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y  errata 
»d  to 


rie  pelure, 

i^on  d 
















For  John 
at  thei 
Swan,  \ 
at  the  .! 



•     • 

O    F 

Voyages  and  Travels, 

s  o  M  n 

Now  firft  Printed  from  OrlgJml  Manufcripu, 


Now   Firft  Publiflied   in    ENctis„'. 

In  Six  VOLUMES. 

With  a  General  P,,EF.,cK,  giving  an  Account  of  th. 

Pr<^refs„fN.v,G„T,OK,    from   its  fi.ft  Beginning. 


Illuftrared  with  a  great  Number  of  ufeful  Maps  and  Ci.ts, 
Curioufly  Engraven. 

Vol.     VI. 

F  W       ^""^'''^  ^^  Affignmcnt  from  MefT'  Churchill 

Samuel  B.RT,  m  Ave- Mary- Lafe,  1^3'^"^  D^v'-^'^p  ^''"'■'^'''  '^^  ^l^^'-Mef, 
Swan,  without  temple. Bar -/t hom aTSoL  \n  r  -  }■  ^%°^~='  ^^  the  Black- 
«  the^««,  next  the  Inner-Ten^pleGau^'^'^FUel^^^^  J'^"'i  Shuckburch, 




•    • 





O     F 

Voyages  and    Travels. 

VOL.    VI. 

C  O  M  1'  A  I  N  i'  N  G, 

of*  the    Kingtiom   of 
By  S  A  M.  Baron,  a 

I.  A  T)escription 

"TO  i\  riu  E  I-:  N, 

Native   thereof. 

II.  Travels  through  EUROPE.  By 
Dr.  John  Careri.  In  feveral 
Lette's  to  the  Counfellor  Amato  Dan  to, 

at   Naples, 

III.  A  Voyage  to  yJRGlNlA.  By 
Col.  Norwood, 

JV.  Captain  Phii. Lips's  Journal  of  his 
Voyage  from  England  toCApa Moiinfiriidoe 
in  /IfrUa  ;  and  thence  along  the  Coaft 
of  Ciiiney  to  IVb'ulaw,  the  Illancl  of  St. 
Thomas,  and  fo  forward  to  Barbadoes. 
In  which  is  contained  an  exadl  Account 
of  the  Longitudes,  Latitudes,  i^c.  As 
alfo  a  Curfory  Account  of  the  Country, 
People,  Forts,  Irade,  ^c. 

V.  A  Voyage  into  the  North-Weft  Paf- 
fage.     Written  by  John  Gatonbe. 

VI.  A  Relation  of  Three  Years  Sufferings 
of  Robert  Everard,  upon  the  Coaft  of 
JJfada,  near  Madagafcar,  in  a  Voyage 
to  India  i  And  of  his  wonderful  Pre- 
fervation  and   Deliverance. 

VII.  A  familiar  Description  of  the 
MosQUETO  Kingdom  in  Amcnca,  with  a 
Relation  of  the  itrange  Cuftoms,  Rrligion^ 
Wars,  ^3c.  of  thofe  Heathenilh  People. 

VIII.  A  Difcovery  of  Two  Foreign  Scds 
in  the  Eaji-hhlies ;  viz.  the  Sedt  of  the 
Banians,  the  antient  Natives  of  India  ; 
and  the  Sedt  of  the  Persees,  the  ancient 
Inhabitants  oi  Piijia.  With  the  Religion 
and  Manners  of  e.ich  Seft.  By  the  Kev., 
Mr.  Henry  Lord. 

IX.  An  '\ccount  of  the  wonderful  Prefcr- 
vation   of  the   Ship   Terra   Nova  of 

O    London.     By  C.  M  a  y. 

X.  An  Account  of  the  King  of  Mocha, 
and  of  his  Country. 

XI.  Some  Rf.afons  for  the  Unhealthfulnefs 
of  the  IQand  of  Bombay. 

XII.  A  Journey  through  Part  of  the 
Low-Countries,  Germany,  Italy  and  France. 
By  Phillip  Skippon,  Efq;  (afterwards 
Knighted)  in  Company  with  the  celebrated 
Mr.  Ray,  Mr.  Lister,  Mr.  Willughby, 
Mr.  Henry  Massingberd,  &(. 

I   E 




Of     THE 

Kingdom  of  Tonqueen, 

B  V 

S.  BARON,  a  Native  thereof. 


:■  ■* 





*        m 


T    O 

Sir  jf  0  H  N  H  0  S  K  I  N  S,Kt. 


R  0  B  E  R  T  H  0  0  K  E,E{q; 


Hon  oure  d  Si  rs, 

S  K  N  D  by  this  conveyance  to  Mr.  C/jarhs  Chambcrliun  the  promifcd  dc- 
fdiiiti'Mi  of  'Tmi'jihtii,  wherein  I  iliitik  I  have  noted  the  moll  material 
paliiLjes  of  trade,  i;overnment,  ;ind  eultomsot  the  lountry,  vice  and  virtue 
of  tnc  people,  at  leaft  (b  far  as  will  content  and  liuibfy  a  moderate  mind,  and 
be  fiitlieient  for  a  new  commillioiicr  to  condiidl:  biifinc'  by  at  hisfirll  entrance 
there.  As  to  thr  impcrfi^  Hon.  ami  i  riois  therein,  you  will  be  pleafed  to  favour 
it  with  join-  e.\a*!t  (iirvcy  and  pnulent  correction,  efpecially  to  remove  or  cancel 
what  thereni  may  be  cit'ier  a.fainll,  or  rctiedingly  fpoken  of  Monf.  TW:\''7//(7-, 
fmcc  the  intention  is  to  inform  tiic  rcic'er  of  the  truth,  and  not  to  carp  and  find 
fauhs  with  odiers;  which  when  I  Jid,  was  only  for  your  particular  penijal. 
The  piclures  are  true  and  {::i,:ti,  tho'  not  according  to  ;in  ;  the  map,  drawn  and 
computed  out  of  iwt)  others,  is  as  near  the  truth  as  could  be  done  in  this  place 
cither  by  care  or  diligence.  Of  the  whole  the  honourable  prelident  UxfforJ 
fendi  his  judgment  to  you,  whofc  liberality  has  chiefly  ftipported  my  expenccs 
thereon  ;  therefore  I  requeil  you  will  be  pleafeil  to  deliver  to  Mr.  Charles  Cham- 
hirliiin  the  monev  the  laid  defcription  will  yield,  for  the  prefident'a  ufe.  And 
if  you  (liould  think  convenient  to  dedicate  it  to  the  right  honourable  company, 
then  to  make  honourable  and  particular  mention  of  Mr.  7<'^'"  '^''iT'")  Mr.  7<;wri 
Jioblaiid,  Mr.  Charles  Chavihtrlain,  and  Mr.  iniliiim  Mayor,  my  benefaftors. 
I  am  now  on  a  voyage  to  China,  where  if  I  can  pick  up  any  curiofity,  or  dif- 
co\erany  thing  worthy  yotir  fight  or  information,  you  are  fure  to  hear  from 
me;  in  ilic  mean  while  I  recommend  myfelf  to  the  continuation  of  your  fa- 
vour, as, 

To  t  St.  Ctor^e  If 

t'tirnitry  .[, 

Honoured  Sirsf 

}  our  -vers  humble  devoted  Servant, 

Samuel  Baron. 

Vol.  Vr. 




Ttt  the  II  o  N  o  u  R  A  n  L  B 

William  G^ftbrd,  Efq\ 

Vrt'fidt'Ut  of  Coajl  Cormandcll,  Bengali,  i^c\. 

Governour  of  Fort  Sl  George, 

iloNOUREO   StKi 

THIS  is  but  a  rough  ilraujht  of  wliat  is  hi  a  more  clear  ami  lively  man- 
ner inipiclVd  ill  vour  honour's  memory;  1  mean,  the  ftatc  .uid  tonfti- 
tution  of  ilic  kingdom  or'  'Ton'^/i/teit,  fincc  ynurlcif  the  tirft  I'JigHjh 
man  that,  ciitring  tlic  country,  (jpen'd  iliat  trade,  and  llttled  tlicre  a  tadory 
for  the  liDiiourable  company;  in  etiedinif  which  your  patience  appear'd  no  ieis 
exemplary  (iiaviiu;  llillcr'd  llran\z;c  rudcnels  and  harlli  uliigcs  from  the  natives, 
their  ufual  welcome  to  new-comers)  than  your  prudence  and  dexterity  was 
eminent  in  that  negotiation,  wherein  (I  can  fay  witliout  inciirrinn;  the  impu- 
tation of  riattcry)  your  generolity  relpetted  the  honour  of  your  nation  ami 
common  benefit  much  more  than  your  particular  interell,  ami  uith  a  liberal 
fpirit  beftow'd  your  wax  and  honey  moll  freely  on  others,  tliinking,  as  that 
heroick  dnmiin  exprefs'd  liimlelf  to  tlie  eiiipeior  C/.uir/cs  V.  J;  jiiy  Labour  is 
Ticf/br  my/rf/,  'tisJr,rro/irr;fv.  to  this  was  your  honour's  ilcportmcnt, 
affable,  courteous  and  complaifant  to  the  humours  of  thofe  peoi^lc,  wherein 
your  condefcciiding  temper  was  very  confpicuou;. ;  which,  tho'  ii  had  been  ac- 
cuftomed  to  live  in  other  parts  of /W/</  after  another  rate  and  fplcndor  than 
the  "r'!,ny:.'C:'H''Jl;  Cbtitefc  or  yapaiicfc  willingly  toler.ue  any  llrangcr  or  foreigner 
to  do  ill  their  country,  did  yet  know  readily  how  to  plcafe  them,  by  your  con- 
formity and  ilafonaLlc  receding  to  their  pride,  wlicrchv  you  prefcntly  fo  gain'tl 
the  good- \'  ill  of  courtiers  and  merchants  (of  which  they  are  odierwifc 
great  niggards  to  new-coiners,  yet  very  loving  to  them  that  know  their  coun- 
try ami  cuftoms)  as  prov'd  no  fmall  means  to  uphold  afterwards  the  E/ig/iJ/: 


[  iii] 

name,  your  pcr(()n,  fii<flory,  atul  what  tile  bclonpM  to  your  place,  with  honour, 
rcputaiioii  ;iii(l  crciiit,  lUHwiihlVuulinj;  tin;  DiitLh  war,  want  of  (liippiiig,  liip- 
plici,  and  your  iiKapacity  to  traile,  whitli  arc  mortal  iii(kin[>(.rs  lor  a  ncw-lct- 
ilcil  fadtory,  all  the  time  ot'  your  rclidence,  until  your  <lcp.irturc  thence,  the 
f'pacc  of  well  nij^h  (ix  years,  in  which  time  )(ui  ^ot  iiuich  exjH-ricucc  yourlclf, 
ami  i;avc  fo  true  ami  v\\\i\  a  character  of  that  couiui-y,  whereof  there  hail  been 
bcfiMC  but  a  confus'il  idea  nmongll  the  I'-n^Hjh,  as  was  very  advantaj!;cous  to 

Thele,  and  the  rcfpcdb  of  your  fupcrintciulcney  over  the  right  honourable 
company's  artairs  in  the  Soiuh  Seas,  the  honour  of  your  many  years  acquaint- 
ance, have  indued  me  to  dirctt  thi^  defcription  to  your  honour,  whf),  as  the 
moll  c.ipal>Ie  to  judi:;e  and  difcern  the  truth  thereof,  fo  I  hope  will  have  the 
charity  to  cinllnie  with  your  iiuiate  candor  my  intention  therein.  I  am  fcnfiblc 
of  the  inconddcratenefs  of  my  labour  herein,  tho',  to  the  bell  of  my  mij^ht,  I 
did  it  as  well  as  the  troid'les  I  was  in  woulil  permit  mc  ;  and  that  only  the  fub- 
jc(fl  is  to  be  taken  notice  of,  which  is  ft:ch  as  Sir  ^ohn  Iloskiin  and  Mr.  Robert 
Hooki\  my  moll  honour'd  friends,  alTured  me,  by  reiterated  letters  out  of /'>/if- 
Ittthl,  would  be  taking',  anil  acceptable,  whole  approved  judgment,  which  I  (hall 
always  reverence,  did  alone  encourage  me  to  undertake  this  task,  were  it  but 
to  faiisfy  their  curiofity  and  noble  delires,  ever  conllant  in  alTiduous  application 
to  advance  learning',  and  enrich  the  puhlick  by  new  dilcoveries,  whicli  other- 
wite  I  would  not  have  vcimn-'d  on;  but  lime  they  were  the  promoters  thereof, 
I  fubmit  it  to  their  cenlure,  according  to  li.e  following;  uilvertifement,  but  leave 
the  wiiole  difpolal  to  yourfclf,  as  fioni. 

,fy>rt  St.  Gwr^f  it  hl.Xilr.t,- 
fiU*m,  1)11  till.'  Cuall  ot 
Ctrm.mJ,  'I,  ^igufl  >igf, 
Juno  >*8/. 

^oufvnj  %uwhl(  okdiffti'  Siyjant^ 

no  leis 
fity  was 

|on  and 


as  thar 
\ibour  is 

|een  ac- 

)r  than 


lir  coii- 




Samuel  Baron. 





MY  defign  at  firft  was  not  to  undertake  an  hiftorical  narration  of  Tonqueen, 
but  only  to  note  the  errors  in  Monfieur  Tavcrnier's  dcfcription  of  that 
country,  as  it  was  defircd  of  me  by  Sir  Jobn  Hoskius  and  Mr.  Robert 
Hookc  out  of  Engldfid ;  but  having  made  fome  fmall  progrefs  therein,  I  was 
quickly  tired  Vvith  finding  faults  and  noting  miftakes,  aUb  thinking  I  fhould 
thereby  give  but  fmall  fatisfaftion  to  the  curiofity  of  thofc  worthy  gendemen, 
whofe  highly  adtive  genius's  penetrate  the  very  eflence  of  the  moft  occult 
things,  and  finding  it  much  more  eafy  for  me  to  compofe  a  new  dcfcription  of 
Tonquccn  (the  countiy  of  my  nativity,  and  where  I  have  been  converfant  with 
perfons  of  all  qualities  and  degrees)  than  to  corred  the  miflakes  of  others ;  thefe 
confiderations,  together  wiih  ambition  to  do  the  publick  acceptable  fervice,  and 
efpecially  to  demonffrate  in  fome  mcafure  my  thankfulnefs  and  profound  re- 
fpefts  to  my  much-honour'd  friends  Sir  "^john  Hoslans  and  Mr.  Robert  Hooke, 
induced  me  to  undertake  and  finilh  this  work,  fuch  as  it  is.  I  can  freely  de- 
clare, that  there  is  nothing  inferted  herein  but  what  I  thought,  to  the  befl  of 
my  knowledge,  to  be  exadtly  true  and  real.  In  dubious  matters  I  had  my  in- 
formations from  the  moft  knowing  and  credible  umongft  the  natives.  As  for 
the  order  and  method.I  follow'd  AT'iiif.  Tirjernicr.  The  ftilc  and  dicition  thereof, 
fincc  they  ore  my  <irft  cflliys,  jnufl  nccdj  be  very  dcfciitive;  ihereibrc  I  intreat 
my  friends  to  correft  and  alter  what  therein  they  find  aniiis,  and  to  dedicate 
it  to  whom  they  pleafc;  and  in  (b  doing  they  will  infinitely  oblige 

"Their  r.irjl  humbk  Servant, 

Samuel  Baron. 

Note,  that  the  original  Figures,  ivhcrccf  tbofe  in  this  Ihok  are  but  a  Copy, 
•were  drawn  on  the  Plaee  by  a  Tonquccnecr  0/  eminent  yi^i/a/ifv,  and 
ijcrording  to  wv  Ji/dgnjent  are  do/'e  as  i.'cll  as  'Things  cf  that  nature  can  be. 


Q  oiTonqueen, 
iptioii  of  that 
id  Mr.  Robert 
herein,  I  was 
king  I  fhould 
ly  gentlemen, 
moft  occult 
defcription  of 
nverfant  with 
others ;  thefe 
Ic  fervice,  and 
profound  re- 
Rohert  Ho'ike^ 
an  freely  de- 
to  the  heft  of 
I  had  my  in- 
ivcs.  As  for 
litloii  thereof, 
lore  I  intreac 
1  to  dedicate 



('  }>v.t  a  Copy, 
y^i/a/ify,  ti/hl 
'Hire  can  be. 



■  I 


•^''h'f//  Hxff  I  H'/.o 


J'fa/,  J 






The  Defcription  of  Ton  que  EN. 

CHAP.    I. 

Tavcrnicrc'j-  Account  of  Tonquecn  animadverted  on. 

THE  kingdom  of  'Tonquecn  has 
been  difcovcrcd  by  the  Portit- 
gtiefe  ibove  one  hundred  and 
twenty  years  fince,  and  the  re- 
lations tiiat  Padre  Martin  and  Alexander 
de  Rodcs,  both  jefuites,  give  of  it,  is  in 
general  more  true  than  tiiis  ot  Taverniere ; 
for  what  contradiftions  wc  Hnd  in  them, 
may  be  imputed  to  the  alteration  of  things 
by  mutation  of  time. 

Taverniere  talks  of  eleven  or  twelve 
voyages  his  brother  made  to  Tonquecn,  from 
Acheen,  Batavia,  and  Bantam  ;  on  the  con- 
fidence of  whofe  relation,  rogcther  with 
what  he  inquired  of  the  bonzes,  or  pricfts, 
that  came  while  he  was  in  Bantam,  he  has 
compiled  his  hiflory,  as  fabulous  and  full 
of  grofs  abt'urdiries  as  lines. 

For  firfV,  the  Tonqueenefe  have  no  bonzes 
or  priefts,  however  they  came  to  Bantam 
and  Batavia ;  and  then  he  faith,  when  the 
Tonqtieckpf:'  make  voyages,  they  take  their 
wives  and  families  with  them ;  I  fuppofe 
he  means  thofe  voyages  they  make  in 
the  river  of  Tonquecn,  from  one  village  lo 
another :  but  for  foreign  voyages  they  arc 
altogether  unacquainted  with  them,  unlefs 
it  be  fome  few  of  the  poorer  fort  that  go  to 
attend  llrangers,  or  are  forced  othcrwlle  for 
a  livelihood.  I  le  notes  how  the  Tonqueenefe 
were  raviflied  with  admiration,  wlien  he 
fliewed  them  his  Atlas,  and  fome  particular 
maps  about  the  compofure  and  ftru(fturcof 
the  whole  world,  and  its  feveral  lingdoms 
ami  flates,  wliich  they  heeded  as  much  as  a 
world  in  the  moon.  Neither  can  I  hear  of  a 
Taverniere  that  has  nude  eleven  or  twelve 
voyages  to  Tonqucer.  on  his  own  account ; 
only  thus  much  I  liave  lieard,  that  there  has 
been  one  Taverniere,  a  purfcr  in  the  Dutch 
fervicc,  and  once  i!i  Tur.quccn. 

He  commends  his  brother  for  a  pcrfon  of 
courage  and  cunning,  how  jullly  I  cannot 
ti'll  1  but  this  I  am  fure,  he  hasufed  but  little 
cordiility,  and  Icfs  fineerity,  noiwithiland- 
ing  all  his  protelbitions,  in  his  account  of 
Tjnqueen  :  He  m.ignifies  the  great  funis  of 
money  his  brother  carried  always  with  him, 
wlu-n  iie  went  on  that  vovage  ;  but  it  is 
Vol.,  VI. 

too  well  known  what  a  purfer  in  the  Dutch  Ba  Rorr 
fervice  can  do,  and  what  they  are  allowed 
to  do  i  hindring  fo  ftridlly  the  private  trade. 

He  talks  of  a  large  prefcnt  he  gave  the 
king  and  prince,  together  with  his  favour- 
able reception  and  familiar  convCrfation 
with  them  ;  if  this  be  true,  I  fay  the  Ton- 
queenefe are  much  degenerated,  yet  it  can- 
not be  denied,  but  that  ftrangers  at  their 
firfl  entrance  into  this  country,  had,  in  many 
refpeds,  better  ufage  than  at  prefent ;  but 
not  fo,  as  to  permit  thcmfelves  to  play  with 
a  foreigner  the  good  companion  ;  at  this 
time  they  keep  their  diflancc  tu  al!  flrangers, 
making  bur  luiall  account  of  them.  To 
kifs  rhe  king's  hand,  is  not  tlie  Tonquecn 
mode,  much  lefs  permitted  to  flr^ngers: 
and  when  he  fpoke  the  Malayan  language 
fo  fluently,  he  might  as  well  have  fpoken 
French  to  them,  that  underflood  not  a  word 
of  either.  When  he  play:d  amongft  thofe 
lords,  I  wonder  what  game  it  was  t.hat  he 
loft  fo  many  thoufand  crowns  at,  as  he  men- 
tions i  but  it  is  moft  to  be  admired,  that  a 
calf  and  two  jars  of  T.nqueen  arrack,  the 
ufual  largefk  and  liberality  of  this  king, 
("water  diftilled  out  of  rice)  lliould  fupply 
his  great  lofles.  He  farther  tells  you,  that 
by  the  great  familiarity  his  brother  had  ac 
court,  and  by  the  frequent  dilcourfes  ho 
had  with  a  great  many  Tonqueenefe,  ("who 
never  flir  out  of  the  country,  however  he 
met  them  at  Bantam  and  Batavia)  he  laid 
the  foundation  of  his  work,  which  ib  botli 
faithful  and  exaft :  Furthermore  he  faith, 
no  other  confideration,  than  the  fpeaking 
of  truth,  has  invited  him  to  undertake  this 
relation ;  all  which  being  notorious  con- 
tradiftions  and  falfe  tales,  fhame,  indeed, 
the  author  the  more. 

Our  author,  as  all  other  Europeans, 
terms  and  intitles  the  genera]  or  Chcva, 
king  ;  becaufe  he  difpoles  of  the  kingdom 
at  his  pleafure,  receiving  all  foreign  am- 
bailadprs,  except  that  of  China.  How- 
ever, this  is  f  miftake  ;  for  they  have  their 
kijig  or  Bova,  though  he  fignifies  no  more 
than  a  cypher,  as  will  be  noted  in  f^veral 
places  of  this  relation. 

B  He 


The   Defcription 

Chap.  2.    i 

Ba  RON  He  not  only  vaunts  of  liiscuts,  which  he 
v-'V^'  f'lys  were  drawn  on  the  i)l.icc,  and  will  con- 
tribute much  to  the  liivertifement  ot  the 
reader,  but  alio  prail'es,  for  its  exaftnefs,  the 
map  which  he  gives  of  the  country  i  than 
which  nothing  can  be  more  falfe,  for  com- 
pare it  with  our  fca  draughts,  'twill  plainly 

appear  what  it  is :  But  as  fabulous  ftoncs 
and  fi'^ions,  invented  at  pleafure,  arc  plea- 
ling  onl  i  to  the  ignorant,  Co 'tis  moft  certain, 
the  ingt  lious  reader  will  blame  him  tor 
promiling  To  much,  and  ufing  lb  little  pro- 
bity in  his  hiftory. 

CHAP.     II. 

Of  the  Sitiiat'wn  and  Extent  o^  T O N QU  E  E N. 



WE  have  no  more  rcafon  to  admire 
why  our  prctlecellbrs  had  no  earlier 
kn  jwledge  of  this  kingdom  than  ilicy  had 
of  that  of  China,  becaufc  its  difco\ery  was 
f' inching  polterior  to  that ;  for  the /'cr/w- 
giii-j,:  had  no  foonerdifcovered  the  Lift,  but 
they  fent  out  fliips  to  vifit  this  alfo. 

It  is  true,  this  kingdom  was  a  province 
of  China  formerly,  and  pays  tribute  ftill  to 
that  emperor  :  But  that  was  not  the 
reafon  why  we  had  no  fooner  knowledge 
thereof,  confidcring  thefe  people  have 
been  governed  by  tiieir  native  princes  for 
above  thefe  four  hundred  years  without  in- 
terruption, which  was  long  before  the  Pc;- 
tiiguefe  came  to  make  their  difcoverics  in 
Iiid-a.  The  true  reafon  feems  to  be,  that  the 
people  did  never  ftir  abroad,  nor  du  yui,  for 
commerce  or  other  alTociation  ;  and  tliey 
fomewhat  afieft  in  this  the  Chinefi  vanity, 
thinking  all  other  people  to  be  barbarous, 
imitatmg  their  government,  learning,  cha- 
racters, t?i".    yet  hate  their  perlbns. 

I  do  not  know  why  Tavcinicre  fiith  moft 
people  ftiould  believe  this  country  to  be  in  a 
very  hot  climate,  confidcring  it  is  fituated 
under  the  tropick,  and  fome  part  of  it  more 
to  the  northward  ;  neverthelefs  he  affirins 
it  to  be  very  temperate,  by  rcafon  of  the 
great  number  of  rivers  (and  altogether  free 
from  thofe  fand-hilK  and  barren  mountains 
that  caufe  fuch  heat   in  Comm.sroon,   and 
other   places  in    the  gulf  of  Perfia)  that 
v/ater  it,  together  with  the  rain  that  falls  in 
its    feafon  i   whereas  the  truth  thereof  is, 
that  the  rains,  indeed,  generally  fall  in  the 
months  of  May,  June,   July  and  Augujl, 
and  fometimes  fooner,  which  moiften  the 
ground,  but  caufe  no  frefti  breezes  at  all ; 
on  the  contrary,  the  faid  two  months  ot 
July  and   Augiift,  make   the  weather  here 
unfutierably  hot.     Doubtlcfs  the   country 
would   be    plentiful    in  fruits,  were  there 
not    fo  many  inhabitants,  who  living  by 
rice  chiefly,  find  therefore  the  greater  ne- 
ceftity  to  cultivate  what  ground  they  have 
with  that  grain,  not  negletting  the  leaft  fpot. 
To  the  north-eaft  of  this  kingdom  lies 
the  province  of  Canton ;  to  the  weft  it  is 
bounded  by  the  kingdoms  oi  Laa  and  the 
Bowa ;  to  the  north  it  borders  on  two  other 

provinces  of  China,  Junam  and  ^lanci,  or 
Ai ;  to  the  fouth  and  fouth-eaft  on  Cochin- 
china.  The  climate  is  temperate  and  whole-  Climate, 
fome,  from  September  till  March,  fome- 
times very  cold  in  January  and  February  ; 
though  froft  and  fnow  are  never  feen  here ; 
for  the  months  of  April,  May  and  June 
are  not  fo  healthful,  both  becaufe  of  the 
rains  and  foggincfs  of  the  air,  and  the  fun's 
coming  to  the  zenith  :  hatju'ic,  July  and 
Augujl  arc  exccftive  hot  months.  The  winds 
are  here  divided  between  the  north  and 
fouth  for  fix  months  and  fix  months ;  the 
country  is  delightful  from  May  till  Augujl^ 
the  trees  being  tlien  in  their  verdure,  and  the 
fields  all  covered  with  paddy,  very  pleafant 
to  '. '  t  beholders. 

1  i;c  great  winds  that  are  called  amongft  Tiuffhms 
our  fcamen  the  hurricanes,  and  known  here  o""  Hurri- 
hy  the  name  of  Tuiiffoom,  reign  on  this  and  '^'^'" 
the  adjacent  coafts,  and  the  fcas  thereof 
are    very  terrible ;   but   the  time  of  their 
coming  is  very  uncertain,  fometimes  once 
in  five  or  fix  years,  and  fometimes  in  eight 
or  nine  i  and  though  this  wind  is  not  known 
in  other  oriental  feas  by  that  name,  and 
with  that  exceftivc  violence,  yet  that  which 
is  c  'lied  the  Elephant  in  the  bay  of  Bengajl 
and  the  cc  '.ft  of  Cormaudel,  is  not  much 
inferior  to  this ;  anil  the  fad  effefts  thereof 
are  but  too  often  experienced  by  the  fea- 
men.     I  cannot  find  an  aftronomcr  in  all 
Tongueci:,  to  ask  from  whence  thofe  winds 
ftiould  p  oceed,  fo  I  cannot  affirm  that  they 
are  caufed  by  the  exhalations  of  the  mines 
of  Japan. 

/-^  for  the  extent  of  the  country,  which  Extent.' 
he  makes  equal  to  that  of  France,  it  is 
a  grofs  miftake  -,  for  this  kingdom  is  rcckon'd 
by  men  experienced,  to  be  not  much  bigger 
than  Portugal ;  but  may  be  thought  to  con- 
tain four  times  the  number  of  inhabitants. 
Tavernicrc  makes  its  limits  to  be  unknown, 
forgetting  that  he  had  fo  lately  defcribed  the 
borders  and  extent  thereof. 

As  for  iflands  belonging  to  this  kingdom,  iflmds. 
there  are  fevcral  in  the  bay  of  Tonqxan,  the 
chief  whereof  is  called  by  the  natives  TiLcn 
Bene,  and  by  the  Dutch,  Rovers  iJIanJ.  It 
is  fituated  in  the  l.uitude  of  19  degrees  1^ 
minutes  north ;  i^  leng  one  and  a  halt,  and 



Chap.  2. 


ous  ITorK-s 
,  are  plca- 
jft  certain, 
:  him  tor 
littk  pro- 

"liianci,  or 
an  Cocbin- 
nd  whole-  Climate. 
(h,  Ibme- 
Febmory ; 
ten  here ; 
and  June 
life  of  the 
d  the  fun's 
Juh  nnd 
rhe  winds 
lorth  and 
ntlis  -,  the 
ill  Auguft, 
e,  and  the 
y  plea  fane 

d  amongft  jiufcms 

nown  here  <"•  Hurri- 

»n  this  and  '^"• 

IS  thereof 

;  of  their 

imes  once 

:s  in  eight 

iOt  known 

ame,  and 

hat  which 

ot  Bengail 

not  much 

ts  thereof 

J  the  fea- 

ncr  in  all 

ofe  winds 

that  they 

the  mines 

y,  which  Extent; 
ice,  it  is 
reck  on 'd 
:h  bigger 
u  to  con- 
ribed  tiie 

.ingdom,  minJs. 
'iiciil,  I  lie 
vcs  Twot 

\ll!d.        It 

grccs  IS 

alt,  ami 


/W  fl.  M'^  ^  -h'  ^ 


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The  M.--    ci 
tropolis.     J/, 

lii     ' 

i/  1 




0/  T 

O  N  Q.U  £  E  N. 


,  i'ijtc  II. 

The  Me- 

bro.ul  half  ;^  lcip;iio  .u  inofl.  the  bcncr 
n.irc  liigli  l.inil,  'IihI  'iiltmt  tiom  tlic  ni.iin 
one  league,  hctween  wliieli  .mil  tin-  main  fl'.i, 
fliins  may  pals,  as  the /5«''Vjiliii  t'ormcriy  •, 
but  the  navigator  mull  obl'Tve  to  kefj)  tlie 
illanil  fide  abo.u\l,  witliin  a  musket  lliot  i 
whi-ic  'ou  will  find  lix,  I'even,  and  fevcii 
and  a  h.ili  fathom-i,  ou/.y  ground.  0»  the 
i"ime  (idc  of  the  illand,  whi.h  is  its  well 
part,  are  rwo  I'mall  bays,  the  nortliermoll 
has  a  I'mall  jx^arl  bank,  but  not  rich,  yet 
none  dare  to  fifli  here  without  the  king's 
fpcchl  grant.  In  both  the  bays  there  is 
fwect  water,  which  we  found  to  be  exceed- 
ing good,  and  cJteemed  the  bell  we  tailed 
there.  At  the  fouth-wed  point  of  this  ifland, 
is  a  ridge  of  rocks,  extending  f  om  tin-  faid 
point  looiiaces  into  the  lea,  and  may  be 
difcovered  at  half  ebb,  by  thr  breach  tliere  • 
on ;  for  the  reft,  a  clear  coall. 

Toward:;  the  north-well,  is  a  fiir  bay, 
three  fathom  and  a  iialf  and  four  fathom 
water,  clay  ground  i  here  rei'ort  many  H(h- 
ing  boats,  belkies  wliat  appertain  to  this 
village,  whole  inhabitants  I  compute  be- 
tween three  or  four  hundred  perfons,  moll 

In  this  illanu  is  the  watch-houfe  general, 
which  is  a  place  of  the  grcateft  i>rofit  in 
the  kingiiom  of  'Tonqiieni :  for  all  trading 
boats,  eitlicr  to  the  province  of  Tingway  or 
Gidtiii,  or  from  thence  to  the  north,  mull 
(lop  here  and  pay  cullom,  viz.  for  a  large 
boat  about  the  value  of  a  doll  ir  and  half, 
with  fomc  prefents  for  the  waiters,  the  rell 
proportionable  ;  fo  that  the  cuftoms  of  this 
place  cannot  yield  lefs  than  a  million  of 
(.iolhn  piT  annum. 

As  tor  the  ground,  it  is  ftony  and  moun- 
tainoui,  therefore  not  proper  to  manure ;  cat- 
tle we  law  but  fewCtho'  the  inhabitants  told 
us  of  many  antelopes  that  flieltered  amongfl 
the  rocks  and  fhrubs  of  the  mountains^  fo 
that  rice  and  other  provifions  for  fuftenancc, 
are  brought  hither  from  the  adjacent  fliore. 
Some  good  regulations  would  make  this 
place  plentiful,  and  with  fmall  cxpence  this 
port  might  be  made  a  good  one. 

For  cities  and  towns,  excepting  that  of 
■  Cd-c/.'O,  there  are  not  above  two  or  three 
in  the  whole  kingdom  of  any  note.  As  for 
A'dcas  or  villages,  quellionlefs  the  number 
is  great,  an  J  more  than  I  can  cxadly  affirm, 
or  any  man  elfe  that  hath  not  made  it  his 
bulini'fs  to  inquire  after  them  -,  neither  is  it 
an  eafy  matter  to  find  the  truth  thereof  :  the 
city  of  Cn-cho  is  the  metropolis  of  Ton- 
queai,  licth  in  the  latitude  2 1  degrees  north, 

.ibout  4')  leagues  from  the  fc.i,  and  may,  IJ  x  ?o\' 
for   its  capaciouiiiefs,    be   comjiared   wirh^--v>i' 
many  cities  in  ///m,  .md  fuptrior  tj  n.cll 
tor    populoufnels,    clperially   on    the  lint 
anil  fittcenth  of   their  new  moon  ;    being 
their  market  days,  or  grand  B.'Ziii  -,  v/hLii 
tile  people  from  the  adjacent  villages  Hock 
thither  with  their  trade,  in  fucli numbers,  as 
is  almoll  incredible-,  leveral  of  the  llrcets, 
llio'  broad  and  Ipacious,  are  then  fo  crowded, 
that  one  finds  enough  to  do,  if  he  can  fom«- 
timcs    advance  through    the   multitude  a 
hundred  p.icesin  lialfan  hoiir.  livery  ditil- 
rcnt  commotlity  fold  in  this  city,    is   ap- 
pointed to  a   particular  ftrcet,    and  tlufo 
ilreels  again  allotted  to  one,  two,  or  more 
villages,  the  inhab'Miit.  whereof  are  only 
jirivileged  to  keep  Ihops  in  them,    muth 
in  the  nature  of  the  feveral  companies  or 
(Mr\>orinionsin  European  cities.    The  courts 
of  thi,,  princes,  feV.  G''j«< 
(lifii,  and  high  courts  of  jullice,  are  kept 
here,  of  which  I  can  only  fay,  they  Hand 
on  large  trai:ls  of  ground  ;    the  principal 
llrudture  makes  but  a  mean  appearance,  be- 
ing built  of  wood,  the  reft  of  their  houfes  of 
bamboos  and  clay,  not  well  compared  ;  few 
of  brick  except  the  faftories  of  llrangers, 
which  out-vie  the  rell.  Stupendous,  indeed, 
arc  tiic   triple   walls  of   the  old  city  and 
palace  -,  for  by  the  ruins  they  appear  to  have 
been  llrong  fabricks  with  noble  large  gates, 
paved  with  a  kind  of  marble;  the  palace 
to  have  been  about  fix  or  feven  miles  in 
circumference  ;    its  gates,   courts,    apart- 
ments, £?f.  tellify  amply  its  former  pomp 
and  glory.     In  this  city  is  likewife  quar- 
tered a  formidable  militia,  to  be  ready  on 
all  occafions  -,  and  here  alfo  ftandeth  the 
king's  arfenal  or  magazine  for  war,  feated 
on  the  bank  of  the  river,  near  a  fandy  ifland, 
on  which  the  TbecaJaw  is  kept,  as  hereafter 
will  be  mentioned.     This   river  is  called 
by  the  natives  Songkoy,  or  the  head  river  : 
it   rifes  in  China,  and  after    it  has  rolled 
many  hundred  leagues,  it  palTes  here  and 
dilgorgeth  itfelf  in  the  bay  of  Aynam,  by 
eight  or  nine  mouths,  molt  of  t!   m  navi- 
gable for  vefTels  of  fmall  draught.     This 
river  is  exceeding  commodious  for  the  city, 
fince  all  forts  of  merchandize  are  brouglit 
hither  as  to  the  epitome  of  the  kingdom, 
by  an  infinite  number  of  boats  trading  up 
and    down    the    country  ;    yet   they   have 
their  houfes  in  their  refpedive  /ILlcas,  and 
do  not   live  altogether  in  their   boats,  a:i 
Taverniere    reports,    but   whsn    tliey    an; 

C  II  A  P. 

? 'Il 



!   I, 

The  DefcriptioH 

CHAP.     111. 

Chap  g. 

0/  the  Niitiire  and  ProdriS/ivm  of  the  Kuigdvm  of  Tonqiteen. 

Rarom '"■"'HI.S  fountry  is  for  the  moll  part 
'*'V*»-»  J.  low  .iml,  not  vinlikc  the  united 
provinces,  cfpecially  tor  its  moats  and 
banks.  The  lulls  make  the  frontiers  to- 
wards the  north,  well  and  fouth  :  it  is 
Rivera  w.itcred  liy  one  river,  which  dif- 
corgccii  itli  If  into  the  {e\,  by  many 
branches,  mod  ot  them  ti.ivi^able  fiir  (hips 
of  mean  burthen.  I'hefe  rivers  I'warm 
with  boats  and  large  b.irks,  which  make 
it  very  cotnmodious  lor  tr.ulers:  indeed  in 
this  country  grows  neither  corn  nor  wine, 
which  IS  not  ocrafioneil  by  the  want  ot 
rains,  lor  both  of  them  rei|iiirc  rather  liry 
thin  wi  t  fjround  ;  but  by  realon  the  in- 
habitants tlo not  n\uch (arc  tor  them, .is being 
ignorant  of  their  goodiiets,  and  therefore 
do  not  plant  them.  Kicc,  indeeii,  is  the 
chief  fultenance  of  thefe  pet)ple  -,  and  the 
rountry  produces  fufficient  (]iiantities  there- 
of i  and  if  this  grain  would  have  grown 
only  by  the  rains  of  the  months  ot  'June 
and  7«/v,  we  fhoulil  nor  have  experienced 
the  fad  ellWts  ot  a  nioft  dreadful  and 
niitous  Limine,  that  fwept  away  lb  many 
millions  of  fouls,  in  thefe  two  preceding 

P'rom  the  rice  they  diilil  a  liquor  called 
arrack,  but  much  inferior  to  a(]uavit;v. 
Their  ploughs,  and  the  manner  ot  uling 
them,  are  much  after  thi  Cbint-fc  falhioii, 
del'cribed  in  the  hillory  of  Cbviii :  the 
padtly  they  tread  out  with  their  feet,  where- 
in their  pradice  has  made  them  very  ex- 
Fru;r?  I  he  fruits  arc  equally  good  in  their  kinds 

with  tliofe  of  other  oriental  countries,  but 
tluir  oranges,  far  exceed  all  thiit  1  have 
tailed  :  what  Tiivernun-  calls  a  palm-tree, 
is,  indeed,  a  cocoa-nut,  the  pulp  within  is 
white,  and  tafles  fomcthing  like  an  almond  -, 
tiiis  fruit  is  fo  plentiful  in  Suim,  that  they 
lade  fliips  with  the  oil  that  is  made  of  the 
faid  pulp,  to  fupply  their  neighbours,  which 
is  ufed  to  burn  in  lamp';. 

The  liquor  tliereof  is  very  cold,  and  enough,  but  reckoned  bad  for  the 
nerves :  quellionlefs  it  is  the  molt  ufefu.' 
tree  that  is  found  in  In<ita,  ferving  for  meat, 
drink,  cloathing,  firing,  building,  i^c. 

The  Guava  is  a  fruit  much  like  his  dc- 
fcription  •,  but  he  is  mightily  out  in  the 
i-rt'efts  thereof,  for  whether  green  or  ripe, 
it  is  always  binding,  but  not  ufually  eaten 

The  Piipay  is  a  fruit  indeed  refembling 
:i  melon,  and  fumiiwlut  of  the  tallc,  not 

The  /Ineak,  called  by  i[\e  Mtil ays,  Pc- 
>'"K<>  grows  ilrait  upright,  bearing  no 
liranch,  but  at  the  top,  like  a  crown  ,  the 
fruit  of  which  is  in  bignef--  '  ke  a  largr 
pigeon's   egg,  which  mot'  ...;  ule   to  with  the  leaf  (ailed  '  .ly  the  Por- 

liiguffe,  .ind  Sera  tiy  the  ..y'j  •,  it  is  good 
to  Iwecten  thel)reath,  fallen  the  teeth,  ami 
revive  the  fpirits:  in  chewing,  the  )uicc 
(hereof  turns  red ;  it  is  fo  much  in  ufe, 
that  they  think  they  do  not  make  tluir 
friends  welcome  without  prtlenting  them 
withadilhof  it.  1'\M:To>iquaneff,  Suimejt, 
Mala\i  and  Javiii,  had  rather  lolc  a  third 
of  their  diet  than  be  without  it.  They 
have  a  fig  called  by  them  Hungt,  in  talb 
fbmething  like  a  carrot,  but  much  more 
pleifant  i  not  at  all  like  our  Euro^tan  figs. 

'I'he  other  fort,  called  Boiiam,  or  plan- 
tans,  which  hi:  LiH'i /IJiim'i  tigs,  (ome  .ire 
in  length  above  a,  tome  lefs. 

The  high-w.iys  are  here  and  there  bc- 
let  with  trees  and  inany  flieds,  where  ttiey 
fell  tea  and  beetle,  6r<.  very  commodious 
lor  travellers :  and  for  thole  exceeding 
great  trees,  that  lliade  lb  many  thouUnds 
ot  men,  called  the  Baniaii-tiee,  1  cannot 
contiad'ffl  him  •,  but  what  I  have  teen  at 
Sxtilkw  Muiriciif,  at  ^'urtM,  far  exceed 
any  ot  thefe  in  bignels. 

In  this  country  wc  have  the  fruit  I.n-be,i, 
call'd  Bejuy  by  the  natives,  in  greai  plenty  -, 
which  indeed  no  where  clfe  comes  to  ma- 
turity but  in  the  latitude  from  20  to  ?o  lie- 
grecs  north  :  It  grows  on  high  trees,  ilie 
leaves  relemble  lomewhat  the  laurel  •,  the 
fruits  in  chillers  on  the  branches,  fliew  like 
lb  many  iiearts,  of  the  bignefs  ot  a  finall 
hen  egg ;  when  rijx;  of  a  criinfon  colour  > 
the  fliell  thin  and  rough,  yet  eafy  to  be 
pulled  ofl  1  the  kernel  is  full  ot  a  white 
juice.  This  fruit  is  of  an  excellent  talle, 
and  mod  pleafant  to  the  light,  but  it  dotii 
not  lall  above  forty  days  in  lealon  :  the 
time  of  its  m.iturity  h  Apil,  about  when 
the  General  will  caufe  his  ihuvp  or  leal  to 
be  fixed  on  moll  trees  of  the  bell  LacLni 
in  the  country,  belong  they  to  whom  tliey 
will,  which  obliges  the  owner  not  only 
not  to  meddle  with  his  own,  but  alio  to 
watch  narrowly  that  others  do  not  coucii 
them,  which  would  be  to  his  peril,  lince 
it  is  ingrofTed  by  the  court,  who  allow 
him  nothing  for  his  truit  or  pains. 

The  fruit  called  Jean  or  L:.i:\^ui{^  (i\uX 
is.  Dragons-eggs^  by  the  Chuifjl\  is  vciy 
plentiful  here  :  tlie  trc  e  much  as  the  lormtr, 
the  kernel   white,  buf  exceeding  lul'cious  •, 

















a  I 













Chap  3. 

Chap.  3. 

of  T  o  S  Q.U  E  E  N. 


III   a   I 





the  fruit  round,  and  lefs 
plumb,  the  skin  not  rough,  o(  a  |).ilc  olive 
colour,  and  near  to  a  withcrM  Ital.  This 
fruit,  though  it  pUalts  many  ol  the  7o//- 
qtici'iiefe,  ftt  il  i"  rcckoiiM  hot  ami  un- 
whoifoinc.  I  he  llaloii  is  A/./v,  ami  lalU 
'till  July. 

The  Nil,  or  as  the  P^/lugtiefi  call  it, 
yliimna,  Pom/'elmaor,  ami  two  or  thru-  lores 
of  plums,  with  other  kind  ol  Jmhaii  t'nih^, 
(except  bunions,  which  will  only  t!;row  in 
hot  countries  v  that  is,  from  Si,iin  towanis 
the  South,  as  Mailtiyii,  MalLhum,  Juva, 
Uc.j  are  to  he  found  here  1  hut  what  ex- 
ceeds all  I  have  tailed  inothir  parts  ot  that 
kind,  is  the  7'""  "•■  '^'(*''''  '"  'l'^"'li«'^"- 
This  is  tlu'  largill  fruit,  I  think,  in  the 
world,  and  becaule  ol  its  biynifs  provulent 
nature  has  placed  its  prowtli  on  the  Hock 
or  boily  ot  the  tree,  not  on  the  branches, 
IcU  it  Ihould  not  be  futliciciu  to  bear  the 
burthen  :  I'hc  skin,  when  green,  is  very 
hard  1  but  ripe,  of  a  yellow  colo'.ir,  and 
cafy  to  be  cut  with  a  kiiite.  1  here  arc 
fivcral  forts  of  tluni,  but  thatw!uch  eats 
dryell,  without  rticking  either  to  the  lin- 
gers or  li['s,  is  the  bell  and  plealantelh 
'I'lie  greatell  part  arc  of  a  llimy  fubllance, 
ami,  as  it  were,  a  yellow  pap  covers  the 
nut.,  whicii  lie  in  little  holes.  Sonie  of  the 
j)()()iTr  peopK;  will  boil  or  roalt  the  nuts, 
and  eat  thi'in,  which  have  a  kiiul  of  t.ille 
like  our  ch.'fnuts,  but  are  reckon'd  hurtlul 
to  lungs. 

Tavcrnure  tells  a  long  (lory  of  the  rare 
mice  that  arc  in  this  country,  ot  many 
forts,  yet  1  never  was  at  a  teall  of  any, 
anil  therefore  am  no  competent  judge  ol 
their  daintiiufs  1  I  know  the  Portuguejc  eat 
them  phylically  in  fcveral  dillempers. 

The  next  thing  to  be  taken  notice  of, 
is  a  particular  kind  of  birds-nells,  which 
indeed  arc  in  great  eftcem  amonglt  all  In- 
tiiaiii,  and  kept  at  a  great  price,  being 
taken  as  great  relloratives,  and  by  Ionic 
counted  lliinulaters  to  vencry  ;  but  'Tuvir- 
iiierc  faith,  th  y  are  not  to  be  found  but 
in  the  four  idands  of  Cocbiii-ciiiia  A.  B.  C. 
D.  which  I  am  fure  is  a  great  "iiiftake, 
neither  do  I  know  thof  ■  iflands,  or  of  any 
birds-nefts  to  be  found  in  Cochiii-chlnu  : 
The  birds  whicJi  make  thtie  nefts  are  lefs 
than  fwallows.  As  to  the  form  and  figure 
of  thcfc  birds-ncits,  they  arc  much  as  he 
defcribes  them,  and  the  greateft  quantities 
ot  them  come  from  Jchor,  Rtbo,  PMtaiiy, 
and  other  Malayan  countries  1  but  that  they 
are,  when  boiled,  of  that  exceeding  tra- 
grancc  and  odoriferoufnefs,  as  he  pretends,  is 
a  fidion.  Thefe  nells  are  laid  to  foak  in 
warm  water  two  hours,  then  pulled  out  in 
firings,  the  fmaller  the  better,  and  fo 
ftewed  with  hens,  pigeons,  or  any  other 
fli.1i,  with  a  little  water:  In  Hewing  they 
Vol.  VI. 

dilToiv  almoll  to  .1  jelly,  without  cither  Ba  uov. 
talle  li.   Imell.  \^v>^ 

And  as  M.  T,neniieie  is  very  erroncou*  lotuiju. 
in  his  map,  fo  i  do  not  know  nor  have  1 
hearil  of  ihole  iflands  1,  2,  {,  4,  and  5,  atiord,  as  he  fays,  luch  infinite  num- 
bers ot  tortoiks.  I'lie  gooiliu  I's  ot  the  laid 
tortoiles  is  fulHeiently  known  to  our  Lue- 
liffj  ieameii,  in  their  l.omew.ird  bound 
voyages  i  but  that  the  iunqud'n/e  or  Cc- 
(biii-t/jintfi  do  not  believe  that  luey  h.ive 
entertain'd  their  li lends  at  a  b.uuiuet  a» 
they  ought,  'till  the  tortoile  is  brought  in, 
is  altogether  fabulous-,  for  wj;en  We  were 
at  the  ifland  Tuoii  Ikiie,  or,  acconlii^g  to 
the  Dutch,  Roveri  !jLniJ,  a  torioile  ot  abenit 
twenty  pounds  weight  was  brought  to  the 
cultoni-lioule',  where  I  loiiged,  to  be  Ibid, 
and  the  Tonqiieii:,ji^  not  c.iriiig  to  buy  it, 
I  hid  it  tor  a  linall  matter.  Moreover, 
coming  trom  'V/.(//;  I  toueh'el  at  Pulo  L'hy, 
wliere  my  mariners  took  live  or  fix  very 
large  tortoiles,  anel  bi ought  them  on  board, 
but  the  Tviiquecnej'e  teamen  tint  were  with 
me  (who  were  coiin>eird  to  take  up  tli.t 
iinploy,  becaule  ot  tlie  great  I'amine 
ravaged  their  country)  would  not  toueh 
them  i  neither  do  1  know,  as  he  .illeris, 
that  any  of  thofe  tortoiles  are  wont  to  be 
piekleel  by  either  of  thefe  two  nations,  nr 
that  there  is  any  eonimerce  carry'el  on 
therewith  amongit  them-,  tliereture  I  won- 
der how  Monlieur  'J'avaHu-rc  could  ilrcam 
of  a  war  between  the  in,  merely  on  .u  ount 
of  catching  them. 

Tonqiurn  ailords  no  great  ftore  of  J,ia-  Anv:.\'$. 
>ui,  or  Piiic-a/fla.     '1  he  Citrons  f.e  men-  e,.;rjM. 
lions  are   not  altogether  lb  l.irge  as  ihotc 
ot  Europe,  which   look  green  betor.-  they 
are  ripe,  and  being  mature  look  yillow. 

They  make   good  tlorc  ot  lijks  in  the  silks, 
kingdom  of  Tonqtieen,   of  which  both  rich 
and  poor  make  tlwml'elves  garment;,  fincc 
they  can  purchafe  them  as  cheap  almolt  as 
outlandilh  callicoes. 

As  for  fweet-'melling  flowers,  tho' I  do  r/.irfr/. 
not  protefs  mylelf  a  tlorill,  yet  1  kne  w 
above  two  forts  in  Tcr.quecn;  but  what  he 
calls  the  Ba^ue  I  cannot  fmell  out :  For, 
firlt,  there  is  a  beautiful  rof  ,  of  .1  w..i:c 
colour  mix'd  with  purple ;  and  another  )f 
almoll  the  fame  kiiul,  red  and  yellow  ;  it 
grows  on  a  bulh  witliout  prickles  01  t.iuins, 
but  has  no  fcent. 

The  flower  that  is  nothing  e!fc  bar  :i 
bud,  and  refembles  a  caper,  but  iiukii  lef- 
fer,  finells  as  fragrant  and  oiloriterous  as 
any  flower  I  know,  and  will  retain  the  fnc 
above  a  fortnight,  tho'  otl"  the  tree  ;  the 
ladies  of  the  court  ulc  it  amongfl  their  wear- 
ing apparel. 

The  Indian  lilly  grows  here  as  in  fcveral 

other  parts  ot  Indi.i  ;  the  fliape  fomewh.t 

refcmbL's  the  £ttro/^a«  lilly,  but  is  a  j^-    t 

C  dcai 

■I ' 

i     I: 

The  Defcription 


Cii-ip  4-       Cha 

Ha  RON.  deal  lefi  ;  it  grows  on  a  pretty  high  tree, 
S^V"^  i''  «♦  •'  wliiti'  luloiir,  anil  yiclcli  a  good 
llcnt,   tho'  a  liltU-  J.imtith. 

Ilcrr  IS  \  (mall  Howit.  fnow  white,  in 
fccnt  likf  jcnatninc,  but  niori-  vit^orous  \ 
it  grows  on  a  low  tree,  or  ratiur  Ibrub  :  in 
PirJ'ia  then-  arc  luch  f;rc',it  «iuantitiii  of  it, 
that  ihry  load  wholr  Ihips  with  the  water 
dillilled  troni  it.  I'luli  tlowers  being  t)t 
no  great  ellcem  amongd  the  natives,  I  lluU 
pafs  them  by. 

Here  arc  great  plenty  of  fugar-cancs, 
but  tluy  have  no  great  skill  to  retine  the 
I'ugar  they  make  (roni  them  \  however, 
tluy  do  it  after  their  manner,  and  \\i:  it, 
but  not  after  meals,  as  Yinrrw/crt- faith,  lor 

Tygers  and  harts  here  are,  but  not  ma- 
ny •,  apes  in  great  plenty  •,  of  cows,  hogs, 
hens,  (lucks  gcefc,  tfc.  there  is  no  want  ; 
their  horlis  are  fmall,  but  very  metth  fomc 
and  live  ly,  anil  were  it  not  that  tin  y  are 
lo  feldom  rid,  and  kept  too  tender,  they 
might  be  of  good  life,  and  (it  for  ferviee. 

I'heir  eleplianis  are  all  trained  up  for 
war,  and  are  not  of  that  prrnligious  liigiiels 
he  would  make  one  believe,  for  I  have  leen 
larger  in  Siam  ;  neither  arc  they  nimblLT 




than  other  eleplunf;  that  arc  taught  to  ho 
down  lor  the  rider  to  mount. 

They  have    many   cats,    but   no  great  (<•/;  .iij 
mouleri,  winch  defcit  is  pretty  well  luu-  ^"i- 
ply'd  by  their  dogs,  wluch  arcdit  tor  lit- 
tle elfe. 

Birils  here  arc  not  many,  but  wild  fowl  Hi'M. 
in  abundance. 

Near  the  lea-fide  and  in  the  tity  they  MmktiM,. 
have  .1  great  many  muskctoes,  but  in  the 
country  they  are  not  lb  much  troubled  with 
them  :  Thole  that  will  be  free  of  them  mull 
either  Imaik  their  room,  or  lie  incloliiur- 
taiii!>,  made  of  thin  filks  tor  that  purpolc. 
The  cold  northern  wind  drives  them  away, 
and  frees  tiie  country  ol  thofe  tormentor* 
for  a  while. 

What  he  faith  of  the  white  emmets  huUur.m. 
true.  This  vermin  is  very  miftJiievous  i  in  ">"'■ 
Slum  hardly  any  houfe  is  tree  from  tliem,  fo  mercliants  are  forccil  to  make  li^arfes, 
and  to  rub  tiie  feet  thereof  with  oil  of  c.irth, 
(which  lient  they  cannot  endure)  in  order 
tofecure  ilieir  merihandize. 

The  way  of  pickling  hen  or  duck  eggs,  f^x'« 
as  TaverHUTf  (leiuribes,  is  true,  but  tlitie 
eggs  ferve  only  for  fauces,  and  not  to  be 
eaten  otherwile. 







CHA  V.     IV. 
of  the  Riches,  T'mh,  and  Muney  of  the  Kingdom  o/  T  O  N  Q.  U  E  E  K, 

rp'  II  E  chief  riches,  and  indeed  r'^c  on- 
X  ly  ftaple  commodity,  is  fiU.,  raw 
and  wrought  \  of  the  r.iw  the  Poiinsrueft- 
and  Ctijiilid'is,  m  former  days  •,  the  //«/- 
lundrn  lately  ■,  and  at  prefent  the  Chtnr/f, 
export  good  quantities  to  Japan,  iic.  Of 
th-ir  wrought  filks,  the  Etiglijh  and  Dutch 
expend  the  moff. 

This  kingdom  has  no  lignum  aloes  at  all, 
but  what  is  imported  by  foreign  traders. 

Musk  we  have  here  brought  from  Bowes 
and  Cbvta  annually,  fometimes  the  quan- 
tity of  five  or  fix  Peculls,  fometimes  lefs ; 
neither  have  they  any  gold  but  what  comes 
from  China.  Their  filver  is  brought  in  by 
£n^lijh,  Dutch,  and  Cbinefe  trading  to^a- 
pan.  They  have  iron  and  lead  mines,  which 
atibrd  them  juft  enough  of  thofe  minerals  to 
ferve  their  occafions. 

Their  domeflick  trade  confifts  in  rice, 
flit  fifh,  and  other  futlenance  ;  little  raw 
and  wrought  filk  for  their  own  wear.  They 
likewilc  drive  a  commerce  with  Botves  and 
y/;,  though  with  no  great  profit,  by  rea- 
fon  of  high  cxpences  and  large  prefents  to 
til  •  Kunuibs,  who  command  tlie  avenues  ; 
no'  do  tiie  Cbinefe  tliat  pals  thofe  ways 
f', .-  '  Jtter,  being  often  ex.ifted  upon,  and 
fomeiines  ftripp'd  of  ail  they  h.'vc,  by 
tlic  ravenous  Mandarcaii :  And  fince  it  is 

one  of  the  policies  of  the  court  not  to  make 
the  fubjefti  ricli,  left  they  fliould  be  proud 
and  ambitious,  and  afpirc  to  great'  r  mat- 
ters, the  king  connives  at  thofe  difbrdtrs, 
and  opjJrefFes  them  with  heavy  taxes  and 
impofitions  -,  and  fiiould  he  know  that  any 
perfbns  were  to  exceed  tiie  ordinary  means 
of  a  private  fubjei^t,  they  woiikl  incurr  th« 
danger  ot  lofing  all,  on  fomc  pretence  or 
other ;  which  is  a  great  difcouragement  to 
the  induflrious,  and  neceflitates  them  to  bu- 
ry their  wealth,  having  no  mean*  to  im- 
prove it. 

As  for  foreign  traders,  a  new-comer  fuf- 
fers,  befides  hard  iifage  in  his  buying  and 
felling,  a  thouLind  mconveniencies  i  and  no 
certain  rates  on  merchandizes  imported  or 
exported  being  impofhl,  the  infatiable  Man- 
dareem  caufe  the  fhips  to  be  rummaged, 
and  take  what  commodities  may  likely 
yield  a  price  at  their  own  rates,  ufing  tlic 
king's  name  to  cloak  tlieir  griping  ancl  vil- 
lainous extortions  ;  and  tor  all  this  there  is 
no  remedy  but  patience. 

Yet  ftrangers  that  arc  experienced  here 
are  lefs  fubjeft  to  tiiofe  irregularities  and 
oppreflions,  efcaping  their  clutches,  tho' 
not  without  Ibme  trouble  and  coft  ■,  in  a 
word,  the  Tnnqtieen  trade  is  at  prefent  the 
mofl  lailidious  in  all  India,   wiiercfore  I 



Cliap  4.       Chap.  $. 

0/  T  0  N  Q.  U  E  E  .V. 

((ht  to  lia 

well  (up-  ^'i" 
lit  tor  ht- 

wiUl  tuwl  H'Jt- 

city  they  *'«»•'«-. 
jut  III  the 
jl)U'd  with 
tlicm  mult 
i  purjiolc. 
iin>  aw.iy, 

fninicts  is  [//,//( r.m. 
ifvous  1  it*  '"«''• 
n  tliem,  io 
ce  Iit-urfrs, 
til  ot  earth, 
:)  ill  urtlcr 

duck  pggs,  f^f,. 
but  thcl'e 
not  to  be 



ot  to  miiKt? 



•  proud 

r  niat- 


taxes  and 

that  any 

ry  nifar^s 

incurr  th» 

)retL'ncc  or 

;cmcnt  to 

in  to  bu- 

»  to  iin- 

:omtr  fiif- 
lying  and 
and  no 
ported  or 
iblc  Miin- 

.ly   likely 

iifinK  tire 
and  vil- 

i  there  is 

ifid  here 
ities  and 
les,  tho* 
l\  ;  in  a 
lent  the 
L'rctbre  I 


wonder  our  aiitiior  flioiiKl  liiy,  it  is  a  grc4t    current,  wlucli  ftranJ  inconvenience  caufe*  Baron. 
plealiire  todcAl  with  tluiii  i  lor  il  yo»i  bar-    cunfidrr.ible  lo;lcs  to  in.  rthanf.,  .iiidfignal  v^v^' 

gain  tor  any  thinn,  and  are  likely  to  lole  ■  

tliereby,  you  ari-  Hire  to  ilu'  lols : 
Nothiim  ainioll  h  lold  but  upon  null  lor 
three  vr  lour  nionthi  time,  and  yet  then 
you  run  the  lu/.ard  to  lole  what  is  (ololil, 
or  at  leall  to  underno  a  ihouland  troublr-* 
lor  the  recovery  ot  the  debt,  and  at  l.ill 
are  likely  to  lulJer,  eitiier  in  bad  coin  or 
unmerchantable  ^ooJi.  I'his  ileltit  and 
dilorder  in  trade,  proceeds  more  trom  their 
indigency  and  poverty  thin  trom  any  thiiiR 
cir.'  i  tor  there  is  not  a  i'oii!jt«i/i(j,'  iiu  rchant 
that  his  or  ever  had  the  cDuragc  and  ability 
to  buy  the  value  ol  two  ihoulaikl  dollari 
:if  once,  »nd  to  pay  it  uj'on  the  nail.  But 
alter  all,  the  1'<jiirjii(,n<jf  arc  n<it  alioye- 
ther  I'o  Iraiululent,  and  ot  tiut  deciitUil 
dilpofition  ai  the  Cbiiii'j(  ;  it  may  be,  by 
realiin  they  are  inferior  to  tiKiii  in  trait 
or  (unninj;. 

There  11  'his  tlirtiier  ilitlerence  between 
thele  two  nations-,  a  Toiiififi'nuji:  will  be^; 
inLelVaiitly,  and  torment  your  purle  I'ulfi- 
tieii'iy,  it  you  have  biiliiiels  with  him  i 
wh  leai  a  Cbtntji'  is  iruel  and  blooily, 
m.ilidoufly  killing  a  man,  or  tlin^in^  him 
into  ih  ■  lea  tor  Imall  matters. 

Another  octalion  ot  hindrance  and  tlup 
to  trade  i-,  that  tin  y  permit  the  gre.iier 
part  ot  what  lilverdiines  into  the  country 
(commonly  a  million  ot  ilollars /'(/rtwwww^ 
to  be  carried  to  Botiv.^  and  Citiui,  to  be  ex- 
chanj;ed  lor  copper  calh,  which  rili-s  and 
l.ills  according  as  the  Cbov<i  linds  it  agree 
with  hisini'Tell  ;  befides,  this  ealli  will  be 
defat'd  in  tew  years,  and  tonlequently  not 

prejudice  to  the  publiik.  1  hui  goes  the 
lilver  out  of  the  eountry,  and  no  provi- 
lion  is  made  againlt  it,  which  i^  very  bad 

And  tho'  the  Cbov.t  values  foreign  trade 
Ik  little,  yet  he  ie>eive-.  it,  tmlur- 
ral's'd  as  it  is,  eonl'idcrablc  annual  inLomes 
into  his  colUis  »  as  taxes,  head  money, 
im[)o(itions,  culloms,  Wt.  Hut  tho'  thele 
amount  to  vail  I'ums,  yet  very  Imle  le- 
iiiiins  in  the  treauiry,  by  realon  ot  tlic 
great  army  he  maintains,  together  with 
livenl  other  unnecellary  expemes.  In  tine, 
'tis  pity  Io  many  eonvenieniies  and  oppor- 
tunities to  make  the  kingdom  rich,  .ind  its 
irulc  Hourilhing,  llioukl  be  negkv.ed  1  lor 
it  wc  conlidtr  how  this  kingdom 
on  two  of  the  riehell  jirovinces  mCLiua,  il. 
will  appear,  that  with  liiull  dillieuliy  moll 
commodities  ol  that  \.ill  empire  nii';;!i:l)C 
dr.iwii  hithir,  and  great  llore  ot  //;i/;../;.ind 
European  commoditieN,  el'pi-cially  woolkn 
manulactures,  might  be  .end.d  there  •,  n.iy, 
would  they  periiiii  llraiigers  t!ie  trietlom  ot 
this  inlanil  tr.ule,  'tw«)uld  be  valUy  .idv.m- 
t  igious  to  the  kingdom  ;  but  the  Cim.i-j 
{  ie.dous  that  A«/(//Yii«i  fliould  dileoveruo 
much  ot  his  frontiers,  by  wMJi  eertainly 
he  ean  renive  no  injury)  has,  and  will  pro- 
bably in  all  time  to  come,  impede  una  im- 
portant aliiiir. 

They  have  no  coin  but  copper  calli, 
wliieh  comes  from  China,  as  atorelaid. 
Gold  and  filver  they  call  into  bars  about 
lourteen  ilollars  weight,  and  they  arc  cur- 
rent amoiiKft  them. 

C    11    A    P.     V. 

Of  tl.c  Strength  of  the  Kingihm  of  T  O  N  CLU  E  E  N. 

'^[PUtc  j]  'I'll  !•".  kingdom  of  Tdkjiuih  might  be 
1.  rcckon'd  very  loimidable,  were  the 
llrength  wholly  to  conlill  in  the  number  ot 
men,  tor  the  Handing  lorce  cannot  be  lels 
than  one  hundred  and  forty  thouliind,  all 
Well  trained  up,  and  iM  to  li.mdle  their 
anus,  after  their  mode  1  and  they  can  raile 
twice  that  number  on  ocialion.  But  lincc 
courage  in  tlie  men  i;  to  be  likewife  attend- 
ed to,  we  cannot  clleem  them  very  formi- 
dable, being  of  dejeeHed  Ipirits  and  bale 
dilpolitions,  and  their  leaders  being  tor  the 
moll  part  capadoes,  and  want  their  man- 

The  general  may  muller  op  about  eight 
or  ten  tlioufand  horfe,  and  between  three 
and  tour  hundred  ele]iliants  ;  his  lea  force 
conlilh  in  two  hundied  and  twenty  gallies, 
great  and  fmall,  more  lii  for  the  river  than 
the  lea,  and  rather  for  j^'ort  and  txtrcile 

than  war.  They  have  but  one  gun  in  the 
prow,  which  will  carry  a  four  pound  lliot ; 
they  have  no  malls,  and  are  tore'd  to  ^Sa 
all  by  llrength  of  oars  1  the  men  that  row 
(land  all  expofed  to  great  or  fmall  Ihot, 
and  other  engines  ot  war.  They  have 
about  five  hundred  other  boats,  called  TtJ;;- 
jiifs,  which  are  good  and  fwift  to  fail,  but 
too  weak  for  war,  being  only  fewM  toge- 
ther with  rattans  ;  however,  they  fervc 
well  enough  for  tranfportation  ot  provifions 
ami  foldiers. 

In  one  of  thefe  boats  I  was  forc'd  to  go 
to  Sicm,  the  laft  year,  with  three  other 
gentlemen  in  company  with  me,  wc  being 
Ictt  by  a  Cbi/ic'Ji  (in  whole  junk  we 
taken  pafTageJ  on  an  ifle  on  the  wellmolt 
part  of  the  bay  of  Tonqueot,  where  wc  were 
forced  to  this  fhift ;  yet,  thanks  be  to  God, 
we  got  our  pafTage  in  twenty-tlu-ee  days, 


The  Dejcription 

Chap.  6. 

Baron. to  the    admiration  of  all  that  knew   of 

s^V^-"  it. 

They  arc  likewife  provided  with  guns 
and  cannons  of  all  forts,  as  alfo  calibres, 
fome  of  them  of  their  own  tabrick,  buv 
the  greateft  part  bought  of  the  Porliiguefe, 
Dulc/j,  and  EngliJIj.  and  fto.ed  with  other 
ammunition  fuitable  to  their  occafions. 

Rut  to  retrrn  to  the  condition  of  the 
foldieiy  oi  Tonqueen  .  It  is  a  very  toilfome 
and  laborious  fituation,  and  of  little  advan- 
tage ;  once  a  foldicr  and  always  a  fol- 
dier,  and  hardly  one  in  a  thoufand  rlfeth 
to  preferment,  unlefs  he  be  very  dextrous 
in  handling  his  weapons,  or  fo  fortunate  as 
to  obtain  the  friendlhip  of  fome  great  Man- 
(larcoi,  to  prefent  him  to  the  king :  Mo- 
ney may  likewife  cfll'ft  fomewhat,  but  to 
think  of  advancement  by  mere  valour,  is 
a  very  fruitlcfs  expectation,  fince  they  rare- 
ly find  occafion  to  meet  an  enemy  in  open 
field,  and  fo  have  no  opportunity  to  im- 
prove themfelves,  or  difplay  their  prowefs  -, 
not  but  that  fome  few  have,  from  mean  be- 
ginnings, mounted  to  high  preferment  and 
great  dignity,  by  fome  bold  atchievement ; 
but  this  being  extraordinary,  is  not  to  be 
generally  reckon'd  upon. 

Their  wars  confiii  in  much  noife  and 
great  trains  ;  fo  they  go  to  Cochin-china, 
look  on  the  walls,  rivers,  &c.  and  if  any 
difeafe  or  ficknefs  happens  amongft  their 
army,  fo  as  to  carry  off  fome  few  of  their 
men,  and  they  come  within  hearing  of  the 
fhouts  of  the  enemy,  they  begin  to  cry 
out,  A  cruel  and  bloody  war,    and   turn 

head,  running,  re  inffSIci,  as  faft  as  they 
can  home.  This  is  the  game  they  have 
phy'd  ^iQi'md  Cochin-china  more  than  three 
times,  and  will  do  fo,  in  all  probability, 
as  long  as  they  are  commanded  by  thofc 
emafculated  captains  called  Capons. 

They  have  had  amongil  themfelves  ci- 
vil wars,  wherein  they  contended  for  fupe- 
riority,  and  he  that  has  been  the  cunning- 
eft  has  prevailed  always  againll  him  that 
has  been  valiant.  But  in  former  days,  when 
they  fought  againfl  the  Chinefe,  they  have 
fhew'd  themfelves  bold  and  courageous, 
but  it  was  necolTity  that  forced  them  to  ir. 
The  general  will  fomctimes  take  delight  in 
feeing  his  foldiers  excrcife,  either  in  liis 
arfenal,  or  with  his  gallies  on  the  river, 
and  fometimes  when  he  finds  a  foldicr  to 
exceed  his  companions,  it  may  be,  he  gra- 
tifies him  with  the  value  of  a  dollar  in 

The  foldiers  have  very  fmall  pay,  not 
above  three  dollars  in  a  year,  belidcs  rice, 
except  thofc  of  the  lite-guard,  who  have 
twice  as  much  ;  they  arc  free  of  all  taxes, 
and  are  difperfed  among  tlie  Alandarans, 
which  Alanddteens  liavc  certain  Aideoi  af- 
fign'd  them,  which  pay  an  income  to  '.b:..xrt 
for  the  m.iintenance  of  the  foldiers. 

Caftles,  forts,  Itrong-holds,  citadels,  tfr. 
they  have  none,  nor  do  they  underffand 
the  art  of  fortification,  and  make  but  fmall 
account  of  our  skill  therein;  though  they 
have  fo  little  reafon  to  depend,  like  tlie 
Lacedemoniani,  on  the  bravery  of  tbeu- lol- 

CHAP.     VI. 

Of  the  Mcwiiers  of  the  People  ty^  T  O  N  CLU  E  E  N. 

f  1     :' 

TH  F,  people  of  Tbwj.vcfw  are  rather  of 
a  working  and  turbulent  fpirit,  Ctho' 
cowardsj  than   naturally  mild  and  peace- 
able, fince  quiet  and  concord  can  hardly  be 
maintain'd  amongft  them,  without  a  heavy 
hand   and  feverity  ;    for  they  have  often 
confpired  and  broke  out  in  open  rebellion. 
True  it  is,  that  fuperflition  (lo  which  the 
meaner  fort  are  miferabiy  addidedj  did  fur- 
ther the  evil  very  much,  and  drove  them 
headlong  to  the  precipice,  no  Ids  than  am- 
bition v  but  perfons  of  great  note,  or  Man- 
daie^m  of  quality,  are  very  fi Idom  found 
to  be  embark'd  in  thofe  dangerous  attempts, 
and  rarely  .nim  to  make  themfelves  heads  of 
publiek  tii'^.tiuns,  which,  queflionlefs,  pro- 
ceeds from  the  little  credit  they  give  to  thofe 
fiftionsand  fopperies  of  their  blind  fortune- 
tellers, who  delude  and  miflead  the  igno- 
rant and  fiiperffitious  vulgar,  and  from  this 
their  conlcioufnefs,  tliat  their  folly  and  per- 

fidioufnefs  will  hardly  fail  to  meet  with  dc- 
ferved  deftrudion. 

They  are  not  much  given  to  choler,  yet 
are  addifted  to  the  far  worfe  paffions  of 
envy  and  malice,  even  to  an  extreme  de- 
gree. In  former  times  they  had  in  great 
elleem  the  manufa(ffures  of  ftrange  coun- 
tries, but  now  that  palTion  is  almolf  worn 
out,  and  only  a  few  Japan  gold  and  fiiver 
pieces,  and  European  broad  cloth  remain 
at  prefi  nt  in  requeff  with  them.  They  arc 
not  curious  to  vilit  other  countries,  believ- 
ing they  can  fee  none  fb  good  as  their  own, 
and  give  no  credit  to  thofe  who  have  been 
abroad,  when  they  relate  what  they  have 

They  are  of  happy  memory  and  quirk 
apprehenfion,  and  might  prove  of  eminent 
abilities  by  good  and  due  inllructions  : 
Learning  they  love,  not  fo  much  tor  its 
own  fake,  but  becaufe  ic  conducts  them  to 


Chap.  (5.  Chap.  6. 

C/'  To  N  Q.U  E  E  N. 


ft  as  they 
they  liave 
than  three 
i  by  thofe 

mfelvcs  ci- 
d  for  fupe- 
le  cunning- 
(l  him  that 
days,  when 
they  have 
them  to  it. 
c  dchght  in 
ther  in  his 
I  the  river, 

I  foldiiT  to 
be,  he  gra- 
a  dollar  in 

ill  pay,  not 
befides  rice, 
who  have 
of  all  taxes, 

II  Aitleai  af- 
tme  to  'hciii 
citadels,  tfc 

ke  but  fmall 
though  they 
nd,  like  the 
'  of  their  lol- 

neet  with  de- 

)  choler,  yet 
;  palFions  of 
extreme  de- 
had  in  great 
Irange  coun- 
almolh  worn 
)ld  and  filver 
:loth  remain 
1.  They  arc 
tries,  believ- 
as  their  own, 
ho  have  been 
at  they  have 

ry  and  quick 
■e  of  eminent 
inltructions  : 
much  tor  its 
Jufts  them  to 


publick  employs  and  dignities.    Thtir  tone 

in  reading  is  much  like  to  (inging.     Their 

language    is   full    of  monofyllables,    and 

fomeiimes  twelve  or  thirteen  leviral  things 

are  meant  by  one  word,  and  liiive  no  other 
diltindicm,  bu;  in  the  tone,  eiii.'r  to  pro- 
nounce it  with  a  lull  mouth,  heavy  accent, 
prelTmg  or  retaining  voice,  i^c.  and  there- 
fore it  is  very  difficult  for  llrangers  to  at- 
tain any  perfe(5tion  therein. 

I  do  not  tind  any  ditTerence  between  tlie 
court  language  and  the  vulgar,  except  in 
matter  of  ceremony  and  cafes  of  law,  where    new'd  for  a  moderate   fum  of  money,  by 

blond,  the  king's  immediate  fervants,  allBARov. 
I)ublick  minillers  and  officers  of  tiie  king-  'v,^^.'-^^ 
dom,  together  with  the  Literadoes,  or 
learned  men,  from  a  S:i:^do,  upwards,  (for 
the  l.itter  are  obliged  to  pay  half  tax},  all 
foldiers  and  military  pcrfons,  with  a  few 
others  that  have  obtained  this  freedom, 
mha-^raiis,  or  bought  it  for  money,  which 
exemption  is  granted  only  for  life,  and  is 
purchas'd  ol  the  Cbovn,  or  General  ;  yet 
thofe  that  dcfire  the  continuation  of  the 
laid   [irivilesc   may  have   their  patent  rc- 

the  Cbifht  charaCk-rs  are  ull-d  as  the  Git'ik 
and  Lr,!iii  llntenres  amongll  our  learned. 

Both  the  fcxes  are  well  proportioned,  ra- 
ther of  fmall  flature  and  weak  conllitutions, 
occafioned,  perhaps,  by  their  intemperate 
eating  and  im.moderate  fleeping. 

They  are  generally  of  brown  complecli- 
on.  like  the  Cbint'fi  and  Japanefc,  but  the 
better    fort,    anel   women   of  quality,    arc 

the  fucceeding  prince,  who  feldom  denies 
to  grant  them  their  redemption  on  ilich  ap 
.account  ;  but  merchants,  though  they  live 
in  the  city,  are  rated  in  the  AUleas  or  vil- 
lages of  their  anceflors  and  parents,  and 
are  liable  befides  to  the  Fecqua):,  or  lord's 
fervice,  of  the  city,  at  their  own  expences, 
and  are  obliged  to  work  and  drudge  them- 
felves,  or  hire  another  in   their  room,  to 

alinoll  as  lair  as  the  Porli^^ufji  and   Spa-  perform  what   the   governor  orders,  whe- 

tiiards.  ther  it  be  to  mend  tiie  broken  walls,  re- 

Their  nofes  and  laces  are  not  fo  flat  as  pair  the  banks  and  ways  of  the  city,  drag- 

the  C/'iw/f's  their  hair  black,  and  if  long,  ging  timber  for    the  king's  palaces,    and 

'tis  reckou'd  an  ornament  ;  both  men  anti  other  publick  buildings,  (j?c. 

women,  without  dilUnftion,  wear  it  down  The  handicr.dts-men,  of  what  profeffion 

as  long  as  it  will  grow  v  but  foldiers,  when  foever,  are  bound  to  this  AW }«,:;;;  fix  moons 

they  arc  in  their  exercifes,  and  handicrafts-  in  the  year,  and  receive  nothing,  nor  dare 

men   about  their   tnides,    put  it  up  under  they  demand  any  thing  for  their  labour  in 

their  caps,  or  tie  it  in  a  great  roll  on  the  all  that  time  ;  it  depends  on  their  Mailers, 

top  of  their  heads.     Both  boys  and  girls,  the  Maiularet-ns,  diredion  and  bounty,  to 

when    they   are   pall:   lixteen  or  feventeen  allow  them  the  charges  for  their  very  vicbu- 

years  of  age,  black  their  teeth  as  the  Ja-  als  ;  the  other  half  year  they  are  .dlow'd 

to  make  ufe  of  for  themfelves  and  fmiily, 
ind  it  mull  be  lu()pos'd  to  be  hard  enou(j,h 

■puiefi  do,  and   let  their  nails  grow  as  the 

Cvinifi,    the    longell  being   accounted  the 

fined,   which  has  place  amongll  perfons  of  with  them,  el'pecialiy  if  they  are  burthen'd 

quality  and  thofe  of  wealth  only.  with  many  children. 

Their  habit   is  long  robes,    very   little         v\s   for  the    poor  Aldeaiis,    who  inhabit 

differing  from  thole  of  C/v«i;,  and  not  at  all  barren  foils,  and  therefore  are  unable    to 

refcmbling  the  Jai'iin  garb,  or  the  picture  j)ay  their  taxes  in  rice  or  money,  they  are 

i:i  7"iMV7-;/;(7v'sdelci-iption,  where  he  makes  employ'd  to  cut  gral's  for  the  general's  ele- 

them    to  wear   girdles,    a  mode  that  thefe  phants  and  horfes ,  and   though   their  lla- 

jx'ople  are  llrangers  to.  tions  and  villages  be  often  very  remote  from 

i'liey  are  tbrbielden  by  an  old  tradition  the  place  where  they  fetch  the  grals,  they 

tiie   wear  of   hole  or   fliooes,    except   the  are  obliged  to  bring  it  by  turns  the  whole 

literadoes  (IJterat't)  and   thofe  have  year,  on  their  own  expences,  to  the  city, 
taken    the   degree  of  Tuncy  (or  Doulor)  ;         By  what  is  faid,  it  appears,   with  what 

however,  at  prefent  the  cultom  is  not  ob-  politick  maxims  this  pi-ince  keeps  his  fub- 

f'erved  fo  flrietly  as  tormerly. 

Tlie  condition  of  the  vulgar  fort  is  mi- 
ferable  enough,  (ince  they  are  inipofed  on 
by  heavy  taxes,  and  undergo  fore  labour  ; 

jeifls  poor  and  needy  ;  and  in  truth,  it 
fccms  to  be  necefl'iry  enough,  for  if  their 
proud  turbulent  I'pirits  were  not  kept  in 
the  bounds  of  their  duty  and    allegiance 

for  the  males  at  eighteen,    and   in   fome    with  a  llrong  rein,  they  would  often  fo'-n-et 

countries  and  provinces  twenty  years  of  age, 
are  liable  to  pay  the  value  of  three,  four, 
five,  fix,  and  feven  dollars /'(V  rt««/r;;i,  ac- 
conling  to  the  goodnels  aiul  fertility  of  the 
foil  of  their  jI'uLm,  or  village  •,  and  this 
money  is  gathi'ied  in  two  leveral  terms,  as 
April  and  Ottobcr,  beino;  the  harveft  of  the 

themfelves  ;  however,  every  one  enjoys 
what  he  gets  by  his  own  indultry,  and  may 
leave  his  eltate  to  his  heirs  and  lliccenbrs  ; 
always  provided  that  the  rumour  of  Ids 
wealth  Ibunds  not  fo  loud  as  to  charm  the 
general's  ear. 

The  eldell  Ion's  portion  is  much  larger 

rice.     From  this  tax  are  exempted  the  royal    than  the  rell  of  the  children  of  the  decea- 

VoL.  YI. 






The  Defcription 

Chap.  7. 

5t  i| 

"  % 


.  fed  i  the  daughters  li.ive  fomc  fmrill  mat- 
'  ter  allowM  th'.-m,  yc:  cm  claim  but  little 
by  law,  if  there  bean  heir  male. 

And  as  the  lonqueowfe  arc  ambitious  of 
many  dependants  and  opulent  kindred,  iu 
they  have  a  cullom  among  them  to  adopt 
one  another  (both  fexes  indilVcrently)  to  be 
their  children,  and  of  their  family  ;  and 
thole  fa  adopted  arc  obliged  to  the  fame 
iluty  as  their  own  ciiildren,  viz. 

At  feilival  times  to  fombey  and  prefent 
them  i  to  be  ready  on  every  occafion  in 
their  ferviee  ;  to  bring  them  the  firil-fruitsof 
the  feafon,  and  the  new  rice  at  harvefl ;  to 
contribute  to  the  facritice  made  to  fome  of 
the  family,  as  the  mother,  brother,  wife, 
is'c.  or  near  relations,  of  tlie  P.ilrooii,  that 
are  ttead,  or  fliall  die.  To  thefe  and  feveral 
other  cxpences  they  are  obliged,  feveral 
times  in  the  year,  at  their  own  cod  :  And 
as  this  is  the  obligation  of  the  adopted,  fo 
the  Piiltoon  takes  care  to  advance  or  pro- 
mote them,  according  as  occafion  and  their 
power  will  permit,  defending  and  proted- 
ing  them  as  their  own  children,  and  when 
the  Palrooii  dies,  they  have  a  legacy  almoft 
equal  to  the  youngeil  children  ;  and  they 
mourn  for  the  PiUroon  as  for  their  own 
father  and  mother,  though  they  be  both 

The  manner  of  adopting  is  thus  :  He 
tliat  intends  to  be  adopted,  fends  to  ac- 
quaint the  perfon  of  whom  he  requefts  that 
favour,  with  his  intention,  who,  if  coU' 
tent  therewith,  returns  a  fatisfaftory  an- 
fwer  ;  upon  wliich  the  fuppliant  comes  and 
prefents  himfclf  before  him,  with  a  hog 
and  two  jars  of  arnick,  which  t\\cPatroon 
receives  of  the  party,  wlio  having  made 
four  fombcys  and  given  fatisfiidory  an- 
fwers  to  Ibme  queftions,  he  is  adopted. 

Strangers  who  rcfide  here,  or  ufe  the 
trade,  have  often  taken  this  courfe,  to  free 
themfelves  from  thofe  vexations  and  extor- 
tions, which  they  ufually  meet  with  from 
fome  infolent  courtiers.  I  myfelf  was  adopt- 
ed by  a  prince,  who  then  was  prefumptive, 

and  now  heir  apparent  to  the  general,  and 
had  his  C/.kio/;  or  Cbo/\  which  is  his  feal. 
1  always  gave  him  prefents  at  my  arrival 
from  a  voyage,  which  chielly  confuted  in 
foreign  curiolities.  This  prince,  tho'  he 
be  of  a  generous,  noble  miyd,  and  had  an 
extraordinary  kindnefs  for  me,  yet  I  was 
not  the  better  for  him  in  my  troubles  -,  for 
on  the  deceale  of  his  grandfather,  it  pleafed 
God  to  vifit  him,  in  the  heighth  of  his  pro- 
fperity  with  madnels,  which  was  the  over- 
throw of  my  bufinefs,  by  incapacitating 
him  to  proted  me  in  my  greatelt  trouble 
and  necelFity  ;  but  lately  I  underrtand  he  is 
recover'd  again. 

The  J!(li'i!iis  or  Villagers,  for  the  mofl 
part,  are  fuiij)le  people,  and  fubjert  to  be 
mifled  by  their  over-much  credulity  and 
fuperlHtion.  The  charafter  that  is  given 
of  fome  other  nations  is  applicable  enough 
to  them  ;  that  is,  they  are  either  extraor- 
dinary good,  or  extreme  bad. 

*Tis  a  great  millake,  that  the  people  of 
'Tonquctii  live  out  of  pleaf'ure,  or  choice,  in 
their  boats  upon  the  rivers,  when  mere  re- 
celTity  and  indigence  drives  them  ro  that 
courle  of  life  ;  for  to  run  from  port  to  port, 
and  from  one  village  to  another,  with  wife 
and  children,  to  look  out  for  a  livelihood, 
in  a  I'mall  boat,  cannot  be  very  pleafant, 
although  they  do  not  know  here  what  a 
crocodile  means. 

The  largeil  of  the  Tonqucen  rivers  has, 
as  I  faid  before,  its  fource  in  China,  and 
the  great  rains  there,  in  the  months  of 
March,  April,  and  May,  caufe  the  waters 
to  defcend  here  with  that  incredible  rapi- 
dity (this  country  being,  without  compari- 
fon,  lower  than  China)  as  threatens  banks 
and  dams  with  deftrudtion  -,  fometimes  the 
waters  will  rife  to  faft,  and  fwell  to  that 
degree,  as  to  over- top  inoft  barricadoe.s, 
all  human  induftry  notwithftanding,  drown- 
ing thereby  whole  provinces,  which  caules 
lamentable  diforders  and  great  lofles,  both 
of  men  and  beads. 


CHAT.     VII. 

i^!  '-A 

of  the  Marriages   of  the  Tonquccncfc. 

[Phic  +.]]  TT  H  E  'fonqtieenefi  cannot  marry  with- 
A  out  the  confent  of  their  father 
and  mother,  or  of  the  nearell  kindred. 
When  a  young  man  comes  to  the  age  of 
fixteen,  eighteen,  or  twenty,  his  father  and 
mother  being  rcfolvcd  to  get  him  a  wife, 
make  their  application  to  the  parents 
of  the  party  they  delign  for  him,  carry- 
ing with  them  an  hundred  drelfed  beetles,  in 
a  decent  box,  one  jar  of  arrack,  or  llrong 

SI     ;  .; 

liquor,  and  a  live  hog  ;  under  favour  of 
(uch  a  prelent  only,  tliis  is  to  be  propofed. 
The  friends  of  the  maid  I'eeing  the  vilitants 
thus  prepar'd,  and  knowing  by  the  cullom 
of  the  country  whereto  it  tends,  give  fit- 
ting anfwers  to  the  queflion  in  hanil,  ac- 
cording to  their  inelin.itions  ;  for  it  (hey 
are  unwilling  it  IhoukI  be  a  match,  they 
find  their  I'ubtertuges  and  excules,  by  |ire- 
tcnding  their  daughter's  youth  and  in.d:)ility 


;!     I 

Chap.  7. 

f^A  6  /lirAr  J . 

The  Manner  afMfirj}tinc^*ntf>'^ 

■i/ioji  H  OPE  S  ,7M/<W//-r.  vr^Kt  Pi^YS 


4  4r~r^.  r 

My.        -,> 



I    Wc^ 

rrrrr-r-rtf^  ,-, ^^ 




Chap.  7. 

O/'  T  O  N  Q_  U  E  ES. 

1 1 



I  ^ 


-« — 


to  take  upon  her  the  burtlirn  ot  a  lunik;- 
liold,  ami  that,  however,  they  will  tonli- 
der  or"  the  micter  further  hcrcakcr,  ami 
tiie  like  eoinplmients,  wherewith  they  ami 
their  preltiits  are  lent  back  again. 

But  in  eilV  ihey  are  content  to  beftow 
tlieir  (.lau^htLT  on  the  young  man,  the  pre- 
fent  ii  readily  .iccepteil  of,  with  exprellions 
of  their  ajiprobaiion  of  the  bufinefs ;  ami 
then  inuiiediately,  witiiout  any  other  for- 
mality, they  coniult  and  agree  about  the 
molt  aufpieious  time  ( in  wi.i-h  they  are 
guiiled  by  tlicir  blind  lliperllition)  for  ih.e 
lolemnization  of  the  wedding  :  In  the  men 
time  the  parents  ol'  the  bridegroom  lend 
often  prefents  of  viduals  to  the  bride,  and 
vilit  her  now  and  llien,  yet  the  young  peo- 
ple are  not  permitted  lb  much  as  to  l[)eak 
to  each  other. 

