuses 
Tt^:    conimodation  of  their  workmen,  and  are  now  '-Idnig  u    and 
Bome  brick  church  which  will  seat  seven  hundred  person,  comfortably. 

UEANY,    SON   A   CO.'S   \\    UKS. 


The  productions  of  this  establishment  comprise  Marine  and  Stationary 
Engines,  Locomotives,  heavy  and  light  forgings,  iron  and  imiss  cut- 
tings and  a  great  variety  of  machinists'  and  boiler-makers'  to..-ls,  but 
probably  the  most  prominent  branch  is  the  building  of  iron  and 
wooden  vessels  of  all  sizes  and  kinds.  During  the  late  Rebellion  they 
built  and  fitted  out  three  vessels  of  the  monitor  class,  the  "  Sangamon," 
•'Lehigh  "  and  "Tunxis;"  one  gunboat,  the  "  ;"  four  .i.uble- 

cnders,  the  "  Paul  Jones,"  "  Watcrer 

)i  II 

Suwanee,"  and  "  SlKiiiiokiii 

and  two  tugs,  the  "  Nina"  and  "  Pinta."     During  this  period  thry  nUo 
built  and  launched  fifty  merchant  vessels,  in  size  from  a  tug-boat  to  a 
steamer  of  nearly  fifteen  hundred  tons  ;  but  by  far  the  finest  vessel  which 
has  yet  been  launched  from  their  ways  is  the  "  Thomas  Kelso,"  a  steamer 
for  the  Chesapeake  bay  trade.     A  contract  has    b(M'n   recently  made 
with  a  gentleman  of  Philadelphia,  to  build  a  fast  passenger  ami  ircight 
steamer,  to    run   between  Philadelphia  and  New  Castle,  and   winch, 
when  completed,  it  is  believed,  will  be  the  most  rapid  on  the   river. 
Between  eight  and  nine  hundred  men  are  employed  in  these  Works,  and 
about  2,500  tons  of  coal  and  3,000  tons  of  iron  are  annually  consumed. 
The  firm  of  lleany,  Son  &  Archbold  combines,  in  more   than   an 
average  degree,  practical  experience  and  scientific  ability.     The  senior 
partner,  Tliomas  lleany,  was  the  founder  of  the  Penn  Works,  previously 
described,  and  as  such,  is  identified  with  the  early  history  and  construe 
tion  o£  Propellers  in  this  'country,  while,  for  a  period  of  over  twenty 
years,  he  has  been  a  builder  of  marine  and  stationary  engines  and 
boilers.     Previous  to  this  he  was  connected  with  the  Philadelphia  and 
Trenton  railroad,  and  one  of  the  principal  railroads  in  the  State  of 
Georgia.     Wm.  B.  Beany,  the  son,  served  a  regular  apprenticeship  in 
the  machine  shop  at  the  bench,  and  in  the  drawing-rooms  of  the  estab- 
lishment  formerly  named,  of  which  his  father  was  the  founder,  and  for 
sixteen  years  the  senior  partner.     He  is  well  known  throughout  the 
country  as  a  thorough  and  scientific  engineer  and  practical  machinist. 
Samuel  Archbold,  the  remaining  partner,  is  also  well  known  through- 
out ttc  country  as  a  practical  and  scientific  engineer.     Having  served 
a  regular  Apprenticeship  in  the  shop  and  drawing-rooms  of  our  of  the 
first  establishments  of  tiie  country,  he  soon  attached  himself  to  the 
engineering  department  of  the  United  States  Navy.     Here  he  obtained 
such  pre-eminence  as  a  practical,  efficient,  and  scientific  engineer,  that 
he  was  ultimately  recommended  to  and  appointed  as  Chief  of  tl.e  Bureau 
of  Steam  Engineering  in  the  United  States  Navy.      This  position  he 
filled  with  efficiency  and  success  until  his  resignation,  which  was  ten- 
dered in  order  to  enable  him  to  enter  upon  the  business  of  the  lirm  of 
which  he  is  now  a  member. 


Howell  &  Brothers'  Paper  Hangings  Manufactory. 

of  this  Instory.  i^hiladelplna  of  which  we  have  any  account 

The  first  manufactory  m      '^"^^  P        frenchmen,  named  Boulu  and 

^as  one  established  about  1700  by  tjo  ^^^^^,,^,„  ,„„,uUo 

Chavden.  ^--^^X^'j',  l^a  S  WilUal  Poyutell  embarked 
Lyons,  in  France^  %'^lTZm^,,^  made,  however,  was  of  common 
iu  the  manufacture.     The  k  na      i    i  ^^^  ^^^^^  ^  g^^pg. 

.uality  and  ungla.ed ;  and  it  was  not  untd  the  w 
L  style  of- French  ^^^-^^\ll\l\lXlL^.,.^  that  contrib- 

were  introduced  '^'^-\^'»\>"7,  '  '^'ro^nent,  was  the  introduction  of 
uted  more  than  any  other  to  ^^    ""P  ovemo>  ^_  .^^^  ^^^^^^ 

About  the  year  18  3,  John  iy  ^     ^  ^  iTianufaciory  of  Paper 

to  the  United  States  in  l^^^' ^^  ^^^^^^^^^^^^      Philadelphia  and  com- 
llan^iugs  in  Albany.  New  Y^^  removed        ^^^_^^  ^^  ^^^^^ 

nienced  the  ^f-^^  »"/^'^^;Xrs  one  of  the  largest  in  the  United 
is  now  that  of  Howell  &  J^'^«*^'''''  !*"  i„  Europe.     They  have 

States,  and    it  is  -^f^;^^-;  f  ^LteeU:  and   Spruce   Streets, 

surfaced  papers.  _  ,  ^^^^  ^^dern  processes  for 

In  their  manufactories  may  be  seen  »» ^  ^  ,,      «,  at 

printing,  and  maehineryforcoaung  an    l-ng^^^^^^^^^^^^ 
least,  had  not  yet  been  .«'d«pt  d  ^n  the  ^ng  ^^^^,^^^  .^  ^^^.^^^ 

the  more  common  desenpl.ions  «f  ^^  '  ^7  J^^  ^  J,,,,  ,eing  the  same 
the  pattern  is  cut  upon  ^ ^^^^^''^1;^^^^^^^  descriptions  they 

as  cylinder  printing  of  ^"^^^l*^^^  ^^^j  J,  i„  ^hich  the  outlines  of  the 
continue  the  old  style  of  printing  by  blocks  i.j^^^^^   ^^^^  ^^  ^^^^^_^^.^^^ 

various  tints,  havmgb-  lave     up^  ^^  ^^^^   .^^^^  ^^  ^^^^^       , 
mounted  in  pme,  the  ^ocks  are  p  ^^  ^^^  gu^de-marks 

applied  to  the  paper  each  one  foUowin  ^  ^        ^^  ^^^^  ^^^^^  ^^ 

left  by  the  previous  impression,  ^e  ^'^^  ^^^^^^  ^.^^  upon  the  paper 
receive  the  workman's  hand,  f  ^[^  ^^'iZcei^.^  from  the  mill  in 
by  a  mallet  driven  by  the  foot.  f.^^^PJ^^o  inches  wide.  The  first 
rolls  of  about  1200  yards  long  and  from  20  to 




ulu  and 
)nsul  to 
a  supe- 
iction  of 
d  States 

,  London 
of  Paper 
ind  com- 
1  founded 
le  United 
)hey  li8,ve 
3   Streets, 
enth  near 
japer   per 
and  satin- 

ocesses  for 
ars  ago,  at 
^or  making 
3S  in  which 
g  the  same 
ptions  they 
lines  of  the 
F  pear-tree, 
)r,  and  then 
the  back  to 
n  the  paper 
a  the  mill  in 
ie.    The  first 

process  is  to  cover  the  blank  paper  with  a  preparation  of  chalk  wludi 
forms  a  basis  upon  which  the  colors  rest.  In  the  English  factories  this 
is  effected  by  hand ;  in  the  best  American  manufactories  it  is  accom- 
plished  by  steam.  The  polishing  or  glazing  which  succeeds  is  also 
effected  by  a  single  machine,  composed  of  a  succession  of  cylinders, 
operated  by  steam.  The  patterns  arc  mostly  furnished  by  the  Philadel- 
phia  Female  School  of  Design,  though  the  best  designs  emanating  from 
the  schools  of  France  are  frequently  procured.  This  firm  employ  in  their 
manufactories  about  200  hands,  one  third  of  whom  are  females. 

Messrs  How»ll  &  Brothers  have  recently  taken  possession  of  one  of 
the  largest  and  what  is  generally  regarded  as  the  most  elegant  store  in 
the  city  of  Philadelphia.  It  is  located  at  the  southwest  corner  of  Ninth 
and  Chestnut  Streets,  and  has  a  front  of  marble  extending  33  feet  on 
Chestnut  Street,  and  a  depth  of  235  feet. 

Remarkable  Chemical  Manufactories. 

Philadelphia  contains  some  of  the  most  extensive  manufactories  of 
Chemicals  in  the  Union.  The  climate  of  Pennsylvania  is  peculiarly 
favorable  for  the  production  of  some  of  the  most  important  articles,  and 
a  capital  of  several  millions  of  dollars  is  now  invested  in  the  manufacture. 
We  condense  from  a  reliable  record  the  follows  ing  account  of  the  early 
manufactories  which  may  now  be  said  to  be  of  national  importance.* 

John  Harrison,  of  Philadelphia,  was  the  first  successful  manufacturer 
of  Oil  of  Vitriol  in  the  United  States.  He  had  spent  two  years  in  Eu- 
rope in  acquainting  himself,  as  far  as  he  could  gain  access  to  them,  with 
the  processes  used  by  the  chemists,  and  after  his  return  to  America 
devoted  himself  to  the  manufacturing  of  Chemicals.  How  much  earlier 
he  succeeded  we  have  no  means  of  ascertaining;  but  in  180G  he  was 
fully  established  as  a  manufacturer  of  oil  of  vitriol  and  other  chemicals, 
in  Green  Street,  above  Third.  His  leaden  chamber  was  a  small  one, 
and  capable  of  making  about  forty-five  thousand  pounds  or  three  hundred 
carboys  of  oil  of  vitriol  per  annum.  So  successful  were  these  operations 
that  in  1801  he  had  built  a  leaden  chamber  eighteen  feet  high  and  wide, 
and  fifty  feet  long,  capable  of  making  three  thousand  five  hundred  car- 
boys per  annum.     The  price  which  the  acid  then  brought  was  fifteen 

cents  per  pound. 

John  Harrison  was  the  founder  of  the  present  well-known  concern  of 
Harrison  Brothers  &  Co.,  whose  chemical  works  in  Kensington  occupy 

(1)  Loading  Pursuits,  edited  by  Edwin  T.  Ercedlcy. 


,      •.      P  H  o,V  father's  old  establishment.     They  manufacture  exten- 

for  purity  anJ  S«">"">""»'-  ^,„„,„„tea  ;„  lemlcn  tossoIs  beyond  a  cer- 

S„lplmrio  ncd  en  ot  be  '^™  ="" ";  ,,,  „     i„d  In  commerco, 

tnin  density,  «»d  for  .nnging  «  to  th       '™15       ^  ^^^^^^^  ^^  ,,^ 

Scrtrbt'aUlJglue  ;■-  an.  »P«.in.  «•.=  -  B-Uy  ■ucca.d 

the  cost  ot  the  ■";'*=;»;;«•      p,„„j„,p|,i„  „  eelebrateO  foreiBn.r,  Dr. 
There  hvcd  at  tb«  time  in  1  nim '    I  _^||  i,,,^ 

Briek  liodman,  <,h.  had  --'"'P';^'"^^  '™  °^  '    „;f,  „,  s„„h  Caro- 

,„cee»M  attempt,  in  -"'^-J-J  'J^^^,  gntds.  Ling  hi.  hnprison- 

"""•;  V«  »°*  °"     b1  a    «a!:'a  .an  ot  powerful  and  ver- 
ment  at  01  nutz.     i".  u"  ^nlitiral  economist,  and  a  general 

.atilo  -"«l.M.10-d<'™.»''-'"f'^P;^^"\3  ,*  attention  to  the 
rf,o..r.     Amons  other  pur. mt.   be  bad  turne     ^^_^^,^^^^^^_^^  ^^^^^^^.^^ 

«rl;inK  of  erudo  plat.u,™  «.  wh  eh  'here  ^^^  ^^^^^  ^^^^^^^^ 

Lr;ren;ete;LT"*„r;  aisco,ered  by  Br.  Wo,,.t„u    foj 

he  these  sheets  was  the  ^'^^^f'^^  ^^^^  ^.^  ^ed  seven 

use  for  about  fifteen  years^  cot.centration  of  sulphuric 

two,  and  only  to  a  few.  account  was  put  up 

.,r  rK^r  r::  ir,'::::,-  «;  eoneentrated  their 


,he  ,a.„ufaot„re  of  "\l  "  J'     'J;™\' '  J  '  :  „,„„ged  a,  to  i,e  Kept 
eonecn.ratin,  the  .e.l  m     '»  '"  "'  "f,,^„,,    „„,„,  „f  eoneentrated 

'■";■:'">;.,  Irir-re't  f r    :::  fon"i:  Js'l  ...,  they  .ti,,  eo„tin„e 
:ld"  r*:::,.  f™  of  ^■|ebo,..  Leuui«  *  eo.  at  the  new  ohcaf 


,nd  the 

I  a  cer- 
3  to  tlve 

369   SUS- 


aer,  Dr. 

I  all  but 
li  Caro- 
and  vef- 
i  general 
a  to  th« 
[  brought 
iston,  for 
3,  he  had 
and  into 
to  which 

rohn  Har- 
hud  seven 
itinucd  in 

as  then   a 

II  a  year  or 

was  put  np 
tratod  their 

largely  into 
ti  chambers, 
I  to  1)0  kept 
till  continue 
;  new  chemi- 

cal establishment  of  this  firm  recently  erected  at  Bridesburg,  where  they 
are  largely  engaged  in  this  manufacture,  as  well  as  that  of  Soda  Ash, 
Alum,  Copperas,  Aqua  forti?,  Nitric  and  Muriatic  Acids,  all  the  various 
preparations  of  Tin  for  the  use  of  dyers,  such  as  Tin  Crystals,  0.xymu- 
riate  of  Tin,  Pink  Salt,  etc.  Besides  the  firms  mentioned,  those  at 
present  engaged  in  the  manufacture  of  sulphuric  acid,  in  and  near  Phila- 
delphia, are  Messrs.  Powers  &  Weightman,  at  the  Falls  of  Schuylkill ; 
Savage  &  Stewart,  and  Moro  Phillips,  at  Frankford ;  Potts  &  Klett, 
at  Camden. 

The  war  of  1P12,  and  the  commercial  restrictions  which  preceded  it, 
caused  such  a  scarcity  and  duarness  of  chemicals  that  numbers  attempted 
the  preparation  of  the  more  prominent  articles ;  and  the  complete  estalj- 
lishment  of  the  manufacturing  bu^ir.oss  in  this  country  dates  from  this 
period.  Many  of  these  works  were  undertaken  by  foreigners,  who  had 
learned  sometiring  of  chemical  manipulations  in  the  Gorman,  French,  or 
English  factories,  or  by  capitalists  among  our  own  druggists,  who  made 
use  of  foreign  skill,  or  pretensions  to  skill,  in  getting  their  works  into 
operation.  It  was  in  tliis  way  that  factories  for  the  making  of  Prussian 
blue,  Schule's  green,  and  other  pigments  and  chemicals,  \vere  from  time 
to  time  started. 

Many  of  the  foreigners  had  been  laborers  in  the  laboratories  abroad, 
who  had  no  knowledge  of  chemistry  as  a  science,  and  whose  e.kill  was 
confined  to  their  own  limited  routine  of  work.  There  were  others  of  a 
higher  character,  men  of  competent  education  as  chemists,  and  of  much 
intelligence.  Of  these,  Dr.  Gerard  Troost  was  the  most  prominent.  He 
was  a  Hollander,  who  had  studied  medicine  and  chemistry,  ai>''  had 
been  a  favorite  pupil  in  mineralogy  of  the  celebrated  Abbe  Iliiu;'.  lie 
was  probably  one  of  the  best  crystallographers  of  his  day.  He  settled 
in  Philadelphia,  was  one  of  the  founders  of  the  Academy  of  Natural 
Sciences,  and  was  employed  in  several  chemical  enterprises.  Tie  super- 
intended for  a  short  time  the  laboratory  of  S.  Wetherill  &  Son  ;  was 
then  engaged  in  chemical  works  with  licchleitner,  the  Swedish  consul, 
and  afterwards,  about  the  year  1815,  superintended  an  alum  and  cop- 
peras works  on  the  Magothy  River,  on  the  eastern  shore  of  Maryland. 
He  did  not  possess  tlie  (pmlities  of  a  jiractiinvl  manufacturer,  and  most 
of  his  entori)rises  were  unsuccessful.  lie  afterwards  removed  to  New 
Harmony,  with  Owen,  M'Cluro  and  others;  subsequently  accepted  a 
professorship  in  the  Uidversity  of  NashviUo,  and  became  geologist  tu 
tlie  State  of  Tennesse(\     Dr.  Troost  died  in  iS.'tO, 

Another  of  these  intelligent  foreigners  was  Abraham  Kunzi.  He  wa^; 
a  Swiss,  and  had  been  educated  as  an  apothecary,  in  a  country  where 
all  the  apprentices  arc  taught  pluvrmnccutic  cheiiiislry,  and  pracliscd  in 

L     M 


„..„,  .0.  Of  ...  o«c.a,  c.c«.s      HO  «».«  ^o-"."  "^^^ 
J„l,„  Hwrison  "»>^,  *™  "'*  f  ;'7;J:;  E„8U*mau.  »l.o  bad  somd 

,.   ,..  K..i  t.e  P0^..v  « 

prudence  of  John  i^arr,  uuu  -pnHpved  the  firm  eminently 

err  ort  L.  e.c.we «----»: -:::ea  -  co.,. 

Tl>«  co„c»ra  thus  toandcd  by  »""  ""J  ;'^„"„  ji,,„,.  powCTS  4 

WciBbtman,  who  bay  ot    nly  o"U^^^  ^^^      ^^^  ^^^^^^^  ^^„„„, 

„„«od  itt  repnlatwD    .™  °™       t.|,„,  have  two  cstablishmouts,- 

.„„  attbe  '''"-ff;SlMu"a      Acids,  ipsou,  Salt.  Coppera. 
Vitriol,  Aqua  Fortia,  ?Uiric  ana  m  ^^^.^  ^^^^^^J_ 

Bta,  Vlt-iol  Aiu,„,  "■•  .^™  :';:'  ;":,  ri:::.  l-Wladeipiu.,  ..ey 
lisbmcnt  at  ll.c  con.ot  ol  ...  .lb  an"  ra  ^^^^^ 

of  Morcury  a..d  Citm  Ac..  .  „|,arm..copa!ins.   Tl.o 

the  officinal of  t..c  Br.f-b  »";  ^ mmca    p  ^^  .^^ 

,cp..tati«n  of  this  house  ,s  ....s..rp»je..  °'  .  J  '  arfings.  It  is  not 
elLicaK  and  fo,-  ''.«';«;--  ^^^^  ^fLd  o'f  a  chcnicl 
SLlirlr  ri:;  ":::  l^  -.  ,  yoa.  b.s  n„lfo-™.,y  sastai,.cd 

™ '■'!-''■  "'«r»':r.fWbHrLear;:a:'":.con,™o..eed  b.  the  U...ted 
Tbomanntactueol  Wb,t.i.e  ^^  ^^.^   j,.^^^,,.    ^^ 

States,  as  we  ...  the   I  «« '   f  „,„  i5„„ta,i„„.     Uis 

M.  WChcill  of  ;  ;'"  f>;:  l,t^  "I  ,  :u;„,eo,..inao  tbe  .....ufac 
p.„„dso.,,,  o,  tbe  «  .  »^;;-  '„„,,  ,ij,  „,  the  Scb,.,lkill.  'Ley 
tare,  a..d  l..ivo  a  faUory  "»      "  ,  ,„„„„„„  ,u,i|y  about 

e.„„loy  an  on,b.e   "    -f'^^Z'^2:.>^^^  ,„an,.f.cturers  of  tbi. 

:r  :r  li^  :;v*^.- -— er  7r  r;::^^ 
r,\.=r^r;r  ;':■  r  riin  wit.  .,.0  — et.e . 

as  follows.  cstftblislicd  a  White  Lead  factory  on  a  lot 

In  18i:3.  Joseph  Richards  ««^^»  '  ^  j^j  •„„,  yi,,.ets,  and  in 

on  ri-«tre.hctwe^    e     yamsoonth^^     J ^^^^^^^^^^  ^    ^^^^^ 

the   xvmter  of  1810-20  sol.    i  ,uade  during  the  first  year 


pradnal,  amounting  in  1830  to  000  tons,  and  in  1840  toover  1000  ton.. 
In  1827  they  commenced  the  manufacture  of  Acetic  Acid  for  then-  own 
use,  in  place  of  cider-vinegar;  and  in  1830,  that  of  Linseed  0.  .     lu 
1349  the  firm  purchased  from  Rodman  and  Joseph  Wharton  a  lot  in 
Richmond,  having  a  front  of  620  feet  on  Duke  Street  and  3G0  on  Hun- 
tington Street,  on  which  there  was  a  White  Lead  factory  already  in 
operation.     The  works  were  much  enlarged,  and  in  addition  to  White 
Lead   Linseed  Oil.  and  Acetic  Acid,  they  began  the  manufacture  of 
Red  Lead,  Litharge,  Orange  Mineral  and  Sugar  of  Lead,  and  at  a  later 
day  other  paints.    In  August,  1850,.the  firm  of  M.  &  S,  N  Lew.s  which 
had  continued  unchanged  foi  fifty  years,  was  succeeded  by  that  of  John  1 . 
Lewis  &  Brothers.     Their  present  factory,  on  the  lot  above  mentioned, 
is  very  extensive,  and  they  have  a  capital  invested  of  about  $350,000,  em- 
ploy 90  hands,  and  produce  annually  of  White  and  Red  Lead,  Litharge 
etc  ,  about  4,500.000  pounds;  other  Paints  1,200,000  nouuds  ;  Linseed 
Oil 'about  60,000  gallons;  and  of  Vinegar  about  300,000  gallons. 

In  IS-n)  there  were  but  three  establishments  in  the  United  States 
making  White  Lead,  and  their  aggregate  product  did  not  exceed  400 
tons  Now,  on  the  seaboard  alone,  excluding  several  factories  in  the 
AVest  there  are  twelve  which  make  in  the  aggregate  annually  about 
14  000  tons,  or  28,000,000  of  pounds.  Since  1852,  however,  it  is  be- 
lieved that  there  has  not  been  any  considerable  increase  in  the  (,uantity 
produced,  or  any  important  additic.i  to  the  number  of  factories.  In 
that  year  the.Wndle  Oxide  of  Zinc  was  introduced,  which  has  satisfied 
the  increased  demand  for  white  paints  to  the  extent  of  about  6000  tons 
annually.  It  sells  for  about  one-third  less  than  White  Lead,  and  the 
production  is  only  limited  by  the  demand. 

Wright  Brothers  &  Co,,  UmbreUa  Manufactory. 

Philadelphia,  in  1860,  had  more  than  one  half  tb.  whole  capital  that 
was  on.ploved  in  the  United  States  in  the  mauui.u,ture  of  Umbrella, 
and  Paraso-8.  There  were  in  the  city  about  twenty  of  those  estabhsb- 
nients,  and  among  them  one  that,  it  is  believed,  was  the  largest  m  the 
world.  We  refer  to  that  of  Whiuht  mmm:m  &  Co  ,  a  house  that  was 
founded  in  the  vear  1820  by  four  bn.thers-John,  Jom  ph.  Edmund, 
and  Samuel  Wright,  natives  of  Oxfordshire.  Englan.l,  but  who  can.o  to 
this  country  in  1816.  and  embarked  in  the  business  of  preparing  whale- 


,one  for  U.bvellas.  to  which  they  added,  iu  the  year  named,  the  manu- 
facture of  the  QniBhed  article.  ^^^,,;,^,e  as  manufacturers  of 
DuriDg  the  first  ten  years  of  tl^ir  ^^P^  f«^^  exceed  one 

Worena.  the.  ^^^^^X-i::^.^^: y^^.  ^vith  the 
hundred  per  day  ;  bu.  loi  tue  long  v  ,„anufactory  in  opcra^ 

exception  of  a  ^^^^^^^^  ^  ^^:i;Z.  produced  from 
tion  uninterruptedly,  and  in  t  it  ousy  j^       ^ay. 

twenty-tive  hundred  to  three  ^f  "--f^^y^";^ "'^^^^  i,te  Rebellion, 
The  exception  alluded  ^^^^f  "/  J^s  Jbeir  mannfacture  had 
,v^ben  finding  the  demand  for  ^'^'^  ^^^^^  principally  females,  in 
elniost  ceased,  and  their  five  bund    d  e-ploy-s  P       ^^  J  ^.^^^.^^^^^^ 

danger  of  suflering  ^^,X^^^,::Z^.^.y  of  army  clothing ; 

rrtttrr  "He  «;;^:- -rx;  r^u^i 

org»nizatioii.  .    .  locnlcd  ot  332  and 

The  maQuhctory  and  sales  rooms  o  "  »  ™  °  ^  i,  ,te„.elves, 
3-24  Market  Suee.,  ma  to«  ..o.T  ^"^  "»;  ^  l/„,.eudios  ta 
t„.i„B  a  front  on  ««'"»'  ^.-^"^'".r       ,x  1.^^.  ^  ^^^^_^^  ^^^^^,^ 

doptb  two  hundred  and    '%''«' '  "f  °°g,„„^         „  ,„d  a  great  variety 

-  »'■■'="  *°  'r:XS      a    tl  Inrfactnring  operations,  super 
of  machinery  urc  emp  oyca  m  u  insuring  um- 

.eding.toaco.sidera  lee^teu-b^^^^^^^^^^^  ^^  ,,, 

formityof  size  .nd  strength  m  '^IJ^^     ^.^^^^.^y  theusooHbo 

a.,  nvw  "-^--^^^;^'^;^^7f2"i-ly  a  prominent  article  of  consumption 
Whalebone,  which  was  f*^"'     '^  ''J^      .    aupcrscJed  by  rattan  and 

iuthis  -'-^'•-^"-' V;rg       \u        ledby  the  singular  failure 
Bteel,-in  conse(i«ence  of  .IB  g*  -t  .ub  ^^  ^^^  ^^^^.^.^^ 

of  the  whale  fishene.  ^^^^ZZ^^A  elasticity,  this  firm  have 
quality,  possessing  ihe  "^'^'^f^'    ^  ,  ,1,,.^  the  best  quality,  that 

e.  ablished  connections  >»  »"'»^^";»f'  ^  Xcted,"  can  bo  obtained,  and 
i«  the  Dutch  East  India  ^--^"7^^;^,^  ^^^  ^  ufty  thousand  pounds 
,,,,  ,,,ortations  jur^un     0  w       und.d  ^^  ^^J^^^^^^^^,,, 

Bunually.  nearly  all  '^  y^'^^^^J  ^hey  dispone  of  to  others, 

that,  which  is  not  smtable  or  teipuriio^^^^^^^  ^P^^^  ^^^^^^^,^  ^,^, 



through  whom  they  obtain  their  Silks,  Scotch  ginghams,  and  various 
other  materials  direct  from  first  hands,  and  of  which,  in  a  yearly  pro- 
duction of  over  a  half  million  of  umbrellas  and  parasols,  great  quanti- 
ties are  necessarily  consumed. 

The  head  of  this  firm  is  Samuel  Wright,  the  youngest  and  only 
surviving  brother  of  the  four  who  originally  established  it.  For  many 
years  he  has  been  the  active  manager  of  the  establishment,  and  during 
a  business  career  of  a  half  century,  has  always  been  distinguished  for 
honor  and  integrity  in  his  dealings,  and  liberal  and  enlarged  commer- 
cial  views.  Many  of  the  mechanical  improvements  that  give  this  firm 
their  facilities  for  rapid  production,  are  the  offspring  of  his  inventive 
genius.  Though  advanced  in  years,  he  continues  an  active  supervision 
of  the  affairs  of  the  firm,  being  aided  by  his  three  sons,  who  are  now 
associated  with  him. 

Massey,  Collins  &  Co.'s  Brewery. 

The  manufacture  of  Ale  and  Porter  is  an  extensive  business  in  Phila- 
delphia, and  employs  a  capital  of  a  million  and  a  half  of  dollars. 
Though  there  are  no  Breweries  which  will  compare  in  size  with  some  in 
England,  yet  it  has  been  said  by  competent  judges,  that  Philadelphia 
Ale,  for  wholesome  qualities  and  palatableness,  is  superior  to  that  ordi- 
narily made  in  London,  as  no  other  ingredients  enter  into  its  composi- 
tion than  malt,  hops,  and  pure  water.  The  largest  Brewery  at  the 
present  time  in  Philadelphia  is  that  of  Massey,  Collins  &  Co.,  and 
they  are  regarded  as  leading  brewers  throughout  the  whole  country, 
both  by  reason  of  the  extent  of  their  business  and  the  superior  quality 
of  their  manufacture. 

The  Brewery  now  owned  by  this  firm  was  originally  erected  by 
farmers  of  Chester  and  Delaware  counties,  Pennsylvania,  and  trans- 
ferred by  them  to  the  Brewers'  Association  of  Philadelphia.  Subse- 
quently, M.  L.  Dawson,  whoso  ancestors  had  been  prorMuent  brewers 
for  a  period  of  eighty  years,  purchased  the  establishment,  which,  how- 
ever, wns  small  compare'.*  with  its  present  size.  Poultney  &  Massey, 
the  predecessors  of  the  present  firm,  greatly  enlarged  the  buildings  in 
186.5,  and  the  present  owners  have  made  important  additions  to  their 
brewing  facilities  in  order  to  meet  the  demand  for  their  popular  malt 
liquors.  The  main  Brewery,  as  now  erected,  is  in  the  form  of  a  hollow 
square  of  one  hunured  and  fifty  feet  each  way,  six  hundred  feet  in  all, 
seven  stories  in  height,  with  extensive  cellars  and  vaults  underneath 
the  whole  eighteen  feet  in  depth. 



Attached  to  the  Brewery  are  two  malt  houses,  with  a  capacity  for 
malting  two  hundred  thousand  bushels  of  barley  per  annum.  The  new 
malt  house  just  erected,  is  one  hundred  and  forty  feet  in  length,  fifty- 
two  feet  in  width,  eight  stories  in  height,  with  five  malting  floors,  and 
cellars  and  sub-cellars  underneath,  twenty-two  feet  in  depth,  which 
extend,  also,  under  the  yard,  furnishing  a  storage  capacity  for  twenty 
thousand  barrels  of  Ale  or  Porter.  In  a  wing  of  this  buildmg,  thirty. 
fiv(j  by  thirty,  there  are  six  drying  kilns,  where  the  barley,  after  it  has 
sprouted,  is  dried  rapidly  and  converted  into  malt. 

The  mash  tuns,  in  this  Brewery,  have  a  capacity  for  infusmg  twelve 
hundred  bushels  of  malt  daily.  These  are  largo  circular  tubs,  with  a 
double  bottom,  the  uppermost  of  which  is  false,  and  pierced  with  nu- 
merous holes,  and  between  the  two  there  is  a  space  of  two  or  three 
inches  into  which  the  stopcocks  enter  for  letting  in  the  water  and 
drawing  off  the  waste.  From  these  tuns,  after  the  starch  has  been  con- 
verted into  sugar,  it  is  drained  into  boiling  coppers,  which,  m  this 
brewery  arr  heated  by  means  of  steam  pipes. 

The  gyles  or  forn.^-ding  tuns,  winch  ure  large  circular  vats  or  tubs 
bound  with  strong  iron  hoop^.  having  in  the  centre  pipes  placed  m  ft 
cylindrical  form  called  atteraperators,  hivve  a  capacity  of  holding  seventy- 
five  thousand  gallons,  and  the  st.ovage  vats,  of  which  there  are  almost 
fifty  are  capable  of  containing  from  two  hundred  to  four  hundred  bar- 
rels each  But  the  great  feature  of  fihis  establishment  is  the  extent  and 
depth  of  the  cellars  and  vaults,  where,  in  an  atmosphere  refreshingly 
cool  in  midsummer,  tweuty  thousand  barrels  of  the  higher  grades  of 
Ale  and  Porter  can  be  stored  for  maturity,  preparatory  to  shipment  to 
all   the  markets  in  the  United  States,  the  West  Indies,  and  South 

America.  .  .  - , 

The  firm  of  Massey,  Collins  &  Co.,  is  composed  of  men  of  long  prac- 
tical experience  and  more  than  average  intelligence.    Wiixtam  Massey, 
the  senior  partner,  has  been  familiar  with  the  details  of  brewing  from 
bovhood,  both  in  England  and  in  this  country,  and  the  position  and  in- 
fluence of  Mr.  Frederic  Collins  in  the  trade,  are  shown  m  the  fact 
that   he   was  one  of  three  commissioners  selected  by  the   Associa- 
tlon  of  Brewers,  to  visit  Europe  and  report  upon  the  Excise  laws  ap- 
pertaining to  malt  li(iuors;  a  Report  that  has  been  declared,  by  the 
ITnited   States  Revenue  Commissioners,  to  be  one  of  the  ablest  that 
came  under  their  notice,  and  from  which  wo  learn  that  the  estimated 
annual  production  of  malt  liquors  in  the  Tnited  States  is  fi^ve  millions 
of  barrels,  in  the  manufacture  of  which  twelve  million  bushels   of 
barley  and  fifteen  million  pouuds  of  hops  are  required 




At  Reading,  fifty-eight  miles  from  Philadelphia,  is  another  exten- 
Bive  and  celebrated  Brewery,  known  as 

Frederick  Lauer's  Brewery. 

The  main  building  is  of  brick,  three  stories  high,  having  a  front  of 
one  hundred  feet,  and  a  depth  of  one  hundred  and  fifty  feet,  with  n 
garden  attached  that  occupies  the  entire  remaining  portion  of  a  block 
four  hundred  by  two  hundred  and  forty  feet.     The  cellars  underneath 
are  arched,  and  in  them  are  four  springn  of  excellent  water,  having  a  re- 
markable ilow,  which  is  forced  by  means  of  a  steam  pump  into  reser- 
voirs, and  used   for  brewing  fine  Ales.     An  engine  of  thirty  horse- 
power propels  the  machinery,  elevates  the  barley  and  malt,  and  works 
the  apparatus  in  the  mash  tuns.    The  Brewery  is  provided  with  all  the 
necessary  puncheons,  refrigerators,  fermenting  tuns,  etc.,  usual  in  such 
establishments,  and  has  a  capacity  for  producing  forty-five   thousand 
barrels  of  malt  liquors  annually.     The  fermenting  tuns  will  hold  about 
thirtv  thousand  gallons.      Under  the  Brewery  are  vaults  capablo  of 
storing  two  thousand  barrels;  but  which  are  used  mily  1 -r  nicking 
and  storing  the  liquor  that  is  intended  for  iinnwHliato  consumptum. 
Attached  to  the  Brewery  is  a  malt  house,  which  it  i>>  proposed  to  enlarge 

at  an  early  day.  ,      ,  • 

Besides  the  garden  already  moiitioned,  which  contains  a  fountain 
and  a  fish-pond  that  is  supplied  with  water  fn».n  springs  in  tiie  Br^-wery, 
Mr  Lauer,  adopting  the  Russian  or  Berlia  sy^^em,  1ms  a  park  of  six 
acres  of  ground  with  a  handsomely  fitted  up,  shaded  house,  having  a 
veranda  it.  entire  length,  and  an  observatory  from  which  a  line  view 
of  the  city  can  be  had.       H.M-e  are  vaults  quarried  from  solid  limestone 
rock,  for  storing  Stock  Ale,  Brown  Stout,  and  Lager  Beer,  and  having 
a  capacity  for  storing  seven  thousand   barrels.      Here,  also,  is  an 
artesian  well,  which  has  attained   a  depth  of  two  thousand  feet,  and 
though  unfinished,  has  already  cost  $22,000.     The  water  obtained  from 
it  is  said  to  possess  superior  medicinal  properties  ;  but  it  is  proposed 
to  prosecute  operations  unti".  a  fountain  of  spouting  water  is  obtained. 
This  Brewery  was  established  in  1826,  by  the  father  of  the  pr-sent 
proprietor,  who  emigrated  to  this  country  in  1823,  from  Gleissweiler, 
near  the  Fortress  Landau,  in  the  Palatine.     Its  entire  capacity  in  the 
beginning  was  not  more  than  seven  barrels  a  day,  and  for  several  years 
nothing  was  brewed  here  but  what  is  known  as  the  ordinary  strong 
beer      In   1831,  the  brewing  of  ale  and  porter  was  commenced,  and 
four  years  subsequently,  the  business  passed  into  the  hands  of  the  son, 



Pr.,1.rl«k  La  .or  a  mm  noted  for  l,i»  remarkable  industry  and  untiring 

inTat'two  o'cloek,a„d  liui,l,ed  the  browing  by  d.ybroak,  and  who 
eTen  no  V  Uas  not  abandoned  hiB  habit  of  early  In  1862. 
toli  "vers  of  tUo  United  States  formed  an  -»°'='»  '.<>", ^'^M 
pr:teetion  and  the  adv.ncon.cnt  of  ti,oir  interest.  :  ;-,■;*;;-',;;''. 

*rC  rerCr^r'tir^rnVlee^::;  so-nc. 
E;„;'L&e  duties  ent^sted  --J-^- -fX: 

rrr:r::'i%rr:d:d':re!torr;iroo.  m  .sc  ^bcn . 

irited  to  se^l  a  eom„,«„n  te  --»  ^  rde^^alr^e 

''ThTsC"e"rv  is  now  th.  third  in  the  State  of  PonosyWania  in  the 
anll^f  ;;:  production,  and  among  the  first  in  the  reputafon  of  ,i. 
products  for  excellence  in  quality. 

CorneUus  &  Baker's  Chandelier  Manufactory, 

.    t   V      A  ♦„  h^  in  its  sneeial  lino  without  an  equal  in  Europe  or 

Z::,!!. r  "r        pCiLs  .re  ,„  faet  condueted  in  two  extensive 
:      ,  c^tcd  in  dW„re„t  part,  of  the  .W,  but  they  are  so  man. 

,•  .     lih  in  the  form  of  a  hollow  nquare,  and  is  entirely  Are 



laborer  to  the  artist  and  chemist,  is  needed  in  the  various  departments. 
lu  this  miniature  world,  too,  almost  every  nationality  on  the  globe  is 

'^  Trdeilribe  the  processes  necessary  in  the  macifacture  of  the  Lamps 
Chandeliers,  and  Gas  fixtures,  as  conducted  in  this  establishment  would 
require  more  space  than  we  can  appropriate  to  the  subject     Briefly, 
however,  we  may  state,  that  the  successive  processes  in  the  formation 
of  an  ornamental  article  from  brass  occur  in  the  following  order :    ihe 
design  is  first  modeled  in  a  mass  of  prepared  wax.     Lach  modeler 
in  the  establishment  mentioned  has  a  private  room,  and  every  facility 
given  him  in  the  production  of  his  patterns.    Immense  sums  hove  been 
expended  by  this  firm  in  procuring  appropriate  designs  ;  ^^n^^'^^baWy 
no  other  house  in  the  world  possesses  such  a  rare  coUec  ion.   W  hen  the 
pattern,  which  is  frequently  the  work  of  weeks,  is  finally  eo-P  eted,  it 
goes  into  the  hands  of  the  caster,  who  makes  a  mould  of  it  in  bia.^ 
which  is  scijit  to  the  "chaser," and  finally  finished  and  elaborateu  m  o 
the  dignity  of  a  standard  pattern,  from  which  the  caster  ^W  n.ultiply 
an  iniLty  of  copies.     It  is  one  of  the  advantages  wh.cli  I'l"'-^^^?'"^ 
has  for  the  manufacture  of  Ornamental  Brassworh,  that  the  sand  found 
ia  the  vicinity  of  the  city  is  of  so  fine  a  character  as  to  require  no  sUtmg 
for  use,  and  the  finest  castings  are  easily  made  without  the  intervention 
of  white  metal.     Thus,  the  shrinkage  and  variation  of  size  between  the 
white  metal  pattern  and  the  brass  casting,  often  found  to  exist  in  cast- 
ings made  from  the  former,  is  avoided,  and  the  register  of  the  two  sides 
of  a  branch,  or  other  portion  of  a  Chandelier  or  Gas  bracket  requiring 
to  be  fitted  together,  i«  more  perfect  than  it  otherwise  would  be.      llie 
brass  pattern,  too,  takes  a  sharper  and  mure  decisive  chasing  than  white 
metal ;  and  all  that  is  required  to  be  done,  after  the^s  cave  the 
foundry,  is  to  iile  ofl^  ^ho  vorv  small  anu.unt  of  superfluous  mctul  retained 
in  the  casting,  and  fit  the  p  ./>«  together.  ,  ,  ,     ,      ,         ,  „„ 

The  articles,  uftor  leaving  the  filing  room,  in  whiel  about  one  hun- 
dred men  are  employed,  are  sent  to  the  di:^puu,,  J^  '.nMy 
,n,.ans  of  acids  and  various  chemical  ordeals,  i    rich,  pale  guhl  coloi  i. 

iniDiirlcd  to  the  brass.  ,      . 

11  the  dipping  process,  as  pursued  in  these  works,  great  mod.hcation 
are  made  in  the  character  and  strength  of  the  acids  used.   It  was  tound 
Jlat  from  the  variation  of  temperature  at  I'hihulc Iphia,  ranging  a    it 
T;  from  below  .ero  in  the  winter,  to  %'  and  98^  in  the  shade  in  the 
summer,  nitric  acid  became  unmanageable  during  the  hot  season  as  its 

fZe    w  H-o  given  oil up.dl,  us  to  injure  the  health  o    the  vvoikmeu. 

Tlvc  urate  scientific  knowledge,  however,  brought  to  bear  upon  t  is 
p  intone,  too,  involving  the  very  existence  of  the  trade,  except  at  a 



.i,MM  de.n.tion  to  bealtb  and  life-has  ^^^^^^J^^ 
cufty ,  adapted  tl>o  acids  to  the  temperature,  and  ^^^  ^  Pl^'"^    ,^^.^,  ^,  ,,, 

:r  :rC;::i.e,:^;;d:so.e  ^vef  e^^cts  .oin.  prodded,  and 

a  singular  purity  of  color  ^^^tucle^  are  ren.ovod  to  the  hunn.Mno 
From  the  dipping  rooms  ♦'>«'. '^'^*'f-.^'!^„^,^._„.  ^^rts  of  the  work 
room,  whore  a  high  polish  is  given  to  ^h^ J^  ^^^^^s  ,  steel,  or  a 
by  moans  of  tools  (which  consist  -^1-0^^2^^^  ^  ^,  ,„,,u 
virv  hard  material  called  ^l°«^':^tone)  d  pped  f    el    m  P  ^^^^^  ^^ 

.eeV.     After  the  ^-^  is  burm«  it    s  aga^^^^^ 
acHls,  and  f.nally  ^^ashed  in  hot  water  thheaot^^^^^^^^  ^^^^ 

woi-k  to  dry  -.  it  is  then  thrown  -  «  ;J  -^!  J^,  j/,,en  ready  for 

paper  ^^-;^^-;^;^r^;^^^'^:Z.  importance,  and  requires 
lacquering.      lUe  lacqueuut,  «i,iif„llv  annlied  to  ensure  a 

the  lacquer  to  be  --tifically  ma  e  and    kilful  y  appl         ^^^ 

rich  and  lasting  gold  -l^-^f  ^.^^^^^^^J^^ ^e  e  "d  has  made  consider- 
in  this  process  the  hou^e^own^^^^^^^^^  n.ade  after  the 

able  improvements.     It  was  touna  l  extremes  of  tempera- 

K„„.h  f..„„u,.Uost  '^^\;:^Z:T^^^^o"L^^  J».y  ....  A«.™t, 

,„rc  alrc-u  y  note  I    ;;■!  'J^    ^^H,  reached  in  PhiLdolphia,  the  red- 
when  the  de»  point  of  the  baioniac.  ^^  j,^^ 

,»„,ne.ed  w,„k  .Iw.ys  "'-J'.^^^^^'^r   After  .  sorleB  of  e.porl- 

""""™^  '"Vthl^r^vc      mon  hMh\.  r,r„,  succeeded  in  niaUing  « 
mcnts.  earned  tbiough  several  ii  ,  j    ,        f  io,„perature. 

lacqncr  which  is  qtiitc  permanent  undo,  n»y  >  "  »t  I  ^^^ 

I  tlic  work  i»nsn.lly  made  in  .""'"7'»/  '';;;  °."  ,i,i,,,„,e„t 
constitutes  an  ""P<>"-^ ''7*  ",;:*;:  "0,"  ro  constantly 
Ono  room  is  occupied  entirely  hy  »  '  7^'  "^^^^^^elic™,  Pendants, 
employed  in  fitliiig  si.  h  «»"-"'»  ";\;„, .  „„j  '„  tMrf,  the 

BraeUels,  etc,  ;  ^^^::::X^^^^.^n  the  tahle  or 
numerous  class  »  Sol«  Lamp^i  dc    .  .__^^  ^^^  ^^^,      ^^_^_„  ^„ 

r;;cCrorrs:n":r:s: -s^'cnha,  .1..  America,  .ho 

''lS:rc rrr^^lSi-ril'tl,  processes  arc  conduced 

or  covered  with  a  coating  of  fine  gold.     Each  ot  these  p 



3ses  lias  its 

appropriate  ,l..partmcnt.     There  are  alsoroon,s  devoted  to  glass 
grSg,  and  polisbiug,  u.ul   roon>.-,  appropriated  to  the  workers  uj 
artistic  bronze ;  while  others  are  occupied  by  those  who  are  en.ploje 
at  damask  work,  in  which  the  chief  agents  are  lacuei  and  acul.     I 
the  prosecution  of  such  an  iuunense  business  there  ts  ^'^^^'^'^'-'l^  ^  J^^^ 
deal  of  turning  of  metals.     Many  hands  are  constantly  employed    uttng 
'::!.;  a  bran. :,  in  which  considerable  care  and  skill  are  ^^^J^ 
the  screws  of  the  different  classes  that  are  turned  out        th,s  e^t.bhsii 
n  eU  L  made  of  one  size.     If  a  branch  of  a  el-ndelier  expor  ed     y 
this  house  to  China  should  fuul  its  way  to  Russia,  it  would  fit  ex.utlj 
into  any  of  the  chandeliers  in  the  Kremlin. 

The 'success  which  has  attended  the  ^^^^^^^^  ^  ^^^^^Z 
doubt  due  in  part  to  the  natural  advantages  of  IMuiadelphia  foi  tb.s 
doubt  due  m  pa  ^^^^^.^^  ^^^^  ^.^.^^^  ^^,^^,.^,   .  „^. 

manufacture     m  pan  lo  lue  \.uyK.  v-  i  mircha'^e 

bling  them  to  procure  the  most  perfect  machinery,  as  well  as  pur  h. 
r«erialsl  the  most  favorable  terms ;  but  o^l-^-'^ny -u  Uw 
ascribe  it  to  the  constant  attention  paid  by  the  managmg  paun u.  to 
:    Lientifie  principles  of  Metallurgy,  Chemistry,  ^^^^^^.^iry 

Mr  Wallis,  an  accomplished  Englishman,  in  his  report  on  the  Industry 

of  fhe  United  States,  does  full  justice  to  the  scientific  attainments  of  the 

Imbers  of  this  firm,  and  observes  that ''the  ^y^^^';:^^^:Z 

racv  which  prevail  throughout  the  establishment  is  full  evidence  ot   be 

uLnce  of  a  mind  reaching  as  fur  beyond  the  ordinary  traditions  of  the 

oriiop  and  foundry  in  the  scientific  sense  as  in  the  P-t-l  resu    it 
goes  beyond  the  mere  dilettanteism  of  speculative  science  sans 

'^"o'mentlon  the  master  pieces  which  have  gone  forth  Uom  Jlie  estab- 
lishment of  Cornelius  &  Baker,  and   are   now  decoratu.g  ha  Is   and 
buXl,  public  and  private  buildings,  7-^;-;^;^;- ^f ;:;: 
unreasonable  length.     The  apparatus  whu-h  light    the  1  al    of  K     1 
scntatives  at  Washington  was  made  by  them,  and  also  that  of  the  b     a  0 
Chamber,  which  contains  two  thousand  five  ^^^'^^^^^^ ^ 
.rrauged  that  all  can  be  lighted  instantaneously.     All,  01  ueail^  all, 
th    Capitols  of  the  different  States  contain  specin.ens  0    their  manufac 
tu  e  aid  many  of  them   are  remarkable  for  their  size  and  elegance. 
T  e'el  anddiers  and  brackets  of  the  Capitol  at  Columbus,  Olno,  contam, 
■unong  heir  embellishments,  statuettes  of  Prudence,  Science,  Comn.erce. 
ibe  ?y    America,  modeled  and  bronzed  in  the  highes    style  of  art. 
T  e  clLdelier  of 'the  Hall  of  Representatives  at  ^^f^^^^^^^^ 
is  fifteen  feet  in  diameter,  and  "PP-P-tfy/^-^-^^'J,    '^  J  ^      , 
ducts  of  the  State-corn,  cotton,  tobacco  phvnts,  etc.     The  Gas  fix  i  us 
la  tc^^  Acaaemies  of  Music  in  Philadelphia,   Boston,   and   Brooklyn, 


nl«n  made  here  The  chandeliers  hanging  in  the  auditoriums  of 
Te  w^  rr  on  "ned  are  said  to  bo  the  largest  in  the  world,  bemg 
«^xt  n  ^ctm  diameter,  and  twenty-ftve  long,  and  have  two  hundred 
r  J  h,  rner  The  new  theatres  in  Philadelphia,  in  Chestnut  Arch 
'"  wlu  streets  are  lighted  by  chandeliers  from  this  establishment. 
^ThlSof  C  noHus  &  Baker  i  now  composed  of  Ilobert  Cornehus 
anllsale  F.  Baker,  Wm.  C.  Baker,  Ilobert  C  and  John  C.  Cornehus. 
They  usually  employ  about  eight  hundred  workmen. 

Wilson,  Childs  &  Co.'s  Army  Wagon  Manufactories, 

Deserve  a  place  among  the  remarkable  Manufactories  of  Philadelphia, 
Ts  thiy  are  Fobably  the  largest  works  of  the  kind  in  theUn.ted  States. 

Their  history  is  bncfly  as  follows :  ^  ui    i 

In  1829  D  G  Wilson,  a  wheelwright,  and  Mr.  J.  Ciiilbs,  a  black- 
smith formed  a  copartnership  for  making  Farm  Wagons,  Carts  etc.  and 
op  ned  shops  for'the  purpose,  at  the  corner  of  St.  John  and  Button- 
wood  streets.      By  fidelity  in  workmanship,  and  promp   at  -t.on  to 
business  their  products  soon  became  m  demand  m  all  parts  ot    he 
LuntTv    e  Pecfelly  in  the   Southern    States,   where  their  plantation 
:;::  weir  tie  highest  favor.     They  embarked  ^^^j^^ 
structing  Army  Wagons  for  Government  use,   and  the   first  Amy 
W  g  n  made  after  the  present  improved  pattern  designed  by  General 
GEOKOE  H.  Crosman,  now  Assistant  Quartermaster  General  at  Phila- 
delphia was  built  by  them.     Every  part  of  these  wagons  ,s  made  with 
the      me  exactitude  of  dimensions  as  the  Gun  Carnage  of  a  park  of 
A  tilery  and  their  utility  was  especially  demonstrated  m  the  Exp  ■ 
^Jitlo'utah,  where  they  traversed  the  roughest  roads  for  t  ousands 
of  miles,  without  the  breakage  of  any  important  part     In  1800  Mr. 
WILSON  died,  much  regretted  by  his  associates,  leavu.g  however,  a   on 
wIlmam  M.  Wilson,  who  now  creditably  ropreseUs  his  interest  m 

%^nZs  this  period,  the  original  works  were  enlarged  from  time  to 
time  but  it  wa.  soon  found  that  the  premises,  though  containing  two 
undred  and  thirty  feet  on  Buttonwood  street,  and  ote  hundred  and 
thirteen  feet  on  St.  John  street,  were  too  small  to  accommodate  he 
increasing  business.  In  1850,  they  purchased  a  manufactory,  erected 
bv  Mr  Simons,  and  additional  property,  comprising  in  all  a  square  on 
both  skies  of  Second  street  and  Lehigh  Avenue,  containing  two  hun- 
dred and  sixty  by  five  hundred  feet,  or  over  six  acres.  The  square  on 
tlie  west  side  of  Second  street,  is  now  nearly  covered  with  buildings. 



-is//     S  ^  i^ 

gP^  \^       ^     /,...    ^ 






M  IM 






.^>     ^/ 





17^6)  S7}-4)03 







M^   I 





Collection  de 

Canadian  Institute  for  Historical 

Microreproduction.  /  Institut  Canadian  da  micor.p.oductlon.  hiatoriqua. 



There  is  a  n^ain  building,  two  hundred  aad  fifty  feet  long,  a  front 
of  fifty  feet,  used  mainly  for  Painting,  Varnishing  and  storage  purposes^ 

The  wheel  and  body  shop  is  one  hundred  by  ^-'^f  ^  ^^^^V     ^eet^h 
high;    the  Blacksmith  Shop  is  two  hundred  by  thirty -fiv     eet,  the 
Saw  Mill,  Engine  house  and  Machine  shops,  is  «>f  ^^  ^y  forty-hve  fe  t 
three  stodes  Sigh ;  the  Running  gear  shops,  one  ^-dred  by  for^y-fi 
feet,  and  besides  these  there  are  numerous  auxiliary  bu.ldmgs.     On  the 
east  side  of  Seeond  street  is  a  Saw  Mill,  fifty  ^--"fJ^J;;^  .^^^^ 
the  greater  portion  of  the  square,  which  is  five  hundred  by  two  hun- 
dred and  forty-eight  feet,  or  nearly  three  acres,   is  oceupjcd  as  a 
Lumber  yard.     Here  is  kept  at  all  times  an  immense  stock  ot 
amounting  at  times  to  two  million   feet  of  hard  wood  planks  and 
boards,  thirty  thousand   hubs,   and  five  hundred   thousand  spokes. 
These,  before  being  used,  are  thoroughly  seasoned  from  one  to  five 
years,  the  usual  allowance  being  one  year  for  every  inch  m  thickness. 
The  hubs  are  made  chiefly  from  black  locust  trees,  sawed  into  suitable 
lengths,  and  before  being  put  away  to  season,  the  bark  is  removed,  and 
a  hole  bored  in  the  centre  to  facilitaie  the  seasoning  process.      n  the 
store-rooms  the  firm  also  keep  a  large  stock  of  finished  work,  including 
cart  and  wagou  bodies,  and  several  thousands  of  whee.s. 

These  works  have  the  capacity  of  turning  out  one  hundred  and  fif^ 
army  wagons  in  a  week,  without  interfering  materially  w,  h  tho 
eglr  business,  in  Farm  and  Plantation  wagons,  'l^ho  firm  of  Wi.son 
CiiiiDS  &  Co,,  have  an  established  reputation  for  rel.abili  y,  and 
their  aggregate  trade  amounts  to  hundreds  of  thousands  of  dollars  per 

Fitter,  Weaver  &  Co.'s  Cordage  Work8, 

Are  the  most  extensive  in  Philadelphia,  and.  with  probably  two  excep. 
tions.  the  largest  in  tho  United  States.  They  are  also  among  the  okle.t 
established  rope  manufactories  in  this  country,  having  been  founded  by 
Michael  Weaver  in  1817.    At  that  period,  cordage  spinning  was  carried 
on  in  tho  primitive  way.  and  gangs  of  digging  wore    aid  by  hand,  tho 
nei^rhbors  being  called  in  to  assist.     Subsequently  horse  power  w.s 
empu-yed  for  this  purpose,  but  it  was  not  until  recently  that  steom 
power  was  applied,  by  means  of  which  large  Marline  Ropes  are  now 
Lade  with  the  same  facility  as  twines.     In  fact,  so  great  has  the  pro- 
.ress  been,  that  now  r.  gang  of  rigging  suited  for  the  largest  vessel  in 
the  Government  Marine  can  be  finished  and  delivered  within  three  days 
after  receipt  of  the  order.    TUe  original  Uupo  Walk,  with  Us  hand  spin- 


iatroduced  a  Corliss  engine  of  forty  horse  power, 

F,r..K  bc»mo  "••»»-'=^;7 *  "  "  Xri  r,  soL  made  hi.  inBu. 
cace  felt  m  the  nrni  a  uuuuo.  passing 

tbrouBh  rhlladoll.l.ia  to  tb«  .New  ^»'^  "J  ^^^  '"^^^  „„„,d  eompote 
he  urged  upou  t'»  P"'-"  '  ^'Ce  IrX  uand  9»i*cd,  but 
witbauyin  tbo  Umted  blaM.  ^  "  I.Btroved  by  five.  Auotber 
„i.bia  Icu  day»atler  tboir  «»»M>  c  'on  were  «™>;^2r  ."to,  at  Oc 

..d ,ar,« '7;^;-:r;:l:^^u * » °,s°w^^^^^^  '- ^-'^^ 

luantown  road  near  ^^^f^^^^  "'"^' "  ,  erected  in  accordance 

186G.     Within  ^7  --^^f-;:;^'    iH  U"^^^^^^^^^ 

with  plans  drawn  by  Mr.  F'^'^^' '^^^^^  the  United  States. 

and  mosteonveniently  arranged  Co  d  J  ijtory^  ^^^^^^^^  ^^^ 

The  main  bnilding  ^' ;>l^'''^'^Z^^^^'<^^  are  also  attached 

au  engine-room,  xvhich  '^o"^'^^"  '  ,        twenty-four  by  forty-six 

pumps,  a  boiler-room   and  a  macnme  ^^^  '     J  ^he  factory 

feet      All  these  building,  are  o    J^-^^  ^^^^^^'^  ,tion  is  taken 

i.  warmed  by  ateam  ^^^^^^^^^ ^^''^  -cUs  and  hose 
to  guard  «,f-^^  •  J,';  ^fThe  Hoisting  Machine  is  a  tank  contaiu- 
-;;r  ran?;f  I.  wat.  ^^^  -  Oi.  K.e.o. 

^"^  ^  ^rTbt'b  •ck';:air  1  d  tt  t^Sl^g  apparatus  is  heated  by 
arc  ^^^^r'^^Zm.s  ave  all  the  machines  of  modern  construe 

:-Thar :e-i.d  ;4n...  -  p^^^^^  - -- 

The  machiaery  is  propelled  by  a  Corliss  «ng  ,^i 

"""  '  E       ;  ing  '.  °gU    angles  from  tbo  factory  proper,  .«  a  rope 

:;;;;;  t,!^r"s„drcd  reet  --«- -  -  srzrcrrfi: 

,„;,„b.g,  "-;;^7„-:  ;;::■:,  ,rr  a^Ler  of  a  n,nUo„  of 
,,„icb  -■"■■"- -;';;X'::,:™l.abo«leven  ton,  of  Hope  and 

— iiTe  ::n=d  s ;-" ;  «»y  --•  -  -  --■ 



cr,  have 
ther  ini- 
his  iaflu- 


j  passing 
)rles,  and 

shed,  but 

e,  at  Gcr- 

in  July, 
;  the  finest 
,od  States, 
idvcd  and 

0  attached 
steam  fire 
r  forty-six 
"he  factory 
jii  is  taken 
s  and  hose 
ik  contain- 

i  heated  by 
■n  construc- 
iid  cordage, 
undred  and 

that  would 
,  a  thousand 
',  is  a  ropo- 
re  numerous 
)  cost  of  this 

1  million  of 
wo  factories, 
[unilla,  Ilus- 
)f  Rope  and 

facilities  for 
feet,  that  the 
10  world. 

Edwin  n.  Fitler,  who  is  now  the  senior  partner  in  the  firm,  and 
principal  owner  of  the  works,  is  a  native  of  Philadelphia,  having  been 
born  in  the  district  of  Kensington  in  1825.  He  belongs  to  the  enor 
getic  and  progressive  order  of  manufacturers,  of  whom  it  is  often  said 
that  Philadelphia  has  too  few.  He  has  established  a  i,rivate  tele- 
graphic wire  from  the  store  on  Water  street  to  the  Factory,  which 
passes  directly  through  his  house  in  the  city,  by  means  of  which 
not  only  orders  and  business  reports,  but  private  and  domestic  mes- 
sages can  be  transmitted  by  telegraph. 

The  system  ho  has  organized  is  so  complete  that  the  afl'airs  of  a  vast 
and  complicated  busine.'-'s  are  managed  with  the  minimum  of  trouble 
and  labor.  Every  evening,  an  account  of  the  various  kinds  of  hemp 
on  hand  is  taken,  and  the  quantity  of  the  different  sizes  of  rope  in  store 
is  made  up,  and  thus  every  morning  he  has  a  complete  and  exact 
report  of  the  state  of  affairs  ready  for  his  guidance  during  the  day. 
Every  morning  also,  the  report  of  the  night-watchmen,  registered  on 
their  tell-tale  clocks,  is  submitted,  and  their  fidelity  in  the  discharge  of 
their  duties  examined. 

Among  the  minor  but  nevertheless  novel  and  useful  items  of  count- 
ing-hnuse  management,  is  a  Diary  or  daily  journal  of  events.  For 
nearly  twenty  years  this  firm  have  kept,  in  an  appropriate  book,  a 
record  of  each  day's  events,  including  an  abstract  of  every  important 
business  conversation,  a  copy  of  every  telegraphic  despatch  sent  or 
received,  and  of  all  orders  and  purchases;  and  its  utility,  especially 
in  cases  where  options  or  refusals  have  been  given  for  a  limited  time, 
has  been  frequently  demonstrated. 

Messrs.  Fitler,  Weaver  &  Co.,  have  a  large  warehouse  at  23  Nortii 
Water  street,  for  vhe  j^le  of  their  cordage,  in  connection  with  which  is 
a  store  containing  a  full  and  complete  stock  of  Naval  supplies. 
Besides  these,  they  occupy  four  other  stores  for  storage  purposes. 

The  partners  in  the  firm  are  Edwin  H.  Fitler,  Michael  Weaver, 
and  Conrad  F.  Clothier. 




Thomas  Sparks's  Shot  Factor, 

*k,  simithwark  Shot  Tower,  is  one  of  the  old 

'  Sometimes  known  as  th.  S«^  ^^f^^^^^^       Carpenter  street,  iu  the 

landmarks  in  Philadelphia.     I    is  located  P  ^  ^^^^^^^ 

Second  Ward,  and  was  '^-f^^^'^^li^l,^^         ^f  the  present  cen- 
whose  Patent  Shot  was  'f'^'f^';'^^^^^^^  when  that  branch 

tary.     Mr.  John  Cousland  -  ^^^  ^t  ^^_^^^^^^^.^ 

of  business  was  shared  by  ^u^^wo J    ^^^^  .„  ^g^,  g,ve  the  plumbing 
The  introduction  of  the  S'^^^^J*'^^"  ^     „^  ^,,^  ^f  the  most  active  in 

,„.„ess  7-- j^rrmtut  o?ct^  between  Front  and 

\t,  removed,  m  1801,  trom  00  ^^^^^6  street.     In 

Second,  to  Farmer's  Row.  '^«jj;f  1^^  ^^  ^,^,^^  another  plumber; 

1803  he  entered  into  P-^^^^'^J^Va  young  In  of  great  fidelity 
and  their  apprentice   Thoinas  Spark    a  yo     g  ^^^         ^^  ^^.^  ^^^.^^ 

and  diligence,  -•^^j'?^ ^n^of  tl    fim^^^^^^     ^^  South  Wharves. 

the  principd  establishment  of  the  firm  w  ^^  ^^^     ^^^^^^  ^^.^^^ 

On  the    1th  of  July    1808,  the  ^rne  ^^^^^^^  ^^^^^^  ^^^^^^ 

delphia  Shot  Tower  was  laid,  ^^^^^^^^^^^^^  .  ,^     feet  in  height. 

forward.     The  structure  «  -^^^  ^^1;' th^^^ 

;^?tt;X::ni:f  rr  ^^^  .-  works  became  in  great 

"r  sparks  continued  the  manu.ctu.  ^-%^^^:::Z^, 
associated  with  ^^^^^^^^^^  tt^lse^^f  Richard  Sharks,  who 
however,  was  «°°"  ^^''^  °;'' f^^/  i„  iggl ;  and  for  many  years  Mr. 
fell  a  victim  to  '^\yf^^.^'^JJ,;J,^,onta^^nnev.     In  ^838. 

ness.  ,       ,  ,  ...    w„  ctnnrks  held  several  offices  of 

„„i„g  his  .e«,e  "f -^'iV/  *-.Tolwoner  or  .he  District 
public  trust.  He  "»! '"' """y  f  °' ,  Board  of  Commissioners  op- 
It  8oolh«rk,  .od  P'-»'«'°    °'/^:„°;" li.  to  supemtend  the 

'"'°"'  VI  Zr:  relir  H.  wss  ...o-a  Bi-to.  m 
eroctioo  of  tho  basteni  i«»i  „  '  „i„.  and  for  many  years  was 
..veral  Railroad  and  I"""°™  ";7'"  ^^j  °rtho  Soatl,«ark  Bank. 
President  of  that  ^^f-^y-^TZt-^ZZli^Uor.  acti.e  hnsincss, 
Z^  ;;  m  r^^dTaSthis  Ufe,  unWorsaUy  re,  as  a 


the  old 
,  in  the 
ent  cen* 
t  branch 

active  in 
font  and 
•est.  In 
)lumber ; 
t  fidelity 
lis  period 

nt  Phila- 
[y  pushed 
a  height, 
3  in  great 

,  when  he 
arka,  who 
years  Mr. 
In  ^838. 
irks,  Jr.,  a 
Jparks,  Jr., 
ctive  busi- 

i\  offices  of 
;he  District 
sioners  ap- 
rintend  the 
Director  in 
y  years  was 
wark  Bank. 
ive  business, 
gretted  as  a 


{H'Oni.A  :; 




ropvosontative   of  the   high-toned   and    honorable   Manufacturers   of 

"T:o:!r''sparUs,  Jr..  hi.  successo.  was  born  in  the  7-^8^-1 
at  the  age  of  sixteen  was  taken  into  the  store  of  h,s  uncle  and  in- 
structed in  the  details  of  the  business  which  his  father  and  uncle  had 
established.  On  becoming  of  age  he  was  taken  into  Partnership  and 
in  1854  became  sole  proprietor  by  the  purchase  of  h,s  uncle  smteiest. 
Since  that  time  he  has  conducted  the  extensive  operations  of  the  busi- 
ness with  success  based  on  integrity.  Steam  and  •«'P'-«^7\  »"\;^";r! 
have  been  introduced  to  facilitate  the  various  processes  and  the  Wo.k 
have  the  capacity  of  producing  three  thousand  tons  of  shot,  bullets,  and 

bar  lead  r)er  annum.  „„  .       . 

Mr.  Sparks,  like  his  uncle,  has  been  called  upon  to  fill  prominent 
positions  of  public  trust.     K.  is  one  of  the  largest  stockholders  in  th 
Scuthwark  Bank,  and  for  many  years  has  been  its  \  ice-President.     He 
is  President  of  the   Pennsylvania   Salt  Manufacturing   Company    a 
Director  in  the  Franklin  Fire  Insurance  Company,  and  in  several  othoi 

''MrWinslow,  in  his  Biography  of  Successful  Merchants  to  which 
we  are   indebted  for  most  of  the  foregoing  facts,  says  of  Thomas 
Sparks:    "For  objects  of  charity   and  improvement,   he  gives  not 
only  hundreds,  but  thousands  of  dollars.      He  has  never  withheld 
assistance  from  any  object  which  has  been  worthy  of  care  and  en- 
couragement.    Since  the  outbreak  of  the  rebellion  no  one  has  been 
more  hearty  and  enthusiastic  in  support  of  the  government.     He  has 
.  shown  this  not  merely  by  words,  but  by  deeds.     He  has  given  n-eely 
to  every  plan  of  benevolence  designed  for  the  comfort  and  assistance 
of  our  suffering  soldiers.     He  has  been  ready  to  aid  in  fitting  out 
troops,  and  has  given  enough  for  this  single  purpose  to  assist  very 
materially  toward  equipping  a  regiment.     Philadelphia  has  many  such 
patriots,  but  among  them  few  can  excel,  in  devoted  loyalty,  i^admess. 
and  free  and  generous  contributions,  Thomas  Sparks,  late  Jr. 




John  Baird's  Marble  Works, 

notable  of  their  kind  in  the  Lnited  States.  ^  ^„  ^^.^  gehuyl- 

The  new  recently  erected  at  LOU  t^^^^^^^  >  ^^^  .^ 

kill  river,  is,  with  one  ^^'^''P^'^";  ^^rj'  f  ^  working  capacity  any  in 
equipped  to  its  fnll  capacity  would  exceed  m  ^^^^     ^  ^^^,  i,„,, 

the  world.  The  building  is  ^^«  ^^"^^'^;;,' ^^^^^^^^^  the  original 
«eventy-five  feet  wide,  and  when  ^oj^^^^^  7  ^,,,  .^  capable  of 
plaa  it  will  contain  gangs  of  saws  and  "P  ^^^^y;;;    .^  ^  The 

Lwiug  one  hundred  ..^^^^^^^^^^^^^^  ,,  ^  Tinyley 

machinery  includes  "^^^ ^^^  Wn7pa<en<  Gang,  and  others  original 
Patent  Feed  Motion,  and  ^^«™'''7.^"';„,^^^^  mill  is  the  adap- 
with  the  proprietor.     But  the  specia  feature  ottln^  ^ 

Lion  of  L  EnglisU  Steam  f-"^^;^^^^;tf  'v'ssel  at  the  wharf 
.lock  of  marble  can  ^^-7^7^';^^^^^^  the  intervention  of 

and  placed  ^'-^sTelrk  ^^^^^^^^^^  ^^^^  ""'■^■ 

— :r:^igMr^=-  ^^  -«;^i:r '  "^ "  "^^  ^" 

Marble  Mill  is.  we  believe,  o"^-^^  f,^^^^^^^^^^^  the  beginning 

The  erection  of  this  M  1 »   de  tme  ^.^^  ^^^,,,,,io,, 

of  an  era  of  which  the  inauence  w'"  ^e  felt  in  ^^.^  ^^_^^^ 

of  the  Marble  business,    ^^■^^''^'^''''^^t'l^^^^^  in  the 

the  principle  of  subdivision  ^^^  ^-^^^^^  ^operated  greatly  to 
Furniture  and  other  branches  «    «  ^  ;^^^^^^^^^^  those  who  have 

the  advantage  of  consumers.     It  isjeU  se^^  ^^^^^^^^  ^^^^ 

machinery  and  ^af  jties  or  produ  1^^^^^  at  one  op   ^^^  ^^^^^  ^^ 

of  any  article,  whether  of  w  od  iion  0  ^^^  ^.^.^^^  ^^  ^^^ 

one  fourth  less  cost  than  thos  wh  se^  P  ^^  ^^^  .^^^^^^^^^^  .^^^ 
piece  of  the  same  size.  By  ^^^/^^^  .  j^,  ^^a  the  consequent 
L  Works,  the  completeness  o^^^ «  ^^^  ^  7;,,  ,„,bled  to  supply 

economy  of  time  ^f^^^'^^'^'''^^^,  Z  other  stock  of  standard 
Marble  workers  with  Grave—  H  ^^^  ^,^^  ^^^^ 

Bi.cs.  nearly  finished  a  -  J  "  «J  ^/^^^^^^^  ,^  ,be  rough.  Marble 
have  heretofore  paid  for  the  same  m  ^^^^  ^^^^^^ 

direct  from  Leghorn  can  .^^/j^f  J^^ du  es  and  U-anshipment 
the  saw  gangs,  at  a  saving  of  all  J^J"'^'  j^.^  the  original  cost 

charges,  that  have  b-^«f-«/:^7;;'^^Te;ebose  who  have  not 
in  the  block;  and  in  providing  '^^^P?^  j;/     j^,  j,^,a  has  sup- 



upon  tbe  dealers  in  marble,  but  upon  the  consumers  In  it.  vaviouB 

'""raddition  to  this  mammoth  mill,  Mr.  Baird  owns  and  operates  tho 

1  klw     Works  on  llidge  Avenue,  above  Spring  Garden  s  reet, 

iTt  ::;  or^t:  recently,  interested  as  owner  of  similar  works  ,n 

^' M^ "lohu  IMird  the  proprietor  of  these  mills,  though  born  in  Ire- 

position  of  v.npm^  .'""i:",  might  iLe  a  srfo  ro»d  in  which  to 
It:  Z;r  0  ;  1,  tuo  »do,.t  the  modo™  n.».hod  «t  food- 
follow,     ue  wah  .nuuMf,  uimaolf  tlip  oricmator  of 

i„„.,.„von,»„.,  that  — ;  '  'J'^  trnjetcnt  jndgc..  that  no  n,..l.le 
*i  i;:r'::,d  h^.,  pel.n,»d  ,»  mu.,  wo.,  a,  h. 
within  th,  ,am,  Pf """^ ';7-,^^,  ,^,     ^ncipal  consnmer  of  Italian 

a^oanting  to  ^^'-^^-'Z^ullTo'l^     namentation  of  dwoii- 

Pbidean  art  of  this  couniry  ^^^.^^ 

workshops.     It  has  been  h,s  P--^^'  ^^  /^^^'^^  J^"  ,,i,„iate  their 

may  be  seen  m  his  Mantei  vva  ,„„rerooms  contain  upward 

1;,™!  Calr.  stainary.    The  design,  in  most  instauces  are 

94  .E„.nKAB.E   MA«FACTOB..B  OF    PinLADEU-niA. 

„f  more  thoD  a  quartet  ot  a  ««"'»'?  ^„j  „;,„„  tbe  restiug 

,  ...  connecUon  .  .a,  .e  V^^^^  ^  ^S^^:!  - 
to  our  notice  of  tbe  remarkable  ^^^^^^^^^  ^^  ^^^^^^  Mr.  Baird'. 
x.atter  of  great  importauce  to  --;^^^^";  "o^  be  S.buylkill  river  bas 
.„terpri.einestabUsi.ugama..^^^^  I -f  enterprise  be  made  a 

given  pronnuence.     Be  me  ^^^^^7 .C...nias<^^  offered  by  different 
careful  examination  of  the  »^«Pe«tiJ^  decided  tbat  tbe  banks   )l' 

localities  for  manufacturing  operation  ,  ^^^J'^'^^^^^^  .^^  ^o  tbem 

tbe  Scbuylkill  river,  ^^^:^^^^^:;:^l^;Z^ ^  Pbiladelpbia 

an.     Mr.  ^---f;;;.^;     1  '\Lt  U.  west  bank  of  that  river. 

in  1801.  remarks-  ^^'^'J',  .^  ,h,  best  site  in  America  for 

from  Cbestnut  street  to  Gra)  s  1^*  "y  ,,factories  of  all  kinds. 

tbe  location  of  ^-a  Works  and  lai^^^^^^^^^^^^^  ^^^  ^^^^^^  ^  ^^^^.^ 

Tbore  tbe  proprietors  «'/"f \7^'  '  '    i.^^j.^s  tbat  result  from  tbe 
of  tbe  best  workmen  witbout    be  ^^^f^^^^^  ^^^^  ,,  ided  for 

.elations  ^  landlord  audtonan.wbe.  dv.^.s  i  ^^^  J      ^^^^ 

tho  operativos.     H  -  a'»»I"  .      .    j^  ,  „f  j„,,,loyi!t  and 

„,„er  relalioa,  with  tbe.  »-*"?\  *"  ,':  7„„,y  i„ao„e„ac„tor  tho 
eu,,,loyco.     There,  also,  utmufocturers  are  a  ,         „j,„,„go  of 

„«ortL  er  tr.„»pertatie»  co,„,,au  e.  ^^^^^^^  ^^^,^,^  ,„, 

numerous  coiapetmB  '"'°^-.  '"'„„„  f„,t  „f  water,  while  aioaj  its 
vessels  not  more  thau  twurty  j|,„j  „„„„„„„ 

„,„Us  is  the  Jaoeuo,,  '^"''""y' »  ";"ji„  °  J  ,„„  Nor.h,  West,  auJ 
with  the  tour  great  lines  of  ra.lway  «»''"  8  »  "  ,  j,,,, 

S„„th.      How  iutpertant  ^^^T;^^ ,:i;^^„^J .^o  are 
ve.lize.1  in  many  instances  ^^  ^'^l^ZZion  o<  their  raw  mate- 

:sr  ;t7e  ;::t::rr:iai--  mLLtones... 

.,.re  are  in  the  vielnity  ef  P^^^^rSrl nly^reefe:, 

raper  Mills.     ^^' ^:'Z:^^'^^ZXZT...«..^^>  ^«^'  i»  "» 
:lTmt„:rl"     Ta:rLn;.ooap«lv.  Thohnuaingsoecnpy 




y  of  a 
of  the 
ve,  ibe 
are  in 

a,  to  a 
iver  has 
made  a 
anks  )l' 
to  them 
at  river, 
lerica  for 
ill  kinds, 
a  supply 
from  the 
)vided  for 
i  have  no 
loyer  and 
lent  oC  the 
autago  of 
(ssiblo  for 

along  its 
,t  connects 
West,  and 


id  who  are 

raw  niale- 

wilh  other 

lent  in  de 


a  spaco  one  thousand  feet  in  length  by  three  hundred  and  fifty  feet  u. 
,v4h,  and  cost,  when  finished,  over  $500,000.  Logs  of  wood,  princi- 
pally poplar,  are  cut  into  chips  by  large  steel  )  set  in  revolving 
circular  iroa  wheels,  which  have  the  capacity  of  cutting  from  thirty  to 
forty  cords  of  wood  every  twenty-four  hours.  The  chips  are  then  boded 
to  a  pulp  in  alkalies,  and  by  a  peculiar  process  of  evaporation,  about 
ol<rhty  per  cent,  of  the  soda  used  is  saved.  It  is  estimated  that  by  the 
erection  of  these  mills,  the  daily  production  of  printing  paper  has^  been 
increased  thirty  thousand  pounds,  and  the  daily  consumption  of  rags 
diminished  to  nearly  the  same  ext  mt. 

The  WissAUicKON  Mills,  of  Charles  Maoarge  &  Co.,  are  cele- 
brated for  making  fine  Book  Paper.     These  consist  of  t^"  "'.'"^'t'"; 
original  one,  formerly  a  merchant  flour  mill,  and  another,  in    858, 
at  an  expense  of  about  $80,000,  both  of  which  are  provided  with  all  the 
appliances  of  first-class  Foudrinier  Mills.   The  main  building  ot  the  new 
mill  is  seventy-eight  feet  six  inches  by  fifty-four  feet  deep,  two  stories 
high  and  attic,  with  a  rotary  boiler  house,  connected  as  a  wmg,  twenty- 
six  feet  by  fifteen  feet  six  inches;  a  machine  room,  one  hundred  and 
ten  feet  by  twenty-eight,  w^'^  a  wing  on  the  rear,  twenty-eight  by  fif- 
teen feet;  an  engine  room,  seventeen  feet  by  forty  ;  a  boiler 
fortv  by  twenty-five  feet,  and  chimney,  one  hundred  feet  high,  ten  fett 
at  base,  and  five  feet  at  top.     The  Foudrinier  Paper  machine  is  sev- 
eMtv-two  feet  long  an.l  sixty-two  inches  wide,  and  supplied  with  three 
3o-inch  diameter  iron  dryers,  and  ten  8-inch  diameter  copper  dryer.s, 
and  two  sets  of  calender  rods.     Thei.  are  three  washing  and  live  beat- 
i„K  engines  of  large  capacity.    The  machinery  is  propelled  b"  a  Corliss 
engine  of  eightv  horse  power,  and  the  mill  is  supplied  with  pure  sprmg 
water  by  means  of  costly  reservoirs  on  the  hills  adjacen  ,   rom  wliic 
the  wuter  is  conducted  into  the  vats  by  twelve  hundred  feet  of  8-inch 
Pino  and  nine  hundred  feet  of  G-inch  pipe.     Some  of  the  reservoirs  a^e 
lifty  feet  higher  than  the  factory.     The  weekly  consumption  of  rags  in 
this  mill  is  about  thirty-three  thousand  pounds,  and  the  production 
about  twenty-four  thousand  pounds  of  paper.     The  expenses  per  week 
of  these  two  mills  for  raw  material  and  labor  are  about  five  thousand 

of  very  fine 
itly  erected, 
rorks  in  the 
lings  occupy 




.  „      .  .v,«  statistics  of  the  manufactures  of  Allegheny 

The  following  are  the  statistics  oi  i" 

county,  according  to  the  census  of  I860. 






Agrlcnltnral  Implemonts 


Bolts,  mitB,  etc 

Boots  Hnd  slioes 

Brass  founding 




Cigars ^^ 

Clothing 2 



OottoM  goods 

Flour  and  me«l 

Fiirnituro,  cabinet 

"         chairs 



Uardwnrc,  loclis,  etc 

Hats  and  caps 


Insttumouts,  optical 

"  surgical 

Iron,  bar  ami  sheet 

Iron,  pig 

Iron  founding 

"    Btovc  founding 

Iron  forging 

Iron  railing 

■'Hl  ware 


heather • 

Liquors,  diBtillid 

"        malt 

•'        reetifled 

Lumber,  planed 

"         sawed 

Machinery,  steam  engines,  etc 

Millinery,  etc 

Military  cquipmonli 

Mineral  water 


Oil,  linseed 

Patent  medicines 

Picture  flumes 

Potter;-  ware 


I'roTisions,  pork,  beef,  etc 

Rope  and  cordage 


Baud,  washed 

Cost  of 
Capital  Raw  Ma- 

Invested.  *«"*•• 

11.7....      $160,600 I01.995' 

1 10,000 37,858- 

3", 85,000.... 

178 185,975.  .. 


2 206,000. 

28 93,900 









85,960 84.. 

179,359 614., 

64,967 I*-*. 

27,179 290. 

40,808 140- 

83,960 807. 

60,853 158 

461,450 639,345 707, 

9,500 15.0W" 

'a 970,000 669,380.. 

5"  925,000 683,613.. 

52".'.".        452,.S00 1,197,148.. 

20 162,150 50,819 273. 

4    ...  10,150 17,000 34. 

1,867,600 699,619 2,119, 

63,700 47,165 46 

421,300 179,(34. 

26,100 O,!**- 

5,000 S.*0" 

5,000 608 

10,000 1.000 *■ 

,3 3,380,000 2,116,311 2,323. 

3'"  233,IK)0 195,620 •  I  IW- 

742,000 313,582 644. 

6 330,000 131,245 314. 

11,000 6,800 7. 

6,000 ■»,"75 8 

54,000 23,4.52 M 

6,900 775. 

282,300 360,086. 

3,000 ft,^'*^- 

33.'.".'.'..        354,400 29tV.":i7 

19  130,500 ItVi.S'JO 

12 185,.!00 173.756 135 

42  417,200 320,776, 

■24 496,500 460,'.'76 

„Z..  23,075 28,891 11« 

1  831,000 17,585. 


Female      Value  of 
Hands.       Product. 


7 75,000 

......        193,000 

I      64 457,685 


..  ...  121,605 



!!!  1,050 1,110,831 

fi 24,375 


870 1,076,333 

I""           1,335,741 










2 2.600, 

6 1,260,000 '  728,275. 

a"  ..  79,000 86,7r,0 





8    ....  16,500 10.600 7- 

18,000 15.3.35 17., 

18,100 6,446 41. 

848,400 \S»,m «2«. 

IM.OOO 216,262 40, 

17,600 17,616 27, 

6.1,500 23,698 M 

42,500 8,000..., 






, 23,675 







3 67,500 




....!.        494,785 



......        627,147 





90 1,140,800 


8 23,400 


40 MH.IOS 





'iilue  of 
94  050 
,.     3,761,683 
....        6!n,14T 
....     1,031,968 




( 6;)8,1U3 





No.  of 





SafeK,  iron 

Saddlery  and  harness 

Siuili,  doors  mid  blinds H 

Silver  iil.itod  wiirK 

Soap  and  candli« 

Spikes,  niiUoad 

Springs,  railroad  car 


Tin,  slii'et-iron,  and  copper  ware. 



Wagons,  carts,  etc 

IVIiite  lead 

WiRS  and  liair  vfork 

Wire  work 

WiMiUen  B.Hxls 

Wool  pulling 







2 175,000 

1 15,000.... 

6 1,!'30,000.... 












Cost  of 
Raw  .Ma- 




RfiM) , 




317,125 622. 

71,426 140. 



























Valno  of 
2',  8,177 

Total,  including  miscellaneous 
manufactures  not  above  spe- 
citted Iil9l 

18,228     2,265  $26,563,379 

$20,531,440    $13,020,615 

Since  the  census  of  1860  was  taken,  there  has  been  a  vast  increase 
in!ri  ufac  uring  industry  of  Pittsburgh,  or  the  census  takers  were 
ext  en  y  negligent  in  the  performance  of  their  duties,  t  .s  estimated 
:;  ctmpetenf  aiithori^y  that  the  aggregate  product  of  wo  s  aples 
(issware  and,  is  now  more  than  the     ota    of  t ii censu 

'^^::ZZ::Z;:^  kueghe.y  in  lH«0,andthat  ^ev^^e  o    al 

le  manufactures  in  Pittsburgh  now  exceeds  $00,000,0  0.     Of  esta^^- 

iments  for   manufacturing  Pig,  Bloom,  Bar,  an     ^l-'t-  -"^;;; 

Nails  there  are  thirty,  which  produce  an  annual  value  of  $6,000,000^ 

Of  St'e      one  half  of  all  that  is  produced  in  the  United  States  is  made 

n  Pi     burgh  there  being  seven  extensive  establishments,  whose  aggie- 

^e    r      ctin  1805  amounted  to  $2,200,000;  and  of  ^^^^^^-^ 

ime  ..umber  of  establishments  produced  a  value  of  nearly  ^MOOOOO. 

Xe  arc  also  fifteen  stove  foundries,  five  establishments  making  b.>^^. 

nuts  and  washers,  eleven  gas  pipe,  tubing,  and  oil  works,  a.u    thir  y- 

:!  steam-engine,  machinery,   and  boiler  works,>loy  u    o 

hundred  and  seventy  five  hands,  and  produce  a  value  f^'f^f^^ 

Tul      ^^..r  tho  manufacture  of  Flint,  Window,  and  \  .al   0  ass, 

ftnnuallv      For  the  mivnufacturo   .-  .     ,    ,    .       .i   .« 

"uiZ^h  l,a.  Ion,  boca  the  cHcf  .»..  in  *«  y.n.oa_«««;.  '""'« 

three  works  of 

slvo  millions  ol 

iree  tanneries, 
tweuty-sevon  oil  refineries.     The  manufacture  and  refin..,g  ...  ,-— 
r"lt  .„wi  ntnnlovs  over  three  thousand  persons,  and  the  trade  «f 

^;:rr  J;-Z:  Z^s^?  ;^  description,  whos.  annual  product 
iBvaluJat  twelve  millions  of  dollars.  The  -e  are  also  in  the  c.ty  and 
un  V  thirty-three  tanneries,  five  cottoa-miUs.  six  woollen-mi  Is,  and 
unty  tn.iiy  u.rv.    ^     ^^^^^    ,^^ „„„f,...t„r«  and  refining  of  petro- 

leum,  it  is  said,  employs  over 

the  city  iu  this  article  now  amounts  to  $15,000,000. 





The  Fort  Pitt  Works-Charles  Knap,  Proprietor. 

that  might  be  alluded  to  with  propriety,  !^^  ""^j^^      Ovdnance- 

a  world-wide  reputation  for  its  success  -  -^^^^^^^         J^,  ,,,,blished 
vi.. :  the  FouT  Pitt  Works.    This  cannon  found  j  was 
during  the  war  with  Great  Britain  m  t^  ye     m.  ^^  ^  ,,, 

who  was,  at  that  time,  t'"'/;^"  //.f^j^'t^  ?/of  a  small  town.  It 
ordinary  iron  castings  needed  by         m^^^^^^^^^  ^^^^^^^^  ^^   ,,, 

was  Hitaated  at  the  corner  0  J'^^^  ^  ^^^  g^,,,,  Custom-House 
ground  which  is  "«^- «f"P^^t  /(^^Lmodore  Perry  with  the  cannon 
and  Post-office.  It  ha  ^^l^^^ZLJ^e  battle  on  Lake 
balls  aiid  grape  shot  used  by  his  tleei 

Erie,  in  September,  1813.  Secretary  of  the  Navy  for 

Mr.  McClurg  then  made  a  contract  the  ^^^^«^    ^      proceeded  to 

the  manufacture  of  cannon  and  carronades  a  d^^^^^^^^^  ^^^  ^^^ 

erect  a  boring  mill  and  "-^^''f '>\^"  "^f,  ^fields,  outside  of  the  town 
Fort  Pitt  Works,  which  was  then  mthope^nbem^,  ^^^^^  ^^^ 

Umits.  The  boring  mill  was  ^^^^^^Z^:^^^^  driven  by 
finished  ^^>'-g  t  e  yeaM8^^4.  1  he  b  J^^^_^^.^^  ^^.^^^^  ,„  ,,« 
borse-power.    At  that  periou,  uu  ^yj^^gj.. 

falls  convenient  to  the  ^ '"f"'^^.     ^p„4_„  country,  the  horse  mill 

then  but  little  known  or  used  in  0^   w  ^^  -^  J' ^^  ,,,,,  ,,.  ,,„, 
was  of  necessity  resorted  to.     It  was^^^^^^^^  ^^^^^^^  ^^^  ^  j,^, 

year.,  when  the  worn-out,  blind  ^orseB  w  ,  ^^^  ^^^ 

'pressure  steam-engine  of  the  P'^n  inve^i    d  b  OU  ^^ 

[bo  foundry  and  boring  mill  l-^^^  into  t^    ;'^  f  ^^^  Secretary  of  War 
McClurg,  who  soon  af.r  ma  e  a    on  .  t  w  th^t^^^^  ^^^^^^  ^^^^^  ^^^^^^^_ 

for  the  "-"»^-^";;^;  ,;i,\7:„r;sn,  when  further  contracts  were 
which  were  completed  in  181  ,  ana  1       ,  ^^^^^  j.^^  ^^^^ 

„,ade  and^eted      At  t„d  ^^^^_^^^  ^^^„^„.^, 

military  service  was  the  24-pouiHer,  ;  J'      ^      ^^^^     i^eer,  ordnance, 
pounds.    In  1«18.  a  Board  consising  of  experienced  mg         ,  ^^ 

ind  artillery  officers,  was  appointed  by  J.  C^  Calho  ^^^  ^^^^^^ 

War,  to  determine  ^!;^ -!7„,;:/,icr' That  Board,  in  1819. 
thereafter  to  be  used  in  the  ""^^^''Y  ^^^J  ^  5,,^,  and  none  of 
decided  that  the  24-,.under  -  t  e Ja^  ^^l^^^^^  ^,,  ,,,,,d. 
larger  si.e  v.ere  cast  ^^f  ^[l^^^^^    ,,,,^\^,,^  about  eighty-four 


calibre  for  many  years. 



vnce — 
eel  the 
fn.     It 
on  the 
lu  Lake 

ifavy  for 
ceded  to 

by  the 
r,he  town 
ired  and 
riven  by 
ry  in  the 
10  water- 
wer  was 
orse  mill 
36  or  four 
•y  a  high 

In  1815, 
of  Joseph 
•y  of  War 
,nd  shells, 
facts  were 
idc  for  the 
0  hundred 
,  ordnance, 
(cretary  of 
the  cannon 
•d,  in  1819, 
,nd  none  of 
19  adopted, 
}  maximum 

proprietors  ot  the  Pittsbnrg  Cannon  Found  y.     u 

IL  „.a  .ee„  oast  -j'-  J"-  •:"„*;  iXor  Tounar/was 
office  now  stands ;  but   m  that  ytai  cannon  were 

erecK,.  on  grouna  adjoining  the  '«';2™'',;^,^^'';  •,,,„  ,hops 
thcrenftor  cast.  The  Worlds  were  «■'  3">  3"%„a  ,„  hnilding 
for  the  manutaotnre  ot  steam  engmes  7>  '"f  ™^^^^^  l„„,„olives 

,oco„,o,ive  engines  and  rai iroad  »- J^^''";  , f  l.r.etnrcd.     In 

ever  made  »est  ot  the  A"«8l«"y  '»»""'";"■  "'^°  „,„,  w.  J. 

,8«.  the  estahiistanent  «s  P^"'*""'  ;f^  ttl^i«^  the  WorUs. 

Tolten,  who  had  previonsly  lK«»  ""SaB'"         „„j  . tells  and  steani- 

They  eontinued  the  ntannfaeturo  ot  e.nn     .  ^■-^^;^  „„,  „„„„, 


of  a  farther  enlavge„,e„toteaao„^C^^^^^^  ^^  ^^^^  ^^  ^,_^^^ 

Ordnance,  had,  m  1839  and  1S4U,  oiu  ,      ^en  inch  calibre, 

G..pounders  ei^.t  inch  caUbre.  ^^l^'^^  t  experimental 
at  Alger's  foundry  m  Boston      ^^'^y  "^  ^       .    jg^o  and  1842, 

shell  guns,  and  numerous  \-  -^/^ '^^J^^p  r  od  s  -lis  had  not  been 
with  both  solid  shot  and  shells.   Up   o  ^^"^ J"""^  ^,^,        These 

aved  fro.  long  ^-^f^^J^^r  ^^1^  ^-^ 

experiments  proved  hat  ^^/Se,  h^^^^^  ^^^  ^^f^,y  ^^.^d  from 

with  ease  and  rapidity,  and  that  ^^^JJ'"''  ^,  ,,ud  shot ;  and 

long  guns  with  equal  -l-^'^^' .^J!  f^;:!  Xntire  safety.  These 
that  they  could  be  used  on  board  .^l^'P^.  ^'^^^^  ^.^,  i„eh  and  the 
results  were  so  satisfactory,  that '"  ^^  .  J  f  ;;j;;,f  ,,  the  military 
ten  inch  guns  were  adopted  as  «f  ^"^^^^.^^  in  1844.  the  weight 
service.     After  a  further  revision  of  the.r  models 

of  the  eight  inch  was  ^^^^^l^^^^'^^^^^    tlly  d;mo'nst.Jed  the 
.     Further  experiments,  ^.'''.f  these  large  guns,  another,  still  larger, 
safety  and  the  ^^^  ^^^^^^^^^^^^  a  twelve  inch  gun, 

was  proposed  by  Colonel  uoiu        ,  j  ,     ^g^g      it  was 

or  225-pounder,  was  at  ^^^/^^^  ^^^^^^^^ 
tried  in  the  same  year  ^y  ^""f^^^tabo^t  one  bund  ^^  ^^^^ 

enormous  weight  of  twenty  ave  .   ;    -,      ^  loaded  shell  of  one 



Rodman— who  had  in  1845  ana  isio  i    ^  pj^^ 

,„„  CBUag  ot  a  large  namber  of  ''^      »     /^.e    „r  Lli"S  »* 
Foundry  of  Knap  U  gotten  co„ce.vd.haUo^^^^^^  ^  ^^ 

,„gc  n,aB«,  ot  Iron  »»'"'"'' J, ^°*  Jed  to  bin.,  that  if  the  g«o 

::;  tctLri'::  rierfr™,  ^^^^^^x:::::. 

the  internal  force.  .^^^^     ,^g  ^,ere  cast 

To  test  the  accnracy  "f^J'^  ^^^«,;[.:;  ^^,J^^,,  ,,  the  same  time, 
at  the  Fort  Pitt  Foundry  n  1849^    ri  ^y  .^  ^,,  ^^ 

from  the  same  melting  of  .roa   and  "  '^/j''^^^^"  ^^^  ^^y^^^^  ,„d  cooled 
as  far  as  possible-except  that  one  of  them  was  cast 
from  the  exterior  in  the  usual  n«^^^^^^^^^^^^^  ^^.^^^^^_  ^^^^,y, 

and  cooled  from  the  -t^nor     Af.r^^^^  ^^^^^^^^^  ^^^^^_  ^^^^^ 
were  proved  at  the  same  um       y  ^ere  broken.     The  num- 

equal  charges  of  powder  and  ^^^^^^^^^^  „„,  ^^  f,,or  of  the 

,er  of  ^- -^-\;^-:  i^H W.  toral^e  to  the  theory,  was 
bollow  cast  gun.     This    esuit,  ai        b  .^^^ 

„.t  regarded  as  c.. elusive  ,  and  .  othei   sin.l.^t^^^^  ^^^^^  ^^ 

'""  rS  fie        d  the  hollow  cast  gun  endured  fifteen  hundred 
seventy-third  fare  ,  ^^^  ^^.^ial  visible  injury. 

fires-and  ----;>;;^;«^''7;  ^^  guns  were  cast  and  tried  in  the 
I,  the  same  ye  « ,^^a         t  n       ^^^g^^^^_^^  ^^_  ^^^  ^^^^^  ^^^^^^  .  ^ 

'""'  ";;."rnd  185  until  six  pairs,  in  all,  of  heavy  guns  were  made 
years  l^^^^^Jf ],;;;:,,,  J  of  i.res  endured  by  the  six  solid  cast 
""  r^U  of  wh^hw  broken,  was  seven  hundred  and  seventy-two. 
guns,  all  of  ^*^;?.7  ^  y  th,  ,ix  hollow  cast  guns,  onl/ three 
The  number  of  J  ^T  vas  fiffy-five  hundred  and  fifteen.  The  «n- 
of  wnici  were  ^jf ^"^^^^  endured  fifteen  hundred  fires 

broken  hollow  cast  g'^"^'  ^"^^  l^;;  f„,^  ^      i,„  of  much  further  ser- 
each,  remain  in  apparent  g^".^"  Jl'/J'^^^^^^.t        ,  over  those  cast 

Lent'  should  be  cast  hollow,  and  cooled  from  the  interior,  on  the  plan 

:r;t  «::r:  1.^:1  dia„, ., ..-.,  *...  ^  ^  »i«o  <».. 



than  the  desired  bore  of  the  gun.     While  the  liquid  iron  is  passing 
nto  the  .un-mould  and  surrounding  the  core,  a  stream  of  ;«^\^^^^^^ 
conLted.  by  a  separate  pipe,  down  through  the  -nU-e  of  the  hoi     v 
core  nearly  to  its  bottom,  where  it  is  discharged  from    be  am 
th  n  passes  up  through  the  annular  space  in  the  core  to  the  top  of  the 
L^liXeitpassfs  off  in  a  heated  state      While  the  coo  mg  of 
thP  interior  of  the  gun  is  thus  accelerated,  the  coohng  of  the  exterior 
s  reurd  d  by    u  rounding  the  gun-mould  with  heated  air,  at  as  h,gh 
a    em  0  Ire  as  the  s.fety  of  the  mould  will  permit,  or  about  e.ght 
huudd  degrees.      The  water  circulates  through  the  jntor.or  o    an 
eLht  nch  gun  at  the  rate  of  about  two  cubic  feet  per  mmute  ;  and  m 
he  b  g  nnfng,  its  temperature  is  increased   while  passmg  through 
,     rfwontv  five  desrees      The  circulation  is  contmued   until  the 
waTer  ;re:':u:at  t^^^^^^^^^^      temperature  as  that  at  which  it  entered, 

"t  ^S^l^^i^^^-f  Mr.  Totten.  Major  Wade  again  became 
a  partSn  tt  ort  Pitt  Works,  and,  associated  with  Mr.  Knap,  con- 
L'uedth  manufacture  of  ordnance,  steam-engines,  and  heavy  ma- 
chTntry  until  March,  1858,  when  the  whole  establishment  was  -t  - 1^ 
dest  ^ved  by  fire.  The  rebuilding  of  the  Works  was  immediately  com- 
mS    and'  in  three  months  thereafter  the  casting  o    cannon  wa 

resumed.     In  July,  1858,  Major  Wade  -^-f  -^^^^  ■/^•^,;^.J^"; 
and  N    K  Wade  came  into  partnership  with  Mr.  Knap,     llty 
ToJh  ten  foTseveral  years  previously  engaged  in  conducting  the  ope- 

ir^^sVaMS"  experiment  for  the  enlargement  of  cannon  was 
..ade     and  in  December  of  that  year,  a  gun  of  fifteen  inch  bore,  de- 
Xn  d  by  Captain  Rodman,  was  successfully  cast  at  the  Fort  P  tt 
Foundry      Seventy-six  thousand  pounds  of  iron  were  melted  for  this 
gun    1  'three  furna'ces.     The  liquid  iron  passed  in  separate  streams 
2  each  furnace  into  a  common  reservoir,  where  jt^^^ 
then  passed  to  the  gun-mould.     The  gun  was  cast  on  a  hollow  coit 
throu^  which  the  water  circulated  at  the  rate  of  about  six  cubic  fee 
per  minute  for  twenty-four  hours,  when  the  core  was  withdrawn,  and 
fhe  c   culat  o„  ^f  water  thereafter  continued  through  the  cavi  y  lef  by 
he     moval  of  the  core  for  six  days.     The  quantity  of  water  whi  h 
as  ed    ir  ugh  the  interior  of  the  gun  was  3.595.300  pound s-nearly 
ilh  een  hundred  tons-and  equal  to  forty-eight  times  the  weight    f 
the  iron  cooled.     The  additional  heat  acquired  by  the  wate^  in  i  s  cir- 
ou  a  r  an"  carried  off  from  the  interior  of  the  gun.  was  ascertained 
0  ;    s!;"ty-tSree  per  cent,  of  all  the  heat  contained  in  the  melted 
on  w le    it^ntered  the  mould.     The  cooling  of  the  gun  occupied  ono 

,02  UEMAKKABT,E    MAN.FACTOBT^    or    PmSB^T. 

.ecu  •,  ana  the  Un,c  employed  in  lifUng  It  fro.  the  pit.  and  in  tuvnin.. 
boring,  and  finishing  it,  was  nearly  five  months.  ^  ^^^^ 

"  Tt  :::  wh'r fiSed,  was  sixteen  feet  long  and  forty-nine  inches 

In  MaJ^'/f  ^' '   r^JHred  five  hundred  times,  with  charges  of 
:;^;  :r  Z    oZL  ':Uer,  and  with  Shells  weighing  from 

t  Jh.ndred  to  -eo  — ^^^^^^^^^  of  experienced 

The  Board  appointed  to  ™ake  ^^.e  ^^^  ^^^^  ^^^^^  ^^^ 

engineer,  ordnance,  and  artillery  o  P_^^^  ,^  ^^^^^^  ^^.^^^__^^^^ 

preciable  injury  which  the   gun   naa  ^      ^^^^^  decidedly 

Lpidity  with  which  it  was  -nc-v  ed  -d  ^^^^^  ^^J^^,,  p,,eticable 
of  opinion  that  the  introduction  of  this  class       g 

and  desirable.  ,  ^  .  ,  ^f  .v,,,  fifteen  inch  gun  having  proved 

The  manufacture  and  trial  of  this  ^^'^een  inc     fe  ^ 

entirely  successful.  Captain  Kodmanpropoaed^m  Ap"U8  .^  .^^^^^^^ 
g„n  of  twentyinch  bore    twent^^^^^^^^  ^^^^  ^,  ^„, 

weighing  about  one  hundred  thousand  I  o        ,  ^^^  ^^^^  ^^_ 

thousand  pounds,  be  -f .  7;;^;t1er    ^  T^  the  utmost 

TT'oftltrr  ar  rrror  riu  ;he  foundries  for  its  sup- 

:::;::o:>i::;o.tioncouidn.t^^-^^    ^  ,,,,„ 

Mr.  G.  V.  Fox.  Assistant  Se-^tary  o^^^  Na  y.^ ^^  ^.^^  ^^^^^  .^ 

inch  gun  for  navy  -"-;.,  ^^  T;/;l'Unner  as  the  fifteen  inch 
June,  1862 ;  and  was  cooled  in  the  sam  ^^  ^^.^^ 

a„„y  gun.     But  in  ord-    «  a^^^^^^^^^^^  ^^     ^     ^„,  ,,i,,ed,  when 

board,  it  was  made   about  ^^re^  J^f  ^^^,^^,  ^,„„ds.     It  was  sent 
finished,  forty.two  thousand  and  tohund^       P_^^        ^^.^^  .^  ^.^^ 

to  tne  Washington  ^-^^y.  Y"^' J J^^J^o  seventy  pounds  of  powder, 

charges  ^-^-^ynf^'lfgh        i^^^^^^^^^^      '^-'-^  ^"^  *'''*^  ^^ 
,^nd  with  shot  and  shells  ^^'e.gmng  ^^^^^^^^  ^^^^ 

four  hundred  and  tlj-ty  pounds  eadi.t  endure       g^^^^^^  ^^^  ^^^ 

,ixty-seven  fires  fifty  ^^^^^^J"/  ^^^^^^^^^^  of  powder  and  a  shot 

;:S;t^:;r:::^X:^o:nnn  board  the  earlie^^ 
nt:^g:ett  rirgfof  employing  this  larger  class  of  guns  in  ser- 





,  a  gtin 
letc,  all 

5  inches 

d  in  the 
irges  of 
ng  from 

he  inap- 
ials— the 

g  proved 
;l,  that  a 
ill  of  one 
s  the  Ke- 
le  utmost 
or  its  sup- 

l  a  fifteen 
Works  in 
afteen  inch 
s  on  ship- 
hed,  when 
;  was  sent 
ng  it  with 
of  powder, 
id  thirty  to 
undred  and 
er,  and  was 
•  and  a  shot 
tisfactory,  it 
A.nd  accord- 
earliest  tur- 

guns  in  ser- 

viee,  w.a  soon  after  deman,t™ted  by  the  ^P'"'"  "f*"  ^f '  H:" 

"Tt',7  "Z'Z;  Z  '  .eu     ce^rt  which  thi,  c,..s  of  «r,c™     ' 
"■  n,  IT,  ta  Ir,"d  i„  both  torw  and  ships,  and  the  in,n>en» 

'"  ?  ,  rfbMr  .tatm'c L  powers  over  .11  other  cannon  herotoforo 
rX'k  ol  .  n  t  n  .;:  pr.etic.lly  established  Captain  Rod- 
In- "proposlnto  Ike  a  twenty  inch  gan  was  considered  and  «p- 
m.n  s  Prepof''  Secretnty  of  War,  Mr.  Stanton,  ordered  that 

'::t  ^alatl'  ir.  m  FoLdry-where  the  ftrst  twenty  inch 

^"T::rr;.r;^;;:in::i;  uiv^ve  feet  ion.,  «»=  fee. 

jrh:;t.ri  its  largest  pan.     Onoh^,.d.nd^^^ 

Hamilton  ^ew  York  wner  ^^.^^^  ^^^^^^^^  ^^ 

t:^'Ln.Xr^^  — ^nd  twenty-five  pounds  of  pow- 
der  with  a  solid  shot  of  one  thousand  and  eighty  pounds.  It  eudurcd 
these  fires  without  any  perceptible  injury. 

r    nj       larA  n  twpntv  inMi  gun  was  cast  for  the  navy,     lis  itn(,iu 
In  May,  1864,  a  twentj  Hu    g  ,^^,^,  g,„,  ^nd  weighs 

-'U  Of  these  twenty  inch  .""'^-J^SteTr  "ir'S 


'tr riTorr rn1.Srr.nnon  ,n  the  rnited  St^s. 

tj-crx :  been  en,.r,ed  7-;;;r;t;r;8«r:^in:  1 

V  1  ^/i  i„  i«iq  to  the  one  thousand  pounder,  cast  m  too*     » 

lished  in  1819,  to  tne  ouu  ^^^^  ^^^  ^^^ 

of  forty.five  fold  in  a  period  of  foity-fi  e  years  ^^ 



To  meet  tl,c  suddealy  n.m.».od  <^™»''«  '"         ^^  j.„„  rlU  Work» 

,w,.,  o„  the  ...u.;^ -': ;,  :;t  r,C:  wgo  tt.,»aoo., «,. 

were  much  enlarged,  by  aaaing 

Teavy  machinery,  at  a  co.t  m  al  of  ^^^^^'^Z"      jetor  of  the  cstab- 
'"i;^86a,  Charles  Knap  again  be-^^^^^^^^  ^^.^^,,,,  ,,,,on 

U.hment,  which  is  now  o^Wt^^^^  ^^  ^^^^^.^  ,„,,,„ 

four  iries  in  the  United  ^^-^^^  j;  ^      J ,^  ,^eh  enormous  size,  or 
having  the  capability  of  manufacturm g  gu  ^^^  ^^^^^^^ 

oJproducinganyotherkindswahcc^^^^^^^^^^^^^^  ^^^.  ^^^^,.^  ^,,, 

cannon  foundry  in  the  Urn  ed  State^  ha      g  ^^^  ^^^^  ^^^^^^^.^,^^^^  ,„ 
twenty  years  all  ^^^ers  winch  ex  ted  w  ^^^^^.^^  ^^^^  ^^^.^^,^. 

1814.     Its  proprietors  l^';^e-^  "^  co«  ^^^^  .^.^^..^^g  ^.^tever 

n^fprellU  for  more  t-  -^  ^^^^^^^^       ,,  .  ,,  .,  .round 

The  Works  are  built  -  the  fo  m  of  a  hoUow   q^  ^^^^  ^.^^^  ^^  ^^  ^^^.^^ 

four  hundred  by  two  hundred  feet  occupy  J  ^^^  ^^  ^,^^  ^,,,r 

city  block,  bounded  on  t^"-  f  ;\^J,f  ,,,tains  six  reverberatory  a.r 
by  the  Allegheny  river.     Ihc  >o-^^    ^  ^^ch,  and  two 

fu'r naces.  capable  of  melting  ^--;;;^;;J^^^^^^^      if  all  of  them  were 
cupalo  furnaces  capable  of  meltng  twenty  t        ^^  ^^  ^^^^^^ 

put  in  operation  at  the  same  t  "    >  th  ^  ^^^  „,,.,,  ,  ,,,ting  of  that 
one  hundred  ^^^  «.x./  tons  of     on  ^.^^  j^  the  foundry 

weight  iu  one  smgle  piece.     Iheie  ^^  ^y^en  the  guns 

floo?,  in  which  the  --^^^;;;  ^^s     Jp^^^^^^^^^      the  bottom  of  the  pits 
are  cast      Grate  bars  and  ash  V^'^J'^  communicating  with 

for  receiving  fuel,  ^'^^^^^X^^^l^^ ^^^ 
them  for  the  purpose  «f  Seating  he  p  .^  ^^^„,„g^ 

The  boring  mill  contains  th>rty  one  ,        ^^^^.^^^  ^^^  ^^^^^. 

boring,  and  finishing  «-««".  ^^f-  ^...^pLhed  by  ordinary  turning 
ing  irregular  curves  w,.ch  cannot  be  ^^^^^^^^^  specially  for  the  twenty 
or  planing  machines.     The  latne  and  weighs  ninety 

inch  guns  is  sixty  feet  long  ^^^  -g^^^  ,*'„^;,  .evolve  Vhile  the  gun  is 

•      thousand  pounds.     ^^1- ^^^^^of  the  axis 

boring,  but  advances  m  the  1  ne  o    t  ^^^  ^^.^^^  ^^ 

is  revolving.  When  all  the  ^f «  ^^^^^^^^^  f,,,  hundred  tons.  The 
iu  revolving  motion  at  the  ^^^^  'T^f  ^ete  eighteen  heavy  gnns 
,,hes  have  -ed,  bore  ^.^^^^^^^  ^tn^^f  U  inch,  and  six  of  eight 
per  week,  vi/;.  .  i^  u  "' 




of  the 
,  since 
»t,  anil 

8,  and 

!  eatab- 
size,  ov 
0  oldest 
ire  than 
ishod  in 
D  pvevi- 

)f  ground 
an  entire 
the  other 
ratory  air 

and  two 
iicni  were 
)f  melting 
ig  of  that 
le  foundry 

the  guns 
of  the  pits 
iting  with 
JO.  turning, 
3  for  dress- 
ary  turning 
the  twenty 
ighs  ninety 
B  the  gun  is 
le  the  latter 
ight  of  guns 
,  tons.     The 

heavy  guns 

six  of  eight 

inch  ;  or  at  the  rate  of  nine  hundred  guns  per  annum,  requiring  eleven 
thousand  tons  of  melted  iron. 

The  casting  and  boring  apartments  contain  tweke  large  cranes,  ." 
of  which  a.o  worked  by  steam  power.  Four  of  the  latter  are  capabl., 
of  lifthig,  lowering,  and  moving  horizontally,  forty-Qvo  tons  each,  and 
all  the  others  from  tifloen  to  twenty  tons  each. 

By  means  of  the  steam  power  cranes  and  other  raachmery,  the  hea- 
viest  guns  are  lifted  out  of  the  pits  in  which  they  are  .ast,  and  moved 
from  place  to  place  through  successive  lathes  and  machines  until  they 
are  finished  complete,  when  they  are  sent  out  of  the  Works  and  loaded 
on  railroad  cars  for  distant  transportation  by  steam  power  alone. 

The  importance  of  obtaining  iron  of  the  best  quality  for  use  ma 
cannon  foundry,  has  led  to  the  employment  of  various  methods  for 
ascertaining  its  qualities  by  actual  mechanical  tests  before  using  it  in 
.uns      By  comparing  these  tests  with  the  endurance  of  guns  subjected 
to  an  extreme  proof  trial  by  firing  with  powder  and  shot  until  they 
burst,  the  mechanical  tests  indicate  the  qualities  of  iron  most  suitable 
for  making  the  strongest  guns.     The  methods  now  practiced  are,  hrst 
to  examine  the  crude  pig-iron  closely  with  the  practiced  eye  of  an  expe- 
rienced founder  before  it  is  put  into  the  furnace.     Such  pigs  as  are 
approved,  are  then  placed  in  the  furnace,  and  when  melted,  small  quan- 
titles  are  taken  out  at  frequent  intervals  and  cast  into  small  moulds 
and  as  soon  as  the  bars  are  cooled,  they  are  broken  and  the  fractured 
surface  is  examined  to  ascertain  the  condition  of  the  iron,  and  to  guide 
its  further  treatment  in  the  furnace. 