At  the  [irelix'd  time  the  wedding  is  kept, 
with  a  feall  agreeable  to  the  condition  and 
abilities  of  the  parents  of  the  young  cou- 
ple, whicli  cloth  not  Ldl  above  a  iLiy.  The 
ceremony  ot  their  marriage  is  barely  this  i 
In  the  afternoon  of  the  day  that  precedes 
the  wedding,  the  bridegroom  comes  to  the 
bride,  and  brings  with  him,  according  to 
his  quality,  either  golil,  filver,  or  a  quan- 
tity ol  calli  (the  more  the  greater  honour), 
and  victuals  prepared,  all  which  he  leaven 
there,  and  retires  to  his  own  home.  The 
next  morning  being  the  wedding  day,  the 
bride  is  drel'sM  in  her  finell:  robes,  with 
br.icelets  of  gold,  pemiants,  isc.  her  pa- 
rents, acquaintance,  and  Icrvants  are  ready 
to  conilu.'.  and  wait  on  her  to  the  bride- 
groom's wiiithcr  file  goes  about  ten  o'clock 
in  the  torenoon,  with  all  this  train  attend- 
ing her,  whilll  all  her  moveables,  houfe- 
hold-llutl',  and  whatever  elfe  her  father  and 
mother  give  for  her  portion,  together  with 
what  llie  had  of  the  bridegroom,  is  car- 
ried in  great  Itare  ;  and  tor  a  more  glori- 
ous iiiew,  ii  paills  in  a  long  tield  before 
her  and  the  wiiole  company,  all  which  en- 
ter the  bridegroom's  houk',  who  receives 
her  and  them  with  kiudnels  and  courtely, 
alter  their  mode,  and  prelents  them  with 
vic1:uals  prepared  for  the  purpofe,  whilll  mu- 
lickand  other  ex[)reriionsof  joy,  are  not  neg- 
lected :  And  this  is  vhe  whole  fulemnity  ot 
the  wedding,  v/iiiiout  any  liM'ther  formali- 
ties of  either  inagillratc  or  priell,  as  our 
author  talks. 

Polygamy  is  here  tolerated  ;  however, 
that  woman  whole  parents  are  of  the  great- 
1 II  quality,  is  chief  amongll  them,  and  has 
the  title  of  wile. 

Rapes,  and  the  like,  are  not  known, 
much  lefs  i)rac'tifed  in  this  country.  The 
l.iw  of  the  land  permits  the  man  to  divorce 
his  wife,  but  the  woman  has  not  the  lame 
privilege,  and  can  hardly  obtain  a  fepara- 

tion,  ajMinll  the  f!,ood-llking  of  tlie  huf  Bai'o^j. 
band,  uidef,  llie  be  ol  ,1  fimily  is  ,ib!e  \y\''^ 
to  com[)el  him  to  ir,  by  mere  authori'-y. 
When  the  husband  deligns  to  reinidiatc  his 
wit'e,  he  gives  her  a  note,  ded.iring  under 
his  hand  and  leal,  that  he  has  no  more  pre- 
tenlions  to  perfon,  and;  Ihe  is  free 
to  difpolL' of  htriell,  as  Ihe  finds  occalion, 
which  libei-iy  ca|>acitates  her  to  iiiarry  ano- 
ther ;  neither  would  any  perfon  dare  to 
jiretend  to  her,  without  being  certain  of 
ihe  laid  note,  for  fear  ot  her  tormer  hus- 
band, v*ho  in  that  cafe  can  claim  her  again, 
antl  tlareby  embroil  fuch  a  one  in  the  la- 
byrinths of  the  l.iw,  and  recover  a  good 
fum  ot  money  fiom  hitn. 

'Ihe  woman  lb  repudiated,  when  flie  de- 
parts from  her  husband,  may  take  along 
with  her  the  fime  quantity  of  gold,  lilver, 
cafli,  Uc.  as  he  brought  to  her  houle,  at 
the  time  of  his  eipoi.iing  her.  The  chil- 
dren born  during  tlie  time  of  their 
coliabitation,  the  husband  kee|)s -,  but  their 
M:ii.',ui>rt-i:s  feklom,  and  only  on  urgmt 
ocealions,  or  lor  capital  ofi'ences,  will  de.d 
thus  iLverely  with  their  wives  ;  yet  liieir 
concubines  are  tlus  k'rved,  on  every  light 
occalion,  when  tl.  humour  takes  th(.ni  to 
make  an  exchange,  or  that  they  are  fa- 
tiated  with  their  perfons.  Among  the 
meaner  tort,  when  .1  man  and  his  wne  tiif- 
agrec,  and  mutually  delire  a  fepar.iricn, 
they  are  divoicid  in  the  prefence  of  tome 
Imall  iudge  and  publick  officers,  by  mu- 
tu.d  dilcharges  in  writing  ;  but  the  village 
husband,  that  cannot  write  nor  read,  breaks 
a  co[ij'er  calh,  this  country  money,  or  a 
Hick,  in  the  pieliiice  ol  his  wite,  as  a 
tellimony  ot  his  rei'ilution  to  difmils  her  ; 
the  one  h.df  he  keeps  himlelt,  and  the  other 
he  gives  to  her,  which  the  carries  to  tlic 
heads  and  ciders  of  the  .1LL\1,  or  village, 
re(|uelling  them  to  bear  witnefs,  htr  huf-  hath  liifcharged  her  of  her  duty,  to 
be  any  lon;-,er  his  wife,  and  that  he  has 
notliipig  more  to  pretend  to  her,  for  ever  ; 
lo  llie  may  cither  keep  or  liuow  ,i\vay  t:ie 
piece  ot  calh,  or  Hick,  and  marry  again 
as  toon  as  the  ple.ifes. 

As  tor  aduheiy,  if  a  man  ot  quality 
furpri/.'s  his  wife  in  the  fad,  lie  may  Iree- 
ly,  it  he  i)leafes,  kill  her  and  her  para- 
mour, with  his  own  h.uids  •,  otherwife  the 
wom.'.n  is  lent  to  be  tranijiled  Codeatli  by 
an  elephant  ;  the  adulterer  is  delivered  to 
the  juilicc,  who  proceeds  with  him  toexe- 
CLuion  without  any  further  delay  :  liut 
with  the  meaner  fort  of  people  it  is  not  lo  ; 
they  mult  go  to  law,  where  the  otienders 
will  liave  fevere  p'anilhment  inllided  on 
them,  it  they  are  proved  guilty  of  tiie 





(■      ^ 

:  ''I 


■  ik»\ 

Wi:   ■'. 


The  Defer ipllon 

Chap.  8. 

Barom       The  ftory  that  Monurur  Tavemiere  rc-     the  cuftoms  of  :'iis  people,  or  congruous 
v.rf'y-',^  latcs  to  have  happcnal  whilll  l\is  brother     with  thiir  ilirpofitioivs  ;    wherefore,    in  all 
was  in  ToHqueiii,  is  not  at  all  agreeable  to    probability,  'tis  only  a  Iklion, 

CHAP.     VIII. 
Of  the  v'l/its  and  fa/limes  of  the  Tonquccncfc. 

Til  F.I  R  vilits  arc  generally  made  in 
the  afternoon.  It  is  uncivil  to  come 
to  any  great  man's  houle  before  liinner, 
unlefs  necelTitated  by  urgent  bufinefs,  or 
exprefsly  invited,  becaufe  they  then  have 
the  leall  time  to  fpare  •,  for  in  the  morning 
very  early  they  go  to  court,  to  attend  the  ge- 
neral •,  which  ;ittendance  takes  them  up  'till 
eight  o'clock  ;  when  they  come  home,  they 
imploy  themfelves  a  while  in  ordering  their 
domellick  concerns,  among  their  fervants, 
(if  more  important  (taa'-aliairs  will  [lermit 
it)  -,  the  little  fpace  that  remains  between 
that  and  dinner  is  referv'd  for  their  retire- 
ment and  repofe. 

The  princes,  or  great  Mandaicens,  ride 
either  on  elephants,  or  are  carried  in  a  huii^- 
t/tiick.,  and  followed  by  molt  of  their  ler- 
vants,  foldiers,  dependants,  i^c.  that  are 
not  otherwifc  occupied  in  I'uch  a  feafon, 
which  is  more  or  lei's  numerous,  according 
to  the  degree  of  the  perfon's  dignity  ; 
thofe  of  leiJer  rank  ride  on  horfeback,  and 
are  followed  by  as  many  as  they  are  able 
to  maintain,  without  limitation,  which 
ufually  is  not  above  ten  perfons,  but  to 
be  fure  all  that  can,  mult  go,  for  they  arc 
very  ambitious  of  many  attendants. 

If  he  that  gives  the  viiit  is  of  greater  qua- 
lity than  the  perfon  vifited,  he  dares  not 
to  ofler  him  any  thing  ot  meat  or  drink, 
no,  not  fo  much  as  a  beetle,  unlefs  he  calls 
for  it  :  Their  water  and  beetle  is  always 
carried  with  tliem  by  their  fervants. 

In  difcourfing  with  them,  el'pecially  if 
the  perfon  be  of  authority,  care  mull  be 
had  not  to  mo"e  any  mournful  lubjeit, 
either  diredly  or  indirectly  ;  but  things 
that  are  pleafant,  in  commendation  of  them, 
are  belt  api)roveii.  But  that  which  is  moll 
intolerable  in  thole  lords  is,  that  they  per- 
mit the  men  of  their  train  (a  rude  brutilli 
gang)  to  enter  with  them  into  the  molt  pri- 
vate apartments  of  other  peoples  houfes, 
efpecially  when  they  come  to  vifit  luao- 
peuKs,  where  they  behave  themfelves  very 
apiflily,  and  commit  many  abfurdiiies  and 
iin|)ertinencies  in  their  talk  and  jellings  ; 
and  moreover,  oken  Iteal  whatever  they 
can  lay  hold  on :  In  all  which  their  llupi- 
Iy*d  mailers  rather  take  delight,  than  check 
them  for  their  faucinefs  and  mildemea- 
nours.  But  if  they  are  invited  by  their  in- 
feriors or  equals,  then  they  entertain  them 

as  they  find  occafion,  either  with  tea  or 
meat,  fefi.  not  omitting  beetle,  which  is  al- 
ways the  firll  and  lall  p.irt  ot  the  regale.  The 
boxes  wherein  the  beetle  is  prelented,  arc 
generally  plain  lacquer'd,  either  black,  r..d, 
or  fome  grave  colour  ;  yet  the  gentry,  and 
the  princes  and  princelles  of  the  royal  blood, 
have  them  of  malfy  gold,  lilver,  tortoife- 
Ihell,  or  inlaid  with  mother  of  pearl  ;  the 
painted  and  gaudy  ones  are  only  ufetl  at 
their  facrifices  in  their  Pa^odu's.  But  fuch 
rich  boxes  as  M.  "Tavonierc  averrs  to  have 
feen,  to  the  value  of  four  or  five  hundred 
thouland  livres,  M.i\\c  Great  Mc^ut's  court, 
were  certainly  no  Tonquccn  ones  ;  for  dia- 
monds, ruble.-,  emeralds,  and  other  jewels 
do  not  grow  in  this  country,  neither  are 
they  in  requelt  among  tlie  natives,  nor 
could  that  have  been  brought  there  by  any 
Tsnqueen  amballador,  lince  the  king  fends 
none  thither,  nor  is  there  the  leall  com- 
merce betsvcen  the  two  nations. 

They  le'-'om  viiit  fick  perfons,  and  they 
hardly  care  to  admit  any  but  their  kindred 
and  rel.itionsto  put  them  in  mind  of  death, 
how  defperate  foever  tlieir  ftate  may  be, 
and  the  leall  admonition  to  fettle  their  af- 
fairs and  concerns,  would  be  a  heinous 
crime  and  unpanlonable  olFence  ;  To  that 
thofe  that  die  make  no  will,  which  deleft 
often  creates  vexatious  law-luits  among  the 
kindred,  if  the  dccealed  leaves  no  children 
behind  him,  even  to  the  ruin  ot  their  own 
eltates,  and  the  lol's  of  what  they  contend 

In  the  halls  of  great  mens  houfes  are 
leveral  alcoves,  where  they  fit  crofs-legg'vl 
upon  mats,  acconling  to  their  degree,  the 
higher  the  more  honourable  ;  and  thcfe 
feats  are  all  cover'd  with  mats,  anfwera- 
ble  in  finenefs  t^  their  llations  ;  except  in 
time  ot  mourning,  when  they  are  obligul  to 
ulecoarfe  ones.  As  for  carpets,  they  have 
none,  neither  can  they  aflb.'-d  them  ;  where- 
fore 1  wonder  at  our  author's  laying,  that 
the  mats  are  as  dear  as  a  fine  car[x.-t,  wiiiih 
at  the  cheapelt,  colls  from  thirty  to  filty  ru- 
pees, and  upwards,  iny\';y;.(andi';;n</;  where- 
as the  bell  and  fincll  mat  may  be  bought 
here  for  the  value  ot  three  or  four 
the  molt  •,  neither  do  I  any  J'.iiio- 
pemi,  befides  himfelf,  has  ever  feen  a  'I'oii- 
cjuecn  mat  nine  ells  Iquare,  and  as  Ibtr  as 
velvet:  However,  this  is  like  the  rell  of 


Chap,  8. 


or  congruous 
vforc,    in  all 

with  tea  or 
,  which  is  al- 
c  rigak-.  The 
irckntcd,  are 
;r  black,  r-ul, 
.'  gentry,  and 
-■  royal  blood, 
vcr,  tortoik- 
)t"  pearl  ;  the 

only  ukd  at 
I's.  But  kich 
ivcrrs  to  have 

five  hunilrcd 
\^cgiJ's  court, 
ncs ;  tor  dia- 
1  other  jewels 
,   neither  are 

natives,    nor 

there  by  any 
le  king  knds 
:;   Icalt   com- 

sns,  and  tliey 
their  kindred 
nind  of  death, 
late  may  be, 
i-ttle  tJieir  at- 
bc  a  heinous 
ncc  i  (()  that 
which  dcfeft 
lits  among  the 
IS  no  children 
of  their  own 
they  contend 

IS  houfes  arc 
t  crofs-leggM 
r  degree,  the 
',  and  thefc 
Its,  anfwera- 
IS  ;  except  in 
ts,  they  have 
hem  -,  where- 
laying,  tliat 
arjiet,  wiiich 
ty  to  fiky  ru- 
ly  be  bought 
ur  Ihillingsat 
'e  any  I'.uro- 
:r  leen  a  Ton- 
nd  as  k)tt  as 
L'  the  rell  ot 






•^  M 


[/>r:/>.//'<>^  7 

7'JfK   MAA'X£Ji  a  ORD/m  (^  fHOOSlXd  l./T£JtiB(>JlS 

iilf    , 

/.V  f  yiii/r  e 

fre/-  /'  !i  , 

fChap.  8. 

o/^  T  ()  N  Q.  U  E  E  N  - 



1e- llmirriMin^'  '"■"■' 

his  f.ililfn.  As  tor  i-iifliioii'!,  tliili'  ivopK- 
iill-  none,  cither  to  lit  or  lie  on  ;  l>ut  Uuy 
have  :i  kind  ot  bolllfr  ni;\ilc  ol  rinls  or 
m:lts,   to  Hcep  or  1   ill  on. 

As  tor  thfir  viftu.ds  they  ;mi-  curious 
enough  tlicn-in,  rhouyji  their liiit  iloth  not 
generally  I'lealL-  lbMn;v'r''-  I '"-'  lonininn 
fort  nnill  he  content  with  [ijrecn  tr.nle,  rice, 
and  r.dc  fill),  or  tln'  like  ',  tin:  {^rcat  lords 
ni..y,  it'  tlu-y  plcalc,  t'ud  th'inklves  witli 
the  lull  ill  the  land. 

I  can  make  no  coniparili)n  lor  luatnels 
between  the  Eui'ipcim  and  them,  in  their 
houfes,  wlierein  tliey  have  Init  little  or  no 
liirnituremore  thanul'uil  in  the  meanefl  cots, 
roinetinies  cables  and  iKiuhis,  feklom  chairs. 
They  ul'e  neither>  nor  napkins, 
nor  do  they  want  them,  rmee  they  do  not 
touch  •:,  ir  meat  with  tlieir  finijers,  but 
ull'  two  Hicks,  as  the  Chiiiijl-  md  'Jiii'iiiirii 
do.  All  their  viduals  is  ferved  in  little 
plates  and  diihe.s,  not  made  ot"  wood,  atul 
tlicn  varnilird  and  lacquer'd  ovir,  as  Mr. 
7',iZYnih-ir  .itfirms,  but  ot  China  ,md  Jjpiin 
wares,  which  are  in  dkvm  here.  I'erions 
of  i]udity  or  condition  ule  a  kiml  ol  tor- 
maluy  and  decency  at  their  t'e.dK  1  but  as 
for  the  relV,  as  toon  as  they  are  at  the 
bandjei,  which  ar,  linall  l\c(]uer'd  cables, 
they  do  not  (o  much  as  mind  any  dil'cour- 
fes  v  and  this  noc  ouc  ol  };ood  manners  or 
reverence  to  chc  ai^ed  and  grave  perfons, 
bin  a  greedy  dcfire  Co  fill  their  gucs,  they 
being  g-nerally  great  eaters  and  true  epi- 
cures 1  alto  they  may  be  atraid  to  lole 
their  Ijiare  by  prating,  whilll  others  make 
all  the  lilent  h.dle  they  can,  to  empty  die 
platters  and  dilhcs.  I  iiave  often  lien  the 
followers  and  attendants  of  MiiUiLirccus  at 
the  like  fport,  and  iifed  to  ailmirc  cheir 
c.icing  both  for  t]iiantity  and  greedinefs, 
ill  which  I  believe  no  nation  under  the  cope 
of  heave  n  can  m.itcli  them. 

As  tor  drinking,  though  the  clowns  and 
meaner  fort  leldom  t.dl  under  the  excels 
and  deb.iucheryot'llroiig drink,  yet  amongtl 
the  coLilicrs  and  Ibldiers  tlrunkennels  is  110 
vice.  A  fellow  that  can  drink  fmaitly,  is 
.1  brave  hkule.  It  is  no  cuilom  ot  theirs 
to  walli  tliiir  hands  when  they  go  to  table, 
only  they  riric  cheir  mouths,  becaule  ot 
the  beetle  ;  yet  alter  me.ils,  they  otten  wmIIi 
both  ,  and  jiaving  cleanled  their  teech  with 
a  piece  ot  bamboo,  prepared  tor  the  ]iur- 
pol'e,  they  eat  beede.  At  a  friend's  houte 
the  entercained  may  treely,  it  he  pleal'e, 
c.dl  tor  moie  boil'd  rice,  or  any  thing  elle, 
it'  he  is  not  f.U'sfietl,  which  the  holl  takes 
very  kindly.  They  do  not  ask  one  ano- 
ther, how  cliey  do,  buc  compliment  cliem 
with  a  Wjicre  have  you  been  thus  long  i* 
and,  Whac  have  you  done  all  chis  while? 
And  .1'  chey  know  or  perceive  bv  cheir 
rouiic.nance,  that  chev   have  been  iick  or 

Vol..   \l. 

iiulilpofed,  the  11  they  ask.  How  m.iny  cups  Bakon'. 
of  rice  chey  eit  .it  x  ?  ftor  they  m.d-.e  v^^^^/ 
three  in  .1   day,  b-ii.les  a  collation   in  the 
.iliernoon,  amongll  the  rich  .ind  wealthy^ 
and.   Whether  he  eats  with  an  .ijjpecite  or 
no  ? 

Of  .ill  the  p.irtinics  of  the  ioin^iieenr/f,  [i';.,tcj-,r,j 
they  .liite't  molb  their  ball  ,  ballads,  and 
liiigir,";,  which  are,  lor  the  moll:  part,  ai^ted 
ill  the  niglir,  and  lill:  'till  morning,  .ind 
art  what  Monlieur  7(/W7V!// )<•  calls  come- 
di'  ■;  :  A  very  improper  name,  and  rcfem- 
bliiig  them  in  no  r;  I  petit,  much  Ids  are 
chey  fee  out  with  beautiful  decorations  and 
machines,  as  he  liiys,  very  plealing  to  be 
hold  ;  and  tl'.ey  are  as  skilful  to  reprefent 
lea  and  river  water,  anJ  marine  combats 
thereon-  as  tlv.y  are  able  Co  defcribe  die 
light  in  I5ys,  becween  the /'.^s.'///^ and  the 
apaiiiiiitl,  ;  neitlier  have  they  in  the  city 
any  theatres  co  act  upon,  but  every  Man- 
il(iri'Cii\  hall,  and  the  yards  of  other  hou- 
fes  mull  ferve  turn  :  Yet  in  their  Aldeas 
they  li.ivc  finging  houfes,  erefted  at  the  cx- 
penee  ot  three,  tour  or  more //.VViVj  or  villa- 
ges, and  in  this  tl.ey  celebrate  their  teltival 
times,  fingii'g  .uul  banquetting,  after  their 
mode.  I'lu' ..("tors  ot  one  houfe  are  fome- 
times  three,  tour,  or  live  perlbns ;  their 
fees  are  no  more  than  a  thoufand  ca(h,  to 
the  value  ot  about  ,1  dollar  for  a  whole 
night's  labour  :  But  the  liberal  fpeSacors 
give  cliem  prefenrs,  as  ofcen  as  chey  per- 
lorm  any  tiling  di'Xteroully.  They  are 
ulli.illy  habitetl  in  i  oiintry  tarfeties,  palongs, 
fitins,  and  the  like.  Tluy  have  but  few 
longs,  and  noc  .ibove  tive  ditlerenc  cunes, 
anel  chofe  compoteil  molt  in  praife  of  their 
kings  and  generals,  inCerl'pers'd  wich  amo- 
rous incerjidtions  and  poecical  elegance. 
'I'lie  women  only  ilance,  and  llie  that  dan- 
ces mull  ling  too,  and  will  be,  becween 
whiles,  iiuerrupted  by  a  man  th.ic  plays 
the  part  of  a  jeller,  who  is  generally  the 
wittieft  iiimick  they  can  find,  and  fuch 
a  one  as  i=  able  to  make  tiie  company 
l.uigh  at  his  inventions  anti  poflures.  Their 
mulie.'.l  inllrumeiits  are  drums,  copper  ba- 
tons, hautboys,  guitCars,  wich  cwo  or  chrec 
lores  ot  violins,  ifc.  Befides  this,  they 
have  another  kind  of  ilancing,  with  a  b.ifon 
filled  or  piled  up  with  fmall  lamps  lighted, 
which  a  woman  tecs  on  her  head,  and  ciien 
dances,  turning,  winiling,  and  bowing  her 
boily  in  I'everal  fliapes  and  figures,  wich 
great  celerity,  without  fpiUing  a  drop  of 
oyl  in  the  lamjis,  co  che  admiration  of 
tiie  fpectacors  •,  this  ad  will  lall  sboat  lialf 
an  hour. 

Dancing  on  ropes  cheir  women  are  alio 
experc  ar,  and  Ibme  ■  m  perform  it  very 

Cock -lighting  is:i  mighty  gainc  amoncfjl 

them,  fo  that  il  is  become  a  princely  fport, 

K  anJ 



t    1' 

The    De/cript/oii 

ill    1.} 

!U  RON.  an<l  much  ill  f.ifliion  with  courtiers.  1  hey 
w-v.'x^  lofc  tiuK'li  thjt  lay  ag.iinll  ihc,  lur 
right  or  wrDiig  lie  mull  .itul  will  win, 
whiTcby  he  inipoVLTilhts  his  gnimlLcs,  lo 
that  thty  an:  not  al)lc  to  undertake  any 

'I  hey  diiigiu  niucii  in  lillung,  ami  have 
the  tonvenieiicy  of  many  riveis,  ant!  infi- 
nite ponds. 

As  tor  hunting,  there  is  t'carcc  \  wooti 
iir  loreit  proper  tor  tliis  exereife,  in  all  tlie 
country,  neither  are  tiiey  cx|H.rt  in  that 

hut  tiieir  grand  paftimc  is  their  new- 
year's  t'eall,  which  commonly  happens 
ahout  the  ijthot  Jamiury,  and  is  kept  by 
lome  thirty  days  i  tor  then,  befides  dan- 
cini;  ami  the  recreations  albret'aid,  all  their 
otiier  torts  ol  games,  as  playing  at  tooL- 
ball,  twinging  on  .\n  engine  Tccteil  ot  ',.m\- 
bv)o's,  at  moll  corners  ot  the  llroets,  tricks 
ol  bixlily  activity,  and  a  kind  ot  hocus- 
]3ixus,  are  brought  on  the  ilage,  to  inert, ..L 
Jiierriment  i  ncitiicr  are  they  l.ehind-hanil  to 
picpare  their  tealls  and  banquets  plentiful 
and  large,  llriving  to  outdo  eacii  other 
liurein,  tor  the  fpace  of  three  or  (bur  days, 
a<'Cording  to  their  ability  i  and  as  this  is 
indeed  tlie  time  to  gormandi/.e  and  debauch 
to  excels,  lb  he  is  accounted  the  moll  mi- 
fcrabJe  wretch  that  doth  not  provide  to 
welcome  his  triends  and  aciiuiintance,  tho' 
by  tb  doing  he  u  certain  to  beg  the  reit  of 
tiiat  year  for  his  livelihooil. 

riie  firtl  day  of  tlie  year  the  ordinary 
fort  do  not  ftir  abroail  (unlets  they  are  ile- 
j'cndants  ot  tcne  lords),  bur  keep  ihem- 
lelves  clofe  Hiul  up  in  their  hoiiles,  admit- 
ting none  but  tlieir  nearetl  relations  and  do- 
nulticks  •,  to  otiurs  they  would  deny,  on 
that  day,  a  draught  ot'  water,    or  a  coal 
tor  fire,  and  be  very  angry  too  at  any  one's 
making  fuch  a  requetl,  fuperllitioutly  be- 
li -ving  its  contequencc  would  be  to  tubjedl 
them  to  infallible  maledidicn,  and  that  if 
ti'.ey  fliould  give   any  thing  that  day,    it 
would  be  their  bad  delliny  to  give  conti- 
nually, and  beggar  theml'elves  thereby  at 
lall.     Their  realbn  fbr  not  flirring  abroad 
proceeds  from  the  tame   caufe,    which  is, 
lear  to  encounter  with  fome  ominous  thing 
or  other,  that  might  prcfage  evil  to  them, 
that  day,  which  would  make  them  unfor- 
tunate all   the  year  •,  for  they  obferve  fu- 
perllitioufly  many  frivolous  nicicies  as  gooil 
and  bad  luck  :  But  the  fecond  day  of  the 
new  year,  they  go  to  vilit  each  other,  and 
acquit   themlelves  of  their  duty  and  obli- 
gations to  their  tliperiors,  to  ibmbay  them; 
as  likewile  do  their  fbldiers  and  fervants  to 
them.     But  the  MiDuLiirens  go  the  tirll  day 
to  the  king  and  general,   of  which  they 

Clnip.  Jj      ^^i,,^, 

are   as  lareful  oblervcrs  as  the  others  arc 
Di.irp.tnd  |)recife  exactors  ot  this  atttendancc. 

Some  rttkon  ilieir  new  year  from  the 
2  •;rh  of  (111  ir  lit!  moon,  but  very  impro- 
perly i  their  ground  tor  it  is,  bccaute  the 
H/if  L  nil,  implying  as  much  as  /be  great 
J'cal  rrvfijfd,  is  then  put  into  a  box,  wit|i 
the  fate  downward,  tor  a  whole  month's 
time,  and  in  that  interval,  the  law  is,  as 
it  were,  laid  alletp,  .md  no  adls  wUitfo- 
ever  pals  uniler  the  taid  teal  •,  all  courts  ot 
judicature  are  lliut  u|)  i  ilebtors  cannot  l)e 
lei/.ed  on  i  fmall  crimes,  as  pitty  l.uceny, 
lighting,  beating  one  anoiher,  Ui.  elcap' 
with  impunity  i  only  trealbn  and  inurther 
the  governors  ot  the  city  and  province  take 
account  ot,  .md  keep  the  maletaClon.  pri- 
Ibners  'till  the  grand  li-'al  comes  to  be  active 
again,  to  bring  thc./i  to  their  trial,  isc. 
But  their  new  year  more  projx;rly  bcj'j'ns 
at  the  tirll  ot  their  new  moon,  which  tails 
out  ut'ually  about  our  25th  of  ''January  as 
atorefaid,  and  lalh,  according  to  the  Lbuu; 
cullom,  one  whole  montli. 

By  is  related  it  appears  how  exccf- 
lively  our  author  has  hyperboliz'd  on  thefe 
patlliges,  efpeeially  where  he  commends 
the  Tonquccnejc  for  laborious  and  indullrious 
people,  pruilendy  imploymg  their  time  to 
the  moll  advantage,  which  in  tome  degree 
may  be  granted  in  the  women,  but  tlie 
men  are  to  lazy  and  idle  generally,  that 
wue  they  not  by  mere  necelllty  compell'd 
to  work,  I  verily  believe  tiny  would  bo 
glad  to  fpend  their  time  only  in  eating  and 
lleeping  1  tor  many  will  furteit  theml(.lves 
by  over-gorging  their  tlomachs,  feeduig  as 
if  they  were  born  only  to  tar,  and  not  to 
eat  for  the  fupport  of  lite  chiefly. 

It  is  alio  a  millake  to  lay,  the  Tonquce- 
iiiff  deem  it  a  difgrace  to  have  their  heads 
uncover'd  ;  fbr  wlien  an  interior  comes  to 
a  Mandait-iH,  eitiier  upon  bulinets  or  tbmc 
errand  from  a  Ahimlann:,  he  has  always 
his  black  gown  and  cap  on,  and  the  Mun- 
(larnn  rectives  him  bare  ;  hut  it  the  mcf- 
fenger  comes  with  an  order  from  the  king, 
either  verbal  or  in  writing,  then  they  dare 
not  hear  the  metlage,  or  peruti.:  the  note, 
without  putting  on  their  gown  and  cap.  Of 
this  more  will  be  laid  when  I  come  to  tpcak 
ot  the  court  of  TonquKii. 

As  to  criminals,  they  arc  fliaveil  as  Ibon 
as  they  are  condemned  to  die,  b.caule  they 
may  be  known  and  apprehended  it  tiiey 
fhould  chance  to  out-run  their  keepers, 
which  is  a  diflerent  thing  from  being  unco- 
ver'd, which  M.  Tiivdmeid  talks  ot.  So 
likcwife  to  nail  maletadlors  on  crolles,  or 
to  ditmember  them,  by  fbur  finall  gallics 
that  row  feveral  ways,  are  tormv;us  un- 
heard-of in  this  country. 

C  11   A  P. 


lie  t)tlicrs  art 
wr  troni  tUc 

■rw'ry  impm- 
,,  btc.uilf  tlic 
I  as  Ibf  ^nnt 

a  bo\,  wicli 
iiolf  month's 
:lic  law  is,  as 

adh  wlviClb- 

all  iourt:i  ol 
ors  i.wmot  l)i: 
[iitty  larceny, 
r,  (If I.  cltajx- 

aiul  imirtluT 
prDvincf  take 
alft.iCioh,  pri- 
is  to  bfatHivc 
fir  trial,  (st. 
oj)erly  Lnj'ins 
n,  which  tails 
L)t  JtWiutry  as 
g  to  the  Lbma 

rs  iiow  excef- 
jliz'd  on  thi'li: 
he  comnicnils 
.ml  iiKlullrious 
;  thi  ir  time  to 
n  tonic  ilc;^;rcc 
men,  but  ilic 
licy  conipcUM 
hey  would  be 
'  in  eating  and 
it  thtmlelves 
hs,  feeding  as 
t,  and  not  to 

,   the  'Tonquce- 

ve  their  heads 

rioi'  comes  to 

line  Is  or  Ibnie 

le  has  always 

and  the  Man- 

ir  it  the  mct- 

om  the  king, 

len  they  dare 

uli.'  the  note, 

and  cap.   Ot 

onie  to  Ipeak 

laved  as  loon 
b.caule  they 
ded  it  they 
u'ir  keepers, 
being  uiico- 
ilks  ot.  So 
n  crolVes,  or 
linall  <;,iliies 
ornie.'Us  un- 

C   II   A   P. 


fjj    T  O  N  Q.  U  E  E  N, 

C  H  A  r.     IX. 

Of  the    i.iuucj  iikii  of  'ronqiiccn. 



rr^HF'    Voi.iftiftn.::   have  a  great   incli- 

X  n.iiion  tor  learning,  bccaule  it  is  the 
only  (Icp  to  acquire  dignity  anil  prcter- 
inenis,  which  encourageih  them  to  a  llu- 
dious  and  diligent  application  to  learning  •, 
which  is  often  attendeil  with  gooil  or  dl 
fuccels,  as  in  other  countries,  aci  oriling  to 
llieir  leveral  t.dents,  and  as  they  are  in- 
duoil  with  vivacity,  fpirit,  and  more-cfpe- 
<  iilly  as  they  are  turnilh'd  with  a  good  or 
bad  memory  1  which  is  the  rhiet  requiliu- 
tor  malU-ring  that  tort  ot  learning  which 
IS  in  repute  in  this  country,  which  conlilt- 
ing  moftly  in  hieroglyphiik  chancers, 
whereof  tliey  have  as  many  as  words  or 
things,  requires  a  very  retentive  memory. 
Hence  it  i.s,  th.u  tome  Icholars  are  tit  to 
take  degrees  upon  them  atier  twelve  or 
fifteen  years  fluily,  others  in  tweiuy-tive 
or  thirty,  many  not  in  thi  ir  lite-time. 

They  may,  as  t'<x)n  as  they  think  them- 
felves  able  or  capable,  adventure  their  trial, 
■wiihout  either  obligation  to  continue  longer 
a,  or  limitation  of  years:  Noi  have 
they  any  publick  Ichools,  but  every  one 
rhulirs  fuch  a  preceptor  for  his  children  as 
he  fancies,  at  his  own  coil. 

Their  learning  confilts  not  in  the  know- 
ledge of  langua;^(s,  as  among  us  in  liutopr, 
much  lefs  are  they  acqu.iinted  with  our  i^lii- 
lofbphy  :  but  they  h.ive  one  Confucius,  a 
ChwcJ'e,  (or,  as  the  people  call  him,  Cons^lu) 
the  founder  of  their  arts  andtci.nces,  wliich 
are  the  tame  with  thofe  of  the  Chunijc. 
'['his  man  compofed  himtelf  but  one  book, 
but  he  compiled  tour  others  from  the  works 
of  the  anricnt  Chiiufe  philof()[)hers,  con- 
faining  morals  and  political  precepts,  with 
their  rites  and  lacnticcs,  i3'c.  Moreover, 
his  difciples  have  out  of  his  works  extrafted 
divers  rules,  I'entences,  and  timilics,  Ht  tor 
the  tlate  in  general,  and  every  perfon  in 
particular  -,  all  which  is  collected  into  one 
toMie,  divided  into  four  parts,  and  enti- 
tled Ttv  four  Books,  which,  with  the  Hve 
beibre-mention'd,  make  nine  books,  and 
are  the  ancienteft  they  have,  and  of 
reputation,  that  they  will  admit  no  contra- 
didtion  whatfoever  againfl:  them  ;  ami  thefe 
are  the  tble  foundation  of  the  It-arning,  not 
only  of  the  C7)('/f;i- and  this  nation,  but  alto 
of  the  Japcinel},  fbme  iinall  differences  ex- 

The  faid  books  comprehend  likcwife  the 
greatelt  part  of  their  hieroglyphical  cha- 
r.iitcrs,  the  multitude  of  which  none  can 
eifily  affirm,  yet  they  commonly  reckon 
ninety    or  an  hundred    thou'u'.nd,    becaule 

their  learneil  have  a  way  of  compounding 
and  connecting  tluiii,  to  Ihrink  that  nuni-  * 
bcr  i  and  as  it  is  not  necellary  for  the  vul- 
gar fort  to  know  fo  many,  fo  very  few 
do,  ;uid  twelve  or  fourteen  thoufand  is  fuf- 
ficient  for  ulual  writing. 

They  are  wholly  ignorant  of  natural 
philotbphy,  and  not  more  skill'd  in  ma- 
thein.iticks  and  allronomy  1  their  poefy  I 
do  not  undeiflaml,  and  their  iiiufick  1  do 
not  find  very  dtlighttui  or  harmonious  •, 
and  1  cannot  but  wonder  by  what  taiulty 
Monlicur  Tavntiurc  has  difcovcr'd  ilu  ni  to 
be  the  iiioft  excellent  ot  all  the  oriental 
Jjeople  in  that  art. 

Having  thus  contufedly  mention *d  a  word 
or  two,  in  general,  of  their  learning,  I  re- 
turn to  the  feholars  :  They  mull,  in  the 
acquifition  ot  employ  and  dignity,  (I  do  not 
fay  nobility,  tor  the  curtom  is  here,  that 
all  the  honours  die  with  die  |Hrlbn,  and 
detcend  not  to  his  pofUrity)  pal's  through 
three  degrees  1  the  hrll  of  a  Singdo,  fbmc- 
thing  like  the  B,ihbc!ors,  in  tunfc  \  the 
feconil  a  Huti^-cong,  refembling  our  Lken- 
tiaUs  i  the  third  degree  is  a  Tuncy,  ccjual 
to  the  degree  ot  Dotlor  with  us. 

Out  ot  thele  doc'tors  they  choofc  the 
ubleil,  and  elidl  liim  Tr,ii{^iviru,  which  is 
a.'  mucli  as  to  fay,  a  pretiiieiit,  or  profeHbr 
o;  learning. 

And  inileed,  the  eleclition  of  thefe  lite-  [I'atc  7. 
railo<'s  is  manag'd  with  the  mott  com- 
mendable policy  and  iullice,  that  I  know 
of,  among  them  ;  for  whereas  in  all  other 
things  they  are  Iway'd  by  corruption,  par- 
tiality, or  private  palTions  ;  in  the  dillri- 
bution  of  thefe  degrees  they  relpeft  fin- 
gularly  the  deferts  of  [lerfons,  fince  no  man 
can  obtain  any  of  them,  unlets  he  is  found 
worthy  thereof,  by  a  llriit  and  moit  txacfl 

The  order  and  methotl  obferved  in  the 
promotion  ot  SmxJo's,  or  batchelors,  is 
thus  :  Once  in  three  years  it  is  cuttoinary 
tor  the  kin'  anil  geneial  to  nominate  two 
or  three  7.  .icifs,  with  fiime  lyiiw  .^yrt«, 
or  jullice  of  peace,  who  has  the  degree  <}t' 
lluHg^-iOUg^,  to  be  c.x.iminers  of  the  delign'd 
academy  in  that  province  where  theelec'tion 
is  to  be  made  (lor  in  this  tht  y  proceed  from 
one  province  to  anouier,  by  turns,  whither 
they  repair  imnudiately  on  receiving  their 
coinmillion.  Cjreat  care  is  taken,  that  none 
fpeak  w^ith  thofe  to  be  (Xamined  on  the 
way,  or  receive  any  bribes  ot  them.  Being 
arrived,  they  tai.e  up  tin  ii  lodgings  in  hou- 
les  built  ol  b.imboo's  antl  tlraw,    ineom- 




The  Defer iptiott 

Chap.  <j.     Chap. 

Bakoh.  nalll\l  witli  a  w.ill  ol'  tlio  rune  nutl'ri,lI^, 
^^V^*-*  Itaviiig  .1  Ij'.u  iuii'i  ini(ity  \A.\cv  in  tlu"  iniiUl 
ihcrcdt  tor  .1  tlu',\rri\  1  In-  I'ln.iri  arc  prc- 
fetuly  li'  IrDiu  llu'  //'(''.v  .'^v  ;//  ,uul 
tlu-  rtll  111  ililliiKl  .ip.iri Hunts,  aiul  ,ut  not 
tu  I'pj.ik  OIK-  with  till'  otlM,  iliiiiiiy  tluir 
function,  Itriiit  t;u.irils  kinj',  krpi  .it  tlit  iloors,  .mil  .ill  lonurs  in  or  out  .irc 
iV.irciu'il  lor  iLiptrs,  wiitinys  c-",.  It  .my 
i»  fouiui  to  ii.ivi'  ti.inti;rilli(.l  liirtin,  lu'  !•> 
rigoroiilly  ihiiiiIIkiI,  .uui  loks  his  Jii;;nity. 

Ill  the  inomiii;;  ot  tlu' il.iy  iiriltnl)M  lor 
tlu-  loniniiiKing  ol  tin-  I.ikI  i x.imin.itiim, 
ail  till'  IhuKnt-  rilort  to  ilu!.  jiLilc,  win ri' 
they  Hiui  ..n  olJucr,  who  cxiiiliits  to  tlum 
live  (hort  tuutntts,  written  in  Ut- 
ters, wJKTi'ol  every  one,  as  many  as  there 
.ire,  may  t.ike  cojiies  •,  which  lieiiig  iloiu-, 
they  are  all  liarilml  tor  papers  or  other 
writings,  aiul  tlun  pL.t'il  on  liie  bare grounil 
of  the  y:iril  .ilori  nuiitioiiM,  at  {>,o(k1  .iiul 
fqiial  ilillance,  ami  many  watilus  ,ire  kt, 
that  none  tomes  to  fpcak  .. ithilniii. 

'I'hus  they  lit  to  write  their  ihtmc;, 
which  ihey  mull  liiiilli  beroreevinintr,  nei- 
ther mull  the  taiil  ani'wcr  eoniain  more 
than  twenty-lour  liilts  ot  p.ipcr,  And  as 
every  ore  brings  in  his,  he  t.ilhns  to  it, 
on  a  particular  Iheet,  his  name,  the  names 
of  his  parents  ami  village,  v.  Iiieh  tlic  f'niii  to 
tear  otl,  anil  ni.irk  ihe  aiilwer  ami  paper 
of  names  with  the  lame  number,  which  are 
put  up  feverally,  according  to  their  provin- 
ces and  aldeas. 

Ail   the  p.ipers  being    thus  llrved,    the 

TuNcid  fend  liiein  to  the  // V/.i 



names  of  their  authors  being  kept  in  the 
cudody  of  another  ollicer  to  be  examined, 
wlio  throws  out  ail  the  bad,  .uul  lends  the 
good  ones  to  the  rniuiis  again.  I'hey, 
upon  a  ilridt  review,  put  out  a  great  many 
more,  fo  that  fometinies  ol  lour  or  live 
thoufand  pretenders,  only  one  ilioufind  are 
•ipproved  ot  tile  lirll  time  •,  the  trcond,  per- 
liaps,  no  niore  th.iii  live  luindreil  -,  and  on 
the  l.dl  pi  cot",  only  three  huiulred  are  to 
be  gradu.ited  batchclors.  Such  as  liave  be- 
luved  themfelves  well  in  the  lirlt  trial, 
their  names  come  out  in  publick  witliin 
eight  or  ten  days  .ifter,  to  be  prepared  lor 
the  feeond  ex.iminatioti  ;  .mil  thole  wliole 
names  are  thus  thrown  out,  need  not  tlay, 
for  they  cannot  Ik  .idmitted  that  telllons 
any  more.  In  the  fame  m.inner  they  con- 
tinue the  feeond  and  third  trial,  only  their 
task  at  the  feeond  trial  is  but  of  three 
fentenees,  and  theanfwer  twelve  fides  i  the 
fill  of  two  leiiteiKes,  and  its  reply  eight 
lilies,  l>ut  more  dilhcult  than  the  former. 
Whofocver  palles  thel'e  tri.ils  ib  declared 
batchelor,  and  has  his  name  regiller'd 
among  thofe  of  the  lame  rank,  in  the  book 
of  ftate,  and  from  that  time  they  pay  but 
half  tlie   t.ixes  which  they  were  rated  at 

before,  ami  likewile  enjoy  Ibmc  Otlur  pet- 
ty immunities. 

Now  lollow,  tluir  manner  of  eieilting 
the  y/".;;-.-.',j  ,  or  lici  ntiites.  'I'lule  .iro 
l.ieiiled  out  of  tlie  b.iti  helors,  more  or 
lets  as  til'  king  |  !iales  to  ordi  r  i  they 
are  ex.imin'il  by  the  lame  ollictrs,  .mil 
created  alternately  in  the  place  alorttaid, 
where  the  batclieiors  were.  It  they  can 
overcome  but  one  proot  more,  whicli  i<i 
tile  fourth,  ini  lulling  the  three  pnecding 
of  the  >iiij(i'id'Sy  or  b.uehelors,  they  beioine 
licentiates,  i  he  tormality  uled  iii  this  pro- 
ceeding is  in  a  manm  r  tlu-  Lime  with  the 
l()rmer,  only  tliey  and  their  ex.iminers  arc 
Hill  more  levcnly  watilud,  and  they  are 
not  permitted  to  lee  or  fpeak  witli  any  of 
tlie  Competitor'.  •,  thiy  .ire  feparated,  .mil 
dillant  eiiouj'Ji  tVom  eai  li  other,  when  they 
write  tluir  tiuilitations,  t/i.  .-Vnd  .dl  thote 
llidii^-iuii^s  ol  loniier  ire.ition,  mutUe.ive, 
at  tliat  time,  the  province  where  the  Ichool 
is  held,  by  repairing  to  the  cipital  city, 
and  abide  there  'till  tlie  end  ot  the  att  -. 
many  tpies  are  let  over  them,  and  they  arc 
numbred  every  day.  The  like  care  is  re- 
commended to  the  governors  of  the  other 
provinies  about  the  laid  ///(>/(f-i </>/(; j,  during 
the  foleinnity,  to  prevent  Irauds  and  de- 
ceits 111  that  belialf. 

1  he  examiners  propound  three  fentenees 
out  of  the  book  ot  their  prince  ot  phiio- 
loiihers,  Coii/iiciiis,  and  lour  more  out  of  the 
volume  of  his  ilitcipiis;  the  arguments  of 
to  orations,  which  the  c.iiulid.ite  is 
to  aniwer  with  to  many  themes  in  writing, 
whicli  is  lobe  in  an  eleg.iiu  and  teiitentious 
Ityle,  .ind  adorned  witii  the  bell  ot  their 
rhetorick  ;  the  more  concite  the  better. 

I'he  examiners  then  reject  the  worll,  and 
j'refeiit  the  belt,  who  are  to  proceed  to  the 
'/'«/;. /V.(,  or  chiel  examiners,  and  they  ihule 
thofe  that  are  to  b"  .uiniitted  gr.iduates, 
.md  expoli:  their  nan.  ■  .ith  nuieh  lerenio- 
ny.  Ihe  privilege  a  and  immunities  ot'  the 
licenti.ites  are  tar  greater  than  the  batchc- 
lors •,  belides,  they  have  the  honour  to  be 
prclented  to  the  king,  who  gives  to  each 
ol  them  a  thoufand  fmall  pieces  ol' coin, 
about  the  value  of  ,i  dollar  in  money,  ,inJ 
a  piece  ol  bl.ic.k  calliioetor  .i  gown,  worth 
about  three  lioll.irs  more. 

The  lail  or  third 

egree,  c.illed  7:')ic\, 
aniwer.ible  to  our  doctors,  is  conlerred 
every  tour,  at  the  c.ipital  city  or  court 
of  the  kingdom,  in  ,i  pirticular  p.ilaie  with 
marble  g.Ues,  foiineily  the  bell  in  the 
country,  but  now,  through  age,  miiihde- 
ciy'd.  The  choieell  .mil  le.irneillt  ot  the 
Hiiiv^-coir^iy  or  licenti.ites,  are  only  admit- 
ted to  this  trial  ;  ot  many  competitors  lew 
are  I'uccefsful.  Their  examiners  are  the 
king  himlelt,  the  primes,  and  molt  emi- 
nent doctors  of  the  realm,  with  ollur  piin- 
;  cipal 

Chap,  i),     Chjp. 


«/    T  O  N  Q.U  n  E  N. 

mc  otlitr  pct- 

T  (if  ckiiing 
1  lull.'  .irc 
rs,  inoiv  or 
Drill  r  \  they 
odiitrs,  anil 
Ki-  .Uurilaid, 
II  tliiy 
)ri',  whitli  is 
•(r  pnicling 
till  y  luioine 
;tl  ill  this  jiro- 
iiiK-  witli  the 
I'x.iniirurs  are 
.iml  tlify  arc 
.  with  any  of 
par.ui'il,  and 
I',  when  ihcy 
Ami  all  tliolc 
,  inull  leave, 
■re  the  lihool 
capital  city, 
1  ot  the-  aet  J 
ami  they  are 
\e  care  is  re- 
o(  the  other 
i(/«i;j,  Uurinj; 
Juds  ami  de- 
uce leiUenccs 
He  ot  philo- 
Jie  DUt  1)1  the 
iryununts  of 
caiiiiitlate  is 
s  in  \Miiiiig, 
.1  Icnientious 
bell  ot  their 
le  Ih  tier. 
le  worll,  and 
nil  ceil  to  the 
il  till  y  I  liulb 
.1  graduates, 
mil  tereiiio- 
mitiesot'  the 
I  the  batehe- 
iiiour  to  be 
ves  to  each 
ees  ot  coin, 
money,  and 
;o\vii,  worth 

illeil  Timcy, 
is  conlerred 
iiy  or  court 

[lalaic  witli 
lull  in  the 
■,  mmh  de- 
I'llll  (.1  the 
only  adiiiit- 
prtltors  lew 
-Ts   are    the 

Miolt  enii- 
lotlur  piin- 


cipal  inapiniaiiv*.  Thi^  trial  is  in  moll 
cnciunllani 's  li!se  the  two  tormer,  cxiept 
in  tlie  ijuil' ions  propounded,  wlii(:h  are  both 
of  p,re.U  r  luiniber,  ami  more  intricate, 
grave,  ami  Ipeiiuus,  b'liiR  lonimoidy  the 
nioll  diineiilt  part  ot  their  etlmks,  poll 
ticks,  and  civil  law,  and  lomething  y^i 
pivl'y  and  rhetoriel;,  all  which  they  are  tu 
expound  and  retblve  in  writing,  at  lour 
fcveral  times,  in  the  Ipace  of"  twenty  days, 
and  he  that  doth  it,  is  admitted  doiitor. 
This  is  no  k\^>j  task,  conlideriny  what  a 
burtlun  it  is  to  the  memory,  to  retain  all 
the  cliarai'lers  of  the  lour  lall  ot  the  nine 
book,  ot  Coiijiintii,  which  ntcellarily  tluy 
mull  have,  word  fur  word,  by  heart,  to 
acquit  thcmlMve.  will  then  in. 

riiey  wiitr  their  themes  and  meditations 
on  the  exhibited  linrences,  in  a  dole  cage 
made  of  bamboo's  liir  that  purpofi',  and 
rov.r'd  with  callicoe,  wherein  they  lit  from 
the  morning  to  n'l'.ht,  being  llarchM,  that 
they  have  nothing  about  them,  Init  pen, 
ink,  and  clean  paper  \  and  to  watch  them 
the  narrowiT,  two  iloclois,  or  'Tii>uici,  fit 
at  a  good  dillance  from  them,  under  iim- 
brelfi's.  'I'hus  they  are  ferved  at  four 
dilbiui  tijiKs,  before  they  are  made  Tiincui, 
or  doctors.  'I'lie  king  and  general  honour 
this  tolemnity  with  tlieir  pretence  the  two 
fird  days,  as  the  moll  im[iortan:,  and  le.ive 
the  compleating  thereol  to  the  minillers. 
Thofe  thus  gr.iduated  are  congratulated  by 
their  frienils,  appl.uided  by  the  fjieclators, 
and  honour'd  by  their  biother  dodlors,  with 
many  complimenta!  cxpn  llions  ;  the  king 
pretc-nts  each  of  them  with  a  bar  of  filver, 
of  the  value  of  fourteen  dollars,  and  a  piece 
of  filk,  befides  the  revenue  of  foinc  akkas 


or  villages  fjr  tlu'ir  m  untcnnncr,  winch  is  B*  Rom. 
more  or  lets,  acLording  to  lavour  or  de-  ^""V**^ 
lert,  and  they  are  tcallcd  at  the  publi<  k 
t  xp'  nee  ot  tlieii  akkas  tor  fome  time.  Out 
ot  thel'e  the  principal  tiitj'illr itcs  of  tho 
kingdom  .ire  clioleii,  and  tin  y  are  linr  Fm- 
balladois  to  C/jitiii,  and  ire  permitted  to 
wear  CLiiifJc  bootiand  caps,  with  their  pro- 
per veil. 

'I'lie  reji(5led  luenti,iU"i  may,  i(  they 
ple.ife,  continue  their  lludy,  and  try  tor- 
tune  again  \  it  not,  they  are  capanli  of 
tome  iiugiltraey  in  the  country,  as  jufticc 
ot   peace,   head  ot  an  aldea,  (ifc. 

i'lie  bati  helors  ii.ive  the  tame  privilege  i 
and  thote  that  are  unwilling  to  make  any 
further  progrels  in  learning,  may  find  like- 
will,  imployment,  if  they  have  money, 
among  the  governors  of  provinces,  in  the 
courts  of  juilice,  or  as  clerks,  ftcwards, 
lecretaries,  or  follicitors  to  the  Mvida- 
fifih  i  .iiid  in  all  this  an  eloquent  tongue  is 
not  to  requifi'.'-  as  a  good  pen. 

Such  llre-wiirks  as  Monfieur  Tavernure 
nuiuions  thel'e  people  to  be  cxquifite  in 
the  making  of,  I  have  met  none  all  the 
time  I  tiequented  this  country,  nor  any 
other  forts,  unlets  it  be  fquibs,  or  the  like. 
And  as  tor  thofe  machines,  or  change  of 
lijenes  in  every  aft  ol  their  comedy,  they 
may  be  long  enough  fought  alter,  but 
will  never  be  found  here,  wherc-cver  he  faw 

In  allrology,  geometry,  and  other  ma- 
thematical feiences,  they  are  but  little  skil- 
led, but  they  underlland  arithmetick  rea- 
fonably  well  ;  their  cthicks  are  confufedly 
deliver'd,  not  digeiled  into  formal  inethod, 
as  ii  tlivir  logick. 

CHAP.     X. 

Of  the  fhy/icians  ami  dijiafvs  of  the  Tonquecnelc. 

EV  E  R  Y  one  that  pleafes  may  be  a 
phyfii  ian  in  Tonqiian,  and  indeed  every 
one  almoll  is  his  own  doftor,  whereby  this 
noble  fcience  is  become  the  publick  pradlice 
of  the  very  dregs  of  the  nation,  to  the 
difgrace  ot  the  publick  in  tolerating  it. 

Their  principal  tludy  in  this  fcience  confills 
onlyof  an  examination  of  fome  C/jmyi' books, 
that  direft  them  how  to  boil  and  compound 
their  roots,  herbs,  and  fimples,  with  fome 
obfcure  notions  of  their  fcveral  qualities, 
nature,  and  virtue,  but  generally  focontu- 
fed,  that  they  know  littk  or  nothing,  un- 
til they  add  thereto  their  own  experience. 
They  underlland  hardly  any  thing  of  ana- 
tomy, or  the  n.icure  and  compofition  of 
mens  bodies,  wah  the  divi'ions  of  the  fc- 
veral parts  theii.yi,  which  might  lead  them 

Vol.  VI. 

to  form  a  judgment  of  the  difeafes  incident 
to  the  human  fyftem  •,  but  attribute  all  to 
the  blood,  as  the  principal  caufe  ot  all  the 
diforders  that  befall  the  body,  and  there- 
fore confider  no  further  the  conflitution  or 
temper  in  the  application  of  their  reme- 
dies ;  and  with  them  it  is  enough  to  fuc- 
ceed  well  in  three  or  four  cures,  though  by 
mere  chance  (for  they  are  hardly  ever  able 
to  give  a  rcafon  for  what  they  do)  to  get 
the  reputation  of  an  excellent  Medkus, 
which  oftentimrs,  as  it  increafes  their  prac- 
tice, fo  gives  :hem  a  greater  power  to  kill 
their  fellow-creatures.  Their  patients  are 
generally  very  impatient  under  the  hands 
of  their  doftors,  who  if  he  doth  notaflbrd 
them  prefent  eafe  and  fpeedy  cure,  they 
fend  for  other  help,  and  fo  often  go  from 
F  bad 


The  Dejcnpiiuii 

CI  lap. 

Barov.  b.'-.i  to  woJl',  'ii!l  tl:cy  .ire  clt'ier  wt-l!  or 

Ik'.uI,  ;iii.l  wiili  tlic  boiic  of  ;i  lifli  ti  d  t'> 
;i  Irn.ill  iliik,  in  loriii  like  tlic  lioil.- 
flc.inii  in  J::-J.i\'J,  whi'-!i  inllriinuiu  is 
.ip;'' -•Li  lo  iJiL-  v.'in  ot  till-'  fbrclicui;  tiicn 
tluy  [i,ivc  tiieicon  a  fillip  wich  ;i  linj^tr, 
anil  liic  blood  gulhcs  out.  Tiu-ir  <.;r.ind 
Rinedy  U  fire,  in  moll  aillcmpcrs,  which 
is  ufud  .IS  they  fee  c.iiife,  no:  regarv'':ii; 
therein  cither  the  time  of  d;iy  or  niglic 
prcciiVly  :  The  m.ittir  wherewith  they  burn 
is  l!ic  le.d'  of  a  tree,  well  dry'd,  and  then 
bc.iten  in  .i  mortar  until  it  grows  almoll 
like  to  our  beaten  hemp,  and  this  they 
take  and  hx  on  every  place  to  be  burnt 
(for  they  do  it  in  many  places  at  the  lame 
time)  lo  much  as  will  lie  on  a  farthing, 
fl:riking  each  parcel  with  ink  of  China  at 
the  bottom,  lliat  it  may  Hick  to  the  skin, 
then  tliey  lire  it  with  a  match  of  paper  : 
Many  accojnt  this  a  Ibvereign  remedy, 
how  true  I  cannot  affirm  ;  however,  I  am 
certain,  that  it  puts  the  patient  to  great 
torment,  and  that  our  ule  of  letting  blood 
is  but  a  flea-bite,  in  comparifon  of  it. 

But  mofi:  common  and  frequently  amongft 
them  cupping  is  ufed,  becaufe  cheap  and 
cafier.  Their  way  here  is  much  after  the 
fame  manner  as  ours  in  Etnope,  only  that 
they  have  calabaflls  inftead  of  glaffes. 

Of  anatomy  they  underfland  nothing, 
as  I  faid  before,  and  of  furgery  little,  ad- 
miring much  our  Europeans  art  in  that  be- 
half. To  broken  bones  they  apply  certain 
licrbs,  which,  they  fay,  will  heal  them  in 
the  fpace  of  twmty-four  days,  and  cement 
Tjie  grandees  drink  tlic  herb  tea,  of  them  as  ftrong  as  ever.  They  have  ano- 
Ciina  and  Jiijiiii,  but  'tis  not  much  ad-  thcr  remedy,  which  is,  to  take  the  raw 
mired;  tiiey  ule  mofl:  their  native  tea,  cal-  bones  of  hens,  aj.J.  beat  them  to  powder, 
led  by  them  Clun  Bung,  the  leaf  of  a  making  thereof  a  pafte,  which  applied  to 
certain  tree,  and  Cluiiiay,  the  buds  and  the  part  alfefteil,  is  cltecmed  by  them  a 
ilowers  of  another  certain   tree,  w^hich  af-     fbvereign  medicine. 

ler  they  are  dry'd  and  roailed,  they  boil  and  Their  little  children  arc  much  fubjec'l 
drink  tlie  liquor  hot  •,  the  lafl  is  of  a  good  to  dangerous  obllruclions,  which  deprive 
pleafant  talle.  Ikfidesthcfe  two  forts,  they  them  of  the  benefit  of  nature,  both  by 
luve  mai.y  other  forts  of  licjuor,   made  of    ftool  and   urine,    caufing   their  bellies    to 

^^  "Si^  kili'd,    for  ot  patienec  on  one  lide, 
and  i'.iJ.;^nrat  or.  tiivt  oilier. 

Tliefe  pi \>pl.-  generally  on  vifitirg  a  p.i- 
tlent,  feel  tiii;  puile  in  two  pl.u'es,  ani.1  that 
iip'On  till'  wrill,  as  the  Eiiruj i\ih>  \  but  they 
niull  be  the  CbUieje  phyli(  ians,  whom 
Monfuur  'Tuv,n:!,ie  extolls  for  their  skill 
iii  the  piille  ;  and  I  own  Ibme  ot  that 
nation  exceil  in  it,  Inii  tlie  i'.ir  greater  num- 
ber are  mere  pretenders  to  tliis  art,  and 
atlecl:  to  anv.ife  the  patient  by  oftcntatious 
I oniecf uies,  ami  conceited  and  confufed  no- 
tions, to  infpire  a  belief  of  their  skill,  in 
iiifcovering  thereby  the  caufe  of  difeafes, 
and  fo  gull  the  credulous  i)atients  cf 
their  money,  and  oftentimes  their  health 
to  boot. 

1  hefc  people  have  no  apothecary  among 
ciiem,  every  one  that  profefi'-th  the  ...'t  ot 
phyfi  k  prepares  the  dole  liimfelf,  which 
coniifts,  as  I  mention'd,  in  the  conipolition 
ut   herbs  antl  roots,  boiled  in  water. 

The  pef\ilence,  gravel,  and  tlie  gout  .ire 
hardly  known  in  ihefe  countries :  Fevers 
agues,  dyfenteries,  the jaundice,  fir.all-j)ox, 
(Si.  reign  here  moll  ;  to  all  which  they 
adminifltr  the  laid  drugs  for  remedies, 
fometiines  with  defired  fuccefs,  wherein 
more  is  to  be  afcribed  to  the  patient's  own 
care,  fparing  diet  and  abliinence,  (in  which 
they  are  moll  fingular,  oecafion'd  perhaps 
by  their  more  than  coniinon  fear  of  death) 
than  the  skill  and  JLid^ment  of  the  phy- 
(ieian.,  roots,  (Jc. 

I  need  not  here  dcfcribe  the  quality  and 
virtue  of  the  Cij'wd  and  Jitian  tea,  fmce 
tliey  are  lb  well  known  in  England^  and 
moil  other  jjarts  of  Euroj-c  ;  only  I  will 
note,  how  grofly  M.  Tavenikre  was  mifla- 
ken,    to  prefer  X.\\i:'J<i[aii  tea  before  that  of 

fwell  fo,  that  often  their  lives  are  endan- 
gered thereby.  Their  remedy  for  this  is, 
cock-roches  and  onions  roailed  and  beaten 
together  •,  this  they  apply  to  the  navel  of 
the  child,  which  is  often  attended  with 
good  fuccefs. 

Thefe  people  affirm,  that  crabs  are  turn- 

Cbiiia,  when  in  the  choice  of  them  there  is    ed  into  ftones  by  the  power  of  the  fun,  and 
above  thirty  pa-  ccH.'.  diflerence.  ufe  them  as  phyfick,  but  not  in  fevers  and 

Phlebotcmy,  or  blood-letting,  is  rarely     dyfenteries :  Moreover,    they  take  up  by 

prailifed  amongfl  il 

they  do  it,  'tis  not  atle 

arm,  and  with  a  lancet,  but  on  the  fore-    lick. 

people,    and  when     the  fea-fidc  a  kind  of  cockles,  which  being 
beaten  to  powder,  they  drink  in  the  cho- 



fPUtc  S.] 


C  H  A  P. 

CI  lap, 

;i  fifli  ci  d  tcj 
<c  tlic  liorl--- 
iiiltriiinuu  \i 
orclicul  -,  then 
with  .1  finger, 

'I'hc-ir  ['^TMu\ 
nipcr.s,  which 
not  regar>''!is 
ci;iy  or  niguc 
with  they  burn 
y'll,  and  then 
growi  ahnolt 
and  this  they 
e  CO  be  burnt 
es  ac  the  iiime 
m  A  farthing, 
k  of"  China  at 
:k.  to  the  s.kin, 
[ch  of  paper  : 
eign  remedy, 
uwevcr,  1  am 
ticnt  to  great 

letting  blood 
ifon  ot  it. 
lently  amongft 
jfe  cheap  and 
inch  alter  the 
ope,  only  that 
of"  glaffes. 
and  nothing, 
:ry  little,  ad- 
rt  in  that  be- 

apply  certain 

heal  them  in 
s,  and  cement 
ey  have  ano- 
takc  the  raw 
n  to  powder, 
:h  applied  to  • 
■\  by  them  a 

hiuch  fubjeft 
hich  deprive 
re,  both  by 
ir  bellies  to 
s  are  endan- 
1/  for  this  is, 
i  and  beaten 
the  navel  of 
tended   with 

absare  turn- 
thc  fun,  and 
in  fevers  and 
take  up  by 
which  being 
in  the  cho- 

C  II  A  P. 



i^     jChap.  1 1. 

0^  T  O  N  Q.  U  E  E  N. 

CHAP.     XI. 




Of  the  ciig'iihil  govenimer.t,  lazu,  and  policy  of  the  Tonqticeiicfc,   ••J!:'ith  Jonie 

confidetixtiuHi  the, ton. 

IT  is  without  all  difpute  that  the  Ton- 
queeneefe  ever   were  a  nation  of  them- 

queenecje  ever   were  a 

felves  dillerent  from  the  Cbmeje,  who  call 
them  Maiij'),  or  llarbanans,  and  tlieir 
country  Ganiiam,  bccaufe  fituated  far  to 
the  louth,  in  reference  to  them,  and  the  in 
liabitants  bearing  a  gre.ic  affinity  with  other 
IiiJiaits,  in  eating  penang,  colouring  their 
teeth,  going  barefoot,  and  that  their  right 
great  toe  ftandeth  athwart  from  their  foot, 
as  is  to  be  feen  yet  by  Ibme  of  the  Tcnqtieen 
cafl.  But  how  this  country  was  govern'd 
before  it  was  made  a  province  of  China,  is 
hard  to  know,  lince  they  had  in  thole 
(lays  no  characters ;  by  confeqiiencc  no 
hiftory  of  that  time  can  be  extant  among 
them  :  what  was  afterward  compiled  thereof 
may  be  fufpeded  as  tirtions,  invented  ar 
pleafure,  i;nd  indeed,  they  are  moll  o. 
tliem  I'o  unaccountable,  that  tiiey  ought 
rather  to  be  look'd  upon  as  dreams  and 
chimera's  than  hillorital  narrations  i  nei- 
ther is  there  mucli  appearance  of  verity  in 
thofe  relations  of  theirs,  which  make  this 
people  lb  valiant,  that  they  were  not  only 
able  to  contend  with,  but  vanquifli  alio 
the  formidable  armies  of  the  prodigious 
empire  ot  China,  and  maintain  their  liberty 
in  fpite  thereof  for  many  ages  :  but  'tis 
moll  likely  that  they  have  fet  the  bci't 
face  in  their  narrations,  upon  their  actions, 
that  they  might  not  hand  thcmfelves  down 
to  polterity  and  to  llrangers  in  the  bafe 
light,  which  it  fetnis  to  me,  their  cowar- 
dice and  ill  conduit  have  deferved. 

They  pretend  they  have  had  the  ufe  of 
the  Chincjc  charaiftcrs  amongll  them  before 
the  reign  of  Ding,  one  of  their  firft  kings, 
according  to  their  bell  hillorians,  which, 
by  computaticjn,  cannot  be  lefs  than  two 
thouland  years  ;  if  fo,  I  infer,  they  were 
once  before  either  conqiie'-'d,  or  voluntary 
fubjccts  to  that  empire,  becaufe  the  China 
laws,  rices,  culloms,  characters,  &c.  could 
have  been  neitiier  of  that  anciquity,  or  fo 
entirely  and  all  at  once  introJuceil  among 
them,  as  it  was  by  thdr  own  tellimony  -, 
bcfides,  this  acrrecs  with  the  China  chroni- 
cles,  chat  mention,  about  the  fame  time 
their  empire  in  great  glory,  calling  it 
a  triunqihanc  one,  whofe  limics  extended 
as  far  as  Siam  ;  therefore  there  is  no  rea- 
fon  to  believe  this  neighbouring  kingdom 
could  have  remained  unmolefted,  fincc  it 
lies  as  a  bar  jull  in  the  way  to  hinder  and 
obflnidt  their  progrels,  but  rather,  that  it 

was  nnmediately  nicorporated    with  their 

Yet,  i:  may  be,  the  Chiiii'fe  did  not  keep 
the  country  the  lirll  time  long  under  fub- 
jedion,  but  left  them  on  the  invafion  of 
the  Turtan,  or  on  fome  otiur  motives,  fo 
that  after  their  departure  Dii:^  was  king : 
Now,  wheciier  they  made  him  fo,  or  whe- 
ther he  ufurpcd  the  regality,  by  the  afTi- 
llance  of  great  numbers  of  vagabonds,  and 
other  fcum  of  the  nation,  is  ditferently  de- 
liver'd.  They  fay,  that  k'mgDing  had  cn- 
j;>y'd  thf  fccpter  but  a  fmall  time  before 
t!ie  greac  ones  murmured  againll  him  ;  the 
malcontents  finiiing  the  conunon  people 
ililbbedicnt,  whole  aHedlions,  whether  he 
had  loll  by  cruel  and  harfli  ufige,  or  that 
they  diflained  to  be  any  longer  fubjed:  to 
their,  as  ic  commonly  f'alls 
out  with  people  accuilomed  to  fervitude, 
to  be  incapable  of  ufiiig  well  their  new- 
recover'd  liberty,  (with  other  occult  mo- 
tives and  malignant  Influences  that  caufed 
tlie  cllefts  of  thofe  diftradlions,)  they  fell 
inco  oj)en  rebellion,  and  took  arms  againfl 
Ding,  whom  they  murdered,  whereon  cn- 
fued  blootly  civil  wars  for  many  years,  'till 
being  weary,  chey  ciiofe,  by  general  con- 
ft-nt,  a  puiffanc  prince  of  cheirs,  called 
Lecdayhan^,  for  cheir  king. 

In  his  reign,  they  fay,  the  Chimfe  in- 
vaded the  country,  not  mentioning  for 
what  reafon  :  Probably  they  were  Chineft 
rebels,  that  fled  thence,  and  that  thii  peo- 
ple fought  many  battles  againfl  them  with 
good  lucccfs.  Yet,  in  the  height  of  this 
war  Leedaybaiig  dying,  whether  in  battle 
or  otheiwife  is  uncertain,  left  to  his  fuc- 
celTor  Ltba'.vie,  a  politick  and  valiant 
prince,  the  profecution  thereof,  which  he 
carry'd  on  with  no  lefs  valour  than  pro- 
Iperity  i  for  having  encounter'd  and  routed 
che  Chincfi  in  fix  or  {\i\tn  baccles,  he  re- 
flored  peace  and  tranquillity  to  the  whole 
kingdom,  and  built  that  large  and  mag- 
nificent palace  of  marble,  which  is  now, 
through  age,  fo  decay'd,  that  nothing  but 
the  gates  and  fome  of  the  walls  of  chat 
luinptuous  ftruiflurc  remain. 

They  fay,  that  after  this  king,  his  po- 
llerity  poireffed  the  crown  to  the  fourth  or 
lixth  generation,  fucccITively,  and  ruled  in 
great  profperity  ;  but  the  laft  left  the  fuc- 
celFion  to  a  daughter,  having  no  heir  male, 
v.'liich  princefs  coming  to  the  crown,  mar- 
ried a  powerful  lord  of  the  flimily  of  Tran, 



The    Defcript/on 


up.  II, 

^'  U 

I   fl 



'.•  :>'i 

Haroic.  who  ruled  with  hci  jointly  but  few  months ; 

v>'V>^  'or  anotlv.r  oF  their  gniiidccs,  called  Hoe, 

rebelled  againlt  them,    and   having 

quifli'd  them  in  battle,  put  tiiem  to  death, 

and  Lilcended  the  throne  himfelf. 

He  govern'd  not  long,  for  the  people 
confpired  againft  him  ;  tor  wiiat  caule  I 
canncit  find :  it  may  be  fufpcded,  that  he 
ufed  bad  ineans  for  the  maintaining  of  his 
unjuft  poirc/Tion  ;  and  having  call'd  the 
Chinefe  to  their  alTifl-ance,  they  kill'd  the 
ufurper,  and  withal  loft  their  own  freedom, 
.  for  the  Chinefe  flicw'd  themfelves  true  auxi- 
liaries, in  feizing  the  whole  kingdom  for 
a  reward  of  their  labour  and  viftory. 

A  Chinefe  viceroy  or  general  was  then 
ordered  over  this  people,  to  govern  them 
as  formerly,  which  continued  for  the  fpace 
of  fixtcen  years,    when  they  began  to  be 
weary  of  the   Chinefe  op})rcflions  and  info- 
lence,    and   withal,   commemorating  their 
former  condition,    they    refolvcd    unani- 
moudy    to    endeavour  to   free   themfelves 
from  the  Chinefe  yoke,    and    accordingly 
took  arms  under  the  leading  of  a  valiant 
captain,  by  name  Lee,    and  fought  with 
the  Chinefe,   and  routed   them    in  feveral 
battles,  killing  many  of  them,  with  their 
viceroy  or  general   LueLvig  ;  which  difa- 
fter,  with  the  charges  of  the  war  abroad 
and  civil  commotions  at  home,    and  the 
fmall  profit    tHss  country  yielded,    were 
perhaps  the  motives  why  the  China  empe- 
ror Hutnvew  thought  convenient  to  quit  it 
again,  which  is  now  about  four  hundred 
and  fifty  years  ago.     Having  therefore  im- 
pofed  on  them  certain  conditions,  and  taken 
lecurity  for  their  faithful  performance,  {viz. 
to  come  every  three  years,  once  to  the  im- 
perial city,  Pekin,  with   feveral   prefents, 
which  they  call  tribute,  and  to  do  homage 
to  the  emperor,    in  acknowledgment  that 
they  hold  this  their  kingdom  and  liberty 
of  his  mere  grace  and  bounty)    he  with- 
drew his  troops  from  Tonquecn  ;  and  thefe 
conditions  are  punflually  obferved  to  this 
very  day. 

Among  the  prefents,  they  arc  to  carry 
images  of  gold  and  filver,  made  in  the 
pofturc  of  criminals,  denoting  that  they 
are  fuch  to  the  China  empire,  lor  the  mur- 
ther  of  Luetang,  the  'forefaid  general,  and 
that  they  are  to  remain  evermore  fuppli- 
cants  to  that  court  for  the  faid  offence. 
The  kings  of  Tonqueen  have  likewife  their 
thaop,  or  feal,  from  the  China  emperor, 
as  a  mark  of  their  dependency.  And  tho' 
this  formality  be  a  mere  piece  of  Chinefe 
vanity,*  yet  they  make  no  little  ado  about 
it.  This  year  (1683.)  came  here  an  em- 
baflador  from  the  imperial  court  of  Pekin, 
to  bring  a  title  for  the  Bova,  that  had 
been    inaugurated  above   eight   or    nine 

years  before  ;  he  was  received  with  all  the 
pomp  and  ma^;nif"^cnce  that  the  general 
could  devifc,  or  was  capable  to  put  in 
pr.ictiee,  and  that  not  out  of  love,  but 
mere  oftentation,  to  fhew  the  Tdiiars  ins 
grandeur  and  puiflance.  'l"hey  had  pre- 
fented  to  their  view  a  great  number  of 
foldicrs,  richly  cloathed  in  EngUjh  and 
Dutch  manufaftures  -,  moft  of  their  ele- 
phants and  cavalry  in  their  beft  furniture, 
gilded  gallics,  i^e.  But  for  all  tiiis,  the 
embalTador  did  not  deign  to  vifit  his  high- 
nefs ;  as  indeed  no  emballiidors  of  that 
empire  ever  do,  making  of  him  no  other 
account  than  as  of  a  plebeian  ufurper,  ob- 
fcure  in  comparifon  of  their  emperors. 

But  to  return  :  The  Chinefe  having  thus 
forfaken  the  country,  Lee  was  proclaimetl 
king,  who  reigned  feveral  years,  and  his 
family  cnjoy'd  the  fcepter  afterwards  un- 
interrupted, for  the  fpace  of  above  two  hun- 
dred years,  and  then  Mack  ufurped  the 
crown.  This  man  was  of  a  low  and  vile 
original,  born  about  Batjhavc,  a  filher  vil- 
lage, at  the  river's  mouth  where  the  Eu- 
ropean fhips  enter  it  ;  he  was  a  wreftler  by 
profefHon,  and  fb  dextrous  therein,  that 
he  raifed  himfelf  to  the  degree  of  a  Man- 
dareen,  or  lord  :  But  his  ambition,  that 
afpired  higher,  could  not  be  fitisfied  with 
any  other  condition  but  the  fovereignty 
itfelf,  and  accordingly  he  confpired  againft 
the  king,  and  effected  his  defign,  rather 
by  crafty  pradiccs  and  ftratagems  than 

Having  thus  ufurped  the  crown,  he  for- 
tified Batfhaiu  and  other  places,  becaule  of 
his   many    enemies,    cfpecially    one    Hoa- 
"wing,  a  mighty  and  powerful  prince,  in  the 
province  of  Ttngiva,    of  whom   he   moft 
ftood  in  fear,   fince  he  was  in  open  defi- 
ance of  the  ufurper.     This  Hoawing  mar- 
ried his  daughter  to  Hoatrin,   a  man   of 
fingular   ftrength  and   valour,    who   had 
been    formerly    a  notorious  robber,    and 
made  him  general  of  his  forces,  and  when 
he  died,  left  him  the  guardian  fhip  and  tui- 
tion of  his  only  fon,    at  that  time  about 
fourteen  or  fifteen  years  of  age.     Hoatrin 
having  gotten  the   forces  of  his  dcceafed 
fiither-in-law  at  his  devotion,  made  open 
war  againft  Mack,   and  after  many  petty 
encounters,   with  various   fuccefs,    at  laft 
overcame  him.     The  ufurper  finding  him- 
felf reduced  to  a  nonplus,  was  neceliitated 
to  fly  for  his  fecurity  to  Cabang,  a  king- 
dom on  the  frontier  of  China,  and  fubjetl 
to  this  king,  formerly  inhabited  by  a  kind 
of  wild  people  :  But  Hoatrin  came  imnic- 
diately  after  the  viftory  to  Cacho,  the  me- 
tropolis, and  having   firfl  demolillied  the 
fortifications  of  Mack,    he  made    jiroda- 
mation,  if  there  was  any  heir  male  of  the 



-  tf.' 


/<•'/  n./l 







oT/if  i/ 




__..  .__ 

,|    ••••    ;■ 

r  ,    ];■ 


,1 1 

i-1-;-— r^ 

!  ^  I  i 

Chap.  1 1, 

v/ith  ill!  the 
tlic  gcin-r;il 
e  lo  j)ut  in 
if  lovi-,    biic 

'■Tiiiian  his 
cy  h;id   [hc- 

numbcr  of 
Knglijh  and 
3t  their  clc- 
;il  furniture, 
all  this,  the 
fit  his  high- 
lors  of  that 
im  no  other 
ufurper,  ob- 

having  tlius 
s  proclaimed 
;ars,  and  his 
terwards  un- 
ove  two  hun- 
ufurped  the 
low  and  vile 
a  filher  vil- 
herc  the  Eu- 
a  wrcftler  by 
therein,  that 
e  of  a  Man- 
ibition,  that 
fitisfied  with 

"pircd  againft 
efign,  rather 
cagenis   than 

own,  he  for- 

s,  becaufeof 

one    Hoa- 

jrince,  in  the 

•m    he   nioft 

open  defi- 

oaijsing  mar- 

a  man   of 

who   had 

obber,    and 

and  when 

[hip  and  tui- 

time  about 


his  dcceafed 

made  open 

many  petty 

:el"s,    at  lall 

inding  him- 


ng,  a  king- 

anti  fiibjert 

d  by  a  kind 

anu-  immc- 

huy   the  mc- 

ohllied  the 

ide    prucla- 

iiale  of  the 



I'J'/ii-  A'twi"'  A/J  T/tir/i,' 

■ij/if  /i>^'iAr/i///M/>r»t/a///j/'-'i"'ii!"i/'J 

fAif.'Dm/vy  A'  Aim 
^  t'Mfr/^itrim/t'f.i 

C'JUi-  i  //m/'ttt/iu 


////<■//  //^^/Wj  Audience 

^y  r<)  'w  i.'ft;^ 











til  11 

fhap.  II. 

(tf  T0NQ.UEEN. 


houfe  of  Lee,   he  might   freely  difcover 
himftlf,    promifing  to   place  him  on  the 
throne  of  his  anceibrs,    and   protelled  he 
had  taken  arms  foi  chat  end  ;  and  accord- 
ingly, when  a  youth  of  the  houfe  of  Lee  wns 
brougiit  to  him,  he  cxprellcd   much  joy, 
placed  him  on  the  throne  with  abundance 
of  readinefs,  and  owned  him  his  fovcreign, 
ordering  every  one    to   pay  obedience   to 
Lee,  lawful  king  of  Tmiqueeii,  is?c.  and  for 
himfelf  he  referved  tlie  title  of  Cbova,  or 
general  of  all  the  forci.j.     This  was  to  the 
infinite  difcontentment   of  his  pupil,    the 
young  Iliw^viiig,  who  did  not  dream  tiiat 
his   brother-in-law  would   have  converted 
ali  the  efte<5ts  of  his  father's  forces  and  army, 
with  the  profpcrous  fuccci's  thereof,  to  his 
particular  ufe,  greatnefs,  and  advancement, 
by  excluding  the  orphan  ;  but  he  was  de- 
ceived  in  h;3  account,  for  lloairin  having 
previoufly  made  the  requifite  provifion  for 
the  fettlement  of  the  government,  he  fent 
a  peremptory  letter  to  his  brother-in-law, 
requiring  his  obedience   to  this  prince  of 
the  houfe  of  Lee,    or  by  default,    to  de- 
clare him  a  rebel,  and  open  enemy  to  the 
ftate :   This  occalioned  a  civil  war,  and  a 
rent   in    the   kingdom  of   Tonqucen  ;    for 
young  Iloazvhig,  altho'  he  was  not  againll 
Lee,    yet  couki    he    not  endure    to  think 
that  Tring   Ihould  make  himlelf   general, 
efteeming  that  place  more  juiUy  to  belong 
to  him.     But  finding  he  was  too  weak  to 
refill  the  power  of  Triiig,  and  to  remain 
fo  near  a'  7'iiigwa  is  to  the  city  of  Cacho, 
he  thought  it  the  fafeft  way  to  retire  to  Co- 
cbiii-china,  where  he  was  joyfully  received 
by  thofe  governors  and  foldiers,  who  im- 
mediately eledled  him   Cbova,   or  general 
to  Lu:e,  their  lawful   Bova,  or  king,  pro- 
claiming 'Triiig  a  traitor  and  rebel  •,  lb  ihat 
ever  fince,    now  above  two  hundred  and 
twenty  years,  this  kingdom  has  remain'd 
divided,  under  two  lieutenant-generals,  with 
royal  authority  v  both  own  Lee  as  king  and 
ruler,  accordmg  to  their  ancient  laws,  cuf- 
toms,  and  rights,  but  are  mortal  enemies, 
and    wage    continual    wars    againll    each 

I  return  now  to  Tnng,  and  fee  wiiy,  as 
victor,  he  did  not  alcend  the  tiirone,  and 
take  upon  him  the  name  and  title  of  a  king. 
Certainly,  it  was  not  tor  want  of  ambi- 
tion, or  altogether  out  of  modelly  and 
fenfe  of  juflice  that  he  did  not  accept  of  any 
liif^i.i-i  title,  than  tiiat  of  general  i  but  it 
was  in  confideration  of  two  very  fpccious 
rcafons ;  for  fliould  lie  alTume  the  crown 
and  royal  title  to  himf-lf,  he  would  be 
regarded  as  an  ui'urper,  and  expofe  him- 
felf to  the  general  liate  and  envy  of  the 
natives,  and  more-efpecially  to  the  perfe- 
cution  of  /hawing,  who  would  be  able, 
under  the  moll  juft  and  plauiible  pretexts, 
Vol.  VI. 

to  work  hi.s  ruin  and  extirpation:    The  Haro.v. 
other  motive   was  his  apprehenlion,    that  v-<n^«^ 
the  Chinefe  emperor  Ihould  be  againll  him, 
as  knowing  he  was  a  llrangcr  to  the  royal 
race  of  the  kings  of  Toiiqiieen,    whereby 
Tnng  would   involve  himlelf  in  a  torrent 
of  troubles,  and  be,  probably,    the  caufc 
of  his  own  [x;rdition  ;  therefore  he  tiioughc 
it  was  the  lecurell  way  to  let  up  a  prince 
of  the  houfe  of  Lee,  with  only  the  bare 
name  of  king,  and  referve  the  royal  power 
for  himlelf;  and  indeed,  all  that  belongs 
to  the  ibvereign  refides  in  the  Cbova,  for 
he  may  make  war  or  peace  as  he  thinks 
fit,  he  makes  and  abrogates  laws,  pardons 
and  condemns  criminals,  he  creates  and  de- 
pofes  magillrates  and  military  officers,  he 
impofes  taxes  and  orders  fines  according  to 
his  pleafure,  all  llrangers  make  their  appli- 
cation to  him,  except  the  ambaffadors  of 
•■"'ma  ;  and,  in  a  word,  his  authority  is  not 
only   royal,    but  abfolute  and   unlimited, 
wherefore  the  Europeans  call  him  The  king, 
and  the  true  king  is  called,  for  diftindion 
lake,  Tiie  emperor  ;   whilll  the  Bova,  or 
king,  is  Unit  up  in  his  palace,  attended  by 
none  but  fpies  of  the  Cbova,  neither  is  he 
permitted  to  flir  abroad  more  tiian  once  a 
year,  and  that  on  the  great  folemnity  of 
their  annual  lacritices,  iSc.    As  for  the  rell, 
he  ferves  only  to  cry  amen  to  all  that  the 
general  docli,  and  to  confirm,  for  forma- 
lity fake,  with  his  Cbaop,  all  the  adts  and 
decrees  of  the  other  •,  to  contefl:  with  him 
the  leall  matter  would  not  be  ixic  for  him  ; 
and  thougii   the  people  rcfpedt   the  Bna, 
yet  they  fear  the  Cbova  much  more,  who 
is  moll  flatter'd  bccaufe  of  his  power. 

The  general's  place  is  like  the  king's, 
hereditary,  the  eldeft  fon  fucceeds  the  fa- 
tiicr  ;  yet  often  the  ambition  of  the  bro- 
thers has  occafioncd  commotions  and  civil 
broils,  aiming  to  fupplant  each  other, 
therefore  it  is  a  common  faying  amongll 
them.  That  the  death  of  a  thoufand  Bo- 
va''s  doth  not  endanger  the  country  in  the 
lead  \  but  v-lien  the  Cbova  dies,  every  one's 
mind  is  polTelled  with  great  tremors  and 
heavy  condernation,  expecting  fearful  chan- 
ges in  llate  and  government. 

This  kingdom  i;;  properly  divided  into 
fix  provinces,  not  reckoning  the  country  of 
Cnhang,  and  a  Imall  part  of  Bowes,  wl.ich 
are  maintain'd  as  conquer'd  lands,  that 
people  being  of  a  different  language  and 
manner  from  the  Toitquecnefe ;  ai.d  five  of 
the  fix  provinces  are  govern'd  by  their 
particular  governors,  which  at  prcfent  are 
all  eunuchs,  with  ample  power  ;  but  he 
tiiat  rules  in  Giaiig,  the  frontiers  of  Cocbin- 
ibina,  the  fixtii  province,  is  a  kind  of  vice- 
roy, or  lieutenant-general,  and  the  militia 
under  him  are  not  lets  in  number  than 
forty  thoufand  foldiers.  Ilis  authority  is 
tj  in 


The  Defcription 

Chap.  11.     ,  Cha 


^  -M 



Barom.  in  a  rranner  abfolute,  fiom  whom  there  is 
v-'V"^^  no  appeal,  except  in  cafes  of  high-trcafo.', 
to  the  fupream  couu  of  the  kingdom. 
This  viceroy  is  ufu?lly  a  perlon  of  great 
favour,  and  mucli  confided  in  by  the  ge- 
neral, who,  to  oblige  him  the  more,  mar- 
ries either  his  daughter  or  filler  to  him  i 
for  it  would  be  of  ill  confequcnce  to  the 
whole  kingdom,  efpecially  for  the  general, 
if  this  man  fhould  revolt  to  Cochin-china. 

In  former  times  they  had  eunuchs  to  go- 
vern this  province  too  ;  but  fince  the  trick 
the  Cochin-chinefe  put  on  one  of  them,  they 
have  not  placed  there  any  more  as  gover- 
nors in  chief.  The  jeft  thus  :  The 
Cochin-chinefe,  who  haie  thefe  kind  of  crea- 
tures, and  never  imploy  any  of  them  in 
bufinefs  of  importance,  efpecially  in  the 
militiit,  knowing  the  capon-viceroy  of  that 
province  was  appointed  generalilFimo  for 
the  expedition  in  hand  againfl  them,  they 
fent  him,  in  contempt,  a  breaft-piece  of 
filk,  fuch  as  is  worne  by  their  women,  tor 
a  prefent,  defiring  him  to  make  ufe  of  it ; 
giving  thereby  to  underlland,  that  fuch  a 
drefs  and  ornament  better  became  him,  than 
either  to  command  foldiers  or  :o  govern 
provinces,  i^c.  as  approaching  lb  near  the 
female  fex. 

The  governors  of  provinces  have  for  their 
feconds  a  litcrado  Mandareen,  or  lawyer, 
to  aflift  thtm  in  the  civil  government  and 
adminiftration  of  their  laws,  who  fit  with 
the  governors  in  publick  courts  oi  jurtice  v 
belides  this,  each  province  has  its  feve- 
ral  inferior  courts  of  judicature,  and  one 
among  the  reft  that  is  independent  of  the 
governor's  authority,  the  judges  whereof 
liave  their  characters  immediately  of  the 
fovereign  court  of  the  iiluan  fo  Lew  at 

In   fmall   controverfies  of  property   of 
grounds,  houfes,  debts,  or  the  like,  they 
proceed  thus :    A  man  that  has  an  adlion 
againfl   another    gives  his  complaint   into 
Ongfba-jj,   or  the  head  of  his  aldea,  who 
takes  fome  cognizance  of  tiie  matter,  and 
brings  it  before  the  IVean  f-^tan,  head  of 
twenty,    thirty,  or  forty  aldess,  or  villa- 
ges, where  the  plaiiitiff  and  defendant  are 
heard,  and  then    .'c-ntence  is  given  :  But  if 
one  of  the  parties  be  not  content  to  :1and 
to  this  award,  he  appeals  to  the  Foe  ^tan, 
head  of  eigiuy,  an  hundred,  or  an  hundred 
and  fifty  aldeas,  where  the  matter  is  exa- 
min'd,  with  the  fentence  of  tiie  IVean  !^tan, 
who,  as  he  finds  caul'e,  pafTes  his  fentence  : 
And  in  cafe  this  doth  not  fatisfy  them,  the 
fuit  is  brought  before  tiie  provincial  gover- 
nor,  where  it  receives  its  final  determina- 
tion, without  further  appealing,  provided 
th'  1  ,atter  be  of  no  great  importance,  as 
I  faid  before  -,  but  if  tlie  debt  be  confider- 
able,  or  the  pretcnfions  ample,  £^f.  they 

may  appeal  from  the  governor  to  fnga  I  lean, 
a  court,  as  h  noted  above,  which  the  pro- 
vincial governors  have  no  jurifdiftion  over. 
In  this  tribunal  a  Tiincy  of  the  clafs  of 
the  firft  literadoes  always  prefides,  ami 
from  thence  the  fuit  may  be  removed  to 
the  feveial  courts  of  the  city,  if  they  arc 
firmly  refolved,  by  profecuting  the  Kiw, 
to  ruin  each  other  ;  and  altho'  the  jutlge* 
cannot  hinder  the  parties  apjicaling  frnr^ 
one  court  to  another,  yet  if  two  different 
courtF  give  the  like  fentence  on  one  and 
the  fame  caufe,  then  the  courts  from  which 
the  appeal  is  ma-'",  has  the  privilege  to 
inflift  Ibnrie  corporal  puniHiment  on  the 
appellants,  or  fine  them,  as  is  ordained  by 

criminal  cafes,  as  theft,  or  the  like  mat- 
ters, belong  wholly  to  the  governors  of 
the  province,  who  punifh  immediately  fmall 
offences  ;  but  fuch  as  deferve  death,  their 
fentences  are  fent  to  the  general,  to  have 
his  confent  for  tiie  execution  thereof. 

The  quarrels  of  the  great  ones  come  ge- 
nerally to  the  city  of  Cncho  ;  but  the 
names  of  all  the  courts,  ard  the  precife 
methods  of  procefs,  I  cannot  exadly  affirm. 
However,  I  think  they  begin  with  the  courts 
called  .'^«rt«  AVv  Dow,  then  an  appeal  lies 
to  ^uin  Gay  Cbiie,  and  in  cafe  of  great 
moment,  petition  being  made  to  the  gene- 
ral, he  remits  the  caufe  at  l.ilt  for  a  revife 
to  Sliian  fo  Lnv,  who  hold  their  aflize  in 
the  general's  palacv.  'llie  perfons  who  com- 
pofe  this  college  are  molt  of  tiiem  old  lite- 
radoes, reputed  wife,  and  fuch  as  have  been 
prefidents  of  the  chief  courts  of  judica- 
ture, and  known,  or  ;'.t  lealf  fuppofed  to 
be  of  great  integrity  and  honcily,  and  ex- 
alted to  be  principal  miniflers  and  coun- 
fellors  of  ftate,  on  whofe  care  and  pru- 
dence rcpofes  tlie  whole  weight  of  the  civil 
government  and  laws  of  the  kingdom. 

Quarrels  indirferent  about  ground,  houfes, 
iSc.  in  and  about  the  city,  belong  to  the 
court  called  i^ian  fti  Dovan,  wliere  all 
fuch  differences  are  decided  ;  but  the  party 
may  appeal  to  ^iltjan  gnue  Sew,  and  thus 
fucceffively  to  l^iton  Jo  Lew,  by  way  of 

Rebellion  and  confpir.u-y  againlt  tlic  ge- 
neral, tfi".  falls  under  the  cognizance  of 
the  court  of  y^uui  fo  Lew,  and  the  gover- 
nor of  the  city  puts  tiair  fentences  or  de- 
crees in  execution,  v/lio  are  as  much  rs 
prefidents  of  liie  and  death  of  die  ciiy  ard 
its  juriiUidion  :  But  more  immediately  ap- 
pertain to  them  all  caufes  ot  murthtr, 
theft,  and  other  like  crimes,  botii  to  judge 
and  punilli  the  oticnder  without  fiU'tiier 

They  are  the  rebels  that  come  be  fore 
the  general  with  a  v/hifp  of  ftraw  in  tluir 
mouths,  after  tliey  iiavc  made  their  peace 



Chap.  u.       Chap.  n. 

6/*  Ton  Q.UEE  N. 

lich  the  \)T0- 
rdidlion  over, 
the  clals  ot" 
ircfides,    and 

removed  to 
,  if  they  arc 
ing  the  Kiw, 
)'  the  judges 
•ealing  fnv 
two  diHcrenc 

on  one  and 
s  from  which 

privilege  to 
ntnt  on  the 
I  ordained  by 

:he  Iii<e  mat- 
;overnors  of 
:diately  fmall 
death,  their 
-Tai,  to  have 

ncs  comege- 

>o  ;    buc    the 

\  the  prccife 

xaftly  affirm. 

ith  the  courts 

n  appeal  lies 

:afe  of  great 

to  the  gcne- 

l  tor  a  revifc 

heir  afi'ize  in 

3ns  who  com- 

K-m  old  lite- 

as  have  been 

s   of  judica- 

lippoffd   to 

y,  and  ex- 

and  coun- 

and  j)ru- 

of  the  civH 


und,  houfes, 

ong  to  the 

where   all 

t  the  party 

and  thus 

by  way  of 

in(t  the  gc- 
nizancc  of 
the  govcr- 

nccs  or  dc- 
much  .-s 

!ie  ciiy  mA 
iiatcly  aj)- 
1  to  Judge 
It    fiinlier 

no  bifor(! 
V  in  tluir 
heir  peace 


and  obtained  pardon,  to  Ihew,  that  by  their    tain  both  the  royal  flock,  and  the  laws  and  Baron 
diforderly   life,    they    have   made    them-    conftitutions  of  the  land,  and  to  innovate  v-^-v-w 
fclves  equal  to  brute  bcafts  ;  but  not  thofe    nothing  therein,  tho*  repugnant  to  the  in- 
guilty  of  murrhT,  as  Tavernkre  is  pleas'd    ttreft  of  their  ufurped  power, 
to  aflert.  To  this  is  owing  chielly  that  we  fee  the 

The  China  laws  are  in  uie  amongft  them,     heir  of  the  crown  jjcrmittcd  to  live  after 
which  indeed  may  be  confidered   as  their    he  is  flripped  of  his  rights  and  royal  au- 

tiiority  i  a  thing,  I  believe,  that  has  no 
where  an  example,  and  is  not  to  be  found 
in  the  hillories  of  any  otlier  nation,  and 
may  found  like  a  Itrange  paradox  in  the 
cars  of  tlie  politicians  of  other  countries. 
Nor  is  it  altogetiier  the  fear  of  Chiim 
that  tics  tlie  general's  hands  fo  as  not  to 
ting,  and  digelled  into  feveral  books  that    be  able  to  inlligate  him  againft  the  king. 

civil  and  written  law  ;  but  the  temporal 
cdiifls,  rtatutcs,  and  conftitutions  of  their 
princes  and  chiefeft  dodiors,  intermix'd  with 
their  old  cuftoms,  are  of  greateft  force,  and 
in  a  manner  the  whole  diredory  of  the  go- 
vernment, and  the  rule  of  the  peoples  obe- 
dience i    all   which  are  committed  to  wri- 

malte  at  prefent  their  body  of  law :  and 
to  give  tliis  people  their  due,  they  fliew 
much  more  good  nature  and  honefty  than 
the  Cbinifc,  or  Arijlotle  himfclf  in  that  re  • 
fpeft,  where  both  their  laws  ;olerate,  n.i  y, 
command  the  expofing  of  all  maimed,  de- 
formed, and  female  children,  which  are 
maxims  that  thefe  people  abhor  as  unnatu- 
ral and  brutifli. 

With  no  lefs  difdain  they  rejeifl  that  law 
of  their  neighbours  which  encourageth  the 
moft  execrable  and  abominable  vice  not  fit 

nor  ignorance  of  the  power  of  tiiofe  tem- 
ptations which  generally  the  lultre  of  a 
diadem  inlpires  in  tlie  minds  even  of  i'uch 
as  have  no  reafon  to  pretend  to  it ;  nor  are 
they  flrangers  to  the  practices  of  other  orien- 
tal monaichs,  who  retain  their  poflefTions 
by  what  means  foever  they  acquire  them, 
tho'  it  be  by  the  perverfion  of  juftice  and 
honefty,  and  the  fubverCon  and  violation 
of  all  laws  human  and  divine. 

But  in  truth,  we  may  fay,  thefe  generals 
were  moderate,  and  that  of  thofe  qualities 

to  be  nam'd  :  Queftionlefs  their  primitive    proper  to  tyrants,  as  ambition,  covetouf- 

legiflators  were  wile  and  good-intcntioned 
politicians  -,  but  how  commendable  foever 
thofe  inftitutions  were,  yet  the  mifery  of 
human  imperfeftions,  degeneracy  by  length 
of  time,  multiplicity  ot  lawyers,  together 
with  the  daily  hic"cafe  of  other  petty  offi- 
cers, has  brought  juftice  now  to  that  cor- 
ruption, that  tor  money  moft  crimes  will 
be  abfolved,  fince  there  are  few  of  their 
judges  but  what  are  fubject  to  bribes. 

Juflice  thus  bctray'd  and  perverted  even 
by  its  officers,  has  brought  the  country  into 
much  dilbrders,  and  the  people  under  great 
oppreflions,  fo  is  to  be  involv'd  in  a  tliou- 
fand  miferies ;  and  woe  be  to  a  ftranger 
that  falls  into  the  labyrintiis  of  their  laws, 
cfpecially  into  the  clutches  of  their  capon 
Mundamns  to  be  judges  of  his  particular 
affairs  -,  for  to  them  it  commonly  happens  in 
the  like  cafes  that  matters  are  referred,  and 
he  muft  look  for  nothing  lefs  than  tiie  ruin 
of  his  purfe,  and  be  glad  if  he  efcapes 
without  being  bcreavM  of  his  I'enfes  too  ; 
whereof  I  could  alledge  many  examples  of 
my  own  knowledge,  to  my  woful  expe- 
rience, were  it  to  ihe  purpofe. 

Having  thus  amply  ipoken  of  their  Laws 
and  their  manner  of  proceeding  therein,  it 
rem.uns  now  to  conlider  the  other  Itate 
column  as  it  ftandsat  prefent,  their  Policy, 
in  which  is  very  remarkable,  tiieir  great 
Veneration  for  tlie  family  of  their  lawful 
kings,  wiiufe  title,  tho'  an  empty  one,  is 
uled  in  all  thei'-  writings.  The  C/!>of.;'s 
are  exceedingly  to  be  coinmcndcu  for  their 
religious  obferving  their  promiles  to  niain- 

nefs  and  cruelty,  this  laft  was  never  found 
predominant  in  them  ;  whereof  their  bro- 
thers, who  are  often  intrufted  with  impor- 
tant employs,  as  governors  of  provinces, 
the  condudl  of  armies,  ^c.  are  both  con- 
vincing proofs  and  manifeft  arguments. 
They  are,  in  fliort,  too  generous  to  fol- 
low the  maxim  of  killing  them  tor  their 
own   imaginary  fecurity. 

One  prince  indeed,  I  knew,  who  was 
poilbn'd  by  order  ot  his  brother  the  gene- 
ral ;  but  the  necelfity  (if  one  may  fo  fay) 
was  fo  urgent,  that  there  was  no  other  way 
in  that  exigency,  to  preferve  his  own  life, 
as  will  be  noted  in  the  next  chapter. 

Their  method  of  promoting  fcholars  to 
their  feveral  degrees,  which  I  have  already 
mention'd,  is  both  regular  and  juft,  and  a 
great  encouragement  to  learning,  and  the 
well-deferving  therein. 

The  often  removing  their  Mandareens 
from  their  government,  is  good  prudence 
to  prevent  plots  and  confpiracies  ;  but  as 
Jiere  is  no  government  but  what  has  its 
defeftas  well  as  its  pcrfedion,  fo  this  is  not 
wanting  in  both  qualities  ;  and  it  is  cer- 
tainly a  great  weaknefs  in  their  politicks, 
as  it  is  a  needlefs  charge  to  the  publick,  to 
maintain  fuch  a  great  army  idle,  as  they 
do  in  time  of  peace,  and  muft  needs  be  a 
mighty  burthen  to  the  commonalty,  who 
feel  the  weight  moft. 

The  general  is  likewife  Ihort,  in  not 
making  timely  provifion  for  the  great 
numbers  of  his  people,  fince  their  daily 
encreale   will   make   them  too  nunjerous, 



1    w'! 




t    :,t 



r/'^    Dejcription 

Ghap.  [  I 

R\uoS'.  ami  Inc.ip.iblc  of  living  togetlicr  -,  tlicre- 
Vi^^-v^  tore  it  woiikl  lie  a  good  cxpidient  ti)  tirul 
foiiH'  out-let  tor  tlioti"  hipiiiluous  humours, 
lor  tear  they  might  in  time  eaufe  lomc  vio- 
lent convullion  in  the  tl.\te,  which  perhaps 
might  irretrievably  overturn  it.  The  lall 
famine,  in  particular,  I'wept  away  two- 
thiriis  of  the  inhabitants,  who,  if  they 
hill  been  imployM  ag.iinll  tlie  Cocbin- 
chiiieft\  or  tome  otiur  liollilc  Countries, 
they  might  have  dellroyM  it  with  their 
very  ivwuis  and  t^xth. 

i"hc  over-great  confidence  the  general 
rcpofcj  in  the  capons,  as  it  is  a  mean  thing, 
I'o  it  is  contrary  to  good  policy  to  tolerate  lb 
much  evil  as  they  occalion  in  tiie  Hat';,  for 
the  fmall  and  unjull  benclits  wiiich  he  re- 
ceives by  their  means. 

The  cullom  of  telling  moll  offices  indif- 
ferently to  fuch  as  will  pay  molt  tor  them, 
not  regarding  condition  or  capacity  of  jx:r- 
fons,  is  certainly  a  foul  merchandize,  and 
a  balnefs  unbecoming  the  publick,  il'pe- 
cially  as  to  the  ofTicesof  judicatin-e  ■,  for  if 
they  buy  tiicir  places  dear,  'tis  likely  they 
will  make  the  moll  advantage  thereot,  at 
the  expencc  of  right  and  Jultice. 
[Piitc  p.!  Their  militia,  as  it  is  alio  much  more 
numerous  than  is  required  in  a  dctenlivc 
war  (which  is  a  condud,  that  for  feveral 
years  they  have  thought  it  their  interelt  to 
obferve)  or  behtting  peaceable  times,  fo  it 
may  prove  of  dangerous  confequence,  if 
they  ihould  be  troublel'ome.  Some  years 
ago  thefe  foldiers  mutincd  i  and  had  they 
then  tound  one  to  hea'.l  them,  it  would 
have  gone  very  hard  with  the  general,  who 
perhaps  might  have  expcriencM  trom  them 
iome  luch  inlolenccs  and  devallations  as  fe-  A' '^wii;/ emperors  met  with  Irom  their 
prctorians  ;ind  the  Turki  trom  their  jani- 
zaries. He  doth  well  to  Ihitt  them  tVom 
place  to  place,  and  change  olten  tiieir 
coirimandcrs,  and  to  keep  them  in  con- 
tinual labour  or  action.  But  the  worll  of 
all  is,  that  the  captains  of  his  militia  are 
eunuchs,  who,  generally,  are  cowardly  tel- 
lows ;  and,  it  is  thought,  their  bafenels  has 
been  the  grand  caule  of  tiie  many  over- 
throws this  nation  has  received  of  the  Cochia- 
chini'ji-,  and  will  be  (as  long  as  tlv  y  are 
thus  employM)  always  a  hindr  nee  in  the 
conquetl  ol  that  fpot  ol  ground,  which  in 
comjiarilbn  of  them,  contains  but  a  hand- 
tul  of  men. 

They  trull  more  to  their  infintry,  than 
to  their  cavalry  or  elephants,  by  rc.ilon  the 
country  is  low,  twampy,  and  lull  of  rivers 
and  brooks,  whiih  renders  them  of  fmall 

Their  foldiers  arc  good  markfmen,  and 
in  that,  I  believe,  interior  to  few  -,  and  fur- 
palTing  moll  nations  in  ilexterity  ot  hand- 
ling and  quicknefs  of  tiring  their  mutkets. 

I'irelocks  arc  not  in  ulc  amongll  therr, 
but  the  bow  is  mightily  in  falhion,  in  which 
they  are  expert  to  admiration. 

In  fine,  they  loon  learn  their  cxcrcife  ol' 
arms,  and  are  good  proficients  therein. 
But  to  mount  the  horfe,  h  no  more 
with  them,  than  the  getting  allride  on  a 
common  beall ;  which  this  country  prcKluces 
tor  the  moll  jiart  fmall,  yet  very  lively. 

Their  elephants  are  trained  up  for  war, 
and  imboldened  againll  Iome  fort  of  fire- 
works and  the  noile  ot  guns,  as  far  as  the 
nature  of  the  creature  is  capable  ot  :  as  tor 
artificial  fire-works,  they  are  rather  igno- 
rant than  Ikillul  therein. 

Their  finances,  or  invention  to  bring  in 
money  to  the  general's  cofiers,  over  and 
above  his  ufual  revenue,  are.  By  the  tale  of 
moll  offices  in  the  kingdom  ;  by  the  fines 
impofed  on  Mity.ihtram,  and  tranlgreflbrs  ; 
the  tenths  of  all  contr.ibands  -,  conliderable 
Ihares  out  of  the  cllatcs  of  decealed  ALui- 
darfens  ;  but  he  is  heir-general  of  the 
eunuchs  or  cajions,  and  has  in  a  manner  all 
they  leave  ;  add  io  this,  his  accidental  re- 
venue, which  ( v^fnes  in  by  llrangers,  mer- 
chants, isf.  (which  is  more  or  lefs  accord- 
ing as  Ihipsand  vclllls  come  to  trade  in  this 
jiort)  ;  the  poll  or  head-money  ;  excites  on 
jirovilions,  antl  impofitions  on  inland  mer- 
chants commodities,  isc.  lb  that  the  gene- 
ral's revenues  mull  needs  amount  to  a  very 
confiderable  fimi,  But  fince  this  money, 
tor  the  motl  part,  is  taken  trom  one  to  teed 
the  other,  the  publick  wealth  is  nothing 
bctter'd  thereby,  but  rather  the  worlc  ;  tor- 
afmuch  as  it  is  the  fweat  and  blood  of  the 
intlullrious,  which  the  lazy  and  idle  often 
fpend  moll  ]>rodig,illy  and  profufely  ;  alio 
ibr  that  the  opprellive  taxes  do  not  fur- 
ccafe  thereby  :  which  (together  with  their 
proceedings  in  matters  of  commerce,  which 
they  hold  in  fcorn,  as  much  as  they  defpife 
the  traders,  negledting  the  great  conveni- 
ence they  have  thereby  to  render  their  coun- 
try rich  and  llourifliing,  which  is  the  tludy 
of  all  well-govern'd  nations  throughout  the 
work!)  renders  t'  em,  in  the  main,  but  a 
mean  and  milerable  people. 

I  have  noted  this  more  particuh'  ;y  in 
the  chapter  treating  about  the  trade,  i^c. 
ot  the  kingdom  ;  lb  referring  thereto,  I 
tliall  proceed  next  to  give  tome  account 
of  the  general  and  iiis  grandees  and 

>,•/»'  /I 





i,v  e  ■/>/.!/* 



Gliap,  [  I 

rkfmcn,  and 
•w  •,  ;inil  llir- 
ity  ot  luind- 
ir  imifkcts. 
longit  thiir, 
ion,  in  wliitli 

r  cxercifc  of 
.'tits  tlicri'iu. 
,  is  no  more 
aftriile  on  a 
itry  produces 
ry  lively, 
up  for  war, 
fort  of  fire- 
;is  far  as  the 
lie  ot  :  as  tor 
rather  igno- 

1  to  bring  in 
•s,  over  and 
ly  the  fale  of 

by  the  fines 
ranlgrcdbrs  ; 

ceafcd  Alaii- 
leral  of  tlie 
1  manner  ail 
ccidcntal  rc- 
mgers,  mcr- 
■  lefs  accord- 

I  trade  in  this 
r ;  excifcs  on 

inland  nier- 

at  the  gene- 

iint  to  a  very 

this  money, 

II  one  to  teed 

is  notliing 

woric  ;  tor- 

lood  of  the 

idle  often 

)fiifely  -,  alfo 

do  not  fur- 

with  their 

ncrce,  which 

they  dcfpile 

at  conveni- 

their  coun- 

is  tiie  tludy 

•oughout  the 

luiin,  but  a 

rticiiL'  ;y  in 
trade,  ^c. 
thereto,  I 
inic  account 
andees    and 

C  M  A  P. 



i  '' 

Jiap.  12. 


of  T  0  ^  Q.U  E  E  N. 

c  ]r  A  ]•.    xir. 



<'^'    //v  ^i^.ava;.'  ^y  Toiiquccii,  /./.i-  y.'/'-'/r,  nf/.'arj,  (it:J  cc:irt. 

BY  wImi  hath  ln'ni  I'ai.l  in  tlic  Ibrtpoing 
ch.iiH^r,  it  iiiiy  I  ilily  Ih'  uiukrllo.;.! 
Iiow  far  ihc  auihoiiiy  nt  tin:  /i'-j./  u'i  Toi:- 
quivn  c^tLiul';,  and  the  i;  has 
really  tlu'  helm  in  h.iiid  ;  let  us  ihcritonli- 
Jcr  liini  as  tlu:  fpiiit  anil  lif.-  of  this  lUtf. 
His  power  is,  like  that  of  molt  E,:jlcrn 
king's,  ir.onarriiii.'.l  in  excels,  yet  not  lb 
tyrannical  as  many  of  thiin,  fina:  tlicy 
cViT  had  their  l.nv  ,  and  old  culloms  in  f^reac 
veneration,  and  comiioiail  actions 
agrecalilc  tlxrcto. 

The  prefent  genera!  is  jie  fuiirtli  of  the 
houfeol  'Trv:g,m  a  ''iiectline,  that  has,  as 
one  may  fay,  lV.>d  the  fcepterover  this 
peojjle  i  his  I  •.niily  wa.  eft.iblidi'd  in  the 
govcrnmen';  as  iijun  as  Mrak  the  uliirpcr 
was  fiippreind,  and  then  laid  the  tounda- 
tion  of  prefent  si-cainefs.  1  le  is  aged 
fifty-three  years,  and  is  a  llurp  fubti.'e  poli- 
tician, but  of  an  inlinn  tonltituiion.  He 
fuccceded  his  fatlur  in  tlie  year  ib'Ai,  witii 
whom  he  reigned  jointly  leveral  years.  Me 
had  three  fons,  and  as  many  daughters,  by 
fundry  concubines  ;  but  liis  eldelt  and 
youngefl'  ions  dying,  the  fecond,  jull  on 
hii  grandfather's  deeeafe,  fell  mad  or  di- 
llraifted,  but  is  now  recovered,  and  has  the 
title  of  Cbu-tit,  that  is,  young  general  (the 
ufual  title  of  the  eldell  furviving  fon)  who 
keeps  his  court  fep.uaie,  and  almott  as  mag- 
nificent as  his  fuller,  has  hi';  Miiiulareciti^  fer- 
vants,  and  officer:,  of  the  fame  denomina- 
tion, only  tliat  i;i  precedency  they  give 
place  to  thole  of  the  father  ;  but  as  loon 
as  the  prince  fuccceds  the  general,  then  his 
fervants  take  place  of  the  others,  very  few 
excepted,  who  often  for  their  wifdom  and 
cxjxricnce  keep  t,;eir  former  llations. 

If  the  general  marries  (which  feldom  hap- 
pens but  ill  their  latter  years  wlien  there 
are  but  little  hopes  of  ifluc  by  the  perfon) 
this  lady,  ns  wire,  is  cliief  of  ail  his  wo- 
men, and  has  the  name  and  title  of  Mother 
of  the  Land,  becaufe  of  her  extraction, 
■vvliich  is  always  royal  -,  but  concubines  he 
takes  early,  and  fom^riir.Ds  before  eighteen, 
the  number  not  limited,  fometimes  three 
lumdred,  ofLcn  live  jiundred,  and  more,  if 
lie  pleafcs,  for  it  is  an  honour  to  excel 
therein  :  and  in  the  choice  of  them,  their 
beauty  is  not  fb  much  regarded  as  their  art 
ar.d  fkill  in  lir.gin;^;  and  dancing,  and  play- 
ing on  a  mufical  inllrument,  and  to  have 
the  wit  to  divert  the  general  with  diverfity 
of  pleafing  fporis.  Of  tlufe,  flie  that 
proves  mother  of  the  firft  fon,  is  honoured 
as  foon  as  her  fon  is  declared  heir  apparent. 
Vol..  VI. 

wiih  the  name  and  title  of  True  and  Legi- 
timate Wife,  anil  tlio'  not  quire  fo  much 
ref'pecled,  yet  far  better  beloved  than  the 
former  •,  tlie  rcfl  of  the  concubines,  that 
h  .ve  children  by  liim,  are  called  Dtuba,  or 
cxeelknt  women  i  his  male-children,  the 
tidelt  excepted,  arc  falufil  wiih  the  appel- 
lation, D'li-oii^,  i.e.  excellent  peilbn,  or 
nun  i  the  daughters  arc  called  Baiiui,  whiclt 
is  as  much  as  to  fay  printtfs  with  us ;  the 
like  ritljs  have  his  brothers  and  fiflcrs,  but 
rot  their  children,  nor  his  grand-children, 
cxce[)t  thofc  defcending  from  his  eldcft 

For  his  own  children,  q  icftionlefs,  he  pro- 
\  ide-;  Well,  but  his  fillets  and  brothers  mull 
be  content  with  fuch  revenues  as  he  is  pkas'd 
to  allow  them  out  of  the  publiek,  which  de- 
creales  in  their  fimily  as  it  declines  and 
grows  remote  from  his  blood,  lb  that  thofe 
of  the  fourth  or  fifth  defccnt  can  expcdt  no 
fuch  provifion. 

The  prefent  general  has  many  brothers 
and  fillers,  but  he  is  not  over  kind  to  them, 
which  I  take  to  proceed  from  his  fufpicious 
temper  and  weakly  conftitution.  Moft  of 
his  predjcefibrs  were  othcrwife  inclined  ; 
•hey  admitted  their  brothers  to  publiclc 
ati.Jrs,  and  conferred  on  them  the  titles 
and  pow.r  of  generals,  field -marfhals,  and 
provincial  governors,  with  the  trufl  of 
numbers  of  fbldiers,  always  imploying 
them  in  honourable  charges,  and  fuch  as 
became  tlie  g;  neral's  brothers. 

As  I  faid  before,  I  never  could  hear  of 
more  than  onj  example  amongll  them,  of 
killing  a  brother  in  cool  blood,  and  is, 
that  of  the  late  deccafed  general  againft 
prince  Cbcchtniii^  ;  which,  all  circumftances 
eonfideretl,  can  hardly  be  termed  cruelty. 
The  hillory  runs  thus. 

This  Cbecbcniiig  was  fecond  brother  to  the 
deceafed  general,  a  prince  indued  with  ma- 
ny heroick  virtues  ;  his  liberality,  genero- 
fiy,  and  courteous  difpofition,  made  him 
popular  and  fo  be!  ved  among  the  foldiers,  they  would  caii  him  their  father  A 
prudent  ca[)tain  he  was,  and  no  lels  emi- 
nent in  valour,  for  having  given  the  Ccclfin- 
cbh-.efi  feveral  overthrows,  he  fo  ex- 
tremely redoubted,  that  they  called  him 
the  Lightning  of  Tonqucen.  His  fame  thus 
daily  increafiiig  both  abroad  and  at  home.  It 
at  length  drove  liim  on  the  rocks  and  preci- 
pices of  his  brother's  envy  and  jealoufy, 
which  ti;c  good  prince  peiceiving,  endea- 
voured to  remove  ;  humbly  telling  him, 
he  would  do  nothing  but  what  he  fliould 
H  order  ; 


The    Dcfjriinm 

Chap.  12,     .chni 

1  . 

Uaiiov,  orJiTi  .null  lli.u  tlic  pool  fucalh  lii;  U.\\ 
>^^, ■'^  ill  arms,  proicoiNii  wliolly  tiuin  lii>  wil.- 
aii.l  piiulont  (lin'^tioM,  proti  lUiij;,  ami  io- 
!iiiiiilv  Iwcirin^,  lie  ntvir  iliJ,  nor  wouiil 
im.lcrt.ikraiiy  tliir;*,  that  ini'^lit  in  tlic  LmU 
be  prt'juiliiial  to  Imn  ;  iwA,  it  th.' 
loKlitT:.  or  rahbK-  llioukl  I'-iic  to  oiler  him 
liis  |)laci',  he  won  Id  not  only  ntulc  ami  ab- 
lujr  it,  but  piinilh  alio  moll  Icverdy  tli" 
mover;;  ot  I'lit  li  jiropolitions. 

Thi'i  ikclaration  ^avc,  for  tlie  prclbnt, 
fomc  iVcniint;  t-oiitent  ami  faiistadtion  to 
the  general,  but  lew  years  after,  whether 
the<;rouiKl  was  the  envy  ami  jealoufy  alore- 
laid,  or  that  he  hail  ilune  loniewhat  tiiat 
couKl  be  niitconllrueilor  fulpeCted,  or  was 
fallly  atculed,  or  whatfoever  tile  the  mat- 
ter was,  lor  it  is  iiulitVerently  re[iortei.l,  the 
general  fent  for  him  ami  part  ot  his  army 
from  the  Irontiersot  Cahin-ti.:/:.!.  In  obe- 
ilience  to  thiscommaml,  became  to  court, 
where,  by  onler  ot  the  ^'.eneral,  he  \vas 
iinmciliately  rl  ip'il  in  irons,  ami  continM 
to  a  certain  clofe  prilbn  near  the  palace. 

In  this  condition  he  continued  ftveral 
years,  by  which  it  feems  his  faults  were 
not  capital,  or  at  lealt  nothing  could  be 
proved  againll  him  to  ta!;e  away  his  lite  i 
but  in  the  interim,  as  fate  would  have  it, 
about  the  year  i6;2,  the  toldiers  that 
were  in  the  city  of  Cbacbo,  a  great  num- 
ber, no  lefs  than  forty  thoul'and  meeting 
all  at  once,  and  tilling  eery  corner  there- 
of with  fear  and  tumultuous  noiles,  and 
driving  out  thereby  its  vulgar  to  their  fevc- 
ral  aldea's,  came  with  lail  exclamations  to 
the  palace  gate,  yet  had  lo  much  reve- 
rence as  not  to  enter  ;  they  brought  no  arms 
but  their  hands  and  tongues,  rudely  bawl- 
ing forth  their  random  thoughts  againfl  the 
general  in  opprobrious  language,  reproach- 
ing his  ungratefulnels  towartis  them,  and 
prodigality  to  his  women,  whom  he  per- 
mitted to  fquander  and  wafle  the  treat'urc 
of  the  land,  while  they  were  ready  to  pe- 
rifli  in  want  and  mifery,  as  if  he  purpofely 
defign'd  their  dcflruftion  and  confufion  by 
the  molt  uneafy  and  infupportable  methods 
of  famine  and  nakednefs ;  magnifying  their 
own  def.Tts  in  his  fervice,  threatning  to 
take  fome  leverc  courle,  if  he  did  not  en- 
large their  pay,  and  diflribute  fbmc  mo- 
ney among  them,  committing  the  mean 
while  a  thoul'and  infolent  enormities,  ho- 
vering round  the  palace,  and  encamping 
at  the  feveral  avenues  thereof,  as  if  they 
intended  to  bcfiege  the  general  therein  i 
and  in  effeft,  none  could  go  out  or  in  with- 
out their  commifTion. 

In  this  extremity  and  flreight,  the  gene- 
ral confulted  with  the i;^(rt;/ybJLfa',andother 
privy-counfellors,  what  to  do.  One  of 
them,  a  great  litcrado,  was  of  opinion, 
'twas   belt  to  grant  the  foldicrs  their  de- 

\'\n^^^  \  whiih  being  moilerat.-,  they  miclit 
calily  be  appealed,  .ilkd^'Jng,  thattoi]ucll 
theiountry   peo[ile,  when  nbellious,  'tv/as 
cullomary  to  ute  the  luldiers,  but  to  (juiet 
the  nuiiiiunis  loldiers,  nioney  was  the  only 
expedient  ;  but  another  litcrado,  by  n.imc 
()n^  Tniii^^J.iini;  of  l.mie  tor  his  wif- 
dom,  and  in  high  relptct  tor  his  dignity, 
of  a  violent  rclolute   nature,   oppoleil  the 
lirll  opinion,  laying,  it  was  imprudent,  ami 
ot  pernicious  confeiiuence  to  indulge  a  com- 
pany ot  mutinous  fellows  too  far  i  adding, 
that  it  was  much  the  better  rinieily  tolii/.c 
lome  ot  the  ring- leaders,  and  |)ut  tlum  to 
death,  which  would  .ima/eand  allonifli  the 
nil  fo,  as  to   make  them    Ihitt   lor  their 
f.ifety  and  fecurity.     'I'he  general,  inclinM 
moll  to  this  lall  advice,  for  love  of  his  mo- 
ney,   yet    was  iloubtlul  in    his  retblution. 
'I  he  Ibldiei  .  having  their  fpies  in  the  palace 
(as  he  hail  his  among  them)  had  prtlently 
notice  ot  palfed,    whuli  lb  incinled 
them  againtt  7V.;;.;>;i/.?;/.Y,  th.ic  watching  the 
time  of  his  coming  forth  the  to  go 
home,  they  immediately   fei/.ed   liim,  and 
treateil  him  in  the  moll  iiuel  and  barbarous 
manner  an  enr.igeil  multitude  could  invent  i 
for  having  inhumanly  bruited   and  beaten 
him  with  thi  ir  tills,   knees,  elbows,  knobs 
ot  their  fans,  ii"V.  they  trampled  the  breath 
out  of  his  botly  with  their  f(et,  and  tlun, 
dead  as  he  was,  they  drew  him  ignominiouny 
thro' the  ftieec  to  the  fandy  illand  near  the 
arfcpal,  where  they  tore  and  cut  his  body 
into  fmall  pieces.     This  audacious  cruelty, 
together  with  other  notorious  affronts  put 
on    feveral  ALiiiiliimns  at  the  fame  time, 
plunged  the  general  and  his  courtiers  in  di- 
vers deep  perplexities,  and  filled  them  with 
mortal  fears,  inlomuch,  that  moll  began  to 
creep  in  holes  and  corners  to  avoid  the  rage 
of  this  terrible  tempefl,  leaving  their  maf- 
ter  in  a  manner  detblate. 

The  difcreetell  among  the  foldicrs  find- 
ing that  they  had  palfed  the  Rubicoii, 
thought  there  was  no  retiring,  and  there- 
fore advifed  their  companions  to  provid« 
themfelves  with  a  head  who  might  guide 
and  order  their  irrei'ular  and  tumultuous  pro- 
ceedings, propofing  prince  Cbcchi-iiii}^  as  fit 
tbr  the  purpofe  v  to  which  they  unanimouf- 
ly  contented,  and  would  have  feteh'd  him 
out  of  prifon  that  inftant,  and  proclaimeil 
him  general,  but  that  the  night,  which 
was  already  come  on,  hinder'd  the  en- 
terprizc,  and  caus'd  them  to  defer  it  to 
next  morning  ;  but  the  general  having  item 
of  their  intentions,  prepared  with  his  ov/n 
hands  a  dofc  for  prince  Chcchcning,  and 
lent  it  him  in  the  dead  of  the  night,  by  a 
trully  eunuch,  with  o'dcr  that  he  Ihould 
drink  all  the  potion.  The  capon,  as  Ibon  as 
he  came  to  the  prince,  after  he  had  made 
four  fbmbeys,  dclivcr'd  his  errand,  and  the 
5  general's 

Chap.  12,    Ich 



»/  T 

O  N  Q.  U  E  K  N. 


',  ilicy  mif^lit 
.  tli.u  io(iucll 
ullimis,  'tw.i'i 
I  but  to  (|uii'r 
I  tlu  uiily 
uli),  by  name 
lU'  (or  Ills  wif- 
r  lii^  ili^yiity, 

oppoliil  the 
uliilgc  .1  com- 
)  1  .iililiiig, 
nuily  to  Icizc 
I  put  thdji  ti) 
ul  .illonifli  tln! 
liitt  (or  tliiir 
ural,  iiulin'il 
JVC  of  liisnio- 
lis  rcColution. 
s  in  tlii-pal.iK; 
had  iirtlliulv 
li  Co  itumlcd 
:  Matching  tlic 

palace  to  go 
'.cit  him,  and 
wul  barbarous 
could  invent  i 
it  and  beaten 
■lliows,  knobs 
led  the  breath 
et,  and  ilun, 
(land  near  the 
cut  his  body 
cious  cruelly, 

ad'ronts  put 
e  (iimc  time, 
ourtiers  in  di- 
ed them  with 

11  began  to 

oid  the  rage 
ig  their  maf- 

!()kiier<:  find- 
le    Rubicon, 
and  there- 
to provide 
might  guide 
uituous  pro- 
hcmii^  as  fit 
fetch'd  him 
ight,  which 
r'tl   tile   en- 
deCer  it  to 
having  item 
iih  his  ov/n 
'■■(•i:ing,    and 
iij',hr,  by  a 
t  he   (hould 
n,  as  Coon  as 
had  made 
id,  and  the 

ficn'.'ral's  prcfMir,  whirli  the  piinee  |)rt(liit 
y  l,UiC.M  in  lie  what  it  was  ■,  but  \\hat  he 
faivl  is  not  well  known,  only,  thir.  he  made 
(our  liMiibi'v  toward  tli.'  general'.-i  pdaee, 
and  thin  ti'ok  oil'  the  draught,  and  in  (ew 
hours  a(ter  dy'd.  l  his  was  the  end  of 
piince  Chfili'iiinj^,  whoCe  vcrtifc  was  hn 
grcarell  crime,  tlie  i'oUliers  uniealoiiable  love 
( atiCing  lii>  untimely  death,  I'he  next  morn- 
ing he  oi\leredagieat  iiuantity  (jt'  (ilver  and 
loDper  c.illi  to  be  giviii  to  the  nuilineers, 
iiuiiiciiing  thereby  in  an  inllant  the  liie  ol' 
tiiis  pop  il  r  inl'urreiitioii  ;  bur  levcial  ot' 
them  piTJili'd  afterwards,  tew  kiu  w  how, 

It  is  time  now  to  return  (rem  our  iligref- 
fion,  to  take  a  view   oC  the  lords   ot  the 
blood,   i\I.iiiJiit\viiJ,is'c.  either  civil  ma;;!- 
Ifrates  or  mihtary  officers,  wiio  at  tiie  time 
ol  their  aboJe  in  the  city,  go  every  morii- 
i:ig  early  to  court  to  wait  on  the  Chov.i  and     '1'\k  Ikva  u  com|ilimenied  on  ilie 
(irll  and  tiCteciuh  oC  every  moon,  by  them, 
in  thi  ir  violet  or  blue  garb,  with  caps  oC 
their  own  callicoe  manutaiiturcs,  in  which 
they    are  obligeil  to   cloath    their  retinue. 
The  Chov.t   receives   them    in  great  Ihii,', 
i'ltting  at  a  groat  dillance  uncovered,  tor 
the  more  pomji  funlels  on  Come  (olcmnity) 
his  numerous  lile-guard  in  arms  in  the  ]u-,  Currounded  by  many  capon  ler- 
vanti,  wlio  carry  his  order  and  commillions 
to  the  Mm  darcens,  and  bring  their  anCwers, 
or,  .lecording  to  their  method  oC  Ipe.iking, 
fu[)plieaiions,  which    they  deliver   to  him 
on  their  knees.     In  tine,  at  this  time,  molt 
n.ite-matters   are    here    handled   and    diC- 
patch'd  i    the  ads  and   reColutions  oC  the 
^iiin-fo-Ueiu,    or    luprcam    court    (whole 
Selfions  is  in   this  palace)    is  prelented  to 
him,  to  have  his  approbation  thereon.    The 
prince  likcvvil'e  has  his  Colicitors  neur  the  ge- 
neral (Cor  he  himCeIC  comes  hardly  once  in 
a  moon  to  court)  who  gives  him  notice  oC 
:ill   that    pall'es,   that   he  may  regulate  his 
proceedings  accordingly.      No  bufinel's  ot 
requelts  or  petitions  Hide  in  this  court,  ex- 
cept it  be  greaCed  with  preCents  and  gifts 
anCwcrable  to  the  import  oC  afi'airs. 

It  is  ,1  goodly  Cight  to  Cee  flich  a  crowd 
oC  lords,  and  how  every  thing  is  carry'd 
here  with  that  decency  and  decorum,  that 
tlrikes  an  awe  in  every  beholder,  and  would 
have  really  much  m.ijelly  in  it,  iC  they 
would  diCpenCe  with,  or  abrogate  that  (la- 
vilh  cuflom  of  going  barctbot.  The  gene- 
ral indulges  his  Mandarceni  much,  treating 
them  with  reCpecT:  and  tenderneCs  as  to  their 
lives,  which  are  Celdoin  in  danger,  but  for 
trcaCon  •,  Cor  other  otVences  they  are  lined 
or  diCgraced,  by  being  turned  out  oC  em- 
ploy, or  banifli'd  the  court. 

When  any  Mandafeen  intei-cccds  for  their 
tricnds  or  kindred  that  have  ollended,  they 
come  covered  betbri;  the  general,  then  put- 

ting olV  their  capi,  they  fonibcy  four  times,  Uakov 
a  w.iy  ot  reverence,  or  raihei  ailoi.iiioii,  Vi«-v-s> 
which  tonlilts  in  talhr.g  lirlt  on  their  knees, 
then  touthiiig  the  ground  wiih  their  bodic'., 
,itti  r  the  Cl'D.'.'/i:  mode,  ihey  reijuell  hi',  higli- 
iiels  to  pardon  the  i  rime,  and  impute  the 
I.iult  to  the  intercelFor,  who  is  ready  by  the 
lign  ot  landing  bare,  which  on  lutli-likc 
oecalions,  intimates  the  condiiitjn  ot  a  cri- 
minil,  to  uiuKrgo  IIk  h  puniiliment  us  the 
prince  Ihall  pleale  toiniluion  him. 

.(\hout  cight  o'clock  the  general  with- 
ilraws  trom  the  .uidience  place,  and  the 
lords,  iji.  retire  Crom court,  .ill  but  the  cap 
tain  ol  the  guards,  with  Come  that  have 
otfices  .u  court  who  are  capons,  oC  wliieh 
a  number  being  young,  are  menial 
Icivants,  who,  with  ihe  ilomellick  maids, 
are  only  permiUcd  to  enter  his  privy  apart- 
ments and  Ceraglio  of  women  and  concu- 

Ol  theCe  capons,  a  pell  oC  mankind,  the 
paralites,  lyeophants,  and  pcrvertersoCthcfe 
princes,  there  are  no  leCs  than  tour  or  five 
huntlred  belonging  to  t!ie  court,  who  are 
ulii.dly  lb  prou.l,  impel  ious  and  unrealon- 
able,  as  makes  them  not  lels  hateful  and  ab- 
horred, than  leared  by  the  whole  nation  ; 
however,  the  "rinee  confides  moll  in  rhcm, 
both  11  doHiellick  and  llate  matters  ,  for, 
after  Cerveil  (even  or  eight  years 
in  the  inner  court,  they  arc  raiCed  gradual- 
ly to  publick  adminillrations  and  dignities, 
(b  as  to  be  graced  with  the  moll  honour- 
able titles  oC  pro\'neial  governors,  and  mi- 
litary pre(e(!ls,  while  Ceveral  oC  the  more 
delerving,  both  oC the  military  officers,  and 
the  dalles  oC  the  literadoes  are  neglected, 
and  Cutler  tor  want :  But  it  is  certain,  the 
general  reCpedls  his  own  preCent  profit  ^what- 
loever  the  conCequence  may  be)  in  the  ad- 
vancing them  ;  tor  when  they  die,  the  riches 
they  have  accumulated  by  tbul  praClices, 
rapine  and  extortie'i,  tall,  in  a  manner,  all 
to  the  general,  as  next  heir  i  and  tho'  their 
parents  are  living,  yet  in  regard  they  con- 
tributed nothing  to  their  well-being  in  the 
world,  but  to  geld  them,  to  which  they 
were  prompted  by  great  indigence,  and 
hopes  oC  court  preterment,  therefbre  they 
can  pretend  to  no  more  th.m  a  few  houCes 
and  imall  ("pots  of  ground  -,  which  alio  they 
cannot  enjoy  but  with  the  good-liking  and 
jjleaCurc  oC  the  general. 

However,  not  to  detracfl  from  truth,  Come 
of  theCe  capons  have  been  oC  extraordinary 
merit,  and  among  them  more  eCpecially 
theCe  three  by  name,  Onj^-'ya-Tu-Lcu,  0>{^- 
"Ja-la  yw-S<;y,and  Ong-'y a-How-Foe-Tai.k  \ 
thcfe  were  indeed  the  delight  oi  I'onqueen ; 
but  they  were  fbch  as  loft  their  genitals  by 
chance,  having  hail  them  bit  oil"  either  by  a 
hog  or  dog,  TheCe  fort  oCcapons  are,  by 
tJic  lliin-rlliiious  •tdngueimfii,  believed  to  be 




■i!    .: 

H'  .i^^iii 


r/;(?  Defcriplion 

Chap,  12,     'Chap 


li/*  RON.  d^'    to  great 

\^~\/-^,    IR'IICC. 

'I'hc  l-itl  of  thcll-  i.i  yi":  living,  an  1  at  piv- 
llnt  govi-Tnour  of  IL'i:/,  ::iui  tin.'[fclb  pio- 
\'incc  in  t'lK  louiury,  of  all  the  U\i 
forces,  and  princi[ul  niinilLr  for  tiu-  aiKiirs 
of  ilrangcrs ;  a  pnulcnt  captain,  awil'cgo- 
vcrnour,  and  an  uncorruptv.\l  judge,  wlucii 
renders  liim  admirable  to  thcfc  Jieatliens, 
an'.l  a  Ihamc  to  many  clirillians,  who,  tho' 
tiuy  ar:;  bkll  with  the  light  of  the  I'.ofpel, 
rarely  arrive  at  that  hti;^htli  of  ■  xeellence, 
as  to  know  how  to  be  great,  good  and  poor 
,!t  once. 

Remarkable  is  what  thry  relate  of  0;/;j- 
jfa-Tn-Lft,  famous  f  >r  his  Iharp  brain,  and 
prodi;^,ious  parts,  rind  1,0  lels  lor  his  Hidden 
rife,  as  ilrange  and  tragical  fall  ;  whofe 
hillory  take  as  follows. 

In  the  minority  of  the  lioufe  of  Triii^ 
(that  is  to  fay,  before  it  was  fnmly  clta- 
blilird  in  the  governmeiuj  the  then  reign- 
ing general  having  great  neci  "cy  for  fome 
able  ftatefman  (on  whom  he  .liight  dilbur- 
dcn  (bme  part  of  his  weiglity  att.urs)  and 
being  afflicted  with  continual  pc,  plexites  on 
this  head,  he  chanced  to  dream  that  he 
Ihouhl  meet  a  man  the  next  morning,  whom 
he  could  trull  and  employ  ;  and,  as  it  hap- 
pened, the  firft  man  that  came  to  the  court 
in  the  morning,  was  this  '■Tu-Lea,  who 
agrecirg  exadtly  with  tiie  imaginary  pidhire 
of  his  dream,  both  in  proportion,  llature 
and  phyfiognomy,  the  general  conferred 
with  him  i  and,  after  ibmediicourfe,  found 
him  of  great  ability,  and  exactly  acquainted 
with  their  anaiia  imperii ;  whereupon  he 
raifed  him  immediately,  and,  in  a  little 
while,  augmented  his  authority  fo  greatly, 
that  there  was  hardly  any  difference  between 
the  malkr  and  the  fervant,  but,  if  any, 
'■Tu-Lia  was  more  refpe(ited,  courted  and 
feared  than  the  general  himfelf.  Whether 
this  was  the  caufe  of  his  dilpleafurc  againll 
him,  or  that  this  mufliroom  C  raifed  in  a 
night)  forgetting  his  obligation,  prompt- 
ed by  ambitious  ingratitude,  and  blinded 
by  his  overmuch  profperity,  did  conlpire 
ri.  .lly  to  deflroy  his  mailer,  and  to  alVume 
the  place  himfelf  (as  the  common  bruit  was) 
or  that  this  was  mertly  a  j)retence  to  colour 
the  general's  jealoufy  of  his  over-grown 
greatncl's,  I  will  not  determine  ;  but,  to  be 
brief,  he  was,  by  the  general's  order,  torn 
in  pieces  by  four  horfes,  his  boiiy  and  dil- 
mcmbred  limbs  cut  in  pieces,  and  then 
burnt,  and  the  aflies  thrown  into  the  river. 

Every  year  about  the  latter  end  of  our 
yantiary,  which  falls  out  about  their  lail 
moon,  all  the  mandarccns,  ofTuers  and  mi- 
litary men  are  fworn  to  be  faithful  to  the 
king  and  general,  and  tliat  they  iTiall  not 
conceal  trealbnable  machinations  againib 
rheir  perlbns,  on   lorfeit.irc  of  th:ir  lives, 

Tlx"  mandarccns  take  tlie  like  o.\t]i  of  their 
wives,  iiivants  and  domellicki.  Me  that 
revvals  high  t!eali>n,  has  at  molt  but  thirty 
dollars,  aixl  a  iinall  employ  for  a  rew.ud, 
which  is  lar  Ihort  ot  ourautlior's  multipli- 

1  h.ey  have  ;'.nnual  niullers  for  the  levy  of 
foldiers  through  the  whole  kingdom ;  in 
v.'iikii  choice  they  greatly  refpccl  the  tallnefs 
ofperlbns:  I'holeot  extraordinary  heighth 
are  alljited  to  be  of  the  general's  life-guard, 
the  others  arc  dil  [)oIijd  of  according  to  occa- 
fions.  All  thole  that  have  any  degree  in 
learning  and  handicrafts  men  are  exempt 
from  this  i.iulter.  How  they  proceed  with 
deferters  I  cannot  affirm ;  but  am  certain, 
the  Toiqiift-iifi  know  not  what  hanging 
means:  their  way  is  to  behead  them;  only 
thole  of  the  royal  blood  are  flrangled.  I 
mull  needs  liiy,  they  arc  ncirlier  cruel  nor 
exquifite  in  thcfe  invcaiions. 

As  for  llrangers,they  employ  none ;  think- 
ing none  fo  wile  as  themlcivL's:  however, 
when  1  came  from  Siat/i,  1  was  examined 
abour  the  aliairs  of  that  kingdom  antl  Co- 
chill-china,  and  lonccrning  my  voyage  in 
the  Tonqiu'cii  Sing  Ja,  and  whether  thofe 
boats  miglu  be  able  to  tranfport  Ibldicrs 
through  ilie  high  leas  ;  to  wliich  lanfwered 
as  I  thou:j;!it  fit.  I'hcn  1  was  qucllioned 
how,  if  tlie  general  fliould  give  me  the  com- 
mand of  two  or  three  hundred  foldicrs  to  be 
cmp'loyed  againll  C'^hin-cbina  ?  to  which  I 
replicti,  I  was,  by  proftflion,  a  merchant, 
confeciuently  ignorantof  martial  afiitirs,  ard 
therelore  incapable  of  ferving  his  highnefs  in 
that  rcfpcit.  Which  excufe  and  refufal, 
tho  it  ferved  for  that  time,  yet  it  operated 
againll  me  when  I  was  accufed  by  the  Cbi- 

With  the  nobility  of  this  country,  as  1 
have  i.intedelfewhere,  and  acquainteil  you, 
that  nobility  only  defcends  to  the  pollerity 
of  the  king  and  general,  and  that  only  to 
the  third  degree  ;  but  the  rell,  as  they  ob- 
tained it  by  am  ,  learning,  or  money,  fo  it 
is  but  diii\wu  vita.  By  the  firll  means  few 
are  railed,  by  the  fecond  fome,  but  the 
third  is  the  true  loadllone  which  attracts 
moll  lavour. 

The  geneial's  court  (lands  in  Ca-cbo,  al- 
mollin  themidll  of  the  city  ;  it  is  very  i'pa- 
cious,  and  walled  about;  within  and  with- 
out built  full  ot  low  fmall  lioules  for  the  con- 
veniency  of  the  ibldiers :  Within  they  are 
two  (lories  high,  moll  open  for  air.  The 
gatesare  large  and  llately,all  of  iron-wood, 
as  indeed  the  grcaiell  part  of  the  palace  is. 
His  own  and  womens  apartments  arc  (lately 
and  colUy  cdiHces,  fet  forth  with  carv.d, 
gilded,  and  la;'quer  work.  In  the  (i:;l  plain 
of  the  court  are  the  llables  lor  his  biggell  c- 
lephanti,   and  bell  horjes  j    v'l  the  )iinder 

I'ai  t 

1 1  U! 


c  o:a]i  oi"  their 
:kb.  1  Ic  due 
lolt  but  ti.irty 
lor  ;i  rcw.'.i'ci, 
hoi'i  multipli- 

for  the  levy  of 
kingdom ;  in 
)ectthe  tallneis 
dinary  iieighth 
al's  lite-gu.ird, 
jrdingto  oec.i- 
.iny  degree  in 
n  are  exempt 
yr  proceed  wiili 
lit  am  certain, 
what  iianging 
id  tiiem ;  only 
llrangled.  I 
idler  cruel  nor 

ynonc ;  think- 
fii :  however, 
was  examined 
gdom  and  Co- 
ny voyage  in 
whether  thote 
nl'i'ort  foldiers 
hieh  lanfwered 
was  queltioned 
veme  the  com - 
J  foldiers  to  be 
'a  ?  to  which  I 
1,  a  merchant, 
tial  afiairs,  arel 
his  highnefs  in 
e  and  re  filial, 
/et  it  operated 
,ed  by  tlie  67';- 

coiintry,  as  1 
cquainted  you, 
o  tJic  polterity 
d  that  only  to 
It,  as  they  ob- 
r  money,  fo  ir 
irlt  means  few 
bme,  but  the 
which  attrad'ts 

in  Ca-cbo,  \\\- 
it  is  very  i'pa- 
thin  and  with- 
ies for  tiie  con- 
ithin  they  are 
for  air.     The 
oi  iron-wood, 
the  palace  is. 
nts  are  flateiy 
witli  carvvd, 
rlicf,;;l  plain 
his  higgirt  e- 
>n  the  hiii'ler 

12,     fChap.   13.  0/^   1  ONQ.UEEN.  29 

■  K  part  arc  many  parks,   groves,  walks,  ar-    countrycan  afford  for  his  plcafurc  or  recrea- BARorr. 

jf  bours,  filh-ponds,  and  whatfoever  elfc  the     tion,  fince  he  feldom  ftirs  out,  \y^->J 

1  CHAP.    xiir. 

■I  7'hat  there  is  no  ftuh  manner  vf  coronation  and  'mthron'tzatwii  of  tl.cir  kings,  as 

M  is  related  by  M.  I'avcrnicrc. 


S  our  author  is  mod  erroneous  through- 
out his  book,  fo  this  his  thirteenth 
chapter  is  in  a  manner,  one  intire  error  1 
for,  how  diligent  focver  I  was  to  enquire  of- 
tlieir  learned  men,  and  other  perfons  oi' 
quality,  I  could  not  find,  that  they  ufed 
the  folemnity  of  inrhroning  or  coronation 
of  their  kings  with  fuch  pomp  and  magni- 
ficence, or  any  thing  like  it,  as  he  relates; 
nay,  fcarce  rhat  they  obfervc  any  cerem.c.":y 
at  all. 

Tl-  y  told  me,  that  fuchexrernal  gallan- 
tric,  and  all  oftentations  were  contrary  to 
their  cultoms  and  pradice  ;  for  when  their 
king  or  general  dies,  all  publick  fliews  what- 
foever that  exprefs  mirth, or demonltrate  any 
magnificence,  or  have  any  fign  ot  glory, 
fo  mucii  as  the  wearing  gold,  lilver,  or 
gaudy  deaths,  are  not  only  forbidden 
throughout  the  whole  kingdom,  but  reck- 
oned very  fcandalous  to  be  ufed.  Neither 
muft  a  courtier,  during  the  time  of  his 
mourning  for  his  prince,  appear  in  rich  fur- 
niture himfelf,  or  in  his  horfe,  elephants, 
palankeens,  hammocks,  i3c.  but  the  word, 
coarfcft  and  meaneft  habiliments  they  can 
invent,  are  accounted  the  propereit,  eipe- 
rially  for  the  highelt  dignified,  and  ncareil 
of  blood,  with  many  other  nice  obferva- 
tions,  whereof  more  amply  in  due  place. 

All  the  crre:nony  they  ufe  on  thefe  oc- 
cafions,  confifls  only  to  lombey,  and  pre- 
fent  the  prince  fo  fucceeding,  who  enter- 
tains the  complimcntcrs  of  note  with  meat, 
yet  not  with  the  ufual  court-fplendor  or 
merriment,  by  reafon  of  his  mourning  for 
his  predecelTor.  Bat  was  it  ufual  with  them 
to  advance  their  king  (who  ai  prefent  has 
no  interelt  in  the  iVate)  with  fo  much  gran- 
deur and  llue  to  the  throne,  queftionlefs 
they  would  hive  lonie  degrees  of  honour 
likewile  lor  the  general  when  he  afTumes 
his  dignity,  fince  his  power  and  authoiity, 
tho' intruded,  controlls  all,  and  that  on  all 
occafions  he  is  moll  refpecled  and  oblirved. 

In  16S2.  when  I  arrived  here  from  iV/./w, 
the  old  gen.-ral  was  newly  decealld:  his 
heir  made  no  noife  at  ad  when  he  fucceeded  ; 
nay,  he  carried  himreh  lb  private  therein, 
that  none  abroad  iieard  of  court  niatters,  or 

vancement ;  only  their  prefents  were  receiv- 
ed. Thus,  without  any  other  formality, 
the  general  took  poflelTion  of  his  office  •,  and 
undoubtedly  he  would  never  condel'cend  the 
king  fliould  exceed  him  in  that  kind,  not 
only  becaufe  he  is  to  bear  all  fuch  charges 
and  expences,  but  alfo  for  fear  the  other 
Ihould  increafe  too  much  in  reputation  there- 

Our  author  then  is  to  be  admired  for  re- 
lating things  both  unknown,  and  contrary 
to  the  ci  ftonii  of  this  people;  confidently 
affirming,  his  brod'er  was  an  eye-witnefs  of 
that   ingenious  invented  romance,    on  this 
oecafion  :  For  what  are  theyelfe  dian  fables, 
CO  lay,  that,  in  this  folemnity,  all  the  artille- 
ry ot  the  court  walls  were  fired  ?  when  there 
is  not  fo  much  as  a  great  gun  upon  the 
walls,  nor  ever  was,  by  relation ;  that  all 
the  foldiers  were  drawn   thither  from  the 
frontiers;  which  is  to  open  the  gates  of  the 
kingtlom  to  the  Cochin-chiticfe,  who  are  al- 
ways upon  the  watch  for  fucn  an  opportuni- 
ty, to  incorporate  with  their  dominion,  the 
twoadjoyning  pro"i'iCes,  which  were  once 
luled  by  the  predeceflbrs  of  their  Chova : 
'I'hat  they  fwear  fidelity  to  the  king,  and  that 
they  will  deiend  him  and  the  country  againit 
the  Chiitfji'  their  inveterate  enemies ;  when, 
as  we  have  recounted,   they  are  tributary  to 
the  Chuut  empire,  now  in  poflefiion  of  the 
TiirLirs,  whom  they  endeavour  by  all  means 
imaginable  not  to  oHend,  for  feai  of  lofing 
their  country  and  Ireedom  :  That  the  king's 
liberality  extemls  that  day  to  one  million  of 
/'.?/A-j  ot  gold  ;  which,  in  filver,  amounts  at 
lealt  to  one  hundred  and  fitty  millions  of 
crowns;  alum,  I  ain  fure,  die  whole  king- 
dom can  hardly  multer  up  both  in  gold  and 
filver,   tho'  he  aims  to  pcriwade  the  world, 
that  the  king  ot  Tnnquiwn  [>oflelics  zlv:  riches 
o\' Cia-jhs :  'J'hat  the  king  makes  prelents  of 
money  to  officers  of  unknown  iiaines,  and 
ollices  never  heard  ot  in  the  country  :    That 
he  bedows  lb  many  Paius  of  gold  and  filver 
on  tiie  coiillable,  meaning  tliereby  the  ge- 
neral,  Irom  whotii  he  receives  all  he  has  ; 
That  die  I  icrifices  fnould  be  fo  Lrge,  as  to 
contain  that  prodigious  number  of  beail?, 
wiiereby  neceilanly  the  plow  mull  Hand  llili, 
perceived  the  leall  alteration  of  government    ami  the  peofile  be  content  to  talt  the  whole 
whatfoever ;    m  ither  would  he  receive  the     year,  as  to  llelh. 
ufual  honours  from  his  own  A/,i«i^ij;rt-),'.t,  or         After   this   A/,-?//  banqurc,  together 

admit  llranfiers  to 


ither  tocon- 


1  what  he  meinions  ot  the  bonze.-,  fi'c- 

dolehii  fcrrow,  or  f)  rongratwlate  his  ad-     worli 
V  jr..   VJ. 

tin  Is  lie 

lis  colts  llelh,  b't 



The  Defcription 

Chap.  i|. 


Baron,  tinent  contradi£lions  and  abfurdities,  not 
worthy  regard  ;  I  muft  confcfs  he  notes  fome 
things  and  patliiges  here  proper  to  Siam, 
and  agreeable  to  the  manners  and  confti- 
tutions  of  that  people,  fo  that  he  is  only 
miilaken  in  the  apphcation.  What  is  to 
be  faid  of  the  king's  going  out,  I  will  note 
in  the  next  chapter. 

The  ladies  of  quality,  when  they  go 
abroad,  are  carried  according  to  their  I'evc- 
ral  degrees,  either  in  clofe  fedans,  or  ham- 
mocks upon  the  fhoulders  of  men.  Neither 
doth  this  nation  keep  their  women  fo  ftrict 
from  the  fight  of  others,  as  the  Moors  and 
Chinefe  do. 

The  celebration  of  their  nativity  they  ob- 
ferve  very  pundually,  from  the  prince  to 
the  meaneft,  each  to  his  ability  and  power, 
with  fealling,  mufick,  and  other  pallimes, 
fire-works  excepted  ;  in  which  they  are  very 
deficient,  as  I  hinted  before.  They  arc  al- 
fo  prefented,  on  tlie  faid  occaCons,  by  their 

kindred,  friends  and  dependents;  who  at- 
tend tlicm  to  honour  the  folemnity. 

As  to  tiie  king's  liberality,  who  fcnt  his 
fon  and  llicccffor  a  donative  of  a  thouf.uid 
Panes  of  gold,  intrinfick  value,  an  hundred 
and  fifty  thoufand  dollars,  and  five  hundred 
bars  of  (ilvcr,  above  feven  thoufand  dollars, 
at  once,  it  is  altogether  impoflible  ;  becaufc 
the  yearly  revenue  allowed  him,  comes  to 
no  more  than  eight  thoufand  dollars.  He 
errs  likewifc  in  his  multiplication,  making 
thofe  PtVhs  of  gold  and  bars  of  filver  to  be 
only  an  hundred  and  iwenty  thoufand  livres. 

As  to  the  king's  fuccellbr,  he  himfelf  is 
often  ignorant  which  of  his  fons  is  to  fuccecd 
him,  if  he  has  more  than  one  ;  and,  if  but 
one,  it  is  not  certain  that  he  fliall  be  king 
after  him,  fince  it  lies  in  the  general's  brealt, 
to  name  fuch  an  one  as  he  likes  bcft,  pro- 
vided he  be  of  tiie  royal  flock ;  tho'  he  feldoni 
puts  by  the  next  heir,  unlefs  it  be  for  great 
jeafons, and  urgent  political  moaves,  Qc. 

CHAP.     XIV. 

Of  the  ceremony  of  the  king's  h,cffiitg  the  cotiiitry,    vtilgarly  among f}  tbcniy  caJleil 
Bova-dee-yaw,  or,  accurdiiig  to  their  charaiters,  Caii-Ja. 

[Plate  1 1 1  'TP  ^^  ^  '^'"S  feldom  or  never  goes  out  to 
X.  take  his  pleafure,  but  once  a  year  he 
fhews  himfelf  in  publick  (not  reckoning 
when  he  is  carried  by  the  general  on  particu- 
lar occafions)  on  the  folemnization  of  their 
grand  ceremony,  at  the  beginning  of  their 
new  year,  on  a  particular  chofen  day  ;  for 
they  believe  fome  to  be  good,  others  better, 
fome  indifferent,  others  bad  ;  whereof  they 
are  fo  fuperftitioufly  obfervant,  as  to  under- 
take nothing  of  importance,  without  con- 
fulting  firfl  mofl  ferioufly,  both,  their  China 
almanacks,  and  blind  country  diviners. 

The  king,  general  and  prince,  with  mod 
of  the  Mamiareciis  of  the  court,  on  this  fb- 
lemn  occafion,  go,  betbre  break  of  day,  fe- 
verally  to  a  place  at  the  fouth  end  of  the 
city,  purpolcly  built  for  this  occafion, 
with  three  gates  dilferent  from  their  other 
pagodas  -,  neither  are  there  any  images  in  the 
houfe.  Here  they  itay  witliout  in  fundry 
apartments  till  day  light ;  the  king,  in  the 
mean  time,  is  to  wafli  his  body,  and  put  on 
new  cloaths,  never  worn  before. 

About  eight  of  the  click  a  piece  of  ord- 
nance is  fired  i  on  which  fignal  the  general, 
prince  and  Maiulare/us  repair  to  the  king 
to  do  homage,  tho'  it  extends,  a?  to  the  ge- 
neral and  prince,  no  further  than  a  bare 
point  of  formality.  This  compliment  paf- 
I'es  in  filencc,  yet  with  much  Hate  and  gra- 
vity on  both  fides:  Then  immediately  the 
fl'cond  fignal  of  a  gun  is  heard  i  v/ hereupon 
the  king»is  accompanied  to  the  g^uci  of  she 
faid  houfe,  which  are  ail  lliut,  whereat  he 

knocks,  and  is,  by  the  door-keepers,  alked 
who  he  is.  He  anfwers.  The  king,  and 
they  let  him  in  -,  but  none  may  enter  with 
him,  that  being  contrary  to  their  luperlli- 
tion.  Thus  he  does  three  feveral  times,  till 
he  comes  into  the  houfe,  where  he  falls  to 
his  devotion  with  prayers  and  fupplications, 
having  kept  a  ftrift  fail  to  his  gods,  after 
their  mode ;  which  done  he  feats  himfelf  in 
a  gilt  chair  placed  in  the  yard  of  the  faid 
houfe  i  and,  having  paufed  a  little,  a  plow, 
with  a  buffalo  tied  to  it  in  the  fame  manner 
as  they  ufe  them  for  tilling  the  ground,  is 
prefented  him,  who  holding  it  by  the 
ufually  taken  hold  of  when  they  work  it,  he 
blefies  the  country,  and  teaches  the  people 
by  this  emblem,  that  none  Iliould  be  afiia- 
mcd  to  be  a  hufbandman,  and  that  the  di- 
ligent, induftrious  and  provident,  efpecial- 
ly  in  the  culture  of  the  ground,  may  cer- 
tainly expert  the  enjoyment  of  their  labour 
and  pains. 

I  am  informed  by  fome,  that,  at  the 
lame  time,  the  ceremony  ot  the  cups  is  uled  \ 
ochcrs  again  contradict  thit,  and  affirm  it  to 
be  on  tlic  day  of  inllalling  the  new  king. 

Beit  wlien  it  will,  the  manner  is  thus :  on 
a  ba>!clfjia,  or  lacquei'd  table,  Hand  li. viral 
cups  with  prepared  vidluals  in  them;  and 
among  therell  there  is  one  with  boilid  white 
rice,  another  with  yellow  rice,  one  with 
water,  and  one  with  herbs  or  greens :  All 
thefe  cups  arc  neatly  coveriil  with  fine 
paper,  and  v,.th  Ihirch  taOntd  tlunon,  fo 
that  one  cannot  be  known  from  anotlier.. 


Chap.  14. 

Icnts;  who  at- 


,  who  fcnt  his 

of  a  thoiifand 
le,  an  hundred 
id  five  hundred 
Dufand  dollars, 
Hible;  bccaufc 
lim,  comes  to 

dollars.  He 
ition,  making 
of  filver  to  be 
loufiind  livres. 
I  he  himfclf  is 
IS  is  to  fucceed 
i  and,  if  but 
fliall  be  king 
ces  beft,  pro- 
tho'  he  feldom 
it  be  for  great 
oJves,  Qc. 



t/xm,  calkil 

eepers,  alked 
le  king,  and 
xy  enter  witK 
heir  iuperfti- 
•al  times,  till 
re  he  falls  to 
sgods,  after 
Its  himfelf  in 
i  of  the  faid 
ttle,  a  plow, 
a  me  manner 
c  ground,  is 
by  the  place 
'/  work  it,  he 
"s  the  people 
uld  be  afha- 
that  the  di- 
nt, elpecial- 
d,  may  cer- 
their  labour 

hat,    at  the 
cups  is  u  fed  ; 
d  affirm  it  to 
cw  king, 
r  is  thus :  on 
Hand  Itviral 
tlum  ;  and 
boilctl  white 
',   one  with 
.yxeiis :  All 
I   with  fine 
thenon,   fo 
m  anotlicr. 




' ! 







tS^^  J^//'/yrt/{>rj  in  Mi-ir  CAijm i^a/>//- 
3  f/Hf  {a/i/aiH  of^^/r  ^iMn/  ru/trnf  i//r^u 

ail  EU/iAan^ 
4.a»  ^ni/m-r^  la/i/a.tfi  cm  i^'f7f  ^cA 

//u  /I'ai/ ^tnJ  Jian,'  t/if  f/)c/-i/^//M^ 
//u  lif/ytj  w,i^  //OiO  . 

'J.  f^U  .  /////ftWU 

■f(^/^  !y>airt<tr,i 

fiC^f  liirfytfL'  'I'^f/r/n  /iij  tyi/^  aru/ 

Tlif  MANNlBtrNElL' 





~'^iia  -Jo. 

ffAuA  Aa////^nj  //jua//y  in  our ^/f: 

nif  MANNlBtlNERAL.  PoMP 


fe    (I- 

1 "  ■  -ft  f i 




\H  -i 





[hap.  f^. 

O  le  of  thcfc  the  king  takes  at  adventure, 
w.iicli  is  iinnicdiatcly  opened ;  and  it  lie 
lighfi  on  the  yellow  rkc,  there  is  great  re- 
loyting,  bccaufe  it  portends  (as  tliey  believe) 
plenty  in  the  land  ■,  if  on  the  white  rice,  a 
good  harvelt  i  if  water,  an  indifferent  year  ; 
but  the  herbs  or  greens  is  extreme  bad,  de- 
noting great  mortality,  famine  and  defola- 
tion  i^and  fo  the  reft  ol  the  cups,  every  one 
hath  its  particular  fignification  and  augury, 
according  to  what  their  idolatry  and  fuper- 
ftition  didates. 

With  this  ends  this  grand  ceremony  •,  and 
the  third  gun  being  fired,  the  king  mounts 
his  open  chair,  covered  with  many  umbrel- 
locs,  and  is  carried  on  the  fhoulders  of  eight 
foldiers,  asit  were  in  procelTion,  thro' feve- 
ral  ftreets,  to  his  palace,  accompainicd  by 
many  litcradocs  in  their  China  VL-lh,  all  on 
foot.  He  is  iikewifc  attended  by  a  hand- 
fome  guard  of  the  general's  foldiers,  fome 
elephants  and  hories  under  the  noife  of 
drums,  timbrels,  fcalmay,  copper  bafons 
and  hautboys,  &i:.  ftandards  and  colours 


As  he  pafles  along  he  demonlliv.:?,  Iiis  Baron. 
liberality  to  the  poor  fpedators  and  aldea  v^v^' 
people,  by  throwing  cafli  or  copper  toin 
amongll  them.  A  whil„  after  the  king, 
the  general  follows,  riding  on  a  flately  ele- 
phant, waited  '  i  by  many  princes  of  his 
own  and  royal  family,  with  inoll  of  the 
military  officers  and  civil  magilhatcs  of  the 
kingdom,  richly  attired,  and  guarded  by 
a  detachment  of  three  or  lour  tiioufand 
horfe,  and  about  an  hundreil,  or  an  him- 
dred  and  fifty  elephants  witii  fumptuous 
furniture,  and  an  infantry  of  no  lefs  than 
ten  thoufand  men,  all  fine  and  gallantly 
cloathed,  with  coats  and  caps  made  of£'«n- 
pean  manufaiftures,  fo  that  he  far  exceeds  the 
king  in  pomp  and  magnificence.  He  comes 
a  great  part  of  the  fame  way  the  king  did^ 
till  he  arrives  at  the  flreet  that  leads  di- 
rcflly  to  his  palace,  where  turning,  he  leaves 
the  other  on  his  march.  '1  he  prince 
brings  up  the  reai  of  this  cavalcade  ;  he  has 
half  the  train  of  his  father,  comes  the  fame 
way,  but  takes  the  ncarelt  cut  to  his  own 

CHAP.     XV. 

Of  the  Thcckydaw,  cr  purging  the  country  from  all  liukvuhut  Jpinti 

TH  E  'tbeckydaw  is  obferved  commonly 
once  every  year,  efpecially  if  there  be 
a   great  mortality   amoiigll  the  men,  ele- 
phants,   or  liorfes  of  the  general's  ftables, 
or  the  cattle  of  the  country.     The  caufc  of 
which  they  attribute  to  the  malicious  fpirits 
of  fuch  men  as  have  been  put  to  death  for 
li'.'afon,  rebellion,  and  confpiring  the  death 
of  the  king,   general  or  princes,  and  that 
in  revengeof  the  punifhment  tiiey  have  fuf- 
fcr'd,  they  are  bent  to  deflroy  every  thing, 
and  commit  iiorrible  violence.     To  prevent 
which,    their  fuperftition  h.s  fugge'led  to 
them  the  inilitution  of  this  Thcckydaw,  as 
a  proper  mean  to  drive  the  devil  away,  and 
purge  the  country  of  evil  fpirits.     For  the 
performance  of  which  the  general  confuits 
and  eledls  a  fit  day,  which  commonly  hap- 
pens about  the  twenty-fifth  of  our  i'chruary. 
juft  on  the  Ch.iop\  re-aftuming  new  life  and 
vigour.     When  the  needful  orders  are  given 
for  preparation,    and  that  jvery  thing    is 
got  in  readinefs,  then  the  ger  cral,  with  moll 
of  tiic  princes  and  otiier  qualified  pcrfons  of 
the  land,  repairs  to  the  arfenal  about  eight 
o'clock  in  the  morning  of  the  day  appointed  j 
he  either  rides  on  an  elephant  or  horfe.  or 
elfe  in  a  palankeen  upon  wheels,  which  is 
pufa'd  forward    by  hilly  fellows  kept  fb*- 
that  purpofe,  and  Ihadowed  by  many  um- 
brelloji.     I'he   guard  that  follows  him  is 
very    numerous,    not   lefs  than  lixteen  or 
eighteen  thoufand  men,   belidcs  elephants 

and  horfes,  all  fet  forth  to  the  befl  advan- 
tage.    The  ftreets  thro'   which  ho  palTes, 
are  adorn'd  with  ftandards,  pendants,  and 
armed  foldiers,   to  hinder  tlu  people  from 
opening  either  doors  or  windows,  for  fear 
of  finifter  defigns  and  machinations,    tho' 
ftrangers  are  iometimes   permitted  to  fee 
this  flately  procelFion,  it  they  will  requefl  it. 
Being  arrived  at  the  arfenal,    the  Mcin~ 
ilarcens  go  to  their  feveral  polls  (which  have 
been  kept  for  them  by   their  foldiers)   on 
the  fandy  ifland  near  the  liiid  arfenal,  which 
IS  heaped  up  and  increafed  yearly  by  the 
delcending  waters  from  Chnia,  whofe  rapid 
and  violent  rourfes  do  not  only  eat  awav 
much  of  the  land  in  fbme  places,  a|(H  call 
it  up  again  in  others,  but  Ipoil  the  river  too  ; 
here,   I  fay,  they  build  many  flight  houfes 
with  bamboos,    and  raife  infinite  tents  to 
flielter  them  from  the  injuries  of  rain  and 
fun,  and  place  tiieir  foldiers,  toot,  horfe, 
aiid  elephancs,   as  it  were   in  battle  array, 
with  flying  colours,  llandanls  and  pendants,  ^<^    ^'mc 
their  ordnance  placed  on  advantage,    the  ''*'  ■'^''  " 
boats  of  war  along  the  bank,    in  good  po-  ''iul'f'ltis 
fhire,  and  every  thing  elfe  in  the  methoil  pjn'.t  ap- 
ofan  exad  formidable  army,  noble  and  glo-  ?''"■"«"■ 
rious  to  behold;  and  is  indeed  a  iliew  that  "•' -t'/"" 
would,  above  all  others,  futficientivixprefs ' 
the  powr  of  the  kingdom,  were  but  their 
courafje   proportionable  to  their  conveni- 
ence;:, and  their  leaders,  men  inlLad  of  ca- 
pons i    tor  the  number  of  infantry  pielent 
J  on 


The  Dcftr/piioH 

Chap.  16,    (hiip 

1^    ■!:: 

,/i^  ■■ 




>  ii 

Haiiov.  on  occn Hon,  cannot  lie  Ii'fuhan  riglity 
(yX'v'Nrf  thoiiiunl  lolilicrii  well  ilili  ii'IinM,  ixiicrt 
cithiT  tor  iWonl,  pilvf,  imiiku,  .ii;;i-ii.>is, 
6f('.  and  tlic  cavalry  aboiit  Hvc  thuuland, 
with  rich  turr.iruro,  armai  witli  hows,  ar- 
rows, iwonls  anil  p/jns ;  then  there  arc 
about  two  hiiiuhcd  ami  litty  cicpiiants 
trainit!  up  for  war,  many  of  tlicni 
of  fire  anil  the  noilc  ol  j^iins  lia\iiigi)n  tlicir 
backs  a  box  or  cliair  richly  gilded  and  lac- 
querM,  anil  two  nun  in  tluiii,  witli  a  kind 
of  carabines  and  lances ;  and  there  arc  not 
k'fs  than  three  hunihed  pieces  of  artillery 
ranged  in  proper  order :  nor  do  the  lords, 
M.iiiiliiirni.i,  commanders,  {jfc.  in  their  belt 
garb  of  fine  Icarkt,  with  gold  buckles  on 
the  brcall,  in  manner  as  we  wear  our  looji:, 
and  a  cap  of  the  laid  cloth  on  their  heads, 
make  the  Icill  p:irt  of  this  glorious  flicw. 
The  Ibldicrs  of  the  general's  life-guard  are 
(lout  hilly  fellows,  Ibme  of  prodigious 
heightli,  wiih  caps  and  coats  ol  the  lame 
f.illiion  and  fibrick  as  thole  of  the  Maiula- 
ree>is,  the  gold  loops  excepted,  anil  the 
cloth  not  allogetlier  fo  hne.  I'he  general's 
ten  horlLs  and  lix  elc|)hants  of  Hate  lar  out- 
Ihine  the  relt  in  fplendor,  their  furniture 
being  maiVy  gold  and  fearlet,  with  an  inli- 
nite  numbi.r  of,  flags,  pendants, 
hautboys,  drums  copper  batons,  and  all 
other  forts  ol  warlike  nv.ifkk  and  gallantry 
ranged  promifeuoufly  ;  and  the  whole  being 
attended  with  a  valb  coneourfe  of  |)  opie, 
makes  the  ifland  very  glorious  and  plealant 
for  that  time. 

I'>cry  thing  being  thus  ready,  three 
blows  on  a  large  drum  are  heard,  keeping 
good  time  between  every  llroak,  which 
founds  almoll  like  the  diicuarge  of  a  liiiall 
piece  ot  ordnance  :  on  this  lignal  the  gene- 
ral comes  from  the  arfenal  to  the  place 
(where  tiie  foldiers  fland  in  order)  and  enters 
the  houfe  prepared  for  him.  In  a  while 
after,  tlircc  other  ftroaks  are  given  on  a 
great  copper  bafon  or  gong,  in  the  fame 
manner  as  on  the  drum  for  dillance  of  time  -, 
the  general  beginneth  then  to  oli'cr  meat- 
olferings  to  the  crimin.d  devils  and  malevo- 
lent f[>irits  (tor  it  is  ufual  and  cullomary 
likewife  aniongtl  them,    to  feafl  the  con- 

d' ni:K-d  before  tii  ir  execution)  invitinji 
tiu  in  lu  and  iliuik,  when  (iiefenlly  h;; 
aciuf.A  tluni  in  a  llr.iiigc  language,  by  cha- 
racters and  figures,  (sc.  ot  many  oticnces 
and  crimes  committed  by  them,  as  10  their 
having  dil'iiuieted  the  land,  killed  his  cle- 
ph.'.iii-.  and  horfes,  ijfc.  lor  all  winch  thev 
lulily  delu  vc  to  be  chailifed,  and  banifhed 
the  country.  Whereupon  three  great  guns 
are  lired,  as  the  lafl  lignal  ;  upon  which  all 
the  artillery  and  niiilkcts  are  dii'charg'd, 
tint,  by  their  ir.olt  terrible  noife,  the  de- 
vils may  be  driven  away  ;  and  they  arc  fo 
blind,  as  to  believe  for  certain,  that  they 
really  and  clVec'tua  11  y  put  tiic'-n  to  flight. 

At  noon  every  one  may  ..  lit  himlelf  at 
his  own  coll  ;  but  the  foldiers  are  fed  with 
th.e  oliered  meat. 

In  the  evening  the  general  retires  to  his 
palace  in  the  fame  Hate  with  which  he  wenc 
forth,  much  glorying  that  he  has  vanqui;h- 
ed  his  eneniKs  on  lb  eafy  terms. 

'i  he  Bo'i\i  or  king  never  aiipearcth  in 
this  Iblemnity  •,  perha[!>  the  general  fufpedts 
that  ihe  foldiers,  if  ihey  flioLild  be  ililiatis- 
fy'd  with  him,  might  take  tlie  opportunity 
to  revolt,  and  confer  on  the  king  the  real 
and  ellential  power  which  at  prefent  refiiles 
in  him,  and  theretore  tinds  it  unfafe  that 
the  king  Ihould  be  then  prefent  :  but  on 
journeys  in  the  country,  be  they  but  tor 
two  or  three  days  (if  he  makes  any),  and 
when  he  goes  to  war,  he  never  omits  to  car- 
ry the  king  along  with  him,  not  only  to 
cloke  all  his  dcligns  with  the  royal  name, 
but  alio  to  prevent  any  plots  which  in  his 
abfence  the  king  might  give  into  to  his  ut- 
ter ruin,  or  bycondetLenlion,  permit  others 
to  feize  his  royal  perfon,  whereby  they 
would  authorize  their  pretenlions,  and  gain 
fo  much  re[)utation  as  might  fubvert  and 
confound  both  the  general's  greatnefs  and 

'lliey  imagine  our  way  of  firing  great 
guns  to  compliment  friends,  or  the  liduting 
tlKiiwith  each  other's  health,  very  llrange 
and  barbarous,  becaule  contrary  to  their 
culloms,  fince  they  entertain  only  their  ene- 
mies and  the  malicious  devils  with  fuch  a 
noife,  as  is  related. 


,    ! 

v.    i 

Jl  1 

\f.  <  ,1 

1" . 

C  H  A  r.     XVI. 
of  the  fuller  ills  in  geixml. 

^'J''HE  Tonqueenefe,  as  thoy  have  a  great 
X  horror  at  death,  fo  the  conceit  they 
have  thereof,  is  not  lefs  fuperftitious ;  for 
they  believe  that  only  the  Ipirits  of  young 
chiklrcn  are  tn:.ifniigrated  into  the  bodies 
of  other  infants  who  are  yet  in  the  mother's 
womb  ;  but  all  others  come  to  be  devils, 
or  at  Icall  fpirits  that  can  uo  cither  good  or 

harm  •,  and  that  they  would  wander  up  antl 
down  as  poor  vagabonds  ready  to  perilh  for 
want  anil  indigence,  il  they  were  not  jirited 
by  their  living  kindred,  or  if  they  t'id  not 
Heal  and  commit  violence  to  iubliit ;  lo  that 
death,  in  their  eftimalion,  is  the  ultimate 
and  greatcit  mifery  tliat  can  befal  human 
nature.  They  note,  with  incredible  care 
5  ani 

Chap.  1 6.    (thap.  1 6. 

of  To  Vt  Q_V  EZS. 


iition')  inviting 
111  |iii.liiuly  li:: 
gu.ini.',  liy  ch.i- 

ni.iny  oticnccs 
JIH,  ;is  ti)  tllfir 
,  killed  his  flc- 
■  all  wliith  iIk-v 
J,  and  baniflinl 
luce  grcu  guns 

upon  \vbi(.h  all 
are  (.lifthargM, 
;;  noifi",  tlu'.  lic- 
and  they  arc  I'o 
rtain,  that  thty 
iC'-n  to  flight. 

.,  .It  hinikir  at 
icrs  arc  led  with 

a!  retires  to  his 
h  which  lie  wen: 
lie  has  vanquiih- 

cr  appcarcth  in 
'  general  Hilpedts 
loiiki  be  diliatis- 
thc  opportunity 
iie  king  the  real 
It  prclent  rcfides 
Is  It  unl'afc  that 
^relent  :  but  on 
be  they  bi.t  tor 
nakes  any),  and 
ver  omits  to  car- 
ini,  not  only  to 
[the  royal  name, 
ots  which  in  his 
c  into  to  his  ut- 
n,  permit  others 
whereby  they 
nlions,  and  gain 
ght  tub  vert  and 
s  grcatncfs  and 

of  firing  great 
or  the  fainting 

h,  very  llrang^; 

)ntrary  to  their 
only  their  ene- 

vils  with  fuch  a 

wander  up  and 
ly  to  perilh  for 
vere  not  .i  If' lied 
if  th'.'y  did  not 
lubfift  -,  lo  that 
the  ultimate 
bcfal  human 
incredible  care 

and  exaftncfs,  tiie  time,  hour,  and  day, 
(all  which  arc  diftinguilli'd  by  fevcral  par- 
ticular names,  as  apes,  dogs,  cats,  mice, 
idc.)  wherein  a  party  dies  -,  which  if  it  hap- 
pen at  the  like  time  in  which  his  father, 
mother,  or  near  relations  were  born,  it  is 
reckon'd  very  ominous,  and  bad  for  his 
heirs  and  fuccelTors,  whothercfore  permit  not 
the  corpfe  to  be  intcrr'd  till  their  conjurers 
and  diviners  advife  them  of  a  good  and 
aufpicious  time,  for  which  they  wait  ibmc- 
times  two  or  three  years,  fonietimes  Icfs, 
as  their  critical  rites  and  blind  doctors  fhall 
direit  them.  The  body  is  cofiin'd  the 
mean  while,  and  kept  in  a  particular  place, 
and  muft  (land  no  other  ways  than  on  four 
flakes  eredled  for  that  purpofe. 

This  nicety  is  only  obferved  among  the 
rich,  but  others  who  do  not  die  in  this 
fcruple,  are  bury'd  within  ten  or  fifteen 
days  i  but  the  longer  the  corpfe  is  kept,  the 
more  cxpenfive  it  is,  not  only  to  the  wife 
and  children  (who  prefent  him  daily  three 
times  with  vie^'ials,  and  keep  always  lamps 
and  candles  burning  in  the  room,  befides 
the  o'lering  of  incenfe,  perfumes,  and  a 
quantity  of  gold  and  filver  paper,  Ibme 
made  in  the  /hape  of  gold  and  lilver  bars, 
others  in  the  likenefs  of  hories,  elephants, 
tygers,  (^c. )  but  the  reft  of  the  kindred 
and  relations  arc  alfo  obliged  to  contribute 
their  fevcral  Iharcs  to  the  funeral  feaft,  but 
moll  liberally  at  this  time  i  befides,  it  is 
very  toilfome  and  a  great  deal  of  trouble, 
both  to  the  children  and  all  that  are  of  kin, 
to  refort  fo  often  to  the  corpfe  to  falute  and 
adore  it,  by  proftrating  themfelves  four 
times  on  the  ground,  and  lamenting  him 
three  times  a  day,  at  the  hours  of  repaft, 
with  cndlefs  other  ceremonies,  too  tedious 
here  to  relate. 

All  that  have  means  arc  very  careful  to 
provide  their  own  coffin,  when  they  are 
well  advanced  in  years,  in  which  they  are 
extraordinary  choi.  J,  both  as  to  the  thick- 
neis  and  goodness  of  the  wood,  as  well  as 
workmanlhip,  and  regard  no  expences  to 
have  it  to  their  fancies. 

They  obferve  this  diftinftion  in  the  fexes. 
If  a  male  die,  he  is  cloathed  with  feven  of 
his  beft  coats  •,  if  a  female,  with  nine.  In 
the  mouth  of  thofe  of  quality  are  put  fmall 
pieces  of  gold  and  filver,  with  fomc  feed 
pearl.  This  they  fancy  will  not  only  render 
him  honourable  in  the  other  world,  but  pre- 
vent alfo  want  and  indigence  •,  yet  the  poorer 
fore  ufe  the  fcrapings  of  their  fingers  and 
toes,  believing  that  the  mouth  of  the  de- 
ceafed  being  filled  with  this  filth,  he  cannot 
plague  and  torment  his  living  relations, 
Likewife  fome  will  place  on  the  coffin  a  cup 
of  rice,  which  is  Ihifted  every  meal,  and  at 
laft  bury'd  with  the  corpfe. 

Vol.  VI. 

They  ufe  no  nails  to  fallen  the  lid  to  its  Baron. 
coffin,  but  cement  it  with  lacker,  fo  tight,  wv^>^ 
as  is  really  admirable,  clleeming  it  a  great 
injury  to  nail  up  the  body  of  the  deccaled. 

When  the  Ions  accompany  the  corpfe, 
they  arc,  fo-  that  day,  in  very  coarle 
robes,  made  of  the  rcfufe  of  filk,  and  caps  of 
the  fame  (tutl,  which  are  ty'd  with  cords  on 
their  heads  i  they  have  Haves  in  their  hands 
to  lean  on,  for  tear  grief  fliould  caufc  them 
to  faint. 