Whenever  a  gun  is  cast,  a  test  bar  from  the  same  iron  ,s  cas  in  a 
separate  mould,  which  cools  within  a  few  hours,  and  ,s  tested  befo.e 
he  next  gun  is  cast.  When  the  gun  head  is  cut  off,  a  sample  is  cu 
tomtJ  part  of  it  which  is  nearest  to  the  muzzle  of  the  gun  and 
tesLl  This  sample  is  the  best  representative  of  the  quahty  of  the 
ol  n  the  body  of  the  gun  which  can  be  obtained  But  as  this  cannot 
be  tested  for  several  days  after  the  gun  is  cast  and  cooled  the  approxi- 
Itl  test  of  the  test  bar  serves  as  a  guide  for  preparing  the  iron  for  the 

^^Th:  maXnVutd  for  testing  the  iron  was  invented  by  Major  Wade, 
iu  1844,  and  has  since  been  enlarged  and  improved  by  Major  Rodma„ 
it  s  m  de  to  exert  a  force  of  one  hundred  thousand  pounds,  which  is 
anp  icd  or  removed  with  great  facility  by  the  simple  of  a  hand- 
Ink,  -d  it  measures  accurately  to  a  single  pound  the  resistance 
offerei  by  the  body  under  trial.  It  is  arranged  for  measuring  the  resist- 
ance of  metal  to  tensile,  transverse,  torsional,  crushing,  and  bursting 
forces;  for  measuring  the  extension,  dellection,  compression,  and  pei- 

„.MAUKAB..    ,.ANVPA«On«»  Or  HTT.^UO,,. 

1.  ..,...-..  or  .*....-a.e™...o,c.,».uo 

Major  Wrf.«,  wl"*  '-"'""'''""'X  1^  .ivc.  lo  wci^M  lost  by 
™    ro»".l-     "  '»  «'r'l  "1;.r  o  «1  o  .  L.ul,od  ».  for.,  tl,ou. 

'„„,Uh  part  of  .1.0  81.«.'">'«"  ""'"Jfl,,,,,,,  lor  .isc  in  tl.«  Wool».el. 

,,e  in  their  public  -^n-ry -U.nhd^        ^^.^^^^^^.^^^^  ^^  ^^^^^„  ^,, 
The  mBtrumcnts  used  in  vcu  ying         ^^^  ^^^.^^^  ^^oasureB  the 

„,cvous  and  well  ^^^'^^^-^^^^'i.b  the  greatest  accuracy  is  requn-cd, 
,i„neterofthebore,thepa  tmj  u  ht.     g      ^^^^^^^     ^^^  ^^  ^,^    ^^^j^ 

aenotes  differences  so  rnmutc  2XZ\..l.^u.vy ,  and  the  skiliulncss 
And  such  iB  the  perfection  ^^  ^^'^  »;\/^  ^^^iations  from  the  prescrd.od 

tr;::;i::rrZ,7::^«crt,,o„ner.vo  -ro.ti,  ..«.or . 

cessive  operations  in  the  ^'^'^^^'^  ^^"^^^^^^  g;n,  all  of  which  they  note 

[ron  for  melting  up  to  the  completion  of  tg  ^^^  ^^^^^^^,y  j„. 

:::  register.     ^^^  ^^^Z^^^'^^y  ^^   ^-^''' ^ 

.pected.   weighed,   and  ^^^^^^  ^^,,,^  „,arkB  of  reception.     Ihe 

inspector  stamps  upon  tl>«™  t^V"  ^^^  ^  capacity  of  one  hun- 

os  rument  by  which  they  J  ^^f  ;; ^^  ^,  .^e  manufacture  of  each 

dred  tons.     A  register  of  all  the  clcta  ^^^^^^^^^  ^^^^.^ 

In  cast,  and  of  all  the  t-^  ^^^^^^^  .'^^^^vy  gun  in  the  publi. 

-ei:;:::^--— ^-^^ 

^«^ris  probably  no  .nglee^a^^^^^ 

attracted  so  much  of  public  -«  ;^;'^;;.4,    Many  travelling  stran- 
Foundry.    It  was  ^Y;?L/tty:loy  a  day  or  two  in  order  to  visa 
gers  in  passing  would  delay  ^^^^j^^^^J^,,,!  officers  from  England, 
"he  Works.     Distinguished  ^^'^^^        p^^.^ia,  Sardinia,  and  Aus- 
France,  Spain,  Russia,  S^^^^^'^^'.^^Xerve  the  operations  of  our  amies 
U,a,  who  had  come  ^[-J;;:^  Jr^;  rwar,  and  the  manner  of  con- 
in  the  field,  or  to  note  ^^^'Jl^^'lJ^  ,;      ^^  the  special  purpose  of 
riSin^roWornr:i.t::...cUn.ort.o— reannon 

THE   I'lTTSBtnail    CUPPER-WtrnKa. 



lost  by 
y  thou- 
iled  tV.o 
cry  used 
urcd  for 

a  are  nu- 
suros  the 
'  an  inch 
part  of  au 

11  the  suc- 
ction  of  the 
h  they  note 
irefully  in- 
ceived,   the 
ption.     The 
)f  one  hun- 
,ure  of  each 
mdry  books 
a  the  public 
I  and  at  the 

States  which 
;he  Fort  Pitt 
.veiling  stran- 
order  to  visit 
rem  England, 
inia,  and  Aus- 
9  of  our  amies 
iiannev  of  Gon- 
ial purpose  of 
lonster  cannon 

The  Pittsburgh  Copper  and  Brass  Works, 

Owned  by  Dr.  0.  G.  Ilussey  and  Hon.  Thomas  M.  Howe,  is  auolLor 
notable  ostablishmont,  and  tlio  first  of  the  kind  built  west  of  the  AlU- 
glu'iiy  rnoiuitains.     Tiie  Works  wore  erected  in  the  year  1850,  and  are 
located  on  the  bank  of  the  Monongabola  river,  in  t'le  immediate  sub- 
urbs  of  the  city.     All  descriptions  of  rolled  and  pressed  copper  are 
made  here  from  ore  obtained  in  the  mines  of  Lake  Superior,  in  two  of 
the  most  prominent  of  which,  viz.:  the  "  CliU-"  and  "  National,"  the 
proprietors  of  those  Works  are  li'.rgol-  interested,  and  of  which  they  are 
also  oflieers  and  managers.      As  was  the  first  csta!)lishmont  pv.- 
jectcd  for  working  exchisi-  ely  American  copper,  and  as  the  senior  part- 
ner  was  one  of  tho  first  successful  explorers  and  adventurers  in  the 
copper  regions  of  Lake  Superior,  his  history  is  that  of  a  pioneer  in  the 
dovelopment  of  what  has  become  an  important  clement  of  national 

wealth.  ,     T    1     o 

The  attention  of  Dr.  C.  G.  TTusscy  was  attracted  to  the  Lake  Supe- 
rior region  in  the  summer  of  18-13,  immediately  following  the  consununa- 
tion  of  the  Chippewa  Treaty,  which  extinguished  the  possessory  claims 
of  the  numerous  tribes  of  Tndians  known  by  that  name,  and  he  dis- 
patched thereto  during  the  same  season  a  small  party  to  make  the  nccer.. 
snry  examinations  preliminary  to  the  organization  of  a  regular  minmg 
tbr'-e,  if  their  reporc  should  be  favorable.     In  the  summer  of  18-14,  he 
visited  the  region  himself,  and  under  his  directions  was  commenced  tiie 
first  mining  shaft,  which  was  sunk  in  the  vicinity  of  what  is  now  known 
as  "  Copper  Harbor,"  on  a  tract  selected  in  pursuance  of  the  Jirnt  per- 
mit to  locate  lands  issued  by  the  United   States  Government.     In  the 
following  summer,  regular  n.ining  operation.,  were  commenced  by  the 
company  originated  by  Dr.  Ilussey,  and  known  as  the  "Pittsburgh  and 
Boston  Mining  Company,"  of  which  he  is  now  the  President,  on  the 
second  tract  selected  in  that  region,  and  upon  which  is  located  the  eel- 
ebrated  "  Cliff  Mine."     This  mine  was  the  first  to  give  character  to  the 
section  as  a  reliable  and  remunerating  copper  producing  district,  and 
up  to  this  time  it  has  produced  more  than  seven  millions  of  dollars' 
worth  of  copper,  and  paid  to  its  stockholders  a  sum  excceduig  two 

millions  of  dollars.  .      i  ,i 

The  Pittsburgh  Copper- Works,  it  will  thus  be  perceived,  are  the 
proper  fmd  legitimate  outgrowth  of  the  extensive  and  profitable  mining 
entevprizes  with  which  its  proprietors  have  been  long  and  intimately 


The  ore  is  brought  from  the  mines  in  solid  masses  of  native  coppei. 



HuBsey,  WeUs  &  Co.'s  Steel  Works, 

owned  in  ,veat  pa.  Uv  the  P-F^^t.^  f  U     C^  o^  U^^^^^ 

,ieed.  avo  also  noteworthy  on  -^^  J  J^Vn Hod  States. 

lished  and  extensive  «tool^tm^s  m  the  U  ^^^^^^^  ^^  ^^^^ 

The  buildings,  located  in    he  ^'^'^    -^^  ^ ^    ^  ;  „i,ls,  melting 

of  nearly  three  7-'^;^:^:£.:^^;C  Id  linishin.  the  steel 

shops,  furnaees,  etc      ihe  ^'^'"^^^'y          ^  ,i,.,,Uvr  saw  plates, 

includes  six  train  of  rolls,  one  tiam  f«  j;'^  ;^^  S              ^^^^^^^^  .^ 

and  a  large  number  of  steam  ^^^J:^^,,,^  „i„e  boilers  of 


.ith  foreign  varieties  and  as  t  e  ,uah  y  ^^^^ ;^^^^^,^^,,  that 
t.  be  equal  to  the  best  ^V^^?\u  "Le  as  those  found  in  iso- 
Anteriea  has  ores  as  well  adaptecl  to   h.    P    po -  -  ^^^^ 

,,,,  1-alitios  in  Norwj^^n.^-^  ,,,  ,,,. 

„,ost  enterpr>smg  and  P'"^'^^^";  \  department,  and  -u-e  now  pro- 

ft-onted  the  pioneer  "-"''fa^'t  '  -    '^J  ^    ^         ^,,„,,,a  and  uniform 
dueing,  of  purely  Amer.ean  ^  ;^-  ,^^^  ^J^^^^^  ,,  ,,,,.  .,.0  have 

,^„,Hly,  ihey  '^^^^^^^^^^^^^j; ';;,,,  toward  the  eonsunnnation  of  com- 
co)Urilmted  any  miportant  advance  lowa 

mercial  independence. 

.•     v,i  '  nro  six  oMier  extensive  Steel 
Be^destheWoryMU^m^U-  ,^^nu,.  ^^^^^^^  ^   ^^^^^  ^,^^^,^ 

manufactories    m    P'ttsbing,  mz. -^        tuilman,  I. .n:-^' ^'o  ,  Uki- 




ets,  and 
:  Uaiterl 

bai,  and 
lock  tiu, 

just  no- 
rst  estab- 

er  an  aroa 
i,  melting 
^  the  stoel 
aw  plates, 
ole  is  l»vo- 
boilers  of 
•esent  time 

i  warranted 
tratcd  that 
)und  in  iso- 
amonfr  the 
cs  that  con- 
re  now  pro- 
\nil  uniform 
11!  wlio  have 
;iou  of  com- 

tcnsivc  Steel 
Ci>.,  Pahk 
Si  Co  ,  Kri- 

The  O'Hara  Glassworks— Jas  B.  Lyon  &  Company,  Proprietors, 

Is  probably  the  best  representative  that  could  be  selected  of  the  many 
excellent  estahlishraents  of  the  same  description  for  which  Pittsburgh 
is  famous.  Established  for  nearly  a  quarter  of  a  century,  and  enter- 
prising in  originating  novel  designs,  they  have  accumulated  an  immense 
stock  of  patterns,  or  metal  moulds,  some  of  which  have  cost  two  and 
others  three  hundred  dollars  each.  The  Glassware  made  here  is  ro- 
markable  for  its  clearness,  smoothness,  and  purity  of  color,  v.aA  the 
designs  are  excellently  adapted  to  the  material  and  mode  of  production. 
The  siiex  used  is  a  sand  of  a  beautiful  quality,  found  in  Berkshire 
county,  Massachusetts,  and  the  minium  is  manufactured  by  the  firm 
from  pig-lead  brought  from  the  State  of  Illinois. 

The  Glasshouse,  an  extensive  structure,  one  hundred  and  fifty  by 
fifty  feet,  contains  three  large  furnaces,  each  of  whicti  is  capable  of 
acconmiodating  ten  pots,  that  hold  a  batcb  of  three  thousand  pounds  of 
metal.  These  pots  are  all  made  ou  the  premises,  of  a  clay  obtained 
from  Missouri,  which  is  found  preferable  to  the  imported. 

Contiguous  to  the  furnaces  are  five  annealing  ovens  for  tempering 
the  glass  after  being  made  ;  and  opposite  are  four  furnaces,  known 
technically  as  "  glory  holes,"  where  the  glassware  is  revitrified  and 
polished,  by  which  it  obtains  that  clear,  elegant,  and  gem-like  appear- 
ance that  is  so  desirable  and  pleasing  to  the  eye.  Ou  the  ground-ttoor 
are  also  tho  mill  room,  for  grinding  the  clay ;  the  pot  room,  where  these 
huge  receptacles  are  made ;  the  lead  house,  where  the  lead  used  in 
making  the  glass  is  converted  into  litharge ;  a  blacksmith  shop,  and 
other  apariments  of  more  or  less  importance  in  the  operations  of  tho 

Ascending  to  the  second  floor,  we  come  first  to  tho  pattern  shop,  where 
the  moulds  are  designed  and  prepared,  first  in  wood,  then  in  plaster  of 
Paris,  and  finally  in  iron.  Adjoining  this  is  the  turning  and  repairing 
room,  which  is  a  miniature  nuichine  shop,  provided  with  lathes  and  all 
the  requisite  tools  for  repairing,  turning,  and  polishing  tho  interior  of 
the  moulds  to  the  smoothness  and  delicacy  of  a  mirror— the  importance 
of  which  will  be  readily  understood  wiien  we  state  that  any  defect  in 
the  mould  reappears  in  a  blemish  in  the  glass.  The  grinding  and  final 
polishing  of  tho  waras  are  done  in  the  tiiird  story,  whore  there  arc  n 
dozen  or  more  grindstones  revolving  with  immense  velocity,  and  driven 
by  steam  power.  On  the  second  floor  are  also  the  receiving  and  pack- 
ing rooms,  each  forty  by  seventy-five  feet.  Here  the  final  operations 
of  inspecting,  assorting,  and  packing  the  warer;  of  tho  linn  are  carried 

„0  ««lA,«An..^   „AS».ACTOE,«»  OF  PtTTSBOROH. 

o„  ™ao,  U,c  povona,  ™p«n-i.»n  of  a  iunior  ,^n„er,  preparatory  .0 

Tliosc  Wort',  wliou  '""J  octupicu,  ^^. 

,h„™„„a  tons  of  coal.  ""■l''°J' ;';;J°"t,:  ,    K-      TO  wo„M  of  rar. 
rt„co  about  *•■>»«.<'»»  "°*. It  :,:r„„i„„  ,i„,al„«..i,hcd 

::::trr„ci:ta'tu ..,  *.  .0... . ..  «f 

only  fourteen  per  cent  .^       ^^^^  ..  i,^^^„stry  of  the 

The  F-Sl-\f-"";j':"t "io  G  1  i^auufaetuves  of  thi.  country 
rnited  States,  --f  J  J  \^  ,,  „o  doubt  of  the  present  healthy 
..  arc  fairly  established,  and  ^1'';.'^^  !="'  ^^  j„j„,,         With  superior 

position  and  future  l-'^"^\''^.;!^^^^^^^^^^  with  the  development 

Utals  in  abundance,  and  skdlcd  ll^'\l'''';'J^^  f,.,,^  u.e  earlier  pro- 
of the  trade  in  which  it  ,s  employed,  ^-^'^^^  ,^^  ,,  those 
a.etions,  in  which  articles  o  e—  -«  wore  t  ,  ^^^^^  ^^^^^_^^^ 
rich  and  decorative  works,  which  ^  ^^^^  ^;  J";^^  ,,,  p,,uion  of  the 
,..  been  steady  and  contmuo.^^^^^  ^  d  -  ^^^^_^^  J  ^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^ 
people,  the  more  usefuai  tides  aic  tl  ^^^  .^^^  ^^^^^^^^^^ 
divectsmostattention,thereisa  aadabe  4                      ^.^  ^^^^.^^^^^^ 

,„,  to  attend  to  those  l^-"-'-  ^f  .^'  j'^X„.  it  nmst  be  remem- 
,,,a  excels  in  the  artistic  elements  «  P- J-Uon  ^^  ^^^^^^,  ^^,^,,,,  ,, 
bored,  too,  that  t^^e  manufact  ii  g  bl    s  by         ^    ^^^^^^^  ^^^^^  ,  .^  ,^,^ 

..nation  of  cutting,  -7/;;;!^   .t^Zccd  into  England  in  1834." 
Americaninvention.andwa   fiistiutio  proprietors  of  the 

The  tirm  of  Jas  B.  Lyon  S.  <;^;  J^  .,  ^.^  ,  j^^  13.  Lyon, 

..O'llara  Glassworks,"  consists  of  f-;,  ^^^  ^^  ^  \,,^,,. 

J    p     SCOTT,  WILLTAM  -loHNSTON,  and  \\  U^LIAM  b. 



tory  lo 

t  scveu 

nd  pro- 
of rav. 

fini  .bed 
loss  of 

fy  of  the 
t  healthy 
i'lior  pro- 
to  those 
m  utility, 
on  of  the 
h  compels 
)e  reniem- 
moulds  in 
lass,'  is  an 
11  1834." 
ors  of  the 
1  15.  Lyon, 

The  Pittsburg  Iron  Works-J.  Painter  &  Sous,  Proprietors, 

Located  in  West  Pittsburg,  is  a  fair  representative  of  the  many  exeel- 
len    1  oiling  Mills  and  Iron  Works  of  which  Pittsburg  ,s  the  centre^ 
T  Were  originally  erected  in  1836,  by  Frederick  Loren.  &  James 
Ouddv  and  provided  with  ten  puddling  and  six  heating  ftu-naces,  tour 
tr      s  of  rolKand  about  twenty-live  nail  machines.     The  prn.c.p  I 
n,ildin.^  is  of  frame,  with  iron  roof,  two  hundred  and  fifty  by  one  hun- 
c        f^et ;  but  besides  this,  the  firm  own  another  mill,  seve,^  by  one 
nndred  ind  forty  feet,  and  nunu^rous  out-buildings,  ad  m.n  oi 
It      oofs  for  rdl  turning,  warehouses,  etc.     In   connection  the 
W    ks    uul  the  property  of  the  firn.,  are  about  one  hundred  tenemen 
hou    s'  occupied  exclusively  by  their  en.ployees,  who  number  over 
;;r;mndred^men,  and  with  their  families  njake  a  --tlemen.'^  over 
fifteen  hundred  persons,  directly  dependent  upon  tue    V  orks  for  the  i 
„  Ins  of  subsistence.     Many  of  the  workmen  have  been  cspee.a 
t  ained  for  particular  brauches.  and  son.e  have  b.en  connected 
the  Works  fifteen  and  twe,.ty  years,  and  attained  by  long  praet.ce  ex- 

tvaordinarv  nroficiencv.  .  ,        , 

Th     machinery  in  the  rolling  mill  has  been  greatly  .mproved  and 
increased  within  a  few  years,  and  now  i..eludes  twenty-three  p.^dlmg 
furnaces   scveu  heating  furnaces,  one  sixteen-u.oh  train  of  rolls    one 
^r:;.:h  and  threcf  eight-mch,  one  ^.eet  ndl  i^:^^^ 
and   plates    up   to    thirty   inches   in   width),    besides    a      bu.den  s 
sle  /.er,"  and  all   the  other  late  i.nprovemc.ts  to  econo....ze    abor 
and  m  t  r,al.     The  firm  have  a  patent  for  the  saving  of  the  "  1.x   n.  the 
oili..g  furnaces,  whereby  they  can  save  fifty  per  cent,  over    he  old 
t  iKl.     There  are  in  the  Works  seven,  of  the  two 
argest    have  twenty-two   Inch  cylinders,  with   fiaoen   teet  sfoke  ot 
l-ltcV.,  and  seve..  boilers,  each  thirty  feet  lo..g  and  forty-two  .nches  .u 

'' Thrpvoducts  of  these  works  consist  of  Mercha..t  Bar  Iron  of  all 
descriptions.  Sheets  and  Plates,  Bands,  Ovals,  h.p.arc;s  Kou.ids,  a.jd 
Tub  a  Hi  Pa  I  Hoops.  Of  these  last-mentioned  article.  Messrs.  Pa.nto 
Isons  supply  nearly  .all  the  mimufacturers  "^ -o  en  ware  .n 
West  and  iorthwest.  By  long  experience  they  are  able  to  loll  all  the 
Hg  Iter  descriptions  of  bands  and  hoops  to  a  more  uniform  .vnd  exa  t 
lauge  and  width  than  the  imported  English,  and.  one  excep  .on, 
pip  superior  to  any  made  in  this  country.  The  capacity  of  these 
Wo  ks  in  f..lly  e,iual  to  the  production  of  twelve  thousand  tons  of 
ta  ed  ron  per  a  nam,  and  it  is  clai.ned  that  their  manu.actures  ate 


superior  to  the  best  English  imported  iron,  and  equal  to  the  best 
^' Mr' UcoB  PAINTER,  the  senior  partner  in  the  firm,  was  born  in  the 

St.:li»g&Co.,ZuB  Lindsay  i  Co    and  -W?  ^ 

river  region. 








-j-r  "C;TT-',"""  . 






Agriculttiral  tniphmionts.. 

No,  of  Co»t  of 

Establbili-  Capital  Hiiw  Mii- 

'menta.  Inv.isted.  tciiiil. 

4 S24S,OUO $85,450 


Bliicksniiihiiit: 11 V2,9M.. 

BoutH  ami  !*lijas 240.. 

Bakoi's  Hrcail  anil  Ciackera 68.. 

Brass  Fumnlinp; 6.. 


21I,0S5 3.i5,73". 

Biclircmiiitc  uf  I'ntasli.. 


"     Flro !■ 

Brooms 3, 

Boxos 3. 

Blocks  anil  I'nmps 0 

Burning  Fluiil 3' 





37 124,HnO.. 













Clothing 119 1,218,500. 

Valno  of 
















1,837,293 2,139 3,072 3,124,081 









--    30 





68,.300 110,916 117., 

20,700 43,587.. 

10,050 6,290.. 

220,850 254,703.. 

4 12,200 17,4,50.. 

1 000,000 1,0,50,000.. 



Cigars  anil  Tobacco 129 

Cloaks  ami  Mantillas 

Copper  Smelting 


Cotton  Oooils 


Cordiigo * 

Drugs  anil  Dyo  Stuffs !• 

Earthen  Ware 0. 

Flour  ami  Meal ^ 

Fnrnitur,'.  Cal.inot 38 260,400, 

Fringes,  l.aocs,  etc 3 35,S0O, 













72,000 548,5.50, 


1,54,720 431.. 



Fruits,  Preserved., 



20,500 34,500.. 

3 12,000 3,019.. 

1 1,100,000 132,000., 












Uoop  Skirts 2 2,500 2,674,, 

Hats  and  Caps 18 60,840 67,026.. 

Horseshoes * * 1-300 3,401.. 

Iron,  Bar  and  Sheet 2 225,000 365,777 .315.. 

"     Castings  (including  Stoves).      10 327,500 18i,412, 

„     pjg  2 100,000 89,000. 

Lumber,  planed."."."."'."..'. 7 106,000 234,950, 

"        sawed 2 70,000 i^600, 

Locomotives 1 "7,000 13,500, 


Liquors,  distilled 

"        malt 

"        rectified 

Mathematical  and  Surg,  Instr'nts 

Machinery,  Steam-Engiuos,  etc 

Morocco  Dressing 3 

14 3.15,100 345,165. 

2 70,000 117,300.. 

12 86,900 108,288.. 

9 13,200 79,786., 

2 9,000 1,,500.. 

8 185,800 155,925 345.. 

14,000 50,850 49.. 









Marble  and  Stone  Work 11 93,900 110,090.. 

Millwright!ng 1 4-000 5,00<J.. 

Mirrors  and  Oilt  Frames 4 ,      17,900 1.5,045.. 

Nails,  Horseshoe 8 2,500 4,095.. 

Nut.  and  Bolts , » 9,800 9,460.. 

















>■■■■■.  '90 

















;     13,!)flP 






N.>.  of 

on,  liiiiw'"' 

O.VBti'is,  riiiUi''! J 

OiRK'ii' ■        ^ 

Priutinn , 

Piilicr,  Vriiitiiis , 












Pork  I'iiokiiip 

giwh,  l)".'r8,una  Wimls 


Suniir.  llclineil 


iSiiilillcry  iiiitl  Il:ii'i"<'«» 

Shi).  1111.1  Il<«it  IliiiI'l'"K 


gull  Making 


gllvor  Wave 

gliot "■"■■■ 

Tin,  Co,.por,  anil  Slioet-IronWaio 




Wire  Work 

Increase  bIuco  ISoO,  per  cent.  '20.3 

C.Hl  of 

Capital  R.>"  >'"- 

Inv.'Hled.  tfiial. 

1  10(1,000 1715,000... 

•:^'''''.     ow,4;U ^^'^■■ 














Value  of 


ic, SOfi.OOO. 

5 '  7,000 














11,200 Ofl.fiOO,... 

1,247 451 l."iW'^0 












324, 05-! 

1,W C 210.401 

442.  W»fi-S--i2 



2 7.500 

1 20,000 

1 42,403 

3Y 8S,.5I».... 

4 n,,500.,.. 

r, 2,000.... 

11 12,400.... 

4 5,000.... 



S21, 083,517 

Hayward,  B.rtt«tt  &  Co.'.  Foundry  .id  looomotiyo  Work. 

both  extensive.  f  ,i,;<,  firm  occupies  two  squares  of  grcnncl 

The  general  Iron  Foundiy  of  this  firm  occup  ^^^^^^ 

at  tho  Irner  of  Pratt  and  ^^^^^:;^^^Z^,SU,  as  a  Stove 
of  Scott  and  McIIcnry  streets    l^^^^^^^f  ^^  manifacture  of  Railing 
Foundry,  to  which  a^env^r  js  a^  od  tho^m  ^  ^^^^  ^^^^^^^  ^^^ 
and  other  ornamental  lion  worK.  jl  ^^^^^^^  ^^^^^ 

architectural  purposes,  their  ^^«<^^^-"J^^^'^  ^fn Ut  extensive  manu- 
with  such  success  that  they  are  ^^^^  ^^^f  J^^.ge  portion  of  the 
facturers  in  the  ^^;;^'^J'\^Z  ^^^T^^^^^^  aVmany  sections 

IIAYWAUT),    llAnTLKTT   &   CO.'s   FOUNDUY. 


J'21, 083,517 


shnients  in 
S'^orks,  and 

3  of  ground 
the  corner 
,  as  a  Stove 
of  Hailing 
eral  use  for 
branch,  and 
asive  manu- 
•tion  of  the 
any  sections 
Iso  engaged 
earn  and  hot 
having  sup- 

plied not  only  many  of  the  private  and  public  buildings  of  1  alt.moro 
but  the  Troa'ury  b-uiaing  in  Washington,  and  the  Custom-house,  m 
rorthuul.  Me.,  in  Buffalo,  N.  Y.,  and  Now  York  oty.  The  ../.e  of  he 
establishuu-nt  and  its  adaptability  furnish  conveniences  for  thep.osecu- 
tion  of  all  these  different  branches  without  conllict,  as  each  department 
has  its  foreman  and  distinct  set  of  workmen,  from  the  Pattern  shop  to 
tlic  Japanning  and  Wilding  rooms. 

In  18(;:!  they  assumed  control  of  the  extensive  ^^orks  widely  kno^vn 
as  "  Wina'ns'  Locomotive  Works."      They  were  established  by  Uoss 
Winans,  Esq.,  who  removed  to  the   city  of  Baltimore   in    l«:iO,   am 
entered  the  employ  of  the  Baltimore  and  Ohio  Hail  then 
extended   only   to  Kllicott's  Mills-as  Assistant  Engineer.     InlSoO 
he   commeueed  the  manufacture  of  machinery  under   the  pationage 
of  that  road,  and  in  1838  founded  these  Works.     Commencing  with 
the  manufacture  of  Chilled  Cast-iron  Wheels,  he   gradually  extended 
his  business  until  it  embraced  th.  construction  of   Locomotives,  and, 
up  to  1850,  he  had  furnished  the  Roads  in  this  section  with  over  two 
hundred  first  class  freight  engines,  known  as  the  "  Camel" 

The«.  VVoiTcs  adjoin  the  shops  of  the  Baltimore  and  Ohio  LailioaU 
Company,  and  now  occupy  an  area  of  four  acres  of  ground,  moi^  1  ban 
half  of  which  is  under  one  roof.      The  Boiler  shop,  in  wh,  h      om 
sixty  to  seventy  hands  are  usually  employed,  has  capacity  for  buildmg 
twelve  boilers  at  once.      Adjoining  this  is  the   room  for  up 
wheels  and   placing   them  under  frames,  and  immediately  adjacent 
another  for  making  Water  Tanks.    Then  follow  the  Pattern  Makers  and 
Carpenters'  shops,  in  which  some  twenty-five   hands  are  employed^ 
Next  are  the  Foundry  and  Smiths'  shop,  which  contains    orty-tbiee 
ibrges    trip-hammers,   and  furnaces,  with  every  other  facility  requi- 
site for  making  frames,  axles,  and  other  heavy  forgings.     In  this  one 
hundred  and  lifty  hands  are  ordinarily  employed.     But  probably  the 
most  attractive  feature  of  the  establishment  is  the  Machine  shop,  with 
its  varied  machinery,  all  moved  by  two  powerful  engines-this  is  large 
enough  to  furnish  accommodations  for  two  hundred  and  hfty  workmen. 
Adjoining  the  Machine  shop  is  a  systematically  arranged  Stoi-eroom 
for  finished  work,  which  connects  with   the  Erecting  shop,  wla>re  a 
corps  of  mechanics  set  up  the  work  as  it  comes  from  the  different 
departments,  after  which  it  is  rolled  forward  on  railway  tracks  to  the 

Paint  shop.  ,  , 

The  establishment  has  tools  and  shops  sufficient  to  accommodate  a 

thousand  workmen,  as  many  as  eight  hundred  having  been  employed 

at  one  time.    The  present  proprietors  have  changed  the  name  to  "  1  he 

Baltimore  Locomotive  Works."  added  some  of  the  best  modern  ma- 


elnnery,  and  are  «ow  constructing  a  now  serioB  of  different  stylos  of 
coal  and  wood  burning  engines,  both  freight  and  passenger. 

The  gentlemen  composing  this  enterpn^mg  fnm  arc  J.  II.  Haywarr^ 
D.  L.  Uartlett,  and  II.  W.  llobbins. 

The  Abbott  Iron  Company's  Mills, 

Near  Baltimore,  arc  anu>ng  tl  3  largest  and  most  celebrated  Ilolling- 
Ml  in  1  Uni  ed  States.  Taey  are  fonr  in  number,  another  m 
iUiii.s       u.u  intended  shall  be  second  to  none  in  the 

:::;:;: Lr  7  Coil:.,..  .•>,«  c^ina,  „.«,  u^  ..•  «„„» 

T,    I  . TlSSO  tor    ■ollinc  I'lnte  nnd  Boiler  Iron,  conWina  four  heat- 

f„r  irJa  ,1  i4  r-"--. » i»" "'  °'i"" '"''  •"*"■„"'"■  r"  ° 

mg  ami  two  liu    .     b  ^^.^  j^,.|j  ^j^^  ,^|,|,^j 

r  :  ;:^:    U^a  •:  rdtry.  and  predictions  IVe^ 
1    tZtTt  would  ruin  its  originator.     Mill  No.  2,  completed  m  1857, 

r^ru;::^;:^^;;:  and  t^  pudding  ^  ^^y;;; -- 

hammer  one  pair  of  eight  feet  and  one  pair  of  ten  feet  roUs-the  latter 
brng   he  longest  plate  rolls  ever  made  in  this  eoun  ry.     Mdl  Na  3 
3t  by  Mr.  Abbott  in  1858,  for  manufacturing  thm  plates  for  Gas 
Pipe.  Boiler  Tubes,  etc.,  contains  two  heating  furnaces,  and  a  pair  of 

'"ll^^l  con>pleted  in  the  summer  of  1861.  contains  three  heating 
and  four  double  puddling  furnaces,  a  pair  of  ten  feet  rolls,  a  pan-  o 
'breaking  down"  rolls,  a  Nasmyth  hammer,  and  other  machmery,  of 
the  most  approved  and  substantial  character. 

It  was  at'hese  Mills  that  the  armor  plates  for  the  or  gmal     Mon  t  r 
were  made,  which  protected  that  little  vessel  from  the  shot  and  shell 
Tf  h'r  enemy  so  effectually  that  not  a  plate  was  p.ereed  or  mjured^ 
Wltn  Captain  Ericsson  had  originated  this  form  of  iron-clad,  he  was 
In     het^ive  this  country  possessed  no  mills  of  sufficient  capacity  to 
rshX  Armor  Plates  of  the  requisite  thickness  and  dimensions,  and 
supposed  he  would  be  compelled  to  import  them  from  England.   Be  o  e 
dig  so  however,  he  applied  to  Mr.  Abbott,  who  at  once  agreed   o 
undertak;  their  manufacture,  and  completed  the  order  in  a  shorter  time 
"an  was  anticipated.     Had  the  completion  of  the  Monitor  been  de- 
t"    -  it  might  have  been,  by  the  necessity  of  sending  abroad  for  her 
armor  plates,  there  would  have  been  no  obstacle  to  Pre-f^^^^^  ^^^^^^ 
rim''  Merrimae"  from  destroying  our  wooden  fleet,  and  blockading  the 
cUy  of   New  York.     Mr.  Abbott  subsequently  furnished  t  e  armo 
plate    for  nearly  all  the  vessels  of  the  Monitor  class  built  on  the   UEEDKtt'S   MARINE   ENUINE   WOlllvS. 

117  coast,  and  also  for  the  "  Uoanoko."    '^    Mu 
nock,"  a.ul  sov.ral  other  goverumcut  vessels;  and  m  ISG.   1  .  c 
pletJd  uu  order  lor  two  hundred  and  liily  thousand  pounds       ..     d 
iron  in  forty-eight  hours-which  elicited  from  the  head  of  the  N.u) 
Department  a  letter  highly  approbatory  of  his  lUlehty  and  energy 

Horace  Abbott,  the  founder  of  these  Works,  was  horn  m  W  ot...    . 
county,  Massachusetts,  in  180G,  and  renu>ved  to  Balt.more  .n       .].. 
where  he  purchased  an  interest  in  the  Works  known  >us    he     Canton 
Forges."  formerly  owned  and  operated  by  Peter  Cooper,  Ksq.,  of  ^e  v 
York    ■  lie  engaged  in  the  business  of  manufacturing  Wrought-Iion 
Shafts,  Cranks,  Axles  etc.,  for  steamboat  and  ""Iroad  purposes,  and 
claims  the  credit  of  having  made  the  lirst  large  steam 
forged  in  this  country.     This  shaf.  was  made  for  tlie  ^■. 
«  Kamchatka,"  and  was  exhibite  1  at  the  Exchange  m  ^ew  \  ok,  u  hcic 
it  attracted  considerable  altention.     Mr.  Abbott  continued  m  tins  bu.  - 
ness  until   1850,  when  he  built  his  first  llolling-Mdl -which  was  fol- 
lowed by  others,  as  stated  above.     In  August,  1805,  he  disposed  of 
his  Works  to  an  association  of  capitalists,  who  organized  a  stock  com- 
pany  known  as  the  Abbott  Iron  Company  of  Baltimore  City,  who 
unanimously  elected   Mr.  Abbott  President,  which  ,,o..uon  be  now 

Charles  Reeder's  Marine  Engine  Works 

Are  among  the  old  established  institutions  of  Baltimore,  dating  their 
or  !in  from  a  period  nearly  contemporary  with  our  last  war  with  Great 
ifaii       They  were  founded  by  the  father  of  the  present  propnetor, 
so"  ued  Charles  lleeder,  who  removed  from  Pennsylvaiua  to  Balti- 
more in  1813,  and  built  the  first  steamboat  engine  coiiBtructed  ,n  that 
e  ty      n.  was  distinguished  for  his  med.anical   skill  and  fidelity  o 
workmanship,  and  established  and  maintained,  during  a  l^"^  -;-;/ 
years  a  wide-spread  and  enviable  reputation.     His  ^.n-tl  e  peser. 
pr  mCt  r_re  eived  his  rudimentary  instructions  in  the  machinist  s  ar 
a  the  worKdiop  of  his  father,  and  in  1837  became  a  member  of  the 
intncwoiK       I  ,      »g  lio  aided  in  the  construetioa 

firm,  then  known  as  C  lleeder  <v  aons.     x  _ 

of  B  vera!  vessels  that,  in  their  day.  were  considered  o  the  ^^^^^^^^ 
ammK-  others  the  steamer  "  Natchez,"  of  eight  hundred  tons,  built  to  run 
between  New  York  and  Natchez,  Mississippi. 

Si    e     847,  Mr.  Charles  lleeder  has  been  sole  proprietor  of  the.c 
Wol,  and  within  this  period  has  furnished  machinery  for  a  number 



or  ocean  and  river  stea.e.  of  '^^  J^  .^^rJ^^^^X^^ 
first,  attracted  attention  to  '"'^  "^''f^^^  ^,^"'tnsenr.loyed  to  carry 
was  the  "  Isabel."  a  steamer  of  twelve  bundr  d  ^"^  ^  «>  ^^^..^^ 

the  mails  between  Charleston  and  "^™;j^;;;Xrbe;  eminently   ■ 
he  made  several  important  "^H^rovements  that   ende^^^  ^^ 

Buccessful.     Her  superior  speed  and  ^'^^I'l^'J^^Z.^,,,,    One 
n.arked,that  in  Charleston  ^^cwao  called  he     Chom)™^ 
distinguishing  pecnliarity  of  this  vessel  was^  t       h^  vh    1  ^^^^^_ 

elevated  -- ^wdve  feet  above   ho      t^^^^  ^^^^  ,„ 

ers  that  had  previously  been  built,  and  were  a 

this  country,  had  their  ^^^^^r^JZ^  ZZ:^^.  and 
water.  No  ocean  steamers  on  ^' "i^J'^  P^'^.';  ;;,^^„  ^,,,,  the  first,  have 
the  elevated  wheel  houses,  of  which  the     Isabel 

been  universally  ^f^P^*);;;  ^^^  ..Louisiana,"  and  a  number  of 

Subsequently,  the  "lennessce    ana  were  furnished  with 

other  BUCcessful  steamers  for  sea  and  --  ^    -' .^^  ^g^.^es  Revenue 
..aehineiy  at  these  Works,  the  latest  ^^-^^^J^  commendation 

Steamer  "  Hugh  MeCuUoch,"  - ;  fj;- ;7^^^^^^^^^^  ,fl,r  machinery, 
for  the  superior  quality  and  excellent  P^^^'"^^"^^  ^^     ^^^^s,  and 

cuting  work  expeditiously. 




(«ea  millions  r>C  dollars,  caused  vfle  excess  of  production.] 

N'l.  of 











Ai<rlcultural  imi'lomeuts- 


Anillciiil  flowers 

Bilkers'  bread  and  crackers 

Billiard  taljlea 

Bookliiuding    and     blauk 


Boots  aud  shoes 

Boxes,  paiier 

Brass  foiindlni,' 

Britauuia  ware 


Candles,  adamantlao 


Cards,  playint; 


Carriages  and  coaches 

Cars  aud  oniuibusoa 




Cloftka  aud  inautlllas 


ColiVe  aud  spice  griudiug.. 



Copper  work 


Cured  meats 

Draiu  pipe,  pottery,  etc.... 

Drugs,  medicines,  etc 


Edge  tools 


Engraving,  plato  and  plato 

Eugraving,  seal    ftud    dio 
sinking 38 

Engraving,  wood 20 

■' ivelopes " 

firearms ' 

Fire  engines ' 

Fishing  tacklofcflsli-liooks         4 













1)30  . 

24  121,4U<i  1S2.. 

20 178,2.-19,. 





















63,000  .. 



























75,700 105., 

26,S.-iO  . 









38,600 127,.. 

49,0.'iO 147... 

23.1,300 110... 

26, .'too 8S... 

43,."iO0 73,,, 

8,000 10.,, 

hr  ,ids. 








Value  of 


Ill 4,367,993.... 




and  Wil- 




..      1)1256,000 

..    1,249,000 

,.     1,139,845 

471  1,0.36,218 




438.990  .. 
9.30,149  . 


29 1,114,451. 

379 618,400. 

10,624 17,011,370 

2 426,184 

117 l,208,.-i3U, 




















265,200 131,434 

190,000 1,390,190 














13,000 157,0C'0 




Flonraud  meal 

Furniture,  cabiuet 

Fnrd '■■ 



Gas  motors 

out  frames,  mirrors, etc.... 


Gold    ami  silver  refining 
and  as^ayius 

Gold  cliaius,  jewelry,  etc.. 

Golil  leaf 

Gold  watch  cases,  etc 

Orates  ami  fomlers 

Gutta  porcha  goods 


Hats:  bilk,  toU,  ai"!  straw 

llo.ip  skirts 

ludia-rublier  goods 

Ink,  rri''l'"t< 

luk,  writing 

No.  of 
nicius.         Capital. 

6 r.;"'.2.»oo 





i,4.-ii,'.oo 2.nw 

■2 4,(1110,1100. 

17 232,:!."!n 

1 7.1,000 

21 189,600, 

4 6,300 


,:,7       .        600 1,970,130 

.....     3,284,.'i00 

2.0  M- 





fl 229,800 

103"."."..    1,204,048 

0 10,000 


7 8.i,000.. 

2 100,000.. 

2 82.0110.. 

44 334.900. 

ofl 287,800. 

""2 303,000. 

0,'.'..-  131,000. 

2 (5,S."pO 

1'. l.'iO.OOi^ 




90,900 127.. 




42 2,511,100... 

g 88,000  .. 

4 9.W,000... 


2 104,000,., 

23 l.')7,8.')0.. 

19 01,000.. 

7 lOS.iWO., 

7 443.000.. 

Iron  forgiug ^^  1,074,300. 

Iron  founding 

Iron,  ((.ilvauizod 

Iron,  malleable 

Iron,  I'ig 

Iron  pipes 

Iron  and  wire  railing 

Iron  macbiuery,  steam  ou- 

lollies,  etc 

lamps  and  lanterns 

Lead,  lead  pilio  and  shot..         - 


Leather  bolting  and  hoso.. 



Mivhogauy  sawing 


Sliivble  cutting 



Jliili  II1H01" 

Military  e.inlpmouts 

Mllltiiry  ornaments 


Milliuory  jjoods 

Mini'rai  water [^......       289,000 


Musical  instruments,  mis^ 





Nails  and  spike* 

Nnls,  bolts  and  waehers  . 
Oils,  coa)  


'A  •■ 








1.1 ... 













31, MO.. 












172..  . 










.14.000 ll**- 

1.912,700 1,728 

.1,000 '■• 

41,000 "" 

60,000 12 

and  Wil-      - 
Value  of         Annual 
Vrodnct.       Product. 

.2  612,.100 I»293.WM) 

3',789,fi34 27S,.528 









32,7.10 604,436 


C".     2,497,761 HS,700 

8 8;1,372 

3 337,690.. 


2,064,667 167,950 

03 380,000 

042  000 60,000 

g',;'.;;;    31,0.13 w^ 


;;;;..    2,.171,4nO 2S6,870 













4,100,942 1,278.300 

22(5,360 7,270 

l,937,0iW 1"."°'^ 

197  225 131,875 



03,200 24,088 



1,200,949 471,390 


V   ,116 

.  <.4:i,875,... 

13'     ^0.... 


..     i,l..i.635... 


■        244,378 U«.4W 

,;■,        677,169 637,600 






2,429,867 '4,000 

40,000 :>5,ooo 


96,000 301.11'^ 



uul  Wil-     - 









<M*,  lard 


sperm  ami  whale. 

Optical  iustrumenU 

Paints  tiud  colors 

No.  of 









Paper  liao,s!iiigs 


PholoKiapliic  iBaterials,etc. 

Plauod  liiniber  ... 

Plumbing'  and  gas  flttlug. 
Pocket-books,   porta   mou- 

uaies,  etc 

Preserved  fruit  and  pickles 

Prlutiuif,  book 

VrintlDg,  job 

Printing,  newspaper 

Printing  presses 

Saddlery  and  harness 



Bashes,  doors  and  jl.nds ... 

Satinet  priutiug  

Saw;!  lumber 

Scales  and  balances 

School  apparatus 

Bowing  niiicbiuos 



Shirts,  collar) ,  etc 

Shovels  and  spades 

Bilk  fringes  aud  trimmings 


Silver-plated  ware 

Soap  and  candles 

Spiral  springs 

Bpirituius  liquors,  rectified 

Stair  building 

Stair  rods 

Steam  it  hot  water  heaters 

Steel  springs 

Stereotyping  and   eleotro- 

Stone  cutting 

Stove  polish 

Stoves,  ranges  nnd  heaters 

Sugar  refining 

Surgii'iil    and    doutal    In- 

Tin  and  shwt-iron  ware.... 

Tobacco  and  snntf. 

Trunks  and  carpot-hugH.... 

Turning,  Ivory  and  bone.. 













14O,00C  .. 

315,000  .. 





















and  Wil- 

Valnoof  Annual 

I'roduct.        Product. 

660,000  $1,610,704 





791,000 390,000 

427,202 1,200 


626,000 l.-)6,103 

724,150 163,465 







20  ., 








161,5,30 362 

101,500 46 

3,121,000 1,4.35 

0-1.3,800 839 

2,941,200 2,.329 













406,9.30  .. 


















241 499,190 1,322 

75 464,375 

718 3,223,551 

.32 1,033,6.38 

157 6,182,946 143,167 


1 331,281 6.3,282 

467,975 320,000 

932,300 66,000 

677,844 91,150 


1,127,175 207,392 


4 13,000 

839,000 149,0011 

1,178,488 1,263,475 


133  .. 








2,704 1,84,3,3.)7 


fi22 '(.i4,u87.... 

19 1,2.30,605.... 

63 2.37,770.... 

2 1,800,305.... 




















73,,300 162.. 

400,400 9.31.. 

13,000 18.. 

280,100 269.. 

3,949,000 1,494 


1,1,32,880 471,390 


63.3,600 12,000 

19,312,600 -    3,794,000 

274,800  . 


8 147,404.. 

1 757,184.. 

3W 1,009,700.. 

8 292,868,. 


766, (WO  . 

188  465,400.. 








Ho.  of 

Manufacture..  "O^""' 

Pmbrellas and  parasols ^^■■■■' 

Upholstery ^'"" 

VarnUh ^  '   __ 

Vinegar ^^" 


White  lead  and  rino  palnU  >•••••• 

Willow  ware ^""' 

■,/ire  drawing u...... 

Wire  work ^''"' 

Woodenwaro '" 

Total  m  186P,  Including 
pilacellaneous  manu- 
factures not  above  spec- 

ined *•"'*••■ 






217,925. .. 














and  Wil- 
_       1.       Vulne  of        Annual 
rS^       »ct.       P-d"c'^ 

706 •1.660,066 »13,590 

80   ..   653,460 ^ -^"^ 

^ ;   470,000 204,300 








S  »,8.'>0 





»61,171,7S7 66,470.. 


,718  ...•169.082,366  ...•34,251,320 

---r.rXK^sTJ='— ^ 

The  Marine  Engine  Works. 

xu    „if«  of  New  York  is  sustained 
,,  has  been  well  remarked,  that  ^^^^l^^l^^^Z  is  becoming  every 
.l^ost  entirely  by  HB-mmerce,  a  d    s^^^^^^^^^^     ^^^  ^^^^^^^,  „p      the 
year  more  and  more  dependent  for  its  PP      >  ^^^  .^  f„„,,,     « 

^ower  of  the  enormous  «"^-  «  ^^^^^^^^^^^     these  engines  are  invented, 
are  now  performed,  t^e.^^^'^'^ '  J™  ^  l^'e  destined  to  propel,  constitute 

«ade.and  fitted  into  b^»P«' ^^"^     tUthe  spleador  and  fashion  of  he 
^eallytheheartof  theme  ropohs,  that  t^^^^^  ^^.^^.^^^^  ^^^  ^^^,,1,,, 

reposes.  ,  , .   „,  .„„  „ere  noticed  the  various  attempts. 

In  the  first  volume  of  this  History  were  "i  ^^^  ^^^^ 

of  which  any  record  is  preserved  tha^^^w  r  ^^^  ^^^^  ^^^^ 

tury  to  build  steam  engines  in  America,  ^^^  ^^^^  ^^^ 

McQueen,  of  New  York  City,  was  P«j>;^^y^^^  ^.,,  „f  the   Marine 
Slug  if  stationary  engnies  a  spe^^t^  ^  Jlie^^^  ^^  ^^^-^.^hTs 

Engine  Works  may  be  ««;ij;^  ^^^^  ,7  ,,,«els.  as  demonstrated  by  his 
in  applying  steam  power  to  propcmng 


id  vAi- 






S  »,8.W 







!  sustained 
ning  every 
s  upon  tbe 
t  functions 
■e  invented, 
,  constitute 
shion  of  the 
id  ceaseless 
,f  the  atruc- 
laracter  and 
vast  edifice 

)U8  attempts, 
the  last  ccu- 
that  Robert 
10  made  the 
the  Marine 
Robert  Fulton 
stratod  by  his 



■.Uic  All;ujj   '•■ 




Steamboat   Clermont,  in  1807,  whose  speed  was  five  m^es  an  hour. 
Her  enlcs  and  boilers  were  imported  from  England,  and  were  mann- 
al    d  by  Bolton  &  Watt,  of  London.     Very  soon  after  the  suece 
n?t2\Z  effort  Mr.  Pulton  erected  a  shop  at  what  is  now  known  as 
It  C  ty'  w    »^  he  built  the  Car  of  Nrptune,  and  finished  other 
c  lines^     ingthe  balance  of  Ms  life-tbe  iron  castings  hav,ng  been 
Zished  by  Robert  McQueen  and  John  Youle,  and  the  brass 
y    ames  R  Allaire,  all  of  New  York.     Early  in  the  year  1815.  upon 
he  dea  h  of  Robert  Fulton,  Mr.  Allaire  obtained  a  short  lease  o    h 
i       !!h  tools  and  taking  as  partner  Charles  Stoutingcr  (Mr.  Fulton's 

2:"l-,l,  which  dev..oped  a  speed  of  .g^.t  nule    p 
hour  with  a  cylinder  40  inches  diameter  and  4  feet  stroke.     Even  at 
thatel  yday  Mr.  Stoutinger  predicted  that  the  cumbrous  maclunry 
t  en  Ised    n    he  engine  would  be  dispensed   with,  that  the  runnu.g 
Te  of  steamboats  f^m  New  York  to  Albany  would  be  about  e.ght 
hoTrs    and   that  steamships  would  cross  the  Atlantic  Ocean  w.tlnn 
ele  cu  days'  time.     It  required  almost  the  entire  year  to  complete  th 
gile  aid  boiler  of  the  Cka.cellor  U.i.,^on,  about  the  close     f 
which  the  copartnership  of  Aiiaire  &  Stoutinger  was  dissolved  by  tit 
I  ah  of  the    atter.     As  Mr.  Allaire  had  been  in  busmess  as  a  b  a  s 
?::  de    at  466  Cherry  Street,  New  York,  since  1804.  he    --ferred  a  1 
the  machinery  and  tools  from  Jersey  City  to  .hat  locality,  m  1816 
wlLr  he  laid  the  foundation  of  the  present  establishment,  the  oldest  o 
Uie  existing  steam  engine  works  in  New  York,  no     so  extensively  and 
favorably  known  as 

The  Allaire  Works. 

From  the  earliest  period  of  Mr.  Fulton's  effo-ts  in  developing  steam 
as  a  motive  power  in  navigation.  Mr.  Allaire  felt  a  deep  interest  in  the 
subject ;  and  as  all  the  brass  castings  of  Fulton's  engines  had  been  fur- 
nished by  him,  he  had  had  excellent  opportunities  of  acquiring  the 
requisite  information  to  fit  him  to  become  Fulton's  successor,  and  to 
carry  out  Stoutingcr's  idea  of  simplifying  the  construction  of  the  steam 
,nffine.  Immediatelv,  then,  on  the  removal  of  his  machinery  and  tools 
to  the  scene  of  his  earliest  labors  in  brass  founding,  he  devoted  his  best 

rn  Mr   ZonoPeeor-s  Fulton  Iron  Foun-  Comauchic,   Tn-unma,   ^fanhaUo«,  and  Ma- 

dry,  in  Greene  Street,  Jer..oy  City,  marks  h„v<c.     A   large  number  of  workmen   arc 

the  locality.    Mr.  Secor  ha,  ju.t  constructed  cmvioycl  here. who  within  three  year.,  have 

and  delivered  to  the  United  State,  Govern-  completed  work  that  .s  estimated  to  be  worth 

ment  the   iron-clad   Monitors  Weeh^.ckc,  three  million,  of  dollars. 



u  u.nt  had  been  previously  done.  He  now  built 
efforts  to  iniprovo  "P«"  f '  ''^^,  "^^  ,  ,f  Carolina,  and  iio^.r^  i-W.n-, 
the  engines  of  the  Norlk  ^'"-:^^  ^mX  The  .S«uan««/.  was  nuished  in 
steamships,  and  repaired  ^^^^^^        ,,,,,  Uu.  voyo.o  to  Livor- 

1817,  and  will  bo  '^•^"^'^.•"''^'l^^'^J^i.ii,  that  erossed  the  Atlantic 

,001  in  18l«.  and  as    -;^;   ^  ^        ^  ^.^iLion  at  the  World's  I'.r, 

Oeean.     Ucr  or.smul  ^'>  '"^^•'^^  j^,     5  feet  stroke. 

iu  New  York,  in  1853-diau.ete    4    u  ch  .ecommodations 

There  was  now  found   «  ^  /    ^'^^^  ,^0^/.  ii...^  Fire  Fl,,  a"d 
on  the  Hudson  River,  and  the  st  ambo  ^^^^^^  ^^  ,,,„„  i.^ving 

C../  J...c«  Marsnall  .^0  W^-  ^ h.^^^^  ,.^„  ,,  ,,,,,ie  quality 
boilers  made  of  coppev-^s  tl   ^  ^^^^^^  ^^^^^  ^^^.^  ,„^^^,i  1  ,, 

„,anufactured  for  the  purpos    not  vnts  1  ^^^^^^      ^^^  ^^.^  ^^^.^^^, 

the  requisite  tensile  ^trongU    t       -d  1^^     ^^^^^  ^^.^^  ^^^^  ^^^ 

wood  was  universally  used  ^^^^^''^\^^^  steamboats  at  night,  as  they 
extending  out  of  the  ^-^^^^I'^f'^'Z,  ^he  wonder  and  awe  of  the 
passed  up  and  down  the  r.v  r  tl   ^J^  ^.^.^  this  time  anthra- 

Ignorant  and  superstitious  ^  '«  ^f^^^^.  ,,,ent  in  Pennsylvania,  and 
cite  eoal  was  being  developed  to  a  lim   e  i  ^^  ^^^^  .^  ^^  ^ 

k  Allaire  entertained  ^^^^^J^^^^  L  .teamboating  reso- 
fuel  for  making  steam.  .  ^^•^^\?'  '' ^,  .,,,t  •  but  he  at  length  prevadcd 
lately  opposed  his  <^-^^^,^,  and  the  Car  of  Nep- 
upon  them  to  allow  Inm  to  '"'^l^;;^;  ;^\^  1,,,,,  put  in  her  furnace 

tL  was  laid  up  to  have  -^^^'^^^^.l,,,,,,  th.s  new  innovation 
for  that  purpose.     Such  was    he  ^jud        U      ^^  ^^^^^  „  ^^^^,  ^^^,,,_„ 

that  the  firemen  of  the  boat  -^-J  *  ^^,^.^^  ^as  obliged  to  take  some 
declaring  it  an  "^P^^^^.^^^'^y,' .^"''  ,  '  assist  him,  and  he  (being  chief 
of  his  best  workmen  from  hi.  f  ^^^^^^^^^^^  succeed  in  getting 

Bveman)  did  actually,  after  "^^^  '^^  f  ^  this  trial  had 

the  boat  to  Albany  in  ^^^^^I^^^^  .^.^racite  coal  as  fuel  to  make 

demonstrated  that  it  ^v^M^-'^^J  ^«  "«  eonservative  to  aid  in  developing 
steam.  Mr.  Allaire's  associate,  me  too  c  ^^^^  ^^^^^^^^^^,^^       , 

a  better  method  of  ^^^^^^2^]yj^  voyages  on  the  Hudson 
tinned  to  light  the  »-.-«";- /^^^^  the  only  fuel  that  was  deemed 
Bivcr  for  a  longer  penod-Nvoocl         h 

practicable.  ..  u,,sincss  (  v  his  own  acc..unt  until  the 

Mr.  Allaire  continued  m     -^^  ^^  .^  „,,,,,  ^o  improve  and  sim- 

,oar  1842.  always  exerting   nms      to  ^^^.^^  ^^  ^^^^^.^^^  ^„^ 

plify  the  steam  engine,  ^^''^^ ^''llZZ\eot  imperfect  castings,  and 



1  -if) 

,'  built 
hed  in 
3  Fair, 

Vi/,  and 
3tal  liiid 
8  period 
e  flames 
as  they 
ra  of  the 
!  authra- 
inia,  and 
m  it  as  a 
ing  reso- 
r  of  Nep- 
er  furnace 
ick  stone," 
take  some 
cing  chief 
.  in  getting 
is  trial  had 
^el  to  make 
rtboats  con- 
the  Hudson 
was  deemed 

mt  until  the 
3ve  and  sira- 
details,  and 
castings,  and 
unless  it  was 
ire  associated 
porated  under 

the  statutes  of  the  State  of  New  York,  with  a  cash  capital  of  ^P.OO.Ono, 
and  thcytlected  him  tlieir  first  President— wliich  oinec  lie  filled  ''.r 
eight  years,  retiring  from  the  concern  in  1850.  Tlie  management  of 
tlie  works  tlien  passed  into  the  hands  of  T.  P.  Secor,  formerly  of  llie 
Morgan  Iron  Works,  who  is  general  agent  of  tlic  company,  and  the 
engines  of  tiie  steamers  Baltic,  Pad  fir,  lUinoix,  and  P«Ha»»a,  inay  bo 
cited  as  evidence  of  the  continued  capacity  of  the  Allaire  Works  to 
build  marine  engines.  Tiie  engines  of  tlie  Imac  Neidon,  Bay  Slair, 
and  Emjrire  Stale,  on  the  Hudson  lliver  and  Long  Island  Sound  ; 
the  Wr.-ilcrn  World,  Melropolii^,  and  Niagara,  on  Lake  Erie ;  and  the 
America  on  liake  Chami)hiin,  were  also  built  here. 

Among  the  more  recent  productions  of  this  rstablishracnt,  may  bo 
named  the  steamsliip  Vanderbilf,  as  liaving  tlie  largest  beam-engine  on 
a  sea-going  steamer— with  two  cylinders,  each  00  inclics  diameter,  and 
12  feet  stroke ;  tlio  steamers  Ha  Qaanrj,  Po  Yang,  Kin  Kiang,  and 
other  vessels  for  the  China  trade.  The  chief  work  of  this  establishment 
'.as  been  for  river  and  ocean  navigation  ;  but  stationary  engines  have 
also  been  built  here,  and  the  company  points  witli  pride  to  a  Cornish 
engine  at  the  Cleveland  (Ohio)  Water  Works,  as  a  specimen  of  theii 
skill  in  that  direction;   and   also  to   the  pumping  engines  of  New 


A  faint  idea  of  the  progressive  increase  of  this  manufacture  may  be 
gleaned  from  the  fact,  that  while  during  the  first  year  Mr.  AUnire  was 
Tn  business  as  an  engine  builder,  ho  was  able  to  complete  only  a  single 
one,  now  tlie  Allaire  Works  occupy  fifty-two  lots  of  ground,  each  25  by 
lOo'  feet,  and  employ  about  1000  workmen,  who  turn  out  machinery 
annually  that  is  estimated  to  be  worth  one  million  of  dollars.  A  large 
number  of  men  arc  now  employed  in  the  construction  of  a  propeller 
engine,  with  a  cylinder  100  inches  in  diameter  and  4  feet  stroke,  intended 
for  the  double-turreted  iron  clad  called  the  Puritan,  one  of  Captain 
Ericsson's  vessels  of  the  Monitor  style,  and  ordered  by  the  United 
States  Government. 

The  Novelty  Iron  Works. 

About  thirty-five  years  ago  Rev.  Eliphalet  Nott,  D.  D.,  President  of 
Union  College,  at  Schenectady,  New  York,  who  had  been  very  success- 
ful in  the  use  of  anthracite  coal  for  warming  houses,  invented  a  boiler, 
with  its  appurtenances,  for  applying  that  fuel,  then  not  used  for  such  a 
purpose,  to  the  generation  of  steam,  and  decided  to  test  its  merits  fully 
by  building  a  boat  and  equipping  it  with  his  improved  boiler  and  en- 



gines.    In  the  pl-B  ^•^;-'"''":^,Xltrird\"^^^^^^^^^ 
Ll.butancwb..ner  ando^.    n,ucc^  ^^^^^  ^^^^^  ^^^^^ 

York  waters.  His  »>ou  >  *— 7^'  ..j^^„,,,^,,."  Dr.  Nott,  finding  that 
conseciuently  received  the  --",,^:eial  arrangements,  not  only  for 
„i«  projected  wou  d   a  u.rt  b  ^^^^  .^^  ^^^^  ^^^.^^^^^  ^^j,^„. 

US  c'reatiou.  but  also  to  enable  Inm  t    k-p  ^^^^_^  ^^  ^^^.^^^  ^.,  p^j^, 
decided  to  purchase  the  P-  ^-;J'^,^,  ,,„,,  farm  buildings  furn.shed 
the  East  llivcr,  where  ^'^    J^J.^gi^es  of  the  Novelty  was  jn  a 
,U  the  room  he  reqmred.        -«   ^U   mechanical  resources.      From 
great  measure  built   here  ->  b  Inn  ^^^^  ^^^^^^  ^^^^^ 

L.  to  time  the  l-^f  ^'"f  ^,    ,td "m'k  for  other  parlies  to  be  under- 
increased  to  an  extent  that  «"^^1^'^^^^"  ,ji,,     i,ee  and  shop  where„.  they  were  applied  to  sue     P«   -0^   ^J    ^^^^^  ,^^^,„,,  ,„     „ 
this  work  was  being  done   01    he  ^^c-      woivKB,"-and  thus  originated 
ltt;:S:S;:l:^-i^sUU  known  throughout  the  engineer- 

^"-f  time  these  new  o.^Uons  w^ya^.d  f^  -:— 
was  conducted  by  the  ^•'";  "^''^  \ho  ,ad  recomn.ended  the  use 
euce  of  N.  IMiss.  formerly  of  the  West  ^^^_^^^^  ^^^^^^^^^  ^^^^^  ^,^^., 
of  the  hori/.ontal  style  ot  engine  toi  ^^  ^^  ^^^  ^^^^^^^      ^^^,^. 

K.  Dodd.  who  afterward  ^^''  '^''\  ,f  ^^,,  works,  until  the  year 

quently  Thomas  ^^^'^'^^'i    '  «  St*"--' ^^'^'^  '^^  ^^""";' 
^S38,  when  John  »•  Ward,  Ih^      «•  ^^^.^^^^  „,,,,i„,ry,  tods 

and  C.  St.  John  Seymour  P-;^-  ^^^^^^.^^  ,,0  name  of  Ward.  Stdl- 
and  fixtures,  and  <^^''^^'''\')l^^Zv^,,,  having  charge  of  the  mechan- 
„,,„  ,t  Co.-the  first  wo  of  ^^2^^^:^  ,1,,,,  gave  their  attention 
ieal  operations,  while  the  two  ^"^  "'^^'^^^^.....nent  was  in  their  hands, 
to  financial  affairs.  During  ^^-/li  as  greatly  increased,  and  among 
its  capacity  in  machinery  aijd    -^^J      ,f  ^,,,i,,,  the  Lion  and    he 

the  work  turned  out  -^^^  ^^  Z.vurn..i>  and  still  in  use  un  er 
Eacile,  constructed  for  thSp^>G  ^  .^^^^^  ^  ^,^  ^,,  , 

different  names.     In  IH^  ;  f  ^"™^^^,,i  ,„d  the  establishment  was  con- 
solved  by  the  retirement  oi  J^  D-  W      ,         ^_ ^^  ^^^  ^^^^^^^^  ^^^  ^^^,„,g 

ducted  by  Stillman  &  Co.  1"  ^^  ^  ,^  ,  .^ed  the  first  locomotive 
in  Horatio  Allen,  (the  Sf^^^^  business  was  conducted  under  the 
;„,i„e  into  this  country^  ^^^^^Z.  having  retired.  In  185..^ 
name  of  Stillman,  Allen  &  Co^-Air       y  ^^^^  ^^  ^^  incorporated 

the  stock,machinery  tools  pa  terns^^^^^^^^  ^^  ^       ^.rk, 

company,  —  V?  ^J^oVoOO  by  which  lomp-y  the  business  has  b^ea 
whose  cash  capital  IS  $300,000,  oy  ^^^  incorporation  of  tUit 

conducted  up  to  the  present  time. 



a  new 

in  New 
nv,  and 
ug  that 
only  for 
r  rei)air, 
oint,  on 
ms  in  a 
iiey  were 
ic  undcr- 
op  where 
lie  known 

0  business 
ed  tlie  nse 
jeiug  l^zi'a 
y.     Subsc- 

1  the  year 
[.  Stratton, 
inery,  tools 
^Vard,  Still- 
the  mechan- 
eir  attention 
their  hands, 
and  among 

ion  and  the 
M  use  under 
Co.  was  dis- 
icnt  was  con- 
,ed  by  taking 
5t  lofomotiva 
ed  under  the 
red.    In  1855, 
1  incorporated 
f  New  York, 
liness  has  been 
)ration  of  tbi» 

company  the  term  Novelty  Works  was  n^erely  a  designation  of  the  p  aco 
whexh  several  firms  carried  on  business;  but  su.ce  its  .ncorponU.oa 
T  Novelty  Iron  Works  is  the  legal  designation  of  the  body  corporate 
b  whom  the  works  are  carried  on.  At  present,  the  pr.nopa  manage- 
ment i.  hr  tlie  hands  of  IIouatio  Allkn,  President,  and  W.  L.  Everett 

''Th!re;:trance  to  the  works  is  on  Tweiah,  opposite  I^^y-Dc^k  Street^ 
where  there   is  a  large  gateway,  near  winch  is  a  portei  s  lolg     .ih 
doors  leading  to  the  offices  and  to  the  drawing-room      At  a  short  d  s- 
tal  from  the  gate,  and  within  the  enclosure,  there  is  a  great  crane  for 
iv    g  or  del'ering  the  vast  masses  of  metal,  such  as  shafts,  cylinders 
boilers,  vacuum  pans,  and  other  portions  of  the  ponderous  nnu  une  y 
that  a  0  continually  passing  to  and  from  the  yard.      y;'-'"g   «/'';  ^f ; 
and  just  beyond  the  crane,  is  the  iron  foundry-^  building  200  feet  long 
by.8     feet  tide,  with  a  wing  upon  one  side.     It  contains  four  cnpola 
furnaces,  capable  of  melting  at  one  heat  si.xty-  ve  tons  ou-on  which 
can  be  deposited  into  one  mould,  making  a  single  casting  of  that  ..-  o  - 
mous  wei  ht.     There  is  an  additional  furnace  for  special  uses  and 
elil  :;;"as  occasion  requires.     The  blast  for  the  furnaces  is  brought 
under  ground  through  a  pipe  having  a  sectional  area  of  five  square  feet 
Opposite  tht  furmvcc  are  six  drying  ovens,  each  having  a  railway  and 
two  carriages,  and  each  within  a  sweep  of  one  or  ™ore  of  six  cranes, 
some  of  which  are  capable  of  hoisting  twenty  tons.    Within  this  foundry 
and  below  the  surface  of  the  ground,  there  are  moulding  pits,  twelve  fee 
in  diameter  and  eighteen  feet  deep,  the  siaes  of  which  are  firmly  secured 
by  plates  of  boiler  iron  riveted  together.     Six  weeks  are  sometimes  re- 
quired to  prepare  the  moulds  for  loam  castings,  employing  froin  ten  to 
forty  men      Five  of  the  strongest  men  are  required  to  carry  a  ladle  ot 
molten  iron  from  the  furnaces  to  the  reservoir  from  which  it  is  dis- 
charged into  the  mould.     The  process  of  clearing  the  mould  and  hoist- 
ing  out   the   easting   requires   about  a  week.     In   illustration  of  the 
capacity  of  this  foundry  for  heavy  work,  it  is  sufficient  to  say  that_  here 
were   made  the  bed-plate  of  the  steamship  Atlo.nhc,  which   weighed 
thirty-seven  tons,  and  that  of  the  Arctic,  which  weighed  sixty  tons.     In 
the  summer  of  1854  there  was  also  cast  the  cylinder  of  the  steamship 
3MropoUs,  of  the  Fall  River  line,  which  was  then  the  largest  in  the 
world-having  a  diameter  of  105  inches,  and  a  length  of  U  feet,  with 
12  feet  stroke  of  piston.     Twenty-two  persons  sat  down  to  lunch  in  this 
cylinder,  with  room  to  spare,  and  a  horse  and  chaise  were  driven  through 
it,  both  backwards  and  forwards. 

In  the  smiths'  shop,  where  all  the  wrought  iron  parts  of  the  machinery 
are  formed  and  fitted,  there  are  thirty  forges,  with  the  requisite  number 


Of  men  to  each.  Here  ako  are  large  cranes,  with  chains  connecting 
with  L^U  t  ucks  on  the  top  of  the  beams,  for  carrying  w  atever  may 
ZlZL^eA  fnrther  outwa.i,  or  drawin,  it  in,  as  may  be  reqnued^ 
The  t^^neks  are  moved  by  a  wheel  at  the  foot  of  the  crane,  and  a  e 
rimble  0  carrying  extraordinary  weights.  In  one  instance  a  s.ngle 
3   of     on  was  forged  which  weighed  1 4,366  pounds.     When   o-  gn.g 

:h  e  ovmous  masses,  they  are  trucked  np  in  a  f"--  «  ^^J^^f' 
where  they  remain  several  hours.     The  masonry  is  then  broken  away 
a.d    h     re.l-hot  iron  is  lifted  by  the  crane  and  placed  under  a  massive 
trin-hlnn  er     When  the  process  of  forging  so  large  a  mass  of  .ron  . 
lo  mT  one  mar.  throws  water  upon  the  works  to  effect  some  purpose 
LTect    '  w  tV  the  scaling,  while  others  busy  themselves  about  getting 

Hnto  the  reauisite  sh.p.  a.d  dimensions  as  the  forging  proceeds. 
Adj^^.  g  teliths' shop  are  the  machine  and  finishing  shops,  wl... 

tho  cSe'    piston  rods,  and  other  parts  of  the  maclnnery,  after  bcnng 
tt    su  iccted  to  a  refining  and  polishing  process      These  are  pro - 


nl'J  s  to  Ue  them  the  required  curvature,  punching  machines  to  n.ake 

mitis    metal  ic  life-boat  builders,  instrument  makers,  hose   and   belt 

JlTl  Blips  c.,»ble  ot  occommoaatlng  the  largest  steum^.p. 

The  Delamater  Iron-Works 
a™  .it«.U,d  on  .ho  North  river,  at  the  foot  of  W«t  Thirteenth  «„d 
K,»rto.u.h  .treet..     They  were  founded  „  >''^>•7 '»^»;,'j,f  ^X  Iloirir  «nd  Cornelius  Dolamiiler,  who  earned  on  buH.mss  unflor 
fhc  ta^sVie™?  Uogg  &  Delamater,    Thi.  ar„  had  a  prev.ons  ex,.- 



ence  in  1842,  at  the  well  and  favornbly  known  Phoenix  Foundry,'  irt 
West  street,  between  Hubert  and  Vestry  streets,  which  dated  back  to 

The  Delamater  Works  are  distinguished  for  their  capacity  to  build 
very  iieavy  machinery,  and  have  built  larger  cylinders  than  have 
thus  far  been  cast  and  finished  at  any  otiicr  foundry  in  existence. 
The  original  air  engines  of  the  caloric  ship  EriofKon  were  constructed 
here,  which  had  eight  cylinders — four  of  which  each  measured  one  hun- 
dred and  sixty-eight  inches,  or  fourteen  feet  in  diameter  ;  and  the  four 
others  one  hundred  and  twenty  inches,  or  ten  feet;  the  former  having 
at  least  fifty-six  inches  greater  diameter  than  that  of  any  cylinder  that 
was  ever  cast,  finislied,  and  put  in  a  ship.  In  185.'),  the  firm  was  dis- 
solved, Mr.  Hogg  retiring,  and  Mr.  Delamater  remaining  to  conduct  the 
business  as  sole  proprietor.  Under  his  administration  the  Works  pros- 
pered, and  rapidly  increased  in  reputation  for  the  excellent  character 
of  the  work  finished  there.  As  occasion  required,  the  establishment 
was  enlarged,  new  tools  were  added,  and  every  facility  obtained  that 
was  necchsary  to  build  light  or  heavy  machinery,  with  the  highest 
degree  of  perfection,  in  the  shortest  possible  space  of  time.  During 
the  late  Rebellion,  the  Navy  Department  of  the  United  States  Govern- 
ment derived  very  substantial  aid  from  the  skill  and  enterprise  of  this 
establishment.  It  was  here  that  the  machinery  of  the  original  Monitor 
was  built;  and  the  entire  hull,  turretn,  and  machinery  of  the  iron-clad 
Dictator  were  also  constructed  here.  The  magnitude  of  the  under- 
taking will  be  best  understood,  when  it  is  stated  that  the  Dictator's 
dimensions  arc  three  hundred  and  twenty  feet  long,  fifty  feet  wide,  and 
twenty  feet  depth  of  hold.  Her  engines  have  two  upright  cylinders, 
one  hundred  inches  each  in  diameter,  and  six  return  flue  boilers.  The 
screw  propeller  is  twenty-one  feet  six  inches  in  diameter,  with  a  pilch 
of  thirty-two  feet.  The  steam  machinery  and  turrets  of  the  Knlnmazoo 
and  rasmconomy,  as  well  as  the  motive  power  of  several  of  tho 
iron-clads  known  to  the  public  as  tho  Monitor  class,  of  which  tho 
Pasmic  may  be  taken  as  a  reprcsentatire,  was  built  here,  because  no- 
where  else  could  they  have  been  constructed  within  tho  time  re(|uircd 
by  tho  government.  A  number  of  iron  steamers  were  constructed 
at  these  Works,  among  which  tho  Matatuas  is  regarded  as  a  vessel  that 
reflects  great  credit  upon  her  builders.     Since   1842,  tho  experimental 

(1)  Tho    Plicenix  Foundry,   previous   to  out  off  (team   by   tho   rlotachmont   of  the 

1842.  was   conducted   by    Mr.  Jnmes  Cun-  inlet  atoain  valvo,  on  invention  of  P.  Ho)ff?, 

ningliniii,    on    engineer  of   unusuftl   sl<ill,  then  nn  npprcntico,  in  ISSB.     Provioug  to 

who  contributed  liirgoiy  to  the  dovelopment  tliiit    diito.    independent    eutMiffc    in    tlio 

«f  river  murine  ongiucs,  and  wns  tlio  flrst  tu  stciim  pipes  wore  e-xclui-ivoly  \m-d. 

MMAKK*.-.   MAN^ACTOm..  OF   »«V  VO»K. 


f  r-u.tain  Ericsson,  have  all  beeti 
nvachiues,  air.  and  o^^^-^^f;;  ^^'llushu^ent,  superior  faciUties 
coustvuctea  by  tl.e  workmcu  of  tins 

beiug  cjoyca  h.n-0  for  the  purpose.  ^^^^^^^,^^^  ^^^^  f,.,„ting 

tL  Delauuuer  Works  occupy  '^^'f;  ^  ^^  ^^^^^  ,,  ThirtecUh  .treet, 
tbe  Nofth  river,  with  a  front  -^-\^'^l^  ,,  .aditional  groun-ls 
ana  au  c.,ual  space  on  ^^^'^^^C.  front  of  two  hundred  feet. 
on  tbe  south  side^^:;;>^^,^,  ,,  f-^^^'«  V' 1 -^^2 
by  one  hundred  deep.       U'c  c.ia  ^  nmchinery,besule«  sta- 

,4uisite  for  building  all  ^^^^l^^^^^,,,.  nvachinery.  .aehinery 
tionary  and  marine  ;;;      ^^ ^';.    ,  ,,,  considerable  expor.enco 
for  water-works,  ete..  the  P^" l-;/"     Xnical  engineering.     There  have 
i,  „,ost  of  tb^se  ^1^1-^-^"-;;^^ ;,'^J,t'welve  hundred  workmen,  of  all 
at  been  from  one    l^^"^^"^;*^^^";.,;,,.   during   the   past  year 
classes,  employed  hero,  the  -^^  ^^^  f^^.  ,„,,.  .lone  in  twelve 
$11,000  per  week,ecpial  to  *5'-'^';  J^,,,^^,^,,,^,  such  ^Yorks  is  taken 
L;uhs.     When  the  whole  ^^^^^J  for  labor  alone  is  but 
iato  aeeount.  and  that  the  -^  ^  "^^;^U,i,ful  that  such 
a  fraction  of  th«  ^^^'>*^' ^'^"VLecelfully  eondneted  under  the  pro- 
operations  ^bould  have  been  so  Buecc^^^    y  ^^^^  ^^^^  ^^^^^  .j,,,, 

nrietor.ship  of  a  single  individual.     Mo  ^^^^     ,,,ions  or  tirms 

C-  works  of  New  ^ovk  -v.  con  u^^.r  \ron-Works  have 
comprising   several   P^'-^'!*^'^  '    7,  'Veering  under  the  directum  of 
aehilved  aisti...vd..d  ^r^^^  -^^^  ^^J  ,,,,,,e  and  «nanc,al 
a  single  proprietor  pobscsbinb 

«r    u.    OPoree  W.  Quintard.  Proprietor, 
The  Morgan  Iron-Works-Oeorge  Vr. 

♦V  n  Vast  river  arc  another  of 
Looaied  at  the  ^^^^^^^  ^'^^^^ ZX^i  They  date  their  ori^u 
the  noted  Marine  l-;f- ^^  ^/'^harles  Morgan,  and  WiHuun  1. 
from  is:5».  ^vhen  T.  ^•-  .^^^"  '  .  .  t^  v.  Secor  &  Company,  based 
Cvlkiu.  trading  under  the  i"'--*;^ ^ '^'^^^^  ,,,,,1  buildings  >r 
^,ht  lots  of  grouml  at  that  ^^' ^ :,^,,,,,  of  all  kinds.  T  •• 
the  construction  of,  bo.l    s  a.  ^„,,n,nh,  and  the 

Li  nuu-lno  b..ilt  hero  w       f-^»-^^^^„,„,,  1841.  the  Works 
Lnunboat   Tro,,,  of  the  'Iroy  bno      In  ^^^^^  ,^^^^,,^^.^^ 

:;;  partially  destroyed  ^;y  '-•      ^^  ^^  ..ecess.  that  in  1S.G  the 



U  been 

h  sitveet, 
Ired  feet, 
Lh  every 
itlos  sta- 
icre  luivc 
len,  of  all 
past  year 
in  twelve 
;s  is  taken 
lone  is  but 
r  the  pro- 
•gc  Murine 
iirt  or  lirnis 
k'orks  have 
lirection  of 
ud  finaneial 


>  another  of 
.  their  origin 
William   H. 
ipany,  leased 
rs  suitable  for 
"  kinds.     The 
unnh,  and  the 
1,  the  Works 
Tlie  business 
at  in  1S46  the 
iiiodato  the  in- 
ith  nnd  Tenth 
lid  tho  Works 

enlarged  to  their  present  capacity.  They  also  purchased  one  half  of 
the  block  on  the  southerly  side  of  Ninth  street,  running  from  Avenue  U 
to  the  l']ast  river,  and  erected  thereon  the  present  oflices,  drawnig- 
rooms,  etc.  Among  the  first  large  engines  built  at  these  new  Works 
were  those  for  tho  steamers  New  World,  the  Crescent  CiUj,  and 
Empire  Cih/ ;  and  for  the  pioneer  steamers  of  the  United  States  Mai 
Steamship  Company,  tho  Ohio  and  Geoniia.  ,A  highly  successful 
business  was  prosecuted.  From  five  to  seven  hundred  men  were  em- 
ployed until  February,  1850,  when  George  W.  Ciuint..rd  became  sole 
proprietor,  and  the  firm  of  T.  F.  Secor  &  Comi>any  ceased  to  exist. 

Under  his  administration,  important  additions  have  been  made  to  the 
mechanical  resources  of  the  establishment  by  the  purchase  of  large  and 
improvd  planers,  lathes,  slotting  machines,  and  steam-hammens,  one 
of  which  is  capable  of  forging  sixteen  inch  shafts.  New  docks,  at 
which  vessels  of  the  largest  class  can  be  accommodated,  have  been 
built;  and  a  floating  derrick,  capable  of  lifting,  at  one  hoist,  seventy- 
five  tons,  has  been  erected. 

The  en-ines  in  some  of  tho  largest  of  our  sea-going  merchant  and 
war  vessels  were  built  at  these  Works;  and  those  of  two  of  the  fa.stest 
boats  running  on  the  Hudson  river,  were  designed  as  well  as  built  here, 
namely,  the  7'A<>ma.s  Powell,  forty-eight  inch  cylinder,  and  eleven  feet 
stroke  of  piston  ;  and  the  Iteindeer,  fifty-six  inch  cylinder,  and  twelve 

feet  stroke  of  piston.  _ 

Among  some  of  the  well-known  Ocean  steamers  running  from  New 
York   whose  engines  were  designed  and  built  at  these  Works,  are  the 
Oohiea  A<ie  and  QoUlen  Gale,  eighty-three  inch  cylinders  and  twe  ve 
feet  stroke  of  pistons  ;   Oeean  Queen,  ninety  inch  cylinder  and  twelve 
feet  stroke  of  piston;   Empire  Cih.l,  eighty-three   inch  cylinder  and 
nine  feet  stroke  of  piston  ;   Golden  Jlule,  eighty-one  inch  cylinder  and 
twelve   feet  stroke  of  piston  ;   Mixxis.ippi,  eighty  inch   cylinder  and 
eleven  feet  stroke  of  piston  ;    California,  sev.M.ty-two   iiu'li   cylin.ler 
ami  eleven   feet  stroke  of   pi.ston  ;   .SV,.   Franviseo,   seventy-six   inch 
cvlinder  and  twelve  feel  stroke  of  piston;    United  ,S7«/.-..,  sixty  inch 
cVliiid»>r  and  twelve  feet  stroke  of  piston  ;   Fallon,  sixty-five  inch  cylm- 
der  and  ten  feet  stroke  of  piston  ;    Charle,  Moraan,  sixty  inch  cylinder 
an.l  eleven  feet  stroke  of  piston  ;  Herman   Li'-i»r,,lon   and   General 
Jiarnex,  sixty  inch  cylinders  and  ten  feet  stroke  of  pistons  ;  De  Solo  and 
7^V.nv7/fi,  sixtv-five  inch  cvlinders  and  eleven  feet  stroke  of  pi.slous; 
Mnnhnllan  and  Vera  Cruz,  sixty  inch  cylinders  and  eleven  feet  stroke 
of  pistons;  lirolher  Jonathan,  seventy-two  inch  cylinder  and  eleven 

feet  stroke  of  piston.  _ 

Of  vessels  for  tho  United  States  Government,  may  be  mentioned  the 



.„„Wc..„rrc,cd  Monitor  0„o,.,H«.  ean-yi»6  'wo  «'«;  ■»* '^f^P;" 
:.  uvo  P..™..  gun.  She  h„»  fo„,  -'^^f  ^^ ;^t  1"  -td 
der  «n,l  eiBl,l«n  i„ch  *«kc  »' .l>'f "  .  ^  '  ^^2:  inch  B.vokc, 
by  .  pair  of  cn^inoB  of  '-"«-»  "„';^,  ;  ,  i .  entirely  of  i™n, 
besiilM  Blower  eiisines,  etc.     Ho  It  tne  "'"'■  ^^ 

.„d  .„e  ,n.cMncry,  were  ''»-«""-'■;»:;';  ■^tlL  L.ul,  the 
a  rom,U»l.le  mWition  to  <»"  ■'""■'^'"•"  "'=';"„„,;'  „„  „,  ,  ,,„ir  of  Reared 
engine,  of  the  Bioop-of-wnr  .l„>mo»»«-,  ■■""        '^°  ,  ,  ,^.,,  ,„-olie  of 

„4,„™  of  ^;^^-'^tj::::Sl'Z::^,  .nei.  ey„„der. 


inch  evlin.ier  «"^<l'"-'V-;,X,f'-M«" '»"-*'''  »'  '»" 
„ls„  bnilt  the  engtneB  t,r  '!'«  *»    f''  ^    ,,j  ,„t  ,„.„ke-t»in 

l,ack.«eli..)!  enBine».  tl"rty  "leh    >'  '"'='   °"  '  '^^i,  ,,„,,»,,,, 
,,v„,eller^  of  »iK  l>ia<le,  eaA-wlMch  toge  1  a  -  h^^ 

U  .ir.,."."l>,  ««.  o'  --■'  r  nl  i^   ,"  c/poW  :,«»o,  eighty-four 

„„„„  her. ,  ond  a,.o  tho»  '"--^l^'  ^  7^:  ::  ionB.rneted  .otne 

l!osid..»  ntarnte  <•"?'"»»•    ''°.'°' ?;;„\,„.„.„a,,  ,„»  largest  l-cing 

very  i,n,.oHa„l  Pnn,,,.,g  '•■"«  "««'»;  ^^^^^  „,,„„„,  „,,al,le  of 


,.ll»e  were  for  "^-«-;°,*:: J  rjll  "„  ^     S.  foundries  and 

j;:  r  r::::;^:::;  **^^^^^  >-  «-„  are  c„,,ioyed  .o-n 

oijht 'hundred  to  one  thousand  workmen. 

The  C.ntineut.1  Work.-Thoma.  F.  Eowlatd,  Iroprietor, 

loeated  at  «reen„„int,  i,  a  ''^^'^-^i;Z:::^::ri:::l^ 
attained  prontinencewithm  a  ew  yea.  ivi  *    "u  =  ^^^^^^^^ 

important  eontraet.    espeet.lly    to       '^   ««•;.     f„„  vVork»  of  New 

rirriatronrrr,-  .1 ..  -..,. 

the  yard  where  vessel,  nmy  bo  moored  proprietor 

of  tbcHe  Work.,  was  one  the  ^^'^  "'  JY  ^        ,     ,^,,1,,  «,vcn  and 
in  which  Mr.  Rowland  agreed  to  eoniitruct  a  w.ought 



.  hnlf  fct  i«  Jiamctcr,  a.,.!  over  a  qu.rtcr  of  »»  in  IcnRll.,  »ml 
ir  t  c    «.ue  o„  the  to,,  of  the  bisl.  briJgo  over  the  ll.ri.o,,,  r,v  r- 

.,,0  c,.ou,„  A,.,.aoet  «■";, -^';;f„:;:rrw::«v:i:vki«. 
rrT^rrrXLii  .'>.  ro„r , ,.„„«„- .. 

'f  wrousUt.h„„  ,...te,  half  ..>  iueh  ll.ieU,  »,kI  four  huudrej  ton.  or 

^  •?,  iJnn  Floatiu-  Battery  in  accordance  with  Ericsson's  plans, 
^r  s^l  w  ^  el'l  rln  L  continental  WorUs  January  30t.. 
W>  and  arrived  at  Fortress  Monroe,  March  0th,  the  same  year, 
1802,  and   a  uvc  M,„.i,.,,e,  establishing^  a  complete  revohi- 

where  she  fonght  the  rc')U  _  _^  contracted  to 

""^rr:  U,.  ce,„pletio„  of  U..e  iron-cl  A  be  „,*«„„k  «,e  ce„.i™c- 
.•        f  1.  hull  ami  luiT«t«  of  iroo-clml  Ijatteiy  "  Oiioml«g»,"  from  Ml 
Z  W  a       an    w.,0  l>a„  eonUaCea  ,v,.l.  .ho  ^^^'^"'"'^-^^^-ft 
1        „.i«t.,  •  mul  -ilso  built  the  iron-clad  battery     Cohot.^, 

....      Till,  hull  of  the  ocean  iron-daJ  halteiy     1  nman,    na» 
r   ,      „„  ll  a  le    being  lanuehcd  wa>  lahl  np  in  ordinary  «.  the 
';:;:*;;  Cv«"Ui.c've.urn  of  having  .-enaere,.  her  eon.. 

"'C  :!«—  at  .be  pre,c„t  time  1,  engaged  In  building  Iron 
..uiTbe  virion,  indu».ri.l  ,,nr.ui,.  of  the  Southern  ...te». 



The  Etna  Iron-WorkB-John  Roach  &  Son,  Proprietors. 

Those  extensive  and  justly  celebrated  Works,  like  most  of  the  other 
„oortirelblishn,entB  in  this  -untry,  had  an  hun^>le  and  unpre 
to,  MnroH^in.  The  original  building  was  erected  by  Mr.  John  Glass, 
T:^  lot  of  ground,  twenty-fwe  by  -e  "re  -t^^^^^^^ 
RiLniod  for  the  purpose  of  making  small  castmgs.  In  18.>2,  ^1'-  ''o.'"^ 
Ro  2  m  r  Led  the  premises ;  and  though  his  cash  eap-tal  ,n  the  beg  n- 
fin'  w        in  ited  to  le  insignificant  sum  of  two  hundred  dollars,  he 

B^  h    V         most  remarkable  success,  for  the  Works  in  some  respec^^^^^^ 

„  ent    o'v  rs  a  whole  block,  four  hundred  and  ten  feet  long  by  one  hun- 
S  ^nd  ninety-eight  feet  deop-^bounded  by  four  streets-and  ,s  four 

""T:^  ^t^;ital  fro.  the  legitimate  profits  of  tl.  business  had  in- 
creTs  d  Buffieieitly  to  justify  the  undertaking  Mr.  Roach  roso  ved  to 
supply  a  great  national  want  by  the  erection  of  an  estab  ,shm  nt  pio- 
X'with  facilities  for  constructing  larger  Marine  Engmes  than  any 
hm  tofore  built  in  th>s  country.     With  this  object  m  v,ew.  he  m  ISfiO 
de  patched  a  confidenlial  agent  to  Europe  with  instructions   o  examme 
aU  t^^  most  extensive  Works  abroad,  and  note  every  tlnng  tha   ho  saw 
new  or    ikely  to  be  valuable.     Having  himself  been  an  employee  „. 
oTe."       iL  best  Marine  Engine  Works  of  this  -untry  and  havmg 
0 I'v  nod  from  the  report  ^f  his  agent  a  knowledge  of  the  facht,  s 
en      4  by  European  establishments,  he  was  enabled  to  avad  hunself 
0?  a  1  advantages  iu  arrangement  and  selection  of  machinery.    Among 
1  m        excellent  tools  with  which  these  Works  are  equ.pped  then, 
„  I  a    least  two  that  in  size  are     )t  equalled  by  any  m  th.s  com  ry, 
U    a  irer't  at  will  carry  a  nundred  tons  weight,  and  work  four 
::;:,     \  r^a  teland  a'athe,  that  Is  now  capable  of  boring  a 
cvl^r  of  a  diameter  of  one  hundred  and  twelve  Inches,  and  can  bo 
eS  Ilterod  to  swing  twenty-eight  feet  in  diameter      In  fact.    1  e 
"nities  of  the  establishment  are  such,  that,  it  Is  conceded,  more  wm-k 
':         executed  hero  in  a  given  time,  than  can  be  '^onc  el.whe^ 
oi  her  in  this  country  or  irt  Europe.     A"  ^n^me.  fro.n  tl  o  tune    he 
.'  tg    are  made  uniil  its  completion.  Is  pushed  forward  through      o 
„r  oiH  processes  with   an  ease  and  celerity  truly  remad<able  ;  and 
"v      nt      which,  in  the  construction  of  engines,  as  of  houses,   are 
^        :  nude  at  certain  periods,  according  to  the  progress  of  the  work. 



are  reached  with  a  rapidity  wholly  unprecedented  in  similar  cstablish- 

""  Durin,  the  past  few  years  there  have  been  employed  in  these  Works 
from  nl  '  hundred  to  fifteen  hundred  worknu^n  of  all  grades 
ome  0    tl     most  skilful  and  accomplished  that  the  olTer  o   to    ,, 
Xs   could   obtain.      The   whole  establishment  is  eontro  led  by  a 
u  ^  n:..dingengineer,  Mr.  T.  Main,  directly  responsible  to  t  e  pro^.  - 
etor-  while  the  foremen  of  the  various  departments  are  abso  ut ely  su- 
premet  their  own  sphere,  yet  responsible  to  the  superintendent     rom 
wl!     decisions  there  is  no  appeal.    By  this  means  a  s.ngle  eontn     ng 
ntelleet  is  felt  in  the  most  minute  details ;  ana  the  consequences  a  mot 
thoroughly  disciplined  workshop,  with  a  Napoleonic  method  of  reward- 
ing fidelity  and  skill  when  found  a  characteristic  of  a  workman 

To  the  Etna  Iron-Works  belong  the  credit  of  having  cas  and  finished 
some       he  largest  steam  cylinders  ever  mode.    The  United  States  Gov- 
lent  steam'ram  Dunar,rbcrrfs  two  engines  were  built  here  each 
having  a  diameter  of  one  hundred  and  twelve  inches,  or  nine     et  and 
four  inches,  with  twelve  feet  stroke  of  piston-which  ai.  among  the  very 
a  gest  steam-engines  that  were  ever  built.      Yet  the  workmen  ha 
little  or  no  more  difficulty  iu  finishing  these  immense  casting,  than  if 
they  had  been  of  the  usual  size  of  ordinary  marine  engines.      1  h.  en- 
IL  of  the  Bristol  and  Providence,  for  the   Merchants    feteamsh.p 
Comnauv  each  having  a  cylinder  one  hundred  and  ten  inches,  were 
buTh  re      So,  too,  lere  tlse  of  the  liisin,  Slar,  the  Warru.,  and 
the  engines  and  machinery  of  the  United  States  Government  double- 
end  gunboat  Winooski,  and  the  steam  frigate  Neshamimj. 

Th"  Etna  Iron-Works  are  not  only  creditable  to  the  enterprise  and 
skill  of  their  proprietor,  but  they  represent  well  the  progressive  charac- 
ter of  the  American  people,  whose  patronage  has  «"f' »''^^\'f;.-  J' 
is  of  course  impossible  to  foresee  the  future  wants  of  a  rapidly  glow- 
ing nation,  but  it  seems  probable  that  these  Works  are  prepared  to 
anticipate  any  demand  for  still  heavier  machinery  that  may  bo  mado 
upon  them  for  the  next  quarter  of  a  century. 

Besides  her  Marine  Engine  Works,  New  York  is  famous  for  the  nuinber 
of  her  ship  vards,  and  the  eminence  of  her  ship-buiiders,  though  to 
notice  them  we  shall  be  compelled  to  digress  from  the  plan  Im.iting 
descriptions  to  establishments,  and  trespass  upon  the  province  ol  i.iogra- 
phv  The  department  in  which  the  ship-builders  of  New  York  have 
'  sp.>cially  achieved  eminence,  is  in  the  construction  of  steamers.  In  no 
othorcityof  the  United  States  have  so  many  large  steamships  be..>i 
built  and  at  this  time  nearly  all  the  work  is  of  this  class,  there  bcng 

136  KEMABKABI.E   smi'    VAl.DS  OP   NEW   VOBK. 

modelled  aud  built,  is 

The  Ship  Yard  of  Wm.  H.  Webb. 

19th,  1810,  of  parents  whose  aneestiy  on  the  ^^^^  ^ 

,.a  on   the   -'^    Huguenot       III.  fatl^-^^I^^^^^^ 
member  of  the  ship-building  firm  o   ^  ebb  &  -^  '^°:  \        ,^.  j„  ^^  war 
was  associated  with  Henry  Eckford,  an  -'"      ^'^i  o   grammar 

of  1812.     Educated  in  the  schools  of  the    and  at    J 

Ilholl  of  Columbia  College,  ^^^^^  ^^^rXe  age^" 
position  in  mathematics,  young  ^ebb  at    tie  a  ^^y,,^,,^  ^n 

igainst  the  wishes  oi  his  P'^ents  to  aWd  n  ^^'^  ,^^  ^,^ 

--t:"^,r:::  w^i  ^':^, "  •:;;  :r;ent  pnudpany  m 

vi..  :  that  at  the  Boston  >avy  YtJlZ.^iely  York  and  Liver- 
..aertookasub-eon^^^^t  e^l^^  Line,  Char.s  H 

pool  racivet  smp      Oxfoid,    ot  me  entrusted 

Marshall,  agent,  though  previous    «    '^^^     '^^^  ^^  and  the  direction 
with  the  -agement  of  ^rge  ijumb^^-;^^^ 
of  works  of  importance.    Ho  puisuta  ,       when,  his  health 

as  sub-contractor  until  he  attained  tl-  age  of  U^^^       -  ,  .^^  _^^^^^^^ 

failing,  he  made  a  voyage  to ^^^^^^^^^Z.  involved.    Afte. 

^y^^'^'^'''::!:^T^:fZ^r^^,  with  M.  Allen,his 
these  wcM-e  arranged,  1-  o  »^-^'  jg^o  which  continued  for  three  years, 
father's  former  partner,  Api    1    .  1  «.  ^  ^^^^^.^^^_^^  ^^  ^  .^  ^^^^.^, 

when  Mr.  Allen  relinquished  the  th  n  p  os  ,emarkable 

uev-who  has  ^;--:J:-^;  ^  :!i^a:::tl^ty.three  vessels 
X:n:::::;r:i^ot;r:rth.  that  of  any  other  individual 

builder  in  t'-^^^'^-^^;;^^;;-^,,  ,i,Hed  St.  Petersburg,  and  received  a 
In  the  year   1852,  Ml.  "to"  ,-.,.  tho  llussian  Government. 

oontract  .'.n-  WUU„g  a  ""-°'-''»";f  '*;,",      evo™nc„  of  .1,0 

i„d„mi..l.lo  ^^"ff;;,:''     :  ,  X"  it,  a,  i.  „a.  contrary  l»  tbe  prac 
r  "in":— *^ L;::o»».^  or  war  WU  or  U.  Oo.. 



ro  been 

■k,  June 
,  was  a 
uy  years 
the  war 
,  highest 
licited  au 
ud  for  six 
cipally  in 
s  countvy, 
wciity,  he 
md  I  liver- 
Charles  H. 
1  entrusted 
0  direction 
hig  vessels 
1,  his  health 
lily  recalled 
ved.    Aftel 
.  Allen,  his 
three  years, 
to  his  part- 
liree  vessels, 
r  individual 

id  received  a 
■ranco  of  the 
latched  twice 
y  to  the  prac- 
Ic  of  the  Gov- 

ernment Yards.     The  vessel,  as  originally  contracted  for,  was  to  have 
ninety  guns  ;  but  the  occurrence  of  war  between  Russia  and  the  allies 
having  interposed  an  obstacle  to  the  prosecution  of  the  work  as  a  v.ola- 
tion  of  the  neutrality  laws,  on  its  cessation  a  new  plan  and  model, 
designed  by  Mr.  Webb,  were  adopted,  with  a  less  number  of  guns, 
thou.^h  of  larger  calibre. .    The  vessel  was  built  in  accordance  with  this 
plan°uotwithstanding  the  written  protest  of  the  Representatives  of  the 
Russian  Government,  and  the  fact  that  it  was  never  approved  by  the 
officials  until  after  trial,  when  they  were  not  sparing  in  Lheir  testi- 
monials  of  approval   and  expressions  of  satisfaction.     Oa  September 
21st   1858,  this  steam  frigate  of  seventy-two  guns,  seven  thousand  tons 
displacement,  named  the  "  General  Admiral,"  in  honor  of  the  Grand 
Duke  Constantine,  was  launched,  and  has  proved  to  be  the  fastest  steapi 
vessel  of  war  yet  built,  having  made  the  passage  between  New  \ork 
and   Cherbourg,  in  France,  in  the  unprecedented  time  of  eleven  days 
and  eight  hours,  mostlj  under  steam  alone. 

In  18G0  Mr.  Webb  received  an  order  from  Count  Cavour,  Trmie 
Minister  of  Italy,  who  sent  for  him  to  visit  that  country  to  conclude 
the  contract  to  build  two  iron-clad  steam  screw  frigates  of  thu-ty- 
six  laro-e  guns,  six  thousand  tons  displacement.     These  vessels  were 
clad  wiUi  iron  plates  four  and  a  half  inches  in  thickness,  from  five 
and  a  half  feet  below  water  line  to  the  upper  deck,  and  when  finished 
were  found  to  possess  extraordinary  speed  and  sea  going  (tualities, 
•making  the  passage  from  New  York  to  Naples,  a  distance  of  over  five 
thousand  miles,  in  eighteen  days  and  twenty  hours,  principally  with 
steam  power,  and  in  the  winter  season     These  vessels  were  contracted 
for  iust  previous  to  the  breaking  out  of  the  late  Rebellion,  and  con- 
structed during  that  time,  when  the  demands  of  our  own  Government 
were  pressing,  and  prices  of  materials  had  advanced  largely,  ).it  no 
reclamation  was  made  upon  the  Italian  Government  for  an  additional 
allowance  on  that  account,  and  afford  a  convincing  proof  of  the  capa- 
bilities of  the  ship-building  establishments  of  the  city  of  New  \  ork  ^ 
Among  the  remarkable  vessels  now  nearly  completed  at  Mr.  W  ebl)  .s 
ship  yard,  is  the  steam  screw  iron-clad  Ram,  the  "  Dundorberg,"  ordered 
by  the  United  States  Government.     This  is  the  largest  iron-clad  thnt 
has  yet  been  built,  being  s.ven  thousand  two  hundred  tons  displace- 
uient   and  affords  more  room  for  fuel,  stores,  provisions,  and  accomino- 
dations  for  officers,  crew,  and  marines,  than  any  other  vessel  of  this 
description  that  has  yet  been  built.     The  hull  is  massive,  being  .solid 
from  stem  to  stern,  is  three  hundred  and  seventy-eight  feet  long,  sixty- 
eight  feet  wide,  and  thirty-two  feet  deep.     The  frame  timbers,  twelve 
to  twentv  inches  thick,  are  caulked  and  planked,  and  over  the  plaiikmg 


,.ocou.esor.eavy  .can.  ^^^J^  '^:^Z:S^:%^  "mC 
to  seven  feet  of  solid  tnnbex  on  I''        ^^,^,  ,;,,,,,,  f,,u  the  tnr- 

vessel.embraeinsacaBemato,.Bcnmeb  ^        .         ^^^,,,,,^  ,, 

ret  ov  .ouitor  class  the  ^^-ng^^^Xc  tbo  scvow/instcad  of  aft  as 
one  of  the  two  ^'-'^^-'^'^^f ",,,,;  for  a  sea  going  iron-clad,  and  .s 
usual.     She  is  constrncted  expic     y  ^^^^^^      ^^^^,  ^^^^^^.,,. 

expected  to  n.ake  fifteen  ^'^l^^^^    with  a  prow  of  very  pccnliar 
tivc  power  is  ^!"7^-;;/;;5.:r,t,  1  eo/ered  with  an  iron  poaU, 
shape,  fifty  feet  ni  Icng  h,  of  ^^  "^  J"     '        ,  ^^^^,^,^,  wooden  or  iron- 
which  it  is  helieved  w.ll  V^^^^^^  \^^  f.rce  the  Dnnderberg 
clad,  that  has  yet  been  ^"^'^^^'^j^^een  guns,  on  slide  carriages, 
can  give.     She  is  also  --f  ^^^^^^^^     ^.^  each   460.pound  shot, 
four  of  them  being  fifteen  ^^^fj^^'^'^^^J^^^^^^       shot,  with  two 
and  twelve  eleven  inch  gun.    ^''•J!"^^'^^         J         ;„,,  ^an  be 

^rf-r:^^  ^^^^^ '- '--'''- '-  ""'■  '"'^' 

mounted  it  requiu.u. 

sand  and  twenty-four  ponndof^^^^^^^^  ^^  ^^.  ^^,^^,^,^  ^,,^  y,,,  . 

Among  the  new  vessels  now  be,ng  ^^  ^^^^  ^^^^  Boston,  each 

are  also  two  steamers  for  a  Ime  bet  we  ^^^       i^o  feet  in  width, 

,3eing  three  hundred  and  ^^^'^ ^'^^'^'^^^^^^^^ 
and  sixteen  feet  deep,  -^  ^^/^f  ^jCndsco  and  China.     This  is 
Steamship  Line,  to  run  ^^^J^^^^^^^ 

one  of  the  largest  steamers  ^^^^  ^^^^ty^^^,,,  ..ide,  and  thirty-one 
three  hundred  and  --*>'  -\  ^  f  foTlmmodate  about  one  thou- 
and  a  half  feot  deep,  and  is  "^^^"J^^  ^^f^.^-  ^t.  As  this  vessel  is  de- 
sand  passengers,  and  a  tl-u    -      ^  ^J  ^^  ,,  ,  ,p,,a,  elements  of 

signed  to  combine  the  g^-f^^^^  .^^'^^'^^  '  J^ed  by  Mr.  Webb  have  been 
stl.gth  in  accordance  with  a  ijWi  ong ui^t  c     y     ^^  ^^^^^  ^^^^^^^ 

,,,oduced  in  YTCZ^::^^^  that  have  been  constructed 

To  enumerate  all  the  imponai  .„,i:„„a  task     The  list  com- 

,y  Mr.  Webb  in  twenty  years  wou     ^^^^^.^^^  ,i,ty-five 

pLes  three  sloops,  ^'^^^^^^''^Zy^^^^^^  steamships,  in  all  one 
ships,  nine  steamboats,  ^nd  tw^.nt  ^>gh  „,gregate  capacity  of  nearly 
hundred  and  thirty-three  vessels,  wd    an  agg    g  ^^^^^  ^^ 

200.000  tons.  Among  the  sading  -^^^;;;  ^/^^^  ,  f.^^or  times, 
the  famous  London,  Liverpool.  -;^/\^  ^  J^^.e  deck  freighting 
.  i,,iuding  the  "  Guy  ^^^^^^;^^^^J^,^  Monarch,"  of  three 
ship  ever  built  in  tins  conntry '  the J^^  ^^  ,^.^,,,,  than  any  ship 
thousand  tons,  which  -J-d  a  la  ge  an^un  to  ,^^^^^^^^^  ^^^^^^  ^^ 
huilt  in  any  conntry,  ^^^"S Joac^^d  o    r  ^i^,,„„ 

•       cotton   with  the  ^^traordmary  loxv         ugh  ,,^,^^^^j_ 

and  a  half  feet  of  water;  and  the  chppei  ships. 



of  five 
-f  the 
;ie  tur- 
vcl,  as 
aft,  as 
aiitl  is 
m  poak, 
or  iron- 
id  sliot, 
rhh  two 
iri  can  be 
)ur  thou- 

sbipyra-d  • 
tou, each 
in  width, 
he  Tacilio 
.  This  is 
,try,  being  • 

one  thou- 
issel  is  de- 
lements  of 

have  been 
le  list  com- 
s,  sixty-five 
3,  in  all  one 
ty  of  nearly 
jre  many  of 
irmcr  times, 
k  freighting 
jh,"  of  three 
han  any  ship 
ind  bales  of 
ling  eighteen 
3na,"  "Chah 

lonffo  "  '■  Comet,"  "  Invincible,"  ","  "  Young  America,  an  I 
"  Black  Hawk."  Of  these  ship^,  the  ""  made  the  passage  rou, 
New  York  to  San  Francisco  in  ninety  days,  from  wharf  to  wharf  at  tl.' 
respective  ports,  and  the  "Comet"  made  five  successive  passn^ro. 
between  the  san>e  ports  that  averaged  one  hundred  days,  one  of  wluch 
from  San  Francisco  to  New  York,  was  made  in  scvcnty-six  days  the 
shortest  on  record,  and  run,  during  one  voyage,  in  three  successive  days, 
nine  hundred  and  sixtv-six  knots,  or  about  one  thousand  and  twenty- 
five  statute  miles  ;  and  in  one  day,  three  hundred  and  thirty-two  knots. 
or  about  three  hundred  and  eighty-live  statute  miles  Among  the 
steamships  built  by  Mr.  Webb,  are  the  "  TTnited  States,"  the    rs   lai^e 

steamer  built  for  the  New  Orleans  trade  ;  tl^V  .""'^p  ,t  '  J'  Mb 
large  steamer  built  for  the  Savannah  trade  ;  and  the  "  California,  the 
first  steamer  built  in  this  country  for  the  Tacific  trade,  and  the  first  > 
Pntcr  the  Golden  Gate  in  1841).  where  now  an  immense  fleet  of  sea  and 
river  steamers  traverse  the  broad  waters.  Nearly  all  the  large  steamers 
eno-a-ved  in  the  Pacific  trade  have  been  built  in  his  yard. 

Such  a  record  of  successful  enterprise,  in  an  important  and  ditficu  t 
department,  requiring  for  its  prosecution  mental  (lualities  of  a  high 
order,  is  its  own  best  eulogy. 