The  wives  and  daughters  of  fafhion  have 
a  curtain,  very  large,  held  over  their  heads, 
that  they  may  not  be  feen  i  yet  they  are 
eafily  heard  by  their  moans  and  lamenta- 
tions, which  are  made  viva  voce,  and  very 
loud.  As  the  corpfe  is  carry'd  through  the 
ftrects,  the  cldell  Ion  will  lie  down  now  and 
then  on  the  ground,  tor  the  corpfe  to  pafs 
over  him  (which,  in  their  opinion,  is  the 
grcatcft  mark  of  filial  duty  )  i  then  rifing 
again,  he  pufhes  the  coffin  back  with  both 
his  hands,  as  'twere  to  Hop  it  from  going 
further  on,  which  is  continued  till  they  conic 
to  the  grave. 

I'ainted  and  gilded  images,  in  the  fliapcs 
of  men  and  bealfs,  allot  paper-work,  fol- 
low the  hearfe  in  great  numbers,  with  fome 
fryers,  with  the  nolle  of  drums,  timbrels, 
hautboys,  copper  batons,  tj't.  much  in  the 
nature  of  a  popilh  procelHon  -,  which  paper 
finery  is  to  be  burnt  immediately  after  the 

More  or  lefs  fumptuous  is  the  funeral, 
according  to  the  condition  or  quality  of  the 
peribn  ;  tor  thofe  of  account  are  not  only 
carried  by  many  men,  but  have  alfo  double 
coffins,  one  in  another,  and  over  it  a  canopy 
ot  ftate,  richly  fet  forth,  attended  by  fol- 
diers,  and  honoured  with  the  prefence  of 
great  Mandartens, 

Their  manner  is  to  cut  their  hair  to  the 
fhoulders,  and  to  wear  afh-coloured  cloaths, 
and  a  particular  fort  of  llraw  hats,  for  the 
fpace  of  three  years,  for  either  father  or  mo- 
ther, yet  the  cldeil  fon  muft  add  thereunto 
three  months  more  s  for  other  relations  lefs. 

Their  way  of  reckoning  is  very  ftrange, 
for  if  one  fhould  die,  or  a  child  be  born,  in 
Januaryy  be  it  the  laft  day  of  the  moon, 
February  following  being  the  firll  moon  of 
their  new  year,  they  count  him  to  have  been 
dead  two  years,  or  the  child  to  be  two  years 
old,  when,  in  effed,  it  is  no  more  than  ono 

During  the  time  of  the',  mourning,  they 
fcldom  ufe  their  wonted  lodgings  ;  they  lie 
on  ftraw  mats  on  the  bare  ground ;  their 
diet  is  not  only  mean  and  fparing,  but  the 
very  bandefia  and  cups  the  vidtuals  are  ferv'd 
in,  are  coarfe,  and  of  the  worft  fort.  They 
forbear  wine,  and  go  to  no  feafts  or  ban- 
quets ;  they  muft  lend  no  ear  to  mufick,  nor 
K.  rye 


The    Deja'iplion 

Chap.  i^.    !   Chap,  i; 

H>i  MOV.  eye  to  dancing,  nor  contnft  matrimony  •, 
v.-'Vw  Ibron  tht'conipl.iintof  their  kintlrcd  on  tliis 
IkmiI,  the  law  will  difinherit  them.  'I'hey 
have  a  great  c.ire  not  to  appear  in  [lubiitk 
iinywile  fine,  but  rather  auHerely  abltain 
Irom  all  merriment  and  finery  wiiatlbevtr : 
but  Ai  the  three  years  grow  near  an  end, 
tliey  gradually  decline  too  in  the  feverity  ot 

Tiieir  Icpulchrcs  are  in  the  feveral  ALkai 
ot  tliL-ir  parents  nativity,  and  unhappy  is  he 
deem'd  wlioll.'  body  or  bones  are  not  brought 
home,  as  they  term  it  i  but  how  to  chufe 
the  bell  place  to  interr  the  dead,  is  the  grand 
myllcry,  and  held  to  beot  that  confecjucnce 
that  they  verily  believe,  that  infallibly  tiiere- 
on  depends  the  liapiiincfsor  milery  of  tluir 
fucccliors  i  whcrelbre  tiiey  ufually  confult 
many  years  with  Tciy-iie-U\\  betore  they 
come  to  a  conclulion  in  that  atVair. 

During  tiief-  times  of  mourning,  they 
feall  the  dead  lour  times  a  year,  in  the 
months  of  A/^JV,  'Jiou;yti/y,.\ndSi'pleml'er, 
i'l'ending  in  each  of  tiiem  two,  three,  or  four 
days  -,  but  the  firrilice  wiiich  is  made  at 
the  expiration  oi  the  three  years  is  the  great- 
ell  anJ  molt  magnificent  of  all,  tho'  they 
are  in  the  rell:  prodigal  enough,  and  will 
fpend  not  only  then-  wiioie  fubllance  there- 
in, but  run  tiiemfelves  in  debt  too,  and  yet 
are  for  fo  doing  both  highly  refpeifted  and 
conimeniled  of  fri.nds  and  acquaintance. 
After  tliistiiey  keep  their  anniverfary  offer- 
ing on  the  day  of  the  party's  deceafe, 
which  is  pundually  obferved  from  genera- 
tion to  generation,  to  [XTpetuity.  1  have, 
in  jelling,  toldiomeot  them,  I  Ihould  not 
like  to  die  a  I'otiiufikvfe,  were  it  only  be- 
caufe  the  cullom  ot  the  country,  whilll 
living,  allowed  me  tiiree  meals  a  day,  but 
wlicn  dead  thev  would  feed  me  but  once  a 
year;  a  feverity  more  then  lufHcient  to  llarve 
the  dead,  had  th.v  need  ot   food. 

It  cannot  (ail  of  being  entertaining  to  our 
readers,  to  add  to  our  author  in  this  place, 
what  the  learned  father  Calmet  has  col- 
lected, in  relation  to  the  pradice  ot  letting 
food  upon  the  tombs  of  the  dead  -,  and  of 
repafts  made  at  their  funerals :  whereby  it 
will  be  perceived,  that  this  cuflom  is  not 
confin'd  to  'Toni^ufcn,  or  even  to  China  ;  but 
that  it  had  obtained  almolt  univerfally  in 
the  darker  ages  of  tiie  world.  What  he 
fays,  will  be  found  under  the  head  ot  R  E- 
PAS,  and  is  fo  curious,  that  we  Ihall  give 
the  tranflation  of  itintire. 

"  REPAST,  or  food, /?w/jf,  that  was 
"  fa  upon  the  tombs  of  the  dead.  Caiia 
"  morliii.  Bariub  mentions  it  in  thcfe 
"  woriis.  Ru^itint  aiilcrn  clamantes  contra 
"  deosfiios,  Jiiut  in  cana  mortui.  The  pa- 
"  gans  howl  in  the  prefenceof  their  gods, 
■■'  as  in  the  repall  which  is  made  for  the 

I'TJ.'.l  VI 

"     J  le  lj)eak?  of  c  crt.iin  loleinnities, 

"  wherein  the  idolaters  usM  to  m. ike  great 

"  lamentations:  lor  example,    in  the  feaftj 

"  oi  Jdoiiii.   As  totlurepafhror  tlu'dead, 

"   they  are  diflinguilh'd   into  two  kinds; 

"  One  was  made  in  the  houle  of  the  ilcluntt, 

"  at  the  return  ot  the  mourners  from  the 

"  grave.      To  this  were  invited  the  kindred 

"  and  friends  of  the  dcccaled-,  where  they 

"  liid  not  tail  toexprefs  their  grief  by  cries 

"  and  lamentuions.      The  otiicr  kind  was 

"  made  upon  the  tomb  itfelf  ot  the  dead 

"   perfon,  where  they  provided  a  repiiil  for 

"  the  wandering  fouls,  and  believed  tiiat  the 

"  goilileis  I'rivij,    who  prefides  over  the 

"  flreets  antl  highways,  rcpair'd  thither  in 

"  tile  night-time.     But  in  truth  they  were 

"  beggars  and   joor    people,    who   came 

"  thiiiier  in  the  darknefsof  the  night,  and 

"  carry 'a  away    what  was  left  upon   theoviJFoi' 

"  tomb. 

Eji  honor  (jS  Itimulis  animas  pLicare paterr.asy 
Parvaqtte  tn  extridlas  muncra  Jcrrc  /'xriis. 

'«  Sometimes,     however,    the    relations 
"  m.ide  a  Imall  repall  upon  the  tomb  of 
"      le  dtceafed.     /idjepulcbrum  antiqiw  m  re  Nomiiu; 
"  jdtcirimim  canftuimia,    id  eft,  irif //«»«■',  M"'i'''  '•'i 
"  quo  pruiiji  dijicdenti-i  dicinim  alius  alii  l^a  e.  ^•"'"'"■'' 

"  The  cullom  of  f'etting  food  upon  the 
"  fepulchres  of  the  dead,    was   common 
"  among  the  Hebrews.     Tobit  thus  advifcs 
"  his  fbu  ;  Pour  out  thy  bread  on  the  burial  r-  ,  . 
"  of  the  jujl,  but  give  nothing  to  the  wicked.  ,  °.  ""' 
"  That  is  to  fay,  not  to  partake  in  the 
"  repfl  with  tlie  relations,  who  performed 
"  the  fame  ceremony.     And  Jeftis  the  Ion 
"  of  Siracb  affirms,    that  delicates  poured  ZccXw;. 
"  upon  a   mouth  Jhut  up,    are  as  mejfes  of  a>ix.  iS. 
"  mciU  ft  upon  a  grave.     What  is  thus  fee 
"  upon  a  tomb,    is  utterly  loll  as  to  the 
"  dead   perfon  i    he  can  have  no    benefit 
"  from  it.      And  elfewhere  ;    A  gift  bath  ^:c\n%.\-\i 
"  gracein  the  fight  of  every  man  living,  and  ii- 
"  for  the  dead  detain  it  not. 

"  This   cuflom  was  almoft  univcrfal. 
■'  We  fintl  it  amop";;  the  Greeks,  the  Ro- 
'  7nans,  and  almoft  all  the  people  of  the 
'  call.     It  flill  obtains  in  Syria,  in  Baby- 
'  loniti,  and  in  China.     St.  //«//;«  olifcrves,  Aup.  Ep. 
'  that  in   his  time,    in  Africa,   they  laid  **■  ^9- 
'  viftuals  upon  the  tombs  of  the  martyrs,  "°^-'^'''' 
'  and  in  church-yards.     The  thing  at  firft 
'  was  done  very  innocently,  but  afterwards 
'  it  degenerated  into  an  abufe ;    and  the 
'  greatell  faints,  and  moll  zealous  bifliops, 
'  as  St.  Auflin  and  St.  Ambrofe,  had  much 
'  difficulty  to  fupprefs  it.  St.  M>//;Vrt  being  Aug.  Cnn- 
'  at  Milan,   had   a  mind,    according    to  '^'"' ''  ''• 
'  cuftom,  to  offer  bread  and  wine  to  the 
'  memory  of  the  martyrs  ;  but  the  porter 
'  would  not  open  the  door  to  her,  becaufe 
'  St.  Ambrofe  had  forbid  him  i  ihe  there- 

"  fore 




Ihap.  1 6.  ^  Chap.  17. 

of    T0NQ.UEEN. 


inils : 
Ti  the 
;  they 
I  cries 
il  was 
\i\  for 
.It  the 
r  the 
her  in 
,  and 
I  theoviJ.Fui!.   1 



11)1, IX. 4. 


It  ions 
■.b  of 

;  m  re  Noimlu; 

Min  I'll  (. 


Van  out. 

S    of  i*')^-  >8. 

ya  c. 
)n  the 

'""■'■"/ Tob.iv. 
kked.  17. 

1  the 


e  Ion 

oured  £cq\u^ 


JS  let 





ves,  Aup;.  Ep. 

'aid  »»■  iy- 
■„„   nov.cdit 
y '  ^j 




A 115; 

c.  I. 


••  fore  fubiiiitted  with  an  humble  obedience. 
"  'I'hc  rcpail  tiiat  maile  in  the  iioule 
"  oi  tlic  dcLXMled  amonp  the-  Jeit/s,  was 
"  allbot  two  kiniis.  One  was  during  the 
"  tmie  that  the  mourning  continu'd,  and 
"  thelc  repalls  wi re  look'd  upon  as  uncicui, 
*'  becaufe  tiiolctiiat  pariooi<  ot  them  were 
"  unclean,  as  having  allilled  at  the  obfe- 
♦'  quics  ot  the  dead  pcrlon.  llcjia  fays; 
"  Tbeir  Jacnfices  Jhull  be  iiiilo  them  m  the 
"  brciul  of  mnunicn  \  all  thiit  eat  lbtri.of 
'•  jhall  be  polluud.  Anil  in  the  lorm  that 
"  tiic  IfraiHUi  made  uic  oi  wiien  liiiy  ot- 
•'  fer'd  tlieir  firll  -  fruits,  tiiey  addrclVd 
"  themfeives  thus  to  liic  Lord  ;  O  L.vrd,  I 
♦'  have  not  iiixleilut  thy ;  I  have 
'«  ml  iifed  ibii'e  tb'w^s^s  "while  lujs  in  moiini- 
♦'  iii^;  Ih.'.j:  made  no  life  of  them  at  the 
*'  funerals  rf  the  dead.  Ciod  would  not 
"  iiermit  Ezek'nl  to  mourn  tor   his  wile. 

"  Coier  not  thy  ltf\,  and  eat  tirj  the  bread  H a n of. 

"  of  men.      And  Jerem'.ab  ;    J^dther  jhall'^-'^/''^ 

"  wen  givf  I  hem  the  cup  of    eonfolatiun,    lo^"^-  *'''*• 

"  di  ink  jor  ibeir father,  or  fur  their  mother,    ij'/.  xvi.  7. 

"    I'iieotlierrepalVsmade  ii\  tiic  time  of 

"  mourning,    are  tliole  which  were  given 

"  .it'tcr  the  tiuieral.     Jojephiis  K\xw<i,    that  i„|^,p|,  jj 

"  /Irchelaiis  treated  tiie  wlioie  people  in  ab/lo,  I.  1. 

"  magiiiticent  manner,  alter  lie  had  com- e.  i- 

"  pleated  the  leven  ilays  mourning  lor  the 

"  king  his  father.     He  there  .idds,  that  it 

"  the  tulUim  ol  his  nation  to   m,ds.c 

"  great  tealls  lor  the  relations,  whi(  litould 

"  iKjt  he  done  wiihoiii  an  injury  to  many 

"  l.imilies,  which  were  not  in  a  condition 

"  to  lupport  lueh  large  expciices.       Saint  p.,,;,,,. 

"  Pauline  commends  Fammaebitis,  lor  hav-  iliuiiia:  [-. 

"  ing  made  a  great  feaft  for  the  poor,  in  •"•  J''- 

"  the  balilicon  of  St.  Peter,  on  the  day  of 

"  the  funeral  of  his  wife  P(J«/i«.j. 

C  II  A  P.     XVII. 

Of  the  fttncral pomp  of  the  cLovn  or  general  of  Tonqiieeii. 

TIIE  funeral  obfequics  of  the  chova, 
or  general  ot  Tonqiieen,  are  f)erlormed 
with  the  tame  pomp  and  magniticence  as 
were  ufually  oblerved  at  the  burial  of  their 
former  kings,  and  in  many  refperts  ex- 
ceed that  of  their  pretent  kings.  As  toon 
then  as  the  general  dies,  his  fuccefiors  and 
courtiers  endeavour,  witl;  all  imaginable 
art,  to  conceal  his  death,  for  the  fpace  of 
three  or  four  days  ;  for  thould  itpretlntly 
be  known  abroad,  it  would  unavoidably 
pur  the  country,  clpeeially  the  chief  city  of 
Cacho,  in  great  terror  and  tontlernation, 
becaufc  it  has  conftantly  happened  at  the 
deceafe  of  every  one  of  them  ( this  la(t  ex- 
cepted j  -,  that  the  Ibte  was  dillurbed  with 
broils,  contentions  and  civil  wars,  amongll 
tlie  furviving  fons  and  brethren,  who  llrive 
for  fuperiority  ;  wherefore  it  is  no  marvel, 
if  in  this  cafe  the  people  are  atleiited  with 
their  contention. 

I'he  lirfl  thing  they  do  to  their  deatl 
general  is,  to  walh  his  body,  and  to  put 
him  on  feven  of  his  bell  coats,  and  to  pre- 
fent  him  with  vidtuals,  with  which  he  is 
ferved  in  the  beft  manner  polTible.  Then 
his  fucceflbr,  and  all  the  princes  and  prin- 
cefles  of  the  blood  come  to  lament  his 
departure,  proflrating  themf  '  /es  five  times 
before  him,  weeping  aloud,  asking  him 
Why  he  would  leave  them,  and  what  he 
wanted,  faV.  After  them  the  Mandareens, 
moft  in  favour,  are  permitted  to  perforin 
their  duty,  but  their  ceremony  of  condo- 
lence is  to  be  returned  them  again,  by  the 
prince  fuccelfor  and  cldefl  fon,  tho'  they 
dare  not  to  receive  it.  Except  thole  per- 
fons,  none  are  permitted  to  have  a  fight  of 

the  defunel  1  nay,  thofe  related  afar  olT 
cannot  have  this  honour.  Alter  whieh  ce- 
remony they  put  into  his  mouth  lindl  pieces 
of  gold,  tilver,  and  iiiciX  pearl.  The  corptc 
is  laid  in  a  llately  colHn,  lacker'd  over  very 
thick,  and  of  excellent  wood  i  at  tlie  bot- 
tom of  which  they  Drew  powder  of  rice 
and  carv.uK'es,  to  prevent  any  noifbme 
iinell,  over  which  they  tine  quilts 
and  carpets.  '1  he  corpte  ihui  t'erved,  is 
placed  in  another  100m,  where  lamps  and 
candles  arc  conti.'ually  kept  burning  ;  thi- 
ther all  his  cliildri..">,  wives,  and  nearett 
kindred,  repair  three  a  day,  when  the 
deceafid  is  prefeiited  with  victuals,  v',z.  in 
the  morning  between  five  and  fix  o'clock, 
twelve  at  noon,  and  five  in  the  evening,  and 
they  pay  their  adoration  to  I'im.  This  con- 
tinues allthe  time  he  is  above  ground. 

'J'here  is  no  fuch  thing  as  embalming  the 
body  to  lie  in  (late  fixty-five  days,  .ind 
liberty  for  the  people  to  come  and  fee 
him,  as  our  author  pretends;  neither  do 
the  bonlesand  poor  partake  of  the  victuals 
fet  before  him  ;  nor  does  the  provincial  go- 
vernor receive  any  order  liom  court  how 
long  the  country  is  to  mourn,  (incc  their 
cultom  diredts  them  therein  futlicienily, 
without  fuch  particular  provifions.  The 
whole  country  is  oblig'd  to  mourn,  as  well 
for  the  general  as  king,  the  fpace  of  twenty- 
fou.  days ;  the  prince  fuccetror  three  years 
and  three  months,  his  other  children  and 
wives  three  years ;  the  other  near  relations 
one  year ;  and  dioie  further  off,  fome  five 
and  others  but  th-ee  months ;  but  all  the 
great  mandareens  three  years,  equal  with  the 



'  '■  ''i^ 









The  "Defiriptm 

Chap,  17. 


Icannot  imigine  in  what  part  of  tlir  pa- 
lace thole  towers,  in  fixraks  of,  ftoo<l,  or 
what  became  of  thole  bells  that  never  left 
tolling,  from  the  general's  expiring  to  the 
bringing  of  the  corpfe  into  the  galley,  fincc 
they  were  filent  at  the  laft  tuneral  pomp  of 
the  general  in  168^. 

When  the  ncedfiil  preparations  are  ready, 
then  the  gallics  appointed  to  tranfport  and 
accompany  the  botly,  wait  near  the  arllnal, 
which  IS  notdidani  two  clays  journey,  as  lie 
fays,  from  the  palace,  but  only  fonicthing 
Icfs  than  half  an  hour,  whither  the  corpit-  is 
condudtcd  in  the  following  manner. 

Several  companies  ot  foldicrs,  all  in 
black,  with  their  arms,  being  led  by  their 
refpettivc  captains,  or  mandareens,  bring 
up  the  van  of  this  funeral  pomp,  marching 
on  gravely  and  filcntly  1  then  follow  two 
I'ellows  of  gigantick  llature,  carrying  a 
kind  of  partil'ans,  with  targets  in  tlieir 
hands,  and  a  mask  or  vizard  on  their 
face,  to  fcare  the  devil,  and  open  the  way 
for  the  hearie  to  pafs;  next  come  the 
muficiaiis  with  their  drums,  hautboys,  cop- 
per bafons,  i^c.  playing  their  nioiiriitul 
tunes,  which  really  are  very  doleful.  Next 
is  carried  the  funeral  elogiuni  and  titles, 
which  are  more  illuftrious  than  what  he  had 
in  his  life  time  •,  and  he  is  ililcd.  The  incom- 
parable greatnefs,  mod  precious,  and  noble 
father  of  his  country,  of  moft  fplendid 
fame,  and  the  like  •,  all  whicli  is  embroi- 
der'd  in  golden  characters,  on  a  piece  of  fine 
fcarlet,  orcrimfon  damask,  which  is  fixM 
on  a  frame  of  two  or  three  fathom  high,  and 
almolt  one  fathom  wide,  and  ercrted  on  a 
pcdellal,  and  carried  on  the  fhoulders  of 
twenty  or  thirty  foldiers  of  the  lifi^-guard. 

After  this  their  idol,  or  pagoda,  takes 
place,  carried  in  a  fmall  gilded  houle,  but 
with  great  reverence ;  then  the  two  pen- 
nants, follow'd  by  the  maufoleum  or  itate 
cabbin,  richly  gilded,  and  curioufly  carved, 
wherein  is  the  general's  corpfe.  The  faid 
maufoleum  doth  not  Hand  in  a  chariot,  nor 
is  it  drawn  by  eight  (Vags,  trained  to  that 
fervice,  and  led  by  lb  many  captains  of  the 
life-guard,  as  related  by  out  author  (for  it 
is  a  rare  thing  to  fee  either  deer  or  (tag  in 
this  country ) ;  but  it  is  carried  on  the 
fhoulders  of  a  hundred,  or  a  hundred  and 
fifty  foldiers,  in  good  order  and  great  filence, 
with  many  fans  and  umbrelloes  round  about 
it,  as  well  to  Ihade  it,  as  for  ftate. 

Juft  behind  the  hearfe  comes  the  eldeft 
fon  and  fuccefTor,  with  his  brothers,  all  clad 
with  coats  made  of  retufe  filk,  not  unlike  our 
fackcloth,  of  a  brown  colour,  tied  with 
cords  to  their  bodies ;  their  caps  are  of  the 
fame,  and  faftned  in  like  manner ;  they  all 
have  (licks  in  their  hands,  and  only  the 
L'Ideft  has  (traw  (hoes.  Thefc  are  imme- 
diately follow'd  by  the  deccafed's   wives. 

M    I, 

concubines,  and  daughters,  under  a  curtain, 
or  pavillion,  of  white callicoe,  very  coarfi:, 
their  g.«rb  of  the  fimc  iKiff,  howling  and 
lamenting.  Behind  thefc  (.oine  the  icrvants 
of  the  inner  court,  both  damlcis  and  young 
capadocs  t  as  the  front,  lo  the  rear  and 
Hanks  arc  guarded  by  armed  foldiers,  under 
their  feveral  commanders,  fo  that  in  this 
funeral  pomp  neither  elephants,  hortes,  nor 
chariots,  appear,  as  he  rel.nes,  unUfs  tlusfc 
of  paper  and  jxiinted  wootl,  whereof  great 
quantities  accompany  the  interrment,  to  be 
burnt  at  the  grave. 

Being  arrived  at  the  gallics,  in  one  of 
them,  which  is  all  bl.ick,  lackcr'd  plaiir, 
and  without  any  ornauitnt  of  tarv'ti  and 
gilded  work,  the  corpfe  is  plac>-kl  ,  cue  r'. It 
of  the  gallics  .ittend  liie  lolemnity  arc 
but  ordinary,  fifty  or  (ixty  in  number: 
Thus  they  fet  (brtli  from  dubo  for  tingiVit^ 
the  aldea  and  birth-place  of  his  anccltors,  a 
journey  of  five  or  (ix  ilay.  at  kalf,  as  they 
make  it  \  for  theg.illey  the  torjife  is  in,  is 
towed  Uil'urely,  by  live  or  (ix  otiiers,  and 
mult  ufe  II'  itlkT  oars,  nor  make  the  leall 
nolle  by  drums  or  mulick,  tor  fear  of  di(turb- 
ing  the  dead.  The  other  gallics  are  alio  to 
keep  as  much  filence  as  may  be.  By  the 
way  they  (lop  at  certain  places,  in  each  pro- 
vince, ajipropriated  by  the  faid  governors 
to  facrifice  1  (or  which  f -rvice  they  prepare 
large  provifions  of  cows,  buffaloes,  hogs, 
fcff.  The  new  general,  however,  very 
oltcn  (lays  at  home,  and  feldom  permits 
any  of  his  brothers  to  go,  for  fear  of  plots 
and  innovation,  but  his  filters  arc  com- 
manded to  attend  the  funeral.  l"he  order- 
ing the  whole  folemnity  is  intruded  to  the 
care  and  conduft  of  (bme  great  favourite. 

When  they  arrive  at  the  intended  aldca, 
there  is  more  than  a  little  to  do  with  their 
obfequies  and  ceremonies,  according  to 
their  rites :  the  particular  place  where  he  is 
buried  few  know  precifely,  and  thofe  are 
("worn  to  fecrecy  •,  and  this  not  for  fear  of 
lofing  the  treafure  that  is  interred  with  him, 
as  M.  TawrHiVn' f.mcies,  (for  there  is  none 
but  what  is  put  into  their  mouths,  .is  I 
mention'd  before)  but  out  of  fupcrflitious 
motives,  as  well  as  ftate-jealouiy ;  for,  as 
they  believe,  they  (hall  be  happy  and  great 
if  they  meet  with  a  good  favourable  fepul- 
chre  for  their  relations  i  fo  the  general  is 
always  fearful  that  the  place  where  his 
prcdecefTor  refts  being  known  to  their  ene- 
mies, it  would  depend  on  their  malicious 
power  to  ruin  his  family,  only  by  raking 
outhisancedor's  bones,  and  interring  thole 
of  their  own  family  in  their  place.  Indeed 
we  have  many  examples  in  this  country  of 
fuch  fools,  as  thought  to  make  way  for  their 
exaltation,  by  thus  tranfplacing  the  bones  of 
the  dead  men ;  butasmanyashaveattempted 
it  have  fuffer'd  for  their  foolifh  prcfumption. 


Cliiip.  {-/ 

I  A  I ,- 

OnP'  »7- 

of  T  O  N  Q.  U   K  E  S. 



As  to  tliofc  I'^pIs  .ind  l.uVi.'s  that,  acvonl- 
in[jt()  liini,  will  iutiIs  Ik-  h-iricil  ;i!ivi'  with 
fhc  king  or  <  i  it  is .i  thing  foumtr.iiy 
to  th'ir  niito.ns,  as  wi-ll  .is  to 
thfir  natures,  I  verily  believe,  it  they 
thought  wehailluciiaiiopinio.iot  theni,(luy 
would  us  .IS  brutes  aiul  lavages.  Nor 
do  I  know  of  .uiy  lity  ami  its  lair  eal'le,  in 
the  wliole  lotn  ot  IniujUfciif,  is 
cailetl  H'  llix"\  hut  inileeil  thole  h.uiks  ol  I'u' 
river,  oppolite  to  the  lit y  ol  C.uhn,  arecah'il 
not!,  ;  bur,  however,  there  is  neither  kin;^'s 
hoiile,  pala  e,  or  lallle,  on  or  near  the  lame. 

But  it  reni.iins  to  I'peak  lomething  ot  tlnir 
third  annual  ln-rilKis  and  I. Mil,  lor  the 
det'uni't  general,  which  hapiHib  .diout  three 
xnonths  before  the  niournin;;  ('X]iires.  The 
celebration  wlu'reof  extends  not  only  to  his 
t.iniily,  but  all  the  niandareens  hold 
.nny  olHce  nuid  appear  at  this  gra-ul  hiliin- 
nity,  to  pay  tin  irotrering,  in  token  ot  their 
■gratitude  to  their  deeealeil  iK'iiel'attor  and 
conimon  taiher. 

'("he  irianner  is  thus:  Jull  before  tli" 
arfenal,  on  the  I'andy  ill.ind,  then, ire  Iniili 
of  b.imbnos  and  flight  timber,  many  l.irge 
and  fpacious  houfes,  .ifier  the  m.uiner  of 
their  palaees,  with  wide  yards  and  open 
courts,  wrought  moll  eurioufly  witli  ba-ket 
work,  tfe.  The  apartments  thereof,  el'pe- 
cially  that  where  the  altar  Hands,  are  richly 
hanged  with  gold  and  lilvcr  doth  ;  the 
polls  and  Hands  are  either  covered  with  the 
fame,  or  with  fine  fcarlet  or  other  European 
minufadures  -,  the  roof  is  c.mopyM  with 
filk  damask,  and  the  floor  is  covered  with 
nuts  and  carp;;ts.  The  altar  itfelf  is  moll 
eurioufly  carved,  lacker'd,  and  fplendiilly 
daub'd  v/itli  gold,  to  protufion  of  coll,  la- 
bour, and  diligence.  And  as  this  is  the 
general  anil  his  families  fliare,  fo  the 
rlareens  of  quality,  according  to  their  abi- 
lities, flrive  to  out-do  each  other  in  their 
funeral  piles,  as  I  may  call  them,  which 
are  placed  round  about  the  tbrmer  work,  in 
good  order,  and  at  an  ct]ual  dillance  anti 
height,  and  of  a  like  fafliion,  either  four,  fix, 
or  eight  feet  Iqii.ire,  about  fifteen  or  twenty 
tcet  diameter,  ref.'mbling  much  our  large 
lanterns,  open  on  all  lides,  with  lluitters 
within  the  baniflcrs  and  rails,  very  neatly 
fet  forth  with  rich,  painted,  carved,  and 
lacker'd  work  ;  and  hangings  of  collly 
filks  and  good  pieces  of  broad  cloth  ;  the 
ftrudlure  itfelf  of  llight  timber  and  boards: 
Tl'j  great  inandareens  each  buikl  two  of 
thefe  }  the  others  one  apiece  ;  lb  that  this 
barren  place  is  covered  in  lefs  then  the  fpacc 
ol  fittvcn  days,  with  all  this  finery,  which 
makes  it  rell-mble  another  city,  or  an  Antio- 
chian-likc  camp :  in  which  interim  thr 
whole  country  flocks  thither  to  fee  this 
gooiily  and  pompous  creclion  ;  and  many 
lirani^e  b:-:i(ls,  as   tvgers,  bears,  baboons, 

\'of..  vr. 

munkevs,    and  whit  otlirr  wild  rrc:;t\irf'.  RARofi, 
they  cin  gt,  .ire  brought  thither  trom  lar  s>"v>^ 
pi. ices  V    tor  which  they   have  been  lome-- 
times  I'.iligently  leeking,  perhaps  days  and 
ye.irs.     l-roin  all  which  the  people  (who 
{',ather  together  in  Inch  prodij'^ious  crowd>i, 
lis  give  a  great  ide.i  ol  tiie  pupalnulm  1,  of 
till  loiintry)  t.ike  oce.ifion  to   admin:   the's  t'.r.ii.deur  and  love  to  his  decealcd 
lather.      Hut  tor  about  three  d.-ys  before  the 
tunc  prefixM  for  this  l.icrilice,  no  I'lxctators 
are  lb  much  as  to  approach  this  place,  be- 
ciiife  then  they  are  buly'il    in  letting  thf 
im.i,",('  of  the  defiintt  betore  the  altar,  t  ichly 
habited  with  many  loais  •,  and  to  l.rve  ic 
wiih   vi(fhi,ils  i    and    to  prel'eiit  him   with 
amber,    p.ul,    and  toial   necklaces,    gold 
and  lilver  tankards,  cups,   bafoiis,    tables, 
.uul,   in  lliort,  with  all  ilu   finery  and  toys 
that  he  delighted  in,  and  made  ufc  of  in  his 
life-time  •,  and  at  the  they  ercd, 
in  the  court  y.ird,   where  this  altar  llands^ 
.1  m.ichine  ;  in  the  making  wliereof  they  ha'' 
before  employ'd  live  or  fix  months,  under 
the  direiiiun  anil  ovtrlight  of  three  or  lour 
great  mand.ireens,    releinbling    lb  ncwhat 
the  maufuleiim,    which  M.  Tuvenihrc  C.^- 
liribes  •,  which  they  call   /itij.i  Ttinxb.     Ic 
is  about  three  or  tour  llories,  or  forty  feet 
high,    and    ;;bout    thirty   feet   long,    and 
twtnty  broad,    made  of  thin  board-,   and 
night  timber,    to  be  light  and  portable; 
.ind  the  ilillercnt  parts  of  it  are  Ibcontriv'd 
as  to  take  o.i"  an  i  on  ;  the  undcrmoll  pare 
Hands  on  four  wacels,  whereon  the  reft  are 
])laceil,  one  by  one,  by  means  and  help  ot' 
luch  inllruments  and  as  our  carpen- 
ters ufe  to  mount  their  heavy  timber.     The 
pageant,  or  fabrick  itfelf,  is  mighty  neat, 
handfome,     and    glorious,     adorn'd    with 
c.irved,  gilded,  painted,  and  lacker'd  work, 
as  rich  and  colUy  as  poflible  can  be  made 
ot  that  kind,  with  many   ()retty  little  in- 
ventions ol  galleries,    balconies,  windows, 
doors,  porches,  isr.  to  adorn  it  the  more. 
On  this  magnificent  throne  is  placed  anodier 
image  ot  tliedcad  general,  in  rich  cloaths, 
which  is  afterwards  burnt  with  the  rcll. 

M.itters  being  brought  to  this  order,  the 
general  and  his  family  repair  thither  early 
in  the  morning  of  the  lall  three  tore-men- 
tioned days,  the  ways  being  lin'd  with  fol- 
diers,  and  he  attended  by  his  life-guard, 
follow'd  by  Alamlarecus  and  grandees, 
wiiere  moll  ot  the  day  is  fptnt  in  tears, 
mourning  and  lamentations,  fombeys,  facri- 
fices  and  oflcrings  for  his  lather  •,  but,  in 
the  evening,  the  oH'ercd  viands  and  other 
victims  are  divided  amongll  the  ufTiltants 
and  foldiers. 

Ol  the  v.ild  and  favagc  creatures,  fome 

arc  drowned,    to  fend  their  giiolls  to  the 

deceafed  prince,    to  be  at  his  devotion  ia 

the  other  world,  and  others  are  given  away, 

!■  Abouc 


The  Defcription 

Chap«  18. 

Baron.  About  ten  o'clock,  an  infinite  number  of 
'—V^fci'  images  of  all  forts  of  fowls,  horfes  and 
elephants  in  paper-work,  Wf.  are  burnt  in 
the  open  court,  jull  before  the  machine  or 
maufoleum,  where  likewife  the  general, 
with  his  relations  and  Mandareens,  fom- 
beys  to  the  image  of  hispredeceffor  therein  i 
their  magicians,  Thay,  Pbou,  Tbwee,  all 
the  while  finging,  reading,  jumping,  and 
playing  fo  many  antick  tricks,  and  making 
fuch  terrible  pollutes,  as  would  fcare  fome, 
and  perfwade  others,  they  were  either  really 
demoniacal,  or  at  leaft  pofTelTed  with  mud- 

nefs.  About  three  hours  after  mid-nkht 
fire  is  fet  to  all  this  finery,  the  general,  &f. 
retiring,  taking  along  with  him  the  pearls, 
amber,  gold  and  filver  that  was  on  the 
altar  (which  are  refcrved  for  the  fervice  of 
the  defundl,  in  a  peculiar  place  of  his  palace). 
The  Mandareens  alfo  fend  to  their  houfes 
again  whatfoever  gold,  filver,  i^c,  they 
brought  thither,  leaving  the  reft  to  be 
confumed  by  the  flames  ■,  and  its  aflies  the 
wind  fcatters  where  it  pleafes,  fo  that  but 
very  little,  if  any,  comes  where  it  was 

',  >   f 


Of  the  JlSls,  idols,  worfiip,  ftiperjlition,  and  pagodas  or  temples  o/'//'eTonqucenefc. 


[Tjtei;.]  T"' H  O'  there  are  many  fedls  amongft 
JL     this  people,  yet  only  two  are  chieHy 
followed.     I'he  firft  is  that  of  Congfntu,  as 
the  C/.;/;;^^ call  him,  {the  Tonqueenefe,  Qng- 
CongtUy  and  the  Europeans^   Con/ucm)  the 
ancicntefl  of  the  Cbinefe  philofophers.    This 
man  tiiey  eftecmed  holy  i  and,  forwifdom, 
he  is  reputed  not  only  amongft  them  and  the 
Cbinefe,  but  the  Japaneje  too,    the  Solomon 
of  all  mortals :    Without  fome  proficiency 
in  whofe  learning,  none  can  attain  any  de- 
gree in  their  civil  government,  or  be  any- 
ways allow'd  to  know  matters  of  impor- 
tance ;    tho'  the  truth  thereof,    and  very 
quinteflence  of  his  doctrine,  is  nothing  elfc 
but  what  we  call  moral  philofophy,   and 
confifts  in  the  following  pofition,  "  That 
"  every  one  ought  to  know  and   perfeft 
"  liimfelf,  and  then,  by  his  good  and  vir- 
"  tuous  example,  bring  others  to  the  fame 
"  degree  of  goodnefs,  fo  as  they  joyntly 
"  may  attain  the  fupreme  good  ;    that   ic 
"  is  therefore  necelTary  to  apply  themfelves 
"  to    the    itudy    of  philolbphy,    without 
"  which  none  can  have  a  proper  infight  or 
"  infpcftion  of  things,  and  be  able  to  know 
"  what  is  to  be  followed  or  avoided,  nor 
"  rtvftify  their  defires  according  to  reafon ;  " 
witn  other  the  like  precepts,  wherein  con- 
fifts the  Cbinrfe  dodrine  and  wifdom. 

But  his  difciples,  building  on  his  prin- 
ciples, have  extraded  therefrom  many  rules 
and  precepts,  which  foon  after  became  the 
main  fubjedl  of  their  fuperftition  and  reli- 
gion.    They  acknowledge    one    fupreme 
deity,    and   that  all    terrellrial  things  are 
dir-^fted,  governed  and  prefervcd  by  him  : 
that  the  world  was  eternal,  without  either 
beginning  or  creator.     They  rejeft  the  wor- 
fhip  of  images  j    they  venerate  and  pay  a 
kind  of  adoration  to  fpirits.     They  expeft 
reward    for  good  deeds,   and  punifhment 
for  e"il.     They  believe,  in  a  manner,  the 
immortality  of  the  foul,  and  pray  for  the 
dcceafcd.     Some  of  them  alfo  believe,  that 

the  fouls  of  the  jufl  live  after  reparation 
from  the  body  ;  and  that  the  fouls  of  the 
wicked  perilh  affoon  as  they  leave  the  body. 
They  te.ich,  that  the  air  is  full  of  malig- 
nant fpirits,  which  is  their  dwelling  place ; 
and  that  thofe  fpirits  are  continually  at  va- 
riance with  the  living.     They  particularly 
recommend  to  their  pupils,  to  honour  their 
deceafed  friends  and  parents  ;  and  do  much 
concern  themfelves  in   performing  certain 
ceremonies  thereunto  belonging,  as  I  have 
mentioned  already  ;  and  hold  feveral  other 
things  very  rational,  and,  in  my  opinion, 
in  many  things  nothing  at  all  inferior  to 
either  the  ancient  Greeks  or  Romans.     Nei- 
ther muft  we  think,  that  the  wifer  and  better 
fort  amongft  them  are  fo  Ihallow-brained, 
as  to  believe  the  dead  ftand  in  need    of 
vi(ftuals,  and  that  therefore  they  are  fo  fer- 
ved,  as  I  have  mentioned  in  us  due  place ; 
no,  they  know  better,  and  tell  us,  they  do 
i  t  for  no  other  reafon,  than  to  demonftrate 
their  love  and  refpeft  to  their  deceafed  pa- 
rents i  and  withal  to  teach  their  own  chil- 
dren and  friends  thereby,    how  to  honour 
them  when  they  fhall  be  no  more. 

However,  the  vulgar  fort,  and  thofe  that 
carry  their  judgment  in  their  eyes,  credit 
that  as  well  as  many  other  impertinent  im- 
poITibilities  of  their  fuperftition.  In  fine,  tho' 
this  feft  hath  no  pagodas  erefted,  nor  par- 
ticular place  appointed  to  worfhip  the  king 
of  heaven  in,  or  priefb  to  preach  and  pro- 
pagate the  faid  dodtrine,  nor  a  due  Ixirm 
commanded  or  obferved,  but  it  is  left  to 
every  one's  difcretion  to  do  as  he  pleafes  in 
thefe  rcfpeds,  fo  as  he  gives  thereby  no 
fcandal,    yet  it  has  their  kings,    princes, 
grandees,  and  the  learned  men  of  the  king- 
dom for  its  followers. 

In  former  days,  the  king  of  the  land  might 
only  facrifice  to  the  king  of  heaven  -,  but, 
fincc  the  general  has  ufurpcd  the  royal 
power,  he  has  alTumed  t'  .  'bvereign  prero- 
gative, and  performs  the  .  id  ceremony  in 




i8.  1   Chap.  1 8. 

o/'  Ton  Q.UEE  n. 

-,  but, 
;  royal 
ony  in 


his  palace  himfelf,  in  cafe  of  publick  cala- 
mity, as  want  of  rain,  famine,  great  mor- 
tality, i^c.  befalling  the  kingdom,  which 
no  other  may  do,  on  peril  of  their  lives. 

The  fecond  feft  is  called  Boot,  which 
fignifies  the  worfliip  of  idols  or  images,  and 
is  generally  followed  by  the  ignorant,  vulgar 
and  fimple  fort  of  people,  and  more  efpe- 
cially  the  women  and  capadoes,  the  moft 
conftant  adherers  thereunto.  Their  tenets 
are,  to  worlhip  images  devoutly,  to  believe 
tranfmigration.  They  offer  to  the  devil, 
that  he  may  not  hurt  them.  They  believe 
a  certain  deity  coming  from  three  united 
gods.  They  impofe  a  cloy  iter  and  retired 
life,  and  think  their  works  can  be  merito- 
rious, and  th  \  the  wicked  fuffer  torments  to- 
gether; with  many  foolifli  fuperftitious  nice- 
ties, too  idle  to  repeat :  however,  th>;y  have 
no  prieft,  any  more  than  the  former  fedt, 
to  preach  and  propagate  their  dodlrine  ;  all 
they  have,  are  their  Sayes,  or  Bonzes,  as 
M.  Tavernier  calls  them  (which,  by  mi- 
ftake,  he  terms  pricfts)  which  are  a  kind 
of  friers  or  monks.  I'hcy  have  fome  nuns 
alfo,  whofe  dwellings  are  about,  and  fome- 
times  in  their  pagodas,  who  moil  com- 
monly are  invited  to  celebrate  their  funerals 
with  their  drums,  trumpets,  and  other  mu- 
fu  k :  they  fubfiit  for  the  moil  part  by  alms, 
and  the  charity  of  the  people.  In  brief,  this 
Is  that  feil  that  has  fpread  its  forperies  and 
impertinences  very  far  •,  and,  in  elTedt,  with 
its  fchifm  and  impoilure,  has  overfpread, 
in  part  or  whole,  moil  of  the  eallern  coun- 
tries, as  this  of  Tonqueen,  China,  Japan, 
Correa,  Formofa,  Cambodia,  Siain,  the  Gen- 
tucs  of  coaft  Cormaiidel  and  Bengal,  Ceylon, 
Jndojlhan,  i^c.   From  one  of  thele  two  lail 

J)laces  it  was  firil  brought  into  China,  on  the 
bllowing  occafion. 

One  of  the  Cbinefe  emperors  coming  to 
the  knowlege  of  a  famous  law  that  was 
taught  in  the  weft,  which  was  vey  effica- 
cious for  inftrudling  and  conducing  man- 
kind to  wifdom  and  virtue,  and  that  the 
dodors  and  expounders  thereof  were  pcrfons 
extremely  celebrated  for  their  exemplary 
lives,  and  ftupendous  and  miraculous 
adions,  Off.  he  therefore  difpatchcd  feveral 
fages  to  find  out  this  law,  and  bring  it  to 
China.  Thefe  ambaifadors,  after  they  had 
travelled,  or  rather  erred,  to  and  fro  the 
fpace  of  almoil  three  years,  arrived  either 
in  hidojihan  or  Mallabar;  where  finding 
thi  fed  of  Boots  very  rife,  and  of  mighty 
veneration,  and  being  deceived  by  the  devil, 
and  weary  of  travelling  any  further,  they 
thought  they  had  found  what  they  fought 
for  •,  ar.ii  lb,  without  more  ado,  tliey  got 
feventy-t'.vo  books  of  thofe  falfe  talcs,  of  tlie 
natives,  witli  fome  able  interpreters,  and 
returned  lo  China,  where  the  emperor  recei- 
ved them  moil  kindly  and  joyfully  -,   and 


ordered  direftly,  that  the  faid  fed  (hould  Baron. 
be  publickly  taught  throughout  all  his  do-  ""^^V^ 
minions.     In  which  miferable  blindnefs  they 
have  ever  fince  continued. 

I  cannot  help  making  an  obfervation  in 
this  place,  for  the  honour  of  the  chriftian 
religion  i  and  that  is,  that,  in  all  appear- 
ance, this  new  law  which  the  Chineje  empe- 
ror at  that  time  had  fieard  of,  could  be  no 
other  than  the  firft  promulgation  of  the 
gofpel  in  and  about  Judea  ;  and  its  being 
then  preached  to  Jews  as  well  as  gentiles, 
by  the  holy  apoftles,  which  was  attended 
with  fo  many  miracles,  that  it  was  no  won- 
der the  fame  thereof  fhould  extend  to  the 
remoteft  regions,  and  reach  the  ears  of  the 
Chinefe  emperor :  and  this  is  ftill  the  more 
probable,  bccaufe,  by  the  ncareft  calcula- 
tion that  can  be  made,  the  time  which  the 
emperor  of  China  is  recorded  to  have  heard 
of  the  publication  of  this  new  dodrine, 
agrees  pundoally  with  that  of  the  appear- 
ance of  our  Saviour,  and  the  preaching  of 
th  apoftles.  And  had  the  fagcs  fent  by 
that  emperor,  proceeded  as  tfiey  ought, 
not  only  the  great  empire  of  China,  but 
all  the  vaft  territories  adjacent,  that  now 
lie  immers'd  in  paganifm,  and  tlie  dregs 
of  fuperftition,  might  have  been  converted, 
and  brought  to  the  glorious  light  of  clirifti- 

Some  other  feds,  as  that  of  Lanzo,  are 
but  flenderly  followed,  as  is  faid  before, 
tho'  their  magicians  and  necromancers,  as 
Thay-Boo,  Thay-Boo-tvie,  Thay-de-Lie,  are 
the  piofelytes  and  followers  thereof,  and 
in  great  elleem  with  the  princes,  and  fe- 
fpedted  by  the  vulgar,  fo  that  they  are 
confulted  by  bcri-  in  their  moft  weiglity 
occafions ;  and  t...-y  receive  their  opinions 
and  falfe  predidions  as  very  oracles,  believ- 
ing tiiey  fpeak  by  divine  inlpiration,  and 
have  the  tore-knowledge  of  future  events: 
wherefore  it  is  not  probable,  that  they  were 
of  this  fort  that  were  fent  to  the  frontiers 
for  foldicrs,  as  M.  Taveniiere  has  it, 

I  know  indeed,that  the  general  rummages 
fometiincs  a  certain  fort  of  vagabonds  that 
haunt  every  corner  of  the  kingdom,  pre- 
tending to  be  conjurers  and  fortune-tellers, 
cheating  and  mifleading  thereby  the  ample 
and  ignorant  people,  and  infeding  them 
with  notions  contrary  to  the  belief  of  the 
leds  publickly  tolerated.  But  as  the  Ton- 
queenefe  are  really  very  credulous,  and  ready 
to  embrace  almoil  every  new  opinion  they 
meet  withal,  fo  are  they  not  lefs  tenacious 
in  retaining  any  notions  which  they  are  in 
polfelfion  of,  and  obferve  carefully  times 
and  fealbns,  as  good  and  bad  ;  in  which 
they  will  not  undertake  any  voyages  or 
journey,  nor  build  houies,  cultivate  grounds, 
nor  bargain  for  any  thing  confi  Jerable  ;  nor 
even  will  they  attempt,  on  ominous  days, 











The  De/crij)tioM,  &;c. 

Chap.  1 8. 

Baron,  to  cure  their  fick,  bury  their  dead,  nor, 
.v«^V"w  in  a  manner,  tranllift  any  thing  without  the 
advice  of  their  Ibotiifayers  and  blind 
wizards,  who  are  principally  divided  into 
three  claffcs,  chat  is,  thoii;  who  arc  followers 
ot'Tbay-Boo,  or  Tbay-Boo-Tivc,  or  Thay-  de- 
Lie,  and  have  not  the  leaft  fenl'e  of  their 
being  moll  grofly  cheated  and  deluded  by 
the  fallacious  preccnfions  of  thofc  impudent 
fellow.,  who  live  wiiolly  by  felling  their 
directions  to  them,  at  cxceflive  rates,  as  the 
moft  defirablc  and  current  merchandize. 
And,  fmcc  thefe  pretended  conjurers  are  lo 
much  obferved  and  venerated  by  the  deluded 
people,  I  will  deiircnd  to  the  particular 
functions  of  every  one  of  them,  and  fpeak 
firll  01  T/jay-Boo,  and  his  clafs. 

Thefe  pretend  to  declare  all  fuch  future 
events  as  concern  marriages,  building  of 
houfes,  and,  in  general,  pretend  to  foretell 
the  fii  L'fs  of  any  bulinels  of  conl'cqucnce. 
All  th.;  come  to  him,  or  thole  of  his  clafs, 
are  kindly  ufed  for  their  money,  and  receive, 
for  anfwers,  what  is  fuppos'd  will  fatisfy 
them  beft,  but  always  fo  ambiguous,  as 
will  bear  a  double  and  doubtful  interpre- 
tation. The  magicians  of  this  tribe  are 
generally  blind,  either  born  fo,  or  come  to 
be  fo  by  fome  accident  or  other.  Before 
they  pronounce  their  fcntence  on  the  pro- 
pofed  queftion,  they  take  three  pieces  of 
copper  coin,  infcribed  with  characters,  which 
they  throw  on  the  ground  feveral  times, 
and  feel  what  fide  of  it  falls  uppermoll ; 
then  prating  and  mumbling  fome  flrange 
kind  of  words  to  themfelves,  they  deliver 
the  rcfult  of  the  conjuration, 

Secondly,  Thay-Boo-'T'we,  to  whom  they 
rcfult  in  all  diflempers.  This  clafs  of  pre- 
tended magicians  have  their  books,  by 
which  they  pretend  to  find  out  the  caufe  and 
refult  of  all  ficknefs ;  and  never  mifs  to  tell 
the  fick  party,  that  his  diftemper  proceeds 
from  the  devil,  or  fome  water  gods ;   and 

pretend  to  cure  it  by  the  noife  of  drums, 
batons  and  trumpets.  The  conjurer  of  this 
tribe  is  habited  very  annckly,  and  fings 
very  loud,  and  makes  hideous  noifes,  pro- 
nouncing many  execrations  and  blafphemous 
words,  founding  continually  a  fmall  btll, 
which  he  holds  in  his  hand,  jumping  and 
ikipping  as  if  the  devil  were  really  in  him  ; 
and  all  this  while  there  is  flore  of  viduafs 
prepared  for  an  olVering  to  the  devil,  but 
it  iseatcn  by  himlclf :  and  he  will  continue 
this  fpon  fometimes  for  feveral  days,  till 
the  patient  be  either  dead  or  recovered,  and 
then  he  can  gi-v.'  i"  anl'wer  with  fome  cer- 

It  belongs  to  them  to  difpofTefs  fuch  as 
are  polfels'd  by  the  devil,  which  is  the  ulti- 
mate of  their  conjuration,  and  is  commonly 
cfferted  after  this  manner.  They  curfe,  and 
molt:  impioufly  invoke  I  do  not  know  what 
ilemon ;  and  they  paint  the  picftures  of 
devils,  with  horrible  faces,  on  yellow  paper, 
which  is  fixed  to  the  wall  of  the  houfe  ;  then 
they  fall  to  bauling  fo  terribly,  and  fcream 
lb  loud,  dancing  and  fkipping,  as  is  moft 
ridiculous,  Ibmttimes  feaiful  to  lee  and  hear. 
'I'hey  alio  blefs  and  confecrate  new  houfes ; 
and  if  they  be  fufpeifled  to  be  haunted,  they 
drive  the  devil  out  of  them  by  their  conju- 
ration, and  the  firing  of  mufkets. 

3 hay-de-Lie'shu'im^^k  is,  to  be  confulted, 
which  are  the  fitteff  places  for  burial  of  the 
dead  ;  lb  that  the  living  relations  and  kin- 
dred may,  by  this  means,  be  happy  and 
fortunate  ;  and  the  like  follies. 

I  will  fpeak  nothing  of  i?rt-C»/t',  becaufc 
they  are  only  the  pretended  witches  amongfl 
the  baler  fort. 

As  for  temples  and  pagodas,  fince  the 
'Tonqueaiefe  are  not  very  devout,  there  are 
neither  lb  many,  nor  thofe  fb  fumptuous, 
as  I  have  feen  in  fome  of  the  neighliouring 
countries ;  and  the  preceding  plate  will  give 
you  a  fufficient  idea  of  them. 



■,  «i 





T  R  A  V  E  L.  S 

lap.  1 8. 



<  Q?^  ?^  S2S  JS?*^  "OCS  ■^  ^  ?w*^ ; 


T   R    A    V   E   L   S 



B  Y 

Z)r.  John  Gemelli  Careri. 



T  O     T  H  E 

Counfellor /^M/^ro   DAN  10. 





TRAVELS    through  EUROPE, 

By  Dr,  John  Francis  Gemelli    Careri. 

In  Icvcral   Letters   to  the  Counfellor  AMATO  ^ANIO. 


Containing  the  Author's  journey  from  Naples  to  Venice. 

Honoured  Sir, 

WE  R  E  my  ambition  of  gaining 
renown,  and  tlic  proud  appetite 
of  bi-'inj.;  an  applauded  author, 
equal  to  tiie  ulledion  andrefpedt 
I  defervedly  bear  you,  I  fliould  now  cer- 
tainly forbear  giving  you  any  account  of 
my  journey,  as  has  been  often  defired  by 
you,  and  as  free'y  promifed  by  me.  You 
are  very  lenfiblc  of  theoccafioiiof  reafonabic 
fear  and  apprchenflon  :  the  regard  you  are 
pleafeJ  to  have  for  me,  and  all  that  is 
mine,  will  prevail  on  you  to  read  fome  of 
the  letters  I  ihall  fend  you,  to  thofe  able 
mailers,  who  know  how  often  we  have 
diverted  our  felves,  and  made  fport  with 
them :  and  I  cannot  but  forefee,  that  tho' 
they  will  then  be  filent  out  of  refpecl  to 
you,  as  is  ufual  for  men  when  they  think  ill 
to  comply  with  another,  yet  they  will  not 
fpare,  in  another  place,  to  lay  me  open : 
and  one  will  allege,  that  my  exprJffions 
are  barbarous-,  another,  that  the  llyle  is  in- 
fipid  ;  a  third,  that  the  matter  is  trivial  ;  in 
which  they  will  find  feveral  particulars  not 
mentioned  in  their  books.  And  in  fine, 
fome  one  will  fay,  if  it  were  his  cafe,  he 
would  write  in  another  method.  But  enough 
of  this,  it  fignifies  litrle,  provided  you  are 
plealed,  tor  I  fliall  little  regard  the  reft. 

Thus,  witaout  any  other  introduftion, 
I  mull  inlbrm  you,  that  I  arriv'd  yeller- 
day,  an  hour  after  night,  in  this  famous 
rity  i  I  fly  famous,  on  account  of  what  I 
have  been  told  of  if,  for  I  (liould  be  very 
vain  anil  extravagant,  did  I,  of  inyfelf,  give 
it  fo  great  an  epithet,  upon  lb  iliort  a  refi- 
dence,  anti  that  in  the  daik.  Afibon  as  I 
had  licur'd  my  baggage  in  the  inn,  I  went 
'  away  to  tlie  theatre  of  S.  Luke,  to  lee  the 
opera  c.dl'd  La  Tcodora  Augtijla.  I  am  no 
;reat  proficient  in  ))oint  of  mulick  ;  ncvcr- 

Venice,  Jan.  25.  1686. 

thelefs,  forafmuch  as  v.ic  harmony  pleafed 
me  well  enough,  and  many  who  fecm'd  to 
be  competent  judges,  did  not  find  faulc 
with  it,  I  take  the  liberty  to  tell  you,  it 
was  good  ;  yet,  in  my  ojiinion,  inferior  to 
that  I  heard  there  before  my  departure.  It 
is  reported,  tliat  Cortona,  the  famous  finger, 
will  not  appear  upon  the  flage  this  year, 
to  avoid  the  difpleafure  of  the  duke  of 
Sjxony,  whom  he  refufed  to  go  ferve. 
What  curious  refledtions  1  Could  now  make 
upon  this  fubject ! 

— —  Scd  mates  prctfiat  componcrc  fiuHta. 

But  it  is  better  to  lay  thofe  fwelling  waves. 

That  this  letter  may  not  be  too  fhort, 
nor  any  thing  omitted  towards  affording  you 
diverfion,  it  will  be  proper  to  give  you  an 
account  of  my  journey.  The  roads  in  the 
province  of  Abruzzo,  being  very  bad,  by 
your  advice,  1  fet  out,  in  a  horfe-litter,  for 
Chicti.  God  forgive  you  I  it  is  much  better 
to  be  expofed  to  the  waves  in  a  little  boat ; 
befitles  the  intolerable  tcdioulhefs  of  it :  for 
tho'  it  be  but  eight  miles,  we  were  almoll 
ftarv'd  before  we  got  thither,  and  at  lafl 
reach'd  Cafu,i  with  that  /•'.  P:u  Opcrario 
whom  you  faw  alter  night  -,  and  yet  it  is  but 
fixteen  miles  from  Aapki,  and  tlie  belt 
road  in  the  world.  The  next  morning, 
our  litter-man  refolving  to  keep  company 
with  the  Abruzzo  carrier,  we  were  oblig'd 
to  get  up,  and  fet  out  very  early,  and  con- 
fcquently  had  not  time  to  go  two  miles  out 
of  the  way,  to  the  village  of  S.  Mary, 
to  view  the  remains  ofthenncient  Cj/.//j,  o.'./Opua 
once  he;\d  ol  all  Campania  feiix,  and  hau"hty 
rival  of  Romn  and  Curtbugc.  I  cannot,  in 
truth,  b'.it  admire  foreigners,  who  ncglcit 


3 .  ■, 




'"'I'll   * 

.'!     !l 


^  Journey  from  Naples  ^o  Venice.        Ltr.  i. 

CrMFiLi-    to  vifit  thofi"   antiquities,    and  yc:  arc  lb 
^"'"^^"^  furious  to  go  to  J'czziwlo,  where  jHthaj's 
there  is  lefs remarkable,  cho'  many  of  tiiein 
on  purpole  to  take  notice  of  futh  trifles. 

Since  we  are  talking  of  impertinences, 
you  mull  needs  hear  tome  of  mine ;  and 
therefore  1  mull  inform  you,  that  we  had 
not  gone  many  miles  from  difuii,  belbre 
the  hcrfe-  itter  overturn'd,   and  a  pan  of 


in  the  place  where  pope  5..\.'/.o.'^m;.7w  was 
born.  Sonic  will  have  it,  that  iranLii 
Sjbrzii,  who,  after  the  death  of  his  father- 
in-law  P/.ii/ip  f-ijlonti,  came  to  be  duke  of 
ycnke,  was  born  in  this  place.  I  went  to 
lie  that  night  at  l-'tnno,  thirteen  miles 
tlillant.  I  mounted  about  break  of  day  oil 
Sunday  •,  and,  having  rode  twinty-lour 
miles  near  the  fea,  came  to  Loretto,  which  to-, 

fire  m/  fellow   traveller  carry 'd,    fo  very  is  a  little  above  two  n;iles   up  the  land, 

tender'was  he,  fell  upon  mc.     ilowever,  the  1  he  firit  thing  I  did,  was  vifitjng  the  holy 

worft  of  it  was,  that  ar  night,  after   tra-  houfe,  partly  out  of  devotion,  and  partly 

Veiling  thirty-three  miles,   Ibmc  mountain,  out  ot  cu:  iolity  to  fee  a  place  lb  renowned 

and  fome  bog,  we  found  very  bad  enter-  and  venerable.     The  chai>els  on  the  lides 

tainment,  at  a  dear  rate,  at  the  inn  of 'T/^/i-  of  the  high  altar,  the  cupola  cover'd  with 

verno,    not  far  from  Voiaj'n;    a  wre:  lied  lead,    the  lleeplc  on    the  left  hand  of  the 

dinner  the  next  day  at  ylcjiiaviva,  and  no  gate,  the  rich  Ihops  on  the  left  hand  of  the 

better  lodging  that  night  at  Cajicl  di  Hu/i- 

This  place  is  twenty-feven  miles  from 
Tidhhtno.  featvd  at  the  foot  of  a  mountain 
wl'.ofe  top  is  .Iways  covered  with  fnow.  At 
bri.ik  of  day  we  enter'd  i][)on  the  that 
is  Hve  miles  over,  v,!iere,  at  this  tiiiv,'  of 
year,  foiiietinics  travellers  are  cither  It.jv'd 
with  cold,  or  buritd  in  fnow,  and  pro- 
ceeded to  SuliKoiU!,  wiience  we  have  the 
CiKbr.ited  f\ieetiiK-.'-ts.  It  is  feated  in  a 
plj.ifmt  pl.iin,  inelofed  with  mour,t..ins. 
About  the  dulk  of  the  evening  we  had.  ira- 
vell'd  tliirty  miles,  aiui  '"■.•ok  up  our  quar- 
ters at  Pojcli.  At  lengih,  on  H^cilinj.Lty, 
after  eighteen  miles  riding,  I  came  todii/i, 
now  the  metropolis  ol  tlie  hither  Ahrtizzc, 
and  formerly  of  the  people  call'd  ALinu- 
cini,  as  you  may  well  remember.  Tluis 
ended  the  toil  of  the  horfe-litter,  anj  ot  the 
pri-'lVs  tentiernefs. 

I   defign'd    ro  embark  at  Pefair.u    for 
Ancor.a  ;  and,  in  order  to  it,  fet  out  thither 
a  horl'e-b.ick  on  Tburjday  morning,  being 
but  feven    miles    diftant,    but    was  dilap- 
^  ointed  ;  for  the  fea  was  boifterous,  and  lb 
full  of  foam,  that  I  concluded  mailer  AV/i- 
tune  had  got  cold,  and  goddy  Galatea  had 
made   a    buck  f:    wafh  his  handkerchiefs. 
But  jelling  alide,    Pefiara  is    a  fortrefs   of 
note,  on  the  Adriatkk  fea,  furnifli'd  with 
good  cannon,  a  garifon  of  an  hundred  and 
twenty  Sjar-Jh  foot,  and  a  ditch,  into  which, 
upon  occasion,   they  car  bring  the  river  of 
the  lam..:  name.     Thcne,\tday,   having  no 
other    choice,    I   rode   twenty-eight    miles 
along   the    fhore   to    Giulia  nova,    a  town 
leatid  on   the  top  of  a   hill,  belonging  to 
the  dukes  of  Ani,  and  flill  fubjedt  to  t'->em, 
where  I  was  moll  courteoufly  entertain'ii  by 
the  C/jTr/f/j;;/ fathers.     On  Sa'.urdny,   having 
p.ifs'd  the  borders  of  the  kingdom,    near 
Afioli,  I  got  to  the  Gnlis  by  noon  ;  which 
was  owing  to   '^he  good  hortls  and  even 
road,  i:\i<i  I   could  not  fo  eafily  have  tra- 
vellM  eighteen  miles.     I  lere  they  fhew  a 
church  erected  to  th'.'  honour  of  S.  L.vrv, 

fquare,  the  llately  arches  on  t!ie  right,  lup- 
Jjorting  the  dwellings  Oi   the  canons,   tiic 
curioL'-   fount.iin  in  the  middle,  chc  noble 
brafs  llatue  of  Six! us  i^niiti.i,  tlic  work  of  a 
very  great  mailer,  and  other  I'uch  things, 
render  the  outfide  profptct  extraordinary 
beautiful.      Within  ajipe.'.rs    a    fumptuous 
cj-.urch,    with    three   illes,     and    bcautiiul 
cliai)els,  a  curious  brafs  font,  the  llandard 
taken   tiom  the  Turks  by  king  Jct'it   HI. 
of  Po/ard,    at  tlie  battl.-  of  Barkap  ;   ■-.nd 
a  well  coniiiv'd  choir  on  the  I'it,  where 
twenty-two  canons  perform  the  l'\ine  oflicc, 
each  of  them  having  at  halt  two  luindred 
crowns  a   year.     '1  hat  which   is  properly 
call'd  the  holy  houfe,  and,  weare  mfomfd 
by  tradition,  was  brought  by  angels  from 
as  far  as  Nazareth,  Hands  under  the  cupola, 
with  an  aleent  of  fe\'en  lleps  to  ir,  that  is, 
foiM-  to  the  high  altar  of  the  chuich,  where 
they  Ihew  the  window  at  which  tiie  argcl 
deliver'd  to  the  blelfal  virgin,  the  melijge 
of  the  redemption  of  man  •,  and  three  more 
to  the  level  of  the  three  gates  caufed  to  be 
ojicntd  by  pope  Clement  VII.  for  the  con- 
venicncy  of  pilgrims.    This  houR-,  or  rather 
room,  confitls  of  only  four  brick  w.ills,  on 
the  in  tide  whereof  appear  Ibme  llrokes,  and 
almoll  inditcernable  figns  of  ancient  paint- 
ing :    I  am  apt  to  believe,    they  were   fo 
adorn'd  by  the  faithful  in  following  ages. 
The  length  of  it  is  about  thirty-two  fpans, 
the  breadth  fixtcen,  and  the  htigluh  twentv. 
When    the  new  roof  was  matle  to  fullain 
the  prodigious  number  of  rich  lamps  that 
are  always  burning  there,  the  materials  of 
the  old  roof  were  put  under  the  floor,  and 
part  of  them  applied  to  make  up  the  door 
at  which  it  is  likely  the  blelled  virgin  came 
in  and  out.     The  p.;vcment  is  faid  to  have 
remain'd  at  Nazan-tb:    upon  what  ground 
this  is  aflertcd,  I  kiiownof,  or  whether  it 
be  only  tradition  that  recii'ircs  this  belief  of 
us.     The  llatue  of  our  lady  is  placed  in  a 
niche  over  the  chimney.     It  is  of  wood, 
and,  thr-j'  age,  of  a  fort  of  olive  colour. 
Whetiicr  ic  be  the  work  of  St.  Luke,  cr  no, 



Lilt.  i. 

Let.  I.  ^4  'journey  from  Naples  /o  Venice. 


is  a  qujftion  upon  fad  •,  biic  wc  know,  that 
all  the  images  in  our  parts,  which  exceed 
ilirL';;  or  four  centuries,  are  attributed  to 
rl. is  holy  evangelill  i  this  wc  now  Ipcak  of, 
I  am  pioufly  apt  to  believe  may  be  one  of 
the  true  ones.  AfCir  dinner  it  was  requifite 
to  procure  the  governor's  favour,  to  tee  the 
tiiree  wooden  porringers,  which  an  uninter- 
rupted report  brought  down  to  us,  fays 
Were  ufed  by  the  blellld  virgin  and  iier  fbn  ; 
Ibral'much  as  the  canon,  who  had  the  keep- 
ing of  them,  had  [)ut  nieotV,  illeging  they 
could  not  be  llicwn  after  the  twcnty-tecond 
hour,  and  the  more  for  that  two  Capuchins 
were  I  weeping  the  holy  houle,  as  they  daily 
do.  In  condulion,  having  I'een  the  chim- 
ney, which  is  behintl  the  altar,  and  again 
worlhipped  the  holy  image,  I  went  away 
to  lie  the  trcafuic.  Withoutany  hyperbo- 
lical magnifying,  I  can  teflify  it  is  inellima- 
bie,  for  the  infinite  quantity,  variety,  beauty 
iind  value  of  the  ciuirch-lluli",  velKIs  and 
jewels,  ii;iiL  thither  as  prefents,  by  the  de- 
votion of  leveral  emperors,  kings,  and  other 
princes  of  lei's  note.  Among  the  rell  is  a 
velhiKiit,  font  by  our  queen  of  Spain  ;  on 
which  there  are  no  lels  than  four  thoufand 
diamonds  embroider'd.  1  will  not  ipeak 
of  any  more,  lell  I  ihotdd  Iwcll  to  a  book. 

riie  a'.mory  is  well  flor'd,  and  remark- 
able for  the  curious  and  ancient  arms,  which 
were  the  gift  of  the  Duke  of  Unino  \  as 
aifo  for  thofe  taken  from  the  Turks,  who 
were  miraculoufly  blinded,  when  they  came 
\v;il>  a  delign  to  [ilunder  that  place.  Biu- 
i,'ji(.>'s  floiehoul'e  is  much  better  lurnilli'd 
than  that  oi  Alan  ;  for  there:  are  ufually 
three  hundred  casks,  of  an  extraortlinary 
magnitude,  in  fourteen  large  hir'd  vaults, 
of  only  tlie  wine  growing  on  the  vineyartls 
that  belong  to  the  holy  houfe.  'I'hey  fhew 
one  of  thefe,  which  contains  four  hundred 
and  thirty  barrels,  or  quarter  casks,  and 
another  but  a  little  fmaller,  yet  fo  contriv'd 
that  they  drew  three  forts  of'  wine  at  the 
fime  cock.  In  fliort,  tlu-y  take  more  care 
of  thofe  casks  than  they  do  in  other  places 
oi Ruibad  i'lbiii'f.  paintings.  I  would  now 
willingly  tell  you  lomething  material  con- 
cerning the  city,  but  I  know  not  what,  for 
in  reality  there  is  nor  v.:.j,  and  I  am  refblv'd 
not  to  pick  my  fingi..  j  aid  wrong  my  con- 
Icience  ;  therefore,  without  bubbling  to  no 
purpote,  I  will  conclude,  acquaintmg  you, 
that  Lvretto  is  a  Imall,  but  IJeautiful  city, 
and  the  fiiburb  it  has  towards  Rccaniii  is 
alio  very  fine. 

Moiiiluy  the  14th,  fetting  forward  a  horfe- 
back,  about  half  way  I  met  with  the  new 
Cardinal  Ah'llini,  returning  from  being 
Niduio  in  Spain  •,  and  having  travell'd  fif- 
teen miles,  came  about  fun-fetting  to  Aft- 
cona,  a  plentiful  and  wealthy  city,  by  rea- 
fon  of  its  famous  port,  tho'  moft  of  the 

Vol.   VI. 

money  is  in  the  hands  of  thc7i'it'i.     It  has  CiMr.ixi. 
a  cafUe  on  the  top  of  the  lull,  the  works  '^-'Vv^ 
of  it  reaching  down  and  joining  to  the  city 
walls.       The  garifon  conliflsbut  of  thirty- 
five  men,    and  ten  more  arc  quarter'd  on 
the  ravelin  of   the  mole.      I  know  not  of  ule  thtfe  would  be,    were  there  any 
f'l'rightly  fouls  in  Italy  at  this  time,  like  the 
Sforzai.     Thenextday  I  went  to  Saiiga^lia,  stmiagli*. 
twenty-four  miles  diflant.      It  ftands  in  a 
plain,  the  flreets  beautiful  and  wide,  and, 
what  is  much  n.ore  confiderable,  the  inha- 
bitants are  wealthy.     The  port  is  form'd 
by  the  river  Penna,  and  capable  of  none 
but   linall  velfels.      I  let  out  from  thence 
immediately  in  a  poft-calafh,  that  was  re- 
turning to  i'ano,  travelling  fifteen  miles  in  f^,,,. 
a  fhort  time,  along  a  road  by  the  fea-fide, 
which  is  moft  delightful,    compar'd   with 
that  curled  way  fi(jm  Lontto  to  Sinigaglia. 
Not  fir  from  the  city  wc  pal's  over  a  pav'd 
wooden  bridge  of  a  prodigious  length,  on 
the    .XL'.auro,    a  river   of   no   linall   note, 
among  both  theL.;/(A'  and  Gni,^ poets,  as  you 
know  better  than  I.     As  to  the  number  of 
Inhabitants,  there  are  about  (ii\{:n  thoufand 
ml'ano,  few  more,  or  lef'sthan  at  ■S'l.v/ig-t?^/;.!  , 
but  confidering  the  beautiful  flrudtures,  the 
many  noble  families,  and  the  f'plendor  they 
live  in,   it  is  much  preferable  to  the  latter. 
The  theatre  is  c>ne  of  the  beautit'uUefl,  and 
moll  magnificent  in  all  Europe,  being  one 
hundred  and   fifty  fpans  in  breadth,    and 
lour  hundred  and  fifty  in  length,  two  thirds 
whereof  are  taken  up  by  the  ftage,  which 
has  curious  Il^iics  and  artificial   machines. 
'i'hcre  are  no  lei's  than  live  ranks  of  boxes, 
I. icli  containing  twenty-two,  and  all  neatly 
painted.     Above  this  theatre  is  the  prif'on 
of  St.  Martin.     The  caflle  has  no  garifon 
at  all  i  an  '  perhaps  on  this  pretence,  every 
peafant,    Jiaying  fifteen  Bayonos,  which  is 
fomewhat  better  than  nine-pence,  has  leave 
to  wear  arms,   that  is,  fword,  dagger,  and 
piflols.     But  the  fame  being  ufed  through- 
jut  all  the  province,  I  am  willing  to  believe, 
as  the  belt  interpretation,   that  the  govern- 
ing prelates  I'ufier  themfelves  to  be  led  away, 
by  the  good  opinion  conceiv'd  of  the  peo- 
ple of  Marca  di  Jncona,  who  for  the  mofl 
part  arc  mere  gulls,  and  would  not  hurt  a 
worm.     Provifions  are  every  where   cheap 
and  extraortlin.iry  good,  efpicially  filli. 

The  next  day  I  firfl  travell'd  five  miles, 
to  Pejaro  ;  thence  ten  to  CattoUca,  and  laflly 
fixteen  to  Rimini,  where  I  lay.  Prj'aro  is  a  jvy.Vr*, 
large  city,  of  fixteen  thoufand  inhabitants, 
mofl  of  them  rich,  el'pecially  they^cj,  the 
country  being  very  fruitful  ;  I  obferved,  that 
at  this  time  of  the  there  were  colly- 
flowers  as  plenty,  and  perhaps  more  fb,than 
we  ufl"  to  have  at  Naples.  In  the  great 
fquare  is  the  palace  of  the  Gonfalonitr,  or 
chief  magiflratc  of  the  city,  and  that  where 
N  the 


'  !i 



;    ,1.        , 

: '  M 





y^  Journey  from  Naples  to  Venice. 

Let.  I.    ]  Let.  i 


nrMELLi,  the  Icg.itc  ufcs  to  refide,  being  at  prcfc-nt 
^"V^^  the  Cardinal  Sj)atl,t ;  as  alio  a  marble  foun- 
tain, and  a  noble  brai's  ftatue,  eredtcd  in 
lionour  of  Pope  Urban  the  eighth.  The 
calUc  is  guarded  by  only  twelve  foldiers.  If 
any  attempt  Hiould  be  made,  tiicrc  is  little 
confidence  to  be  repos'd  in  thofc  few  S-wifs 
bclongip';  to  the  cardinal.  Some  years  ago 
here  was  a  port  made  by  art,  with  the  water 
of  the  river;  but  at  prelent  there  is  no  way 
into  it.  Without  the  city  are  Ibme  very 
curious  gardens,  belonging  to  the  great 
Duke  of  'Tiijlany,  and  to  the  lortts  of  Aiofcii. 
Citttticii.  Cattoticu  is  the  lait  town  in  the  territory  of 
Marcii  ili  /lucona,  and  is  fiid  to  be  fo  calTd, 
bccaufc  there  the  CatLcliiks  parted  from  the 
yiiian:,  who  were  going  to  the  council  if 
Rimini,  anil  of  this,  belides  rdinal  '" 
«/V/j,  an  infcription  let  up  in  .,  i.-idT  re 
town,  isan  unileniablc  tellimc.  '■  ■.  ot 
give  you  any  better  account  of 
it  is  tiiinly  inhabited,  and  pooi-,  w  v -.a 

at  a  fmall  dillance  from  thj  lea  ;  iuid  now 
the  women  walk  along  the  fliore  picking  up 
thofe  bits  of  wood,  the  Adnatick  throws  up. 
Rimini  (lands  upon  the  coaft,  and  its  port  is 
m.ide  by  the  river,  that  runs  clofe  by.  The 
inhabitants,  as  I  was  told,  are  about  twelve 
thoufand.  In  the  great  fquarc,  or  market 
is  the  place,  where  they  lay  St.  Anthony 
miraculoufly  made  theafs  adore  the  blefled 
facrament  1  and  at  a  fmall  dillance  where 
thefifhes  came  to  hear  him  preach.  In  an- 
other fquarc  is  a  brafs ftatue  of  Vo^zViban 
the  eighth,  the  governor's  palace,  and  other 
things  of  lefs  note,  which  I  omit,  as  know- 
ing you  will  not  care  to  read  them. 

I  travell'd  (iltcen  miles  after  dinner  from 
Rimini  to  Cr/iiialico,  a  fmall  caflle,  inhabited 
by  (ifhermcn,  where  I  lay.  Here  is  a  canal, 
which  fcrvcs  inlleadof  a  port  for  fmall  vcf- 
fels.  I  fet  out  about  break  of  day,  and 
made  choice  of  the  Ravenna  road,  to  go  to 
Bologna ;  bccaufe  the  way  by  Cffena  and 
Forli  was  fo  deep,  and  full  of  Houghs,  that 
none  would  hire  me  horfes  to  ride  it,  for 
tear  they  fhoukl  fail  in  the  middle  of  the 
journey.  On  this  fide  the  river  Savi  there 
is  nothing  but  thick  and  tall  pine  trees, 
forming  green  and  delightful  woods;  yet 
not  fo  delightful,  but  that  the  thick  fogs, 
rifing  from  the  marfhes  and  the  fa  Itpits  of 
the  city  Ccrva,  almoR  continually  kcc]) 
the  fun  beams  off  them,  i-'or  tny  part,  I 
am  of  opinion,  that  the  poets  might,  with- 
out much  wrong  to  it,  have  call'd  this 
the  land  of  the  Cimmerians,  the  court  of 
the  god  o.  Tieep,  and  even  P!u!(j'i  ami- 

I  travell'd  twenty  miles,  and  entcr'd  Ra- 
venna at  noon.  To  deal  ingenuoully,  we 
feldom  can  come  near  the  point,  when  wc 
endeavour  to  form  to  ourfelves  an  idea  of 
a  city  from  whai  we  read  in  books.     It  is 


true,  thccompafsof  the  walls  is  large  ;  but 
inllead  of  houfes  it  is  all  full  of  orchards, 
gardens,  and  farms,  with  fome  few  rcm.iins 
of  antient  (Iructurcs  fcattcr'd  among  thcnii 
and  in  reality  it  requires  much  force  of  ima- 
gination, toperfuaile  one's-lUt",  that  it  svas 
the  feat  or   relidence  of   the  exarchs,    or 
vicars  to  the  Greek  emperors  in  I/alj,  for  the 
full  fpace  of  one  hunilred  eighty  three  years, 
and  that  lb  many  notable  tilings  have  been 
done  in  it,  as  we  lind  in  our  hiUories.     The 
bell  to  be  lien  there  are  the  churches,  cither 
in  refpcCt  of  their  venerable  antiquity,  or 
the  beauty  of   the  ilruftures.     In  that  of 
^anta  Maii.i  in  Fortieo,    they   fhcw'd  mo 
twojars,  or  pitchers,  of  weighty  porpliyry 
(lone,  aflirming  they   were  (bme  of  thole, 
in  which  our  \iviour  converteil  the  water 
in:o  wine,    at   the   wedding  of,    in 
Galilee.      Many  more  are  Ihewn  in  other 
Parts  of    It.ily  \    which  oblige  us  to  own 
ourfelves  much  beholden  to  our  ancdlors, 
-'-^  took  care  to  bring  over  Inch  praious 
i.iru  '.'s  from  the  holy  land.     Over  tlie  Ingh 
altar  of  the  church  of  the  Holy  (iiu)ll  they 
fliew  a  little  window  ;  at  which  they  i  onfi- 
ilently  afilrt  the  Holy  Ghofl  has  come  in, 
at  leall  eleven  times,    in   the  (hapc  of  a 
dove,  to  chufe  as  many  bidiops,  alighting 
on  a  Hone,  which  is  alfo  preferved  there. 
What   can   be  laid  beyond  this?     In  the 
church  of  St.  Benedid  are  to  be   fcen  the 
tombs  of  the  Gothijh  kings,  excepting  that 
of  Tbeodoricus.  I  le  is  (aid  to  be  bury'd  in  his 
own  palace,  where  now  is  the  monaflery  of 
A/ollinaris,    tho'  it  was  (bme  time  in  the 
rounil  church,  under  that  very  (lone  which 
his  daughter  Jmalifunta    made  ule  of,    to 
cover  a  cupola.      'I'he  antient  port  where 
the  Roman  Pralorian  navy  was  wont  to  be 
laiil  up,  is  not  now  in  a  condition  to  lirvc. 
Innocent  the  tenth,  caufed  a  canal  of  three 
miles  in  length  to  be  cut,  which  brings  up 
(mail  barks,  to  carry  goods  into  the  city. 
Inthefquare,  or  market,  which  is  not  very 
fpacious,    ftands  the  ftatucs  of  two  faints, 
their  proteftors,    on  two  pillars  ;    and  not 
far  from  them  another  of  brafs,  reprednt- 
i  ng  Pope  Alexander  the  fe  ven  th .     The  bra  Is 
(latucs  I  have  hitherto  mention'd,  put  me 
feveral  times  in  mind  of  the  antient  gran- 
deur of  Rome;  and  again  made  me  reikdt 
on  the  infinite  number  of  (latues  and  co- 
lolTus's,    the  cities  fubjert  to  the  empire, 
did  in  itsflourifliing  days  doubtlels  cred  in 
honour  of  the  emperors. 

I  perceive  this  letter  now  begins  to  grow 
tedious,  and  to  tire  your  Patience  1  but 
wliat  remedy  ?  I  am  now  engag'd  i[i  writing 
my  journal,  and  more  loth  to  leave  icim- 
perfed,  than  to  write  on;  and  theretbre 
wh'-n  you  have  once  begun  to  read,  it  will  be 
proper  to  hold  on,  till  you  come  to  the  end. 
You  will  tell  me,   The  argument  does  no' 

hold  : 



Let.  I.     *  Let.  i. 

A  Journey  from  Naples  to  Venice. 

of,    to 

irc  where 

jnt  to  be 

to  Itrve. 

ot  tlircc 

ings  up 

ic  city. 

nor  very 


and  noc 


hc  bra  Is 

put  me 

nt  gran- 

ic  rtilcdt 

xmX  co- 


cr.ct  in 

to  grow 


c  it  ini- 

t  will  l)C 

tiic  enil. 
oc'i  no: 
hold  i 

hoUl  1  and  I  fiy,  You  may  make  it  hold,  by 
reading  on  ;  and  tlic  reward  of  your  trouble 
will  be  the  fatisfailion  of  knowing  my  pro- 
ceedings, which  is  no  matter  to  be  (lighteii. 
I  fee  out  from  Ruvenmt  about  three  in  the 
afternoon,  on  horfeback,  and  made  fuch 
F<f.u.i.  good  ufe  of  my  fpurs,  that  I  got  to  Ftwnza 
an  hour  after  night  tell,  having  rode  twenty 
miles,  and  along  the  road  law  the  fprouting 
vines  winding  about  the  tall  poplars,  jull 
as  we  generally  fee  them  in  t'le  province  of 
7Vn-.<  iii  Lavoro.  The  city  feem'd  to  me 
as  big  as  Fiiho.  The  gate  I  enter'd  at  was 
between  two  towers,  Handing  on  the  briiige, 
which  joins  the  city  to  the  other  bank  of 
the  river.  Rifing  very  early,  tiic  next 
morning,  I  rode  live  miles  to  CtiJId  Bo!o^'- 
nefe,  and  thence  as  far  to  Iinola,  a  beautihd 
large  city  ;  whence  I  went  twenty  miles 
further  by  the  Polt,  along  a  dirty  road,  to 
B.-Zc^'w.  Bologna,  and  got  in  by  day-light.  I  will 
not  here  enlarge,  or  let  my  tongue  run  to 
extol  the  plenty  of  this  city,  preferring  it 
before  Naples,  as  perhaps  another  wouki 
do,  and  I  am  well  enough  inclin'd  to  it  ■, 
but,  without  making  comparifons,  which 
are  odious,  I  mull  tell  you,  it  very  well 
deferves  the  epithet  of  La  GraJJ'a,  the  fat ; 
lor  to  deal  fincerely  here  is  living  in  clover, 
and  any  man  may  indulge  himlell  in  eata- 
bles.    Do  but  conlider  what  it  mull  have 

been  ■ Trojce  (htm  repta  manebaitt,  when 

in  its  flourilhing  days.  As  for  the  llrudurcs 
of  note,  the  firll  place,  in  my  opinion  is 
due  to  that  they  call  La  Torre  Torla,  that 
is,  the  crooked  tower,  nothing  inferior  for 
workmanlhip,  to  that  of  Pijii,  and  the 
other  nam'd  DegU  //Jinelli,  of  the  alTes, 
which  tho'  not  lb  well  adorn'd,  is  not  only 
as  much,  but  even  more  to  beadmir'd,  for 
its  extraordinary  and  prodigious  height.  In 
the  next  place  are  obfervable,  the  cardinal 
legate's  palace,  fome  others  of  noble  citi- 
zens, and  a  few  churches,  that  is,  the  Duo- 
mo,  or  cathedral,  not  yet  finilli'd,  that  of 
the  facrament,  where  the  bod^  ot  St.  Ca- 
tberine  Hill  remains  entire  ;  that  of  St.  Domi- 
tiick,  in  the  right-hand  ide  whereof  hangs 
a  crocodile  ;  that  of  St.  Pctronius,  remark- 
able for  its  magnificent  high  altar,  and  the 
pyramid  ereded  on  four  columns,  and  reach- 
ing to  the  roof;  and  that  oi'Si. Swpbfti,  or  the 
feven  churches,  rich  in  miraculous  and  moil 
precious  relicks.  Next,  the  greateil  and 
mofl  (lately  monaftcry  is  that  of  St.  Michael 
of  the  fathers  of  mount  Olivet.  It  is  built 
in  the  form  of  a  femicircle,  on  a  hill  that 
over-looks  the  whole  city,  fo  that  no  place 
in  all  the  country  round  about  affords  ;i 
finer  profpeft.  In  fhort,  all  the  buildings 
a:re  imbellifh'd  widi  curious  vaults  and 
arches,  by  help  whereof  a  man  may  walk 
two  or  three  miles  dry,  in  fpight  of  all 
proud  jfuno'i  malice.     The  publick  fchools 


are  alio  a  noble  llrudure.    The  arches  about  f  ititi  ii. 
their  court  are  luppurted  by  good  columns,  ^-"V^*^ 
and  the  church  which  Hands  oppofite  to  the 
entrance,  is.vlorn'd  with  excellent  pii:tures. 
'I'he  pr()fell"i)r.s  of  civil  and  canon  law,  ui'c 
to  ilivert  themlelves  in  a  room  on  the  leic 
hand,  til'  the  hour  of  reailing  comes  i  and 
in  another  on  the  right  the  profelfors  of 
other  fciencts.      They  are  in  all   feventy- 
thrce,  the  two  chief  whereof  haveafalary 
of  three  thoiiliuui  Italian  pounds,  which  islix 
hundred  Roman  crowns  ■,  the  others  lefs  and 
lefs,  accoriling  to  their  profelTions  and  feni- 
ority,  lb  that  the  lowelt  have  but  forty  du- 
catoons  a  year.  About  the  upper  arches,  are 
the  fchooh  orderly  difpos'il,  in  which  there 
is  not  a  hantiful  of  the  wall  without  fome 
iiillr'niion,  or  memorial,  in  marble,  paint- 
ing, or  gilt  plailler  work,   lerving  to  U'anl- 
mit  to  iiollerity  tlie  names  of  the  cardinal 
prottdors,  of  profelfors,  and  even  of  fcho- 
lars.     Would  to  (jod  they  could  all  us  eafily 
obtain  the  perfeiilion  of  what  they   lludy  ! 
'I'he hall  for  anatomy  is  alio  r  .ibly  ado::.\l 
with  ItaLucs,  in  llie  nature  of  a  thearre.   In 
lliefe  fchool;,  they  read  four  hours  before  din- 
ner,   anil  as  many  after,  according  to  tho 
order  let  down  in  the  lill  of  the  profelTor'-. 
In  other  relpeOtb  Jiulcgna  pleales  me  wel'  , 
for  it  has  near  niiu  ty  ihoul'md  inhabitants, 
all  of  a  good  anil  pleafant  dilpofition.     The 
women  wear  lome  flraw  hats.      They  • 
not   fo  referv'd  either  in  church,    or  el. 
where,  as  the  Neapolitans,  who  turn  aw.ty 
their  fr.outs  wherefoever  they  fee  a  man  ;  in 
Ihort,    they  arc  not  over-nice  in  point  ot 
converfition,  and  thofe  of  quality  are  fome- 
what  more  pert  than  is  decent,  and  never 
give  over  chatting  and   prating  when  the 
iiibjed  picafes  them  ;  but  their  language  is 
fo  iliort  and  aiVected,  that  a  (Iranger  can- 
not forbear  laughing  st  them.      I  faw  the 
opera  cali'd,!  he  coronation  of  Darius,  at  the 
theatre  of  the  Alalvezzis,  and  it  prov'd  in- 
cliH'erent  good  ;  yet  I  thought  it  much  infe- 
rior to  ours,  both  tor  mufick,  finging,  and 
fcenes.     The  otiier  company,  cali'd  Ji-  For- 
maglieri,  rcprcfcnied  Junius  Brutus;  but  I  had 
not  time  to  fee  it  before  my  departure.  Tiiis 
is  all  the  account  I  can  give  you  of  Bclognu. 
I  had  like  to  have  forgot,  that  the  culloni  is 
here,  when  they  bury  batchelors,  to  put  u 
flower  into  their  liands,  as  it  were  to  reward 
their  contlancy,  which  never  yielded  to  wo- 
man.    I  lliould  approve  o'  the  pradice,  if 
every  barchelor  never  any  thing  to  do 
with  women  ;  but  the  innocence  ot  our  tore- 
fathers  is  n(Jt  to  be  found  in  our  days ;  and 
even  boys  will  be  thought  cock-fparrows. 