The  Westervelt  Ship  Yard, 

Occupving  the  block  bounded  by  Third,  Goerck.  Houston  and  tlie  East 
Rive,-  is  another  of  the  extensive  ship  yards  for  which  New  \ork  's 
noted  Mr.  Jacob  A.  Westervelt  is  probably  the  oldest  ship-buildor 
now  engaged  in  active  business;  and  has  constructed,  it  is  behevcd. 
more  vessels  of  a  medium  tonnage  than  any  other  sh.p-budder  m  the 
United  States.  His  history,  which  has  points  of  instruction,  as  well 
as  of  interest,  is  briefly  as  follows  : 

He  was  born  in  Bergen  county.  New  Jersey.  January  20t^h,  ISO  , 
but  removed  with  his  father  to  the  city  of  New  York,  m  I8O0.  Aftc  i 
the  decease  of  his  father,  which  occurred  in  1814,  he  dotermmed  upon 
jroing  to  sea,  and  shipi^ed.  as  boy  before  the  mast,  in  a  vessel  bound  to 
Chadeston,  South  Carolina.  Shortly  after  his  arrival  there  the  vessel 
was  sold,  and  he  suddenly  found  himself  a  stranger  in  Charleston,  w,  h 
„„lv  fifteen  dollars  in  his  pocket.  After  remaining  there  until  nearly 
everv  dollar  was  spent,  he  again  shipped  as  seaman  on  board  a  ship 
nound  to  Bordeaux,  France.  After  making  several  voyages  to  iMiropo 
he  concluded  upon  abandoning  the  sea,  and  learning  the  art  and  inystovv 
of  ship-buildimr.     With  this  intention,  being  then  m  his  si.Kt*;entii  yenr. 


extondoa   him  l.y  a  gon.U..n.uwcsu   n^  m  Ll^  .^  ^^^^^  ^^^^^^_ 

Una.  to  undertaUc  the  cons^ueUon   ^    j.^^^      .^  ,^,,,enticoshi,  not 
Having  ul.tainod  the  conseut  oi  h       n  p    J  ^^^^      ^^  ^.^^^.  ^^„,^ 

baving  expirea).  he  at  ^2::^.^ ^  .Uu.on  days,  landed  safely 
and  after  a  stovn.y  and  daugeions  pa.  -  a  ^^^^    employn.g 

I  Charleston.  He  at  once  ^^^^l^^::,,,  vending  in  and 
in  their  constrnctiou  negro  nlaNts  o^^'  ^J*  ^.^.^,^.,,  i,e  rctnrned 
around  Charleston.  Upon  the  ^^^[n^,^  i,,,,,  •  with  whon. 
to  New  York,  and  at  once  ^^^^^  ^^"^^^^  f,„,  i.u.inesB.  in  the 
he  renmined  associated  nntd  Mr.   ^^^J"  ^ears,  sev.nty-one  vessels, 

rcu,.mca  uino  "'»»"''■  •""'";'"■:  '^/X;  Mrcct),  whore   be  bailt 

z;r:::^:n:cir:^:r:^^^^^^ ea .,.»«.. 

opening  trade  to  Califomm.  connection  with  Mr.  Edward 

Mr.  Westervelt  o^-'S'^ji^^^^^^ton'  ^  d  "  lIorn>ann."  the  pioneers  of 

Mills,  the  steamships  "  '^'^^^X^"^^^^-' ^^''^ ''''''''''''" 
American  Ocean  Steamers.     ^^^^"^    ^^^^^  ,,  uiui  shortly  after; 

t;.  first  of  the  present  "-^•^•'^/>"% ":^'  J^.^r  "  Arago  ;"  now  runni.>g 
ana  at  a  more  recent  date  ^^^^:]^^Z..a;^  "now  owned  by  the 
in  the  same  line  ;  -^^«  ^^'^  f  ^^^  .^f.:  j  ,,„ie,'' and  "  Moro  Castle." 
United    States  Governmen  ,  and  the  .         ^^^^   ^^^^^  ^^^^^^,^^^^^ 

owned   by  Spofford,  '^^^^^^^^on  &  Co-      A        g^^^^^       ^^  ^^^^^^^^^^^  ^^^^ 

clipper  ships  ^-l^^^^/"':;;rb  fof  tssels  for  the   American   and 
"  Sweepstakes."     Quite  a  "«"^^"\.^  ,  ^   ^^■,,,,     ^niong  which  may 

,o,eignVvevnments  hav.  ^^^ ^^^^t^  tois.  built  in  the  year- 
be  named  the  frigate  "  Hope,    of  two  '^  „  ,^,  u>e  Spanish 

1825,  for  the  Greek  G^'--"^'^",  ''^'^...^Tast  ear,  for  the  Japanese 
Government;  the  "Fus.yama,'  ',"«»^^^^  j^,,  ?.  Kankakee,"  and  sloop 
Government;  ^nd  the  '' ^f  7'  .  f  g^'s  Government.  The  last 
of  war  "Brooklyn,"  for  the  ^"^^^^J^^^^^^^^^^ 


an  wua 


Iiil»  not 
ty  tons, 
d  safely 

iu  anil 
h  whom 
i3,  in  the 
i)  vpsspIs, 
\  titiy  to 

ivhevo  he 
ss,  taking 

he  built 
.1  ho  re- 
nth  street 

kept  well 
y  the  then 

[r.  Edward 

[)ioneors  of 
ii-tly  after  ; 
low  running 
vncd  by  the 
vo    Castle," 
)  celebrated 
ontest,"  and 
nerican   and 
g  which  may 
t  in  the  year 
•  the  Spanish 
he  Japanese 
c,"  and  sloop 
it.     The  last 
,0  none  in  our 



Farragut  has  repeatedly  asserted  that  she  is  the  most  ''."j^j-^  -;:;^^; 

d     V  n.s  f  r  the  vessel.     It  may  hero  be  stated  that  Mr.   ^V  es  e    e  t 
Xu^.  never  a  politieian  from  ehoiee  or  ^^f^^^^:^:^^^J^^^ 
important  public  positions,  and  after  representn.g  lus^^ald  and  suvng 
0    manv  impo-'tant  committees,  he  was  in  the  year  18o2  elected  to   he 
Ma^luty  of  New  York,  by  one  of  the  largest  majont.cs  ever  given  to 

a  candiilate  for  that  position.  ,    i    -u  k„ 

The  following  is  the  number,  class,  and  tonnage  of  vessels  budt  by 
Mr  Westcrvclt  and  his  son,  up  to  the  present  time : 

Fi  ^  steamships,  ninety-three  ships,  live  barks,  four  bngs,  fourteen 
sclfomfers  one  sloop,  two'iloating  light  ships,  one  safety  barge,  eleven 
It  boat  ,  in  all  one  hundred  and  eighty-one  vessels,  w.h  an  aggre- 
gate capacity  amounting  to  one  hundred  and  lifty  thousand  b,x  hundred 

'1^:  tt  y^lSoO  the  active  managevnent  of  the  WesterveU  Ship 
Ya'd  ha  be  n  conducted  by  the  son,  Daniel  D.  Westervelt  a  tl>ough 
a.e  sen  or  s  ill  supervises  most  of  the  details  connected  the  luukhng 
o  vss  s.  This\^entleman  is  probably  the  only  American  sh.p.lHnde 
who  has  received  an  order  of  knighthood  Irom  a  foreign  government  io; 
skill  in  his  profession.* 

(1)  Tho  particulivrs  of  tho  order  of  knight- 
hooa  bestowed  upon  D.  D.  Westervelt  are 

as  follows : 

Mr.  D.  D-  Wcstorvolt,   during  the  year 
1861,  received  an  invitation  from  tho  Spanish 
Government  to  forward  them  models  and 
drawings  for  three  steam  frigates  of  forty, 
fifty,  and  si.My  guns,  respectively ;  promising 
to  Mr.  Westervelt,  at  tho  same  tune,  the 
construction  of  tho  ships,  should  the  plans 
prove   satisfactory  to  tho  Department  of 
Marine,  before  whom  they  were  to  bo  sub- 
mitted.   Tho  examination  proving  highly 
satisfactory,  an  Admiral  was  delegated  with 
full  power  to   close  the  contract,   and  to 
direct  the  builder  at  once  to  begin  the  con- 
struction of  the  vessels.     Immediately  upon 
his  arrival  the  Rebellion  broke  out,  and  Mr. 
Westervelt,  being  unable  to  procure  tho  live 
oak  and  yellow  pine  required  to  build  the 
ships,  was  compelled  to  abandon  the  con- 
tract.   The  Spanish  government,  in  order 

to   testify  the  estimation    in    which    the 
models  and   plans    were    held    by    them, 
recommended  that  the  order  of  "Isabel  la 
Catolica"   bo    conferred     upon    Daniel    D, 
WesterveU.      Tho   Queen,   approving    this 
decision,  at  onco  forwarded  tho  insignia  of 
tho  order,  together  with  a  complimentary 
letter,  to  tho  Spanish  minister  at  Washing- 
ton,  from  whom  Mr.  Westervelt  received 
them.    Tho  emblem  or  order  is  an  eight- 
pointed  star,  with  enamelled  circular  cen- 
tres, having  on  ono  side  the  initials  of  F. 
R.,  with  the  motto  "  Per  Isabel  la  Catolica" 
circumscribing  it ;  and  on  tho  other  a  rep  ■ 
resontation   of    the   Eastern  and  Western 
hemispheres,  surmounted   by  tho  Spanish 
crown,  alongside    of    which    stands    two 
columns,  around  which  a  wreath    is    en- 
twined, bearing  the  words  "Plus   Ultra." 
Circumscribing  it  is  the  motto  "Ala  Lealtad 


Henry  Steers'  Ship  Yard, 

some  of  tho  largest  and  fin  s    ^tcam^\^  ^^  „,vchuntm.  .  yet  Duilt 

been  constructed  there,  ^"^  f^^^^\^^  r^'J  ;"  there  at  this  tin.e  ap- 
,,  this  eountry  and,  V^<^^^  Jhe  ^-t  of  Green  and  Huron 
P--'''"S7t.;::;u'V;nr^-l-^  ,,  ,,eaof  one  hundred  and 

U,  1832;  but  is  <^«^^^'  „^^^^^^^ 

grandfather,  and  great-grandfat^crluum  ^^^  ^^^^^^^^^^^  ^,^^^^ 

fo.sion.     He  is  the  nephew  of  <;^^°  ^o   ^tcc  ^     .^^^^  ^,^^^ 

.uiUler,  whose  untin.ely  death  ^^^^J^^^^^  ,,,,,1  i„  foreign 
York  of  a  who  had  "^fj^^^.^  ,,  ,,,  native  city,  and 
.vaters.     Young  Henry  was  e,U^  at«Un       oo  ^  ^^^^^^^^^^^^ .  ,^^^^_  ^^ 

,.vaB  examined  and  l^'^'''^  ^'' f^'^^ZZ^V  bent  of  his  ancestry,  he 
,,0  age  of  sixteen.  foUown.g  ^^^^IJ^,,  ,,ele  George,  who 
.looted  to  go  into  the  s  .p  yard      h.  fathu  .  ^^^^^^^  ^  ^^^^^^^^^.  _^^^^^^^.^,^. 

were  then  assocuvtcd  ^'V'"f "  '' ..^^tion.  from  a  grindstone  boy  to  a 
^i-^'''P-^-^"^^^^^:;S^::';^:  tr;nl  thl  ordinary  mathe. 
foreman,  evnuMUg  quick  pei'^tpum  ,„„  attaining 

.uvticai  talent,  which  he  --  ^"^  >  ; "  ,f  "^^  ^he  bst  educated  and 
his  majority,  he  was  able  t.  tal.  a  ^o^ ^^  ^^^  ^^^^  ,,,,.,,,  ,,  the 
most  promising  shipwng  .ts.     i  o    stvt      j  association  with 

„„a  r«,toBt,  pilot  boat,  now  ...  V.  0  '"  >■  "  ]^  „.,„,,„  „„  ,tu, 

...  i«5»,  >!'■  s..^».-  '"7;;;;;; : ,    „:;„„  q:„.8." .1.0 •■  ch. 

,„„„,„c„  !«  I.usmcs»,  «..;>.  "-''^'.''V,,,  rl,i..»  tVitac.     TlK.  ••  I'ol. 

Ki»„g,"  .....1 .1.0 "  I'oi.  ,'^«;.';;' ;;; ;     ,,„„,,,„„,  n,.ci  i»,.ow  u. 

K«i„"  mailo  tl.o,t  tr.l.  to    1 .....    "  .^  ^^^,^  ,,„^,,,„,  „„,, 

Inslort  lioat  l>lyi"H  .'.  '  '""'''°  "".  ' ',  , .  .,..,„|,  nvciitvtwo  fool ;  ni.d 
«.v„,..yr.vo  f.ct ;  bro,uUl,,  f..r.y-l»...- :  ;,:  It',,':.';  ,:„„o„o,i  .,y  Mr, 
n,,..clty  about  two  ;l';:"'».;;\=f  ,.„,,„;  „,„  si......Wp  Co„M.M.y. ;» 

::rL:;i;;:r?.-H;.  -■«  >•-»  ^-* '-  '^"•■"■""' """  """'■ 



it  that 

0  hav. 
}t  1)uilt 
me  iip- 

■ed  and 

i  father, 
the  pro- 
id  yacht 
•ed  New 

1  foreign 
city,  and 
r ;  but,  at 
:estry,  ho 
3rge,  who 
ir  -appven- 
i  boy  to  a 
ry  niathc- 

icated  and 
nan  in  the 
ation  with 

has  since 

8t  building 
egnnce  and 
of  the  best 

ere  ho  still 
,"  the  "Cho 
The  "Foh 
is  now  the 
hundred  and 
ivo  feet  ;  and 
chedby  Mr. 
Company,  is 
llcr  length 

„  throe  immlml  «..■!  twcntySvo  feet ;  bvcacUh  of  bean,  for.y.rf.  foot ; 

r ::  r;.'"::.,::,  reel  ,o...  .,■.....  '^^^^^■^^^-z. 

four  feet  deep,  and  of  a  most  ''^'''''.^^tt,,      ,    ,    ronebefo; 
tortbc  raeillc  Mail  Co"'l»>"y.  Y  ;-;""'  ■.."J^.V;  ,,  „„,„,  ,ba„ 

doek  bea„»,  au,Ubl,i|...  tbir.y.oue  fee    .  x  me  o  ■       bo  _^ 

have  tbreo  full  .leek..  »».!  a.  orloi,  '^^^  "'     "^^^^  ^",■,2,  to  reeeive 

Her  eapaeity  will  be  forty-seven  hundred  ton.  buidtn, 

when  ready  for  sea,  over  '^  ;f!^^?; ';:^2  ^^,,,,,  ^ho  most  of  then. 
Mr   Steers  has  constructed  in  all  sixteen  vcsbti.. 

Steers  will  yet  bo  written. 

John  Englis  &  Son's  Ship  Yard, 
U  the  foot  of  Tenth  street  Easv  river,  is  noteworthy,  from  the  fact 

S'f      :,;:.;*  b,ek  ...  bu„e,re„  „„„  »l,.y  feet  kiu.  tbe 

•   'ivo    Vew  York,    nd  after  serving  an  apprenticeshu,  of  seven 


then  noted  ship-builders.     In  l^i^,  k  nv  ,,,,,.,.^,._a,Hl,  on  their 


rx       1     i,na  hniU  in  all  fiftv-six  Steamers,  averaging  fifteen 
location.     Here  he  has  built  in  all  miy  ^^^^.^j  ^^^g. 

hundred  tons  each,  making  an  -gg''^^^  .  f  ^'^  ^\  ^^je  one  of  which, 

trade,  but  have  not  succeeded  "^   ^;,  "r^"  "/i,,^3_  ^e  also  built  the 

in  speed  those  --^''-^^^Xn    '  wfs^ern  W^  which  for  a  con- 

stonmers  "  Plymouth  Rock"  and     >>ehitiu   »» «      ,  x.,  i«Al 

V,    hnilt  tho  "  UnadiUa,"  which  was  the  hrst  of  the  gunl.oai^  xtn 

line,  running  Ijolwoon  New  \«rk  ""'.'"  »">'"^',„„,i  ,„o,-. 

An,cr,ca  t„  '-■■«:  J^^      ,';*,;',„„,„„„  1,  ,„arc.l  pa»»neov»  .nd  seven 

.„„,„„,,  did  n...  need  '"'^^  ,«",;;  uie.nnond,"  and  a™ 
.:„B!i»  .t  Son  have  tan  t  l"'"""'"''''"  ,,.„„„,  „,reo  hundred  and 
„„„  eonstrneling  .uolhor  0    e,,  .a!  '     f"' " 'f  ,„.„      ,v,„„„g 

.ig„ty  feet  in  ,eng,„  nnd  "'^  V;  j™  tl  ari  L\.,o  •'  New„or,," 
,!,„  flne  Sound  .le.n,er»  »■'-'"'';''"'  .''  ?^„ ^e^t  Lean,,  and  fonrteen 
,l,rc«  Imndred  and  f.u'ly  ee.  .n  '"'S  '• '  '^  '^  ^ '    ^  ,,  .  ,|i„„„eo 

teet  hold,  wind,  nn.lie,  li,e  tri],  fro.n  >e»  \  <»."°/';    1„  „ 

or  on.  hundred  avd  .ix.y  f '-•  ;';'^''  ^r' °  t'.  wo  ^     In  hea., 
which  is  three  hundred  mid  ton  feet  m  kngia,  louj 
and  fourteen  feet  in  depth  of  hold. 



J.   B.    A 

■W.    W.    CORNELL'S    IRON-WORKS. 


.1  tons, 
ghai,  a 
'or  this 
Liilt  the 

a  con- 
In  18C1, 
r  twelve 
y,  inicler 
L'h  pleas- 
it  degree 
)on  have 

awn  of  a 
ice,''  that 
Europe  to 
s  burden, 
and  seven 
a  half  feet 
ine  hours, 
md  heated 
nstly  kind, 
er  nuilcii'g, 
ivas  hi.'l'orc 
»n,  Messr.s. 
I,"  and  aro 
indred  and 
<.     Among 
ind  fourteen 
t,  adiftanco 
Id  Colony," 
Bt  in  boam, 

wo  hundred 
[y  have  been 

J   B    &  -^^  w.  Cornell's  Iron-Works. 

New  York  has  in  this  establishment  the  largest  and  mos   completely 

\  Worl  !'in  the  United  States  for  the  construction  of 
eqiupped  Woil     n     he  tn  ^^^^^^^  ^^^^^  ^^^^^^  ^^^  ^^^.^^  ^^ 

buddmgs.      Ihcy  date  o  commenced 

L  one  hundred,  and  from  one  to  four  m  height.    Ihe  mouldmg 

worth  of  iron  was  used.     Now  there  ait  stvci 

'^  ,  ,,     a      „„,i   vtliintii- M\it\ial  Insurance  Company ,  .uiu 

Savannah,  and  the  Sun  and  ^^'l^^^l^f  ^'l"       ^^^.^  ,,,,,  increase 

'■"ono  of  the  f,r.t,mlcnt,tl,«tw«r.nacrcditc,lon  U.c  roco,,!.  .f  .h« 
P«?  °t  Ot«  .  to  .1.  11.  Cornell,  Is  for  «„  lo.)""™!  nmnocr  o    unmug 

r^Trr;.::  ";';:;.■,,:: ;...;,,.  .,..00,  ,„  ..c ...... .  .... 


U6  -  ^^^^ 

.u-face,  consenaontly  ^^^'^'^.^ZZ^:;'^^^^^^  -^ 
.ecuve.     It  wa.  in  th.  way  by  tb  ^^  ^^^^^^^^^ .^.^^  .,,„  ,,  , 

valuable  improvements,  tbat  tlie  gv 

building  material  was  aceompbshca.  ^^^  insurance  of  New 

It  is'bolioved  tbat  ^^  ^^^'^^^^...n^y  complotod  by  tbis 

York,  and  tbe  New  York  Stock  Mb  an  go  ^^.^^.^^^^^  .^  ^j^^ 

l.,'arc  tbe  most  oonU^lete  and  l^x^^t  ^/^,,i„.  f,,  ,.nings  and 
United  States.  Tbe  beams,  f^^^'^'^^^  ^.er  two  hundred  tbou- 
partitions.  are  all  --^^-'^^^f  .^J;:  '.tcture.  The  New  York  Herald 
Lnd  dollars'  wortb  was  used  m  ea  b   U        ^^^_^^^^^^  ^^.^^  ^^^^  ^^  ^,  ,.ou 

building,  now  being  erected  by  the 

and  fire-proof.  „„„factured  by  tbis  firm,  and  extensively 

Among  tbe  specialties  ---^;;^    ^...^ra.nce  witb  a  patent  issued 
used,  are  burglar-Foof  ^^fe  -  ^  -'l  .^^.^  ^^  ,,,,,,ble  point  lu  safc-s 

to  Ira  L.  Cady  in  1858  ^^^^''^^  ^,  ,i,ey  are  formed  by  pouring 
generally,  are  dispensed  ^^^^'-^^^  of  wrougbt-iron  perforated 
in  a  stream  of  molten  ''^\^'X^nT ^Imu^  in  contact  witb  tbe  wrought, 
and  counter-sunk.  The  mol  en  -^'^^^^,  ,,,eral  plates  are  thus 
i«  obilled,  and  tbe  conUnnatmn,    .^^^^^^^^^  ^^^  ^^^^^  ,,,_  ,«  under- 

cemented  togetlier,  as  -    ^^^^^^tults  of  the  most  ingenious  and 
stand,  proved  impregnable  to  the 
determined  hurglars. 

Herring  &  Co.'s  Safe  Manufactory 

•      t'of  tbe  manufacturing  establishments  in 
1,  one  of  the  most  \--^-^^!^''\'l^'^'^,,^.     It  is  located  at  tbe  juiic- 
he  western  part  of  ^^^^  ^^^^^^^^^^^^^     .nd  extends  from  Tbivteentb 
tion  of  >Mntb  avenue  wit    Hudsn  _^^  ^^^_^^  .^  l>-fV"l 

to   Fourteenth  street.      ^^'\^^''    ^^^^  apartments  for  work  of  a  spe- 
basement.  and  each  fioor  is  ;\  ;^^'        ^  ;  ,ted  more  especially  for  the 
cial  kind  -,  the  second  iloor  ^""f;  J^^,  ,,  ,,„  ordinary  fire-prools  are 
onstrnction  of  ^-^^^'^'^^t^  ^.,  the  locks,  and  vaults,  and 
Principally  on    be  ^^^^^^^         ,,at  propels  the  machine  > 
vault  doors  on  the  fittb  fioo^         -;j^^j^.,„,^  ,„,  a  shears,  operated  by 
i«  iu  the  basement,  wbere  "^    ^l^^Iere  the  bar  and  plate  iron  is  stored 
Bteain.  lor  cutting  boiler  pi  t  -    ^  cj  ,^  ^^^^^^^  .^^^^ 

and  the  japanning  is  executed.     Tb  ^^^  ^_^.^,^^^^  ^^,,,     ,, 

,.,,„,,,  ,0V  painting,  the  f^^^'^J^^  ,,,,,  «tory  building,  separated 
,,V,inet  work  is  executed  in  an  u  ja^e  ^^^^^  ^^^^  ^^,,, 

from  the  main  ^^J-^"-  f.^Jov Sicb.troet.     Besides  these  estab- 
a  distinct  establishment,  at  740  UK 



;afe  and 
■ion  ami 
ton  as  a 

e  of  New 
d  by  tbis 
irs  in  the 
liijiTS  and 
Ivcd  thou- 
i-k  llin-ald 
be  of  iron 

Lent  issued 
iut  in  safes 
by  pouring 
t  perforated 
ic  wrouglit, 
tes  are  tluis 
,  we  under- 
i-enious  and 

jlishments  in 
.  at  the  junc- 
m  Thirteenth 
loight,  witli  a 
rork  of  a  spe- 
ecially  for  the 
lire-proofs  are 
11(1  vaults,  and 
the  nuu'liinery 
s,  operated  by 
iron  is  stored, 
.  into  rooms  for 
,cd  safes.     The 
ding,  separated 
uundry  work  in 
aes  these  estab- 

„,tae„.,,ttar,™  ha,»  manufctoric.  at  PbUnaCpUa  a„,.  Chicago, 
a„d  cu.,.l»y  to  aU  abouUour  hm.<lred  person.  ^^^^ 

i.    .,  ti,..t  tUo  monev  was  at  tne  seivito  ui  ""j 
and  a  notice  put  up  that  tht  moi  ty  w  ,  ^^^^^^^ 

eonid  obtain  it  w.h  o^^^^^J^"  ^^  ^.^ri^^^lphia  having  dis- 
wealthy  by  the  offer.       n  1  ^0^  a    hun  ^^^^,^^,,^,,„re  of  nuneral 

covered  that  carbonated  chalk  a  rcsKUun  ^^^^^^_^_^^^_ 

water,  was  superior  to  any  <f^^^lX  P-hased  the  secret. 
ductorofheatandares.stan   0    ue  Mu^^^^^^^^^^^^^  ^^^^^  ^.^^^^^  ^^^^^^ 

patented  it,  and  eonunenced  ^f  -^""  ^  J^^  ^^r^,_  >,,„,,y  f.fty 
great  celebrity  as  Ilernng's  Patent  «^/^  ^^^^^^  ^^^j,  „,,  as  they 
thousand  of  these  safes  have  been  "-""f^^^;^;;  ,„  J.a  preserved 
bave  passed  through  -"^.^t-^^^J^^r'^iions  of  dollars, 
books  a,ul  securities  n.  ^'^    ";Sb'  «^^t  ^,^^^,,^1;,,,,^. 

the  conlidence  of  connnercial  n,en  .u  ^^^^^^^  ,;^^  ,,,,rity  from 
But  besides  the  construction  oi  sa  e«  ^^^^^  ^o  tlie  man- 

fire,  this  m-m  have  given  tnuch  ^^'^^r^'^^'t,  this  depart- 
ufacture  of  13urglar-proof  Safes  |  atdts  -d  ^  -  ^^  ^^^^^^^ 

„.ent,  it  i.  probable,  they  -  -^-'  ^^  ! '  ^^^^  ,,,,t  be  invuhier- 
nnule  as  they  make  then-  In-st-class  l^;"^*^  ^  ^y^^^^^,,^  ^,  ,,y  bur- 

able  to  any  attacks  witlnn^he  ^^^^^^^^J^,,  ,,,,,,,ed  in  their 
glar,  however  accomplished.  ^^  "°"-  ''"  '  F,anklinite  ore,  found  in 
construction,  is  a  peculiar  material  '"-^^  ^  ;f /j^,,,  ,,,,,aing  that 
Sussex  county,  New  Jersey,  ^^f^;^-^^^^  f-ility  of  a  dia- 
of  the  finest  tempered  steel,  and  naiks  ^  ^"^  ^  beautifully 

,,ond.  This  metal,  often  Vr^^^^;.^lZ^Z  rods  that  it  can 
crvstallized  silver,  is  so  interwoven  vitluouU  ^_^^^^  ^^^ 

bJ battered  until  bent  without  ^-"g l^-^^^' ^^  such  that,  in  .,nv  at- 
combination  of  -^<^^^' ^' ^^^'^'^^^^^ZZ  ^^erthan  the  hard, 
tempt  to  drill,  the  tool  will  pierce  ^^  ^  ^^^^  ,^^  ;,,  f,actured 
and!  consequently,  working  s,  eway.  w      -o       ^^^^^^^1  ^^       ^^  ,^  ^^^^^_ 

or  broken  otf.  A  iirst-elass  '^""^  ^^f  .^^  ,  ;;,,,,,,bt.iron  with  angle 
consists  of  three  casings  of  one  fo  "^  "'  ;  ^  ^^^,  ,f  ,,,,  fourth 
eorners.  a  casing  of  one  ^^-J^'-';;;^^;^  ,  ^i^^  ^ing  of  patent  erys- 
i„eh  wrought  bars  with  ang  e  «^^^^  ^  -^.:^„„  ^ods  cast  through  't 
tallized  iron  two  inches    hnk,  ^y''"  ^^^  J;  ,^5,,^  t\m\iu,.^  is  threo 

and  pn^jecting  rivets  on  ^^  -;^  1^^   ^     ^nly  overcome  any  drill  or 



.„  .ntogral  part.  These  Safes  «  "l^"  ^-';"  "^  °^,„  „,„„,„,„  ,„el«  i» 
„t  which  the  hest  form  i,  the  double  'o^'  '>«'"«  '",  ,„,„  „t  whiC. 
„„e  „r  in  o.her  words,  it  has  two  Itnohs  aitd  two  d  a^  , 

X  set  o„  eotirely  'W-"' -''''""X::  ^  ,:   ler     This  L 
.,„  ,oo,.ovth.whack  '';«''»';;:  S:t;;v:.amLd  iro„  ,0  the 


nearly  lifiy  thousand  have  been  sold  '"  ^^f  J^^^^^^ j,, ^  to  tweuty-live 

Joseph  Nason  &  Co.'s  Manufactory 

tensive   in  tbo  United  States      Ibe  bou  ^^^  ^^^  ^.^^^  .^^  ^^  .^ 

by  Joseph  Kason  and  James  J-,);;  ^^^^  ^^,^  g,,„,,  ,„a  Gas  I'ipcs," 
country  to  undertake  the  sa     of    ^^ddu^  ^^^^  ,  ,,,  ^,, 

as  a  distinct  and  separate  buMuess  and  w^   ^^^^^^^^^^   ^^^^,^^^j^    ^^^^,^,^ 

of  beating  buildings  by  ''''^^'J  ^^^^^^^  ^ubes,  three  quarter  inch 
wrougbt-iron  tubes  ''^^^^^^^Z  for  warming  manufactories 
and  one  inch,  now  m  almost  ^^^^^^'"J,  to  the  establishment  of  th.s 
and  other  large  buildmgs,  --'  P^  ^^  ;^;ir,  ,f  .early  all  the  peeu- 
firm,  unknown,  and  they  are  also  t  c     ven  ^^^^^^.^^  ^^^^^_ 

Uav  appliances  which  have  ^''''tX  t^e  -ost  important  of  these 
nient,  and  cot>sequently  1-1-  ;  J^JJ  f,,,  ,,,,titution  of  the  "  Globe 
i«,pvoveme»ts  that  may  ^>«  "-"^'^^i  ,3  ,,„,ost  entirely  superseded  for 
Yalve"  for  the  "  Stopcoek  '  ^^'^\^^  'J^'Z\\^,  parent  of  a  fanuly  of 
.team  uses.  This  "--7;;"  ^^.^  recause  so  generally  used, 
valves  that  are  now  scarcely  ^PP"^^'"^  ^^,^,  dissolved,  the  former 

In  18.3.  the  firm  ^^  ^^  -    \^f^^f  7,,,,  ,,,y  ,ad  established  in 
partner  assuming  control  of  the"^""  ^ork,  where  he  subso- 

Boston,  and  Mr.  Nason  ^'^^  "'"J. "  ^^  Mr.  Dodge,  and  then  with 
,uently  v^s  associated  -  Pf  ^  .^  1„,  ,,,0  is  the  inventor  of  the 
bis  present  partner,  Henry  H.  ^^  ^J"^'  f      ;  enteusivcly  engaged 

original  Independent  Steam  ^^^  P'^;""^  '^^^l/.orks.  The  manufac- 
i„  Lnufacturing  Pumping  mach.neiy  for 



s  formed 
3n  locks, 
locks  in 
of  whic'.i 
,vill  open 
rUis  firm 
311  in  the 

and  Lon- 
cn  stated, 
k  of  about 
f  for  sale 

A  most  ex- 
id,  in  1841, 
first  in  tins 
Gas  ripcs," 
ed  the  plan 
■ougb    small 
quarter  inch 
nicnt  of  this 
all  tlie  pecu- 
•ming  conve- 
tant  of  these 
ifthe  "Globe 
uperseded  for 
if  a  family  of 
n-ally  used, 
id,  the  former 
established  in 
ere  he  subse- 
and  then  with 
nventor  of  the 
dvcly  engaged 
The  manufac- 

ture  of  Steam  and  Gas  Fittings  is  carried  on  in  conjunction  with  that  of 
pip  „g  machinery,.in  a  large  manufactory  in  Brooklyn,  where  nearly 
iu-eo'humlred  men  are  employed.  All  the  iron  castmgs  m 
both  department,  are  made  in  the  same  foundry,  ,s  one  hun- 
dred  and  fifty  feet  long,  and  sixty  feet  wide. 

Th^  fmn  have  the  advantage  of  an  -nmense  stock  of  patterns, 
accumulated  during  a  quarter  of  a  century,  and  of  the  '-g  oxpeinence 
and  eminent   scientific  attainments  of    the  senior  par  iter,  who    nay 
lu  tly  be  called  the  founder  or  originator  of  the  business,  in  which 
1  ovelty  of  form  and  adaptation  is  the  rule  rather  than  the  exception 
N:  other  person  in  this  country  has  furnished  so  --J'  -^^  i;^^ 
buildings  with  apparatus  for  heating  and  ventilating  as  he.      Ihe  evi- 
de  ices  of  his  mechanical  skill  in  this  specialty  may  be  witnessed  m 
Tst  of  the  insane  Asylums  of  the  United  States.  ^^^^^^^^^^ 
Utica  which  is  the  largest  iu  this  country,  and  in  many  ot  the  ho  pi 
U      of  wh    hthe  Emigrant  Hospital,  on  Ward's  Island     s  the    atest 
lad  probably  the  best  example.     But  ^le  monument  which  will  pei^ 
p^tuaThis  Lme.  as  an  engineer,  is  the  CapitoUt  Washington,  wh.  h 
fs  now  heated  and  ventilated  in  the  most  perfect  manner  by  appaiat  s 
onTucted  under  his  direction.     This  ..  undoubtedly  the  largest  work 
of  tl     kind  undertaken  in  this  and  probably  any  other  country,  ad 
the  results  obtained  are  far  superior  to  any  heretofore  accomplished  by 
h    most  eminent  engineers  of  England      An  -n>le  supp  y  of  f  e^ 
air  is  provided  in  all  the  immense  chambers  by  means  of  ^^-J^^^^ 
Tree  of  them  fourteen  feet  in  diameter,  and  one  sixteen  feet-pio- 
tl  ed  byfour  engines,  and  a  uniform  temperature  in  winter  is  secured 
'    ough  the  agc^icy  ^f  coils  of  pipes,  of  which  there  are  ovei-  n  ne 
1  ,  i    the  House  of  Representatives  alone.     Many  experiments  were 
;::   I    ilprogrL'of  the  work,  both  in  boilers  and  in  fans  and 
he  form  of  fan  now  adopted  for  ventilating  purposes  is  one  of  the 
u"  which  those  experiments  established  as  the  best.     His  success 
a   t  is   g    at  work   elicited   flattering   testimonials   from    he  Ch  ef 

^l  of  beating  and  ventilation  in  the  large  hospitals,  espec.all>  of 

''Th'rfirm  of  Joseph  Nason  &  Co.  are  now  confining  their  attenUon 
,    It  oTclusively  to  the  manufacture  of  Fittings,  for  sale  to  others, 
almost  c^'-l"'-'^^  y  ili.iiucs  and  they  offer  special  encouragement  to 
who  apply  them  in  buildings,  ami  t  ty  i 

skilful  mechanics  to  engage  in  the  business,     ihe  iisi 


.  ^  ^  i.,vrr<.  vnriptv  of  Bfass  and  Iron  Yalves, 
ufacturcd  by  them,  mcludcs  \]^'^'' ^'"'^^'^f,,,,^  special  and  pat- 
Cocks,  Joints.  Steam  Trap.,  «""'^;^'. '^^  " 'XwatrMTcr  and  PevcuB- 
ented  articles  as  for  instance  ortb.g  ^^/^^  ,,,,,.,..,. 
siou  Water  Gauge,   and  N'.son  s   ^  a^''"''  „„„  heretofore  made, 

These  lladiators  are  a  grer.t  improvement  ^'^^Z^'Lnr  to  far- 
..  they  combine  elegance  and  beau  y  o  ^^^^^^^^^  ,,hich 
nished  rooms  of  all  descriptions,  with  a  "^^*  ^^^  ,^^^  ,^, 

,.ves  absolute  security  ag^l;;a^-;^;^;^:-,^^J,,^  ^, 

They  consist  of  a  series  of  ^"''t^^''' l''\  ^  ^„^^  surmounted  by 

circulation,  screwed  to  a  common  ba.o  oi  pecksta    a  ^^  ^^^ 

a  marble  or  metal  top  and  entablature,     l^^ch  pipe  is  .^ 
base  i.^cIepenaenUu,  and  may  be  t'g^^tened,  ^c^^^^^n^^^^^^^^  ^^^^.^,^^ 

out  disturljing  the  adjoining  pipes.  In  '^^"f ''^l!'""'' .^  .,  j.^^^r  ends 
position  of  the  pipes,  and  the  direct  ^o^-^:;^^^^^^;^^,  free 
lith  a  receptacle  of  very  ample  ^'-^-^  source  of  Iny  troubles, 


Stuart's  Sugar  Refinery. 

c  a     „.  ic  iho  leadine  manufacture  in  the  city  ot 

.-■'^Tl  o  h'e       .,1      bI  tch  capital,  or  yields  so  lavge  a 

New  \ork.     Jso  other  emp.  i  ^^j^.^j^  ^^,^ 

product.     The  omci.a  i^u-n  0    ^^^^^^  ^^^^^.^  ,^„„  ,„,  ,,,f  ,f 
have  given  m  the  Table,  vast  aB  it  is  ^^  ^.^^  ^ork 

the  value  of  the  P--t  Prod^  f;-"!^;^  ^\,,oOO,000  per  annum. 

and  vicinity,  ^^^  j^^^  ^^J  ^  ^^ ,  prominent  pursuit,  is  so  intimately 
The  history  ot  the  business,  as  a  p  .^^  describing 

associated  with  the  ^-'^^-^^'^'^ ''\ZZtoZf    U  the  others, 
their  facilities  and  P^--^^  ;^  ^^^^^^^^^^^  Conducted  on  a  limited 
Prior  to  the  year  1832.  bugar  ivt     j  ^,^^ 

-'- '"" '"'  ^7::.:::aniw'7atit,.'T.>r'Ho/p>.ri„« 

Sugar,  a,  eo„„.aroJ  « >*  ftat  no  ^^__^^^_^^^^  ,___^.^^^^^  .„  „,^„, 

that  year,  Messrs.  K.  L  &  '^•. »'"  „f  cl.anibora  street, 

,vl,oro  ilicy  wore  the  lir»t  to  ''™™"'  '..'■„„„.  „cre  soon,le<l 

„„a  l,y  .1.0  -"■»-'''"-"  f  7;:::  X'  "Ji'lirto  bee.  offered  to 
,„  ,,rod.,ee  a  better  quabty  ot  S"K»   "'»"  '  ^  ^^  „,„  j..,, 

,b„  New  Vorlt  l»'''l'»--";»;;t;t   ^o Under  and  .dn,ir»,io„ 

:;  ixz:.  '";:::,:it""':«  es..b,isb.e„. ...  tbe„  ...uea 

and  pat- 
1  Pcvcus- 
ire  made, 
m  to  fur- 
ion  which 

ragn-.s  for 
ountcd  by 
?cd  to  the 
1  out  with- 
le  vertical 
lower  ends 
iitirely  free 
y  troubles, 

the  city  ot 
s  so  large  a 
0,  which  wo 
I  one  half  of 
n  Kew  York 
)  per  annum. 
50  intimately 
in  describing 

I  on  a  limited 
uality  of  the 
rior.     During 
incss,  in  three 
,mbers  street, 
\  in  refining; 
?  soon  enabled 
ecu  offered  to 
a  at  the  Fair 
nd  ndniirntion 
is  then  liuiited 



to  about  three  thousand  pounds  per  day ;  but  in  the  1835^  tl^  oU 
wooden  buildings  were  ren.oved,  and   a  s.x-story  bnck  bin  d  ng  was 
Zed  in  their  stead,  by  means  of  which  the  ear.aeity  for  re  nmg  wa 
^     Id  to  twelve  thousand  pounds  per  ^'^y-bout  enough  t.uK.t 
the  demand  at  that  time,  at  profitable  rates.     But    he  nnpioycd 
aua    rof  Sugar,  and  lower  prices,  consumption  increased  1  rum  year  to 
1    U  to  m  ct  the  growing  demand,  in  1849,  the  Messrs.  .tuar 
Sed   he  nine-story  building  on  the  other  half  of  the  blo..k  of  land 
ad  ointfon  Greenwich  and  Seed  streets,  by  which  their  capacity  was 
h  n  s    much!       ged  as  to  enable  them  to  refine  annually  from  orty 

1  p"L  ot  raw  being  about  doublo  thoso  of  aoy  prcv.o,,,  year,  to  over  three  millions  of  dollars. 

^'";wh  10  establishment,  with  all  the  necessary  -achinovy  am   a^- 

nalil^  whol  having  cellars  beneath  them,  and  v-Us  t,.  ent.o 
L.^th  of  their  fronts,  and  extending  half  way  across  the  i  .t  tno 
lamed  treets-while  they  occupy  nearly  all  the  space  bcnea  1.  U  ^ 
street,  and  extend  under  the  building  on  tlie  oppo-te  sicle  al.o^^^^  c^^^ 
nvintr  for  warehouses,  two  buildings  on  the  south  sue  of  thamhe  s 
E  Tld  immense  establishment  is  provided  with  -'ery  van  y 
of  machinerv  for  saving  human  labor.  Steam  is  not  o^-^^-J^ 
nrocess  of  refining,  but  in  lifting,  hoisting,  and  pumpuig.  and  it  ,e<inres 
egla'^e  steam  boilers,  which  consume  eight  thousand  tons  of  an- 

ht  ite  coal  per  annum,  to  furnish  the  requisite  steam  for  al  the  e 
pZ    OS      About  two  hundred  thousand  gallons  of  water  per  day     . 

ZXm  the  wells  beneath  the  buildings,  and  '^y  thcmsan     m       - 
dition  taken  from  the  Croton  Water  ^^P-'^^ -"^'f;'"^^        ;  ^v 

sons  box  makers,  painters,  etc.,  and  rarely  have  occasion  to  call  on 
0^  i'd  parties  foassistanc,  either  for  repairs  or  construction,  ly 
r  t revery  thing  is  kept  in  a  thorough  stat.  of  repan^  and^  wh^n 
delays  do  occur  from  accident,  they  are  necessarily  of  shoit  duiatioa. 

.KMAU,.AU.B  MA..rACTOmK«  0.   NBW   VOUK. 


The  S^^ar  is  received  iu  hogsheaO.  ^-;  t^^et^^ylllea  ;  Xl 
and  l,oisted  by  steam  to  t;- -f  ^^^^y '.i.^olving  the  Sugav  iu  Bteam 
the  process  of  eleansmg  '^^'"'"^"^  J  ^..^^^  t^e  solution  by  means  of 
and  hot  water,  and  the  color  ^^^^^^  .^    ,,,ed  to  vacuum  pans 
chemical  and  »-^--^^,:,  ^rhl  :io,uelt  processes  by 
heated  by  steam,  and  tluouKl 
Sugar  is  crystallii^ed  and  refined. 

WiUiam  Moller  &  son's  sugar  Kefiuery 

,  „  1 805  When  the  business  was  established 
Dates  its  origin  as  early  ^']^'''^^^^^^  ,^,^  ,  ,n,all  building,  stand- 
by  Messrs.  W-  &  F.  Havem  yei.     It  -J^  ^^^.^^^^  occupying  a 

iug  on  the  rear  of  two  lots,  87  ^"^^^  ^,,,  ,,„, all  capital  was  only 
spleof  about  liftyf-tsqu^u-.     At   lat^^  ^^^  ^^,  ,,,,,r  processes 
required  in  the  Reimmg  of  ^^^^'^         .^^^.^..^d  until  immense  struc 
,vere  developed,  the  ^-^^^^^^^'^^  indispensable, 
tares,  and  a  large  ^^^P'^^  '  f  ^^^'^^i'lings,  Lving  a  front  of  one  hun- 
I,       47,  the  PV'^^^^^l^";     ;^,  "et  running  through  a  distance  of 

dred  and  fifty  feet  ^^  ^  f  ^"'"  !'\'there  it  has  a  front  of  seventy- 
to  hundred  feet  to  Charlton  s^^cetwh^^^^^^^     ^^^,^^^^^  ^^^.^^,^ 

five  feet,  were  erected,  ^"^^^^ ,;°;;,,ent  business.    In  184',),  anew 
capacious  for  the  r.,^^^^^^^^^  ^^^^^^^^  ,  ,       t^ 

firm  was  created  by   Mr^  v  ^^  Havemeyers  cV  Mollcr. 

business  being  conducted    u^^^^^^  and  vaned  ex- 

Previous  to  entermg  ^b^^  t^">.  ; .  '  i,,,i,g  been  employed  or 
perience  in  all  ^--^^^J^.^^^^^^'bin  Boston  and  New -York,  and  h>B 

several  years  in  large  llefine  le.  both  ^^  ^^ethods  in  con- 

Xenclwas  -^f^^^  ^^  ^e  tut  •     ^llg  the  first  of  the  im- 

ducting  the  operations  c^  i^  bu  ^^^^^^  ^^  ^.^^^^  ^^^^^^.^_ 

provements  intro.iu.ed  In  l^;'";  ^^^  ^f  ,i,,  kind.  He  was  also  the 
Cerally  in  use  in  other  ^-^^f 'f  "f  ^nd  the  first  to  use  muriatic  acid 
Z  to  adopt  the  upvigbt  ovaU^o^-.  ^vnd^^^  ^^^^^^^  ^^  ^^^  ^  ^^^^^^^ 

to  restore  bone  black  •,  and  tnc 

for  cleaning  and  washing  bono  back.^_^^^      ^^^^   ^^^^.^^^^^    ^      ^ 

Tbis   establishment,  under   his   in  p  ^^.__,i,,  ,„achino  for 

celebrity  for  the  -ceU-VJ/  ^  ^,  ^  \Z.r.  'tuIb  Sugar  is  well 
making  it  being  the  ^^''^'!''lf  ,  -,  .^ferred  by  families  because 
Low^hroughouttheconuie^^^^^^  ^^^^  ^^_^^,^  ^,.  ,^,  la 

of  its  good  quality,  'f  /J^^X  price  of  "  broken"  or  "  crushed' 



MUlJ.l.i;\    UKl'lNKllY — STKniENSuN's    CAK    \V(lUK.8. 


,  floor, 
I  ;  svud 
I  Hteam 
cans  of 
m  pans 
,'  which 

ig,  stancl- 
upyiug  a 
I  was  only 
:n80  struc- 

f  one  bun- 
istanc'o  of 
)f  seveuty- 
84'.),  anew 
BUibcr — the 
s  &,  MoUor. 
;1  varied  ex- 
mployc'^l  for 
ovk,  and  his 
ods  in  con- 
it  of  the  im- 
,tcrs,  now  so 
was  also  the 
muriatic  acid 
se  a  uiachiuo 

ttaincd  great 
.  machine  for 
?ugar  is  well 
iiiliee  because 
•  its  lumps,  at 
or  "  crushed" 

Mr.  Miller  is  now  experimenting  with  a  view  of  boiling  Sugar  by  a 
new  process,  and  forming  a  vacuum  by  a  syphon,  and  is  quite  sanguine 
of  success.  Enthusiastic  himself  lor  the  accompiislunent  of  whatever 
seems  calculated  to  Improve  the  product  or  benelii  the  business,  he  is 
also  disposed-  to  encourage  other  iuveutors,  who  are  admitted  ut  suita- 
ble times  to  his  Refinery  to  test  the  practical  value  of  theii-  ideas. 

This  Refinery  is  now  conducted  by  William  Moller  &  Sou,  and  em- 
ploys one  hundred  and  forty  men,  of  all  grades,  in  the  various  depart- 
ments  of  the  business.  In  1847,  the  product  of  the  establishment  was 
seven  millions  of  pounds  of  sugar ;  and  during  the  year  18G5,  it  was 
quite  e(iual  to  seventeen  million  pounds,  valued  at  $2,800,0t)0,  with 
a  demaud  that  seems  steadily  increasing,  and  inciting  the  proprietor  to 
renewed  efforts  to  meet  it  by  new  mechanical  and  scientific  processes 
for  increasing  the  product,  The  entire  capacity  of  this  Refinery  is 
about  twenty-four  millions  of  pounds  annually. 

Resides  these,  there  are  in   New  York  the  Refineries  of  the  New 
York  Steam  Sugar  Refining  Co.  ;  Williamson,  Griffiths  &  Co.  ;  John- 
son &   Lazarus;   John   W.   Broekborn ;   Camp,  Brunsen  &   Sherry; 
Harris  &  Dayton ;    F.  H.  McCready  &  Co.  ;   Uanicl   Pomroy ;   Ock- 
erluuisen   Brothers ;    I'lumo  &  Lamont ;  Mollers,  Hogg  &  Martens  ; 
Kattenborn  &  Tuska ;  Greer,  Turner  &  Co.  ;  Booth  &  P]dgar ;   15reek, 
Cushmau  &   Stanton  ;  Mollers,  O'Dell  &  Dosher  ;  and  Brunjes,  Ock- 
crhausen   &   Co.      In   Williamsburg— Havemeyors    &   Elder,    Shep- 
pard  Gaudy,  C.  E.  Bertrand  &  Co.,  and  Wiutjer,  Dick  &  Schomacber ; 
ia    Brooklyn— Meyer    &    Gomberat,   and    Finken   &   Wbeatley;    at 
Greenpoint— Brown,  Furbish  &  Co.  ;    and  Matthiessen  &  Wieschers 
at  Jersey  City.    These  Refineries  are  now  producing  about  $35,000,000 
per  annum,  but  have  a  capacity  of  production  equal  to  five  hundred 
million  pounds,  which,  at  present  prices,  would  be  worth  at  least 

John  Stephenson's  Car  Manufactory, 

On  Twenty-seventh  street,  near  Fourth  avenue,  is  one  of  the  oldest 
and  best  known  establishments  of  the  kind  in  the  United  States.  John 
Stephenson  has  been  identified  with  the  construction  of  Cars  and  Omni- 
buses from  their  first  introduction  into  this  country.  He  commenced 
business,  in  1831,  in  Broadway,  where  now  the  Lafarge  Hotel  stands, 
and  while  there,  designed  and  constructed  for  A.  Brower,  a  leading 
stage  proprietor,  one  of  the  first  Omnibuses  that  was  run  on  the  streets 

,„„„K,«...  M....FAcroa,.»  «  »«  VO.K. 


1  n  hnlf  feet  in  width,  had  elevated  or 
of  New  York.     This  was  four  and  a  h    f  eet .     ^^^^  ^.  ^^^^      ,^^^^  ^^,^^., 

elliptical  springs,  and  ^-^^^J^  ^^ tth  Bides,  was  a  ,n^^  to  po- 
..  o\"  painted  u.  la.-go  let^   J"  .^      ^„pp,,,a  u  to  be 

destrians,  who  in'onouneed^^v^^^^ -^^^^^         ^^^^^^^  ^^^.^^^^  ,^,  ,,,  ,,..,. 
the  name  of  the  owner.     1  ^''''^Lci.A  on  the  plan  of  the  fan.  ly 
portation  of  passengers  -eve  -.^u    e  ^^  ^^^^  sociable   wUh 

^  '-''''  nrr  u«^at  the  platibr.  carriage  was  .utro- 
rldt  Paris  and  aaopted  in^th.  covnU^-      ^  ^^^^^^.^^ 

D.ving  the  first  year  of  h.s  '^l'']'^  ,  f„,,,  ^nd  he  removed  to 
M^  Btophenson's  -^'-'l^^;  ^^^^^^r^ted  what  was  probably  the 
Elizabeth  street,  where,  m  18^U  I  c  c  ^^^_^  ^^^^  ^^^^^^^  ^^^^     j  i 

fn-st  Street  Car  built  ^-^^^''^^^Z^  BanU.  and  was  designed  o 
Mason."  after  the  founder  of  ^^^  ^'^^^^  ^^^^  f^om  Prince  street  to  the 
;,„  on  a  branch  of  the  Harlaen.  ^^'^  in  their  incipieney.  and 

H  vlaem  Tlats.     At  that  tune  -Uo  ^^  v        ^^^  ^^^^.^^  .^  ^ 
cars  were  constructed  "^^^^Pf  ^/^  ,  ,  patent  for  an  improvenu-nt 
Tu  Am-il,  1833,  Mr.  Stephenson  icceivca  ^^^^^^^  j^^^,.^„„_ 

:    >  Ise'nger  Cars  for  -^-^^^•^;:^l';:;ln' Secretary  of  State, 
president  of  the  United  States,  Edwaid^^^S^  ^^^^  ^^  ^.,,. 

those  early  enterprises.  ^.^^  ^f  ^is  present  nianu- 

In  1843,  Mr.  Stephenson  '^e"  «'  ?.       f,,ty.four  by  one  hundred  feet, 

to  which,  in  1850,  an  addition  '^''^^  '     ^^.^^  Twenty-seventh  to 

llilding  two  hundred  ^-t  long,  -t^^^^^^^^  ^^^  ^^„,.,,,,p,  ,„d  liere. 
Tsventy-eighth  ^^veets.     Ths   now  co  ^^^^^.^^  ^^^^  ^^    ^^^ee 

for  several  y«--- -, ''"tieet  C  rs^ve  now  turned  off  with  alnios 
hundred  a  year,  and  l-^l'.f^-^^^^^^^^^^.^f.eturo  of  Omnibuses,  Mr 
,,,,1  facility  and  -P^^l^^- J^.'lun  securing  the  requisite  sreng^^^ 
S  onhenson  was  remarkably  succe.-u  ^  popularity  as  a 

'  ith  the  least  weight,  and  f  "^^   ^^po'ly.     But  in  I860  the 

under  that  was  nearly  ^""7"";;'\1  diminished,  in  consequence 
demandfor  this  class  of  vehicle        dgie^^^  ^^^^  ^^  ^^  ,, 



rated  or 
iic  word 
k-  to  po- 
1  it  to  t)e 
liu  traiis- 
10  family 
ble,  with 
,'i\s  iutvo- 

[■moved  to 
3\)ably  the 
the  "John 
esignod  to 
•cot  to  the 
lieiicy,  and 
a  England, 
iw  Jackson, 
vvy  of  State, 
ind  as  vail- 
arfod,  ho  eu- 
plexitics  and 
le  history  of 

resent  nianu- 
hundred  feet, 
of  a  six-story 
ity-sevcnth  to 
lops,  and  here, 
day,  or  three 
ff  with  almost 
(mnibuses,  Mr. 
ijuisite  strength 
popularity  as  a 
ut  in  I860  the 
,  in  consequence 
he  thenceforth 
purpose,  apply- 
builder  had  de- 
he  was  able  to 

docroaso  thewei-hv  of  the.o  Cars  from  six  th..nsand  to  thirty-five  hun- 
dred pounds,  without  in  the  least  diminishing  their  strength. 

In  the  eonstnietion  of  durable   carriages  of  all  kinds,  well  scn.onrd 
tir.ber  is  an  indispensable  requisite.     In  this  establishment  a  stork  lot- 
two  years'  use  is  kept  constantly  on  hand.     Oak  select,..!  irom  isolat.-l 
trees  found  in  pastures  is  preferred  to  that  takiMi  from  forests.     In  the 
lumber  rooms  there  is  also  a  large  stock  of  the  constituent  parts  ot 
Coaches  and  Cars,  cut  to  sizes  and  shaped  so  that  the  body  ot  a  Car  e..n 
be  i)ut  together  and  made  ready  for  painting  in  five  days.     In  U.e 
blacksmith's  shop,  there  are  fifteen  forge  fires  blown  by  a  .steam-engine 
and  here  the  iron  work  is  so  forged  that  the  parts  which  in  use  will 
bo  subjected  to  the  greatest  strain,  are  made  of  double  thickness,  wlulo 
the  other  parts  have  no  superfluous  metal.     The  hooks  of  the  connect- 
in.^  rods  and  shackles,  and  the  clogs  of  the  breaker,  arc  thoroughly 
stren-'thened  in  this  way.     In  the  Painting  department  the  workmen 
are  divided  into  classes,  as  primers,  rubbers,  colorcrs,  flatters,  letterers, 
landscape   painters,  scrollers,  varnish    finishers,  and   thus   acquire   a 
facility  of  execution  which  can  only  be  attained  by  a  daily  repetition 
of  the  same  duty.     This  principle,  so  far  as  possible,  is  observed  in  all 

the  departments.  ,  .  ,   ,      ,  . 

15ut  besides  the  general  principles  of  construction  winch  tend  to  cxpe- 
,lite  work   Mr.  Stephenson  has  made  special  improvements,  some  of 
them  patented,  which  tend  to  secure  durability  and  diminish  the  cost 
of  repairs      Of  this  description  is  the  Patent  Truss-rod,  and  the  method 
of  bracing  the  Cars  at  the  corners, where,  in  conscqu^-ce  of  the  short 
curves  in  street  railways,  an  immense  strain  falls,  causing  the  body  of 
the  Car  to  swag  or  give  way.     The  boxes  of  the  journals  of  the  axles 
which  arc  subjected  to  great  friction,  are  made  nearly  double  the  usual 
len-th,  thus  affording  fifty  per  cent,  more  surface  for  abrasion,      lo 
exclude  dirt  or  grit  from  the  journal  boxes,  which  has  been  a  subject  ol 
manv  patents,  Mr.  Stephenson  employs  a  rotating  gate,  composed  of 
two 'segments  of  cast-iron,  forming  a  collar,  and  which  keeps  the  orifice 
constantly  closed  by  the  action  of  the  journal  itself.    Among  the  minor 
improvements  which  may  be  mentioned,  is  the  step  projecting  beyond 
the  bodv  of  the  car,  which  has  a  tendency  to  lessen  the  number  of  acci- 
dents the  enlargement  of  the  reel,  and,  in  some  instances,  the  adoption 
of  wooden  trimmings  for  seats  in  placeof  cushions,  which  on  some 
railways  have  become  infested  with  vermin. 

Mr  Stephenson  has  constructed  Cars  for  railways  in  India,  England. 
Mexico  Valparaiso,  and  San  Francisco.  Tie  now  employs  about  three 
hundred  workmen,  and  is  producing  about  six  Ca.s  a  week,  or  one  each 
working  day. 


.    _  :.,  tl,o  fitV  of 

Carhart«=«— "  ^      -^^  of  >T' w  York, 

when  Jevciniah  CaiUair,  ^^^  ^.^^^.^^^  ^f  Melodeo 

bra^^s,  in>*-itR"  u  t  ^^  jma  the  oracr  u 

1  •  1,   \,v  vibvat  on,  ina'^cs  vuc  »»'      ;  ^ ,    simply  a  strip  w 

wlncli,  bN  N  luu        ,  niatcruil  of  the  reca  i  ^^^^ 

stUutos  tlio  nicloay.     iiicni  ,..    ^nd  two  or  three  intiu 

!    about  a  tenth  of  an  ^f'^'^^^  passed  under  a  machme  n- 
1     .  hhn>U  is  eut  out  ^y^  ^^i;  ^^    .^tion,  planes  tlu,  two  Bid.. 

.   1  uv  M"  Oarhart,  which,  m  one  1 1  niachines  in  this 

"■"  1    ac  "    One  of  the  most  effective  o      ^    ]    ,,^,,_  ,„,  perform. 



,-  York, 

',ry.  ^-^ 
and  the 
he  base- 

om  1840, 
icnts,  ho.A 
,1,  become 
^  tbc  veed, 
Icon.    Tbis 
,rt  devoted 
,  tbc  reeds 
u'd  to  bold 
lit  invented 
ho  tbickness 
jg  this  were 
leir  work  po 
in  tbe  trade, 
rally  for  tbe 

_  as  tbc  name 
:v,etal,  usually 

one  pud  f''^*"' 
[le  sound,  con- 
iply  a  3trip  of 
■e  inches  wide. 
.  a  machine  in- 

tho  two  sides 
lacbines  in  this 
:,  and  performs 
method  by  band. 

but  two  raised 
•d  block  by  this 
1,0  reed  i=^  in  ^<« 
liUL'SB  of  Ibe  rt'cd 

i.  iocs  at  the  base  than  at  tbe  free  end,  the  tone  of  the  reed  is  deter- 

the  one  invented  bv  Mr.  Carbart  for  t!>e  «ell.  oi     nl)c     m  1  e 

?„        tL  ■„.chi»o  do,c,vc.  .0  ra„k  wi.l,   the   -"""" '?   '       ,  ?^ 
^f     I,     1  f,,  if  i.  n„t  oiilv  cwialile  or  c.icc-utiiig  work  m  blnught 

^r  ::  ;-  cl:  :::i:  w;th  U  nicety  .d  rapidity  tbatno^^^ 
work  can  approach  it.  Tbe  cutters  revolve  wUh  ^^'^^^^2:^^ 
thousand  seven  hundred  times  a  minute-and  tbe  speed  o  the  ( .  mng 
b  ifiust  one  n.ile  in  a  minute.  The  groove  ir>  wbich  the  reed  l,lo  k 
•  •  'e  nd  :hieb  is  about  one  tenth  of  an  inch  wide  and  deep  >«  mad 
'     tt  same  n.achine  ;  and  as  each  groove  is  an  exact  lae-s,n..k^  ot  the 

0  her  those  made  years  ago  will  fit  any  reed  block  made  to-duy. 

A  ;  ry  importa,^  in.provemont  allecting  the  shape,  ™nven.ence  and 
sintl  city  of  Harmoniums,  or  other  large  reed  instruments  wa  n>ad. 
bv  t       n'ention  of  E.  I>.  Needham,  patented  in  I859,by  wluch  tu-o  o 

1  a     oTs  are  placed  in  rows,  one  above  the  other,  m  tl.c  n;an  e 
o    Id  ^s  or  successive  segments,  eaeb  horizontal  ro.'  d.vuled  n    the 
^icWle  to  form  two  registers,  and  any  one  may  bo  renmved  at  any  tune, 
rt^o^d  n.r  repairs'with  extren.o  -aoiiitv.     The  invent^n  also  n. 
elude    an  arrang  ment  for  cond.iuing  tl.e  actions  with  the  bellows. 

T  n    of  Carbart  &   Needhan,  since  their  removal   rom  Hulfa lo 

to  New  York  in  1848,  have  n.ade  about   fifteen  thousand  Melodeons 
Id      armoniums,and  are  now  using  fnun   fifty  to  sixty  sets  of  five 

0  ave  r    ds  a  we  k.     Their  n.anufactures  include  every  grade  o    the 
:;:;'::.,  .om  t..  sman  single-hauked  Melodeon   to  the    ..e 

1  ibrarv  or  Hall  Organ,  with  its  fourteen  sets  of  reds,  of  re  na.kaDIr 
];^       L  power,  its  splendid  pedal  tones,  and  its  rich  and  .uM^osmg 

r    I'robably  the  finest  instrun>ent  ever  constructed  was  one  exh.b.ted 
a  a"rec  nt  Fa  r  of  the  American  Institute  in  New  York,  cons.s  u.g  o 
to  .InkB  of  keys,  two  octaves  of  pedals,  and  fourteen  ranks  of  reeds. 

a  PncunMio  .nacl.ino  for  cnvojing  ,  ..  k-  -'  .„  ,,,  ,f  i,„  i„. 

„lu.h  ttie  nir  has  boBt.  .xbau.tod,  wbich  .s      tmauoiion. 
pro»um.oea.  by  tbo.c  ..uu.votuut  t„  jiMso,      *»'•"•". 


n.n.^y,^n-^^^^^'^'''^;r^lX^2J^n  a  Pipe  Organ;  aud  a.  a 
powerful  tone,  that  -n  only  be  ec    a  ^^  ^^^^^^^  .^  ^ 

rUirty-two  foot  v>pe  ^^^"^  ^^^^^rju^l.^  ^^'^^^^  ^^-'  ^"^  ^'^^  "^^"'' 
or^a;n  of  the  sv/.c  of  the  Ktoa  u  ^  ^^^^^_^^,^.^ . 

aeddcd  advantage.     An  ennnon         -^  c    ^^  ^^^^  ^^^^^^^^  .^  ^^^^ 

.On  the  ordinary  Parloi  Ov^^.^^  .^^  ^..^^^,^^.^.^ .  ^,^t  u,  the 
both  hands,  only  -^^-^  ^"^^.^Hn  vibration  one  hnndred  and  b.x- 
Library  Organ,  the  same  eh  u    am        ^^^  ^^.^^  ^^^^  ^^^^^^ 

,,,,  reeds.     The  power  of   h.  ^^;^  ,,  ,,,  .vhole  instrumon 

i.  thns  dearly  uul-eated       ^^''l  ^,.  ^^^^  .tops  was  so  perfect,  the 

was  so  singularly   -^-^'^;  '   '^  ^     I'for  offeets  so  large  and  so  s«po- 
variety  BO  admirable,  and  the  uvpacay  .^  ^^.^^^  uuivovsal  ad- 

,;or  to  any  other  instrument  o.  ^^^^  ^^,^,  ^edal  by  the  pubUo. 

Milbank  Brothers'  Brewery, 

•    «no  nf  the  time-honored 
At  the  eorner  of  Madison  and  O^^^;^^^;^^^.  metropolis  of  to- 
tsUtutions  of  the  eity.  fomun.  a  Ik  eon  ue^^^^g  ^^  ^^^^^     .^^^        ^^,,,, 
dav  with  the  Now  York  of  the  V^\    J         Revolutionary  A\  ar,  and 
f  tinds  wan  occurled  as  a  ^-;-     ^  ^       j,.  a  Quaker  and  aph. 
one  of  its  early  proprietors  -'^  -^^^^j;  ..^.^  '.vhose  educational  works 
'  uthropist,  the  brother  of  l^u^l  >  ^^^       j„,„  Murray.  .U'..  was 
;:  ,.e  aJ  one  time  the  text  books        1       "  ^^^^.^^^  ^^^,^,,,„,,,,,  ,,.  the 

,,,  Treasurer  of  what  was  1-  ^^^^^     ,,,  p,,.,oting  the  Manum.- 
abolition  of  slavery,  called      Ih-   S        >  ^^  j^,^^.^,  ,,^,„,  ,,  n.ay  bo 

.ion  of  Slaves,  and  I'-'-^'^J^'^^  '  I,,  ,,u.nt.     (general  Washmgton 
Liberated,"  of  -^^'^'^^^^ ^ZL  ale  at  this  Brewery,  and  John 
,vhou  he  resided  in  New  ^  ''l^^'  ""^^    ,  ,.,.,,,  .^  u.e  comn.eneement  ol  tho 
Haneoek  was  one  of  its  patrons.  ^^.^^,,,  .-as  shortly  aiu.- 

,,.sent  century  was  Murray  ^^^l  ;,,,„  ,.,ing  Sanuu  Md- 
vard  changed  to  Murray  .S:^  ^^'^  '  '  ;^,.  ,  >,^,w  York  before  the  war 
lank,  a  brewer  of  I'ldh^dpl^uv.  -  '"  ^  ;^^„,„  ,,  ..anagcnu-nt,  Sam- 
,,  ,s,2.  Af...r  •">^"/";  Xt;.  U  until  ISIU,  when  he  was  su. 
c-ecdedbyhi8  80ubunuai.  ^>       i 

>ni.l5.VNlv    lUlOTUEUS'    BUEWEUY. 


gbi,  and 
rich,  uiid 
and  as  a 

u  a  vip"^ 
respect,  a 

taken  by 
it   in    tbe 
I  and  six- 
lie  former, 
perfect,  the 
,d  so  supe- 
ivevsal  ad- 

the  public, 

ropolis  uf  to- 
iite  on  which 
,rtry^Vivr,  iind 
vor  and  a  phi- 
ational  worUs 
riuiizod  for  the 
the  Manumis- 
ocii  or  may  be 
Lvl  Washington, 
very,  ami  John 
cnccmont  of  tho 
,A  bliortly  afier- 
,g  Samuel  Mil- 
i  before  tho  war 
iiancnu-nt,  Sam- 
hen  lie  was  >*'"'■ 
decoaso  in  1805, 

when  it  passed  into  tho  hands  of  his  tl>ree  sons  the  present  pu,,>  .to,., 
Charles  E.,  Samuel  W.,  and  Albert  J.  Mdbank. 

The  present  building  is  new,  having  been  erected    "   ^^  ;  ^  ^  ^ 
stories  In  height,  and  has  a  iront  on  Mac  son  ^^^\^J^^:^^^^^ 

==r=£:r5  .  5=::; 

of  metal  which  has  a  tendency  to  prevent  sourness  m  the  Alt,  an     at 

i;  Ime     me  facilitates  eleanliness.     The  only  cooler  used  .s  l.u  de- 

•.  Pitent  Refrigerator,  of  which  the  principle  was  ongnrated,  anc 

;  ^ado,   ed  by  S  unucl  Milbank  liftccu  years  before  it  was  pat- 

":  r  T  :«   g  -  -  ngerator  of  this  description  is  still  preserved 
ented.      lie  or.gmai  it     „  ^^^^^^^  ^^  ^^^^  ^^^.^j^,,,, 

1    .,"1 ".'  prai.,.     Tl,c  B«.wery  !„«  a  c»,,..i.J-  f»r  pr«a>.eH,„  abou,. 

Ale  has  a  reputation  unsurpassed  by  an.> .      lut  auiu 
1    J   ,  ./^  o/iSV,«  !-../•  <'an  scarcely  repress  his  enthus.asn,  m  speak- 
M^.chn,.  ofJS^  I  _^  ^^^^  ^^^^^^  liine-stanied   I'.rewery 

i:^:''':^^^^ Xg  ..n  of  that  is  preei^^^ 

Mit  .,ri  river  of  Lager.     I  am  bursting  will,  putr.ofsm  as  1  c lu.e  th, 






Wm.  Tildeu  &  Nephew's  varnish  Manufactory. 

V  V--VVU  it;  ficevcdited  with 
corner  of  Kivin.ton  and  No^foUc  st.c^.  ^  -  Y^^;^  acc^^^^^^^^^^^  ^^ 
bein,  tbo  pioneer  oBtabhsbnjen    u  t  -      unt  _^^^^  ^^  ^^^^^  ^,^  ^,^^ 

Copal  VavnislH-B  as  an  article  of  «o»  "^^^^^        ,,^^^^,^  ,,„a  France  ;  but 

in  the  autnnin  of  that  y-^'' ^/^\  "\^l,f,  tinev  of  Varnishes  in  this 
,,.e,  and  until  183G,  -^^^  ^  ^r  thirty  dilTercnt  «,annfactorics 
country.  There  '^^«- "^f^l^^ ]'^  ^iJ,  ^.^t  the  original  one  is  n^uch  tho 
of  this  description  in  the  ^'-^^d  Mates  h  ^^^  ^  ^^^.^^.^^^  ^^  ^^^,^^._,, 


Mr.Tildcnwasthehugestco    u,  ^^  ^^^^.^^.    ^^^^  ^i,. 

Copal,  direct  from  ^-"^^^'^  ^^'^^J^',;  ^  countries,  were  made  by  exports  of  Varnishes^  ^^-!-  ''^^^^l,  ,i,,ieo.  The  experiment 
,i„,  in  the  year  1836,  to  South  ^^^  ^^.^,,  ,,,,eely  a  country. 
,ro;ed  so  successful,  that  m  -^^^^^  -  ^^^  ^.,^„  ,.,,,,,,es  were  not 
where  American  commerce  leachoan  ^^^  importations 

shipped  -,  and  they,  in  a  ^^^^"^^^^^^^.t  of  demand  in  the 
ofEuropeanman.-;ur.^     T  -n^^;;^^  ^^^^  ^^^^,  ,,,  inercasing 

foreign  markets       t..  ^^«^1^^'^«^'  ,,  „f  industry  to  such  aa 

consumption  at  ^-O^'^^- ^^""^''^'^V  851   established  commercial  rela 

„t  tUo  I.OU80,  h.  Iho  *'"  .•"\  'Tout  uvcnty  thousand  dollar,  per 
„oadlly,  tron,  ..10=  »"">°""r ''„";'„„  „ullrcd  thousand  dollar, 
„„„un,  uatil  tlK-y  ..«^'  "f  ^  ''^;  ,;"r  ll.roo  faCoric.  to  support  it, 
,„„,„„,,  -.'f;f  :,:;,■'    l."-'    .i..i  .^crc  U  ouo  firm  i» 

a  tart  »lMC-l.  "ITord.  i°"»'.'  "' "  ^i,(„|  ,„  E„,„po. 

Auurioa  able  to  con.pcto  w,ll,  ''-^  ^  f       „,„  j,,„,  „„  (!„„,  Copal 
Tl,o  revision  of  ita  ■ranit,  >"     «  j  .^'^  '^  ,  „„„„„  „f  manntaetory 

::  '^!::;:;!:^^:^^^^^  --  "•  --"  '■"" "" '"' 




c(l  with 

L'lure  of 
I,  all  the 
ICC  -,  hut 
i  in  this 
much  the 
f  tlollars. 
IS  of  Gum 
and  the 
!  made  l)y 
B,  country, 
3  were  not 
and  in  the 
to  such  aa 
ercial  rcla 
s,  and  em- 
,f  the  coun 

1th  Mr.  Til- 
Mie  husines3 
18  increased 

dollars  per 
sand  dollars 
)  BU))port  it, 

one  firm  in 

n  Oiini  Copal 
'  manufactory 
i-ade  and  that 

T'arnlshcB,  but 
and  attention 
!8  and  efroota. 
lainiiip  penna- 
ly  to  tlie  sur- 

ponsideraulc  tunc,   lucu  ii'j'"o  u..  itlo— 

thirty  varieties,  that  they  have  given  satisfaction  m  all. 

The  Glen  Cove  StarcH  Works-W.  Duryea,  Superintendent, 

T       .   1  nt  filen  Cove   Long  Island,  arc  one  of  the  two  large  Starch 

,.nd.n-  the  General  Manufacturing  Law  of  the  tetatc  of  >tu  loik, 
t::^:.  L,  m.,  and  hunt,  at  fi.t,  a  small  fUcUn^  to  .-st  a  ..w 
„,ocess  of  nmnufacturing  Starch  and  Ma.zcna  In  18.7,  ^  ^^  ^'  "^  '  - 
ZL  Works  was  increased  from  one  ton  per  day  to  hve ;  and  sho  lly 

V     ,        ,1  to    «  luo-l.r«or.     Sit»au„l  .lircrtly  o„  tl.«  I1..0  ot  open 
,     ,ev»      w      «n.y  «to.n,  power,  to  .ho  .op  ot  .he  hoihli,,,.  w,„. 

";"::, " t :.!  «  ^  .hC co„v.,ve>u., «,™t «,,, i„ .h. b..e. 

r  the  hu  .    «  wher.  the  1.  partially  removed,  aa.l  .heu 
mc'itt  of    he  >"""  "  S;  I,  I-,,,,,,  „,,i,|,  „  ,,„r.i.m  of  Ihe  »i.r- 

t'iror  SulXlJ.,,  .elertthlv  »li.l,  i»  pla-d  upo„  .helve,  tt.aao 



Of  loose  bricks,  when  more  moisture  escapes  by  absorption  and  evapo- 
ration. Kiln-drying  finishes  the  process,  and  the  Starch  is  obtamed  in 
prismatic  forms,  ready  to  be  put  up  in  paper  or  boxes  for  the  market. 

For  Ln-imV">S  the  corn,  the  Glen  Cove  Company  have  several  pair^ 
of  burrstones,  and  large,  heavy  iron  rollers.  The  machinery  is  propelled 
by  a  double-cylinder  vertical  engine  of  one  hundred  and  sixty  horse- 
power,  and  there  is  an  additional  water-power  of  about  sixty  horse 
capacity,  which  is  obtained  from  a  pond  that  covers  about  thirteen 
acres  The  vats  employed  in  purifying  the  Starch  have  a  capacity  ot 
many  million  gallons,  and  the  length  of  gutters  for  conveying  and  dis- 
tributing the  starch  waters  amounts  to  many  miles. 

In  the  manufacture  of  Corn  Starch,  considerable  .skill,  especially  a 
critical  knowledge  of  fermentation,, is  required.     Many  manufacturers 
have  succeeded  in  producing  Starch  very  nearly  white,  but  very  few 
have  succeeded  in  producing  uniformhj  an  article  of  Starch  most  de- 
eivable-of  clear  whiteness  and  at  the  same  time  free  from  sourness. 
Clear  r^id  perfect  whiteness,  lohen  free,  from  sourness,  is  an  evidence 
of  puritv  lui.l  strength.     This  superior  quality  of  Starch  will  give  to 
linen  a  beautifully  white  brilliancy,  great  strength,  and  elasticity.     As 
the  StarHi  nuule  at  the  Glen  Cove  Works  has  the  highest  reputation  m 
all  mariiets  it  may  be  reasonably  assumed  that  the  Messrs.  Duryea, 
who  condu.-i  the  operations,  are  among  the  few  who  possess  the  requi- 
site skill  and  knowledge  for  the  manufacture.     They  are  also  probably 
aided  by  the  excellence  of  the  water  obtained  from  springs  on  the  prom- 
ises  which  is  remarkable  for  its  purity  and  softness. 

Besides  Starch,  this  Company  manufacture  a  novel  article  for  pud- 
dini*;.^  custanis,  ice-cieams,  etc.,  known  as  Duryea's  "  Maizena."     This 
word'  "  Maizena,"  was  coined  and  adopted  by  the  Messrs.  Duryea  as 
a  trade-mark,  and  as  such  is  claimed  by  th.m.     The  article  bearing 
said  trademark  is  composed  of  the  (lour  of  the  choicest  selected  white 
corn   and  is  the  most  wlioh'some,  nutritious,  and  agreeable  article  ot 
food'  in  the  whole  range  of  farinaceous  substances  ;   it  is  not  only  a 
choice  article  of  dessert,  but  in  the  sick  room  an  excellent  substitute 
for  the  best  Bermuda  Arrowroot,  being  used  in    the  same  way.     In 
many  cases  it  is  regarded  as  superior  to  Arrowroot  as  a  diet  for  the 
sick,"  especially  dyspeptics  and  infants. 

The  manufacturing  operations  of  the  Glen  Cove  Starch  Company 
are  conducted  by  the  Superintendent,  Duryea;  while  his 
brother,  William  Durtea,  has  charge  especially  of  the  sales,  at  the 
Company's  warehouse  iu  New  York.  xr  •.   .  c.  f  . 

It  is  estimated  that  the  consumption  of  Starch  in  the  United  States 
now  amcunts  to  two  hundred  and  fifty  tons  per  day 

\  evapo- 
ained  in 
ral  paira 
ly  horse- 
ty  horse 
pacity  of 
:  and  dis- 

)ecially  a 

very  few 
most  de- 

I  evidence 

II  give  to 
icity.  As 
lutation  in 
s.  Duryea, 
the  requi- 

0  probably 

1  the  prem- 
ie for  pud- 
na."    This 

Duryea  as 
•le  bearing 
ectcd  white 
!  article  of 

not  only  a 
t  substitute 
e  way.  In 
iiet  for  the 

h  Company 
;  while  hia 
sales,  at  the 

nited  States 



Colgate  &  Co.'s  Manufactory 

nesB  ,n  a  ^^^  ;;^^J.;j  ,'\  ^^n^        States  did  not  probably  exceed 
made  in  regular  faciei les  in  me  u  „,„„ufactory  was  .situated  at 


manufacturer  sixty  ^-^^^s  since .  ^^  ^^^^^^^^^^^^^  ^  ^,^^,^. 

The  manufacture  ^^  ^^^^^       ■„„  ,,  ,,,  .nuUUU  of  lnU>lli.o..m. 
ical  art,  and  rises  in  m  P'°P«"'"  ,     ,,^  ,,,,,,,  ^o- 

cess     Abhough    h.  mjs  ,,,,ieation.  less  than  titty  years 

Bcation  was  not    1^"^^^"  ""*  '  \  ,^.,,^.^^i    ^lio  French  chemist,  on 

ago,  of  th..  able  rcsearebv>  o    Mi.  U      -u I        ^  ^^^  ^^^^^^_^ 

the  nature  ami  constitution  ut  the  hxul   ^''^  ^"  ^,  ^^ 

fats  and  oils  are  now  known  to  '^^-^^!^' ^^^^^' ^^^^^l ,,,  aiffcrcnt 

'-''  r:f 'Zn^^-^e::;.:' ^  t;;r:u,ments  dep^ds 

proportions.     Lpon  "'^  ^*^':\  ,  ordinary  temperatures, 

■fat      ed  b      g  greater  when  made  of  the  solid  fat.,  as  tallow 

K  irbitt      etc    which  owe  their  consistence  to  stearin  and 

bone-giease,  uuiier,  tic,  ^mv.. 


nnargavin,  than  when  the  liquid  oils,  as  pahn,  aUnond  rape  seed,  castor 
oil   Hc.  arc  employed,  which  consist  principally  of  o  e.n. 

Man;  .,f  the  n.odern  improvements  in  Soap  mak.n,,  ha 
been  quite  numerous  since  1840,  consist  in  the  use  of  "-v  vogetahlo 
0    anhnal  oils  as  materials;  in  the  mechanical  and  chem.camtod 
of  purilyinjr,  deodorizing,  and  preparing  them;  and  espeoallv  of  sepa. 
radne  the  0  ein  and  glvcerin  from  the  fatty  acids,  so  as  to  obtaui    he 
^:^ /!:;^^ric  ali,  ^ther  for  Soap  or  Candles     in  which  operat^ 
hyd    ulic  pressure  has  been  found  to   be  one  of  the   most   elhc  ent 
nllies      15ut  perhaps  the  most  important  invention  ever  made  m 
he  n  a  ufacture,'has  been  in  the  employment  of  sU-am,  wh>ch  has  won- 
derfully facilitated,  cheapened,  and  improved  the  processes  b    h  of      ^ 
Soap  and  Candle  making.     It  has  effected  a  great  saving  of  fuel,  and 
enal'        l->--^-^---  to   arrest  the  boiling  process  at  the 
"ome,i_which  is  a  matter  of  importance.     It  has  reduced  the 
number  of  hands  required,  and  in  various  other  ways  has  proved  to  be 
an  agency  ahno.t  indispensable  to  the  manufacture  of  Soap  and  Can- 

flips  on  a  large  scale.  .  , 

In  ar.^e  Lap  Laboratories,  the  steam  series  usually  consists  of 
three  " Idrons-one  for  white,  and  one  for  yellow,  and  one  for  palm 
and  0  line   Soaps-and  these   are  often  of   very   large  size.     In 

rolg      's  Manufactory,  these  caldrons,  though  not  so  l-'^-  -  -- 
othS  have  a  capacity  of  thirty  tons  each.     In  this,  as  in  oth.r  well- 
gl;  r;sU.blikmc;ts,  the  apartments  are  arranged  with  especial 
•oRMcnce  to  convenience,  and  each  is  devoted  to  its  special  purpose 
TO   -'fan     room,"   or   "drying  loH,"  where  the    Soap,   after  it   .s 
?o  med    is  placed  to  cool,  is  in  the  second  story  of  the  main  build- 
7 Id   c  ntains   over  three   hundred   cast-iron   1  au„ .     wluch    are 
now  vref..rred  to  wood,  both  because  they  can  be  taken  a,,ar   and  put 
weU  er     HI.  greater  facilit  v,  and  the  metal  is  found  to  hasten  the  cooling 
oMh     S^P.     In  ih"  other  rooms  are  numerous  presses  for  stamping 
In  V  So" OS  aiKl   all   the  applinnces  for  producing  a  lu.iulred  tons  of 
Z^^.  onother  pi!t  of  the  Works  is  a  Candle  Mannfaetory. 

where  pessed  Tallow  Candlen  for  the  West  India  markets  are  made 
L  m-'n"  of  a  patent  rnndle-Moul.ling  Appnratus,  with  extraordi- 
'ai-r  p  ditv.  n  connection  with  the  establishmnnt  is  alno  a  Box 
M  nufa  ory  having  machines  and  facilities  for  turning  ont  one  thou- 
Mnniitflctory,  n        »  j^.^ptailing  machine  used  here  is  a  remarkn- 

r^ r::;      tveiul:      The  .1^.,^  ...-  «.  h....  of  about  .nr 
hunired  feet  on  the  main  street,  and  cover  two  thirds  of  an  entue 

^^  This  firm  manufacture  about  a  hundred  dilTerent  varieties  of  Soap, 



,  castor 

■h  have 
of  sepa- 
•lain  the 

made  in 
lias  woa- 

both  of 
fuel,  and 
e  precise 
luced  the 
ved  to  be 
and  Can- 

)nsists  of 
for  palm 
size.     In 
!  as  some 
itiior  well- 
h  espf'cial 
1  purpose 
after  it   is 
min  buil3- 
wliicii    are 
rl  luul  put 
tlio  cooling 
i-  stamping 
'cd  tons  of 
anu  factory, 
i  an'  made 
tilno  a  Box 
it  OIK!  thou- 
a  remarkti 
'  about  four 
if  an  entire 

es  of  Soap, 

includin?  rare  Fancy  Soaps,  and  those  for  manufacturers  use.  The 
department  of  Fancy  Soaps  was  added  to  the  busmcss  m  ibaO  and 
their  success  in  this  branch  has  materially  diminished  the  nnportat.on 
of  foreign  Soaps.  As  an  illustration  of  the  extent  of  the  busmcss  done 
by  this  fu-m,  we  :uay  state  that  during  the  year  18G5  they  paid  to  the 
United  States  Government  a  Manufacturer's  Revenue  lax  of  ont 
hundred  and  thirty-three  thousand  dollars. 

The  Howe  Scale  Company, 

Though  their  principal  establishment  is  in  Brandon,  Vermont,  have 
their  warehouse  and  a  branch  manafactory  in  New  York  city,  and  as  a 
correct  and  reliable  standard  for  weighing  commodities  is  a  subject  ot 
very  great  importance  to  manufacturers,  it  may  not  be  amiss  to  give, 
in  this  place,  some  account  of  one  of  the  two  great  Scale  manufactories 

of  the  United  States.  ^     ,      ,         ,    „ 

On  the  15th  of  January,  185G,  two  ingenious  New  England  mechan- 
ics F  M  Strong  and  Thomas  Ross,  received  a  patent  for  an  unproved 
method  of  making  Platform   Scales.     This  afterward  became  widely 
known  as  the  "  Strong  and  Ross  Fatent."     The  improvement  consisted 
in  d^ensing  with  check  rods,  which  are  liable  to  be  affected  by  frost 
and  other  circumstances  ;  in  requiring  no  pit,  or  a  very  shal  ow  one,  oi 
the  foundation  of  the  largest  Scales ;   the  substitution  ot   balls  under 
the  end  of  the  platform  beams,  by  which  friction  from  the  movemen    or 
working  of  the  platform  on  the  "  kaife-edges"  or  bearings,  is  avoided, 
and  general  simplicity  of  construction  without  diminution  of_ strength. 
Technically  described,  the  principle  of  this  Scale  consists  in  extend- 
ing across  each  of  its  ends  a  shaft  whose  extremities  are  cmhirgcd  in 
.„ch  a  manner  as  to  admit  the  insertion  of  knife-edges.     These  rest 
upon  suitable  bearings  ulluched  to  the  foundation  or  frame,  and  are  so 
inserted  in  the  shaft  that  uiey  form  the  axis  on  which  it  partially  ro- 
tates  with  the  least  possible   friction,      These  enlargements  projec 
inwardly  from  the  shaft,  forming  short  cranks,  and  in  these  are  inserted 
other  knife-edges  parallel  to,  and  e.pmlistant  from,  the    -7-^"^"'-^^ 
At  the  extreme  front  end  of  the  shafts,  arms  are  securcl  ^^Uu:h  oxtc.  d 
to  the  centre  of  the  front  side  of  the  scale,  where  they  meet,  and  a  0 
both  attached  to  the  "  beam"  in  the  usual  manner.     To  the  under  side 
of  the  ends  of  the  platform  timbers  are  secured  plates  or    •  shoos     in 
V^hich  are  concavities  ;    hese  rest  upon  balls  contained  in  corresponding 
concavities,  in  suitable  pl.tes,  from  wbi.h  project  downward  the  bear- 
l„gs  that  rest  on  the  knife-edges  Inserted  in  the  cranks  projecting  roni 
the  shafts  ;  consequently,  any  weight  placed  upon  the  platform  tends  to 


tuvn  tho  shaft.  «na  dcpvcs  the  ends  of  the  arms  sccurca  to  then,  winch 
;:tura  actuate  the  hea.n  where  the  ^^^^^^,  ,,,.,  .  to 
This  ruethoa  of  connecting  the  platfo.m  ''^'^'l'^,  withotU  pro- 
.u,ve  fveCy  in  any  'li-ction,  w4.en  ^^^^^^^ 
aucin,  any  shock  or  wear  on  the  ^'^"^^  ^j;,  eonseqt,ontly 
take  place  if  the  connection  was  rigid.     Ihc  kniic      . 

retain  their  fineness  -"^  -"^-f^  ,  attracted  the  attention 

tuvo.  he  siihniitted  then,  to  the  -7^^;;:^  ,      ^^'"l  etition  with 
principal   State   Fairs,  where    hey  ^^eic  tts  ca  ^^_ 

Outers,  and  the  result  was  that  in  on^^  ;    t      '    ^ew  York  city 
ceived  seven  fust  class  premiums.       ^mi  en  ^^^^^^^^,^ 

and  elsewhere  were  induced  to  P^-^^-^  ^^^   ;  ^  bought     ne  that 

1.       I   n,i    ilto  I'riiitiiiir-liress  manufacture! ^  wuo  mmo"" 

lloo  &  Co.,  the  1  nimiig  l  „xtromi-ly  accurate  ordered  nn- 

„„„ld  weigh  eight  tons,  and  ""f "/'",",  ^^^^        oont  laid  on  the 

other  ef  the  san.e  e  a«s      It  -»  '°  "^f"^^  °    ^^  fourteen  hundred 


-cp:^...  of  thi.  ..e . « it  -J- :—:;";: 

certify  to  it,  aecuraey  -\«f '-f  »\;t'rahnshea  its  reliai.ility  a,  a 

the  manufacture.      1  hey  """^^S,  ^^  and  are  now  producing, 

ehanic.  that  the  ''ig-^-^-"         Xa  twe.  eon.trnCcd  e„  the 
in  largo  nuu.hcrs.  bcalcB  of  al  •       ^  ■       increasing  their  popu- 


,;:  ;„  Russia,  China,  .T.,.an,  and  «»'■*  .^'-"[l...^^  j,„„,  York  for 
The  lirm  of  ItoWE  &  Bouyt.u,  f  "'^^;l^^^;  " ^^,  eity  where 

Wcighnmsters'  Beams,  etc 


,  wliich 

svs  it  to 
)nt  pro- 


1  intelli- 
utors  for 
town  of 
cin  at  the 
ion  with 
,  they  re- 
York  city 
■3,  llohevt 
one  that 
rclered  an- 
aid  ou  the 
1  hunilrod 
scale  of  six 

;uratoly  on 
ipany  pur- 
pacity,  and 
otlicr  end. 
'  tons,  they 

ial)ility  as  a 
reat  sinipli- 
is  energetic 
snsively  into 
he  best  me- 
iv  producing, 
■ucted  on  tlie 
their  popu- 
this  country, 

s"ew  York  for 
:e  city  where 
lance    Scales. 




New  York  Belting  and  Packing  Company, 
[JcnN  II.  CiiEEVEu,  Treasurer.] 
The  history  of   the  manufacture  of  India  Rubber  Goods   in   this 
country  cannot  yet  be  written,  mainly  because  those  who  possess  the 
::  t     .portant  Lts  are  interested  in  concealing  the.n      T  e  day  .  ..o 
distant  however,  when  this  obstacle  will  be  removed,  and  a  tr  th  u 
t:  ;  of  the  aithorship  >f  the  various  inventions  that  have  cont  n  ucd 
to  utilise  this  wonderful  ,um  can  be  given.     Suttice  it  to  say  foi    he 
p'Jen    that  since  182^,  when  the  Hrst  Importation  of  the  Tara  rubhc 
de  was  made  into  the  Boston  market,  inventions  luwc  been  mud 
by  which  the  JHlce  or  mi  k  of  an  Ea^t  Indian  tree  is  now  ava.i  hie    or 
clu  i   'o    al  kinds,  ]'..o.^  and  Shoes,  Belting,  and  Steam-pnckn.g  for 
macld^^^^     Carriage  Tops  and  Car  Springs,  Balls  and  To,s  lor  cluldren 
C  mb     Wha^onl  and  an  infinite  variety  of  other  useful  art.  es  ;  and 
thon'h  i   may  be  impossible  as  yet  to  assign  to  e.'h  h  s  e.vaet  slmre  and 
"       y  (,    ^y,,l,,  of  Boston,  Steph.n 

measure  ot  credit,  tne  uamtb  ui    l  p  .,n,>ptifut 

C.  Smith  of  rrovidence,  John  J.  Howe  ot  ^^'"^''^'^;^:'''\^^^ 
Daniel  and  Nathaniel  llayward  of  Easton,  Massachusetts,  (.h.u Its 
G  d  ear  of  New  Haven,  Connecticut,  William  Atkinson,  ^r  Thorn  , 
jr  Bogardus,  Horace  H.  Day,  and  John  H.  Cheevel^allof  ^ow  ^  , 
Curies  Mackintosh,  Thomas  Tluucoek  and  Charles  Kean,  o  Lug  ind 
and  numerous  others  in  both  countries,  will  be  duly  honored  for  their 
several  contributions  in  opening  up  this  new  field  of  industry. 

There  are  now  over  thirty  manufactories  of  India  Rubber  goods  in 

,l,e  States  of  Massa-^husctts,  Rhode   Island,  Connecticut,  ^ew  York, 

>:^vania  and  New  Jer^.  ,  which  have  a  capital     ivostcd  o    neady 

1        1      *    .  aiw^  r^Mornf  VPS  and  produi^c  labrics  vaiueu 
4100(1000    emidov  about  4,0UU  opeiaiivcs,  auu  i'iuv.iu.v 

a  i  ,2  000.  Connecticut  alone  has  thirteen  India  Rubber 
own  d  P  i'neipany  by  capitalists  of  New  York,  and  whose  product,  laid 
,;"  chief  m!u  Jt  in  that  city.  'Che  most  noteworthy  of  t  ese  manu- 
factories, and  the  one  producing  a  larger  product  than  any  other  in  the 
country,  is  that  of  the  New  York  BK.xiNa  and  Paokino  Company, 
wh--ch  we  select  to  iUustra  e  the  modes  and  processes  adopted  foi  man- 
ufacturing India  Rubl)er  g  cods  in  the  best  establshments. 

The  Faetorv  is  located  on  the  Potatok  River,  in  Newtown,  Connecticut, 
a  place  that  imture  and  art  have  combined  to  render  attractive  and  is 
the  one  in  which  Yulcani.ed  Rubber  was  first  practically  manulaetu  e 
.  Kler  the  direction  of  Charles  Goodyear.  The  building  is  nearly  .m 
feet  long,  41  feet  wide,  and  tive  stories  high  ;  and  to  propel  the 
ponderous  machinery  that   is  employed   in  the  various    processes  of 




grinaing  and  preparing  Ejbber    the   Cojnpany  hav.    co^r^ed  ^a 

'    S  Ca  steZ;-en  Jno  of  three  ^^^^^^^^^^  ,,  „.y  .0- 
Before  describing  the  ^^^^f  ^^^fl^^^^^^^^^^^^^^  for 

mark,  that  as  the  goods  made  at  this  ^'^'^^'1°^'        ^  ^^.,,„,e  to 

meehanical  purposes,  the  P-pr.etors  ja  0  „«  p  „  s  or         ^^ 
obtain  rubber  whieh  has  the  strongest  fib  e     -«^;^;^;;.^        ^^^,%,^ 
or  ficuselastica,  has  been  found  '^  "^^'^'l'^^^^^^^^  about 

Calcutta.  Peuang  ^'^:^^^::^:rnae.^,,^o..n 

two  feet  long  and  one  foot  \'7^' ''"'',  ^'r'.„„  •    ,^si,y  seen.     A  stoc: 
i„  wide  meshes,  through  which  the    ark  rubbe    s  cas  y        ^^^^^^^^^^^^^ 

of  hundreds  of  tons  is  constantly  kept  m  their 
which  are  built  as  -^^.^  ^  f^^^^^^^^^^^  undergoes  is  to  cleanse 

The  first  process  -  -'^  ^^^^^^^^^^^^  ,„,ber  as  they  are  gathered  in 

it  of  foreign  matter,  the  masses  01  u  ^^ 

tue  East  Indian  forests  being  -  -f  J'^j  „';^y;^r  weight.     The 
that  in  cleansing  they  lose  ^-^  ^^  per  .ont-  ^^^^^^  .^  ^^_ 

rubber  is  first  pla-d  in  a  large  ^^^^^^  ,,,U  ,„a  the 
mains  for  some  tinie  un  il  ^^^/^^'^^^^  J,,k  that  is  woven  around 
workmen  are  enabled  to  s  np  ^^  ^^^  ^^^7^^^^,  ,^^^,  ,,  ean  be  removed 
,,e  original  bales,  an  w  .  ^^^^  cut  into  slabs  of  about 
only  in  this  way.     Ihe  masses  01  ^^^^^^^^  ^^^^^^ 

an  inch  in  thickness,  by  --"-; ^ X"  ^^  --^^"^^^  '^"^^  ""^"' 
and  four  feet  in  d>'^™^^^'"'^"''^,;f/^',  as  easily  as  if  it  were  clay. 
with  great  speed,  cutting  the  toug^i  mass^  as  ea^  y  ^  ^^  ^^^  ^^^^^^ 

The  slabs  of  -^^^  ^  ^^^^^^^^^^^^^^  cylind'ers,  invented  for  this 

These  crackers  -'^«;;  f  ,f  ^^^  and  heavily,  grinding  the  tough 

purpose,  which  ^<^^f ,!  "  ^f  ^    J,^  ,f  the  bark  and  dust.     These 
rubber  ^^^ween  an^  i^^^^^^^^^^^^  ^^^^  ^^^^  ^^^,^  ^^  ,,,, 

Tet::  Ttreytif  IL  through,  and  much  of  the  dirt  and  bark 

drops  out  and  falls  ^^^^^^^^^  to  the  "washing-machine,"  a 
From  the  crackers  the  '^'^^'J  numerous  sharp  knives 

'-'''  '-'  T::^:  ::  ^t  r  :  ^irit  Undergoes  a  kneadin.  and 
which  revolve  under  the  ^aic  ,  preparing  the  pulp  m 

washing  P!---';;;^,:^;t   ^all  ^irand  foreign  substances  are  per- 
paper-making.     By  t  n.  pioci  ^^^^  washing- 

•ucted   a 

)tion    of 

This  is 

!  may  rc- 
:i  pally  for 
if-",ense  to 
ndia  gutn, 
that  from 
sses  about 
ing,  woven 
A  stoc; 

,  to  cleanse 
rathered  in 
and  leaves, 
ight.     The 
rhere  it  re- 
ed and  the 
iven  around 
be  removed 
abs  of  about 
tween  three 
lud  revolves 
t  were  clay. 
y  are  called, 
snted  for  this 
ng  the  tough 
dust.     These 
:    rubber  are 
[irt  and  bark 

r-machine,"  a 
sharp  knives 
kneadinT  and 
r  the  pulp  in 
inces  are  per- 
i  the  washing- 
es,  which  con- 
[ers  revolve  in 
from  the  wash- 













I-  .- 



11^  11^  1^ 






WIBSTM,  NY.  14SI0 

(7)6)  872-4)03 

'^^  '<^U 






Collection  de 

Canadian  Institute  for  Historical  Microreproductlons  /  In.tltut  Canadian  de  nrlcoraproductlons  historiqu.8 



T.-ir"""  ""^'  '<^'' 



ing-macliine  in  small  fragments  loosely  adhering  to  each  ether,  is  pressed 
and  kneaded  into  thick  sheets  or  mats.     At  this  stage  the  process  is 
euspended  for  some  time,  in  order  that  the  rubber  may  be  thoroughly 
dried  and  cured  by  the  action  of  the  air.     For  this  purpose  these  mats 
are  suspended  in  long  drying-rooms,  where  they  are  allowed  to  hang  for 
many  mouths  before  they  are  thought  fit  for  use.     Of  course,  a  largo 
stock  of  this  cured  rubber  is  kept  on  hand.     The  rubber  thus  cleansed 
and  dried  is  first  taken  to  the  mixing-machines.     This  is  the  first  im- 
portant process,  as  it  is  here  that  the  rubber  is  combined  with  the  metals 
and  minerals  to  which  metallic  rubber  owes  its  peculiar  properties.     The 
mixing-machines  like  most  of  the  machines  employed  in  the  factory,  are 
hollow  iron  cylinders,  and  it  is  necessary  that  they  should  be  kept  at  high 
but  regulated  degrees  of  heat,  as  the  tough  masses  of  rubber  would  other- 
wise resist  the  action  of  machinery,  however  powerful.   These  cylinders  are 
of  great  ..ize  and  strength,  and  are  heated  by  steam,  which  islet  into  the  ends. 
Two  arc  placed  near  together,  which,  us  they  revolve  towards  each  other, 
knead  tlie  substances  placed  between  them  like  dough.     The  rubber  is 
placed  in  the  machine,  and  as  the  heoted  cylinders  slowly  revolve,  the  tough 
ru  jber  is  twisted  and  kneaded,  and  torn  between.     This  is  accompanied 
by  a  constant  succession  of  sharp  explosions  as  loud  as  pistol-shots 
which  are  caused  by  the  air  being  forced  through  the  rubber.     As  the 
rubber  is  'olded  over  and  over,  air  is  confined  in  the  folds,  and  when 
that  portion  of  the  mass  is  forced  between  the  cylinders,  the  air  is  driven 
through  the  tough  material  with  an  eroiosion  like  an  air-gun.     When 
the  rubber  is  somewhat  softened,  the  workman  mixes  .slowly  the  various 
substances  which  are  to  be  incorporated  with  it ;  these  consist  princi- 
pally of  sulphur  and  of  the  oxides  of  various  metals,  zinc,  lead,  iron,  etc., 
which  are  combined  in  various  proportions,  accoiding  to  the  uses  for 
which  the  rubber  is  destined.     It  is  in  this  department  tliat  the  greatest 
science  and  experience  aro  required,  for  different  qualities  of  rubber 
require  dilTerent  compounds,  and  every  difference  in  the  compound  makes  a 
different  treatment  necessary  in  the  8u!)sequent  stages  of  the  manufac 
turc.    When  the  rubber  is  thus  prepared  it  is  f c  ady  to  be  molded  and  .sliaped 
into  the  various  forms  in  which  it  is  to  be  finally  perfected  and  used. 

As  every  distinct  manufacture  requires  a  different  process  and  different 
manipulations,  wo  will  only  describe  the  process  of  making  "  raacaine- 
belling  "  as  that  is  of  most  importance  and  is  the  article  for  which  this 
company  ai-  so  celebrated.  The  rubber,  which,  after  it  is  compounded 
as  above  described,  resembles  a  dark  slate-colored  dough,  is  then  taken 
to  another  department  to  the  "calendering-macliines."  These  somewhat 
resemble  the  other  machines,  but  tlicy  are  composeil  of  mure  cylind.i-s, 
and  are  of  much  larger  size,  and  of  a  perfectly  polished  surface.  Ui.ou 


to    ylinders  it  is  rolled  out  m  '^^P  ;^^^;;;reviously  been  coated 
powerful  eotton  or  linen  duck,  ^  ';J\  f^^^^,,,  ,y  powerml  maclunerr. 
abber.  driven  th-ugh  aud  through  >t  me  b       y^^^^   ^^^^   ^^^ 

tL  duck  is  ---•■••-\:;;    C  York  BeLgand  Pad^-^' ^J.; 
but  it  is  woven  oxpressly  for  the  JNcw  ^^^  ^^^^  ^^^^p^,,_  ^nd  it 

I.     in  a  factory  which  is  ^^^^^^r^^  ^ou^i.^'^r^.l  strengch. 
r  voven  in  a  mod.  which  g^^es  t  doubl   t        ^^^^^  ^^  .^  ^^^^^^^^     ^ 
The  "bolts"  of  duck  covered  ^  th  r"b  ^^^^  ^^^  ^^^^^^^  ^^^  ,,, 

!     ?  1      This  part  of  the  process  is  tlie  mo.  „nelastic 

1    „  it  in  anv  other  manner,  have  uttu  j  ^^^^^^^  ,g^  tha. 

't,    company  l>oU»  anJ  '•jlV'  „  i„  .11  ki.,d»  ot  ma.l,.n«, 



r  between 

a  web  of 
atcd  with 

for   sails, 
ring  Com- 
ose,  and  it 
il  strength. 
:ess  is  com- 
iken  by  the 
id  in  an  in- 
to uiacbine- 
,  folds  upon 

then  forced 
intil  a  belt  is 

are  immense 
1  be  thrust  in 
placed  upon 
xl,  and  steam 
ble  of  all  -,  for 
ugh,  nnelastic 
used,  becomes 
led  metallic  or 
[ic  chemists  in 
change,  or  to 
Ihe  causes,  and 
3  known  is,  that 
ture  from  eight 
•tics  milike  any 
nd  but  slightly 
c  than  the  best 
af  native  rtibber, 
rubber  dissolved 
it  becomes,  as  it 

lengths,  from  an 
,d8  of  machinery, 
jelt  of  seven  plies 
cb  ft  belt,  if  made 
■cquired  the  hides 
by  thousands  of 

copper  rivets  ;  but  here  the  great  rubber  belt  was  made  in  one  opera- 
ion    without  joint  or  seam   or  imperfection.     With    regard  to  the 
com'parative  merits  of  leather  and   rubber  belting,  a  wnter  m  the 
IZiiJlc  American,  to  whom  we  are  principally  indebted  for  these 
fZ    says  he   saw  the  ends  of  a  leather  and  rubber  belt  o    equu 
size  firmly  clamped  together,   and  when  power  was  applied   to  tea 
them  asunder  the  tough  sole-leather  parted  with  a  loud  explosion,  but 
the  rubber  belt  was  unharmed.     He  also  witnessed  an  experiment  to 
test  the  comparative  value  of  these  belts  in  driving  machinery  and  says 
that  the  peculiar  elastic  and  tenacious  surface  of  the  rubber  belt  enabed 
it  to  hold  much  moro  firmly  upon  the  iron  drums  and  pulleys  than  the 
hard  leather      "An  accurate  measurement  showed  that  it  took  tully  -o 
per  cent  more  power  to  slip  a  rubber  belt  on  a  smooth  pulley  than  it 
did  to  slip  a  leather  belt  on  it.     A  large  iron  pulley,  such  as  is  used  m 
driving  machinery,  was  placed  upon  a  shaft,  and  a  piece  ol  rubber  belt- 
ing was  passed  over  it.     Heavy  weights  were  then  placed  on  each  end 
of  the  belt,  in  order  to  bring  it  dow.i  firmly  and  with  an  even  bearing 
upon  the  pulley.     The  question  to  settle  was,  whether  leather  or  rubber 
belting  would  bear  tho  greatest  weight  without  slipping,  for  this  wouM 
prove  which  had  the  perfect  friction-surface  and  would  drive  the 
machinery  with  least  loss  of  power.     To  test  this,  weights  were  slowly 
added  to  one  end  alone  until  the  belt  slipped  on  the  pulley.     The  same 
experiment  was  then  tried  with  a  leather  belt  of  the  same  width  and 
under  precisely  similar  circumstances,  and  it  was  found  that  the  rubber 
belt  greatly  economized  the  power.     Repeated  experiments  showed  tlie  • 
some  result  in  the  most  convincing  and  satisfactory  manner."     Certain 
it  is  that  the  demand  for  these  rubber  liclts  from  manufacturers  and  ouv 
be.t  mechanics,  including  the  larg,  m.aufactrriug  corporations  of  >ew 
England,  is  very  great,  for  the  Company  are  obliged  to  run  their  factory 
))Y  night  as  well  as  by  day  to  supply  it.  „  „    ,  • 

Another  article  made  extensively  by  the  Company  is  Steam  Packing. 
Rubber  it  is  said,  is  the  only  substance  that  cin  counteract  the  expan- 
sion and  contraction  of  metal  and  make  a  joint  so  tight  that  steam  can- 
not escape  through  it.  It  is  made  into  sheets  and  plates  of  d.ilereul  and  shapes,  or  cast  into  rings  or  hollow  ellipses  of  all  imaginable 
forms  and  is  used  to  pack  around  the  piston-rods,  to  place  betwfntbe 
iron  plates  in  steam  pipes,  and  in  fact  wherever  a  joint  is  formed. 

\uother  article  manufactured  to  a  great  extent  at  this  establishment  is 
their  celebrated  "Crotou  Hosn,"  and  hydraulic  hose  of  all  sizes  from  a 
1  of  an  inch  to  8  and  12  inches  in  diameter.  A  large  force  of  workmen 
is  employed  in  tliis  department.  The  tube  is  formed  by  means  of  long 
metallic  pipes,  around  which  a  sheet  of  carefully-prepared  rubber  is  firs* 


neatly  folded :  but  the  rubber  alone  Las  not  sufficient  strength  to  resist 
the  pr  sue  ^f  water,  which  would  swell  and  iinally  burst  the  elastic 
hose      To  prevent  this,  and  give  additional  strength,  the  outer  covenng 
is  fomed  of  webs  of  strong  cloth,  saturated  and  coated  with  prepared 
rubber      This  is  folded  carefully  around  the  hose  until  the  requisite 
trength  and  thickness  are  obtained,  and  it  is  then  finished  by  covenng 
tS  a  final  sheet  of  pure  rubber.     The  hose,  when  formed,  is  taken 
0  a  steam-boiler  of  great  length,  where,  while  still  --ining  upo    the 
iron  pves,  it  is  heated  and  cured  by  a  process  similar  to  that  befoie  de- 
Icr^^d ;  after  which  the  rubber  is  drawn  off  from  the  pipe,  and  it  i8 

readv  for  the  market.  „ 

Hose  designed  for  steam  fire-engines,  which  this  Company  manu  ac 
tui^s  largely  is  tested  by  turning  the  whole  force  of  the  vast  water- 
w"     1  up''on';wo  large  force  pumps,  through  which  tje  water  is  forced 
into  the  hose  and  driven  in  jeta  over  the  factory  and  high  abov      he 
ummit  of  its  lofty  tower.     Unless  the  hose  resists  this  trying  test  it  is 
not  considered  fit  for  market.     Besides  these  loading  articles,  the  Com- 
pan  rauufactures  a  large  number  of  others  for  household  convenience 
or  mechanical  purposes.-for  instance,  carpets  for  halls,  and  stairways, 
and  billiard  rooms;  sinks  without  joint  or  seam;  door  springs  that  can 
be  adjusted  either  to  hold  the  door  open  or  to  close  i,;  bed  spiings 
spittoons,  and  clothes  wringers  ;-of  which  hundreds  are  made  daily.   Of 
their  minor  manufactures,  however,  perhaps  the  most  ingenious  is  the 
solid    emery   vulcanite.      It    is   a  novel   combination   ot    emery   and 
rubber    and    used  for  grinding  and  polishing  wheels,  and  which    s 
■  destined   to    produce  a  revolution  in   many  workshops  where   metals 
0    any  kind   are  ground  and  polished.     The  soft  rubber  when  com- 
bined with  emery  makes  wheels  which  will  cut  an  inch  file  m  two  m 
a  few  minutes.     The  New  York  Belting  and  Packing  Company  own  or 
are  the  sole  licensees  under  no  less  than  thirty-seven  different  patents, 
which  secure  to  them  not  only  the  best  means  and  processes  and  ma- 
chinery for  manufacturing  their  goods,  but  also  a  monopoly  of  certain 

^'such'is  one  of  the  numerous  factories  that  are  giving  profita^ 
ble  employment  to  thousands  of  operatives,  and  funiishing  contnbu 
tions  of  the  greatest  importance  in  manufactures  and  the  arts.  Ih.s 
age  has  been  prolifi.  in  wonders,  and  among  them  few  ar.  more  marvel- 
lous than  the  product  of  the  India  Rubber  factories  of  America.  Wc 
desire,  however,  to  place  upon  record  our  settled  conviction  tha  the 
application  of  vulcanized  rubber  in  the  useful  arts  is  as  ye  in  its  in- 
fancv  and  that  our  ingenious  mechanics  and  manufacturers  will  discover 
hundreds  of  new  uses  for  this  wonderful  "  elastic  metal." 



h  to  resist 
ihe  elastic 
r  covering 
I  prepared 
s  requisite 
ly  covering 
d,  is  taken 
5  upon  the 
.  before  de- 
),  and  it  is 

ly  manufac- 
vast  water- 
ter  is  forced 
I  above  the 
iug  test  it  is 
i,  the  Corn- 
d  stairways, 
ngs  that  can 
bed  springs, 
le  daily.   Of 
nious  is  the 
emery   and 
nd  which  is 
diere   metals 
•  when  com- 
le  in  two  ia 
ipany  own  or 
ireut  patents, 
sses  and  ma- 
oly  of  certain 

ving  profita- 
ling  contribu- 
le  arts.  This 
more  marvel- 
i^nierica.  We 
;tion  that  the 
3  yet  in  its  in- 
•s  will  discover 

The  Piano  Forte  Manufactories— Steinway  and  Sons'  Manufactory. 

New  Ycrk  is  the  principal  centre  in  the  United  States  of  the  manu- 
facture of  Pianofortes.  There  are  over  fifty  different  manitfactories ; 
and  tliough  we  believe  there  are  none  so  extensive  and  complete  as  the 
one  that  we  are  about  to  describe,  yet  among  them  are  many  fine  and 
some  large  establishments. 

The  name  of  Steinway  as  a  manufacturer  of  Pianofortes  has  long 
been  a  familiar  one  to  the  musical  artists  of  Germany.  Mr.  Henry 
Steinway,  the  founder  of  the  immense  establishment  which  strangers 
from  afar  now  visit  as  one  of  the  wonders  of  New  York,  com- 
menced the  business  of  making  Pianos  in  Brunswick,  Germany, 
nearly  fifty  years  ago  ;  and  though  during  the  quarter  of  a  century 
in  which  he  prosecuted  the  business  he  probably  did  not  make  as 
many  instruments  as  his  establishment  now  turns  out  in  a  single  year, 
yet  he  acquired  a  reputation,  and  his  European  career  as  a  master- 
builder  may  be  said  to  have  been  a  successful  one.  When,  however,  the 
uprising  of  the  German  people  for  their  constitutional  liberties  in  1848 
and  1849,  in  which  he  sympathized,  proved  a  failure,  he  resolved  to 
escape  from  the  despotism  that  followed  the  subjection  of  the  "  liberal 
party,"  and  to  seek  a  more  congenial  field  for  the  free  exercise  of  his 
genius  and  enterprise.  As  a  prudential  measure  he  sent  his  son  Tliarles 
to  America  as  pioneer  and  explorer,  to  report  upon  the  prospects  of 
emigration  which  the  country  would  be  likely  to  afford  to  the  family. 
His  son  arrived  in  June,  1840,  and  his  report  confirming  the  previous 
favorable  impressions  of  the  father,  he  followed  with  tlie  family  just  one 
year  a^'^or.  Although  possessed  of  some  means,  he  deemed  it  advisable 
before  commencing  business  on  his  own  account  to  study  the  routine  of 
manufacture  as  practiced  in  American  workshops,  and  he  and  his  sons 
commenced  as  journeymen  in  some  of  the  best  manufactories  then  in  the 
city  of  New  York.  The  advantages  of  this  thorough  training,  which 
rendered  them  practically  familiar  with  the  American  and  European 
methods  of  manufacture,  soon  became  manifest  when  the  products  of 
their  skill  and  handiwork  were  entered  in  competition  with  those  of 
others,  even  the  best  makers. 

Their  first  instrument,  made  in  1853,  in  a  small  rear  building  in 
Varick  street,  at  once  attracted  the  attention  of  professional  musicians, 
and  at  the  "  National  Fair"  in  Washington,  was  awarded,  by  the  unani- 
mous vote  of  the  jury,  the  first  premium,  notwithstanding  there  were 
some  twenty  competitors  from  the  principal  cities  of  the  Union,  in- 
cluding most  of  the  names  then  of  established  reputation.    A  demand 



o„ri  n.  phantre  of  location  to  one 
forthoirinstrumentsatonces^rung.p^a^^^^^^^^^  ^^^^  ^„ 

possessing  more  extensive  "^J^  *"/    ^^.^^  ^^^^rded  their  early  en- 
absolutc  necessity.     The  P«P"^^1  ^^J^  J^f  Hs  proverbial  ficklene.3, 
terprise  bas  in  this  instance  7";^^^f^,nne  Piano  a  week  they  are  now 
but  has  increased  and  widened  »";;/'-^™  J^^  ^  \,,  ,,,,  four  years  we  are 
called  npon  to  -^j'''^^^^^;,;  ^'^  premiums  have  been  awarded  them 
informed  that  over  ^^«"*yf  \\f '  /^^tion  of  industry  and  encourage- 
by  American  --^-^^^.f^.texhibition  or  World's  Pair  in  London 
„,ent  of  talent;  and  at  the  1'^  «  «^^'  ^^.^^^  „,„,ieal  celebrities  of 

in  18G2.  a  jury  composed  of  the  mos    leno  ^^^^^^^  ^^^^ 

,,e  old  world  decreed  to  Stemway  and  So-,  of  ^^^^^^ 

first  premium  ^^^    '  P«^     ;\f :;;'!  i„   grand   and   square  Pianos." 

excellence  in  w«^-l^'^^"^^"P;. !\,tmph  that  could  not  have  been  won 
This  was  indeed  a  remarkable  tmrnph  t  ^^^.^^^,^,^  ^^^  ,„per. 

except  by  the  exhibition  «/  f  ^^^^^^^^^^^^  Lse  American  Pianos 
eminent  excellence.  In  f'^^*' .^^^  ;?P  "V[ed  the  attention  of  connois- 
ovcr  the.r  European  ^'^'^l-^'^^jVe  principal  musical  journals  in 
r\  n^r  Vi'r fnd  t  ^rZLoZ  ..  fact  with  astonish- 
London,  Pat  is,  v  leu-  .  .  ^  .  .,.„  official  jurors. 
„,ent  and  confirmed  the  opinion  of  the  o^c  ^^^^^^^^^^  ^.^^. 

It  is  an  axiom  that  there  can  be  no  great  m  ^^  .^^ 

out  corresponding  «•-*  ^^^^-ir^t^no  app  eciable  place  in  manu- 
influence  in  ^P^-^^^^  Vet^Tot  ^  i:  tTUaly.e  or  trace  causes 
factudng  operations.     ^  e  r^^yj^^  j^^,,  j,    ^eat  success  there 

i.  results,  but  we  -u  safely  ^nfe^tj^^^^^^^^^^^  ^^.^,  ,,,  ,,,btless 

i,  also  adequate  cause  for  i  .     U  ^^^^^  ^^^  .^^  ^^^^^^^^  ^^.^ 

contributed  to  the  success  «f  *;;^;7'^,^  ^  and  superintends  a  special 
tieal  Piano  makers,  -<i;-^j^^^2i"the  advantage  which  they  possess 
department  of  the  manufacture     Ano  he  ^^  ^^^.^  ^^^^  ^^_ 

is  that  they  are  musicians  and  -^ept^  n  ^  ^,^^  ,,i,„u,ie  as 

eoustics,  which,  combined  w^th  th-r  pract  ^^^^^^  ^^^  ^^^^^  ^^^^^ 

well  as  practical  workmen.  ^^^  ^o^^^^^,  ,,,i,.  Among  their  first 
out  some  fifteen  patents  for  new  -^^  '«";  ^^^^^^  bridge,  constructed  of 
or  earliest  improvements  was      ne  ^^  ^^^^.^^^  ^^^^.^  pj^^^,  ,,y 

metal,  for  improving  the   reble     a  ^     J  ,^^^  ,  „ore  ,m)w- 

which  they  could  use  much  tl"c^«^«  ""f  ^j^^  ^^^^^j^g 

erful  tone  ;  an  ingenious  --"jem   >-  the^       .^.^^^^^^^^^  ^^  .^^  ^, 
board  nearly  double  as  large  as  that  n  any 
•         course  gave  much  greater  volume  of  toi^.  ^^^,,,^^g  the  diffl- 

In  1859  Mr.  Henry  Stcinway  J^"  ^^^  ^^^„^„„„„table  in  the  way  of 
culties  which  had  heretofore  ^-"f  -^;::,,  ,f  ,Ue  strings  of  the 
overstringing  Grand  PianoB.     The  arrang 



on  to  one 
ecame  an 

early  en- 
>y  are  now 
irs  we  are 
rded  them 
n  Loudon, 
ebritica  of 
States,  the 

tone,  with 
e  Pianos." 
!  been  won 

and  snper- 
ican  Pianos 

of  connois- 

jonrnals  in 
ith  astoaish- 

ellence  with- 
r  may  be  its 
ace  in  manu- 
trace  causes 
tjuccess  there 
las   doubtless 
ers  are  prac- 
ends  a  special 
h  they  possess 
nusic  and  ae- 
m  scientilic  as 
d  have  taken 
loug  their  first 
jonstructed  of 
leir  Pianos  by 
g  a  more  pow- 
g  the  sounding 
forte,  which  of 

oming  the  diffi- 
le  in  the  way  of 
}  strings  of  tho 

lower  notes  in  a  tier  above  others,  for  the  purpose  of  using  larger 
trgs  1-1  been  quite  commonly  adopted  in  the  co-truct.on  of  s^ 
Pianos  and  a  substantially  similar  system  of  stringing  had  been  appl  ed 
fo       :i;ht  Pianos,  but  owing  to  the  form  of  the  --  amUrran^em  n 
of  the  keyboard  and  action  of  Grand  Pianos,  it  had  been  dee  ncd  im 
pale  if  not  impossible  to  apply  the  principle  in  t^-ir  constn,et.on^ 
But  Mr   Steinway  has  succeeded  in  overcoming  these  difficult  es  by  an 
fm  vlment  whidi  he  has  patented,  and  arranges  tl-^-^^-^,^^^-    . 
Piano  in  two  tiers,  with  the  same  advantageous  results  as  had  bcv.n  o 
S  in  Pianofor'tes  of  other  forms,  while  the  bridges  -  «  -    - 
nearer  the  middle  of  the  sound-board  than  they  are  in  ai^  ^^Z 
Piano.     In  the  same  year  Mr.  Steinway  patented  anothe   -  -bk  im 
nrovement  the  object  of  which  was  to  permit  the  use  of     ag.attt      tor 
S:::S'block-bLrings  of  treble  strings,  ^d  y.t  to  ^^^^^^ 
to  be  struck  as  close  as  is  desirable  to  those  bearings.    T.u.  was  eHtc  ca 
;  conducting  the  cast-iron  plate  which  covers  or  I-^y -vers  t 
t'ning  block  with  a  projection  on  its  under  side,  to  'ap  over  the  edge    f 
and  abut  against  the  tuning-block,  and  in  securing  the  a^^^^^  ^<^™ 
f,om  the  upper  surface  of  the  plate  into  the  projection.     Both  of  these 
^n  ins  and  improvements  have  been  generally  adopted  by  nian^  - 
turers  abroad,  which  is  significant  evidence  that  they  appreciate  their 

''The  present  manufactory  of  Messrs.  Steinway  and  Sons  is  one  of  tlie 
1        7nfts  kind  in  the  world.     It  was  erected  in  1859.  and  occupies 
"':    i      blocr  front^^  g^^^^^  Fourth  Avenue,  and  extends  from  Fifty- 
«"  .  lifu  Th?rd  street       The  front  on  Fourth  Avenue  has   a 

Second  to  intty-iinra  siieei.       ^  «•  f,>.,f„  fo,.t      The 

length  of  two  hundred  and  one  foet  with  a  depth  of  fo  ty  fe  t     Tl^ 
l^iftv  Second  and  Fifty-Third  Streets  are  one  hundred  and  six  y- 

rerei^lXt^^^     '^ 

Wh  inc  ading  the  basement.    The  architecture  is  of  the  modern  Ital  an 

:    1*     In  U,e  ,a,d  there  are  fouv  .r,i„B  house.  -«'■«;-''; 

%rereT,:'«bo:*o':L„  eo^t^H,  e.p,o,oa,  who  Uru  out  fort,. 
Square  and  a»e  Grand  and  Upright  Pianos  every  week. 


situated  outsidethebuildlngmtheyard      I   was  ™a  ^^^  ^^^.^ 

Corliss  Steam  Engine  Company,  of  Providtnce,  and 

latest  patented  improvements^  .^  ^^^  ^^^^^„^„t. 

All  the  heavier  portion  of  the  machinery  ^^ 

In  this  room  are  three  large  planers,  «";  "^  ^  ^^^^^^^  j,,,,„,„L.ts  of 
for  this  establishment,  and  is  certainly  or^a  of  t^;  ^^J^  ^,  ,„,,. 

its  class  existing,  planing  the  largest  ^''^'J^lZnl.v.a.n.he.i^^^ 
There  are  also  four  up-and-down  saws  and  «- eral  .ncu  ,^^^^  ^^^ 

"Cz.  above ..,  .^^  ^'C^!:  :^Z;::'::^ 

ttos.  .i„gle  pan,  ™aae  .*»,  put  "/  -i-'i,,,  „„„,  „,e,e 
„,.  cases  ready  to  8  P^»  *«;;^1^,  ^,  ,.  t„„,„„gM,  .araished. 
CTery  cose  remains  from  tlute  to  lo»r  „„minK  boxes  coii- 

On  each  case  maktag  Soor  there  a  e  three  large  »an      g 

«r«etcd  of  sheet  ^ '"Vr^^^T    .r    i       -fshi^g  departmea. 
in  them  to  raise  the  heat  to  200  (iegrecs.     i 

comprise,  the  top  «»<■'■ -'«»^;"^'''^':;,,"lfle      From  this 
side  buildings  length  of  Pve  hundred  »"•'''; 'J 'fj^^^  ,,„»»  in 

aoor  the  completely  ™™''^''«*;"''/;;j* 'Jl^Jrere   the  seuading- 
the  front  bnildlng-the  sounding-board  floor 

'XTfl"oo°r'bSow  the  instrnment,  are  strung  and  the  action  and 

ke  "botls  and  the  top,,  ^'^\^^' X:  ^^^LtoftZ  .^^> 
partly.anished  instruments  are  then  taken  B'^t  to  'he  «  °  ^^^^ 

L  action  is  -^-Id'.'  ;rlc     tXl  poi  is  put  on  the 

rdT  ;^rr  u  «dy .» --re:r  irr:  X 

'\"rnrclnwl.h  the  "-e  .  the  store  ro™w«eontain,^ 

.  •'t';f*:ur"ST;r  mteir;  *crr:  ™st  .uppiy ..«,» «. 


The  front  basement  contains  all  the  iron  ^o'^'^'  P  q^  „,e  las* 

i-:r£tr,T:^:^rr:tr— dollars 




le  power 
d  by  the 
all  their 

aments  of 
s  at  once. 
iH,  besides 
iinents  are 
a  the  first 
)tlier  parts 
and  other 

ho  take  all 
:  and  finish 
)om,  where 
boxes  con- 
steam  pipes 
3  front  and 
From  this 
er  down  in 
3   sounding- 
action   and 
tit  on.     The 
below  where 
liaminers  and 
on  the  cases 
room.     This 
ed  on  Fifty- 
,ng  the  build- 
contains  the 
n  the  interior 
ply  always  on 

nd  bars,  drill 
!.   Of  the  las* 
usand  dollars 

No  fire  of  any  kind  is  used  within  the  building.  Every  part  of  the 
factory  is  heated  by  means  of  steam  pipes,  40,000  feet  of  which  line  the 
interior.  The  wood-heating  apparatus  is  also  warmed  by  steam,  whicu 
also  heats  the  liilns  for  japanning,  etc.,  etc.  ,,,,..„ 

In  the  two  extremes  o?  the  building  are  placed  tell-tale  clocks  tor  the 
purpose  of  testing  the  trustworthiness  of  tlio  night-watchmpn.  Wires 
are  carried  to  each  floor,  and  if  they  are  not  touched  at  certain  inter- 
vals the  watcher  has  neglected  his  rounds,  and  the  tale  is  recorded  on 

the  faces  of  the  dials.  . 

There  are  from  six  to  seven  hundred  pianos  constantly  in  course  of 
construction,  and  these,  in  connection  with  the  hardware,  ^^f^^l^J' 
engine,  veneers,  lumber,  etc.,  etc.,  represent  at  least  the  sum  of  $400,000, 
exclusive  of  the  buildings.     The  cost  of  the  building  and  ground  was 

about  $150,000.  ^  „       ^,      ,    ^. 

The  distance  between  their  Sales  Room,  on  Walker  Street,  and 
the  up-town  factory,  is  so  great,  and  the  need  of  immediate  com- 
munication  so  frequent,  that  a  telegraphic  correspondence  was  found  to 
be  necessary.  Consequently  a  private  telegraph  line  has  been  estab- 
lished between  Walker  Street  and  Fifty-Third  Street,  bringing  the  two 
business  places  into  instant  communication. 

Messrs.  Steinway  have  erected  on  East  Fourteenth  street,  a  few 
doors  from  Union  Square,  near  the  Academy  of  Music,  a  splendid 
niarble  building,  which  they  occupy  for  a  Piano  Waroroom-the  upper 
part  being  fitted  up  for  a  Concert  Hall.  Like  their  manufacto.y,  k 
will  stand  as  a  monument  of  their  enterprise,  while  it  is  alno  an  orna- 
ment to  the  City  of  New  York. 

Haines  Brothers'  Piano  Forte  Maiiufactory, 

Though  less  extensive  and  imposing  in  external  appearance  than  the 
one  al  eady  noticed,  des.rves  a  place  among  the  largest  and  most 
Tpotnt  establishments  of  the  kind  in  the  United   States^    It  -s 

ocated  on  a  corner  of  Twenty-second  street  and  Second  Avenue^ 
Id  ncluding  the  space  appropriated  to  storing  lumber,  covers  about 
Z^i  Z:L  of  grou'nd.  The  manufacturing  ^V^r^^^f;^ 
in 'two  buildings-one,  six  stories  high,  having  a  front  of  sixty-six  teet, 
and  a  depth  of  ninety  feet;  and  the  other,  sixty  by  one  hundred  feet, 
four  stores  in  height      Connected  with  the  latter,  is  the  Lumber  Yard, 

rw     h  a     ock  of  nearly  a  million  of  feet  is  constantly  kept,  under- 

„bm*»ka™,.  M.«mAcroK,.s  >»  »bw  vo»k. 

•  „      Nn  lumber  is  used  by  this 
going  U,»  proco.»  °^«»7'?^':rl  f  it  1  b.e„„.,.  «  le-t 

U,„„„„wl  IWt  of  !"">>«"•■       __ .  ,,,  ,„,,„,  preparation,  ore  points  of 
,1,H.  ..lection  of  lumber,  and  ..^e»o      P    l.^,  ^^  ^„^„,,,„  ,„  „„, 

„s«euii«l  importaoco  m  "'»;'"?  f^,  ,„  a>o  mannfacluve,  «l,o 
eU„,.te-,  and  ""/-"X    ,;  than  Uaine,  Urothc, 

on  the  uonb  .ide  of  ^^--^^^^^^Xv  b  wVuprigbt  turning  saws,  etc  - 
the  tool.-sueh  as  plan.n-s.  cu-cv^a^  b   v«,    p   g  ^^^^^^  _^^^^  .^  ^^^^^^^^^ 
necessary  for  expeditious         ^^^  ^^.^^^^  ^^^.,^,^, 
by  an  engine  of  forty-horse  power    at  ^^^^  ^^^.^^.^^^_  .^  ^^,^,u 

sufficient  for  the  <lry-g--°7  •;;^Vrte  m  .ipes.  and  which  are  con- 
there  arc  over  teu  thousand  f^f  "  fj'''^^^^/  passing  to  the  mam 
neeted   bv  means  of  pipes   undor  tl>e      '•^^^-  ^^^,^  ^,^0  enti-e 

Tu    ll.-o  find  the  office  and  ^arcrooius  on  the  ^  ^.^.^^^^  .  ^^^ 

t^^:;'ceupied  as  varnish  rooms  and  ^^^^^^  J  ^.out  three 

numerous  rooms,  each  devoted   to  a    l^^.^^^  .^  ^^.^  ^^^^^  .^  e a  h 

hundred  Pianos  are  m  course  oteo  ^^^^^^^^  employment  m 

dav    and,  consequently,  the  ^v«il^t»en  ^^  ^,^^  ^^^,o^. 

tS  i    winch  long  experience  has  ^^^J^^Ze.  who  are  eraploycd 
llating  Department,  for  i-^a-    ^  ^   ^l .  ,,,on,"  which,  though 
,u' the  time  in  adjustmg  -^^  Jf  ^^^^^langed  according  to  a  rnathe- 
composed  of  several  p.eces  has  be  n  ^.^  ^^^^^^^  ^^^^^      .p^,  ,,t 

„,at ical  scale,  and  made  by  ^^^«  ;\;'^'^^  ,^  establishments  like  th,s, 
Workmanship  is  ^^'^yJ^';:;:S^or,  the  principal  workmen 
where  the  business  is  sufficiently   aig 

lonstant  employment  iu  one  Une  o    du  y        ^^^^^^^^^^^^  ^^^^^,     ,,, 
The  capital  employed  by  ^  « '^^^      ^^^^^  ^^  procure  materials  in 
hundred  thousand  dollars  wb  c^i  -^^^     ,^  ^,^  ...^e-room,  there  are 
large  quantities,  and  on  f'^voiable  tern^  ^^^^^  ^^^.  ^^^_  ^,^, 

as  many  as  two  hundred  and  hfty  se  s  y       ^^^  ^^^^^  ^^.^^  ^^^^ 

Ue  stock  ^;^- -^r^^^^^^^^  i.  .uite  equal  (and  some 



l\  by  tins 
I  at  least 

at  a  uni- 

arc  most 
c  hundred 

points  of 
t)le  in  any 
ctuve,  who 
s  brothers, 

[  fit  for  use 
,hc  building 
led  with  all 
saws,  etc. — 

is  propelled 
irnish  steam 
ig,\,  in  which 
lich  are  con- 
to  the  main 
)r,  two  enti'-o 
s  divided  into 

About  three 
mfactory  each 
mployment  iu 
lu  the  Actioa- 
,  are  employed 
which,  though 
ing  to  a  malhe- 
parta.     Perfect 
nents  like  this, 
Qcipal  workmen 

ire,  exceeds  two 
ure  materials  in 
-room,  there  are 
y  for  use,  and  a 
e  gteel  wire  used 
equal  (and  some 


T  this  firm,  tave 
i-a-quarter -octave 

Piano  is  the  most  powerful  and  superb  instrument^that  has  -  >  ^>-  . 
made      Amor^   the   improvements   made   by   then,,  and  winch    a,c 
rdt'odlrJll' their    Pianos,  the   least   costly  as  wel     as   the   mo 

which  the  visitor  may  sec   all  paits  ol  tne  cxitus 

while  comfortably  seated  on  a  Piano  stool 

The  firm  of  Ilaincs  Brothers  is  composed  of  Napoleon  J.  and  Hanc  s 

W       ■  i        both  practical  workmen,  who  ser-^ed  a  long  .pprenfcesh  p 

^tl  ;  n^sent  vocation.  The  senior  partner  has  been  cnga..d  m^^^^^^ 
nanu  vc  ure  of  Pianos  since  1839,  and,  after  thirteen  years'  serv.  o  m 
r  ^^Hshments.  commenced  business  ^r  his  ^^^.^^^^ 

L  which  he  was  shortly  afterward  joined  by  h,s  brother.     Adop  mg 

Er  jx~=- r~:.H^.  HHHE 

„,„,„o  warehouses    °»«'°»""'.''^,";' ;/;,„;  „  j„,t  tiilm.o  .o 
Eurol-c  »    Over  1000  Pianos  were  ranclc  by  th.s  Irm  „,  1861. 

Christy,  Oonslant  &  Co.'9  Paper  Hangings  Man«factoiy 
I,  one  ot  the  n,ost  imposing,  in  external  appearanee,  of  "■»  ■""■"'^l^;;; 

7  t"rf  r,"'  r  ,i-Sp:iti,:ii:  taJTrr: :;  pri::; 

SLMrafnroVrw::t;.t,.irLtreeM.J— ^^^^ 

fhetaro  ile  main  structure,  three  hundred  feet  in  length,  m 
ar  ocated  the  chemical  works,  the  print  cutting,  the  machme  and  car- 
pen      shops,  the  engine  and  boiler  rooms,  and  the  stables. 

„«*KKABL.   M.N...-VCTO.,K.    ■.    NBW  YORK. 


on ..... ..  v.t  ---- jr :::^:r- "^^^^ 

•departn.nt.,tho  visitor  -J-^ft^Us  manufacture  within  a  few 
revolution  that  ^as  --  «»  f^^^  ^^  ,„  ,,,,  on  the  grandest  .cale, 
years.     Here,  Cylinder  Prmtmg  may   -  ^^^^^_  ^^^^  ^,^„^  ^, 

and  in  its  most  perfect  form.  J^^^f  ^^..^.a,  in  half   an  hour,  mto 
a.  it  comes  from  the  mjll.  can  be  eo  ^^^^^  ^^^^^^^^^ 

Printed  Wall  Paper,  reeled  and  ^^^ay  and  now,  seven 

!;::red  tons  of  Paper  ^^^^^^^  Ti^.  t'ochnieally  called. 

hundred  and  fifty  miles  ^'  "*"S>ng  ^  J    '  ^,^^^ 

are  converted  ^nto  ^uishe    1^1^.  Han^.n.^^  p,„ting,  is  the 

The  first  operation  m  this  as  in  ^^  ^^.^  ^.^^^       ^^^s 

preparation  cf  the  design.     Ihe  pmcH  ^          ^^^^^^^  .^^  ^,,  ^^^^^ 

I  France,  which,  it  must  be  --l^^^^^^^  ,,en  cut  on  blocks  of 

relates  .0  Ornamental   A.rt.     T  c  P  ^^^^^^^^  ^^^^.^  AnvaMMy, 

„.aple.  inlaid  with  bross  andfoHing,    0  ^^^^  ,,tablishment,  will 

and  the  print  blocks,  VJ^r'^^^^^^ 

endure  constant  wear  ^^^ -x  m  nthB.  ^^  manufacturing  pur- 
Entering  the  principal   bmld  "g  ^^,1,5^^8,  each 

po,es,  >ve  find,  on  the  fivst  A^^^-'  ^^^^^  ;,,  of  paper  in  a  day. 
'of  .hich  will  print  twenty- oiu-Uousn     y       ^^^^^^^  ,,,,rs  may  be 

By  arranging  a  separate  -  '^  J'^^.f  ^^,„,  o,e  man  and  two  boys 
printed  at  one  operation.  ^-^^^^  ^^'j;  ■„  «„«  day.  than  the  same 
Ln  produce  mere  ' -f^^.  ^^^^ the  old  process  In  six  monts. 
„„uiber  of  hands  could  have  prodiKc  I  lu^a-rubber  b.lts, 

The  paper,  as  it  leaves  ^^;^^^^^^^,,,  which  dry  it ;  and  w  en 
in  folds  of  eight  yards  ea.  .,  00     a  P    .^  ^^^^^^  .^^^  ^^,^_      ,  ., 

it  reaches  the  extreme  end  of  the  -  l^]  ^^  ^^^^^      ^his  facility  0    pro- 
then  ready  to  be  tvan^po^t-^    ^  «-  \  ^^,^  ^^.^  „,,,  ,,,a  better 

;:ducei  for  si.  times  tie  present  ...c  ^^  ^^  ^^^^  ^^^^^^^„,  ,,,,ed 
Ascending  to  the  •^^'^^^f^^^;,^^^  five  to  thirty  hand-pressea,  and 
to  hand  printing,  in  which  ^^^  7^";^^7„,„,i„p.,  including  Gold  and 
where  all  the  higher  ^^'f «  "' f  ^^^  w '„,achinery,  are  produced 
Velvet  Papers,  and  Borders  ""^y^^^^^^^i^ted  with  glue-sizo -,  and 
'ror  these  Papers,  the  pattern      r    ^-^  ^  .,,.^,,  ,,,ore  receiving  the 

then  with  a  V^^^^^'f'^'^^.XZi^y  ly.  colored  riock,  or  ground 
flock  or  bronze.  When  tb.  '«  Par  ^  y^  .^  ^^^^^^^^^  ^.^.^  , 
wool,  is  sifted  over  the  var  ish  P«^^^ ;»'  ^,„        ^rm  this  service, 

effect  rambling  velvet  P-^^  J  ;;;•,'  ,.ating  a  reveille  in  d.s. 
seem  to  co-biuo  amuseme.U  wUb  la      ,      ^^^^^^  ^.^^^.^^^  ^^  ,,.„,,,„g 

.       tributing  the  fleck  evcnl.  ovtrtne 



its  various 
th  the  great 
Mthiu    a  few 
andcsi  .-icale, 
blank  paper, 
in  hour,  into 
)ve,  seventeen 
id  now,  seven 
nically  called, 

>rinting,  i'^  the 
lis  firm  resides 
itrc,  in  all  that 
t  on  blocks  of 
heir  durability, 
.blishmcnt,  v;ill 

jfacturing  pur- 
machines   each 
laper  in  a  day. 
e  colors  may  be 
[1  and  two  boys 

than  the  same 
ss  in  six  months, 
idia-rubber  bolts, 
dry  it;  and  when 

into  rolls,  and  is 
is  facility  of  pro- 
■c  now  sold  better 
uld  not  have  been 

partments  devoted 
hand-prcssoo,  and 
icluding  Gold  and 
ery,  arc  produced, 
ith  glue-aizo;  and 
cforc  receiving  the 
1  flock,  or  ground 

adheres,  giving  an 
crform  this  service, 
,j^  a  reveille,  in  dis- 

gilding  or  bronzing 

is  introduced,  the  paper,  after  the  figures  have  been  l"''"  ^T^  "P;" 
with  gold-size,  is  passed  through  a  Bronzing  Machine,  which     ovs 
the  paper  with  bronze,  and,  at  the  same  time,  by  moans  of  ku  i'   -us 
and  rubbers,  removes  the  surplus  bronze  ;  and  when  dry.  it  is  reeled 
into  rolls  ready  for  sale.     On  this  floor  is  also  the  Satin  Pulislung 
lloon^   in  which  are  ten  polishing  machines  of  an  entirely  new  con- 
u'ion.  which  were  invented  and  patented  by  Mr.  Chr.sty.      Iheso 
machine     are  used  for  imparting  a  satin   or   glazed   surface   to  tho 
p-rounded  papers  before  the  figures  are  printed  upon  them. 
^  The  third  floor  is  devoted  to  Cyliuder  Machine  Inntrng,  sundar  to 
the  first  floor.     Here  are  six  machines,  capable  of  producing  eighteen 
thousand  rolls,  or  fiflv-four  thousand  yards  of  Wall  Paper  per  day. 

The  fourth  and  fifth  floors  are  Grounding  Rooms.     In  t  e^  rooms 
are  ten  grounding  machines,  u.ed  for  covering  the  sur  ace  of    he  pap«r 
with  a  ground  color  preparatory  to  the  process  of  pnntu.g      Ihe  ..oloi 
mixin-^  departments  are  in  the  basement  of  the  main  building-,  and.  as 
The  amount  of  colors  or  paints  consumed  is  very  large,  being  o  ten  as 
much  as  fifteen  hundred  gallons  per  day,  the  mixing  ..  conducted  on 
an  extensive  scale,  in  largo  tubs  or  vats,  in  wh  .a  the  mixers  are  d  iven 
by  machinery.     The  more  expensive  tints  are  prepared  by  hand-labo 
entirelv  -^  in  this  some  fifteen  hands  find  constant  employment.    1  he 
colors,  uu..  also  the  raw  paper,  arc  hoisted  to  the  diflerent  rooms  by 
an    elevators  at  each  end  of  the  building.     For  the,  some 
forty  thousand  feet  of  steam  pipe  are  required.     The  nu-ehinery  ts  pro- 
pelled by  a  Corliss  engine  of  sixty  hor.e  power,  and  thr-  large  boile  a 
are  required  to  supply  steam  sufficient  for  heatmg  and  drying.     Iho 
engine  voom  is  remarkable  for  the  neatness,  and  even  elegance,  of  ita 
furniture  and  appointments.  i  u,.  t..„mas 

The  fiin  of  Christy,  Constant  &  Co.  was  established  b>  1  uoMAS 
Christy,  who  came  fjom  Boston  and  commenced  the  manufacture  ot 
Paper  Hangings  in  ^^ew  York,  in  1330.  His  sales  the  first  year,  wei. 
thirteen  thousan,'  dollars;  now  they  exceed  a  rnllion.  Abou  1842, 
his  brother-in-lavN  Samuel  S.  Constant,  became  associated  with  h.m, 
under  the  firm  nan  e  of  Christy  k  ConstatU-which,  on  the  adnnssion 
of  other  partners,  was  changed  to  its  present  style.  The  Vare  ouso 
and  Salesrooms  are  at  2.^  Murray  street,  extending  through  the  block 
to  V)  Warren  street.  This  part  of  tho  business  is  under  the  immedi- 
ate* supervision  of  the  junior  partner.  T.  C.  Shepherd,  a  nephew  of 

^MrClu7sty  is  an  inventor,  as  well  as  a  representative  manufacturer. 
Among  the  inventions  designed  and  patented  by  him,  aro  the  new 
polishing  machines  mentioned  above,  which  can  bo  operated  with  one 

«L  n  <a  Jft-welrv  Establishment, 
Tiffany  &  Co.'s  Jeweiry 

Tiffany  «  ^"' »  "'" — '  .. 

•  1  .           ;«   n  vcrv  small  way, 

^"mos^s.  Tiffany  ^  Co,  ccn..enc.d  bu^^ess    .  ^a^^^   y  ^^^^ 

,,,,ng  the  autumnofl837.     1  ou  o;;.^^  ^^^^.^,,,  ,    a  dwelhng 

way,  the  first  story  of  a  buildmg  ^^  ^^^^  brothers-.n-lavv 

,,,'„.     The  Bolc  partnerB  a    the  tar           ^^^^^  ^^^^  ^^^^^^^^^^,^,^    f 

CharloB  L.  Tiffany  and  J«\"  ^^.,^^,;"",^;„ty,  Connecticut,  had  come  to 
Loklyn  and  KiUingly  m  "^^^^  of  material  for  success  than 
New  York  with  very  Uttlo  else  m  ^^'^  ^^  -  ^^.,.  ^nd  the  determma- 
S".g  wills,  keen  V^^^n^^\^Xl^jri^^^^^^^   and  cherish,  to  conquer 

ion,  which  New  F-^^-^ -'^^^t       f  1  eir  opening  store,  Mr.  Young 
fortune  in  a  fair  contest.    At  ^^c^^^huo  ^^  ^^^^  ^^^  ^^.^  ^,^^ 

was  the  only  one  of  the  patr  ^  «  ^^^  .^^,  ,  moiety  of  expcnence. 
,,,  but  often  so  prod-  -  -^  '  ^^^,.,„,,y  j^porUng  trade 
Ho  had  for  six  months  be  n    ngagc^l^  ^^  ^^^  ^^^^^^^^^^,,,, 

,s  a  salesman.     H  was  Mr.  I  >iTa^  >  -^  •  ^^^^  ^  „,,scellaneous  se- 

The  stock  of  TilTany  a  ^■^■'  ""'l^l^^y      ^^per  and  playing-cards) 
lodion  of  fancy  wares-stat,oncry  (  "^^  «'"  ^      »    chess-men,  laciuered 
^^.y,  walking  "ticks,  Chinese,  go^.^-^^  ^  ^^^„^,,^^^  ,,,  ,,,,Hs  ot 
wares,  fans.  etc..  porcelau.  Ber  nyro  ,         ,    ^^  ^^.^.^^^^^  ^^  ^,^  „^,^,,„, 
.,,„eh  would  be  as  «^"^-'''^  ;;;;,  kvor  with  buyers,  and  Uwoud 
Chinese  curiosities  were  tl»  ^  ^™  ^  ^^  ,,,„,  the  private  >nvest- 

Hoem  that  every  ship  brought  more  o  ^^^^^^  ^  ^^^^^„^,^,.  „t 

Tents  of  otUcers  and  Ba.brs.     ^>"    'J    ;^,,,„  ,,,essmon.  the   queov- 
lo   wares.   Belling  the   ^^^;^^^  ,,,eh-bowls,  and  w.>n- 
,.,Uing  little  red  clay  toapo  ^  ^lu.    n      ^^^^^  ^^^^^  ^^,^^^^,^^  „^,„,,,  a>o 
,,,n,Uy  chnnsy  ./-''—;,,.,,,  of  the  firm,  at  starting  was  oo 
F,v.u-v  Hoods  trade  now.     Tb.    api  „,.t„erfl.     From  the  little 

S^nd  dollars,  .  ^^^ ^^"^i:^ ^^^k  inscribed  tc;  the  credit 
.  cash-book.  :,linFeserved,mxN  men  > 



,t  the  same 
firm  have 

,  rcpvesenta- 
ny,  rivals  in 
3t  extent  of 
of  its  stock, 
uiftlly  world- 

y  small  way, 
it  250  Broad- 
as  a  dwelling 

townships  of 
t,  had  come  to 
)r  sncccss  than 
the  detcrmina- 
ish, to  conquer 
ore,  Mr.  Young 
)  this  very  com- 

of  experience, 
importing  trade 
luscellancous  se- 
i  playing-cards),,lac<iuercd 
f/c,  the  details  of 
!ult  to  enumerate, 
era,  and  it  would 
he  private  invesjt- 
,\e  a  specialty  ot 
smon,  the   qucov- 
h-howls,  and  won- 
VQ\M  astonish  the 
Lt  starting,  was  one 
■s.     From  the  little 
bribed  to  the  credit 

of  the  House  the  above  modest  investment  of  capital,  wo  find  the 
t wlfount  of  sales.  Oa  the  .1st  of  September  the  ate  o  t  e  fir. 
ent,;-,  the  sales  amounted  to  $4.98  ;  on  the  22d.  to  ^2.77  on  the^^M 
(ent'ered  doubtless  with  most  jubilant  penmanship),  to  *24..U.  Oc  a 
s  "X  during  the  first  two  or  three  months,  the  entry  was  peevi.hly 

zz.a  it  .L.y  to  -^-;--3^- ;:  - -r  t;;  :::s::^ 

X  w  Yea  's  $675  00.     This  excess  of  New  Year's  over  Chr>stmas  ,s 
nc^vo  thy  'a    larking  the  change  which  fashion,  or  possibly  a  more 
wo  thy    ocial  impulse,  has  effected,  Christmas  being  now  the  favored 
day  t^  p      ent-making,  whereas  then  nearly  all  but  the  most  observau 
^fi.:;ilians  adopted  the  Pagan  annual  for  their  ^^-^;^;;^^^^:^^ 
.rifts  -i ml  KOod-wiU.     Perhaps  a  more  notable  change,  though  not  ot  so 
'p.;::  character,  would  attract  the  attention  of  one  ^-'ng  .cccss  to 
fU.  ,.n^h  hook  Of  Tiff  ny  &  Co.  now  in  use.     From  less  tha.  three 
Z:^alr:^io.d,^^o..  one  ^-"'^-^  thousand  the  tigure 
f  n„r  Phristmas  davs  is  a  progress  wonderful  enough,  but,  after  all. 
:l.rinu^;:r:of  what  succe'ssl  withm  the  reach  of  untiring  energy 

^1:;^n:'Sii::Su:n^f  the  firs,  door  of  NO.  2C1  to  the  pren^ses  " 
of    1  e  fim  gav    the  first  outward  demonstration  of  the  success  w  ich 
had  beenl  fairly  earned.     From  that  time  till  1847,  enlargement  of 
,  ac    wos  a  mosi  frequent  occurrence,  the  new  stock,  constantly  sug- 
te     d  or  increased  by  the  popularity  of  the  House,  -qun-ing  now 
anartment  now  a  floor,  added  for  its  proper  storage  and  display.    W  h 
a    riitv  then  not  so  common  as  now,  the  partners  lost  no  av  ad  able 
onXmty  to  aSvortise  their  business,  the  attractiveness  of  their  ad- 
i  rthe  world  and  their  discriminating  detail  of  mv.tmg  wares 
largely  and  conspicuously  remunerating  them  or  the  outlay 

in   the  spring  of  1841   a  new  partner,    Mr.  J.  L.  Lllis.   tnterc. 
th.  concern     nd  in  the  fall  of  the  same  year  Mr.  Young  made  a  hrst 
i,  to  Europe.     This  was  a  most  important  move,  and  one  winch  was 
rii^riit.  high  hopes,  though  after  very  sern..s^..ns, 
That  it  eventuated  with  signal  advantage,  and  was  in  fact  tl.  obvious 
.  1  .  n  1  0    the  present   extraordinary  position  of   Ihe   establ.shmen  , 
::    1  L  matJer  tor  surprise  or  argument ;  but,  -vertlides.  i   wa 
n  eat  undertaking  for  so  small  and  fresh  a  beginning.     M     \oung 
rs    Kuro       n  visit  was  the  inauguration  of  the  Jewelry  department 
'  ft  le      ole   and  a  general  extension  of  the  department  of  elegancies, 
a       e    0     Mi-tu   etc      Henceforward  the  House  claimed  a  specialty  for 
Sg^ild  Pa  isian  personal  luxuries,  rich  Dre.s  Fans,  exquisite  Por- 


I^-al  fnXof  wbici,,  ftoi  its  rclly  ., stcM  telgn,  quauUt.cB  were 
The  ttial  wa,  immediately  proved  to  be  a  tortuoale  one.     «'»J>  »  '? 

c  -  -»--  — :  -Id":  -;;».:  "-'»"-• 

establishmeat  m  no  long  tinio   acquirea  a  v 

Revolution,  diamonds  bemg  sold  at  tlmt  V^^'^^^'    Thenceforth  the 
t    If  t!,„i,-  nm-phase  money  at  the  present  day.     inenttmn" 

r,edr:;:::treXuu'e  -"^«*-"  >- "-' "-  °" ""'  "'- 

""rn^'l'Mf  the  prcmiBes  at  269  a-d  2C0  h.vit,g  become  too  small  for 

"" t TsoO^Ttost  important  addition  to  the  firm  waB  made  in  the  in- 

In  IHoO,  a  mosi      ^^  previously  of  Lincoln,  Reed  &  Co., 

Tb:;::  :  nous^-conspiclusVo'  many  years  in  the  Jewelry  trade. 

ot  Boston,  a  llouso  ininaediate  occasion  of  an  arrange- 

:; "S'^bal  "t^Z.  ---,-»..  .  CO    .,a,.,e,. 

t  "^'t'TrVc:  ri:;;:i':r  rLre""ooid  a.  x. ,. 






is  were 

ion,  the 
1  stances 

ami  the 
ou  ns  a 
iiig  pur- 
msell"  of 
t  to  the 
ably  less 
'orth  the 
1  distinc- 
sally  ac- 

tbis  side 

small  for 

,  spacious 

'  occupied 


iu  the  in- 
ed  &  Co., 
3lry  trade, 
u  arrange- 
)  ,  namely, 
aris.     The 

at  No.  79 
rho  advan- 

uiore  than 

liver  Ware. 
assuming  a 
it  seeming 
J  distinction 
rcr  business 
the    same 

line  of  production.     Of  sterling  Silver  Ware,  Tiffany  &  Co.  are,  it  ,s 
said,  the  largest  manufacturers  iu  the  country.    During  the  hrst   wo  or 
three   years   the   maximum  of  men  employed  iu   the  produc  .on  of 
Silver  lor  the  fu-m  was  fifty.     They  now  have  two  hundred  of  the  most 
skilful   fal>ricants  to  be  found,  and  use  up  in  the  course  of  the  year 
150  000  o.s.  of  metal.     Their  present  superior  facilities  m  the  way  of 
machinery,  aud  the  admirable   organization  of  their  factory,  likewise 
enable  on^  man  to  effect  the  same  work  which  was  originally  e.xpected 
of  two,  so  that  the  force  employed  is  to  all  purposes  eight  told  that  ot 
the  commencement  of  the  manufacture.     This  extensive  production  en- 
tails an  extraordinary  investment  not  only  of  capital,  but  also  of  taste  and 
observation.     Many  of  the  productions  of  this  department  are  indeed 
chefs  d'o'Mvre.    For  years  all  tbe  prizes  of  the  New  \ork  Yacht  Club 
have  been  made  by  Till.ny  &  Co.     Nearly  all  the  magnificent  llace 
Cups  that  are  yearly  contended  for  throughout  the  country  have  had 
the  same  origin  ;  and  specimens  of  the  ability  of  the  House  m  tins  lino 
may  be  met  with  in  China,  the  Sandwich  Islands,  and  in  fact  wherever 
sporting  liberality  requires  such  splendid  guerdons.     The   rich   case 
of  Silver  exhibited  by   this   firm  in   the    Paris   Exposition,  designed 
rather  to   illustrate  the  sensible  elegance  of  American  domestic  life 
than  to  challenge  comparison  with  the  enormous  show-pieces  of  old 
world  production,  is  a  notable  exponent  not  only  of  the  art  resources 
of  the  establishment,  but  likewise  of  the  excellent  taste  of  its  patrons. 
la  1852  the  firm,  having  previously  to  some  extent  imported  fine 
French  Chandeliers,  commenced  the  mannfacture,  for  which  it  is  now 
so  well  known,  of  Bronze  Gas  Fixtures.     The  material,  which  is  the 
same  quality  of  bronze  used  by  the  Parisian  founders  of  art-p.eces, 
and  the  excellence  of  the  workmanship  bestowed  upon  their  produc- 
tion, while  they  render  the  Gas  Fixtures  of  Tiffany  &  Co  more  ex- 
pensive,  at  the  same  time  produce   articles  of  much   greater  artistic 
merit  and  durability  than  are  the  ordinary  fi.xtures.     As  a  branch  of 
the  firm's  manufacturing,  this  enterprise,  though  reciumng  an  insigmfi- 
oant  number  of  fabricants  in  comparison  with  the  Silver  and  Jewelry 
departmonts.  has  a  fair  claim  to  share  with  them  in  the  general  result 
of  improving  the  country  aesthetically. 

Since  1858.  the  facilities  of  the  establishment  for  the  proper  execn- 
tion  of  the  elegant  designs  of  its  artists  have  been  so  much  enhanced 
and  have  found  so  decisive  public  indorsement,  that  the  firm  at  that 
date  ceased  importations  in  that  line.  A  distinguishing  merit  of  the 
home  production  is,  that  a  design  for  the  fixtures  of  a  gentleman  s 
dwellin.r  can  be  patented  by  the  Iloust,  and  thus,  should  the  order  so 
8pecifv,"reinain  actually  unique  in  style  and  finish.  General  experience 

,80  MMAaKABLE    MANUFACT0RTE8   «    NBW    VORK. 

auctions.  Tiffniiv  &  Co  does  not  however  simply 

Tlie  Bronze  Department  of  liffany  &  ^J^'  f  ^.^  j^  this  rich 

,.    .    nooVWturcs      The  mportationof  objectsoi  a'i  >"     ^  ..    ..„, 

relate  to  Gas  F.x  u  cs.     l  ^,^^^^     ^^  ^^.^^      j.^,    , 

metal  was  one  of  the  first  J^^"'^'^  venture,  soon  made  the 

encouragement  to  what  -^     ^^j:^  to  beo;    e  f  istinet  feature,  and 
seasonable  invoices  so  considerable  as  to  l^ecome 

years  the  Bronze  Gallery  of  J'^'^^yj;/^    '  .j^  ^^^  other  foreign 

ihe  receipt  of  the  very  choicest  P™^^"f '^"^  .^^^"j;"  ^  ,„y  even  in  the 
articles,  has  ^^^^^^^j;::'^^^:::^:^^,  as  Jell  as  for  tho 
old  world  ^-\\'.l''lXZteA\y  one  of  the  attractions  of  the 
art-emulating  public,  it   is  cleserveu  y 

metropolis.  ,         ^      exceeded  the  pre- 

scribed  space  of  211,  thou.ii  u  ^j.  ,^^^^^,0^ 

to  make  another  move  unavoidable.  J'  -J^^^^  ^^,J,,,,  of  "  up- 

was  so  great  as  to  ^^^^^'^^^Vt^rdyrf  unique  elegance,  and  even 
town"  progress.    A  structure,  at  haUlayof^'^^^  architecture. 

„ow  one  the  most  orna^  ^^^^Z.^^,     The  new  store  was 

had  been  ^^'^^^^f /«;/'' '7^,,,emcnt  and  sub-cellar,  covering  an  area 
five  stories  in  height,  witli  basemcm  perhaps  the  best 

comm«nt.ry  on  the  fore  .gl.t  »' ''  "'  J  ,^„'„  J,,,,  „f  «„*  an.l  tra.le 
Ch.ngc,i9  III.  fact  that  la  1801  tho  i>oc».  ^hc  promises 

:t,1,!d  the  «,n,  to  .ecu.  the  j;^-"/;'  ^^e T",,  »>.  »'«  "-" 
of  Tiffany  &  Co.  aow  have  »  ''""'"S"  *;  ,^„,,j  j,,  «,„  world. 

,„,n,r  than  those  of  -y '-'  ^f  j'J  *  „  ation  of  the  Ho.,™  hecan.e 
A,  dealers  ,n  r-,o      Stones,  ^Uj^^^  ,,^^,„^ 

superlalivo  soon  afloi   ">  ""i™  .  ,      „gi,|„„t  partner 

,„U,ue  -^vantage  of  a  Fnnaue^^^^^^^^^^^^^  ^^^  ^,^^,,„^^ 

5n  the  person  of  Mr  llo«l    ts      P  ^^  ^^^^  ,^  ^^^^  ^^^^^  ^^  the  establish- 
wore  une(iualled.    It  is  noi  ^.^^^^..^  nssocia- 

„,ont,  jewels  of  extraordmary  s,zo  -^  l^^^*  ^^^     ,„,,,  though  it  may 

,,,„  u.ids  the  indefinable  ;^--;^     ^^^p^.;^  the  instruments 

not  be  materially  estimated.     Manj^C  ^^  ^^^^^^,^,.^^,^ 



wise  au- 
thcy  are 
iign  pro- 

3V  simply 
this  rich 
made  the 
aturc,  and 
For  some 
nishcfl  by 
ler  foreigu 
iven  in  the 
1  as  for  th<? 
ons  of  the 

d  the  pre- 
s  in  ujic,  OS 
of  location 
cs  of  "  up- 
;e,  and  even 
\v  store  was 
ring  an  area 
,ps  the  best 
?vil  from  the 
k  and  trade 
Hie  premises 
nd  are  much 
[ouse  became 

Having  the 
iidcnt  partner 
base  of  gems 

the  cstablish- 
storic  associa- 
though  it  may 
le  instruments 
to  Republican 
well  authenti- 
rie  Antoinette. 
,  collection  of 

ie-vol^  of  the  Hungarian  Trince  Esterha/.y.  they  were  likewise  among 
the    ar.ost   buvers,   their  purchases   approxin.ating   to  one  hundred 
tusa,ul  dollar;.     The  romance  of  Jewelry,  it  will  t   ns  be  seen   ,s  no 
to  be  disregarded,  though,  in  this  insta.u^e,  it  .s  inculental  to  the  more 
practical  view  of  the  way  an  American  firm  is  enabled  to  cater  to  the 

'IT  :^e:y':X  date  in  the  progress  of  their  Jewelry  trade.  Tiffany 
&  Co.  became  manufacturers.     A  repair  shop  was  in  fact  almost  au 
immediate  necessity.     After  a  while,  as  the  IIousu  gamed  a  reputafon 
in  that  line  of  business,  designers,  dian.ond-setters,  etc.,  became  requi- 
site     By  such  advances,  from  so  small  a  beginning,  has  grown  up 
perhaps  the  most  extensive  establishment  engaged  in  the  produ^-tioa 
of  what  is  known  as  standard  or  eighteen-carat  Jewelry  m  the  United 
States      The  number  of  workmen  employed  in  all  the  Jewelry  manu- 
facture of  the  House  is  rarely  less  than  two  hundred  ;  and  during  the 
holiday  season  is  considerably  larger.     The  difficulties  incident  t^  the 
collection  of  such  a  force  of  skilled  mechanics,  which  comprises  d.a- 
mond-settcrs,   link  and  chain  makers,  cnamellers,  modellers,  chasers, 
engravers,  polishers,  etc.,  are  very  great,  requiring  energy  and  ludg- 
Lent  as  w  11  as  capital  in  an  unusual  degree.     None  but  articles  of 
Tstandard  purity  of  metal  (eighteen-carat  gold,  the  P-portion  bes 
adapted  for  richness  of  appearance  and  lasting  wear),  are  permitted    o 
eave  the  shops  of  Tiffany  &  Co. ;  and  the  quality  of  finish  is  equal  y 
regarded,  it  being  a  positive  business  rule  that  all  productions  shall  be 
of  Guaranteed   excellence.      Connected   with   both   the   Jewelry  and 
Silver  Ware  departments  of  the  House,  and  -1-^"^ -^^ Z^^'^;;  ; 
is  the  extensive  Designing  room.     The  enterprise  of  1  iftany  .^  (  o.  has 
udiciously  secured  the  most  capable  artists  in  their  line  of  manufac- 
tare  and  with  a  kindred  liberality  of  foresight  organized  this  nnportant 
feature  so  perfectly,  that  the  designer  has  constantly  at  his  hand  the 
published  Art  Treasures  of  the  world,  no  co.t  lieing  spai^d  to  procure 
L  freshest  authorities  in    the  way  of  theory  or  .•H-^^-'^^';  "     '^^^ 
variety  of  uses  to  be  subserved  l)y  such  a  feature  is  very  giea    the 
growing  fastidiousness  of  public  taste  constantly  requiring  someting 
out  of  the  common  in  the  wide  range  from  signet-rmgs  to  diamond 
Zrurrs,   or   from   silver   christening-cups   to   the   stately  decorative 
'ui     A  Monogram,  deftly  and  cp.aintly  arranged  for  the  leaves 
of  a  ladv's  fan  ;  an  emblematic  l?ron7.e  Gateway  to  a  Tomb  in  the  City 
of  Mexico;  a  sculptured  Race  Pri.e  for  the   Hong  Kong  eouiv^e;  a 
Class  Ring  for  the  West  Point  graduates;  a  silver  Weddmg  Memo- 
rial'- an  Album  Cover,  to  comprise  an  instance  of  every  M.nera    and 
Stone  from  New  York  Bay  to  the  Golden  Gate  ;  a  !5adge  for  an  Army 



foraJuage;  and  a  I'^^^^J^^J^f  J   „,  experience  has  shown,  an 

n-suarce.  of  the  De.igmn,  ^^^^"^^^.^^  „„,i„oss  houses,  which, 
The  characteristic  -^^-V^f^^'%^^  "^^^l,  ,,,,,  vulture,  enables  them 
in  seasons  of  connnerca  ^'^^^^l^^^,,,  .owel-s  to  new  purposes, 
to  sustain  the  vitality  of  trade  by      t>n,  v         1  ^^^        ,,,„,ferring 

perhaps  Ju.t  -^f  ^^^^^^trp^    c l-L  entirely  strange  to  the 
their  accumulated  capUal  to  temp«  '^  ^  ^j^^  j^.tance  of  th>s  firm 

country,  was  --l-^^^^./^^T^^'l^oresoeing  the  probability  of  a 
during  the  recent  war  for  t^^J;  ^'^"-  .,  ^he  first  to  exhibit  to 

prolonged  struggle,  Messrs.  'l.ffany  .V  C.  .e  ^^^^^^  ^^  ^^^^^^^  ^^^, 

Ibc  U.  S.  ^i-^-^*^^-"'^^^T"fll   the  campaigning  conveniences,  the 
Furniture,  comprising  the  ""f^"^'  ^^^^^^  a  considerable  portion  of 
ambulance,  tents,  etc.     Not  ^^^^^  ^^^^^l^.^  show-room  of  military 
the  store  at  552  Broadway  ^^^^^Z^^';;,^^  ,var,  the  firm  enjoyed 
accoutrements.     During  the  ^^^^^^l^^,,  ,f  .military  wares,  and 
a  very  large  P'^^^^^^-'^^/^Ji.t  army^nen  for  the  choicer  reciuirements 
indeed  became  the  d«^^P«*  ^  ''^' 'Progressed,  and  individual  prowess 
of  the  service.     As  the   ^^'-f^^^P^XT^to  notice,  rich  Presentation 
brought  one  or  another  new  l-P    ^   ^^l,  city  or  State  indorsed  Us 
Swords  became  froqueut  -^^  "'f  ""f„'^.„,,^e  complimented  its  General 
Lro  with  a  diamond-hilted  l^^-^J-^  ^  J^t,  Colonel  with   Pistols  of 
tith  a  pair  of  Gold  Spurs-n  K  S^ent^^^     ^.^^^  ^  ,^,endid  Field 
ivory  and  silver-or  a  Companj   us     ^  .^^giderable  line  of 

Gui  escutcheoned  and  ^^^^^J^,^ ,J^..  of  the  firm  g^vve 
patronage  the  artistic  and  ^---^^^^  ^^^  ,,,t,  ,,,ords  made  to  oi'der 
i,  an  essential  superiority.     The  nunbe  ^^^^  ^.^  ^^^^^^,^^^^ 

i  ascertained,  from  existing  -^J-J^^;;;;,;  .nn'dred  dollars.  The 
varying  in  cost  from  '''^^^  J^  ^^.^XYrk  Sanitary  Fair  was  sug- 
eolebrated  sword  ballot  in  the  g^-^^J^;  ^^  ,,^,,,  rmcst  productions, 
gested  by  Tifiany  &  Co  -»-[-;;  ^^^  the  directors  of  the  charity, 
Eventually  awarded  to  Goner  l^-^-O  ,^^  .^^^^^  ^^^^^,,  ,  ,ubse- 
and  thus  inaugurated  what  has  pioy  ^^^.^  ^^  ^^^^^^^  ^^  ,^ 

.uent  philanthropies  of  the  Uinh  ^^ -^^.^.„,,,y  ,„own,  as  if  the 
.words  seemed  to  ^^^^^^-^J^  ^-e  and  hand  of  the  designer. 
Oenius  of  the  country  ^;"V"i  use  oon  established  a  reputation  fo 
m   addition  to  swords,  the   H«»^«     «  ,^.,,^  ^he  organisation  of 

Plugs  of  the  most  expensive  '^^^^'^hv^^^^rev..    Every  one  of  the 

a  small  corps  of  ^^^'^^^^^^^  ^«  ^  ^''^'''  "  ^"^  ''''''' 
.  Union  States  patronized  the  huu  m 



ft  Cane 
V  incon- 
own,  an 
ipoii  tbe 

;,  which, 
ales  thorn 
igo  to  the 

this  firm 
bility  of  a 
exhibit  to 
ich  Army 
ienccs,  the 
portion  of 
of  military 
m  enjoyed 
wares,  and 
lal  prowess 
indorsed  its 
1  its  General 
Pistols  of 
Icndid  Field 
rable  line  of 
le  firm  gave 
ladc  to  order 
six  hundred, 
loUars.     The 
•'air  was  sug- 
,  productions, 
r  the  charity, 
ure  in  subse- 
sevcral  of  the 
vn,  as  if  the 

the  designer, 
reputation  for 
irganization  of 
ery  one  of  the 

or  less  degree, 

the  Flags  costing  from  one  hundred  to  five  ^^^'^^^^^  ^;X 

•  .       hnw,  that  three  hundred  and  sixty-two  of  the  most  costly 

register  shows  that  three  y^^^.  ^f  less  expen- 

Btyle  were  produced,  while  P^"^^^  -Y'\;''      ,  f,^^  their  entire  cpiota. 

''-  '''':  7:  ^:^^Z^^X^^^^  and  corps  .adges. 
During  the  latter  halt  ot  the  btru„„    ,  strikingly 

Medals  of  Honor,  etc.,  came  in  vogue^  ^IJ-^^j^;^  ^J^,^^  ',,,,  Corps 
illustrate  the  grandeur  and  "^^^^  ^^^^f  "j;;;  ,  ...aely  varying 
Badge  was  of  the  same  design  fo.  «"  S'^'^^f '  J'  .^j^  ,^^  commander 
ain^rence  ^^ ^-^^  ^j:-^:;^^  means  of 

with  a  jewel,  and   he  ^"'^•^'^^      J  .,,,„ted,  reached  the  cost 

each.     In  one  mstauce  a  G<^»^'-'^^^;J^;'^  '\^        f.^  enlisted  men,  on 

of  two  thousand  ^-^^";^-  11  fo    t^nty  five  cents.     For  a  portion 
the  contrary  were  umde^o  sell^^^^^  y^^^^^^^  Badges  were  manu- 

of  Sherman's  Grand  Army  twenty  u  afterward  increased 

factured;  for  the  FA'^teenth  Corps,  ten^^  ^.^^^ 

Z  i::;e '"X:t  an  instance,  ord^ng^  -^;;-t  X 
,,,,„  which  is  even  fi^ej  ^^^^^^^^Z.  country,  in  the 
of  execution.    ^^^«  ^^f/^^^^,        Auction  of  this  firm,  to  the  order 

view  of^--°  -„;^  ;  ;„  :;  pre'ent-ation  to  M.yor-General  Thomas. 
of  the  Slate  of  Tennessee,         1  .^  ^^^^^_ 

It  is  of  pure  gold,  weighing  exactly  «"     P«^^'  ^  ,,  ,^111. 

lence  vies  with  the  rarest  ^V^^^J^  f^^f  ?!,  ^f  the  great 
The  foregoing  resume  of  the  ^^^^'''^^^  ^  necessarily  inadc- 

commorcial  and  manufacturing  houses  0    1.  ^^^  >  ^^  '^^/^^^^Z,,  „ast 

::^?::r tSl t^^-rageme^t  by  ^^:;--^Z:^ 
Jnement  to  those  wbo  study  -  pa  ro^^^^^^  J^^^^^^^  ^..^;  ^^^ 
.ay  note  one  feature  w^^^^^^^^^^  adhere^^^.^^  J^  ^^^^^^^^  ^^ 

commencement  m  itb  transacuou  business  nublic,  namely, 

,ho  0.10  prito  Bystcm.    /I'"""  °'";  °°  „  ;„j  ,|„s„  prices  arc  never 
deviated  from.    As  a  system  01  co  ,  ^j  ^f  illustration. 

B„.,  were  any  -*^;  *;,^^„t  !"!,„,,,  „a  ,t,icUy  otaervcd  it 
ing  prospenly  of  a  nm  wmc  ^^       ^^  ^^^^ii^^. 

A  great Fre„e,m.B  «•?»■ '""JrHl  ikowUe  »ato  to  a.»»me  that 
r„e,:  a«,mli;ia»l  rer,„c„,o,„,  tbe  o.spring  ot  c,v„.at,o. 



The  White  Lead  Companies  of  New  York 

the   IJRooKhYN   ^^  iHT^   ^'^f ;,'"  ,  (,        „  s.  Howland,  who 

^.,...  Urahan^^>  n        ..a  a.,^na^.^  ,  ,_aous  entov 

a«so..utcd   ^»-7^'^^^";"3,d  a  corporate  title  under  the  genera 
prise,  and  m  June,    »  5.  s  cu  tc,      J  ^^^  ^^^^  ^.^^^^  ,i,,,,„,i 

uuvnufacturing  law  of  the  State  ot  ^J;  ^  ^      ^„,on„. 

knowledge  wa.  iu  it.  crude  and  ejcpe    -    al  ^^^  ^  ,^.,^^ 

tered  nuvny  of  tl'--^;----f^^;Xn  Inufacturers.  especially  in 
to  the  imperfect  developn.ent  of  A'n'^"'^*"  "'^  .^.^ical  appli- 

those  branches  whe..i^^ac,u^^ts^^^^^^  elected  the 

cation  are   essentu^l  to  ^"^"^^^^^  J^  ^^  ^^^  continued  to  hold  the 

Barriugton,  Massachusetts.  ^roniotiu''  the  business  of 

Augustus  Grabatn  took  an  aet.v^  ^^^  ^^^^^^.^ 

the  Company,  and  v.s.ted  Lu  ope  to  Becur      ^_^^^^^^  ^^  ^^^  ^^^^  ^^^^_^^  ^^ 

the  general  ^"^'^'^^^  f  ^^^'^  ,^"  ' "'  \„',  to  the  manufacturing  depart- 
Trustee,  and  devoted  much  of   »s  tune  to  u  ^^^^ 

ment.  until  his  death,  on  the  2nh  of  ^--^^;;;^^^;  „  j^T  ustee,  and 
also  retained  an  interest  in  the  ^"«;-;'^.^^'/'^^/'"';  fnth  of  March, 

occurred  on  the  -Ut  oi  o  P  ^^^^  forty-one  years. 

Ithelical  ::Lica.  and  vroauoUvc  a«pan,«».s  of  U,c  bus.uos. 

The  Brooklyn  White  Lead  Company'.  Manufactory 
,,  ,„..„.  ,„  0,0  second  Wa,a  or  ^^  ^^^.ZTZ!^ 

™    .  =nM>i'   WHITE  LEAD  WORKS. 
JEWETT   &  SON&     wniif 


ildest  of 
ill  all,  id 
ind,  who 

as  iMitor- 

f  encoun- 
5  incident 
lecially  in 
ical  appli- 
iectcd  the 

0  hold  the 
nore  than 
39,  and  for 
t  in  Great 

usiness  of 
d  advance 
be  office  of 
ing  depart- 
B.  Graham 
'rustee,  and 
of  March, 
ifetinie,  the 

1  with  pome 
of  the  City 

1  retained  an 
Icalh,  which 
be  office  of 
y-one  years, 
ligonce  in  all 
le  business. 


covering  the 

and  Adams 

)rick,  and  the 

wort,  have  ,«Beie„t  -!«''' ^^^^tadiy  ,",-.«-,.,  U .M... 

av«r»,c  ot  prclnetiou  tor  tho  «»  >""  J'f„„        „  „t  the  >vnr  ll.o 

various  departments.  disastrous  fire  late  m 

Tbe  Works  of  the  ^.^^^^^JXCc  wooden  buildings  covering 
September,  1804,  origmatmg  ^";;  !    ^^  i,ut  fortunalcly  tho 

tbe  corroding  beds,  which  were  ^^-fjj^l    building  before  the  ma- 
five  was  arrested  in  the  ^^^  7;^^;^'^  ^^  ,vorks  were   speedily 

ness  manager  of  the  company      ^'^  .^  ^.^  ,      •„!  department 

general  intelligence  as  well  ^^  ^^T  J  American  Manufacturers  of 
Ld  is  President  of  the  A    omt.on  of  A  ^^^  ^,„,,f,eturers 

Wbite  Lead.     This  association  now  no  u  ^^^^^  ^^^^^  .^^^^^_ 

of  White  Lead  from  the  ^^^^^f^^'^lZ^;',,^  Jneficially  to  the 
oliango  of  views  thus  «--    ,       .r.f  ,,,,,ea'n  industry. 
ftdvancement  of  this  important  '"'^"^"  Leavitt,  President; 

"^,epresentofficersoftheconipanyare-D^^^^         ^^^^,^^^^,^      ^^,^^^ 

in  the  City  Of  New  York. 

,„o  ,j.o»  w,„« .-  H-"rriS!:-;8:"' tLTo* 

„„  locatod  at  ISrUlg.  and  f  ""'.'"'ft™  Immlrcd  by  two  Imndml  and 
r;::C;ti  tons  or  White  Lead  annua.,,, 

,ota  Jewett  &  So«.'  White  l«d  Wo*., 

„t  New  York.    They  were  established  in  18",   1 


u     1    .„   ainoft  crrpatly  enlarged  and  extended  them,  until  they 
tors,  who  have  smce  g'-^^'tly  en     g  ^^^^.^  j^^^.,^. 

now  occupy  about  two  -^  ^^^^Z^^^^;  / ^Jf ,,  f^^t  Ion,,  forty  feet 
for  mauufacturmg  purpose        -^^>;";^^^  J^^^^^  ,,  ^  there 

wide,  and  three  stones  high.     The  ^^Jm  by  one  hundred  and 
are  two  are  frame  structures,  about  one   bunoreci  uy 
fiftv  feet  each   and  of  the  usual  height  to  accommodate  the  beds.      Ihe 

pure  White  Lead  """"'^J'j-  ^^^^^s.  John  Jewett  &  Sons 

Aew  Jersey. 

The  Atlantic  White  Lead  and  linseed  OU  Werk., 
0.eed  by  UoBBa.  Oo.a«.  *  Co.   -  -a  to  ^e  ^^^^^ 
„„itcd  State.    They  were  «.f;«;^;^7„f/j;^^^^^  block  .'d 

^''•''•-'^'^■'-^^■'^'''''^^TZltZl^rl  with  an  e«e„»ive 

r:L:rr:di*;-d  r^...e,  roHoL.«  »d  d.ew,.„„. 

"iSotirtlSeO  eieht  or  theBO  buHding,,  with  a  large  quantity 
er':,-::::; hloery.  .1  de.royed  by  «r.  b.t  thej.  bave^.^^e  b- 
..ullUntbe  .o«  -^— \-r;.i:rb  ir  e',gl^  ..l.p"ea 
r^::rbol:"or  ;..;oses'eo:„eo.ea  with  .be  o,a„uf.c.ur,„, 


ntil  they 
forty  feet 
icb  there 
iilrcd  and 
>ds.  The 
,  and  the 
'  perfectly 

itt  &  Sons 

y  referred 


adures  of 

■;*«■  '"S?. 

;est  in  the 
of  tvventy- 
e  block  and 
1  extensive 

•ge  quantity 
e  since  been 
newest  im- 
es,  sujiplied 

I,  Ked  Lead, 
lucts  is  well 

City  of  New 

fijLi    ' 




i(  ?.'.: 




ii;  r 

%if\-^    '■>;  -(3  -1^  +^ 

■-  /V  T  £• 


The  Linseed  Oil  Mills  of  New  York 

-;tr^::::;c;nir:.«;..vf,— ,^r- 
that  of 

The  Judd  Linseed  and  Spem  OU  Company. 

Bucceoaed  lo  the  ^>^-"-«;"S'"'^'  ^  f^  f  tiuse  d  Oil  in  this  oountry 
in  1«3.-.,  At  that  time  the  "-""^f  "^^/^.^jred,  and  not  n,ovo  than 
was  in  its  infancy.  Amev.can  seed  <^Z'^^  ^his  tirm  were 
fifty  hushels  a  ^'^V^;;:: ^^^^^^^^^^  and  their  first  cargo 

the  first  to  ;-l.o.^  B  '  'The  p  onLr  vessel  in  this  trade,  now  so  ex 
was  obtained  in   fe  c.lj.      y;*^  P'  iTercnles,"  Captain  Mad.l.gan, 

tensive  and  important,  was  the      ^  'P  "^      Odessa  and  Alexandria, 

owned  hy  this  J^- J^^^^f  ^^Ij  ;  tr  Lt;c^age  to  Calcutta  having 
and  afterward  to  the  1''^  ^  1"^Ik  ^^^^^  ^^^_.  ^^^^^^^^,  ^.^^.^^.^ 

been  made  in  184n.     In  1838,  Mr   ba  ^^^^^^^^_  ^  .^  ^^.^^^^^_ 

previously  had  been  largely  engaged   u  U,      p  ^    ^^^.  ^       ^_^^ 

Lincuished   his  ^^'-''^ ;;   '^^'^  «:  ^dJudd's  Sons;  ,uul  in 
James  F.  Tenninmn,  nude    the  «'  "  "'  ,^,^.,^  j,     j.  ,^.  L.  K. 

Bridge  was  added  to  the  l>««'"'^^  ,  .  ,3,,„„,e  the  property 

firm  of  Samuel  Judd's  Sons  &  ^o    and         8  ^^^    .^^.^^,^,,j  ,,  ,,,,^,, 

of  the  .ludd  Linseed  and  Sperm  0>1  C on  l^v  Y       J ^^  ^^^^  ^,^^^,^ 

year  under  the  general  -"^""^"^  ^.'d  "n  Cherrv  and  (Jrand  streets. 

The  Works  of  this  ^'".npany.  locate.,  on  U^^  ..tablisiK-d. 

have  been   greatly   enlarged   s.nco     1  ey  .   .c   ^^  ^^^^^^  ^^_^^.^  ^  ,.  ^  „^^ 

They  now  --'-    -;^'^t;  Clr'l  n-ot.'    The  nu.-hin-.ry  is 
two  hundred  and  t.fty  fee.  "^y  «"  ,       ^^^^  „„e  of  fifty  horse 

propelled  by  three  steam  «"«;"^^^  ^,;tv?th;.sand  bushels  o,  seed 
power,  and  has  a  capacity  for  ^'-'  "t^^;^;;^^^^,!  oil   a  day.     About 
Ld  producing  four  thousand  »?f '^   ;/.^  j;;„Uepar.menls. 
onehundredhandsaroempl.>ye^.        -'^^^   ^^^^^   l^^^^^^^  ^,  New 
Since  1803,  Mr.  Jamks  K  I  enn         -  p^.^^-^nan  came  from 

York,  has  been  msUUmt  J  ^J^^J^  "^,,,,e  stated,  was  for  many 
Albany  to  New  Y"/*'  'j/^  ^V^\,,  sperm  and  .hale  oil  trade 
yearB  associated  '''^^.^  "^^  •^"'^'   ^,,   J  business   experience,   aud 
He   is  a  gentleman  ot    large   capital 

aft'ablc  manners. 



Thomas  Rowe  &  Sons'  Linseed  OU  Manufactory 

Is  locUea  in  Brooklyn,  and  covers  about  one  acre  of  ground,  bounded 
by  tbo  Ea.t  River,  Marshall,  John,  and  Plymouth  streets  In  on- 
Ition  therewith  is  a  pier,  extending  into  the  river  nearly  three  bun- 
ded feet  which  was  built  by  themselves  for  the  conven.ence  of  th 
work  n.e  machinery  is  propelled  by  an  engine  of  one  hundred  and 
rwon.vlive  horse  power,  and  has  a  capacity  for  producmg  about  four 
thousand  Rallons  of  Linseed  Oil  per  day.  ,,,    „        i,i„,, 

M.   Ta  .MAS  HOWE,  th-  founder  of  this  firm,  is  probably  the  oldest 
manufacturer  now  actively  engaged  in  the  bu-ess.     He  com.,    ed 
life  as  a  .nerchant,  but  embarked  in  iron  foundmg  m  1834.    \\  hue     us 
enaa-red  he  became  interested  in  experiments  as  to  the  adaptaO.hty 
of  th;   sc  w,  lever  and  toggle-joint  power  for  the  pressmg  of  oleagi- 
no       seeds  and  other  substances,  which  resulted  in  t»^o  con^tr-^^^^^^ 
of  a  novel   Hydraulic  Press  for  the  same  l-poses    and  its  su    es 
induced  him  to  engage  in  the  manufactui.  of  L'--J  ^d.     Pre      us 
to  this  invention,  it  is  believed  that,  with   one  exception,  the  screw 
ev      and  wedge  were  the  only  mechanical  powers  employed  m  th.s 
c7u  t.7    or  the   extraction  of  vegetable   oils.     During  h.s  busmess 
x^   en  e  he  has  obtained  three  diiferent  patents  for  valuable  ,m- 
pvo     ments  in  the   machinery  employed  in  the   manufacture    and  .s 
Sir^dly  entitled  to  a  place  an^ong  those  ingenious  men  who  have 
rendered  an  important  service  to  their  prolession.  ,  ,     ,.   ^ 

Messrs.  Rowe  &  Sons  import  most  of  the  Linseed  by  them 
dii^ct  f  om  the  East  Indies,  and  their  Oil  has  maintained  an  unsur- 
pas^d  reputation  in  the  Au.erican  market  for  a  quarter  o  a  century. 
'  M.  Rowe  has  recently  been  elected  President  of  the  Amencau 
Linseed  Association,  a  highly  respectable  and  -Auentml  body  com- 
posed of  n.erchants,  manufacturers  and  brokers  interested  m  the  Lm- 
seed  trade. 

Campbell  &  Thayer's  Linseed  Oil  Works 
Are  prolMi,lv  the  largest  in  the  United  States.     They  are  located  in 
B  oollyn,  and  cover  an  area  of  about  thirty  thousand  square  feet  o 
1  nd      The  machinery  is  propelled  by  an  engine  of  two  hundred 
hi;  power,  and  has  a  capacity  for  producing  from  five  to  six  thousand 

gallons  of  Oil  per  day.  fipnnriF 

This  firm  was  established  in  1853  by  its  present  members,  GEORaE 
W   Campbell  and  Georoe  A.  Thaver.  who  have  been  associated  to- 
leiher  for  fourteen  years  without  change  or  interruption.    They  nnpo 
Zsi  of  the  seed  they  consume  direct  from  the  East  Indies,  and  tbe.r 



In  con- 
■ee  hun- 
e  of  the 
red  and 
3ut  four 

e  oldest 
bile  thus 
f  oleagi- 
,  success 
le  screw, 
d  ia  this 
lablc  ini- 
e,  and  is 
vho  have 

by  them 
an  unsur- 
ody,  com- 
11  the  Lin- 

located  in 
ire  feet  of 
o  hundred 
K  thousand 

ra,  Georoe 
iociated  to- 
hey  import 
i,  and  their 

.     .      ^  A  ,r.  «.ivo  navticular  attention  to  its  purity, 

upon  which  the  quality  oi  vu  „V,f„rtuaatelv  the  case  that  much  of 
paiu.i,.«,  so  moch  J«P«f ;,2  :tl„  t  otor,,,ixod«.,U,  U,.t  of 
the»cd  th.t  "--^if  *",t,  ,  ™    grmva  u,  with  .be  tax,  .nd  wMel, 

r  o:r;=  r  rr^ ;-.  Vi::r  rcr:; 

their  rigid  standard. 

• ,     ..  -o  TorN  JEWETT  &  Sons  have  a  Linseed  Oil  Manufactory 

Besides  these,  Joun  Jewett  ot  o  Richmond,  on  Staten 

ia  connection  with  their  White  l.ead  Works  a  1  ^^^jlnd  thirty  feet 

Island.     The  main  build  ng  .s  o    ^-^^;;;;;  T^^^,,  ,„.,,ent  ca- 

long  by  thirty-six  feet  wide,  and  ^^j  ^  ;^^   ^^^gal  ons  of  iinseod  Oil 

probably  doubled. 

ROBERT  COLGATE  &  Oo.,  as  before  stated,  have  a  Linseed  Oil  Mill  in 
eofncrn  wiJh  their  White  Lead  Manufactory  in  Brook>. 

The  Bushwick  Chemical  Werks-M.  Kalbfleisch  &  Son., 

Situated  in  the  Eastern  ^'^^^^^  ^-t:^:;:^;::::;:;"iSi: 

YorU,  are  among  ^^^^'^^^^^^^^^  "^^  •■'-'-- 

torie.  in  the  Un>ted  Stat  «.      Ih^^^^ 

buildings  of  various  sizes,  the  larj^st  be    g  .^^  ^^  .^^^^^ 

to  two  hundred  feet  in  '-^^^';;^'X;;7i^.,,,oh  Ire  made  all  the 
Retorts  and  Bottles  useu        .  „,.„,„nt      The  whole  group  of 

"-".  '-*':;r:.:r  otitS"^""»  '-■ »-'  '-^ « ■ 

structures,  with  thur  extcn  ^^^^^^  ^^  imposing  ap- 

neys,  covers  an  area  «f  over  ^^T     ;[;;;  J     ;,„,„,„,,  ^ 
pcavnnce  even  at  a  ^'^tance.l he  interior   p  ^.^         ^^^ 

Le  of  a  character  corresponding  with  th    extcn   o  ^^^^^^^^^ 

of  the  cb-^ejs.f.  manure  urn^Si^P^^^  ^^^^^^^  ^^  ^,^,^^_ 

and  Bovonteen  foet  long  by  Wty  i«"»  „„,ioe»We  objects 

e„„e,a„d  i.  anode,  ^-J^Xr '1  Tee    'll"  SUU-, imported 

r  rc'e^rrror  irzo  *o..nd  ao,,.. .... 

,00  EF.MAEKAB.,B   M.«™ACTOWE.    OF   HEW   VOKK. 

e,„,  re..oB.u.o..  a.  "«""«""      '^^  "^    ".  three  hun.lred  .ho„«.d 
pburic  Arid  the,  Imv.  »  capae  t.v  '»'  f™  '  '  t    ^„„  ,,„„d„d  a„d  tS'y 

;„,„..,  .e>..>s  »t:L^r:C>::::;:e*;e  ac>,.,o«.,  »,.;..« 

carboys  wockly.     1h  sides  uil    ,       j  Ammonui,  'lin 

of  Tin,   Stron,  Ck.  Muv.atc  T>n    ^^^J  ^^'>^^^|^\,^,  «ff,inal  chem- 
Chrystals.  Nitrate  .'  Iron.  Su  p  u^o  of  ^^"    •  ;;^«^  ,,,..,„,en. 

iealB.     Tl>e  firm  employ  ^""f  "*''"   '^^°;  '  ^eUings  in  the  vicinity  of 

at  the  eornor  of  F"'^""  ^"^l  ^,'f  ."'y't'sons  was  established  by  the 
The  House  of  Mart.n  ^'^J;;^^;;^  ^„,.,dous  and  suecessful 

present  senior  l'-^"-;:;  ^^;  iTet^^^^^  importance  and  emi- 

„,anngement  has  attamed  .ts  p  e.  ^^    ^^,^^^^  ^^     ^„^ 

nonce.     As  his  lour  sons,  lie  <-J-^^^  ^^^^e  taken  into 

Franklin  11.  Kalbfle.sch  becau.o  of  »  '  "*  J^  thJ  greater  part  of 
partnership,  and  are  ^^^^^^T;^  ^^^^Z...  With  a  long  and 
[be  details  and  hard  work  '-^-^  ;.  ^-V^  ,,,,,,  they  arc  engaged, 
thorough  practical  ^^:^^ll^^'^  ,,pability  which  have  gained 
they  unite  those  ^^'^^'^^'^  ^,;  ,,,,,„„Uy  in  which  they 
r"^:tr;d:7X.  -  home  and  abroad,  with  whom  they 


Holland,  and  has  ^^-y;-^^.       ^^^ ^^^  native  land.     Coming 
enterprise,  and  love  of  ^'^'''\'''  ,  ;„  ^  ^.usiness  that  calls  for 

to  this  country  when  y-"^^  ^ ,;'  J^^  ^^  Za  conducted  it  with  such 
more  than  ordinary  mental  '^fl"''^^"2;''  '  ^^j.^        uion,  an  eminent 
success  that  he  has  .'^^^-^  ;^;;^'  ^^     J    iTtiLtion.     Kindly  and 
name  in  tb.  commercial  world   ^-    ^^^^^^^^^^^    ,,,  relief  of  suffering, 
affable  in  his  manners,  ^.^^l,,  ,,eogni^ed  by  his  neigh- 
just  to  his  employees,  his  J^f  ^''^^    ;      ^  j^j,,,  ...jtb  public  as  well  as 
iors  and  fellow-ci^Jzens,  who  '^^^l^^'^^^^Zn^  oL  honors.     He 
private  interests  -^J- ^t  Z:/:  irimportant  to  the  highest 
has  held  many  important  offices,  tr  .^  ^^^^   ^^^  ^^ 

in  the  city  where  he  resides.       "  ^J^^'        J^^  j,,^  ^,,  political 
chosen  Mayor  of  .^f  «f  y"' i;^  ;iVrp/aetiee  of  pursuing  what  he 

esteems  to  be  rigni,,  aim 

purposes.  ^  ^     ^^g  elected,  in  18G2,  by  an 

o.r:.::r::io"  .:X:t7aUve;e  *»  .aU0„a,  H»„.e  .  Hep.. 

JAMES   L.    HAUWAY   4   CO.'s   PVEWOOD   WORKS. 


hoso  arti- 

Of  Sul- 


and  tf^y 
3,  Muviato 
louiii,  Tin 
inal  chem- 
vicinity  of 
■^cw  York, 

led  by  the 
I  successful 
;c  and  emi- 
■rt  M.,  and 
;  taken  into 
ter  part  of 
a  long  and 
re  engaged, 
have  gained 
they  reside 
I  whom  they 

was  born  in 
of  industry, 
ad.  Coming 
that  calls  for 
it  with  such 
I,  an  eminent 
Kindly  and 

•  of  suffering, 
by  his  ncigh- 
blic  as  well  as 

•  honors.  He 
to  the  highest 

1867,  ho  was 
1  hia  political 
•suing  what  he 
8  purity  of  his 

in  18G2,  by  an 
[ouso  of  llepre- 

,.    r^  =-i,mnl  District    As  evidcHce  of  his  pcrsoual 

rvt"ca:t;rL,cxccod„aU,c  c,.,ire.»n.W.  e^o  to  „.  u,.uc. 

cessfiil  competitor.  nmnllvn  mi  is  olio  of  tlie  most 

His  rosi.lo»ce  is  near  the  Works  m  B""'^'?";"™  „,,,.„,  ,„„„  ,„,i. 

""-  r  ™  1^^: :  i.  m:  t:;:is,  a„a  to  .o.vo  tu«  dc.»iis  o, .,. 

;r:  e     i,Sl^:.U0  h,s  «„risi„g  «nd  active  i„„ior  ...rtucrs. 

The  New  York  Dye-Wood  Mills, 

T  TTnrwnv  Ac  Co  of  27  Cliff  Street,  New  York 
Of  which  James  L.  ^^^''^''\^.\^/\^'J  p,i„t  L.  T.,  during  18(1(5 
City,  are  the  proprietors,  erected  ^J^^I^'^^^e  Works  of  the 
and  1867,  are  the  most  comp  etc,  ^^^'^  J J^^.^^^^^ , j.^^  ,,  «„,  ,,un- 
..^aintheU^U^d^ate^rl^r^^^  L,es  high. 

dred  '^-^/--.yf'JX-Btory  structure  one  hundred  and  thirty- 
connected  wUh    h      s  a  two  Jto  y  ^^^^^  ^^^^^.  ^^^^  ^^^.  ^^^^.^^ 

six  feet  long  and  tJ^rty-MX  f    t   n  ^^^^  ^^^^.^^^^_  ^^^ 

and  grinding  Dye-Wood*,  and  *^''  '  J     ;    ^^^j^^.,,  ,„a  approved  dc- 

aU  the  internal  -3--;;  ^  ^  ^Jir^^ttLnt  of  tJ/bui.dings. 
scriplion,andonascalccouc.ponai  !^^  thousand  tons  of 

Their  storage  yard,  w.h  a  capa.     0       -       t^_^^^^^      ^.^^^^.^^^.^^ 

^r;a;dr::l  ^a-  cLge  of  t^ir  unmanufactured  and 

— r^i^riHarway.CXa.^^^^^^ 

Partridge  &  Son,  who  <;-"•-'"  ;'J'^;^;;7"r,;^est  in  the 
..entlywere  the  ^^^^^^^  ^:'J2:ltJ:,l  career,  this  firm 


,,ean   fabrics  by  providing   "-^  ^J^^  ^  ^  ^    l"...  t,;  time, 
partner  with   Mr.  1  ainuit,t,  .1       i  All  of  the  partners 



bu.inesg,  and  are  proficient  judgcB  of  the  articles  which  they  mann- 
facture  and  import.  Me«sr«.  Harway  &  Co.  have  an  estabhshed 
trade  of  vast  extent,  reaching  not  only  to  all  parts  of  th,s  country 
but  to  Europe  and  the  East  Indies,  and  this  fact  is  evidence  of  then 
integrity  and  honorable  dealing,  which,  conjoined  with  the.r  expenence 
and  qualifications,  afford  the  best  guarantee  to  buyers  that  the, r  pur- 
chases will  be  such  as  reprearnted. 

Messrs.  Harwav  Si  Co.  are  now  giving  special  attention  to  the 
manufacture  of  Extract  of  Logwood,_a  Dye  of  large  consumption 
both  in  the  United  States  and  Europe. 

The  Bishop  Gutta  Percha  Company's  Works,  ^ 

Located  at  Nos.  208,  210,  and  212  East  Twenty-fifth  street,  in  the 
Citv  of  New  York,  is  the  only  establishment  in  the  United  States  for 
manufacturing  pure  Outta  Percha  (?ooJ«,  especially  Submarine  Tele- 
graph Cables,  and  Telegraph  and  Electric  Wires  coated  and  insulated 
with  Gutta  Percha.  The  Factory  is  a  very  fine  one,  and  supplied 
with  a  great  variety  of  novel  machinery.  The  work  is  chiefly  done  by 
machinery,  nevertheless  from  seventy  to  eighty  persons  arc  required 

and  emploved. 

Gutta  Percha,  of  which  large  quantities  are  consumed  in  this  manu- 
factory, is  the  gum  or  sap  of  the  Gutta  Tree,  which  grows  in  forests  in 
and  around  the  Indian  Archipelago,  Borneo,  Ceylon,  etc.     It  was  first 
discovered  by  Dr.  Montgomery,  in  1822,  during  his  residence  at  Singa- 
pore in  the  East  Indies  ;  and  the  first  introduction  of  it  into  England    , 
was  made  by  him  in  1842,  since  which  time  it  has  become  a  perma- 
nent article   of   commerce,   being    now  imported  into  England  and 
the  United   States  to  the  extent  of  several  thousand  tons  annually. 
The  first  importation  of  it  into  the  United  States  was  made  by  ^^  ilham 
S  Wetmore,  now  deceased,  in  the  year  1841     Mr.  Wetmore  was  then 
cn-a-ed  in  the  trade  with  the  East  Indies,  and  brought,  direct  fnnn 
Singapore,  twenty-five   thousand  pounds  of  Gutta   Percha  tor  Mr. 
Saniucl  T.  Armstrong,  who  had  just  returned  from  London  bringing 
with  him  the  four  original  patents  granted  in  1845,  in  England,  for  the 
working  and  using  of  Gutta  Percha  in  all  possible  forms  then  known. 
Two  of  these  patents   were   registered  in  the  Patent  Office  of  this 
country,  and  constitute  the  basis  on  which  Mr.  Armstrong,  and  his 
8ucccs;or,  Samuel  C  Bishop,  operated  for  many  years  without  inter- 




y  manu- 
I  of  their 
heir  pur- 

n  to  the 

(ct,  in  the 
States  for 
riue  Tclc- 
y  done  by 
3  required 

this  raanu- 
1  forests  in 
[t  was  first 
3  at  Singa- 
;o  England 
0  a  pornia- 
igland  and 
!  annually, 
by  William 
•e  was  then 
direct  from 
Im  for  Mr. 
in  bringing 
and,  for  the 
hen  known, 
ficc  of  this 
ng,  and  his 
thout  inter- 

Th.  oommcrclal  us»  of  0„t..  Porrh.  "=»'-'',  ^X',,' 
i„„«™,g  with  the  progress  of  bvont.on.  A  "^  '"'„,„  ,„„ 
pr.„hic  wire,  or  cal>lc,.  to  bo  used  on.lor  -'•;;'  "7,,  ,„„  ,,.„ 
Lt  artiolo  ,h.t  l,a,  yet  been  <l'-v»rc.  for  "  '  ;  '  .^„,„.:  ,„„ 
1841',  Dr  Werner  Semens  made  the  fiist  expcnmun 
r;;,c":.  wire  by  „,o.n,  of  «n  o„ve,o„o  «'j;;-;-;:„:;    ,, 

1       ,.-,„t  vonr  the  Truss  an  Government  orcleiea  inuucu 
Bubsetiuent  year  inc  iiubsi.i.u  ,ip,n,„  under  the 

;:»  Uo  nmlo  fro,,,  d.  I'ereh.  Insuhucl  Wire,  an.,  .t  h.»  boe„ 

the  two  parts  to  adhere,  and  at  the  same  t  me 
the  piomeiB  *, -matron"-  who  has  been  mentioned  as  the 

r'''''"7:z:l^^>n^^o:^^^:'^'^  „,„„  „„„  ,,„,,.„„  ,„ 
rrhetar:i:iX:a""„':r:,rt:;:ea  «„  „oi„torro,„e„ .». 

,,    ,1,..  n.anufacture  from  that  ti,„c  to  tlio  prcsoi.t.     M,. 
uhZ  ;  1  a  p  i,   eX     "rodocing  .1,0  "  eigl,.  hour  .pt„,„"  i„  the 

!"°T.>    '"^rli'rlhrirau":^'  o?  .bo  ..,.*.  Uo„r  S>..e,„  of 
S™  ;!;  .h'  'la  hi.  .Wre.  oa  .hat  oecio,.  bo 

Tl!:t;  ™v  fri"j..  »"o  »»:;\,*:s.!i;:.  s^'-/sfSy- «™*r 

!r;o';J";'er'c'.'a.r»i;S'.o\':"  S  Z al.  ba,e  „..  b..  .„,..  re»»„  to 


the  ,n.^or  ,..vt  or  the  ^^^:-^^^}Z^^^n£:^^^-^-y  thons.n.ls_n.en 
anil  cons\inuM'«  '"  ..•«  *^i'i  o'  -;*V  T-  ,1.  «.v  ti.,.ii-  .IimUi— men  wlio  arc  ex- 
w»u.  .!o  not  earn  a  penny  fron.  the.r  .  t  ^^^^^^,^^,,,i,^  .,nly.  and 
clusivoly  consumers,  and  who  ''^'^  ;^;'  '  ''\'  ,' t  o.^^.vho  UUjov  xvith  their 
are  of  no  use  to  anyone.     ;^"''*^'"  ^f  i,f  !L  ^^^^^  Ih.t  they  do 

brains  and  luoney  and  wlm  do  mue     Rood  m  the  u^^^^^^^^^^     ^^^^^^^^  ^,^^^^  ^^,,^^ 


laborin/  men-the  bone  and  sn,cw  o  he  na  .on  u^  i  ^^  .^^  ^^^^  .^^^,^,^^^^^  ^ 
eountry  is  indebted  for  its  life  ^^^  ^ 'V^^"' ''"",,.„ 'V  means  to  payoff 
•  for  tliAnaintenancc  of  '"^'•^';  V' ^,1^^  J  h^.hod  IheV  be 
the  hu-s-e  national  debt,  incurred  lor  Nva  P"'!?"^^"  j  \^  j.^^.or  than  any 
obliged  U,  devote  twenty-live  per  cent   mo  e  «     ^'''^J^  "^^^°  „,,  ^ad  its  fair 

Sr  ^S;nil^^^^tr  11;:;um1o^  hand!::;.:^^^  ^.y  are  essential  to 
each  other." 

Xhom..  Oti.  UEoy  &  Co.'.  Shot  and  Lead  Works 

A,c  .,„o„..U.  most  „o.owor.b,  »' *»  ™"'' '"J^^tr.""  ^ ^^^ 

'^irtolToJ,;:;::  ::f  Oi»ti„ct  manuractoncs.  locte.  ia  d«crcat 
structcd  view  of  Astoria,  Ravenswood,  Hunter  a  1  omt,  wre     i 


T.  O.   I.KROY    i   CO.'S    SHOT   ANP    I-KAI>   WORKS. 


Brooklvn.    Tho  principal  numufaeturing  operations  however  are  earru.! 
on  in  ti.e  Imildiugs,  201  and  2(13  Water  street,  whi.-b  are  lour  stones  m 
height,  fifty  feet  wide  and  one  hundred  feet  deep.    It  .s  ,n  the.e  I.u  dm,s 
that  their  eele),rated  Eagle  Brand  Shot  are  u.anufaetured  by  an  e  t u 
now  process.     Ordinary  shot  are  .uade  by  dropped  from    he  to 
of  a  ofty  Tower,  some  two  hundred  and  forty  feet,  but  .n  then-  .le.cent 
they  acuire  such  a  mon>entun>  that  many  of  the  pel  ets  ^^^-^2 
the  force  with  which  they  strike  the  receiver.     In  Lelloy  ^  f-  -  J- 
shot  are  dropped  but  a  short  distance,  and  are  buoyed  up  m  the u 
bv  a  enrreut  of  cold  air  which  retards  their  fall  to  an  --tjMU  suir.c.en     o 
prevent  their  flattening,  and  renders  them  almost  perfectly  spheucal 

''I'uheso  buildings,  also,  there  is  a  great  variety  of  novel  ^-<^^^ 
manufacturing  Lead  and  Tin  Pipe  by  Hydraulic  pressure,  and  a  feheo 
Lea"       mng  Mill  that  produces  Sheet  Lead  of  a  quality  that  cannot 
he   suroassed      Tho  pipe  machines  have  a  hydraulic  capacity  ot  six 
hunZ  tons  and  are'tlle  only  ones  by  which  pipe  cau  be  made  from  to 
first  pressure  and  by  which  Tin  and  other  hard  metals  can  be  successful  y 
^XT^^Ll.  pipe  machines  are  of  the  Cornell  patent,  with  the 
Zrovements,  o    which  Iv.ossrs  Lelloy  &  Co.  are  sole  proprietors. 
Fomery  they  used  along  core  in  the  end  of  the  Hydraulic  Ram  but  ex- 
peZce  taught  them  that  by  this  process,  owing  to  -bration,  tr  e 
Lr    were  impracticable.     They  then  abandoned  ,t  and  adopted  the 
CorreU    lan,  wtieh  places  the  core  in  the  bottom  «nheCy^^iK^e.  with 
the  Lead  around  it  acting  as  a  support,  and  as  the  Lead  on  j    s  m 
Ition  at  the  point  of  pressure,  the  balance  being  -  ^  —    ;f ' 
7u   .    ;.„„  T,mi\Ue  cbanco  for  tl.8  core  to  wovor,  bol  tlie  pipo  li»s  a 

I«,?irc  n  re Tnd  i»  of  umrorm  Btronglb  througl.oat.    Tho  pipe 
perficlhj  tTM  cent  0  ana  .^^^^^  ^^  ^,^  ._^^l^^^ 

LLTr:  e^t  *  tX  »aw,'  .P.i.»  an-  "".»'--  "»»"'-; 
io  The  vast  .uperiority  of  the  method,  omplojed  „,  h,s  n,.a«fae. 
tuve  ever  the  old  Lhioned  processes  has  ,o  stimulated  the  de„m„d, 
It  tCgl  the  Ore,  produced  in  18C6,  eight  millions  of  pounds,  thejr 
laveten  compelled'to  duplicate  their  machinery,  and  are  now  pro- 

•      "Ihc^  ::rtreL'Sr;°"Thom.,  O..  ^^^y.  in   >S»5. 

^-rthAe^r:::?"?:^  cE: 

which  the  metals  melt,  the  fusion  is  not  perfect,  and  that  the  lin   .ning 
Ling  thin  corrodes  f;om  the  galvanic  action  of  the  two  metals,  and 


to  the  Groat  Kxlnbition  in  Lon.lon  in  isr.l,  wl.oro  ho  was  olTeiod 

.     ii.,.,i,„.  f  l.o  nrncosa  hv  which  it  was  nmnufactuml. 
^"■;::^rt  T^rrO.   .cRo,  a.oeiatea   .ith  In.  hi.  J^oth. 
E.lward  A.  Lclloy,  and  tho  two  now  compose  the  fum.      Ihty 
ploy  in  their  works  about  sixty  persons. 

East  River  Iron  Works-Samuel  Secor  &  Co,,  Proprietors. 

Belong  to  the  class  of  the  great  Marine  Kngino  Works,  fo-vlm^l'  Ne- 
YorkLfamous,  and,  properly,  should  have  been  not.ced  ,n  that  con 

"'5n"l850  Mr  Samuel  Secor  commenced  business  at  96,  98  and  100 

wl  h  ngton^treet,  confining  himself  principally  to  the  construc.^^^^ 

Tli.h  Pressure  Boilers,  Tanks,  etc.,  and  the  repairmg  of  Steamboats 

2  St^Im  h  PS     The  Southern  States,  previous  to  the  late  rebelhon, 

\     We  drafts  upon  his  mechanical  resources,  and  supplied  h.m 

:;t  J    y  0       B     After  the  breaking  out  of  tho  war,  he  built  several 

Male  Boilers  for  some  of  the  Iron-clads  of  the  Monitor  class. 

Wh  ebranrt    so  be  found  his  shops  too  contracted  to  accommo- 

^  :;::^r\ri;n;,  ISOB.  l.  .sociated  with  l^u  Mr.  ^. 
MiLiER  Jr  under  the  firm  name  of  Samuel  Secor  &  Co.,  and  they 
^medttely' commenced  the  erection  of  the  new  works  at  the  foot  of 
E  rTwenLth  street,  completing  them  the  same  year.  These  ork 
Sfvervextensive,  and  are  supplied  with  all  the  necessary  to  Is  and 
rnvenienees  for  building  Engines,  Boilers,  and  other  machmery,  of  the 

'IS  U  "ted  S.av.s  Navy  Department,  as  well  as  the  Merchant 
service  has  availoa  itself  of  their  increased  facilities,  and  a  number  of 
a  g  MarL  Boilers  and  Engines  have  been  constructed  for  bc^. 
Resides  these  a  large  varietv  of  miscellaneous  work  has  been  oxe  uted 
S  t  0  ll'st  five'y  .rs,  b^th  in  these  and  in  the  ^hops  ^Washing- 
ton street  which  are  continued  by  them  as  a  branch.  When  m  full 
ouerat  on  the  works  employ  from  six  hundred  to  seven  hundi-ed  men. 
C  n^chanical  part  of  the  business  is  under  the  immediate  supcn^ 
vision  of  Mr.  Samuel  Secor,  who  has  had  a  practical  experience  of 

vcr,  was 

red  large 

SAVEBY'S  sons'  PnO-.NfX   WORKS. 


fovtv  vonr.  as  a  Machinist  and  Engineer.  Tl,e  ^^'---ff^J^f^ 
r..,iK.;.,  for  land  use,  which  h.s  effected  n,  great  of  f«  1,  and  .. 
now  extensively  used,  was  first  successfully  introduced  by  b.m. 

!  brother 
'hey   em- 


hich  New 
that  cou- 

18  and  100 
ruction  of 
3  rebellion, 
iplicd  him 
iiilt  several 
uitor  class. 
)  acconimo- 
ig  an  cstab- 
•ine  Engine 
r.  Epiiraim 
1.,  and  they 
the  foot  of 
^hese  works 
y  tools  and 
inery,  of  the 

e  Merchant 
a,  number  of 
id  for  both, 
sen  executed 
an  Washing- 
^VHien  in  full 
undred  men. 
idiatc  super- 
xperience  of 

The  Phoenix  Works-John  Savery's  Sons,  Proprietors, 

At  Jersey  City,  are  old  and  very  celebrated  works  for  U^  .nam^^-^ 
of  Iron  HoUow-ware,  Stoves,  etc.     They  were  founded,  m  1838,  by 
Jolm  and  William  S^very,  who  commenced  business  there  under  the 
firtsty     oT  John  Savery  &  Son.     In  July.  1845,  the  build.ngs  wore 
de    roy  d  by  fire,  involving  a  total  loss  of  flasks,  patterns  tools  and 
n^cZery ;  Lt  the  fo..dry  was  rebuilt  with  ^^J^^^^'^^^^: 
tions  were  resumed  in  October  of  the  same  year.     On  '  '^""J^^J  l^J' 
1840  Alexander  Law  was  admitted  as  a  partner,  and  the  style  of 
tl  e    rm  v"   changed  to  John  Savery  &  Sons.     This  was  con  mued 
until  I  decease  of  Mr.  John  Savery.  in  1853,  when  the  style  .  . 
"h  ng  d  to  John  Savery's  Sons;  his  son  William,  a  man  emment ly 
qualified  by  natural  endowments  to  be  successful  in  busmess  pursu.    , 
2  c  m^  g  tL  senior  member  of  the  firm.,    For  several  years  however 
he  h      resided  on  the  old  homestead,  in  Massachusetts,  and  the  actn 
sun-vision  of  the  business  in  Jersey  City,  and  of  the  warehouse  n,   • 
Z  Yo^  has  devolved  upon  Mr.  Law,  who  has  f^lcd  the  pos.t.on 
w  tl  cred.  to  himself  and  advantage  to  the  firn.     «-"f/'-^- !  - 
also,  other  partners  have  been  added,  viz. :  G.  W.  Mason,  Q.  V. .  ^  an 
Schaack.  and  William  E.  Savery. 

John  Savery,  the  founder  and  originator  of  th.s  concern  wa. 
pione  r  in  deve  oping  American  Manufactures.  He  was  born  )n 
cZev  riymouth  County,  Mass.,  in  1789,  and  served  an  apprent.ce- 
Sp'th  moulder's  trade.  Among  his  earliest  labors  was 
Tin  the  pond_at  the  outlet  of  which  was  the  foundry  he  was  con- 
nected with-to  make  cannon  balls  during  the  war  of  1812  In  fac  . 
vasihe  first  man  who  succeeded  in  making,  at  that  oundry,  a  per- 
fect cannon  ball.  He  made  shot  which  was  furn.shed  he  L.  &- 
Friga""  constitution."  and  which  was  used  in  her  memorable  engage- 

ment  with  the  "  Gucrriere."  .      ,     ,  i  u; . 

ms  m-st  partnership  was  in  the  works  where  he  had  served  h. 
an prenticcsh  p,  in  his  native  town.  This  continued  unt.l  about  82  , 
appunuLL,    1,  .,.^„^    X    Y     and    in   association  with  his 

when    he   removed   to  Albany,  ^.    i-,  fi""-  pni-tner- 

hrother-in-law,  established  a  foundry  there.     In  ''"t^J^'^^,, 
ship  was  dissolved,  and  was  succeeded  by  Savery,  tehaw  ^  Co.,  until 

204  eema.u:a,.i.e  man.  factobies  of  nm  vork. 

works  in  Jersey  City.  various  departuicnts  of 

Messrs.  Savory's  Sons  now  employ  m  ^^V  ;7^^,„i,4  ,,,,nselves  ..usinoss,  abou^  one  huu  r«i  -^^^^^^^ ,,,;;,  personally 
of  ovcTV  in.provenient  suggested  'f^  "^"  ''  ^^^f^.t^ring,  and  using 
inspecting  and  superintending  the  deta.l.  ^^  -^^'^  ;^^  J^^  ,,,« 

J,  t,o  l)est  brand,  of  An>encan   -^^\^S  .  ^f  .^' ^^.^i..^^,,  contribu- 
estabiished  a  reputation  for  tlieir  ^^^  ^H'i,^^,  ,,a  ware- 
tion  to  the  renown  of  American  Manufactmcs^ 
house  of  the  firm  are  at  'JT  Beekmau  street,  ^e^v  \oik. 

The  Architectural  Iron  WoYks, 

,„eatca  on  Ea.  F„.«ee„U,  '^^'^:nJ^Zi^^^  «"  '« 
ei,y  or  N«vJ;^-A.  •'  7  ;L  .ork  c  v«  an  .re.  (including  .i.» 
kiu.l  in  llic  United  Stutci.      Ho  »"'.>  .      ,        fo„ 

va,.i„u,de„»«n,ent.)  ot  ■"»!-'»;:,    I™  ,;::'    fj^Ud  in  1856, 

184«,  «,>e„  M,.  Badger  ere,.ed,  '»  *«^^  ^  oM^J'^^..  _  ^^,,  ^„„„„y 
rfr::^lt";::rpo.fod;-owe  .oi/exi.enee  .0  .at 

"";t:r  Unown  .at, ,«..  ^8.0,  .on  -  -^  .^je '"" 
.nd  other  Earopean,  and,  to  a  toUc^l  ex  ^^^^  .^^ 


,„,„  „,■  .i.o  uitinnt.  tri„,n,,    o    n»o,.  «-- j;^  „„,„,  „ 

,.n,.rgy  on  the  1'"'°' "»  7"""",-       „,„,,  „„j  ,b„if  .«,,eriorily  was 

' """ff ::;:"„:::■  '";■;;:,,  ::£.:!  h.  nu,ner„n,  ad,.,. 

r:;::     ;     a.  atlding  .nateHa.,  .e  „,.y  -''<:' -'''y;-';! 
,av,nguf.|.a™,(»lnU  ,ato»,Jo  ^,^.^_^  ^^^  ornamentation 

use  of  Iron  lu  many  structures,;  im.  b'^'"^' 



indcd  the 

tuicnta  of 

and  using 

t'uey  liave 

e  contvibu- 

aud  waie- 

id  0,  in  the 
nents  of  its 
icluding  the 
ay  from  four 
ted  iu  1856, 
troduced  and 
1  Now  York, 
ifter  the  year 
he  first  Iron 
1  this  country 
tence  to  that 

d  in  England 
,  even  in  our 
ifices ;  but  its 
to  be  or  very 

of  a  long-con- 
.'ting  intorosts, 
id  indoiuilablo 
,s  resisted  until 
ni,)eriority  was 
nucrous  advan- 
;  the  obstinacy 
(1.     IJesidos  the 
t  warrant  for  the 
r  oruaiuoutation 

„.a  arohiteetural  beauty  entitled  it  to  the  c^.d^ation  of  all  who  would 

^ati^  their  own  -^^f^^ZTi!^^^^^^^^^  ^^  ^  ^^-"^- 
The  introduction  of  light  into  tl-^    "j  _  ^^^^^  ,„  t,,e 

--  whichissupj«    y  t  e  ..^^^^^^^^^^^     2^^^,,^^  ^^„,„„  , 

interior  spaoc  avadablc  tor  "^"'^J  J^     \        '      ^^^^id  argument  for  t  lie 
fluenoo  of  light  upon  the  mmates_  consti^^Uej^^  a  v^         fc       ^^^^^^^^^ 
use  of  Iron  as  a  building  materia  .     ^^  wmdd     e        y      ^^^.^^^^^^  ^^^ 
xnany  other  points,  in  which  decided  alvan_^^^^      n 
Iron  over  all  other  known  budding  ^^f^^f     ^       ;      f,,nity  of 
be  mentioned  superiority  of  strength  ^'^^  ^J^     ^^   ^J^^  f  ,  ,^,  i.eom- 
eroction,  capability  of  architectural  \'- 7',^^;,^";,;  of  materials, 
bnstibility,  facility  of  renovation,  duiabihty.  intrinsic 

and  protection  to  l'f« -^^  P^^l^^^^,,  incorporated,  in  isno,  by  D.  D^ 

j^r^rttsr  :i  --^r  ?;:t-r-r 

Secretary.  _  Unildintrs  were  destroyed  by  fire,  but 

«•„.  workmen, ...  every  fani.ity  '"  '  ■?  ^J  "l'   ^Iri    v  of  Oa,t 

feiiutters.  ,  .    „,„i,ino.  shot  and  shell 

In  past  years,  it  has  been  largely  engaged  ^n  ma    "  ^^^^ 

of  all  sizis,  projectiles  and   ??--"";f '^^    ,tg,:rGun-carriages 
Government,  and  also  for  foreign  powers.     The  latest  U 
constructed  were  for  twenty-inch  B';"«^  ^,,  ^,,,  ,„es  to  which 

It  would  require  a  largo  ^P"^''"  ^«  """^j;,  "   Vorks  but  the  follow- 
iron  has  been  applied  by  the  A- ;tec  -^^^^^^  .^aia 

,ng  be  mentioned,  viz.  :      on  Stor      J  "  ^ 

,^^.rehouse.A.enaKl^.yHous^^^^^^^  Verandahs. 

Shutters.   Venetian   Blmds.    '^^  '"'^^  .^^,     Arches,  Window 

,5aluslrades.  Cornices,  Sta^ways  to  umns  t  .  ^^^^ 

Lintels  and  Sills,  ^^^^^^^' ^^^^^^i.; ^r^.^.^  Heams.  Patent 
dow  Guards,  Lann>s,  Awning  a  d     o^^^^^     "     ;  ^^.^^,^  ^^,  ,,  .^  ^.^„,^,„y 



Warehouse,  o,  .1,0  "'""'  f';','-',^^,  ;„;c„,  ,,.„yLt  rbll.del,,l.i« ; 
ana  of  the  I'oansyl.ama  1:'"''°  /^" ,  ;„„  comimuy  «t  Fullon  ami 
„„.  ho„  Ferry  H..,.e,  ...  .  .0  U,,     ■  ^J  ^^^  "m1  IlnUey  BniM- 

Wl,i.e„an  >'«;;7»^J  ;^";  :,i  ;'C  -.  «U-.UHUS,  Hou,,».u., 
mgs,   Ikooklyn;    C.  r>  »    '"'"'\f;        ,-,,,„  „t  New  York  j  tlie 

BuiMinB  ;  »..<i  a.«  «";«';'  *:;;'^n  y  la  Lveral  UoeUs  of  ftve- 
Unitoil  States  Aivoniil  at  Wateivliet,  xx.  x.,  » 

'"";•  U.1     t  tt  vor       0,  he  erected,  in  Washington  street,  Boston, 
iron  loundei.    In  tiit  yeai  lo'.v,  prejiulioe 

the  lirst  iron  front  ever  seen  .n  ;  '^^   «;/'  ;«     "JJ.  that, 

^■irrrr;;:  ,::'r  u  :.'ir 's::^  tnire  .,ve„.e„ ... 
.at;::  u!^.:-..  -tLr:.::r  "tc;  t^^-r: 

l„lro,l«eea  the  »liuUer«  niUi  his  now  stuiouiris. 

-  "  "»■•«'■'■;»  "'■■-"'  "^:;t;:U  :  a  l.  a.oeia.e..  wiU,  Charles 

lU'cd,  IvMi-,  in  int  \nu^  T„sur'.')cv  Companies,  till 

'''""""'■'■"'"'"' r"::;o         ,     ;  •  hehr^l  buihlh,s-  eree,e„   hy 


plac  ,s — 

T  be  luer- 
liG   Grain 
Jvouklyn  ; 
ulton  and 
sey  l>uUd- 
iTovk;  th« 
;ks  of  five- 
e  iuappi'u- 

upi  ...Ul,  in 
liis  native 
iiness  as  an 
jct,  Boston, 
le  prejudice 
rantee  that, 
,'n  expense. 

1  vented  and 

patent,  ami 

onts  (kuowu 

iritb  Cliarles 
,0  found  tlio 
jnipiinies,  «'. 
ist  ohjectiocr. 
Ills   purpo;o, 
of  Iron  as  a 
I  mechanical 
I'^an  to  sup 
d  tlieir  supe- 
rt  erected  l)y 
)ut,  from  the 
li(!  approval ; 
with  untiriiiR 
a  coiupotitor. 



in  America. 

The  Stover  Machine  Company, 

Though  compavatively  recently  ^^^^^^^^^  uniform 

.romrnence  and  public  f--'/'^  '^^^^.Uvo  been  constructed  in 

excellence  of  the  Tools  and  ^I'^^  ^•-^;  '  ^^^  Z^,,  ^he  general  n,anu- 

its  workshop.     It  was  incorporated  -    «^^^;7^^„,,,„eed  business  at 

facturing  laws  of  the  Sta^  of  ^^^^^,,^  at  No.  13  I'latt 

the  corner  of  Pearl  and  Elm  ^''''^^' ''  j^  ^^^  found  that  the 

street,  New  York.      In  J- fj^'j^o  contracted  ^ 
n^anufacturing  department  W.S  a  og         ^^^^^  ^^^^^^   ^^^^^^.^^^^  ^^^^^^ 

demand  for  the  company  ^   f!*^'"  ^' jj^^^.e  of  Kefuge  buildings  at 

were  sought  fcr  -^' '>'-'*^--\"'g^^;  ''  ", :  nmin  budding  was  con- 
tbe  foot  of  KastTwenty- h.rd  St    ct.  ^^^^^^  ^^^^  ^^^^^ 

verted  into  a  Machine  S»^«P' 7*^,  J^i  7,,ndings  were  erected  to 
Kooms  on  the  water  ^^^^,^^^^,  in  the  manufacture 
facilitate  operations.    Here  the  tompu  y  ^j^^i,;,,;,,,-  Tools,  and 

of  Marine  and  Stationary  hngmes,  a    w  ^^   ^^^^^^^   Governmoul. 

fdled  many  important    '^'^^^'''^'\''l^^    ,^,,,„ers  "  Maumee"   and 
among    them,    the   Engines   foi    the    nn  ^j^,,,  ^ools  made 

I  Tullahonm."     The  denuuul,  ho^v.■^  •>.  ^^^^^  ^,„.chased  the  exten- 
,,y  tbi.  .MMupany  Increased   so   la^^     ■  ;^^^^^^^  Mass.iehusetts, 

slve  Works  of  Thayer.  Houghton  ^  to  .^^^^  ^^_^^j  ^^,^^,i. 

tlieh  they  enlarged,  and  iVmnUusp.^^^^^^ 

working  Machinery  the  ^-:^^^'^^  v.,,.^  Central.  Oswego  and 
wav.  the  New  York  and  ;2,,..  Annuls,  and  the  Navy  Yards  m 
Syracuse,  and  ^^^^^::^ ^  the  -u^pany  employed  over 
the  principal  *'""'^'     »""'"« 

seven  hundred  workmen  rronident  of  the  company,  was 

In  the  meanwhde,  Mr  ^I'^^^J-jYork  where  all  branches  of  the.r 

seeking  diligently  for  a  -  ;;  ^  ^^^J  .„.,a  it  at  the  foot  of  Fifty-first 

208  remahkable  manvfactortes  op  new  york. 

street  fronting?  the  river,  but  it  is  proposed  to  make  large  additions  at 
an  ear  y  period,  and  provide  facilities  for  a  thousand  workmen  to  bo 
ZXJ  in  the  endosure.  When  completed  according  to  the  p.ns 
this  will  be  one  of  the  largest  establishments  of  Us  kmd  m  the  United 

"'The  success  of  this  company  is  due  in  great  measure  to  the  in^n^ve- 
ments  and  inventions  that  have  been  made  by  the  Presulent  IIenhy 
S  STOVER,  giving  their  Machine  Tools  peculiar  and  distmct,«.  features^ 
?ts  hiloryL  in  fact  one  of  the  marvels  of  American  enterprise,  a.d 
its  rap  d  rise  is  a  conclusive  proof  of  the  mechanical  gomus  and  or- 
ganSg  ability  of  its  founder,  and  reflects  credit  upon  all  who  have 

been  associated  with  him.  tt„„„v  T>  Stover 

The  officers  of  the  Stover  Machine  Company  are,  ^^"^^  D- S^ovER, 
President  and  Treasurer  ;  A.  Brown,  Secretary  ;  and  Mr  J.  W  BiCK 
keII,  originally  of  the  firm  of  Stover  &  Bicknell,  Supermtendent. 

The  Eagleton  Manufacturing  Company 

Are  the  largest  manufacturers  of  Iron  and  Cast  Steel  Wire,  for  ull 
uses,  in  the  State  of  New  York.     The  Company  have  two  mil  s  cnv 
ployed  in  the  manufacture,  the  principal  one,  known  as  the     T-a^le 
Wire  Mills,"  being  legated  on  Twenty-second  Street  between  I-nst 
II    Second' Avenfes.  and  the  "  Brooklyn  Wire  Mills,"  in  South     -k- 
Ivn     The  former  covers  the  greater  part  of  six  city  lots,  con 
fifteen  thousand  square  feet,  and  is  i^ve  stories  in  height      In  the  ..,.- 
Lrons  rooms  there  are  nearly  two  hundred  wire  blocks.  prn.c„K    v 
emploved  in  drawing  Steel  Wire  of  all  sizes,  mcludmg  about  f-n  > 
niachi^es  for  drawing  very  Fine  Wire,  some  us  fine  as  No.  S.     1   o 
machinery  is  propelled  by  an  engine  of  two  hundred  and  fi   v 
Z'r    hrougl  the  agency' of  an  immense  belt  three  feet  in  wuUh.     In 
r  biiler  ro'om  th.-re  are  six  boilers  of  large  size.     The  anncahng 
ovens  have  a  capacity  for  annealing  seventy-two  thousand  p-nnu     of 
steel  a  day.     This  is  converUd  principally   into  Cnnolme  AMre.  o 
whh  great  quantities  are  made;  and  this  is  one  of  the  few  cstab-  in  the  United  States  where  maybe  witnessed  al     ho  opera- 
tilns  incidental  to  converting  a  rough  bar  of  steel  into  a  finished  Hoop 

^''in'closo  proximity  to  the  Wire  Mills  are  the  "  Eagle  Skirt  Works  " 
owned  by  L  company,  where  about  two  hundred  dozen  SUnU  arc 

Iditions  at 
Lien  to  be 
the  pli  ns, 
ho  Unilod 

4  \t- 

)  im  preve- 
nt, IIenuy 
^  foaturos. 
rprise,  and 
ius  and  or- 
who  have 

D.  Stoveb, 
.  W.  BiCK- 

Vire,  for  u'l 
ro  mills  eni- 

the  "  Eajjlo 
itwccn  First 
loutb  l^rook- 
3,  containing 

In  thi'  nti- 
i,  principally 

about  forty 
fo.  3r,.  Tho 
nd  fifty  horso 
n  width.  In 
he  annoaliuK 
id  pounds  of 
ine  Wire,  of 
ho  few  cstab- 
all  tho  opera- 
finished  lloop 

■,  J' 

V.  \ 

,|,..,    ^0. 


Skirt  Works," 
on  Skirtd  aro 


t  to  mil' 


till-   bo. 