Tuefday  the  2  2(1,  I  went  into  a  cover'd 
boat,  with  the  common  poll  for  Venut',  at 
three  in  the  afternoon,  if  I  niilhike  not, 
and  having  run  twcniy  miles  upon  an  arm 
ol  the  river  Ruho,    cume  abgut   break  of 






y/   Dejcr'tption  of  Venice. 




day  the  i^il  to  Mulo,  a  place  inliabitcil  l)y 
wrctthcd  fifliirnien  i  whtre  removing  into 
furh  another  boat  I  went  twenty  mile:;  Kir- 
tlier,  onacanal  ot  fluiiiing  water,  iol<:r- 
rar.i.  This  city  is  not  very  whollume  by 
reafon  of  its  flat  (Uiiation,  ami  tiie  w.uer 
runiiinj;  round  in  tiie  diuh,  ami  therelore, 
tho'  tiie  compal's  ot  its  walls  lii.  one  halt 
greater  than  that  of  hulo^iui,  yet  it  contains 
not  al)(»ve  twenty  thoiilaiul  inhabitants.  In 
the  Iquare,  or  market  place,  llands  a  brals 
llatue  on  liorreb.u  k,  rcpn  fcnting  that  duke 
Bjr^i.i,  who  laid,  he  would  be  (.u-jhr  ox  v\u- 
thinjj;  1  and  anotlurot  ilie  niarquels /.<'o«i'//i, 
who  was  alio  Ibnie  lime  lord  ot  J  iintra, 

Dii  mulla  ne^U-tli  dcderuiit 
Ilrfpcrue  tiui.'a  luilucfiC. 

That  is.  The  Jllgljtiui  ^o(h  ftit  many  calii- 
vthics  K/on  thjlonjUuti'  Italy.  The  cdlK' 
ftandslow,  and  the  ditch  ot  it  is  hlliti  with 
tlie  lame  water  ot  the  river  Reno,  which 
they  pal's  over  on  two  long  biidges  I'ecurM 
by  tour  corps  de  {^ari.L'.  'i'he  place  01 
arms  u  large-  cnouy;h  tor  any  military  excr- 
cifc  i  and  in  it  a  marblL'  llatue  ot  pope 
dement  \'III.  with  t^ood  ca/.erns  lor  the 
garilon,  a'nouniia;'  to  tour  hundred  men. 

Guini.',  aboard  towanis  riin-letting,  on 
another  canal,  I  went  on  three  miles  •,  and, 
about  three  hours  in  the  night,  remov'd  iiilo 
another  boat  on  the  river /'«,  otten  laying 
to  mylelf,  \Vho knows  which  of  tlule  po- 
plars was  filler  to  the  unloriunate  Pl.Kutnn  '^ 
Thus  the  nij^ht  pallinij;  aw.iy,  what  in  lleep, 
and  wiiat  in  thinking  of  I'lieh  a  llra.'v.e 
metamorphofis,  we  found  wo  had  run  thiity- 
iive  miles  tiiree  hotirs  betore  day.  llun 
taking  up  my  iiiiall  baggage,  as  the  giplies 
do,  I  went  into  another  boat  on  the  river 
yiJigc;  ami  running  along,  in  fight  ot  good 
inns,  for  the  Ipace  ot  twcnty-lcvcn  miks, 
arriv'd  at  Cbiozza  about  two  in  theattei- 
noon.  This  city  is  inhabited  by  about 
twelve  thoufand  people,  molt  of  them 
fifhermcn  and  gardeners  i  nor  does  irs  litua- 
tion  deferve  b.tter,  for  it  Hands  in  a 
marfliy  plain,  and  the  water  of  a  great  canal 
running  ijuite  round,  makes  the  air  unfit 

for  lungs  that  are  any  thing  tender.     It  n 
beholden  tor  this  to  the  river  Jili^e,  from 
which  they  go  10  it  over  two  long  wooden 
bridges.      We    held  on  our  courle   hence, 
.ih)ng  a  piece  of  land   well  ileteiieled  with 
piles  againll  the  violence  ot  the  le.i  ;   and 
h.iving,  in  our  way,  light  oi  I'cilejinnii, 
live  miles  Ironi  Chuizza,  came  thro' 
feveral  canals  and  roumlings,  into  the  neigh- 
bourhood ot  Muliii'tOiio,  .\  h.mdfome  city 
enough,    and  of  good  traile.     Here   were 
tvventy-lix  merch.uit  lliips.ot  feveral  nations, 
kept  oil  by  the  flioals  from  going  up  to 
Iciihi.;    and,    among   the  rell,  aw  l.n^lilh 
velTil,  which  celebrated  its  captain's  oble;- 
ciuies  with  much  firing  of  cannon.    In  lliort, 
aj  was  faiil  above,  1  kimleil  an  hour  alter 
night  in  this  city,  after  nine  miles  run  on 
the  water.     But  now  periiaps  you'll  believe 
1  was  tir'il  with  my  voyage,  as,  beyond  all 
controverfy,  you  .ire  with  my  letter.    Quite 
contr.iry  !     there  went   witli  us    a    certain 
tippler,   fo   very  comical,    efpecially  wlien 
the  wine   was  got  into  his  head,    that  he 
eould  not  pollibly  fpeak  three  words  to  the 
leall    purpofe.      Sometimes    not    knowing 
whether  he  in  the  world  in  the  moon,  or 
ill  an  oven,   he  tell  to  hokling  forth,  making 
lueh  curious  Ipeeches,   fo  lull  of  barbarifms 
and  inlijiid  babbling,   that  no  learneil  men 
could  poir,bly,  with  ever  fo  much  art,  have 
put    them  together ;    and  compar'd  with 
him,  our  Allilius  would  have  pals'd  for  a 
Dimojlbi'iies.     To  complete  our  entertain- 
mnt,  we  were  honour'il  with  the  conver- 
fuion  ol  twodamfelsol  Romat^mu 

Cbemollc  genii  fer  gid  vlvergmme. 

jrio  hiid  brought  tnctny  a  man  to  a  morfel 
of  bread ;  yet  I  coulel  not  lorbe.'.r  wilhing 
them  their  hearts  full  ol  fuch  goods.  Now 
indeed  I  have  no  more  to  write,  and  the  pen 
is  ready  to  drop  from  my  weary  fingers,  and 
therelore  I  intreai  you,  if  you  are  not  quite 
tir'd  with  this  long  tale,  to  ialute  all  friends 
in  my  name,  every  one  in  particular,  without 
my  making  an  exidt  catalogue  ot  them, 
whilfl,  expeding  your  commands,  Iremain, 
with  all  refped,  ^i. 

L  E  T  *r  E  R     II. 

Of  the  grcatnefi  of  \'ciilcc,  the  mrnival,  the  mbiltty,  theatres,   &c. 

PRAY,  Sir,  e)bferve  how  punctual  I 
am  in  keeping  my  word,  finre  1  rather 
chufe  to  be  troublefome,  than  to  omit 
acquainting  you  with  all  I  daily  happen 
to  fee  or  hear.  I  perfuade  mylell,  that  it 
you  have  not  read  all  that  epillle,  or  rather 
the  long  llory  I  fent  you  four  days  ago,  you 


Venice,  Jan.  29,  i686. 
have  at  leaft  cafl  .\n  eye  upon  the  to])  of  it, 
and  conlequently  are  intorm'd,  that  1  am  in 
Veniee,  and,  if  you  plcale,  you  may  add, 
in  perfi.d  health,  and  found  as  a  roach,  at 
your  command,  which  is  the  main  point. 
As  Gcd  lliall  lave  yo!  lay  aiide  your  gra- 
vity,  conform  a  little  to   the  genius 


Lej.  2 

II.  J- 


of  l\\ 
I  C.I. 

by  th 
a  pee 
in  the 
ilelig  1 
excel  I. 
to   fay 
of  it, 
In-  line 
into  th' 
two   Ji 
both  I 
.  i  t'  we  I 
the    i.i 
two  ill, 
.ind  la! 
icfell",  I 
the  retr 
men,  o 
^^2.■>..     . 
Iiirh  as  I 
den,  /',', 
|7/>  f.if'.'- every   ] 
''•it-         excel  ler 
All  oriu- 
for    tlui 
lex  ,inel 
the  libe 
is  crtai 
masks  t 
at    tlie 
lion  of 
band  h,i 
nor  knr 
iiiio  rh: 

llOilf,'     ] 

aeci. 1.111 
j'rcat  111 
w  lie  re 
by  ai.y 
IV:  iiv-ri,  (1  Ridatn. 


.  I' 

Lej.  i. 

A  Defcriptim  of  Venice. 




he  pen 

IS,  and 

IOC  quite 





J])  of  ic, 
1  .ini  in 
ly  .aid, 
i.ich,  at 

)ur  gra- 



of  tlic   raiiiiv.i!   kufon,    as    I    did    when 
1  c.nie  into  tins  tiiy  \    for  I  am  not  ahlt.' 
to   lorbcir    Ining    led  away,    in   writing, 
by  tlic  ixtravagiint  itdi  that  pofTclk's  mc, 
andtlic  Ihicilhimd  fury  that  runs  in  my  veins. 
What  do  you  tliink  on't  ?  Don't  I  write  as 
a  |ied.inticis.  |i  iioolnvilU-r  taliss  ?    \  will  row, 
in  the  (iril  place,  ilelirihe  you  the  city  of 
f'cwfif,  fuch  as  I  have  found  it  in  tliefe  few 
days.     I oiiic  is  a  large,  magnificent  and 
pten  iful  city,   built  for  the  iecurity,    and 
dclig'itful   liberty  of  all  forts  of  jjerfons ; 
and  fiovcrn'd  by  all  the  rules  of  a  molt 
ixcclLnt,  and,  by  long  experience,  approv'd 
po'i(  y.     Do  but  obferve  what  1  am  about 
to  f!iy,  and  you  will  plainly  perceive  the 
truth  of  my  alfertion.     As  to  the  firll  part 
of  it,  no  man  in  the  world  can  deny  it,  if 
li.-  iloes  but  rel'.ect,    that  it  contains  three 
hundred   thoufand  inhabitants,    all  well  to 
pats  t'liaiiks  to  their  gre,;ttr.ide,  cfpecially 
iiito  the /.rr  »// :  Ixlidcs,  there  arc  f.vcnty- 
two  p.irillics,  ar.d  filtynine  monafteries  of 
both  f.xes,  a  number  nor  at  all  contempible, 
.if  we  |-Uaie  to  call  to  mind  the  occafion  of 
-the    interdict    of    Paul  V.     above    fifteen 
iuindred  bridge',    which  join  the   feventy- 
two  iflands ;    above    two  hundred    fhitely 
pal.sces  along  the  famous  canal  of  Rinlto  ; 
.md  laflly,   tliat  it  is  full  eight  mi'es  in  com- 
paf's.     My    fecond   article   ]i|ainly    verifies 
iuteir,  for.ifinucii   as  the  liiuation   is  won- 
derful  thong.  :intl  therefore  chofen  to  be,  1  know  not  whether  offiilier- 
mcn,  or  of  noble  families,  flying  .rom  the 
cruelty  of  Jttdu  the  Hun,  about  the  year 
42?..     As  for  the  charming  liberty,    it  is 
fuch  as  pL-afl's  the  noblelt,  and  beft  iiUorm'd 
nations  in   Eiiiope  ;    and,    tho'    ic   be  very 
chargeable  to  them,  the  dermars,  Pclnii- 
ders,  Eii^lipj,  anil  French,  never  fail  coming 
7,>  f.irw-  every  year,    at   this  time,    to    enjoy   the 
■-"'.         excellent  opera's,  entertainments,  balls,  and 
All  other  forts  of  diverfions-,  and  the  more 
for    that  every    per  Ion   is  allow'd    to   go 
maflsM  into  all  places,  concealing  both  the 
f'ex  anil  couiitcn.mce.     Yet  I  do  not  think 
the  liberty  allow'd  the  women,  in  this  par- 
ticular,   ..hogciiicr  commendable  \    and  it 
is  certain,  that  their  going  about  with  other 
masks  they  meet 'n  the  flreet,  at  inns,  and 
at    the    R'hioHo,    "ating  fweet-mcats,    and 
drinking  musl;;.aine  wine,   is  often  the  occa- 
fion of  diford.r:.     This  very  day,  a  huf"- 
band  had  like  to  have  kill'd  his  wife,  they 
iloc  knowin.'^  one  another  before  tlicy  came 
into  the  inn,  had  not  the  good  man  of   the 
houfe  prevented  it.     However   ic  is,  fucii 
accidents  daily  happen-,  yet  no  doubt  it  is  a 
great  matt' r,   that  every  one  may  go  about 
w'aeie  lie  pleales,  without  being  dilturb'd 
by  ai-.y  body.     .Since  I  have  niention'd  t!;e 
I  RiiiiU'i,    you    mutl   underfland,    that  it  is 
oihrrwite  called  the  devil's  houfe,  being  a 
Vol..   VI. 

palace,   in  the  fcveral  room;,  whereof  there  f'' ■'•'""■ 
.ire   about  an  hundied  tabl  s  for  gamiiig,  ^'^''"^"^ 
which  arc  worth   to  the  republick.  at  kail 
an  hundred  crowns  a   year,     So 
much  money  is  made  of  the  cards  and  lights 
paid  by  the  iiobiliiy,  who  alone  areallow'd 
to  keep  a  bank.     I  litherall  the  masks  retire 
about  the  dusk  of  the  evening,  for  at  other 
times  none   but  noblemm,    and    ablblute 
jirineesmay  go  in,  and  they  generally  pl.iy 
at  bafl'et.     All   i<-  done  in   liknce,  laying 
down  the  quantity  of  money  every  one  de- 
figns  to  venture,  on  what  card  he  pkafes, 
.ill  other    particulars  being  mark'd   down 
with  bitsof  c.ird  1  and,  in  the  fame  manner, 
he  that  wins  is  p.iid  without  any  helitatioii 
or  controverfy.     Ic  is  cert^unly  a  ple.ifanc 
light  t6  behold  fo  many  flrange  fafhions  of 
cloaths,  and  way:,  of  exprefling  tliemlllves  •, 
and  that  the  gameders  fliould  lo  little  value 
their  money,    and   lomecimes   tluir   whole 
eftates.     I  go  thither  fre(]uently ;    and  ;.in 
the  better  pleas'd,  beeaule  1  fee  tlieir  plealure 
dilturb'd  by  their  lofings,  and  my  own  liitif- 
tattion  noway  crofs'il ;  foraliiiuih  as  I  am 
there  only  a  fpettator,  wichouc   intermed- 
ling  in  what  they  do:  and  indeed,  were  a 
man  to  write  a  play,  he  could  no  where 
make  better  remarks  uii  the  t'everal  pafLons, 
th.m  at  the  RuLtio. 

MiUc  bominiim  fpiciei,  fcf  i\-rum  dlfcclor  nftis : 
Ctl'e  jhtan  cuiq^r  rjl,  ncc  volo  ihiiuy  tii.e. 

\t   tomr 

'There  are  a  /Uii/tind  for!s  of  men,  eiml  .is 
iniub  variety  cf fajljhns :  Every  man  has  his 
kH!,  Kithout  com/lyini^  iii.'h  niiy  Mie. 

As  to  the  point  of  liberty,  it  is  bevond 
all  credibility  ;    but  no  mm  muR'  iireflinu: 
to  look  into  the  goveiiiment  of  the  com- 
monwealth ;    for  it  is  of  the  nature  of  t!ie 
cancer,    which  none  can  handle,    without 
faring  the  worfe.     As  to  other  particulars, 
in  the  day  time,  it  is  frequent  to  foe  otfieers 
beaten,  and  their  prifoners  refcu'd  by  bro-  Pd 
thers  and  f'ons,  with  extr.;oidinary  impu- 
nity and  freedom.     Tho'  the  nobility  abfo- 
lutely  lord  it  over  the  common  fort,   yet, 
in  outward  a[>pearance,  'hey  are  not  very 
imperious  or   haughty  towards  them,  but 
very  tiimiliarly  i>ermit  them  to  be  cover'd 
in  their  pretence  ;  which,   I  tliink,   is  very 
requifite    in    co.n'noiiwealchs,    to   preferve 
peace  and  civil  unity.     Ri tides,    to  avoid 
[leing  thought  proud,  which  would  render 
th.em  odious  to  their  inferiors,    they  walk 
about  the  (treets  without  any  attendance, 
and  fometimcs  with  a  finall  parcel  or  bundle 
under  their  upper  girment ;  and  thus,  laying 
afide   all  olh-ntation   and  fluw  of  luxury, 
they  exercile  a  moft   ablblute  fovereignty. 
They  a  long  veft  down  to  their  ancles, 
of  black  cloth,  with  great  wide  fleeves -,  in  j.;,^.,. 
winter,  lin'd  .'.nd  edg'd  with  furs,  and  mti,'. 
O  funimer 


1,  i< 

(   1 










//  DefcriptioH  of  \^cnice. 




.!(  Venice 

niiiiiii't  with  liimc  ([\^\\t  filk.  On  ilu-  kit 
'  llnml^lvr  li,im;s  iinouicr  pitcc  of  tloAtli, 
.ibout  (our  I'lMiis  lonj;,  ami  two  in  hrciuitli, 
to  kicp  (ioin  ilic  rain.  'I'o  ileal  ingi- 
luio'.iily  with  )()U,  I  an)  ot  opinion,  it  is 
tlic  fame  a.  iIil'  Io^.i  among  the  ancient 
R:mi!iii \  r.s llii.'  afon laid  vtlt, or  iipiUT yar- 
nunt  tlio'  long,  may  be  iilt'il  inlU'ad  of  the 
linators  /.'i :.'..(  i'LiViitd,  or  LitUhivuivi ;  (ur 
it  [lainly  appears  by  a  icrtain  place  in 
'/.■'!•( '••(.'•M,  ilial  tijc  to^a  was  ontc  li]uare. 
B  ■'iii(  >  tliat,  tiio'  thi^  fort  of  j^arnK'nt  he 
alio  conimon  to  lawyers  and  phyfn  ians, 
however,  th^-  nohh-s  ilo  not  wear  it  before 
tir.'y  iir^  twenty- five  years  ol  age:  ami 
wlicrcas  the  Rr.mtHh,  lelsdifcretely,  allowM 
nil  men  tJK  .'.,:j.j  virilis,  wiiith  was  the  manly 
habit,  at  ll-vent:en  years  of  agf,  thc/Vwc 
'ij>:s  do  not  permit  it  to  he  woiniill  twenty- 
five  i  exiepting  thole  thirty  five  youths 
M'hieli  are  yearly  fhofen  by  lot  on  St.  Hiir- 
^^nj'sday,  that  they  may  wear  it  at  eighteen. 
On  their  heads  they  wear  a  little  woollen 
cap,  with  a  thicker  fur  about  it  than  the 
relt.  The  girdle  is  of  le.ither,  with  a 
buckle,  and  other  ornaments  of  lilvcr. 

I  am  now  well  enterM  upon  tiie  matter, 
and  hive  fo  fir  pI.iyM  the  re|)ublicaii  and 
jijlitician,  that  meihinks  I  have  a  whole  fenate  in  my  1v.mi1,  with  all  the 
families  of  the  Punii,  Fahitiii,  Siilnuii, 
C.ilpurmi,  and  ClxHi:,  but  not  the  Comifial 
and  Cornelii.  It  is  not  at  all  agreeable  to 
the  carnival,  efp.cially  for  one  that  i-.  at 
I'l-nicc,  to  enter  up:)n  politic  ks:  antl  I  (luc- 
(lion  not  but  that  you  think  with  your  I'elf, 
wh'.TC  is  ths- divcrfion  I  promis'd  myfelf,  in 
r.:ading  the  beginning  of  this  letter .'  and 
when  will  this  good  man  give  over  his  tedi- 
oufnefs,  and  writing  long  letters?  If  fo,  I 
have  done  •,  for  I  can  grow  weary  of  writing ; 
but  then  you  will  want  the  beft,  that  is, 
what  relates  to  theatres,  antl  is  the  third 
part  of  !ny  defcription.  Then  let  my  im- 
portunity prevail  upon  your  patience.  There 
are  fevcral  theatres  in  I'enue.  That  of  St. 
.  Liik,',    mention'd  in  my  \.\\\,  contains  an 

hundred ,ukI  filty  boxes.  St. /tr_.;i'o,  wluro 
I  fiw  Jiiguiiha  kirj^  of  A'///rt/i/;«exc(lkiitly 
a^ted,  has  an  hundred  and  thirty  lix.  In 
th.U  of  7.,ine,  or  John  of  St.  Mc'n,  it  I 
mill.dve  not,  I  counted  an  hundicd  and 
fifteen,  (fmalt  enough)  when  I  wa-,  there  on 
S.ilurdiiy,  to  lee  LluirAiui  of  Ne^>o/.c>il. 
The  following  night  I  law  DiJo  ruziiig  in 
that  of  St.  'Jo/.'ii  and  Paul  i  and  I  alllire 
you,  it  nuthii.g  inferior  to  any  ot  thole 
We  lo  miKh  applauded  there,  either  tor 
excellent  finging,  or  curious  fcenes :  ic 
contains  an  hundred  and  Hfty-tour  boxes. 
I  have  not  yet  feen  the  theatre  of  Ci/iwri««, 
but  am  told,  it  is  finer  than  all  the  r.ft,  and 
has  an  huiklred  and  (ixty  two  boxes  in.lily 
gilt  i  btit  there  they  pay  lour  /:ali.i>i  Uvna, 
which  is  better  than  three  lliillings  entramr, 
and  thirty-two  pence  for  a  llati, 
in  the  others,  they  give  but  thirty -two  pence 
entrance,  and  twenty  for  a  feat,  or  little 
more.  St.  Samuel  and  St.  dij/liiuis  are  two 
other  noble  theaters,  but  not  for  opera's 
in  mufick.  And,  to  conclude,  the  Iquaro 
of  St.  Muik  may  be  alio  cali'd  a  th.Mtre  ; 
for  there  are  abundan' e  of  diverlior.s, 
volting,  dancing  on  the  ropes,  and  j/u}>pcc- 
Ih.-ws,  but,  above  all,  variety  of  pl.-ufanc 
fights  and  converlarion. 

It  rem.iins  to  fpe.ik  Ibmething  to  the  third 
point,  that  is,  the  government ;  but  what 
ilull  I  do  now?  my  piper  will  hold  no 
more,  and  it  is  too  late  to  fcribble  another 
(licet.  D'ye  think  I  lliall  not  write  to  you 
again  the  next  week?  I  reter  tliat  .iccounc 
till  then,  when  perhaps  I  may  be  able  to  do 
it  better,  and  upon  more  folid  information 
than  .It  prefent.  We  have  here  a  mighty 
report  of  the  magnificence  ot  your  viceroy, 
both  as  to  masks  and  opera's ;  it  would 
grieve  me  to  be  fo  far  from  him,  were  there 
not  to  much  pleafure  in  travelling;  how- 
ever, I  beg  you  will  give  me  fome 
account  ot  it,  as  fiilly  as  your  importan^ 
alVairs  will  permit :  thus,  with  my  commen- 
dations to  yourfelf  and   friends,   I  remain, 

L  K  T  T  V.  R     III. 

Of  tic  ^ovcrumca!  of  Venire,  ///•  grciit  cAtiicil-chambi'r,  the  armory,  the  Dorc'; 
attcndiituc  to  church,  ciiul a  notable Jiory. 

IN  purfuanceof  my  promife,  and  at  the 
fanv  time  to  latisty  you,  I  have  thele 
day.sapply'd  myfelf,  with  all  poHlblecare, 
to  get  fome  folid  information  concerning 
tlie  government  of  this  city  ;  but  am  of 
opinion,  I  have  wafted  my  breath  .uid  iny 
time  V  for  their  methods  are  kej)!  wonilerful 
fccret,  and  we  can  only  conjcdture  at  them 
by  the  etiedh:  and,  in  fliort,  all,  I  believe 
I  liavc  been  able  to  difcover,  is,  that  it  is 


Vonce,  February         i686. 
this  fame  concert  the /Vw;;.;;;j  arc  beholden 
to  tor  the  prefervation  of  their  (late.     There 
is  no  quctlion  to  be  matle,  but   that  Ji/ickt 
tk  Li   Hoii/jk's  relation    is  very  fine  and  ^^^^^^  ^ 
curious,    antl    the  contents  of  it  not   only  vuiami. 
likely,  but  almoft   palpable  demonftration 
of  what  he  propofcs  to  lay  o])en  i   yet  am 
I  ot  opinion,   that  the  greatett  p.u  t  ot  it  is 
rather  the  produd  of  his  own  brain,  than 
any  information  received  from  others,  the 


Lnr.  '^. 

LlJ.    2. 

A  DeJcr'nHion  of  Venice. 


:■    Dogc'i 


1 686. 

It.  .-Ihickt 

!oc   only  Vtiifiui... 

yti  am 
•t  ol  iL  is 
in,  than 

■jrs,  tlie 

iiicn  of  qlMlity  h<TC  bring  alwayi  very  rc- 
ItivM,  an.l  ii;'()n  thiir  ^'.uaiil,  tlio'  oilier* 
lu"  iKvcr  lo  ingtniouii  in  ilivinj;  into  thim. 
'I'o  continn  tlu:  l.ilt  point  relating  to  the 
lUrliiipiion  in  my  lornur  Utter,  I  mull 
4j;:tin 'IciLirc  toyou,  that  lime  wc  Ice  thij 
n  pul)lirl<  lupport  itlill  with  lo  much  ho- 
ntuir  and  rcpmatMii  tor  lo  many  ages,  ic 
ni'ail.  of  n.'Li'lIiiy  bi'  allowM  this  commcn- 
liuion,  o!  licii'^govi-rnM  liy  the  rules  ol  the 
motl  reti'.iM  policy.  J'his  is  the  w,iy  nun 
)ild};-,  lieiiiKin^  thccaules  Irom  the  eriitls. 
And  tlio'  e.xpiiience  fliews  us,  that  all 
tliinj;^  whieii  arc  excellently  tontriv'd,  do 
not  ii]iially  liitceed,  yet,  lor  the  moll  part, 
we  liiul,  that  fortune  is  the  eonliquente  ot 
prudeULO,  ami  that  thole  which  .\r~i  bell 
orileiM,  have  generally  the  moll  prolperous 

Now,  as  lor  tlie  m.i(:;i(lrates  whorrovern, 
F  will  not  pretend  to  give  you  any  partic  uKir 
or  general  account  ot  them,  beraiHe  I  re- 
member to  have  often  I'een  the  books  of 
Cniilaniii;\n^  Giaiimttt  in  your  hands  •,  fothac 
I  mii;!u  better  be  inforniM  by  you  in 
point,  than  othcrwife.  But  as  to  tiie  plaee 
where  they  ilienibl:-,  I  mull  acquaint  you, 
that  the  chamber  of  the  great  council  is 
all  over  maflcrly  painted,  and  will  calily 
hold  a  tlioufand  men.  There  arc  rows  of 
benches  about  lo  order'd,  that  tlio'  there 
are  feats  on  both  lick's,  no  man  turns  his 
back  upon  anoilur,  but  tliey  arc  all  face  to 
face.  y\t  one  end  ol  tiiis  hall,  where  the 
floor  is  fonv'what  railed,  is  the  D<;(,'i''s  feat, 
fixed  in  tlic-  wall,  with  benches  on  both 
fides.  On  th.u  which  is  on  his  right  lit 
three  counfcllors,  and  one  of  the  heads  of 
the  QjfarMHir,  or  cotmcil  ot  forty  ;  and  on 
his  kit,  a  like  number  of  counfellors,  and 
the  other  two  heads  of  the  {^araiilie.  Op- 
pofitc  to  the  Do^t;  that  is,  at  the  other  end 
of  the  hall,  fits  one  of  the  heads  of  the 
council  often,  and  at  a  fmall  diftance,  one 
of  the  advocates  of  the  commons.  In  the 
middle  are  two  Coijhn,  fome  Heps  above 
the  floor  of  the  hall:  and  to  conclude,  in 
the  angles  are  the  old  and  new  auditors. 
I  have  taken  great  pleafure  thefe  days 
TltAJinp.  j^  liciring  fome  trials  before  the  council  of 
twelve,  and  the  ^^iarantie  ;  for  the  advo- 
citenlid  not  talk,  but  roar  i  not  argue,  but 
fcoM ;  and  that  their  way  of  pleading 
would  make  a  llatuc  burlt  with  .ughing. 
On  tlie  other  hand,  they  have  i  is  very 
rommendable  cullom,  tiiat  they  only  en- 
deavour tog. lin  the  judges  by  proper  wrds, 
ajid  argumen's  dr.iwn  from  natural  reaion, 
and  well  digelUd,  according  to  the  rules  of 
rhetorick,  without  perplexing  themfelves 
widi  quotations  and  precedent.s:  the  reafon 
whereof  perh.ips  is,  becaufe  thole  judges 
are  not  always  very  well  read  in  the  civil, 
and  mud)  lefs  in  the  canon  Uw  ;  and  therc- 

Jore  no  nrooli  are  at  firft  ofkrM,  hut  only  ••'mih 
a  plain  bill  of  what  is  rrnijiiM.     Befidcs,'*''V*«.' 
the  niofl  famous  advocate,  in  anyallair  of 
the   greatell  conltquence,    is   not  allow'd 
to  ffKak  above  an  hour  and    an   half-,    a 
cullom,  as  I  take  it,  oblerved  by  the  an- 
cients, who  inealui'd  the  time  allotted  for 
that  purpofe,  by  a  water  hour-glafs  •,  •whence 
they  laid  liure  tiquiim,  and  tliuKtiti  boKim  \ 
that  is,    fo    allow  water,    which  was  the 
meafure  ot  the  time,  and  to  fpeak  by  the 
hour:  as  I  think  I  have  read  in  i^inti'uni 
and  once  oblcrv'd  a  curious  place  of  PJjilo-  rhUfl   In 
Jlrnliis,  in  the  life  of  Jpolkiiiiis  T/jy.inai/s.  ■^"'•■^/♦"> 
Thole  who  fpoke  by  this  rule,  ducbaiit  ml'"' 
cUpfydrom,  talk'd  by  the  water  hour-gJafsv 
anil  therefore  iWi/r/w/,  lloffing  at  one  C<rf/- j^j,,,,;,,/ 
lianuit  laid,  Ui,.6.ti.J, 


Seplem  ckpfyilrai  mdgnu  lili  Vvte  petenii, 
/libilcr  iini.'us,  Circilianr,  iledil. 

At  In  mulla  diu  dicii :   vitrei'que  teptnlem 
Ampttllis  pclcii  Jmifupiniis  aquam. 

Ul  tAndem  fatici  voctmqtie,  J'lliinp,  rcgamiu^ 
"Jam  dt  depiydra,  Cacdiuiie,  bitai. 

Which  is  to  this  eflert.  CTcilianus,  tl't 
judj^e,  much  ngainjl  his  Kill,  allowi  you 
to  plead  wbiljt  Jtvcn  gliijfcs  are  running, 
•which  you  demand  xiith  much  clamour.  2'ou 
talk  much  a  long  while  together,  and  to 
rcfrejh  you,  take  off  ftveral  glajjcs  of  warm 
uatir.  That  you  may  at  length  faiiate 
your  voice  and  your  thirjl,  -we  iiitreat 
you,  Ca^cilianus,  to  drink  cut  nf  the  hour- 

But  meihinks,  to  repeat  fuch  things  tcj 
you,  wlioare  fo  well  acquainted  with  them, 
by  continual  reading  of  good  authors,  ii 
like  carrying  of  flowers  to  Nora,  and  fruit 
to  AUinous.  However  it  is,  the  judges 
give  their  opinions  after  this  manner :  To 
denote  the  affirmative  judgment,  they  put 
a  white  ball,  made  of  linen,  into  a  vtirel 
of  the  fame  colour  \  for  the  negative,  a 
green  ball  into  a  green  velkl  i  and  in  a 
doubtful  cafe,  a  reddilh  one,  which  neither 
affirms  nor  denies,  into  a  red  veird  i  all 
this  in  open  court,  and  before  the  parties 
themfelves.  The  bell  cullom,  in  my  mind, 
is,  that  every  one  may  be  there  prefeni 
with  his  cap  or  hat  on  his  head,  perhaps 
in  token  ot  liberty,  or  even  mask'd,  ;is 
every  one  pleafes.  But  what  a  heinous 
crime  this  would  be  in  Naples ! 

Adjoining  to  the  grand  council,  is  the 
armory,  not  furnifh'iT  with  any  great  ftoie  7Af  .ii/„j, 
of  arms,  but  with  the  curiouiefl  and  raiefl  7- 
armour  in  Europe  ;  for,  belides  what  the 
republick  itfelf  has  bough.t  at  leveral  times, 
and  upon  fundry  occalions,  a  great  quan- 
tity has  been  prefented  them  by  the  mofl 
potent  monarchs,  very  wonderful  both  for 
workmanlhip  and  value.     Among  the  rell 


w  ^ 

%  l' 

ml ; 


■    1 

y    » 

ft '  ;■■ 

!■  ''\l. 


(ti;:oii  of 

A  Defaiption  of  Venice. 




is  rcmark.ible,  an  engine,  whicli  ;U  once 
fires  tour  thoiil'and  nui>iiiets,  and  might  be 
of  good  ulc  upon  .my  mutiny  of  the  people, 
or  fuch  other  liidden  accident.  There  are 
innuineraiilj  7'»''/i'y/' colours,  tlio'  thf.;  mult 
be  more  of  tiie  A  I'liiii.iiis  at  Conjlan'.iiiol'L'. 
Among  the  gre,\tell  rarities,  is  a  cryltai 
fountain,  and  St.  Mark's  head,  drawn  with 
a  pen,  in  wliich  tlie  Ihykes  are  not  plain 
lines,  but  contain  the  whole  gol()el  of  our 
Saviour's  Pallion,  almoll  inviiible  to  the 
eye,  fo  that  it  cannot  be  read  without  a  very 
convex  magnitying  glafs.  I'hc  provolt 
marihal  of  ^'ciiua  call'd  the  great  ciptain, 
has  charge  of  this  place,  and  when  1  was 
there  I  iiad  like  to  have  taken  him  for  .i 
bifhop,  for  he  had  on  a  long  purple  robe, 
lin'd  with  crinifon  damask,  and  edg'd  with 
fin;,  and  a  capon  his  he.ul  like  thole  tlie 
noblemen  wear.  Ihis  poll  is  worth  three 
thoufind  ducats  a  year. 

On  Ccindu'mas  Dux  in  the  evening,  I  went 
to  5,//;/.!  ALiriii  formu/a,  becaule  the  Ihi^e 
w.\s  to  be  there,  according  to  antient  cullom. 
Touching  the  original  of  this  practice,  it 
is  to  be  oblerv'd,  that  in  former  ages,  the 
molt  beautiful  maids  in  I  iiiuc,  and  the  ad- 
jacent ports  on  the  continent,  were  given  in 
iiiarriage  to  thole  who  olkr'd  moll  money 
for  them;  and  then  that  money  was  dillii- 
buted  among  die  ugliell,  tor  them  to  get 
husbands  by  their  [lortions.  This  good 
cullom  having  multiply'd  tlr.- people,  ano- 
ther yet  better  was  introduced,  which  was, 
that  alter  the  betrothing,  all  tlie  maidens 
were  conducleil  back  to  St.  Pietro  a  dijldlo, 
rall'd  0!ti'f,li\  carrying  their  portion  with 
them,  and  there  they  ilaid  all  Car.dinniis 
night.  1  he  bridegrooms  coming  in  t!\c 
morning,  withall  their  kindred,  they  heard 
tlie  high  mals  together,  and  then  the  nuptial 
ceremonies  being  perform 'd,  tlu'y  retiu'n'il 
home  joyfully  with  their  beloved  brides. 
The  Ijlriam,  who  were  then  enemies  to  the 
city,  knowing  this  cullom,  laid  hold  of  the 
o{)portimity,  and  coming  over  privately  by 
night,  in  well-rigg'd  velli'ls,  carry'tl  off 
both  tlie  maids  and  their  portions,  before 
any  could  refcue  them.  This  acciilcnt  cau- 
'ing  a  mighty  uproar  in  I'liiici',  .ibundance 
of  vefTels  were  litteil  out  in  an  h(jur  ;  but 
particul.irly  by  the  inhabitants  of  Saiitu 
Mnr't.i  y-'o^/ns/VVs  ward,  who  overtaking  the 
ravifhcrs  at  Caorle,  where  they  were  dividing 
the  booty,  made  a  moll  bloody  fl.iughrer  of 
them,  and  brought  home  again  the  ainic'led 
ladies,  withall  the  nit  that  had  been  taken 
away.  ThelV  puopir  being  order'd  by  the 
nobility  bcjldly  to  ask  any  reward  l()r  their 
bravery,  .inlwir'd.  We  defire  nothing  but 
that  you  be  obliged,  in  memory  of  this  adi- 
on,  to  come  once  a  year,  with  your  prince, 
to  our  church.  The  Doge  re}ily'il,  Anil 
what  if  it   llioiild  happen   to  rain  on  that 

day  ?  Then,  faid  they,  wc  will  fend  you 
hoods  to  keep  you  dry,  and  if  you  are 
tlurlly  we  will  alio  make  you  drink.  b\ 
purfuance  of  whicli  promile,  the  jovner'-. 
ami  liuiierers,  lentl  the  pi  ince  two  hooi'.s  on 
CiHiMeiiuis  ilay,  with  two  bottles,  the  one 
ol  white  the  otlier  of  red  wine,  flopp  d 
with  oranges,  which  are  atterwaids  plac  d 
on  two  ll.uids  by  the  high  altar  in  the  laid 
church.  Such  a  fort  ol  ceremony  is  pcr- 
lorm'd  by  the  lathers  til  mount  (•.'if. .'  to- 
wards the  patri.irch,  on  .Alccnlion-ilay,  pre- 
fenting  him  w  ith  ,i  b.ilon  full  ot  pic  k'd  t  hell- 

Being  lome  into  the  church,  I  law,  in 
die  lii  It  place,  a  canopy  ot  crimfoiuiam  isk 
ki  up  for  the  D(i!,<\  on  the  light  lidc  ol  the 
.Utar,  all  the  wall  biing  hung  with  the  fame. 

When  it  was  time  lo  begin  the  even  kwig, 
he  fat  down  under  it,  and  the  Dnub  em 
bairidor  .\t  a  fmal!  dill, nice  from  liim.  On 
both  fides lai  leveral  fenasorsanduninlellor'., 
lome  more  lome  Ids  r.iiled  up  Ironi  ill'- 
ground,  according  to  their  tkgree  and  tjua- 
lity.  When  the  ;\A/if «)/;((;/  was  Ik  gun,  lie 
took  a  lighted  candle  into  liis  hand,  and,  the 
lolemnity  being  over,  went  away  to  his  boat. 
The  attendance  was  as  lollows,  firlt  went 
the  clergy  ot  the  church  with  their  crofs, 
then  foUow'd  the  fenators  and  counlellors, 
accortling  to  tlieir  rank,  clad  in  crimlon 
ilamask,  ami  fuch  ot  them  as  had  been  em- 
balliulors,  by  way  of  dillinction,  had  an 
edging  ol  gold-colour  cloth  embioiderM. 
Next  came  two  ot  the  Dng^e\  courtiers,  he 
on  the  right  curying  a  cufliion  tur  him  to 
kneel  on,  .md  theotlier  a  little  (olding  llool, 
like  thole  the  bifhops  ule  upon  lome  otca- 
lions.  Then  the  Dcgc  himlelf  had  an  under 
garment,  or  tunick,  of  a  rich  white, 
and  the  upper  or  veil,  crimlon  lin'd  inermiii-, 
hisc.ip  wasalfool  wiiicelilk,  with  the  ufual 
ducal  |ioint,  or  horn.  1  le  is  of  llature  low, 
but  ol  a  good  conllituiion,  tlio'  feveiity 
years  ot  age,  very  pleafant,  well  fpoken, 
good,  antl  gracious.  After  him,  bilides 
the  pcrfon  tarrying  the  train,  came  a  no- 
bleman with  a  naked  tuck  in  his  l-.and,  and 
another  courtier  carrying  the  umbrcllo.  I'he 
two  (jundoiiii,  or  boats,  which  he  and  all 
the  com])any  went  in,  werecurioully  glazeil 
and  aviorn'd  with  i  be.iutiful  covering  of 
crimlon  dam.isk,  on  which  were  his  arms, 
.uid  tliofc  of  St.  Mi'fk.  Kach  of  them  was 
rowed  by  four  mm,  clad  in  red.  The  great 
captain  alio  appear'ti  that  day  in  his  robes, 
his  very  u])per  g,irn',i.nt  being  i)\  crimliin 
damask,  eilg'd  with  lurs  ot  the  f.une  co- 
lour. In  llioit,  he  look.s  like  fonu'thiiig 
more  than  a  mean  provoll,  in  \\i>  habit  and 

The  next  tlay  tlie  Z)X'' went  to  S.  .V/.;/a's, 
with  the  liime  attendance,  but  clad  in  wliite 
brocade,    the  upper  jjarment  of  golil,  and 


ajut  of 
Doge  ; 

-.F.r.   3. 

you  ai\- 
ink.     in 

lio(xts  on 

the  oin' 

llopp  ll 
Js  t'lac  d 
,  tlic  liiiJ 
y  is  pcr- 
j.'iVi.'  to- 
lay,  pit- 

'.  liiw,  in 
iilc  ot  tlic 
vtii  lon{^, 
riicb  cm- 
l.iin.  On 
Iroin  ill'" 
\wd  t]u;i- 
Kj^un,  lie 
,  and,  the 
jjii.s  boat, 
lirlt  v,-(.-nt  ^i'/.-i/,.;- 
cir  crols,  f" "  "/  "■> 
unidiors,  ^;,,» ^ 
1  crimlon 
been  cm- 
had  an 
rticTS,  he 
jv  him  to 
iii<^  llool, 
iiR-  occa- 

,'.n  under 

in  ermin  j 

tliL  iil'uai 

ture  low, 


le  a  110- 

nd,  antl 
lo.  Ihe 
and  all 

y  glazed 

xnn'j,  ol 

is  arms, 

hem  was 
le  great 

is  robes, 

uiie  co- 


lubit  and 

111  white; 
1)1.1,  aiul 

,et.  5' 

^  Defcriptm  of  Venice. 


the  under  ot  filvcr.  At  hiscntringinto  the 
church  lie  had  holy  water  brought  him  by 
a  canon  -,  and  then  he  went  into  the  choir 
an>l  fite  down  before  the  high  altar,  on  a 
feat  made  in  the  wall  like  a  pulpit,  without 
a  canopy.  Clofe  by,  on  a  low  I'eut,  was  the 
hriich  cmballador,  and  the  emperor's,  the 
Si'ivii/h  never  being  prefent,  on  account  of 
lome  controverfy  about  precedence  ;  but 
they  had  a  desk  to  kneel  at  without  culhions. 
After  the  Do^f  had  kifs'd  the  Gofpel,  and 
been  thrice  incenfed,  the  cmbalTadors  kifs'd 
it,  and  each  was  twice  incenfed  :  Alter  the 
tonf  xration,  the  lame  was  repeated,  every 
fenator  w.isonce  incenfsd,  that  is,  the  cenfer 
once  wav'd  to  him,  and  kifs'd  the  image  of 
St.  Mark,  as  the  others  had  done  before. 
Four  canons  came  twice  and  bow'd  to  the 
£).cd',and  lie  ii  the oltertory  gave  them  apiece 

of  gold.   When  outof  the  diurch,  heilopp'd  t'>MHM 
before  the  giants,  and  having  difmils'd  all  "-^V^^ 
thole  great  men,  rctir'd  toliis  apartment. 

I  cannot  at  prefent  acquaint  you  with  any 
thing  elfe  that  is  curious,  except  that  yeller- 
day  the  council  ot  ten  liue,  on  account  ot  a 
barbarous  murder,  committed  on  a  defign 
ot  robbing,  by  one  Andlr.')  i'linw  of  Torino, 
on  the  body  of  his  mailer,  who  was  a  good 
pricft  i  and  this  very  day  he  was  beheaded 
between  the  columns  of  the  Brojo,  or  the 
publick  place  tor  voting,  and  his  body 
quarter'd,  a  great  multitude  looking  on  ; 
tor  no  man  has  been  executed  thtle  four 
years.  I  am  forry  this  letter  fliould  end 
with  a  tloleful  relation  -,  but  I  ought  to  be 
much  more  concern'd  for  troubling  you  fo 
long  with  my  fimple  tales,  lo  williing  you 
all  liappinefb,  tfc. 


Of  the  arjaiul,  mint,  Jews  quarter^  clwrcbrSy  Sec. 

II  lave  been  above  this  puzzling  my 
brain,  to  begin  to  write  handfomely  ; 
.ind  whether  it  be  my  mistbifine,  or  my 
dullnefs  that  occafions  it,  I  do  not  fee  any 
likelihood  of  fucceeding  ■,  fo  that  this  bout, 
infleail  of  patience,  you  mult  afibrd  me  your 
rompalTion,  looking  on  me  as  a  man  quite 
belide  my Iclf  among  fo  m.'.r.y  o[)era's,  plays, 
masks,  Iports,  entertaiiimeiu.-.,  anil  ileliglits ; 
but  now  give  me  leave  to  acquaint  you,  in 
fl'.ort,  with  what  1  have  feen  this  week. 

Ihe  famous  arl'enal  of  this  city,  is  a 
place  wall'd  in,  about  three  miles  in  com- 
jiafs.  Here  about  two  thoufand  men  are 
continually  at  work,  upon  all  things  necefla- 
ry  for  Ihips,  either  of  war  or  merchants. 
Here  are  great  numbers  ot  galleys,  gale- 
alles,  tranfports,  and  other  great  Ihips ; 
"line  of  them  newly  begun,  others  further 
advanc'd,  and  others  tinilhei.1,  untler  very 
large  and  fpacious  arches  ;  belides  thole 
taken  from  the  Turks,  which  lie  about  in 
JLveral  places,  as  monuments  of  the  [^em- 
ti  111  valour.  In  one  place  you  may  fee  a 
luinierous  train  of  artillery,  with  all  things 
belonging  to  it ;  in  another  match,  ball, 
bombs,  grcnadoes,  and  all  Inch  forts  of 
inventions.  Here  are  breafl-plates,  belly- 
pieces,  helmets,  and  bucklers  -,  there  pikes, 
{Words,  fcymitars,  fpears,  bows,  and  guns  •, 
there  fails,  rudders,  anchors,  cables,  each 
of  ihem  in  a  feveral  ftorehoufe.  In  fliort, 
iliis  looks  like  the  palace  of  Mars,  fur- 
nilh'd  both  with  armour  for  defence,  and 
weapons  for  flaughter  1  fo  that  they  can  in 
an  hour  fit  out  fifty  galleys,  and  twenty 

Vol.    VI. 

Venice,  l-tb.lhe  iitb,  iC3C» 

The  mint  is  under  the  court  of  the  proc.i-  rhemh-.t. 
rators  in  St.  .,V/.7/\-'s  Iqu.ire,  where  they  coin 
gold,  filver,  and  brals,  notwiilia  mill,  but 
tlie  hammer  ;  and  in  Ibnie  rooms  there  are 
cherts  ot  money,  belonging  to  private  citi- 
zens, who  leave  it  there  for  more  fecurity, 
as  we  ufe  to  put  it  into  the  banks. 

The  Jli:-s  ciuartcr  is  a  fpacious  place,  and  ->  j,.^^, 
has  fomething  in  it  worth  a  curious  man's  gurf'/t'-. 
obtcrvation  ■,  as  the  fcliool  where  they  t-.ath 
Jlihy-zv,  and  feveral  fynagogues.  I  went 
into  on(- call'd  the  S^anj/o,  btcaufe  thole  of  • 
that  nation  meet  in  it,  and  law  thofe  wretches 
fitting  on  long  benches,  faying  their  fruit- 
lelii  prayers,  with  hoods  on  their,  anil 
a  white  clout  on  their  flioulders,  with  t.-dVels 
at  the  tour  corners.  Their  Ralli  fate  at 
oneenilof  the  room  on  a  chair,  lomewhat 
railed  from  thegrounii,  who  cry'ii  out  like 
a  mad  man,  the  other  Jtzcs  anfwering  at 
times.  1  was  full  of  aiimiration  when  1  law 
live  books  taken  from  under  the  altar,  writ- 
ten on  vellum,  being  kept  between  two  tables 
cover'il  with  liik,  ami  iilver  plates.  They 
weiV  carried  to  the  RiWl'i  tor  him  to  read  a 
while,  according  to  th'-ir  fupcrllitious  rites. 
I  was  told  they  were  the  books  of  Alofa, 
and  that  when  they  weie  to  be  copy'd,  the 
tranfcriber  murt  be  a  month  in  purifying 
himfelf  lor  that  work,  not  eat  any  thing  on 
the  days  he  writes,  and  make  frelh  ink  in  a 
very  clean  velfel  •,  adding,  that  in  cafe  one 
liiigle  point  were  amifs,  the  whole  copy 
would  be  look'd  upon  «s  erroneous.  Next 
I  went  up  to  the  galleries  where  the  women 
meet,  whrr':  I  found  a  bride,  who  told  me, 
P  Ihe 

i    ^ 


I    '  'iif;; 



y^  Defcription  of  Venice, 


Gf.milli.  fliehad  bccna  moiitli  upon  her  purification, 
'"-^r^  before  (lie  could  be  admitted  to  that  place. 
cimrJies.       As ibr thcchurclus I  h.ivchithertofecn, the 
fincll  in  my  opinion  are,  that  ot  the  bare- 
foot Carm/litfs,  remarkable  for  its  famous 
marble  frontifpiece,  and  the  fixtecn  llatues 
within  it ;  L.(/j/«/d',whichisoval,andadorn'd 
both  within  and  without,    with    incompa- 
rable marble  Ibtucs  ;  that  of  St.  John  and 
Fai<!,    vhich  is  fpaeious  enough,  and  has 
many  chapels,  embellilli'd  with  many  mar- 
ble iiatues,  efpecially  ihat  of  our  lady.     In 
this  church-yard,  or  a  large  pedellal.  Hands 
a  brafs  Itatuea  horfeliack,  reprelenting  Bur- 
tholomeuj  CoglioKc  of  Bcrgiuno,  a  renowned 
foldier  in  his  time,  and  as  llich  remarkable 
at  the  famous  b.ittle  of  Lcpanto  againlt  the 
Turks.     That  of  St.  Georj^,',  of  the  lathers 
of  C.;//;,w,   is  alio  rich  in  iiatues,  both  brafs 
and  marble,  and  valuable  for  its  magnitiecnt 
choir.     The  library  of  this  place  mull  be 
allow'd  to  be  one  of  the  belt  in  the  city,  as 
well    for  the   number    as  the  variety  and 
choice  of  books,  not  to  mention  the  curious 
binding,  the  line  calls,  all  Ihut  up  with  tiie 
rlcareil  glallcs,    and  the  noble  llatues  and 
jMclures  i   for  in  my  opinion,  the  true  orna- 
inentof  libraries  confi'ls  in  tlie  books  them- 
ielves,  and  ail  the  reft  is  the  contrivance  of 
idle  perfons,  who  do  not  much  apply  tliem- 
f.rlves  to  re.iding.        The  g,u\len  alio  de- 
fcrves   to  be  taken  notice  of  for  its  (lately 
walks,   moft  artfully  adorn'd  with  tall  and 
thick  cyprefs  trees,  and  odoriterous  myrtles, 
and  covcr'd  over  with  feveral  choice  vines. 
I  IhalJ  not  lay  any  tiiinj^  of  S.  ^'l/,;;-,(-  at  rl^is 
.•-  time,  for  fear  ot  growing  mo  tedious -,  hit 
''' fhall  refcrvc  it  tor  the  ne.'ct  week.     I  fliali 
■"  now  only    add,  that   the  clo.iths   liere  are 
every  where  cxcellive  collly,  and  the  masks 
wonderful  extravagant,   thanks  to  the  vail 
multitude  of  llrangers  rdbriing  hither  this 
year  i  and    m.uiy  things  would  iiave  been 


trie   r.r 

done,  iiad  not  the  feiiatc  forbid  all  perfons 
wearing  gold  or  lilver,    much  lefs  jewels ; 
as  alio  fitting  to  talk   together  under  the 
arches  of    St.  Mark,     llcjwever,    no  man 
forbears  diverting  himfelt  as  he  bell  likes. 
There  is  continual  revelling  and  dancing  -, 
gaming  in  all  parts  -,  every  where  comedies 
and  ferenades;  and   to  fay   all   in,  a  word, 
Venice  at  thcfe  times  is  the  habitation  of  the 
graces,  and  of  all  forts  of  deiiglit.       Yet 
amidd  thefeuniverfal  pleafurcs,  lome  thing's 
happen  which  provoke  tears,    or  at  le.ilt 
companion.     Yefterday,  in  the  afternoon, 
a  new-marry'd  man  carry'd  his  wife  mask'd 
into  the  afbrefaid  place  of  St.  Mark,  where 
he  llepping  a  little  afide  upon  fome  occaflon, 
fhe  was  taken  away  by  two  masks,    who 
having  fealled  with  her  at  at  inn,  vanifh'd, 
and  the  ]i'ior  wretch  being  left  by  herfelf,  was 
fain  to  pawn  her  br.icehts  to  the  holl,   '-^r 
the  milchievous  entertainment.     Is  not  this 
as  pleafant  an  adventure  as  any  you  have 
heard  at  home  ?     But  if  I  fliould  tell   you 
that  I  am  my 'elf  become  a  knight-errant, 
would  it  not  make  you  laugh  ?    On  Satur- 
day., as  loon  as  I  got  into  the  i'reer,  a  ma.'.l; 
took  me  by  the  i;ind,  ha\  ing  a  fcarlet  coac 
on  his  back,    with  gold  lace,    a  garment 
muchulld  here,  and  invited  me  to  go  dunk 
fbmc  muskadine  wine.     This  he  did  after 
luch  a  m.umer,  and  as  familiarly,  as  if  lie 
had  been  very  long  well  acquaint< d  with  mc  ; 
fo  that  fufpecting  notliing,  I   freely   went 
along  with  him  •,  but  when  I  came  to  un- 
mask to  fee  who  it  was,    alas  !  I  found  a 
woman.     God  knows  wluit  art  I  ufed  to  get 
oil"  clear  from  her,  being  well  fatisfy'd   to 
pay  the  reckoning  and  go  about  my  bufi- 
nels.        Obferve   how   w.iiily   a  man  mull 
walk  to  avoid  being  infnar'd.     MethinksJ 
have  writ  enough,  or  at  leall  lazinefs  per- 
fuades  me  lb,  and  therefore  with  commen- 
dations to  my  friends,  i£c. 

\.  E  X  T  E  R     \\ 

Of  iS/,  Mark'f  d.'urch  and  fquaret 


*0  come  directly   to   the  jjoint,    I  do 

notquellion  but  that  the  mighty  fame 

fjiread  abroail  rhrotighout  the  world  of  St. 
Mark^  church,  has  r.iis'd  in  you  an  earnelt 
dcfirc  tohear  fomethingof  it,  as  I  once  had 
myfelf;  and  therefore  I  believe  my  time 
will  not  be  ill  fpent  in  giving  you  fucha  gene- 
nil  idea  of  it  as  if  you  were  to  fee  it  drawn 
in  perfpedive.  'I'o  begin  with  the  place,  or 
';*  •'*|--^''  fquarc,  reprefent  to  your  felfbetbie  the  laid 
'"l.^ich,  a  Ipace  iivo  iiundred  loot  long, 
and  one  htindred  and  tliirty  in  breadth,  all 
1 'doled  with  flately  uniform  buildings,  and 


Venice,  Feb,  the  jq:b,  ^686. 

extraordinary  beautiful,  being  adorned  wit!i 
curious  portico's.  They  all  belong  to  tin 
publicl;,  which  refeives  thole  on  the  left 
for  the  dwellings  of  the  procurators,  and  lets 
out  all  the  rell.  The  Brojo,  being  the  place 
where  the  noblemen  walk,  is  another  fpace 
four  hundred  loot  in  Kngth,  and  one  hun- 
dred and  thirty  in  breadth,  which  might  be 
call'dap..rtof  the  aforefaid  fquarc,  begin- 
ning at  the  lleeple  and  terminating  by  the 
fliore ;  and  here  ftand  two  columns  of  an 
extraordinary  magnitude,  the  one  bearing 
the   ftaiue  of  St.  Theodorusy    the  otlier  the 







Let.  5. 

A  Deferiptm  of  Venice. 


ill  all  pcifons 

1  kfs  jtwtls  i 

:r  under  the 

vtT,   no  mun 

le  belt  likes. 


mil  claming  •, 

K'lc  comedies 

1   in.  a  word. 

it.ition  of  the 

Jiigiit.       YfC 

,  lomc  things 


or  at  lea  it 


ic  afternoon. 


wite  mask'd 

Mark,  where 

ime  occafion. 


masks,    who 

in,  vanifli'd. 

)y  herfeif.was 

the  boll,    !''T 

.     Is  not  this 

ny  you  have 


)i;ld  tell   you 



?    On  Siiliir- 

rcer,  a  mask 

a  Icarlet  coac 

,    a  garment 

■  ,'i 

e  to  go  drink 

lie  did  atter 

irly,  as  if  lie 


ted  with  me  ; 


freely   went 

came  to  un- 

!  I  found  a 

I  ufcd  to  gee 

1  latisly'd   to 



)Ut  my  Inifi- 


a  man  mult 



l.izincfs  per- 

il!) tommcn- 

^■r-b,  i686, 

domed  witii 
■long  to  the 
on  the  left 
ors,  and  lets 
ng  the  place 
icther  I'pace 
nd  one  hun- 
h  might  be 
arc,  begin- 
ting  by  tlie 
lUins  of  an 
Dnc  bearing 
\z  odier  the 

lion  of  St.  Mark,  and  between  thefe  two, 
ciiininals  are  executed  :  Sr,  Tbroiioriis  is  on 
the  right,  becaufe  he  was  patron  of  Venice, 
before  St.  Mark's  body  was  brought  froni 
AiiXMidria,  in  8^7.  The  Dogch  palace 
ftands  not  in  the  aforefaid  fquare,  but  be- 
hind the  church ;  and  there,  as  I  think  I 
have  writ  to  you  before,  ail  the  magillrates 
meet,  in  feveral  apartments.  Before  the 
gite  of  it  are  two  columns,  eretted  as  a 
memorial,  that  there  a  Doge's  head  was 
ch(-pp'd  oif,  whicli  was  Mario  FnUrio,  in  the 
yearof  our  Lord  1355,  for  having  confpir'd 
iig.iinft  his  country.  The  church  is  fiid  to 
have  been  built  in  82S,  and  perhaps  not  as 
it  is  at  prefent ;  however  it  was,  it  feems  to 
be  a  piece  of  Grak  architedure,  having  five 
in -s,  with  as  muiy  cupola's  on  them,  the 
outiides  of  tiiem  cover'd  with  lead,  and 
within  adornM  with  exquifite  Alo/akk  work. 
Within  the  church  .ire  tiiirty-fix  columns  of 
molt  curious  marble,  two  loot  diameter; 
befides  the  four,  on  whicii  the  molt  remark- 
able [)  /"..gcsof  the  old  and  new  Tiltament 
are  excellently  carv'd,  and  which  fupport 
the  bc-autiful  arch  over  rlie  high  altar  1  and 
foj!"  others  of  the  brighteft  tranfparent  ala- 
bafler,  adorning  the  tabernacle  where  the 
bLnivl  iacramtnc  is  kept.  All  the  floor  of 
the  church  is  alio  adorn'd  with  Mofaick 
v/ork,  of  a  great  value,  by  realon  of  the 
fiu-pi  ifing  contexture  of  many  hicroglypieks, 
coiuriv'd,asis  reported,  by  Gioacchimo  Abafe. 
E'.'.ry  man  affigns  thole  figures  the  '  .er- 
p  e'.aiionhe  pi eales  •,  either  as  denotii.j.,  fu- 
ture revolutions  in  Italy,  or  to  the  fuccelFion 
•■.  of  popes ;  jult  as  the  Ailla,  l.:  lia, 
of  B'J.ogn.i,  which  every  one  will  have  to 
('.  i-iote  fomcihing  of  liisown  protefiion,  and 
even  the  chymills  find  their  own  mylterics 
III  it.  For  my  part,  I  do  not  regard  thefe 
deceitful  enigmatical  oracles,  which  may  be 
expounded  as  accidents  l-iappen.  For  in- 
ft.ince,  among  other  tilings,  there  are  fome 
lions  lying  on  the  ground,  very  lean,  and 
others  Very  fat,  o[iiiofite  to  them  in  the 
mi.llt  of  the  water;  importing,  that  the 
I'lrctiars  Ihali  be  great  and  potent,  as  long 
as  they  Ih.iU  only  apply  themfelves  to  mari- 
time alihirs.  On  the  walls  hang  the  gilded 
arms  of  former  Doges ;  and  in  one  particular 
j)lacethcy  lliewM  me  three  figures,  cut  on  a 
piece  of  marble,  fix'd  in  the  wall ;  being 
thofe  of  our  Saviour,  the  blelVed  Virgin, 
and  St.  John  Ba[tijl,  v-hich  a  holy  artitt 
cirvM  inltead  of  Jupiter,  Julio,  and  Mer- 
(ury,  and  therefore  was  put  to  death  by  the 
emperor  Dicilr/ian,  as  the  Itory  tells  us. 
They  alfo  fhew  another  flone,  and  (ay,  it 
is  the  lame  on  which  Cbrljt  ftood,  when  he 
preach'd  bctwi  en  Txre  and  Siiioii  ;  on  which 
ylirahain  would  have  facrifjc'd  his  fon,  and 
Mofi'i  rtceiv'd  the  tables  of  the  law,  from 
the  hand  o^"  God.      Bclidcs,  another  Hone 

(lain'd  with  blood,  on  which  St.  John  Bap-  ('Fmh'-i 
tijl  was  beheaded,  wliole  allies  they  will  '^-^vT*-' 
have  to  be  prcferv'd  under  tiie  altar,  being 
brought  with  the  aforefaid  Hones,  by  the 
Doge  I  ilalis  MnbeU,  about  tlw  year  109-,, 
when  he  was  captain  general  for  the  tepub- 
lick,  in  the  general  league  for  recovery  of 
the  holy  laiul  ;  and  perhaps  thefe  worthy 
perfons  will  fay,  cert.iin  twiitetl  columns 
brought  from  7(.77(/;i/.  w,  and  taken  out  of 
the  temple  oi  Solomon,  as  is  reported,  were 
then  alio  tranlporteti  from  Jcrufalein  to  St. 
Aiark's.  I  could  here  m.ake  you  a  long 
diirertation  upon  this  fort  of  things,  were  it 
not  for  fear  of  being  tedious  to  my  own  felf ; 
therefore  to  proceed,  I  mult  inform  you, 
that  thegreatelt  ornament  belonging  to  the 
m.ijcllick  portico,  before  the  great  gate, 
conlills  in  two  mares  as  big  as  rhe  life,  and 
moft  malterl y  caft  in  Corinthian brafs.  Thofe 
whoiiavc  little  or  no  knowledge  i;-.  -.'ntient 
liiltory,  invent  a  thoufmd  tales  and  tables 
concerning  them.  Some  affirm,  they  were 
mad:  by  the  people  of  Rome,  in  honour  of 
Iscn,  whenheiriumpii'd  over  the  Pnrtbinns; 
remov'd  thence  by  Conjlantiiic  to  his  New 
Rome,  and  plac.'d  in  th.-  Hippodrome ;  and 
lallly,  when  CcnJlanlinoplewAS  taken  by  the 
/■(.;;(',':V7«.r and  Frc.cb,  fent  to  l\r.::ehy  Ma- 
rino Zen,  the  firll  jioJelta,  and  there  long 
kept  in  the  arfenal,  but  their  beauty  and 
value  being  afterwards  better  known,  they 
were  plac'd  where  they  now  Hand.  All  this 
founds  well  enough,  except  Niro's  triumph-  ^-t  T.ici- 
ing  over  the  Paritiars  ;  and  that  Zen,  who  '"^  -•'"'"»'■ 
underllood  fuchtlii.'^gs  p.rfettly  well,  ihould  '' 
neglect  alligning  them  ,1  proper  pLice.  Not  fiom  hence  they  Ihew'd  me  a  llaiue, 
hoklirig  its  finger  on  its  mouth,  as  enjoining 
filencc,  and  it  reprefents  the  architect  of  this 
noble  ftrudure  ;  as  it  by  that  dumb  lan- 
guage he  denoteil,  that  de.radion  itiirif 
could  objcd  nothing  againtt  tlie  perfection 
of  his  work.  The  church  here  has  live  brats 
gates,  two  whereof  are  conft.mtly  open'd, 
two  otiicrs  upon  certain  fellivals,  and  the 
filth  is  always  rtuit,  I  know  not  for  what 
myllery  conceal'd  from  us  mort.ds. 

It  is  farther  to  be  obferv'd,  that  this  cw»'. 
church  is  ferv'd  by  iwenty-fix canons,  twelve 
ot  which  tiaily  perform  the  divine  lei  vice  in 
it;  the  ethers  being  curates  in  teveral  p.irts 
of  the  city,  are  not  obligVl  tobe  there,  un- 
lets upon  tome  folemn  feltivals.  'I'hc  choice 
of  them  is  in  the  Doi^e,  who  takes  them  from 
among  the  petty  canons  belonging  to  the 
fame  church.  They  are  fubordinate  to  .1 
chief,  or  dean,  who  is  indepenilent  of  the 
patriarch  ;  and  befides  that  he  uils  all  the 
epifcopal  vitlmentr,  and  bielfes  the  peo[)le, 
he,  in  his  own  cliurch,  confers  the  (our  letter 

There  is  no  queftion  ro  be  made,    hut  ■>'.  .Mirk't 
that  the    body  of  the  holy  evangelill  was '*'''!* 




■ ''''i'iHB'irliT 

■';   t 


A  Defiription  of  Venice. 


n  .Jv 

W  ■;'' 

brought  from  Alexatnlria  to  yenice  ;  yet  can 
it  not  be  pofitively  affirm'd  in  what  place 
it  lies ;  tho'  moll  men  believe  it  to  be 
plac'd  in  the  high  altar,  viiere  ftill  is  to  be 
feen  the  rich  gold  and  fil'-  ■,  furniture,  taki  ii 
from   the  altar  (^'i  St.  ic  'nu  at   Conjtan- 

jhe  trrit-       'f  rc'.:.  the  church  i'ley  iea i  to  the  trea- 
fun.  fuiy,  over  the  gate  whereof  are  the  images 

Of  St.  Domiiiick  and  St.  Francis  in  Mojaick 
wni  k,  and  laid  to  be  contriv'd  by  the  aforc- 
liiid  abbot  Gicacc/jimo,  feveral  years  before 
thole  iaints  were  born  into  the  world.  How- 
ever that  is,  I  am  very  well  plcafed,  that 
I  ufcd  fo  many  words  and  intreaties  to  pre- 
vail with  the  procurator,  whofe  bufinefs  it 
is,  to  Ihew  me  fuch  wo:iderful  wealth  •,  the 
like  whereof  perhaps  is  not  to  be  fcen  to- 
gether in  ail  Europe.  Should  I  go  about 
to  enumcniLc  all  the  curiofuics  and  rarities 
I  faw  here,  I  Ihould  certainly  tire  myfelf, 
and  wear  out  your  patience,  and  therefore 
it  will  be  proper  to  take  notice  only  of 
the  moll  remarkable.  In  tiie  fnil  place,  I 
law  twelve  regal  crowns,  and  the  dime 
number  of  complete  fuits  of  armour,  all 
of  pure  gold,  anil  let  with  precious  lloncs, 
as  rubies,  emeralds,  top.izes,  chryfolitcs, 
and  particul.irly  pearls  of  an  extraordinary 
magnitude.  Then  they  Ihew'd  me  fome 
velVelsmade  of  agats  and  emtralds,  a  I'late 
at  one  intire  turquois  Hone,  a  bucktt  ot 
one  fmgle  garnet  artificially  carv'd,  a  f.i- 
•  phir  weighing   ten  ounces,  two  great  uni- 

corns homs   the  one  whiter,  the  oth.r  in- 
clining to  red,  fet  in  gold,    a  dian'-iml  of 
i'.ii  immenfe  value,  prefentul  by //cw/j  II 1. 
of  France,  as    he   palled    tiiat  way  to  \w. 
kingdom,  in  the  year  1574.   the  ihical  cap 
or  crown,  woiuleriul  rich  in  gold  and  jewels, 
but  [larticularly  for  an  ineiliniable  carbuncle 
on   the  top  of  it.     To  pals  by  all  other 
things,    in  a   cup-board   there  are   feveral 
veflels  atlorn'd  with  extraortiinary  |)reci()us 
flones,  tormerly  belonging  to  the  Grc:i,iii 
emperors;  and  among  the  reil,  one  of  im- 
menfe value,  lent  the  republick,  as  a  prelliit, 
by  UJiim  Cajpui  king  of  Perjui. 
rMliih  ^^'^  relicks  are  flicwn  in  a  little  chapel 

oppofite  to  the  treafury.  The  chief  of 
them  are,  a  phial  with  fonie  blood,  which, 
they  fay,  is  our  Saviour's  ;  a  piece  of  the 
I)illar  to  which  he  was  bound  and  Icourged  ; 
one  nail  of  the  crofs,  and  a  thorn  of  his 
crown:  bcfides,  a.  piece oi' St.  yohn  Baplijl's 
skull,  kept  in  a  cup  made  of  agat ;  two 
crofles,  the  one  of  gold,  ufcd  to  be  worn 
by  the  emperor  Cotiftarthie  \  the  other  of 
cryllal,  with  fome  Greek  ciiaraflers  cut  on 
)'  ,  both  which  were  lent  as  a  prefent  to 
-''■•'■<?,  in  r!ie  year  1240.  by  Bjldwin  II. 
emi'ciiw  of  Cc ///<?«/»,'■  W^,  in  return  for  the 
alTiflancf  given  him  '  y  the  Venetian  Fleet. 
Merc  is , tub  a  fmall  piece  of  the  rccd  put 

by  way  of  derifion  into  our  Saviour's  hand,  (it  »rLi- 
with  lome  part  of  his  garn'ent,  his  girdL  -^^"v> 
ol  the  fnidon,  or  winding  llieet,  and  of  the 
cloth  wherewith  he  wip'd  the  apollk<-  fc  t 
ar  r!i(.  latt  fupper  i  a  phial  with  lome  ol  ilv. 
blelltd  virgin's  milk,  and  a  piece  of  her 
girdle  ,  a  finger  of  St.  John  Bapl:]},  ni,  of 
St.  Maik's  teeth,  and  many  more.  lam 
refolv'd  you  fliall  not  laugh  at  ino  for 
having  nam'd  the  crofles  among  the  relicks ; 
for  whilll  1  was  writing,  my  thoughts  were 
altogether  bent  upon  thofe  things  I  faw  in 
that  place  where  the  relicks  are,  without 
reflefting  any  further.  I  fiincy  fome  French 
writer  would  m.ake  a  long  critical  diflerta- 
tion  on  all  the  rell  I  have  mention'd  1  but 
I  have  made  a  folemn  vow,  to  leave  all  fuch 
things  as  I  find  them,  and  let  thofe  ic 
belongs  to,  take  care  of  them. 

It  remains  to  fay  fomething  of  the  fleeplc,  TheJItefi,, 
which  is  generally  reported  to  have  its  foun- 
dation as  deep  under  ground,    as  it  rifes 
above,  tho'  it  is  forty  feet  fquare  every  way, 
and  two  hundred  and  thirty  feet  high.    The 
al'cent  is  eafy  enough,  up  a  winding  pair  of 
i\iirs,  to  the  very  top;  whence  is  a  noble 
profpec'l  of  all  the  city,  and  a  great  part  of 
the  li-a  to  tl'.e  eaflward  and  Ibuthward.    lie 
who  went  up  with  me,   took  abundance  of 
jxiins,    at  every  turn,    to   lliew   me,    that 
(■  eiiicc  is  in  the  lliape  ol  a  boot  ;  but  I  who 
have    no  eyes   fo  fee  things  that  have  no 
being,  after  much  lludy  and  gazing,  could 
only  perceive,  that  it  is  longilli,  and  broader 
at  one  end  than  at  the  oilier.     It  is  nothiug 
llrange,  that  the  other  fliould  no:  be  con- 
vinc'd,  but  pcrfill  lix'd  in  Lis  firll.  opinio,:, 
bec.uife  notions  conceiv'd  from  our  infancy, 
are  feldom  or  never  to  be  remov'J.     Bjfides, 
I  remember;,  that  lometimes  betwixt  deeping 
and  w.iking,  I  have  taken  a  linen  cloth  for 
a  dog,  an  apple  for  a   head  cut  olf  •,  and 
fuch  like  metamorphofes,  occa Honed  by  the 
rays  ./ot  llrikinr^  the  eye  .iccording  to  the 
natural    ordi  :•     .  . '   pofition.     So  children 
fancy  thej   ice  cbu     like  fliips,  or  horfes, 
or  cows,  0',  t'lc  ':k  .     It  plainly  appears, 
that  ancient  .lUrologers  were  not  free  from 
fuch,  or  grolTer  follies ;  wlien,  of  the  beau- 
tiful fix'd  liars,    they,  according    to  their 
wild  ideas,  lorm'd  fuch  a  confus'd  multitude 
of  hideous  monflers,  without  the  lead  fimi- 
litude  or  projiortion  ;  inlomuch,  that  if  any 
humoriil  were  but  lure  to  find  followers,  and 
would  invert  the  ancient  order,  placing  other 
figures  in  the  firmament,  it  would  be  a  very 
worthy  undertaking,  and  very  eafy  in  our 
days.     I  am  acquainted  with  an  able  pain- 
ter, who,  without  any  ditriiulty,  from  three 
points  aflignetl,   provided  they  be  not  in  a 
ilrait  line,  forms  any  figure  he  pleafes :  do 
but  confidcr   what  curious  inventions  this 
man  might  make  on  a  luw  globe,  where 
there  are  fo  many  liars  inllead  of  points. 


f  I  ET.    6. 


And  to  fty  tli 

it  had  thr'"- 

wiiicli  the  moc 

well  pretend  tc 

given  names  to 

ill  our  hemifph( 

the  heljiof  navi 

How  pleafmt 

11.' rs  hitherto   r 

cither  from  the 

blance  of  name 

name  given  th 

lunar !     Were  1 

lunar,  or  vener 

every  ma;i  v/oi 

into  a's  tail 

ginis,  now  recki 

a  crow's  wing, 

turnine  or  marti 

making  a  dragc 

call  of  Hercules  i 

I'atiirnine  inllead 

degrees,     all   ju 

art  of  divina'.io, 

and   our  ears  v 

fome  years,  wit 


Farewel  Venit 
pofe  was  all  th 
St.  Mark  lb  foon 
you  are  in  the 
fellow,  and,  lik' 
one  conceit  intc 
this  point  to  tl 
omitted  the  ver 
which  is,  that  in 


THE  Carni 
and  is  belli 
at  farrhell.  We 
but  are  bound  to 
vexation  in  the 
again.  For  my 
Hay  here,  alter  tlu 
but  am  fully  refo 
to  the  world's  cm 
lo  the  wars  ;  but 
tew  nights  fince, 
t.'inment  at  Sign 
was  mairy'd  witi 
Lorrduna  Trona. 
a  Cloud  there  \i 
Gor.drAas,  or  boat: 
lacent  great  cana 
than  I'even  hundr 
of  greacell  note  \ 
cjfles  of  Brtinl'uiici 
\oi..  VI.' 


Let.  6. 

And  to  fay  th 

A  Defcriptioii  (jj   Venice. 




r,i  I),  what  lictter  title  to  fcrvM  tlic  gofpel  written  witii  that  faint's ''t«i;i-ii. 
It  had  tlK'"  a  Hilt  /Irabs  anti  ChaUkaiis.,  own  hand  i  am!  in  another  vchime,  are  nl)  '-■V^-^ 
wliii  ii  the  modern  Euroj>rniis  migiit  not  as  the  four  •:  ofpcls  tranfcrib'd  by  St.  /ohn 
well  pretend  to?  Have  not  they  aheady  Chryf/jjto)i:e.  Both  of  them  are  very  care- 
given  names  to  fcvcral  (bars  newly  obferved  fully  I'ecur'd,  and  fcaled  with  the  fer.l  of 
in  our  hcmifphcrc,  or  lately  diftovii'd  by  the  republick  ;  for  whicii  rcafon  the  criticks 
thehelpof  navigation  in  tiic  foutliern  parts?  will  never  have  the  kail  caufe  to  fufpedt 
How  pleafint  it  would  be,  to  have  the  them.  Had  marufcripts  been  fo  dealt  with 
ll-.Ts  hitlicrlo  reckoned  inarlud,  or  jov'ud,  in  all  libraries,  I  amvcryfi'j,  that  many 
either  from  their  fituation,  or  fome  refcm-  ot  tiiem  would  not  have  lof  tiieir  reputa- 
blancc  of  names,  by  fome  otiur  figure  or  tion  ;  and  a  certain  learned  religious  m;  n 
name  given  tiiem  to  become  falurmnc,  or  of  this  age,  would  not  have  prcfum'd  to 
lunar  !  Were  Berenice's  hair,  now  reckoned  allert,  that,  excepting  a  very  few  ancicnc 
lunar,  or  venereal,  turn'-"  into  a  lion's  tail,  ones,  all  the  reft,  and  particula  ly  thole 
every  m;';i  v/oul;  call  \t  faiurninc,  and  if  tiiat  have  been  publilh'd  in  our  days,  arc 
intoa'staii,  marlial.  Were  ///V.i  vir-  the  work  of  fome  monks  of  the  tenth  and 
^!^/«;.f,  now  reckoned  venereal,  chang'd  into  eleventh  centuries  ■,  and  this,  becaufe  they 
a  crow's  wing,  wl>r>rnuld  deny  it  to  be/(-  contain  lomc  dodrinc  that  is  not  pleafing 
tiir.iine  or  martial':'    Who  --ould  himier  me     to  tlicir  party. 

making  a  dragon's  head  of  that  they  now  1  fliall  Hay  but  a  few  days  longer  in  tliis 
call  of //i.T(7//t'j .''  and  then  it  would  become  city;  my  defign  being  to  be  gone  the 
fatiirnine  inflead  of  marlial :  and  thus,  Ly  lecond  or  third  day  of  lent,  at  f  irtheft  ; 
degrees,     ail   judiciary    aflrology,    or    the     yil  I  believe   1  fliall  fufl:    have  leifure  to 

write  to  you  again,  witii  ibme  further  infor- 
mation. But,  in  call- of  failure,  why  may 
not  I  write  to  yo;i  concerning  l''eniee,  from 
Alii, in,  or  any  other  place  ?  I  am  only 
concern'd,    that  in  cafe   you  would  make 

art  of  divDia'.ion,  would  go  to  die  devil, 
and  our  ears  would  not  be  peller'd,  lor 
Ibnie  years,  with  l"o  many  almanacks  and 

Farewcl  Venire,  fiy  you  ;    to  what  pur- 

pofe  was  all    this  piiidarick  digreirion  ?    Is  ule  of  me  here,  eitlier  on  account  of  thofe 

St.  Markio  foon  forgot?  I  own  the  charge  ;  bpoks  you  told  me  of,  or  any  other  bufi- 

you  are  in  the  right ;    I  am  a  thoughtlels  nefs,     your    letters    will    not    come    time 

fellow,  and,  liku  Petrarch,  am  run  out  of  enough  lor  me   to  ferve  you.      Perhaps  I 

one  conceit   into  another,    and  skip  'Voni  may  do  it  better  in  France  or  Holland,  if 

this  point  to   that.      Bcfides,    that    I   had  you  pleafe  to  command  me  •,    fubfcribing 

omitted  the  very  befl:  thing   in  St.  Mark,  my  fell,  as  ever,  ^c. 
which  is,  that  in  the  facrilty  or  veftry,  is  pre- 



0/ ;*/).' R'alto,  Sports,  Givcrnmait,  ctnd  Dominion  of  the  Venetians  c-jcr  //ji' Adriatick. 

TI I  E  Carnival  is  now  at  the  tafl  gafp, 
and  is  believed  will  expire  this  night 
at  farrhell:.     We    fliall  have  a  great   lofs, 
but  are  bound  to  bear  it  •,  for  the  greateli: 
vexation    in    the    world  will   not  bring  it 
again.     For  my  part,   I  have  no  heart  to 
Hay  here,  after  the  lofs  of  fuch  a  dear  friend  ; 
but  am  fully  refolvcd  to  go  away  in  ikfpair, 
to  the  world's  end,  arJ,  for  oaght  I  know, 
to  the  wars ;    but  all  complaints  alide.      A 
lew  nights  fince,  I  wis  carry'd  to  anencer- 
t.unment   at  ^ign.  Francefco  Duodo's,   who 
was  marry'd  with  great  pomp  to  Si^^noru 
Loredanu  -Trona.     You  may  imagine  what 
a    croud    there   Was,    by    the  number    of 
Go::do!as.  or  boats,  that  waited  in  the  ad- 
jacent great  canal,    which  were  no  fewer 
than  leven  liundred.     iVmong  l!:e  perlbns 
of  greateli  note  were  the  [irinces  and  prin- 
c:fles  of  Briiiilivick  and  Hanover,  with  tiieir 
Vol.,  V[.' 

I'enice,  February  26,   168C. 

marfhals.  The  dance  wascall'd  Cappello, 
and  conlifted  in  gentlemen  and  ladies  walk- 
ing han.l  in  hand  thro'  all  the  lodgijigs ; 
for  no  other  of  better  contrivance  can  liic- 
ceed,  where  many  are  to  be  pleafci.  This 
evening  I  hope  to  be  prefcnt  at  the  Ball 
Sij^nior  Crimani  will  give,  according  to 
cullom,  at  his  theatre;  where  he  uies  to 
invite  ail  the  nobility,  to  treat  and  divert 
them  nobly. 

My  curioiity  led  me,  on  Saturday,  to  Venice 
Moran,  a  place  at  a  fmall  diflance  (rom  iUhmikt 
the  city,  where  they  make  thofe  curiofities 
in  cryllal,  or  rather  tine  glalfes,  which 
are  fold  throughout  all  Euroj-e.  To  this 
]iur(iofe  there  are  about  fifty  glafs-houli;?, 
molt  woniltrful  line  to  behold.  The  matter 
they  work  on  is  the  aflies  of  a  certain  herb 
growing  at  Alicnnt,  and  in  Cyprus ;  and  the 
lye  is  made  by  the  mixture  of  certain  fmali 
(.i.  Hone: 

i'i     !i 


1'  ." 




j4    Defiripthjn  of  Venice. 

Let.  6,        Li-t. 

1  •    ;    1 



■  1 

V     ' 





OrMui.i    (loncs  ground  fine;   and  tliis  luin^  rdinid 
^■^'^^'^  by  lioilini;  iii  lour  coppers,  tliatloitol  l.ilt 
which  clings   togciiicr,    is    c.dlcil   crylbal, 
ind  piic  into  die  turn.icc. 

Kctinning  to  my  inn,  I  took  a  niorc 
cxut  vijvv  than  1  had  done  before,  ol' tiie 
\'^\\xa  bridge  of  Kidto,  and  indeed  it  appMrM  to 
/  './i,.  nie  the  linell  llruchirc  I  liad  ever  feen.  If 
iLnJ.s  over  thegre.itell,  which  is  full 
torty  paces  wiile  ;  and  it  recjuir'd  no  Icl's 
than  three  years  to  lay  it  over,  as  it  now  is  ; 
becaiile  great  Ihips  being  to  pals  under  it, 
tiierc  was  a  necellity  ot  raifing  one  great 
arch  to  reacli  from  litlc  to  fuie,  witiiout 
flopping  up  the  clianel  with  coiu.nni  i:\the 
iiiiddle.  'I'he  breadih  and  magnificent  or- 
naments arc  anfwerable  to  its  greatnels  -, 
a;\X  inllead  <-t  a  parapet,  it  is  wonilerfully 
e.nueliilhM  by  twelve  loops  on  each  fide, 
ft  was  formerly  of  wood,  but  iince,  made 
of  Hone,  by  order  of  the  fenate,  in  158IJ. 
An.l  this  is  all  the  account  I  can  hitherto 
give  of  it. 

Alter  dinner  I  went  ilown  to  J.'uio,  or  the 
fJiore,  where  the  foldiers  c]i:arters  are,  anil 
fou'ui  there  thirtc\  lunulred  foot,  and  ll^e 
i)undred  horfe,  thai  were  10  be  loon  lent 
over  into  tlie  Mo.-yii,  varloully  cmploy'd. 
Beyond  that,  on  the  fame  flip  of  lanii,  is 
:i  fai.dl  monallery  of  ii;';/£vy/t/;w.v,  and  at  a 
I'niall  dillance,  I  law  they  w,  re  Hill  making 
the  canal  to  carry  out  two  lliips  v/liich  iiatl 
been  launch'd  lonie  davs  before,  the  one  ot 
leventy,  the  other  of  filiy  guns. 

As  for  publick  fports,  you  mud  under- 
lland,   that  tlic  moll    .cccptable  to  tl:r- 1  'cue- 
/i.iii.:,  is  the  buU-feall:,    b  r   not  after   the 
HfiiiiiJ/j  fiihion  i    for  they  .'re  not  li)  fillv, 
as  to  let  the  djxterity  of  men  in  romp.tit;.);i 
V  ith  the  fiercenefs  ot  hearts.     All  the/  do,  is 
to  drag  fomeoxen  tied,  about  the  city,  and 
io  kill    them  leifurely    with    cuilgels,  and 
dogs  fee  at  them.     Don't  you  thin.,  this  is 
.1  mighty   piece  of  valour,    01    .  t  kail  a 
curioiw  i.liverlion  ?     But  on  S.tJar.Liy  there 
V.MS  fomething  pleafant  enough  done  at  the 
ii/i-j-ji     it  was   a  lliew    jf  the    Ilcnii!>.-an 
llrength  of  the  men  ut  C.ijlfHo,  v.-ho  really 
fij.v/vl  much  valour  and  adivity.     One  of 
tliell",  at  one  ftroak,   cut  o'f  the  heads  ot 
two  bulls:    another  bu'l,  made  fall  to  tome 
timbers,  moi'r.tcd  ti.;    i'j.x  to  the 
top  of  the  llcepK',   i  i.i.  two  n'cu  on  his 

and  0:1  the  otlier  h 

a  ir,..n  flew 

tiic  to[)  of  tlie  f.'.iie  Iteeple  do 




lea.     Many   fcalfolds  wi. 
tliis  fight  i  and  t!ie  D.'/ifi?  himfelf,   v.'iih 
fenate,  and  the  ambali!idor-  of  irinccs, 
e  fpect.itors,  b.'ing  nobly  Uated  in  tiie 
galleries  ot  t!ie  p.d  icc. 

A,too:!ier  p.irwailarr,,  amo.,;.  t'u  fineil 
malks  I  h.ive  f  vmluring  my  flay,  the  urll 
place,  ill  my  'pinion,  i- due  to  die  prince 
'.•1  Pj<  m  i\    -  Mifi.lini  of  twelve  of  hij  cuur* 

tiers,  very  lundfomly  drefs'd  after  the 
AhoriJ/j  t'alhion,  and  every  now  and  then 
dancing  alter  the  manner  ot  thole  people, 
as  naturally  as  ever  Aloor  did. 

It  will  (lot  be  proper  to  aniufe  you  any 
longer   with  fuch  trifles;    anil  therctbrc  it 
may  be  better  to  find  f'ome  otmr  impcrri- 
riencc  that  may  be  more  grateful  to  your 
ears.      The  fituation  of  this  city   is   well 
known  to  you,  as  is  all  that  belongs  to  its 
little  low   iflands.      You    may    have  alio 
learned  by  books  of  that  nature,  anil  maps, 
tiiat  the  dominion  of  this  republick  does 
not  extend  above  eighty  miles  in  length  on  f^,.^,, 
the  continent,  with  the  fame  breadth  wh'.'re  rU  -C 
niolt,    and    thirty  miles  where  narrowell.  Vmuc 
i'heconlines  of  it  are,  on  tin;  eatl.  the  JJn- 
aiid:  tea,  and  county  of  I'irol  \  on  the  norrli, 
part  of  the  lame  county,  and  of  the  country 
of  the  Grifuiu;    on  the  well,  thedutchy  cf 
Milan;  and  on  the  Ibuth,  partot  the  faiii 
Aiilaneji,  of  the  patrimoi  y  of  the  church, 
and  of  the  j\ian!uan.     It  is  no  cal'y  m.itter 
to  find  in  authors  what  fcrt  of  r:publick 
tliis  is,    as  it  was  formerly  with    that   of 
Sj'uiitit ;    for    CoHtahni  will  have  ii  to  Oe 
conipos'd  of  monarchy,    arillocracy,    and  cr.m- 
democracy  ;  Boilin,  lib.  i.  Ja  repub.  barely  »'i,,i. 
calls  It  an  arillocracy  ;    and  others  fpeak 
otlierwife  of  it.    Todealingenuouflv,  I  find 
no  Ihadow  of  monarchy  in  the  Doge ;    for 
tho',    in  exterior  ornaments,  and  point  of 
relp  e"t,  he  differ  little  or  nothing  from  a 
king,  and  that  all  laws  are  promulg'd  in 
his  name,  yet  there  is  no  fort  of  aHIiir  what- 
foever  that  can  .  £  refolv'd  on  by  him,  with- 
out the  council :  and  we  read,  that  tho' tha 
Doge  yi.'iii  I'alaio  built  the  caftle  of /.orc//^ 
at  his  own  cxix-nce,  yet  he  could  not,   on 
any  account,  grant  leave  to  fome  few  per- 
fons  to  live  in  it,  witlioiit  the  confent  of  th^ 
great  council  ;  and  what  is  flill  more,   thi* 
D'jgc  Oiho  Orfcolo  could  nor,  without  their 
content,    take  a  flranger  to  wife,  that  i.> 
the  fil' -jr  to  Stepben  king  o( lliin^dry.    What 
Uithority  tiie  people  ot /^f/;(r(,' have,  neither 
I  nor  any  other  man  will  be  ever  able  to  find 
out.     Is  nor  tlie  grand  council  intircly  coni- 
pos'd   of  noblemen  ?     Are   not   all    polls 
anc!  employments  whatfocver,    relating  to 
the  government,  bellow'd  upon  nobleiiien-' 
excepting  the  lecretaries  pl.iccs,  which  havi? 
Ibme  fbrt  of  fervitudc.      Where  then  is  t!ie 
democracy  ?     That  a  commonwealtii  m.iy 
be  laid   to  be  compofecf  of  feveral  ll.itts, 
it  is  rei)uilite  thofe   Hates  have  an   et|ual 
Ihare  in  tlic  government  of  it,  or  at  leall 
chat  the  difparity  be  not  great,  either   in 
rel.ition  to   civil   or   m.utial    affairs ;    and 
ill 'lelore  thofj  ot  .V/'.i;,' ,,  Rciiie,  isic.  win; 
>-'dl'd  mix'd.     Now,  il  inconliderablj 
j'-recarious  power  the  Ds^,'  has  in  the  fenate, 
and  fome  empty  llvadow  lelt  to  the  people, 
be  cnougli  to  m.d;e  a  mixccommonwr.ilrh, 
i  I  will 






















by  t 











it  wa 



a  gra 

lefs  o 



for  th 

been  1 

tiie  fir 
III  rh„.  t^,.trip 


M  jure 

fnll.  ,:%tl.    f'^'li 
■;.  l.W./.ijV.  notifii 
r '"•''■'"'■  hsrir, 
f'""':   ,-  the  }, 

lift,  lie  /.-         ,  ' 
mb.m^^r.  tones, 

nion  . 
be  no 
be  po 
the  le 
the  lav 
and  li 



f "  !  ifl 

Let.  6.        Let.  6. 