A  :-'- 

The  Eagle'.ou  iA,.uui.iC!.u. t;jti  ..v..i;/.' 

•,..  h:,  h    i;   I  ;il    M 

,v1  a!! 

«)?.  ■ 





dozen  J«c,,,mva  Looms  uroMsy  h  ^^  „„„„fi,rtnro 

interest  »nd  ammat.en.     I'.aeh  Ski.t    n    II 


1-  -ir   ^  i=  nf  hrick  one  hundred  and  eight} -six  itei  louj,  "j  u  18  of  brick,  one  ^^g-^.j^^t  capacity  t.  turn 

dved  and  ten  and    ho  machm    y      ^  ^.^^^  ^^^^^^.^^^^  ^^^ 

out  seven     ons  ^^  3;!?;2;      j^^^^^^ 

plain,  is  made  ^'J''^; ^^»^,f^  J^  ^^^a  Furniture  Springs  in  the  upper 

ine  r.«.b  •pirnvTON    has  been  engaged  in  tne   wire 

but  its  President,  J^  J.  EA0^f;2rp^ising  Company  employs  from 
^manufacture  since  ^^.^^^.J^'^'J^rPTUo  present  officers  arc,  J.  J. 
six  hundred  to  seven  hundred  hanas.     iuo  y  „a  -n     \    Vvck 

EaoxIton.  President;  E.  G.  Anoell,  Treasurer;  and  R.  A.  Peck. 
General  Superintendent, 

Wests,  Bradley  &  Gary's  Hoop  Skirt  Works, 

In  the  City  of  New  York,  are  believed  to  be  the  most  ext.msive  of 
in  tne  business  was  origiiir.Hy  estab- 

lldt ';  W  bX  rinventor  of  an  i„,po«nt  in„.r„  .n,e„t 

S  'i;Lr '^^^rrsr^ro;::.:::  if  \,,t :.: 

^^aSEr.:::^"^^— -- 
'c^y  n  h  *::».  -.;na.n8  *ih  .0  Twenty.e1.Mh,.,  a 

::;/or  two  bnnarea  feet-  ana  .---«•--.:*:.  1:  1 
ninth  street,  seven  stot-ies  l>*  ««  ™'™  "  f„  ,t,  „„„„f„etnre  of 
hundred  feet  square.     The  forn,er  "  "f™  '"     ,„„  ,„„i„g  cotton 

wilhln Mlelf  an  the  faeilitics  neeessary,  and  in  whieh  may  he  w,.,-..-..a 


all  the  nroeosses  incidental  to  converting  steel  rods  into  finished  Skirts. 
la  1  0  L...nent  of  the  warehouse  on  Twenty-eighth  street  may  be  seen 
an  stock  of  steel  rods,  a  little  less  than  a  quarter  of  an  n>eh 
a  d  uuetor.  and  which  are  imported  in  large  rolls.  T-e  are  take, 
iato  the  hlucksmith's  shop,  where  the  ends  are  pomted  to  ena  ,  e  them 
Ob  started  through  the  '■  wire  plates."  From  th.s  shop  the  rous, 
luU  in  rol,.  are  placed  in  a  large  annealing  oven,  w  ere  1^  a  heatmg 
of  some  ho.s.durati.m  they^^^^ 

After  th  s  they  are  pickled,  that  is,  siecptu  m      i'"  „  ^ 

aid  the  obielof  which  is  to  remove  the  scale.     The  rolls  are  next 
siulcd  in  the  drying  kilns,  from  which  place  they  pass  into  the 
"room,  where,  by  powerful  machinery  and  skilful  man.pu  ations. 
he  w  re  i     reduc;d  in  size,  with  a  corresponding  increase  m  length 
ButT wo  drawings  can  bo  performed  before  the  Wire  becomes  so  hard- 
Td  Lt  it  mu 't  be  again  annealed,  pickled  and  dried  1-?-^-^  ^ 
further  drawing.     The  wire  as  produced  here  is  round,  and.  to  give  it 
he  n  cessary  ribbon  shape,  it  is  flattened  by  being  passed  through 
small  but  powerful  steel  rollers.     These  machines  are  quite  expensive 
c""  ng  not  less  than  one  thousand  dollars  each.     The  steel  for  the  ro  Is 
"  iuiportod  expressly   for  this  purpose,  from  the  famed  wo  ks     f 
Krun  ,e,  (Jermany.      This  steel  ribbon,  of  various  gauges,  is  sti  1  quite 
foft  io    having  had  communicated  to  it  the  necessary  spring  temper^ 
To  accomplish  this,  the  reels  containing  the  ribbon  steel  are  conveyed 
to  th    tempering  room,  where  the  wire  is  passed  t  rough  a  furnace  at 
a  regulated  .speed,  from  which  it  issues  red  hot,  and  enters  a  vess  1  of 
oil  ;here  the  steel  is  hardened.     Being  now  too  britt  e  for  use,  it  has 
^e  temper  drawn  by  means  of  a  vessel  containing  a  melted  composii  a 
0    t  n  aid  lead  through  which  it  passes.     These  springs  have  yet  to 
be  covered,  which  is  executed  in  an  upper  room,  by  machines  of  g    at 
•genuity,  that  cover  the  flattened  wire  with  a  t^gbtly-woven  -^^^^^^ 
thread      Some  of  the  wires  designed  for  the  lower  hoops  of  the  Skiit 
are  run  through  the  covering  machine  a  second  time,  to  guard  them 
against  the  excessive  wear  of  dragging  over  stone  steps,  etc.     These 
Lvevod  wires  are  now  placed  in  troughs  of  starch.    By  me.ns  of  bands 
1     machinery  carries  the  starched,  braided  wire  backward  and  for- 
ward over  roflers  heated  by  steam,  and  between  which  are  attached  a 
series  of  grooves  of  polished  steel,  which  act  as  ironers,  and  give  a 
fin     glazed  or  enamelled  appearance  to  the  Wire      When   proper  y 
d  ied  it  is  again  wound  up  into  coils  ;  and  while  this  is  being  don  ,  an 
TnTex  in  the  machine  indicates  the  number  of  yards.    Messrs.  Wests. 
Bradley  &  Gary  consume  in  this  department  over  eleven  hundred  bar- 
rols  of  St  ,rch  annually. 

;d  Skirts, 
ly  bo  seen 
f  an  inch 
are  tako'i 
able  tbciu 
I  the  roiifi, 

a  beating 
I  "  draw." 

is  arc  next 
s  into  the 
in  length. 
2S  so  bard- 
)aratory  to 
,  to  give  it 
id  through 

'or  tbe  rolls 

works  of 
s  still  quite 
ng  temper, 
•e  conveyed 
a,  furnace  at 

a  vessel  of 
r  use,  it  has 
lave  j'et  to 
ines  of  great 
oven  cotton 
of  tbe  Skirt 

guard  them 

etc.  These 
Q,ns  of  bands 
ard  and  for- 
e  attached  a 
,  and  give  a 
len  properly 
nng  done,  an 
essrs.  Wests, 
hundred  bar- 

WKSTS,    BllADLEY    &   CARY'S   HOOP   SKIUT    '.VOUKS. 


In  the  soven-storied  building  on  the  north  sule  of  Iw^nty-n    th 
street  is  a  regularly-arranged  Cotton  Mill,  where  raw  cotton  .s  spun 

T  2-1  nn  into  Tape,  and  the  Braid  for  covering  the  wires. 
::l::^^  phLr^VXent  are  rooms  devoted  to  the  ..bricat.. 
ff  the  Sar,  where  hundreds  of  young  women  are  engaged  u>  th. 
lill  .md  1  asant  toil.  Machinery  is  here  called  into  play  w  kmh.c 
Scti  able  and  the  results  of  machine  labor  are  manliest  .n  the  regu- 
E  meeision  and  durability  of  the  work  performed  ;  and  .t  .. 
d^d  r^st  interesting  sight  to  observe  t^e  intel.i^nt^operaUves  ^ 
their  work,  and  note  how  deftly  they  weave  the  hm.p.  uUh  the  tapes, 

and  then  fasten  then,  in  position  by  small  metal^ 

This   firm  have  a  most  wonderful  and  elhe.ent  p.eee  of  nuthani.^nx 

fo.        e"  "    the  eyelets  into  the  bands  of  the  Skirts.     ^^''-  -; 

t  in^^idance^  it  can  accomplish  work  which  formerly,  by^ 

ordi  arv  process,  required  seven  or  eight  hands  to  accomphsh.     1  hue 
t  vmLhout  the  establishment  a  small   army   of  inspectois, 

L:  :  h  w    :     :::il^^  the  work  passes,  and  whc^e  duty  is  to  r,e^ 

tnrou„u  N  I      _  defective      Wben  finished,  the  Skirts  aie 

;:s:.r:'i:°  „; : «,  'u  -o».  m^^  ^-.«.  «i.i»i.  -- '"« -"■» 
°':;;,:::;:m»„.i.,..,e  or «.  wor.,,,..,-  -» ^-^;^;"  - 

w  ,1  nt  thP  floor  surface  exceeds  five  acres  in  area,  and  the  paj  -roll> 
Ttl  rn  contl  te  names  of  sixteen  hundred  employees-some 
of  the  ^'™  3^^^^  have  manufactured  eighty-four  hun- 

TTu  n  sS  n  onTday,  each  of  which  contains  from  forty  to  one 
dred  Hoop  ^^^'I^;  "  ^^f  /^„,^  ^^eel,  or  from  eighty  to  three  luindr..d 
hundred  and  ^''^^  ^^  Jf/J^^^^^  total  of  over  150,000,0..(.  yanis 

^::t:; r  S?:::sS:;l;on  of  Tapes  and  Braids  to  the  extent  of 

'•  Mr  T'w'iaADLKT.  in  connection  with  his  partners,  has  done  more 
Ml.  .1.  ^v.  liivA         ,  .manufacture  than  anv  man  in  America. 

.  easily  as  a  s.  k  or  --  -^J  J  ^     ^  ^^  l^^,  ,,,,  o„y  greater  elas- 
wires,  instead  of  one  single  ™'  ^  ^  ^^.,^.,^  ^^  ^j^,  ,,,„  ^ime  it  is 

ticity,  but  greater  strength  and  duiab.Uty 

one  third  Ugbter  than  any  other  m^^^^^^^  ,' ^^1:^^^^^^  the  United 
t^^  ::^;r^rZ:Svral  ..-  of  Eugland  and 


Tioforo  olosins  onr  remarks  on  the  grco.  manufacturing cstablishmcnta 

of  Nw  York  it  mav  be  proper  to  notice,  in  this  connection  two  com- 

L^rthat  have  acnuired  an  honorahlo  and  aeserved  d  stn,ct,on  for 

ho  1      ion  of  KdU  Tools,  inasmuch  as  their  principal  warehouses 
'rd  C    for  the  sale  of  their  goods,  arc  .ocatcd  in  that  cty.^Uhongh 

ho  manufacturing  operations  are  carried  on  in  N-  Engh.^^^^^      •  ^^^ 
Collins  Company  and  the  Douglass  Manufacturinu  Comian.. 

The  Collins  Company, 

For  manufacturing  Axes  and  other  Tools,  is  one  of  the  largest  and 

"^  Tlerr::  wa^'::::^nced  ahout  ^rty-fivc  years  ago,  hy  the^ro- 
ther    Plvid  C   Collins  and  Samuel  W.  Collins,  in  the  city  of  Ilur  ford^ 
i    ;  w  r    the  first  in  this  country  to  manufacture  Axes  ground  and 
J  Uh^  ready  for  use.     Previous  to  that  time  the  Northern  States 
we  e  supplied  by  country  blacksmiths  with  axes,  generally  made  from 
rro    b    tered  steel  Ltead  of  cast  steel,  and  a  wood  chopper  was 
ompe     do  spend  the  greater  part  of  the  day  in  grinding  one  ready 
oTuse      The  Southern  States  were  accustomed  to  use  the  memc.en 
^ground   Axes   imposed   from  England.     In   18  G  ^he  brother 
Colli.^   removed   their   manufactory   to    its   present  Ic         v  on   the 
Farnington  River,  about  fifteen  miles  from  the  city  of  ml.     In 

m  V  were  incorporated  by  the  Legislature  of  Connect.cut.  under 
he  ti  of  the  Collins  Company,  though  they  still  continue  to  use  .n 
hei  Tools  tho  original  stamp  of  "Collins  &  Co.,  Hartford."  Smce 
h  .Im  val  to  tlfeir  present  locality,  the  village  of  Collinsv.Ue  has 
1  own  UP  and  now  contains  twenty-five  hundred  inhabitants,  who 
a  cd  pemU  for  their  support  upon  these  works.  This  v.l  age  has 
two  cChes,  and  schools  of  a  high  order,  in  which  several  hundred 

nliildron  receive  instruction.  , 

Te  Works  have  recently  been  increased  by  the  erection  of  shops  for 
the  manufacture  of  Cast  Steel,  of  which  the  Company  are  now  pro 
V  •  nil  thPv  consume  The  buildings  extend  along  the  bank  of  tne 
FZnln  Kivo:  ?r  a  distance  abo^ut  one-half  mile,  and  although 
St  n  power  is  employed  to  some  extent,  the  Company  have  recently 
eoi^eled  a  reservoir  at  the  source  of  the  river,  eovermg  over  one 

thousand  acres,  to  provide  an  ""f-^  «S  ^^^^  P^^!.  ^^^'^f  J^,  '^ 
consume  annuallv  about  seven  thousand  tons  of  Coal,  fift  eu  hui  Ued 
ons  of  Iron,  nine  hundred  tons  of  Cast  Steel,  and  turn  out  three  thou- 
sand Tools  per  day.  About  six  hundred  and  fifty  men  are  furnished 
constant  employment  in  the  various  departments. 



two  com- 
nctioa  for 
•,  although 
,  viz. :  Tho 


argcst  and 

by  tho  bro- 
;rounil  and 
lern  States 
made  from 
hopper  was 
r  one  ready 
e  incnicient 
he  brothers 
V  on  tho 
n-d.     In 
:ticut,  under 
ae  to  use  en 
ard."     Since 
Uinsville  has 
.bitants,  who 
is  village  has 
eral  hundred 

1  of  shops  for 
ire  now  pro- 
e  bank  of  the 
and  although 
have  recently 
ring  over  one 
The  works 
'teen  hundred 
ut  three  thou- 
are  furnished 

tb.„  f,  n,aao  by  woWing  m  the  "™»'     »  _;,^,,  "  „,:  ;'     ,  ,,,,,,„,-,„  a 

thermometers.  ,       „^:„nmlp  the  most  perfect  uni- 

By  lbi»  entirely  oew  and  -J^?  J  ■"  jj^^,*  icsuves 

fomily  and  accuracy  are  ,ttamcd.     T  .3  pioccs>  1  ^^^^^^ 

a  „„„  pcrroct  cutting  "^^"'ta"™"  "ve    a  hi^''*°''*  °"  ^''""^ 
mode  of  tcmpcrmg.     llic  Axe  aiso  '»=«"«»      "  inspoctod 


T„e  i— f  *-'7.t»:  :  ";:  ,r;  t^t  dcSption  arCmngbt 

''-«>"\°"7„',^,:a;tt„:;     .bib     Hide  tho  CO..L  Con,panyUBe 
to  an  edge  on  grmdstoncs,  oi  wu  „^,i:t;nn  to  Axes  and  Edge 

„,ore  .i,an  six  hundred  tons  per  aunun.       J  *"  °°  ';,^^^^„,  ,„g^y 

Tool,,  Picks  and  f 'f^^  :;;t  I'ej:  Unties,  together  with 
exported  to  Australia  and    other   l«™"S°  ^^  ^uba. 


Cl.rau'^fMi^^nrngbtr  :r  dr-rt,  and  euabl.  thent  to  scour 

ntl-clplytl'rtployod  in  tbeir  business  a  capital  of 
about  one  million  of  dollars. 



The  Douglass  Manufacturing  Company, 

„,,  .„,.o,ca  a  wiacr  ™,..c  .„.n  t^»  Com„^C.u^a„y  In  Its  prod,,. 

The  factory  cons  ^U  of  a   c ncs  o,  u  b  ^^^  ^^^^_^^ 

.  to  the  pruduclion  of  the  higher  class  °^/^""|    J/,,^.^^,^.      ^^,„„,  o„o 

iHuulrcd  mechanics  arc  kept  f  .^°  >^''  *  "    ^^.^^y     ^Vo  mav  remark. 

over  two  hundred  en>ployed  m  ^^'^  ^^^ ^,,,,,^  ^,  l,u^.. 
tlna  the  e,.mimnylnxve  just  perfected  a  macl  me  1^).e        U 

.„•  eork  screws,  which  will  be  a  grea    «-  ^^'^   !  ^i;"!,  ,,,^,,,h. 
.....maneo  of  that  pa.  o       e  wor     .uh  a    .c. .    ^^^^^^^^  1^^^^ 

:i;!;:;;;j':r-;\heh;;i.;^^^^^^     nothing  is  done  ma  hurry,  as  is  too 



ts  pi'odnc- 
:onio  quite 
Edge  Tools 
3,  notwith- 
r  products, 
1  over  llioni 
origin  liters 
vny  belongs 
)  its  prer-ent 
)ok's  Patent 
have  utjcd 
e  kiiul  tlmt 

ct  factories, 
rmour,  Con- 

gs ;  the  first 
er  a1)0ut  one 

0  the  manu- 
mds  engaiiod 
hundred,  cx- 

lahelling  the 
ictory  is  sup- 
,  which  never 
ed  with  much 
inner,  as  well 
ions  are  per- 
id  is  ingenious 

ds.  In  these 
.  About  one 
,  making  in  all 
)  may  remark, 
ng  the  handles 
md  insure  the 

1  and  despatch 
pervade  every 
uirry,  as  is  too 

inflexible  rule  of  the  establishment 

moi-«   -^icrow  can  or  new  pattern   bouow  auf,t.i.-i, 

::;:;s,^:mwr!ghts-  augers,  boring  -;;^-,3-;;::^:r  .i^i " 

augur  bits,  patent  extension  b.ts,  f^^^^^f^^^  This,  be  i,  ub- 
p.n>glass's  Patent  Excelsior  ^V^-:^^^f^lL  produced, 
served,  is  an  entirely  new  tool,  «»\>^;  ^  f  ^^  e  .npHeations  of  tl>e 
It  secures  f /^^  ^^^^  ;:  .r  l^e^re,  wU  it  will  also 
tools  manufactured  ^^'J^  J^^  ^,,^^,  ,,  ,,n  hoWov.  ^n^^^'^-  Tn-lov 
nnswer  the  purpose  of  a  full  set  ol  .       ,,„^i 

the  head  of  Cork  Screws,  there  are  some  «?  -"^^  ^^^^  ,,^.,„,  ,,,. 
styles,  including  the  patent  -^^^  ^^  ^^^^^f  ^^^.^^ers,  etc.,  ^1  of 
ing  irons,  round  belt  P"-  ^jj  ;^:  /^  ^  of  thl  best  material,  and 
which  are  most  useful  m  then  ^^'^>'  "  '^  ^    ,,„  ,„,,t  eriti- 

finished  in  a  style  to  please  the  ^^^^'^l^^^'l^ ,,,,,,,..,  .t  the 
eal  and  fastidious.  IV'^ln^^^S^S^Lents.  which  are 
Seymour  manufactory  Cooks  l'^^^"^  "''J  K  ^  ^,^,,  „f  -eat 
exclusively  made  by  this  ^^^^^^^^J^^^  ,,   ,;,,  that  the 


strument  of  the  kind  yet  invented.  gcymour  factory  a 

The  Douglass  Ma-n^tunng  Ccm^.  ^^-^^^^^    ^^^^^^  ^,,^^^  ,„ 

machine  room  for  nudungtl^^to^       ,;,„  handles  as  are  required  for 

use  in  perfect  order  ^l^^  ^^  ,„,,,,.,,  ,,,.  Irving  perfected 
tiles,  augers,  gnnlets,  cork  scuvNS,  ^^^^^^_^  ^,. 

„,achinery.  the  company  .s  -^  >'  ;;  i;;;7^,^^  ,  ,  ,;,,,  tool 
any  si.e,  from  the  ^^^^::^^^::Zl  1,  papor  boxes.  The 
chest,  .piite  as  cheap  and  mucb  ^"^  .,  i,„,,,iware  trade 

wood  boxes  of  this  company  are  -"^f  ^J^  ^J^^^'  ,„,,,,„  ,,.kage. 
or  adapted  for  any  goods  rc^uu-mg  ^^^^  „,^^^^,  V  ^,„^;,, 
All  the  company's  regular  goods  arc    a  K  ,„anufactory   at 

About  two  hundred  men  •^':^'  «'"  >^^^^^^  Vrlin-Hon.  in  all  a-.out 
Seymour  and  an  7-^;;";^- ^  ^  ll^^^Li^  the  eon.pany 
four  hundred  hands.     At  ^^^^ »  "'    '^  .,„,hinery  i«  of  the  most  ellinent 

;:lt::Cl:l^?-y  oa.r  Jiilar  concern  in  the  united  states. 


Since  the  success  of  this  company  at  the  Paris   Exposition    therr 

No  ,0  BrC  street,  wMeh  »  -er  the  charge  of  Tboma.  Do.o- 
LASS,  one  o!  thj  principal  proprietors. 





tion,  their 
ionie  ship- 
proof  that 
V  York,  at 
yiAb  DOUO- 


Newark,  New  Jersey,  nine  miles  from  New  York  City,  on  the  rail- 
road  connecting  New  York  unci  Philadelphia,  is  largely  engaged  in 
manufacturing,  especially  Clothing,  Hats,  Jewelry,  ^^^^^^^^''^^^ 
Trunks  and  Carpet-bags,  Leather  and  various  fabrics  of  leather.  It  was 
here  that  the  first  manufactory  of  .Tapanned  Leather  in  tins  count.7  was 
established.  In  18G0,  according  to  the  census  returns,  Essex  County  had 
a  capital  invested  in  mannfactures  of  §13,4'.»o,30.^  by  7r,9 
establishments,  who  employed  15,825  males.  5.01.8  females,  and  produced 
a  value  of  $27,700,044.  About  three-fourths  of  this  amount  was  pro- 
duced  in  Newark.     The  principal  manufactures  were : 



Boots  ami  shoes 

Brass  fouucliiii; 

Coach  laini's 

Chemicals . 

No.  of 








Carriages ^^■■ 



CotToo  anil  spices 3- 

Drugs •■ 

Edge  tools  and  cutlery 10 

Fire  arms ^ 












$371,017 IGf) 

27ti,844 C!)0. 

4:i,l)45 31. 

2l>,9l'>0 39. 

l,3.-i,000 40. 

2S9,0JS 714 




42 1,147,000,. 

3 29,.')00  . 

1 18,000. 





India  ruliljer  goods 

Iron  foundiu^ 



Looking  glass  and  picture 



Malleable  iron 

Ornamental  glass 


Patent  leather ".. 

87,000  ., 


71,202  .. 

flO.OOO  . 

122,700 imi,170.. 

32,000 18,01)0,. 

f,44.SOO l)74,.'-i:l4  . 

200,000 13.'),000., 




170,.''.10  . 




13')").  . 




169  . 


400  . 


3  .. 
3.  . 

0  .. 



R'gisters  and  ventilators... 

Saddlery  and  harness 

Sashe«,  d"ors,  and  blinds.. 

Spokes,  liolis,  wheels,  etc.. 


Saddlery  hardware 

Soup  and  candles "  ■ 

Stairrnds 2  . 

Straw  hats 1 

Trunks  and  carpet  bBi;s,...       13,. 

Typo  metal *  ■ 

Trunk  rivets 2  . 

Tin,  sheet  iron,  and  copper      12. 

Varnish • 

Zinc,  u«lJe  of '■' 

.37  ., 
138  .. 






.3t,liM) 47,631  . 

10.5,000 2-)4,000 

403,300 142,422,., 

118,000 02,232.. 

28,000 19,215  . 

04,000  08,307.. 

912,000 1,224,073,. 


1,224,100 758,320.. 

73,200 71,530.. 

llfl„500 07,714 121 

4,5,000 .19,420 48..,, 

288,000 314,3«.-. 779.... 

0,5,000  03,7.50 20.... 

60,000    ....        47,5S5 39 

20,000 00,000 15.... 

314,500  474,8.50 60.5  ... 

80,000 80,040 0.... 

4»,ooo ao,oi« ISO- 

101,WI0 113,860 1.11.... 

15.5,2.V1 194,9,56 24  — 

1,200,000 98,000 110..., 





Value  of 











190  1  •',! 

79  000 







The  manufactories  of  Newark  are  generally  of  a  medium  class,  many 
of  ti.em  owned  and  operated  by  mercantile  houses  in  New  York  but 
there  are  a  few  sufficiently  extensive  to  be  called  noteworthy.  Of  this 
description  are  the  mills  of 

The  Clark  Thread  Company, 

Erected  in  1865,  nt  a  cost  of  three  hundred  thousand  dollars.     The 
main  factory  building  is  three  hundred  and  twenty  feet  long,  one  hun- 
dred and  five  feet  wide,  and  five  stories  in  height,  requiring  in  its  con- 
struetion  three  and  a  half  millions  of  brick.     Adjacent  thereto  is  the 
Picker  and  Spool  Turning  house,  and  in  the  immediate  vicinity  are  the 
Dye  and  Bleach  houses,  with  an  ample  supply  of  pure  river  and  clear 
spriii"  water.     Tlie  rear  of  the  premises  is  bounded  by  the  Passaic 
river^having  a  wharf  five  hundred  feet  long,  at  which  vessels  of  three 
hundred  tons  can  load  and  discharge.     The  Spinning  department  con- 
tains  twentv-fivc  thousand  spindles,  with  all  the  necessary  preparation 
for  produ(nng  the  highest  (piality  of  yarns,  and  is  separated  by  a  thick 
wall  and  double  iron  doors  from  the  Thread  Mill,  which  has  room  for 
fifty  thousand  spindles,  with  all  the  requisite  winding,  polishing,  and 
spooling  machinery.    The  first  story  of  both  these  departments  is  sixteen 
feet  in  height  and  the  wails  three  feet  in  thickness.     The  machinery 
of  the  newest  construction,  and  part  Oi  it  protected  by  patents  held 
by  the  Company,  is  from  the  best  shops  of  this  country  and  England, 
and  is  propelled  by  two  coupled  condensing  engines  of  upward  of  seven 
hundred  horse-powcr,  supplied  with  steam  from  a  range  of  ten  tubular 
boileiw       The  entire  establishment,  when  fully  equipped,  will  cost 
ST.rjO  000,  and  employ  from  one  thousand  to  twelve  hundred  persons. 

Tliis  splendid  factory,  the  largest  and  probably  the  most  complete  of 
the  kind  in  tlie  United  States,  is  owned  by  a  Joint  Stock  Company,  ot 
which  the  principal  stockholders  and  officers  arc  Peter  Kerr  and  (Jeorge 
A  Clark  wlio  for  many  years  were  celebrated  manufacturers  of  Spool 
Cotton  in  Paisley,  Scotland,  where  their  respective  firms  have  carried 
on  the  same  business  for  above  half  a  century.  As  the  mach.nery  is 
of  the  best  and  newest  description  and  the  managers  men  of  large  ex- 
perienco  in  this  specialtv,  there  is  no  reason  why  the  Company  should 
not  produc.>  Thread  equal  to  the  best  imported,  and  even  better  adapted 
to  the  roquiromonts  of  Sewing  Machines. 





ass,  mtiny 
York,  but 
,     Of  this 

lars.  Tbe 
;,  one  liuu- 
in  its  con- 
fcto  is  tbe 
ity  are  tbe 

and  cleai' 
be  I'assaic 
lis  of  three 
tine  lit  con- 

by  a  thick 
IS  room  for 
isliing,  and 
ts  is  sixteen 
atents  held 
d  England, 
ird  of  seven 
ten  tubular 
I,  will  cost 
I  persons, 
complete  of 
ampiiny,  of 
and  (Jeorge 
>rs  of  Spool 
liavo  carried 
nacbinery  ia 
of  large  ex- 
pany  should 
itter  adapted 

Peter  BaUrutine  &  Sons'  Brewery, 

In  Newark,  is  the  largest  in  the  State  of  New  Jersey,  and  is  enti,l.-d 
to  .place  among  the  largo  Breweries  of  the  country.  It  has  a  capa- 
c  tv  br  producing  over  sixty  thousand  barrels  of  Ale  per  year,  and  ha. 
2  nXuses 'attached,  that  will  malt  over  two  hundred  thousand 

'Xt!;::le,  the  thunder  of  this  firm,  is  now  one  of  the  ^des. 
brewers  in  the  United  States,  having  been  engaged  m  the  busme..  f 
for^six  yec'-s.     He  was  born  in  1791,  in  Ayrshire,  Scotland  ;  came  to 
h     coXi"  1820,  and  entered  into  the  employ  of  Robert  Dunlop, 
vilse  Brewery,  in  Albany,  New  York,  though  its  capacity  was  on  y 
tl^Z  barrels  per'annum,  was  then  one  of  the  largest  .n    he 
United  States      Here  be  obtained  bis  first  instruction  ,n  brewing  and 
bdo.^  observation  of  tbe  various  processes  as  carried  on  by  otbei-s 
.,,  uired  such  a  mastery  of  tbe  art  that  he  was  soon  employed  a 
b  ov     and  maltster  by  Lding  firms  in  Albany  and  the  vicinuy,  and 
suCquently  was  offered  an  interest  as  partner  m  the  hrm  of  FuUck 
llvckman  &  Co.,  which  partnership  lasted  about  six  years. 

In      8  0    Mr.   Ballantine  removed   to   Newark,   New  Jersey,   and 
rented  a  Bi'ewery  which  none  of  his  predecessors  bad  been  able  to  ope- 
ra      uccessfuiu'    Beginning  in  a  small  way,  he  made  steady  progress 
although  be  bad  not  only  to  compete  with  tbe  most  celebrajed  bran 
n     he  country  but  to  contend  against  the  reputation  which  the  Ale. 
Iw  d  r^had  previously  acuired.     At  the  end  of  the  eight     yea. 
h    had  increased  his  production  to  eleven  thousand  barrels,  which  cm- 
sid^'n.^  the  size  of  tbe  place  and  its  limited  facilities,  was  a  large  bu.  - 
^e t-oe    ainlv  larger  than  bad  ever  been  done  in  it  before.     'I  bo  inul  - 
ousT  01      t  dwUh  this  Brewery  being  able  to  furnish  but  a  small 
In         the  malt  required  for  such  a  business  Mr    Ballantine,  in 
mt  purchased  property  adjacent  to  the  Passaic  river,  having  an  eu 
0     ut  -l'.ivements,  and   built   a   maUbouse  of  thirty   thonsan,! 

II  ui    capacity.     In  1849,  the  business  having  completely  oiitgrouu 
r  lewe  y  then  occupied,  he  erected  another  adjoining  and  coniu    - 
a   ngwifh  the  malthouse  built  the  previous  year,  wuh  a  cap  ci 
"hundred  barrels  per  diem.     The  sales  continued   o  u.crease  un„l 
,lr  b  e wing  four  times  a  week  be  was  called  upon  to  brew  every  da>  , 
nd  in  sle  instances  twice  in  one  da>.     Of  course  additional  maltin, 
r  1  Is  were  required  to  meet  this  demand,  and  another 
1  to    tw  ntv  thousand  bushel,  capacity.     At  length,  notwitb- 
::i;:gM;^sr;ompetition,  an   enlargement  of  Brewery  became   a 


c^Hv  and  a  third  malthouse  was  built,  of  sixty  thousand  bushels 
:-:;rt  ir::      W  tl;  a.iher  extensive  nndthou.    t^ 

E»ll.„tinc  wa.  .s.oci»t«a  in  l'"'»«'»'"V'  V  "   tol  0     '  Mian- 

sede  manual  labor,  and  the  n  ighty  '^J      .lenurtnmnts  of  industry. 

nished  or  dishonored. 

The  Gould  Machine  Company, 

,    •  .f  tl,o  oldest  and  largest  manufacturers  of  machinery 

In  Newark,  .s  one  of  the  oldest  and.    g  ^^^^^^^^  .^^   ^^.^^  ^^^ 

in  the  Slate  of  New  Jersej.     |1^;  JJ^       ^  ^^„^^  es-ablished  in  New- 
E/a-a  Gould,  and  his  machmeslopN  as  thej^e^^^^^^  ^^^^  .^^ 

avk.     At  that  time  the.e  were  but  tw  -       '  ..d  the  tools  in  use, 

that  city,  where  there  are  now  ^-cral  bund  cc         -d  ^^^^^  ^^ 

compared  with  the  ^'i;-;;^  ->;- ^^/jl^.j:;,  ,,,.;.,.,  .uil 
tremely  ^^l^"  •":';7";  '"  ,,  ,,„,  ,vho  obtained  from  the 
1,.,,  .hen  he  trans^rre^ '  J^  ,  ^^  r'charter  of  incorporation 
Legislature  of  New  .1e i^ev,  by  si^e mi       ,  ^,^^3,,  yoo,  and  privi- 

as  the  Gould  Machine  Company,  with  a  capital  01   , 



d  iit  this 
use,  two 
ight.  Jt 
and  coa- 
vark,  Mr. 
I'son,  and 
.».  Ballan- 
jt  in  New 

iod  within 
the  art  of 
breweries ; 
lost  super- 
■  industry, 
sound  Ale 
ng  can  be 
,de  even  in 
3,  as  is  evi- 
though  his 
3V  been  tar- 

)f  machinery 
in   1835  by 
hcd  in  New- 
operation  in 
tools  in  use, 
ay,  wore  e.\- 
ervisiou  until 
ncd  from  tlio 
00,  and  privi- 


employment  of  five  b;;';f-^  ^tolf  i^  rprosecution  of  the  business. 
J oHuipped  with  all  the  ^^  ;'^^^;^;;^,,Led  by  any  in  the  country, 
and,  in  this  respect,  are  P  ^^^^^^J'^"  ,;  ^J^UKle  a  great  variety  of  Ma- 
m.c  manufactures  of  ^'^  \^^'X'  \i,,binery,  Steam  Engines  and 
ehinists'  Tools,  and  Woo  -Wod^rngM^^^^^^.^^  ^^^^^^^ 
Boilers,  Portable  I'^ngmes,  Sa^v  M>1  ^^^^^^  ^^^^^^^  ^ 

Hose,  and  other  Fire  ApP-a^u  C^ng^;  ^^^^^  ^,,  distinguished  tor 
and  Foundry  Ec;unMuents.  ^';^y^^^,r„,tion.  The  first  compound 
tbeir  simplicity  and  o^^-^^^^'^^  ,,,.,„,a  and  built  at  these 
pUvner  ever  made  m  tins  ^^""f  now  in  extensive  use  owe  tlunr  pa- 
^orks  ;  and  many  ot-r  -a  hm  s      -  ^^  ^^^^  ^^^^^^^^^. 

ternity  to  the  and  '^^  "U      g  ^^^^^.^,  , 

The  Steam  Fire  Engines  "^'^""^'f  "    ^t^j  ,U  it  is  claimed  that  by 
tant  inn^ovements  which  have  be  npate,Ud_^^      ^^^^  ^^^^^^^^^^  ^^ 

means  of  them,  "  with  the  ^--^I2^f;^\l  one  hundred  per  cent,  more 
steam,  they  discharge  trom  ---^y;^ ;^  ,,^,ently  that  much  more  effi- 
,vater  than  any  other  '^^'^l^^^^l^l^^ ,J,  greater  force  through  any 
cient,  being  able  to  project  fu^tl^and^^^  J        ^^^,^  ^  ,, 

sized  nozzle  or  length  of  ^o^^-  ^"'^ J^  ^^._^^  ,,  far  from  the  fire, 

eicncy,  no  matter  where  f-^f^^Zo^^^e.,  or  wbeve  one  or  n>o.-e 
whether  playing  through  ^^^^^  ^J  ^  ^^^^^^^  ,,^  ,„oanB  of  the  Tump,  hv 
streams  are  used."  Tlus  -  --"  ;^f  X,,!,,  area  of  tlu=  pump  .s 
which  the  discharge  of  watci  «    ^^«  ^^^  ^  ,„.,     u  ,s 

consists  of  t,wo  cyluulcrs  of  ''"'"'""V'  ,.,„j„,  „„a  from  tleiico  to  the 
,„o„cd  fron,  .1,0  1-BC  to  *o  »   "^^  ^_  ^  *'^  „„,„,,  ft.t  four  .imc, 


1  venue,  (Jroon 
bov  and  New 




factuving  town  in  I^ew  jersey.     '  .^  jtal   invested 

10Q    innniifac'turinff   establishments,  wuii    »   *-"! 
returns,   123    manulaciur    g  ^^^^^^^      ^^^^  ^^^^, 

IST^Z:  :r^^^  s:p«„»i  „.,..»» ... .. 

follows  : 

No.  of 






Bleaching  aiid  dyoinC 


roffeeftnd  Bpices •; ^j 

C.ilion  goods.  

Flux  iind  hemp 




Lucomotives  (1) 

Madiiiieryand  steam  engines 

Mnsil«itc)  netting 


gik— sewing,  etc.  (3)  and  Candles 


Taljlo  covers,  ete 

Wire  drawing 

Woolen  goods  and  yarn 





40,000  . 


200,000  . 

110,000  . 








100  . 


3 600,000 1230.. 



40,000  .. 
245,000  .. 
153,000.  , 



3,000  . 


98  .. 
41  . 


Value  o' 




















90,0  lO 














The  Roger.  locomotiT.  and  Maehtae  Work., 

r„™,ca  ,n  >831  .y  TU„„,a»  noser,  for  *e  purpo-  „t  W^l;.  0« 
t„„,  woollen,  and  ^l"'' Mecb,ncry_    I     .1-  b--^  ^y  ,,^ 

joined  by  Morri,  Ketehu,n  and  J.  pc     0,o  '^_^    .^^^  ^^^^^^^^.^^^ 
6,.m  ot  Uopor.,  V"!'"'"'  *  ^  "sv."    '  ^^^^.^^^^ 

great  eeU-brity  as  bn,  do«    t  I';';7'  ;«»„„,  ,„„  „  s.„d„,ky,.'  wbieh 
The  first  Loeomouve  bnilt  by  tb.s  bira  i,,i,„„a  Company, 

„„,  delivered  ,0  tbe  Mad  «,'-;j^^.^^;'„;';  November  1.  .8:«, 

rgcst  man- 
the  census 
I  invested 
and  pro- 
B  were   as 

lo       Vnliio  o' 
,.         I'loduct. 










1 90,0  lO 

, 374,21« 

J S46,51H) 

[ 6;i,:!t0 


8 41,313 

7 63,600 

2 100,000 

jrthy  are  the 

building  Cot 
year  he  was 
;ablishing  the 
day,  attained 
dusky,"  which 
oad  Company, 
,mber  1,  1838, 
jocoraotive  for 
>st  ease  a  train 
DO  one  hundred 




a.  1) 



i  1. 



1    nf  twcntv-six  feet  per  milo,  nt  an  uveraire 
and  tlnrty  tons,  up  a  srade  o^  ^^^  \         ^^  ,,.•  onuanc.  whicl.,  at  that 

time,  bad   not    beeu   e(iualled    bj    an> 

England.  -Ro^rcra.  which  continued  until  his 

IHn-ins  the  "''-'"-^f '«\°J '^  ..J^^r    ...ovoments  that  contributed 
decca.cinl850,honuu^:uay^U   '^-1^^^^^^^  a.o  now     , 

to  the  pcvfect.on  oi  the  ^^'^'\  ^.^^ected  the  wire  gan/.e  m 

generally  adopted.  A.  ^^^  J^ ^^^  .„  ed  in  the  axis  of  the  Pipe, 
the  Smoke  Pipe  by  an  l"-'^'^^''\^^"'  ;  ,^^^  ,^,  over  a  large  por- 
.Uh  its  base  curled  -- ^ -.^X^ia-  pvevent  the  top  of  the 
tion  of  the  surlace  of  tla  w    c  Uo  ^^^^^^_  ^^^^^  .„,vtenally 

«l,urk-oatcher  fron.  bun  ^J^^^^^  ^^^,^,  .^ith  hollow  spokes 
injured.  lie  at  that  Un.  ;'  ^  ^'"eounterbalanced  the  wheels,  for 
and  rims,  and  two  years  previous  y  ^^^^  , 

which  he  entered  a  speeiticat.on  n.  ^}^^^^  ,,,,,trie  rods  in 
Ue  also  originated  an  avrangeme      f      f  -ng  ^^^^  ^_^^^^^  .  ^  ^^^_ 

and  out  of  gear  by  the  use  oi  "^ ^^^^i;i^^  the  reversing  de- 

neetion  with  the  veversu.g  le^^  ^^:^  J^o  only  was  rec^uired  to 

pended  on  no  ^«"^'»g"»''->.;^"  ^  ^J"    ^     ^^^^  i,,,,tofore  been  done. 
Lnage  the  engine  more  ethe.enbt^^^^^^^^^  ^^^^^  ^^  ,^,,.,^,^0 

Messrs.  Rogers,  Ketehum  <^  f^  1°  7"^;j^,  ^j.^  year  1840-and  the 

This  was  in  the  year  1850  distinguished  from  those  of  other 

The  llogers  Bo.lers  ^^^J  f  ^;^;f;;.,^,,,a  number  of  flues,  being 
..akers  by  their  greater  -J^  ^^  J*^!^  ,  ,„«  hundred  and  twenty 
eight  feet  long  for  an  ^^}^^^^^;^  ,,,,  from  eighty  to  ninety 
flues,  while  the  --\!^f.f  ,  ^^^.^ly  standard,  he  not  only  obtamed 
flues.     By  this  devua>  n  f  on ^^^^^J  ,,  contact  w.t^  the 

n,ore  heating  surface,  but  the  1  cat   ema  b    ^^^^^^.^^^  ,,;,!,  the 

flues,  and  the  ^^J^^^^^^^Z.     He,  in  fact,  ^ay  be  said 
advantages  der.v.df^^^t^^^^  that  is  now  regarded  as  an 

tohaveorigmatedastvieoi  u 

acknowledged  standard  (...ogvenor  maintained  a  prosperous 

j::^::!^^^^  -« -- '-  ^-"'  '''"■  *" 



the  surviving  partners  took  measures  to  form  a  Joint  Stoek  Coniiiany, 
which  was  incorporated  .Turn  IGth,  1850,  under  the  name  ol  "  Ihe 
Rogers  Locomotive  and  Machine  Works." 

In  1859,  the  Southern  Railroad  of  Chili  ordered  from  the  Rogers 
Works  a  freight  and  passenger  engine,  at  the  same  time  that  th-y  sent 
an  order  to  England  for  similar  engines,  with  a  view  of  testmg  the 
comparative  merits  of  American  and  English  Locomotives.     The  Eng- 
lish builders,  anxious  to  secure  the  South  American  market  for  their 
engines,  made  the  cvlinders  of  both  their  engines  considerably   arger 
than  ordered,  with  a  view  of  obtaining  more  power.     The  trial  lasted 
through  four  days-one  day  for  each   Locomotive-aud   resulted  in 
demon.strating  the  very  great  superiority  of  the  American  Locomotives, 
as  the  American  freight  engine  "San  Bernardo"  performed  work  in 
forty-one  minutes  which  the  English  engine  could  only  do  in  ei-hty- 
eight  minutes;   and  the  American  Passenger  Locomotive  haul.u  a 
loaded  train,  up  a  steep  grade,  seventeen  miles  in  thirty-four  and  a 
half  u.inutcs,  which  the  English  engine  could  not  do  in  less  than  torty- 

nine  minutes.  .     , 

In  1864,  the  Rogers  Company  received  an  order  from  the  Lnited 
States  Government  for  nineteen  Locomotives,  of  the  value  of  ¥-20,000 
each  which  they  completed  and  delivered  in  three  months,  a  fi^at  ot 
rapid  workmanship  not  paralleled  we  think,  as  ordinarily  four  or  live 
months  arc  required  for  the  execution  of  an  order  for  half  the  number. 

The  Works  of  this  Company  include  two  Ulacksmith  shops,  one  two 
hundred  feet  long  by  thirty-one  feet  wide,  the  other  one  hundred  and 
two  by  forty  feet;  a  Boiler  shop,  thirty-three  by  two  hundred  feet  ;  an 
ErecMng  shop  of  the  came  size,  and  numerous  auxiliary, 
with  the  requisite  tools  and  accommodatlou  for  a  thousand  workmen 
The  President  cf  the  Company  is  J.  S.  Rooers  ;  the  Seeretniy  aud 
Treasurer,  11.  S.  IIUOHES,  of  New  York  ;  and  the  Superintendent 
W-hhiAM  R  Hudson.  Thcv  arc  now  employing  over  eight  hundred 
and  lllYv  hands,  and  turning  out  an  average  of  ten  Locomotives  per 
month.'besides  a  variety  of  machinery  for  Cotton  and  Woollen  manu- 



oC  "The 

10  Kogors 
\\\ry  sent 
^stinp  the 
The  Engj- 
t  for  their 
ihly  larger 
rial  lasted 
•esulted  in 
(1  v'ork  in 
I  in  eijjhty- 
)  haulul  a 
four  and  a 
than  forty- 

tlie  United 
of  $20,000 
s,  a  feat  of 
fonr  or  live 
10  munhei'. 
ps,  one  two 
undred  and 
t'tl  ffot  ;   an 
r   buildings, 
d  workmen, 
cretary  aud 
:hl  hundred 
motives  per 
oUen  nianu- 

The  Danforth  Locomotive  and  Machine  Works. 

,.  P.erson,  are  among  the  largest  ;;^  ^^  ^Xl;!:"  1  ^ P  ^'^ 
States.    The  establishn.ent  or.g.nated  m  ^  "  ^^       ^,,. '    ,^,_^^ 

for  country  work  for  several  years ;  and   as  "  ' '  "  '  ^  '  "^^^  J^  ^^„^.  „f 
1  \ti,..r  nuiehinerv  was  made,  nntd  the  close  oi  ua  wu 

T  ,     ri..,-l-    Tr    ami  as  power  loom  weaving  was  about  bting  umo 
John  C  luiU,  .11.,  aiKi  'i"   1  i.^.vor  T,ooms     Th<^  late  Tliomas 

Uogti>\\asa  j>        y      „r  ,„„n,i   M,.   Rogers  was  employed   by  Mr. 

vented  his  celebrated  cap  ^pinmnt,  /  .„„„  .i,„,„'re   ovuers 

i.  ...uu   fhia  <ivni  to  manufacture  tiiem.      ijair,>. 
a„  -rangomen    V.  h  th-  lu^  o       _^^^^^^^  ^^^^^^  ^  ^^^^^_^_^^^^,, 

were  takeu  for  .  «-^  ^ ' ;  ,^^^,^,^^^  ,„.,,,,,t  the  works  into  notice, 
S'g;:eXm:ir::::  ::;  .r  the  new  spinning  machines,  but  lor 
other  machinery.  panforth  went  to  England 

„.Md,  two  firm  of  Oo,hvl„   Hog"    &  ;,  ;;  "'^ '     1  &  «™,vcucur, 
B„i,„  out  »,»1  oo,m.»t,,«  '''"'"'■''/     "''rnlLour,  „ho  aro  now 


foreman  for  .evcM-al  years)  ^<^^>^^'^^^'^^l^:r'^J^\^,  „ui  beci 
1      „;„.r  rl.-vraetor  to  the  locomotives  made  by  that  toinpa") 


duclea  in  the  name  of  Danlorth,  CooKc  &  ^o.  unul    8^.0 

converted  into  a  joint  stoek  -"'1-"^  ;;"'^^",;';  j^'^^^s  L ing  the  prin- 
Loeomolive  and  Maehino  ConM""')'.  ^^^  ^^^  P'^^^"^'^  '"'"^ 

^'^!.:t:r:;"i:  Ctpany  no.  cover  nearly  Uvo  ac.s  of  g.und 

and  ineiude  a  Cotton  ^--^-J^^^^  S.;:^  ^^ --^^ 
dred  feet  in  length,  a  large   ^^•^^'^''"'^  V^  Lttern^  are  .tored  that 
hundred  and  ten  by  thirty-iive  ^e,    n.  vdu       ^^   -^     ^    ,  ^,  ^,^,  ,, 
•   •     11,.  ,.nat  csi'SO  000   and  u  Muelune  ^hop  wmtn  luii. 

^^vf  VnAULES  PANFOUTii,  the  President  of  the  Company,  has  had 

Todd  &  Rafferty's  Machine  Works, 

Tm  Pater.on   is  the  principal  establishment  in  the  Unitod  States  for 
In  1  atei>on,  IS  I'l.    1  '  Tl.n  senior  partner  of  this  Immu 

7'  ""•  ''"in:  uv ;   1  vrit  ..r  'gov,.,,,,,...,,,,.,  ..-.oc- 

,l„Mm..«<';  "'"''"'"''     work,  ll.o  concern  foundcl  liy  Imn  l..» 



:hc  cotton 
Ddugbt  out 
lajor  John 
i  had  been 
m  style  of 
[)  luid  V>fit'n 
r  witli  Mr. 
otiv(^  Sliop 
iipaiiy.     In 
isiness  cou- 
vhcii  it  was 
10  Diintbvtli 
ig  the  prin- 

i  of  ground, 
op  two  liun- 
rn  Shop  one 
stored  that 
Lirned  out  in 
over  seventy 
Miui-ntly  oni- 

my,  lina  had 
uid   prohiibly 

with  uU  the 
y  for  the  pur- 
ith  whieh  his 

>ipon  it,  and 
)iuuer  extant, 
,.    more  yarn, 


it  ad  States  for 
icr  of  this  lirm 

machinery  for 
nientivl  protec- 
od  by  him  has 

the   principal 

I    *■  «f  flroat  Britain,  Calcutta,  and 
Roperies  not  only  of  this  country,  but  of  Gioat  13n       , 

Australia.  .  Works   cover   about  two  acres  of 

The    buildings   -un-smg   th      V>rk  ^  ,,,,,,,,,aate 

g,ouad,and  bear  7^d«"^^,f^  ^^^  s      The  p  incipal  machine  shop 
the  reuuircu.ents  of  a  growing  bu   ues..  [  ^^^^  ,„„^,_  ,,,,t 

and  erecting  room  is  one  huud.ed  ^"^    J  ;^\,,,^  ,,,,,,„iai  shop 
eiglay  wide,  and  four  s^ne    m  he^Ut  ^^^^^^^^^  ^^^^^_ 

contains  a  dozen  tires,  and  to  tuis  is  attaU  c  ^^^^^ 

eially  to  the  construction  of     ;:^-:^^      „  ^"mlr  and  the  other 
lath...,  one  capable  ol  t-^'ng  twen  y    wo  Ic  ^^^^  ^^^^^^^^^  ^^^^ 

twelve  feet.     The  foundry  is  of  buck,  one  ^^^^^^  ^^^^_ 

long  and  about  ^rty  .et  wid.  ;  an    ^^  l-^-^;;^,  ,,„;,,,  ,.Uer 

p,.oor     i;-'^- ^^^^  j^r  U  is  tw^  hundred  leet  long,  sixty 
Bhoi)  iu  the  Slate  of  >e\v  Jtiscy.     '- 

feet  wide,  and  occupies  nearly  ^^'2^'^in.v  Mr.  Josklii  C.  Todp, 

AlHHit  twenty-nve  years  ago  the  ^  "^«'  J^^cl  nes  for  spinning  Ma- 

eommenced  in  Paterson  the  --)"  ?^  ^J  /  .J^'  X,,,     -^e  Uriu  was 

niUa,  Russia,  and  "^'--, ""' V"     cSued  u,"il  1848,  when  it  was 

di..olved  and  Mi.  1/""  '  ^"'  J^  ,;„,,  t,  time,  until  now,  it  is  be-  by  them  were  improved  [^"'^      '"^  ^  ^^,  consisting  of  one 

lieved.  they  are  without  a  "va  m  U.e  ^J^         ^^„^      ,,^,,.,_  ,,,,, 
Scutching  Machine,  one  Lapper,two.  Duuv        ,  ^^_^^^  ^^^^ 

si>i.>  hundred  and  ^^iX^^^.f.^!^^^^^^^  -P^-  ^^ 
product  is  more  uinlorm  m  quality  '""'  ^  '^^^^^^^  j,^  ^  ^^,,,,  ^f  thirty  by 
let  of  these  machines  may  be  put  "l^"^  ^  f;/  ngine  of  ten  horse- 
fortv-hve  feet,  and  the  whole  can  '"^;^j;    ^..^s  heretofore  used  in 

power.     IM.ese  machines  have  ^^^  --'^  ^.^^   ;  '^^^^^ ,,,  ^he  (government 
Ihel-nited  States^^^^^^^^^^^^^ 

Hope  Works  at  Boston.     In   ^«'^    '      ,  ;,  t,,„  ^ay  of  intro- 

wiU.standingU.edimcut.sando^t^     U^^  market,  achieved  a  dc 

duein,  American  ^^'^^^^^^^J  j^^Uiction  into  nearly  all  the 
cided  triumph,  »'-  "^  ;;  ^^^  \,  '^,,„„a,  Scotland,  and  Ireland. 

p,U.H,al  ^^-  ;;--  X'^  ^  r^ent^y  perfected  a  machine  ,.r  con- 
aicssrs.  'lodd  A,    u.iulu^  ■  nreiiared  im- 

,  .„„,„  Tow  in..  B.10  ll.,»  H,  "-  »P-        '; ;",^,    ,      „1  I  L.„i„„ 

L.O.  Navy  V.U-.I,  »~*  .y">  -^  "       ,   :  ,1,;,  el,L  of  m.-.m...-)..  .l.o 
lUe'>i  States  »n.l  lu  i'-*'""';  ,„,  ,,„iMi„B  Su.m.  Kr,pn« 

„„    ,,„  ;-..»>  «.«e..-;;.-^^  ,„,.„  „„,„„„„  „„.,,    , 




tuvod  bv  thorn  arc  notable  for  their  simplicity,  strength,  an.l  snper.or 
worknK;u.lnp.  The  cylinder  is  cast  with  a  ja-l-t  winch  preveut.  the 
oondcnsatiou  of  steam,  a.Ki  the  pistons  are  self-a.\,ust,ng^  Ihesc  Ln- 
gines  are  supplied  with  the  Judson   or  Snow  Patent  Governor,  and 

^'^Messrs    Todd  &  RafFertv  also  manufacture  a  new  Patent  Cut-off 
Eu-'ine,  and  a  novel  and  very  effective  Portable  Engine,  the 
consisting  iu  the  construction  of  the  Bed.  which  is  a  ^oUoWox  m 
which  are  a  series  of  pipes  extending  the  entn-e  \^-ff.\^^^ 
Through  these  the  water  is  forced  by  the  pumps  mto  the  boiU-i,  altei 
bein-  hi-hiv  heated  by  the  exhaust  steam,  which  enters  the  box  at  the 
cvlinder  eml,  and  escapes  through  a  small  pipe  at  the  opposite  end 
to  the  smoke  stack.     The  crank  is  made  double,  and  the  sha  t  pro- 
jects  on  both  sides  of  the  boiler,  so  as  to  put  the  pul    j    m 
either  side,  or  to  use  two.  if  the  case   requires.     One   end    of     ho 
piston-rod  acts  as  the  pun,p-pl""Sor,  the  pump  -^tmg  between  the 
two  connecting  rods,  each  of  which  takes  hold  of  one  end  of  the  brass 
irund  the  wdst  of  the  crank,  thus  making  the  crank  bearing  seven 

and  a  half  inches  long.  ,  •    n    „„ 

About  three  hundred  and  fifty  hands  are  generally  employed  in  these 

Works,  and  sometimes  as  many  as  five  hundred. 

The  Patcrson  Iron  Company, 

Whose  Works  are  located  within  a  short  distance  from  the  depot  of  the 
.1  UaiUvav  Company,  was  incorporated  by  an  Act  of  the  L-gislatu  o 
of  the  State;  passed  March  0th,  1853.  and  commenced  o_perati..i.s  by 
orcctincv  a  Forge,  one  hundred  and  thirty  feet  long  by  e.ghty-s.x  feet 
wid  a  niacklnith  and  Welding  shop,  seventy-five  feet  long  by  h  ty 
feet  wide  ;  and  a  Tire  lloUi.ig  Shop,  forty-three  feet  long,  and  t  n^- 
six  feet  wide  This  shop  is  equipped  with  machinery,  by  which  the 
Tir  aft  aving  been  laid  on  a  horizontal  face  plate,  and  run  between 
r;;:iv  01  running  rolls  and  two  guide  rolls,  is  taken  out  so  perlect.  as 
to  require  no  boring  or  turning  to  fit  the  w'--l;«"ti^- 

In  185r,  having  purchased  the  patent  right  for  the  State  of  New 
Te  "^v  thev  put  in  L  of  Watts'  one-thousand-pound  SteaB.  Ilannners 
'.r^^n  Uu  t  time  until  1801.  thoy  were  almost  constantly  employed 
i^  inaricturing  Locomotive  Forgings  and  Tires  for  the  Locomotive 
Bhops  in  Pa.erson  and  Jersey  City,  and  a  large  amount  of  repair  and 
renewal  work  for  the  railroads  in  the  vicinity. 

"  T  :;.,«iro  n,.,..,i„,.n-  of  ,1„.  fovge  »..,.  tiro  ™in  i»    rivo„  by  .n  ™    n 
„f.ovcnlv.fv.,l.o,.>.-l.>.wv,,ln,iKl.yW.".li"Vclou,orUrookljn.    ll.c..» 




liosc  Fa- 
rnor,  and 

it  Cut-off 
>\v  box,  in 
f  tho  box. 
oiler,  after 
box  at  the 
posite  end 
sluift  pro- 
jiiilley  on 
nd    of  the 
;t\vcon  the 
f  tlie  l)rass 
iring  seven 

'cd  in  these 

[lopot  of  tho 
leratioiis  by 
rhty-J<ix  foi't 
long  liy  lifty 
■,  and  tliirty- 
y  which  the 
run  between 
0  perfect,  as 

tate  of  Now 
m  Ilannners, 
tly  employed 
)  Locomotive 
of  repair  and 

by  an  engine 
lyn.  The  ma- 

.Q<1  Ii»ll<Tty  of  ratiTsoii  New  ■'««'y;  i,„„,„„tivc!.  in  no  JouU 

tire  from  every  State  in  the  Union.  ^^.^^ 

The  Forge  and  ^I-f-^'^;^;;  3  ^  :  th    uunVelding  .h,,>  one 
long  by  eighty-six  f^ct  wale   th     B        -  ^^^^^^  ^,^^^^  ^^^ 

hundred  by  fifty  feet,  and  the  .  ' -  f  ^^  '^^ J      ^.^rnaces,  eight  of  Watt's 
thirty -six  feet.     There  ^re  thute  u  II  a  mg  ^^^^  ^^,  ^^^^^^^^  ^^^_ 

patent  Steam  Hammers  (^^^^^^^^^  Hammer,  (one  of  three 

^Ce^l^oy  about  -  .un.e^  ^.  am.  t  u.  out  ^         ^ 

thousand  to  four  ^^^^^^^  '^^  ^  ^.^^  person. 
Treasurer  of  the  Company  is  I.  C.  BLCiuvm  , 

Paterson,  besides  her  ex^srve  ^-^^^mr 7^^^ 

is  the  principal  seat  in  the  ^^^t^''^^^^  ,,,^0  but  four  SUk  man- 
la  18«0,  according  to  the  censi^tmi^^,^^  ^  ^^^^^   ^^^^^.^   ^^^ 

ufactories,  whose   ^gg^'^^Sato   "^     '.I  wa^^  ^^^  ^       ,„uvll,  which  employ 
probablyado^enof  these  estaUisln^^  ^^^  ^,^^^.  ,,,, 

nearly  two  thousand  oP^^'^^*,^;^'  "^      ^ 

in,  the  firm  of 

John  Ryle  &  Co. 

...tive  of  Macclesfield,  Kngla..wl.i.c.h.^^^ 

William,  have  i>een  for  nuiny  y^^^^^^^^,  j„,„  Ryle  emigrated 
plying  the  London  '^"^\^»'^"'"^'^"       ."  ^^^^^^^^^^  i» 

1;  A,nerica  in  1839,  and  -f  ^^^  '  .   '.^  ^l       the   ordinary  varieties 
1840.     lli«  productions  at   irst  we     ^^  ^,,,,,,g,  ,,  which 


JOHN    RYLE   *   CO. 

V    1.  ;«  i«Pi')      Tn  1800  he  renewed  the 
at  .ho  Bro.t  cWbUlon  '»  ^-^^^^'^^.X;,  .«>  1  w,nt  ofcncour. 

agemont  lUroulcd  by  tie  u  he  succeeded  in  attaining  a 

„»  c„„«l  ™  .,...Wy  '» ''■» 'Xtl  now  a  mill  noar  U,e  Passaic  Palls 

K,uv   Silk.windiug    a„mdlo«.  .""»   '^"'tft  „nk  «l»  i ^ono  l"'"-'-'! 
and  ninety-two  boft  bilk  ^  ""«'     b>  ^  ,.      hundred  and  iifty- 

putting  two  or  more  ^  "    "^^^^^^^^^^^^^^  ,^^^,  ,,,t  ,f  these  stages  is 

::;'c:u„:',ld.V  '.  ak,  lu^Wr  s,,oca,  *„  spi,uUos  m»k.„g  more 

thin  ton  thousand  revolutions  per  minute. 

The  Silk  having  been  reeled  up  into  skeins,  is  taken  to  the     ye- 

bouse  Where  it  undergoes  the  coloring  processes  required,  aftei  ^^hRll 
:  u:l::tr:;tched  L  stringed,  tm.  latter,  it  would  ^-;;;  -- 
hat  exhaustive  operation,  large  bundles  being  .lerkcd  «"d  ^u  st  d  aB 

lightly  as  the  strength  of  a  pair  of  powerful  arms  working  on  a  level  bar 



newod  the 
of  eiicour- 
ofitiible  to 
ittainiug  a 
)  regarded 

lasaic  Falls 
3  in  height, 
ud  Hfty-six 
)  Doubling 
ne  hundred 
.four  Clcan- 
L'd  and  lifty- 
capable  of 
.  The  em- 
3  aggregate 

performed  in 
,  and  Japan, 
up  in  large 

from  eight 
ifacturc  is  to 
from  twenty 
no  operative 
pass  over  the 
ind  other  ex- 
but  this  term 

from  two  to 
led.  To  this 
,rticle  is  sized, 
twist  to  make 
leso  stages  is 
out  on  a  long 
!  old  mules  in 
making  more 

m  to  the  dye- 
h1,  after  which 
seem,  a  somo- 
and  twisted  as 
■  on  a  lever  bar 

.„d,  ,.  tc»t,  but  it  «o,«  pvo,  «»^;;»,f '„„„,,,£„  „.,.ivo.     This 
„„.,„.  beautiful  '-'"**irf    'in  tlK*  Dyeing  Dc,.r,.,o„., 

s.!irJrz':;e:;::t"-«  or .  ..=.«*« .,« o, ..,  «■ 

„„„„  „  new  branch  of  7"*  "  „  ,LL,e  ,he'.tt,actio,«.,r,l,e 
promoting  ci.ic  "m'r«v-'-"'«  "'f  4'°  „,„k,,  „,,,„„  furnisl,  .l.o  city 
city  as  a  place  of  rcauloncc      ll.c  »  "  «'"        '  ,  ,„„i,,W  lluoogh 

witU  an  abundant  supply  o    '^'^■:^J^^,.  ■•  Cottefc  on  the 
his  means  and  exertions,  and  *«  S  » -    J;    „  ,„  „,„  m. 

and  'thrown  open  freely  to  the  public. 

The  Dale  Manufacturing  Company 

r,  .      „.,  *i,o  HvL'est  Si*lk  manufactory  in  this 
.   Have  recently  ereeted  at  P^-  ^^  ,  .,  ,^ 

country,  and,  it  '^    f '  j^^^^^      ,,„,  incorporated  in  1804,  the  pr.nei- 
kind  in  Europe.     Ihc  Company  w  ^.   j^^^,^,  ^^  ^^^ 

pal  stockholders  being  '^"''"^^^^  °  ,^    '^Z ^ving  and  other  Silks  in  New 
Uo  were  formerly  leadn,gnnpmt^^  of  S-^^g^     ^^^  ^^^^  ^^  ^,^.,^^.,^ 

York  city,  and  who  were  the  in  t  t"  ^nfe^  .,^^  ,^i  ^^,„,,rs, 

Trimmings  as  a  specialty  m  ->>-     t^u^  -  .  ^^i;^,^  .^  ^     j„  ^g^i, 

bavin.  l>vai.h  houses  m  ^^^^  S^'nlnces,  rendered  the  impor- 
the  change  m  the  laurt,  a"!  «  '^  ^^    ,^^      j  ;„  ,i^,  „,,nu- 

.     tatiou  of  Sewing  Silks  unpvo  Ui^U^,  a-     -  ^^^        ,,,,^,  ^hey 

facture  at  Paterson,  in  a  sma  1  wav ,    rod  ^^^^  .^. ^  .^^  ^^^^^ 

bad  previously  imported  -*  ^  ^^^^'t 'l8.U,  therefore,  M.  Dale 
soon  inadequate  to  ^Pi;'^.^ I',;   "  "^'Iv-four  of  which  were  opposite 
purchased  one  hundred  ^'^/.^^'^^^^^..a  tVom  his  own  designs  pro- 
he  Paterson  depot  of  the  Ene  l^ad  ««<!.«  >  ,,^,.  ^,„  .„„r,. 

eeeded  to  erect  a  --^^^^1^'^^^.^^^^^  *-»  '"  '••"^'''''  ^^'"^y- 
The  principal  mill  is  two  '-         ;;  .    ^  ^J,,  ,  eentre  pr..jection  one 
eight  feet  -^o,  and   ou^-n  -  vn  1^        , .         _^^^^.^^  ^  ^ 
hundred  feet  m  length  and  a^^"'"  ^  ^  .^^^,  ^,,^,j,.     The 

and  an  Kngine  and  15o  ler  house,  a     la<   ; -J^^';^.^.^  ^,^^^^^„,  ^^^,.,^0  feet, 
aggregate  lloor  ->P-H-'-  -    ^^  ^  '  ^^^.^,;,  ...ration  by  the  action  of 


.     .         Tlio  floors  are  double,  llic  inside 
^asouryfromthebottomtothe   op^     1       ^^^^^      ^^^  ^^,^,^  ^,  , 

one  of  thick  plauk  placed    n  '^'^^  on  joi.ts  fifteen  by  twelve 

boards  laid  diagonally,  and  the  wb^U.  ^t  g  J  ^^  ^^^^^  ^^.^^^^^^  ^^ 
inches.  It  is  scarcely  necessai^^  t^  -y  t^  .^  ^^^^^^^  ^,,  ^,^  ,^,,. 
substantially  there  is  no  crack  m  the 

tioa  of  the  machinery  '^PP');';'"  ;  precaution  possible  has  been 

In  the  construction  of  the  build. ig  eve  j  p  ^^^^^^^  ^.^.^^_  ^^^^^^ 

taken  to  guard  against  ^^^^^"^^  J  J.,  hose  on  each  floor, 
being  a  force  pump  of  great    apacit,  ..^ra  stairway  is  pro- 

to  throw  water  to  every  part  o  ^h«  ^«  ^^^,  p,,.^,.oof  vaults  of 

vided  to  facilitate  exit  m  case  «f  ^^/^f^^!^;^  ^^^  u,auufacturod  Silks  are 
large  size  have  been  built,  m  whi  h  ^^^  ^'^^  ^^^^^^,,  ,^,  building  from 
deposited.  A  well  has  also  been  -^  J^^^^^,,  ,,,  ,,ai„ary  supply 
wiich  water  for  the  boilers  can  ^e  oUamed ^    ^^^_^^^^^^^^  ^^^^  ^^.^^^.^^^ 

fail  from  any  unforeseen  ^«"««;     J^^*^^;  ^.„^,^  ,,Uch  has  a  tendency  to 
ample  ventilation  and  an  -^^"f  ^^  !  ^^^  '^.Ahe  employes, 
promote  both  the  health  and  cb^eitulne^    o  ^^  ^.^^^_^^^,^ 

The  machinery  is  propelled  b    "^  ^«  ^      ninety-two  spindles, 

power,  and  includes  ten  ^^--^^.^^^Vpindlcs.  There  are  also 
I,  which  over  eight  thousand  a  e  ^^^^/^^,^,  and  it  is  pro- 
tbirty  looms  now  in  OP-''^""  ;;,^^^,;ty  a  large  proportion  being  the 
posed  to  increase  the  number  to  _^'^'  ^  J  ^^j^  i.^ve  the  capa- 
Tacciuard  loom.  When  fully  ^^u  J  '  [f^^l  ,,,,,,  .hich,  it 
city  of  "  throwing"  fifteen  hundred  pounds  I     ^^.^^  .^^  ^^^^^^^^_ 

1  elieved,  is  a  greater  -P-^ty  than  Uiat  of -^^^^^     .^  ,,  ,, 

The  capital  of  the  Co™l>-y      -^  $3^)  ,0^^  ,  ^^^^  .^  ^^^^^  ^^  ,j,^^,, 
crease  it  to  a  half  nulUon  o    dcdla  s.     A  ^^^  ^^^^^^^^  ^ 

portauce  of  Paterson  as  a  mauutactur    b 

The  Passaic  Flax  Mills, 

p„.  .,,0  proa.o«„„  or  s„oo  s«wi=.  **-,^i:';  Tt»;s: 

TI,ro..l.     It  i»  well  ''"°7.'";  ;'!,,",;„:  „,„,Uet  !■»  been  for  =ome 
Wa„.l  ..o-l  hisWy  v'-* „'"  '  :„Ts,.,.a«.a,"  ,„.nur.ctnrca  ut  the 

'„.„t„,ms  of  W""-  «"''", ,t     ::  ',„  «s  cou,mT  «  tbo  1.0USC  of 
land.     The  rcprcscutatue  oi 

3,  tlic  inside 
r  of  narrow 
in  by  twelve 
g  erected  so 
1  by  the  mo- 
Able  has  been 
,m  five,  there 
on  each  floor, 
irway  i«  P™- 
foof  vaults  of 
urcd  Silks  are 
building  from 
•tlinary  supply 
it  the  building, 
a  tendency  to 


xty-five  horse- 
y-two spindles. 
There  are  also 
,  and  it  is  pro- 
vtion  being  the 
i  have  the  capa- 
week,  which,  it 
mill  in  England. 
i  proposed  to  in- 
held  by  Thomas 
iseph  H.  Brown, 
t3  N.  Dale  &  Co. 

)  increase  the  im- 

vll  kinds  of  Linen 
of  Thread  that  the 
has  been  for  some 
iUiufactured  at  the 
,  near  Belfast,  Ire- 
try  is  the  house  of 



'>  '^ 


t«aic.  Flax  MiVi-' 


-.0    * 

■^.v'  ..iiuJ:^'-' 


233  BuoTnEns.  Now  York  city,  who  in  1804  .  ctorn.nca  t  o  t  - 
H^  a  bleb  of  tbe  .nnnuf.ctory  bero,  and  solctod  I'atorson  a.  ibe 
^    ;    i^      purcbasea  bv,ul  and  titted  up  ^^^^^^^^^^  ^^ ^^^  ^;^Z 

,„v,.e.l  out  (the  n,.cl,i„o,T  being  of  sacU  ,.up,-ovcd  ami 

,  !Lll„n  ii,  a  tlTcc-Btory  wooden  building  ailj.cout.    Horo, 

r  t":H:;*r«n-"-v.ich .?.  t.o  m„og™,..ic  p.-iuu„g  .....i-ea 

'°tS,'i::XL  „avo  also  a  largo  Dyc-.,o>.o,  ono  hund-ed  ^ 
,l,Mv  feet  a  uow  brick  ludldiug  one  hundred  by  twenty  u,  wlnel,  ll.o 
S  attolted,  tweutyfour  tonemont  houses  f.r,,  and 

°'TL'r'';^:t':;o  loeated  near  the  Palls,  and  use  w.ter.l,„..r 
wUel    boh  g  unlimited,  oan  he  made  available  to  any  extent  that . ho 

T^:l^:^o,.r  front  Ireland,  where  they  had  ae,nu.ed  a 
tborou'gh  knowledge  of  tho  business. 

T.,i....f  Prtmnnnv  "  whieh  hnd  been  pro- 
Tn   isr,5    tho  "American  \olvet  t-ompany.     "in-.  i 


vit,  machinery  in.ported  from  Knglaud.  for  weav„,K  "'■«"'.  I'"' 
';,„:;::i.;n,.rds,Ld    ,o„gees      .1.0  company,lk  out  of 

s:irpr;i::r;:'t:'rn;-r:':de.,  s„p,.iy  of  t,,!,  in„.or. 


dn'tiott-^lctiu  Huallty  and  brilliant  in  dye,  is  likely  to  bo  sue 





TI.e  Dolphin  Manufacturing  Company 
I^  t.o  style  or  a  .o.pany  -;;;^Zi:oXl:^^^-^^  or  co...o 

^ooa.fro.n  Fla*,  Hcnp  01   J"^"'"';    Company,  amUvas  olul-h^lu'd 

^,,i„ally  Uuow.  as  the  A"--    "^^  i^was  and  othov  articles 
,,  ,s.t4  lor  ll.e  "umufaetuve  0    1  u np  nt  ^^^^  __^^^^^^^^^,^,  .,^     ,, 

i-,,.  ,vl.ich  this  tlbre  xyas  l^cluncxl  to     c  ^^  ^^     ^^^^^^  ._^^^^^  ^^,^^j^  ^ 

^,,i,e  of  American  hemp,  ^^''^^  ^^^^.^^^  ,, ,,.  to  add  Flax  and  Juto 
pveference  for  eotton  duck  caused  ^  J^^;^  ;„,  ,„,,,,ive  producevB 
lo  their  original  article.  0^  -^ j^  l^,.^^,,  i..,,i„,  ibr  Hops  and 
of  Jute_or,  as  it  is  ^^f^^^^Z^^,^^  Canvas  ;  also  of  Yarns 
for  Sea  Inland  Cotton,  of  >;  '^'H'  ^'^^  J  Carpetin^'S,  and  of  'I  wn>e9 
L  fdlin.r  lor  Venetian  and  Tapestry  ^^  ooltn  L     I  ^,.,^i„g. 

t^i  i*«^^^«^'^?:::;::r;:r  s  :io  st^i  onnotned 

,,   that  date  their   ^n-nn    -^-     ^  ^^^^.^  ^,  ,l«eront  colors  mto 
grounds,  by  doubling  and  t^^-tng   w^>  ^^  ^^^^  ^^^^^;,^,,^,  ,,„u  m 

L  thvead.     This  at  on..  ^;-;,      f  ::;,ries  have  since  been  bu  t 
A.neriea  and  in  Scotland,  wl  <  '^    '^^  ,      r^,,,-,,  Contpnny  was  the 

f-tl-pvoductionof  tu,sarUc^^^c^_U.  -^^  ^^^^^^^  ^^.^^^^^   .^^^,      ,     , 

fn-st  to  intvoaace  --^^ '^^^^^w  was  itwariably  nsed;  ^ 
_lV.r>uerly  a  mixture  of  flax  and  to  n  w  ^  ^^  ^^  ^^^  ..  ^^^^^,^,  t,„,,. 

(ten  shdlmgs).     AU  vm. 

coununption  is  very  la';gc-.  ,  ,1^  vhc  same  proprietors  who 

-PHi,  establishmetrt  .s  ^^^n  '^  J^"       ;    ^^,  ,^,,,  ,,  j.  v>.  Mv-Louvm, 
built  it  in  ISl  t.     The  ^;:[-^""  ,  ^^  ,s  to  be  the  pioneer  in  ,,uto 

a  native  of  Scotland.     Tins  gen  Unn  n  c  a  ^^^^^^^^^  ^,^^. 

manulaeturiug,   having  spu      ^^^^^^^  ,,^,  .,  ^ute  in    l>undeo 

.,,  P...aic  Falls,  1''^^-^-;,;^^^,  ,„aer  head  and  fall  of  ..enty- 
etor,  drawing  six  S4uare  f'^^'^  \  ,1  hundred  and  ei.hty  horses.  Iho 
two  feet,  with  a  power  oqnul  to  u  ^^..^^^   ^,^^^.  ,,„,,•  ,,„ 

.,ni  building  is  substantia  y  ^^^^^^  ,..,  ^,,,,  two  stories  am 
luunlred  and  thirty  leetlog  bj  .  ^^^^^^  fifty  looms,  all  o 

„r,e-,  -Hlains  about  twelve  htU^^.  ^  ^^_^^^  ,^^^,,,,..,,  „  „.,aad 

U  ;5->r)0,t)0t). 



c  nianiifac- 
•c  of  cr.avso 
\v\.     It  was 

ithcr  iirlu'les 
'aiice  in  ''>o 
billed  with  a 
lax  anil  Jute 
vo  piNidufCVS 
for  Hops  and 
ilso  of  Varna 
.nd  of  TwinL'S 
r  was  IviHinS. 
Ic   of  mottled 
mt  folnvs  into 
isiiu'f-ri  both  in 
ICC  boon  built 
iipany  was  the 
1  juto  entirely 
(•  and  also  that 
4  "heavy  tens" 
taples,  and 'the 

iropi'ietors  who 
J.  V>.  Mr.i.i'iu  M, 
.  pioneer  in  jnto 
•otland.  I  lie  iirst 
jute  in  I>nndeo 
iixty  to  seventy 

,  raceway  nr  level 
1  of  six  iVet  (Ham- 
\  i\,H  of  twenty- 
bty  liorses.     Tl>e 
Ih   slate  roof,  two 
^  two  stories  and 
fil'tv  lounis,  all  '>t 
Inindred  lh<nisaad 
n\w  mat-rial  annu- 
i,.|ly  in  N.'wYork, 
lal  of  the  Company 

G,  De  Witt,  Brother  &  Co.'s  Brass  Wire  Works.  Belleville.  N.  J,. 

Are  the  most  complete  and  extensive  of  the  kind  in  the  United  States 
T    .v  were  ibrnJy  owned  i,y  William  Stephens  .^  «-;• -^™  ;- 
of  the  Iirst  brass  rolling-mill,  established  m  tl-  o-"^>- 
was  lor  many  years  largely  engaged  m  -'-'^^^-^  "^^:,        ,        ! 
undertook  the  mannfaeture  of  Brass  and  Copper  ^^  ne       .  lu     k  t  . 
ner   wire  used  for   telegraphic   purposes  m  the  l,n, ted   ftt.Ue,     ^'S 
^^Ui;;  these  works,  and  furnished  to  Amos  Kendal Uor  .  .    me     e 
tween  rhihulelphia  and  Washington.     About   l.slt),  M.     <"•'•-' '■'^.     '^ 
W  U  Itive  of  Hudson.  New  Jersey,  and  ^n  <•;-;"--  j"^,;-- 
.f  iUo  same  name  bc-ime   the  agent   in   ^ew\ork  eitv  loi 

r,—:;cuu-i»»,  ami  .0  U.C  u,.l„U.„»™e  of  .1,™-  c,-cd,t  l.y  ,»-o,n,..  ,:.;- 
.,„.Ml<   llu'V  l.avo  iU'hii'v'l  -1"  unvialiln  success. 

ll,c  I  i,.,„„l,.i„icr  Wires,  l-'inc  W  .re   ILipo 

;1m-    \        u"l!.'«^  c-voc  a»  ace  „f  ,. u,  a,,,!  c„„„u.i,„  a  ..Hin, 

'■ll    a  cas,i„8  sl.o„,  a  wircl.uviaB  sl,o„,  a  wea„„B  acanaK-iu, 

,„'  U,r  'n.e  ins,.,  is   Iirst  rell..!   i..CO  U.e  l....'. 'l.'."  ■">»-"  '■;""■ 

.         i^s,    .,cl  U.:..  wevc,  i..„.  raLric  »0...e  o,'  ...  ...  "™;^";;;      ■;; 

.  ;,w.i.      'IMh-  niaeh  nerv  i^  propelled  botli  oj 

.and  meshes  to  the  s,,ua  .  ^^^^^^^^^^^^  -,.,  J,,,.l  ,.,,.  ,,..... 

S: ::  ::  ::^:i.;  a:c^en:^o;d  m  the  departments  to 
t  ^40  UO  are  paid  annually  in  wages.  Among  them  .s  one  ol  the 
^e'arui;^  il  the  country,  who  is  employed  in  painting  Landscapes  ou 
Wire  Cloth  for  Window  Screens. 

,p,„,  ,,,o,iucls  of  this  manufactory  are  sold  to  all  ,>a.t.  of  the      nit. 

St, ,    :     nd  to  Cuba  and  Sonth  America.     I'^ery  .^heet  of  paper  nnu  o 
btate.,  ami  to  i  u  )a  .  ^^    ^^   .^  .^  extensively 

„u,stbe  formnl   on  wnv  cloth  .    ^1""'  .  ^i,,,.,„,_,  ^,,,.,  anst. 

„s..d  for  straining  tnrpenime,  and   in   Cahlomia  to,    ^  '"    ^  '^ 
Tins  ..sta..lishin,.nt  was  the  Iirst  in  this  country  to  -;'-"-•;;■_ 
nre  of  Fondrinier  wires,  so  esseniial  to  paper  makers,  and  the,  con- 
1     ,  be  the  leiiilin.  manufactnrers  of  thi-^  imp-'f-t  article. 
Me    r     a.  He  Witt,  lirother  ^  (%..  employ  in  their  laMi.ess  a  eapUal 
,f  ^O.l.OOO.  and  proiluee  annually  about  the  same  amo-m,  ,.    hue  good. 
Their  Sales  Waroroom  is  al  No.  '.H)  John  street,  Now  \ o, k. 





John  Jewett  &  Sons'  Floor  Cloth  Works, 

jonn  jcwcKK  »~ 

..  .i..e..  N.  ...  are  -- ^  ^^ ^I^l^ra^i;!.  — ."I'l^e 
S,>uos.  >'eavly  three  acres  ^,^^^'1^^,,^  ,„a  tweuty-nve  by 
i„,i,,,  ones  being,  ^-If^'^^^'  ';;",„  ^.live  bv  forty  feet ;  and  the 
I  .venty-nve.  and  one  hundred  -^  -^J^^^  j;  ,,,  „,„n.n.c.ure  of 
Cvyinff-roouis  arc  soveuty-luo  b    e        ^  ^^^^.j^^.^^^^_  .^  ^^^^ 

,eavyon-elothMvl--gocarUU  a    vs       a        .         ^^^^  ^^^  ^^^^^.^^^^^^^ 

fo,   several    mouths   elapse   ^  ^^^^^  ^^^^  .^ 

,,ied  and  prepared    or  ---U  t       1   o  ^^^  ^    ^^^^^^^^,^^^    ^.    ,, 

imported    from    Seothuul.    >"  /^  *-  *^  ^.^  ,5,,^  si.e,  and   then 

l^Jg.     Fron>    these,   p.eee.   n.e  eu  ,   of^t  1^^^^^     ^^^^^,^   ^^.^,„,,,,a 

.tretehed   ^U..n   -^-^'-^'^''/'^^Vfj;    Ladders  and  platforn>s  are 
from  the  n.xt  i«v  a  ^^^^^^^J:^,  ,,  every  part  of  the  clotl. 
-"vnuently  arranged,    ^     "-^   ^     ^,^  ,.^,„„,    ,„    application  of  a 
AVm.u  strained,  and  Nvell  ^*-^'    '  J  ^^^  ^f  ,1,^  canvas  with  a  brush, 
solution  of  frlue  s..e  .s  -^'^/"   ^  ,^';,„„,      ^Vheu  this  is  dry,  a 
and  then  rubbed  smooth  w-l     ^^X^n^^  on.  by  means  of  steel 
coating  of  paiut,  of  lh>seed  od  ^^^^^ ^^^,  ^,,  ^^  jength.     lu  the 
trowels,  which  are  son>ctnnes  two  a    I  a  .  ^  ,^, 

L.e  of  two  week,  ^f  ^-->;?:,;  '^^  ',:,:  .oing  on  the  face  of 
luthe  —'>>'«' --^'^r::  r^nt  ^eL  applied  .ith  tl,e 
the  cloth,  no  los.  '-'-"/^'^^ "^'f,,  ^J,  ^n  with  a  brush,  winch  ts 
trowel ;  and.  finally,  a  fourth  ''-^  '« J^'  ,  ^^^,  ,,  ,.e  afterward 
i^UMulcd  to  r,r>u  the  f^-;"7'\-'  ^^  ^^^  ,,,;ths  are  required  to 
printed.  For  the  best  cloth  t.  ^^J^^^^  ^„,  ,,,„,„  to  nearly 
Innple.e  these   and  ^^^     ^-^^  ,f  .H-cloth,  twenty- 

,,,„  ,i..  s  tin  wcgljt  oi  ^>    ^;^^^J^  ,„,     The  heavy  pteceB 
four  bv  one  hm.dre.l  Jeet,  will  wn.u  ,         ,i  ,i,,  conveyed 

'rro^eived  .V,un  the  .atues  "P-'  ^-' ^^  ^  l^  ^  ,able,  and  drawn 
to  the  P^-'»t"'^''^"*''\";'''':\';^L'portions  in  advance,  progresses. 
.,,,,,  as  fast  as  the  V-^^:^;^';^^^  o^  pine  wood,  faced  with  pear- 
Tbe  prh.ting  U  accon.phshed  by  b  ^    1    ^^^  ^^^  ^,^^  , 

^,,,.,  and   engraved,  each  one,  to  P'"^  ";  i-,/    ,,  u,e  other  color, 

l,,;.,.  are  in  one  color,  the  V^^^^^^^^  i  ^....ion,  therefore, 
,,-,,  .at  away.  As  -->'.'•  ",'^;,7„,  .,,•,,,„  .H-i.-g  nuvch  the  same 
a«  there  are  colors  to  Ik,  F-  j/  ^  .v  hand,  or  in  calico  print-.g. 
,s  that  describe!  in  prnXtng  u     1     "  -  ^^,.„.,,,  ,,,.„„  „xty 

J-;  x:^^^"^^^ "--' """ ""' ' 

yards  of  I'Moov  Cloth. 




ulinjrs,  the 
ity-livc  by 
; ;  and  the 
ufiicturo  of 
3  recinired ; 

is  canvas, 
Llred    yards 
,  and   then 
,   separated 
latfornis  are 
f  the  cloth, 
ication  of  a 
.•ith  ft  brush, 
jis  is  dry,  a 
cans  of  Btecl 
iirtli.     In  the 
at  U  a\)\)l'-'d- 
,u  the  face  of 
ilied  with  the 
iish,  which  is 

1)0   afterward 
[•(.  re(inired  to 
ouut  to  nearly 
.(•hith,  tweiity- 
:>  heavy  pieces 
il  are  conveyed 
,1,.,  and  drawn 
ice,  projrrerses. 
iiird  with  pear- 
„f  the  patterns 
tlio  other  ei)h)r3 
s^i(*n,  tliei'eforo, 

much  the  same 
,  calico  printing. 
vka,  about  Hixty 
d  fifty  Ihoiisund 

T.o™.  ..,0  c.pi.n.  or  u.  sutc  of  Xo.  ;'■;-.;«.  '^J^;^';;  ::;:* 

invested  of  i?2,->-lT,T.)->,  "'^i         i  .  in-inutae- 

hands,  yielding  products  valued  at  ^^^^'^f^  .j^,,,,,,,,,,,  st.eam 

t-es  were   Bar  I-";  ^-'^:  ^^;'    "  ^    .'p  ^  .  U.u.m^^   Hosiery. 
Engines,   and   Iron   Castn.g.,  *•->  ;^.-;  »»  -  ^  j.^,,,!,. 

enware.  $100,1)00;  Fire  IVn^K  ^^''f  %^  ^^"''y,,  ,  ,;,,  Candles. 
and  Spices.  §110.512;  .)^>-  ?^^  ^^  .  ^^I^',  ,.1,  ei;U.t;T2  ;  Cars. 
,,M00;  S-one  ^'iP--'  •^;  ,:;X;i    li  deu.nts,  ..M^O  ;  Anvils 

^'^' v'  '  ';S^^0  (I  ^la-^  -^ts.  etc.,  §k,000  ;  Collage,  ^2.,.00  ; 
and  \  ises,  :?.58,->OU,  »^>niui-,i  simoon-   Sash    Dooi's,  and 

Leather  Belting,  $24,000  ;  Lumber,  sawed.  *40,0U0  ,  ba.U, 

Blinds,  $4:),  1-20.  _       .f  -Rnnt^  mid  Shoes,  Brass  Cock3, 

Trenton  had  also  "^'^»"'^'^^^"";;\^^^°;'    ^  ,s   Kni  i^ 


to  elsewhere  in  tns   uo,k      ^  •;         "^  ^  ^,.  ^,,^.  ^^,,,,,ican  Saw 

Works,  see   Article  John  A.  l;""''^^^' ',;;,,,,     The  Tfe.itun  Iron 
Company's  Works,  :r:;^ ^ntc.  Um  .  I.^Lm^^  ^^^^^^^^  ^^^^^^ 

Company  have  at  South  Aitn  01  i,,„,„,,,.„^  ;„  all   and  six  tniins 

the  iuited  States,  -ntainitig  ttfty-g  >t  1  -^   ^   '  ^^  ,^,., 

of  rolls,  driven  by  ^--.;''V;:^;:  ^  ^l  mlL  one  roof  is  three 
of  rails  and  wire  ^"'""'^"y-  . ,  V'\"''^.  ,,u-ire^t  single  building  in  Uio 
and  a  half  acres,  and  is  satd  t.  ^  ^  ^  ;  ;,1  ,.  ,,,  ,.,an.s  tor  lire- 
United  States.    Here  were  made  the  \M     n  ,,^^ 

,..of  buiidittg. ..;  the  ^'i;-;;^^- ^-r; :  ; ;;;;;; :  ,.nnd_that 

the  Wire  was  made-a  m.  e  ^^   ^  '"^     •^l;  ,„  i^„„.i.„.     More  re- 

rcceived  the  I'fizo  Medal  at  th  ^^  I'''  ^  V  ,  uun-bartvi  Iron 
eently  the  Company  have  succeed.,  'j    >  '     '^^w  fully  -.PpH-l. 

...nal  in  ,ualily  to  the  --^'l;  "^,^  ^  j^  ^Lcripth.n  of  Iron  is  per- 
The  discovery  of  t  e  l''--'"  ;^;;^  '  !  ^  \,,  country  than  any  other 
Laps  of  greater  vahte   " 'j^  ;>      j^"  ,,„,,„.,t  of  the  late  Be- 



,„.i„P.s  oxcooclB  a  half  nullion  of  dollars,  and  that  the  value  of  the  an- 
Z^U^na  is  nu>re  than  a  million  of  dollav.  Of  the  woollen  null, 
the  principal  one  irf 

Samuel  K.  Wilson's  Factory, 

A  nne  .nr-.or,  hri..  s..etn.^ 

t  a  inlo  tiu.  h^ncls  of  Mr.  Wil.on,  who  nnule  in.p.n.ant  addu  on.    0 

U  .    ui    in.^.,  and  aH.r  the  lire  in  lSfi4,  whieh  destroyed    he  en.ue -^ 

•til  If  Ih    null.  rebniU  i,  in  a  .uhstnntial  manner,  d  .me    t 

;;:;;:;  conu-lete  and  conveniently  arranged  woollen  ,n  the 

X.  n.achinery  indnde.  six  full  set.  of  cards,  cdeven  nmh.    three 
of  then,  seh^acin,  and  larger  than  ordinary,  --^™S    f -^   ^ 
.1,.,  .„h1    ...indh-     and    two   hundred   looms.      ^early    all     in    ma 
^  1;    >     ^the    automatic  mules,  which  are  of  Kndi.h  mauu- 

;:    ;;    :         ^.a      U  tm,  worUs   of  the   l^rhleshurg   Manun,.Murn,g 
facluie,   \\(  u    m.i  ^     _      T'atonts.     The  nuiclunery 

Company,  and  are  ot  the  we  l-kno^^n  '^   ;    '  ,^  ,,„.,.„, 

U  ouerated  l.v  a  steam  eniime  of  e.,,     ;   ..o.-e   pou(i,au. 
^.      -w  eel  of  ahou,  seventy  horse  power.    The  two  n.edunns  o   pou   i 
::  comhh>e.i  upon  the  shafting,  but  cither  stean.  or  water  can  be  u.ed 

^^'i;^;:n-::n.;!;:.vs  from  two  hundred  and  hfty  to  three  hund.d 
pe^ns  acco  d-nJ  .o\he  den.ands  of  the  season,  and  when  m  fu  1  o  - 
?:urc:onsumc.;twenty-iive  hundred  pounds  of  wool  per  day,  bes.des 

la,-,.,  onantities  of  warp  purchased  fron.  other  manufacturer. 

'^'C   petitions  of  nmnnfacturin.  cloth,  as  ce„d,n.tul,nth.mdn^ 

not  dis.i  nilar  fron.  those  pursued  i..  other  fac.or.e.s,  and  need  d  - 
J^.a  description.     The  wool  is  ,irs,  cleaned  or  sorted,  <   -  sou,       t 

!  '     ve  the   n-ease,  wnen  it  is   lit  for  the   dye-vats,  n,  wlueh    a  da)  ,. 

I      u      .  "  ive  the  re„uired  color.    Fron.  the  dye-house  the  wool  goes 

:     I  ,;;  and  cardi..g  roo...  where  it  i.  separated  a,,d  p..epa.-ed 

^;lhe\..,.le  '  which  convert  it  into  threads  or  warp  o    -  --t    - 

,„.ss  for  the  loo.ns,  whi.d.  lirst  give  it  the  appeara..ce  of  dot  .  W  an 
:.    ..,he  loom  it  is  eighty  wide,  a,.d  lull  of  .evo-LUe  .n  e.- 

IL      Another  process  i.rcp.ired  to  give   it  the  .-cp.,.    •    ;bod   . 

which  is  supplied  bv  the  lulling  machine,  where,  und.u-  the  nefon  .4  . 

V.  por  bath   the  eighty  i.ches  are  eont,-acted  to  myU..  >";;"- 

clo  h  i.  now  re..dy  for  the  "  nap."  which  is  raised  by  a  pech. .  k  nd 

t,„ne.l  burr  eaU-d  '•  tea-d,"  ahi.ugh  the  sa...e  '  ^.^';;;;-    ^  ; 

by  other  .meuuH.     It  is  the,  dried  ou  a  large  ey  r.a-  /eafd  bj  ntuim. 



'  the  nn- 
cn  mills 

•  five  feet 
of  illl  ulil 

.lit'Hins  to 
pntir(>  (M 
it  one  of 
ios  ill  the 

lop,  three 
hoiit    two 

tin'  ina- 
isli  iiiiuni- 

fi  tur'iiiie 
IS  oi"  i>o\ver 
an  be  uaed 

13  hnnih'ed 
n  full  upe- 
luy,  Iji'f-ides 

)is  mill,  ni'o 
coil  no  de- 
i  ffi'oured  to 
•li   a  liny  is 
0  wool  goes 
111  prepared 
IVii'itiit  tliio- 
)lli.     Wliini 
('-like  iiitor- 
.  "  body,"' 
uetion  of  ft 
neiu-f*.     Tiio 
uliar  kind  of 
II  be  t'iVi'i'teil 
cd  by  Bteiim, 

pU,yed  to  remove  or  dust,  and  ^\      '    '\7^^,  .,,»,a  to  powerful 

Mr,  S.nuB-1  k.  ^^ jk"",  "»■  1"  „^  ,,„„„u.|.co,l  tho  mm«- 

Glnncoslcr  comity,  >"Vl">"^!.  i.|,ik.l-l,.l,iii,  an.l  vni.ovo.l   l.i 

f„,uro  or  woollen  m     ■'"•    "  j,.^,  j,,  ,,,    surto  »l.o  ,.ovc'1o.»hI 

.„d  opor».oa  .oir-.cli„S  ""■'?.  "";,;'. .;   ,„„uli»r  Wmo,  |»rt  o„,. 
ton  „„,i  ,.rt«ool,  ■'*'*f,„  .'*,;„,,     „„,„„,  ,l„.  «.- 

men  of  New  Jersey.  _  nmnncrs  and  modest  in  the  appro- 

Mr.  Wilson,  ^>-''^l^-^'-""''  ;:  tiy  of  character  and  fei- 
eiaUon  of  his  a">'Uio.   -  :^  o^  ^>^  ^  ^^^^     „„,  ,,,,;,,  ,,.,,1- 

tility  of  resources.  -^  ^  \^^  ,,,  ,,,  „,,i„ess  eareer.  He  takes 
ties,  the  large  sucee..  -  -%^,^^,^,^.„_  ^,,  ,,,,,auily  in  which  he  ro- 
an active  interest  m   all  that  eonu  public-spirited 

»'>>.- ii';r:i:;;;  ';r  i:™  ™  °.."r,.:: ,..»- '.-'-".  -' 

;r«eo;i:i::«;cl°.c.ed-o„ooru»ro,n„.ana.o.„r.  ^ 





..AN.  wHcU  .  tUo  eapU.  .otU  oP  .e  S- ^  ^^  Jf  j:;^! 
Albany  County,  dilVevs  ^^'^^\^^''\;'^J^^^,  icconlin,  to  tbe 
„..nufactuving  of  ^^^^J^^^Z^^  l-n^^-d  and  ninety- 
latest  census  returns,  there  were  in  tl  «  ^J^^  ^,    ,i^,,   of 

..  .annraeturin.   .ta.U.>.e^^^  ,,,,,,. ^^ 


,,;,4.«,»,  ana  »'»'-t-^:^^'»  ,:;::„::  >:*a.> .. .». 

uvoduced  a  value  of  ipU,,.38o,u-a-  factories  of  Watervlic 

Luou  and  woolen  -^^'^^^^^^^  ^^jt  /for  the  City  of  Alban 
and  Cohoes  ;  and  deductn.g  ^^^'^^^^  ,^f  ^-,_,oi,U9,  employing 

33;  cstaiAisl^ments,  an  ^^^^^  ^J,  i,  ^,,5.MU.  ^b. 
,.  i       .i„c.   (3  'SU'i  females,  and  piodULiUo 

''"'  .  :;;t  ;:fa  m-«>  ae.;rding  to  the  census  n^turns.  wh 

are  only  approximately  accur^ae,  w 


Agricultural  impU'raonts  (1) ^' 

Alcohol ,„.!!!!!.  10 

Bvicks j.j 

B'"»om« '"'     ,  ir. 

Cul-iuet  war.,  cUair.,  aud  ^'''^'^'"'^'^         U 

Ciiniivses '^  j- 

ClKiirs  "■■■■.'■         46 

Cliitlii'iK  2 

Coir.H-  iiud  Pl'lco  mills 
CoUon  goods  

■Dniiu  Ule 

EdK'o  loolH 

yiv(>  ln'ick 

's.'), 000... 
127,'i00  .. 




,7 ^'•■-""■ 

^ 32«,.'>0O.. 

2 40,000.. 

o'."....  1,400,SOO.. 











Flour  and  inoal ^ 





HaU  . 


Irou  founding 

L.  lUhcr 

LiiiHOPil  oil 

Machiuory  aud  steam  eugines. 


M;il'  liquors 


Pftteut  medicines 


Plau.'.l  lumliiT 

BadilU'ry  and  liarness 

Bonp  aud  Caudlos 

Biovo  fouudiuK 

Woolen  goods  and  hosiery  ..- 















120,4,10  ... 

f  40,000... 
30.100  ... 

7 i,oi:i,<»«o .. 

IS 964,000... 




























lich  however 

F«^mala        ValtiP  ff 
Lauds.         I'l'oduft. 



855!'.!!".       7i3,nia 


940 1,D37,.'HX) 






1295 i,onn.oo5 





......  8fi4,211 

6......  «'|404 

t 70,100 





1431......       1,515,190 


„,  ^Ve  beU«v.>  that,  but  one  of  th.  fir...-  •>-';j3f;;;TorWHttt  M-'« 
p,e.ncnU  in  Albany  iu  I860,  re«a.n.  unohang.d,  namely, 



■jvk  and  of 
ill  boiug  a 
iiig  to  tlie 
aiul  nliiety- 

ciipiliil  of 
em.iUs,  niid 
I  the   lavgo 

y  of  Albany 
I,  employing 
(v3U.  Tl» 
ich  however 

n^la        Valne  "t 
likIs.         I'rudiKt. 



10 30;!,0.)0 


355!"!!!       7i:i,nia 

940 1,937,.W0 





2*1, '^00 

1295 1,000.00.'. 




'.'.....  Ml  ,000 

......  H04,21l 

6......  «'.•«'•« 

t 70,100 


20 83,"'>0 

[ 110,4S1 

' i,a'i?,Too 

14J1 1,515,190 

ng  ARripuUnrBl  Im- 
\Vhkbi.eii,  Mblick 

The  Albany  Stove  Foundries. 

..any  and  Troy  have  long  ^^^l^^^f::^:::::^!:  7!^^ 
tnve  of  Stoves.  The  business  as  at  -;t  ^  ^^"^  i^^.  1,,,,,,  „,,,evally 
puttingtogether  ^^^  ^f^:;^'^:^'^:^^  The  eavly  castings 

::::f  ';::i:^z  Xi^..^^^^  ^.u  those  of  ti.  ...nt  da. 


a  box-stove,  and  then  the  oblong  \^^^T^^  The  Irst  advance 
«onie  extent  for  heating  school  1---  f  ^'^^  ;;,  ^^  ,,  ^ven  ;  and 
toward  a  Cooking  Stove  was  «-!;-"-;     "^^^^^  ,„  ,„,ng  affair 

^'-  ^^-^  ''■^''  ''-'-''  ""'^Zl  teX  e  tor  olwhieh  was  in  front 
,,ving  an  oven  rumung  ^« j;-^  ^  ,  .  .,,_,„a  having  also  a  boiler- 
and  directly  over  the  door  for  ^»I'l  'y  "-  ,       ■         r^-i^,     ^ 

,„,e  and  boiler  on  «-^;f  ^j^:^^^  reU:i:^,,u!dL,  was  made. 

known  as  the  PhiladeU^nas^-^     stoves  wei.  made  at   Tlnd.on  IVoiu 

Abont  the   year  1«  -     '  f  ^^^^^^.^^  ,,,  f,st  to  elevaf  the  are-boX 

patterns  made  by  a  ^    "  ^  -^^     ^^^,^^  ^,,      Seated,  and  was  sustained 

above  the  bottom.      Ihi.  iminovemeiu  ^^^^^^^^^^ 

t:!,;.:ccnd  fom  .1,0  top  to  .h«  Wttou,  ot  tl«  oven. 

1  l<ul     ThoT  nro  the  successors  of  A.  &  W. 

A  Co.,  who  have  been  estabU.hoa  there  ^ nee   l.    ■  •  J  .^  ,^^j,^  ,^^ 

Iwhceler,  originally  e.tubU«he,l  -,  ^^'^^  7';^^  J, .';  ",  „  .eJ,  now  .0  extensively 
fir»t  .ucccsful  railroad,  or  en.ile.s  hor.e  p      u        -  j-     «  ^^.^^^      ,„^„t„i  ;„ 

;:.„!  in  aHvin«  .Ure.hin«  «-;;;-  -tr:;:;:nrU.  provMea  .iU.  ..1.  the 
1,:«-..  The  nr,n  at  the  P-^  "^  ^  ^^  ^„.„„  „,,,,  ..„  not  in  u.e  in  t„.,er  s.uu- 
„,„.t  approved  l"'^"'-'»-'"«'''^^'''"'-  \  ,  ''  '^^..'^.a  hy  one  of  the  firm,  Im...  it  i.  believed, 
Ur  .n..«u..etorie.  A  ---«;-'  ^  ^^.L.etures  inelude,  be«i.,e«  .he, 
„o  ^    ^      _^  ^^^.  ^^^  ,_^  ^^^^,^^.^.„  ,,„,.,„„a. 

,„Heu.t.,ral  ™ach  nes  a  n"";*^  ^  J  '„  „  ,^,0  .,est  agricultural  .nachin..  ever  .n- 
T,.,r  0.aMa.?  n,-./.,-  ""j^  ;"'';;  ;^^i„,  .„terc«t  i.  evidenced  by  .i,o  fact  that  tt 
rented,  and  that  it  >s  appreoaled  by  "»'""«  f,^,if,,,„i..  „„,,  OrcKon. 

has  been  ,oKl  in  nearly  every  State  m  th      .on    n    u      g  _^  ^^^^^^_^^      ^,^^  ^^^. 

The  tnanufaeturo  of  Tile  for  '  '-"'"^  '^  ,  "yU,^  eensu.  take...  The  -Albao, 
ti.tie.  of  .hi.  branch  J-- <=-  f'  '^;^"  ^.^^  j;'!  .roprie.ors,  U  probably  the  largest 
Dntin-Tilc  Works,"  of  U  i  ^V-  *'  \  _^^  ^^  y,,^;,,  Tile  are  made  by  tb«m.  m- 

or  i,.,  kind  in  the   United  St.a.e,      All  ''-  ;  '^^^^'       ^^^^  34  ,„  ^j  i„eh«-  ri.e,  a,.d  ,ole 
,„.,Ung  round  tile  fron,  U  to  ^  ^^  '-;^'^;;  C:!  ,„a  well-conduet^d  e»tabli.h.n«.t. 

tile  frou  2  to  6  inches  rite.    Ihis  u  a  very      1 



.ade  U.0  stov.  ^^^^^^^^^^^^^.^.r  of  a  eentnry,  hut  n.ay  yet 
alcaing  cclung  stove  '^r  m.^^-^  J^^  ^^  ^^^^^  ,,,,,,,  being  cheap 
,e  sec,  on  hoanl  ^'^  ^  ^^  ;;^^;n,„,:;e.    James'  slovo  is  pvobably 

a  -tail  stove  store  ^^;^^^]^  'l^^;,,  ,,  Albany  but  throughout 
Perl.apsuouauuMsl    tuU^  ,Un-e  business,  than   that  of  Joel 

the  eonn.ry,  .n  eonnecUon  ^^    ^^  ^^^  ^  ^^.,^,,  .n,,  ,,  is;',0,  he 

Kathi.ouo.  In  l'--'--^;;;,;;'  ,^'^;."r;r  son.  years  his  eastings 
opened  a  stove  ^'--"^^  ; '  ^'  ^.^.^ss  with  such  energy  that 
from  New  Jersey,  "^^^^^^^  ,,,,,, M.,„ent  in  the  country.  The 
"'  '  ^'"'  '""   ;•  ,:     c      st^^  s  ^on.  New  Jersey,  especially  as  a  part 

cost  ol  ^-'-l--^  ^  ,"^t  ^a  New  York  as  nni.hed  stoves,  being  so 
wasreturnedtolh.hul    pi.    ^u  ^.^  ^^^^_^^  ^^^^^^_^._^^  .^^ 

Ueavyan  item,  he  at  i  ..  ';  l^™',  ^,^„,„,a  in  making  castings  for 
foundries  in  Albany  w  >ch  m    chaH^  en^      ^^^^^^^^  ^^_^^^^^^  ^  ^,  ^^_^^^^ 

„.aehinery  and  =^^-"'^  ^  ,^^  .j^  ',„,,  Ue  built  in  18...  is  believed 
solely  lur  stoves.    Hi.  ^    ^^  "  ,^,  ^.^ng  stove  eastings, 

to  have  b..en  the  very  hr.t  lu  the  count  y  ji,,,,„si„.4  with 

,.     1  •  ...  J  nn^tiiio-s  were  made  smoother,  anu  oy  uihi"  ii:»  .-, 

IJy  this  process  r.istin<,s  wcit         _  ,.i,„.,,„.r  and  thus  bceiime  more 

j„„„„„„„  -■-'»;«;:>;:r j;;;r :  l:!: ;:,» 71  o,. ...o,...,,  „- 

(■xtensively  used,      ihis  m.iv  ic.    j  increased  with   such 

,,,  Stove   nusinesB  as  a  leading  l'--'^;,  ^^^^    "    ,  ,,,.ehold 

"'•""•^  '"'r :  ":^s:  v;::  ;^:;;  cl  Bi-itis,.  rr^vmees. 

word  ,l,ruugh.,d    1      \-^  _,,,  ,  .,,^.  ,VorUs"  are  among  the  largest 

At  the  present  tune  tlie     Uauuo  u 

in  Albany.     They  are  Mtuated  ,n  tbe  upi      ^  ;^J'^^,  „,  ,,, 
canal,  the  buildings  being  respect.vely  .5      by    .      cct  ^^^^^^ 

,,,  ...a  eo.r  nearly  t^>  acres  o^^ 

t:^:"^;.;:  ;;e    w  luldi.;  rooms,  one  bei...  170  by  1:10  feet   and 

The  average  production  of  Stoves  .     f  ^«  ;  f .  ^^^^  3^,,  ,„  ,000 

,    1  *     411  (inn      The  consumption  ol  non  is  iium 
amounted  to  40,000.        he  co<  c„„,tnntly  introducing  new 



d  of  Troy, 
y  continued 
Hit  may  yet 
)eing  cheap 
is  probably 
iiuell  opened 

,  throughout 
that  of  Joel 
1  in  ISP.O,  ho 

his  castinirs 
1  energy  that 
Mintry.     The 
ally  as  a  part 
)Vos,  being  so 
n  patterns  in 
«■  fuslinirs  for 
;te(l  a  foundry 
:}S,  is  believed 
;tovc  castings, 
spensing  with 
s  became  more 
muMicemeut  of 
sed  with    such 
ue  a  household 
ilish  rrwvlnces. 
ong  the  largest 
c  city,  near  the 
\nd  -250  by  126 
;m  are  four  and 

two  and  a  half 
jy  130  feet,  and 
iKire  feet.    Each 
lii,^  twenty  toii3 
stublisliiiient  ''an 
ndred  stoves  per 
the  departments 
oyed  WMh  Rf"). 
oiue  years  it  has 
oni  3500  to  1000 

introducing  new 
[id  in  making  new 

A 1      f  inno  of  these  flasks  arc  in  constant  use 


^-U  a.  one  -..^^^^^ 


nople.  and  on  boats  far  up  f^t^r,,^.  is  Mr.  Jon.  F.  ll.vTnBO..F..  a 
The  present  propru>tor  of  ^'^^^J'  ^^^  ,    ,Ual  and  experienec, 

nephew  of  Joel  ^^^^^^^^^^^Z  the  establishment. 

fullv  qualified  to  mainta>n  the  rep    at  on  0  ^^^^^^  ^,^^^^^^^.^^^ 

S     [.  Hansom  k  Co.   are   a.u.thei  «'     '^  ^  ^,„.,i,cd  without 

nrms  in  Ali.any,  and  ^'-"i^;-;;  :j:"^  tI^^:  ^orks  are  situated  <,u 
change  the  disasters  of  ^^^^^^^  ^„,,,rn  portion  of  the  city,  and 
the  banks  of  the  Huason  ^^^^  employment  to  al.-ut  three  hun- 
cover  four  entire  s.prares.      J  lu)  „  \,        thousand  tons,  or  more 

dred  n>en,  and  have  east  n.  ^  :^^^  ....rilnded  to  all  parts  of 
than  thirty  thousand  stoves,  -^'^  ;  ;;  J;;'^„  ,,  to  foreign  euuntries. 
the  United  States,  and  not  a  few    ave  ■  ^^^^^^  ^^^^^^^^  .^^,^j  ^.^. 

Tl>eir  iron  warehouse  on  T.roadway  i.  one  oi 

^Lious  edifiees  that  adorn  that  thoroug^a.^^^  ^^^  ^  ^^    ^^^^^^^^ 
The  other  Stove   Founders  m  A^.an>  a  ^^^^^  ^^ 

SlK-u-   Packard  .t  Co.,  and  Jame.  D.  AN  a.,  o  . 

'u  tl.:  foundries  is  about  18,(H)0  t- F^)--  ^^^,^  ,,.,„,raetories 

In  addition  to  the   Stove  ^^-^'_^l^,  „,,,  extensive  in  the 

0^  noll>,w  Warc^^e  oi  them  -     ^^^  ^vopnetor  of  this  .u.ndry. 

United  States.     M>-.  J'-l'"  f ' 'Cw  'v  who  sueceeaed  W.  C.  Noyes. 

U  the  s,u..cessor  of  C<.rn,ng  .V  G_kwc>  ^^^^^^^^^  ^^^^^^  ^^^,^. 

Who  .on. -.1  the  business  m  ^'^  J^^^J^  ^,,,,,  -'  ^"'"^  ^^'^'^ 

^^--•"  ■'•"?:■  :;rr,^^'>>n.^-' tons  of  iron  a 

over  120  n.  n  are  e'npl'*)-^   '  J»;     >  [       ^,,  ,,,,,  founaries  of  Albany 
per  day.     Mv,  Coewey  >'«n'P>  -  '  '\'^"  ,,,„„^  „,,,  i„  various  parts 

l„d  Troy,  but  foundevs  ami  .h.,     s  u>  o  ha^     ^  _^  ,,,„H,,.ent.     Uh 

-:::';i:::;;r  also  the  inventor. ^^^^^^^^^ 

SWiteh  Lock,  of  whleh  he  -'^^  ^  ^f  j"     .'unitei  States. 
areinuseonthe,n-inc.palra    0^^^  ,,  ,  n..llow 

Mr.  Itilan  t^Jm  y  ''^  J^^^  Ionise  of  attubiing  a  lair  shaie  of 
Ware  foumler  in  Albany,  and  gives  proi 


U,a„„,  known  as  the  "  S*u,andcr  and  All,a„y  Fire  Brick  Work.," 

To  obtain  «ni»S»  that  wera  500    cona         »       f -'  »  ,,  j,  „  .,„,„„. 
.„„„,„  ,„  ,„.  ,ran,„o,tation  -  ''°     '';,»■       ,-  ^fto™  tho  extent 

of  Uicir  business,  wo  mto  that  an.  inm  1^^^  ^^j^,,,^.,, 

"■  ''"'  '':;■"•  '' «r'rll"rn!t"narac.,,,.cs,  wc  nation 
An,«ns  the  «  '""J  \:^  »    '  ™„,,     ,„„t  ,„,„„„  for  burning  wet  tan. 
l-'in^  lirick  Urates  ioi    inorai>sou  .„..ibling  tlicm  10  use 

,,.  ,     .oven..  .  ^^^:^^::r:Z:.  .  U^.,  a,.  U.s 
as  fuel  the  tau  winch  ^^as  l'^«^"  ,^^^  ^,,.  ^„,ehasing  other  fuel, 

save  not  only  the  expense  of  its  remo  I  ^^^^yj^i,. 