A  Dcfcription  of  Venice. 


after  the 
V  and  then 
ofc  people, 

fe  you  any 
;  he  re  tore  it 
IT  iiiipcrti- 
ul  to  your 
icy  is  well 
longs  to  its 

have  alio 

anil  maps, 
iblick  does 
1  length  on  F^„^. 
adth  vvh'.Te  ti,r  •,,., . 

narrowelt.  Vinut 
,  the  Ailii' 
I  the  north, 
the  country 
;  di:t''>y  of 
of  the  laid 
he  ciuirch, 
Lilly  matter 

:h  that  of 
e  it  to  ije 
:racy,  and  co:„r.. 
itib.  harcly  'w.t. 
hers  fpeak 
ufly,  I  lind 
Doge ;  for 
d  point  ot 
ing  from  a 
jmulg'd  in 
i.flair  what- 
|hini,  with- 

'  tho'  ths 

ot  Lurcltt 

d  not,   o;i 

few  per- 

ent  of  the 

more,  the 
hour  their 
e,  that  i~, 
/-_>■.    Wli.ic 

e,  neither 

bie  tohnd 
irely  corn- 
ill    polU 
elating  to 

oblcmen  ^ 

lich  havj 

hen  is  the 

aUh  may 

•al  iLiics, 

,in    eijiial 
ir  at  kaft 

eitlKT   in 

irs  ;    and 

■s:c.  v.'(n; 


k;  ftnat.-, 

•  [)eoplc, 


I  wiil 

I  will  call  it  fo  as  well  as  another :    But  I 
think  myfelf  fully  ronvinc'd  of  the  contrary  i 
lor  in  every  Hate  whatfocver,  there  is  Ibmc 
fuch  temperament,    and  yet  it  is  rec- 
koned mix'd,    only  that  being  taken    no 
dee  of  which  is  uppermoft,  and  carries  the 
g'-eatell  force.     For  example.  Spam  cannot 
be  call'd  a  mixture  of  monarchy  and  arilVo- 
cracy,  becaufe  the  grandees  have  fo  much 
authority  ■.    oi'  is  England  to  be  reckoned  a 
compofition  of  three  eltates,  becaufe  of  the 
two  houfes  of  parliament,  the  king  being 
pofTcfi'd  of  all   regal  prerogative  ?      Thus 
ilie  bare  outward  relemblance  of  a  king  in 
the  Dogi',  is  not  fufficient  to  attribute  any 
thing  motiarchical  to  y<-mic :    and  tho'  his 
power  did  extend  furtlier,  yet  that  being 
deriv'd  to  him  from  the  fonate,  it  would 
appear,    that  all    the    power   was     in  the 
laid    f.iate.      If    the    acclamations    given 
by  the    'eopk*  to  the  Tiogc,  newly  elected 
by  the  Tenate,  may  be  laid  to  denote  demo- 
cracy, there  will  be  a  democracy  in  every 
moiiaidiy,  becaufe  the  fame  is  iillial  at  the 
coronation  ol  every  prince.     This  I  lay  in 
rcLicion  to  the  prelent  flatc  -,  for  I  have  no 
mind  to  inter  upon  controverlies  of  what  is 
pa  It.      I   am   apt   to  believe,    there  was  a 
mixture  before   the  prelent  form  was  efla- 
blijh\l,  and  have  good  realbns  for  it ;    but 
there  mull;  have  been  fome  otiier  before  the 
mix'd,  and  there  lies  the  quellion,  whether 
It  wasdemocratical,  monarchical,  or  other? 
There  is   no  ineddling    with    that    point, 
whether  the  prelent  liberty  is  to  be  call'd 
a  grant  of  the  emperor's,  or  by  any  other 
lefs  odious  name:  and  doubllels  thole  very 
franchiles   they    thcmlelves  lliew    obtain'd 
from  emperors,  make  it  plain  enough.    As 
tor  thejr  dominions  on  the  continent,  it  has 
been  quellioiK'tl  lince  the  time  of  A/(iA7;«;7/rt/; 
tile  firlt,  by  wiiat  title  they  hold  them,  to  the 
dc'trinu-nt  of  thecm()ire.     Thcfc  gentlemen 
will,    with  good  reafon,  ridicule  this  no- 
tion,   as  well  knowing,    that  the  ancient 
notification.   Rem  pnpHii  Romani  reddc,  fiui- 
hii  rgiederc  ;  that  is,  Reflore  tubal  belongs  to 
the  people  of  Rome,  and  depart  thdr  tern- 
lofiis,  may  be  made  to  all  the  princes  of 
I'.Knpe,  not  to  them  alone. 

But  I  find  m(-f  difficulty  as  to  tl-.c  I'.omi- 
nion  of  the  /ldiiat:ck  fea ;  forafmuch  as 
thofe  who  opp'ote  it,  aiTert,  that  there  can 
i)e  no  d.'iminion  over  a  thing  whicii  e.mnot 
be  pollifs'd,  occupy'd,  and  held,  fuch  as 
the  fea  is,  and  tin  retore  the  fame  is,  by 
the  laws  of  nature  and  nations,  common  to 
mankind  -,  e\cii  as  t;ie  air,  as  has  been  tle- 
clar'd  by  many  ancient  civilians,  as  Ulr'ui):, 
Ccij'm,  yV/.;>v/n'/.',  and  the  emperor  y''^A"i'("''/, 
and  had,  bt-fore  them,  been  oblerved  by 
0-.;„',  M:.,}m',r.  6, 

i^ad prohilietii  aquas?  iifitsccmnwmsnqua-  GiN-m,. 
;■«»;  ejl :  ^^'V\^ 

Nee  folem  propiium  tiattira,  nee  nern  fetil, 
A'ec  /enites  to/das,  in  /iililiea  muneru  veni. 

That  is,  ff^jy  do  you  lej'u/e  us  ii\Uer?  the 
uj'e  f)f  it  is  cnmmon  lo  all;  uiilber  the  light 
iif  the  fun,  nor  the  air,  nor  -water,  Ken  by 
culture  made  feeidiar  to  any  man:  1  come  for 
what  IS  common. 

Anil  lb  yirgil^ 

litufque  rrgamus 

Innocuum,  £5?  cunctis  undamque,  auramque 

Thus  io  Mr.  Dr\den, 

To  beg  what  you,  without  your  want, 

may  fpare, 
1  he  common  water,  and  the  common  air. 

Therefore  they  fay,  the  grant  of  pope 
Alexander  III.  is  not  a  fufficient  title;  for 
how  could  he  abrogate  the  law  of  nations? 
Bui  if  they  wiil  allege,  that  there  may  be  a 
dominion  over  the  fea  lo  far,  that  every 
prince  may  liave  a  right  to  it,  as  far  as  his 
lands  extend,  or  an  hundred  miles  before 
them,  as  fome  others  have  maintain'd,  thca 
who  is  there  fo  blind,  as  not  to  fee,  that  a 
great  part  of  the  Adriatiik  will  belong  to 
thole  who  are  mailers  of  the  kingdom  ot" 
Naples,  of  the  Marca  di  Aneonii,  and  other 
parts  ?  1  low  then  could  pope  Alexander 
grant  that  to  the  renetians,  which  belonged 
toanother,  and  that  which  perhaps  he  could 
not  have  been  mailer  of  himlelf?  They 
add.  That  even  to  pretend  to  it  by  pre- 
icription,  is  a  folly  i  becaufe  that  cannot 
take  place  of  the  law  of  nations,  as  Papi- 
nian  informs  us,  lib.  45.  D.  de  Vfuc.-ip.  and 
tho'  fuch  a  thing  might  be,  it  has  been  fufii- 
liently  oppofed  by  the  Genoefe,  and  others. 
On  the  contrary,  John  Selden,  a  mod  judi- 
cious and  accurate  writer,  whom  I  have  acci- 
dentally lighted  on,  endeavours  to  inain- 
tain  the  oppofite  ojiinion,  upon  no  lefs 
plaulible  reafons,  cfpeciilly  tholl-  he  urges 
in  the  lall  chapters  of  the  tirft  book  of  tiis 
Mare  tlaufitn,  whith  I  Ihall  not  here  give 
you  any  talle  ot,  being  well  lati-fied  you 
have  him  before  me,  and  div'd  deeper 
into  him.  But  we  ought  not  to  omit  taking 
notice,  with  how  little  re.ilon  that  moit 
learned  man  fcoiKsat  thofe  wh.o  too  llrictly 
adhere  to  t'7/';\;;/'' opinions, as  if,  in  fuch  cafes, 
we  liad  any  otlicr  guides  to  ibllow,  but  the 
molt  famous  civilians.  Relidi  s,  it  is  to  be 
obferv'd,  not  only  that  all  his  arguments 
are  not  concluding,  but  that  many  oithcm 
arc  not  tor  the  purpofe  he  defij^ni  them. 



Of  Padua,  Viccnza,  &c. 

Let.  7.     I  Let. 

r.iuiii.  For  example,  when  the  authors  he  quotes,  of  nations,  was  free  and  common  to  all. 
'*^'V^' liiv,  'he  T'v/ (..v;j anil  ^7/(-.\v(«i7>;i);/j  Wile  nia-  l-'or  niy  part,  I  cannot  but  achiiire,  that  lb 
lU'rs  ot  the  Pbti'ikiiDi,  and  leas,    t;reat  a  man,  liniliny,  \nx.\\c  Nctiiui  ulriuffjue 

and  that  otlier  nations  I'ucceniveiy  had  the 
lovereiyntyof  the  Tea,  as  £/'yifW«j  and  otiier 
CVfi-hilloriansdilcourfe  i  tiiat  is  not  to  be 
undei-llood  of  tiiC  liominion  he  means,  but 
of  a  certain  power  at  lea,  by  reafon  of  tlieir 
iliill  innaritimeartiiirs  ;  the  number  of  tiieir 
Ihips  of  war,  wliieh  their  neigiibours  lh)0(.l 
in  avve  of,  and  o\  their  nuivhants,  that 
J'prcad  abroad  their  nariie  into  remote  parts  •, 
and  this  is  the  true  meaning  of  tlie  verb 
I'biiUjj'i/criitciu,  to  bear  the  command  at  fea. 
The  fame  may  be  fuppos'd  of  the  laws  ot 
AntonU-.u!.  Pins,  \Nhere  he  order'd,  that  the 
i'.idgment  ot  flii[)wreeks  lliould  be  according 
to  tl>e  law'i  of  tlie  Khoiliiinj,  then  fimous 

:mf>,  theenllgnsot  tiie  proconful  ol  AJia, 
and  among  tiiem  the  figure  of  a  woman,  re- 
[irefenting  the  Hillffpont^  with  a  crown  of 
battlements  on  her  head,  could  take  her  for 
tlie  lea  \o  call'd,  and  not  rather  for  the 
ports  belonging  to  it,  where  the  culloms  were 
I'aid,  ;is  Giiiiipc'li  and  others  •,  lor  it  is  not 
likely  tiiat  the  fea  Ihould  be  reprelentetl  witii 
battlements  of  towers  on  it  i  whereas  weeds, 
IliellsvUul  the  broken  beaks  ot  Ihips  are  more 
fuitable  toit.  To  conclutle,  private  mens  nu- 
king wears,  or  other  inciofures  tiar  lifliing 
on  the  Ihore,  is  no  good  argiunent  to  prove 
any  particular  dominion  over  the  \\:,\  ;  tor, 
in  my  ojjinion,  that  implies  only  a  dominion 

for  navigation  ;  anil  yet  no  man  will  on  this  over  the  Ihore  that  is  poUels'd  ;  and  tk'  lame 

account  lay,  tlie  emperor  thought  himlelt  law  ol  nations,  by  which  the  fea  is  common, 

lo- .'    1  the  land,  and  the  Rioduiiis  ot  the  fea.  gives  every  nun  a  right  10  make  ule  of  its 

So  .".iien  they  fay,  the  Romans  ^.wc  Povij-cy  water,  eitherby  drawing  it  it  into  filh-iionds, 

the  conunaiid  at  tea,  it  implies,  they  nude  or  filling  vellels,  or  as  he  pleales  i   becaulc 

n  ot  a  great  feet,  to  lupprel's  the 
py rates,  who,  againtt  t!.e  law  ot  nations, 
inl'elled  all  the  leas,  ,ind  obltruded  the  li- 
berty ot  navigation  ;  as  Horns  tells  us.  Ci- 
lices invafcrant  maii.i,  fubliiti/quc  conmwniis, 
rupto  fcederc  generis  humani,y;c  manabcllo, 
qtiaji  l-mfrjLitc  frnlufeniiil.  That  is,  'tbi- 
Cilicians  bad  invadai  thefeas,  ami  ebjh-iiiliiig 
commci-cc,  to  the  breaking  of  the  bonds  of  hu- 
man race,  btidjlui  itp  the  jca  lalb  u\ii ,  as  it 
-xcrc  luitb  a  ftonii.  And  yet  Selden  c|uotes 
rliis  place,  feeming  to  take  no  notice  that 
it  is  politively  againll  him.  In  the  fame 
manner,  when  Ihrus,  or  other  Roman  hillo-,  fay,  AJare  nojlrum.  Our  fea,  they 
mean  the  Mediterranean,  which  was  endo- 
Jciif.i^  led  by  the  /^5W(;«  dominions,  to  diltinguilh 
•  it   from   the  ocean.      As  tor  the  articles  of  between  ti  Perjians  and  Athenians, 
and  between  thefe  .  vd  the  Lacedemonians,  it 
may  perhaps  be  anfwer'd.  That  they  might 
well  be  lb  tar  matters  as  to  agree,  and  con- 
tract togetlur,  that  they  thould  not  tail  in 
fuch  ^nd  fuch  bays,  without  being  matters 
of  the  lea  ;  f^nce,  under  the  fupport  of  the 
conquering  nation,  they  might,  :"  oleallire, 
rob  one  another  ot  that,  which,  by  the  law 

the  k'u  is  not  theretore  the  lels  in  lommon, 
or  more  unfit  lor  n.ivigation  ;  otherwife  even 
this  might  not  be  lione,  as  is  oblervM,  in 
rel.ition  to  building  on  the  Ihore.  In  fliort, 
all  the  inltances  by  him  alledg'd,  if  there 
be  any  one  convincing  among  them,  will 
never  prove,  that  any  nation  did  e\er  right- 
tully  aifume  to  itfelf  tuch  a  dominion  over 
the  weaker  ;  tor,  if  ii  has  been  laid  of  king- 
doms, which  are  according  to  the  law  of 
nations,  that  they  were  only  great  ullirpa- 
tions,  or  robberies,  do  you  confider  what 
may  not  he  laid  in  relation  to  the  matter  we 
treat  ot  ?  If  you  would  know  my  opinion 
in  this  cafe,  I  tell  you  pl.iinly,  that  i'enict 
has  a  rightful  and  lawful  dominion  over  the 
Adriatic):  lea,  and  ten  tpans  beyond  it  ;  but 
yet  they  do  not  ilefenil  it  all  againtt  the  bar- 
b.irians;  and  ilii'i  is  well  known  to  me  inha- 
bitants of  the  coalts  ot  Vtra/ao  and  Apulia. 

Let  us  leave  thete  matters  to  thole  who 
have  nothing  elle  to  do,  and  talk  it  Ibme- 
thing  cite.  I  Ihall,  to-niorrow  evening 
without  tail,  let  out  in  the  Padua  boat  tor 
Milan.  If  you  direct  your  letters  hither,  1 
have  friends  that  will  lend  them  alter  me, 
and  am,  £ifr. 






/  ;.^/ 





iV'.  .. 

LETTER    \U, 

Of  Padua,  «/;^/ Vicenza,  itiiJcr  ivUl/j  are  Jomc  o^Jiri-iitiofis. 

HAving  the  opportunity  of  a  Spanijh 
gentleman,  who  was  going  to  the 
court  of  the  cathoiick  king's  cmbalfador 
at  Feniee,  I  could  not  omit  paying  you  my 
relpects  in  this  letter  -,  and  the  more  bee.uilc 
he  has  very  obligingly  promis'd  to  do  me 
lo  much  fervice,  as  Co  fend  it  you    inline- 

Verona,  March  the  ijl,  iC'iC, 
diately.  To  follow  my  ufual  method,  I 
kifs  your  hands  a  million  of  times,  rd  de- 
clare I  .im  better  in  health  th^n  I  exi.ecftcd. 
1  imb.irk'd  on  IVednejday  night,  and  1  aving 
done  nothing  I  ut  lleep  a'l  the  night,  to  the 
belt  ot  my  remembrance,  I  tound  myl'elf 
iit  Padua  in  the  morning,  by  break  of  day.  Fj.'j 
4  This 


Let.  7.      I  Let-  7. 

Of  Padua,  Viccnza,  d'c. 


/?.    \CiC, 



Tliis  city  isfc.ucd  in  a  plc.U'.mt  and  fniitful 
plain,  w.iti  I'll  by  tJR' two  rivers,  Uu  nt  ii  Ar\t\ 
UMi'iJilionc,  .mil  oVfr-topi'M  on  the  wcll- 
(iili-  by  the  t,uii(His  niomu.iins  Iur^,:iict,  now 
c.illMot"  Ptidiiii.  Ojiinions  vary  about  the 
original  oF  ii:,  name  i  but  no  man  quillions 
its  having;  been  built  alter  the  war, 
by  Anliiiur,  kinlinan  to  kiny,  and 
/  li-gil  I'pcaks  of  him  thii.,  .Eiic'ul  I. 

Antcmr  poluil,  meMis  elapftn  Aibivis, 
li/jriios  l-i-iictriin-JiiiiiS,  tilq;  iiitiinu  l:i!iis, 
Utide  per  ora  iiovim,  vujiu  uim  muimure 

It  nure  [ironipliim,  U  PcL'^n  nrcmh  arVii 

llu  liinit/i  il.'i'  iirhan  PaUni,  f<'hjq\  hiavit, 
Tiiuronim,  iJj^iiiii  noincn  JfJi/,  (irmnque 

Tiaiit :  nunc  [lacidii  compojlus pace  qiiiiftil. 

Thus  trandatcd  by  Mr.  Dndcn, 

AiUnioi-  from  the  midll  of  Ciicdan  holls. 
Could  nal's  leeure,  undpleice  iW  lllyn.vt 

toalls ; 
Where  rolling  down  the  lleep,  "Timaviit 

And  through  nine  channel .  dillmbogues 

his  w.ives. 
At  k'ni.;th  he  founded /",/;/«((':.  ha]'py  'eat. 
And  gave  his  Tnj^tns  a  fecure  retreat. 
I'iiere  li.K'd  their  arms,  and  there  rene\v'il 

their  name. 
And  there  in  quiet  rules,    and  crowu\l 

with  tame. 

This  was  imitated  by  PdiarJj,  Lll.  u 
£^:  1 1,  when  he  laid. 

Jam  P.iltiviim  AnUnork  gammas  cmmfus, 
y  It  n das 

Edidl'ViU  » 

TTiat  Is,  Antcnor  having  efi\ii>*d  the  flames 
Gild  leaves,  bad  miv  hitU:  I'.idua. 

And  Livy  himfelf,  the  greatell  orna- 
wient  ot  Padua,  afTirms  the  fame.  For 
thij  reafon  the  foUowinji;  verks  of  Lupalo 
were  cut  upon  AntiUor\  tomb,  which  is 
here  (liewn,  without  the  chinch  ot  St.  Lau- 

Indyttis  Anlfvor,  paliiam  -vex  iiij'a  quktcm, 

Tianjtidit  hue  fAjulitm,  Darddnidumque 


Tlxndil  Euganeos,P  al  ai'inam  loiuildk  iirbrm, 

y^u'm  Intel  beiehumdi  marmorc  icffadsmus. 

tlh-  c'.'y  J'adua,  and  is  contained  in  ihis  fmaH  Ci'imm  h. 
mai.We  I'iml'.  \y^,'->u 

I'rom  the  aforcfdd  words  of  I'lr^il,  /la- 
eida  <-iwf'Pjl:fs  /\ne  quirj.-t,  he  irjls  in  leaee, 
lome  good  limpie  peoiile  would  inter,  i!iac 
the  bones  of  that  great  man  ,ue  Cert.iinly 
in  this  place',  but  this  methiiiks  no  man  of 
fenfe  will  imagine.  Ikfuk",  the  city  bting 
remov'd  Irum  its  antient  fituation  linee  the 
days  of  Ai/d.i,  and  the  very  nviniii  r  of  the 
budding,  which  now  lliews  noihii-g  of  grc.ii 
antiquity,  are  evident  deinonllr.uions  that 
the  tomb,  the  micrijition,  ai'  '  the  contri- 
vers tiiemfelves  arc  not  of  above  fix  lumdred 
years  tt,.;;J''irr. 

No  man  m.ikcs  an/  oiieflion,  but  that 
I.ivy's  boni's  were  found  m  the  y(  ar  of  our 
l,ori!  141  ?,  the  cluneh  of  Si.'Jiij'inaf 
with  ih,'  following  infcription. 

V.  !••. 


l.IVIAK    T.  F. 

<)li.\RTA!'.    L. 



I'A  r.w  1 

SrP.t    KT    ,SVIS 


f  think  it  was  aftcrwarils  v.xl!  done  of  tTio 
Paduaiis,  to  ered  a  halt  ll.itue  of  brafs  in 
the  fi|U,n-e  ot  their  court;  of  jullice,  to  the* 
honour  ot  their  countr)  man,  who  might 
well  defeive  one  ol  gold.  Vit,  to  ileaf 
pl.unlv  with  yoLi,  according  to  my  iifuil 
incredulity,  I  do  not  think  the  atorefdd  in- 
fcription is  a  pofitive  argument,  that  thof- 
were  the  hillorian's  bones  •,  but  railv  r  his 
daughter's,  or  of  y^/arta  Liheiia,  to  wl;om 
the  infcription  i.  direcled  ;  and  wh.o  knov.s, 
whether  our  wii'e  king  of  /li\r^'.n,  Af;  Loi://, 
had  not  an  arm  us'd  to  the  dilhiffr.iid  fpinilla 
from  the  Paduans,  inllcad  of  one  lb  famous 
for  handling  the  pen  t  Ami  what  afliirance 
have  we,  that  tlie  faiil  '1".  I.IVIVS  was 
the  hillorian,  and  not  rather  lome  other  of 
the  I.iviaii  family,  which  was  cert.unly  of 
Padua':"  What  great  reafon  then  i-itlureto 
believe,  that  the  fai.l  infcription  belongs  to 
that  renowned  hillorian,  and  not  rather  tb.c 
other,  whieh  is  alio  at  PaJjiai' 

T.  I.IVrVS  .  C.   F.  SIBI 

T.  r.ivio.  T.  F.  PRisco.  r.r 

■J'.   LIVIO    T.   F.    I.ON'GC).    F  I' 

CASSIAF  .  Sl'.X.    F.    I'RIMAh. 


That  is,  The  rcnoiuned  Antenor,    lahtiiing  But  fuppnfing  it  to  be  rhat  which  tliey 

for  i,':e  peace  of  bis  country,  brought   to  this  fiy,   yet  the  words -SI  Bl,  F'.T  S\'IS,    on 

place  the  remairs  of  the  JJyuig  Trojans,  ai/d  ir,  do  not  prove  his  bones  th:u  erceleJ,  it,  to 

Hencti.     //.•c.v/v//V//r  Fuganeans,  /'"UKdcd  lie  in  it ;  there  being  more  likelihood  that 

Vol..  VI.  R                                           he 



Of  Padua,  Viccnza,  ^c. 


fiiMiiii,  li.-'  ilyM,  .111(1  honourably  intt-rr'd  at 
^-^""^  llcmc.  llow,.viT,  it  it  IlioiilJ  he  urgM, 
tli.'.t  hisboiK-s  were  carry M  back  to  his  own 
country,  in  that  cafe  he  wouUl  not  have 
vvantcJ  f'onic  relation,  or  fri'tul,  to  put  a 
inoPL'  honourable  inliription  nn  his  tomb. 
I'ii'.Tc  is  dill  anoilur  mon-  liibdantial  na- 
Ibn  to  lioubt,  anil  is,  in  the  tuurth  year 
ol  f,'(i-,.;r,  when  l.rcy  is  laid  to  iiavc  ilyM,  the 
nini.nt  ciilluni  of  burying  bodits  ciuiri:  was 
ruit  yet  r^  (lorM  •,  butthey  were  all  burnt,  un- 
Irls  it  wire  I'onieperlbn  l()millr,ibly  poor,  as 
not  to  leave  enough  to  buy  wnuii.  What 
'lupidiiy  tlun  i^  ii  lo  biliive,  /.■:;y's 
boiies  liioulil  be  toiiii'.l  lu  whole  and  loiirul, 
^.sloniake  a  prelliu  to  kin;;  .y///'' /'Am)!  hii 
tvin?  1  am  nor  i  ,  lorani  thai  the  bixlics 
t>iere  never  tho;oii;^,;ily  burnt,  ,inil  iheret'ori', 
V  lien  tlie  fire  was  Ipent,  the  bones  were  gi- 
t  „\\\,  the  allies  put  into  iIk-  urn,  and  the 
I  .i;^nienti  ot  the  bones  l.iid  up  in  .uioilier 
I'l.iec  J  both  whihour  l\:i!.im:i'^\,\uwwA\f 
JJt  ntioMi  in  ihe;e  \all'Sr 

t^T-t  qtr.qm  ui i\i! rHam  mifcia  fraiifinittffa' 

^iJ^i.i!  fii::fcs  tefia^atcnui  iit,i,</s. 

That  >,  ietiiJ  my  ii;fn  my  cutiiiliy  lit  mv 
4-/''ii!,''!'!lc  vi'jtl.\r\,  lu!  I:'  my  (iJljLt,  ts  kfi'l 
«,'.'/7  wyjlti/jir'iiini, 

An<.\  it  nothing  elfe  will  il),  \vc  have  the  hws 
©ftli.  t\v. Ive,  in  Ciii'ic,  whicli  enjoins 

Hoil-.I  .MoRll'lJNE  0<SA    I.ECITO,  (iCO 

T o 3 T  ;•  f  .N US  FACIA T*,  I'diJIjall  no! g.ilhcti" 
the  hues  of  a  iii\/<l  man,  to  make  a  b:<ruil  af- 
/■r&c':?;.,''.  Yet  ail  this  doe.;  not  prove, 
Sn  arm  can  renriin  fo  cniiio  after  burning, 
as  to  know  wluiher  it  wa'.  the  right  or  V  It. 
!  {en:e  we  niufl:  conclude,  that  fome  other 
made  ufe  ol  that  (Ion?,  liowlocvcr  it  was 
(bund  iome  ages  alter,  to  make  the  Icpul- 
chre  ol  any  olh'.r  perlbn  the  more  Lifting.  how  could  this  be,  iay  you  ?  llerei;  a 
king  imiKjs'd  upon,  and  lb  able  men 
fif  his  univerfity  never  thought  of  thefe  rea- 
fons  yiKi  allege.  .Sir,  we  e.dily  believe 
what  we  defue  ;  and  therefore  how  couKi 
plain  truth  make  its  way  into  the  heads  of 
^•/,//>5';//s  learned  men,  before  fill'd  with 
vaniiy  ,i;id  il.ittery  ?  We  live  in  an  age, 
v.hen,  Go.l  be  [irai-iM.  all  the  millakes  and 
overlights  of  tiie  .uuitnts  are  ililcovcring  by 
degrees-,  and  it  will  be  too  much  for  U'r,  at 
once,  to  retrieve  all  the  criurs  they  have 
been  guilty  of. 

To  return  to  the  city,  it  was  formerly  en- 
cloiM  by  tiir  e  walls,  and  at  prifeni  by 
two  -,  the  outward  fi.f  miles  about,  the  in- 
war. i  three  •,  but  tiie  nutnber  of  inhabitants 
is  not  fuiaible  to  its  extent  i  and  did  not  the 
wil  •  r>i)ublie-k  it  i.s  fubjeit  to,  fupport  the 
7, ,.  «  *•  univ.  rfuy,  erefted  there  by  Cbarkmaign^  it 
«ijt«      wo.ill  have  been  quite  unpeopled  by  thi* 

time,  and  fallen  from  all  its  former  glory. 
Trie  (choolsare  Iniilt  unilorm  ,md  magniH- 
cent,  and,  what  is  ttiueh  more conlideiable^ 
turnilli'd  with  very  able  proteflors. 

As  lor  the  territory,  it  extends  many 
mile'i,  every  where  .ibounding  in  all  that  is 
requilite  lor  the  lupputt  ol  human  lite  >  ljc« 
(ides,  excellent  iniiiLr.d  waters,  in  the  ncigh- 
bourhiioil  o\  ylLdJo,  The  Inhabitants,  tho* 
not  numerous,  are  very  well  eihii  lied  from 
their  very  infant  y  I  the  common  lort,  for 
the  mofl  part,  being  cmployM  in  'loathing  ; 
and  the  gentry  m.iy  delervedly  v.»lue  thrm- 
felvcs  on  .ill  nolile  v  ii  rue':.  Concerning  the 
buildings,  binh  I'uliliek  Jul  piiv.ite,  there  £«<.« 
are,  in  the  lirll  |>l.;ce,  no  contemptible  lor- 
tilicatioiis  .iboui  n  ■,  then  tin  city  i^all  hand- 
fomely  pav'dwiih  [)ebblc  ,  and.idorn'u  with 
thirty -eight  bridge;,  over  the  river  Bniitu, 
and  live  molf  beautilul  and  (^>m  ions  Iquares* 
In  ihott,  there  are  iv.ry  wlitre  (lately 
pal.n.e-,  and  ixtraoriimary  lu.  gniliccnc 
chuivhe;,  efpecially  that  ol  the  relig.ous  of 
Ciilitno,  that  of  St.  .iiiiony,  and  the  citiit- 
dral,  foundul  by //c«ry  the  emperor,  wiiole 
pafue  isliill  to  be  feen,  havin;'  been  former- 
ly  leaded  at  the  top.  'I'here  are  many  mo- 
nafleiies  of  both  fixes,  as  alio  holpitals. 
Here  i-,  as  well  as  at  A'a/lfs^  a  mrthie  ilt 
f'i'-fa  that  is,  a  charit.ible  lumber)  where 
the  poor  have  money  k  at  u.em  upon  pawns, 
without  intercft,  tofiuh  actrt.iin  lum.  The 
bilhop's  rcvrnue  is  about  eleven  thoufand 
crowns,  if  1  am  rightly  inform'd.  Icoiikl 
notice,  or  learn  ni.ich  ill  the  few  liours  Hay 
I  made  •,  but  I  think  I  read  before,  riiac 
yain-iiii  l-'laccus,  who  writ  the  /frg:,i:niithaf 
Julius  PiiuLa  the  ( iviliaii,  lo  highly  favour'ci 
by  JlfxaiuUr  Stz-irus,  and  manv  other  men 
of  lefs  note,  were  born  here.  If  we  would 
talk  of  the  iKite  of  the  city,  P.iJua  has  had 
the  fame  fatcwith  fevcralothercitiesof  Iti,fv; 
for  it  was  redui'd  to  allies  by  AttHa,  re- 
(lorctl  by  Sarjli,  and  again  burnt  down  by 
the  Liiiij^ot>ar,1i.  Being  rebuilt  and  i  darged 
by  C/.Kiiltmni^ii,  through  the  generolity  of 
the  emperor  Olbo,  it  w  ,is  govcrn'd  as  a  com- 
monwealth, till  the  days  of  FreiL'nck  the 
2(1  •,  after  which  time  it  was  rediic'd  into  a 
deplorable  condition,  by  the  blnody  tyran- 
ny of  Ez.zclino  (Li  Rcw.iiid,  ■,:r.d  rent  by  the 
faftionsof  the  .S'(,r/,;i;i;;,  or  7)//,/  Sl:i.'.:,  oi 
I'ijcauli  .Hid  Ca>>\irfJ:,  till  it  tell  into  tht 
power  of  the  t'cucliims,  who  h.iving  ui.Ci; 
recover'd  it  from  the  cmpeior  .\faxim:l:.:ii, 
made  it  almofl  impregnable,  with  the  for* 
tificitions  llill  to  be  feen. 

Notwlflilkuiding  all  the  enquiry  I  could 
make,  no  living  c  reatuie  cou!  :  gi\'e  me  ,iiiy 
account  of  the  lamous  ink  rqitioii  fetujiby 
Miiximus  Olibii'.s,  which  I  remember  I  hail 
read  in  the  commentaries  of  Pidro  L^Jicbio, 
on  Pilrotiim's  UiUrc.  They  tell  us  in 
the  year    1500,    an  urn  was  found  under 

















A;s'i>^ioiii  rai 
r.iiiiilo      I 

liori'Il:,        .-  . 
jiii.ifjt.  i.  ''" 

!;s.  lu( 







ormrr  glory. 
inil  iiugnifi- 


cttmls  many 
in  ,ii:  rliac  i» 

i.m  lite  i  Ik;* 
in  the  ncigh- 

ibirancs  tho' 

Ki(  liitl  Iroin 

on  lori,    lor 

ill  'loathing ; 
v.Jiu"  lli^-ni- 

nccrning  the 

livate,  ilicrc  Bm.'. 
injitihlc  tor- 
y  i^all  haiul- 
.uloni'ci  v\ith 

iivfr  BrnUii, 
iuLis  IquaiL^it 

vhtfc  Itati-i/ 

IC  ll.ll['.OUS  of 

lid   the  catlit- 

pcior,  wiiule 

httn  torm^r- 

I'c  many  nio- 

llb  hoipitals. 

a   >iio>ite  lit 

imbcr)  whi-re 

I  upon  I'awns, 

in  liim.  The 

vcn  thoiifaiul 

n\\.     Icoukl 

.■w  l.ours  itay 

li  b'.lur.-,  tiiat 

i;\\\y  tavouiM 
ny  other  men 

if  wu  would 
'^.iJiia  has  had 
citicsot  Itiifv; 
>y  Attil.i,  rc- 
urnt  down  l)y 
[  and  ^  idai  gcd 

gnu Tolity  of 
rn'd  ua  coni- 

lhi!rr':k  tlie 
cdut'd  into  :i 
bloody  tyran* 
d  rent  by  thi; 

:■//,?    .S':-,7/,;,    ol 

(Ml  into  t!ni 
I  having  o:,,\; 
■  M:'.xinr.i:.:n, 

\\k\\  tlic  for* 

ijuiry  I  could 
!  -jjivc  mc  any 
noil  fi-t  uj)  by 
Hiidvr  1  had 
i!ro  L'-fiilAoy 
J  ins,  that  in 
found  under 

Lei".  7. 

Of  Padua,  Vicenza,  ^c. 




pioi;-id,  with  fonie  vcrfesrarv'don  it, which, 
if  1  Miillake  not,  wcrcas  follow. 

riutoml'.uynm  iminia  u,-attwgili',  fiirfs; 

IjrMoliimiJi  vobtshiu  quodin  iirn.i  Lilet, 
Namqu:  c'rmeHlcigravi ilaujit  Ji^eil.i labore 

yaji'jiib  hue  .miluo  Maxim  u<Oliuiu)(. 
JdfitJxiiDidocullosJi'ji  copia  coiiiu, 

Ne irrrliim  tanti  dcpawil  lalkii, 

Wit'iin  Ti  is  another  fmallcr  urn,  with^llicfc 
\\uid>i  on  ii. 

Ahile  hiHC,  pejjimtjhfi!. 
t'os  f'lid  voltis,  mm  Vijl>:<  ocul'ts  emiffititUi  ? 
.■Ibiit  hinc,  nojlro  cum  M  , .  tirio pdiifalo,  ca- 

dtiCi'jlotjir  : 
M  A  X I M  u  s  I'ju  mdxinioPlulomfuiriimfiicit, 

The  Eiiglijh  of  the  lirlt  vtrfi's  in  prole  is 
thus,  'T'uiiib  iiui,  O  je'  ihicvi's,  ih'n  (jjfci-ni^, 
uljk/j  i,  dcdicaied  to  I'hifoi  you  iire  uiiac- 
qifiiinud  Kith  livaf  lies  in  this  ton.  l-'or  Maxi- 
nuis  Olibius,  wil/j  mucb  liihviir,  Jljut  up  the 
f'iX':li'd  in  this/malt  vrjfcl.  Aluy  it 
find  a  faiibftil^Uca-duiii,  lo  wbtjin  it  ■will /rove 
the  horn  of  1 1' Illy,  Ifji  tie  cojl  of  fo  precious  a 
tirjiwr  he  lojt. 

Thf  inner  infcription,  abovt  mentionM, 
im[)orts,  Bi  gone  hcm\\  ye  'Ujit.i;ed  Ibttves. 
]Vhat  is  tl  you  look  j'lr  ivith  mir  gosling  eyts  ^ 
Begone,  iviih  Merc  -ry,  that  wears  a  hat  and 
ti'.ind;  for  Maximus  has  dedicated  this  to 
Highly  Pkuo. 

I'his  dedication  to  Pluto,  the  god  of  riches 
coniirni  the  ihyniillsiii  the  i  onceit  of  their 
philofoplur's  Hone,  to  fuch  a  degree,  that 
I'everal  of  them  fell  to  Ipi  luling  all  they  had, 
t()  lind  out  a  thing  that  never  was,  or  ever 
will  be  in  the  worK<  •,  it  being  impolfiblc, 
tor  all  the  art  of  man,  to  gather  that  pure 
fublhnce,  which  being  diliuled  in  the  air, 
fertili/.es  the  earth,  and  ))referves  all  living 
creatures  bv  breathing.  As  I  told  you,  no 
man  coiildgivemeany  tidings  ot  this  urn, and 
theiefo*".  continuing  in  my  (ormer  ojiinion, 
I  leave  it  among  the  Impolhires  of  the  firll 
'I'rank,  like  the  Tufcati  aniiquu'ies  of  Ciirlio 
Inghirumi,  concerning  Pilale\  judgment, 
;,  laid  to  liave  been  found  in  Auruzzo,  and 
18.  luch  lik-   fables. 

That  I  may  not  wafle  my  time  and  paper 
tipon  idle  tales,  I  will  continue  my  jour- 
n.d.  I  left  Pndtia  after  ilinner,  and  ritiing 
liard  came  :.t  night  to  VlcenZii,  that  is,  I  rode 
eigliteen  miles.  This  city  was  lundfomely 
built,  attlie  foot  of  the  mountains  of  Pu- 
(li{.!,  c.dl'd  Eiignnr!,  perhaps  by  tlu'  people 
ot  that  name.  The  outward  compafs  of 
its  wall  is  full  four  miles,  almoil  in  rlie  I'lipc 
of  a  fcorpion,  with  eight  gates  in  it,  and 
two  n.ivigablc  rivers  running  by,  being  the 
Bieiiia  and  the  Bacchilwn:,  producing  ex- 
cellent eels.      The  building*  arc  beautiful 

enough,   efpccially  flic  nioni'lcry  of   St.  ^''"mi. 
Cojmo,  at  prefent  belonging  to  the  Domini  ^'^"'^^ 
,  and  formerly  polklsM  by  the  .inans. 


The  theatre  of  theO/>7'i/;ii  a. ailemy  i.alfo 
very  noble  and  m  ignific<  nt,  being  cap  il)le 
o\  (iiiitaining  three  taoulaiul  perlons  i  as  ij 
the   bilhop's  ji.daee,    and  others.      All  in 
territory  extending  leveniy  miles  in  length, 
anil  tw\nty-fivc   in  breailth,    is   wonderful 
fertile  and  pk.ifant,  being  water'd  by  tour- 
teen  rivers,  foiiie  great,  {(line  fin.ilk  betides 
the  miner.d  watirs  tor  bathing  1  but  .djovc 
all,  there  is  a  vail  ninnberol  white  mulberry 
trees.   I  tell  you  ih':  truth,  a(u  r  mature  deli- 
beration, th.itall  pl.icfs,  where  there  are  luch 
mineral  w.iters,  li.ive  gen(  rally  an  extraor- 
dinary tlrtility,  prov'ided  they  be  in  a  mo- 
der.Ue  ij.i.inrity,  anti  of  an  iiidillerent  heat. 
This  perluips  may  procecil  troiu  the  won- 
diiful  fertilizing  qiality  ot    nitre,  which  \ 
lomeliiliesule  toiall  the  true  univerfd  Ipirit  1 
liir  we  lind  by  experience,  that  when  once 
taken  from  iheeaitli  it  remains  tor  many 
years  as  barren  as  land,  till  it  recovei'd 
i'ome  Irom  the  air  and  rain.     And  this  is  the 
reafon  why  dung  i'.  ufed  to  fatten  Kind,  and 
theluabs  growing  on  luch  ground  are  better 
t.'lled,  and  i>kalaiitLr  ih.m  in  other  pl.ices. 
Now,   as  I  was  layiiij.;,  abundance  of  niirc 
is  convey'd  in  (bnie  lort.  of  mineral  watcis, 
fo  that  the  adjacent  fields  have  more  plenty 
of   it  than  others,    and  conletjucntly   they 
produce  better  grafs,  and  fruit  ;  as  you  may 
have  found  by  ex[)erience,    in  thole  about  us 
at  Pozzuolo,  the  itland  of  Ifbia,   ./.J  mount 
Sornma.     This  l.dl  has  none  ol  tlule  miner.d 
waters  wc  fpeak  of;  but  its  toil  e.innor  be 
deny'  .1  to  be  very  full  ofllveral  fills  which 
rife  up,  being  rehn'd  or  fubtilized  by  the  fub-  tire,  or  elfe  fall  on  it  from  time  to 
time,  with  thole  fl.owersot  bituminous  and 
nitrous   aflies,     that  gulli  out  at  the   top. 
Now  tliofe  pl.ices  which  have  too  ir.uth  ful- 
phur  and  alum  on  the  fuperiices,  gnier.dly 
protluce  a  deep,  liarfli,  and  iinplealant  wine, 
which  is  loiig  before  it  lines ;    ami  fuch  is 
that  ot  Ijchui,  anil  which  grows  about 
PozzuoU  vio:k- ;    and  for.ilmueh  as  1  know 
you  drink  no  fort  at  all,  you  may  take  n'jy 
word  1  for  it  is  as  1  tell  you. 

I'o  return  to  liicnza;  it  was  fubjeiLt 
CO  the  Roman  empire  till  the  days  of  /luiiu  ; 
.ind  having  futler'd  much  from  him,  fub- 
mitted  to  all  the  barbari  ins  that  dettroy'd 
Italy.  I'hey  being  expell'd  by  Cbarli matgn, 
it  continued  free  under  the  protection  of 
the  empire,  till  the  days  of  Iredouk  II. 
who  cruelly  plunder'd  and  burnt  it.  Then 
it  had  princes  of  feveral  races,  as  thole  ot 
Canan'j:,  ot  iVrt/i.',  and/V/a;;//.  LatUy,  in 
1404.  it  fubmitted  to  the  Pcnettans  ;  and 
being  taken  from  them  by  the  emperor 
Ma^iimilian,  was  not  long  after  recover'd 
from  him. 


.%.  ^r,%. 



e  <\^. 




■  50     ^^" 


I   ll£    12.0 

IL25  i  1.4 














(716)  872-4503 


y^     MP 



6^         Verona,  Pefchiera,  8*6'.  on  the  road  to  Milan.    Let.  8. 

r.FMi.iLi.  Tlic  citizens  arc  h.'.ivly  and  ingenious, 
^'^'V^  living  very  police  anil  niixiclUy.  'I'hey  are 
govcrn'il  by  a  loiintil  of  ll'vcnty  men  ol 
try'ii  wilUoiu.  I'ublick  afl'airsare  nianagM 
by  ten  patriti  .ns,  or  I'enators -,  and  all  jii- 
dieial  matters,  wlietlur  civil  or  criminal, 
are  loon  decided  by  twelve  confuls  i  not  to 
mention  other  interior  judges,  who  take 
cognizance  of  things  of  lels  weight. 



I  came  thcfe  thirty  miles  tiiis  morning  in 
a  talalh,  tor  fifteen  livres,  and  ilelign  to 
flay  in  IWoH.t  till  to-morrow.  In  my  next, 
which  1  hope  to  write  from  Milan,  you 
lliall  have  a  faithful  account  of  all  i  fliall 
lee  here  to  day,  or  be  intorm'd  by  a  very 
learned  prieft,  well  vers'd  in  the  affairs  of 
his  country,  with  whom  I  have  made  my- 
felf  acquainted.     Your  humble  fervant,  tfc. 




Of  Verona,  Pcfchicia,  Urcicia,  aiiJ  llcrgamo,  on  the  road  to  Milan. 


iloj    (■■ 
r.ei  of 

IMuil  declare,  that,  to  mc,  Mihtii  is  the 
finell  and  moll  agreeable  city  in  the 
world,  fince  I  had  the  fortune  in  it  to  re- 
ceive your  tetters,  and,  by  them,  tobein- 
form'd  of  your  health,  isc. 

Alfoon  as  I  came  to  I'dcnti,  and  had 
left  my  b.iggagc  a:  the  inn,  I  went  aw.'.y 
to  Ciijlel  I'tichio,  the  old  calllc  or  citadel, 
to  fee  the  antient  amphitheater,  to  this  day 
caU'd/'-Vriv;.;,  as  it  was  formerly  ;  becaufe 
the  ground  was  Ifrew'd  with  fmd,  for  the 
convcniency  of  the  glaili.itor=.  This  flrue- 
ture  is  llill  to  be  feen  ;  and  none  can  ima- 
gine how  it  comes  to  be  llill  ilaiiding,  alter 
fo  many  barbarous  nations  have  ruin'd  Italy. 
The  compafs  of  it  is  about  a  thoufand  fpans, 
and  [nrhaps  more  -,  for  on  tiic  outlide  there 
are  leventy-two  arches  of  fuch  a  competent 
bignefs,  as  to  fuftain  tliree  other  rows  of 
arches  and  windows  in  the  nature  of  the 
Col-fitun  at  Rome  ;  fo  that  in  one  part  of 
it,  wliieh  is  llill  intire,  the  four  orders  of 
architeclure  are  ftill  ro  be  feen,  viz.  the 
DoHik,  tiic  loitiik,  the  Cmnthuiii,  and  the 
CcmjoJiW.  Within  there  are  no  lefs  tlian 
forty-three  degrees  of  feats  quite  round  it  •, 
by  which  you  may  guefs  what  a  number  of 
people  ii  will  contain.  y\t  prefent  the  gen- 
try make  ufe  of  it  to  tilt,  run  at  the  ring, 
and  to  perform  luch  other  generous  ex- 

Next  I  went  to  vifit  count  Francis  AJiif- 
c.mio's  Mufirum,  or  cabinet,  adorn'd  with 

■;,  molb excellent  piece.sof  antiquity  and  rarities. 

.1-  About  a  marble  oval  velVel  arc  thefe  Grak 
words,  ANTAHCAi  li  '1  O  TAni'  MLTA 
l.l'I'l'OCTNMC,  OTl  'I'.QNH  KTl'lOr 
Id  11  TON  r^kTViK;  that  is.  Reach  the 
water  ivilh  joy,  for  the  voice  of  the  Lord  is  on 
the  -aatcr.  I  tliought  at  firit  it  had  been  a 
font,  but  confidering  the  narrowncfs  of  tlx' 
mouth,  loon  alter'd  my  opinion  i  and  the 
more,  for  that  formerly  both  infants  and  |x;r- 
fonsof  ag."  were  baptiz'd  after  another  man- 
lur  than  they  are  at  prefent.  Ijefides,  I  took 
notice  of  two  i's,  in  ,i  fmall  infeription,  in- 
flcad  of  an  c,   as  yalijrius,    for  yidcntn. 

Milan,  March  4.   16S6. 

This  difTcrent  way  of  writifig  or  fpelling  is 
frequently  found  on  marble  Hones,  which 
Were  e.irv'd  where  the  pure  Reman  language 
was  not  vulgarly  fpoken. 

The  city  was  anciently  call'd  Brcnnona, 
becaufe  built  by  Brcnnia  the  general  of  the 
(Jaiih  \  tho'  others  airign  its  foui\dation  to 
the  Tiifcam.  The  fituaiion,  the  climate,  t,UiiaiU":, 
the  delightful  adjacent  country,  and  the  *'"'''":'■• 
river  y/./(;'c,  all  contribute  to  render  it  beau-  '■~^'" 
tiful,  and  abounding  in  all  provilions  ;  nor 
does  it  wantliili  from  the  l.ud  ylili^e,  from 
other  rivers,  as  alfofmni  the  neighbouring 
lake  of  G'j/-./,;,  by  the  ancimts  c.ill' 1  5f/.'(i- 
ciLi.  The  city  walls  ire  fhong  ;  thi  build- 
ings flimptuous  and  beautiful,  by  rcafon  of 
the  marble  found  in  its  territory  ;  the  Itreets 
wide,  ftrait,  and  well  pav'd  ;  the  four 
bridges  of  the  river,  magnificent  v  nor  is 
there  any  thing  in  it  but  what  is  fine  and 
curious.  Befides  the  old  caftle  before-men- 
tioned, there  are  two  other  forts  on  a  high 
ground,  call'd  St.  Peter  and  .St.  I'dix,  builc 
by  M.  Cane  della  ScaLi  Lord  of  Verona. 
I  had  not  time  to  fee  the  churches,  but 
was  told  there  are  many,  and  very  llately, 
particularly  the  cathedral  and  that  of  St. 

As  to  other  particulars,  the  inhabitants  inhaH^ 
arc  about  forty  thoufand,  all  of  them  ready  """'• 
witted,  antl  well  behav'd.     It  formerly  un- 
derwent the  fame  fate  with  Padua,   t^, 
and  other  neighbouring  cities,    till  fubjcft 
to  the  Venctium,   who  now  fend  a  Podejla, 
or  governor,  thither.     I  muft  Iiere  tell  you 
.1  very  flrange  particular,   wiiieh  is,  that 
when    the   laid    Pcdejia   enters    upon    his 
charge,  it  looks  more  like  tiie  coming  of  i 
bifliop  than  a  governor  1    for  all  the  bells  "f^'^"''*' 
ring,  and  he  goesdiredly  to  vifit  the  church  'Ij^',^' 
of    St.   Zcnn,    and    the  cathetlral.      Then  ' 
coming  into  the  fquare,   or  market  place, 
and  being  featcd  in  the  chair  of  thealfem- 
bly,  he  makes  a  fliort  fpeeeh  to  the  jieople, 
and  receives  the  enfigns  of  h^s  command. 
I'pon  matters  of  moment,  he  !ias  power 
to  alTenible  the  general  council  of  leventy 




mtiit  1' 

of  are 


bat  ir 

is   bei 


ally  ii 

lies  ar 

of  it 





LliT.   8. 

Pcfchiel'a,  Brefcia,  Bergamo,  €5*^. 




iwi)  (.iii/cns,  or  ik-pu'.ics  of  tlic  commo- 
ii.ilty  i  in  otlicr  c.ilcs  he  makes  ulc  oi  twelve 
of  llie  liiine  body,  who  leive  by  montlis 
(ucccfllvely.  1  le  alio  under  him  .i  vi- 
tal, who  is  a  doe'lor,  a  judge  for  criminal 
allairs,  iwo  for  the  civil,  and  a  chancellor, 
;dl  i-f  iliemat  the  publick  charge. 

'lac  next  day  I  hir'd  a  calalh  to  Biijliu, 
for  twenty  //.//.'i/;/ livres,  aiidfetout  imme- 
diately. 1  laving  rode  fourteen  miles,  I 
laiiv.:  lo  Pi'Ubh'ni,  a  fortrefs  (landing  be- 
tween two  rivers  llowing  from  the  above- 
mentioned  lake  of  Gania,  and  generally 
kept  by  a  garifon  of  a  tlioufand  r,ndiaii5. 
It  is  about  two  miles  in  compafs,  and  a 
quarter  ov^r,  if  I  millook  not  wiien  I  erols'd 
it.  Thirty  miles  from  thence  to  the  inn 
call'd  Oftir-d  iid!r  Bciiole,  is  thirty  miles, 
where  I  was  as  conveniently  lodg'd  as  I 
coulii  wilh  the  woi  II  of  my  enemies.  Good 
(iod,  what  a  villainous  hoil,  and  what  a 
wretched  inn  !  I  thought  that  niglu  I  had 
not  fallen  into  the  hands  of  CuiC,  but  of 
the  C'id'jPs,  and  of  the  robber  >SVw-//,  and 
tlu  rctorc  1  got  up  before  break  of  day  into 
the  calalh.  i'heie  being  but  feveii  miles 
of  good  way  to  Bnjaa,  I  got  thiiher  be- 
times in  the  morning,  where  I  lliy'd  fo 
long,  as  to  buy  a  cafe  of  pillols  to  ride  with, 
and  fome  other  fmall  things. 

All  I  can  tell  you  concerning  this  city, 
is  that  it  is  feated  in  a  pl.iin  between  the 
two  rivers,  .!/r'.'.;  and  Suviii'iiie;  tiietirfton 
ti-.e  well,  the  other  on  the  eall,  and  water'd 
by  another  rivulet  callM  IlGii/zo.  The  calUe 
Hands  on  a  hill,  and  has  a  garifon  of  four 
hundrLd  men.     The  territory  is  of  a  great 
extent,  but  would  not  be  fruitful  without 
the  help  of  the  two  aforefaid  rivers,  whence 
the  water  is  deriv'd  in  trenches  throughout 
all  the  fields,  and,  by  that  means,  it  pro- 
duces plenty  of  all  things  ncceffary  for  the 
fupport  of  human  life,  and  for  delight. 
The  compafs  of  the  city  is  laid  to  be 
t,j  l'ih.i  five   miles,    well  fortify M.      The  citizens 
iuAi.ii.     houfes  make  no  great  Ihew,  tho'  they  are 
rich  enoiigh,  and  alfei^t  greatncfs.  The  moll 
remarkable  llrudurcs,  in  my  opinion,  arc 
the  bifliop's  and  Pcijhi'a  pal.iccs,  and  the 
cathedral.     The  gentry  are  not  fo  numerous 
here  as  at  Va-oiui,  but  on  the  other  hand, 
it  is  more  populous,  the  inhabitants  being 
about  fifty  thoufand,  th.'  greater  part  where- 
of are  gun-fmiths,  or  work  in  flecl. 
(,otf'.'i-         The  government  is  not  in  the  citizens, 
vwn  aiJ  [,.,f  jp,  (^y(,  prefet'ts,    and  therefore  juflicc 
rr.i..'(«-    .^   Lu,t-[;..|-  -alniiniflreii,    becaufe  there  is  no 
p.irtiality  •,  which  n  very  requilitc,  efpeci- 
ally  in  fuch  cities  where  there  are  many  bul- 
lies and  turbulent  fellows.     The  fovereignty 
of  it  was  by  thcmfelves  conferr'd  on  the 
Vculiaiii,    in   the    year    14.16.    when  they 
fliook  off  the  heavy  yoke  of  Philip  Maria 
Voi..  VI. 


^7/ift/;/(duke  of  iV/;7.(/; ;  but  in  1502.  it  CrMni,; 
taken  from  them  by  Z.(vnj  XII.  king  of*''''V^ 
Frtiiue;  then  tran>terr'd  to  the  emperor 
Atiiximiliaii,  to  ChaiUs  V.  ami  to  king 
l-'iuiicn  1.  till  at  kill,  with  much  difJiculiy, 
tiny  lecoverd  it  in  I'jii.  Our  hillorims 
have  inlorm'd  you,  that  fincc  then  it  has 
fullerM  other  calamities,  and  Hill  lonti- 
nues  fibjedt  to  that  commonwealth.  If  we 
look  back  to  ancientcr  times,  it  firit  feic 
the  fury  of  the  Goths,  for  it  could  not  cx- 
peft  to  fire  better  than  the  rell,  and  after 
them,  of  the  Hiiiis ;  and  then  rebuilt  by 
th.'  emperor  Aiurcian.  When  the  Longo- 
Ihirdi  invaded  Jiii/y,  it  continu'd  under  their 
dominion  from  Alboima,  to  king  Dijukrius, 
who  wasoverthroNsn  by  Charlcmuign.  After 
his  death  it  had  feveral  fovereigns,  and,  in 
the  days  of  Olho,  was  reckonetl  among  the 
frei;  cities,  till  }{c)n-y  VI.  who  depriv'd  it 
(if  liberty  and  walls.  Next  it  labour'd  un 
cLrthe  lai'.tionsol  the  Giiclphi  .\n\.\  Gibdlins, 
names  to  Ii.'.h.  M.  Mijlino  iklLi  StdLi 
found  means  to  poffefs  liimfelf  of  it ;  but 
his  lovereignry  killed  not  long,  being  gain'd 
by  fraud  i  for  Azzo  yi/ioiui  exiielT'd  him 
by  force,  and  then  his  pollerity  held  it  till 
Philip  Mtiriii  afoiefiiil. 

Having  concludeil  my  fmall  aflairs,  I 
mounted  on  horfeback  for  Btigiww.  At 
the  mid-way  I  iAfi  Pulazr.uoio,  a  pLice  not  raUsKn, 
inconfiderable  ;  and,  aftjr  thirty  miles'" 
riding,  arriv'd  at  that  city  before  night ; 
finding  the  proverb  true,  that  a  good 
is  never  long.  I  fay  it  is  good  to  the  bottom 
of  the  hill  on  wliieh  Bergamo  llantls,  whence 
I  afcended  with  much  trouble  for  a  mile, 
which,  for  the  rcafon  aforefaid,  is  as  bad 
as  three. 

This  city,  in  fliape,  is  longifli,  and  for  Crr^/iw. 
good  reafons  encompafled  with  a  ilrong 
wall,  as  being  on  the  frontiers  ;  yet,  inclu- 
ding all  the  luburbs,  it  is  but  three  miles 
in  compafs.  The  number  of  the  inhabi- 
tants is  not  above  twenty-feven  thoufand  ; 
and  this  perhaps  becaufe  the  people  of  fitr- 
gamo  love  wandring,  and  loon  growing  rich 
by  their  ingenuity,  they  fettle  in  thole  pla- 
ces where  they  have  found  fortune  favour- 
able. The  women  arc  beautiful  and  witty, 
but  it  is  not  plealant  to  hear  them  talk, 
their  language  is  fo  barbarous.  That  maid, 
who  made  choice  ofdeath,  boldly  dabbing 
herfelf  with  a  knife  rather  than  to  be  dc- 
bauch'd  by  the  emperor  I rcitrick,  will  be 
an  cverlalling  monument  of  their  bravery. 
I  know  not  whether  the  Lulitsof  Btrgdimi 
would  at  this  time  cut  their  throats  to  ac- 
quire fuch  icnown  ;  or  wheihcr  that  maid 
liid  it  only  to  prefcrvc  her  challity.  It  often 
happens,  that  a  woman,  who  is  not  unkind 
to  another,  will  prove  coy  to  a  prince,  for 
fear  of  being  a  whore  upon  record,  as  was, 
S  faid 

I(  ■. 


A  DefcYifytion  of  Milan. 


■  r.iid  L'y  a  ccruin  l.uly.     T!\e  caftle  is  ga- 
'  rilon'd  by  five  liundrfd  foot,  as  I  wastokl ; 
for  I  li.iil  not  tiiii--  to  fee  it. 

There  arc  gooil  biiiliiings,  both  jnibhck 
and  private.  .'Vmong  tiie  moll  confiderablo 
is  rnl-  church  of  our  lady,  where  i^  a  cii- 
riojr,  tomb  o\' Bjnbihmtu  Cu^lmic,  the  ca- 
thedral and  the  Domimains,  famous  for  its 
pul[iit  of  molt  curious  wood.  In  the  niona- 
llcry  is  a  noble  library,  founded  by  /ILx- 
antlcr  Maiiht:ngbi.  This  city  has  beiti  fub- 
jecT:  to  as  vicifTitudes  as  the  oiiiers 
before- mentioned,  and  thcretore  it  is  need- 
Icfs  to  trouble  you  any  more  witli  the  Ciu'.bi, 
Hum,  yaihl.i'.s,  Lon^^ckuJj,  Clj,nltma{!^ii, 
Oiho,  Henry,  tlie  S..i!.i's,  l-'ijlonli,  Muxi- 
miUdii,  and  I  know  not  wiio. 

Yefterday,  having  hir'd  two  horfes  to 
Canomca,  for  (xk  h.iilin  Jivre.,  I  bid  adieu 
to  Bergamo.  The  guartls  (!o[)t  me  at  going 
out,  becaufe,  being  .i  lir.uiger,  1  not 
taken  the  ufual  [jafs  •,  wjiiili  great  over- 
fight  was  rectify'd  by  J'aying  twenty-four 
SjIJs.  Having  rode  twelve  miles,  1  came 
.ibout  eleven  to  Ccinoiiiij,  a  fm.dl  journey, 
and  ilay'd  tlu  re  till  nigiit.  About  tiie  dulk 
of  tlie  evening  I  took  boat,  whicii  brougiiu 
m.'<cig!itcen  miles  to  this  city,  paying  ten 
Sc!J:,  or  pence,  tor  my  pafTige,  ami  thus 
tnter'd  Alt!. in  this  morning  .it  fix  of  the 
clock.  I  defign  to  il.iy  here  fix  days,  but 
Ihall  not  fail  to  write  lo  you  b.fore  I  de- 
jurt.  In  tiie  mean  while  I  hope  you  will 
not  fail  to  love  me  as  hitiierto,  and  um,  Ui. 

..'t '. 

'      'ill     ''•'■ 

III'    IJi'     ■*i'\''' 

'I  a 

;   ii 


u1  Jl.ort  acc'.ant  'jJ  Milan. 

I  Wrote  t  you  the  day  before  ycrtcrday, 
that  I  Ihould  llay  here  fi.^  days,  becaule 
1  really  thought  I  might  lee  mighty  mat- 
ters; but  finee  things  tall  out  oiherwile  ■, 
•and  1  have  an  e.irnell  defire  to  be  in  Unn- 
^ar\\  before  the  camiuign  is  over,  I  am 
pofirively  refolved  to  be  gone  to-morrow 
to  'Iiir::: :  it  is  tl'.eretore  requilite,  in  pur- 
fuance  of  my  duty  and  promife,  be  it  weil 
or  ill  done,  to  give  you  an  account  of  wh.i: 

y.''.'.".       I  could  fee  in  Mi!.in  during  fo  fhort  a  ftay. 

■j..ct.>Uc.  The  governor's  is  very  large,  but 
not  fo  magnificent  and  lofty  as  tliat  of 
N.ifli's.  On  t!ie  grountl  floor,  even  with 
the  court,  are  the  apartments  of  two  ordi- 
nary magillrates  ;  and  on  the  left,  above 
thofe,  of"  the  twelve,  with  their  prefident  ; 
and  there  alfo  is  the  court,  or  hall  for 
trials.  On  the  right  are  the  governor's 
lodgings,  indifierently  adorn'd  ;  nor  is 
there  any  thing  elfe  remarkable. 

The  caftle  is  wellcontriv'd  .iccording  to 
the  manner  of  fortification  in  ufe  an  hun- 
dred years  ago.  There  are  in  it  about  an 
hundred  and  fifty  pieces  of  cannon,  and  the 
water  ;s  let  into  the  ditch  upon  occalion. 

T.v  cul.c-      As  for  the  D'.ir.o,  or  catiudral,  I  own  it 

'"■■■i  is  as  magnificent,  and  better  adorn'd  than 
fame  reports ;  yet  it  does  not  pleafe  me  -, 
becaufe  neitiur  the  Cotlnck  architefture  nor 
ornaments  fuit  with  my  humour.  Thole 
very  fliarp  little  pyramids  and  foliages, 
wiiiiout  any  fymmetry  •,  thole  figures  hang- 
ing in  the  air  ;  thofe  arches  of  lo  cxtrava- 
ga'nt  a  l-.eigluh  i  tl;o!e  many  ranks  of  cor- 
nices upon  cornices  -,  thole  litile  cohuiins 
of  no  [i.irticular  order,  as  flenik'r  as  poles ; 
thofe  windows  fo  long  and  intricate  i  thofe 
figures  lb  kime,    wiili  their  arms  clinging 

r.e  t.i1k,  Miir:h  Otii,   i686. 

to  the  body  ;  are  things  I  can  have  no  relifli 
tor.  I  cannot  imagine,  that  thole  barba- 
rians were  ignorant  of  the  be.iuty  and  per- 
fection of  ancient  llrui'tures  •,  but  am  rather 
inclin'd  to  believe,  they  politickly  contriv'd 
to  introduce  their  own  ciilhjms,  a  nil  blot 
out  the  very  memory  of  the  Runuin  civility 
and  poliunefi.  However  it  is,  the  church 
has  five  ifles,  witli  fifty-two  large  pillars 
that  fupport  the  roof  and  .irches.  The  high 
altar  is  adorn'd  with  cu:ious  m.^rble,  as  is 
the  chapel  of  the  phyficians  ;  but  tlie  two 
pulpits  are  adorn'd  with  molt  v.':(]ui(ite  brafs- 
work.  Not  far  from  th.u,  on  the  left  fiile, 
I  ixw  a  wonderfid  llatue  of  St.  B.nlbJomciD 
tlay'd,  in  which  tlie  ingenious  workman  has 
curioufiy  carv'd  all  the  mulcles,  and  the 
fiiiallell  veins  that  cm  be  feen  in  the  body 
of  man.  This  alone  would  not  make  it 
an  extraordinary  tlatue,  for,  as /i«ua' fays, 
/./;///.  ad  PiJ'jua, 

Aimlliiim  circn  liulum  fahtr  imus  tf  uvgKCS 
Exjrimd,  fe?  mu'.'.fsimitab'.lur  icrt- cipiHos. 

That  is,  Tbejl atiictryiiiU y,-:r:f.  i::  :bciuilia>:d 
fine  hair  in  brjfs  (meaning  the  minutell  parts 
of  the  body)  in!b;J>.!:uji  ab^.ii  .limiiius'j  lle- 
aln:  but  it  is  alio  commendable  tor  good 
draught,  good  imitation  .;nd  proportion,  i 
likely  reprefent.ition  of  motion,  and  all  tli.;c 
is  rcquifite  to  render  fuch  a  pi.  e  perfect. 
After  viewing  number  of  llatues 
there  is  about  the  top  of  the  arch  of  tlii; 
church,  I  took  a  view  of  all  the  city,  ;iid 
judged  it  half  as  big  as  Nap'ia,  notwith- 
ilanding  Ibme  writers  reckon  it  eight  miles 
about,  not  including  the  fiiburb.^,  which 
li^uk  like  fo  may  little  cities.  I  have  no- 

Li  r.  p. 

A  Defer ipt ion  of  Milan. 


tliiii^  to  f.iv  of  .'.ny  otlior  Iniililings,  tor 
I  '.w)-  Jo  no.  'd.!ll'i-vi:  it.  'I'll-  prolvl'-M  lioufc, 
I  lo  I'.iy  inonallury,  ol'  ilu'  "Jr/uils, 
\i  ro.iKtIiiiiv;  UiLT.ibL',  .iiui  tlic  clrjr^;!i  of 
.*■'».  .l.::ni)\    Ixlon^in^;  to  the  •r,...\uii:j,  is 

V  ,\;„i,-        'i':iisinoni::u;  I  !uvj  iliv.-ru'd  inyfili'  in 
.    •  ■■'■/•  tIn.'./,v.V;/'ij'i  liU:-.iry,  K).iuJ.\l  by /vvr/iT(V«: 
Jj3i73ii::j,    nc;)hcw   lo  St.  Cb.irhs ;    for  I 
h.iJ  not  i'ccn  fo  iiLiny  Iwoks  in  m my  days. 
Tliu  ni)!!:  v..1lj.iI)1j  .ir.iong  ilitin  arc  the 
!uai'.iikri;Xj,    cfiiciially  tiiulL;  of  the  lioly 
faih.Toi  tiiolo  v/holiavjcluryeot  it  tak.iii|j 
l;t;k-caiv  tocnri^hic  smlIj  tiujK'^ooJ  boo!;;,, 
vvhi.:h  arc  daily  priiital,  and  all  iicv/  cilitions 
of  till-  bcllau:.'..):-..      1  turii'dovLT  a  bible, 
to  fee  that  tc.;L  '..i  il'.e  lirll  ejiilUe  of  St.  yobi;, 
'Jy(fi  Jitiii  qui  ,,j..iiiji:ium  ilaiit  iii  ccflu,  (Jc. 
b'i-.r  :bi:rj  an-  ibi\.'  :b.U  hc.r  record  in  bewjui 
iJc.  fomiieh  callv'd  of  by  tlx  iritis!. s ;  and 
tiiciv  v/as  no  fucM  thing  in  it.     I  iiii.l  tliis  de- 
fect is  in  all  the  copies,     that  arc  in  places 
formerly  inteCted  v/ith  .lr:iii\  herefy.     But 
in  two  otlier  copies  I  have  I'^en  there,  in  the 
library  ol  the  Dviiiiiiiu::^,   tlio'  tliey  ftein 
not  of  above  four  hundred  ye.irs  Handing, 
1  very  v/ei!  rei.ieniber  tl.e  faid  words  are  to 
he  read. 
M.:.i--iv.(</     pi'oni  t\K  .■!:iibrnjiai:  library  I  went  to  the 
'-■ "—      .M:i,uiiin,  orclolct  oi  rarities  of  .'■  i;;nor  C'.;- 
iijHiCo  SiHuLi.       The  curi<j|ilies  in  it  were 
colL'clcd  by  Lcz:;is  S.'Uula,  a  famous  phyfi- 
cian  ot  the  lali  century,  und  aut'ior  of  the 
c.jmment.iiies  on  Anjiotlc's  problems.     A- 
inong  the  moll  rem.irkable  thiir^ .  there,  they 
ihev/'d  me  fome  concave  Reel  pl.ites,  which 
fe:  lire  to  wood  at  fifteen  yards  dillanee,  and 
mc!c  metals  at  two.      I  did  not  tliink  fit  to 
argue  the  matter  in  tliat  place  i  but,  on  the 
o:;  hand,  am  very  well  latisfy'd,  in  the 
liril:  place,  that  fuch  |  !ates  fet  fire  in  the 
precife  place,  v/here  their  rejected  rays  meet ; 
that  is,    at  a  lefs  dillancc   than  the  fourth 
p.'.rt  of  their  diameter,    as  the  catoptricks 
demonilratc  ;  b^fides  that,  v/here  they  light 
lire,  there  they  have  power  to  melt ;    but 
tliat  beyond  that  point  the  lucid  rays  are  fe- 
p.irated  from  o.^e  another  -,  how  then  is  ic 
poinble,    that  the  fame  plate  lliould  melt 
metal  at  one  diitance,  and  kindle  tire  at  a\\- 
ochcr.     Moreover,  lappofing  that  the  con- 
cave plate  be  a  fegment  of  thirty  degrees, 
and  the  lire  take  witiiin  the  fourth  partot  the 
diameter,  it  plainly  ai)nears,  that  allowing 
ic  to   let  tire  at  fifteen  yards  dillanee,  tlie 
plate  mull  beat  leall  thirteen  yards  diameter, 
or  little  above-,  .uul  this  mull  be  ex[)os'd  to 
the  rays  of  tlve  'ian-,  w'.iieh,  by  reafon  ot  their 
great  dillanee,  are  fuppos'd  to  fall  parallel 
on  ic  i  otherwife,  it  tiie  light  be  near,  and 
f.dl  on  the  plate  oblicjuely,  the  lire  will  take 
not  only  in  the  tourth  part  of  the  diameter 
of  fj)here,  wlureot  the  aforefaid 
is  a  part,  but  in  the  lixtiior  ei;?,!ii.!i,  more  or 

lefs,  in  proportion  to  the  angle  rcceivin;^  it.  f-i-'iut. 
Now  >Vt//.//.;'s  plates  are  fmall,  that  is  porti-  L^«^^ 
ons  of  a  fmall  fphere  i  then  do  you  judge, 
how  I  could  give  cred.ic  to  th,;C  wonderful 
tire  they  told  me  ot.  1  lence  alio  you  may 
inl.r,  by  what  art  v.'as  ic  pollible  tor 
AnblmciUs  to  make  I'ucii  v.ill  Heel  plates  .a 
Sjracufa,  as  to  ij.irn  the  lUm.iii  I'hips  under 
Marullus,  tince  fome  authors  atr.nn,  that 
thofelliipjwere  three  furlongsdiltant,  v/hicli 
i:.  ihrei:  luindreil.ind  feventy-tive  geometri- 
cal paces  i  otiiers  lay  three  //.(/;,/;;  miles,  and 
others  a  bow's  Ihot.  /'.  Kaktr,  who  had 
taken  an  oath  to  give  out  all  hi>  dreams  for 
certaiii  truths,  tells  us  he  w.ts  at  ^jraci'/j, 
•md  that  after  ferious and  mature  deliberation, 
he  lound  the  Hamuli  lliips  were  one  hunilreJ 
anel  tiUy  p.ices  trom  the  wall .  of  the  belieged 
city  i  .IS  it'  that  had  li.ippen'd  but  the  other 
clay,  .ukI  people  renumbered  the  pl.icc 
V.Ik  .-e  the  Ihips  lay,  and  thence  lie  concludes, 
t...iL  ./n/wMf./ci  might  very  v/ell  burn  them. 
'1  ;...e  isnoc[iiellioii  but  tliac  the  Ihip-smult 
ride  v.liere  they  could  not  be  reacL'd  by  the 
arrov.s,  or  Hones,  thrown  by  the  engincj 
cak'd  C,U,iiiill.J,  Scorjiiiiij,  H.dijlic,  and  the 
like  ;  linee  the  cliief  care  of  a  good  com- 
iii..nder  is,  wikly  to  provide  for  the  lalety 
oi  i.i,  men.  Nov/  ic  is  evident,  cliat  the 
arrows  would  do  execution  at  as  great,  if  not 
greater,  dillanee  than  our  muskets  .it  prelent, 
and  therelore  Munelin,  mull  needs  be  at 
leall  one  hundred  and  fifty  geometrical  paces 
trom  the  w.dls  of  Syr.uKJ,;,  v/hich  Ihews 
ii.,.t  the  di.imeterot  An'bi./ic,!,i'->  pLtesmull 
be  about  onehiindred  .md  thirty  p-.ces  to  fee 
lire  at  that  ilillaiice.  Wiio  knows  but  ho 
might  lend  to  tlie  other  angle  oiHiiilv,  v/hcre 
mount  ./:';;;.;  ilamls,  to  have  them  made  by 
P'iiL\in,  and  all  his  Cyduts  f  According  to 
thefe  principle^  it  is  pl.iin,  tliat  Kirkcr  li  as 
good  a  logician  in  deducing  fuch  a  confe- 
quence,  as  he  Ihews  hmJelt  elfewliere  a 
philofopiier,  and  a  philologill  \  aiul  yet  1 
dare  not  afHrm  that  hiltorian's  fdfuy  ;  the 
authority  of  our  molt  learned  Ci.diUj  G.i 
lili-i,  who  I  think  does  not  look  upon  the  f.iCi: 
as  impoihble,  being  of  great  force  with  me. 
Perh.ips  he  I'uppoles  tai.-.  might  be  done  by 
means  of  fome  parabolical  plate. 

Si^nior  ScildLi  has  alio  a  half  llatue  ol  a 
man,  who,  by  tlve  helpoffomewlieels,  t'..eins 
to  move  of  itfelf;  a  monllrous  child  with 
two  heads,  four  arms,  ami  four  legs,  born 
alive,  of  a  Milunefc  worn. in,  and  leveral 
things  petrify'd  in  a  river  ;  perhaps  it  may 
be  our 

CLtiiins  i:o:i  t'ni:iis  .Lcrrii.        Vir!'. 

Befides  abundance  of  iirecious  Hones  and 
iMi ities  of  the  Eiill  ar.ti  //'._,./  Iniiici  -,  as  a 
fort  of  garments  worn  by  the  Cbiiiifi  [irieHs, 
m.ide  ot  the  leathers  of  parrots,  and  other 



',;,.   ft 



Hm:  ill 


lii  VIM  1. 

Novara;  Vercelli,  Turin,  &c.         Let.  lo.   W  1-r.^- 

fuch  colour'il  birds  j  Chinefe  books  i  uni- 
corn's horns ;  whales  pizzlts ;  and,  in  fliort, 
llvcral  Horns  of  wonderful  natures;  and 
among  thcin  one  ioiind  in  Corftca,  which 
tiicy  lay  is  fpiin  and  wove  like  flax  or 
hemp,  and  cleanllv.  by  the  fire  inftead  of 
being  burnt  ;  and  this,  if  Imiftakenot,  is 
call'd  Jmidiito.  I  have  not  feen  the  exjK'ri- 
inent  made,  and  am  of  opinion,  there  is 
no  danger  of  being  damn'd  for  not  believ- 
ing it. 

What  remains  is,  that  this  city  is  thought 
to  have  been  built  by  the  Guiils,  call'd  Se- 
noKi>,  who  gave  this  countiy  the  name  of 

Ciftil/hte  Gaul.  At  prefent  it  containsabout 
one  hundred  and  thirty  thouland  inhabitants, 
well  behav'd ;  and  they  have  above  lixty 
fcr  cctil.  of  the  Sicifs  fpirit  and  wit.  No 
place  can  be  more  plentiful  i  for  I  have  fpcnc 
but  feven  Iialian  livres  in  two  days,  for  my 
own  and  fervant's  diet  and  lodging,  and  yet 
I  eat  the  very  bell  the  country  allorda. 

The  man  that  is  to  carry  me  to-morrow 
to  Novara,  is  jull  come  in  to  agree  tor  the 
hire  of  horlcs :  I  cannot  detain  him  from  his 
bufinefs,  nor  will  he  Itay ;  and  therefore  I 
forbear  troubling  you  any  longer  with  my 
infipidnefs,  fci'. 

lltitti    of 

Of  Novara,  Vercelli,    mid 


Turin,   niiJ  (/td-r  nf  Savoy '^  dominions,   liith  j'omt 
learned  rcJlcCiioui. 


OUR  letters  were  always  moft  accep- 
table to  me ;  but  they  have  at  this 
time  [)ai-ticularly  given  me  much  greater  fa- 
tisliiCtion,  than  I  Ihall  expeft  to  meet  with 
.n  long  time  in  this  world.  Perhaps  the  di- 
thr.ce  may  occafion  tliis  pleafure  i  or  elfe  it 
Ts  bccuife  removing  by  degrees  towards  tin' 
..'///i,  and  finding  molt  men  to  part..ue  ot 
their  lavagenefs:  I  lind  in  your  wonls  alort 
of  y>  nefcay  quoy,  of  tiiat  genteel  behaviour, 
and  that  learned  way  of  difrourfing,  nature 
has  peculiarly  bcllow'd  on  the  better  fort  ot 
our  country-men.  I  could  linil  in  my  heart 
to  panegyrize  on  thcbcautifulcityof  A^d/i/c- i 
butnoman  wouldtake  my  word,  tor  I  lliould 
be  look'd  upon  as  too  p.irtial.  However, 
I  find  one  tiling  very  commendable  in  thcte 
parts;  which  is,  that  the  tubjed  of  common 
difcourfe  is  not  upon  the  lives  and  actions  of 
others,  as  with  us,  where  you  hear  notliing 
lUu  fre-  from  morning  till  night,  efpccially  among 
itiiM:^  to  thofe  that  would  be  thouglit  learned,  but,  1 
';-"'""'i' *7  cannot  imagine  what  heads  fuch  a  one  and 

^fmi'ln  in  '^"^''  ^  '^"^  '"^''"  '  ^Vli'it  has  fuch  another 
gii^.,,,  learn'd  by  lb  many  years  iludy,  but  a  few 
fcrapsof  feveral  forts.'  What  docs  he  mean 
by  hi;i  pedantry  ?  What  have  we  to  do  witii 
tliofe  med.ils  and  infcriptions  he  talks  ot  i* 
1  le  pretends  to  underlhind  what  is  beneficial 
totlie  publick,  ;,ndtothe  packet.  This  is 
the  dilcourfeol  thofe  gulls  you  well  know. 
Another  ging  has  a  different  note;  for  if 
the  talk  be  ot  philotbphy,  they  prcfently 
fall  a  railing  at  the  Pcripaiei'uks,  without 
any  diflincflion  ;  of  the  Gajfemlijts,  bccaule 
t!iey  follow  the  fenfes  -,  ol  the  Car!,'fians, 
bccaufe  they  blindly  follow  their  mailer  ; 
aiid  tlien  th(  y  feoff  at,  undervalue,  and  con- 
clude ,dl  thole  to  be  dull  pcrfons,  who  do 
notalTcnt  to  all  they  fay-,  but  if  the  folid 
clifc:ull;ng  of  any  truth  be  feriouffy  iinder- 
niken,  one  has  a  pain  in  his  flomach,  ano- 

Turin,  Mmc\\  the  i^th,   i686. 
tlier  in  his  head  ;  one  has  not  read  tor  tome 
time,  and  forgets,  another  muflvilit  a  liiendi 
anil  every  one  takes  his  leave  a  leveral  way. 
Every  book  is  talk'd  of,  and  cenfur'd  in  the 
grols  1  but  you  will  feldom  find  themdetccnd 
to  particulars,  that  prove  the  reailing  of  it. 
I'lie  tame  happens  as  to  divines  ;  the  one, 
they  lay,  does  not  underlland  ccclefiaflica! 
hillory  ;  another  argues  upon  nothing  ;  fuch 
a  one  takes  too  much  libtrty,    and   fuch  a 
one  is  too  precife.     In  the  Bcllfi  Lrilres,  or 
more    gentleman  like  Ihidies,    one    thinks 
hinifelf  to  be  well  le.irned,  and  w  ill  prefide, 
becaulc  he  h.isgot  many  f.ig-enilsof  Boccacc, 
Daiile,  Pelraicb,    and  tome  other  of   the 
t"agc> ;  and  will  Iwear  by  the  tbid  oi' Ei nfmtis, 
that  if  he  knew  wh;it  lubjedl  to  write  on,  he 
would  not  be  out-done  by  the  befl  of  them. 
Another,  tliould  PLito,  Cbryfipfin,  Socrates, 
and  wlio  you  pleale  befitles,   come  to  lift- 
again,  would  tell  you  they  did  nothing  to 
the  purpofe,  unlets  they  writ  to  their  mind ; 
and  fliould  llorinr  rife  again  to  compofe  an 
heroic  poem  in  our  tongue,  in  other  terms 
than  thofe  of  Dante,    or  ci  Cafa,  he  would 
not  be  worth  a  doit.     They  will  tell  you  it 
i^  needlet's  labour  to  regard  any  otlicr  noble 
language,  betauleall  good  autiiors  are  trnnf- 
lated   into  our  own.     Others  indeavour  to 
fliine,  and  be  thought  wits  by  running  down 
the  belt  of  the  antients.  One  finds  the  Pata- 
vinity  in  L:vy ;  anotlier  the  /tjlaticknefs  in 
Cicero  ;  another  bleniillies  in  Horace's  Odes; 
another  meannefs  in  Oviil  -,  another  infolcncc 
mLucan;  and  another  is  cloy'd  with  read- 
ing of  Claudian  and  Siathis :     fo  1  was  told 
of  one,  that  maintain'd  he  had  found  three 
improprieties  in  language,  in  tlie  firfl  verfe 
of  Homer.     Do  you  now  apply  tlie  golden 
rule,  which   we  call  of  three,    and  lay,  if 
the  antient  mailers  are  thus  br.mded,  the* 
death  ha«  rcmov'd  them  beyond  envy,  what 



l.U.i'.     10. 

(•///•('.(,  or 
ic  thinks 
1  prcfidf, 
\  Horciur, 
of  the 
on,  he 


to  lite- 
)thing  to 
mind  •, 
pofc  an 
you  ic 
r  nobli: 
c  tninf- 
vour  to 
g  down 
ii  rci\d- 
.is  told 
d  three 
11  vcrfc 
lay,  if 
d,  tho* 


Novara,  VcrccIIi,  Turin,  O'c, 


\;v\K  V.J  cxpiv'l i'  Nor  dois  thi'ir  r.ige  (lop 
her ,  lor  our  le.irn'.-.l  toinmonwealtli  is  di- 
vi;l:d  111  iCi'Jt  into  jurii^-ii  ..nd  king  a 
trieiiiioon  •,  is  iu.-iiei.nitaure  to  be  Rorn'd 
,UHl(oitenin'dby  anothi;-,  even  tlio' a  man 
l'iU>.i!di.o\v;i;KiiTs ;  anuon  the  orlier  hand,  a 
Undent  ii  k>giek.,  forconv.Tiing  one  year  wiili 
mat  party,  .md  learning  I'omt  terror  in  lalhi- 
oii,  is  cry'd  uj)  as  on  ■  that  aus  aiiain'd  ilie 
hii;!; .il  piuh  ol  lionuur  and  glory.  My 
oiniliMC  is,  that  they  being  nun  who  will 
never  write  a  Iheei  ol-  paper  in  a  liiouland 
years,  p.rliaps  my  poor  (-ap;ieity  will  be 
I, lore  renownetl  in  luture  ages,  tlun  all  their 
great  wildom,  and  lonlecjuenciy  that  poor 
wraeh,  w  ho  makes  a  jell  ot  n.y  ijril)bling, 
will  have  nootlier  numoiy  behind  lum,  but 
l!ie  mention  made  ol  him  in  tliis  letter. 

At  mihi,  aiwd  vivo r/i Ir.iXchl  invUla  liiiha, 
Poji  Oi'huin  <li(]l:a Jivwre  reihlft  /mhos. 

Propert.  i.V;'.  i.  lik  j. 

That  is,  //ore  muchfoever  lam  UffiU'il,  Kh'tljl 
Iruihi^,  b_\'  ibi-  ifin-m-i  croud.,  J pill afUr  iUuth 
ircnz'i!  ddtthli  b'liiour. 

And  tiii'  may  I'uinci-  at  prellnt. 

Before  1  eoii.'"  to  the  particulars  of  my 
jour.iey,  ar.^l  ;'.'>'"g(  i  wii.U  lam  about  to  lay, 
i)i  pkas'd  lo.uid  this  lo  the  oth-. r  conjectures, 
I  Ant  to  you  lome  diys  linej  ag.inll  John 
Sddcir,  wiiicli  IS  tliitti\o'  l-'i'jm  fays  ilie 
pyratcsof  CV/'/i ;.:  wereo'.  enhrown  by  Primr,}-, 
yetiieiioes  not  lay,  the  lownign  i;oannand 
■was  given  iiim.  But  oilier  liiiLorians  intorm 
us,  tiiac  lie  had  thetonimand  of  the  navy, 
notol  the  lea,  v.itii  |;roeonfuiar  powci  t.f- 
ttiu'ing  I'ii'.y  miles  up  tlie  l.iml,  in  all  mari- 
time provinces  ;  whenci-  fome  medals  ot  his 
haveb.ehleen,\viLiuhisinkri])tion,M  AC".  Nus 
111  s  l.Mi>.  1t;;r.  an.l  on  the  reverie,  1*r. 

ClAS.   ET.   09.A.    iVlAKir.    E.K.  S.    C.       As 

concuiiing  the  UdL/font.,  and  that  the  pro- 
tonlul  of  ,■///,(  iiaJ  juiifdiction  over  the  cities, 
as  I  f  iid  belore,  and  not  over  the  waters ; 
adal  to  that  the  words  of  tlie  em|)eror 
'Jiijlhudti'i,  \i\.\\  edict,  thus  riaiillated  into 
Lcdxn  by  llrr.ry  Agdutis.  Edwi.i  K-ilra  ejl 
Jctciiua,  q:'.'jinodn  'Jobituna  Scniiiiiuniis,  per 
iLlLji  biiittm.  III  citi  ::finii:e  mlioiiidoriitii  iivi- 
l!um,J.\:j  [Id  vucaiUiii-)jlUminuin  [rovcittiinm, 
cC'/imijfa  fi^nii'^  ejjlin,  cum  in  Regioni.m 
idjtit  ■'jiiKljct,  a  nu'.Li  ;■(',  qutc  ad  fumnuuii 
dcjn:!:,i:(,t.cin  ffdlarct,  (djinuurit  \  L'l  vi- 
ta ri-s  jo.''tj'i!/.\j  J..;  i£  y.verjiis  in  almam  uritiii  ijfc  quidcm  i::iro  iil>iii.diyi\)il, 
Jli.'lrjpoiitiijrui'i  'vcro  Rdoioni  oinuem,  pin- 
viiui:q!i.t.  iKuipcriittfin  nH'jtwril,  Use.  Im- 
poriing  thus  much  in  Ihort,  ll^'e  have  been 
ii:hn/i\t  lljtil  John,  our  contnllcr',!ii;l>out 
i  lelklpont,  bci;:^  come  into  :bal  Region, 
rthjhiii!^ d from  i:o  md>ii:cr  c.f  lafine  \  tluiuLr'd 
lUiitia,  tiiid rtiundn^  uilo  /vis cdy  -icii/j  a! iiii- 
d;ii:cc  cf  gold,  left  uilcr  and  ex'lremc  nviriy 
Vol..  VI. 

to  the  Region  ot  I  lellefpont,  c;'.'.  i  .mi ''■I'lrii.i. 
content  that  .Vf/.'('*/s  deal  ell  fri.nd  lh"akll)e  ^-^.-"^^ 
jutlge,  whether  the  nimc  ol  J\<xi''ii  and 
C//_>'may  be  apply'd  to  the  le.i.  Hut  he  li 
none  of  the  lirli,  tiiit  bting  milled  by  par- 
tiality has  m.ide  Inch  millakes:  Nor  Jliall  I 
be  the  lall,  for  relying  too  much  on  my  me- 
mory :  V>  hen  I  mention'd  ]i.irtl.>o!oi/wu.'  iV 
Bir^iimo  to  you  Irom  (■  ei:ue,  1  laid  he  had 
gain'd  honour  at  the  battle  of  Le[aiito, 
againll  the  -furki  ;  thi.i  was  no  fr.iall  millake, 
but  an  extraordiiury  bull  v  lor  iho'  one  ot 
the  l.iir.iiy  ot  Cc^i'Ju;  ii  1  be  not  out  again,  the  command  of  a  gdl-y  there,  yet 
Bartholomew:  was  d.ead  Icver.d  year:;  be(ore, 
that  is  in  i47.).  1  hus  ic  is  prt.i'>,r  liiat  I 
recant  mylelf  bi  fore  .ir.oJ..r  hi:-,  t!^    b'ot. 

i'ocome  to  is  my  prop.r  l.ufir.i  Is. 
I  departed  MiLm  on  /.  edni'fday  lail,  payi"g 
ten-pence  for  going  out,  and  travcl''r.g  loiir- 
tecn  m:ks,  dined  at  the  m.onaif.iy  ot  t'ia 
(;  ihcn  palling  by  fome  vill  gcs,  ani.1 
l\dcon:'s  ferry  in  a  l)oat,  I  anivt  1  at  Is'jvara,  ; 
about  four  in  the  afternoon,  ei[;Iitein  miles 
froiii  Ahlini.  'J'liis  pLue  biing  ori  the  iron- 
tiers,  is  garifon'd  by  thirty  coiiijanes, 
and  troops  ol  horfe  anil  Kjot.  It.  ha;  .i  good 
cafd  ■,  and  is  all  eneompaiVd  with  liioiig 
walls-,  but  it  is  no  larger  than  our  Cii/iiti. 
There  are  abundance  ol  noble  lamilies  in  it, 
very  well  to  pal's,  fo  that  there  ni.iy  be  about; 
fixty  coaches  kept  in  ic.  The  bi  ll  rliurclies, 
for  1  hail  not  killire  to  he  any  thing  elfe, 
are  the  J)omo,  or  catheilral,  St.  Gaudeiuius, 
and  .St.  A/r/;<:ol  the  BiiriKiLitt.. 