,,ents  in  other  hranc  es  o    U^e  I         ^^^^^^^  ^^^^^^^^   ^^    ^ 

l,,,„ed    uiauutaetury  of  tar  \^  lue  ,  .^^  ^^^ 

&  Co.     This  establishnieut,  tl-|^  -  J^  ;.   ; ,  ^     .,,i,,  turns 

country,  has  an  e.Kcellent  -l->  J  ; '^^  J  ^^  co.  ninufacture  the 

out  over  100  wheels  »>-   ^^[■^^^^^ ^  ^e  D^^'h  Patent  Wheel,  and  other 
Atwood  Patent  Corrugated  Wbeel  tl  c  ^^^^^  ^^-^^^^^^ 

patterns  which  expen.>ee    as  j,r^  d  c      1.  su^^^^  ^>  ^  ^^^^^^^^^^^  ^^ 

nud  possess  strength  and  ^  "'*';'   ^  ..^^j^^  „f  ^he  best  American 

these  works  use  from  eight  to  t.eUe  V'^'e  ^^  ^^^^^ 

charcoal  iron,  and  exercise  gre  t  ca re  a-^        "  ^^^^^^.^,„^  (,,, 

n.ixi..g  them.    Every  hejit  is  -^''."f  J^  ^^^     ^;.^.^,  ,,  ,,,a„css.     The 


plied  with  wheels  from  this  establishment. 

The  Albany  Breweries  and  Distilleries. 

The  manu^cture  of  Malt  Li.uor  ^-^^-g  b^n  a^rc^.cj.^u^ 
i„  Albany.     The  o^est  Bi.w.,  now  1..^        >U.  K.^ 
commenced  the  business  in  1,9.     At  t  lat  ^.^^^,^^^^^  ^^ 

three  small  Breweries-one  ^olongmg        ^^^^^  ^^^   ,,,„ds. 
Maiden    Lane,  below   Eroadway     vl.ere   Stauvux  ^^„„^,,„,ed 

Another  was  o..ied  ^y ^^■l:;;^:^.  t^  tlis,lie  Lloyd,  who 
about  the  same  time  us  Mr.  Boyd,     bu       I  .^  ^^^^     ^^^^j  ^ 

was  succeeded  by  LeBntton  in  180.5  -  1^°^^^   J^^  ^.^^^,,^  ,,Uo  in 

McCuUoch  in  1808 ;  then  succeeded  H.  Buiull  ana  i.. 



rick  Works," 

1  yet  strong 
icen  a  dcside- 
m\  the  extent 
lesiruil  result, 
the  extensive 
many  dealers 

niy;Ut  mention 
■uing  wet  tan. 
»g  tiiem  to  use 
lieni,  and  thus 
;ig  other  fuel, 
rtant  establish- 
iding  one  eele- 
H.   Tliateher 
e  others  in  the 
)peration  turns 
manufacture  the 
Mieel,  and  other 
east  and  chilled, 
}  proprietors  of 

best  American 
u  selecting  and 
)  deteruune  (and 
hardness.     The 

are  chiefly  sup- 

)romiacnt  pursuit 
,obert  Boyd,  who 
ere  were  two  or 
/oort,  situated  on 
lall  now  stands. 
.  Gill  commenced 
s,  one  Lloyd,  who 
in  1806  -,  Boyd  & 
J.  Fiddler,  who  in 

.        ...H  Mr  Johu  T«y.or  tounCed  «>o  f.rm  or  FU1.««  i  Taylor 
connection  With  Mr.  Jonu  x  j 

in  1«--^-^-  .      , ,  ,  i„..ost  Brewery  in  the  United  States  is  that 

At  the  present  tunc     e  1    .    t  B    w    y  ^^^^^  .  ^  ^^^^  ,,„,,„ounded 

of  John  Taylor's  S.)us,o   Albany,     it  ^^^^^^^^^,^  j.;^,,,^  „,a 

l.roadway.  Ferry  and  ^^^^J,^  ,,i,aing  being  200  by  80 
ivers  about  two  acres  of  S-  ^  ^.  ^^  ,;  „,,,„  ,„nding  on  the  r>ver 
fee,    and  six  stories  high.     A^'J^'""  -  ^^^^.^     f,et  square,  and  seven 

on.  is  a  fu-e-proof  ^^orehou.  se  en^^^  .        ^^^^^^  ^^,,^.,  ,,,,.,_.  u>e 
stovie.  hi.h.     In  tins  bnddu  g     c  -.o  ^^^^^^^^  ^^^^  ,,^.^.^^^,y 

grain  fron.  boats  on  the  nver   o  ^       '  -;  ^,^,^^,,^  iymtv  Street 

at  the  rate  of  one  thousand  bushel,  pe,     oui  ^^^^.^^^.^  ,„„ 

:a\he  main  building  f-"^;'^-/  :rr^;:L;oring,  cLnsing  and 
by  50  feet,  a  large  portion  of  ^  ^  J.  ^  ^^  ,,,,,  ,-as  imported  fi-om 
steaming  casks  and  barrels.  ^1-^^;"  ^^  ^j,,,,i,e  ever  built.  After 
Europe,  and  is  probably  one  of  t Ic  m  .1  ^^^.^^^^  eon.plctely 

^J,  a  row  of  barrels  -  J-^^-^f  .^ te,  ,,„,es  after  i.  appU- 
llu-ough  the  staves  ->-'' '  ^  ;"  Z;,,,  building  is  occupied  by  the 
cation.  On  the  mam  s  ory  ^''«  "^ .•'\^^^  proprietors.  In  th.  upper 
counting-house  and  pnvate     ^^     ;     f^^.^l  which  contains  a  nrost 

storv  is  a  tire-proof  apartment,  '^   f*  ^^  ^^^_;,,,e  feature  in  t.usiness 
valuable  library  of  over  ten  thou.a,Klv  oh  me  ^.^^^  ^^,   ^,^ 

establishments  <.f  this   ^^-nptu  m      On  th  _^^^^^  ^^  ._.,^^, 

--^r  i::r  :i:"v::  ::i";:^^  contains  a  dock  .th  ,ass  .a. 

:^r;:e:i::::l:or,  that  are  m..;-^:^-:t,  ,.e  of  the  most  per. 
The  apparatus  -d -lU.pment.M     tl         -       Y^^^^  ^^^,^^.  ^^^.^^  ,^,„,,  ,, 

feet  description,  and  it  1'- ^'^^^  ^^^  |,,  erection   in    IS.O.  the 
thousand  barrels  per  annum.     Hevi^  dnvwings  of  the  mnst  im- 

lior  of  this  iirm  visited  Euro^  ami     u       d,a  ^^^^ .  ^^^^^^^^^         ,^^ 
portant  improvements  winch  he    J  ^  ^,^  ^,,_  „„,i,tiug  of  three 

pontoon  apparatus  for  cleansing  and  .  ,o  arranged  as  to 

Lndred  and  sixty-live  ^^^^ ;;^'^^t^^:  ,,,ays  at  the  same  height, 
open  and  shut  the  valves^  ^^'^!"''„^"  Reiving  troughs,  is  as  yet  a 
independent  of  the  (low  ot  yeast  '  J^^  J-^dh  this  establisiuuont  are 
novelty  in  American  breweries     C  nn-  _  ^^^^^^  ^^^^^_^^^^_ 

five  large  Malt  houses,  in  which  tl  e    n  ^^  ^,  .^  p^^.„ 

Witlnn  the  year  18C3  the  ^^^J^^^,,  ,„  of  the  part- 
died,  highly   e^teemed   and  reg^t^^^^^^_^^^^___^^^^.^^   ^,^ 
ncrs,  Edmund  B.   Taylor,  of  the  ^^"^  ^      ,f  y^w  York 

,,ement  to  the  tw.  r—..  ^^;^os^li  1  ^J^  ^^^^^^  ^^  ^^^^^,^ 

City,  and  ^^^^';''l'^;^Ci  in  th  J  business. 
a  half  million  of  ^"^'^^^^  invesieu 



.•      „f  iiu.  Tavlor  Brewery,  the  largest  In  Albany 
Previous  to  tl.e.c..on^ft.^^^;^J^  of  ^^^  ^^'^'-  '''■  V^^  '"'') 

x^-fts  tluit  ot  U.  ]Juvt  .^  to.      iut ^^^  ^j^^  ,^^^^^^^  of 

^vus  engaged  in  the  ^--^^    xS  ^  18=30  -hen  ho  and  his 
,,,,,.  ho  was  the  l>ead  dates  Us  ex^         c  ^^^'^J^r^  Brewery,  which 

sou  (;i>arles  A.  Burt  ^^^^^'^  "^^^^^^  Montgomery  and  Lumber 
oee«inesthebloeUi.oundcnt  byCenU  ,C    -^,      ^^o^^^J^^  .  ^  ^^^^^ 

Streets,  being  a  square  of  3  o      c    by  -(  ^^^^^^^  ^^^.,^  ^,^,^,^^,1, 

,,l,,,.  an  addition  was  made  m     851.  and  a  ^^^^^_  ^^^^^^^^ 

of  nralting  100.000  bushels  of  ^-^^  » ^  .  ^s-but  their  capacity  to 

over  50,000  barrols-in  one  year  1,800,8-0  , alio 

.nannfacnre  is  much  greater  than  tins  „estion  whether  malt 

Tlus  lira,  was  the  hrst  we  belmve  ^      -^^^     ^J   ,  ^.^^.^  ,  on 

l,,uors  could  be  sold  for  cash  only         ^  J'        /^^  ^^..^^  beyond  the 
delivery,  not  only  for  the  ale  but        t      c   .  .^  ^^^^^^^^      ^^ 

city  lin.its-the  money  being  refunded  ^^^^^  j^^,,,  ,^,„ier8, 

.iation  is  made  f-;^;;;:;:^!,::;:!^  ^    :^::nth  for  the  a.aount  of 
who  are  drawn  upon  at   he  '^^^'"    ""  '  t,,      elaim  that  by  thus 

tUeir  purchases  during  the  P-^;^^^";  '    "  ^.;,,,\,  Le  better  stock  and 
escaping  losses  fro.n  ^'-^^'^^''^^^''^1  ^1,  ,,ies  are  large  notwith- 


-^  -"Tt::^!;:::'^:::"^^-  ^.-d  ^..u.  .ded  to 

crcises  in  its  mana<,cmi.ui-  ,.  >,„„t  ^rosnerous  condition. 

,„„a .,,  '•■« -'*«*7;::::':.';  ti  oul™  *  Co.,  „.-oFic.o.-s,  i. 

The  "Arch  hlreC  '■"'»«'■    3'    ,j,|,„     ,,  the  present  ».■».  ™n- 

""■"""'  ;r  n;/"i  •>'■■,..:«  r,o,:., ».,» >-» '.»» -''»■»• »» '"» 

SOrS  01    lllCU    laiin-i,   -  _ 

.    oldest  brewer  in  Albany  now  living^  ,f  Robert,  then  living  on  an 

In  nOO,  Mr.  Bol)ert  Boyd,  ^ ^^^^^^^^^^     „e  of  whom  was  a 

i,,„.l  felow  Albany,  ^^^f^y^'^s^'^,,  in  harvesting   his  grain. 

„rewer,  the  otl>er  -"-^!^^«^!^jXial  to  establish  a  Brewery,  hi- 

These  men,  who  had  -'-^-^-^  ^^  ^;^  "!.,,,,,  at  the  corner  of  Areh 
duced  Mr.  15oyd  to  bu,  d  one.     ^  '    •  -    ^»^   ^  ^^^^^  ,,,^  ,4  ^y 

,,a  Greon  Streets,  and  commenced  '^-;  "|;  ^  ^^  ^^^  ,,^^  g„tch,nen 
,0  feet,  comprising  a  I'-^-T-^^^^'J;"",,  equired  vo  instruct 
eonducted  the  '-^^'"f  ^^  ^^J^^X^  Urn  apiUl.  Mr.  R.  Boyd 
Mr.  Bobert  Boyd,  while  his  fathei  ^  ^  ^  ^^^^  J  ^^^^  ,,,„„,-,  but  re- 
pave  up  the  business  in  a  few  y^-^'!^f'^^;i\,  firm  of  I'.oyd  & 
turned   in  1808.  and  was  the  senior  paitnci   ol   .lie 

est  in  Albany 
^Ir.  Uvi  l'>uvt, 
the  lioiiso  of 
u  he  and  hia 
;rowory,  whieli 
y  ami  Lumber 
cil  ill  1S47,  to 
built  capable 
bvew  annually 
icir  capacity  lo 

I  wliotlier  malt 
x\n  payment  on 
sent  beyouel  the 
rcturncil.     No 
lolesale  tlealers, 
•  the  amount  of 
m  tliat  by  thus 
)cttcr  stock  and 
;  larsie  notwith- 
imptiou  in  favor 

the  business  i3 
partner,  who  ex- 
iU  that  aided  to 

).,  proprietors,  is 
present  firm  cora- 
;d  as  the  succes- 
meutioned  as  the 

hen  livin<r  on  an 
e  of  whom  was  a 
irestinc;   his  grain, 
lish  a  Brewery,  in- 
he  corner  of  Arch 
It  was  but  24  by 
le  txv«  Scotchmen 
quired  to   instruct 
tal.     Mr.  II.  Boyd 
the  country,  but  re- 
le  firm  of  Boyd  & 


fc   A 







,50     '""H- 

















(716)  •7a-4903 







Collection  de 

Canadian  Institute  for  Historical 

Microreproductions  /  Institut  Canadian  da  microraproduction.  historiques 




McCulloch,  who  for  many  years  conducted  a  heavy  business.  After 
vt^.uschn^es  the  Brewery  W.S  rented  until  1850,  when  the  present 

.gaged  in  the  bu.iner,s.  The  hniidings,  which  had  been  a  d.d  o 
tl  time^o  time,  and  now  front  on  four  streets  Uree..  Arch  nu.Lha 
and  rerry,the  length  on   Arch  Street  being  321  leet,  arc   i  ..     and 

onvcnicSy  arranged,  having  the  malt  house  in  t  c   sau>o   rng^ 

winch  obviates  the  expense  of  carting,  and  there  is  abundance  ut  loom 

for  receiving  and  storing  empty  caslvs.  a,  t^  •  w  c.  q^n 

The   other  principal  Brewers  in  Albany  arc  John  .1  Son 

Armsdell  Brothers,   Anthony  McQuadc,  James  Quin,  an.l   l.ccUer  & 

^  m'rarc  also  several  firms  engaged  extensively  in  Malting,  the  prin- 
cipal being  Jolm  G.  White  &  Son,  Jol>a  Twcddle,  and  A   A.      nnlop 
jilm  G.  White,  who  is  also  the  President  of  the  Bank  ot  the  , 
and  the  olde.t  i.thc  business,  has  two  malt  houses,  and  suppncs  large  y 
tlie  brewers  in  riiiladelphh-.,  where  so  mu.h  malt  is  u.ed.  beside,  those 

'"  Mr'Twcddlc  commenced  the  manufacture  of  malt  in  West  Chester, 
rennsylvanla,  many  years  ago,  and  removed  to  Albany  in  WAS.    A\  lule 
the  brewers  in  the  principal  cities  from  Portsmouth  toP.altanore,  as  w 
as  tliose  in  tlie  interior,  obtain  Malt  from  his  extensive  malt  house,  hia 
sales  are  chieily  in  New  York  City. 

Mr  Dunlop  is  the  son  of  Robert  Dunlop,  a  well-known  brove,  fif.y 
yeur.  since,  and  was  himself  a  brewo-.  llis  extensive  estab hslnnent  is 
in  the  adjoining  town  of  Watcrvliet,  and  here  he  supplies  brewers  m 
New  York  and  other  principal  ^  tlantic  cities.  Mr.a)"«loP  i«  "1^«  ex- 
tensively engaged  in  brewing  at  West  Troy. 

Tliere  arc  two  largo  Distilleries  in  Albany,  one  of  which,  that  of 
Edson  k  Co.,  distils  from  the  grain;  tlie  other,  that  of  John  raccy 
&  Co.,  is  devoted  to  rectifying  li.,r.ors  and  making  alcohd.  Besides 
these  there  arc  a  number  of  smaller  rectifying  estabhsnnenls.  1  h o 
valuo  of  the  yearly  product  varies  with  the  price,  but  the  average  is 
nearly  two  million  dollars. 

The  DistiMerv  of  l-Mson  &  Co.,  erected  in  1840,  consumed  or  a  >car 
or  two  bat  m  bushels  of  grahi  per  day.  In  1851  a  small  ••ohnnn  was 
erected  f..r  tin;  manufacture  of  alcohol,  capable  of  running  <i()(.  .gallons 
per  dav  Tiiat  small  amount  was  then  ample  for  tlie  su,.i>ly  ol  the, 
i\uleed'it  re.pured  an  ciVort  to  dispose  of  it.  As  the  .Icniand 
„„„tlier  column  was  in  1853  added  to  tlic  works,  capable  of  n.mnng  SOO 
gallons  daily.  In  1855  and  1850  the  Distillery  was  enlarge,!  so  as  to 
consume  900  bushels  of  grain  per  day.     While  superlnlendmg  'he  start- 



ing  of  the  new  works,  Mr.  Cyrus  Edson,  the  proprietor,  was  killed  by 
the  explosion  of  the  steam-boiler.  May  15th,  1830.  Since  that  period 
the  business  has  been  conductefl  by  the  present  proprietors,  Franklin 
Edson  and  Daniel  Orr,  and  the  works  have  been  further  enlarged.  They 
now  employ  25  men,  and  turn  out  daily  4000  gallons  of  llighwines  and 
3200  priilions  of  Alcohol.  IJesides  H.sing  all  the  product  of  their  own 
Distillery,  they  purchase  largely,  all  of  which  they  make  into  alcohol. 

Tlie  use  of  Alcohol  has  increased  greatly  during  the  past  few  years. 
Large  quantities  are  now  consumed  in  making  15urning  Fluid,  which  re- 
quires four  gallons  .of  alcohol  to  one  of  camphene;  while  druggists  have 
increased  its  use  in  their  various  preparations. 

The  other  firm  mentioned,  that  of  John  Thacey  &  Co.,  have  a  very 
large  Rectifying  establishment,  and  Alcohol  and  Camphene  Distilleries. 
Their  Alcohol  and  Eectifying  establishments  are  perhaps  not  surpassed 
by  any  in  the  country.  From  the  former  they  turn  out  daily  upward 
of  six  thousand  gallons  highest  proof  alcohol,  and  from  the  latter  they 
are  able  to  iurnish  daily  eight  thousand  gallons  spirit  and  domestic 
liquors,  which  they  sell  principally  in  Boston  and  New  York. 

Mr.  Tracey  commenced  Kcctifying  in  a  small  way  about  1S42  and 
gradually  extended  his  facilities.  Tlu'  manufacture  of  Alcohol  he  com- 
menced in  1847,  making  six  hundred  gallons  daily,  which  more  than 
supplied  the  demand  at  that  time.  Xow  ten  thousand  gallons  of  alcohol 
are  daily  made  in  Albany,  of  which  Messrs.  Tracey  &  Co.  make  much 
the  largest  proportion. 

Albany  has  also  one  of  tlio  largest  and  oldest-established  manufac- 
tories of  Carriages  in  the  United  States.  Mr.  James  Goold,  tlie  i^enior 
propricior,  commenced  the  business  of  carriage  making  in  1813,  and 
soon  after  engaged  in  building  Coaches,  which  for  many  years  was  a 
prominent  business  in  Albany  and  Troy.  More  recently  the  firm  of 
James  (Juiild  Sc  Co.  embarked  in  Car  building,  and  now  carry  on  all 
branches  of  the  Carriage  manufacture,  including  Railway  Carriages 
The  fuctory  occupies  nearly  a  square  bounded  by  Division,  Union,  and 
Hamilton  Streets. 

r,  was  killed  by 
iiice  that  period 
rietors,  Franklin 
enlarged.  They 
r  Ilighwines  and 
ict  of  their  own 
e  into  aleohol. 
3  past  few  years. 
Flnid,  which  re- 
e  druggists  have 

Co.,  have  a  very 
bene  Distilleries. 
IS  not  surpassed 
ut  daily  upward 
n  the  latter  they 
it  and  domestic 

about  1842  and 
Aleohol  he  com- 
vhich  more  than 
allons  of  alcohol 
Co.  make  much 

blished  manufaC' 
Groold,  the  i^enior 
ig  in  1813,  and 
iuiy  years  was  a 
ntly  the  firm  of 
low  carry  on  nil 
,ilway  CaiTinges 
ision,  Union,  and 




..ov,  si.  ™nes  above  Albany  .even  ^  ^^^^^^^^  ^ 
„raetaring  th^t^^ty^  ^1  ed  5  8^  males.   4.CC0  finales, 

'IX^:^!^^^^^.     The  irineipal  manufactures  were  the  fol- 

No.  of 



ery "' 

(  Albnny  Iron  Comiiiuy,  1^ 
3  .  Burden's  Works,  > 
(  and  Kcnnselaer  Works  ) 






Agrlealtiiral  implements.. 

Boots  ami  slioes 

Brass  anil  bell  founaing 



Cabinet  ware 


Clgftrs '' 


CotTco  and  spices 
Confectioncrv    ■■ 

Cotton  gooilF 

Flour  anil  meal. 




Albany  Iron 
Iron  <         ■  Burden's 

and  Kennselaer 



Malleable  iron 



Paper  boxes.. 

Printing  and  publishing.. 

Rectifying  ll'iui" 


Sawed  lumber 

Slieep  skins 

Shirt  collars  and  boaomi 


Springs ' 



Tuibiuc  wheel* •• 







8  . 




39.000  ... 



86,500  ... 






130.0(X)  .. 

















846,000 1220. 



30.500  .... 


49,000  ... 


12.200  ... 

tl.200  .. 




34,000  .. 





89.100  . 





















A'alne  of 









.       1,950,000 

,  ,t)."f.250 




The  Albany  Iron  Works-Corning,  Winslow  &  Co.,  Proprietors. 

In  1819,  John  Brinckcrhoff,  then  an  enterprising  iron  merchunt  of 
ilbnny,  erected  on  the  Hudson  River,  now  in  the  sixth  ward  ot  the 
City  of  Trov,  a  small  Foundry  and  Rolling  Mill,  for  converting  Russia 
and  Swede  ii-  n  bars  into  plates.  These  plates  were  afterward  cut  par- 
"1  nto  nails,  each  nail  being  headed  by  hand.  This  business  he  con- 
d  l;  successfully  for  several  years,  and  the  works,  ^^u^^  ^  compared  with  their  present  extent,  e  to  leu 
ou.^er  and  the  f.rst  then  in  existence  in  the  State  of  New  ^  orL 
;;  m  Bi  nckerhoiAhey  were  transferred  to  Corning  &  Norton,  and  sub- 
senuently  to  the  present  proprietors,  Corning,  Winslow  &  Co.  who  ha.e 
Xged  them  until  they  now  rank  among  the  most  extensive  xn  the 

""t^  .^^:^at  present  include  three  distinct  rolling  mills-one  a  lar^ 
steam  mill,  contling  18  puddling  furnaces,  with  .  ^on-c^ou  g 
ber  of  heating  furnaces,  five  steam  eng.nes,  ^^^^^'^'^"TJ^^s 
two  drawing-out  hammers,  four  complete  trains  of  rollers  ^\  u  slow  s 
r.ry  u  e/.er  with  shears,  roller  lathes,  wrought  railroad-chair  ma- 
ch  .cry  other  appurtenances;  the  whole  within  a  brick  building 

3  5  f  e   lono-  by  145  feet  wide,  covered  with  an  iron-trussed  roof.     The 
eco  >d         new  forge  and  rolling  mill,  built  in  1855      It  is  of   u 
he    orm   of  a  cross,  the  greatest  width  and  length  being  respectively 
13      Lc    feet,  anil  the  wings  53  feet  wide.     This  mill  has  an  iron- 
He     ro     covered  with  slates.     There  are  three  chimney  stac  s,  each 
6    fe^    high,  and  each  drawing  from  six  puddling  furnaces,  n.aku.g 
fud      ig   urnaces  under  this  roof     The  third  rolling  mill  is  worked  by 
Lo  w.x^r-wheels  of  great  power,  and  contains  three  complete  tiain 
of  ron        with  appropriate  furnaces,  and  one  steel  converting  uirnace 
:^U:  :  ilk  building  205  ieet  long  by  110  feet  wide.     Thereare  hkc- 
wi  e  upon  the  premises,  and  driven  by  water-power,  a  car   a.  -ax 
f„  .fn,.v   CO  fo-t  l.v  40;  a  spike  factory,  for  making  railroad,  boat   and 
S  :^.      .  and  boi^riivets;  and  a  nail  factory.     BoU.  ot;  these   atU. 
b     icl  OS  0   business  are  carried  on  within  a  l)rick  building  .00  feet  long 
b        "e   wide,  and  operated  by  a  water-wheel  30  feet  in  J  >---ter  t 
wat    -  owev  h^  fun-lnHl  by  the  "  Wynantskill."  affording  a  fall  of 
Tb  u    rty-five  f  et,  divided  by  three  dams  into   as  many  siu'cess, 
al         ll    the  buiimngs  of  this  fine  establishment  are  of  brick,  with 





11  mevchiint  of 
h  ward  of  the 
verting  llussia 
irward  cut  par- 
usiucss  he  con- 
lugh  small  and 
ditable  to  their 
}  of  New  York, 
orton,  and  sub- 
i  Co.,  who  have 
xtensive  in  the 

lis — one  a  large 
aspouding  num- 
ismyth  hammer, 
Iters,  Winslow's 
Iroad-chair  ma- 
,  brick  building 
ssed  roof.     The 
t  is  of  brick,  iu 
sing  respectively 
ill   has   an  irou- 
iney  stacks,  each 
laces,  making  IS 
lill  is  worked  by 
complete  trains 
nvcrting  furnace 
Tliere  are  likc- 
,  a  carriagc-axlo 
ulroad,  boat,  and 
til  of  these  latter 
ling  ;500  feet  long 
t  in  diameter,  the 
iffording  a  fall  of 
1  many  sncrossivo 
ire  of  brick,  with 

metal  roofs,  and  constructed  in  the  most  substantial  manner,  being  «« 
TeaHy  fire-proof  as  possible,  the   proprietors  having   been   taught  to 
.-a  eLl  fire''  by  two  conflagrations  which  consumed  ail  the  earlier  ere.^ 
tious.     The  number  of  acres  attached  is  between  forty  '-I.  ">-  « 
which  there  are  numerous   buildir,,s,  constituting  a   small  village  ui 

•  lip  # 

'  ^The  principal  manager  of  these  extensive  works  is  John  F.  AVin«- 
low,  Esi.,  whose  experience,  in  the  working  of  ,netals  is  not  exec  le.l  by 
any  one  engaged  in  the  trade,     xle  is  also  a  man  ot  genius,  and  the  m- 
ventor  of  several  highly  valuable  improvements  to  facilitate  the  working 
of  iron.     His  rotary  scpiee/.ers  is  a  most  effective  machine,  as  one  wdl 
do  all  the  shingling  for  forty  puddling  furnaces,  with  b,it  a  tnlle  of  ex- 
pense for  attendance,  a  small  consumption  of  power,  no  waste  of  iron 
and  turning  out  the  blooms  very  hot  it  facilitates  the  rollmg._   T    s 
preservation  of  the  heat,  coupled  with  the  fact  that  the  bloom  ,»  u  y 
thoroughly  upset  while  undergoing  its  rapid  squeezing,  is  said  to  sei.Mbly 
imin-ove  the  quality  of  the  iron.  _ 

The  firm  of  Corning,  Winslow  &  Co.  is  now  extensively  engaged    n 
the  manufacture  of  puddled  steel,  which  they  commenced  soon  aft ct  the 
art  of  effecting  it  was  made  known  in  Germany  about  the  year  185. 
Few  men  in  this  country,  if  any,  have  devoted  more  attention  to  th 
subject  than  Mr.  Winslow.     Their  pud-Ued  or  semi-steel  ,s  ^^f^^ 
bciing  a  tensile  strain  ranging  from   .0,000   to  108,000  pounds  to  tl  e 
square  inch,  and  is  a  doubt  equal  in  every  respect  to  any  made 
rFurope      This  ma'terial  is  now  largely  made  into  locomotive  tires. 
boiler  plates,  and  other  forms  where  great  strengtii  and  density  are  re- 
quired.    It  is  further  manufactured  by  cementation  and  put  into  spnng- 
steel  for  carriages  and    rail-car  purposes.      Corning,  AA  u.slow   &  Co 
we  believe  are  at  present  the   only  makers  of  semi-steel  in  the  United 

^^This  firm  give  employment  to  about  750  persons,  to  whom  are  dis- 
bursed  a^.out'si8,000  per  month  for  wages.  The  annual  l-;^"'; ^  ^- 
concern  is  about  15,000  tons,  consisting  of  cut  nads,  spikes,  ruts- 
bad  bar,  rod,  and  scroll  iron,  of  all  sizes-with  large  quanff.js  o 
rai  lucar  axles,  wagon  axles,  crowbars,  and  wrought-iron  railroa.l 
chair  They  have  a  capital,  invested  in  veal  estate,  buildings  and  ma- 
chinerv  of  about  a  half  million  of  dollars.  ,..,•„ 

WU  in  the  vear  ISC,;!  a  very  considerable  a.ldition  was  made  to  their 
wo  k        n  iling  of  another  mill  for  bar  and  band  iron,  about  nine  a  - 
li     niil  puddling  furnaces,  machinery  and  buildings  for  m.^ing  1  or 
anTMule  Shoes  extensive  machine  shops,  and  several  dwellings  for  the 
families  of  employees. 



The  Troy  Iron  and  Nail  Factory-H.  Burden  &  Sons,  Proprietors, 

Is  another  very  large  establishment  in  Troy  and,  with  the  acldition« 
that  have  recently  beea  made,  is  now  one  of  the  largest  m  the  United 
States.  Though  there  was  previously  a  small  fa<;t«ry,  having  a  .ew 
Cut  Nail  machines,  near  the  site  of  the  present  mill  on  Wynants  Ki  1, 
the  works  may  be  said  to  owe  all  theiv  success  and  importance  to  the 
present  proprietors,  and  primarily  to  Mr.  Henry  Burden,  a  native  of 
Scotland,  who  came  to  this  country  in  1819,  and  who  has  been  con- 
nected with  the  works  since  1822.  .  .     .,  i 

Few  men,   now   living,  have  had  more  experience  in   the    work- 
ine   of    metals  than    the   gentleman   mentioned,   and    none    probably 
have  more  faithfully  discharged  the  duty  which  Lord  Bacon  has  said 
every  one  owes  to  his  profession,  by  contributing  something  for  its 
benefit     He  is  the  author  of  several  very  ingenious  and  important  m- 
ventions  designed  to  facilitate  the  working  of  iron,  among  which  we 
may  mention  a  machine  for  making  Spikes,  another  for  mal<ing  Horse 
Shoes,  and   the   Rotary  Squeezer  for  rolling   Puddle  Balls,  now   so 
generally  used  both  in  Europe  and  America.     Burden's  Spike  Machine 
patented  in  1839,  will  make  Spikes -complete,  including  head  and  point, 
at  one  operation,  at  the  rate  of  fifty  per  minute  ;  and  thus  each  machine 
will  do  the  work  of  fifty  men.     Nearly  all  the  tracks  of  railway  lu  the 
United  States  are  fastened  with  Spikes  that  were  made  by  this  machine, 
and  that  the  progress  of  railroad-building  has  been  thereby  accelerated  .8 
evident  for  Spikes  could  not  have  been  made  by  hand  with  sufficient 
rapidity  to  supply  the  demand.      His  other  invention  mentioned  for 
makin"-  Uo.-se  and   Mule   Shoes,  is  even   still   more   ingenious  in  its 
nature"than  that  for  making  Spikes,  and  in  its  automatic  action  and 
practical  results  is  entitled  to  rank  in  the  scale  of  inventions  with  Big- 
elow's  Carpet  Loom  and  Blanchard's  Lathe  for  Turning  Irregular  Forms. 
A  rod  of  iron  fed  into  this  mm^hine  is  converted  into  Shoes  entirely  com- 
pleted  with  creases  and  countersunk  holes  (leaving  nothing  more  to  be 
done  except  to  clean  out  the  holes  after  being  cooled),  and  each  machine 
performs  in  a  minute  a  day's  labor  of  two  men.     Five  of  these  machines 
are  now  in  operation  in  Burden's  Works,  with  five  more  in  course  of 
construction,  and  the  number  of  tons  of  Shoes  manufactured  in  a  given 
time  may  be  calculated  by  assuming  the  average  weight  of  a  shoe  to  be 
one  pound,  and  the  product  of  a  machine,  if  kept  supplied  with  hot  iron, 
to  be  3600  pounds  per  hour.    Mr.  Burden  is  now  engaged  in  perfecting  a 
machine  for  Rolling  and  Welling  Bars,  which,  if  successful,  as  it  promises 


the  additions 
n  the  United 
having  a  few 
Vynant's  Kill, 
rtance  to  the 
1,  a  native  of 
las  been  con- 

in  the  work- 
lone  probably 
3acon  has  said 
lething  for  its 

important  in- 
ong  which  we 
making  Horse 
Balls,  now  so 
Spike  Machine, 
lead  and  point, 
s  each  machine 

railway  iu  the 
y  this  machine, 
y  accelerated  is 
i  with  sufficient 

mentioned  for 
ingenious  in  its 
lalic  action  and 
itions  with  Big- 
rrcgular  Forms. 
les  entirely  com- 
hing  more  to  be 
nd  each  machine 
f  these  machines 
ore  in  course  of 
itured  in  a  given 
,  of  a  shoe  to  be 
ed  with  hot  iron, 
ed  in  perfecting  a 
"ul,  as  it  promises 


destined,  b3'  its  econoniy  o1  ■  eA'-'^'t  i 

,;.;     i'll  i'-'     ••I.-     li,  ■      •     ^Vy.', 

;    li.nsr,  I'i'*  !''■■'  ^vli!.'.  ar..!  \\. 
.111'!  I'v'    *l-"i'  ■ 

'     f.Ilii    iU'- 
-   In  wiiii  ii 


•'!!.      rnri-tin' 

Clllil'U     ^Sl   Hi   1  !!!■■■<-     ••'   VK^- 
■  ::ll  is  SUppliO'l   ' 

>■.  ,.r  j'f  ■>!,:.:!    ;i 

•    ■     •cd  iuuuwttiiii  ut>> 

1;.;  that  \v-  f.  ■ 

ly  ;;i  iii',-   UuiUid   .. 
■  ;  1    •'  <•  Ijlast  is  con 
•'  Oie  nai(ib> 
,  1»Ucd  b; 

.'liii.;  '.  uill]     . 

Will  ill' 


'nU'CC    ■■i-i':  111  ll\''- 

iiiiiL:-;  «n 

:'f;-     .V, 

,,,.n    .  ,n,,1,,..,.,1  ', 

cHgOl  <ji 

4-i  ''" 

^,        *>*?#: 

'    ,  /         -^ia 


burdens'   IBON   AND    NAIL  WORKS. 



to  bo,  is  destinecl,  by  its  economy  of  labor,  to  cllect  a  revolution  in  the 

"  tI;^;^;:' J^"i«  finn  comprise  two  extensive  Rollin,  Mill,  dis 
tini  L^^tt^e  Old  Mill  and  the  New  or  Steam  Mill,  tw.  For^s 
^Jko  Factory  a  Nail  Factory,  Fonndry,  Pattern  Shops,  etc      li.t  old 
flr^      Sd     u  Wynant's  Kill  Creek,  is  a  stone-and-hrick  strn.tnre 
to     e't    0^     40  feet  wide,  and  has  24  furnaces  in  all,  sev.n  tra.ns  of 

,1  „,!"Ii  these  works  1ms  been  dlscontmucJ.     The  n.oUve  power 

"T^'cfLfB:"ra~..sed  >ana  .„i„.  .  front  o„  U,.  Hudso. 

Ei'cro  about  a  mile  aad  a  c«artcr,  extending  eastwardly  to  the  Uud»n 
River  K."  road  and  proeeedod  to  fdl  up  the  low  land  at  an  expense  ox- 

'2":;,:i;,dred'tl..«sanddoll„s.     on  .his  the  .inn  erected  a  b 
forfte  400  teetlong  nnd  .00  feet  wide,  and  a  rolling  m  11  3«»  l''    ■  -  '™ 
fct-works  that  in  convenience  of  arrangement,  abundance  of  bg  land 

^-"\''t"r:;r  i:e;:i":  re"=''sr  ;i:r»\t: 

tStl^birreor^a  b::;;s  und.r  ground),  and  It  is  pro.,osed 

C  L  CoZ  «y  «'  l-ro'i'o-e-  The  product  of  .bis  mill  Is  exe  nsrve I, 
m  f  hartba  iron.  Improvements  are  in  progress  which,  when  bmshed 
™m  Ser  the  present 'works,  extensive  a.  they  are,  the  mere  nucleus 

"':r::l7a:"V«0  "men  have  been  employed  by  this  O™  at  one  tin,e 
in  their  mills  and  the  sales  In  1863  amounted  to  nearly  $1,800,000. 
Mr  wluta  P.  Burden  Is  now  the  Superintendelt  and  active  manager  ot 
the  works. 


The  Bennselaer  Iron  Works 

.  .  •  .n  nianufactuvinor  establishments  located 
Arc  another  of  the  prominent  "<>"  ™  -^^l^  ^  J^  .j^uatcd  on  the  banks 
in  the  sixth  ward  of  the  city  of  1  o  •      J     ^  ,3^  f^^t  in  length 

of  the  Hudson  lliver,  and  compn  ^^^.^  ,t,,,  etc.,  adjacent. 
,y  150  in  width,  with  nvaclnne  -  j'^  ^^  ^;,.  ,  f.rmvces.  which  to- 
There  are  14  puddling  furnaces  and     -^       ^     «  ,,  ,,,,,  of 

,ether  consn.e  about  10,000  ^^^^ ^^l,  ^,,  ,0..  and  14,000 
anthracite  coal  per  annum.     Aoo  converted  i.ito 

tons  of  old  rails  are  annua  ly  used    n  ^^    ^  ^         ,,,,     A 

railroad  bars  and  merchant  uon   ^      '    "^        J^^^^^,,  ,Kh  the  .ail 


in  1840.  and  were  v-gam^^b    t  e  pr  .e  ^  ^^^^^^^^  ^^^ 

Iron  Company,  in  1853.     Tel'  y,,M^ut  of  tV.o  Com- 

—;orss,>CC--- ------ 

employed  in  the  works. 

E.  A.  &  G.  R-  Meneely's  Bell  Foundry, 

•  tl,o  most  extensive  and  noteworthy  manu- 
Situated  in  West  Troy  ^^^^^J^'  ^,  ,,,  founded  by  Andrew 
factory  of  the  kind  in  the  Lnited  «  "t -   ^  ^^^^  ^^,,  .^.,^  ^.„,, 

Mencely,  ihe  father  of  t  e  present    '  >  ^  ^^^  j;,,,,,.,,.    ,,,,,  every  State 

wciBliiiig  l-i««n  l""""'"-    .  ,.  „  „f  .„„„^,.  „„,1  tin  in  monlils  pro- 

pared  for  tlie  purpose.  "^  "'"'" /  \  ^.....^eted  in  this  foundry  is  a 
-'"  of  tin.  Tile  method  of  "-^;  f  ^m  ^  .-"l'^  -'-^«  "^  "^ 
very  great  >"'!;— ^JlJi'd^nC^f  the  bell  to  be  cast.  Two 
hollow  space  the  exact  form  una     n  l  ^  ^.^^  ^^  ^.^,^. 

separate   holh.w   iron  cases    shaped  1  We       b     .  ^_^^_^^  ^  ^^^^^^^,_ 

relpond  with  the  casting  to  be  '"7";^;;  ^  3\,,es.     One  case  i. 

B.  .  G.  E.  MENEELY'S  BELL  EOUNmT. 


eats  located 
jn  the  banks 
3et  in  length 
c,  adjiiccut. 
s,  which  to- 
,000  tons  of 
„  and  14,000 
inverted  into 
products.     A 
with  the  lail 
ure  engine  of 

Mill  Company 
;he  llennselacr 
^ow  a  lleprc- 
t  of  tV.o  C om- 
it 450  men  are 

tcworthy  rnanu- 
dftd  by  Andrew 
5ince  wliich  time 
into  every  State 
•t  of  the  world 
3  avcrajred  ('>00, 
hem  were  some 

n  in  moulds  pre- 
arts  of  copper  to 
this  foundry  is  a 
iild  consists  of  a 

to  he  cast.  Two 
of  a  size  to  cor- 

to  form  a  mould, 
lea.  One  case  is 
r  the  inside— the 

ease  is  lined  on  the  inside  wUhoa-an^^^^^^^^^^^  ^^^.^^  ^^^  , 

proper  thickness  and  surface  for  the    a^tn^-  ^^^^  ^,^^^  ^,  ,,, 

Lmber  of  bells  are  ready,  t^-y  -«  J^'-^'^^^.  ^,^„^  .^  ,,ehinery.  and 
foundry,  and  their  ^^^^^  '^^Y^J^^'^^,,  The  spaces  between  these 
guided  to  their  exact  pos.Uons  ^l^^lf_^  ,„,  ailVerent  sizes  are 

eases  then  form  the  moulds  ^^l^^^^i,^,.    Large  veverbera- 
employed  for  bells,  according  to       '  ^     _^;,  ^,,,,  ^  has  reached 

tory  furnaces  are  used  for  lusn.gthem^^^^^  ^^^^^^^^  .^^  ^,^^ 

a  i^opev  state  of  fluidity  it  >s  P-^-^f;"^'^.^^;^.^,,,  ,ig,t  at  night,  as 
usualVay.  The  casting  ^P^^^::;::!::,;.  e.s'of  Uuish-gveen 
Vhe  invense  heat  of  the  meta    cause     n  ^i^j^h  appear 

flame  to  issue  from  the  yen  ^^^^,1  Z^^y  of  colored  lire-works, 
like  domes  of  fire,  and  nval  ^fl^;;",;!,  J,.,  ery  slowly,  as  the  cast- 
The  straw  ropes  on  the  cores  ^^^^^ ^^^'2l,^^,,,  J,,  on  gradually,  and 
j,'g  cools,  and  the  shrinkage  ot  t      meta  t       ^  ^^^.^^^  ^^. 

;^vents  'sudden  and  undue  str^mn^  J^^  ^^^,^^^  J^  ^^^^^^ 

erience  are  necessary  to  ^^^^^^^^^''l^l \^,,  of  the  san.e  temperature 
simple.    The  metal  must  be  perfecl    fluid,  a  ^^^^^  ^^^^^.^^^_     ^,^^. 

at  very  part  of  the  mould,  to  produce  a  h m  t  ^^^^  ^^^^^^^  ^,^^^^  ^^,,,, 
^erly,  when  cntiro  loam  moulds  wu     emp  ^^  ^^^,^^^  ^„^.,, 

packed  in  pits  beneath  the  -^  ^  ;  ,  ^  J  ^i.  ^gerious  explosions  f-c- 
to  resist  the  great  pressure  of  ^^  ^^  ^  ™  ^^i^^.j^  these  packed  moulds 
,uently  occurred  then,  by  the  co,  A     1  a  ^^^,^  ^^^^^  ^^^^^ 

Socoming  highly  heated  ;  "-y"    ^l^^  ^he  iron  vent  casings. 

common,     'l''-^  ^'^^  "i: J"  ;;:  1"  J  ured  bright  in  rotary  frames 
After  the  bells  are  cas  ,  they  a  e  ^^^^  ^^^^^^^  ^f  ^^,, 

i,  ,vl  ich  a  sand  cushion  is  »^  -^  '^^^^ '^^  ^,  and  if  the  least 
„,etal  Each  bell  is  ^^f^^^^^^  "'^^  inferior  article  is  allowed 
Unpen,  ction  is  detected  it  is  ^«'f  ""^^  -J^^^i,  ^hc  bells  are  fitted  with 
toVass  outside  the  ^^^'^^  f'^^^^  this  foundry  all  bells 
clappers  and  yokes,  and  "-""^'^'^^^  Uted  with  Meneeiys  IMtent 

weighing  400  pounds  -f^^P;:^!:,)    ^ieh  obviUes  the  danger  of 
Adjustable  Yoke  (patented  IH.  8  and      b  )  ^^^_^^^  ^.^^_^^.,^,,^„^^,  ,„ 

::.^:\.w  suLe  to  the  action  of  thee  >^^^^        ^^^^  ^^^^^^^^^,, 

This  firm  have  been  l'»>'t-"l^  ^"-  ^  ,^,^,^^„,,  i,,ve  been  made 
chimes  and  peals  of  bells,  o|  -;'^' ^  ;^^;est  church  edifices  in  the 
at  their  foundry  and  placed  lu  som«  ot  the 



country.     At  least  eight  bells,  representing  the  octave  of  the  natural 
Bc»]c,  are  requisite  to  constitute  a  full  chime,  and,  ordinarily,  a  ninth 
bell  is  added,  tuned  a  flat  seventh  above  the  tenor  (largest)  b'.ll,  by 
which  addition  a  secondary  chime  in  the  key  of  the  fourth  is  produced, 
and  the  range  of  tunes  that  may  be  played  is  largely  increased      Not 
unfrequently  a  still  larger  number  of  bells  arc  employed,  the  additional 
number  being  toned  above  the  octave  of  the  tenor,  in  order  to  obtain 
greater  range  In  the  higher  notes.     Peals  or  bells  (as  distinguished  from 
chimes)  consist  of  from  tliree  to  four  bells  attuned  with  each  other  at 
harmonic  intervals,  which  will  not  admit  of  a  tune  being  played  upon 
them,  but,  when  rung,  either  successively  or  simultaneously,  produce  a 
fine  effect.     It  is  however  usually  anticipated,  when  peals  of  bells  are 
procured,  that  they  shall  form  pL.-t  of  a  future  chime  :  the  intermediate 
bells  to  be  added  as  may  be  desired.    In  constructing  a  chime,  the  tenor 
bell  is  taken  as  the  model  and  unit  of  measurement  of  the  whole,  certain 
relative  dimensions  giving  the  different  tones  with  theoretic  exactness. 
This  result  does  not,  however,  always  follow  in  practical  casting,  since 
it  is  almost  impossible  to  control  the  contingencies  of  the  operation«Bo 
that  the  conditions  of  each  casting  shall  be  absolutely  uniform—any 
variation  in  which  tends  to  affect  the  tone.     When  the  tone  of  a  chime 
bell  thus  proves  to  be  Incorrect,  it  is  laid  aside  to  be  sold  as  a  single 
bell,  and  the  operation  of  casting  is  repeated,  care  being  taken  to  vary 
the  conditions  as  may  be  recpiired  ;  so  that  when  the  chime  is  com- 
pletid   each  bell  is  in  its  perfect  condition  as  it  comes  from  the  model, 
the  quality  and  force  of  its  tone   not  being  iinpaired  os  in  the  English 
mode  of  tuning  by  having  a  belt  of  metal  clipped  from  the  side.     The 
usual  mode  of  placing  a  chime  in  the  bell  tower  is,  to  mount  the  tenor 
bell  in  the  centre  oi'  the  bell-section,  it  being  i)rovided  witli  yoke,  wheel 
and  frame,  so  as  to  be  runj,'  as  an  ordinary  church  bell,  as  also  to  be 
used  in  the  chime.     The  remainder  of  the  bells  are  suspended  stationa- 
rily  about  the  tenor  Irom  frames  or  beams  of  oak,  in  such  reliiliTc  po- 
siticns  as  shall  best  conform  to  the  capacity  and  construction  of  the  bell- 
Bection  and  most  equally  distribute  the  weight.     When  chimed,  the  bells 
are  all  played  upon  by  one  person,  by  means  of  cords  oUached  to  the 
clappers  and  led  down  to  the  ringer's  room  below,  there  connecting  with 
levers  arranged  in  the  order  of  a  key-board,  and  worked  by  the  hands  or 
the  feet  as  may  be  desired. 

Messrs.  Meneely  have  published  a  pamphlet  for  gratuitous  circulation 
vhich  gives  a  good  deal  of  general  and  specific  information  on  the 
ubject  of  Bells. 



f  the  natural 
irily,  a  nintli 
gest)  Lv.ll,  by 
1  is  produced, 
reased.  Not 
he  additional 
del"  to  obtain 
iguishod  from 
ach  otlier  at 
played  upon 
y,  produce  a 

of  bells  are 
lie,  the  tenor 
^hole,  certain 
ic  exactness, 
lasting,  since 
uit'orm — any 
3  of  a  chime 
d  us  a  single 
iken  to  vary 
lime  is  com- 

tlie  model, 
the  English 
e  side.  The 
ut  the  tenor 
yoke,  wheel 
i  also  to  be 
od  stationa- 
reliitiTc  po- 
1  of  the  bell- 
ied, tiie  bells 
[vched  to  the 
iiocting  with 
the  hands  or 

3  circulation 
tioQ  ou  the 

The  Schenectady  Locomotive  Works, 

Located  between  the  New  York  Central  Railroad  and  the  Erie  Canal. 
J^h;  principal  manulacturing  establishniont  iu  Sdunjocta.!      u  d  cn^ 
I'L  to  rank  among  cbo  most  important  ot  ^ ^^J^^^^ ,^^^Z 
the  united  States.     The  buildings  an  ^^^^^^^^1.-. 
Sbop  two  hundred  and  iifty  by  .seventy-five  feet,  two  '^^^^^^^ 
Biicksmith  Shop  two  hundred  an,l  fifty  by  hlty  foct_a  1'^''^     '^  '"P 
^^  rid  an]  forty  by  fbr.y  ..ot-an  Iron  Foundry  ^^^^Z 
fiftv-a  Carpenter  and  Pattern  Shop,  two  stones  high,  o.ght>  b)  loi  y 
S    !  ^r    s  Foundry  and  Paint  Shop,  lifty-throo  by 
^    I      W  Hous/eighty-.ive  by   hfty     a  ^-re      -^^wo 
Buries  forty  l>y  thirtv  feet-and  a  three-story  Oflice  forty-t  nve  bj  foUy 
f^o       Thl  bu;  dings'arc  nearly  all  of  brick  ;  ar.d  although  tlu-y  cover 
a     rgeV;:::f    :i..a,  arc  Jo  connected  by  -i.^oad  tnieks  t  at     lo 
transTortation,  on  light  trucks,  of  even  the  h.'avy  parts,  '^;---^^'"^'^ 
14     The  Machine,  Holler,  and  Erecting  Shops  are  new,  been 
ceded  since  June  2V.,h,  ISOO,  when  the  former  shops  were  destroy   1 
byte,  and  arc  provided  with  a  complete  stock  of  new  tools  ot  modern 

''Throriginal  Works  were  erected  in  1848,  by  a  company  who  dis- 
continued Their  business  in  about  a  year.     In  1851,  John   Kbs,  R  R 
Campbell,  and   Simon  C.  Groot,  purchased  them  '^t  abou    one  half 
their   original   cost,    and  formed  a  new  company,  ^vl-"  '--«;,, 
poratod   under  the  title  of  "The  Schenectady  LoeomoUve J      k  • 
During  their  administration,  largo  addiiions  were  made  to  th     Inu  1 
ings  and  machinery,  and  the  busmess  prospered  greatly.     M..  i.  hs. 
who  was  the  active  nmnager,  prov-nl  to  be  a  gentleman  of  more  vhan 
ordinary  business  capacity,  and  of  mu.h  personal  worth.      He  was 
born  in  Garmouth,  Scotland,  Peeember  llUh,  n<..5,  and  came  to  the 
United  States  in  1814.     He  became  a  contractor  of  some  ot  the  mos 
i„,portant  works  in  the  country,  among  them  tbo  McAdami/.ed  roal 
bluveen  Albany  and  Troy;  the  Albany  and  Schoneetady  1  a, hoad  , 
the  Utiea  and  Schenectady  Railroad  ;  the  Hoston  and  ^V  orceste.    la  1- 
road  ;  the  Croton  Water  Works;  and.  in  1851,  took  possess  on  «    the 
L^omotive  Works.     Since  his  decease,  October  4th,  1 8«4,  the      or  s 
have  been  owned  by  his  sons  and  Walter  McQueen,  f  ;>.-!'-     ""^^^ 
the  mechanical  department  under  the  former  adnun.strat.on.    Ihe  prcs- 
ont  management  is_JoUN   C.,  President ;  Chabi-ks  G 
Treasurer  ;  and  Wa-.tku  McQueen.  Superintendent.     About  hu  • 
dred  hand«  are  employed  in  the  Works,  which  arc  now  prc-,>ared  to 
turn  out  from  five  to  six  Locomotives  of  the  largest  class  per  month. 




of  the  splcncm  water-power  affordccl  by  the 

llociiESTEU,  by  reason 

ncultuntl  tlislriet,  has  peculiar  ^'^™  ^      J"  ^,  \i,tor„  were  alhuled 
,,,,io„.     Its  infant  enterprises  and   hen  c.uyuy^^^_._^^^^   ^^. 

i„  tl,o  first  voUune  of  this  work.     In  18,.     lie    J        ^^  i,5,o30, 

No.  of 


AgrlcuUiinil  imi'leinoats 


Browiiin  (1) 

Caliiuct  wiire 




Clgiirs  Buil  tobacco 


Coffeo  ami  spices 


Cotton  s'ooils 



Uavawaru  anJ '^o^" "         jj 


Iron  foHPiUuB 

Iron  railing 


5 $2.)S,.'i(W 























14,000  ..... 

2.'i,(X10  .... 



40,000..  . 












Valne  of 




34  . 





]',..,  72,650 




73.i!.."..      l.lll'.'WS 



135' 85,000 


.,       r  il,o  nro.liict  of  1860  was  much  below 

i„„i  on  000  bHrrel!<,  worth  ii  $5 





,nuare  feet.     A  l""Vorru.  nyurau...  ..,■."•  ,,  „ell  as  a  preeatttio 

J,r..  ..f  the  bttihliuK'.  tl>"-^  «"-"'"«  <^'f       T2n  h.-vo  orrcl  tnoro  seriously  ev.n 

'       )«h.nneh  the   --'-;•",;;;, „„,.  ^...t  avera«o  aaily  6,00 

,„  ?  ,n  .rewind.     There  ..  24  -";';;';;'-;  -;;::L..hiei,.,  VUnn  to  h^ 
barrels  of  Flour  for  l.'.O  .'ay.,  or  O'*'"'"'/    ,  «    1«0  000      A.hl  to  this  the  coarser  Rra>ns, 

elsh't  millioi^'  of  '1""""  n  y^"- 



,r(led  by  the 
tre  of  a  rich 
were  alluded 
:)ntained  545 
f  $4,U5,030, 
iiual  value  of 

Female       Valno  nf 
bauils.        I'l'oJuct. 
j',..,  72,050 

85,500"..      1,1  •■«'.■«» 



133 85,000 

y,|..,  73,930 

......       2,5(i3,43.'5 


."....  <0.650 


860  was  much  Ijelow 

9  : 

.     $SOO,000 

[   ,   .      3s,'i,noo 

*.     .         80,000 

at  of  Troy.      It  wftS 
latest  imi   ovcments. 
,f  tho  floors  is  02,500 
■r,  throws  wiiliT  to  nil 
rcouulion  n>;ivin!'t  firp. 
1  more  seriously  evn 
^t  average  ilnily  01"** 
uiiposinB  Flour  to  h^ 
hiB  tho  coursor  prains, 
tcr  ranges  from  six  to 




Locomotive  lamps 

Lull''"''  .' ',','^ 

Mad'ioovy  aiiJ  Bteam  enymes  (1) 




Vatinit  iiii'ilii'iues 


Pictui'o  fniiiiG^' 

Plnuoa  liimlu'V 

p.jUiry  wave 

rriiitii'i;  anil  i™hl>»l'i"« 

Saslios  rtours  ftiKUiUnJ" 



Shirts  ami  iMllars 

go'.ip  ami  oiiii'llefl 

Spokes,  felloes,  aud  I'ubs 



Tin  ami  sheet-Iron  ware 


Whips  ami  nloves .• 

Woo>l  workluK,  flour  barrels,  etc. 

No  of 









3  . 














l.'  •■■■ 
12,2."iO  ... 
22.000  ... 

7,0  10 
10,000  .. 

9  .. 
2S  ' 
132  . 







31  .. 


30  . 

8  . 



79  .. 



Value  of 



213, '■■.■|0 
'.  14,47.^ 


1    Uo  for  the  extent  and  cliavacter  of  its  Fruit 
Boeliester  is  vemavkable  fo    ^^^  ^^„  ,„,;,.,  of  the  city 

N«r.evh.s.     It  is  estimated  th a      ^      ^  J^^,^^.^      ^  ,i„,ie  fivni  have 
,,,  less  than  4.000  acres  d<.-odto^^^^  ^^^^^^^^  ,,  ,, 

a  nuvsory  that  occupies  ^00    -  s  and  ^^^^^_^^     ^,^^^_  ^^^^^  ^^  j.,.^,, 

;;:::isr::::rit;:r::inion Of  dollars. 

,  •        .   ,n  nf  the  eonsus-taker?,  Init  wo  arprchend 

«..■'■' '"•'"';»-'ri:  7;  «;,«o. , '.«'-'  c.  w>«".  <*■••»  '^"^•'""•"" 

c,i,eeiull.v  Mill  OearinB,  very  ''^'^"'^'J^-  ,,„„,Ual,le  B.ean>  Eugino  estaWi.shmen.s 

\)   .^.  Woopuouv  *  00.  have  ouo  of  the  '"'   ^  r  ^^^,  ^^^^^_^   ^^g,„„  ,,y 

,„    „„  Uoito'l  State.     In   1851  '''^«^'"      ^^j:      ,,,„  tert  to  .hir.y-f.vo  power. 

"„1  lishioK'  .»>''  "«-'"B  '^  ''*'  "'  """""  T    :  lira  of  before.     This  they  were  enabled  to 
p  lee.  utueh  below  any  that  haj  -- bet.  he^    0  rb  _^^^^  ^^_^^_^^__^  ^^^.^^ 

ao\,y  buibling  a  large  '.uantt|y  o    ^^^^^^^  ^„„„„„,  „,„„.  the  Kng.ish  l^an,  eaeh 

one  nrlielo  of  manufacture.      rhoirworK.       1  „,r„„^;l,oiit   the  year.     The  priu 

::.::an  having  a  li",itea  and  ^^^^j:Zl^2  H.vor^f  t-'o  V"'.'-  ati'l  thtur  Fo- 
eiple  upon  which. hey^u  ^^^^^^^^^^  ^,^,^.  „,„„,,>   tluy 

; t.  are  so  ,'opular  both  in  '"'«  ^u-te.    S-  -     »"^     ,^^^_,  ,  „^  „„  ,,„.„,  u.e  aetaana  ba. 
LsiRue,!  to  keep  a  Urge  stock  of  ""-.'"'"„„,,,,  Woodbury  A  Co.  are  about  ereot- 
out-tripped  their  facilities  for  tnaoufa  tur  n,. 
ngnei  and  more  eototnodiouB  workshops. 


.,    r      of  the  New  York  Central  Railroad,  between  Troy  and 

E  Remington  &  Sons'  Armory, 

1  for  Us  oriffin  The  story  of  its 
remarkable  alike  for  its  extent.  ^'"J^J"^;;^,;  ^Lk,  about  three  miles 
ongin  has  been  told  as  ''''r:^  ^^ .^^^  l^,  ^....r^  ,ro,n^iors. 
fvom  the  site  of  the  Armo  ^  dw  It  th     athe  I     .^^  ^^^^^  ^^.^^^  ^^^ 

who,  desirin.a  rifle-barrel  for  ^^?^^;X^^,,  ,  .^p  contains,  and 
other  tools  except  sneh  as  an  omuybUd^Mn  1^^^^  ^^^^^^^^^^^^ 

conveyed  it  to  a  gnnmaker  at  Ut».a    o  ha.e  ^^^^^^.^^^,,„  ,f  ^he 

The  gunmaker  was  mnch  V^^^^;^J^^  ,,timation  in  which  his 
barrel,  and  Mr.  ^^;'7^::J  ^^^Jpl^d  lll^knowledgc  to  a  profital-le 
workmanship  was  held,  dextcious  y  a^)  „„„.barrels  ;  and  not  long  after 
„.e,  and  commenced  t  e  J^  ^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^  .uh  the  cheery  fn-es  of 

this  incident,  the  banks  of  ^''f.\^'';'  ^,5,^  the  joyons  mnsic  of 

.any  i.r.cs^and  the  -^^^  ^l^^^^      ^.^to  be  LI  distant  from 
the  anvil.     The  old  facto,  y,  l'«;«^^;'  '  .^  ^g^O  Mr.  Remington 

'''  ''''  1  r"':^Z^:^'    ':t^:tZ..,  on  p^ns  snpphed 
purchased  a  farm  at  Uion.  upon  a  i  business 

ly  himself,  the  establi:  lunent  ,s  ^^'^'J^^  '^^J  ,,,,,,,d  a  large 
.as  limit.d  ty^;;^  ;^^::,^,       :^:trarm^he  manufacture 

bas  since  been  very  -^^^^^^^""[V'^t...^,  ,hich  now  render  the 

Many  of  the  most  ""l^'''^'^"^  "'^''7'    !  :,,  ,,  the  world,  have  had 

their  origin  with  this  fum.      l  ncy  .porting  guns,  and  wo 

fi.t  to  adopt  steel  ^  l^;^-:;^X^X^l;:^.J:^  .r...^^c. 
helieve  they  now  employ  it  ^'^^^''^^'l  service  For  thirty  years  they 
they  are  making  for  the  ^-^'"'"Valmost  every  manufacturer  both 
have  been  patiently  testing  the  stee  ^  ^l-  ^  ^  Lperiments,  have  as- 
iu  this  country  and  abroad,  and  by  a  o  g    on  s  y,,,,,,^  of 

cortained  which  is  the  best  adapted  ^^^^^  ?  '"     f  ^j.^^^^^^  been  largely  in- 

8,rumental  in  effecting  a  revolution  "  ^^'^  y^;;  .,   ..^ted,  they  are 

l,,Kl.  whence  nearly  all  the  oeks  in  «  ^J^^^J;;*;^^^  j,  „,,de  by  ma- 

.       made  by  hand ;  but  in  the  1^!»^'">^^" ^  a.^  lie  r    ui  is  that  not  only  are 




veen  Troy  and 

At  llion,  in 

Albany,  is  one 

;ates,  known  as 

'he  story  of  its 
)Out  three  miles 
cnt  proprietors, 
u  1810,  with  no 
p  contains,  and 
and  couii>leted. 
istruction  of  the 
;ion  in  which  his 
re  to  a  profital)le 
nd  not  lung  after 
ic  cheery  tires  of 
joyous  music  of 
too  distant  from 
I  Mr.  Remington 
n  plans  supplied 
rears  the  business 
r  received  a  large 
,  the  manufacture 
embarked  in,  and 

1  now  render  the 
,e  world,  have  had 
1  having  been  the 
rting  guns,  and  wc 
3ture  of  arms  which 
thirty  years  they 
manufacturer  both 
cperiments,  have  as- 
}y  the  application  of 
has  been  largely  in- 
lese  locks.    In  Eng- 
^  imported,  they  are 
)iece  is  made  by  ma- 
t  is  that  not  only  are 
as  each  piece  is  uni- 
!at  saving  of  labor  ia 

e^cted  in  putting  them  together.     Not  ^^:^:^:^ ^1 
Bridesbnrg.  Penn.,  20,000  of  Ma^ua        J  «     ^^  ^^;^  ^.,^,^  ^„,  „, 
make,  were  fitted  to  old  musket  ^^^^^^J^'  J^      ^^  ^^.^^^  ,„  economy  of 
Major  Hagner,  the  Superintendent,  has  ccrtiheci, 
labor  that  was  a  marked  advamage.  determination  to  pro- 

The  result  which  usually  attenfls  an  ""  ^a v e   n  ^^^^^ 

duce  nothing  but  good  ^f^^;?^^^  Ifgr  ss,  and  present 

ment  and  invention,  is  5"-^^  ^^  !"  \^"  ^^^^^^^^^^^ 

extent  of  this  establishment    The  ;^;  ^^^    ^  ^^  .^^  .^^  ,,,.«  a  frontage 

and  the  '-ildings  some  of    hem  f  o^- 

of  400  feet.     Within  the  last  two  y«^^   '*  °«  ^  ,„  „,„,,,inery 

not  only  to  the  structure,  bu    ^^^^J^^^S.^  the  machinery. 

Both  steam  and  water  pow^     I'^f Remises,  the  largest  of  which 

Several  «toam  engnies  a     n.  d  npn         I  ^^  ^^^^  ^^^^^^  ^^^^^^,^. 

is  of  one  hundred  and  hfty  po  ^^^^^^  ^^ 

,.Kl  a  third  of  ^^-"^IXJ^^^^  '^1-  -^^'•^">'"^-  ^'^"' 
Overshot,  breast,  and  several  i'»^  "«  ^^  ,,  comprising  the 

process  has  its  -^^^^^^^^^^^^  ^J.,  roo^,  ^^  '>arrel 
.elding  and  ^•-'^^'''^^'^^^,,,,„^  the  polishing  room,  and  in. 
room,  the  stocking  room,  the  "'^f'"^"  '  J'  j.  ^;„,t,„t  and  interesting 
specting  room;  and  each  presents  a  ^^'^^'^J  ^^  This  firm 

„.;■  of  tUo  various  kinds,  .Incl,  ■"  *   »       °  °  ;„,  ^„,,    „  „  „,,cf„re, 
50.000  stand  of  ams,  «"J  "J""  \.: V,^  ^   '  ^s  o„  wl>icb  .he  Govern- 

existence  and  annihilate  its  foes. 

-— r-L^^tierz^Seriir^^i^- 
.,.i,i.i,ca  .y  Mr.  A.  >  .«,  .,,  -•-l:":^,,,^,  •      ,    .  „s. 

provements  whieh  ti.e  lirm    ,.vc  ■"«'«,'",,  „f  „  modern 
;,„er,.i„i..«  to  ...e  f"';;^;^,.;   ^^7  ,' 1:.',  |„i„..ri.„.,  ...d  h.. 


valuable  improvements  which  ho  has  designed  and  contributed  for  its 

benefit.  •  .  ,  •      e 

One  of  his  inventions,  which  was  patented  in  1849,  is  a  machine  for 
balancing  and  finishing  Burr  Mill  Stones.  By  means  of  this  n.aclune, 
the  mill  Btone,  after  it  is  blpcked  np,  is  suspended  upon  its  centre  where 
it  is  balanced  in  the  course  of  filling  up  and  finishing,  instead  ot  being 
filled  ni»  as  is  usually  the  case,  without  the  means  of  testing  the  accuracy 
01  its  balance.  The  superiority  of  mill  stones  finished  in  this  way.  over 
others,  must  be  evident  at  a  glance.  To  regulate  the  balance  or  correct 
any  inaccuracy  which  might  arise  from  drying  of  the  moisture,  or  any 
other  cause,  this  firm  provide  a  Shot  Balance  without  extra  charge,  and 
give  directions  for  using  it.  ^^       t        t^ 

Another  valuable  invention  of  Mr.  Munson  is  a  new  Cast  Iron  Eye 
and  Mill  Spindle,  which  can  be  put  in  an  old  stone  equally  as  well  as  in 
a  new  one  Tlie  eye  is  formed  of  an  outside  and  an  inside  cone,  the 
two  cones  being  connected  by  spiral  wings.  The  inside  cone  or  luib 
forms  the  bail  or  driving  parts,  and  the  driver  is  cast  solid  on  the  spindle. 
The  advantage  of  this  Eye  is  that  it  cannot  be  choked  or  clogged  under 
any  speed,  carries  more  air  under  the  stone,  drives  nearer  tlie  centre, 
and  tlie  runner  cannot  be  thrown  off  the  cockhead.  It  is  peculiarly 
adapted  for  small  mills  where  great  speed  is  required. 

In  ISfiO,  Mr.  Munson  patented  an  improvement  adapted  to  mills 
grinding  all  kinds  of  grain,  starch,  plaster,  etc.,  by  which  a  more  perfect 
adjustment  of  the  stones  to  each  other  is  secured,  and  a  greater  con- 
venience in  lubricating  the  joints,  as  well  as  etlectually  preventing  the 
escape  of  the  oil  from  its  bush.  The  arrangement  by  which  these  im- 
portant ends  are  secured  is  fully  set  forth  in  the  firm's  Circular. 

Another  valuable  machine  manufactured  at  this  establishment  is 
MatlixotVs  Flour  Packer,  wliich,  it  is  said,  will  save  about  33  per  cent, 
of  labor  in  packing  in  barrels,  and  about  66  per  cent  in  packing  m  bags, 
when  compared  with  the  lever  press  and  the  usual  process  of  shoveling 
ipto  bags.  Its  novelty  consists  in  carrying  the  bag  or  barrel  fuU-lengtli 
'  upon  the  cylinder  and  delivering  the  flour  in  a  compact  state,  the  barrel 
or  bag  receding  from  the  packer  in  process  of  filling.  They  are  now  in 
use  in  many  of  tlie  best  mills  in  the  country. 

Tlie  works  of  Messrs.  Hart  &  Munson  include  a  Mill  Stone  Mann- 
factory,  a  Machine  Shop,  Plaster  Mills,  and  Foundry,  and  are  commo- 
dious and  well-arranged. 

Besides  the  establishment  we  have  mentioned,  Utica  contains  several 
other  important  manufactories.  For  instance,  the  Washingtonville  Iron 
Works,  conducted  by  Philo  S.  Curtis  ;  the  Iron  Railing  Manufac- 
lories  of  L.  Dean  &  Co.  and  Chauncey  Palmer;   and  the  Portable 




itributcd  for  its 

1  a  machine  for 
if  this  r.iacliine, 
ts  centre,  where 
nstcad  of  being 
ng  the  accuracy 
1  this  way,  over 
lance  or  correct 
loisture,  or  any 
:tra  charge,  and 

r  Cast  Iron  Eye 
illy  as  well  as  in 
inside  cone,  the 
lido  cone  or  hub 
d  on  the  spindle, 
ir  clogged  under 
earer  tlie  centre, 
It  is  peculiarly 

idaptcd  to  mills 
h  a  more  perfect 
d  a  greater  con- 
y  iirevcnting  the 

which  these  im- 

establishment  is 
jout  33  per  cent. 

packing  in  bags, 
cess  of  slroveling 

barrel  fnll-lengtli 
t  state,  the  barrel 

They  are  now  in 

lill  Stone  Mann- 
,  and  are  commo- 

a  contains  several 
shingtonville  Iron 
Hailing  Manufac- 
and  the  Portable 

Steam  Engine  and  Boiler  Works  of  Wood  &  Ilnrlburt.     Tliis  firm  have 
ctVeclcd  a  revolution  in  the  construction  of  farm  engines,  by  showing  that 
Ihey  can  be  made  light,  compact,  safe,  cheap,  and  yet  eflicicnt.     Their 
engines  range  from  U  to   20-horse  power,  occupy  a  space  from  two 
by  five  feet  to  6  by  7  feet,  and  cost  from  $175  to  §1700.     Kecently  they 
have  devoted  a  good  share  of  their  attention  to  the  construction  of  the 
Excelsior  Engines,  designed  expressly  for  the  oil  wells.    In  Utica  also  are 
the  extensive  Stove  works  of  Wheeler  k  Bailey,  and  J.  S.  Si  M.  I'ockliam 
established  in  1835.     This  firm  are  also  largely  engaged  in  the  manu- 
facture of  riows,  Cultivators,  and  other  agricultural  implements,  and 
have  the  exclusive  right  to  "1    ^kham's  Improved  Agricultural  Fur- 
nace "  which  is  adapted  for  wood  or  coal.     There  are  also  the  Utica 
Screw  Company  (C.  Miller,  Agent);  tile  Utica  Steam   Cotton  Mills 
(E.  Chamberlain,  Treasurer);  tlie  Globe  Woolen    Company   (Bobert 
IMiddleton,  Agent)  ;  and  the  Oneida  Brewery,  established  in  lsl3. 

At  Seneca  Falls,  which  is  189.{  miles  from  Albany,  there  are  several 
important   manufactories,   especially  of  Pumps,    Hardware,    and   Fire 


One  of  the  first  to  perceive  and  take  advantage  of  the  water-power 
furnished  here  by  the  fall  of  the  Seneca  Biver.  and  to  wlu.m  tiie  town 
is  largely  indebted  for  its  present  prosperity,  is  Mr.  Auel  Downs,  who  is 
still  a"t  the  head  of  some  of  its  most  important  enterprises.  He  is  ac- 
credited with  having  introduced  the  first  steam-engine  that  was  used  for 
manufacturing  purposes  in  the  town,  and  .Wtli  having  made  \\w  first  of 
the  many  thousands  of  Iron  Pumps  that  have  since  been  constructed 
there.'     For  several  years  the  manufacture  of  pumps  was  a  specialty 

(1)  Alocal  chronicler  ?ays: 

"In  the  year  1840,  Alicl  Downs  commcTiccd  the  manufacturo  of  Pumpfl  m  the  wing 
of  the  "Old  Cotton  Factory,"  subseoucntly  used  as  a  plaster  mill,  and  finally  burned 
down  in  tho  great  conflafrration  of  1803.  Ilo  erected  a  sniall  furnace  over  the  nver,  cm- 
ploving  five  men.  Only  wood  Pumps  were  manufactured.  Mr.  Downs  oontinucd  m  the 
business  about  two  years,  ^nd  at  the  close  of  tbo  second  year  returned  to  .be  m<,  o 
business,  being  succeeded  in  tho  Pump  Factory  by  Wheeler  A  Kelley.  In  tl.e  year  IStt. 
Mr.  Downs  again  engaged  in  the  Pump  business  in  company  with  J.  AV.  Wheeler  and 
Smith  Uri-s,  under  tho  firm  of  Wheeler,  Rriggs  k  Co.,  for  about  one  year,  when  W  heeler 
4  Downs  purchased  tho  -old  stone  shop,"  originally  creete.l  by  liement  .t  Cn.  lor  .  ear- 
riago  manufactory.  Into  this  building  their  maebinery  and  materials  were  removed,  an- 
a  stoaM-enginc  placed  in  it-tho  first  used  for  mannracturing  purposes  in  this  town-and 
there  was  made  the  first  Iron  Pump  built  in  Seneca  Falls. 

In  tho  year  1816,  Mr.  Washburn  Race,  who  had  recently  invented  a  .d  paicnted  his 
rinco  famous  Stove  Regulator,  came  into  tho  firm,  and  subsequently  Silsby  .t  Tbompsou, 
who  were  then  in  tho  hardware  trade,  obtained  an  interest  in  tho  Regulator  also.  I  ro- 
vious  to  tho  purchase  by  Pilsby  A  Thompson,  tbo  firm  in  tho  manufacture  of  Pumps  was 
gtyled  Wheolor  &  Downs-and  in  the  Regulator  it  was  Wheeler,  Downs  A  Race.     After 



etc.,  .ore  aMca  to  the  ■   •  «"J  '"" ^^  „„„,,  Man«act,:,.. so  C«.- 
„e,„«„„s  of  «r.o,;a     .s    -  ^^  ^^__^  ^^  .^^^^  ^^,  ,„j^  ,„,  .„„,„y 

PANY  now  coiibume  itu 

200  hands.  ^  •„  the  mannfacture  of  Hosiery 

A  few  years  ago  ^-^^JJ^,^,,,,  for  the  purpose,  and  has 
having  improved  patented  1^"'">"-  ,  thousands  of  dozens 

supplied  the  United  States  «--;;  J^  ^/the  establishment  of 
ofMalf-hose.  This  -^/^  J^  .l^^;  ^.Lh  Sea.,ury  S.  Gonld  is 
tuo  SKXKCA  f  "J-  ^^„\^'\^r::,  .m  now  extensively  engaged  m 
President,  and  Abel  Downs,  ^  ^  j^  j.^.Uets. 

the  manufacture  of  Hosiery  W»'    F^s  '^  ^^^^  g.^eca  Knitting 

Besides  the  Downs  Manufaaurg^^^^^^^^^  ^anufaetories   at 

Mill  Company,  there  are  the  following       1 

Seneca  Falls:  i  Tiro  En" ine  Works,  established  in 

C«.iaB  ^  Oo,.panyB  f-'M'  "'^J"™  '^l  ^jl,    „„„,,„,  „„, 

1840.     TWs  firm,  composed  of  Jolm  1 .,  ^.^^  ^„j  j,„rce 

rtho  Una  was  Down,,  Mymlerse  .1  Co.   Mr.    V  .^^^^     ^^.^  ^^„^,„„   j  „p  ,« 

iui    Umo  muupswore  "-"'^-'^^'^^  :;;:;,,  of  K.  Mynaorse,  ami  then  the  fim 

£;-:s:- tr«S -v=^^^^^ 

,„K  to  two  tons  or  -°J-   ;:  ;•;  ;„o.  .orUing  up  about  four  tons  daily,  and  g.-g 
ill   \h3i  to  5"^")  „r  i!>n  different 

-S^.  .own,  *  CO.  .auo  .0  different  -:;i:ia::::t77::: ^ ^^^^^^ 

.i'el  They  have  gradually  beeonie  en,a|^=ln.b  a  ^^^^.^^^  p-,,e  13oxe»,  east-iron 
'  ;;;.lwaro  aside  from  ^-^-^Z^:^^!  Serews,  east-iron  Boot  .TaeUs  .ron  „,u 
„,„,  Bled.   SinoMMng  I^rons,  J.U^,  ^^^^^^^^  ^^  ^^^^^  „^,.,,  „,,,,.     .Uoy 




other  articles, 
Lcins,  Sadirons, 
(J  to  raoet  ti\e 
ay,  and  employ 

nre  of  Hosiery, 
nrpose,  uml  has 
isaiuls  of  dozens 
■stablishment  of 
)ury  S.  Gould  is 
,ivcly  engaged  in 


Seneca  Knitting 
manufactories   at 

ks,  established  in 
rgc,  and  Marshall 
ler  Lift  and  Force 
I  House  Engines, 

,crl  to  that  of  W.  Knee 
ump^s.  SubEO- 
,f  Pumps,  nnd  tbe  titlo 
iretl  from  the  business. 

This  continuod  up  to 
;rsc,  nml  then  the  firm 
.  >;il9by  sola  his  interest 
,ea— being  Messrs.  Ahel 
melting  from  ono  nml  a 
ncreascd  till  in  1851  the 

tons  ilftily,  and  giving 

ipon  the  cannl  and  river 
until  tho  number  of  men 
,„ts"  consuming  from  ten 
nderse  eame  into  tho  firm 
.rensed  to  about  $150,nn0 
well  tho  amount  to  over 
;,000;  in  1850  to  $70,000  ; 
.'.vmount  annually  to  near 

I  upwards  of  130  different 
ure  of  many  other  articles 
eins,  Pipe  Boxes,  cast-iron 
,t-iron  Boot  .Taclis,  iron  and 

useful  articles.    They  sell 

Sadirons  etc  The  Island  Works,  H,  C.  Silsby,  Agent,  make  Steam 
F^  Eng  neB  and  Rotary  Pninps.     Mowing  Maclnnes  sa.d  to  be  v  ry 

;S:d!:irwS;i;:3'.I.nery  by  IWI  .  Mii^  .d  V... 
tian  Blinds  by  H.  P.  Westcott,  who  is  the  mventor  of  the  only  success 
ful  macliine  that  makes  the  slats  for  these  blinds. 

At  LocKPOUT.  a  thriving  town  of  12,000  inhabitants,  distant  21  miles 
f..ot  B^I"  there  is  a  of  respectable,  though  no  very  rema  U- 
manufaeiories.     Tl>e  town  possesses  peculiar  ^^ van  ages  ^a^^^ 
branches  of  manufactures,  by  reason  of  tlte  vast  -^^^^^^^^^Z 
the  flow  of  water  from  Lake  Erie  as  it  passes  around  ^1'^  lock    ami  uc 
ends  from  the  Erie  to  the  Genesee  level.     This  VO^^^^^^^ 
bv  the  Lockport  Hydraulic  Company,  wlio  dispose  of  it  on  hbcial  ttims 
and     rn^h  buildings  and  shafting  at  a  cheap  rent  to  -'chanies  of  m  d^ 
e  a     capital      The    most  i.nportant  manufactories  already  establ.  hed 
e  a         0  Lockport  Edge  Tool  Company,  the  foundries  and  maclu no 
10  s  of  the   UoUy  Manufacturing  Co.npany,  llace,  Matthews  .^  Co 
llexande    Pound,  C.  G.  Hildreth,  T.  P.  Baily  &  Son,  the  foumlnes  of 
t  mu^Gardner  and  II.  Van  Brocklyn,  the  Barrel  and  Stave   ado  u^ 
of   B.  &  J.  Carpenter,  Hiram  Benedict,  William  Norman    and  I    nid 
Ritsou.  the   Shingle  factories  of  G^D.  Root  &  Son,  -^   ^^  \  ;^^; 
Yandusen,  the  Saw  Mills  of  P.  A.  Yanvalkenburg,  H.  P   Cady,  a,  U 
R   Edwards  &  Co.,  the  Cabinet  Ware  manufactories  of  M.  W  j^van. 
Ll" 'Beck,  the  Woolen  Factory  of  L.  ^^^^^^^^ 
and    Knitting  Factory  of  J.  L.  Davison,  the  Flax   Cotton   lactones 
:    W   i.  Daniels,  President,  and  F.  N.  Nelson,  the  Pap--  Mdls  of  G- 
T   Crouch,  the  Plaster  Mills  of  John  W.  Irving  and  L .  J.  Lavallcy, 
the  Flour  Mills  of  Harman,  Cope  &  Co.,  Douglas  &  Jackson,  A^  H- 
Smith,  H.  Finch,  J.  Playter,  William  R.  Moore  &  Co    and  George^^  H 
Elliot;,  the  Distillery  of  Fletcher  ..  Toag  the  l^-weries  of  J^G.  Nor- 
man and  J   C   Bowers,  the  Potash      anufactory  of  L.  B.  Stainthoipe, 
The  Shingle  Machine  Manufactory  o    W.  W.  Trevor  &  Co.  the  Soap 
1  Candle  Factory  of  George  Staint     rpe,  and  the  Lockport  Gargling 
Oil  Company  (George  W.  Merchant,  Chemist). 




■     •.     in,i  nf  thfi  eastern  extremity  of  Lake  Erie,  nncl  tlio 

B.FFATA  f-!^^  .^^,;^7,^"'    ^g  been  a  [n-incipal  couuno.cial  en.- 

tcvuinus  of  tele  ^  ^  '  j^  j  '  ^,,f,,,,a\,rocligieH  of  labor  at  an 

porium  of    he  Wes       «  ^^  ^  ^  ^^^  „,„,,  ^han  2,000  inluvbitants. 

to  render  tlie  «'^™";  ''J  ^ .  ^„j  ^^  ^  later  period  they  erected, 
termination  of  /^  ^^  ^^^^^^  :',;;:_\,  f.eilitate  the  rapid  discharge 
at  a  heavy  cost,  /7«7  /j^';,!;,,.,  ..^  now  in  tl>e  city  of  Bnffalo 

rT27'::^^^^^^^-'  ^^-t  have  m  the 
twenty-one  o    '^'J'^^}^  ^„^,,,„  „f  grain  per  liour,  and  a 

reputable  to  the  port^  ^.^.^^^^  ^^  ^^^^^^^  j^,,, 

productions  of  the  West.     Accorauib  ^^^^ 

•    „,i.,o,w.p  nf  their  offical  publication,  trie  touniy,  01  WI11..U 

us  in  advan      «f  «'^  ^°  ^^  „,anufaeturing  establishments,  with  a 

'"     :  rf*  '.21871   t  !      ielded  a  value  of  $10,7^,750.     According 
capital  of  $5,524  8  1       at  pe  ,„,„,f,etories,  that  had  a 

«,  •  1     ;„   -Rnffnlo   were       t  more   successful   dian   tnose   lu 

besides,  business  was  depressed       «J.  *»^/;;  "f^^^i,,,  ,    us  manu- 

rr  ^"^^  n  7brr  rrrtre^sra^  of  competent 
factories.     It  is  P^^^^"';' J      ^  ^^i;,  ,f  .^ticles  now  manufactured  in 

The  principal  manufactures  of  Erie  County,  accoramg  to 
returns,  were  the  following : 



Eric,  and  tlio 
iiumcrciiil  cm- 
f  labor  at  an 

0  inhtvbitanta, 
nd  secure  the 

they  erected, 
ipid  discharge 
;ity  of  IJnffalo 
the  affgregatc 
r  hour,  and  a 
mptitude  witl\ 
ve  the  harbor 
tlieir  arrival— 
ner,  and  highly 

)f  Buffalo  have 
ing  the  growth 
han  that  which 
nse  agricultural 
iturns,  furnished 
)f  which  Buffalo 
shments,  with  a 
50.     According 
irics,  that  had  a 
and  380  female 
lowever,  it  may 
;  product.      The 

1  Uian   those  in 
5ily  be  proved — 

18G0,  and  since 
ber  of  its  manu- 
ite  of  competent 
'  manufactured  in 
unreasonable  one. 
ing  to  the  census 










Agrlculuiml  linrloments 

Brass  founilliiK 


Blauk  books  and  book  binding  . 

Boots  and  sliofs 




Cabinet  I'uniiture 

Car  wliecls. 

Distilli'd  liquors 

Edi,'0  tools 

Flour  and  meal 

Glass  waro 

Hats  and  caps 

Iron  (rolled) 

Iron  railiuK 

Iron  forgiuK '• 

Iron  fonndinn  •• 


Lunibor  dilaued) 

Lumber  (sawed) 

Malt  liquors 


Mill  stones  and  miU  furnlsliint,' 

Marblo  work 

Machinery,  steam  engines,  etc...        » 

Pianos,  rnolodeons,  oto 3 

Scales,  platform  and  co'  ator  1 

Stove  foundiu,; 

Soap  and  candles. *'^ 

Sash,  doors  and  blinds 

Saddles  and  harness 

Saddlery  hardware 

Shoemakers'  tools 

Tin,  copper,  and  sheet-ironwork 


Widen  Roods 

White  lead 

Wine  (native) 

Wash  boards 

No.  of 
ineuts.         Capital, 

6 »20n,400 »124,290 377 



















43.'), 025... 






02,2114  .. 

201 ,2;!  I  .. 







,rtT.  ,291... 

















1 015,000 l.-'S.OOO 230 




























868,018  ... 





00,400 89.. 




173  , 







55,492 40 

47,720 83 

2."i,190 49 

21,800 40.... 

10,000 100.... 

78,395 98.... 

40,000 a-).... 

.36,7,50 .W..  . 

24,767 20.... 

96,000 13... 

10,000 20..., 




Value  of 


On  the  Manufacturing  Establishments  of  Buffalo. 

Agricultural  Jm7,?emcn<s. -Buffalo  contains  some  of  the  largest  and 
.ot  e  vidly  celebrated  manufactories  of  agricultural  nachines  in 
The  United  States.  To  no  other  city  in  the  Union  are  the  larmers  of 
thp  West  so  largely  indebted  as  to  Buffalo. 

a1  g  the  Lit  prominent  of  these  establishments  in  that  city  are 
the  PITTS  AGRICULTURAL  WoRKS,  owucd,  wc  bclicve,  by  an  incorporated 
company,  from  the  fact  that  James  Brayley,  Esq..  ,s  announced  as 



.r     This  concern  is  indebted  for  its  celebrity  mainly  to  the 
Treasurer.     Tins  concern  is  from  whom  it  derives  its 

valuable  inventions  ^^'^  ^^^^^^  ,...^.,  ^^.  Tr.  .^., 

or  Endless-Cham  Horse  low_i  ^,^^^,^,,.  ^^j  Separator, 

^n  "  wtt^    3'^  i  -^^^ues^o  be  the  leadin.  article  manu^- 
StttlSworUs.  importantimp^vem^^^ 
construction  of  this  machine  .nceuw^^^^^^^^^^ 

profiled  by  six  or  eight  l^-'- ^  ;  '^^^ ^^^^^^^^^^^    ,f  oats,  per  day,  and 
bushels  of  wheat,  and  from  600  to  1000  bus  ^^_ 

quinng  no  '''^"'ll^'^e  ^^  ^^^^^^^  ^^^^^^^ed  of  these  machines  are  now  made 
for  the  granary      ^'^    ^     '  ,,  ,^,„,f,eturer  1^^^^  an  attach- 

and  sold  annually.     Recently  tne  ra  t\nc^\,^Oi  and 

„,ent  for  measuring  -^^^^^^^7"^,  ^  "rmlg  Mill  =uto  the  Elevator, 

,1,0  farmers  of  tl,e  West,  cannot  1«>  ""-l-^j  ,  „,j        „,„, 

B.,ae,  u.  ■'■'---;:::rr:;tnrniv,,M^  p^„.» 

machines  are  made  at  these  woiKS.      v         j       „trenffth,  durability,  and 

-;'rt:;:\:E/i:r:?^-:^:-- ---«'--- ""»■'■ 

are  kept  in  stock.  Af,p„Tvv  Wouks  are  another  exten- 

feature  of  this  Lomouitu  „ccomi)lished  by  an  arrange- 

^"  ^r'  :^  Zt^i^  iZ:^^""' ts  actio!,  or.  in  other 
,,en  ^y;^'''"f!,,;in  following  the  inequalities  of  the  grounu  mde- 
words,  rises  and  fa  Us  m  touo  ^  ^./recommended  for  its  excced- 
pendently  of  the  driving  wheel.  ^^ !«  J^''^  ;*-;;  .^  j^  „„t  effected  by 
[ng  lightness  of  draft    and  ^cuig  made  c^  n  n  ^^^^  .^^^^_ 




lainly  to  the 
it  derives  its 
in  1836;  also 
ad  Separator, 
licle  raauufac- 
eii  made  in  the 
nd  now,  when 
om  300  to  500 
. per  day,  and 

condition,  rc- 
-ntil  it  is  rciidy 

are  now  made 
ited  au  attach- 
Is  threslied  and 
,0  the  Elevator, 
Bag,  each  half 
ilue  of  a  labor- 
lis  time,  and  to 

iful  and  ])opular 
e  Double  Pinion 
,  durability,  and 
ice  Hulling  ma- 
icres  of  ground, 
Is.  At  times  as 
ly  of  hard  wood, 

e  another  exten- 
)prietors  of  these 
! — among  otliers, 
The  distinctive 
,  will  work  as  well 
d  by  an  arrange- 
ction,  or,  in  other 
the  grounu  inde- 
Jcd  for  its  excced- 
18  not  affected  by 
<f  have  ali"  in'AO- 
Covibined  Mower 
I  said  to  bo  capable 
3  two  horses. 

The  Works  are  the  property  of  a  stock  company  with  a  l-|gc  -ptal 

all  paid  in,  of  which  George  L.  Squier.s  President,  Lvciln  Hawley 

Secretary  and  John  Valentine,  Superintendent.        ,      ,       ,,  , 
RL  H0WARO'sA0KXC..T«RAL  WORKS,  where  Eetchum's  well-known 

Mower  and  Reaper  is  made,  is  another  celebrated  estabhshment  m 
Buffalo  Over  20,000  of  these  popular  implements  have  been  manu- 
factured and  distributed  to  all  parts  of  the  country. 

About  six  years  ago  Messrs.  Miller,  Bennett  &  Co.  took  posses- 
riot  of  th  o[d  "Vian  Iron  Works"  and  converted  them  into  an 
agrieu  tnral  implement  manufactory,  more  especially  for  the  -nufacUire 
7Mhnrsrf Patent  A<Jjustable  Mowing  and  Reaping  Maclnne,  better 
knowti  as  the  Buffalo  Mower  and  Reaper.  ,  .    ,i.  .       .  „„ 

Brass  i^o«Wi.^.-The  census  officials  evidently  erred  in  the.r  return 
of  ^his  branch.  Lead  of  there  being  but  two  firms  engaged  m  Brass  . 
wo  kn  Buffalo,  we  know  of  three,  and  there  are  probably  others-the 
"Eagle"  works,  P.  Colligon  &  Co.  proprietors,  who  manufacture  also 
ZtL  Steam  Engines  and  Palmer's  Hydraulic  Lift  and  Force  Pump ; 
fhe  <-  MUo  Brass  Foundry,"  Bro^vn  &  Ruhlandt  proprietors,  who 
m  ke  !team-engi«e  and  locomotive  Brasswork ;  and  the  "  La  aye  t. 
Bras!,  :„d  Bell  Foundry,"  of  whieh  Aoam  Gooo  has  been  proprietor  for 

"^SLZt;::::^:' largest  BistHleryin  N^  York  State  wes. 
of  Albany,  is  of  Tiiomab  Clark,  in  Buffalo.     His  consumption  of 
Ihi  is  about  G40  bushels  a  day-which,  allowing  one  bushel  to  each 
r      alio-  of  spirits,  would  make  a  daily  product  of  l^^O  gaUon. 
or  over  60  barrels.     The  still  in  his  establishment,  made  in  New  York 
City  by  weight,  is  one  of  the  finest  ever  constructed.     It  h- ^  '^ - 
•.    JLldi,  ir  10  barrels.     "  Clark's  Rye  and  Monongahela"  Whis- 
^:^^^  bralin  Western   New  York  ami  in  the  Western 
State         n  connection  with  the  Distillery  Mr.  Clark  l-«  an  ex  ensivc 
Rectifying  establishment,  and  is  the  largest  manufacturer  of  Alcohol  on 
UrLles.    The  oldest  and  largest  Brewery  in  Buffalo  Is  that  of  Moffat. 

"^t"  ;;;^L  «.....-The   ^rst  I^ollnig^n   ejected  ^n 
Brffalo  was  that  known  as  the  Buffalo  Iron  and  Nail  Works,  buill  in 
47by  C  r  s  &  Co..  and  now  owned  by  Pratt  &  Co.     The  mam  mill 
sn     fee    long  by  140  feet  wide,  with  Nail  factory  attached,  and  has 
Ih    puddling  furnaces,  six  heating  furnaces,  and  about  fity  Nail  ma- 
cW    s     Bo  ides  this  main  building,  there  are  blacksmith  s,  mil  wr.ght 
and  oiher  shops.     The  works  will  compare  favorably  with  the  best  of 
ilaJ  concerns  in  the  country,  and  are  no.  turning  out  large  quan- 
tities'of  i-on  and  nails  of  the  best  qualify. 



frzxroT'ro;:::— or  u,„t  i.,o«a„ce » . 

mannfactmiug  centre.  conncctioii  with  the 

I»  18C2  -other  ..go  RouM^^^^^^^^^^^^^^ 

Blast  Furnaces  erected  by  Palmu  .v  ^^  ^      ^^^^  .^le  of  the 

son,  who.  os^"«^--':;^^-^:^;r^t^ration  in  UutValo  or  in 
Union  Iuon  Works.     Ihc  iuinace.  i  i  ^  ^^^^ 

eourse  ^  erectlon^^U  ^^  ^^^^  ^^C^Northern  Michigan^ 
of  rig  Iron  annually.     T  .c  oic  ^^^      .^  ^^^^^^  ^^^ 

The  ''^'i^f- ^i;- V.^^^^^^  i  tlly  q  pped  for  fabricating  masses 
.ow  owned  l^i'  ^KM^,^^^™  ism  nt' ha's  th'e  capacity  of  turning  out 
of  wrought  iron.     Tins  c^^'^o"  j^  ^^^  in  the  course 

$200,000  worth  of  work  annually.     Another  lorgo 
of  er'ection  in  Buffalo  ^^^^^  ^^^^^^^  .^  ^^^^  |„g„iy 

The  manuiacturc  of  3lac mn.iy  ^^^^^^g. 

carried  on  in  Buffalo,  much  more  -     -;  ^^^^J^^^i^on  Works."  for 
takers  would  lead  o"e  to  ;ui>pos  •     Tl.     SK-^^^^^^  ^^^^^^^^^  ^^^^^ 

^"^^"?t^;2;0^^    i:  l.tS  of  the  works  were  erected  in  184T 
amount  to  $200  000      1  ^^^^^^  .^^^^  ^^^^^^  ^^^  ^^^^  ^^^„^      ,„a  a 

and  consist  of  a  buck  lo     m  .^^  ^^^^^  ^j^.  j^^,^  p. 

boiler  shop  adjommg      '«  ^^^^^  7; ;^^,„„,;..  Buffalo,"  and  attached 

«—  '^;^Z:7lX^V^^^  the  shaft  just  touclnng 
,.  screw  propeller  whiei  oi   lo  it  Although  a  failure 

tbo  water  when  the  wheel  was  load  d        t-  feet-     A        ^g^^ 

was  confidently  and  genenvlly  1'      -^-;'         ^^^  propeller  wheel  es- 

Tr^f  tr  jCnlt^lf-raf^^  U^  i.  -st  .cam 
tabl.shed.       loic  t  0     a  ^^  ^^^^^^  ^^  ^^^^  ^^^._^^^^  ^^^^^^  „g,^. 

engines  on  the  Lak.s,  .u  I  tlic  i  _  Michigan,"  "Northern 

Flouring  mill>».  ^  j  x.  Tifft  &  Co. 

Tl>o''«an-f'7"7/;«\;:^;7.;Xn::^Iowell,a.  also  ex- 

,.ssees.and  the  ^"|;^,^^  ^  ,^  ^n^^  '  ""a  Boilers;  while  Mason  & 

...nsivoly  engaged  in    ',        "^^  ^  "f,^.,^^.       ,,,,,i,  of  the  largest  si.c. 

«;rc,c,l  w«c  ImiU  ..  .!>«  »Ui,.;.ra,  of  U*  Ann, 



y  iiuc  Blast 
•j  is  indebted 
ortance  iS  a 

tioii  willi  the 
311  &  Thomp- 
10  title  of  the 
l^itValo  or  in 
y.  oO.OOO  tons 
ern  Michigan. 
1  in  1850,  and 
eating  masses 
,f  turning  out 
r  in  the  course 

is  also  largely 
of  the  census- 
,n  Works,"  for 
product  must 
irctted  in  1847, 
it  square,  and  a 
,  Mr.  John  D. 
,"  and  attached 
t  just  touching 
though  a  failure 
;nt  was  entirely 
)pellcr  wheel  es- 
very   best  steam 
ivgest  passenger 
ran,"  "Northern 
.  Lawrence,"  and 
r  steamboats  and 
used  in  S  w  and 

J.  N.  Tlfft  k  Co. 

veil,  arc  also  cx- 
whilo  Mason  & 
the  largest  size. 
l>r<)pellers.  Brigs 
least  r)0,000  tons. 

itearaers  ever  con- 

of  BUSH  &  Howard  and  Aaron  KUMbtY  .v 

,„  tho  was  of  .aiUcr.  »  ...  tl,o  «'"  "  "'  /j  °::,  „,„  „„i„aioc, 
He  commcaccl  the  ma»ur«t„r«  ,n  l';'- »  ''  ]  ^,,,,,  i,,„  V,M  year 
„r  old  milkrs  againHt  small  stone.  "'«  "  ""  ,  '„„„°  ,,„„„,„,  „„, 
aw  not  oMod  a  Ualf  Oo»u  m^^s^  J  ,  '  .»»  ,s  satisfac. 
imlnccd  to  test  tho  0M>criincnt,  and  fouaa  tn t  ^^^^^^ 

->•■ »"-  *  f  r  N::-i't,;rn,:^  u;;':r ;..:o » ,;nn„,cd 

that  by  means  of  Mr.  Noyes  mipi  of  wood ;  and  O. 

,  ,  „r ^^^^;^z:^^::^'L ... ..o wo..... 

ney  &  Co.  at  their  laige  sua  experiment  has  now 

one  ton   of  bitumn.ousjoaL     W  a   wasj^  ^^^^^  ^.1^  ^,^^  ^^ 

become  a  fixed  f'^^^'  '^'^'""y*,,;,.  f,,t  atones)  with  an  economy  of 

^-^^"^T;^:::^:^^rt::.^veto  Lrtythreo  percent.; 

n::;:;"  .^^^^^       ^,^^^. 

Mr.  Noye  is  also  the  uweutor  o       -        «;  \«  ^^.  ^^,  ,,^„,,,,,  a 
sure  Mill,  a  Plantation  Corn  Mdl,  a  Simit   aa  ^^.„  ^^^,j 

^''':r'\  a   ALT  FN  &  Co.  arc  another  firm  in  Buffalo  extensively  e^- 

'rirma^iifg  Burr  Mm'toncH  and  furnishing  Mill  Much  nery.     Mr. 

gaged  in  making  JJurr  niillwright  and  a  munufac- 

AUen  has  had  a  long  experience  both  a    a  jn  1       fe  ^^^^^^^ 


driven  to  the  proper  speed  with  but  little  gearing.     Hi«  CombinaHon 
ariven  w  uuc  F    i-       »  Jr^inn  Floiir  Packer  a-e  labor- 

Sniw<  Machine  and   /wiproverf  belJ-Actmg  ^"^  ' 
aavintr  machines  that  are  also  deservedly  appreciated. 

KP  BUTLER,  the  other  manufacturer,  is  the  successor  of  Weston, 
Cotwell  &  Co  His  Mills  are  peculiar  in  the  novel  method  of  hanging 
She'll  Mr.  B-tler  having  a  patent  upon  the  Iron  work  employed 

%rorSeons,  ..c._lnstead  of  there  being  but  three  establ^. 
m.n  s    ngaged  in  the  manufacture  of  Musical  Instruments  in  Buff   o 
Tthe  1-  takers  have  reported,  there  were  four  Piano  manufa^W- 
.  i-       !„    i«fiQ  Art    those  of  A.  &  J.  Keogii,  ii-   uibti, 

to^:iTi::^Zl  TL...  ^.M..  these,  there  was  the 
iCe  Manuf  ctory  of  Sueppar.  &  Cottier  ;  the  Organ  fanufactoy 
Ta  House-  and  the  Melodeon  Manufactory  of  George  A.  Prince 
1  CO  hat  usuany  employs  200  hands,  and  tur.s  out  80  .struments 
per  we'ek  rang  „g  in  price  from  $35  to  $350.  Thi»  is  one  of  the  arges 
per  wetii,  '""fa"  fe      i        .  TTnitPfl  States     The  manufactory  is 

establishments  of  its  class  m  the  ^•^^^.'^,^!7'-''.^,  .frontage  of 
built  in  the  form  of  an  L,  five  stories  in  he^ht,  '^"♦^  j?%Y  jj^^^^. 
120  feet  on  two  streets,  and  40  feet  in  breadth      Nearly  30^000  u.  tru 
ments  have  been  sent  out  from  thi.  manufactory  to  all  paits 

.50  foot  ta  .idth  and  co„.»io. .«» 7*,^^™  "^  ^i*:;;;!. 

200  by  100  feet,  and  has  one  cupola.   The  hrm  has  oetu 

'^Messrs  Woou,  Hubbe.l  &  Co.  are  another  firm  extensively  engaged 
inte  manufaetire  of  Stoves.     They  make  over  a  hundred  different 

"'t^rf  We"  presume  the  establishment  alluded  to  in  the  census  re- 
turr/s  mIfaeCng  Native  Wine  is  that  of  Turner  Brothers,  who 

'  are  labor- 

of  Weston, 
i  of  hanging 
:k  employed 

ee  establish- 
I  in  Buffalo, 
)  raanufacto- 
,  H.  Utley, 
there  was  the 

E  A.  PlUNCE 

►  instruments 
of  the  largest 
anufactory  is 
ft-frontage  of 
50,000  iustru- 
parts  of  the 

.es  in  Buffalo 
John  Weeks, 
•rganiziug  the 
Rich,  a  gen- 
3W  established 


F  manufactures 
;s  of  one  firm, 
,0  tons  of  iron 
ne  usually  em- 
;he  Eagle  Iron 
motors,  occupy 
et  in  length  by 
id  the  other  is 
stablished  since 



.  portion  or  th,  y»r  '«  j;'^;^  ^^^  ,  ^,,^0  bon..wh„.>,  ha, 

America.  -      ,  f„„tories  in  Buffalo,  those 

Wkile  i««''-Tl.««'"«,7.^"';''2   To  Ssn™  White  Lc.l 
or  T>.0M.»o»*C„.     on.  c^.^.S43       a  *e  ^^^^^^^  ^^^  ^   ^ 

Co„.pany,  estabhshed  .u  'f  ^"^^  ''  "       „b„„t  ,200  ton,  of  White 

COUNK...  Secreta^  ,  ^fSlr.  .^frct,  iastea,l  ot  bein,  »63.000. 

Lead  per  annum,  and  the  aggreg.  1  1  . 

a,  returned  by  the  eensus-takers,  .»  abont  »»00,0«0. 

BnWo  ha,  tor  ,e,er..  year,  contained,  ^^^^^  It 
P..«,  one  of  the  largest  "^  "»' ""CTade  „  thi, 
Mon,  but  r«ently  '"P"*"  /->'';"  "'*r;tl,;,,n,ent.  for  Refining 

::iTrrCb:;r;.i"ri:t,  than  eicen  of  the» 

Oil  Refinenes  now  in  operation  in  Buffalo. 

nsively  engaged 
indred  different 

n  the  census  re- 
Brotheks,  who 

ilimttfattttrins  Centres  of  Bel\J-Cgn5W. 


Po,n..Nn,  .Inch  is  the  principal  seaport  of  Maine,  and  the  capital 
.r  r  n  1  erlaud  County,  is  a  manufacturing  city  of  some  importance, 
t^tHZ  no'  very  remarkable  manufacturing  establishments 
I^    8  0  tie  County  of  Cumberland  had  334  manufactories,  whose  unUed 
In  18G0  the  ^««    >  employed  2,699  males,  592  females, 

S'Xef  :;^:o'r^C.091,92l.  Wo  than  one  half  of  t,.. 
ma  ufletories  were  located  in  Portland  and  the  adjounng  town  of  AV  e.t- 
To  !md  they  produced  more  than  three-fourths  of  the  aggregate 
pvlct!  or  $4,7'. '  '  20.   The  principal  manufactures  were  the  tollowu.g : 

No.  of  ji,^,e        Female      VuUio  of 

Establish.         ^__,_^_,  „„,,".;„1.  hands.       bauds.        lunducl. 






Boots  ami  shoeB 32 


Boatbuilding " 

Bimling'!  iin'l  linings 

Cotton  goods 

Cabinet  furniture 


Carpets ••• 



Cotlce  and  si)iccs  (ground) 

Distilled  lUiuors 

Flour  and  meal 

Gun  powder 

Iron  railing 

Maohincry,  engines,  etc.   . 

Musical  instruments 


Mastic  rooting 

Meats,  cured 


Preserved  fish 

Pottery  ware 

Soap  and  candles  

Sawed  lumber 




Sash,  doors  and  blinds.... 

Sugar  refining 


Woolen  goods 


Wool  cleaning 


rnpiliil.  nititeriiil. 

$i6,«i8 $'.;o.i*> 





107,651 256., 


i:i,035  . 

4 280,000 236.515.. 

2  ... 
2  ... 


23  .. 





2  . 



2,200  .. 

16  . 





120,260 3,'J1,851 










6,800  ... 

5,900  .. 

153,611)  .. 






19,910 26 

27,080 180.... 

13.100 4  •• 

15,910 4... 

105,;i-:!5 10... 


120,000 46.... 

4,400 15..-. 

298,400 377... 

5,255 18... 

17,1-8 12.. 

10.195 4.. 

52,807 14... 

174,600 59... 











39,100 10.. 

1  ....    400,000 1,216,000 200 

12  ...    90.050 169.»« >" 

2  ....    28,000 60,(X)0 25 

3  ...    40.000 29,130 39 

2  ....    130,000 126,000 28 


18  IXK) 
40.1  KK) 
.      ■  ,3.")0.1H)0 

J.  11.  BnowN  i,  Sons. 

ine,  and  the  capital 
)f  some  importance, 
irlng  establisliments. 
ictorics,  whose  united 
males,  592  females, 
in  one-half  of  these 
oining  town  of  West- 
hs  of  the  aggregate 
!S  were  the  following : 



ViiUiii  of 





























.       32 


















12.  . 







...      58  .. 









.      138.. 









.*•*                    ■• 


...      200. 

...     ■, 350.000 



..        25.. 

....      37.. 




...        25. 



rtland  nro  tlio  I'urllati.l  Cum- 
:,  and  tho  Sugiit  Ruanury  of 





Next  to  Povtlana.  the  mo.t  i.uportant  seat  of  -^^^^^^"^'^^ ^^^ 
;  Tl,.>  wator-DO'vuv  here,  which  is  amoiiR  the  best  in  .New 

iB  Lkwiston.     ilie  water  po  a u  .       ,  ^   ,     „  •,r,.anklin 

u     io„.i   i*  owned  bv  an  association  of  capitali>ts  (  aiieu  iiit 
p"    1     ot  wlh  A.  D.  Lockwoocl  i.  Agent,  and  EdwU.  Atkinson, 
':«    ^itcon^any  have  also  a  Cotton  MiU  with  ^,.H  •  spm- 
«     ^id  a  Bleachery  capable  of  bleaching  six  tons  of  good,  pel    lay 

meres  are  made  by  the  Lcwision  ra  Lcwiston  Bag- 

Treasnrer,  and  John  M.  Fryo,  ^^^"^  :^''Z^l^  ^    Machine 

01  isuuuty  a,  I  extensive  saw  mills, 

there  are  machine  shops,  and  two  or  penobscot  lliver,  at  the 

13ANU0H.  situated  on  the  west  bank  o    tl  e      «'  «^^;;^  ^       ;.^,^  ,^ 

r„lmor&. Johnson,  Stotson  &  Oo^,  »'' J' ^^^^^^^^^  p.  j,„,.,-y.«an,  and 

John  Dole,  W.tson  l),or  Pnu  D.  "»"*»•  ™'^'  ^'^„  ,  Dole 

,„o  Furniture  ,n.nnfaetone.o^oh„C  Alhc.U^^  .^^  ^^  ^^_^_^^_ 

,t  Gih».n,  «»J  «»"Sj,;™^»';  ■;   i.B  *  son,  au,,  K.  «.  &  U- M" 

Doyen,  Farris  &  Webb,  Amos        i  t,,„„.,,^  and  Wh  ton 

J.  carriages  are  made  ^X  ^enJ-- Ada'^^^^  ^"^  ^.^l;;  :,,,,,  aeo. 
&  Yeaton,  and  Harnesses  by  ^-^  «f  ^^^^^'^^^  '  jf  1,  ,  .manufactory  of 
H.  Chick,  and  John  Williams  &  bon.    The  c  is  a  ^^^^^ 

steel  Sciuares  (Darling  &  Seh^vartz,  V^^^^^^^^^'^^  ^,,,,,,,, 
Whittier  and  Isaac  L.  Johnson,  proprietors),  one  ot  teaws  l, 
;::^etor^,  and  of  Axes  (Je«erson  Higg^-^  P-F;-i)j -^^^^^ 
(Job  Collett,  proprietor);  ^'^^f -, f^'^    'rv  1  rotors);  two  Brass 
Mu.^y,  Frankhn  &  Co.  and  ^f^^  ^^'^^.^^a  several 
fnnndries  (Gco.  T.  AUamby  and  Jona.  Buibank,  propnti      j, 
Zulirtories  of  Clothing,  S*,  Oonteetronerj,  etc. 

'21 C, 



PThc  following  are  the  Censu.  Statistics  of  the  principal  m;"»/"'=tv,re8 
iau'e  County  of  Suffolk,  Massachus  tts,  which  induces  and 
Chelsea,  for  the  year  ending  June  1,  1  60  :] 

No.  of 













Beil  ipriuK-s 

BllUiivil  taliliis 

BUiiik  books  and  book -binding 

Boots  iind  shoes 

Boxes,  iiupor 

Bread,  cmckeri,  etc 

Brass  founding 

Brass  cocks  and  guaijes 




Casks  and  barrels ° 



Cloaks  and  Mantillas '^"^ 


Coffee  mills 


Copper  smelting 

Copper  smithing '" 

Cutlery ^ 

Drugs  and  medicines ^^^ 


Furuitura  (1) 

Furniture,  school * 





Horse  shu    

Iron  worV.  >  lildlng 


Iron  raiiiug 

Iron,  rolled  

Iron  safes 

Iron  shafting 

Iron  steamships 

Iron  work,  ornamental 















,33. "HO 






119,371  311. 

S7,820  40, 

363,082 IM- 

161,125 122. 

142,848 17-. 

,186,929 22 

in,9j0 10 

32.111 11.') 

26,687 63 

Female  Value  of 

bauds.  product. 

ijO »4H,.W0 

05 i3,.'i00 

J57 292 418,.'i00 

3S 370,932 

73 120,000 

23 513,106 



















83,100 143,944, 

300,000 463,000. 

273.100 243,2.03. 

13,500 1,«30 

98,000 127,800 S3. 

25,000 114,600 S. 

290,200 348,684 372, 

61,900 40,990 "7 

49,000 172,1550 









1324 2693 4,567,749 











258,970 232., 

94,436 296. 

61,935 ISS. 

7,185 16 

18,728 40, 

261,000 279,070 322, 

23,500 03,3,50 32 

470,000 1,0W3,600,. 

142,000 133,103  . 

20,000 69,000.. 

190,000 685,050.. 

20,000 18,000.. 



61 862,,'>00 

















(1)  The  manufacture  of  Farniture  i,  a  very  pro.ineut  '^^l^^^^^'^l^^'^^ZZZ 
Boston,  and  we  have  no  doubt  that  the  A-,  of  D^   K.....U  A  Co     Fo^ 

LIWUBH^JE  4  CO.,  HAI.ET,  MOUBE  A  B0VDK«,   F.  M.  il   LME9  4  Co.,   H    T-  A 

C.  A.  GARmK-R  A  Co.,  Bucklist  A  Bancroft,  K'-"^''^*,^^;' ^^'^^'^'^f^^  39  „»„„- 
Lke  annually  considerably  more  than  the  Ccnsu.  mar.hals  have  returued 



pipal  manufactures 
luJes  BostoB  and 










53  ... 







S3.  . 




,  2693 





16  .. 