On  Tburjdciy  morning  about  nine  o'clock, 
bidding  adieu  to  Ncv:irii,  I  eiuer'il  into  Pied- 
m'jtii,  and  after  riding  cwelve  miles  caine  to 
hrtelli,  fo  c.ill'd,  as  lome  think,  Idiwucim  Vcrc<:\\. 
Viikris  Ciiidin  ;  becaule  l.iid  to  be  built  be- 
fore the  wars  of  Trov,  \j  one  k'eneu,  and 
his  fon  Eiitio.  However,  Pliny  believes 
it  was  founded  by  the  Libui,  people  ol  that 
iiime  territory  ;  and  others  diher.  its  eom- 
pafs  isbutfmall,  the  inhabitants  ildn,  and  tlic 
houles  mean.  /  ulcrius  Lmdiunl,  DLike  of 
Savoy,  inclos'd  it  with  good  modern  lorti- 
lications,  and  added  a  tonfuler.dile  calile,  fo 
that  it  may  bereckonVl  one  of  the  lliongell 
places  in  Itidy.  Pope  Leo  the  9th,  held  a 
council  there.  In  i^io,  incetline  broils 
broughc  it  under  the  mar(]uifsof  Al0ntUrr.1l  1 
next  under  the  dukes  ot  Mdiin,  and  lallly 
it  tUl  to  thole  of  Sdfoy,  who  tho'  they  have 
leveral  times  loll,  and  recovcr'd  it,  yet 
they  have  held  it  pe.iceably  ever  lince  the 
Pyrencdn  treaty. 

About  noon  I  fet  out  again,  and  cr.ivell'd 
it!  miles,  loScon,  in  fight  of  thole  mountain;, 
of  which  Ennius,  wiili  good  rcalon,  laid, 

Jupiter  hybernos  cana  nive  confpuit  Alpes. 

Jove  covers  the  ivinter  Alps  itjith  Loaryjm'.y. 






I'!'*!    ;.: 



yl  Defer t [it ion  0}  Vm\v\,   &c.  Lr:r.  fo.    W  j^^^ 

r.rMKiii.   Alvl  !^ot  tliith-'v  .u  niglu,    Imviu^  tin: 
^>^\^^  tainous  lbrci\ls  oi  C.izM oi>  tin;  k U  li.inJ,  in 
the  I'l.iin. 

'I'll.-  next  iiKirninp;,  hiving  but  i-i^litccn 
miles  !  jrc  to  this  city,  1  let  out  at  hrcak 
of  ilay,  anil  had  not  rode  lar  b'.torc  I  was 
to  pals  the  lorry  at  Dir.i  U.illiiu  ;  whtri.'  the 
pallape  colls  thiec-jiencc.  1-ivc  miles  bc- 
yonil  ic  I  I'.uv  the  town  of  .Vii'./.t,  anil  to 
toncluile,  intcr'cl  liinii  about  fix  i;i  tite 
Tuuii.  I  lliuiilil  have  enough  toilo,  if,  acconling 

to  thceulloni  of  [geographers,  I  went  about 
to  ttace  its  firft  touiulaiion,  ami  orij^  •, 
ami  perli.ips  you  nii[fht  be  lo  tiiM,  as  never 
to  care  to  reail  any  more  ot  my  letters  it 
they  exeeeileil  ten  lines.  Theretore  without 
going  ..ny  hirther,  to  I'earch  out,  whetlier 
It  was  built  by  hridmus,  or  one  of  .Vo.j/i's 
grandloiis,  it  ii  fuffieient  for  you  to  tall  to 
inind,  that  tlie  Romans  call'il  it  .lii\^iiltit 
Tiiiinnoryiii,  alter  /lir^Kjlus  h.iving  l'uL)iluM 
the  neighbouring,  made  it  a  colony, 
together  with  .'l:'j;iijlti  Pi\:loria  Siiljljori'/n, 
now  cill'il  /  ii!.ij)\iii.a,  on  the  maritime  bor- 
ders of  Pryiiihr.  1  lie  compafsof  it  isnow 
greater  than  lormerly  ;  foralnnieh  as  duke 
I'V.'criu:  .Im.iiLiti  i\n\[h\\  the  new  walls  and 
royal  baltions,  begun  by  his  father  Chailis 
Em.viuA  1  lb  that,  adding  to  it  the  beautiful 
and  ftrong  citadel,  'Tiiiin  may  be  reckon'd 
one  of  the  tinell  places  in  all  //.i/v.  Its  liiu- 
ation  is  [ilain  and  dclighttul,  tweiuy  miles  from  the  foot  of  the  .ilpi  ;  whenee 
a  fmall  river  call'd  Dorctlay  runs  into  the 
city,  and  palling  under  a  llately  and  well- 
built  tower  there  is  in  the  middle  of  it, 
glides  on  to  fall  into  the  Po. 

'I'hc  finelL  fquare,  in  my  opinion,  is  that  ol 
ijt.  Clhulcs;  and  il  my  woril  may  be  taken, 
you  may  reckon  it  next  to  thatot  St:  ALir': 
at  Fi-imc  i  I  ither  in  regard  of  its  fpaeioufnels, 
or  of  t!ie  llately  [lortieo's  and  jialaees  that 
indole  it.  On  the  contrary,  there  is  no 
01  n.iment  worth  naming,  in  that  which  leads 
to  his  roy.U  highnefs's  palace,  the  front 
whereof  is  of  a  plain,  tho'  magnihcent 
IhiiCture.  I'he  g.ite  of  it  is  defended  by 
two  ci;lverin5  Handing  in  the  court ;  and 
had  there  been  fuch  to  guard  the  garden  ot 
the  ll-'jleriilcs,  or  the  golden  lleece,  inllead 
of  tlie  dragon  and  the  Aiiiiotaur,  neither 
the  Ar^^'jiuuiti  nor  IlcraUes  had  llieceeded  in 
tiieir  uuerpri<ces.  The  Hairs  to  go  up  are 
extraordin.iry  eafy,  fpacious,  and  curioufly 
ailorn'i!  witn  Ibatues-,  among  which  is 
ot  Vuioruts  Air.adcus,  in  brafs,  on  a  marble 
horfe -,  in  Ihort,  they  are  anfwerable  to  the 
•majefiicl:  and  coftly  apartments  they  lead 
to.  It  would  be  a  dillicult  task,  and  tediou;:, 
to  fe:  down  all  therien  turniture  here  is  to 
be  I'-en  ;  but  no  wonder,  conlidering  tiv 
•j;ranclcur  ot  fuch  a  prince.  But  we  mull 
n.jt  [i.'.fs  by  tile  gallery,  a 5  well  in  regard 

ot  the  picture,  of  thv  bed  /.',./.■.;;;  and 
J'l./ni.i  mallet:.,  tlieexcdl'.nt  l!.;tucs,  v.ilua- 
bie  armour,  and  othir  liich  things,  as  on 
aciount  1. 1  lonie  extraordin.iry  r,.re  ni,.r,u- 
liripts.  Among  the  relt,  tlurc  are  twuity- 
fix  volumes  of  our  Pirro  l.t^or'w,  by  lome 
v.riiii|',tully  bclievM  to  be  a  Kiiiiaii,  wherein 
h'-  Very  learnedly  and  judi^ioully  explains 
.■.hundance  of  v.du.ililellatues,  med.ds,  anil 
in'.erii  ticns.  WoukltoGod,  that  as  duke 
(..;.(^Vj  £;ffrtW(t/g.ive  tiglueen  tlioufanil  i!u- 
cats  toi  them,  fomeuther  priiKCof  the  lame 
I'.Oiile  would  be  I  haled,  lu  lay  out  as  much, 
or  little  more,  to  publilh  them,  as  tin  y  de- 
frrvc,  to  the  inhnite  binehi  of  thole  who 
delight  in  Inch  Itu.lies,  bclore  lome  di.mal 
aceiilent  befalls  them.  I  ri-niember  to  li.ive  a  lut  ot  tliis  author,  ,it  the  end  if  .1 
cert.iin  l..irned  llr.uigi'r's  works,  but  cannot 
now  call  to  mind  either  the  works  or  the 
treatifc  ;  and  that  among  the  other  f  lults  he 
lound  '.n  Pino,  he  laid,  that  auihoi  hail  pie- 
tentled  to  underltand  Cna,  but  in  nality 
knew  little  or  nothing  of  ir.  llcri  i.  alio 
the  /ihu-  table,  which,  whilll  at  Alunliui, 
V  .IS  lo  worthily  and  liarnedly  cxpl.iin'il  by 
J.'.it  Kt'j  Pij^noiiii ;  with  other  thing',  ol  j'.reat 
value,  whith  at  ptclLnt  (  ha\e  no  miiul  to 
treat  of. 

Yellenlay   I  went  to  fee  the  inofl  noble  r.'t.i.:.: 
citadel,  to  which  they  are  now  adding  lome  ■•/1..1. 
very  regular  lortiticatioiis.       Strangers  go '" 
th:    .        not  fo  much  tooblerve  the  llren;',th, 


an-  ..ime  up  again  lo.ided  another  way  as 
good,  without  hindering  one  another  in  the 

I  went  thence  to  \'cc  the  place  where  the  tin,, 

courts  meet,   and  look  notice,   that  thel.iw-  [■' 

vers,  tho'  Handing,  cover'd,  as  1  '■"''■ 
writ  to  you  from  /  ciiuf.  I  mult  own  our 
culUim  to  the  contrary  would  be  loim  thing 
realonable,  were  they  always  to  fpeak  in  tin- 
prefence  of  the  viceroy,  at  the  collater.d 
council,  or  ot  the  prefident  in  the  king's 
council,  who  there  reprefenis  his  majelty  ; 
but  in  the  other  courts,  for  what  realon 
Ihould  a  man  ot  worth  lor  his  learning,  or 
honourable  tor  his  age.  Hand  bare,  in  light 
ol  all  the  people,  as  it  he  were  lome  ckrk, 
or .'  But  I  Hray  too  far,  and  (liall 
not  tall  much  fhort  of  railing.  1  .et  us  thai 
leave  thole  matters,  and  Unit  our  eyes  to  be 
thought  good. 

'1  lie  JfjiiUi  have  undertook  to  raile  a '' « 
tnighty  Itructuie,  lor  a  fcminary  of  gentle- 
men, and  it  is  fuch,  that  1  quellion  whether 
till  y  can  do  it  with  their  own  money.  >.'ear 
by  it  u  the  jirinee  ot  Caninian's  palace, 
whiih  is  alii)  .1  magnili.Liit  [-ile,  not  yer 
tinilliid.  To  lay  the  nuih,  all  the  new  city, 
call'd  of  the  Po,  iscmlxllilh'd  with  Hately 



he  wonderful  will,  into  wliicli 
i(;s  can  go  down  .mealy  delcent. 


kice ■',  and  bi.-autitul  unilbiin  llreeis. 



r.  [o. 

Let.  10. 

A  Defer ipt ton  o/'  Turin,  ^c. 


liaii  und 
I,  v.ilu.i- 
,  as  on 
?  m.iiiu- 
liy  loine 
w  hiTcin 


.lis  >>nil 
as  (iukc  (iu- 
the-  Lirnu 

1!>  lUUl'll, 

till  y  <.!(■- 
oil-  wlio 
•  to  li.ive 
fiui  (  t'  .1 
It  c.mnul 
.!>  or  tliu 
f ,111  Its  hi: 

h.iil  inc- 
II  ri.iliiy 
ri  i,;  alio 
l.iin'ii  by 
s  ol  }i;ri'.ic 

miiul  to 

loll  nohlc  CM.;,.' 
iingloinf  •'•"'■•■"'■• 
iiM^crs  gi)  "■ 
whicii  li- 
w.iy  as 
KT  in  the 

iuTC   tllC   I  I'r.,, 

lie  law-  /•' 
.1,    as  P"" 
own  our 

k  in  tile 


ni:i)(liy  i 


ling,  or 

in  liji,l-.t 


mil  fliall 

C  11^  tlllll 

yes  to  bf 

railc  ^  '■  »  . 

not   y<' 


h  (lately 



About  halt  n  mile  from  this  rity,  on  the  h't't-hamlof  the  /•^  is  the  /'',7.'-;»/.vw,  a  p!-.-a- 

furc  hoMl'-,  built  by  Maitamf  Key  !'.,•,  lilKr 

to  king  I. ■■'.fit  the  13th,  as  appears  by  the 

following  inl'cription  over  the  gate. 

Ilic,  iihi  flinivum  Rfx,  pmrilju  di-pnOia, 
jl.iaJf  quiffnt  \  Cbriji'ivii  a  Fiw.ii.i, 
Snhiiii.luf  Ditrijfii,  C\pn  /v'.;;';';./,  Iniii- 
quilliim  hoc  fun  lit  ileluium  Kc^^alihus  jUio- 
rum  ociis  (kilicavil ,  M .  DC  I .  X . 

Tint  is,  J/iir,  tvberf  the  king  of  rivers  Jay- 
ii<\^  jji<l(-  lAi  fu-rciiiefs,  gently  nfoja,  Chrillian 
0/  Fr.ince,  dutcbrfs  oj  Savoy,  and  queni  of 
Cyprus,  hiii  (L-du.itcd  this  her  peaceful  jdeiifure- 
hniifel'ilhrdiveifionnf  her  royal Jniis,  id'io. 

This  palace  is  not  yet  (inilhM,  but  adorn'il 
with  rvirious  anilroltly  turniturc.  'I'lu-reis 
a  I'pot  of  grounil  iiu  lofeil  with  high  walls, 
containing  abunilancc  ot  Hags,  tallow  liccr, 
hares,  ami  fuch  like  creatures.  On  the  op- 
polite  bank  ot  the  river  Itaniis another  llatily 
palace,  belonging  to  tbcilutclu'l's  now  living  i 
but  there  is  nothing  in  it  worth  mentioning. 
They  go  in  co.iches  from  the  city,  to  I'uleit- 
ihw,  in  fummer,  to  take  the  air,  all  the 
way  being  fliaileil  by  tall  popl.irs  on  botii 

The  park  is  three  miles  from  the  city; 
but  for  a  ijuarter  of  a  mile  fliort  of  it,  I  law 
io  many,  ami  fuch  curious  pleafurc-houfes, 
with  two  churches  to  them,  that  it  look'il 
to  mc  more  like  another  fmall  city,  than  a 
place  for  game.  It  is  worth  your  obferving, 
that  tlio'  a  thoufanii  dragoons  arc  now  quar- 
tcreil  there,  molVof  thole  houfes. ire  empty  ; 
yet  they  do  not  all  belong  to  A/.;(/,i;/)r,  but 
many  of  them  to  private  perfons  of  quality. 
Over  the  gate  of  the  palace,  which  gives  its 
name  to  the  territory,  is  a  brats  Itag,  a 
mallerly  piece,  denoting  the  employment 
thatdelightful  place  was  defign'd for.  About 
the  lirlt  court,  which  you  would  take  for 
the  I  .inijlc  o\  Diiuu,  are  abundance  of  iieads 
of  wild  bealls,  v.ich  each  an  inl'cription, 
containing  ihe  name  of  the  |)erfon  by  whom 
llain,  and  th.'  [li.icc  where  lie  found  that 
prey.  In  the  midll  of  the  lecond  court  is 
a  beautiful  brals  hind,  cncompafs'd  by  a 
number  of  greyhounds  and  beagles,  very 
phaf.uU  to  behold  v  nor  are  four  llaves  in 
marble,  at  the  foot  of  the  flairs,  lefs  re- 
imrkable  ir-  other  rclpects,  as  well  us  th-' 
princip  d  apartments  for  their  higlin^Hes,  as 
the  others  lor  gentlemen  belonging  to  the 
court,  areiujoly  furnilh'ii,  according  to  the 
i]u.iiity  of  tile  jierfons. 

As  { )r  ..;e  garden,  tho'  it  has  curious 
works  in  m;. ;  rle,  Ip.'.eious  walks,  llower 
plats  and  odicr  fuch  ni'j.llilhments,  yet 
I  (io  I,  It  thiiik  it  better  than  what  you  have 
fe.i),  unlels  we  look  ii[)on  certain  arches 
fornungafemicircle,  in  tlje  lirfl  lijuare,  and 

r;.v  s-: 

adorn'd  with  noble  l^atues,  and  fevcral''''^vrLu. 
mouldings  becoming  ludi  llruffures.  From  '^■O/'^ 
the  middleniolt,  two  Ifately  Ifair-cafes  lead 
up  to  a  curious  foimtain,  in  which  is  the 
Ihtue  ot  ll.ratl-.i,  killing  the  llydr.i,  and 
about  it  agree.iblc  works  of  Ihells  and  other 
out-calhol  the  le.i.  On  the  (i  le  ot  the  fiiel 
arches  are  two  fn'.all  houfes,  delicately 
adorn'd  with  looking  gl.ilRvs,  ll.itues,  iuul 
all  other  furniture,  to  divert  the  eyes  and 
thoughts  of  a  prince,  fiom  the  heavy  cares 
of  government. 

'1  hey  talk  of  nothing  here  hut  tlK-  Har- 
be!te<,  or  ff^ald^iijiaii  hereticks,  inhabiting 
the  v.iUcy  of  l.Uicriie,  and  other  uncouth 
places  of  thefe  dominions.  His  high- 
nefswiil  not  allow  of  any  other  religion  ia 
his  territories,  but  that  he  profellls  himfclf  1 
and  tho' he  has  formerly  granted  fomc  fort 
of  toleration,  yet  at  prcleni  ne  will  admit 
of  no  peace  or  truce '.vith  them  ;  but  offers 
them  two  conditions,  either  to  return  into 
the  bofom  of  the  holy  church,  or  elfe  to  fell 
what  they  have  in  Pudmont  and  Sa-voy,  and 
be  gone  ellewhere  ;  adding,  that  in  cafe 
theyiannotfindpurchalers,  hewill  paydown 
the  money.  This  is  done  at  the-  inlligation 
of  his  moll  chrillian  ma)clly,  who  being 
refolv'd,  for  the  full  compleating  of  his 
glory,  utterly  to  banifli  that  they  call  the 
refbrm'd  religion,  out  ot  his  kingdom,  is 
afraid  lell  his  inleded  fubjefts  Ihould  retire 
intothofe  valleys,  and  continually  feed  that 
fmall  fire  of  Cahiitijm  that  is  Hill  kindled 
in  France.  According  to  thefe  methods 
Cliiicv.i  ought  to  be  era/.'d  out  ot  the  world  ; 
but  he  lias  wifely  refolv'd  to  take  this  other 
courfe,  and  fet  fire  to  the  ferpenrs  den  in 
the  woods,  before  they  multiply,  and  come 
out  to  flrike  a  terror  in  the  open  country. 
In  lliort,  there  are  now  at  leafi  fix  hundred 
lliigunets  in  only  the  vale  of  Luicn:,  and 
they  being  withdrawn,  with  two  thouliintl 
Barbettes,  farther  uji  the  J!p..,  his  royal 
highnefs  will  fend  th.iiher  fix  thoufand  t()ot, 
under  anable  commander,  and  five  thouland 
more  are  to  go  by  the  way  of  France,  to 
extirpate  them  wholly.  Were  I  duke  of 
Savoy,  I  would  not  admit  lb  great  a  llipply 
from  powerful  tlrangers,  intoniy  dominions, 
who  under  colour  ot  triendlhip,  might  be- 
come acquainted  with  the  country,  and 
learn  the  bell  ways  that  lead  to  ftrong  place';, 
and  then  prefcribe  laws  to  me  in  my  own 
hoiife  ;  efpecially  being  in  a  condition  to  do 
the  work  myfelf.  On  Sa:iirday  a  party  of 
dragoons  took  two  of  thole  Burhcnes,  com- 
ing fiom  Pigncrol,  with  powder,  ball,  and 
other  warlike  ammunition,  fo  that  the  de- 
puties of  the  proicflant  Siii/fers,  w!u)  canie 
iiitlier  to  divert  his  royal  highnefs  liomhis 
delign,  are  like  10  letiirn  homo  wirhoiic 
any  fucccfs. 





A  Defer  union  of  Turin,  <J'c. 


r.   I  o. 

1     ! 

.'-I  ['■ 

T«)  lay  (('uictliiiii;  ol  tin-  iity,  the  lioly 
SinJoii^  or  lliat,  in  wliii-U  our  S.ivioji'i 
li()iiy  was  wrippM  in  O.v:  Uinil>iiri',  is  ki'i'i, 
v\id>  I'  otlitT  nui.ibk-  n  licks,  in  tiu- 
VM.nJr*!.  ciiliciinil,  wjiitli  is  tlcilic.iial  to  Si.  Jvbii, 
.i;k1  ioyn . lo  the  iliikc's  jul.iix-.  Uiing  liicrc 
oni-  111  tlitli-  il.iys  .It  .1  ll-riuon,  I  l.iw  liis  iii^'.hnvMs  in  .i  ilolli,  oi'iiolitc  to  the 
|nil|'it,  to  whi».ii  he  h.isa  p.ill!it;e  out  ol  his 
own  aiJannKiu.  1  iiail  iiini  bttore  in 
Uverai  I'Luo,  i  lor  in-  trei|miitiy  [;oes  pri- 
vately, where  he  thinks  tit  i  but  at  this 
time  he  was  with  M.uiumc  Ruyalc,  his  mo- 
ther, aivl  havinfi;  often  heard  lier  Ipokt  n  of 
before,  I  was  j^Lul  to  iiave  a  li[',hi  of  her 
now.  Siie  .ippe.irs  to  me  r.itlier  young,  thin 
;ule.ine'il  in  ye.irs,  li.ile,  and  ul  a  beaulilul 
prelinee  ;  yet  of  a  lower  !l ature  than  beeonus 
.1  prineefs  1  tor  you  eannol  ihny,  hut  that 
l.illneliaiiiis  iiiujli  to  iliat  gr.iee,  we  tall  ma- 
jclty,  am!  that  it  gains  nun  a  refjied,  ef(>c- 
ri.iiiy  among  the  vuij^ar  tort.  Jjjie  de- 
livcr'd ol'this [irelent  iluke  / 'tclor'ws . Im.uLtii, 
tin  rlie  loarieeiuh  ot  Mix,  !('()(>.  J  lis 
tlutihel's  is  lit'teen  years  of  age,  be.iutitul  ami 
witty,  but  extr-ionlinary  tender.  In  oilier 
j^ajkries  elol'e  by,  there  wereabundanee  ot 
i.idies  and  gentlemen,  tiiuly  elad.  L'nJer 
hib  royal  highnefs  lliKid  fome  Sivijf,ii,  arm'd 
V 'cli  carabines  and  oppolite  to  tiuni  twen- 
ty-two !iaU).irdii  rs  ;  tor  the  duke  enjoys 
.ill  the  prerogatives  belonging  to  crow;iM 

The  government  is  ablblutely  in  the 
duke  ;  wlio  lias  a  eouneil,  conlilling  ot  a 
lord  cjimeellor,  and  lexeral  privy  counfel- 
lors,  tliofen  trom  among  the  three  cllates 
of  elergy,  nobility,  ami  commons,  or  the 
magiftrat.s  i  belkles  the  fecretaries,  who 
nianige  the  allursot  greatell  weight.  'I'lic 
iidininidrafion  of  jultiee  is  wholly  in  the 
leiiaie  of  eaeh  province ;  thai  is,  the  lenate 
vf  Pit:!i.':oi:.\  reudesat  Turin;  that  of  Siivjy 
at  Cbainhcry,  the  metropolis  of  that  [iro- 
vin:e;  and  the  third  is  at  A'izz.i,  lor  that 
county  -,  all  three  indepcnilent  ot  one  ano- 
ther. Appeals  lie  to  thcle  courts  trom  the 
judgments  of  the  judges  in  every  city,  .md 
ihole  appointed  by  lords  in  their  own  lands. 
B.  Ikies  there  are  two  chambers  ot  accounts, 
or  exchequer  courts;  the  one  \n  P'udniont, 
the  o'lier  in  Saviy,  with  prelidents,  wiiole 
judgments  are  definitive  in  all  that  relates 
to  the  duke's  revenues.  It  is  alio  to  be  ob- 
llrvM,  that  all  governors  ot  provinces 
an  1  towns  hold  their  polls  for  three  years, 
unlcfs  his  royal  highnefs  renew  tlieir  com- 
iiiiUnns.  The  forces  are  under  a  general  of 
the  toot,  one  ot  the  native  horfe,  another 
of  tlie  foreigners,  and  two  of  the  artillery  ; 
t!iar  is,  tor  Savoy  and  Piedmont. 

1  here  are  two    orders  of  knighthood  ; 


fir  J;,  . 


firlt  of  die  Annunciation,    wearing  a     it  I 

colkir  of  rofc«  and  knots,  and  in  the  middle 

the  jiiclure  ol  our  lady  ;  ihe  other  ol  .S'l. 
Miiiriniii,  and  L.iU.niii,  the  iwo  lornurly 
cilIM  by  ihole  names  bung  rcdi.t.'d  in.uun^* 
liy  duki.  i.iiuthtid  fhiiiluii  \  and  i!;i>  now 
grows  of  no  v.ihie,  b>.t.iule  indillcrtntly 
gr.uued  without  .liltinCton. 

All  the  couiuvy  piodiiei.i  Inch  plenty  of 
all  lorts  ol"  provilloiis,  that  the  iiKlt  tedioui 
w.irs  wiih  /»<;;.'.  1',  .md  ii'.e;r  nunierou>  .iniii.s 
lould  never  make  any  w.iut.     1  or  liiij  lea- 
lon,   the  n.uives  of  liiele  rouiili  ies  are  ni  vcr 
very  indiillrious,  c\(  e))i  only  t.ioleot  A'/;;,;, 
ifpeci.dly   at  nieclianuk    ail.  i     tho*  ihoy 
might  have  tin  greatell  convcniency  of  t  U- 
in;',  tlair  w.ire  .a  M.'iii:,  .\n\  /.v,i/.by  the 
/'".      I  he  ii'.ouiu.mi-rs  are  rude  in  1-havi- 
our,  and  l,.nguigei  bi:t  this  is  no  v.onkr, 
tor  ihe  .lii,  .uul  ihe  luil,  lie. it,    and  lolJ, 
and  oilur  .ii.>  id'  ni  ,    ii.ive    much  iidii^ciicc 
o"ir  me  maiuui>ol  nun.     'i  iie  mouiuauis 
of  courle  m.ikc  them  lit  for  t  .:igue,  aud 
hardy  lo  eniiiuv  wcatlur  \  Imi  Like, 
on  ihe  oilier,  that  wliv.rc  tin  re  i.-  ;, 
llmigth  ol'  Lo'..),  ii.aioi   tlie  iiun.l  u...  lys 
lail<,   bec.iule  ilie  organs  of  li.e  urdwriknU- 
ing  .ire  dull,  .md  llie  Ipiiils  hea\  y  i  .:..  .dio, 
bec.uik  ihere  is  no  h  ilme  .dlow'd  lor  lii.aic 
contemplation,  v.iiicii  is  the  poets  wiih'd- lor 
(ji.ue  lime,  the  t  !■.■  a  o.l;" 
liom  leniible  objects,  may  look  intoiiKii", 
become  feiilible  of  its  own  inii)i.rt  ti  II  ite, 
.iiiil  ilillover  the  perleClion  o(  its  Cr^.'.Kjr; 
.aid  thus  by  degrceseometoiompivli.  nd  tl  at 
lK-aiitiii)l  and  iucredibl.''.ony,  anil  woii- 
ikrlul  connciiuon  tliere  is  between  tlic  Icv.ral 
parts  of  ihe  univeije.     I'iius  we  l<'e,  that  il.c 
morning,    when  no  ohjeci  dillrac'lb  in   llie 
liark,  aiul  the  br.iiii  is  no  ioiigv'r  oji'refs'il 
witli  the  fumes  of  meat,  is  the   prop.relt 
timetorlludy  ■,  :.n<\  I  h.n-  •r^...^kiiaesiiuHigiit 
I  had  a  llhool  v.  luiin  myfelt",  as  leeming  to 
niylllf  to  IL   \'ery  ''ill,  .ui.l  be  att-.ntive  to 
hear. I  m.dter,   wlio  wasdi.toiirri.'ig  piiiiufo- 
phically  on  tome  fubjecl.     I  tk)  nor  reckon 
niyf^lf  wife,    but  am  of   opinion  tiiis  was 
the  meaning  of  aniiiiit  philoli>piurs,   wi.t.;i 
tliey   aflirm'd,    that    a    wik  aJl 
things  within  him.     It  leeiiis  flr.uig.r  to  me, 
that  this  lliould  li.i\e  befallen   r,u   ..ll^.p; 
but  the  mifchiet  w.i.,  w.ien  1  a  v.ili'il, 
and  lome  ol'  the  fenfcs  met  wii!i  ar.v  ,1  their 
proper  objcds,  I  for  ;ot  all  the  r^i'. aliens  I 
thought  I  had  lie.ird,  and  made  ;  .■.:..!  could 
remember   nothing,    but    that  J   was   well 
pkas'd,   with  folving   cf    I'  dif;'  'ally, 
and  then  as  angry  with  myielf  •or  lu-i  rj- 
t. lining  what  1  delir'd,  as  when  we  fre:,  re- 
membring  ibmething  uc  hav.'  rea'.i,  bii .  :.ot 
in  book.     See  what  .i  grc.ii  liir.diMi:,  e 
the  burthen  of  the  body  is  to  lii,   I'  ;  ;;iid 
how  much  P/iiloWM  in  the  ri:.;ht,  iin  i.r  iho  ;■■ 
flate  of  P^r^iini///i,  as  to  the   remciubr.uice  l| ' 
it  has  of  fciences  ;  as  you  have  re.u!  in  his  'r'' 
books ;  and  thtrtlore  TuHy  us'd  to  lay,  tkat 



Let.  10. 

A  Defcription  of  Turin. 



III    Uic 


•!iiii[;  ti) 
uivL'  to 

nr.  was 


l...«i  all 

lo  inc, 

i  tluir 
.viion.s  I 



:,  IV- 
Mi .  r.oC 
'■■  '••a^.cc■ 
l  ;  aliJ 

.  r  tlic  ;■'!■.  ■'; 
ibr.iiiLvl'      ■  ■• 

in  Ills  '^"^  ■ 


the  foul  .vt  tl>e  cnil  of  life,  being  '  '.  loole 
from  till.' clog  of  tliel),  btionitiinorc 
bi-.uitihil  .iiul  iliviiu'.  It  is  n' 
Ic icTo I*.  C"(i (Ti3  hill  not  bicii  ill loiulition  bc- 
Ituuui.  tore  lie  writ,  .iiul  tlicrotorc  lit.'  mull  ilraw 
hi^  coiKlufioii  I'roin  confuliTiny,  liow 
nnkii  turtlur  it  rcai Iks,  aiul  loars  liiyliir, 
Winn  it  is  ill  a  iiiiniur  liparainl  by  an 
uivlilUirb'd  iiicilitation.  licnLc  it  isallb, 
that  when  we  arc  att^ntiviiy  thinking,  wc 
taivc  no  notiLC  ol  liiilil)lc  tilings  •,  aiul 
there  arc  foinc  fo  (ar  honi  hearing  when 
they  arc  tallM,  asnot  to  leel  a  blow  •,  and 
tho'  there  be  iiitinite  objects  betore  the 
tyes,  yet  tiny  lee  none.  Now  liiul  it  out, 
liow  it  tonus  to  pals,  that  the  luiid  rays 
lontiiiiiaily  i  oniiiig  in  to  reprelent  the 
images  in  the  viliial  taeulty,  we  lliould 
not  lee  at  that  time  1  andwhiiieeit  is,  and 
what  is  the  action  of  the  foul,  not  medi- 
tating, which  111  ikes  it,  as  it  were,  look 
out,  if  we  may  lb  call  it,  to  fee  what  is 
repr-.feiucd  in  the  eye.  But  this  is  no 
place  to  exiilain  it:  and,  to  return  to  our 
piirpole  1  it  is  pl.iin,  that  the  foul  being 
ftill  in  the  body,  does  in  a  manner  li.'pa- 
r.ite  from  it,  as  the  amorous  iK)et  l\triinb 
often  tellilies  ot  himklf,  and  p.irticulaily 
in  that  foiinet  which  begins,  ']a  mi  rivol^o 
in  iliftro  a  iiajlun  p'ljj'o. 

Tttlor  miijfulf  in  mezzo  li  trijVi  pianii 
Un  tliil'lu,  coi/if  pol/inrjiiejU  membra 
Da  tojjirilo  lor  vivcT  Lntune, 

That  is,  Somi'timfs  amiilj]  my  f.ul  to/n/ljiiili:, 
Jtij^in  toqtiejlion,  how  l/jife  members  can  be 
Jifarateiljrom  their Jlul. 

And  in  another  place, 

Lurgala  al  fin  con  I' amorofe  chiavi, 
L'aiiima  ejj'e  dal  cor,  ferje^iiir  voi ; 
E  coi:  molto  l<eHjteri  tmitJijvelU. 

In  Englilli  profe.  At  length  my  foul,  letlooj'e 
by  love,  breaks  from  my  heart,  to  follow  you  \ 
and  is  drawn  from  thence  by  much  thinking. 

By  what  has  been  laid,  we  may  eafily 
unilerlland  the  occalion  of  the  proverb ; 
Anima  ftccafapientijfma  ;  '■The  dry,  or  bar- 
ren foul  is  wifejt ;  and  the  other,  Dio  tiguardi 
da  lettore,  tf  da  romtto grajfo  ;  God  prefcrve 
you  ''rom  a  fat  reader,  and  anchorite  ;  tor  it 
is  evident,  that  in  bodies,  which  have 
much  more  moilUire  than  is  requifite,  the 
nerves  are  fofter,  and  damper,  and  con- 
lequently  the  fpirits  that  pafs  thro'  them  are 
heavier  and  lefs  adivc.  Now  we  plainly 
fee,  that  the  fpirits  arc  the  principal  inftru- 
ment  ot  many  operations  ot  the  Ibul ;  and 
thefe  being  the  lefs  apt,  by  reafon  of  their 
fiowncfs,  it  follows  of  necelTity,  that  many 
adlions  are  not  pertonii'd  which  (hould  be 
done.    On  the  other  hanii,  tho'  tliat  wliich 

Vol.  VI. 

is  called  undcrllanding,  or  thinking,  which  'iiMui.i 
is  the  way  to  undcrilandiiig,  be  but  one  ^^\^>-^ 
lingle  action  ot  i  oneeiving,  or  going  .ibouc 
to  conceive  .m  object  in  the  l.ime  manner 
as  it  is  in  itfelt  ;  neverthelefs  there  are  ma- 
ny other  fm.iller  actions  recjuilite  to  thi., 
end  i  elpecially  thole,  whi( h  help  to  unite, 
and  lay  betore  the  mind  all  the  properties  of 
the  thing,  with  their  oppolition  in  relpeCl 
to  Ibme,  and  their  relemblaiice  to  others. 
I'here  is  no  ijueltion  to  lie  made,  but  that 
Ibme  of  theft,  if  1  may  lb  call  ihtm,  lub- 
altern  actions,  wholly  depend  on  the  ani-  Ipirits,  anil  are  pertbrm'd  witli  more 
or  lefs  jierliCtioii,  .u curding  to  th  ir  (|Ua- 
lity  or  difpofuiDii ;  and  therefore  it  mull: 
be  alio  allow'd,  when  tlie  and 
quick  motion  ol  the  fpirits  is  obllruCted  by 
the  gnifs  and  moill  matter,  the  foul  is 
ikpnv'd  of  the  bell  means  of  underlland- 
ing.  Thus  we  lee,  give  me  leave  to  make 
uIj  of  this  argument  a  jojliiiori,  as  they 
lay  ill  the  Itiiools,  tiiat  the  pcrticlion  of 
the  fenfes,  wiiicli  .ilfo  in  a  great  miafure 
dependson  the  fpirits,  is  very  often  a  llgii 
of  the  like  perleClioii  and  tiuickiufs  ot 
apprchenlion-,  and  we  read  that  Ibme  men, 
viry  famous  lor  tiieir  ilepth  in  fticnces,  extrae  diiiary  bright  and  fparkling 
eyes,  were  very  little  addiCleil  to  lleep, 
and  had  other  fuch  iiualities,  wliich  doubt- 
lefs  proceed  from  abundamc  ot  thole  fame 
fpirits.  I  ilo  not  lay  this,  as  believing, 
for  inllance,  tint  the  li^lit  is  c.iusM  by  Ibme 
fubtil  things  proceeding  from  the  apple  of 
the  eye  •,  or  that  any  luch  thiug  is  requi- 
fite tor  hearing,  or  feeling  •,  but  bcraule  I 
tierceive,  that  where  the  fpirits  are  weakelt, 
)y  reafon  ot  much  watery  matter,  or  on 
account  that  tliis  hinders  the  generation  ot 
them  v  there  all  the  inllrumentsof  the  laid 
fenfes  are  lefs  apt  for  performing  of  their 
part,  and  ill-form'd,  or  ill-prelerv'd  ;  as 
It  would  be,  it  in  the  eyes  the  apple  were 
too  much  dilated,  the  crytlalline  moifliire 
too  much  deprefs'd,  the  films  too  thick, 
and  not  tranfparent  enough :  in  the  ears 
the  hollow  much  obllrudeil  by  excrements, 
or  ill-fhapM ;  the  drum,  by  reafon  ot  its 
tbftncfs,  unfit  to  receive  a  found,  unlets 
it  were  an  extraordinary  and  violent  rc- 
perculTion  of  the  air ;  and  thus  reafon'rtg 
from  one  thing  to  another,  you  will  find, 
that  I  do  not  bate  an  ace  in  any  matter  i 
and  that  thus  phyfiognomifls  may  well 
guefs  at  the  inclinations,  and  culloms  of 
men,  if  they  are  endow'd  with  a  profound 
antl  folid  judgment.  However,  I  own 
this  rule  is  not  univerlal  ;  and  that  tome- 
times  God  is  pleafed  to  adorn  the  world 
by  other  means  than  we  would  imagine, 
infufing  fome  great  fouls  into  deform'd  and 
lickly  bodies,  and  fuch  as  are  fcarce  fit  lot 
motion ;  and  if  it  be  lawful  to  give  our 
U  f;incies 



i  ( 


yt  'Journey  to  Lions. 


r.  II. 

■1  !■   I 

CiMiiM  fancifs  Imvp  to  pry  into  thr  ojicMtions  of 
^^"V^  tlut  moll  will-  artilmr  •,  jirrlMps  he  IckIj^ih 
tliolc  loiilstliciL-  in  ruii\  niatinii,  that  tin  y 
i.\\\  by  miilitation  lilt  upaiul  liparati-  tlirm- 
iVivi's,  witliout  any  ohllrutticin  Ironi  the 
nuan  ami  vili-  matter. 

I  wiuilil  willint',Iy  have  rontliiiliil  this 
kttiT  hen,  liut  am  lu  tornu-ntal  with  a 
fcniplcol  (onlcicntT,  that  I  mull  liii-  un- 
lil'i  lasM  "•  it'  !'•  yo'""  <'>nliiin{T  lo 
fiiacamilh,  you  will  ask  me  ?  It  is  really  lo, 
Sn-.      I  rcnKinbcr  I  made  lome  retle('ti()n, 

at  the  l)fginnin(;iipon  thrprrfon  you  know, 
anti  am  therefore  apt  to  IuI|kCI,  that  lomc 
will  1k'  apt  ti;  luli  ve,  the  A(. </(./././'  .  arc 
all  like  Inm,  ami  therelore  I  Ihall  he  tcik- 
onM  a  moll  notorious  lyar-,  but  all  men 
are  acquainteilwith  thecxtraonlinary  h  arn- 
in;^,  and  parts  1)1  many  ot  nur  hiends  too 
teilious  to  name,  and  tin  n  lore  whir  lia<; 
been  laid  mult  only  be  uiuUrltooil  ot  that 
poor  animal,  whole  knowledge  reae  Ins  no 
t.irtlur  than  the  outwant  Hull  \  and  lo  J 
conclude,  tr'i'. 



LET   r  I,  R     XI. 

I'f.'i  j'luthors   "Jourtwy  to  Lions:  A.':''Unt  &/' Savoy:  A  Story  cf  lliimtnig,  anJ 
DijiourJ'c  of  the  \hn\\M\  Larts,  L.irvir,   icf. 

rr^IIIS  very  morninp;,  Godbcprai.M, 

_f_     I  arrivM  in  thisiity  :  and,  to  t  ly  the 
truth,   I  iiave  hitherto  well'd,  at  the 
li;:;n  ot  the  .V<;W(("/.'// woman.      Alter  din- 
HiT   I  walk'd  abour  a  little,  only   that  I 
might  give  you  Ibme  aecount,  at  leall  ot 
its  liiuation.       From  tliis  time  lorward, 
that  you  may  have  the  latislattion  ot  liiul- 
ing  the  principal  places  in  tl'.e  map,  I  v.iil 
take  noiite  ot  tiieir  latitude  and  loii^ituile  ; 
which  I  have  not  tlone  in  I:  'ly,  bnaute  it 
may  be  all  view'd  on  the  maps  at  one  earc- 
I.ion;.       fill  gl.mccot'theeye.     /,w/.!  lies  in  twcnty- 
tliree  degrees,  and  liftcen  ininutis  luiyi- 
tudci  and  torty-five  digrcts,  ten  minutes 
o.  latitude,  at  the  foot  ot'  a  plcalant  and 
delighct'iil  hill.      I'he  river  S^ion:,  by  the 
antients  call'd  /Ir.irti,  and  famous  tor  its 
gintlencl's,  runs  throii;.',h  the  iniiill  of  it. 
'I'he  Kl.ofiie  .ill'o  patl's  by  the  w.dlson  the 
eall-lidc,     running   rajfidly    to  Joyn    the 
Saone,     a  little  to  the  fouliiward  ot    the 
city.     It  was  built  in  this  pl.icc,  and  ho- 
nour'd  with  liic  title  of  a  colony   by  L. 
MuHncius  Pliiiui'S,   in  the  days  of  yu/iiis 
Cuilir;  and  having  been  conlnm'd  by  lire 
about  a  hundred  years  after,  was  re-built 
by    the  lame  Romans.      In   the   reign   of 
/Inddiiis,  and  llonortus,  Siilico  gave  it  to 
the  Biopiiuiuii'.s,    wlio   had  anillcd   liim 
againll  the  GoiIm  ;  and  at  lall  Giimkmanis^ 
king  ol  Bnr^unJy,  being  flain  by  the  fons 
of  Clodoz'dis,  it  tell  under  the  dominion  of 
the  Franks.     The  compai's  of  it  teems  to 
mc  to  be  three  times  as  much  as  Ti<nn, 
which  it  excels  in  beauty,  and  very  much 
fur[)aires  in  wealth,    by  reafon  the  trade 
lure  of  all  forts  may  be  compar'd  to  that 
ot  the  moft  famous  cities  in  Juirof'e.     In 
only  the  fquare,  call'd  Bdlecotirt,  which  is 
wonderful    f[);uious,     I    have   km   more 
goods,  than  any  where  elfe  in  all  my  lite. 
But  of  thisanother  time  ;  ic  will  be  proper 

Lions,  March /ic  ig/jfi,  i6S6. 

at  prcfent,  that  I  rIvc     hi  an  actouni  of 

my  |ourni  y  Irom  '/«»•/'/;  liitlier. 

I  Living  dih'd,  and  diliiaich'il  my  fmall 
atl.iirs  at  'luriii,  I  \\t  out  thence  on  H'fd- 
und.ty  l.ill,  with. I  /'■<■«./.' mellenger,  call'd 
M.  I'iiiti;  not  only  tne  pleat. uu;  tl  lellow 
of  that  tort  1  ever  knew,  but  the  moll 
notable  drinker.  lie  had  the  llran/:,,ll 
news  in  the  world  i  being  wonderful  lly 
and  cunning  at  prying  into  the  .ittion  ,  lit 
otlidinen,  whiih  a  {'.reit  help  to  him 
in  liisc.illing.  We  happdiing  to  overtake 
two  horfe-littcrs,  on  tlie  ro.iil,  with  tour 
l.uli'.  s  in  them,  were  intorm'd  by  him,  that 
they  had  w.ilted  on  the  dutchels  of  S.ivoy, 
and  were  lent  back  to  l\iiis.  When  we  Ai 
c.ime  to  /l-jti^Hin.i,  a  town  ten  miles  trom 
'/'/</ ./;,  where  we  were  to  lie  thai  night,  my 
goo  I  inelllnger,  Iheuing  me  a  gentleman  of 
i'lii,::,  who  to  lodge  in  the  lame  place, 
f.iid  to  me,  Tbi)  is  tl.  j  ■u-ijc  and  travcj/iaHunl 
vj  one  (if  thoje ladies  «r  Ufi  btbind.  Ubjhie 
how  Cdiijliuil,  and f^niltrl,  and  how  ixiut  he 
is  in  thcfervice  of  the  ludifs,  -who  Koutd  come 
thus  far  togive  of  his  atf'c'/ion. 

'I  he  next  morning  Te  mounted  an  hour 
before  day,  and  h.iving  rode  fcarce  two 
miles,  come  to  a  place  called  S.  /Imbrogioy 
or  St.  /Imbrnfe.  A  little  farther  I  t^iw  a 
regiment  of  /-'rcw/' dragoons,  then  march- 
ing againlf  the  Harbais,  in  the  vale  of 
Lu  cm,  and  .dterwanls  in  the  plain  of  Stija^ 
a  company  of  toot,  all  chofeii  men. 

^iija,  now  a  iortretsof  great  con fequencc,  Sjii. 
was  by  the  antients  call'd  Srgi/Jimn,  and  by 
Porn/iy  made  a  colony.  It  was 
burnt  by  0;//rt;;/jw  the  great,  and,  again 
by  I-hdcnck  II.  and  in  this  conflagra- 
tion the  dukes  of  Savoy  loR  their  antient 
recortls.  Here  is  tlill  an  antient  triumphal 
arch,  being  rather  a  a  Roman 
llriidure  ;  to-  which  reafon  I  cannot  think 
their  opinion  right,  whotakcitfor^^;(!;f///«i's 



1.1.1.  I  r. 

ylccount  of  Savoy. 


'11  •on 
• .     > 

d'  ffl. 


trophy,  mcntionM  l>y  Pii'iy.  Travcllirm 
iIkiuc  kirmtly,  I  took  iii")  at  the  ml  ot 
tDiii'Uiti  nlil^^,  anJ  II.  y'll  at  K'lValrji,  a 
town  at  thi'  l(Kit  1)1  Munurij.  Ihri', 
|ur'  n[;  wiih  my  I'lLilimt  M.  Pit<r,  I 
hirM.aiiDiiliii;;  U)  tii"  iiilloimit  thi-  (oiiii- 
II  y,  a  link'  mull',  Imt  llrtm^,  ami  u'.M 
tu  mount  the  llaphiH.,  notwulill.imlinj^ 
till'  lio/iii  liiiiw.  At  ilii-  top  ol  tlii->  al- 
icnt,  whicii  \\  lull  lour  miks,  is  a  h iml- 
li)mc  |)!.iiii,  ami  tlu  hrooU  whkli  tliviJit 

,  Pn'.imin!  ti-om  S.ivy.  1  rode  all  the  way 
ovcrihi.s  pl.iin  ou  h.irti  iti.'  \  hut  toikKitnl 
the  other  liik  ot  tin-  mount.iin,  I  fjot  into 
a  rani.i/./i  :  A  raina//..i  in  that  lountiy 
i'.  a  li.air  lixM  in  the  miJll  ol  a  (]u.irt(  r, 
o>'^'e  pm  ■  <)t  iiiDiii^  wooil,  wliiili  two 
jK.ikuifiilr.iu  by  turn^ :  Ibmetimes  it  runs 
down  violently  ut'  itlclf,  ami  tjitn  thole 
hoiiell  couiitiymen  lallcn  an  iron  chain  to 
til.-  timber,  toll.ipit,  .uul  (it  on  it  them- 
felves,  like  ei' u  hiueji,  witliout  t.ikitm  .my 
p.iins :  'I'hu'i  I  came  to  thehuttnmul  tlie 
v.ite  in  a  moiiunt,  wluir  is  a  towncallM 
Ltiuhuij^,  anil  at  a  rn>,ill  ilill.ime  a  l.ike, 
about  two  nules  in  eomp.its,  .uni  tro/en 
over  the  jjitatell  part  ot  th(;  year.  It  is 
the  rultom  h  i\',  in  oiikr  to  alleml  the 
Otlier  no  lels  u[iright  mount.iin,  to  jv  t 
into  a  woovlin  t  h.iir,  i.iriieil  on  tiieli.ulvs 
ol  foiintrymeii,  \v!u>  m.ike  it  tin  ir  iinii- 
nel'i  :  I'lii^  mountain  coverM  wiih 
tieis  in  tome  ii.ut'.,  a  thing  not  to  bo 
k>r{40t  in  w  coutiiry  that  lb  mu^h  of 
(iuii's  l)kli.n[^. 

S  ttini;  out  Iroin  l.anchurg  on  'Thiirftln 
I  p.ilKil  over  leveral  mnuntaiiis  as  I'iu/.vy 
as  the  others,  but  .nlornM  with  thii  1.  pine 
trees,  anil  here  anil  there  a  wietiheil  vil- 
Lige,  ami  ilinM  in  a  town  callM  M:J.:n  \ 
whence  tr.ivi  lllnyon  the  liimt  tort  ot"  ro.iil, 

1 1  came  in  the  evenin^j;  to  Sr.  Aii^rlo,  having 
roile  that  day  twenty -one  Savoy  mdes, 
which  ar.'  ahnoPL  as  good  as  thirty  ol  ours. 
'I'his  country  is  lo  ex^eltive  cold,  tli.U  the 
wonun  {;re.ic  woollen  caps.  l-or 
w.uii  ot  lilli  and  oil  on  t.ilting  ilays,  tliey 
liere  eat  butt:  r  and  eggs,  which  is  pi.iC- 
titid  all  along  thole  mountains.  'I'heie 
the  culloms  begin  to  be  liimewhat  Freii- 
chity'd  ;  for  women  wait  at  tabic,  and  are 
faluted  with  a  ki|s. 

I'he  next  morning  1  travellM  li.<  miles 
to  St.  John  til'  .M.inrii-n,  .dong  a  roail  .is 
llony,  but  not  fo  tleep  and  trighilul,  by 
the  river  tide.  Thi-i  city  has  ,i  bilhop, 
whole  revenue  is  fifteen  titoufand  livres  a 
year,  tho'  it  be  all  eiicomp.ifs'd  with  the 
A'ps.  The  tleeple  ol  the  cathedral  is  in- 
dili'vTCntly  well  built,  and  leaded  at  the 
top.  Having  a  little  ri-trclli'd  mylell,  I 
proceeded  lourteen  miles  to  /ll^tic-hcHf, 
leaving  fome  fuch  poor  villages  by  the 
way,  that  I  thought  not  to  aik  their  names. 

Leaving  .ii^tH'kH:  on  ^•J/«»v/.i^v  early, '•'""" 
I  iravellM  aloii!;  a  Ik  iter  road,  tti'll  aloii;,  ^■'>'**^ 
the  atoref.iid  river,  and  at  tui  mil.s  en<l 
came  to  the  finious  lortrelsol,  Montni^ 
where  there  ii  a  fine  'lone  bridge  over  tl\c  ""     ^ 
liver.      The  town  is  f.itcd  in  a,  tho' 
it  anotlu  r  tort  built  on  the  ililts  ot'  .i 
ro(k,  and  is  then  lori  ioinin..ndid  by  the 
.idj.uent   moiiiit.iin,    lo,    tlio*  hukIi 
d(  tended  Imm  all  lults  by  the  litu.ilion,  it 
m.iy  be  very  mu>  h  hurt  by  b.ittery.    'I'w,'* 
miks  thence  1  eame  \.oCijuiiib,ii,  the  IIK- c'..nital. 
tropolis  of  i'rc'iy. 

I'his  lity  lies  in  the  iniilft  of  a  plain, 
kit  by  provident  n.uiire  amidll  toll  Init 
Iruiiiid  moiini.iiiis,  not  liom  the  river 
/'.«-;.  '1  ho'  le.iteil  on  the  tinliticrs,  ir 
is  \q  ill-walkd,  that  ir  could  never  make 
the  leall  relillance  agaiiill  invaders.  The 
c.iUle,  which  is  fo  in  name,  rather  than 
re.ility,  is  imlos'd  liy  ap.irtments,  after 
tl  •  .uitient  m.mncr,  .;ik1  has  nothmj',  good 
in  ir  but  i  ch.ipel,  tounded  by  the  lioly 
d'ike  ^//«,(.,'. /'J  \  HI.  who  cholen  pope 
.it  ihv'  count  il  of  Btjd,  and  took  tlie  ii.imc 
ol  /(.'v.  'I  he  holy  >'tiiih.i.',  oroiir.'sa\ioin'> 
Ihroud,  whicii  is  now  at  f'tiiin,  was  (or- 
nicrly  krjit  here  ;  and  therefore  the  for- 
111  rili.ipter,  conlilling  of  a  ik.m,  and 
t  ...iity-iwo  ciiuiii':,  or  prebeiul.iriis  con- 
tinues to  this  lay.  The  ( omp.ils  of  the 
lity  ii  fm.dl  ;  tm;  ti)rmer,  wiiich  was  much 
lafger,  having  bem  rcdiu'il,  alter  it  was 
Kinllim'd  by  liri' :  However,  there  are 
f.o  fuburbs  fo  well  inhabitid,  they 
niy  pafs  (or  as  ni.;iiy  cirip,.  The  chief 
l.iiini  bears  the  name  of  St.  /,(_;;</■  i  the 
o' hers  , ire  .St. /'././ ,  St.  Z.(7.inv/ir,  and  St. 
I\t,r  ,'c  Lamas.  There  are  (lately  mn- 
nalleries,  w'i.  Sr.  .Iiiiboiiy,  St.  Ih,i.':,;iikf 
St.  I'rainis,  of  ih<:  Si.".  J  Irwin  ;  St.  Al.iiy 
of  E;iyj!,  of  the  Bi:'; foot  ;  the  Cdfinbiiu; 
tiie  liiirtjlol  /hgiilhi.r.iiu;  and,  to  ciown 
the  work,  a  m.ignilieent  college  of  Je- 
Jiiit.i,  built  by  duke  C7v,7'/(  J  t.iH.nnn! :  Of 
nuns  there  are  thole  of  St.  i)\iiuis  oj'S„ii-s, 
the  (utrmcUui,  and  others.  As  (or  the 
(iju.ires  they  are  not  very  regular,  except  call'd  (lu  Richis,  and  the  other  i,v  .'.; 
Croix  il'Oi ,  Irom  a  gilt  crofs  in  it ;  ami 
this,  tho'  fmaller,  i';  adorn'd  with  por- 
tico's,  like  that  ut  /l,w^::.i. 

I  law  no  priv.ite  houlls  that  were  any 
thing  rem.irkable  ;  ;i:ul  e\ .  n  the  town-  a.vr/.. 
hoiile  is  an  ordinary  llrucliire,  as  is  the 
p.d.icc  of  the  tenate  :  Since  I  have  nien- 
tion'd  the  fenate,  thanks  toy//;//";;/.-  J]ilin, 
wiio  has  render'd  it  tamous  throughout 
the  world  ;  it  will  be  proper  to  tike  no- 
tice, that  it  is  compoled  of  (ifrcen  fen  i- 
tors,  and  (our  prefidents.  To  ihccham 
ber  of  accounts,  or  e.\chei)iicr  court,  fpoken 
of  in  my  lad,  belong  (oiirteenjutlges,  four 
prefidents,  foiix-  generals  and  treadirers. 



1  I 

.i  -^1- 

'  ■'if'i 


Account  of  Savoy. 

Let.  1 1. 

of  S.uoy- 

GcMELLi.  You  being  fo  well  acquainted  with  tlic 
^^"sr^  bell  hiftorians  nnd  gco^r.iplicrs,  I  flwU 
not  Ihiy  to  inform  yoii,  that  the  Allobro^a 
Tir/l  iiiIm-  and  the  Centrones  were  tlie  firft  inliabi- 
biimiti.  tantsof  thefe  parts;  and  that  the  firll  time 
we  find  mention  of  the  name  of  Sabaiulia, 
or  Sapaudia,  is  in  tlie  NotUia  uliiufque  im- 
perii, without  any  account  whence  it  was 
deriv'd.  Nor  fliall  I  go  about  to  lay  down, 
how  Geneva,  tlie  capital  of  tliat  earldom, 
fell  oft  from  our  religion,  and  its  fub- 
jedior"  to  the  duke,  entering  into  a  league 
in  is-,(>.  with  the  protellant  Sivifs  of  Zu- 
rich, BajU,  and  ScbaffhiUifen,  for  which 
reafon  its  bifliop  now  relides  at  /tniiency  ; 
for  thole  matters  are  nt.t  tlie  proper  fiib- 
jcft  of  ktuis  :  however,  for  the  lake  of 
Cbamheii,  I  will  acquaint  you  with  lome 
of  the  qu.'Iitics  of  rhe  country  in  general. 

The  Scivoyardi  are  fharp,  ibber,  and  fit 
to  endure  fatigue  i  the  p:;afants  rude  and 
fhipid  ;  tlie  citizens  lovers  of  learning  ; 
the  gentry  generous  and  \\\W  bred  -,  iiic 
women  ingenious  iind  good  houfewives  ; 
and  tho*  never  fo  handfome,  difigreeable 
to  behold,  by  reafon  of  tiicir  ill  di'efs. 
Tiic  wealth  of  the  countj^  confills  in  fe- 
V  ;ral  forts  of  commoiiitics,  but  clpeeially 
in  cattle,  whereof  there  i.  great  pknty, 
bccaule  of  the  abundance  of  palfure  ;  and 
in  rock  cryltal,  which  is  carried  rough  to 
MUdii,  and  into  Geniiuiiy,  Irom  tiie  high 
mountain  Fuljlgni,  and  the  valley  of  Aoujl. 
As  to  other  po  nts  ;  the  plains  enjoy 
a  temper.ite  air  ;  fomc  vales  in  fumnur 
are  very  uneafy  to  llrangers,  who  are  not 
ufed  to  that  heat  ;  the  highefl:  mountains 
are  excifTive  cold,  on  account  of  the  per- 
petual fnows  lying  on  them,  which  fome- 
ti.nes  are  frozen  into  foiid  rocks  of  ice  : 
In  fliort,  the  bell  of  them  furnilli  the 
natives  with  plenty  of  corn,  fruit,  and 
wine,  belides  game.  Here  are  two  pecu- 
liar forts  of  creatures,  not  known  elfe- 
where  ;  as  the  BiicckeHGue,  and  the  ALir- 
vwtta  :  The  firll  is  like  a  Hag,  the  blood 
and  greafe  whereof  is  uRd  againll  kveral 
ditlempers,  vulgarly  reckon'd  cold  :  The 
othei-  refeinbles  a  cat,  excepting  that  it 
has  Hiorter  feet,  rough  hair,  and  but  lour 
very  fliort  teeth  in  his  mouth  :  It  fleeps 
all  the  winter,  without  requiring  any  fuflc- 
nance,  as  our  dormice  do  -,  and  the  grc  .xd: 
of  it  is  alio  reckon'd  good  for  leveral 

From  a.Mnheri  I  rode  fix  miles  to 
LuitCide,  pafTingthro'  a  mountain  cut  open 
by  duke  CijitiUi  K/iininte!  ;  and  here  I 
lodg'd  very  uneafily.  Yellerday  morning, 
travelling  fix  miles  farther,  I  came  to  the 
bridg('  of  Ikhiciiio,  over  tlie  river  Lijiere, 
ricerpjrti  w'hicli  divides  Fr.iiice  from  Savoy.  In  thefe 
lime      p.-.ris  I  law  tlieni  plough  the  land  other- 


yokcil  to  the  plougli,  which  Iiad  more 
than  one  fliare,  being  ealily  drawn,  by 
rhe  help  of  two  wheels.  L.ill  night, 
h.iving  travell'd  above  fourteen  miles,  I 
came  to  l^eypi^Uere,  where  the  cultom- 
houfe  officers  fearch'd  my  baggage  very 
narrowly  ;  and  this  morning,  alter  riding 
leven  French  leagues  of  good  v/ay,  came 
to  this  city,  as  you  know. 

Vou  mull  underlland,  .Sir,  that  I  have 
been  in  thegreatefl  conlufion  imaginable: 
lall  night  I  lay  very  quietly  and  contentedly 
in  my  bed  ;  but  no  looner  were  my  weary 
eyes  clofed  to  lleep,  than  I  felt  the  blan- 
kets violently  taken  oft"  me :  Tiiere  was  no 
light  in  the  room,  to  fee  whether  any  wag 
defign'd   to  fright  me  ;  and  on  the  other 
fiik,   I  heard  no  footlleps,  nor  any  body 
breathe.      Whatloever    the    matter   was, 
whether  cats,  or  monftrous  rats,   or  the 
like,  or  elfe  fome  contrivance  to  make  a 
jell  of  me  ;    this  morning  I  have  heard 
nothing,  all  the  inn  over,  but  complaints 
of  feveral  perfons  that  have  fulfer'd  lall 
night  as  well  as  I  :  There  are  thofe  who 
jiulitivcly  affirm  tiiis  to  be  the  work   of 
fome  hobgoblin,    or  the  devil,  and  that 
the  place  will  in  a  fliort  time  be  aban- 
don'd  on   this  account.     Hearing  this,  I 
have   call'd  to  mind  what  Pliny,  lib.  7-s/tryif 
cpijl.  27.  writes  of  Jrhiiwdoriis  the  philo- /M««/ni^. 
loplser,  who  coming  to  Athens,  and  under- 
ftanding  tliat  one  of  the  noblell  palaces 
had  not  been  inhabited  for  llveral  years, 
bccaule  a  moll  dreadlul  nolle  and  ratt'ing 
of  chains  was  heard  in  it  at  night,  and 
Ibmetimes   there  appear'd  a  melancholy, 
lean  okl  man,   load.eil  with  chains,  walk- 
ing flowly  thro'  the  rooms  ;   he  refolv'd 
to  make  trial  of  it  himfelf,  and  fee  whe- 
tiier  it  was  not  an  invention,  and  fearful 
imagination  of  filly  women,   w.ho  eafily 
fwallow  f'uch  notions  ;  or  whether  in  re- 
ality the  houfe  was  haunted  by  fome  fpirit. 
Having  liir'd  the  houfe  for  a  fmall  matter, 
he  went  to  live  in  it  ;  and  the  firll  night, 
having  fent  his    fervants   into   the   inner 
room,  he  Ihiy'd  himfelf  in  the  outermoft, 
wholly  intent  on  his  Hud/,  that  the  ap- 
parition he  had  heard  of  might  not  fill 
liis  imagination:  Some  time  alter  the  rat- 
tling of  chains  began  by  little  and  little, 
firll  flow,  then  louder,  drawing  fo  near, 
tliat  he  thought  tit  to  turn  about  to  fee 
the  troublefome  glioll ;  that  made  a  fign 
to  him  to  follow  it,  and  he  beckoning  to 
it  to  flay,  fell  to  his  bufinefs  again,  and 
writ  on  more  attentively  than  before  1  but 
jierceiving  it  never  ceafed  making  a  noife 
dole  by  him,  he  :00k  up  the  candle  and 
follow'd  it :  When  they  came  into  a  certain 
part  of  rhe  court,  the  fpirit  vanilh'd  lik'* 
a  llafti  of  lightning  ;   and  he  pulling  up 
a  little  grafs  in  that  place,  to  fiml  it  again, 


Let.  1 1. 

ich  l);ul  more 
ly  ilniwn,  by 

L.ilt  night, 
rtecn  miles,  I 

the  cultom- 
baggage  very 
;,  after  riding 
)d  way,  came 

r,  that  I  have 
11  imaginable : 
nd  contentedly 
ivere  my  weary 
tclt  the  blan- 
Tliere  was  no 
letiicr  any  wag 
d  on  the  other 
nor  any  botly 
:    matter   was, 
IS  rats,   or  the 
mcc  to  make  a 
;  I  have  heard 
but  complaints 
ve  luirer'd  lall 
are  tliofe  who 
'i  the  work   of 
icvil,  and  that 
time  be  aban- 
iearjig  tiiis,  I 
t  I'liiiy,  lib.  7.  sionti 
kriis  the  philo-  ImiimKi. 
ens,  and  under- 
noblert  palaces 
llveral  years, 
life  and  rattUng 
at  night,  and 
a  melancholy, 
1  chains,  walk- 
s  ;   he  refolv'd 
and  lee  whe- 
aiid  fearful 
en,   who  eafily 
whether  in  re- 
by  fome  fpirit. 
Imall  matter, 
lie  full:  night, 
ito  the   inner 
he  outcrmofl:, 
that  the  ap- 
might  not  fill 
after  therat- 
ttie  and  little, 
iwing  fo  near, 
n  about  to  fee 
at  made  a  fign 
beckoning  to 
efs  again,  and 
an  beiore  ;  but 
iiaking  a  noife 
the  candle  and 
e  into  a  certain 
it  vanifti'd  likf 
he  pulling  up 
0  find  it  again, 

Let.  ir. 

^  Journey  to  Lions. 


''iLifvi'  and 

went  back  to  his  books.  He  next  morn- 
ing S'*'^'^  '^^^  magiitrates  an  account  of 
what  had  happen'd  ;  and  the  place  being 
dug  up,  the  bones  of  a  man  were  found 
rolled  in  chains,  whicli  beiug  decently 
buried,  the  houfc  was  never  ufter  troubled 
with  thofe  apparitions.  Domus,  poftea  rite 
conditis,  mambui  caruit,  are  the  words  of 
PUny,  importing,  -T/jcit  the  boiife,  when  the 
gbojl  had  its  funeral  rites,  was  delivered 
from  it.  Before  I  proceed,  it  is  fit  to  ob- 
fcrve,  that  fome  critick,  after  the  word 
nuinibiis,  adds  diemonibus ;  but  by  his  good 
leave,  I  lay,  they  are  fynonymous,  and 
the  antienc  reading  ought  rather  to  ibnd, 
as  Gro>nvtus  and  Bartbius  declare  ;  or  elfe 
the  word  offibiis  ibould  be  inferted  before 
manibiis,  thus,  Domiis,  pejiea  rite  conditis 
ojfbus,  mombus  caruit  ;  Jftenvards,  when 
the  benes  were  duly  buried,  the  houfc  ivas 
rot  haunted.  But  even  this  is  needlefs  v 
for  the  Latins  properly  faid,  Conderc  ma- 
nes, condcre  animam,  (sc. 

For  the  better  underftanding  of  this 
palligc  in  Pliny,  it  is  requifite  to  call  to 
minil  j-lpuleius'a  difcourfe,  where  he  fpeaks 
of  Socrates'^  genius,  or  demon  i  which  is, 
♦'  'I'liat  tiie  antient  Romans  generally  gave 
•'  the  name  of  Lcmurcs  to  the  fouls  l"e- 
"  parated  from  the  body,  with  this  dil- 
"  tiniftion,  that  thofe  which,  having  led 
"  a  good  life,  remain'd  quietly  in  their 
"  houfes,  were  call'd  Lares  Famdiares  : 
♦'  whereas  thofe  wliicii,  in  punifhment  of 
«'  their  wickcdnefs,  being  remov'd  from 
Ro-  "  every  place  of  bill's,  wandcr'd  about, 
"  frighting  good  men,  and  doing  mif- 
"  chief  to  the  reprobate,  and  ill  live.-s, 
"  were  known  by  the  name  of  Larvi  : 
"  The  third  fort,  of  which  it  was  quef- 
"  tioned,  whether  they  were  Lares,  or 
"  Larv(e,  they  nam'd  Manes.  Now  as 
"  for  the  Lemures  ;  I  find  in  the  frag- 
"  ments  of  antient  calendars  a  peculiar 
»'  feftival,  if  I  may  fo  term  it,  call'd  Le- 
«'  muralia,  which  began  on  the  eleventh, 
♦'  and  lafted  till  the  thirteenth  of  May 
"  inclufive  ;  and  then  there  were  no  wed- 
*'  dings,  and  for  three  nights  fucceflively 
"  they  drove  the  evil  fpirits  out  of  the 
*'  houfes  after  this  manner :  Firfl  the  in- 
"  habitants  wafh'd  their  hands,  performing 
"  certain  ceremonies  J  then  Handing  barc- 
"  foot,  they  held  black  beans  in  their 
"  mouths ;  and,  laftly,  threw  them  back 
♦'  over  their  flioulders,  making  a  noifc  with 
"  brafs  bells ;  and  this  they  repeated  three 
•'  times  every  night,  Fefl.  Pomp. verb. Faba, 

The  Lares  were  held  in  fuch  eileem,  as 
you  well  know,  being  look'd  upon  as 
guardians  of  the  houfes,  as  alfo  of  the 
treafurc  committed  to  their  charge ;  where- 
fore Plautus  introducing  one  in  the  pro- 
logue of  his  Aululana,  makes  him  fay, 

Vol.  VI. 


Eg9  Larfum  familiaris  ex  bac  fanilia,    ^-^V^ 

/  am  a  familiar  Lar,  or  good  fpirit  of 
this  family. 

And  lower, 

Sed  mihi  avus  htijns  obfecrans  Concredidit 
Thefuurum  auri. 

But  this  man's  grandfather  in  fupplianl 
manner  entrujied  me  with  his  golden 

Thus  nothing  is  more  frequent  among 
the  poets,  than  patrii  Lares,  (^  domejlici, 
y  proprii ;  Our  countiy,  our  houfhold,  and 
our  proper  Lares,  or  good  fpirits ;  fign'fying 
their  native  country  or  houfe.  TertttlUan, 
in  hisapology,  fjba/'.i^.  jeering  the  Aowa«J 
for  felling  the  images  of  their  gods,  feems 
to  make  no  diftindtion  between  Penates 
and  Lares;  perhaps,  becaufe  all  the  images 
of  falfe  gods  in  private  houfes,  'y  Sueto- 
nius call'd  Dii  cubiculares.  Chamber  gods, 
were  plac'd  in  the  Lararium,  or  chapel  of 
the  Lares.  St.  Ifidorus,  orig.  lib.  8.  writ 
of  tiic  Larva:,  i^iarum  nntura  effe  dicitur 
terrcre  parvulos,  in  angulis garrire  tenebrojis; 
H^hofe  nature  is  faid  lobe  to  fright  children, 
and  prate  in  dark  rorn.  rs.  /tpuleius  tcflifics 
the  fame  in  one  of  his  apologues,  wifhing 
his  accufer  Emilianus  all  tiie  irights  occa- 
fion'd  by  phantoms,  or  Lares :  And  hence 
I  believe  they  gave  tiic  name  of  Larva 
to  thofe  mafks  the  Romans  us'd  in  their 
plays  ;  becaufe  being  very  defo:  m'd,  they 
frighted  children.  What  the  Manes  are 
has  been  lately  faid.  To  come  to  what 
Pliny  fays  :  The  antients  pofitively  bc- 
liev'd  of  thefe,  that  they  remain'd  in  the 
houfes,  and  ways,  to  difturb  the  people^ 
as  long  as  their  bodies  lay  unburied,  and 
wanted  the  lafl  rites  ;  and  more  particu- 
larly thofe  of  fuch  as  kill'd.  Hence 
t'lrgil,  who  was  p;  rfedly  knowing  in  thofe 
aftiiirs,  faid,  /£«.  3.  vcr.  6j. 

Ergo   inflauramus   Polydoro  funus,    y 

Aggeritur  tumulo  tellus :   Stant  manibus 

Caruleis  mtefla  vittis  atraa;  cuprejfo : 
Et  circum  Iliades,  crineiu  ae  more  foluta, 
Inferimus  tepido  fpumantia  cymbia  laile. 
Sanguinis  (^  fieri  pateras  .  Animamq^; 



Which  Mr.  Dryden  renders  thus ; 

But  ere  we  fail,  his  funeral  rites  prepare. 

Then  to  his  ghoit  a  tomb  and  alurs  rear. 

X  Iri 



'•  -'I 




y^  Journey  to  Lions. 

Let.  II.     I  Let. 

GiMiLti.       In  mournful  pomp  the  matrons  walk  ] 
v^Y"w/  the  round, 

With  baleful  cyprefs  and  blue  fillets! 

crown'd ; 

Wirh  eyes  dejefted,  and  with  hair  un- 
bound : 
Then  bowls  of  tepid  milk  and  blood 

we  pour, 
And  thrice  invoke  '.'.■:•  foul  of  Polydore. 

And  Lucan  writes ; 

'—Umbraque  trraret  Crajpis  imiUa. 

Ami  CralTus'  foul   would  wander  un- 

Plant i:s  iii  Mojld.  aFl.  2.  fc.  Jt.  makes 
Tranio  tlic  flavc,  to  impol'e  on  the  old 
man  Teuropidcs,  repeat  the  complaints  the 
gholt  had  made  the  night  before  to  his  fon. 

■Ecce  qua-"  {lit. 

Ego  traiijinarinus  hofpti  fum  Diapontius  : 

Ueic  habito,  bac  mihi  deditu  eft  habitatio  : 

Nam    me  tii  Acberonlcm    recipere    onus 

Ss'ia  pricmiitufe  vita  carco.    Per  fdem 
Deeepius  fum.     llojpes  hie   me, 

ijque  me 
Dejfodit  infipuUum  clam  ibidem  in  hifce 

SceUjlus  auri  caufu. 

In  profc  to  this  effed>.  ;  The  ghojlfuid  thus, 
J  am  Diopontius  the  foriign  gueji  :  lure 
I  dii-ell,  this  habitation  is  affi^ned  me  ;  for 
Pluto  "would  not  admit  me  into  his  dominions, 
bccaufe  I  died  before  my  tune  :  J  was  de- 
(eiv'd  by  trufling  to  a  man's  faith  :  This 
Loft  invited  me  ;  and  he,  -jjieked  man  !  for 
the  fake  of  my  gold,  privately  burieJ  me  in 
this  bouje,  xvithout  any  funeral  rites. 

The  Sibyl,  in  the  fixth  book  of  Virgil, 
fpeaks  more  plainly  to  Mneas,  by  her  kd 
to  Cvaron'a  boat ; 

Iltzc  omnis,  quam  cernis,  inops  inhumataq; 

turba  ejl  : 
Portitor  ilk,  Charon  :  hi,  quos  vehit  unda, 

Ncc   ripas   dattir  borrendas,    nee   rauca 

Tranjpcrtare  prius,  quam  fedibus  ojfa  qui- 


Thus  in  Mr.  Dryden  ; 

The  gholls  rejeded,  are  th'  unluppy 

Depriv'il  of  fcpiilchres  and  funeral  due  : 
The  boatman, C7;<)ro«j  thofe,  the  bury'd 

He  ferries  over  to  the  tarther  coafl: : 

Nor  dares  his  tranfport  veffel  crofs  the 

With  fuch  whofe  bones  arc  not  com- 

pos'd  in  graves. 

And  therefore  the  unhappy  Palinurus, 
who  was  among  that  croud,  faid  to 
/Eneas ; 

Eripe  me  his,  invite,  malts ;  aut  tu  mihi 


Which  Mr.  Dryden  thus  renders ; 

Redeem  from  this  reproach  my  wand'ring 

And  in  a  peaceful  grave  my  corpfe  com- 


So  that  when  the  body  was  cover'd  with 
earth,  the  foul  was  at  rclf,  accordiiTg  to 
the  opinion  of  Virgil  •,  as  alio  of  CattillusM 
and  Horace,  ode  28. 


Injetlo  ter  puhere  curras. 

That  is,  IVhen  you  have  thrice  thrown 
earth  on  the  dead  body,  you  may  depart. 

Tiie  fame  was  held  by  the  Greeks,  as 
appears  by  what //«//fcw  did  to  the  body 
of  Polynices,  in  Sophocles  -,  and  by Plutarch'a 
words,  when  he  ipeaks  of  //.-j,  it  is  re- 
ported, That  the  hawk  flying  over  bodies 
that  lie  unburied,  throtvs  earth  on  their  eyes. 
The  words  Virgil  makes  Palinurus  fjicak, 
are  like  thole  of  Patroclus's  gholl  to 
Achillis  in  Homer,  which  I  tranflate  thus  ; 
Bury  me  fpeedily,  that  1  may  get  into  Pluto'i 
empire :  All  thoje  black  fouls  and  ffjades  drive 
me  away,  and  Kill  tiot  fujfcr  me  to  bear 
them  company  beyond  the  river.  We  alfo 
read,  That  he  who  emitted  this  charitable 
duty  of  throwing  earth  on  the  dead,  was 
oblig'd  afterwards  to  purify  bimfelf,  by  facri' 
ficing  afowto  Ceres,  Fell.  verb.  Prnccidanea. 
But  Cicero,  fpeaking  of  thiscuflom,  in  the 
fecond  book  de  Legibus,  adds.  That  if  any 
man  was  kill'd  at  Jea,  and  thrown  into  it, 
Iho'  his  bones  did  not  lie  above  ground,  yet 
the  heir  was  obliged  to  offer  the  aforefaid 
facrifice :  But  he  afligns  no  reafon  for 

I  could  here  produce  more  fuch  inftances 
out  of  poets  and  hiftorians  ;  as,  among 
others,  tliat  which  Suetonius  has  of  Cali- 
gula's unburied  carcafc  ;  and  l.ucian  in 
Philopf  of  a  houfe  in  Corinth,  like  that 
of  Athens  above-mention'd,  out  of  Pliny. 
But  perhaps  you,  to  whom  none  of  thefc 
rhings  are  unknown,  will  laugh  at  me ; 
and!  fhall  get  noihing  but  blame  for  em- 










'.in  Lions. 

•.'<  Curious 
^  flock. 



I  will 

as  bri 



us  ;  b 




Tlie  c 

a  king 


rigjit  , 

able  ; 

a  braf 

claps  1 


four  an 

that  tl 

tune  of 

gins,  L 

the   mi 

little  d 


to  hear 

the  He 


her  thr 

angel  g 

what  1( 

day  of 

of  tholi 

in  tlic 

occurs  ; 


St.  /oht, 

on  Thur 

•itha  i 



which  f] 

the  fi^n 

his  rifin 

hoih  [IK 

the   da] 

Let.  II. 

crofs  the 
not  com- 

LeT.  12. 

A  Defcription  of  Lions, 

ploying  myfclt  to  fo  little  purpofe  on  this 
bufincfs,  unlcfs  I  be  thought  mad,  for 
difcourfing  on  this  fubjeft  after  the  moll 
learned  Turmbus,  adverf.  lib.  25.  cap.  6. 
However,  I'll  tell  you  a  difficulty  I  think 
worth  your  difcufTing  •,  which  is.  How 
you  would  reconcile  this  wandering  of  the 
ghoft,  wlien  the  body,  efpccially  it  it  be 
kiird,  is  unburjcd,  and  depriv'd  of  tu 


neral  rites,  with  our  religion ?  If  1  Ihould  CiMoti. 
aflure  you,  upon  my  word,  that  we  find  ^•^^f^ 
this  true  by  experience,  even  in  our  days, 
fo  that  you  may  put  it  out  of  doubt, 
that  it  is  not  barely  a  fupcrllition  of  the 
anticnts  :  I  confefs  my  ignorance,  and 
know  not  how  to  folvf  this,  unlefs  your 
learning  can  find  the  means.  I  have  done, 
and  am,  tfc. 

LETTER    XII.  , 

1'he  Defcription   of  Lions. 



ghoft    to 

ce  thus  ; 

nto  Pluco'i 

ies  driie 

to  bear 

k\'c  alfo 

iead,  was 


om,  in  the 
;//  tf  any 
into  it, 

■OK  ltd,  yet 

eafon  for 

1  inftances 
of  Cali- 
Mcian  in 
ike  that 
of  Pliny. 
:  of  thefc 
at  me ; 
for  em- 

^-  ilcck. 


HAT  I  may  not  be  oblig'd  to  write 

you  an  extravagant  long  luttcr  from 

Paris,  wliere  I  hope  to  be  in  a  few  days, 
I  will  now  give  you  an  account  of  Lio>is, 
°^ch„rrhes    as  briefly  as  I  can.     To  begin  with  the 
ip"  Liui'5.   fei-vicc  of  God  ;    the  beft  cliurches  here, 
S  would  be  reckon'd  very  indifferent  witii 

us  ;  but  then  they  are  better  ferv'd,  and 
more  refpLx'led  than  in  Italy  ;  fuch  is  the 
education  of  the  clergy,  the  zeal  of  tlie 
prelates,  and  the  devotion  of  the  people. 
The  cathedral,  deiiicated  to  St.  Jobii  by 
a  king  of  Burgundy,  is  adorn'd  wich  foine 
curiofities :  I'he  clock,  flanding  on  tlie 
right  hand  of  the  choir,  is  molt  remark- 
able ;  for  every  time  the  hour  is  to  Itrike, 
a  brafs  cock,  ftandiiig  on  tlie  top  of  it, 
claps  his  wings,  and  itretdiing  out  hi; 
neck,  as  if  he  were  alive,  crows  :  then 
four  angels  ftrike  bells  of  fevciai  lizcs,  fo 
that  they  make  a  concert,  or  chime  the 
tune  of  the  hymn  of  St.  John,  which  be- 
gins, L/t  que^int  laxis  rrjonare  Jibris  :  In 
the  mean  while,  another  angel  opens  a 
little  door,  and  comes  out  to  faluce  the 
blelTed  virgin  ;  and  as  (he  turns,  as  it  were 
to  hear  wiiat  he  fays,  adoN'e,  reprefenting 
the  Holy  Ciliofl,  defcends  ;  and  another 
figure,  fignify  ing  the  Eternal  Father,  blefles 
her  three  times  :  which,  the  fame 
angel  goes  in  to  flrike  the  hour.  Some- 
what lower  is  a  nich,  in  wliich,  every 
day  of  the  week,  there  is  a  feveral  figure 
of  thofe  faints,  whole  office  is  celebrated 
in  the  church,  when  no  other  foleninity 
occurs  i  as,  on  Sunday  oar  Saviour's  refur- 
rcdion,  on  Monday  his  death,  on  'Ttiejday 
St.  John  Biiplijt,  on  H^cdnejday  St.  Stephen, 
on  -Thurfday  our  Saviour  holding  a  chalice, 
■  ith  a  hoft  over  it,  on  Friday  he  an  infant 
embracing  a  crofs,  and  on  Saturday  our 
blefled  l.ady.  It  has  alfo  an  altrolabe, 
which  fhev/s  all  the  motions  of  the  fun  on 
tiic  fij^ns  of  the  zodi.'ck,  and  the  time  of 
his  rifing  and  letting  i  as  alio  tiie  twiiiglit 
both  morning  and  evening  ;  a  divifion  of 
the  day   into  twelve  equal  parts  ;   the 

Lions,  March  22,   1686. 

moon's  increafe  and  wane  •,  fo  principal 
tix'd  flars  that  appear  in  our  hemifphere, 
and  the  motion  of  tlv.'  pimum  uwbiie,  per- 
form'd  in  twenty-four  hours.  Below  is 
a  perpetual  calendar,  flicwing  the  years 
ol  die  common  chrillian  Epocba,  the  gol- 
den number  of  the  prefent  year,  the  do- 
minical letter,  tiic  epaifl,  the  moveable 
tealts,  the  days  of  every  month,  and  par- 
ticularly the  feflivals  celebrated  by  the 
church  ;  and  this  fills  lixty-fix  years  with- 
ouc  altering.  On  anotiier  oval  plate  is  a 
hand,  as  we  call  it,  which  contracts  itfelf, 
and  ffietch'.'s  out  five  inches  in  going  about, 
to  point  tlie  minutes  of  the  hour  cxadiiy. 
This  ciiurch  is  polielied  of  lixty-nine  ma- 
nors, to  adding  its  otiier  revenues 
w  ithin  tile  city,  it  may  be  rccl.on'd  wortli 
near  ten  thouland  crowns  .1  years.  Upon 
a  vacancy  it  is  govern'd  by  the  bifliop  of 
Autiin,  call'd  .lugiijlodunenfis  ;  and  he  ol 
Lions  does  the  lame  by  that  of  Aiitun. 
No  man  can  be  admitted  to  the  dignity 
of  a  canon,  unlcfs  he  firll  prove  his  gen- 
tility for  four  delcents.  There  are  alfo 
many  ))rebendaries,  twelve  whereof  are 
perpetual,  and  feventy  other  prieits,  to 
attend  the  divine  fervice.  The  habit  of 
thefe  canons  i"  ditlerent  from  what  ours 
wear,  for  under  the  ufual  fquare  caps  they 
have  one  of  furs,  which  covers  half  their 
forehead  •,  befides  a  very  large  capouch, 
or  hood,  which  hinders  the  feeing  any 
thing  beyond  their  nofe  ;  for  the  reft,  they 
wear  the  long  caflbck  under,  and  over  it 
a  furplice,  when  in  the  church.  The  other 
clergymen  and  priefts  ule  the  fame  habit, 
excepting  the  aforcfaid  cap. 

Next  to  the  cathedral,  we  muft  take  ,);,•  ^rr,tt 
notice  of  the  hofpital  for  the  poor,  call'd  '•'/;■"''• 
la  Charite,  or  the  charity  ;  a  place  io 
large,  that  it  looks  like  a  finall  town. 
Here  fourteen  hundred  perfons  of  both 
fexes  are  maintain'd  ;  but  they  arc  lo 
dillributed,  and  put  to  il'veral  employ- 
ments and  trades,  that  none,  tijo'  lame, 
cat  tlieir  i^read  befpre  they  have  carn'd  it. 



'H:i.    '  ■'■■Ji'li'li 



y^  Defcription  of  Lions. 



Gemfui.  The  girls  have  portions  given  them  when 

c'^'V^  they  arc  marriageable.  I  leave  it  to  you 
to  gucfs  what  abundance  of  rooms  there 
mult  be,  for  fo  many  people  of  luchdiHe- 
lent  ages  and  conditions,  to  lie,  work, 
and  do  all  their  atiairs.  I  will  only  tell  you 
that  their  granary  is  half  as  big  as  ours  at 
Napli'.! ;  not  that  fo  much  corn  is  fpent  in 
the  holj'ital,  but  becaufe  abundance  of 
'  bread  is  alio  given  to  the  other  poor  about 
the  town.  Now  in  the  Icnt-time,  many 
,  maidens  of  gcod  quality  ibnd  in  the 
ftreets,  and  grcatill  dealers  Ihops,  begging 
alms  for  this  hofpital  -,  and  tiiey  m.m.ige 
fo  well  with  fine  words  and  good  carri.ige, 
fomctimes  humble,  and  Ibmctinies  pka- 
fmtly  inipcrious,  that  they  gather  about 
fivcluiiidred  piilolcs  a  year.  I'he  churcli 
is  indi'  erently  well  adorn'd,  and  I  am 
niigluily  jileafed  wit'i  I'ume  figures  painted 
on  its  windows.  The  poor  lieri.  do  notliing 
but  pray  tor  their  king's  health  and  pio- 

'itmimt.  As  for  the  fituation  of  the  city,  itisal- 
moltall  cnconipalled  witii  mount.iins,  and 
therefore  the  air  is  ratlier  thick,  than  other- 
wile  ;  yet  its  hills  are  inferior  to  none  in 
tjic  world  for  pkwjanrnefs,    and  icnility. 

Cri.l'c.  I'here  is  a  Ihuely  bridge  over  tlie  Rhofiii', 
of  twenty-lix  arches,  and  ligiity  Juices  in 
lengtli,  and  famous  for  the  death  ol  the 
emperor  Giiiliiin,  kill'd  on  it  by  the  tyrant 
Mdxiiiiits.  That  over  the  Saont-  has  but 
nine  arches,  but  is  alfo  noted  for  the  cruelty 
of  Cidi\^ulct,  who  is  fiid  to  have  caulld  all 
thofe  wiio  were  baffled  tlifputing  bL'forc 
iiim,  to  becatt  headlong  from  it. 

Tliere  are  twofmail  liills  within  the  in- 
clofure  of  the  city,  call'd  St.  Jujli.Ss  and 
^t.  Sduiji'hiti,  On  the  latter  a  citadel  was 
once  ererted,    and   tince   demoiifliM ;    lb 

Torts.  that  at  prefent  nothing  remains  but  a  fmall 
calllc.  Another  Hill  Imaller  Hands  on  one 
of  tiie  banks  of  the  8aonc,  and  is  call'd 
Pierre  A)hife,  oppofiteto  the  gate  of  ^t;>'i,*. 
Tiie  fort  call'd  St.  Clair,  towards  the 
Rbofiic,  is  fmall,  and  of  little  or  no  conle- 
quencc.  Not  far  from  the  abov^  men- 
tion'd  gate,  I  fiwan  ancient  tomb,  on  four 
columns.  The  multitude  calls  it,  of  the 
two  lovers ;  and  Ibme  other  Ignoramus's 
have  fome  ftrangc  notions  of /AvW,  Pilate, 
and  Ikrodias. 

rovtt-  The  town-houl'e  isa  moftnoble  ftrudlure, 

*<"'/'•  and  fuch  that  there  is  a  cut  made  of  it. 
Not  to  Ipeak  of  its  fine  fquare,  and  the 
fountain  in  the  midft  of  it ;  a  few  fteps  lead 
up  to  the  firfl  floor,  where  there  is,  as  it 
Were,  a  cover'd  court,  adorn'd  n'ith  fome 
antient  infcriptions;  and  among  the  refl, 
on  two  brals  piates,  the  oration  made  by 
the  emperor  Clatidiiis,  mention'd  by  Tacitus, 
yiiDial.  2.  in  fivour  of  the  people  of  Lions, 
wjien  they  fued  to  be  made  citizens  of  Rime. 