Value  of 
(4:!,. WO 
,    4,567,749 
...     1,460,000 

ind  extensive  business  in 
Kendali-  a  Co.,  FoBstKU, 
4  Co.,  H.  T.  Abobh  a  Co., 
).,  and  WiRAND  TooasAWT, 
have  returned  for  29  manu- 

InBlruinonts,  inathomalical 

No.  cif 



Instviiui.'Uts,  Riii-«iciil 
laslnim.'Uts,teWrni.hlo ^- 

Jaiiiiuiied  ware ^ 

Jo\v.-U7 r, 

LaslB J 

Leailicr  ^ 

Loalli.'V  belllni?..  • ^ 

Liciiii>r.f.  "'"If  — 
Locoiiiotivort.  etc ^ 

Uin.lier,  l>l:>n"> "     _,«tm-cui:ineB,otc.2S 




Mllitiiry  c;n)B 


MiniTal  wiitora 

MuBioal  instruments, 

Miacollaiicous  il) 


Oil,  linaeed 

"     Inril, 

"     water 

I'     kerosene 

<•     \tb!ile 

•  '     curriers' 

Paper  hangings 

Picture  frames 

Vres.!ivoa  Vickies  and  fruit, 

FtiuiiuK,  book  and  job 

i>  nowBpaiier 

Printing  pi-psBes,. 

Pumi"*  and  blocks 


Kootiui;,  coUipoBitiou 

RooUu«,  slate 


i|ii;!,ooi> ... 

2.1,000  ... 


14,OjO  .. 

14,905  . 




jj  ... 

^  ... 
2  .., 





Saddlery  and  bai-uoss -^ 


Salt  (Kr«iiinil) 


Saab,  doors  and  blinds.. 

Sowing  macbinos 




85.J , . . 






9    . 


103,000 3S4,235.. 

9, .500., 


34  . 

5       .        2B6.000 688,020.. 

t 25,000 :>'..50 80.. 

14,000 6-0,6oO 81,. 

6.16,100 ■1W.6"6 6aO. 

212,»11 w*' 

242,200.  .. 
4,000  ... 


33  450 





I.JS.WJO 515.768.... 

tlO5.20O  ... 

12i.500  .. 



108,610    . 



10  . 





6,000  ... 

14,10,0  . 









96,610 lO'  ■ 









23 74,t100 10-*.:»i 

20,200  . 







2  .. 


Value  of 
♦  J;4,,')00 

807, 'aw 

239, ■15« 




100  ... 


28  ... 




14.  . 




5 957,500 




p  :i,.500 
......    66,000 

9 216,310 






(1)   Tito 

manufacture  of  Musical  Instrumei..^, 

♦ban  the  census  re 

eturns  indicate. 

of  Pianofortes,  is  a  more  ox- 

0.  .       , 

ton^ive  business  in  Bo.t.r.  *ban  -«;;■;=-;",  organs  is  the  largest  of  its  kind  tn  the 

Mason  &  1UicUN'8  mar.utactory  of  Cabinci  J'  ,,     ^  live  thousand  a  year, 

.r     They  have  the  capacity  0^^:^^^:  r.,:ury  00  bands,  and  for  the 

BAG.  UooK  employ  in  tbetr  Of^''"/^'"'"  „„„„,,„„  gome  of  them  very  largo. 
J'tJrle  years  have  averaged  22  C^^rt'l^rnTe  manufactory  of  Church  _Organs  on 

last  t  tree  ji!".'"  " "  ,  oxtonsive  manuiauvo^j  — .  ,i   w 

'"  W.  B.  D.  S.««oKB  A  Co    '^-°;l;;  -  f,l  Directory  the  names  of  S.  DA    L  W. 

Charles  Street.     Besides  these,  we  fl"^'"  "^  '        Kreemantle,  Graves  A  Co.,  Charles  W. 

,,,,  William  B-ons.  Walter    ;osby.^^^^  ^^^^^^^^  ^,,  ^Vright  M.^l  In- 

Brothers,  and  Jatnes  II.  White,  as  ma 

Charles  1 

^:lI;B:;;aminr.Bicbardson,  Charles  SUmeKt.t«u^ 

,,,„ment  Oo«  Wbtte^^  ^^^^^^^^^^  ^.^ufacturers. 




8ewint[  miicliino  neecileR 

Ship  liuililiu); 

Ship  siniiliiui,' 

Shirts  ;\nd  rurnifhing  f,'""*''*"- 
Silk  fringes,  IriniiningK,  etc... 

Silver  wiiro 

pliiti'd  wiire 

'  Soap  and  caudles 


Stair  lM^i!din^' 

Steam  irastiiltes 

Steiiiii  Ileal ..''s 

Steam  and  (.-as  pipe  maoliines. 

Stoves  and  rant,'''* 

Sugar  re  lining 

Tin  and  sheet-iron  ware 


Tyjie  and  stereotype  foi  nding 

Uuihn'  and  parasols  





Wut'ous,  carta,  etc 


Window  sliadcs 



No,  of 



Total,  Inclnding  ni.scellano- 
ou8  mannfacliiroa  not  above 










h-      Capital 





Value  of 




.      13 




.      395 










ISO, 170 







4S,I?94  ... 









.      10 






11,10(1  .... 






..      240 

.      .30 






CO.00'1  ... 


..     no..,. 







,31, 400 

.     1,7(J3,:.00 

.30, S2") 

,.       220 






.       142 





.       103 

.      01 





.      40 




,       209 








9, .103 


,      10 






















41 ,000 





$37,081, K)« 


The  South  Boston  Iron  Company's  Works. 

Boston  has  a  due  share  of  raanufnctnrinp  estalili,shnicnts  that  can  bo 
calluil  remarkable,  but  none  more  desorvoclly  celebrated  or  of  greater 
National  importance  than  the  Works  of  the  South  Boston  Lon  Company, 
better  known  as  Alger's  Foundries.  They  were  founded  by  Mr.  Cyrus 
Alger,  a  native  of  Bridgwater,  Massachusetts,  in  the  year  1817,  which 
was  not  long  after  the  Dorchester  Peninsula  became  a  part  of  Boston. 
During  the  war  of  1812  he  supplied  the  Government  with  large  numbers 
of  Cannon  Balls  ;  and  about  that  time  ho  purchased  a  considerable  tract 
of  low  land  called  the  Flats,  reaching  to  the  channc'.  which  then  was 
considered  of  little  value,  but  which  now  is  t^ovcrcd  with  streets,  dwell- 
ings, and  extensive  manufactories,  including  the  works  of  which  ho  wrs 
the  founder. 

Mr.  Alger  was  one  of  the  best  practical  metallurgists  of  his  day.  Ho 
discovered  a  method  of  purifying  cast-iron  which  gave  it  more  than 


•2  TO 


Female  Valuo  of 

liivuds.  Product. 

13 J.OS.SM 


......  72,300 

333 ISD.IVO 

93 ;^'J4,30O 



10 an.'r.o 



,30 U77.IIOO 






17 278,030 

01 17,j,770 

40 81,000 

(il ,'11)0,681 


10 22,000 

1 3S,000 





4,993       937,681, fO« 

[  J50ST0N. 


lonts  that  can  be 
ted  or  of  gr(.'ii,tcr 
in  Iion  Conipany, 
led  by  Mr.  Cvrus 
year  1817,  wliich 
I  part  of  IJoston. 
itli  large  numbers 
.'onsiderable  tract 

which  then  was 
th  streets,  dwell- 

of  whicii  ho  WRS 

s  of  his  day.  IIo 
,ve  it  more  than 

triple  strength  over  ordinary  castings,  and  which  proved  to  be  ot  im- 
mense value  in  the  manufacture  of  Ordnance,  in  which  he  was  for  many 
years  engaged.    The  United  States  (government  largely  relied  upon  him 
for  this  "deliartment  of  tlicir  supplies,  ami  since  his  death  that  reliance 
has  been  continued  to  his  successors.     His  cannon  sustained  most  ex- 
traoi'dinarv  tests  when  sulijected  to  extreme     The  mortar  gun 
"Colunibiad,"the  largest  gun  of  cast-iron  that  had  then  been  cast  m 
America,  was  made  un.ler  ids  personal  supervision.     It  was  of  twelve- 
inch  calibre,  and  had  a  range  exceeding  three  miles.     Ho  also  lirsr, 
introduced  and  patented  the  method  of  mal<ing  cast-iron  chilled  rolls, 
by  which   the   part   subject   to  wear  slioiild  be  hard,  while  the  neck 
remained   unchanged   as   to   hardness   and   strength-this   being   cast 
in  sand,  while  the  body  is  cast   in   a  chill  or   iron   cylinder.      Until 
his  time  all   the   reverberatory  furnaces  for  melting  iron   were    made 
with  hearths  inclining  from  the  fire,  the  metal  thus  running  from  the 
heat.     He  changed  the  form  so  as  to  allow  the  iron  to  How  towards  the 
Bame  where  the  heat  would  he  tlic  most  ii-tense. 

In  183G  Mr.  Alger  manufactured  the  first  Malleable  Iron  Guns  made 
in  this  country,  and  supplied  our  Government  with  quite  a  nunilier. 
Tiie  first  gun  over  Hilled  in  America  was  done  at  his  works  in  1834. 
Cylinder  Stoves  were  first  designed  by  iiim  in  1822. 

Our  Government  stands  indclited  to  him  for  numerous  irapro>  nents 
in  the  construction  of  Time  Fuses  for  bomb-shells  and  grenades.  The 
following  are  some  of  his  inventions : 

The  interposing  a  non-combustible  material  between  the  fuse  and  burst- 
ing charge  in  shell,  so  constructed  that  it  shall  be  detached  by  the 
violent  concussion  it  receives  when  the  projectile  is  discharged  from 

the  gun; 

The  covering  of  a  fuse-hole  on  the  inside  of  shell  witli  a  wafer  or  disk 
of  lead,  which  must  be  taken  out  previous  to  the  firing  of  the  shell  in 
order  to  expose  the  surface  of  fuse  and  allow  of  its  ignition  when  dis- 

charged  from  gun  ; 

The  angles  givtn  to  the  vent-holes  in  the  head  of  fuse-cases,  to  .""'-. -v 
the  escape  of  gases  formed  by  the  burning  fuse,  and  at  the  same  time 
prevent  the  e'ntrance  of  water  and  extinction  of  fuse  when  fired  al  sea; 

The  improved  method  of  casting  Sliells,  by  using  a  metal  arbor  to 
support  the  core,  and  having  the  urbor  hollow,  so  as  to  allow  all  the 
gases  generated  by  moisture  and  organic  matter  in  the  core  to  escape, 
thus  preventing  porosity  in  tiic  shell. 

Mr.  Alger  .  .so  manufactured  tlio  first  perfect  llronze  Cannon  for  the 
United  States  Ordnance  Department,  and  for  the  State  of  Massachusetts, 
and  was,  it  is  said,  the  first  manufacturer  to  introduce  the  ten-hour 



.       •     q.nth  Boston      He  made  it  a  practice  never  to  part  with 
system  m  S«"t\^  ^^^^on      ^  ^^^  ^^^^^^^^^^  kept  a 

good  workmen  if  lie  could  possioiy  re  ^^^^  ^^^ 

Targe  force  of  l-ndj  on  half-pay  ^v^>en  t    u  s^^^^^^^^ 

Admiral  Pahlgren  has  -"\f   '  ;-  f  j  ^ J,;,,,  „,tHbnte  of  the  i.,lel- 

^^;::::::::::^^::^^^^  ^-^^  --  --  --^'^  ^'^ 

aiseiplined  study  and  often  m  van.. ^'  ^^        ^.^  ^^^^  ^^^^.^,^.„g 

After  ins  decease    "   l^^'  f  ^J^^         ,,  I,,,    passing   through 
son_who  has  mnce  died   wlu^     these  ,   g  ^^  ^^^^  ,^^^^._ 

,,e  press-succeeded  lum       ^  :^J  ^„^/;„,  ,  ,le  for  the  pur- 
ncss  a  thorough  training,  a  ^»  ^ivat       n      '  Metallurgy. 

«uits  in  which  he  -'^^-«'^^^f '  J  ^  ^l   m,    Alger  was  eminent  as 

Aside  from  '"--"-      t^rl^r        'Mi..  sP.^  m.eralo.y.^^ 

a  scientific  man,  and  as  the  author  ot    ^je  ^^^^^^^^ 

ne  possessed  one  of  the  finest  and  most  ^'^ten  ..     t«   ■     t 

I  ^.nerica.  comprising  ^l^^^  ^:,:^  ^^^ ';:  ,  ;^rcomhining 
lu  1S62  he  obtained  patents  for  two  impio    d  t  ^^^^^^^  ^^^ 

a  time-fuse  and  '^ J^'^r^n-l^S;  ^nliples  embraced  in 
rifled  guns.     Orc  of  the  ™ost  nove  ^^^^^^  ^.^.^^  ^^.^^ 

,,,,,  patent,  is  t^^  ui  ca.    tl.  ^  ^  ^^ZJ,^  ,,  ^use  is  driven 

?  ^"%Tv"trc  ncu   ic^and  then  allows  .ree  egress  of  the  fuse-flame 
forward  by  the  concussi     ,  inunediate  explosion, 

to  the  clmrg«  in  the  shell,  ^'^^    'jj.'"   ';*;^^  ,,f  ,        .eh  to  contain  the 
The  following  year  he  pat  nted  the  "^^^^^^^^  in  the  form 
bursting  -charge  to  be  used  in  shrapn  ^^^^^^^  ^he  process 

ness.  being  impervious  to  moisture.  ^^^^^^  ^    .^,  ^,^,^^ 

During  the  present  -I'^^Yllr^^a.^  in^'" -rdl  ior-proj.  ,  .-■    .f 
•        to  Washington,  and  re-ned    arg  n,  ^^^^  ^  _   ^^^^ 

every  <'-->l>^  ^  ^r 't  aC  obl'l  large  orders  f^  .-inch  and 
"  Schenkl  projectile.       lie  a,.o  ^,^^ 

finishing  guns  of  very  large  ^'al'^'res.  ^^^^.^^^  ^^^^3^ 

This  now  "Ordnance  ^^«7  ^^  Z*^;;"'  3„ '  of  a  lO-ineh  Army 
and  the  first  work  performed  in  '\;;«/^,,  ^f  ^^  of  the 

Columbiad,  according  to  the  system  of  Major 



>r  to  part  with 
iquently  kept  a 
ire  not  needed, 
lat  rare  quality, 
ate  of  tlie  intel- 
jtliers  sought  by 

s  only  surviving 
passing  through 
ght  to  the  busi- 
[iste  for  the  pnr- 
e  of  Metallurgy, 
[ir  was  emineut  as 
ips'  Mineralogy." 
;.,  ots  of  Minerals 

,  .  .rid. 

s,  each  combining 
pted  to  shells  for 
eiples  enibvnced  in 
;t  when  lired  from 

the  fuse  is  driven 
8  of  the  fuse-ttttiue 
ate  explosion, 
uch  to  contain  the 
powder  in  the  form 
idcring  the  process 
iCss  dangerous  than 
se  powder  and  then 
^)Owdcr  fr(>'n  damp- 

:|UtMitly  ''■-'-"  !'"^'led 
irs  for  projrciiit"  <>t 
shells,  and  '. .i  'he 
ilers  for  ".t-inch  and 
ly  and  Navy. 
Ordnance,  the  com- 
,„ndry,  li2r)feet  long 
peeially  designed  for 

ition  in  March,  18G3, 
g  of  a  10-inch  Array 
'.  J.  Rodman,  of  the 

TT  -.0.1  states  Army      After  having  cast  five  10-inch  Guns  in  this  way 

--  r-  tt:^'  t " -:-:  ^i:*::^  t^cast  a ... 
^'^::r^:^fi^^^^^^    ^ith  ti.  exec. 

ffivUons  per  minute.      Uie  object  is  lo  toui        h  ntmostca-e 

,„™    ,'1    n.  oo„„ncnec„,cn,  of  ll,c  ,,r»o„t  rotalli.n  ;»"•"»-» 
which  was  furnished  promptly  and  continuously  by  them,  could  not 

often  keq.ins  m«.iy  on  Imlf-W  "l'«"     ■;"■  "  „„,,,|„yoos  wl,o  fully 

.ocurc  1  for  ll.i«  Con,i,»ny  an  nnoxcc  1»>1    "''^^  "^^  \'°  '"\„  „,,i..|,  ih.y 
understand  the  re,,uircn,.nt  of  every  deimrtment  of  luWl  lu  y 

are  employed. 



The  City  Point  Works-Harrison  Loring.  Proprietor. 

f  nhn-in-  establishments  of  South  Boston  that 

chanics.      He  was   bovn   -   ^^'^ J'   ^,.  ^3,,,,,,     Having  passed  a 
apprenticeship  with  Mr.  Jabez  Conty,  ^^^  „,aehinery, 

s  ison  in  Cuba  supor.ntencbn,  th    --t^^  ^^.^  ^^,^^„,„,ed  bus. 

,e  returned  to  Boston,  and  n       J  ;;;   ^^^.^f    ,^,  ,,  ,as  tendered  by 
,e.s  for  himself,  not  '^^'^  fTJZy--^^  nmrk  of  conftdence  no 

,elatives  a  loan  of  $'20,000  wul.^  iLcntary  to  himself, 

less  creditable  to  their  sagacitj  than  c  ^^  operations 

For  several  yc-^s  after  commencn|bu^^^^^^^^ 
,vere  confined  l>"-ipally  to  budding  Stainar    a  ^^^^^^^  ^^^^ 

Boilers,  though  including  S"?-' ^^  "^  ^^^^^  ,  ,,.U.     He  was 

Light  Houses,  and  a  great  ^'^"^^^  «  J^hich  must  eventually  come 
among  the  first  to  foresee  the  g-  /^  ^"^,  ^'..y  .^t  about  making  the 
for  iron  sea-going  ^tea-lnps  a,^  mmedu^^^^^>^^^  ^^^  .^^  ^^^.^^^  .^ 
proper  arrangements  to  cany  on  tv  ^^^^^^^^^^^  increasing. 

Ution  to  his  otl-r  branches  wh     ad  ^^^^^^ 
Accordingly,  in  1857.  he  "'^^^''jf;;;;,occupicd,-whieh  application 

chase  the  House  o''l-^-^''yf;,^;;;rt  business  of  Iron  Ship  buiUb 
stated  that  he  would  agree  ^'^  3;,,  p,,y  „ot  less  than  three  hundred 
for  not  less  than  five  years,  a"J  wou  d   n  I     Y      ^^^^  ^^  ^^  j^^^,,„ 

workmen.    After  much  opposition  from  ^^  ^^^^^^ 

,c  finally  effected  the  1'"-';;;/^^    '".^r.^epared  it  for  the  purpose  by 



'i-i'-    ••  .       T  Building  establishment  which  had  been 

This  being  the  fir.t  Iron  S^H  «>"  ''^^  ^^,^^^  „,„y  who  ex- 

pc-v.nanently  estabUshe    ^  ^^l^^^\,  ,„,,,.,..  and  even  some 
pressed  their  distrust  as  to  tl'^j'  "^^  ,,  .f  this  kind,  seemed  de- 

!,f  tlio  capitalists  01  "^^^^''-^.^^e  closest  competition  with  the 
terniined  to  place  the  "-v  conu       m  ^^^^    ^^^^^^.^^^^^^  ^^^^  ,,, 

,l,,r  concerns  of  ^^^'' ^'^lZJ:SJ M    these   obstacles   however, 
home  -tablisluucnt.     Not.Mtistm  ding   a     ^^^  ^^^^^^^^  ^^^^^^  ,^^„  , 

which  to  some  men  of  less  ^^^  "Rth  «t  ^^^  ^^^  ^^^^^^  ,  a 

countable.  Mr.  l.oring  l^'^^   J'',  ^ Characterised   his   career,   l>y 
steadfastness   of    imrposc,   w    ch  .,.,,.„  t,,,  y,,rs  1857-8,  when 




,uth  Boston  that 

thoHgli  a  young 
epavtmcnt  of  me- 
^,  and  served  his 
Having  passed  a 
is  and  machinery, 
,  commenced  busi- 
13  was  tendered  V-y 
k  of  confidence  no 
0  himself. 

Loring's  operationa 
Marine  Engines  and 
;lls  Machinery,  Iron 
nil  work.     He  was 
lUst  eventually  come 
t  about  making  the 
quite  extensively,  in 
;radually  increasing, 
ty  of  Boston  to  pur- 
|,l_which  application 
/of  Iron  Ship  build- 
ss  than  three  hundred 
,  capitalists  of  Boston 
listing  of  seven  acres 
it  for  the  purpose  by 
igs  as  the  business  re- 

ment  which  had  been 
were  many  who  ex- 
rprisc,  and  even  some 
this  kind,  seemed  dc- 
t  competition  with  the 
he  preference  over  the 
so   obstacles   however, 
would  have  been  insur- 
[th  all  the  energy  and 
terized   his   career,   by 
the  years  1857-8,  when 
..  Loring  kept  hi«  estab- 

hshment  in  full  operation  on  vessels  to  go  to  Indm.  He  tljo"  "mde  a 
CO  a  with  the  Boston  and  Southern  Steamship  Company  for  two  Iron 
St^m  i  s  of  1,150  tons  each;  and  unlike  the  most  of  contracts  o  a 
wH  these  two  vessels-the  "  South  Carolina"  and  "  >Lissaehu. 
:  V-^w^re  mpleted  and  delivered  on  the  very  day  named  for  their 
on  plet  on  Th  y  were  afterwards  sold  to  the  U.  S.  Govennnent,  and 
pZdTo  be  among  the  most  successful  vessels  in  the  blockading  squad- 

ron  on  the  Southern  coast.  ,  •    n .   «p  n,,>,Um 

Mr   Loring  has  since  built  for  the  Union  Steamship  Co.  of  Bo  ton 
two  Iron  Sc'e^.-Stoamships,  the  "Mississippi"  and  '•Mcrnmack/' 
2  000  tons  each,  which  have  given  the  greatest  -tis  action  to  Uie  Con  - 
nanv  and  arc  ornaments  to  the  merchant-marine  of  the  countiy.     He 
Ta'als    do.  e  a  large  amount  of  work  for  the  United  Governmen  . 
ncuSng  maehineiT  for  sloops  of  war,  side-wheel  and  screw  gun  boat. 
Tf    r    1^  manifest  success  If  the  "  Monitor"  over  the  Rebel  iron-clad 
M^Ji-r  mac  '  and  the  Government  had  decided  to  build  more  Monitors 
^rLorig's  establishment  was  called  upon  to  build  as  many  as  couUl 
b    completed  in  a  short  time,  and  he  immediately  commenced  on  on, 
tl  e  '  N  ihant  "  which  was  one  of  the  first  of  her  class  that  was  com- 
p    ted       H'le  Monitor  ever  built  in  Now  England.     The  novelty 
o        r  rnstruetion  attracted  daily  hundreds  of  visitors  to  examine      ^ 
W  i      iting  the  Nahant  for  sea  Mr.  Loring  laid  the  keel  for  anothci 
^^^.a  the  "  Ca.  .nicus.  '     This  vessel  enUiodie    aH  tl.  improve^ 
ments  that  suggested  themselves  while  constructing  the  first,  ha  .   -^  a 
:: h  sliperiortck  and  a  thicker  s;de  armor.     She  is  a  p^n.  K 
and  has  more  than  double  the  propelhng  power  of  the  ^    '""^  d'^., 
and  much   superior  in   many  other  important  points.     Althoug     t  e 
'  Caldcus"  was  delayed  in  her  construction  by  additions  and  altera. 
ti.m        n  nded  by  the  experience  of  these  ve.sels,  when  under  heavy     e 
to  resist  the  modern  projectiles,  she  was  the  first  one  completed  of 
Ics  r  >to„    and  will  doubtless  .u.stain  the  reputation  whicu  the  C.t> 
t  in   Wo  Ls    lave  attained  for  excellent  workmanship,  as  the  govcni- 
m     t  offic  X  who  were  on  board  during  her  trial-trip  expressed  then.- 
st      nguage  of  unqualified  praise  for  her  sailing  qualities,  her 
:   Irful  strength,  and  the  completeness  of  all  •-•  "PPomtments^ 

The  City  Point  Works  are  located  at  nearly  .he  end  ot  th 
poni  ula  o  South  Boston,  about  one  mile  from  the  city  prope 
T  V  have  a  water  front  of  six  hun.lred  feet,  upon  a  e  bu  h 
tw  •  spl^ious  shlp-houses.  Th.  nmehlno  shop  is  the  structure  formerly 
u  1  b  he  city  as  the  House  of  Industry.  It  is  built  of  un l.ewn  gnu  - 
He  s  fo  r  sto  ies  high,  and  about  three  hundred  feet  m  ength  I  r  n, 
6  0  to  700  skilled  artisans  now  ply  their  tools  here  both  day  and  n.-ht. 



The  Globe  Works, 

Located  on  Foundry  Street,  are  also  enti  led  to  rank  amo«g  »>«  ;;*^- 
worthy  and  remarkable  manufacturing  establishments  of  South  Boston. 
Probiy  a  greater  variety  of  machinery  has  been  built  in  these  works 
mZ  n  any  other,  for  it  has  been  the  practice  of  the  Company  to  change 
the  r  iPpHances  and  adapt  their  tools  to  the  kind  that  may  be  most  in 
demand  in  a  given  timefwhether  it  be  Sugar  Mills.  Locomotives,  or 

^TlsirMr.  John  Souther,  who  is  now  President  of  the  Company 
comme  1    i  business  as  a  Locomotive  builder  near  the  site  of  the  present 
Tks  in  association  with  Mr.  J.  Lyman  (^^^  ^f-^.^^^jT;^;  ;« 
Toon  after  purchased),  on  the  unprecedentedly  small  capital  of  $2,000 
Previously  to  embnrking  in  this  enterprise  Mr.  Souther  had  spent  seven 
year  in  the  service  of  the  Boston  Locomotive  Works,  and  had  made  al 
0   a  greater  part  of  their  first  models  and  patterns.     He  had  also  spent 
two  y  ars  at  Cuba  studying  the  wants  of  the  sugar  planters,  and   in 
endeavoring  to  ascertain  the  machinery  best  adapted  to  supp  y  those 
wants    Tb' advantages  of  this  practical  and  comprehensive  training  soon 
became  manifest  in  the  success  of  the  establishment  he  had  founded  and 
Jhe  sTga"  machinery  built  here  for  Cuba  alone  has  amounted  in  value  to 

'TZ7l:'l\^.e  Globe  Works  Company  was  incorporated  with 
Join  Sher  at'presiden,  and  D.  A.  I^^ekering  Treasure.     Tli.  a  - 
ter  gentleman  had  been,  previous  to  his  connection  with  the  e  works 
GenS  Superintendent  of  several  railroads,  and  had  acquired  a  large  and 
farid  experience  that  peculiarly  fitted  him  for  the  position  be  nov,  oc 
pies     For  several  years  the  building  of  Locomotives  was  a  proMinen 
emt  their  general  business,  from  twenty  to  thirty  having  been  made 
anTul lly     Since  ISfiO,  however,  when  the  works  were  destroyed  by  fire 
the  building  of  Locomotives  has  not  constituted  an  important  branch  of 

''onroftrrst  novd  machines  built  at  these  Works  is  the  Steam 
ShorrJr  Excavator,  the  construction  of  which  has  ^--  ^  «  ^^ 
sivo  business.     These  Shovels  have  been  used  on  most  of  the  railroad 
Hhis Tuntry.  and  on  many  European  railroads.     TheyJ.^^^^^^^^^^^^ 
yards  of  earth,  make  two  dips  in  a  minute,  and  will  dig  »'«  ^'^^^^''/^J 
pan      They  w  11  fill  a  train  of  twenty-five  cars  in  twenty-five  minutes^ 
t"  shod  weighs  twenty-eight  tons.     Its  movements  are  wonderM    n 
Lr  complicated  harmony,  and  it  has  been  said  to  apP-ch  nea    r    « 
"  a  thing  of  life"  than  any  other  large  machine  ever  built.     It  has  dis 
tiLt  motions  to  draw  the  shovel  back,  force  it  forward  into  the  bank,  to 



)ng  the  note- 
outh  Boston. 
1  these  works 
lany  to  change 
[j,y  be  most  in 
jcomotives,  or 

the  Company, 
of  the  present 
3t  however  he 
ital  of  $2,000. 
ad  spent  seven 
cl  had  made  all 
had  also  spent 
anters,  and   in 

0  supply  those 
je  training  soon 
id  founded,  and 
ited  in  value  to 

orporated,  with 
iurer.  The  lat- 
ih  these  works, 
lired  a  large  and 
ition  he  nov,  oc- 
«ras  a  pro'jinent 
fing  been  made 
lestroyed  by  fire, 
ortant  branch  of 

ks  is  the  Steam 
lecome  an  exten- 

of  the  railroads 
jy  hold  two  cubic 
;  the  hardest  clay 
inty-five  minutes. 

are  wonderful  in 
proach  nearer  to 
)uilt.     It  has  dis- 

1  into  the  bank,  to 


//    r    /  /  f  /  r  "  '  ' 

\'l  ■■!  : 


r;':!!.';.-!;!!?     ^    SoH^    Vi 


::  .,]•  r>;  ;u:  ■'::':<. 
ii  workrirv 

<i    UM' 

\    isvu  ill' 

■  *\T 

*.>  J-   ■;< 





raise  it  up,  to  swing  it  to  the  rigl.t  or  left  over  a  car,  and  to  drop  the 
contenlH-all  execntea  by  stem  power.  Tl.e  Company  liavc  applied 
this  macliincry  to  a  l)oat  for  dredging  docks,  rivers,  and  harbors,  winch 
is  used  in  many  parts  of  the  United  States  and  the  Canadas,  and  also 
by  the  Russian  and  Egyptian  governments  on  the  Amoor  river  and  on 
the  Nile.  Tiie  iron  boats  for  this  machinery  were  built  at  the  Works, 
and  both  boats  and  machinery  compare  favorably  with  those  for  the  same 
purposes  built  in  Europe.  A  second  order  was  given  by  the  Pacha  of 
Egypt  to  the  Globe  Works. 

For  the  last  two  years  the  Company  has  been  largely  engaged  upon 
work  for  the  United  States  Government.  Tliey  constructed  the  U.  S. 
steamship  "  Uousatonic,"  and  arc  now  (1863-4)  building  one  of  t!« 
Monitors,  both  tlie  hull  and  machinery,  and  also  the  machinery  for  a 
sloop-of-war  and  two  side-wheel  war  steamers.  The  working  force  of 
the  Globe  Works  has  been  about  400  men  ;  it  is  now  increased  to  600. 

Chick  ring  &  Sons'  Piano-Forfce  Manufactory 

Is  one  of  the  very  largest  Manufacturing  Establishments  that  have  as 
yet  been  erected  in  this  country.     It  was  completed  in  1853,  and  is 
budt  in  the  form  of  a  hollow  sciuarc— enclosing  a  spacious  court— with 
a  front  on  Tremont  street  of  two  hundred  and  forty-live  feet,  and  wings 
two  hundred  and  si.xty-two  feet  in  length,  and  a  uniform  width  of  hfty 
feet      It  is  iive  stories  in  height  from  the  street,  and  six  stories  from 
the  centre  court.     Three  millions  of  brick,  two  thousand  perches  of 
stone  on-  million  six  hundred  and  five  thousand  feet  of  lumber,  three 
hundred  casks  of  nails,  and  two  thousand  live  hundred  casks  of  lime 
and  cement,  were  consumed  in  its  construction.     It  has  nine  hundred 
windows,  with  eleven  thousand  panes  of  glass,  and  the  superficial  area 
of  the  floor  room  exceeds  five  acres. 

The  interior  is  arranged  with  a  special  view  to  convenience  and 
facility  in  workmanship,  and  is  provided  with  every  known  mechanical 
contrivance  to  assist  manual  labor.  The  engine  which  propels  the 
machinery  is  of  one  hundred  and  twenty  horse-power,  and  the  furnaces 
and  boilers,  situated  below  the  engine  room,  furnish  steam  not  only  for 
the  engine,  but  for  heating  the  whole  building,  in  which  there  are 
eleven  miles  of  steam  pipe.  The  steam,  after  traversing  the  buddmg, 
is  returned  to  the  boilers  at  one  hundred  and  ninety  degrcs,  and  does 
its  part  in  heating  the  rest.  Passing  from  the  Engine  room  to  the  room 
between  the  two  wings,  we  enter  the  Steam  mill,  where  the  rough  ma- 
terial, taken  from  the  lumber  yard  in  the  rear,  is  fashioned,  on  numerous 



•  .,1  Rosewood  iind  nialioRany  logs 
„,„,„,„„,,  into  ,ho  »'">l-  -<!;;-  ;,JX:„,„„  i,  „„  0,e  ,i,s,  «o«r 
„,,,  l.m- s,«vo.l  into  V.-1ICC1-S.      1I.c1"im  ,,.;,.„„„.« 

cut  and  sawed  to  its  l) 

* .     *  \\i\ 

U.  north  wing,  wbeve  ^ ^'^^'^^^^ ^.c,  where  it  aciuires  the 
U,n,.h,  and  pn-^aved  for  use  -  ^^  -;  ,,;,,,,,  ,,  ,.  Case  roou. 
,,,,n  of  a  Piano  case.     Th  ^  .tm^  ^^^^^^  ^,_^  j..^,^^ 

where  the  veneerings  are    IH   ^^^     »^  ^„,     ,„,,  „,  to  the  1.1th 

,...HveBitBHOunding-l..ard-d     -^  ^^^^  ^^^^.^  building,  and 

.tory,  it  passes  through    ho  V  n>^    o     ^  ^^^^^^^^^  ,„a 

,„,ins  its  descent  on  the  «    _«;;^^^;  .^^^^„      Kk-vators,  at  oaeh  wmg, 

'-^^''  -^^'^  ''  ''  ''t  Z  ^  ^^'  Ahe  Piano  to  the  various  roo.ns, 
moved  hy  steam,  nniUe  the  1 ' '    . -  ^^  expeditious, 

a  distanee  exceeding  a  mde  1-'-   ^^^^  ^,  ,,,  ..uding,  wlu.-o  tbo 
Tl>e  Drying  room,  .s  at     e  toi  ,.,„„d  at  a  heat  of 

sounding-hoanlsare  ^"'^if  j^)^^  ^r^'jo  out  of  spruce,  which 
„.,„ety,  Fahrenhe.t.     '^K^e     oau  .  a  ^^^^^  ^^  ^^^^^^^^.,,^  ,^  ^,,. 

comes  from  Herkimer  <;«7^> '  ^;;^„^^;;,  ,uted  into  the  Piano-torte. 
,atiou  of  several  years  ^^^^^Z^^or^o.  of  materials  that  enter 
A«  an  illustratmu  o    t^^,  ^^  ^^^  ,  Jf^i^.i^g  statistics  of  the  yearly 
into  the  composition  of  a  1  "^'  "'  i„teres<--.,  vi..  :  b.x  huu- 

consumption  in  this  vast  ^^tabh.hmcnt  aie  i  ^^^^^^^^^^^^  ^.^^^ 

dr  d  thlusaud  feet  of  pine,  map  e  and  oa  j     e^^h  ^^^     ^^^^^ 

Tu..^  walnut;  two  '^-^^  ^  ^^  f  -unding-boards -,  three 
boxes;  twenty  thousand  feet  ^J^^^' ^  thousand  fe.t  cbest- 
bundred   thousand    rosewood   -"-;»'   J  ,,,,,and  feet 

,ut  veneers  •,  thirty  ^— ;^^  ^;;;  .^^of  glue  -,  sixty  reams  sand 
of  oak  veneers;  ^'^^'^^»^*^'^"  ^^'7*^' /^.Hons  varnish  ;  twelve  hundred 
paper:  seventeen  hundred  '^"^^ '^^^J^"'  ,"',.„„„.  three  barrels  liu- 

;id;  white  lead;  ^^^^^^^  ^:^'Z:^ZU.  alcohol;  three 
Iced  oil;  two  barrels  sp.nts  turpentmc     Wt^^^  ^^^^^^^^_^^^  ^^^„^^.,, 

,„.,red'  dollars'  worUi  .«    ;3j.n     -   ^  ^  -  -  ^^^_^  ^^^,,^^,  ,  ,,,, 
^vorth  paints;  three  hundred  '^'^'^ll"^  ^  t,,,,,and  six  hundred 

t.vee  hundred  pounds  ^-^^f  ^  ;,  :,"^^\vi..e ;  thirty-three  huu- 
,ounds  iron  wire;  «- ^^Ifl^^^^rJ^las  bar  stiel ;  three  thousand 
dved  pounds  brass  wire  ;  hve  "'^  ^  '  ^  ^^,^^^  ,;,,  i,i„.es  ;  three  thou- 
,..„dswrougl.b..on;  ^^-;^^  ,J  thousand  locks;  e.gbt 
enud  one  hundred  ami  uuj  b  " 

The  founder  of  this  l«ri!0  ^t"""""'"' ™,.  „  ,ie  was  born  in  the 
holvor,  au,  not  Hve  to  i;-™^"  '  ■^.^^i.^^oh,  who,e  he 
State  of  Sew  "-"''t/^rle*  y  ^1.  tbe  eahinet-malter's  trn.le. 



ilioRany  logs 
Uie  first  lloor 
to  its  proper 
ae(iiiiri'S  the 
,e  Ciiso  room, 
10  riftiio  case 
up  to  tlu!  liWi 
buiUliiiii',  and 
[ig  shape  iiiul 
at  each  wing, 
various  rooms, 


ing,  where  tbo 
ul  at  a  lieat  of 
'  spruce,  wliieh 
undergo  a  pro- 
B  Piano-forte, 
[•rials  that  enter 
:s  of  the  yearly 
,  viz.  :  six  huu- 
0  thousand  feet 

>,  for  packing- 
g-boards;   three 
;and   fc>.t   ebesl- 
vc  thousand  feet 
sixty  reams  sand 

twelve  hundred 
three  barrels  lia- 
,1s  alcohol;  three 

hundred  dollars' 

castings  •,  thirty- 
sand  six  hundred 

thirty-three  hiin- 
el ;  three  thousand 
.inges  -,  throe  thou- 
sand locks;  eight 

',  Chickering,  who, 
[c  was  born  in  the 
Ipswich,  where  he 
;met-maker's  trade, 
nineteen,  undertook 

the   reparation  of  a  disordered  Piano-tho  only  one  n      •-  *--- 
whioh   after  much  labor,  he  succcdcd  in  restoring  to  use  ulne..     1 
•     ;    nuent  belonged   to  Samuel  15a,chclder.  elsewhere  idluded  to.    nd 
was  n«  doubt    the    first    riano-forte  that  Mr.   Chickermg  ev  ,   savv^ 
ZZ.L,  ISIS,  he  arrived  in  i^.ston,  and  »;-l ^-^I'll^;;- 
,,  ,,„i„.,.„;aking,  commencing  work  on   t^''^-^  ''f  f .  ^  ;X^' 
One   year  afterward   he  entered  into  the  employment  o    M.-o, 
then  Almost  the  only  manulactarer  of  I'iano-.orU.  -  ^«  ^^  ;  - 
whom   he  remained  tour  years.     On  Febrm.ry  ^^"•- ,^^  ^^   !  ^  ^^ 
into  a  copartnership  with  a  Mr.  Stewart  m  t  e  -^^^^^^^^^^^^_ 
which  continued  for  three  years,  when  it  was  dissolved  ;  and  ^-J^^^^ 
ering  prosecuted  the  business  without  a  partner  tor  --ral  >^.      ^ 
then  became  associated  with   Mr.  Mackay,  a  capitalist  ot  boston   a.n^ 
by  the     rection  of  large  buildings,  and  the  importation  of  rare  kind, 
l:  prepared  Jan  extension  of  the  business,  ^^^  ^^^^^ 
lowed      It  i.  a  noticeable  circumstance  in  his  career,  that  all  his  pa 
nJ^  ip^-    and  all   his   most   important   undertakings,   date   from    the 
S^l'day  of  Fehrnary,  the  anniversary  of  Ids  arriva   in  Uie  c   y  oi 
Boston      In   1852,  his  large   Manufactory  on  ^\  ashmgton   s  icc     ^^as 
d<^^"ved  bv  i  re.  involvin:  .  loss  of  two  hundred   thousand  dollars; 
ad  ^inlaid  the  fou„  lations  of  the   present  f^^^^^^^^ 
has  been  described.     But  before  its  completion,  in  March,  18o3  he  died 
t"     ;  t     bis  sons  the  most  famous  name  in  the  annals  of  music 
:::h;mism,  and  a  business  which  bis  genius  ;"^  .^;;^'^  /-^^ 
from   tiftcen   instruments_tbe  nund)er  made  by  bun  the  first  jcai 

""S:::  M:' C^cS"decease,  the  business  has  been  conducted  by 
bis  t  1  sons,  who   have  had   the  advantage  -of  a  thorough  training 
Ldln-xpeience,  and  who  have  made  and  adopted  unprovemen 
t    vt      mler  the  instruments  which  they  now  manufacture    ar  su,,er.o 
to    h     b  s    made  bv  their  father.     They  employ  about  five  hundred 
vo     men      0 me  of  whom  earn  foriy  dollars  per  week,  and   luvve  been 
onn      edwith  the  establishment  for  thirty  years ;  and  t>eyturn  o 
Zr  two  -usand  Pianos  a  J...  ^^^^^ 

:t^:tr':t^'   ,it:;m::-:i:f:.n  eminentper.rnn.s  and 
numismaut  Loi  „,i,;,.i,  if  arranged  in  a  volume,  would  make 

:X:et:r  T.:;: 'S;:r:;';r/Pian0s  have  been  repe^edly 

suS  ed  to  the  most  rigid  tests  of  comparative  merit  m  competiti 

witf  t le  best  instruments  made  in  Europe  and  America,  with  results 

To  sa     factory,  that  their  superior  quality  and  excellence  cannot  now 

a  otS^b     questioned;  and  recently  Messrs.  Chickenng  &  Sons 



•"-  -t  ""'■  "z:z:::S^^^^^^- 

fore  not  been  popular  in  this  couiury  clcffaacc  of  <U"Bign 

American  Tiano.  ^^^^ 

,„..,,  .llu*.l  10,  having  l>oc.n  fo«„«,       ,  .f^^^^,^ Tcom,,,™-  the 
a,ul  .Io«,>h  Na.o„,  who  were  '■'"'""^l^'^'^'l'ZL,,,  „„.,  di„i„ol 

..,„  of  vvo>,.ea.i,ou  «'™-;;ix :;;,  „r.:' .».".«".'  -^ 

emlmvkoil  in  tl.o  business,  dal  not  ixctt 

annum,  now  amounts  to  many  "^'''''.^  "^[^  ;*•  ,^^.,^   ^,,,  fi,,,  to  intvo- 
ThiH  firm  are  also  accrecbtcd  with  liaving  bom   uit 

""""'  '"  •  n     h ;  uL  «     aCb  the  n.,r,.ro„»  »ln,e.„re»,  of  various 
and  larse  puWie  taddingi     *"  ' '1^        .  ^    „„.,„v„tu»  construelod  by 

ri'  *i  ;™::,tr  :;t:a  tJ.ti:^.."i  *«  Ac.dc,„y  of  Mn.e 

the  hrm  of  ^^lll\voltn  X  ^^'•- '     -  ,      p-e^irtent's  House 

'"  ':;■"*";• '';,f,r;:  ;^ ;:  r  a^ Jl  :o:.„e.o  »„,><  „„. 

i„  Wa,h,n|»on.  !..  >"''"''.'(!,,,.  ,,„,,,i,al,  „f  Itotoa.  The  nt-Bl-e- 
''-•''^"■'.'■y'''''';;;;;'  ;;::,ave.t  at  are  vo„,,.«.edi,  nearly. 
'Z       T  f  .T  nd     Jl  *    c  1  hv  ,noan,  of  a  Kan,  that  foreo«  fre* 



have  hci-eto- 
lently  rccom- 
ice  of  (U'sign 
ize  and  form, 
Piano  would 

for  tho  iiitro- 
ns  mueb,  ccr- 
Ueuce  of   the 

a,  Gas,  and 

ndoubtedly  the 
il  with  that  of 
ch  has  ah'oady 
33  J.  Walworth 
)  comnienco  the 
\te  and  distinct 
ig  buildings  by 
tubes,  which  is 
large  estnblish- 
timo  when  they 
)usand    feet   per 

le  first  to  intro- 
r  moans  of  Fans 
11  Custom-house, 
krluras,  Ilosititals, 
icturos,  of  various 
as  construct (m1  by 
Lcadcmy  of  Music 
'resident's  House 
omplete  work  un- 
■iton.     The  aggre- 
itilated  is  nearly  ft 
1,  that  forces  fresh 
•tments— changing 
:  any  one  time,  or 
A  novel   method 
h  air  admitted  to 

the  wards  has  been  adopted,  consisting  of  a  double  set  of  hu. .,  one 
carrying  cold  and  the  other  warn,  air,  so  arranged  that  the  two  cur- 
rents  may  be  combined  and  mixed  at  the  point  of  mgress,  thus  afloul- 
i„,  the  ufuost  facility  for  controlling  the  temperature  of  the  rooms 
without  diminishing  the  quantity  of  air  required  tor  y^'"  '"^^•«;;-  ^^^ 
heatin.r  surface  of  this  Hospital  amounts  to  about  eighteen  thousand 
superlicial  feet,  and  consists  mainly  of  wrought-iron  pipes,  of  ,nch 
int^ernal  diameter,  placed  in  large  masses,  n.  a,r-chambers,  th.ough 
which  the  fresh  air  passes  on  its  way  from  the  Fan  to  the  reg.ste.s  m 

''Z'wmJ:  Messrs.  Walworth  &  Co.  arc  always  prepared  to  under- 
take large  contracts  of  this  kind,  and  probably  employ  a  larger  force 
of  workmen,  experienced  in  putting  up  the  appliances  they  cons  ruct 
In  any  other  trm,  their  leading  business  is  the  manu  acture  of  those 
nuuer  us  articles  included  in  the  general  term  "Fittings."  Among 
th"  there  are  several  that  are  secured  to  them  by  patent ;  ot  .  uch 
pro  llv  the  most  valuable  is  a  simple  and  excellent  arrangement  or 
c     nect  ngthe  main  and  radiating  pipes  that  dispenses  wdh  a  numOe 

0  idn      and  the  consequent  liability  to  leakage.     The  unprovemen 
Ssia  nserting  in  the  main  pipe  a  branch  lY.  or  ManUol    and 

Valve  in  one  fitting_by  which  at  least  one  third  of  the  labor  and  ma- 

1  l'irLstructl;>g  ti.e  apparatus  is  saved ;  and  as  the  water  can 
p  without  obstruction,  it  has  no  place  to  lodge  or  freeze.  on- 
Llerable  economy  in  th.  use  of  steam  is  effected  by  the  adoptum  of 
double  valves,  bv  which  all  or  only  a  part  of  the  p.pes  can 
b  used  at  pleasm-e,  according  to  the  temperature  of  the  atmosphere 
and  the  degree  of  warmth  required.  This  Patent  Man.fold  .s  he  ,n- 
venlion  of  one  of  the  Urn.-C.  C.  Walworth_who  has  also  invented  and 
patented  a  "  Solid  Die  Plate,"  and  a  machine  for  cutting  gas  httmgs, 
Sg  three  taps  at  once,  now  the  property  of  the  "Malleable  Iron 
Fittings  Co."  at  Uranford,  Connecticut. 

The  firm  of  J,  J.  Walworth  &  Co.  is  composed  of  James  J.  \\  al- 
worth,  Marshall  S.  Scudder,  and  C.  C.  Walworth,  who  have  .en 
Zciatcd  together  since  185:5.  <.r  the  year  subse<,uent  to  that  m  which 

e  Urn  of  Walworth  .t  Nason  was  dissolve.l.  They  have  tw..  Manu- 
factories, one  in  connection  with  the  store  in  Boston,  another  in  Cam- 
bridireport,  and  also  u  house  in  Chicago.  ... 

Mr.  Walworth  is  also  largely  engaged  in  developing  some  important 
and  novel  improvements  in  machinery  for  the  working  of  the  Fax 
ft  . .  of  the  West.  He  has  invested  more  than  $100,000  capital  in  this 
enterprise,  which  promises  to  be  of  great  value  to  the  agricultural  in- 
tcresta  of  tho  Western  States. 




Gartoer  ChUson's  Stove  Works, 

,„„  ,„.H,  ..s..bli.hod    or  more      "J  *   ^  f„,  j,.„,  ,,„g,„„.,,  t„r  it, 

proprietor  i>»B  been  "'""^f'^^S  °  ;t,oUy,  would  att-.ct  public  "t- 

tentiou,  aiul  he  hah  not  i3ttu  ju  ,  ^  ^^^^■^^.  luerits. 

tion  of  those  who,  unsohcted.  ^^^^^Z^^,^^^  the  iuvenlors  of 
Mr.  Ohilsou,  who  deserves  a  Pr^'"'-"   ^  ^^^     ^^,^/^^,^.,,a  ^n  .,l>rcu- 
thoeouatry,isanatWeorTlK^o.Co^  ^^^  ^^^^,^^^ 

ticoshipto  Pattern  "'^'\^'^^"'''^  " '",  "i  i,^,elf  at  Trovidence,  Uhode 
attaining  his  n.^ority  he  e^a«  ^^^^  .  ^  ^^^^^_  ^^^,  ^,^^^,^,, 
iBhuul,  IVoin   phv  e  he    emovca  ^  ^^^^^^      ^^^   ^^^^^ 

in  ,lu.  business  with  for  "^^^y;  Reeled  to  defects  in  the 
,een  identihed.  ">^  ^^^^'H::;  ^^^  i  ^--s  and  Uan.os,  and 
generally  adopted  method,  vt  ^«»^^'^^^"S  ^  ,.^,„,,ay  for 

L  applied  his  natural^  -t^i::  !:t:odaeed  a;  Air 
them.     As  early  as  \hU  ho  nntnicu  ,       ,,^  ,,  ,,,.,y  ^.,,at 

..a  ventilating  ^>"-7,:  ^  .Jt^;   ^^^-ted,  and  whieh   re- 
iu.p,.oven.ent  upon     1    ^2r\^^  Fair  held  in  London  in  ISM 
ceived  the  Pn.e  Medal  at  the  ^V«  ''^  j^,,^^  „,t  long  after- 

,,,  ,  SVoaterinventn>n    hantl  s  was     >aclc_^^y^^^^   ^^^^^^^^^^   ^^^,^^ 

,,ard.  and   P-^^ented  m    18  >        I     co  ■  ^^^  ^^^^^^^  ^^.^,^  ^^^^^  ,. 

numevous  experiments,  that  Ihe  gieai  ^^.^..^    ,  radiators  in  the 

,os.ihle  waste  of  fuel   ca.,   .  ^--^^Z:::^.^  ^nd  gases  usually 
form  of  tapermg  eone^,  ah  I.J  tn  ^^^  heating  pnr- 

wasled  or  lost  in  chinmu-s.  are  ^-^^J^^  I         ,,,,•„  ,,  ,,,  ,.„. 

poses  with  the  fuel  itself.      He  "PP"-1     ^  '     ^  »     ^^.;„  ,,,    ,n,«ophy 

Itruetion  of  Warm  Air  l^-— ;-;;"";;  I  f,,„a  thlvt  not  only 
has  den.onstratod  its  great  prao  u.U  va      .  ^^^_  ^^^._^^^^^^ 

^,,,  ,,hole    produets   of   eon>b«stu  n,  ^^1      ^^^  ,^,   ^^   ,,,, 

parlieles,  hy  being  eon.ined  and  ^";  --^.;ttonLly  and  con- 
lli,.,  aetion  of  the  '•••^-\;;'Vi;-,^r  bearing  the 
.unu.d.  but  the  heat  cont.n  d^  ,"  c  Ited  and  thoroughly  ex- 
tapering  surfaee  ot  ^^J^^^^^^^,  Z.  twenty  thousand   rurnaees 

hHusted  Without  any   \va>t  .     •^"  ^^^^^  ^  ,„  ^,,,„„iiy  ,vppli- 

constructed  on  this  principle  are  nou  m     ■  .  ^^^^^.^^  ^^^^  ^^^^.^^.^^ 

cable  to  steam   boilers,  or  wherevo     it  s  u. . . 

:;:lount  of  heat  fron.  a  given  .p.ant.ty  ot  fuel. 



■  miles  from 
B  v.avoluiiise 
is  probiibly 
;laiul,  for  its 
lew  i'oniis  of 
ict  public  at- 
ical  oxiunina- 

3  iuveiitors  of 
od  an  aitiivcu- 
Sterling.    On 
donee,  Uliode 
,  and  engaged 
•nturj'  lie   bus 
defi>els  in  the 
d  llanges,  and 
r  a  remedy  for 

Air  Warming 
be  a  very  great 
and  xvliifb  rc- 
idon  in  IS;")!. 

not  long  iiftor- 
iiscovery,   after 
1,  with  tlio  least 
radiators  in  the 
lid  gases  usually 
for  beating  pnr- 
iplc  in  tlu-  i'i<n- 
.11  as  jiliilosopliy 
iml  lliat  not  only 
moke,  or  niinuto 

cxjiosed  to  tho 
tensely  and  con- 
ring  against  tho 
d  thoroughly  ex- 
lousand   Kuvniu-cH 

is  e(|ually  appH- 
obtain  the  largest 

"■"" " "•"■*, ""■:."''T:tt.inf CO  n  i  ':;,,ci,u. ».,- 

n,„.  i.lati«,  tlirt  ,l,-l..'i.»o  »•  tl     lit  c».  ^^^  ^^,.,1^ 

.,.,„.  „v>.„s  «o  .0  ,u-«.F.l  that  bolh  °  ."""»;;  ,;^.,,  „,.  ,,,„,,..,,  ,„ 
„,„,  ,„,„„  dcaled  ovor  .1,0  flro,  the  »'"'«;,  J  "t'.l.oso  inM-r-vcl 
,„„,i,.*at.  ,l,«„.ll  »'«7;:2- Jn  ;'  t,  wlnl.  .1.0  orisi- 
i»..„,ro^  ire  now  in  use,  and  their  value  will  aniMi    , 

,„  I8,li,  l,c  |.».o...o<l  «n  all»ol,mc,..  '»',"  «7     '„„„,„,  ,„p,„,c., 

s;  ui.n!::;c„„o  -H". ;."  ««7-:;;':="^™  'i: 

lower    part  of  the  room.     It   has    Dun   iu,,i  . 
Superintendents  of  Railroads  for  warnung  cars,  and  bv   othc:. 

have  used  it  in  ollices  '^"^ 'V""^'';f  7"';'  ^  „^.^^.  p,,,,,,  stove,  which 
Another  valuable   invention   is      a  - ^^     ,,^^^,.^  ;,„,,„„,, 

for  „.on.,„,y  «n,l  c,nv,.,m.,o        1     »  h  ^^^,^^.__    „,„,  j,,, 

'-«' ' ;:;  ;;::;:;l:'::  o ;;:.  wi.i.  »..'i -- '« «■ 

result,  as  we   leai.i   ti'mi   tnosi    i-  „,i  .,iv„.i,.ncv    and  the  excel- 

.r. i.v  '«>■ "•■;-,  ■■">•'■•;;;  ,:':;:':;l  1 :;;  "'-vny  r..„oi.-«. 

lenceofitsmanulacture.      liieie  an    siz. .  i 

,„ont,  whether  for  private  families  or  hotels^  ^^^^^^  ^^ 

All  of  these   Stoves  are  '-^"''  -';:'''  \',\,„      ,,,,,, n  llaiiroad 
Mansneld.  which  have  a  .Vont  ^^J^ ^^^^^^^  1,  ,,„,,  „et. 




b„,.„  ,.,e  ,c„«rk»blc  fo,-    --7;;  ■''■"It      'on     W„.  rea  l,«na»  a» 

eu.ployi-1  HI  those  VVoiks.     Ai  i  „        .,,^.  o,.i„i„;U  .lesign 

<-»•-«-» ' 

The  Howard  Watch  and  Clock  Company 

factuvcTS  of  tiao  Clocks  anu  u  .     ,„5,chincry  in  conneftion 

wi.b  a  pro„=v  'f  <;■;'/", ^,'°l«o.  Cnis,  under  tbc  style  of  Ibe 
p.  l>«via,  Aaron  L.  11onni»on,  ^, 

Roxbury,  Massachusetts,  xvheie  th t  nr  Ei^.i.t-day  Watches 

U  was  on^inally  pvoposod    o  -^'^-^  ^  ^  „,  ^  iLavd,  an 
_aua  the  first  one  made  is  st.l   in  tuc  p  ^^^^^^^ 

accurate  and    serviceable   f  me-kecper_bn    tins  ^ 

poetically  -^>f -^^Xl:^^^^^  e:  riir.;  its  infancy,  of 
was  commenced  and  -  >^^  ^^J;  ^^^  ^„,,  „  u.e  want  of  suitable 
course,  encountered  ^"=^"y  ^ ''^•^"^'  ;;  "°\,,,;„roiudices  of  dealers  in 
tools  and  experienced  workmen,  '''''  ^  ^JJ"^^^,^  ^.^^  h.  d\^nm. 
watches  and  the  ^^^^::^:::^Z^::::;n:L..^.,  company 

'"'^"T':ni htlu    vw";  concealing  the  kind  of   business  the 
was  ad..pted  with  tlu,  VR«  business  had  so  far 

Company  were  ^^^^^^^^^^^^f^  ^    roductions.     When  the 
advanced  as  to  be  able  to  -1»«^^;^«;";  \         ,,,;      p^t  into  the 

works  were  so  i^^-  .  v.-a  ^-  ^^j;-  ^  ^^  ,,.,  ?,:,„  Watch 
,,,,Uet,  the  name  of  the  ^  n    a  J  ^^.^^^  ^^^  ^^^^^  ^^^^^.^^^^  ^.^^,^^ 

Company.    In    S.     Uus  C  n  ,     ^^^  ^^  ^^^^   ^^  ,,,nufactory,  but,  by  incur- 

11  the  town  of  \N  altliam,  anu  « i  ,„„p|,i„prv  irreater  than  their 

r„„  an  o,„b>y  for  '»''''«"^;»' 7'^;:;,;        'Zfler  busine-  of 

"■■"■"  rritr::  ■.:  t  ;^.  cXdU ... ,..  par...  .«ca,ue 

Howard  &  I'avis  nan  .       ,.„p,„.ty  passed 

o„,..e..  .,y  .7''f7'':'';r'C:*  C         >    carHe:,™  rtelLnoss 
into  the  hands  of  Applulon,  Uacj  iV  «-<  ,  ^v 



loor  lias  a 
tings  made 
2  very  '"Cst 
liiinds  ave 
)  liio  manii- 
:iual  (U'rtign 
Icmleneo  of 


the  manufac- 
J,  of  till!  linn 
lartls,  nianu- 
g  determined 
in  connection 
f  with  David 
10  style  of  the 
J  n  factory  at 
es  were  made, 
-day  Watches 
[•.  Howard,  an 
as  not   found 
hour  Watches 
its  infancy,  of 
^nt  of  suitiihle 

of  dealers  in 
ould  be  diniin- 
iring  Company 
f  Imsiness  the 
iiess  had  so  far 
IB.  When  the 
ip  put  into  the 

Hoston  Watch 
3  Charles  river, 
y,  but,  hyincur- 
>ater  than  tlicir 
ler  business  of 
parties  became 
property  passed 
01)  the  business 

,„  ,„„,c  .«o  years  or  .or.,  w>,c„  it  w..  «„...,  .oeor.,  .„u,cr  the 
„„,c.  of  the  Ainoricn  Watch  »'.""l»"y^  ,„„  .„,„. 

M,..  Ilowara  rclumcl  to  Iho  "t  ginal  lacto  y  m  ^  ^^^  ^^^^ 

a„„i„K  the  maouracturc  o,  f «  ^^  . '  v  1  mXs  at  6.t,  „«.*- 
ti,.h„-  grades,  a„d,  thouBh  '^  '  'X;"J,„,„,  „„t  ooly  gratifying 
v„re,l  antil  he  ha,  "^"""'^^ »  '  'J^      ' '  '„„  A„.orinta,  whose  sy,»,a- 

rSi.;  0?  =::;s:r:,::  r::;,  ro^  -  wattes  e^ee. 

the  pre. -nt  facilities  for  «"PPj>-'!;f  ;\      ^         ,f  ^  follow  square,  one 
His  factory  in  lloxbury  is  bud   ^^^J^        ,„,  ,,,p,oys  two 
Hundred   ^eet  on  eacli^^e     rrohal  recently 'been  purchased  for 
hundred  workmen.     A  plot  oi  gro  ^,,1^.  of  accom- 

the  erection  of  a  new  and  much  '-^^1^^^^"^:^^  ,  ,„,,  industrial 
modating  one  thousand  employees  ^'^'^''^  ;;^  J^„  f  patches  by 
establishments  more  -tevestnig  than  a^n^^^^^^^  ^  ^^^^^^  ^^^^^,.^  ,,.,j, 
a^achinery.  We  ^ave  -rf  ou  c  a^r.  h^^^b  .^^^  .„.p,oyed-the 
wonder  would  be  excited  at  the  size  o  ^^^^^     _ 

ponderous  lathes  and  massive  planers  of  t''"  ^^-^"^  J  r^,!,,  drills 
Z  here  the  tools  and  machines  ^^^^  >  — ^^  ..^ich  the 
eor  probing  the  ^^^^ -;,^:,C  's  ,0  tlnents  of  a  spider,  web. 
wheels  revolve,  are  almost  ^«  ''""  correctness  of  the  aperture, 

The  gauges,  which  are  used  to  ^-^^  ^^^  ^  i,,;^  or  the  ten 

ave  so  delicate  as  to  mdicate  t^e  ^^^         ^^^         ,^^.,a  ,,  form 
thousandth  part  of  an  inch,     lie  -^"^  ^,.^ ,       .u-es,  ground 

the  teeth  of  the  scape- wheel  out  of  the  sol m  _^^^^^^  .^ 

aown  to  the  vrov^^^^^^:^;::::^^:;::^^^.  d^ps  which  they 

snudl  wheels  or  discs,  and  so  fine  do    icy  ^  ^^^^.^^  ^^^^^ 

can  remove  are  only  the  thirtieth  l-^"       ;^;;'^^^^^^    ,f  a.e  tooth,  so 
this  infuii^essimaA  portion  can  be    aken    -"  ;"y  ,     „.„a 

easily  are  their  ^^^^^^^f'^^^^^l   he    ^uindred  thousand 

and  worth  a|.vit^^;s  ^-;^^-    ^  ^^l^,  ,,  ,,,  „,Ued  eye.  resem- 

screws,  worth  i^S^i.COO.      llase  bU  w  _  perfectly  as 

ble  particles  of  rifle  powder,  arc  hiush^  ;;^;  ^  nter-sunk   heads. 

those  bolts  with  which  we  are  f""'''7''^^;    ;,i,.i,.,,.      The  threads, 

threads,  and  grooves  ^^- ^^^ ^^^;^J^^  ^^ ^^,  ^re  cut  with  per- 

of  which  ther.  are  tw..  hundred  and  ««    >  ^^   ^^  ,,,  ,,,,  ,j., 

feet  accuracy  by  means  of  d,es.  an    o.  ;'■-;-„,,,,, a  n.achines 

except  with  the  aid  of  a  micrometei.     ^"       "'J^         ^,,^.  i,,,,,.,,,,,,  of 

.,,i^h  are  in  use  in  his  ^{^l^^^^^ZZ^  kept  employed 
Mr.  Howard,  and  over  a  dozen  persons  are 



in  making  tools  to  supplant  those  which  are  slightly  worn,  as  well  as 
new  tools,  which  are  required  in  a  constantly  increasing  business. 

One  distinguishing  feature  of  American  made  Watches  is  the  simplicity 
of  tli'jir  construction.  The  fusee  and  chain,  which  are  found  in  all  English 
Watches,  are  dispensed  with,  the  motive  power  being  api)liod  direct, 
and  not  dissipated  amid  a  useless  complication  of  machinery.  In 
some  foreign  Watches  there  are  as  many  as  six  hundred  ditt'erent  j)arts, 
rendering  them  a  perfect  labyrinth  of  cogs  and  wheels,  and  this  com- 
plexity of  construction  necessarily  increases  their  liability  to  derange- 
ment, which,  in  the  American  Watch,  is  lessened  two  thirds,  and  the 
friction  at  least  one  half  Another  distinguishing  feature  which  is  a 
necessary  result  of  the  mode  of  manufacture,  and  which  was  adopted 
at  the  beginning,  is  the  perfect  uniformity  of  parts,  by  which  every 
Watch  of  the  same  class  is  a  duplicate  of  every  other.  The  European 
practice  of  Watchmaking  is,  to  give  a  few  wheels  to  one  workman,  a 
few  "iuions  to  another,  who  fashion  them  without  any  uniform  guide 
except  experience  and  manual  dexterity,  hence,  the  parts  are  very 
rarely  interchangeable?  In  the  American  manufactories,  on  the  con- 
trary, a  large  number,  say  five  thousand  of  the  dillerent  parts,  are 
wrought  by  machines  in  separate  depn  tments,  and  finished  in  detail,  and 
the  pieces  are  then  taken  indiscriminately  from  the  several  apartments 
to  what  in  a  Locomotive  building  would  be  called  the  "Erecting 
Shop,"  where  they  are  put  together  and  adjusted,  and  being  made  by  an 
unvarying  rule,  they  cannot  fail,  unless  the  machines  are  imperfect,  to 
fit  correctly  and  accurately.  Hence,  one  result  of  this  perfect  cor- 
respondence of  parts  is,  that  if  any  one  be  lost  or  broken  by  accident,  a 
duplicate  can  be  obtained  from  the  factory  at  slight  cost,  by  letter,  and 
any  watchmaker  can  adjust  it  in  its  place ;  thus  the  great  ditriculty  and 
expense  which  attend  the  repairing  of  other  Watches  are  avoided. 

But,  besides  these  advantages  which  the  Howard  Watches  have,  in 
common  with  other  American  Watches,  they  h  /e  some  peculiar  to 
themselves,  and  secured  by  patent  One  is  an  irrangement  by  which 
the  manufacturer  is  enabled  to  use  a  longer  and  wider  main  spring  than 
can  be  employed  in  the  usual  way,  apply  a  series  of  finer  toothed 
wheels  and  pinions  producing  an  easy  and  uniform  action,  and  at  the 
same  time  they  are  protected  from  damage  by  the  violent  recoil  caused 
by  the  very  common  accident  of  the  breakage  of  the  main  spring.  A 
main  spring  may  break  in  these  Watches,  but  the  otiier  parts  cannot  be 
injured  thereby.  The  Stop  works,  too,  are  secured  on  the  bridge  or 
plate  of  the  Watch,  on  which  the  force  in  winding  is  exerted,  and  thus 
the  train  is  rol'-jved  from  all  extra  strain,  while  in  Watches  where  the 
Slo|)  works  are  placed  on  the  barrel,  the  force  of  winding  is  applied  on 



1,  as  well  as 

ho  simplicity 
n  all  Enj^ 
l)lio(l  direct, 
chiiiory.  la 
llereiit  parts, 
1(1  this  com- 
to  derail  ge- 
rds,  and  the 
B  which  is  a 
was  adopted 
which  every 
he  European 

I  workman,  a 
iiiform  guide 
rts  are   very 

on  the  con- 
nt  parts,  are 
in  detail,  and 
d  apartments 
e  "  Erecting 
2:  made  by  an 
imperfect,  to 
perfect  cor- 
)y  accident,  a 
jy  letter,  and 
(litriculty  and 
dies  have,  in 
3  peculiar  to 
ent  by  which 

II  spring  than 
finer  toothed 
n,  and  at  the 
recoil  caused 
n  spring.  A 
rts  cannot  be 
he  bridge  or 
ted,  and  thus 
les  where  the 

is  applied  on 

the  train  giving  an  increased  and  unnatural  motion  to  the  balance  ad 
at, he  11  time  endangering  the  teeth  and  pinions,  especuUly  li  the 
divisions  are  line  and  the  Watch  carelessly  wound. 

,  ..sides  Watches,  very  Hne  Clocks  are  also  made  m  t>- --  X  ^ 
suited  for  offices  and  public  buildings,  and  ranguig  m  pr  ce  f'  >  '  ^"^^o 
S:  0  or  more  A  Clock  made  here  for  the  Boston  Custom-hou.e  co  t 
I  ,(  and  the  best  are  guaranteed  not  to  vary  more  than  two  seconds 
fn  ear  Mr.  Howard' we  are  informed,  is  also  the  originator  o  the 
Marble  Faced  Clocks,  for  which  there  is  now  an  extensive  demand. 

Donald  McKay's  Ship  Yard, 

In   East  Boston,  is  a  famous  locality,  made  illustrious  by  the  genius 
0?  its  proprietor  in  naval  construction.     It  was  here  that  some  oi  the 
:  r  it  Id  fastest  clipper  ships  that  adorn  the  American  Marine  we^ 
fashioned  into  shape,  and  were  launched  upon  tiie  waters.   ^^^'^ 
is  a  brilliant  and  extensive  one,  and  includes  the  '[^^^J^, 
"Ocean  Monarch,"  of  fifteen  hundred  tons  each;  the  "  btaffoids  ...e 
an^l''  Empress  of'  the  Sea,"  two  thousand  tons  ,  the  "  Sovereign    and 
'champiinof  the  Seas,"  twenty-four  hundred  to- I   tbo      S  -     f 
Empire"   and    "Chariot   of    Fame."   twenty-two   hundred  tons     the 
"  L  ghtning,"  twcntyone  hundred  tons  ;  the  "  Commodore  Pei-rv    and 
..  jIp      "  U'enty-four  hundred  and  fifty  tons  ;  the  <'  Donald  McKay, 
twt'v  five  hundred  and  ninety-four  tons  ;  and  the  "  Great  llepubhc," 
forty -five  hundred  tons,  old  measurement.  ^     ,.     .     ,onn  f,^n, 

Donald  McKay  was  bom  at  Shelburne,  Nova  Scotia,  in  1809,  fion 
parentage  of  Scottish  origin,  whose  ancestry,  in  an  unbroken  l.iie,  can 
11  traced  back  to  the  fifteenth  century.     His  youth  was  pass.M    on 
farm;  but  the  natural  proclivity  of  his  mind  manifested  itself  at   u, 
ar  y  age,  for  at  nineteen  he  is  accredited  with  having  constructo.    a 
ishhig-' mack  of  creditable  proportions.     Within   a  short  time  afte  - 
ward,  he  was  apprenticed  to  learn  the  trade  of  ship-building  in  >ew 
York   at  which  he  served  diligently,  and  after  a  few  years  he  com- 
menced business  for  himself  at   Newburyport,  on  the  river 
Here  he  built  several  ships  for  New  York  and  Boston  houses,  and  uv 
mained  until  1845,  when  he  removed  to  his  present  locality  in  Last 

^^  Wi"mi  the  opening  of  the  California  trade  created  a  demand  fnr  a 
large  class  of  clipper  ships,  Mr.  McKay  set  about  their  construct, on 
ami  so  successfully  that  his  name  soon  became  famous  in  all  commercial 
ports      He  built  over  lif.  v  of  these  ships  of  considerable  size,  of  which 



the  largest  have  ah-cady  been  mentioned.  The  "  Great  Republic,"  of 
forty-live  hundred  tons  register  and  six  thousand  tons  storage  ciii»iicity, 
was  launched  on  the  4th  of  October,  1853,  in  the  presence  of  sixty  thousand 
spectators,  and  attracted  attention  at  every  port  she  visited  not  only 
for  her  great  size,  ';ut  the  beauty  and  symmetry  of  her  nodel,  and  the 
luxuriousness  of  her  decorations.  This  vessel  was  subsequently  re- 
duced to  three  thousand  tons,  old  measurement— one  deck,  which  had 
been  partially  burnt  off,  having  been  removed— but  she  is  still  sailing 
from  the  port  of  .New  Yorli,  and  performing  her  duty  creditably. 

In  a  little  over  a  year  after  the  launch  of  the  "  Great  Republic,"  '  ir. 
McKay  had  launched  eleven  other  vessels,  ten  of  which  were  ships  of  an 
aggregate  of  twenty-four  thousand  six  hundred  tons,  which,  at  the  then 
estimate  of  cost  of  eighty  dollars  a  ton,  makes  the  total  value  nearly 
two   millions  of  dollars.     Six  of  these  vessels  were  built  for   James 
Raines  &  Co.,  of  Liverpool,  a  house  extensively  engaged  in  the  Aus- 
tralian trade.     One  of  these,  the  "  Lightning,"  of  two  thousand  two 
hundred  tons  burden,  was  launched  on  the  2d  of  January,  1854,  and 
was  the  first  ship  built  for  England  by  a  foreign  nation.     Indeed,  until 
a  few  years  previous,  the  British  law  piohibited  the  purchase  of  foreign 
vessels.     The  "James  Haines,"  another  of  these  ships,  sailed  from  Bos- 
ton to  Liverpool  in  the  remarkable  time  of  twelve  days  and  six  hours. 
Mr.  McKay,  like  Steers  and  Webb,  has  shown  a  positive  genius  in 
ship-building,  and  made  those  radical  changes  in  his  models  that  none 
but  a  man  of  original  conception  would  dare  to  undertake.     His  pri- 
mary idea  was  to  construct  vessels  for  speed  and  capacity,  and  in  this 
he  fully  succeeded.    His  fleet  coursers  of  the  deep  have  sped  from  clime 
to  clinie,  at  once  the  wonder  of  the  world  and  the  heralds  of  his  own 
fame      California,  Australia,  China,  and  the  East  Lulies,  have  been 
brought,  as  it  were,  to  our  doors,  and  by  a  few  months'  voyage,  their 
products  are  landed  in  our  ports.     The  clipper  ships  with  which  his 
name  is  identified  have  eflccted  a  revolution  in  long  voyages  to  distant 
seas  almost  equal  to  that  which  steam  has  made  in  navigation  to 
Europe,  and  it  is  probably  no  exaggeration  to  say,  as  has  been  said  by 
some  writer,  that  "  the  advantage  to  commerce,  and  the  renown  which 
has  resulted  to  the  American  Marine,  are  more  due  to  the  genius 
and  perseverance  of  Donald  McKay  than  to  any  other  living  man." 

Mr  McKay  has  recently  returned  from  Europe,  where  he  gave  critical 
attention  to  the  iron-clad  ships  of  war  built  by  France  and  England  ; 
and  has  recently  written  a  series  of  very  interesting  papers  on  the  sub- 
ject in  whicli  he  makes  a  scientific  comparison  between  the  iron-clad 
vessels  of  the  United  States  and  those  which  I'-^ve  fallen  under  hi3 
inspection  abroad. 



Lcpublic,"  of 
iy^a  ciipiieity, 
,ed   not  only 
)del,  and  the 
equently  re- 
c,  which  had 
}  still  sailing 
epublic,"  ".Ir. 
re  ships  of  an 
h,  at  the  then 
value  nearly 
It  for   James 

in  the  Aus- 
housand  two 
ry,  1854,  and 
Indeed,  until 
lase  of  foreign 
led  from  Bos- 
,nd  six  hours, 
tice  genius  in 
lels  that  none 
ike.     His  pri- 
ty,  and  in  this 
icd  from  elinie 
ds  of  his  own 
BS,  have  been 

voyage,  their 
nth  which  his 
iges  to  distant 
navigation  to 
s  been  said  by 
renown  which 
to  the  genius 
ving  man." 
he  gave  critical 
and  England  ; 
ors  on  the  sub- 
II  the  iron-elad 
lien  under  his 

The  Hinkley  &  Williams  Locomotive  Works, 

Located  on  Harrison  Avenue,  are  entitled  to  rank  among  the  great 
Iron  Works  and  Machine  Shops  of  Boston.  The  organization  ot  the 
Company,  under  its  present  corporate  title,  dates  only  from  April, 
IHU  buV  it  may  be  called  the  successor  of  the  "Boston  Locomotive 
Works,"  which  was  incorporated  in  1848,  and  the  works  occupy  a  site 
where  Locomotives  have  been  built  since  1840. 

The  buildings  are  very  extensive,  and,  with  the  yards,  cover  an  area 
of  five  acres  of"  ground.  They  are  erected  in  two  paralle  ranges, 
which  are  connected  by  a  building  sixty  by  thirty-five  feet,  and  used  as 
a  Copper  and  Sheet  b'on  Shop.  The  Machine  Shop  which  is  new,  9 
■  two  imndred  and  ten  feet  long  by  sixty  feet  wide.  All  the  shops  are 
provided  with  appropriate  tools  of  modern  construction,  and,  in  busy 
seasons,  furnish  employment  to  several  hundred  men. 

These  Works  arc  a  monument  to  the  energy,  foresight  and  practical 
eeaius  of  their  founder-HoLMES  Hinkley,  Esq.,  the  late  President  ol 
the  Company.     His  history  is  the  record  of  an  eventful  life,  abounding 
in  remarkably  successful  achievements,  mechanical  and   hnancial,  and 
equally   unexpected   and   startling  reverses.     The  son  of   very   poor 
parents,  he  was  early  inured  to  hardship.     At  an  age  when  others  aic 
at  school,  acquiring  the  rudiments  of  an  education,  he  was  compe  led  to 
Ko  out  into  the  world,  and  seek  his  own  means  of  sustenance.    He  iirst 
learned  the  trade  of  carpenter,  and,  in  early  manhood,  plied  the  imple- 
ments of  that  craft.     Subsequently,  be  was  employed  as  a  pattern- 
maker of  machinery  for  factories,  and  here  acquired  a  sufficient  ki.ow- 
lad-e  of  mechanical  principles,  to  venture  upon  the  construction  of 
machinery.    Accordingly,  in  182r..  he  rented  an  old  building  on  Lenox 
street,  Boston  Neck,  and,  with  his  accumulated  earn ings_a  capital  ot 
two  hundred  and  fifty  dollars-he  began  his  career  as  a  machinist.      Us 
first  bars  of  iron,  he  carried  on  his  shoulders  from  the  store,  where  they 
were  purchased,  to  his  place  of  business.     Among  his  early  attempts 
at  Machine-making,  was  the  construction  of  a  Stationary  Steam  Engine, 
which   when  finished,  was  the  third  one  built  in  the  State  of  Massa- 
chu^'tts      It  was  an  entire  success,  and  .the  demand  for  his  engines  so 
rapidlv  increased,  that,  previous  to  1840,  he  had  constructed  a  larger 
number  than  any  other  machinist  in  New  England. 

In  1840,  he  undertook  to  build  a  Locomotive  upon  a  somewhat  d.  lor- 
ent  model  from  any  then  in  use.  His  friends  souglit  to  discourage  hun 
from  the  undertaking,  while  there  were  not  wanting  those  who  sneeiod 
at  what  they  termed  his  "reckless  attempt."  But  he  worked  on. 
cheered  onlv  by  his  own  faith  in  ultimate  success.  When  this  machine 




.,..  ecnplctcd.  it  was  ai^eult  to  fina  ^^^-;^;::^  ^l^  ^ 
Kastern   Uailroaa  bought  ,t.  «-^lJ^^^^^^^^  „,  the,  were 

H-     He  proceeded  at  once  to  ^^^ZZ:  was  .o  weU  assured 
completed,  the  suecess  of  the  lirst  i  contracted 

,U,t  all  of  them  were  ordered,  and,  m  two  years,^  .^^  ^^^_ 

for  and  delivered.     From  this  t"- J^      f^.  M  •  ^^>^,^^_^^^^^^_ 

noetiun  with  Mr.   Freeney,  ^''^^  ^^J ^,^,J    Uurin,  this 

or  the  '•  Boston  ^-n^Uve  Wor  ^  -      ^J^  ^^^^^^^^  ,,^  j^„,,. 

and  Superintendent.      H.o  ^^"^^*  '"^^  '^  ,  J       j,;„  f^^^  inuulrcd  feet, 
motive  shop  was  extended  *«  a  length  o.  mo,    than  ^ 

,nd  the  business  so  rapidly  P-^P«;f '/'  ^j^  „  .  .'^^f  LL.  At 
the  Company  was  valued  at  "P^f  ^J,^;,.  ^Z;,^,"^  1  „f  the  details  of 
this  time,  Mr.  Uin.ley  res.gned  ^'^«;;;;X  however,  were  found 
the  business  into  the  hands  o  y«""^- '^^^^J^',  ,";  the  breakers  of 
inadequate  to  the  taslc  of  pdo  mg  the  vesse    tl   o  ,  ^^^^.^^^ 

that  stormy  period.     ^f^^^^T^J^Z^l  ^^^  ^^^^^^  ^^  ^ 

n,ass  of  rum  .     ^JJ^"         J      ,^  „„aertake  the  task  of  remedy 
that  age  would  have  had  the  com  ago  ^,_^^^^^^ 

i„g  the  consequences  of  .o  great  ^^^l^"^^,  ^^^  .^miration, 
..  pluck,"  however,  wbieh  eanno^^^^^^  ^ ^0^  a \ase  of  the  works 
he  determined  to  make  ^  ^  ^^  f ,  J,,,,,,,,,,,  k.v.  Adams  Aver, 
from  the  assignees,  and  associat  ng  ^^^^^^^^  ^^„.^^^_ 

with  himself,  h.  proceeded  to  »  '^^^  ^  ^j^,,,,,,,  ,f  ,„  „„. 
the  scattered  threads  ^.^"J^d^l^tgHtv,  became  manifest.  When 
.ullled  character,  and  .';^'  ^^^^^f  ^^^^^  ;  fo,.  had  dealt,  and  who  had 
the  iron  merchants,  with  whom  ^be  corp       ^  ^^  ^^^^.^^ 

suffered  largely  from  its  fadurn,  -^^^''^^^^^^  ,„  ,,pp,y  ,,hat- 

thev  cheerfully  assented;  and  one    -^J^'^^^^^^^  j„  J.^.^t^  ,,,, 

ried  on  the  Foundry  business  m  ^J  ^^  -^;f  ^;;;j  ,,_  ,,„,  to  Boston 
„i„,self  an  honorable  -^-^\''' ''''''''^^' ^^l^^:^,  '  A  survev  of  the 
to  re-establish  himself  in  the  same  Ime  of  busmc.s. 



It,  finnlly,  the 
1(1  eiul  t)f  the 
oro  they  wore 
well  assurod, 
3rc  contracted 
iikloy,  in  cun- 
y  &    Freeney, 
,.     Uurhis  this 
[Hilarity  second 

under  the  title 
V  as  President 
rged,  the  Loco- 
X  hundred  feet, 
the  property  of 
of  dollars.     At 
if  the  details  of 
ever,  were  found 
the  breakers  of 
structure  which 
and  buried  in  a 
and  few  men  of 
task  of  reniedy- 
ith   true   Yankee 
t  and  admiration, 
lase  of  the  works 
Lev.  Adams  Aver, 
nd  toilsome  ellbrt, 
vantage  of  an  un- 
0  manifest.   When 
lenlt,  and  who  hail 
u  a  line  of  credit, 
lI  to  supply  what- 
cs,  in  order  to  aid, 
5f  the  various  rail- 
carried  their  orders 
his  shops,  and  the 

,  had  'formerly  car- 
d  who  had  won  for 
•ity,  came  to  Boston 
5  '  A  survey  of  the 

mo^nocts  in  connection  with  the  works  then  in  operation,  induced  him 
prospects    n  ^^^  ^^  ^,.  ^,,^,  j,,,,„„.c.. 

;:;::;;;r  "r  b"he';Lton  .l....  work.  wh.  a  cop^u... 

ship  WIS  formed,  consisting  of  Messrs.  Holmes     Imkey,  ^^^^^^ 
ims  Daniel  F.  Child,  and  Adams  Ayer,  un.ler  the  style  ol  H    kUs 
w'lmlTco.,  U.  the  manufacture  of  Locomotives,  Bo.lers.  lank. 
Castings,  and  machine  work  generally. 

Soon  aftpr  the  formation  of  the  copartnership,  the  attatk  was  ma<ie 

tc      «      y,    r  „««on,  L.  .™,.o.  V,y  „«lUng  u„  now  fumnoo,  «.  . 

•";:;',;;!;■  M';'Hi,,u'v:'ro-coi,,.  ..,o  r,.,,,.  „»„,»  of  «,o  n«i.™,K 
;::;•.  T„cy -..■„«  a  ,wi,«,  t„..n.o.,  by  ^-  >■■;  f ;;■ 

i,  vcrv  IlivoraWy  .|.»t.'n  "f  !'"  i'"  S'™'  ■"■"""'">  '"  '„ 

;:   '  W.,„o,We;,  .„  ..,«  ,.,.....,»  or  scvo,.„,  .,u„„rc,l,  aro  ,,,  u»  on 
l„v  r»ilroa.l,  ;  a„<l,  in  point  of  wo,-k,na.,»l,.l.,  arc  o„«»l  to  any  ma<le 

'"ir^Ml^vas.  chosen  tl.c  flvst  Pvc*icnt  of  ,.,c  new  Co.npany. 

,,..cca,c.  ,l,c   crsnnization   i.  a.  '»''»"■»;,''""';.  j,  .";,,,;",' 
.|A„v,»WiLUAMS.  Trca,..ror  and  Oonoral  Manage,  .  mN..v  I.  LR*  ...„t;  «l.c,  »i„.,k,,  K.  C.......  a,.a  1.,anc.»  L.  Bulia.  .. 

constitute  tho  Board  of  IHrcctors. 



Welch  &  Griffiths'  Saw  Manufactory, 

„.ent.  in  the  UuUe.l  HtateB.    It      en      ul    o  t  ^^^,  ^^^^^_^^^^^^_ 

the  first  to  demonstrate  the  1'^"  t>ea     >  Y,   n  sK  ^^^^^^^^  ^^^^^^^^^ 

luring  largo  Saws  in  tins  connt.y,  '^^     "^1  »  ^  L^X,,,.oiM  second 

iu  the  work  of  bniUling  up  a  new  countiy,  w.tb  I 

o„Vy  to  the  ^ZT^'Z' n^mo.i  entirely  dependent  upon  foreign 
I'revioua  to  1830,  wc  v,tu  imported  were  so  mi- 

„,anufacturers  for  a  supply  of  saws  ^^^^^^^^^^  Jj  ^^  .f^n.,  that 
perfectly  adapted  for  the  serv.ce  ^^^^'^Zi,  unl,  on  the  part 
[ho  management  of  them  was  an    x^  d.  ,  ^_^^^^  ^^^^^^  ^^^^,^ 

of  the  circular  saw,  a  dangerous  "P<^'*^  ^.tories  in  the  United  States,    ' 
not,  probahly.  more  than  three  «- ^-^^t     cs  n  t    ^^^_     .^  .^  ^^^ 

aud  the  value  of  the  saws,  made  ^'^'''''^l^^  mu.  Cuaules 

n.ated.  five  thousand  dollars  pex' annu-  In  that  >^^^  .  >  ^^^^^  ^^.^^.^^ 
GuirFiTHS,  who  had  been  engaged  >"  "^  ^^^^^,^,5^,,  i,i„,,elf  in 
came  to  the  United  States,  and  ^^^"»;";^  7^^„,,^.^^  circular  saws, 
Boston,  though  the  attempt  to  -f' J  .tXep'r  dieted.  Within 

especially,  was  pronounced  v'^;^;-^^'      L  en  ernrise  bv  Mr.  William      ' 
aBhorttimeafterthis,hewasjou.ed  mtue^t^^^^^^^^  ^^,^^^^^  ^ 

WELCH,  establishing  what  is  now  the  wtll  known 
Griffiths.  f  guccess  were  numerous, 

For  a  long  time,  the  <^^^^^' ^JZ  the  minds  of  many  against 
as  there  was  a  ^'^^^^f^^''^'''  ^J,,^^.     It  required  great 

American  ^^-^'^^^'^^^JZ^^^lZ^  into  the   market,  and 
perseverance   ..o  mtroduce  these      ne  v  g  ^^^^^  ^^  ^^^ 

American  .Manufactures.  thirty-seven  years,  this 

Fvom  1830  to  the  present  tm,e,  a  V^'^^^^  J ,,,,,,  operations  ; 

fu-m  have  been  steadily  progressmg  and    ..^n^^^^^  1^^^^^  ^^^^ 


,eeome  as  familiar  as  ^^^^^^'^f  ^;;';J^;,,ts  introduced  in  the  processes 

Among  the  many  -^-^    ^piov^me  ^^^  ^^^  ^^^^^^  ^^ 

of  saw  manufacturmg,  by  Mcssis   Wee,  ^^^^  ^^  ^^^^ 

,,,,.  patent  --^•"-^^-  ^^^  ^^  Jf/L^t^^^^^^^  proprietors.     By 
aad  the  same  time,  and  of  which  tney 

^KLOH  .  amrnxas'  8A^v  man.faotorv. 


licHO  cstablish- 
of  liiiving  been 
]ri,  ol'  nuu\»ifac- 
nccra,  fiit,'!iged 
pleincut  second 

it  upon  foreign 
ted  were  ko  iui- 
;o  perform,  that 
and,  on  tbo  part 
time,  there  were 
0  United  States,    * 
xcced,  it  is  csti- 
ir,  Mu.  CiiAiiLES 
in  Great  15ritain, 
iblisli  himself  in 
•y,  circuUir  saws, 
n-edicted.  Within 
,  by  Mr.  AVilliam 
iirm  of  Wolcli  & 

is  were  numerous, 
8  of  many  against 
It  rc(iuired  great 
,  the   market,  and 
to  the  wants  of  tbo 
n  both,  and  proved 
;turing  a  saw  that 
but  of  overcoming 
)f  prejudice  against 

ty-scvon  years,  this 
g  their  operations  ; 
"united  States  and 
iose  reputation  has 

iced  in  the  processes 
IS,  wc  may  allude  to 
3  of  the  saw  at  one 
ole  proprietors.     13y 

,0  ,i,„y-four.  with  the  ^^'^!^^Z  ,,,,  ,Lro  will  be  no  varia- 
,,„  i.  umde  perfectly  even  .a  ^^^^^'^^^^^^^  ,,  ^unness,  from  the 
tion  in  any  part;  or  can  '^^^''^'f^'Z^^^^^^  be  desired;  and,  as 
„„are  of  the  saw  to  the  ^^\'[ ';^2;iZZ,  by  this  procesM^- 
tlu.c  are  no  ^1-^  or  th.n  sj^t^m  ...     .-     J^^^^^^^^^^^^ ^  •„ 

:::;:;; :;  t;;;"ii-a ::« power. ..  saw  smooth,  save  .m. 

ber,  and  not  be  liable  to  become  untrue  ^^^^^^^^  ^^^^^  ^^^^^ 

It   is  greatly  to  the   c-  \;f^,,  ''^^;  ,,„  ,,em  readily  to  sell   an 

ducts  fully  up  to  the  highest  standard. 

Chubbuck  &  Eons'  Machine  Works, 

ViuUUOUuik  ~<   ~- — 

.t  Ko.bury,  are  by  no  .^«^-:— ^^^r^^ e^-^- 
of  the  buildings,  which  consist  s>mply  of     t         ^^y   ^.^^^^^  ^^^ 

ninety  by  thirty-five  fee    with  a  b^^j'^^  ^|  ^^     ^^.^^^  ,,,„  tools  and  appU- 
fect      These  are  well  filled,  m  fact  ^^o  uied   w  ^^^^^.^  ^fty 

lies  as  are  ordinarily  fo;md  in  macduneshc^i.^^^^^^^^^ 
U„„ds;  but  neither  in  budduigsn^^;^^^^^^^^        ^^^^  ^^^^^^^^,  ^„,  i, 
fair  representative  ot   many  ^^^^''^  J^J^^^^^^  Chubbucks'  Works  are 
other  portions  of  the  country.     ^  ^  f/J^.i^,,,,,  ,,oWems  to  solve 

of  national  "^^P-^^?;:;*,;^  J^  :  of  the  prophet,  the  Mecca  of 
in  mechanics,  regard  them  as  mo  u 

America.  -  .,  •    c^ym.  has  the  reputation  of 

The  founder  and  ---,7;;^,;/,,^  tldeh  our  country,  though 
being  one  of  the  most  skdful  n  a  b,n  sts  of  ^^  ^^  ^^^^^  ^^^ 

fruitful  in  men  of  th,s  ^^l^' J^^l '^f  ^.ehanie  arts,  that,  it  is  said, 
an  irresistible  disposition  "^^^^^^^^^  ^7;;fty  „Ues  to  obtain  a  situa- 
.hen  a  mere  boy  he  walked  a  hundred  and  ^^^^^^^^^^^^^  ^^^   ^,^^^,^,, 

tion  in  a  machine  shop.     Af^r  much  11  ^,^^^^^^^_  ^^^^^^^ 

entrance  into  th6  shop  of  M.  '^;  '^  ^^^  ^jf,  ,,,ent  was  so  far  de- 
though  not  regularly  mstructcl,  h,s  mec ha  ^^^^^^^^^^  ^^.^^^  ^^^ 

veloped  that  in  ^ttle  -ore  than  a  y^^^^^^^^^  ^^^  ^^^^  ^,,  ,y 

repairing  of  the  machmery  of  a  cotton 

Mr.  Bigelow,  of  Loom  "otonety       .  ^^jy  nineteen  years  of 

After  the  accomplishment  of  that  j  ok         g       y        ^^  ^^^^  ^^^^^^ 

n.e,  he  was  made  Superintendent  of  the  Maclnn 


1  nftnv  «ovpral  vears'  service  there  he  was  for  a 

engines  on  the  l.oston  and  I'-'-f-'a  nT  s".  of  bis  profession  to 
Having  now   become  too  ^-^''^'^'''\X^X^\iC    vZu  opened  in 
rennun  an  employee,  he,  in  company  -  ^    ^   ;/•  ^^  \^^  '  ^^  p,,,, 
I8i'l  the  first  ren-ular  Machine  Sliop  in  lloxbuvy.     in^^^'- 
Ivl"  !»«W  Ey  M.  B.  V.  Cam„W>.  c»,..,.i...i.g  the  .....  of  CUub- 

-  •"«  ••  <""""-^  rr;:  ;:°;r.s; ,;...;  :n,:.,.  l  .... 

bcrs   are  now  made   evoij    ycai    oy  p^^,,  f^,,  t,,o  ordinary 

originated  a  new  form  of  Governor,  -'>«  '  '^  'f;^^'^;„ L,,r  .>f  engines 
Ball  Governor,  which  has  been  ^^^f^^^'^^^,^  ,enuvvkable 
and  found  to  perform  the  o  .ces  :^^  J;^;^^"^^^;^^,  ,,  ,,,  ,ons. 
.ificiency.  This  Governor  has  --'"'"'l'  ^  J.^^;'"^^;,. ,,,,,  aissolution 
who  in  1859  received  a  patent  for  h,s  --  «-  '^Zw.n.K  in  1859. 
.f  the  «rm   ^H.  ;;j;el.  he^^  c^^ 

erected  his  present  \N  oiks,  wn  tn  ry^       ...^re  designed 

near  Chickering's  mammoth  Piano  '-""-">;  ^^  ,^,,  ,,  ,,iaely 
u,ainly-or  the  building  "^  ^^^^-"f  ;:^J  ^'u  e  nie  that  they  are 
has  Mr.  Chnbbuek'.s  fame  ^l^-^'^f/'^  ^,'',;;^.i„,  y  to  construct^ 
resorted  to  by  all  who  have  no  el  -  -  ;^  ^  ,^^.,^  ,,„.,^ 
and  at  times  are  a  complete  cunosity-shop.    Of  the  L  ^^. 

those  of  the  Boston  Belting  Company  ^  /  ^  ^'   ,^  :t..e.power  cu- 
one  hundred  and  twenty  -    «-;  ^  ^  the  Inaehinery  of  both 

pacity,  arc  among  the  lai|, ,   and  nu  cU  ,  .^^^      j,, 

Ihese  -tablishments  was  designed  a.  N--  j„,;,,  ^,,,„, 

the  day  when  the  plain  tubular  »>-  -•'  ;;  \^;-;;  ,.,,,  „„,  n.ule  in 
was  not  thought  likely  to  come  ■-'"^^^  't  p  0  Chubbuck  and  Camp- 
the  vicinity  of  Boston  was  b  lit  .1    the  s  ^^^  ^^^^^^^^^ 

'-'■  '''''^:  ;:i  tir  :!i:^ss  r:  :t  Mr^chubbuck.  w^ks. 

the  prominent  item  in  tlu,  .  um  ,,  .  ,^  ,,,.  ^g^surod  by  his  aehieve- 
his  Usefulness  in  ^''^  l-*^-"";  ^  ^.ad  "  '  ndseeilaneuus."  his 
,,,„t.  in   this  direction.      Unde.   t»>o     -  ^  °  ^^^^^  ^   ^_^^_  .^ 

^'--'^^  Vr":-=  :;li::;y' 
purposes      If  an  ^ " P  "f  J  ,^,,,  ,,,,0  ,,  veiled  upon  as  a  final 

hvoken  down.  Mr  ^^'^^Jl^,^^,,,,,  ,o,,,ivcs  a  new  result  in  his 
resort  to  rejuv'.-nate  it ,  1   a  manuu  ;,tcd  to  adapt  it,  and 

husiness,  Mr.  Cl.u'.'^u'k  -b  t  .0^"-  -^'^    ^  ^  ,,,^  „,,,  ,,rge 

i„veut  menus  and  machinery  foi  ■■    /^      '"^  ^^^.j^.^,  ,,,,  „ado  in  the 

■e  he  was  for  a 
I   running   of 

profofision  to 
ratt,  optMied  in 
W:,  ^Ir.  Pratt 

firm  of  Chub- 



lus  mechanical    ^^•^°"f,j\;;'f  ',,;,,,  ,,  ^  wooden  roller  serves 
very  sin.ple  and  eflect.vo,  "' -^'  f'^^^'  ^  J  .pUcated  apparatus, 
a  purpose  hitherto  aecomp  .shed  by  ^^""^^  ;,,  „,,  (i,,,,,  ,h„re 

\u-   Chubbuek's  sons,  who  are  ^^^^^''^f  J^^  ,    '     ,,^  are  efficient 
ti,,ir  father's  fondness  for  intncaces  m  much.nt.j, 
coadjutors  in  the  business. 

engine  known 
lieh  large  num- 
crs.      He  also 
or  the  ordinary 
i.'.jor  of  engines 
ith    remarkable 
one  of  his  sons, 
•  the  dissolution 
bbuek,  in  1859, 
Boston  line  and 
Y  were  designed 
•s,  but  so  widely 
ic,  that  they  are 
ery  to  construct, 
irines  built  here, 
ad  Company,  of 
horse-power  cu- 
achinery  of  ))oth 
;led  by  him.     In 
Ir.  James  Nason, 
first  one  made  in 
bbuck  and  Cuinp- 
es  may  be  called 
hubbuck's  Works, 
sd  by  his  aehicvo- 
>iscellaneo\is,"  his 
n  of  other  men's 
■rative,  or  perhaps 
ied  upon  ns  n  final 
a  new  result  in  his 
ed  to  adapt  it,  and 
t.     The  first  largo 
ever  made  in  the 
[ide  and  largely  de- 

The  Adams  Sugar  Refinery, 

,   south  Boston,  is,  with  one  e^epti^^^^^^ 

States,  and  in  its  "in-mtmen   .s  one  ot  ^^^^^^^  ^.^^^^^^ 

world.     The    ground   on   -l-h    t     .^^bu.U.  ^^^^  ^^^  ^^^^  ,„,,,,,,ise  of 
thousand  square  feet,  was  rescue  individual  elVort,  the;e::2^t;:s:S::d::Llitythose  erected  by  the  great 

.nencod  ;  twelve  thousand  I'"-,  ^^  ^  ^;   ;  l,,,ited,  over  which  a 
filling  of  five  thousand  squares  olgtavd.^^^^^  ^l^^  ,,p,rstructure  of 

heavy  granite  ^^'^-^'''''\':XJT'i^-^^  feet  in  thickness  at  the  b:vs« 
Uriek  was  erected,  the  wall,  bung  t  •  .      ^^  ^^^_^  ^^.^.^^^ 

and  ninety  feet  >>'«''' /^'I'^'^j'  ^^  o/ which  were  used  iurty 
live  hundred  thou.aud  bnck-t       h      a>     ^  ^^  ^.^^^^^  ^^^^^^  j.,, 

cargoes  of  sand,  four  ^^'-7^;;;  ,X  building  is  one  nundred  and 

teen  hundred  casks  ol  ^^^  ^^^^:     ::i  .,,«  «^ries  in  heigh,.    The 

eigtaeeu  feet  long  '^y;'"^*'  >  '\^  ';,  J  „,  ,,ick,  are  supported  by  one 

,l,,,s,  which   are  e.ther  ot  ""»;;  "     '  °^,,^      ^,  ,,aition  to  the  n.ain 

„„,lr..d  and  shxtytwo  ^^'J/.^  "",,,,,  two  l.undred  feet  long 

building,  there  is  a  ^'''^  '^  [^       ^  1  ve'stories  high,   for   Refined 

Uv  fif.y  feet  deep;  also  a  -l^"^*         ;  thirtv  by  forty-eight  feel, 

sugar;  a  charcoal  ^7-.  ^^^     ^  n,;te'high  ;'a  .letaehed 

with  a  chimney  one  ';:-'-^' ;'  .^;;';  ,1    ,  chimney  one  hundred  and 
--tnr::i:h;r^:---:her  buildings  of  various  ..s.r 

partments.  the  first  '^^^^'^' ^t'ZJL  r'-     The  Uaw 



.vbere  it  is  boiled  to  a  certain  degree,  then  passed  through  the  various 
f  1  .  rs  and  fiually   received  the   largo  vacuum  pans.  >vh    e  Ihe 

in  dian.eter,  and  each  ^^^V^l^^  the  Sugar  under- 
m  the  upper  story  a..  ^^^^J^'^^^J^  ,,„,„  is  iu  the  rear  of 
„r.„u  tin.  i^rnppss  of  caniication.      lut  ciiivii.u«' 

goes  tht  process  01  nrovided  with  every  uouveuieDce 

the  floor  containing  the  filters,  and  .s  prov  uta  j 

Setii  ADAMS,  the  projector  o  th.s  ^-^^^'J'  ^    ^^.,,^3^ 

""  '-'"I't  I,:  r  ::^^  v„rK      or  Lro  U,.,.  »  y.»r  „»  „..u.n,.,„.Ucr 

rc.,ov=,l  to  n'^'""'  »™  ;  „„  „l«rv„tiun,  l,c  «..,ulrc.l  ..ini.ic.l 

"°T;     'fit  ,,     cWcf^^^  ,        ,,,r,.-,,i,„  i„  i„v...ti„g 

kuowlclBc  of  '^«  ^  3;    ,,„,|„,^i„  „,„  machinery  l,u»in..s. ;  «„d 

i„  1831  ho  «°"''"'"'f/",^™;„     '",„,,„  |,„,|  i„v„nt>Hl,  ».„!  which 
the  l.rin.i..B  l.r..s.  which  ''','''°''^'';",j,,,,,„,,,,,  „,,„.„  l„,„r,»U 

ho  ,ul»»iucutly  purchased.    In  ^f  ■  "'"    ,  ,,,„  ,,,   ,  „„,,  cmbarlicd 
hi.  famous»,  ho  croctol  »  "«"'""''"'  ;„"'^„„„„,  .  ,„,.a„jr 

profilaWo  copartnership. 



he  various 
where  Ihe 
aouldrt  and 
n,  'iiiide  in 
o  drij),  the 
iinks  in  the 
s  Kflinery, 
hieing  pots 

hy  twonty- 
ling  and  til- 
md  ibnr  feet 
;oal  tu  iill  it. 
ugar  under- 
the  rear  of 

gar  per  day, 


>  renmrlvably 

;hind,  wliose 


•ress,  one  of 

the  progress 

has  received 
)  Windhisses, 

in  IHltT,  and 
tieed  to  learn 

nnijority  he 


ired  s^nllicicnt 

in  investing? 

)UsinesH  ;  and 

interested  in 
ed,  and  which 
/hose  interests 

had  invented 
and  embarked 
jntor  a  royalty 
Is  of  the  two 

Adams,  which 
xnd  pecuniarily 

.„o  »...  .,u.c.,.ca  to  U  .,.  -»:*■>,::;-;  ,„  „,„„  .  .ere 

U,„  ,,ow,,oi„  Oollosc  ™  M--;»'f ;;  :^  :;,'''    :";o„,l..csnu,  to 
„r  .««tc.,.  of  Art.  and  ^  "'^,^^,„'f  X,  ^i.  »™irtca  lor  to.ny  J«« 

fortune  of  more  than  a  million  of  dollars. 

J  R  Bigelow's  Paper  Hanging's  Manufactory, 


„r  v„io„.  »,a,u  '™™  ^;v  •;«;    y       „„;i"  „„„  nr,-  ...V  «.,- 

'^T;'t,°:.'Iu,..  0  a^  1°„,,»°vo  r™n,c  t«,„,lin«., I  a  .,„„o 

"'"    ,        :  fiv     V  tlirly.livo  fccu     TI.0  entin-  o,tal,li»l.n,n,t  1,.h  u„ 

'"■;r»!l-v':' ™rccUo„  with  .1,0  Wall  !■«,»-  ma„„r„,„ro  anto- 

..oiety  of  the  cost.  a.  n  .oh.  ^VT,;     o  hu     .-  i    1H41,  all  the 
ago.     When  Mr.  «igelow  ^-^^^J^^  ';  ,  7,,    „„„,   ,,,eeHS, 

machines  for  printing  two  colors,  and,  in  18o.  ,  goi  up 
matnuKs         '  *^  „       g„j...ossrul   mndiine  m  tins  cmnliv  lor 

,  to  have  been-  he  «  «^  J  ;^  ;       ,,^     ^,,^,,.  ^,,,  li.ue  nu.chinu* 
printing  si.\  or  more  eohns  at  ont  op  uvu 



,,avo  boon  i„tnK]uccd_-on  the  same  principle-to  print  twenty  colors^ 
W  th  ,e  introduction^of  n.a.hines  for  printing  came  the  neces.ty  o  a 
pr  for  continuous  hanging  up  of  the  paper  and  rap.dly  dry .g  the 

clrs      The  ciuick  working  of  the  printing  machu^e  o«t.t.  pp 
h      more   priLitive   method  of-  hanging  up  the  paper  by  ban  I  and 
drying  it  simply  by  the  atmosphere,  it  became  necessary  to  u.     duce 
a  ue   expeditious   means   of  drying  that  should  compe  e  w.t     tl.^ 
pr    tin.  machines,  and  thus  keep  them  in  constant  operat.on 
h.._to  any  great  extent-the  territory  of  the  factory,  and  tn.s 
M.  l.g.^ow  accomplished  by  introducing  a  series  of  -  c  -  -- 
heated  by  steam  pipes-for  the  paper  to  pass  through.     Ih.s  an  n„c 
'  .'  t_Jilh  the    nvention  of  machinery  for  taking  the  paper  fron.  tl  e 
u     hin  r  hrough  these  hot  air  chambers  as  fast  as  it  cou  d  be  pru.tcH^^ 
:';:iated  J-new  era  in  the  manuf.ctu.e  of  i;;P-      ^^^^  ^ 
has  been  tlie  direct  means  of  reducing  the  prices  to  the  pustnt  low 
Ja"  .  w  i      are  within  the  means  of  all  classes,  and,  at  the  same  t>m 
m  kinlthis  one  of  the  staple  products  of  the  country.     P""tn,g  paper 
r  the  hand  process-as  it  was  done  twenty-six  years  ago-was  along 
sL     -u  1  c.xK.nsi^o  method;  for,  in  the  same  spa  :e  of  tune,  and  wh 
he  .'a  ne  .uu  of  operatives  that  could  pri.t  one  thousand  rol  . 
tn      thousand  rolls  can  now  be  produced  by  the  new  mechanv^a^ 
metl    d   •UHl   in  stvle,  finis.,,  and  color,  the  goods  now  made  are  yeiy 
;        ;.     O  IV  a  }..  years  prior,  the  paper  was  made  i-^-ts^ 
IV  inclu.slong,  and  pasted  together  before  printmg.  but  for  the  las 
i    y         s  it  h  ;  been  made  in  bundles  containing  from  one  thousand 
to  to  thousand  vards.     Twenty-five  years  ago  it  was  cju.te  a  matter 
C        i  cture  wlK-ther  this  branch  of  manufacture   could   be  made  a 
Ba>  land  self-sustaining  one  in  this  country,  our  markets_up    o 
a  10      that  been  supplied  almost  entirely  by  nnportat.on 
o    Fe         and  English  Paper   Hangings.     The  manufactories  m  tins 
m.      te       hin  in  their 'inHincy,  with  small  resources  and  with  so 
X     .ouragement  that,  out  of  about  twenty  pei^ns  and     rms  w^o 
vcre  tlu.a   engaged  in  this  business  in  the  New  England  States,  M 
r^igelow  IS  the  only  representative  n.u.mfacturer  iu  those   States  at 

'"MrBigelow  is   also  connected    with   the  firm  of  J.  K.  Bigelow 
n.!yden  &  Co.,  Boston,  and  all  the  goods  made  at  his  factory  are  sold 
at  their  warerooms. 




cnty  colors. 
!cessity  of  a 
r  drying  the 

f  hand,  and 
to  introduce 
3te  with  the 
tion  without 
ory,  and  this 

chandjcr.s — ■ 
'his  arrange- 
per  from  the 
d  be  printed, 
[angiiigs,  and 
3  present  low 
10  same  time, 
'rinting  paper 
i — was  along, 
ime,  and  with 
lousand  rolls, 
w  mechanical 
made  are  very 
[1  sheets,  about 
ut  for  the  last 

one  thousand 
quite  a  matter 
lid  bo  made  a 
larkets — up  to 
)y  importations 
actories  in  this 
es  and  with  so 

and  firms  who 
ivnd  States,  Mr. 
hose   States  at 

J.  K.  Bigelow, 
factory  are  sold 

„    p  s  Converse,  Treasurer, 
The  Boston  Rubber  Shoe  Company-E.  S.  Conve 

-.Of  eight  incor.ratedeo.^->^^^ 

engaged  in  the  -^^^^^^^•f'ZlX'^^^^^^  ^^^  ^"^""^  ^'^*''  ""nr^ 
The   manufacture  of  AVatei  F«J^'  ^^^^.„.i,d  ,vith  n.any  d.ffi- 

t,e  beginning,  like  mos    f;"^^^   ll^outchouc,  was  used  by  the 
culties.     It  is  true  that  India  llubber  o  .^^  ^^^^._^,.^,^,^ 

lives  of  the  tropics,  for  a  vanety  o   ^        e    .  ^^^.^.  ^^^^_^^^^^^ 
,vere  known  to  Europeans      It  waB-o  ^^_^^^  ^^^^^^^^^^^  ^^  ^,^, 

rough  and  ""eouth  mdc.  ,  m  app    -     ^- ^^.  ^ ^     ^.,,^^^  „^^^,,,, 
clay  model  often  adhermg  to    he  ^^^  ^^^^^^._^,^  ^^^^^      , 

smeared  with  the  ^'"-' ^'^"^^^  "^J     rblcd  the  natives  to  thread  the 
,vas  shaped  -to  fla-bcaux,  w  uch  o^^^^^^  ...t  up  .heir  rustic 

narrow  foot-paths  of  their  ^^^^^Z  fm  iv  prey.    «ut  the  projectors 
villages,andto  vevealto  he  fi^--   nhi       ^^M^^^^^  ^.^^^^^^ 

or  pioneers  in  the  munui^ictur    "he  ,„„anageable  atVairs. 

something  very  aiffo...^^  --  ^-      ^^  j,^  .  ^  ,„..„,,  .ul,  whenever 

in.ported  from    '--/"    ;;^';;\„  Uie  winter,  required  a  F"'-.- 
brought  from  the  closet  foi  u.e  in  ,,,,^^.^.  ,,„,,,a 

process  of  warming,  to  overcome  then  on  i  .  J  ^^^^  ^^^^_^,^^^  ^^,^^^ 
riu  article  which  should  —  »^^'il^',,,« ,  .hich  should  be 
noueof  theol^ectionab^  .-U^^     ^;^,^^  ^,^,   ,,,,„,,   ,    Jinisli ; 

not  only  -^^'f:f'y?i^Z^,  the  late  improvement  winch  corn- 
though  they  probably  did  not  ^^^^^  ^,,^;  ,,,,,,„.. 
bines  with  these  the  qua  m      of        ^.1  ^^^^^.  ^^  ^^^^^^^^^^  ^^^  .  ,„, 

With  every  step  of  \-^^;^^l^^^^,,  of  accomplishing  the  same 
every  difiiculty  o-''-'"';'  "J  ,";  dollars  were  e.xpciidea  in  -peri- 
vesult  were  discovered.  ^ '^°"^'  ";;^^^^,^.^,  ,  ,,,,it  which  could  have  been 
„,enting  with  costly  c'Iumoic     .  o  p  .U  c  ^j^^^„^„  ,^,, 

attained  with  cheaper  mateiials  an d    y  ^,„.,.,,.Vnig  ii.venUons 

invented  devices  and  "'^^^^    .^^^      ;  ,  ..structed.  to  accomplish  a 

rendered  useless.     Costly  -f  ';;:.;;  ',,,,nUy  :  of  this  nature  was 
aeanite  inni--   or  overe  n  c  a    pcc.a  ^^^  ^^^^.^  ^,    „^,^.^^.,,,, 

tUe  "Friction  Machine,'  ^*'.^V we  may  remark,  which  has  never 
and  John  C.  IMckford  ;  -^  "^  ^^  ^^  .,j,„iy.  that  uses  coaled  cloth, 
been  superseded,  and  wh  c  ^ay  t  ^  V  ^^^^^.^^  ^^^^^^,^  ,,,  the 
ands  indispensable  ;  the  ^^^  J,  ,  .^essure  of  many  tons  ; 
.nauufncture  of  solid  he  s,  -  "^  ^^  ^.,^^  ,^,,  ,,,,,,ve  upper  portion  of 
the  -Burring  Machine,"  ^^'^'^^'^^^^^^^^^ 

,be  heel,  so  that  the  --'^^^^Ve  ,'  I  uventionof  Christopher  Meyer, 


Esq     of  New  llrunswiek,  N.  J.,  which  diamond,  the  bottoms  of  the 
solos'  nnd  stamps  them  in  relief  with  the  device  of  the  ,Banufactu:cr 

From  obstacles  incidental  to  the  starting  of  any  branch  of  manu- 
facturing by  processes  not  well  «n.-erstood,  the  organisation  which  wa8 
^;^e    IdVv  the  Boston  Rubber  Shoe,  Company,  failed  to  be  remunera- 
tive to  the  Stockholders.     A  few  of  them,  however,  having  faith  m 
her  r."al  success,  purchased  the  stock  from  those  holders  wo  were 
wi  ling  to  part  with  it,  procured  an  increase  of  capital   by  Act  of    he 
L  .ishUurJ  of  Massachusetts,  reorganised,  and  determined  to  conduct 
the^jusiness  of  the  Corporation  by  more  direct  and  responsible  agents 
A    a  means  to  that  end,  they  induced  Mr.  E.  S.  Converse  to  relim.uish 
his  other  business,  and  devote  his  entire  attention  to  the  management 
of  the  affairs  of  the  Company,  as  Buying  and  Selling  Agent    and  as 
Tr      uvor      Such  confidence  was   placed  in  his   ability    that  a  inost 
I    in  i  ed  power  was  given  him.  and  the  result  vindicated  the  wisdom 
and      opri  ty  of  their  course.     The  "  Boston"  goods  began  to  have  a 
To  d        Son  in  the  market,  and  to  compete  successfully  with  those 
0  longer-established  factories.    The  dark  days  of  1857,  -^^^ ^^ 
so  many  business  firms  of  repute  in  insolvency,  obscured  for  a  time 
he  risi  g  Companv ;  and.  to  add  to  their  embarrassment,  the  price  of 
aw  mat  rial   advanced  enormously;  but  the  temptation    o    -de  ove^ 
U    the  use  of  inferior  rubber,  was  withstood  ;  the  financial  ability  am 
vesources  of  their  Treasurer  carried  the  Corporation  safely  through    ho 
!i      ind  it  came  out  of  the  trial  with  an  established  credit,  and  a 
manu'fa.turing   reputation  second  to  none.     For  the  first  time  in  Us 
historv,  dividends  were  paid  to  Stockholder.s. 

Dui-i  g  the  war,  the  .lemand  thereby  oeeasioned  for  blankets  ponchos, 
rubber  overcoats,  haversacks,  tents,  etc..  was  so  great,  t  a    the  indue 
ent  to  Companies,  which  were  already  in  possession  ot  the  re,,.i.t 
,>„chinerv,  to  mamifacturo  such   articles,  was  strong.     Moreo  e  ,  the 
:  u      n  ;  with  that  expended  in  producing  boots  and  shoe  . 
was  1  ght.  and  the  profits  large  ;  while  the  trade  in  shoes  was  much     n- 
.iK.d,^.nd  the  business  greatly  unsettled  by  the  7^f-•"  ^^^^^^ 
changes  in  houses  in  the  West  and  elsewhere.     The  Union  llubb  .  Co 
o   New  York,  however,  had  obtained  from  Mr.  doodyear  the  exclusive 
Ih  ",  use  his  process  in  the  manufacture  of  Clothing.     Some  manu. 
;    1  M.S  attempted  to  ignore  this  fact,  and  proceeded  to  eontrae    with 
be  Government  to  furnish  supplies  of  the  articles  named^    App«         y 
successful  in  evading  the  many  legal  decisions  which  had  -  '  '''-''-l 
the  vali.lity  of  the  "  Goo.lyear  Patent,"  and  the  conse.iuent  right  of  M  • 
..year  to  dispose  of  it  as  seemed  most  proper,  it  was  no    i.nti 
p  yment  was  ex  ected  on  aeeount  of  the  contracts  that  the  nUnugmg 



:oms  of  the 
;h  of  nianii- 
1  which  wa8 
le  reiiuinora- 
ing  faith  in 
rs  who  were 
y  Act  of  the 
1  to  conduct 
isihlc  nRoiits. 
to  roliiKiuish 
,gcnt,  ami  as 

that  ahnost 
I  the  wisdom 
in  to  liavc  a 
ly  with  those 
hich  involved 
d,  for  a  time, 
,  tlio  price  of 
1  to  tide  over, 
al  ability  and 
y  through  the 

credit,  and  a 
st  time  in  its 

ikets,  ponchos, 
lat  the  induco- 
■  the  reiiuisitc 

Moreover,  the 
3ots  and  slioes, 
was  much  cur- 

from  constant 
ion  llul)her  Co. 
,r  the  exclusive 
Some  manu- 
o  contract  with 
d.  Api>arent'y 
liad  cstablislicd 
cnt  right  of  Mr. 
t  was  not  until 
t  the  inlViuging 

•      r       1  il...f  there  was  a  serious  obstacle  in  their  path.      The 

c»„.,«l.,  u„lc».  .1.0  ,..ruc,  '"»-;'«,;j  ',':;:„  J „e.l 

writteu  l.cnuit  or  order  tron,  them.        '^  ""  ^„^„  ,.,,,„  |,..i 

been  iuviiJod,  wUiel.  could  usually  oo  '„,,,,  „f  the   Doslon 

Ohio,  in  view  ot  the  c,reu,„»tauec.     1^»  J'  ='  ,,„„,  „ 

dilVerciit  st.ndlioiut,     l,iej  .>t  o""-  i» j     ,        ,, 

,e,„,  ri,ht  «f  t'"x:x,,'r,';x,:  hoi::;:^:,,  ,„  ea.  ...t 

maiiuLclures,  Vut  aigiiilied  tlitii  ut™i-  ,  shou,..  reciuire 

(,„,„„.„y  should  oh.»iu  cou.ruc..  f  ■  "  "^  ;™ ;   .^'rhM, '..or- 
larger  »u,ndio»,  i"  a  give,,  tuue,   hau  '''"J  ••»    ''  ™^         t,,„  Union 

^;;;ri";- ::fc*:;':r:  r"  :;:,doh  i.i,ed .» i..  .ho  r,,d  in..eeao„ 

or  the  Un,ted  Stales  olteuJs  ^_^^.^,,^^  „,  „,„ 


period,  had  a  reputatu.n  e.iual  to  the  bes^  m  t he  .  .^  ,^,.^ 

Consumer  fron,  „e,„g  =har„od  au  CKorhdau    ,»»;         '^^    .'; 

urge  „rol,.s  in  .,„s  "">t"'''7 , '" Id  .  "  [st  n         hr.u.l,  ,s,  ,.. 
|,„«ed  ,.y.  and  the  niouoi.o,y  lh»t  w  said  to  iM»l 

elVeel,  only  nouilua,. 



The  Downer  Kerosene  Oil  Company-Sam'iel  Downer,  President, 

Ts  notable  for  the  extent  of  its  Works  in  South  Boston,  and  at  Corry, 
Pennsylvania;  and  especially  for  the  fact,  that  its  products  were  the 
first  that  became  extensively  known  to  the  public,  and  performed  an 
important  part  in  popularizing  Coal  Oil  as  an  illuminator.  A  brief 
history  of  the  introduction  of  this  remarkable  material  may  not  be  in- 
appropriate in  this  connection. 

As  early  as  1850,  a  Mr.  Luther  Atwood,  a  natural  chemist,  and  sclt- 
educatcd,  and  then  in  the  employ  of  the  late  Dr.  Samuel  R., 
discovered  a  lubricating  principle  in  the  coal  tars  of  the  gas-houses, 
for  whicb  he  obtained  a  patent,  under  the  name  of  Coup  Oil.     Like 
many  other  new  discoveries,  although   possessing  merit  as  a   lubri- 
cator it  was  onlv  partially  successful,  and  large  sums  of  money  were 
lost  in  the  costly  efforts  made  to  bring  it  to  perfection.     After  the 
failure  of  these  efforts,  the  parties  in  interest  ne.xt  proceeded  to  the 
manufacture  of  the  asphaltum  of  the  celebrated  Pitch  Lake,   in   the 
Island  of  Trinidad  ;  and  although  that  article  had  very  deeded  merit, 
still   from  the  unhealthiness  of  the  climate,  and  other  dilliculties,  tlie 
project  was  abandoned,  and  with  great  pecuniary  loss.     It  was  at  this 
time   1857  that  Messrs.  Luther  Atwood  and  Joshua  Merrill,  who  were 
at  th'at  time  engaged  in  the  erection  of  a  Coal  Oil  Factory  at  Glasgow, 
in  Scotland,  had  their  attention  turned  to  the  light  oils  of  coal  as  an 
illuminator.      Mr.  James  Young,  of  Bathgate,  Scotland,  had  in  1850 
obtained  a  patent  for  their  manufacture  from  coal,  but  his  attention  had 
been  principally  directed  to  their  heavy  ends  as  a  lubricator,  and  tor 
its  p'lr-ithne      The  light  ends  as  an  illuminator  had  beea  offered  for 
sale  both  in  Europe  and  America,  but  they  v.cre  of  such  an  ordinary 
appearance,  and  had  such  an  intolerable  odor,  as  to  prevent  their  use 
iu  families.     It  was  at  that  time,   and  in  Scotland,  that  Mr.  Atwood 
purified  those  oils  light  and  sweet,  and  they  were  the  first  ever  so 
purified  that  were  offered  to  the  public.     Their  success  was  humed.ate, 
•md  their  extension  all  over  the  world  very  rapid.     These  experiments 
on  the  hvdro  carbons  of  the  coal  series  had   now  licen  continued  for 
over  five  Vears;  their  manufacture  then  was  intricate  and  dangerous, 
and  accompanied  with  severe  destruction  of  machinery,  and  loss  by 
fre(.uent  conilagrations  ;  and  with  the  exception  of  the  Boston  Works 
of  Mr  Downer,  all  had  been  abandoned  from  these  causes.    Illuniination 
had  booame  the  principal  idea,  and  lubrication  and  parafftne  secondary  ; 
but  as  the  whole  manufacture  was  entirely  new,  with  no  help  from 
books  or  experience,  the  task  of  creating  works   to  meet  the  now 




and  at  Corry, 
ucts  were  the 
pei'fornied  an 
tor.  A  brief 
iiay  not  be  in- 

niist,  and  solf- 

R.  Philbrick, 
ic  gas-houses, 
up  Oil.  Lil<e 
it  as  a  lubri- 
)f  money  were 
n.  After  the 
jceeded  to  the 

Lake,  in  the 
decided  merit, 
diHicuUies,  the 

It  was  at  tliis 
irrill,  who  were 
ry  at  Glasgow, 
(  of  coal  as  an 
1,  had  in  1850 
IS  i-ttention  had 
ricator,  and  for 
i)eea  offered  for 
ch  an  ordinary 
rvent  their  use 
at  Mr.  Atwood 
\Q  first  ever  so 
was  immediate, 
;se  experiments 
n  continued  for 

and  dangerous, 
ry,  and  loss  by 
!  Boston  Works 
19.  Illumination 
ffine  secondary ; 
li  no  help  from 

meet   the  now 

o,.n«c  all  the  mental  and  pliysical  f^y  "'  .  .,(  „,'^„,„,,1  f,.r 

the  Brackenridge  eannel  of  ^^^"'^J7';'  .  -^^^^^r,  f,on,  Scotland,  Mr. 

lmu>ediately  after  the  return  of  ^'^^    ^^^J^^^*^;^^,,^    ^^,,5,,,  were  put 

Powner  commenced   his  P-^^^V'lMorrlTTe  process  of  retin^ 

under  the  superintendence  of  ^^  f^^^^^'^'^Zos.n.  Oil  Co., 
i„g.  then  a  secret,  was  also^oU.N.^^^^^^^  ^^^^^^^  ^^^^^^^  ^^ 

of  New  York,  for  a  royalty,  and  ^  '  ;  '^  ^  j  ^^.,.,,,„,  oil  Works  Works.  I- ^^  ^f^^^  j;Z^;l^^a  Mr.  William  At- 
wcre  built,  under  the  d,reet>on  ot  ^    ;  ^    '^^^"^  ^^^^  returned  from 

wood  (-'-;'^\-^,:-;:  ;3:tsett t^ries,  after  expend- 
,beir  -^l-^;- ,  /  "^^'^on  their  works,  supplied  the  commun,ty 
ing  nearly  a  """^'  '^J/'^^,^,,^  ^f  Illuminating  Oil  during  the  second 
;:ri-:S::::!^;i-  being  able  to  supply  the  demand  01 

^nrltl.  the  discovery  of  the  --ng  v^-^ -^ -c.^^:^; 
vania,  was  made.  The  first  «-  -^  ^^^^  ;  ,,etion  was  eight 
that  year ;  and  wlth>n  four  ^^^^^^   J,  ,,,,  ,„„Vred  to  fiow 

thousand  •»-•«^P;^•;^:f •;;':,';,  Bave\t,  as  there  was  then  no 
into  the  creek.  w^j;>u  ^  "^/^^^  ^^^^  „„„„„,  ,„e  of  twenty  to  forty 
market  for  it.     Ihe  price  „^,.i,„u.d  and  but  little  visited— 

cents  per  barrel.    The  -g-a  was  then  seml^d^am^  ^^.^^  ^ 

with  poor,  and  much  of  the  time  ""Jf  ;^'^;j  X,;,i,,ted  farms.  Tt 
dense  forest,  interspersed  with  -^y^^/ ^^^j'.lt  the  necessity 
was  under  these  circumstances  t ha  M  •  I  own^^^  _^  ^^^^^  ^^^^^^^^^^^ 
of  again   attempting   another  entu p.    c^  the  first  and 

,.dy  to  work  the  middle  portions  «J J^^ .  l'^^^;^' ,,,,  ^,,,  u.e  wells 
hist  ends  for  fuel,  or  flinging  them  away ^J^J^'  j^^  „.,,,,,,a 
,vere  deemed  essential,  or  ^-^<^f  ;tt:^^Z^  Weslern  Hail- 
a  farm  at  the  then  terminus  of  ^^^,^^"^^,;,te  primeval  forest  had 
road,  and  on  wbicli  a.d  t^  s^r^um.  ^ ^^^^^^^^,^^^,  ,,  ,,-. 
barely  been  disturbed  -and  h  tc    u  _  ^^^.  ^^^^  ^^^^^^  ^.^^, 

William  II.  L.  Smith,  ^;;;^ ^^^^^^l^^,  of 'iHOl.  their  present 
,f  Corry,  was  common  ce^^^^^  ^^^  ^^^^^^^^^^  ^^..^^^,  ,.^„^^        , 

extensive  \N  orks.      I  Ho   nietimn  „,i  pi,..,rinir  the  forest,  erecting 


was  acfouM)hshea  only  at  lue  expe.  ^ 

t,.„,„  0,e  -'S  ''>°;;;« ''     ,;„,'^"  ,:  '^^.r  .,„1  bn>cU,s,  and  i.,-ov,.a  v.ry 

,„,„„ ,.,  .„„„  -r:;r  .;rr  eiit :::/. ■«-'.>. 

Bcvon  thousand  .ul.«  «Uu  s,  .  na  „iho«ds_ 

e,taMisbmeM»or^nou»U,n  .  -1^^^^_^^^^^        and  EHc,  UuWo 

1':  on  c.^rds':':::  ":>;.»>;  •.  .nd . .  t.e  ..a.  „„r..,c,.  «*. 

or  tho  Oil  Ucpi»»  of  W"""™  '■""'""■.'""'"■one  or  tl.o  «mr,ds  of  tho 
,,rosi.nt  coulu.y.     I    out         >    ,  ,i4„j    ,„  „„„„al  pvoduclion  is  now 

r°';'""'";:™r  c,  s :  twwio  ,.„cryw„c„,n  1..™;..  ij 

ten  times  larger  tiiau  ui^         .,,  i  „„,i,-o,1  vessels     It  is  a  prominent 

,„,.,,  ,„  U,e  u,ost  -';^;-»  ::;-""■;,,  :  n..,,.  four  ™lmo„, 

cover  about  seven  acres  ot  gioima.     i  "  y  ^     ,„„g  j^^  jn-ticle  that 

.,  .aliens  o^.enule  Petr^enm   -^  „„,  ,^, 

bas  no  superior  for  Its  cnte  sataj  ^^^^^^^  ^._^^  ^^  ^^^. 

perfeetiou  of  its  punhca  .on      I     ^^lX\^m.i<^^n  the  excell-nce  of 
bowner,  and  those  --^^^^^lo   h    r;pon        ec  "sarv  to  accomplish 
tuen-  products,  without  -^-^;;;    ,     f  j;  ,  I"  .,  .-.ieh  their  brand 
it-  and  thoy  have  been  ^T^'^^^;^^,,  i,,,,„  ,ave  been  con- 
has  obtained  u.  all  --•^^'';\  ".^^  "^,;;,,  vicissitudes,  and  rapid,  and 

consumers  with  an  illuminator  safe,  cheap,  and  bnllunt. 


Work>  (wliich 
I   maiiuria'Uiri) 
en,  wliij,  will' 
people.     Tbia 
)!•  and  discoiu- 
1  of  the  soil  a 
juild  tlio  roads 
ueroii-  rivulets 
Ml  luiiuired  feet 
id  proved  very 
irease  of  popu- 
contains  about 

four  railroads — 
d  Erie,   Buffalo 

northern  outlet 

.  ■    "*-p 

marvels  of  tho 
since  its  success 
oduetion  is  now 
1  in  its  zenith  it 
It  is  a  prominent 

continent;  from 
some  of  them  of 

puritication,  and 


are  all  built  of 
md  in  both  places 
!arly  four  millions 
c  an  article  that 
its  light,  and  the 
stant  aim  of  Mr. 
the  exccll''!!co  of 
ary  to  accomplish 
which  their  brand 
on  have  been  con- 
es, and  rapid,  and 
'  business,  and  with 
a  place  of  deposit, 
Gction  in  supplying 






B     -fj    "•'■    '"■\'   ■'>    >: 





Lowell,  twonty-six  nulcs  northwest  of  Boston,  has  been  called  not 
in™.riatelv    the  "Manchester  of  America."     The  lustory  ot  the 
:  s    nule  here  in  18.1,  with  a  view  to  the  ..tahlishu.nt  ol 

a  ul^ctories,  ha.  already  been  alluded  to  in  tins  wo.L       n  ^.^^ 
18(;(;   the  city  contahu-d  a  population  of  3G.876  persons,  22  s 
school-houses,  ..>24  dwellings,  1   Banks,  with  an  aggrega  e  .,u  a^ 
of  S->  :!oO  000,  besides  4  .Savings  IJanks  having  au  aggregate  deposit  ot 
t  000  000.     The  distinguishing  characteristic  of  the  city,  however,  ,s 
ftt  inunense  Cotton  and  Woolen  Mills,  which  consume,  wee  ly,  ove. 
800,000  pounds  of  Cotton,  and  neady  100,000  pomu  .  oi   W  o. 

The  MKanrMACK  Man.factcrinu  Company,  wlueh  eonuuenced  o,^- 
rations  in  1828,  has  six  Mills  and  a  Print  works,  a  ^>^^^^;;\^^^^^ 
$2,000,000.  runs-8S,000  spindles.  2,31.  loon.s,  en.p  oys  l^'^V'""- 
u  .1  (;->0  males   and  produces  450,0li0  yards  ot  Prints  per  ^^vvl.      Ih.s 
X  ;;:' b^on  eiedaUy  succoss.U  in  the  -i^->->  f  .;;-;---: 
whi  h  are  distinguished  for  neatness,  con,parn>g,  ...  all    espec.s  favo 
Tb  V  with  the  best  made  in  England.     John  C.  Pall.'ey  ,s  Age-.t^oi  the 
Smpanv.  and   IIen.w  Burrows  is  Superintendent  of  ^'- P.-M.rU.>,^ 
The  Hamilton  MAN.PAcrmi.NU  Company.  e......nenccd  ..   1S25.  has 

5  Mi  is  a,.d  a  Print  Works,  a  capital  of  ^1,200,000,  rn,.s  51.2.8  sp.n- 
dles  1  348  looms,  a..d,  in  18.;7.  en.ployed  850  fanaies,  42.  n.ales  and 
p  duces  weekly  235,000  yards  of  Prints.  Fla.nels,  T.cks.  Sheet.ngs 
and  Shirtings.  The  Prints  are  all  madde,-s,  i.,  from  one  to  s.x  colors, 
vn  tl  w 'ekly  produce  is  about  120,000  ya.-ds.  O  I.  Moulton  -s 
Agent  of  the  Co.npany.  and  Willia.n   llarley  Supermtendent  ol  the 

''i;;o'Ir^ELL  MAN.rAOT,.u,NU  CoMV.VNV  has  a  capital  of  $2,0,.0,000^ 
,„„,   ,0  500  Worsted   and  Wool  spindles,  2.S16  Cotton  sp.ndks   258 
ver  Carpet  loo.ns,  174  other  loo...s,  employs  1,000  females  a,.   4:, 0 
!■<   a..d  produces  weekly  35,000  yards  Carpets.  13.000  van  Is  hheet- 
t  a.,d  4  500  vards  Stuff  goods.     The  Carpets  co..s,s,ol  two  and 
Iplv  ingr.un,  and  a.v  excellct  fabrics  of  their  class,  bo, h  as  respec  s 
Ke  and  ptrnu.nenee  of  -lye.     Sanu.el  F.vy  i«  Agent  o   th.s  (  ompany . 
'    T  ,:M.l,n..K,SKK  COMVANV  has  4  Mills  and  3  Dye      uuses,  e.nploys 
n  e,.pital  of  *-50,OoO.  ru.,s  l.;.4.)0  spindles,  250  Pwoadcloh  looms,  and 
u  row    employs  320  females,  452  males,  and    produces  weekly 

5  rsl'K'besides  Broadcloth.   Doeskins,  Cassin.ercs.  etc.     'I  h.s 
Conlany  uses  annually  1.000.000  teasels,   1,300.000  pounds  of  fine 



„„„,,  »„„  U,m<,  poumU  of  PU.C.     Oliver  11.  Porry  is  Ag™t  of  the 

Clotl.s,  SheotingH  an-l  Sl.irtingB,  and  b.OOO  dozen  llobic  . 
F   Salmon  is  Agont  of  tlic  Company. 

The  other  Cotton  Mills  a^  -  ^l^;--"  ^,oO,000  ;    spiudloB, 

oo,r,08-,   looms,   -n;    f--'-/-l^^°^7',,^^^^^^^^  20 

product    130,000  yards    Shcotings   and   Shntmgs    >o^^    4 

looms.   830;    ^^^^^^  ^^^^^^'.^^^jto^^ ,oo^^^     Chirles  P. 
125,000  yards  Cotton,  ■■  aI  8,000  jauts  vvooiit     j. 

Battles,  Agent.  r,  Miila  ■  canitid,  $1,200,000  ;  spindles, 

The  CooTT  Cr.TTON  :,lu,hS-5  ^^f  '  ;7        .\  .^1^.     2i)0;  weekly 

,1,324;  looms,  1,87S;  IVmales  -l^^"^^  ;^^.^^;.  ^^^^^    ^  .,,,   and 

product,  3r>0,000  yards  Drillmgs,  >o.     4,  bhcetu..s, 

Pnn.  Cloths.     William  A- IJ^^^ce^  Agen^^  eapitaUl, 800,000  ; 

Th«^    MA..-.ACUUSETT8    Ci^'ON    MlM.b-0    A  ..      .         1 

r.;™,y:  No"';;:,  it' ;,:'°  ;.•...-..«»  ^»  -™  -^^  ^^«^-"  -'  "■« 

(•„,,,,,»»;  -";;«'»;;<•:  |,„,  „  ,   ,,,,1  or  tm.m,  cmi.i.>-  •«) 

,,,:,';;;;  K.;:;«w  1,1  ...«.■»  >'„o»o.«o.  ,.^1.  «;■>  .io„*„, 

ThoLuwKixMAiUiNKMiopi  ^      .    ,,.^     p      r  Machim'ry, 

£,:^:n,:;;ii^t:trM^w™.-A„aLM .u.. 

'^'i:3;::r;:::Kr^--»" -> « 



Agent  of  the 

s,  a  cnpHal  of 
1,300  females, 
lings,  Priiiting; 


,000;  spimllos, 
,,  120;  weekly 
)f!.   14   anil    20. 


ipital,  $(100,000; 
ales,  215  ;  week- 
Icn  gooils.  John 

ipimllcs,  25,960 ; 
weekly  product, 
xls.     Charles  P. 

[)0,000;  spindles, 
les,  290  ;  weekly 
s.  Shirtings,   and 

pital,  $1,800,000; 
,1500  ;  males,  400  ; 
g.^,  Shirtin.u'ri  and 
1  the  Agent  of  the 

1,000,  empl  >ys  40 

irds,  and  bleaehes 

y  and  funntlry,  era- 
Paper  Maehinery, 

Vudrew  Moody  hoH 

,    i-         i„.  ;„  fi„.'ale  about  2,500  hands.    Pro- 

Athcrton,  1?.   I",   ^t'vt  ^    mi  Mae'.Mie^;  the  Foundry  of 

Colo  .(;  N  amh  ,   "n  .  f.,,,.-,,,,,,.  Mannfartory  of  Sniimi'l 

Wa.»„.uu.  '•"''?'■";«    ^;„,„'';„r,c,,,rinB  Ccup.ny  ;  the 

?::„,'.rnowI,  &  <^<...^^^^■,  ana,  .»».,  tl,o  ..vat  Laboratory  of  ,,. 

"  nV'lvtrtmcdidnal  preparations  aro,  r»rl,ap,,  more  wMoly  a,ul 
J;,iart;;U:;:t  .,.  aV;roroi.„  eooaUU.  tl,a„  U.„  pro.n^^^ 

other  manufarturing  ».al,li»l,n,cut  nr  I.owoll.      1 1™  «™  " 

„„aUy,  a.o,.t  *«0,«0«  i„  in  nc.v,,.^^^^^^^^  '::^:  :t^.. 

,■„„  ,ra.„i.o„.y  I;;-';,;;; '::;;:;:;,  1  ,;:';;:';;•  Engii...  Frcnc, 

l,y  sloam  power,  ,n  tiu  .  '™"  ',',,,    ^,  „,,uonce  of  li* 
este„de.l  publicity,  lluT,  »'""• '  !  ■        "  . .,  „„„  „a,l„,„  of  pure 

p„„„a,  of ,.r.,g. of ;.';;*;°'„  ',";;„„'■  ;r„l°»ug.r,  co'tine 

T;  ::;;-:*:"    an  ;,ai:xpt,„;i. :  ^.r  ,in.c  .,„.ee  ii^s 

about  bt>0,l»*^i—"i'i'*-'"h  '  Av.-1-X'Co   use  annually, 

alone,  of  »«41,1»0.     lie.i.los  these,  ^""-..^.f,^  ■,"„,,  3„„,„,-,„ 


;r:«';:;:rlar::;n:r;..;.':..,iyoxcee,,i,..  th,.  or  a„y  o,hcr  nrn, 
in  Massachusetts. 

he  mills  at  Lowell, 

of  the  males,  |1.20 

rodueo  of  a  loom  of 

am,  83  yards  ;  and 

other  manufacturing 


c'a-M  JUA-g  !am  t.t*M  ■ 




1,>  1844  sevoral  ••ai-itulists  of  lioslou  (IlIiuu  nui  i ) 

,,,i.U  was  "--'^"'"^r  ,;  r/v  nt.Hou.  Abbott  Lawrence,  President; 
,,nowi«g  Olivers  as  .is  i,wt  b.  Ho  ^^^^^^^  ^ 

U-well.  ana  Ig-Uus  ^--^  '  f  ^^,^^;  '^^Ldod  to  erect  a  Da,n  at 
,..r  and  Chief  Eng.ucor.  '^^^^ ^,^,  ,  i,,,  „>a  fall  for  the 
a  cost  of  §250,000  across  the  Meinma*.,  b'^"  n 

feet.  ;.•  ing  that  space  for  ^^f^:^  ^j,,,  ,,  ,,y  a  cum- 

Tl.   :a-st  Mills  erected  we..     ''^^^^ ^  ^.^,„,,,  ,f   ^l.HOO.OOO. 
pnny  incrporated  m   Febrnai),   184«,,  ^J    '  •  ^,^^,.^   ^^uU  six 

V  Jprine  pal  bnilding  is  5^0  ^;^1;>^^  ^  ^^  ^,:  \,,,„  ,.ve 
,„Hes  high  with  tw..  w.ngs  -  -^  ^^^  .^  ..diuary  seasons  oou- 
45,000  spindles,  employ  1200  optiauxL  , 

.„;„  Sr.OOO  bales  of  cotton  ,„^^  ^.a,  with   a  capital  of 

I,.  1853  the  Pac.hc  ^^'  ^^^^^  "''Von.  pany  were  at  the  time 
,:2.500,OOO.  Tl  e  factory  ot  ^»  ';'^'""  '  ^  ,,^.  ^^j  ,,,i,ding  is 
„,,.  ,cre  erect.1  .he  hu-ges,  .n  the  -" '^  ;  J  ^^  ^^^  ,>,,  ,iver 
so.;  feet  long,  six  stories  high  u.  f-'^-'^-^' f/  f  , '^^  'ct  three  stories 
,,„ildi,.g  is  1000  feet  long,  with  w.ngs  ^K  f->t  -     --     -t  .^ 

„igh.     This  company  has  110,000  ^l!'-^'^';- '*'    *    ~  g„,as   to  the 

.  1       ,    <j  iw\n    ai>i>rn.lVOS,    anil    pioum-'^^    ft"' 

full  operation  empl'J.V«  •^-*'<"'   opuau%.  ,  i 

,,,,,/of  .nearly  f.nuM.ullions  .,f  dollars  aun,,ally^  ^^^^  ^^^ 

Th.  ..Washhu;ton  Mills,"  "-^-ra    d    "  __1  ;^«.      -      J    ^,,5,, 
*1, 5.10,000.  and   occupy  tl'o  of  the     Ua    ^l  ^ 

Lied  in  i.5t     T..e  .nills  t.rm  M>-;;^^"S  rl  0  ^1    :'.  it  is  sSd. 
,,,  ,00  feer  in  Ireadt'.  b.>twecn  the  «*" ^     '' '^  ^y^oluu 

tiV.  largest  in  the  v  .rid  devoted  to  the  manufacture  of  1  aaey 
Goods.     They  employ  2,a00  operat  . 



the  last  of 
,u  the  banks 
viis  iucorpo- 

at  this  place 
f  $1,500,000, 
r,  having  the 
3,  President ; 
ton,  John  A. 
•row,  Treasu- 
;ct  a  I>iim  at 
d  fall  for  the 
ml  to  that  at 
acturin^'  pur- 
iiile  in  length, 
4  feet  deep  in 
stance  of  400 

lis,"  by  a  coiu- 
)f  $1,800,000. 
cntro  Mill  six 
Nimpany  have 
y  seasons  oou- 

ft  capital  of 
re  at  the  time 
ipal  building  is 
Bar.  The  river 
>cl,  three  stories 
IS,  and  when  in 
a  goods  to  the 

vo  a  capital  of 
Le  Mills,"  which 
\)  feet  in  length 
ul  are,  it  is  said, 
f  i''aucy  Woolon 

Jr,.J,l  ::  .„«  T,.»;c„eo  .M.e,.i,,e  SUo„,  :*^'ly-,;'«  f  ""^  "»■' 
A,,,,,,,..  Ihc  no.  cnlCTiirises  .if  L«wrc..ce  wc  m»J  mention  tU     1      m  ' 

;:;r:;f  iLr::rwV:r:?  »;;-«>;;  ,.„;  .„,.. »,..  «„„.... . 

^"t*,  t,..o  co,„,»nic,,  L»-rc,„.c  „»  ''-  ■•'■•l!VT.";„'':ln:'. 
William  R«»cll  ,t  Son,  S.  S.  f>»*«';»''\''l''"';,'^?'w     '        4 

Maehin..  Shops,  those  of  Albert  Blood,  J.  C.  Hoadly  .1,  Co.,  Wcbstu 
DusUn  &  Co.!  and  Ueury  Arnold.     Pntent  Fliers  for  cotton  maclune,, 

,,  pn,..iU,.  is  a  now  .U.e  ^.r  .extUo  ...Hce  to  ..  .c^  --^^l^- ::;,::;:"  ll^' 
wo„1  una  .u.eertiMe  .fbeinK  .„nn  or  woven  on  ;  '^  J  ^^  .^  '  ^  ,J,,,,  „, 
,,nn/,p».  riant   for  Hl,«   .s    l•'''^^ -\ '':  '         '^[;;J:fi,,g^,^.  n.Uori.i 

avnilablc  a.  a  .ub.tUu..,  for  l,o    o,  .    ."--^    "  '  ^^'        „,^.  '  ,,,,  .,„e  e.tnbli.lio.l 

i,.tS51.but,hofir.tAnUprov.aeawH.  -  .^   ,^^^_  ,,,  ,,^,, 

by  him  in  with  (.oor^rc  W.  1    own   "" "^  „  ,„;„  „t  Watcr.own. 

.Lnwich,  l.,o„o  Islnn..     In  .he  ---'>-;;^;';      J^^^;    Hrni.ri.i.c.  .,r  u.e  a.  a 
Ma«s„chu.ett.s  «l.ero  it  was  fully  ,l,Mi>n„s  rate  1  "'      *  "^  ^  „i^t„,„  „f  Ualf 

«„l,s,itu.c  for  cotton  m  the  n^anufacturo  o.  CaUooo.  '  "  ^^     '   -^;  J,_,  .  ,  ,„.^  ,.,„,,i„,,, 
,.,t,on  ana  Imlf  flax.     Since  then  Rreat  -Vroven.c     >      ^     V,     n  ^^  .,r  vario.i 

„„l  ,,oc...o.,  ana  .evcrtl  factories  have  been  -'"'"        '    ;„  "  ,  :;,„„h,..„  Foltin«  Co. 
.M.  fro,,,  this  .aaterial.     Hosiae,  the  company  "^  «•      "  ^,  ^,,,„,,,  Mas...  «r« 

,„a  -he  My^W  Mills,  a.  Winchester,  f--."""';:,J^j;'     ;;"„««  of  which  are  now 

r::;rr,;:zrs:;.::::r=r:;:u^c..,„ s.r,.,.. 

•here  arc  milN  for  preparing  tlic  (ihro. 



oxlensivcly,  by  Stodman  .^   Fuller  unci  "^  ^]''\\^^'l'l   U^.dcn  Sc 
Board  from  i.ulverizcd  leather  scraps  ,s  n>ade  by  ^  "^  J  J"  J^^^^  ^^^, 
Co     Wool  Hats  by  Desmond  Brothers,  Files  by  Iredcuck  Butler, 
Sasii,  Doors  aud  Blinds  by  Williams  &  Berry. 


The  principal  industry  of  Lynn,  it  is  hardly  necessary  to  say,  is  the 
Ihe  puncn  ^  ^.^^^_^^  ^^^^^  commenced  here  bc- 

;::t  K  :  u"::^  W;:;and  thou.,>  o,her  towns  embarUed  nj 

ev  el  velv   Lv,>n    till   maintains  its  snpronmcy  as  the  pnnc.pal  seat 

r    h     nmu^cturo      Tho  total  value  of  all  the  pursuits 

r    \n  n      <io  ^^3,7an,043,  the  whole  of  which,  with  the  exeeiHion 

r  a  0^0       uin  led  thousand  dollars,  is  to  be  credited  to  the  Shoe 

f  1    Tlm^  ^-      '•  «-^  ->'^  ^^^^^  manufacturers,  who  had  a  capital 

incUf  sMO  0  nnplovod  5,7Gt  males,  2,SG2  females,  and  pro- 

T^r;   1    It    '       '     0  t-i    ot'  Shoes,  worth  $4,807,375.     Besides  these. 

t^^^:\9Z^oJ^^^^^^^^^>  6  Last  manufactories,  3  manu- 

,eie  vere  IV.  .  ^^^  ^  ^^  Leather-Cutting  Machines, 

„e  oriesof  SI   c     00  s,  ^^^  ^^^  „^.  j„,,,,,y  ,o„„eeted 

"•;";,'    S  00  trtlcTh    min.or  manufactures  of  Lynn  were  of  Glue, 
Bt,i:onB:n::!:  Lightning  Bods,  Tin  aud  Sheet-irou  Ware.  Cigars, 

"r'n^vc'luiV;:!"!  in  the  same  County,  there  were  103  manuf^tu. 
i  J  0    lishments,  that  had  a   capital  of  $0%,000,  ^^f^y^^'^ 

^^nX:.:"  SS^^a  TL.  towns  is  largely  of  a 
llic  memo.  partakes  of  the  essential 

rr'of::  n.  rci  ?:.,».■>• ;.-  t-  ««..•«'-- »' "-: 

,  r...nro  Hrii-elv  generally  contain  a  Counting  room,  a  Solo 

::t:;tr^Un-^oek  room,  two  Cuttmg  rooms  (one  for  tho 
u  e^  e  th  •  and  o  c  for  tlu-  solos),  tho  Bound  Shoo  room,  the  '1  nm- 
n  e  V  o'  and  the  Sales  and  Packing  room.  Sometimes  a  Last  room, 
r'  tie  '"less  importance,  are  provided.  The  first  operation  is  to 
t  e  various  portions  of  the  Boots  aud  Shoes  according  to  sizes 



!  by  Etlwaril 
Cavils,  very 
n.  Ijoatlier 
1.  Ilaydcn  k 
Butler,  and 

;o  say,  is  the 
icctl  here  bc- 
I  einbavkcd  iu 
principal  scat 
iiiug  pursuits 
lilt'  exception 
to  tlic  Slioe 
had  a  capital 
ales,  and  pro- 
Besides  these, 
jrics,  3  nianu- 
:ing  Macliines, 
ctly  connected 
were  of  Glue, 
Ware,  Cigars, 

03  manufactui"- 
ra ployed  5,001 
y  iu  Shoes,  of 
1,  Uoading  and 

^  is  largely  of  a 
of  the  cri^ential 
liouscs  of  those 
>•  room,  a  Solo 
uis  (one  for  the 
•00 Ml,  the  Trim- 
les  a  Last  room, 
operation  is  to 
-cording  to  sizes 

.vd  half-sizes,  which  are  pat  up  with  all  the  necessary  trunnungs  >u 
"et  '' of  GO  pairs  for  the  coarser  kinds,  and  24  pairs  for  the  finer  ,na  . 
ti         These  \ets  arc  numbered,  recorded,  and  packed  >u  bo^.s  .o 
sent  to  the  operatives  or  workmen  to  whom  they  are  cluu-ged.     1 
cuttin-'  out  of  the  soles  is  generally  done  by  maclunery.     A  kn  e  w   h 
r";r;;iinear  edge  i.  set  in  a  fnune  and  worked  with  a  treadle   a,.er  t 
manner  of  a  lathe.     By  a   late^-al   motion  m  the  it  can   be 
adapted  to  the  cutting  of  any  recpusite  width  of  sole,  and  once 
fixed  to  a  given  width  the  process  of  cutting  is  very  rapid,  and  materia 
is  saved  by  the  leather  being  cut  at  right  angles  to  the  suiface  instead 
of  diagonaUy   as  by  the   ordinary  knife.     The  stitching  of  the  upper 
leather  is  now  generally  done  by  sewing  machines,  the  binding  by  te- 
ntaies.  and  the   other  parts  by  males,  who  are  styled  "  workmen'    o 
<Mours-'      These  oi.erativos  do   not  belong  to  Lynn  exclusively,  but 
many  of  them  reside  in  other  parts  of  the  State,  and  in  Maine,  ^ew 
Hampshire,  and  Vermont.  _ 

For  the  convenience  of  the  operatives  residing  m  distant  locablus, 
the  materials  iu  their  prepared  state  are  collected  from  tlie  manutac- 
turers  by  expressmen  or  carriers.  These  deliver  theni  to  the  workmen 
for  whom  ihey  are  intended,  and  on  receiving  the  work  made  up  dcl.NU 
that  to  tlie  manufacturer,  ami  then  receive  the  payment  due  to  the  lor.uer 
for  their  labor.  The  remuneration  of  these  carriers  is  generally  a  small 
per  centage  on  the  amount. 


Taunton,  situated  on  the  Taunton  River  at  its  junction  with  Mill 
River  35  utiles  south  from  Boston,  is  the  seat  of  a  number  of  very  .mpor- 
Tant  manufactories.     It  has  been  said  that  Iron  Works  were  estab  .shed 
here  as  early  as   1052,'  and  the  various  manufactures  of  iron,  as  hwks. 
Screws  Stoves,  Locomotives  and  Machinery,  continue  to  be  among  the 
promin'ent  branches  of  its  industry.     In  1800  the  value  of  the  tacks, 
brads,  and  horse-shoe  nails  made  by  the  Taunton  Tack  Conipany   A 
Field  &  Sons,  and  Lovett  Morse,  amounted  to  ^370,000.    The  Bay  State 
Company  produced  Screws  to  the  amount  of  $150,.m.O,  having  a  .'apital 
invested  of  $175,000,  and  employ.l  220  hands.     Stove  and  other  east- 
„.s  to  the  amount  of  §310,000  were  made  by  Eddy  &  Co.,  the  i-uund  y 
and   Machine  Co.,  Lemuel  M.   Leonard,  Bartlett  &   ^;'^;;;;   ^V   ^j 
Tauntou  Iron  Works  Co.,  employing  in  all  a  capital  of  $1.)0,000,  ami 

(1)  Sec  Vol.  1.,  i>Mgo  iry. 




,.  .u  mon  The  Locomotive  Works  of 
three  hundred  and  <'ig^.*y-^!^'^"%^'°;  .  r^,,  Taunton  Locomotive 
Taunton  are  the  largest  n.  ^ew  ^and^    ^^  ^^^^^^^  ^^^  ^^^^ 

Company,  incorporated  .a  If^T.  e^P    y  g„^,,  ,„  d.s- 

ancl  has  made  three  hundred  LocojtweB  amo  g  ^^^^^^^.^^  .^ 

tinouished  for  speed  and  power  ^^^  /^  f  ^J^^J  ,,,  Mississippi  river 

that  in  1860  produced  ^'-^^'^^'^^^'''^^^^^^ 

of  six  hundred  and  thirty-two  tb-  f  ^^^^^^^^^  ^^,;,/,../,,  f,,,,es. 

,U-ed  and  forty-eight  males  and  ^^^^Tnll^na  produced  Cassimeres 

One  Woollen  Mill  -P^^^^ ^'T  ten    1  ota^  dollars.     The  "  Whit- 
of  the  value  of  one  hundred  and  t-  t  -us    k  ^^^^  ^^^^^^^^^^^_^^ 

teuton  Manufacturing  Company,     ^^1^°^^  ™4^,^  WiLLAUO  Lover- 

was  re.rred  to  in  ^^  ^;j^::^;^J^:  ::::L..  to  the  amount 

rif  ^rt:^::"  —  ^ol.^,  hy  three  estahlishments.  one 

of  them  quite  '^^\'']'''''-  ^     ^^^^^^  manufacturers  arc  quite  ccle- 

Another  branch  m  which  ^^e  Taunton  ^^^^  ^_^,^^  ^^ 

„rated,  is  that  of  BrUannia  and  l^^^;'^;?  '.^^  \^^^„,f.,eturers  of  the.o 
Reed  k  «ar.on  arc  among  the  ^-^^^'^^^^^^  ^,  ,,,,„,;,!  and  rich- 
,nieles  in  th.  country,  and  ^1--  wa-      n  pu   ty  ^^^^^^^^  ^^^^^^^,^  ^^_^^^ 

ness  of  design,  are  not  ^-'l'--^  ,^\'2b,,,,,,  but  having  spared  no 
Plate  Company"  was  n.oro  --^  ^ J^; ^.^^^  ,„,,,,„  and  procuring 

,,ag.H,  (<asks,  Leather,  f ^^  ^  „„  ,  The  I'hanux  Mannfadur- 
and  lUinds,  Stoneware,  an  '^^  /  '  X,,,,,  ,,,„,.  en.ployed  i..  th. 
ing  Company  has  a  capital  of  lo  ty  tho  ^^^^.^^^^ 

...L,..tur.-  of  13lacU  ^:;^;;:-  ^^        ^  ^J^  .t,  of  which  .1.  U 

are   also  made  ^y/*"^    ^^  ^    '       ,  ,„.,    of   all'  the  nn.m.facturos  o 
Presbrey  is  Agent.      Hu.   tota  ^^^_^_  ^^  .^^^  ^^^  ^^.^^  ^^,^^  ,„ 

Taunton  in   l^^^'/^'^*';'!^,  ';1  Jy  the  Taunton  Cupper  Mauu- 


The  most  remarkable  estaldishme.  ^ ---(^  t^rS^^^^ 
fduiulcr,  is 




ve  Works  of 
)n  Locomotive 
ind  fifty  hands, 
1  some  so  dis- 
;U  attention  in 
[ississippi  river 
omotive  Works 

il  Cotton  Mills, 
,  to  the  amount 
oying  two  hun- 
y-eight  females, 
iced  Cassimeres 
g.  The  "Whit- 
.  near  Tanntou, 


e,  to  the  amount 
ivblishmentri,  one 

rs  are  quite  cole- 
:'S.     The  fmn  of 
ractnrers  of  thefo 
iiuitevial  and  rich- 
•ter  Britannia  and 
having  spared  no 
uMi,  and  procuring 
r  wares  fully  equal 

;lude   Bricks,  Car- 
ooks,  Sash,  Doors 
laniix  Manufactur- 
es employed  in  Ui'" 
sh.    Those  articles 
y,"  of  which  .1.  I' 
n  niiMiufacturcs  of 
,1  of  wliich  was  111 
iiton  Copper  Manu- 
Co.  are  Agents. 

•0111  whatever  stand- 
it,  the  variety  of  its 
the  celebrity  of  its 

William  Mason's  Machine  Works. 

The  founder  of  this  splendid  -*hment  he^-^^-  tl^^h^ 
teliigent  and  ingenious  mechan.cs  ^^^J^^]^,^,,  the  age  in 
and  l)V  the  force  of  native  genms,  leave  their  mipre 
Jhich'theylive.  New  England  ^]  :^^^^  ^^^^^^^  ^A 
,,.„,  and  they  in  turn  have  rewarded  l-""  b^  ^^J;  f^^;  [^  Lts  fron. 
,,„ry  of  America.  We  however  arc_  not  P^J^^^;  ,^^^,,,,  ...u. 
which  to  write  a  biography  of  this  emment  m  chamc  ^^.^^ 

it  to  say,  that  after  a  ^-y'^^^\^^^'\'l'ZTZA  2  Mason,  in  1829, 
.hop,  the  cotton  mill  and  --^/^f^f  J  /^^J'  Connecticut,  con- 
when  about  twenty-one  years  of  age,  "\,^;"*,^  '^  -  ^e  of  diaper 
structing  and  setting-up  power  ^--J^  ^J^  f  Ld  of  work  in 
,i„on-believed  to  have  been  the  firs  ^<1^P^««^^^^^^^^  ^  ^,,^  .^ticle  of 
,he  world;  subsequently,  in  ^'Ibngb^  ™— ^^^^^^  ,„ 
..  ring  travellers,"  or  ring  frames,  which  ^^^  ';;;>. ^/\;  ^,,,„to„. 

..thr;stle"  or  ''^--l^-itlirtll^^'^tr:^'-'^  ^^^^^ 
Massachusetts,  which,  aftei  many  sa     a     u  ^^  ^.^ 

reverses,  caused  by  the  ^^^'^'\''  f^'^^l^^^^^^^^ 

future  triumphs.    It  was  here,  when   oremanfoiCocl  ^_^^^^_ 

n^achinists,  he  perfected  the  great  -v^^/ to  ^1  o  use  cotton 
Acting  Mule,"  a  -^^^^^^^^  r:  " -"f .  7]l  ^1  be  snpevfluons. 
machinery,  that  a  detailed  '^--;!;.^<'^;'f  ..r^  througi  friendly 
Here,  in  1842,  when  his  employeis  '^;^ J;'^^'  .^^  .^  ^^  ,,,,  ,,orks. 
assistance   became   the   principal   ownei   --^  ^^^^'^  ^^^^  ,^^^ 

The  prosperous  times  which  --^^^  ^^^^  ^flt  chanical  ahili- 
..ontidence  of  cotton  and  other  manufac      us    nh- 

^cfnUlwlied  a  tins  ncss  whlcli  in  a  \tiy  u"  ^^ 

"r"  ""!:,  t     "wa  ae.iB", «-  "'">'« ""'"'","-'» "'"■"";,'; 

,„,„  „f  cotton  Machinery.  1..  ''"»'''"",  ,,,„,,,,,,,,s  wl.i.l.  Iiavo 
„,  ,„  ,„,,™  „na  introduce  'l'"-"" ','',,„,  ,.„„.„,„p,i„„,  ,„,! 
""''"•"'1 '" '''"'"r  ;1„T.  r     i     tn:...nn.i,.o,.o, /,e,»n.lri». 

322  manupacti;res  of  tavnton. 

e.„.s,"  .,.c»uso  ton,  IU„  ■:"««;""^,^  ,^:'  ti;  /^      ,,  „,o„,  .1,0 

;::r:.::':o. "::.;',;: ...  ;„*.,  or  .,,e  w.,^..,  .^.* 

of  the  lower  grades  of  cotton  goods,  aiK^or  tin.  f'^''Y\lio  the 
"tTS    Mr    Mason  mado  an  »<UiHon  to  tbo  Wovks  prcviouMy 

ji:,^?!;  ."'purpose  o.  -■Y':^i::.r;v:fc::r  ::r^ 

nnrl  in  1853  he  hroughtouthis  Urst  Loeomotut,  wuil.i 

characteristic  fertility  of  Ecmas,  l,.  an„c<  to  '•"f'^^' 

,„,,..,  ordinate  a  -« —'^^'-raL;:?  ^Ih  .-We,,  .aid 

tcrnal  uppcanmee  wi  h  ^-^^^  '^"'''^  "^      •  ^^ewEnji-li.nd  engines 

engines  the  dome  was  l'^^^^,  ^^^^^^^:;';^'^Huler  and  smokestacks 

;•  1  r  lio-ht  has  necessarily  the  appearance  of  great  ^^  cj^ht,  was 
comparatively  light,  has  necessaiuj  wh  oh  sunnortcd  its  load  with  the 
thus  brought  directly  over  the  t  uck,  J^^^^^^^  ^^^^^^^  ,i,  ,„tward 
symmetry  of  a  pedestal  in  ^^'^^^';^-^^^X^,on^  braces- 
incumbrances,  such  as  frames  and  then  ^^^  J^J^  '^^^.^j^^  ,,  ;,  f„n 
resembling  a  ship's  shronds-thus  leav  ng  ^^^^^^^^^^  .,,, 
view,  and  a  clear  range  Irom  -^d    o       d  ^  d     n  ^^ 

.oriental  lines^f  h.  --^^-  'i;:';-:;^  JJ,  ..a  disposition 
'^ZZ:^^^:^^^^  expression  to  the  whole  sufficient  to  raise 
it  to  the  dignity  of  a  work  c^  ^^^.^  ,,,„,ination  of  American 


«^  T"t  2i:tr  s:  :=r:r  :^.;:::ie  disposition 

ma„sl.,p.    1,1  mechamm,,  o,  „  ,,,„„ee_„.l,ilo,  at  the  same  tl,i,c,  a 

°'  "*:«  :':„':r  e  .:^      «  Ul  r:  carelcs  'worUntao  to  produce 




•c  as  "Amori- 
L'l-ican  cottons 
v-iiig  tliem  tlio 
lOQ,  American 
ivld  in  the  sulo 
[it age  they  are 
ton,  hut  to  the 
tc\hy  American 

rks  previously 
Locomotives ; 
t  once  attracted 
design.     With 
From  the  bcateu 
y  beauty  of  ex- 
it has  been  said 
Kngland  engines 
y  Jsew  England 
Botive.     In  his 
,f  the  equalizing 
nd  smokestacks 
e,  and  the  sand- 
,  which  although 
:reat  weight,  was 
its  load  with  the 
Tded  all  outward 
liagonal  braces — 
king  parts  in  full 
the  boiler.     The 
ipe,  etc.,  heighten 
IS  and  disposition 
sufficient  to  raise 

ation  of  American 
sign  and  accuracy 
ccelleucc  of  work- 
•eeable  disposition 
t  the  same  time,  a 
)rkman  to  produce 
3US  ornament  and 
1st  be  the  work  of 
the  machinist  who 

..produce  an  .e..t  design. iiW^eon^^^^^ 

„.atter  of  workmanslnp,  ^^fl^^^^^  ,,„„  a  Locomotive  may 
finish.     No  one,  wo  are  Mue,  ^^U1  .Itny  ^^^^  ^^^,^.^^^ 

possess  beauty,  ami  we  p.ty  -^ -;^^;  ^^    ^r  that  .quality  in  its 

of  the  Uogers  or  ^^^^  ^    j/^'^^    tms  of  art  may  be  as  beautiful 
out'iuo,  arrangement     udaad^  ^^^^^^^^^  ^^^^^  ^^  ^j^,,  ,^ 

as  those  of  nature,  f  though  the  onjc 

certain  outward  which  th  established, 

When  >he  L°--^^^'-,^^'^^;^  1  I  ^  g  f^-avy  for  the  manu- 
Mr.  Mason  made  a  step  forwaid  ^y  ^  ^  thin-^  ei>.  that  he  attempts, 
facture  of  Car  Wheels,  n  t^;  -  ^^  ^^jt^^^e  ealled  •'  spoke,"  or 
he  aims  at  ""l^^^^"  ,,"":;,    -  wheels,  a  shape  which  it  is  said 


uniformity  with  the  driving  wheels  us  existence  a.^-ainst 

When  the  government  was  caiajntd  ^^^^_^  _^^^^^  ^^^^^^^ 

the  attacks  of  traitors,  -'^\>.7;^J°;;';,f  the  authorities,  Mr  Mason, 
thousand  etlicient  muske  s  at  ^  'J-^^^^^  l;^^,,  ,,,  necessary  faeilities 
in  common  with  many  others    et  alou   pi  v    ^^^^  ^^^,,^,^,,, 

for  the  manufacture  o   1  iv  ain  .•      I^  e -c  ^^^^^^.  ^^  ^^^.^^^  ^^^ 

iZtX^:^:^:^^--^-^^      .or   a  tlmehe  produced 

It  will  thus  be  seen  that  Mi.  ^  Locomotives,  Car  Wheels, 

facture  of  Cotton  and  Wooll  n_  ^^    '>  "f^^;,.,,^^^  ^„  ,,  ,  aistinet  busi- 
and  Firearms-each  of  which  is  ^^^^  ^^^^^^  to  task  the 

,esB,  in  separate  -*=f  >.f  ^^^^^V  ^' t;" "ol  et  them  all  successfully, 
ability  of  a  single  individual ;  wh  Ic,  to  con  ^^^^^^  _ ^  ^^^^^  ^^  ^^^^ 

,e,iuires  the  talents  and  powe.s  ot  .''^^j'^,;  ;,,  exhibiting  in  all  its 
Js-  really  remarkable  ^^^f  ^'^^^^  ^^^  inventioi^hat  if  its 
details  so  much  system,  combined     >  1> J'^^';^^^^,^^  ,^^,  ,,ned  upon  to 
founder  and  proprietor  were  not  living,  we 
speak  of  it  in  terms  of  enthusiasm.  ,^,.,a  i„  Masoi  's  Ma- 





A.  Field  &  Sons'  Tack  Factory, 
In  Taunton,  is  the  oklost  eslublishod  and  n)ost  extensive  Tack  manu- 
fecto  "  in  to  United  States.     It  employs  nearly  three  hundred  per- 
ons    and   operate,   about  two  hundred  machines  of  te    Rood   and 
Snehard  patents,  with  late  improvements.    ^«»7  ^^^'^ -^^X 
will   produce   each   over  four  hundred  pounds  of  bhoe   Md,s  daily, 
w  hie  the  varietv  in  the  products  of  the  establishment  is  no  ess  aston- 
TsW  V  han  the  quantity.     Between  live  and  si.x  hundred    unds  of 
aclTs' brads,  and  nails,  are  made  in   these  Works,  rangm,    rom  t 
mall  pill-box  copper  tack,  of  which  «-,^'^-'-"! V^'^'   ";f  .     '^^^^ 
of  an  ounce,  to  boat  nails,  of  which  each  one  w.U  weigh  a  half  ounc  . 
Over  tv^o  thousand  tons  of  metals,  of  various  kinds,  are  converted  into 
tacks  and  small  nails  every  year. 

Until  late  in  the  last  century,  the  manufacture  of  nails,  tacU,, 
etc    in  this  country  and  in  England,  was  exclusively  a  manna  prices. 
It  was  during  the  emergencies  of  the  Revolutionary  War.  which  called 
t! exercise  the  inventive  talents  of  the  country,  that  the  fn'st  at  emp 
pear    to  have  been  made  to  produce  Cut  Nail.  Tacts      About 
ryear  1775,  Jeremiah  Wilkinson,  of  Cumberland   Rhode  Island    a 
n    nufa  turer    f  hand  cards,  tired  of  making  the  tacks  x-e,uired  in  h. 
Ts  n  ss  by  the  old  and  tedious  process  of  hammering,  adopted  the    x- 
pednrot  cutting  them  with  shears  from   iron   hoops,  or  other   h.n 
m'^r  and  afterwards  heading  them  in  a  vice.     This  method   he  after- 
Ta  ds  applied  to  the  manufacture  of  other  small  nails  producing  pro- 
bably t^i>rH-st  cold  cut  nails  ever  made.     The  same  pnncple  ,s  carried 
ut  1  y  a^  ropriate  mechanism  in  most  of  the  modern  ma- 
eh  lies  ^Jl.  eh  were  introduced  only  ten  or  twelve  >.ars  later  the lui- 
venion  having  apparently  bee, me  a  necessity  ^^  -  ^^^  ^^    "^^^ 
everv  form  of  labor-saving  expedient.     Between  the  yeais   178     and 
he  dose  of  the  century,  machinery  was  estimated  to  have  doubled   he 
innua  1  reduction  of  nails  in  Massachusetts.     Severa  of  the  most  dis- 
Tg"    1  ed  of  early  American  inventors  employed  their 
a  Tv  rv  early  ago-in  devising  machinery  for  cutting  muls.     Among 
Lse  w  r    P 'vki^s,  Whittemore,  Reed,  and  Blanehard,  while  ot liers  m 
F,I"l   about  thci  same  time,  labored,  though  less  suecessfu  ly,  t 
'ccCish  the  same  end.    Attention  appears  to  have  been  first  dn-ected 
^o  hZove-nents  in  the  shears,  and  the  independent  operations  of  cut- 
tin-  the  nail  and  of  heading  the  same. 

The  first  patent  for  nail  making  was  registered  in  the  United  Stat. 

vlZm.  in  August,  1791,  by  Samuel  Briggs  Senior  and  Jun  o  . 

t    >  i  llphia,  who  deposited  with  the  State  authorities  ot  Teiinsyl- 


ensive  Tack  nianu- 
hrco  huiulred   poi'- 

of  the  Uoeil  and 
e  of  their  machines 

Shoe  Nails  daily, 
3nt  is  no  less  aston- 

hundred  kinds  of 
i,  ranpiinp;  from  the 
vill  weigh  but  half 
weigh  a  half  ounce. 
i,  are  converted  into 

f  nails,  tacks,  lirads, 
ly  ft  manual  pmcess. 
y  War,  which  called 
ihat  the  first  attempt 
and  Tacks.     About 
nd,  Rhode  Island,  a 
;acks  required  in  his 
•ing,  adopted  the  ex- 
hoops,  or  other  thin 
his  method   he  after- 
nails,  producing  pro- 
ie  principle  is  carried 
lern  nail-cutting  ma- 
years  later,  their  in- 
of  an  age  fruitful  in 
the  years  It 8!)  and 
d  to  have  doubled  the 
veral  of  the  most  dis- 
l  their  powers— some 
utting  nails.     Among 
ichard,  while  others  in 
1  less  successfully,  to 
lave  been  first  directed 
cnt  operations  of  cut- 

l  in  the  United  States 
;s.  Senior  and  Junior, 
Litliorities  of  reiinsyl- 




I    :■ 



■-  lilM 

,56      1^ 

!:  Sis  1110 




1.25      1.4       1 6 

=s^             r== 

■• 6" 








"^    ;> 

^  ^•^' V 

%\f    % 






(716)  872-4S03 











Collection  de 

Canadian  Institute  for 

Historical  MIcroreproductlons  /  Institut  Canadian  de  microreproductlons  historiques 


A.    FIELD   &   SONS'   TACK   FACTOUV. 


vania  Iho  model  of  a  machine  for  making  nails,  gimlets,  rivets,  etc.,  in 
June,  nS9  ;  but  it  does  not  appear  whether  it  was  for  makin-  wrought 

or  cut  nails.  •,    q  <.„ 

The  construction  of  the  first  cut  nail  machine  has  been  ascribed  to 
.evoral  porsous,  among  whom  were  Benjamin  Cochran,  a  shopmato  ol 
Eli  Whitney  (about  Um)),  Kzekiel  Reed,  of  IJridgewater,  Massachusetts, 
Jacob   Perkins,  of  Newburyport,  Massachusetts,   and  the  late  A\  alter 
Hunt   of  New  York.    The  first  letters  patent  for  nail  cutting  machinery 
on  the  patent  records  were  issued  in  March,  1794,  or  1795,  to  Josu.h  (J. 
Pearson,  or  Pierson,  of  New  York,  who,  four  years  later,  put  in  opem- 
tion    on  the  Uamapo  in  llampstead,  Kocklaud  county,  New  \  ork,  the 
oxtJnsive  rolling  and  slitting  mill  and  .lail  works  of  Pierson  k  IJrothers, 
which   in  1810,  cut  and  headed  by  water  power  upward  of  one  mdlion 
ponn.l's  of  nails  annually.     The   nail  cutting  machinery  of  Jacob  Per- 
kins ihough  invented  as  early  as  179(1,  at  the  age  of  twenty-four  years 
was  not  patented  until  January,  1795.     Like  many  others,  he  found 
the  invention,  though  efficient,  a  source  of  pecuniary  en.barrn.ssment, 
in    conscquenco  of  an  inju.licious  partnership,  with  which  h.;  csta,.- 
lished  a  manufactory  two  or  three  years  later  at  Amesbury,  where  a 
nail  company  was  chartered  in    1805  with  f.  capital   of  nearly  half  a 
million  dollars.     The  machine  cut  and  headed  nails  at  one   operation, 
and  was  an  advance  upon  any  thing  previously  in  use.    In  Dr.  Morse's 
Amn-ira,  Oazcllcrr,  published  in  1797,  mention  is  made  of  a  machme  bv  Caleb  Leach,  of  Plvmouth,  which  would  cut  and  head  live 
tbou.Mul  nails  in  a  day,  wUli  tl.e  aid  of  one  boy  or  girl.     In  the  same 
connection  it  is  stated  that  there  was  a  machine   at  Newburyport  m- 
vente.l  by  Mr.  .Jacob  Perkins,  which  would  turn  out  two  hundred  thou- 
san.l  nails  in  a  day,  of  a  .p.ality  superior  to  English  nails  and  twenty 
per  cent    cheaper.     In  IsKl,  IN'rkins  took  out  another  patent  lor  cut- 
ii,,,.  nails  and  brads,  and  during  the  same  year  the  nail  eiitting  ma- 
..lunerv  o»'  Massachusetts  was  patented  in  England  by  Joseph  C.  Dyer, 
an  American  merchant -esident  in  London.     The  mechanism  ot   ler- 
kins  and  Dyer  was  soon  after  put  in  operation  at  the   IJntannia  Nat) 
Works  in   Birmingham,  which  was  the  first  ol  cold  cut 
nai's  bv  machinery  in  that  country.     Its  features  were  those  ol  i.owcr- 
ful  rotary  pressers  or  hau.mers  for  s.,ue../.ing  metal  rods  into  th.'  tornis 
of  nail  shanks,  pins,  screw  shafts,  rivets,  etc..  of  .■utters  for  separating 
the  pn.per  lengths,  ami  of  dies  operated  by  revolving  cams  or  cranks, 
for  forming  the  heads  by  compression.     It  was  the  type  of  many  later 
inventions  for  the  same  purpose,  in  which  the  machines  have  been  im- 
proved  i)y  greater  simpii.'ity  of  parts  and  acceleration  of  speed. 

In  addition  to  the  patents  already  mentioned,  not  less  thau  ton  others 



wore  granted  before  ibe  cIobo  of  the  last  century  for  cutth^g  or  cutting 
weic  gianitii  operations 

and  beading  -^.  ^^^    ^  J     a      V:^n.tson.  cf  Pennsyfvania,  in 

were  --'--^J^jf ;*  ^^^  ^^.^  ,,„,,  Peter  /acl>ario,  of  Maryland, 

^;;::^a^^at  t::Z.,  n.n.  ind  ..rads.    Tbe  .acbine  of  K^ 

rLi   iirst  n  ontioned.  as  it  was  afterwards  improved  by  l'-^  "-  '  -se 

Reed    of  Kingston,  Massaclnisetts,  and  otbers,  was  one  of  tl  e  n.ost 

^1  ll    pieces  of  mecbanism  ever  devised  for  tbe  purpose,  and  ,s     x- 

n   Velv  used  at  tbis  time.     Of  numerous  patents  gran  ed  to 

R  :;;fo;  in.provements  connected  with  nail  -Ub,g  and  otber  meeban 

.al  operations,  tbe  iirst  in  bn.c    -/^^^^ ^  j"-  ]^:^. 

:;tC- :  ;:;.:r '^:i  t:vLk  cbiciy ..  ..ting  and  be^ 

r  asand  taeks,  the  llrst  bearing  date  February,  1807,  and  .neludmg 
r  V      1  ^Plianee  In  180..     The  addition  of  nippers  to  Reed's  mac  .o 
was  the  subieet  of  a  patent  to  S.  Chubbuek,  of  Massachusetts,  .n  1835. 
Tl       atlt    ight  to  lis  machine,  which  completed  the  nai-  at  one  ope- 
V     0     ^^s  purchased  by  Oldwine  and  of  .x.vssachu- 
0   s  who  pit  upwards  of  twenty  machines  in  operation  at  Maiden 
Maid  us^tts,  and  establisiied  two  other  lactories  in  tbe  u-on  region 
ff  t        Xy  kill  valley  in  Pennsylvania,  which  subseu.ently  became 
1    ;h;:;pal  nail  producing  region  of  the  Union.     ^^^^^;;;;^ 
in   ooervtion   in  these  establishments  were  capable  oi  makmg  1  fteen 
.nStl  of  nails  annually,  with  tbe  aid  of  sixty  men  and  boys^ 
T  chine  was  afterwards  adapted  to  cutting  brads  by  Oldwu.e.      n 

18lV  Reed  patented  a  tack  machine,  or  an  improvement  on    he  old 

w  ch  enabled  a  single  hand  with  one  machine  to  cut  an.  head 
a  i„..,o  opevation  si.vty  thousand  tacks  in  a  day.  These  .-chmes  to 
^Uich  Held  added  in  1825  a  feeding  apparatus  wo- alrea  y  m  o  n  - 
tion  at  Pemi)roke  and  at  Abington.  Massachuset  s.  At  tlu  latter 
1  e  in  1815,  one  hundred  and  tifty  millions  of  card  tacks  were  nuule^ 
XV  m  y  add  Ihat  among  the  early  patents  for  this  manufacture  ^v.s 
o^e  grafted  in  1805  to  Increase  Kimball,  for  a  machme  fo  making 
nails^  brads,  and  sprigs,  for  which  originality  has  been  claimed. 

The  grca;  value  of  the  cut  nail  machinery  thils  introduced  and  per- 
fected at  great  labor  and  expense,  was  first  brought  to  the  notice  of  the 
pullie  in  the  report  of  Albert  Gallatin,  Secretaiy  of  the  Tr-"ry,  on 
[he  manufactures  of  the  United  States,  made  to  Congress  in  810.  To 
there  stated  that  two-thirds  of  the  whole  quantity  of  iron  flattened  by 
I  linery.  in  the  United  States,  was  used  in  the  manufacture  of  c«. 
3  vhL  had  extended  throughout  the  whole  country,  and  being 
U  gotber  an  American  invention,  substituting  mach.inery  for  manual 


A.    FIELD  &  sons'   TACIv   FACTORY. 


itting  or  cutting 
two  operations 
Pennsylvania,  in 
■ie,  of  Maryland, 
acliinc  of  Ezckicl 
by  his  son,  Jesse 
one  of  the  most 
I'poso,  and  is  ex- 
granted  to  Jesse 
nd  other  mechan- 
d  in  June,  1801, 
l)tained  ten  addi- 
cutting  and  head- 
iOI,  and  including 
to  Reed's  machine 
ithusetls,  in  1835. 
0  nai'i  at  one  opc- 
i-rs,  of  Massachu- 
ration  at  Maiden, 
in  the  iron  region 
i)siM[iiently  became 
'ifty-two  machines 
of  making  tiftecn 
:ty  men  and  hoys. 
Is  by  Oldwine.     In 
cement  on  the  old 
to  cut  ami  head  at 
rhese  machines,  to 
•e  already  in  opera- 
nts,    At   the   latter 
d  tacks  were  made. 
3  manufacture  was 
iiachine  for  making 
cen  claimed, 
ntroduced,  and  per- 
,  to  the  notice  of  the 
of  the  Treasury,  on 
ingress  in  1810.    lie 
of  iron  flattened  by 
manufacture  of  eu*. 
country,  and  being 
mehinery  for  manual 

labor,  deserved  particular  notice.  The  only  nianifactory  of  tacks 
alluded  to  in  that  report  was  one  in  I>ristol  county,  probably  at  Taun- 
ton, that  produced  eleven  niillioiis  of  tacks  aiunially. 

Among  the  early  invenlioiis  for  cutting  brads  and  small  nails  was  a 
niacliiiic  patented  in  1807,  by  Jonathan  Kills,  of  Ma.ssachus('tts,  a  part- 
ner of  Perkins;  one  by  Seth  JJoyden,  now  of  Newark,  New  Jt'rsey, 
patented  in  IPIT);  a  brad  and  sprig  machine,  by  G.  Jenkins,  of  IMy- 
moutii  county,  Ma.ssaohusetts,  in  1817;  and  the  most  valuable  of  all, 
the  brad  and  tack  uiaclMue  patented  l)y  Samuel  llogers,  of  I'lyniouth, 
and  Thomas  IJIanchard,  of  JJoston,  in  the  same  year  as  tiie  las*,  men- 
tioned. This  maoiiiiie,  which  is  one  of  the  most  valuable  now  em- 
ployed, was  devised  by  lilanchard,  at  ((uite  an  early  age,  to  relieve  the 
tedium  of  the  old  process  of  tatting  tacks  from  metal  plates,  and  after- 
wards heading  them  one  by  one  by  the  aid  of  a  heading  tool  or  clomp, 
attached  to  a  lever  and  moved  by  the  foot,  while  the  head  was  flattened 
by  one  or  more  blows  of  a  hammer.  The  ingenious  inventor  haii  pre- 
viously sought  to  abridge  the  labor  of  counting  and  weighing,  as  he 
was  rociuired  to  do  the  (piantity  assigned  him  as  his  daily  task.  This 
he  effected  by  a  very  ingenious  coimting  machine,  consisting  of  a  rat- 
chet wheel,  moving  one  tooth  everv  time  the  heading  tool  grasped  a 
tack,  and  by  a  bell  to  indicate  the  completion  of  the  allotted  number. 
The  tack  nuichine  was  commenced  about  1800,  when  ho  was  eiglitcen 
years  of  age,  and,  under  the  greatest  discouragements,  was  steadily 
kept  in  view  and  often  remodelled,  during  a  period  of  si.\  years,  when 
it  was  jtroduccd  in  such  a  slate  of  perfection  that,  tlie  iron  being  snp- 
plic<l  through  a  tube  or  hopper,  and  the  power  applied,  five  hundred 
tacks  were  made  in  a  minute  with  more  finished  points  and  heads  than 
were  ever  made  by  hand,  and  weighing  onlv  half  an  ounce  per  thou- 
sand. The  right  to  this  machine  was  purchased  by  a  company  for  five 
thousand  dollars. 

The  following  description  is  applicable  to  the  machine  now  most  ex- 
tensively nsi'd  in  this  country  for  cutting  nails  of  all  sizes.  It  consists 
of  a  main  shaft  for  carrying  the  cams,  driven  by  a  belt  over  a  |iu!ley, 
and  provided  with  a  metal  tube,  through  which  pa.sses  the  nail  rod, 
holding  the  nail  rod  by  means  of  pincers.  In  order  to  give  the  brad  or 
nail  its  wedge  shape,  the  cutter  is  set  oblique  to  the  direction  of  the 
nail  plate,  which  is  reversed  after  each  cut,  by  which  means  every  nail 
lias  a  uniform  taper.  The  reversing  of  the  nail  plate  is  effected  by 
means  of  a  rocking  shaft,  which  receives  its  motion  from  the  shaft 
through  a  gearing  and  crank,  producing  an  alternate  motion  to  the 
segments,  which  is  eommuni"atcd  to  the  guide  tube  by  a  belt  and  pul- 

y,  the  nail  plate  being  fed   .  >  the  cutter  by  means  of  a  wei;jlil,  the 


nail  rod  with  its  attached  plate  vibrating  freely  within  the  guide  tui.e. 
The  cutter  having  the  width  of  a  nail  plate,  is  adjusted  by  screws  to 
the  cutting  block ;  the  nail  plate,  lying  between  guides,  rests  on  the 
iron  block  and  bears  by  the  action  of  the  weigi.t  (before  meul.oned) 
against  the  face  of  the  cutter.     The  vibratory  motion  of  ^he  latter  i8 
effoctod  bv  the  aid  of  a  crooked  lever  worked  by  means  of  an  eccentric 
on  the  main  shaft ;  the  cutter  block  forming  the  short  arm  of  this  lever 
has  a  short  circular  movement  about  their  common  centre.     '1  he  ever, 
cutter  block,  and  the  axle  arms  or  trunnions  upon  which  they  work   are 
all  cast  in  one  piece.     The  lever  of  the  heading  die  is  worked  by  a 
crank  pin  and  rod  attached  to  a  wheel  on  the  main  shaft.     To  prevent 
the  nail  from  falling  from  its  place  before  the  completion  of  the  stroke, 
a  small  pair  of  nippers,  operated  by  means  of  a  cam  on  the  main  shaft. 
are  placed  below  and  in  front  of  the  cutter  block.     These  are  worked  by 
the  rods      Thj  working  of  the  machine  is  as  follows  : 

The  nail  plate  rests  against  the  frame  of  the  cutter,  the  lever  resting 
on  the  point  of  the  cam  or  eccentric  ;  as  the  latter  revolves,  the  lever 
falls   lifting  the  edge  of  the  cutter  above  the  cutting  block,  and  also 
aboJe  the  nail  plate ;  the  latter,  by  the  action  of  the  weight,  is  thrown 
forward  under  the  cutter  to  a  stop  the  width  of  the  required  nail.     At 
this  point  bv  the  revolution  of  the  eccentric,  the  lever  is  raised  which 
lowers  the  edge  of  the  cutter,  shearing  off  a  wedge-shaped   strip  of 
metal  having  the  length  of  the  width  of  the  nail  plate.     This  is  seized 
at  the  same^instant  by  the  nippers  below  the  cutter,  and  immediately 
after  the  rod,  by  the  action  of  its  crank,  raises  the  lever  of  the  heading 
die   and  the  nail  is  comjileted  at  a  stroke.     As  the  complete  nail  <lrops 
from  the  opening  nippers,  tho  nail  plate  is  advanced  under  the  cutting 
shears  for  anothev  nail.     In  ...e  factory  of  the  Messrs.  Field,  shoe  nail 
uiachines  .'.'•<•  used  which  arc  provided  with  a  self-feeding  apparatus,  by 
which  si.x  plates  are  advanced  to  the  cutter  at  one  time  without  manual 
assistance.     Tliese  machines  are  the  invention  of  William  H.  Field, 
of  Taunton,  and  the  patent  is  owned  by  A.  Field  &  Sons. 

Nails  and  Tacks  having  been  cut,  retpiire  to  be  annealed,  which 
renders  them  more  tough  and  somewhat  malleable,  and  at  the  same 
time  imparts  to  them  their  rich  blue  color.  This  is  done  by  heating 
them  hot  in  iron  boxes  in  an  oven,  and  leaving  them  to  cool  slowly. 
The  Messrs.  Field  have  also  ingenious  machines  for  leathering  carpel 
tacks  which  perform  the  work  with  extraordinary  rapidity. 

Ai'bert  FiELP,  the  senior  proprietor  of  these  Works,  was  born  in 
Norton,  Massachusetts,  July  4th,  1705.  During  the  war  of  1812,  he 
was  cmploved  at  Sharon,  Massachusetts,  in  the  file  manufactory  of 
the  ingenious  Seth  Boyden,  elsewhere  alluded  to.     Shortly  after  be- 


A.    FIELD   A   sons'   TACK    FACTOIIY. 


L  the  guide  tulio. 
;ed  by  screws  to 
,es,  rests  on  the 
fore  mentioned) 

of  *he  latter  is 
s  of  an  eccentric 
arm  of  this  lever 
Ure.  The  lever, 
h  they  work,  are 

is  worked  by  a 
!ift.  To  prevent 
ion  of  the  stroke, 
n  the  main  shaft, 
se  are  worked  by 

the  lever  resting 
ivolves,  the  lever 
5  block,  and  also 
veight,  is  thrown 
pquired  nail.  At 
ir  is  raised  which 
!-shaped  strip  of 
.     This  is  seized 

and  immediately 
er  of  the  heading 
)mplete  nail  drops 

under  the  cutting 
■s.  Field,  shoe  nail 
ling  apparatus,  by 
lie  without  manual 
William  11.  Field, 

i>  annealed,  which 
,  and  at  the  same 
s  douo  by  heating 
;m  to  cool  slowly. 
'  leathering  carpel 

'orks,  was  born  in 

,0  war  of  1812,  he 

lie  manufactory  of 

Shortly  after  bo- 

coming  of  age  he  went  to  the  city  of  New  York,  and  attempted  manu- 
facluring  Tacks  by  horse  power,  but  after  a  few  months  removed  to 
Taunton,  and  was  employed  by  Crocker  &  Kichmond,  the  extensive 
nail  manufacturers,  with  whom  ho  remained  for  about  nine  years. 
In  1827,  in  a  small  building,  on  the  site  of  his  present  Works,  he  com- 
menced to  manufacture  Brads,  with  one  machine,  built  by  himself. 
In  18.30,  he  purchased  one  of  Reed's  Tack  Machines,  and  employed 
Elijah  S.  Caswell  to  run  it.  This  person  has  been  in  his  employ  since 
that  time,  and  has  made  great  improvements  on  both  the  Reed  and 
Blanehard  machines. 

In  1831,  he  employed  Otis  Allen  (who  is  still  with  the  firm)  to  take 
charge  of  the  packing,  and  to  him  much  credit  i.s  due  for  his  eflicient 
management  of  the  packing  and  shipping  departments  since  that  time. 

Under  Mr.  Field's  jedieious  management  the  business  prospered, 
one  machine  after  another  was  built,  the  buildings  were  from  time  to 
time  enlarged,  improvements  in  the  methods  of  manufacturing  were 
originated  or  adopted,  until  now  he  is  the  head  of  the  leading  concern 
in  his  business  in  America. 

Like  most  men  who  have  achieved  success  by  their  own  endeavors, 
Mr.  Field  has  given  evidence  of  possessing  an  original  and  ingenious 
mind.  He  designed  and  was  the  first  nianufav-turer  of  that  peculiar  form 
of  tack  known  as  the  gimp  tack,  for  fastening  linings  on  carriages  and 
furniture.  He  drove  out  of  the  American  market  the  Kuglish  clout 
nails,  by  producing  a  dififerent  and  much  superior  nail  for  the  same 
purposes,  and  at  a  less  price ;  and  by  various  improvements  in  ma- 
chinery, succeeded  in  producing  Tacks  of  an  uniform  thickness  and 
quality,  until,  now,  Field  &  Sous'  Tacks  are  a  staple  of  American  com- 
merce, and  are  exported  not  only  to  the  West  Indies,  South  America, 
and  Australia,  but  to  Germany,  Africa,  China,  and  in  fact  to  nearly  all 
parts  of  the  world. 

Mr.  Field  is  no  less  estimable  as  a  man  than  eminent  as  a  manufac- 
turer. He  has  aimed  to  invest  the  profits  of  his  business  so  as  to  yield 
the  greatest  good  to  the  greatest  number  of  his  fellow-citizens.  He  was 
one  of  the  original  projectors  of  the  gas  works  in  the  city  of  Taunton, 
and  is  now  President  of  the  Company.  Ho  also  established  the  Taun- 
ton Foundry  and  Machine  Company,  and  the  Mount  Hope  Iron  Com- 
pany at  Somerset,  Massachusetts.  As  an  employer  he  has  been  re- 
gardful of  the  interests  and  welfare  of  his  workmen,  and  is  reworded 
with  their  good-will  and  attachment.  Though  not  a  member  of 
any  cliurch  organization,  he  has  contributed  liberally  to  aid  in  the 
erection  of  houses  of  worship ;  and  of  one  church  in  Taunton, 
which,  when  fiaiuhed,  will  cost  over  $50,000,  ho  and  hia  sons  have 



contributed  more  than  one  half  the  amount.  Thus  th,s  venerable  p.o- 
ncer  and  patriarch  presents  an  example  of  liberality  m  the  u.e  and 
distribution,  as  well  as  skill  and  success  in  the  acciuisition  of  a  fortune. 

Reed  &  Barton's  Works, 

For  the  manufacture  of  Britannia,  Albata,  Nickel,  Silver,  and  Silver- 
riated  Wares,  at  Taunton,  Massachusetts,  are  the  oldest,  and  one 
of  the  largest  in  the  United  States.  About  1824,  Mr.  Isaac  Babb.  t, 
the  inventor  of  what  is  known  as  the  Babbitt  Metal,  commenced  .he 
manufacture  of  Britannia  ware  at  this  place,  and  may  be  called  the 
founder  of  the  business.  Subsequently,  the  business  estabhshed  by  Inm 
passed  through  the  hands  of  Jiabbitt  &  Grossman,  West  &  Leonaul,  he 
Taunton  Britannia  Manufacturing  Company,  none  of  whom  found  u 
profitable,  until,  finally,  Henry  G.  Reed  an.l  Charles  E.  Barton  who 
were  apprentice  boys  to  son>e  of  the  other  firms,  assooated 
another,  because  proprietors,  and  by  industry  and  perseverance  sue- 
ceeded  in  building  up  one  of  the  largest  manutacturmg  concerns  m  the 

'"Them-incipal  buildings  have  an  aggregate  length  of  about  one  thou- 
sand feet,  and  are  divided  into  departments  for  special  purposes  such 
as  the  machine  room  and  rolling  rooms,  the  burnishing  rooms, 
rooms,  press  rooms,  buffing  rooms,  polish  rooms,  and  others.  In  then- 
press  room  thev  have  a  number  of  presses  of  in.mense  power-one 
screw  press  weighing  about  seven  tons,  for  stamping  designs  and 
figures  upon  the' different  articles  of  their  manufacture;  and  their 
stock  of  dies  is  most  complete.  Their  show  room  presents  a  brilliant 
array  of  specimens  of  their  workmanship  that  would  attract  attention 
and 'extort  admiration  even  in  an  exhibition  of  Solid  Silver  Ware. 

Within  the  last  five  years,  this  firm  have  made  important  additions 
to  their  list  of  manufactures,  and  now  produce,  besides  Britannia  and 
Silver-plated  wares,  all  kinds  of  Electro-plat-d  Nickel  Silver  I  able 
Ware  and  Albata  Spoons  and  Forks,  that  can  only  be  surpassed  by 
solid  s'lver  Thev  have  increased  the  number  of  their  hands  to  nearly 
five  hundred,  and'have  added  so  largely  to  their  facilities  for  manu- 
facturing that  it  maybe  said  every  tool  or  machine  that  can  be  used 
advantageously  in  the  business  will  be  found  in  their  workshops. 

Within  the  same  period  also,  this  firm  have  made  great  improvementa 
in  the  patterns  and  styles  of  their  wares.  It  is  one  of  the  advantages  of 
electro-plating  that  all  ornaments,  however  elaborate,  or  designs,  how- 


REED   &   barton's   BRITANNIA    WORKS. 


3nerablc  pio- 
.  the  use  and 
of  a  fortune. 

',  nnd  Silver- 
est,  ami  one 
[saac  Babbitt, 
)ninicneed  tbc 
be  called  the 
)lished  by  biiu 
t  Leonavil,  the 
'bom  found  ii 
,  Barton,  who 
jsociated  with 
ses'crancc  sue- 
;oncerus  in  the 

bout  one  thou- 
purposes,  sueb 
rooms,  plating 
licrs.     In  their 
36  power — one 
jT   designs  and 
[re  ;    and   their 
^ents  a  brilliant 
ttract  attention 
Iver  Ware. 
)rtant  additions 
Britannia  and 
,1   Silver  Tal)le 
10  surpassed  by 
hands  to  nearly 
ities  for  manu- 
hat  can  be  used 
it  improvements 
le  advantages  of 
)r  designs,  how- 

ever complicated,  that  can  be  produced  in  silver,  are  equally  obtaina- 
ble b}'  this  process,  and  one  of  the  benefits  that  such  iirms  as  Iteod  & 
Barton  confer  upon  the  country,  is  that  they  familiarize  tlio  American 
people  with  forms  of  beauty  and  elevate  the  standard  of  public  taste. 
An  American  artisan  can  now  command  exact  copies  of  the  choicest 
phitc  in  the  repertory  of  kings.  The  Anglo  American,  said  the  London 
Art  Journal,  some  years  ago,  seems  the  oidy  nation  in  whom  the  iovo 
of  ornament  is  not  inherent.  "The  Yankee  wliittles  a  stick,  but  his 
cuttings  never  take  a  decorative  form  ;  bis  activity  vents  itself  in  de- 
stroying, not  in  ornamenting;  he  is  a  utilitarian,  not  a  decorator  ;  ho 
can  invent  an  elegant  sewing  machine,  but  not  a  Jacipiard  loom  ;  an 
electric  telegraph,  but  not  an  embroidering  machine."  This  repioaeh, 
if  ever  true,  is  rapidly  losing  its  force.  Even  American  artisans,  while 
properly  maintaining  that  ornament  should  be  subordinate  to  utility, 
are  yet  beginning  to  understand  that  "  a  thing  of  beauty  is  a  joy  for- 
ever," and  in  schools  like  those  of  Reed  &  Barton,  where  chaste  de- 
signs are  multiplied  and  wares  rivalling  those  of  the  jeweller  and  silver- 
smith are  made  and  sold  at  prices  accessible  by  all,  the  American 
people  arc  being  educated  in  taste  and  love  of  the  beautiful,  whicli  is 
said  to  be  the  finest  ornament  and  purest  luxury  of  a  land. 





V.TL  RiVFR  Which  lies  at  the  head  of  the  eastern  arm  of  the  Narra- 
tal  of  the  respective  Coiupames.  

Name  of  Mi'l  ur 

Xn.v  ('•  iiiiil  ^^'-  ^'""• 
Fall  I'ivi'i-  Miui'y... 
I>,„'ii-s<'t  Mun'i;  C<). 
AimiiWii"  Miui'j... 

M:>fsi'-^suit  Mill 

AuK'"*""*  ''lii"!"— • 
Mi'tai'i'iiK't  Mill.... 
Full  Itivor  IVint  «  K< 
Aini-'iiciiii  l.inen  Co... 
Uiiii.M  Mill  Co 
(ivHiiitu  Mill" 

Dnrf.'.'  Mills 

IViMUiisuli  Mills 
Ruliusiiii  Millo 

Sl.iniUcu.l  Caiiitftl. 


SliiiidWw.j  Capital. 



,  '.wo.uuo 

50,9"  5 
'  200;0Q0 


.  700.UOO 

38,7;i0  1 

9,240  I 

34,24K  I 

»v.!ri  i 

.  14,4.4S' 











3;U,202  I  $5,023,375 

capacity  if  printing  about  twenty-five  ^"-f^^rl/ and  with  the 
Z.  iL  date  the  f-iUtics  have  been  great  Y  -1    gd,^a^^^        _^  .^_ 

purchase  of  the  Bay  State  ^-^t  Works  m  18(2  U^^^^^ 

creased  to  about  fifteen  thousand  pie    s  p  i  w  el    ot         y    ^^  ^^.^^^^^ 

each,  or  thirty-five  ^l^^^^^^^  ^^^^^^^  «^  ^'''''''■ 
They  employ  a  capital  m    eal  ^^^     ^^         .^  ^,  ,^,  Company,  is 
jEFFEiisoN  Borden,  Esq.,  ono  ot  the  oufciu 
still  its  Treasurer  and  General  ^^anager^  ^„„,„,,„eed  opera- 

The  AMERICAN  I^-e^nCompanv  a    I    l  Rv  r      "^^^^^ 
ting  their  machinery  in  Decembe,  1853,  ^^thte^^^^^    PUbw  and    Table 

and  sixteen  ^P^"'^-'   -:;^S"^,^    ^ra^ 

Linen,  Coatings,  Hu^^aba^,  ^.-J'J^.^  u.if  manufacture  until  1858, 

They  employed  a  ^^^^\^\;2^^^^^^^ 

.vhentheir  mill     ach  n,  d^^^^^      „,,„„factunng  Print  Cloths. 

sand  two  hu.idrod  and  n.nety-s.x  sp...  nianufac- 

Tl.ey  still  operate  thlrty-five  hundred  spindles  in 



of  the  Narra- 
■  the  iiriiu'ipul 
ill  V)c  seen  by 
nenceinent  of 
id  the  Capital 
Lie  active  capi- 

f  S^limiUw.,  t-'i'pit"'' 

38,7;iti  I 
34,'ilH  I 


•.  liAiS) 


•  23;so» 






'  200;0Q0 

1  20O.U00 

.  700.UOO 

oool  3;W,202  *5,«2;5.:i75 

)BKS,  one  of  the 
le  United  States. 
IS  started  with  a 
;3  per  week ;  but 
ed,  and  with  the 
lir  capacity  is  in- 
f  forty-five  yards 
ards  per  annum, 
cry  of  $500,000. 
tue  Company,  is 

ommenccd  opera- 
sand  four  hundred 
'illow  and  Table 
>ther  Lingn  goods, 
facture  until  1858, 
I  of  thirty-one  thou- 
iring  Print  Cloths, 
he  Linen  manufac- 

uro,  and  propose  to  add  to  their  Cotton  machinery  fifty-two  thousand 


Jesse  Knny  &  Son  are  the  owners  of  the  Wiimsutta  Steam  Mill, 
employed  in  manufacturing  a  superior  grade  of  Fancy  Cassiineres.  It 
was  built  in  1849,  with  eight  sets  of  muchinery.     Capital  §150,000. 

The  Fall  River  Iron-works  Company  was  organized  in  1821,  with 
a  capital  of  $24,000,  and  commenced  the  manufacture  of  Iron  in  Febru- 
ary 1822,  with 'one  set  of  Rolls  for  makir.g  Nail  Plates,  and  twelve 
machines  for  Cutting  Nails.  Their  production  of  Iron  and  Nails  at 
that  time  was  about  five  hundred  tons  per  annum.  They  have  gradu- 
ally increased  their  operations  until  they  have,  in  18GG,  eight  sets  of  Rolls 
and  one  hundred  and  five  Nail  Machines,  producing  four  thousand  five 
hundred  tons  of  Hoop,  Bar,  and  Wire  Iron,  and  one  hundred  thou- 
sand casks  of  Nails,  of  one  hundred  pounds  each,  equal  to  five  thousand 

They  also  have  a  Foundry  producing  eighteen  hundred  tons  Castings 
per  annum  for  machinerv  purposes,  and  a  Machine  Shop  and  Roller 
Shop,  for  building  and  repairing  Machinery.  In  1845,  they  the 
Metacomet  Cotton-mill,  with  21,600  spindles;  and  a  Gas  AVorks, 
which  supplies  the  Mills,  stores,  and  private  dwellings  with  (ias. 
The  capital  employed  by  the  Corporation  at  the  present  time  is  about 
one  million  of  dollars.  Richard  Borden,  Es,].,  one  of  its  originators, 
is  Treasurer  and  General  Manager  of  the  Company. 

Besides  these.  Fall  River  has  three  important  Machine  Shops  : 
of  Marvel,  Davol  &  Co.,  Kilbirn,  Lincoln  &  Son,  and  Wm.  M. 
Hawes  &  Co.  ;  the  Flour  Mills  of  Chace  &  Nason,  David  II.  Brav- 
ton  &  Co.,  D.  Brown  &  Son;  the  Twine  and  Stocking  Manufactory 
of  E   M.  Swart  &  Co.,  and  other  manufactories  of  some  importance. 


Springfield,  according  to  the  last  Census  returns,  had  37  Manufac- 
turing Establishments,  with  a  capital  of  $1,074,000,  that  ^f^y^^'^^^ 
nnle  and  63t  female  hands,  and  yielded  products  valued  at  *2,0C5,o  J4 
This  was  exclusive  of  the  Arms  n-anufactured  at  the  Government 
Armory  located  here,  which  is  one  of  the  most  important  arsenals  of 
construction  in  the  United  States. 

The  establishment  that  employed  more  hands  and  produced  a  larger 


value  than  any  in  Sprinfrfieia,  with  tho  exception  of  the  Indian 
«)ielmrcl  Cotton  Mills,  was  the  Cur  Manufactory  of  tho 

Wason  Manufacturing  Company. 

The  construction  of  Cars  is  comparatively  a  new  department  of 
manufactures  in  the  United  States,  but  in  consequence  of  the  vast 
and  rapid  extension  of  railroads  it  has  become  one  of  considevablo 
ma.n,it«de.  It  is  a  singular  fact  that  nearly  all  the  companies  that  have 
been  ov'-ani/.cd  with  a  lar-e  capital  for  tho  prosecution  of  this  business 
have  no"t  been  successful,  and  those  whose  manufactories  arc  now  the 
larii-cst,  commenced  with  scarcely  any  capital  except  their  individual  en- 
terprise and  experience. 

ibout  twenty  years  a^o,  Thomas  W.  and  Charles  Wason  commenced 
on  the  banks  of  the  Connecticut  Hiver,  preparing  lumber  for  road 
livid.-cs  and  did  a  small  business  in  repairing  and  building  (Jravel  and 
Freii'ht'  .-"ars      In  1840  they  advanced  a  step  forward  by  leasing  a  lot 
of  ground  on  which  they  erected  a  shop  for  maidng  Freight  and   Bag- 
gage Cars,  procuring  the  wheels  and  most  of  their  castings  from  a 
nci^ghboring  foundry.     In  1848  the  "  Springiield  Car  and  Engine  Co., 
whi.'h  had   been   or-anizod  in  the  year   preceding  with  a  capital  ot 
^100  000  for  the  building  of  Cars  and  Eng.:ies,  and  had  erected  exten- 
sive  buildings  for  the  purpose  and  filled  them  with  ma.l  M.ery.l.ndmg 
that  the  business  could  not  be  economically  conducted  •..>K..r  their  exist- 
ino.  organization,  determined  to  dispose  of  their  stock  and  tools  in  the 
Car  department,  and  Messrs.  T.  W.  &  C.  Wason  became  the  purchasers. 
In  18^.1  Mr  Thos  W.  Wason  became  sole  proprietor  of  the  works  by  tho 
purchase  of  his  brother's  interest,  and  in  the  latter  part  of  t'-o  same  year 
purchased  a  foundry  for  making  Car  Wheels  and  other  crstings.    In  1853 
he  disposed  of  one-half  his  interest  in  the  Car  Manufactory  to  another 
,,0,-soii  which  established  the  lirm  of  T.  W.  Wason  Sc  Co.,  who  con- 
linued  iHisiness  us  a  firm  until  1862,  when  the  "Wason  Mam.factnring 
Company"  was  organized,  and  incorporated  with  Thomas  U.  AA  ason, 
rresident,  George  C.  Fisk,  Treasurer,  Henry  S.  Hyde,  Clerk,  and  L.  O. 
Hanson,  Superintendent. 

Tills  Companvis  now  largely  engaged  in  the  manufacture  of  eveiy 
variety  of  Passe'nger,  Emigrant,  Baggage,  Freight,  Hand  and  Horse 
Cars,  and  recentlv  purchased  tho  extensive  property  formerly  ONVM.ed  by 
the  "Springfield  Car  and  Engine  Company,"  the  original  cost  of  which 
with  the  buildings  and  machinery  was  over  $120,000.  The  buildings, 
eligibly  situated  near  the  passenger  depot  at  Springfield,  are  most  sub- 
stantially  constructed,  and  cover  nearly  four  acres  of  ground.     Ihey 

WASON    MANirACTritlNIi    ('(iMl'ANY. 

f  the  Indian 

;partmeiit  of 
!  of  tlio  vast 

lies  tliat  have 

tliis  business 
i  are  now  tlio 
individual  cn- 

n  eommonced, 
[•  for  JJailvoad 
g  (Jravel  and 
y  leasing  a  lot 
gilt  and   l?ag- 
istings  from  a 
I  Engine  Co.," 
I  a  capital  of 
crcoted  exten- 
1  Miery,  finding 
ujr  tlicir  exist- 
ed tools  in  the 
the  pnroluiscrs. 
he  works  by  the 
ft'  0  same  year 
;tings.    In  1853 
,ory  to  another 
Co.,  who  con- 
nas  W.  AVason, 
:'lerk,  and  L.  O. 

racturc  of  every 
md,  and  1  torse 
inerly  owned  by 
al  cost  of  which 
The  buildings, 
Id,  arc  most  sub- 
■  ground.     They 

comprise  a  two-story  I)rick  building  iJTO  fi'ot  long  ai'd  70  feet  wide, 
oecui)ied  upon  the  lower  lloor  by  the  olliccs,  the  eiiginc-rooiii  (coiil.iining 
a  '.)()-horse  power  engine,  bull;  by  Tliursloii  (Jardiier  it  Co.  of  I'nivi- 
dtnee,  1\.  I.,  iittcd  with  the  "Corliss"  cut-olT),  the  macliine  sliop,  SO  \>y 
70  feet,  and  the  passenger  and  t'reiglit  car-liiHly  and  truck  Imil'iing  de- 
parliiieuts;  upon  the  njiper  lloor  by  the  ciibinet  room,  where  tlie  seats, 
sasli,  doors,  idiiids,  and  inside  work  of  passenger  and  street-cars  arc 
made,  and  liy  the  street  car-liuilding  department.  Tlie  bliicksniitli  shop 
is  of  brick,  180  feet  long  and  44  feet  vide,  and  contains  :!0  fires.  Tlicro 
are  also  a  l)rick  idaniiig  mill  70  by  44  feet,  a  brick  dry-lioiise,  and  :i  largo 
wooden  paint  sliops  (in  the  second  slory  of  one  of  which  is  Ihe  upliotsicry 
department),  having  accoiiimoihitioiis  for  iiaiiiting  10  imssciigcr  cars, 
](■)  freight  cars,  and  0  street  ears  at  one  time.  The  foundry,  where  all 
tlie  car  wheels  and  eastings  used  by  tlie  Coiniiany  are  math;,  adjoins  tiie 
Car  Works,  and  occupies  a  In'ick  building  1 12  by  70  feet.  This  l>raiieh 
of  tae  business  is  still  owned  sejiarate  and  apart  from  tlie  car  works. 

The  machinery  in  the  Car  Works  is  of  the  most  comidcle  nature,  no 
expense  having  been  spared  in  the  construction,  ^.'oihiiig  is  left  to  be 
done  by  hand  that  can  by  any  possibility  be  aceomplislied  by  uiiichiiiery, 
and  a  high  degree  of  excellence  in  the  pnjducts  is  tlius  necessarily  at- 

Cars  from  tliis  establishment  have  been  sent  to  Egypt,  Cliina,  Ilrazil, 
Venezuela,  and  to  all  parts  of  llie  United  Stales  and  Caiiadas.  A  largcs 
portI..ii  of  tiie  rolling  stock  upon  the  I'aeilie  slojie  bears  their  trade- 
mark. Improvements  are  constantly  being  nuide  in  all  classes  of  Citrs, 
especially  liassenger  and  street  cars,  of  wliicli  tiiis  company  l.ave  turned 
out  large  numbers  tnat  for  beauty  of  finish  and  thorough  workmansliip 
cannot  be  suriiassod.  Tlie  iirst  Sleeping-Car  ever  l)uilt  in  this  coiiniry 
came  from  these  works  ;  and  since  tlien  addition  alter  addilioii  has  iieen 
made  to  ilicir  conveniences,  until  now  there  seems  no  room  for  furtlior 

Al)out  oOO  men  are  now  employed  in  these  works,  who  receive  monthly 
from  ten  to  twelve  thousand  dollars.  All  the  dillVrent  di^iartmcnls  are 
presided  over  by  competent  and  experienced  forcmi'ii,  umUr  the  general 
superintendence  of  L.  O.  Hanson,  a  meinlier  of  the  l.ilc  firm  of  T.  W. 
Wason  &  Co.  The  Company  use  in  tlieir  business  about  1,000  tons  of 
cast-iron,  450  tons  bar-iron,  30,000  pounds  of  Ijrass  and  composition 
castings,  450  tons  of  coal,  and  a  million  feet  of  iiimber  aiiiuially.  Tlio 
aggregate  business,  including  car  repairing,  amounts  to  over  l?.500,()00 
per  year. 

The  foundry,  purchased  in  1851  for  the  manufacture  of  car  wheels,  is 
now  owned  by  Mr.  T.  W.  Wason,  S.  W.  Ladd,  and  (i.  W.  Lawrence, 


trading  uuder  the  name  and  firm  of  Wason,  Ladd  &  Co.     They  manu- 
l-fexclusively  Cur  Wheels,  both  single  and  dou  le  ^;;^^^ 
uMv  (\istintrs   fnrnishiKg  the  same  not  only  to  the  Car  W  oiks  but  to  a 
Zl!;::;^^  leading  ^w  Engl.nd  railroad  combes,  jo^^^ 

plovment  is  afforded  to  25  men,  and  uiv.vards  of  2000  tons  of  tht 
quality  charcoal  pig-iron  are  used  annually. 


CncoPKK,     near  Springfield,  has,  several  important  -^""f-t^ries^ 

The  e    re  two  establishments  that  make  Agricultural     uiplements  one 

t  em Vmittemore.  Belcher  &  Co.)  largely;  one  L-^»-  ^-^   '"^^ 

1  Ictory  one  of  Loom-Harness,  Reeds  and  Bobbins,  one  of  Copper 

^^:S  le  of  Military  Accoutrements      Firearn.  are^aj^  '^ 

i.:se,;,:;;::;e;:2,.3ioon.— a^^^ 
^;:rrr:i=ti^;;;:rk;"':.>.-^^^  -  t^n . 

at  0  the  AMKS  lAANUFACxmuNO  Company,  remarkable  al>ke  for  tl  e 
V  V  r  t^  of  articles  made,  the  n  ultipUcity  of  operations  earned  on. 
In  r  excellence  of  its  manufactures.  Its  founder  was  Nathan  R 
ana  tue   cxLtucL  ni,i,.kor#e  Falls  the  manufacture  of 

Ames,  who  in  1829  commenced  at  Chi.koj^e  tans  ii 
Cutlery  with  nine  workmen.  Mr.  Ames  was  born  in  1803.  and  d  td  in 
m  It  ho  oarlv  age  of  44.  Thoucch  not  an  inventor,  he  possessed  a 
vo^^^l'e  u  i  is  ght  il  the  practical  value  of  new  inventions,  an  at  the 
le  :;  his  death  he  was  regarded  as  one  of  the  ^^  ^^^J^^ 
-•,.an  mechanics.  Since  his  decease  the  bn  miess  of  the  Company  lias 
i^urh  ended  by  his  brother.  James  1  Ames,  a  gentleman  thor- 
o^^ly'umod  ii.  mciinism.  and  possessing  administrative  of 

'-'  '-IS  manufactures  of  the  Amos  Company  maybe  divided  into  Hnir 

H.     s^ia   linery,  Sw.rds  an<l  Ord..ance,  Gilt  and  IMated  Wares,  a.ui 

, onTo  Castings.     The  li.i.  of  machines  ma.le  here  is  vei-y  co.npru.en- 

Tnl  i      mles  heaw  Tools,  massive  Castings,  horizontal      •..■b...' 

W!  1      La  hes   Phvning  Machines,  and   Cotton    Mach...e.7.     '1  h-  me- 

1!:  !  1  ^m  U  d  splay.^  by  this  Co.npany  is  a,.p,-eciated  ab.-oa.:  as  well 

a      In  1854  the  British  Government  sent  out  commissioners  to 

,11    who  employed  the  Ames  Comp.uiy  to  build  machines  for 


They  manu- 
ed,  and  Rail- 
irks  but  to  a 
Constant  em- 
is  of  the  best 

iiplements,  one 
Gather  Belting 

one  of  Copper 
<  are  made  by 
r  $100,000  per 

which  in  IHfiO 
mnds  of  cotton, 
)f  cotton  goods. 
in  the  town  is 
le  alike  for  the 
ions  carried  on, 
was  Nathan  P. 

manufacture  of 
i03,  and  died  in 

he  possessed  a 
tions,  and  at  the 
mincnt  ot  Anier- 
le  Company  has 
frentlennin  thor- 
ative  aliilities  of 

livided  into  four 
lated  Wares,  and 
very  compruhen- 
rizonlal  TMvbine 
linery.  The  me- 
ed abroad  as  w»'ll 
commissioners  to 
,chiuea  for  making 

Ihe  Stock  or  woodwork  of  muskets,  and  which  now  are  in  use  at  the 
.^jilicld  Armory,  near  Wo3lwieh,  England. 

Tlic  manufacture  of  Swords  was  one  of  the  earliest  attempted  by 
Mr.  Nathan  P.  Ames,  wlio  in  1831  obtained  a  contract  foi  furnisiiiiig 
them  to  the  United  Slates  Government,  and  sim-e  that  time  nearly  all 
tlie  government  Swords  have  been  made  at  tliis  establisliinent. 

During  the  present  Rebellion  they  have  very  greatly  increased  their 
facilities,  so  as  to  be  able  to  furnish  large  numbers  of  Saures,  Swords, 
and  Bronze  Guns  to  the  government,  ijcsides  keeping  their  otlicr  linuiches, 
such  as  the  umnufacture  of  Plated  wares  and  Machines,  in  full  o[)eratiou 
for  tile  su))ply  of  the  market. 

They  were  one  of  the  first,  If  not  the  first,  to  introduce  the  Electro- 
Plating  and  Gilding  process  into  this  country  in  1839. 

Probably  however  this  establishment  has  obtained  its  greatest  celeb- 
rity tor  its  artistic  manufactures  in  iron  and  bronze,  and  tlie  colossal 
Statues  of  DeWitt  Clinton  in  G.eenwood  Cemetery,  Brooklyn— Franlv- 
liii,  in  Scliool  Street,  Boston— and  the  equestrian  Wasiiingtou  in  Union 
S(iuare,  New  York— are  highly  creditable  specimens  of  their  skill  in  this 

Tills  Company  have  a  capital  of  $'^50,000  invested,  and  employ  about 

500  workmen. 

IIoLYOKE,  on  the  right  bank  of  the  Connecticut  River,  nine  miles 
above  Springfield,  was  desitrncd  i»y  its  iirojectors  to  be  one  of  the  great- 
est manufacturing  towns  in  the  United  States.  Acting  under  a  clmrter 
granted  by  the  State  of  Massachusetts  to  the  Hadley  Falls  Company, 
with  an  authorized  capital  of  §4,000,000,  a  number  of  capitalists  pur- 
chased about  1200  acres  of  land,  and  constructed  a  dam  across  tlie  river 
1,018  feet  in  length  between  ilie  abutment.s.  and  30  feet  high  at  liie 
liead-water,  obtaining  power  suflicient  to  drive  at  least  1,000,000  spin- 
dles. Tliey  laid  out  a  town  on  a  plan  calculated  to  secure  many  advan- 
tages to  its  future  inhabitants,  and  erected  two  large  Cotton  Mills,  each 
•2(;s  i'eet  long  and  fi8  feet  wide,  five  stories  in  height,  and  a  Machine  Shop 
448  feet  long  and  00  feet  wivie,  besides  a  large  Furnace  and  Blacksmiths' 
Sliop,  and  ecpiipped  f.iem  with  machinery  and  tools  of  the  best  description. 

In  ls()0  the  town  had  a(!npital  invested  in  manufactures  of  $-',072,100, 
employed  72()  males,  1,271  females,  and  p- .duced  an  aggregate  annual 
value  :)f  $2,108, r)00.  The  princiiial  manufactories  were  the  l-ymnii 
Mills  that  had  50,000  spindles  and  1,200  looms,  the  Hampden  Mills  witli 
10,000  spindles  and  310  looms,  the  llolyoke  Paper  Coiupuii,,  liio  Par- 
sons Paper  Company,  the  Wire  Manufiwtories  of  William  E.  Rice,  Iw- 
Machine  Shops,  and  two  manufactories  of  Loom-Harness  mid  Keeds. 



s,„.,.„.,..  F.u.»,  ...out  fia,  .no,  -;'-;,,t[:t:;,t.i:*: 

„„l„wonUy  as  a  „,a„ul„.»n,,g  ,to    ^u  -1"!  y  ^  .^^^,  ^,_^^^..^ 

It  coi.l«ii.s  th<j  largest  ma.iufaotc-j  of  tulluy 
kuowii  as 

Lamson  &  Goodnow's  Cutlery  Works. 

I.UC  .nost  or  .he  other  re.narU.Uy  -^^f  ^J— tlu^^^lr^^:^^ 
..nts  of  the  mUed  GtaU.,  this  ^^^^^^l^^'l^Z^^.a  the 
„av5„s  Leon  Imuukd  by  Ml^  l^^Lenczc  ^;  ^j  ^^;'.:^;.\,^,  Mr.  Lun.on 
,.,,„„,,.t.,.,.e  of  (Cutlery  at  tins  ph^o  a)      t         y..    14  ^,  ^_^^ 

is  the  sou  of  SUas  La.nson,  -'^^;;'''  l^^X^I^Z^o..  to  iis  invention 
of  bert  Scythe  Snaths-thc  han.  les  ^^  ^^'^^^"^^  ^,,,  „„nv,  i:,ther 
Having  been  made  straight;  and  lor  "  '^>  ^^^  ^  ^;,.  i„  ,,,,  Mr. 
and  sons,  l>ave  been  nn>n«faetun,rs  ^!  ^"^  ^  ^^  '  ^  ,.,  Cuth.vy  man- 
A    F  UoodnoNV  became  associated  Mi.  Lams  on 

..eture.  «->^''^^f '^;;;::- :;:j^cr:f  3^::':::..  the  ,n.,,ndices 

At  tliat  tunc  Amenean  Culitry  uau         j  imrduare,  was 

„„u,U..l  by  l.oH>  .le»l«™  »"•'  oonsama.      ..1     ''"     ',„„!„,|„^,„„„  „,. 
.„|«,.|»t  to  a,».,af«cM,.-e  all  that  c„uM  1     » .1  f.^    ,      ,,,  .,.,,  „,. 

„„,„i,„.r,.  I-....C.VO,-,  not  only  "'«    :"';  '"V    ,  1      «■  Ml-'  ""«' 

uf  their  work."  .,^^.^.  ,^,„i   j.,,,,,,,   K,.ives, 

In   thif    manuiaetory,    lablecmu  v,  ,.  „i,„.i,  of  it 

Augers  and  IMts,  a.e  nuule  '^'-"-Y-  -^^  XfZ^\^  I'o.-a  by 
•         i"v-t..l  and  construcved    .  t  e  -t^b  .si     e  ^  ^^  ^,^^_  ^^^^ 

tvip  a,ul  drop-haunuers,  whud.  u.easnr    oH  ""        ^,^^^  .„.,  ^,, 

,,,„U,Uiml  of  blade  rcciuu-cd.  and  ';-"'  \;    'j,.    ,,,,..,  ,, 

Iwnlde.  or  bolster  is^vmed  'r  ^^^;::;;:Z'T'^ ^^^^  '^  '"-' 
constructed  as  to  ,ive  the  re,u,red  •'""  "  ;^,^  .,^  ,,^,  l.uun.enuK. 
,,„ssed  again  under  the  tr,,-hammer  '^"'\"  \  \^,„^,  ,;„„  ,,„..,eu. 
Uin«  it  the  re,,un.d  thickness  and  ^''''^V^;^      '';:^  ;.'  "  Atter  this 

,„,  „u.  steel  so  as  to  i-^--;  ,,,;;,.^;:;;'  ^  ^.r:!:.!  ..uiri,,.  ti. 

.     ,,,,iou  is  perforuuMl.  wh-ch  .s  '  '-^    .       ;^,^,„,„,,  •„,,,  ,,,,,,  ,on-aiuin« 



nsrrieUl.  on  the 

Connecticut,  is 

11  tlic  fiict  that 

United  States, 

[uving  osliihlish- 
nmll  bcui""i"SS, 

I  coinnicni'fd  the 
,-2.  Mr.  liUiiHon 
the  present  form 
^  to  his  invention 
tlie  fiunily,  i'iither 
Ics.    In  isU  Mr. 

tl\e  Culh'vy  man- 

nic  the  iire.indiies 
of  Imrdwiire,  wiH 
t  forty  men  were 
lO  introduction  of 
'luturinir  were  iu- 
l,iol>  elicited  from 
iry  in  tlie   United 
vs  of  Ciiih'ry  iuivc 
ture  of  Tools,  and 
Hvially  in  the  i  rac- 
lugree  of  the  linisb 

1(1  I'ocket  Knives, 
I'hinery,  much  of  it 
l)liide  is  forued  by 
lint  of  steel  for  the 
iito  shape  ;   and  the 

II  dies  or  swuucs  so 
The  Made  is  then 
its  last  haninieriuK, 

0  same  tinic  cunden- 
(inaliiy-  Alter  this 
id  and  reiiniriii;;-  the 
in}!;  press  coniaiidng 
process  that  secures 

uniformity  to  all;  and  then  it  is  returned  to  the  drop-hammer  and  at  a 
low  iieat  is  struck  between  a  pair  of  iinisliing  dies,  so  made  as  to  touch 
every  i)art  of  the  Idade,  and  by  lids  means  is  straightened  perfectly. 
Tiic  l)ladc  having  been  thus  forged  is  ready  to  receive  the  stamp  of  the 
Company,  which  is  put  on  by  means  of  a  large  press  operated  by  one 
man  somewliat  as  a  hand  printing-press.  An  e.xpert  operator  will 
Mamp  ;!,;■><">  hlades  per  day.  Now  tlie  blade  is  ready  to  l)e  hardened 
vnd  tcmi)ered,  a  very  nice  operation  for  which  they  use  a  maeidiie  of 
<lieir  own  invention,  and  patented  l)y  tliem. 

This  machine  consists  of  a  series  of  cast-iron  tubes,  say  -Ih  inches 
internal  diameter  and  H  inches  long,  widch  are  placed  directly  over  the 
firc-ljo.K  in  sucii  a  manner  as  to  allow  the  heat  to  pass  all  around  them. 
In  tlicso  tubes  tlic  blades  are  placed  by  tlie  workman,  commencing  at  one 
end  of  the  machine.  There  is  room  in  each  tube