On  the  upper  Floor,  is  firft  a  halJ,  which 
Hill  (hews the efieds of  the  late  fire;  next 
a  large  room  with  the  pidurcs  of  all  the 
Ejchevins,  or  Iheritfs,  and  beyond  it  an- 
other, where jufUcc  is  adminiilred  to  tradc- 
ing  people  ;  all  three  well  painted.  For 
the  better  underllanding  of  what  I  lay, 
you  are  to  be  inform'd,  that  the  govern- 
ment of  the  city  is  in  four  confuls,  and 
Ejehevtiis,  reduced  to  this  number  from 
twelve,  by  Henn  IV'.  two  whereof  are 
yearly  chofen  by  the  citizens.  Above 
them  is  the  Prevojl  des  Marchar.di,  or  lord 
mayor  i  who  is  cholln  every  two  years, 
in  Deeemher,  on  the  day  ol  St.  Thomas 
the  Apoftle.  Thefe  Lfi'vins  have  the 
keeping  of  the  keys  of  tiie  city,  having 
taken  an  oath  to  king  Henry  III.  in  1570. 
When  out  of  their  employment,  they  are 
ennobled,  or  become  gentlemen,  with  all 
tiieir  potterity,  and  are  not  oblig'd  to  pub- 
liek  ituties.  I'hey  every  h.ilf  year  iippoint 
tlie  counlellors  and  judges,  who  fit  in  the 
aforelaid  houle  to  decide  controverlies  in 
matters  of  trade;  tjio'  from  them  there 
lies  an  appeal  to  the  of  the  city. 
They  allbconllitute  a  lollicitor,  and  a  fe- 
cretary,  who  are  alio  ennobled,  and  have 
each  two  hunitred  livres  a  year  penlion, 
lor  lite.  At  trials,  tlie  provoil  and  coun- 
lellors, or  judge.,,  lit  on  a  place  rais'd 
high,  and  the  Ejebeviiis,  advoc.itcs,  and 
Ibilicitors,  Ibmewhat  lower,  without  any 
otiier  tliflindion. 

All  thcle  privileges  and  immunities  havf; 
been  very  j)iovidently  granted  to  the  hj- 
cbevins,  to  advance  the  trade  of  tlic  people 
of  Lions,  and  raite  it  to  the  reputation  it 
now  has,  to  the  great  benefit  of  the  king's 
revenue ;  and  for  this  fame  realbn,  they 
obtain'il  four  free  fairs  in  a  year,  kept  at 
Ttcelftb-tiile,  and  Eajter,  in  Aiigujl,  and 
in  November,  on  /III  Saints  Day.  Among 
the  other  branches  of  trade,  tiiat  of  books 
is  none  of  the  leal! ;  both  in  regard  that 
printing  is  there  in  perfection,  and  becaufe 
of  'lie  quantities  brought  from  the  fair,  at 
Frankfort,  and  other  parts  of  Germany, 
and  Italy.  I  am  fatisfy'd  a  learned  man 
cannot  lee  any  thing  that  will  pleafe  him 
better,  than  ./Innijiin's  warehoules. 

As  for  the  manners  and  culloms,  I  do  Cufi 
not  think  my  three  days  flay  here  time 
enough,  to  judge  of  tiiem  ;  but  by  what 
I  could  difcover,  the  people  feem  to  mc 
indultrious,  anil  pains-taking,  coupling 
the  Frencb  invention  to  the  Italian  oecono- 
my.  The  women  are  beautiful,  and  fond 
of  fine  cloaths  •,  the  gentry  are  well  bred, 
and  genteel  i  and  the  pea  (iints  more  crafty 
and  fharp  than  in  other  parts. 

I  \uve  no  leifure  to  add  any  more,  but 
only  two  particulars.  The  firrt,  that  the 
Uay  before  ydterduy,  at  tlic  inn  call'd  the 


Let.  12. 

,  which 
e;  next 
f  all  the 
il  it  an- 
te traitc- 
d.  For 
t  I  liiy, 

iils,  and 
)er  from 

rcot  are 
,  or  lord 
■o  years, 
:.  Thomas 
have  the 
',  having 

in  1570. 

tlK-y  are 

with  .ill 
\\  to  piib- 
ir  ippoint 

fit  in  the 
)verlii's  iii 
v:m  there 
t  the  city. 

and  a  I'c- 
,  and  iiave 
r  pcnfion, 
and  coun- 
lace  rais'd 
catcs,  and 
ithout  any 

nitics  have 
to  the  hj- 
le  pt  oplc 
ration  it 
the  king's 
fon,    they 
kept  at 
ugujh   and 
ot  books 
gard  that 
id  bccaufe 
fair,  at 
irned  man 
)kafe  him 


ims,  I  doC»jI;«' 
here  time 
t  by  what 
■m  to  me 
«  oecono- 
and  fond 
11  bred, 
ore  crafty 

Tiorc,  but 

that  the 

Icall'd  the 


.£T.    13. 

j4  Journey  from  Lions  to  Paris. 



Three  kings,  I  faw  an  £«?///i5  nobleman, 
and  was  alTur'd  for  a  certainty,  that  he  is 
going  embafllidor  to  Rome,  from  king 
Jtim.'s  II.  to  pay  his  obedience  to  the 
pope.  I  fufpend  my  judgment  till  I  hear 
moreot  it.  The  fame  day  he  imbark'd 
on  the  Rhofne,  to  go  down  to  Avignon, 

with  eight  fervants.     The  other,  of  more  Gemhi.i. 
confequence  to  me,  is,  that  I  wifli  you  to  '^O"^ 
have  more  kindnefs  for  me  than  hitherto, 
or  at  leart  to  give  me  more  frequent  proofs 
of  it,    writing  to  me,    when  your  affairs 
will  permit.     And  to  conclude,  I  remain. 


The  Author's  yoiirmy  from  Lions  to  Paris. 


'OUR  moft  obliging  letter  came  to 
X  my  h.inds  moft  conveniently,  that  is, 
when  I  was  moll  eager  to  hear  from  you, 
and  my  friends.  This  frelh  obligation  being 
added  to  all  the  --eft,  for  which  I  (hall  ever 
be  your  debtor,  that  you  take  upon  you, 
notonly  to  acquaint  me  wiih  the  ill  pradi- 
ces  of  my  enemies,  but  alio  to  difappoint 
them.  To  deal  plainly,  I  know  not  how  to 
go  about  at  preient,  to  return  due  thanks; 
or  how  I  can  hope  todeierve  it  as  long  as  I 
live  i   but  wlio  knows  what  may  happen  ? 

To  come  to  my  journey  :  I  fct  out  from 
Lions  on  FrtJay  tha  13th  ofALinb,  having 
hireil  two  horfes  to  Roiine  fur  ''xtecn  li- 
vres,  and  dining  at  Ihcle,  three  leagues  from 
Lmwj,  went  three  leagues  further  to  ri^r;-!;/-;;, 
where  I  lay,  with  two  gentlemen  of  Lions, 
who  were  travtlling  the  fame  way.  Tiie 
next  morning  I  advanc'd  iliree  leagues  to 
St.  Sa/'honn,  and  after  dinner  three  more 
to  Ronr.e,  a  fmall  town.  On  S'lnday  I  heard 
mafs  in  tlie  Jefuitci  cluirch,  which  is  not 
lo  wi-11  adorn'd  as  thole  of  the  Capuchins 
are  with  us  ;  and  atone  in  the  afternoon  we 
iniLark'd  on  the  Loire,  by  the  Romans 
call'd  Ligeris,  to  go  down  the  river  to 
Orleani,  paying  four  iivres  and  a  half  each 
for  our  pallage.  The  firll  night  wc  lay  at 
a  fill, ill  village  call'd  St.  Giran,  the  fecond 
at  G\t-n,  twclvf  leagues  diftant,  all  the 
way  in  fight  of  a  pleafant  and  fruitful 
country  ;  and  the  third  to  D'Jize,  a  large 
town,  nine  leagues  from  Gjcn.  The  next 
day,  having  run  feven  leagues,  we  din'd 
at  Ncven,  a  city  belonging  to  the  duke  of 
Maz.irine,  as  well  as  the  afbrelaid  town  of 
Dcjizi'.  It  is,  at  p.-efent,  about  tiiree  miles 
in  compals,  with  a  good  ditch  and  walls  ; 
buttiie  ancientcity,  then  call'd  iS'oviodunum 
Hcduorum,  enclos'd  within  the  new  one, 
was  much  I'maller.  The  bridge  over  the 
river  Lcire,  in  my  opinion,  is  one  of  the 
linell  and  tlrongell:  that  may  be  feen,  con- 
lilUngof  twenty  arches,  llandingon  pillars 
of  fquare  Hone.  At  both  ends  of  it  there 
are  ilraw-bridges,  with  towers  to  defend 
them  ■,  and  to  conclude,  under  the  laft 
arch,  next  the  city,  is  a  battery  flufli  with 
Vol.  VI. 

Paris,  April  3.   1686. 

the  water,  to  keep  off  any  large  boat  of 
enemies.  The  treafurer  of  the  cathedral 
enjoys  this  privilege,  that  he  may  go  into, 
and  lit  in  the  choir,  when  he  plealiis,  with 
his  fword  by  his  fide,  and  with  his  boots 
antl  fpurson,  as  if  he  were  going  to  battle. 
In  other  refpeds,  the  city  abounds  in  all 
lorts  of  provifions,  except  oil  of  olives  -, 
inltead  of  which  they  ule  nut  oil  and  butter. 
They  workcurioully  here  in  cryltal,  as  well 
as  in  yenicc,  wiiich  I  could  not  have  be- 
liev'd  unlefs  I  had  fetn  it. 

Imbaiking  again,  and  running  al '•••. 
ten  leagues,  we  came  at  night  to  another 
village,  call'd  Ll-  pity  di  ler,  where  we  i,c  puv  .!<■ 
fpent  the  time  plealantly,  being  fueh  a  l-'u  t^/i/«i« 
company,  as  if  we  were  jiift  come  from  the 
tower  of  Bdbii,  one  fpea king  Lrf//';,  ano- 
ther Italian,  a  third  trench,  a  ^'jurth  Eng~ 
iijh,  and  'x  Mi\\  i>painjb;  but  fometimes 
every  one  flriving  to  Ipeakthe  other's  lan- 
guage, they  fpoke  none  of  them  to  the 
purpofe;  fo  that  you  may  imagine  how 
comical  it  was  to  hear  the  Frenchman  ita- 
licile,  the  Italian  gallieife,  and  fo  of  the 

On  Friday  morning  we  ailvanc'd  three 
leagues,  to  a  little  ricy,  call'd  Li  Charite,  i..iCl,an'f. 
where  they  alio  work  in  eryftal ;  and  then  "•> 
fix  nil  dier  to  Cojne,  a  fmall  town.     I  was 
well  pleas'd  hereto  lee  a  great  forge,  where 
the  iron   is  he;'.ted  by  the  blowing  of  an 
extravagant    pair   of    btllows  mov'd  by 
water.      The  next  morning  we  proceeded 
three  leagues,  and  din'd  at  tlie  village  of  B,i.,ie  t.'.'- 
Briare  ;  then  two  more  to  He  at  Bit^/iere,  l-i!.'- 
where  the  marquifs  of  the  fame  name  has  '^""'■^^'"•' 
a  fine  palace,  with  a  molt  curious  and  de- 
lightful gartic'-,  and  grove. 

On  Sunday,  inflead  of  holding  on  to 
0^7c.;;.'.(  by  water,  I  alter'd  my  mind,  and' 
hiring  two  horfes  for  live  Iivres,  let  out  for 
Noyan,  to  go  thence  to  Montargis.  From 
Bu/Jicre  to  A'oyan  is  but  three  le.igu^s,  fo  Noyau, 
that  I  came  thither  time  enough  to  hear 
mals.  It  is  the  cullom  in  F-  ance  to  diltri- 
bute  holy  b'eail  on  Sunday  to  all  that  are 
prefent  at  the  folemn  mafs.  That  night 
I  lay  at  Montargis,  three  leagues  from  *l)iujrgi, 
V  Noyan, 


;"    i; 



j4  Journey  from  Lioqs  to  Paris.         J  ,c  i 


Gemeili.  Noyan,  tlicrc  to  cjcpcdl  the  Dtligc>;cc,  or  they  Jixjiju'ii  to  prove  kiiij  to  others  thiui 

^■''V"^  flyu)g-coii,ch,    wluch  goes  juid  cocncs  to  by  loiroiking  Lliem  ami  (.iliufkug  others.     | 

P<;/;j.      Tliis  city  is  coiifidcTabJ y  large,  teJJ  them  tiny  do  uut  luye  tlitii,  .inj  iu:v 

and  lull  ol' wealthy  inhabitants,  being  leated  m^d  to  think,  thit  tluy  vyJio  iiavc  k>t  uht-ir 

near  a  navigable  river,  which  oeoifions  a  inind.s  on  others  laji  .i;iy  )Viiy  refuit  heW 

great   trade,    ejpecially  o^'   wine  Jilint  to  i'oil.iken  by  iJain.      The  nvointn,   b<.W{^ 

Piiris ;  and  being  a  place  that  belongs  to  "  '" 

the  duke  of  Oihans,  tiie  caftle  is  a  ina- 
K'rtich  habitation  ;  but  will  coll  very  niutii 
to  be  ])ut  in  repair. 

The  coach  coming  yeilerday  I  took  a 
place  in  it,  paying  two  I'mub  crowns 
ibr  myleir,  and  one  tor  a  lervant  of  mine 

to  ride  beiiind  i  ami  tlius  we  let  out  about  tlier  nor  lovers,  but  only  rcla- 

eight  in  the  morning.     Havinggone  about  tions,  orgu.ndians,  .ire  in  redity  toDp:;:;-, 

two  leagues,  there  came  into  the  coach  a  and  rather  occallon  more  harm  tl.jn  f.o^iil, 

Jddy  of  quality  with  her  husband  ■,  which  by  keeping  the  women  lo  much  lluii  u}', 

I  couki  not  but  a  little  admire,  being  us'd  and  in  llich  folitude.      liieir'i  is  not  to  be 

to  that  unpolitenefs  of  Jhily,  call'd  by  the  call'd  jealoufy,  but  diiiidenci;  and  milirud  \ 

Jtalmif).    hameofrefpeiiti  but  in  reality  is  uiiruience  thus  tW'V  make   tlicir  own    uiil.appinef';, 

and  jealoufy.     I  am  wont  to  !iy,  that  jea  •    • 

iccjuainted  with  the  falljion,  donoLregatui 
the  mens  words,  tho'  tluy  law  thnn  ui;-, 
and  therefore  it  is  no  wonder  that  incon- 
llancy  does  not  trouble  tl>em,  and  that  j  .1- 
loufy  takes  no  place  in  their  diilr.u^tud 
brealU.  On  the  contrary,  to  raurn  to 
my  pur])ole,  tliolc  in  /.',.-/v,  who  are  nu- 

loufy  is  to  be  call'd  a  nalbiiiii',  ■  vice  ;  tor 
it  procectls  from  a  niind  that  u  i:l  be  folely 
polTefs'ii  of  a  thing  it  thinks  good  \  and 
thus  it  is  not  only   the  lover,    who  will 
poflefshis  lair,  without  allowing  any  part 
to  another,  but  the  mifcr  is  of  the  fune 
opinion  as  to  l;i>  money,  bcir,;/,  no  kfs  in 
love  with  it.     BJi.les,  lie  who  loves,  and 
is  belov'd,  doesno:  only  cPijoy  the  poi^cf- 
fion  of  that  good,  but  alio  tl>e  fitistaCLion 
of  feeing  himflf  valu'd  above  all  tliiiiys 
by  his  millrefs,  as  llie  is  by  him;    as  he 
thinks  himfelf  CAiraonlinary  happy,  v.i.u 
knows  he  is  in  his  prince',  lavoins   m  in 
great  repute  among  his  neighbours  1  there- 
fore he  is  not  murh  in  the  wrong  win  n  he 
frets  and  ve.\es,    hei:aule   his    lady  takes 
much  notice  of  others  1  bccaufe  he  ciiher 
thinks himfeifundervalu'd,  which  he  looks 
upon  with  indignation,  as  a  wrong,  orelli; 
fancies  he  is  only  put  uj'on  an  eijual  lay 
with  others,   when  he  expected  to  be  the 
firrt  and  only  perlbn  in  her  fivour.     More- 
over, love,  which  is  not  brutal,  being  in- 
divilible,  as  confining  in  the  ilefire  ol    a 
thing  look'd  upon  as  the  ultimate  good, 
which  can  be  but  one  ;  it  follows,    that 
wliatfoever  account  a  woman  makes  of  an- 
other man,  is  look'd  upon,   by  the  lover, 
as  contempt,    ,uid  undtrv.duing  of   him. 
Thus  it  appears,  that  only  they  are  bold 
in  condemning  jealoufy,  who  never  lov'd, 
but  have  l.ibour'd  all  their  life-time  to  fa - 
tiate  their  natural  appetite,    without  any 
dif-indtion,  like  the  beallsj  as  alfo  thofe 
women,  who,  tho' they  Hem  proud,  will 
not  be  lubjed  to  one  only  man,  but  to  all 
they  meet,      i'his  plainly  appears  among 
thofe  Irench  gentlemen,  who  look  upon 
jealoufy  as  more  difhonourable  thancuckol- 
dom  is  among  us.      They  fay,   I  don't 
fpeak  of  marry'il  men,  that  they  cannot 
take  greater  revenge  on  their  ladies,    if 

and  clierilii  the  vulture  in  their  own  bre.-li-, 
which  tears  their  very  howcls.    \\\\-;.\.  won- 
der is  it  if  a  maiden,  that  has  never  look'il 
a  man  in  the  tics,  prefently  falls  in  lovt- 
with  the  firll:  file  fees,   witiiout  conlidering 
whether  he  is  a  fit  perfon  for  her,    or  of 
wiiat  condition  or  nation  he  is.    Do  not  tell 
me  tlurc  are  fb;nc,  w  ho  would  never  think 
of  lioing  any    iil   thi;i^,    were    tliey    not 
temiHea  1   and  tlKrefoie  it  is  r:(jui(ite  to 
keep  them  fiuitup.     1  his  is  the  lame  I  fay  ; 
women  are  all  of  this  temper,  they  lo'.'c  to 
be  courted,  and  are  only  chaf'j  wjun  tin  y 
are  not  fought  atLcr,  or  when,  b<inf; forward 
tliemlelve>,  they  ,i.v  flighted  ;  fh.tll  wc  then 
believe  that  all  our  vigilancy,   tho' we  had 
Aigoi'f,  eyes,  can  keep  them   li(nn  doing 
what  they  pleafei'  Oui'  care  only  l;rves  to 
make  them  fenfible  of   fbme    things  we 
would  not  have  them  know,   and  the  belt 
remedy  perhaps  in  thofe  calls  is  to  take  no 
notice  of  tluni.     Hear  a  long  aiuch  uied 
here  to  that  purpoie. 

S'l  voiiz  avcz  unefcmmi  ccq:icUc, 
Finu'ijiwbLint  de  iic  U'  feint  /fan  ir ; 
Car  un  muii,  qui  vckrjair  l.i  irtai.'c. 
Foil  hienfoitviuit  cc  qud  ne  vcui  /  i^j  voir. 

That  is,  ff  yoti  have  ajiliing  ■:;■//>,  /ait^  1:0 
notice  oj  it ; jora  hiishdndlhai  Kilibe  ufoii  tic 
li-atcb,  very  often  fees  ivbat  he  loctdii  not  fi\ 

1  he  French  women  preferve  a  good  rc« 
putation,  bccaufe  none  of  them  are  ever 
t.iken  in  a  fault ;  and  this  by  realbn  no 
man  oblerves  them.  They  take  great  care 
to  breed  them  fbherly,  devoutiy,  ai;d  in 
all  virtue  ;  and  this  done,  dlow  them  fuch 
liberty  that  rellraint  may  not  kindled.  !!;■.• 
in  them  ;  as  we  covet  ///ii.//;.  rariti.'s,  and 
breeding  women  four  apples.  Kamilin- 
converfation  between  men  and  women  doev 
not  always  produce  immodeileifecfs  ;  nor 
docsconfinementat  all  linuj  Licurech.uUtv. 





Let.  13.  v/  Defcription  of  Fontainbleau. 


;  <>:l»cr.s.     { 

tH,   .IKlJ  mx 

;ivc  lL)t  tlu-ir 
•(.fent  bfiiKj 
nun,  bcw{4 
w  them  ill;', 
lint  iiKdn- 
iivi  rli.'.t  i  .'.- 
ir  tliilr.u'tiil 

0  rauni  u> 
v]m  .\rc  mi- 
t  only  re  1:1- 
lity  to;)  <)•::■■, 

1  tliJIl  ^nJviit, 

di  lliiii  ui', 
,  is  not  to  be 
nd  miliriidi 
'  own  hiT,;lK 

W  hi;  I  won - 
i.'vi'i'  look'cl 
t.ills  in  lovi" 
t  conruii-ring 
■  her,    or  of 

Do  not  tell 
I  never  think 
e    liicy    not 

r;(juilite  to 
L'  laliu-  I  lay  ; 
they  lo'.'c  to 
c  wlicri  tli(  y 
fh.tli  wc  ciitn 
tiui'  we  hait 

TroiU  J()in|5 
y  I.  rvc's  to 
tilings  we 
a  the  belt 
to  take  no 
aiucli  uicii 

ivnr ; 

[i-.i  i-oir, 

ifi\  take  v.o 
'  /'(.'  n/oii  lie 
Id  not  jl  : 

x   f^OOll  w  - 

n  .u'c  ever 
re.ilim  no 
;re;u  c.ire 
tlvi  .u;d  in 
tncm  lucli 
irilies,  ii'ld 
romen  does 
k'els  ;  nor 

It  is  ridiculous  to  fay ,  Sueh  ;i  woman  is  more 
t.iken  with  I'ueh  a  certain  man's  company, 
tii.ui  with  another,  tiwrtfore  flie  mull  be 
in  love  with  him.     SiK'h  a  man  will  quit 
any  otlierdiverlion  to  difcourle  with  fuch  a 
lady,  therefore  lie  mult  have  fome  delign 
upon  her.      I  own  there  is  more  likeliliooii 
of  thefe  jx'ribns.. tiling  in  love,  than  thofc 
who  are  not  aeqiainted  ;  yet  it  iloes  not 
follow  that  they  mult  of  necellity  lie  ena- 
niour'd.      Who  is  tlierr  that  would  not 
rather  yizc  on  a  Ix-autiful  than  *.  deform'd 
llituc  ?  VVlw  is  tlie  man  that  in  com|).iny 
will  not  r.i.her  ehufe  to  litliy  a  genteel, 
handlbme,    and  well-bred  young  genile- 
m.ui,    than  by  an  ill-look'd  peevilh   old 
fellow?  Crtainly  none.      Thus,    not  to 
fpeaknf  be.uity,  gockl  perfonal  behaviour, 
a  virti.ous  deportment,  and  difcrcet  plea-  difeourfe,  will  g\i:i  ,ui  alevndant  over 
others.     Why  then,  if  one  man  loves  an- 
other, upon  fuch  like  motives,  is  it  call'd 
a    virtuous   atFeftion,    pcrfee'l   tiiendfliip, 
brotherly  kindncfs,  and  a  natural  fympa- 
thy  ?    and,  on  the  other  hand,    if  a  lady 
fliews  more  inclination  to  eonverle  with  a 
worthy  youth,    that  is  a  llranger,    than 
will)    her  own  dull  kindred,    mull  it  be 
term'd  lewdnefs,   impudence,   immodelly, 
and  bare-fie'd    whoredom  ?     The  ciwle- 
quence  of  fuch  prepoflijllioii  is,  that  in  L'a'y 
another's  reputation  is  blemilh'd  upon  a 
mier  notion,  or  fancy,  efixcially  when  any 
amorous  coxcombs  lind  themfelvesnjee^'d, 
and  grow  jealous  of  ""ome  man  of  merit. 
The  lady  we  took  into  the  coieli,  when 
we  went  to  dine  at  Neman,  caref.'d  iin' 
more  than  flic  did  hcrhusb,.  ■'.     .She  wo\ild 
have  me  fit  next  to  her,  ar.d  cai  .  \1  tor  m(' ; 
and  this  on  no  other  .iccount  but  becaiife  llie 
took  me  for  a  flranger,  and  not  altogether 
ignorant  •,  and  her  husband,    who  was  a 
Very  widl-bred  man,   feem'il  nuher  mueh 
ple.ifed  at  it,   than  otherwile. 

I  lere  I  hir'tl  a  [lolt  norfe  for  two  livrei, 
to  be  the  fooner  at  l'i,i:!,:ii'l'U\ui,  lour 
leagues  dillant,  and  thus  my  whole  day's 
journey  was  nine  leagues.  In  the  morn- 
ing I  p.i.fs'il  through  a  forelt,  which  is 
worth  fcventeen  thoiifand  livres  a  year  to 
its  owner,  the  duke  of  Orlcjiis. 

FontainhUaii  is  a  large  ami  populous  vil- 
lage, feated  in  a  plain,  not  over-fertile, 
ami  ene.ompals'd  with  lUep  and  craggy 
clifts ;  from  which  many  pure  and  cryllal- 
line  llrcamsdcfcending,  render  the  village 
well  deferving  that  name.  It  is  a  moll 
propr  place  for  fpoits,  both  for  itsfitua- 
tion,  ami  becaufe  abounding  in  all  forts  of 
game  ;  fometiincs  rifing  in  little  e.ify  hills, 
and  then  falling  into  plealant,  delightful, 
and  Ihady  fmall  vales,  with  fome  inter- 
vals, or  Ipots,  not  crouded  with  mighty 
trees,  but  covcr'd  with  low  bullies,  alFbrd- 

ing  curious  open  hunting.  Here  many  f'fMF'i.i 
kings  of  /'/vwk  have  been  ['leas'd  to  refide;  ^■^X'^^ 
fo  that,  bcfidi's  tlie  royal  callle,  ni.iny  of 
tlie  prime  nobility  have  here  built  mofl 
nobk-  hollels,  or  lioufes.  lo  confine 
mylelf  to  the  callle,  you  mull  un.ler- 
ftand,  that  tho'  it  be  of  a  vail  compafs,  i»,  two  leagues,  inculuding  the  gar- 
dens, yet  it  is  not  very  fi;^hily  on  the  out- 
lide,  beeaule  the  building,  are  low.  The 
firll  thing  they  here  Ihcw'd  me,  was,  that 
they  call  the  Hag's  gallery,  where  abun- 
dance of  heads  of  wild  be.dls,  and  parti- 
cularly of  Haps,  are  fet  up,  and  fiieh  as 
were  kiil'd  by  kings  have  by  tliem  infcriiv 
tions,  exprefl'ing  the  time  when,  and  place 
where  they  fell.  About  it  are  cuiioully 
p.iinted  all  the  other  forells  ;uul  Itately  pa- 
laces belon<ring  to  the  king,  throughout 
his  ilominions.  There  is  alio  a  billi.ird- 
table,  to  divert  the  court  l.idies.  I  was 
then  condudedup  a  fhort  Hair  cafe  intoan- 
otlier  gallery,  c.dl'd  the  queen's,  which  is 
alio  painted,  which  lead-:  into  the  anti- 
chamlier  o[Ci<,ri/n!,i,  and  that  into  another, 
and  fo  into  a  curious  clolet,  and  the  bed- 
ch.miber  where  the  D.uipbin  was  born. 
The  place  wliere  tlu^  royal  bed  then  flood 
is  Itill  raii'd  in,  the  fime  being  ufed  about, 
all  the  beds  in  the  houfe.  I  lere,  with  all 
pollible  refjv, i')-,  I  lerioufly  view'il  a  picluie 
of  wile  king  h-.mrii  1.  drawn  l>y  the 
lite,  and  think  myfdt  happy  1  h,id 
the  leit'ure  toobierve  ir.  J'.irther  on  I  law 
the  late  queen's  clofef,  tie  king's  bed- 
chamber, ihf  council -chamber,  which  looks 
into  a  cou;  t,  ciU'd  the  1  vrj/v  ;  that 
they  (mII  St.  LrZfis's,  then  the  h.di, 
n.mi'd  })c/a  htlle  jyinr-iJ,  wliere  the  pl.'ys 
areaeUd.  Tlie  gre.itell  orn.miLnt  in  it  is 
a  Itauie  of  Jhiny  W .  furnamcd, 
which  for  its  excellent  workmanlhip  cofl 
nolefs  thaneit'Jitedi  thouland  crowns,  tl.o' 
fome  fiy  mucii  more. 

In  kii:;.';  Frauds  the  llrll's  apartment  tliey 
firll  lliew'il  me  a  gallery,  in  which  are 
lourreen  llately  pidures,  containing  cert.iin 
■:mblenis,  or  rather  devices  of  that  king's; 
ind  adjoining  to  it,  a  room  adorn'd  with 
inolt  excellent  pieces  of  feveral  mafters. 
Hence  is  a  profpecl  into  the  queen's  gardt  n, 
wonderfully  let  out  with  excellent  llatues  in 
marbh:  and  brafs,  not  to  mention  thecu 
rious  walks;  the  fine  boxes  with  orange 
and  lemon  trees ;  the  green  myrtle  on  the 
ground,  or  the  fweet  and  fightly  llowers, 
and  inofl  beautiful  dwarf  trees  moll  arti- 
ficially dillributed  in  all  parts.  The  royal 
chapel  is  alio  mallerly  painted,  ami  gildt  d, 
the  lloor  l.iid  with  choice  marble,  whiih, 
tor  its  fcarcity,is  mucli  valuetl  in  thole  part^, 
and  there  are.  two  magnificent  tribunes  for 
the  king  and  queen.  I'hc  other  apart- 
ment, call'd  the  qu'-en  mother's,  is  fuita- 



M  ■•'■■!!: 


I .- .'*' 



^  Dejcription  of  Paris. 



OfMii-Li.  blc  to  theiiignity  of  rlic  name,  and  here 
^'-''^"^  are  the DmiiLm^  lodgings,  and  the  tamous 
gallery  ot  moll  exquilite  paintings  of 
Alkhad  Jiigelo,  Ritpbad,  Tituiii,  Leonardt 
da  Vinci,  tiie  brothers  Caniccim's,  and  ma- 
ny others.  This  gallery  looks  into  the 
Z)(j«/'/^(;;<yj's  garden,  where  there  are  as  tine 
ftatues  as  in  any  otlier  part  of  tiie  caftle, 
and  particularly  thole  reprelenting  the  tour 
leafons  of  the  year,  are  moll  valuable. 
Betides  a  niott  Itately  tilh-pond,  t'uil  of 
fundry  torts  ot  tilh,  and  to  li-Mteil,  that 
the D.iKpbiiuyj,  \vhcnloe\er  the  pleatls,  lan 
take  the  diverlion  of  .ui[^ling  trom  a  bal- 
cony. At  a  liiiall  ditlance  trom  it  is  .1 
curious  tountain,  adoin'd  with  tlatues,  ot 
whole  w.iur  the  king  drinks,  when  lie  rc- 
lides  then,  and  there  are  two  ei-ntinels 
upon  it  day  and  night.  From  tjiis  apart- 
ment I  Went  down  a  noble  tlair-eale,  into 
a  vail  co'.irt,  callM  I.ti  Cciir  Ju  Chcviil 
ULiiub,  or  the  wliiie  liorle  court. 

Then  I  went  to  lee  the  outward  gardens 
for  tholL-  above-mention'd  are  fmail,  and 
lie  betwe;n  the  apartments.  'I'he tint  thing 
1  met  with  was  a  large  lake,  on  which  the 
king  ules  to  be  carry'd  in  a  b.irge.  There 
are  two  otlicr  batons,  or  pontls,  remarka- 
lije  enou;^h  tor  the  many  Iwans  on  tiieiii, 
and  tiie  I'tatu.-s  about.  Not  fir  trom  one 
of  rlvnn  is  an  artificial  water-work,  con- 
filling  of  three  rows  of  I'pouts  in  a  ring, 
being  no  lelb  ti:'n  two  hundred  1  in  my  opi- 
nion the  molt  deliglufid  tiling  tiiatrliewii 
of  man  coukl  invent,  and  hard  by  it  are 
tour  marlile  mermaids,  malierly  carv'd  bv 
■,\i<ian:.i)\'.  Tlie  tountain  in  tlie  midll  of 
the  garden  is  call'd  liu  Tjl/n-.,  there  being 
in  it  a  large  brali  figure,  reprelenting  iliu 
river  Tyhcr,  with  the  flie  wolt,  giving  tlick 
to  Romulus  and  Rcinui,  a  moll  excellent 
piece  ot  work,  in  its  kinil.  I  leave  you  to 
conrider  the  curious  ordering  of  the  walks, 
the  ranging  f)f  the  ev.r-green  trees,  and 
cdl  other  particulars  requilite  tor  the  per- 
fection of  a  roy.d  garden,  for  I  cmnoc 
write  more  of  it,  and  could  I,  we  thouid 
nor  have  lione  to  toon.  I  mull  add,  that 
v/itliin  the  inclotiire  of  the  catlle,  there  is 
alto  a  p.'.iace  of  the  prince  of  CoiuL'  -,  a 
fine  lioufe  tor  the  governor,  and  another 
torthe  dngsand  their  keepers. 

'I'his  morning  we  let  out  at  break  of 
day,  and  gently  alcending  the  mountain, 
which  is  all  coverM  with  yew- trees,  on  the 
plain  taw  a  t"i)ot  of  about  half  a  league 
in  compals  [.-.d^l  in.  I  am  told  there 
are  in  it  valt  numbers  of  phealants  and 
partridges,  v.Iiicii  are  plentitul'y  ted,  by  a 
perfon  uj^poinud  for  tliat  purpole,  that 
the  king  may  divert  himlelf  with  fliooting 
when  he  pleales.  He  does  not  tlioot  flags, 
;md  llich  like  beatls,  but  has  them  taken 
alive  by  his  dogs, 

Travelling  on  a  very  good  road,  wc  had 
fome  Imall  rain,  the  tirtl  I  have  feen  this 
month  patl.  After  fix  leagues  riding  wc 
tlaid  to  dine  at  a  village,  call'd  Ic  PUJfis  j 
and  two  leagues  further  on  I  law  la  Alaifon 
Rougi\  or  the  red  houfe,  with  u  fine  gar- 
den to  it,  anil  all  this  way  to  the  city  is 
tlrew'd  with  delightful  palaces,  andcurious 
rows  of  trees,  of  a  valt  length,  having 
left  Corhetlon  the  river  iVjwc.  Then  liav- 
ing  travell'd  four  leagues  from  Pliffu,  1 
enter'd  Paris,  at  iJt.  Martin's  gate,  in  fight 
of  fuch  a  multitude  of  windmills,  that  I 
was  amaz'd. 

This  gate  is  in  the  nature  of  a  triumphal 
arch,  having  two  other  tiiiall  ones  on  tlie 
fides,  and  adorn'd  with  feveral  forts  of 
work  in  marble.  I  llaid  there  a  while  to 
read  the  following  inlcriptions  1 







C.  C. 

ANNO  R.  .S.  H.   M  DC.LXXIV. 

That  is,  'Tl.'t' lord  mn\'or  ami  fljeriffs  cretTcd 
ibis  in  houcur  of  Lewis  the  Great,  itpon  bis 
/ifite  fidiliiii/v  Befanzon,  and  Eranche 
Conte,  ami  roulin^^  the  armies  of  th(  Ger- 
mans, D;it(  h,  (;;;./  Spaniards,  in  the  year 
if  cur  ra!i-ii:/lion,    1674. 

This  on  the  iiifide  of  the  gate  ;  and  on 
the  out-tide, 




I'BIQlll-:  REPRl'.SSIT. 




That  is,  Tbc  lord  mayor  andjheriff's  crefled 
this  in  bonour  of  Lewis  the  Cireat,  for  that 
baiiiii;  taktn  Limburg,  he  every  ivbcre  dif- 
appointi\l  the  vain  tbrcats  of  his  enemiis.  In 
the  year  of  our  redemption,    1675. 

I  defign  to  flay  a  few  days  in  this  famous 
I  ity,  to  view  tome  part  of  it,  for  it 
would  take  up  years  to  be  acquainted  with 
all  of  it ;  and  therefore  I  muft  refer  giving 
you  an  account  of  it  to  another  time,  a': 
more  leilure,  and  now  refl  me,  after  the 
fatigue  of  riding  and  writing.  I  fliould  be 
glad  to  receive  that  catalogue  of  books  you 
tpoke  of,  becaufe  1  fliould  be  ture  to  find 
them,  and  at  a  reafonablc  rate.     I  remain, 


Let.  I 


'■   ,!<■ 



^  P' 

you  w 

this  ci 




ing,  ii 


be  ob 




liell,   \y 

to  kin' 

bly,   fi 



and  tlier 
m/rlv  a 
Si.  (iirii 
t!iere    Ic 
J.ulitia ; 
Liiius  ; 
from  till 
bv  the  t 
call'd  L 
pa  Lice, 

As  to 
to.ry  dij 

toUiii  of 
t^me  w,it< 
'.'le  river, 
l.>nt  groi 
loits  of  J 
As  fur  th( 
air,  I  wo 
tlie  V.  ry  w 
lii  1  notch 
whicli  are 
n:ver  fuffi 
eo.'.l,  lives 
Vol.  ^ 


Let.  14. 

; ;  anil  on 



is  famous 
,  for  it 
ted  with 
cr  giving 
time,  a': 
alter  tht- 
fliouKl  be 
ooks  you 
e  to  liiid 
il  remain, 


'■  ,if 

A  Defcription  of  Paris. 


Containing  part  of  the  Drfcription  of  Paris. 



rT  is  a  very  diflu  ulc  unilcrtaking  to  com- 
ply witli  my  delire  of  givinti  you  latis- 
factioii  in  this  particular,  of  .\cquainting 
you  with  all  that  is  fine  and  remarkable  in 
tliis  city  i  however,  tho'  I  know  my  ca- 
pacity is  not  fulficient  to  iicriorm  tlii-.,  1 
will  ufe  my  utmolt  endeavours,  not  to 
omit  any  thing  that  may  feem  worth  know- 
ing, in  the  fame  order  I  have  feen  them. 

Bi  fore  wc  dclLviid  to  particulars,  it  is  to 
be  ohftrvM,  that  authors  dillL-r  v^ry  mucli 
about  the  original  of  its  name.  Some 
extravagant  pcrfons,  who  will  never  be 
I'atisfy'a  with  thofe  things  whicii  arc  like- 
livlt,  will  have  it  focall'd  from  /'.;n'j,  fon 
to  king  Priam  ;  others  not  lb  unrcalbna- 
hly,  from  a  certain  Paris,  king  of  the 
(;.;;/.'.(,  who  reliding  in  this  part  of  the 
country,  give  thi;  inhabitant-  the  name  of 
l'.;rij:i,  or  Parijuici ;  others  from  tlie 
Ciiiik  wort!  Para,  ami  Ijis,  becaule  the 
C joJJels  Ij'i  was  liere  very  much  honour'd  ; 
and  there  is  a  trailition  that  there  was  for-  ryM 
nuriy  a  temple  liedicated  to  her,  in  tiie 
la; Hit  place  where  now  Hands  the  abbey  of 
iM.Cnrmaii:  iLi  Pr,'z,  mw  Paris.  Nor  is 
thcrj  lefs  contention  about  tlie  name  of 
l.uittia  i  fome  attributing  it  to  a  king 
LiiiKS  ;  others  to  the  word  Luluin,  mud  ; 
from  the  hlciunefsof  the  Ihvets,  wiien  it 
extiuded  no  farther  than  the  ifland,  form'd 
bv  the  two  arnvs  of  the  river  S^yiie,  now 
c.'ill'd  Lljle  dii  Palais,  the  ifland  of  the 
palace,    o\-  LaCiU',  the  city,  in  a  Itricttr 


As  to  (ituation,  it  lies  in  twenty-three 
digrees,  thirty  minutes  longitude,  and 
h)rty  degrees  forty  minutes  latitude,  in  a 
il.iiglitlid  plain.  From  the  hill  on  tlie 
I'wUth  of  it,  flow  abundance  oi  whole- 
l.ime  waters.  On  the  north  are  quarries  of 
l:;ne-none.  All  that  trad  which  lies  along 
(lie  river,  is  either  cover'd  witii  moll  plea- 
faiit  groves,  or  poduces  plenty  of  all 
loits  of  grain  ;  the  cinious  neighbouring 
link- hills  lurnifliing  ftore  ofc.vcclknt  wine. 
As  fur  tlic  climate,  or  temperature  of  the 
■Til',  I  would  willingly  explain  mylc'lt  in 
tlie  V.  ry  words  ot  Cardinal  ll:>hbi>'s  oiihive, 
did  not  that  treat  of  fome  place  in  the  call, 
which  are  to  this  tflcdt,  hi  tLw  hrigbl  and 
iiuccts-irodiiciii^  cajl,  iiiuh-r  ibc  jcrcne  and 
ii-m/irald  climaU  nf  Arabi.i  Foelix,  v:hich 
liver  ftiffcrs  under  cxcefs  either  0]  heat  or 
aid,  lives  a  happy  and  eouUiited  people,  -mbcl- 

Paris,  April  6.  1686. 
/>■  addicted  to  true  love,  as  the  fata  decreed 
for  them,  and  as  pleas' d  the  courteous goddefs, 
burn  in  ihefea.  Jt  is  therefore  nothing  tlilfi- 
cult  to  guefs,  liow  it  Ihould  rife  to  fuch  a 
condition  and  grandeur,  if  we  do  but  eon- 
fuler  it  has  been  tlie  relidencc  of  its  kings 
for  fb  many  ages-,  and  before  them  of  the 
cinperors  Julian  and  Qratian  \  and  had  ic 
not  been,  tor  good  realbns,  forbiil  to  buikl 
beyond  the  limits  allign'd,  it  would  per- a,jB,y}. 
h.ip  ive  been  much  .ibove  i^stiw  league  s 
in  comiiafs.  wiiat  w.mts  in  extent  is 
made  up  by  the  narrownefs  of  the  ftrects 
in  m.!,y  places,  and  the  height  of  the 
hoLilc^,  wjiich  makes  them  very  dear,  and 
feveral  families  live  in  many  of  them.  Do 
but  oblirve  the  number  I  am  going  to  men- 
tion ;  which  IS,  that  in  the  year  i6b'i,  if 
I  was  rightly  inlorm'd,  then'  were  f'even- 
teen  iliuufand,  four  hundred  and  twenty- 
four  children  chrillen'd,  and  four  ilioufind 
two  liundred  and  forty-four  couples  mar- 

To  come  to  fomething  more  particular, 
it  is  to  be  taken  notice  of,  that  Paris  is 
coin:;iually  beautilying,  by  tlie  king's 
command,  and  this  i,  p,  rtbrm'd  by  tae 
(h.ri  is  lb  punctually,  tiiat  in  a  Ihor:  time 
it  will  be  anoriur  antknt  Rome.  Tiiat 
wiu-.h  was  formerly  call'd  Lc  Fai.xhourg  dc 
St.  Cermain,  or  St.  Gennain's  luburb,  the 
wall  which  liivided  it  from  tf.c  city  being 
thrown  down,  is  now  incorporated  in  it, 
anil  the  inhabitants  there  enjoy  all  the  fimc 
privileges  of  the  other  citi/.ens.  I  think 
nothing  in  the  world  can  be  liner  tlian  the 
gates  nc  -.vly  built,  or  repair'd,  either  (or  Gjiei- 
regular  architefture  or  magnificcr.^e.  Tiic 
next  to  that  of  St.  Martin,  mentioned  in 
my  iafl,  is  that  of  St.  D.-,//.(,  the  fined, 
without  all  doubt,  of  any  hitherto  t  reefed. 
All  about  it  hang  trophies  of  arms,  maller- 
ly  carv'd,  and  abundance  ot  other  orna- 
ments, with  two  balVo-relicvo's,  the  one 
next  the  city,  and  the  other  on  the  out-fidc, 
reprelenting  the  palling  of  the  Rhine,  and 
the  taking  of  Maejlricht.  The  inlcriptions 
are  worth  tranfcribing  tor  their  purity 
and  brevity, 



rRAl'.F.  FT  AFDIL,.  J'ONl  CC. 

ANN.  K.S,  H.  M.DC.LXXIl. 




A  Defcriptiott  of  Paris. 







l/'VN^  XIII.  UlIiBUS  COKi'IT. 

PRAKF.  t  r  Al.DIL.  I'ONl  CC. 





Sl'BEtilT  FRO\  INCIAS  1  RIvS, 



l'',nglifhM  tlius,  'The  lord  mayor  <ivd /Lrifi 
en\:ted  this  in  memory  of  corrtHion  gwen 
to  theforgetjul  Dutch.  In  tbeyoir  of  our 
redemftion,   1O72. 

The  hrd  tnaynr  niul  Jfjeriffs  trcried  this  in 
memory  0]  his  taking  M.icllrii:lu  tn  thirteen 
days,  hi  the  year  of  our  redemption,  ibyi,. 

In  memory  of  his  croffing  the  Rhine,  the 
W.icl,  the  Macfe,  and  the  Ufil,  tn  lefs 
than  fixtyd.iys,  fubdu'd  three  I'rovinees, 
and  took  forty  jlrong  towns. 

Antl  in  fcvcral  pliccs  is  writ  in  I.irge 
goli.1  letter?, 


To  Lewis  the  great. 

,St.//«/o«>'5g:irc,  leading  to  the  rubiirb 
of  the  C.ime  name,  was  formerly  ereCteil 
in  the  form  of  a  triumphal  arch,  in  honour 
of  Henry  II.  but  was  very  muth  embel- 
lilliM  of  late  years.  Over  it  is  the  Uiny's 
llatuc,  between  two  (mall  pyramids,  with 
the  following  infeription. 



ANN.  R.S.  H. 

M. DC.  1. XXII. 



P.  C. 

'I'hat  is,  The  lord  mayor  and  fljerijfs  creiled 
this  in  honour  of  Lewis  the  Great, /or  hav- 
ing enLirg'd,  adorn'd,  and  enrich' d  the  city. 

Atafmall  diftance,  near  a  fmall  garden 
door,  is  the  following  infeription, 







ANN.  R.S.H.  M.DC.LXX. 







ANN.  R.S.  H.  M.UC.LXXI. 

That  is,  Lewis  the  great  having  extended 
the  bounds  of  •  '•■ire  beyond  the  Rhine, 

the  Alps  e  Pyreneans,  Jlretcb'd 

out  this  1.  .  _  the  city,  according  to  the 
ciiflom  of  tk  i  ancients.  In  the  year  of  our 
redemption,   1670. 

Lewis  the  great,  fortify' d  the  duvier  towns  he 
recover'd,  belonging  to  his  royal  confer!^ 
and  caufed  this  tntrenchment  to  be  made  for 
the  diver/tt.n  of  the  citizens.  In  the  year 
of  our  redemption,   1671. 

Between  this  gate  ami  St.  Afartin's  are 
four  long  parallel  row;,  of  trees,  forming 
three  walks,  or  alleys  1  and  in  the  niidlt  of 
this  I'pace  is  the  new  gate  of  St.  Lewis, 
on  which  are  thefe  words, 




ANN.  R.  S.  H.   M.DC.LXXIV. 

That  is,  hcv/ii  the  great,  to  bis  progta'.tor 
.St.  Lewis.  In  the  year  of  our  redemption, 

Next  is  St.  Bernard's  gMc  extraordinary 
beautiful  •,  and  adorn'd  withexcellent  baflb- 
relievo's.  On  the  city  liile  is  the  king  di- 
(Iributing  plenty  to  his  fubjefts,  with  this 




ANN.  R.S  H.  M.DC.LXX. 

Importing,  The  lord  mayor  and  jLeriffs 
eretled  this  in  honour  of  Lewis  the  (ireat, 
for  having  procur'd  plenty.  In  the  year 
of  our  redemption,   1670. 

On  the  other  fide  is  the  king  (leering  a 
mighty  (hip,  with  all  her  fails  full,  and 
under  it  is  carv'd, 




ANN.  R.S.H.  M.DC.LXX. 

Which  is,  The  lord  mayor  and  fieri  ff"!  ercHed 
this  to  the  providence  of  Lewis  the  Great. 
In  the  year  of  our  redemption,  1 670. 



'J/'f  entki- 


h  m 

Let.  14.    iLet.  14. 

A  Dejcription  of  Paris. 





ing  extended 
d  the  Rhine, 
ns,  JlreUh'd 
:ording  to  the 
t  year  of  our 

vier  towns  be 

'oyal  conjhrl, 

0  be  made  for 

In  ibe  year 

ATiiit'ui'i  are 
es,  forming 
tJK  mid  It  of 
"  St.  Lewist 



and  /lerijfi 
s  the  Great, 
In  the  year 

ig  llccring  a 
Is  full,  and 




griff's  ercflrd 
s  tiif  Great. 





>ii  irog(,i',ior 
r  redemptions 

thc  king  di- 
s,  with  this 




The  otlier  gatcj   have   notliing  worth 
taking  notice  ot,  and  therefore  1  torbear 
fpeaking  of  tijeni. 
•  M/*»-      Now  to  come  to  the  buililingn  ;    The 
'■>i-        firll  I   fav,  after  my  arrival,  at  leifure, 
was  the  cathedral  call'd  Notre  D.ime,  as 
being  dedicated  to  our  lady.     The  fronr: 
of  this  church  is  very  fiiac ions  and  mag- 
niliceni,    and   on   it  the   Ihitue    of    king 
Phi'.ip  AiigKjluu    in  the  lall   place,  after 
twiiity-lour  ot   his  prcdeceirors,  lie  being 
thought   to  have   linilh'd    this  ilruiiture, 
begun  by  king  Robert,  the  fon  of  Hugh 
Ciijel  1  not  that  Robert  was  the  firll  founder, 
hut  rather  the  rebuilder  andenlarger.  The 
(tatuj  in  till'  middle,  which  (itins  to  be 
mounted  on  a  lion,  reprelents  J'e;in,  the 
fon  of  Cb.irlemuign.     In  the  primitive  ages 
it   bore   the   name  of  St.   IJ.W',    its  firfl 
bifliop  i  but  was  afterwards  rclniiit  in  the 
reign  ot  Cbildebert,  the  fon  of  CIcdoveia, 
about  the  year  of  our  Lord  511.  and  de- 
dicated to  the  blelled  virgin,  whofe  name 
it   has  ever  fince  ret.iiri'd.     On  the  fides 
ot  iIk-  faid  troiitifpiece  are  tvo  large  l(]uare 
towers,  from  wliole  tops,  which  are  ilat, 
like   t'ae   roof',  of   the    houlls    in  iWifles, 
tlure   is  a   full    piofpic^  ot  all  Piiris.     I 
went  up  that  which  is  T)n  tiie  Kit  of  the 
gate,  by  a  tlair-calcof  three  hundred  and 
eighty-nine  llone  (leps,  and,  among  other 
t!iui|^s,  faw  a  bell  new  call,  and  by  the 
king's  order  call'd  I.manutl,  which  is  full 
nine  feet  deep,  and  ten  in  tiie  diameter  i 
ib  that,  with  fubmillion   to  a  better  cal- 
cul.ition,  it  weighs  tiiree  hundred  ami  ten 
thou  land  pounds  ot  Iruiiee  ;  how.Vtr,  tiie 
found  ot'  it  is  none  of  the  bell.    The  church 
is  all  leaded  ovir. 

As  to  tlie  inlide,  it  is  a  Gotb'uk  flruJlurc, 
but  beautitul  and  m.ijellick,  by  reatbn  of 
its  largenefs ;  lor  it  contains  one  hundred 
aiul  twenty  mighty  pillars,  compoling  five 
flately  ifles  :  All  its  thirty-t'evcn  chapels 
are  neatly  kipt,  aiul  painted,  but  parti- 
cularly that  of  our  latiy  near  the  choir 
gate,  is  all  over  adorn'd,  and  fet  out  with 
level  al  olVerings  ot  devout  chrillians  ;  anil 
among  other  rich  lamps  hinging  in  it, 
tiicre  is  one  verv  curious,  made  like  a 
fhip,  which  was  prefentetl  by  the  city  of 
Pans.  OhfiTve  now  fomeihing  that  is 
plealimt.  This  chapel  was  formerly  call'd 
des  P.irejfeiix,  that  is,  of  the  flothful  ; 
becaufe  in  this  only  there  were  malVes  liiid, 
contrary  to  the  cullom  of  the  primitive 
church,  at  noon,  for  the  conveniency  of 
tiioli;  who  could  not  rile  early.  Bjlore  it 
is  the  ll.itue  of  king  Philip  de  Galois,  arm'd, 
on  horfeback,  and  booted,  jull  as  he  came 
into  the  churcii,  to  return  thanks  for  the 
vidory  he  hail  obtain'd  over  the  Fle- 
tiiin'^s,  whole  Ipoils  he  alio  confecratcd  to 
the  bleired  virgin. 

Behind  the  high  altar,  flnbrafs columns,  GiMtLii 
ftands  the  (lately  monument  of  St.  Mar-  '>^'Y>-* 
celliii,  one  ol  tiie  hrll  bifliops  of  Paris. 
On  the  left  of  the  laiil  altar  is  alfo  the 
ll.irue  ot  king  Philip  /hi^iijtiis,  on  a  pillar. 
Near  another  column,  jull  entering  the 
church,  on  the  right  hand,  is  a  figure  of 
St.  Chri/lopher,  ot  an  extraordinary  mag- 
nitude, maile  in  the  year  141  <.  by  a  cer- 
tain lord  of  Ejfirti,  lonl  chamberlain  to 
kingCVM/7ci  V'l.  But  I  fliould  h.ive  enough 
to  clo  to  reckon  up  all  particulars,  thu'  I 
were  able,  and  you  had  patience  to  hear 
them.  It  will  tuirice  to  add  two  ■,  the 
firtl,  that  it  is  all  hung  with  colours  and 
llandards,  taken  from  enemies  in  battle, 
and  phie'd  here  in  thankfgiving  -,  the 
other,  that  whofoever  delights  in  exqui- 
lite  pidlures,  may  here  plealL- his  eyes,  and 
fitisly  his  curiofity  1  for  the  goldliniths 
biinj;  oblig'd  every  year,  on  tiie  lirk  v-i 
M.I.,  topreftnt  one,  they  employ  theablell 
mailer  in  Friince,  and  he  being  to  Hand 
in  competition  with  tiiofe  tiiat  went  betorc, 
t.ikes  all  pDlhlile  care  to  produce  fuch  a 
piece  as  may  be  wortiiy  ot  that  place  :  i  he 
linell  are  in  the  choir,  the  h;  Il  wherrol 
ari:  two  of  tile  famous  M.  le  Hiiiit,  inttn- 
dant  of  the  academy  i  one  being  the 
crucifixion  of  St.  Peter  -,  the  other  the 
martyrdom  of  St.  Stephen.  The  next  is  due  to  one  of  St.  P,uil,  cauting 
ieveral  books  to  be  burnt  belbre  the  por- 
tico of  a  temple,  being  the  .voi  k  of 
/(•  Suer,  the  next  j!;reat  paint<r  t  Poidhn, 
in  the  judifment  ot  the  French. 

The  c.uptcr  conlifts  of  ht'ty  canons, 
who  Hill  preferve  the  antient  cuflom  of 
repairing  to  the  church  to  fing  matins  at 
midnigiit,  which  is  an  excellent  example 
of  piety,  being  all  of  them  lodg'd  in  the 
adjoining  cloylter :  And  iience  you  may 
conclude  how  well  this  churcli  is  ferv'd  in 
other  particulars. 

I  cannot  at  j)rci'ent  give  you  an  account 
of  any  other  tacred  places  except  the 
great  hofpital,  call'd  tiie  Ihtel  Diui,  or  7;,.  rre.u 
the  houfc  of  God,  near  the  cathedral-  I /'"jiiul, 
believe  it  was  founded  by  fome  holy 
bithops,  becaufe  in  the  primitive  ages  of 
the  church  all  prelates  indillerently  took 
upon  them  the  care  of  the  lick  and  poor, 
as  knowing  they  were  not  mailers  ot  the 
revenues  of  their  churches,  but  only  al- 
lowing theml'elves  necelVary  food  and  rai- 
ment, as  the  apoftle  teaches,  mecr  llewards 
and  dillributors  tor  the  benefit  of  the  poor, 
tor  whofe  fake  the  faithful  beUow'd  fucii 
mighty  gifts  on  the  church.  This  I  tpeak 
of  is  the  chief  and  greatcrt  in  all  Paris, 
and  yet  it  is  fcarce  able  to  maintain  the 
vaft  multitude  ot  fick,  which  fometimes 
amount  to  fourthoufand.  The  Ai<giijlini(in 
nuns  look  to  the  fick,  and  perform  fheir 





A  Defer iption  of  Paris. 

Let.  I 

tluC    till' 

the  town,  the  city,  ind  (he  univerficy. 
I'o  ljft;iii  with  iht-  olili-lt,  r.illM  de  Hojlrt 
Damf,  or  our  l.uly\  :  \i  K  very  bc.iutilul, 

duty  with  wonderful  ch.irity  ami   humi- 

I  mull    luriluT   mlorin   you, 

tW( - _,..-.   —        -  , „         /   

tioiiM,  thtri' mull  ol  lonkijiu'nic  lu' many     kin^s,  .md  ilu*  tim- houlcs  on  both  lidii 
luit.ibk'  to  till'  dignity  ol     ol  :t.     Un  one  oi   in  irchcs  this  dillich 
ll'd     ti  urv'd  k 

ity  biinj; divided  into  thriT  parti,  by  the     by  reafon  of  thr  noble  ll.itucs,  the  iivirblc 
wo  branilu's  of  tlic   Styxe,   abosi' men-     medals,  rojirifintinR  many  of  thiir  tornuT 

ll.itily  bridj;i' 

the  place,  wliiih    j<mi  tliofc  parts,  rall'd 

la  '■'tlU,   la  Cili\  and  I'Umverjiu,  that  is. 

iiJcuNDUs  (iKMiNos  i'osihi',  tibi  sfqitana,  pontes  I 

NUNC   111  JUKI,  roiivs  r "' 


Jucundus  bH  Ibt  .Scync  two  l>riJs;cs  laid, 
l-v>  lihuh  he  udl  m.iy  I'ontilcx  In  fuut. 

Pontifix  lu'rc  a  doublo  mraning,  as 
ri(.!inifyinj^;  ,i  hri.lyi' maker  \  the 
trui'  .icci'piaiion  of  it  is  a  billi()[>. 

The  r.alim  of  it  is,  that  it  was  built 
by  a  FrandjiiVi  fryar  of  Icroiia,  whole 
name  was  'Juhn  Jtictituhis,  about  the 
IJ07.  .uul  fomc  alfirm,  he  w.'A  not  only 
tXLilkntly  vi-r.'d  in  pulite  learning,  but 
alli>  miller  to  the  never-fuffii  iently  com- 
x\\. ndcd  y.',//';/j  C<ri'ur ildi.t S, n'j,  or Scilii^i-r. 
1  ,1111  apr  to  believe  he  is  the  Time  we  are 

beholden  to  for  the  firll  corrrdl  printed 
i(>[)y  ot  l-iifar'^  CommrnUrus,  according 
to  (iiriinl  f'nj/iiii  de  Hijlvr.  l.titin.  About 
the  middle  of  this  bridge  there  arc  two 
machines,  which  dr.iw  up  abundance  of 
the  river  water,  to  convey  it  to  fountains 
in  li'veral  pl.ues,  .it  a  great  ilitlance.  On 
a  black  marble  (lone  arc  car v'd,  in  letters 
of  gold,  the  following  verl("{  ot  the  lamnus 
M.,  who,  in  my  opnioii,  had  the 
Ipirit  of  'fil^utius  in  him. 

SKQl'ANA  CUM   I'RIMI'M  UhCIVA!';  AL^.A^I■^UR    URR[, 

lAKDAI'   I'KAI.CIl'l  I  l.-s  AMMIIit)SUS  AQ^'AS. 
CAP  ILLS  AMOKK  l.OCi,    CUUsirM  OliliVlSLll  UR    ANCI'M'S, 

Cil'O  I'l.UAl',    IT   DUI.CIS  NKCTir  IN    URHK   MORAS. 
JIINC    \  AKIOS  IMl'l.l'NS,    1I.U(.  Ill  SUBI'.UN  II',    CANALES, 
I'UN.S  Ml'KI  (,Al  DI'T,    (Ml  MODO  I  LUMEN    ERAT. 
ANNO  ^^.  \)L.  LXW  I. 

y-ls  Seyne  docs  ti  t!'c  quern  of  ci.'if!  glide, 
Tij'  amkliiii!  rivi-r  Jhfs  his  hajiy  tide, 
hiiihant.'d  with  the  {Luf,  forgets  his  way, 
.Ind  with  the  lieatitiviis  town  ioiilrives  his  Jl  ly. 
Into  her  various  fi/es  he  freely  flows. 
And  jrom  a  river  now  a  fountatn  grows. 
An.   167(5. 

The  /V'//.i«C/!i.:';^c,orexehang('  bridge, 
was  formerly  ot  wood  •,  but  being  unlor- 
tunately  burnt  in  \bi2.  was  nobly  rebuilt, 
as  it  now  is,  with  houfes  on  it  on  both 
fuL's,  inhabited  by  levcral  forts  ot  tr.ides. 
Ai  one  end  of  it  is  the  king's  llatue,  re- 
prell'.'uing  him  about  ten  years  of  .igc,  on 
a  linall  p.-lcllal,  between  tliofe  of  his  fa- 
ther l.ewii  XIII.  and  his  mother  .htne  oi 
ylujlrin.  The  bridge  of  St.  Michel,  or 
St.  Michael,  is  at  a  fniall  dilhince,  with 
houfes  on  both  fides,  like  the  other,  and 
that  clofe  by  it  cali'd  le  Petit  Pont,  or 
the  little  bridge,  I  will  now  pals  by 
other  fnull  ouls,  and  only  ir.ntion  the 
ineonijiarableonecallM  Pont  Niaf,  or  the 
new  bridu'',  built  over  that    part  where 

niNR.  Ill    F    ET.  POL.  R. 

c;()\|u  ALiGi'.sT'.  {)H  c.  inn.  puul. 

EUNI)   I'O.V.  J  AC   ,S    Kr  ni\KRS   URH. 


RF.R  0.\i  (^.IMP  I- T  KX  COM   I'KR. 


JUN.   1578. 

It  was  afterwards  finifli'd  by  //t-wrv  IV. 
cali'd,  'rhe  Great,  about  the  year  1O04  ; 
and  in  16:55.  /,t"»;j  XIII.  let  up  his  il.itue 
of  bralV.  on  horfeback,  about  the  middle 
of  the  bridge,  on  a  pedeilal  of  white 
marble,  having  the  grcatell  .ictions  of  king 
Henry  carv'd  in  ba£o  relievo,  and  at  the 
angles  four  (laves   in    brafs,  rcprefenting 

the  two  branches  of  the  Seyne  meeting,  the  nations  fubdu'd  by  him  :  All  the 
m.ike  the  widert  water  :  It  appear-;  to  work  fecms  to  me  very  mallerly  •,  but 
h  ive  been  begun  by  king//, -wn' III.  by  the  alFection  makes  me  think  the  horfe  and 
inlcripii.jn  on  ilis;  lirll  yl  tlie  archcb ;  the  kitig'i  ligurt  luKr  than  all  tlic  relt,  as 


Let.  14. 

A  Defcription  of  Paris. 



bring  nuJc  by  our  Italutn  Cio  BMj^ntjt. 
Oil  ilic  Irutu  ut  It  wu  read  \ 

KNKKX)  Kir. 




()PU.^INc:lU)AlU\l  I' TIN  I  KKMl.iiUM, 




IMIN    c:    I)     KI'IILMl'S 


StI'l.K  ll.l.U.SI     V!RI  J)l-.  HI   I. LION, 

IK  )U  III. MIR  I'    AIR  ARM  V. 


M.  OC.  X\XV. 

To  Henry  IV. 
Emperor  fl/Fr,incc,  ami  King  of  Navarre. 
Lewis  Xlll.  btijon  Jinijb'dthii  workyWhuL 
had  liitn  btgt4»,  and  Icjl  imjer/fil,  an- 
jwcravle  to  tijt  greiUiifJi  of  Lis  duty  to  his 
fit,,  er,  mid  the  txtfut  vj  his  emjir^.  The 
tii'Jl  eminent  tardinal  Rklilicu  fatisfy'd 
the  general  dijtre  vj  Ibejeo/ie  111 /romoinig 
this  uork.  The  mojl  illujlrioiii  <lc  Bullion 
and  tiouullkr  tnafureri,  took  (are  oj  it, 
An.  |6J5. 

And  under  it  \ 


(1  I  I  OI'TlNU)  RM;I    I'KI  (AMI  RIS 

LXtlUarUM  FURTl  M,  Pol'Ul.LM  I  lUtLLM, 


LV   ANM),^    ni    NOSIRIS 

B.  U   F. 

IVhofoever  thou  art  that  readifl  this,  fo  read, 
thiit  thou  mayjl  beg  of  God,  for  the  excellent 
frinir,  a  valiant  army,  a  loyal  people,  a 
feiiire  em/ ire,  ami  a  long  life  out  oj  ours. 
Bullion  and  Boutillicr  made  it. 

On  the   fiilc,    next  the  (ollcgc  ol    the  ("umiiii 
four  nations,   ii  (his  i    tor  the   b.ittic  ol 
tirqiie\  : 

(jUI  .\R<il'lNM   I'R/l.l.U)   \I\i;nvS 

M\NU  FL'orr. 

Sacred  to  the  genua  of  !•  rancc,  and  lit  in- 

viniihle  king,  ■who,  in  ihe  battle  0/  Arques, 
routed  great  fu/eei  of  Ihe  (onffirattrs  with 
ii  handjul  if  nun. 

Aj  alfo  this,  lor  the  vidlory  of  2'vry' : 

ri;Ri)Ui.i.i.i,s  \i)i.vARiA(:i;Mt;Ai si, 


ri'   I  AVI  NIIIR  S 

(l.l-Ml  SII.VS.  IMI'I.R 


To  the  triumphant  eonqutror  over  the  enemy's 
general,  the  relih  routed  at  Vvry,  to  the 

gruf  (jf  his  ill  neighbour),  kI.o  favi.ur'd 
them.  The  mift  tninijnl  gererai  lift  the 
prime  fpoils  to  the  Spanilli  leader. 

On  the  other  fkle, 

N   M    RK^I';, 

ur.RUM  HUMAN  \i<uM  opTrvri, 

QUI  .si.SL  C:AI.I)|.  I  RlilM  IN'(;Rhs,,US, 

i:\ri M'.ii.s  i-.u:rio\'ii:UN 


To  the  nolle  memory  of  the  left  of  kings, 
irho  entering  the  city  uithoiit  Jhiiighl'r, 
hiivmg  punijh\l  the  rebellion,  an,!  qiuU'd 
fiilwns,  eom/os'd  France  wi.'i  the  uiji/'d- 
for  peaee. 

:\\  i.uij. 

•RS   URU. 
OMP   M. 


Henry  IW. 

ar  1O04  ; 

his  llatuc 
lit-  niitldle 

of  white 
IS  ol  king 
ml  at  the 
All  the 

ly  i  but 
lorfe  and 
e  rell,  as 

For  the  taking  of  the  city  of  Montmeliait  in  Savoy,  this  infcription  ; 

M  O  N  S 






yf  mountain,  in  vain  attacked  by  all  kings  and  generals  before  him,  is  at  l.tjl  rediu'd 
to  obedience  by  the  fortune  of  Henry  the  Great,  to  the  eternal  fccurity  and  gUry 
of  France, 

For  the  taking  of  Amiens  from  the  Spaniards : 







St.Ml'KR   lUSTlTIA.    KT    KCmTlTUUINE 

Vol.  VI. 

Amiens  having  been  treacberoiijly  taken  by 
the  Spaniards,  and  recover' d  />v  the  Valour 
of  Henry  the  Great,  Lewis  XIII.  fet  up 
this  in  memory  of  his  father  :  Being  often 
fraudulently  and  bafely  attempted  by  the 
fame  enemies,  be  always  overcame  them 
■with  valour  and  jujlice. 

A  .1 


!  .!■•    1 


|!  lillll 



y^  Dcjcription  of  Paris. 

On  die  iron  wor!^,  inclofuig  .ill  this  work,  is  wh.u  loUows  i 




HAERE.S  I.  L.  D.  1). 








Lewis  XIII.  the  mnft  tlutiful  heir  of  hi,  empiif,  v,i'.oui;  n  ml  fur!  it  lie,  eieited  ibis  to 
the  memory  of  his  father,  The  mojl  noble  cardiiiul  Richelieu,  a  i/uiii  above  all 
titles,  ami  exeelliiig  the  coiinfellors  of  uli  former  jri;ues,  order'J  tl. is  'ivork  to  be 
finijh'd.  The  noble  and  illiijtrioiis  perfans  ilc  Bullion  and  Boucillicr,  treafurers, 
men  that  anjii-ir  the  honour  of  their  /laees,  and  tie  grandeur  of  the  km^dcin,  em- 
ihyd  their  money,  wit  and  care  in  creiting  this,  in  very  dijficult  times. 

Formerly  there  was  a  little  houfe  or  hut 
i:nckr  the  feconii  arch  ot"  this  bridge,  wicli 
a  pump  in  it,  to  bring  up  water  from  the 
river  ;  and  a  fountain  hard  by,  call'd  tiie 
Samaritan's,  from  that  woman's  Itatue, 
antl  our  Saviour  (landing  by  it,  well  made 
enough.  At  prcfcnt  there  is  only  a  copy 
or  reprefcntation  ot  thole  Itatues,  in  brafs ; 
and  the  clock,  whofc  wheels  were  mov'd 
by  the  water,  is  alfo  gone  •,  fo  that  at 
preli:nc  nothing  more  remarkable  remains, 
befidcs  the  keeping  up  the  cuftom  of  hav- 

ing many  ligiits  on  it,  for  the  convenicncy 
of  tiie  people  that  pals. 

Among  the  moll  remarkable  fquares  we 
mull  take  notice  of  the  Place  Royal,  \i\ 
the  Fauxbourg,  or  fuburb  of  St.  Anthony, 
as  well  on  account  of  the  Ilately  houies 
antl  portico's,  as  of  king  Leias  XIII's 
flatue  on  horfeback.  Handing  in  the  midll 
of  it :  It  is  of  brafs,  and  the  pedellal  of 
curious  white  marble,  on  the  forepart 
whereof  is  the  following  infcription  ; 


To  the  glorious  and  immortal  memory  of  ,he  mofi  great,  and  mofl  invincible  Lewis  the 
Jull,  XlJIth  of  ihat  name,  king  of  France  and  N.:varre,  Armand  ciintinal 
Richelieu,  his  principal  minijhr  in  all  his  illiijlrious  and  happy  Dejigns ;  being 
loaditt  -uiith  honours  and  favours,  by  fo  generous  a  monarch,  has  cau/ed  this  jlatue 
to  be  eretted,  as  an  everlajting  token  of  his  zeal,  fidelity,  and  gratitude,   i(ji<). 

On  the  oppofite,  or  back  fide,  is  this ; 











This  requires  no  cngliHiing,  being  the  fame  with  the  oilier,  with  only  the  difltrencc 
of  the  Latin  or  Frtiich  phrafe. 

+•     ILet. 




Lkt.  14.     iL 



■etted  Ibis  to 
in  tibcve  alt 
ivork  to  be 
,  tri-iifiiiers, 
mgtkm,  em- 


le  fqii.ires  wc 
u'd  Roytil,  ill 
St.  AiUhony, 
lately  lioull-s 
leias  XIII's 
r  in  the  mklll 
e  pedeftal  of 
the  forepart 
■iption  ; 

5  -  GRAND 
.OY  I)K 


'de  Lewis  Ihi 

find   iiiniiinil 

I'j^ns  i    i'fiiig 

\iii  'his  jlatlte 


pi. MO, 


lie  difltrcncc 


ET.    If 

On  the  right-fule  is  a  French  fonnct,  and 
on  till-  left  thefc  following  hexameters,  im- 
porting mucii  the  fame  as  the  faid  lonnet. 

Ql<o.  i  heilator  HyJms  piu  ■:mfpiran'  rebdlcs. 
Deplumes tiepilire  A'{UtLis,  mt'.efccre  Par- 

Et  (leprelfdjiipjiihininere  colla  Leona, 
DifpedM  Ludovicus,  equoftihlunis  abeno  ; 
No'n  digiti,  noil  artifices  feccre  camini ; 
Scd  yirtus,  ^  plena  Deo  Fortitna  peregit. 
Arm.iiv.lus  vindex  fidei,  piicijqiu\fequejler, 
Jtigujlum  curavit  opus;  popidifque  veren- 

Regal i  vnluitjhiliiam  confiirgere  circo ; 
Ut  pojl  civilis  depulfa  periciita  belli. 
Fa  circtim  domilos  armii  civilibus  bojies, 
^FJetnum  Doiinniis  Lodoicui  inurbe  iri- 


That  Lewis  from  his  brazen  horfe  docs 

The  rebel  Hydra  crufh'd,  for  pardon  fue, 

Plurk'd  c.igles  trembling,  liercer  leo- 
pards meek, 

And  lions  to  the  yoke  fubmit  their  neck; 

Is  not  what  art,  nor  furnace  did  bellow. 

But  what  to's  valour,  and  his  God  wc 

Armaiid,  religion's  prop,  on  whom  de- 

Both  peace  and  war,  tlie  noble  work 

And  plac'd  this  ftatue  in  this  royal 

That  after  all  the  toils  of  civil  war, 

And  foreign  foes  fubdu'd,  this  monarch 

For  ever  peaceful  and  triumphant  fit. 

Since  I  have  cngig'd  in  writing  fuch 
things,  or  tranfcribing  of  infcriptions,  I 
will  go  through  with  it  at  once  i  tho'  I  am 
fenfible  it  is  very  infipid  to  fill  up  a  letter 
with  fucii  barren  matter.  Be  patient,  as 
God  fliall  fave  you,  and  read  thefc  others, 
which  arc  in  tiie  Place  de  Vicloire,  or  the 
fquarc  of  viclory,  in  honour  of  the  prcfent 
LeKis  XIV.  1  lis  brafs  Ilatue  feems  to  me 
one  ot  the  finell  the  art  of  man  could  make 
in  our  days.  It  reprefents  tlie  king  Handing 
in  his  royal  robes,  all  embroider'd  with 
tlower-de-kices,  in  the  pofture  ot  trampling 
on  Cerberui,  whilft  viftory  holds  a  crown 
of  lawrel  over  his  head,  and  juil  under 
him  are  thefe  words, 


T«  the  Immortal  Man, 

A  Defcription  of  Paris. 

Llnderncath  it  are  the  arms  of  Ff^w?,  Gfmh.h. 
and  the  wheel  ot  tbrcune  fix'd,  with  thefc  '"^"W^ 

Augullus  totojam  ntillis  hojlibus  orbe 
JKice/n  agit ;  armatoLAido'ix pacem  im- 
perat  orbi. 

All  wars  now  done,  Aiigujlus  reigns  in 

peace ; 
And  l.eviii  bids  the  world  from  arms  to 


On  the  angles  of  the  pedeftal  ar  tour 
brafsftatues,  like  Haves  in  chains,  on  fun - 
dry  forts  of  arms,  and  their  hands  ty'd 
behind  them.  I  am  told  they  reprefent 
/Ijrick,  Germany,  Flanders,  and  Holland; 
which,  if  it  be  true,  I  muft  fay,  there  is 
no  proportion  between  thole  figures,  and 
tlie  victories  obtain'd  by  that  king  over 
thole  nations ;  for  tho'  he  has  overcom-,  he 
never  fubdu'd  them.  Be  it  as  it  will,  un- 
der them  on  both  fides  are  the  words  NKC 
PLURIBUS  IMPAR,  denoting,  he  was 
not  inferior  to  many  join'd  together  againft 
him,  and  then  the  following  diftichs. 

Granicum  Maccdo,  Rhcnumfecat  agmine 
Sluijqtiis  faHa  voles  conferre,  (dfluminit 


Indocilis  quondam  potiori  cedere  Gallo 
Ponit  Iber  lumidosfajlus,  £5f  cedere  di/cit. 

Impia,  qua  Regum  licuit  componere  nulli 
Pralia,  voce  tua,    Ludoix,    compofta 

Scquanam  gemino  Ca;far,     vix  vincere 
Menje  valet,    Ludoix  ter  quinta  luce 

Thefeimport,  That  Alexander »/Macedon, 
and  Lewis  of  France,  march'd  their 
armies,  the  firjl  over  the  Granicus,  ibeotber 
the  Riiine  •,  and  therefore  he  that  compares 
their  attions,  muft  compare  the  rivers. 

37ii?  Spaniard,  formerly  difdaining  to  yield  to 
the  French,  now  lays  down  his  hatighti- 
nefs,  and  learns  to  fubmit. 

At  thy  command,  Lewis,  tbofe  unnatural 
-Mars  ceafe,  to  which  no  other  king  could 
put  an  end. 

The  Franche  Conte,  which  Ctfar  couU 
farce fibdue  in  two  months,  was  tonquer'd 
by  Lewis  m  a  fortnight. 



Gemuli.       On  the  front  of  the  yiedeftal  is  the  fol- 
lowing infcription. 

LUDOVICO  MAGNO,  Patri  Exer- 

cilitiim,  Conduilori  jcmpir  l-i!ici  ;  Domitis 
llojtibiis  ;  proti\'iis  Sociis  ;  atljulii  Iinperio 
forlifftmis  Popults ;  extrnilis  mi  Tutdam  Fi- 
miim  forti/Jimii  /Irdbus  ;  tf  Mccii- 
tcrr.inco  iiiurjl'junths ;  pradari  vctilis  lolo 
M.iti is;  emoid.i'.is  Lcgihta,  ddela 
Cuiviniaii.i  Impidate;  compulfis  ad  licviim- 
liam  Homi/iii  femot:JJlmis  Giiitibus ;  catififque 
fiimma  Pnvtdcutia,  &  I'irtiitc,  domi,  forij- 
qiie  compofitii;  Fr.mcifcus  1  Ue-Coma  cle 
Aubuflbn  Dux  dc  l.i  FcuilLidc,  c.v  Fiancia; 
Paribus,  iif  Tribuiiis  Equitum,  units  in  Allo- 
brogibus  Pro-Rix,  f  Pnncrianorutn  Pidi- 
tiim  Praitv?us,  ad  Alemoruim  Pojleritatis 
fempiternam.   P.  D.  C. 

Thus  literally  cngiilh'd.  To  Lewis  the 
Grcit,  tht  father  (if  bis  armies,  their  fvcr 

fortunate  leader,  having  fiibdu'dhis  enemies; 

protected  his  allies  ;  added  'xarlike  nati'jiis 
to  his  dominions;    rais'd  mighty  fortrejfes 

for  the  fecurity  of  bis  frontiers ;  joyn'd  the 
Ocean  and  the  Mediterranean  ;  fupprejs'd 
a!!  lyrates  on  the  fea  ;  amended  the  laivs ; 
<iboiijh'd  L.iWin's  im/i'jus  dUirine;  cm- 
peWd  the  remotefl  nations  to  pat  refpccl  to 
his  name  ;  and  fettled  all  affairs,  icih  at 
home  and  abroad,  -xitb  ivonderful  ivifdom 
and  valour ;  Francis  vifeount  clc  AubulVon, 
duke  de  la  FY'iiillade,  peer  of  France, 
andgiiieral of  the hori'e,  go-cernor  &/'D.iu- 
piiine,    and  eolloncl  of  the  foot  gi  .::'s. 

A  Defcription  of  Paris. 


rreded  this   as 

a  rii 



Then  under  tlic  nicdal,  rcprefcnting  tiic 

king,  and  religion,  in  baflb-rclievo,    are 
thefe  two  verles. 

Hie  laiidum  cumulus ;  Ludovico  -vindice 
Religio,  i^pulfus  malepcrgitfedibus  error. 

To  £,£';;/j  juftly  all  our  pr  lile  is  di.c, 
F>om  whole  fupport  religion  coriiiuefl  j 

And  from  their  holds  expcli'd  its  rebel  1 


On  the  oppofite  fide  is  the  fame  tranflated 
into  I'rench,  with  a  bafib-reiievo,  rcpre- 
fcnting the  fubmilFion  made  by  the  Doge 
ot  Genoa. 

As  well  as  I  like  the  works  in  brafs  and 
marble,  I  am  no  lels,  or  rather  more  dif- 
pleas'd  with  Ibme  of  tiiefe  compofitioiis  •, 
for  to  me  the  author  ol  tiiem  does  not  feeni 
to  have  had  lb  good  a  genius,  as  the  other 
of  thofe  on  the  gates,  before-mentiun'd  ; 
nor,  to  fay  the  truth,  is  he  the  greatell 
mailer  of  tiie  Latin  tongue  in  the  world  ; 
for  I  cannot  call  to  mip.i  that  I  ever  reaci 
in  good  authors  •,  thefe  exprellions,  Agere 
pacem,  Condudcr  exercitus,  inllcad  of  Dux, 
or  Imperalor  ;  Sei.are flumen  agmine;  pruli.i 
inrtead  of  /';//.;,  and  Pro-Rex,  belides  fe- 
veral  more,  that  will  make  our  Gramma- 
rian.' mad  ;  but  I  guefs  they  are  the  jiro- 
duct  of  fome  who  pretend  to  be  mafters, 
tho'  tluy  are  not  fit  for  the  lowtfl  form, 

I  can  fend  you  no  news  of  the  war,  but 
what  you  mull  have  belure  ;  nor  can  1  as 
yet  give  any  account  of  learning,  having 
fearce  had  time  to  make  the  air  of  Paris 
familiar  to  me.     I  remain,  i^c. 


Cciit'tnttcs  t'.c  Defer ipt ion  of  Paris. 

r  J  'IIO'  I  liad  never  receiv'd  any  other 
\_  demonllration  of  your  affertion,  and 
of  that  coiirtcfy,  wliieii  is  lo  prevalent 
above  ail  your  other  excellent  qualities, 
1  oaglit  to  reckon  myfelf  moll  hap[)y  on 
account  of  thofe  unquellionable  tokens  of 
good  will  and  elteein,  you  have  been 
pleas'd  fo  kintlly  to  give  me  in  your  letter, 
which  I  receiv'd  yelteiday,  and  was  dated 
the  twellth  of  laH  month.  I  return  you 
all  the  thanks  I  am  able  for  the  learned  in- 
timations you  a!lord  me  in  it,  and  delire 
you  will  always  continue  to  do  fo  by  me  ; 
tor  the  more  freedom  you  ule  in  that  par- 
ticular, the  greater  advantage  I  Ihall  reap 
by  it.  I  may  here,  by  way  of  cxcufe, 
put  you  in  mind,  tliac  1  then  writ  in  Car- 

Paris,  April  g.   1 686, 

nival  time,  when  our  mind,  by  our  own 
confenr,  is  moll  involv'd  in  pleafure,  and 
becomes  as  it  were  a  flavc  dragg'd  in  a 
chain  by  delight ;  and  therefore  of  con- 
fequcnce  we  cannot  fo  well  obferve  the  true 
rules  of  compofttion  and  explication,  or 
appear  fo  judicious,  as  is  recjuifite  for  rea- 
foning  well.  However,  Hill  allowing 
what  is  fiid,  I  mull  tell  you,  that  when  1 
fpoke  of  the  hieroglyphicks  contriv'd  by 
the  Abbot  Joachim,  I  did  not  intend  to,,, 
rundown  all  oracles,  becaufc  every  divine -r 
illumination  of  the  mind,  and  revelation  ^^ 
of  what  is  to  come,  mull  not  be  look'd  up- 
on as  unlikely  ;  but  I  fpoke  after  th  "  m.ui- 
nerof  the  abbot,  feeing  his  commentaries 
on  tiic  revelation  of  iit.  'jfohn  fo  far  from 


Let.  15. 

.'lievo,   arc 

vito  viiidke 

tilibtis  error. 

:  is  due, 
coruiucft  I 

.1  its  rebel' 

■vo,  rc()ic- 
ly  the  Doge 

in  brafs  and 
T  more  dif- 
nipofitioiis ; 
n^s  not  feem 
as  the  other 
-ineiition'd  •, 
tlic  greatcll 
the  world  1 
:  I  ever  read 
lions,  A^^crc 
ead  of  DiiX, 
mine ;  fralui 
',  belides  fe- 
lur  Giiimma- 
arc  the  pro- 
be mailers, 
)\vt(t  fosin. 
the  war,  but 
nor  can  I  as 
ing,  having 
air  ot  Piirii 

iLet.  i$. 

/i  Defcriptm  of  Paris, 


I.  1686, 

y  our  own 

alurc,  and 

gg'd  in  a 

ore  of  con- 

rve  the  true 

ieaiion,    or 

ilite  for  rea- 


that  wl\cn  1 

ontriv'd  by 

Dt  intend  to ,,, ; 

very  divine ,r 

d  revelation'"^ 

e  look'd  up- 

T  th"  man- 


I'o  far  fioni 

be  in" 


being  approv'd,  as  to  be  prohibited  by  the 
church  ;  and  on  the  other  .land,  that  he, 
for  any  thing  we  know,  never  arriv'd  to 
fuch  perfeiflion,  as  would  be  requifice  for  a 
prophet,  after  St.  John  Baplijt.  As  lor 
the  ambiguous  meaning,  and  various  in- 
terpretations, ail  prophecies  are  liable  to, 
it  is  true,  according  to  St.  IrciMUS,  and 
other  fathers,  that  even  the  predidlioni  ot 
the  p"ophets,  in  the  old  tellament,  were 
undertlood  after  the  mifchiefs  fbre-tokl 
were  come  to  pals,  'I'hole  were  alw.ays  ge- 
neral anil  figurative exprellions,  ilefigned- 
ly,  as  I  fuppofe,  utter'd  by  tiie  pro[)hets, 
to  the  end  the  multitude  Ihouki  not  ])ry 
into  God's  hidden  judgments ;  and 
they  might  llrike  the  more  terror,  being 
thus  flirouded  under  thole  obfeure  words, 
which  periiaps  were  more  terrible  and  ma- 
jeftick.  But  the  abbot's  figures,  if  they 
are  his,  ail  confilling  of  monilers,  fomc 
whole  and  fomecutotf;  belides  that  they 
fecm  to  me  like  thole  hieroglyphicks  ot 
Orus  Apollo,  mention'd  by  Jambluits  Cnl- 
c'uUiis,  and  others  •,  and  thole  luperftitious 
rcprefentaiions,  whicii  Ibme  dtbiilijh  will 
have  cut  u[)ijn  certain  Hones,  at  appointed 
tim  SI  they  are  all  down-right  ridiculous 
and  empty,  and  any  man  wiiatl()ever  might 
invent  others  more  extravagant  and  tright- 
lul,  with  r.o  lefs  certain  hope,  in 
time  to  come  they  migiit  all  come  to  be 
expounded  to  anfwer  fome  accidents  in  tiie 
world,  'i'iu'  inflance  I  tiicn  gave  you  of 
lion*;,  I  may,  without  any  olleiice,  it  I 
pleaf',  apply  to  the  republick  of  Gem,, 
or  th.u  ot  llollaiul,  or  any  other  Hate  tiiat 
has  a  lion  for  its  arms.  Befides,  why  did 
not  this  'Joiichim  rather  leave  us  his  pro- 
phecies in  writing  ?  If  he  forbore,  for  fear 
of  his  perfon,  then  was  he  not  directed  by 
any  hc.ivenly  or  divine  light,  which  en- 
courag'd  the  ancient  prophets,  and  made 
them  clefpife  death  -,  and  if  he  did  not  fear, 
why  dill  he  rather  cluife  to  be  a  painter 
than  a  writer? 

As  for  Nero's  triumph,  which  I  fiid 
never  was,  I  have  no  caufe  to  recant ;  tor 
AVrodid  not  overcome  the  Parlbians,  mak- 
ing war  on  them  himfelt  in  perfon,  but  by 
his  general  Corbiilo,  and  receiv'd  no  otjier 
honours  for  it,  but  thole  mention'd  by 
"T'liti.'ns,  lib.  i^.  Ob  bac  coufdlulMus  int. 
frnrfor  Nero,  i^  S.  C.  fupplieatioiiesbiibita-, 
jlatu<rquc,  &  anus,  &  eaiitiiiiii  coiifuUitus 
priiicipi  ;  itlqiie  inter  fejlos  refcrretiir  dies, 
quo  pdlrata  -vii'lnria,  quo  nunciatii,  quo  re- 
lalum  de  eu  cjf.i,  isc.  That  is,  Ueiciipoii 
Nero  li'.is  falutedcmpcrnr,  ami  there  ivns  a 
Ihankf^iviw^  appointed  by  deeree  of  tbefeiiale, 
<!!  alfo  ftatiies  and  triumphal  arches  to  ic 
ereited,  in  honour  of  the  prince,  and  that  be 
fhouid  be  perpetual  conful;    as  alfo  that  the     black  velvet,  rais'd  by  fome  Heps  above 

vjhich  the  news  of  it  -was  firft  brought,  and  GeMELLr. 
when  declar'd  to  the  fenate,flMuld  befejlivals,  ^■^V"^ 

As  for  my  denying  f^enice  to  be  in  the 
fliapeof  a  boot,  I  verily  believe  the  inha- 
bitants will  rather  take  it  well  than  ill  •,  for 
they  have  a  good  conceit  of  their  own  wif- 
dom,  and  would  take  it  as  an  atfront  lliould 
any  one  put  them  upon  the  par  with  boots, 
and  fuch  like  things.  But  the  plain  truth 
is,  that  I  had  a  mind  to  jcft,  knowing  ic 
to  be  an  ancient  cuftom  among  geogra- 
phers to  refemble  the  fhape  of  Ibme  piaccs 
to  fome  certain  things ;  and  to  the  many 
inflances  mention'd  by  you  in  your  learned 
letter,  might  perhaps  be  added,  that  of 
'Jordan,  bifliop  of  Ravenna,  who  fay.s 
the  great  illand,  (or  rather  Peninfula)  ot 
Scanzia,  or  Scandinavia,  whence  the  Goths 
ileducc  their  original,  is  like  the  leat  of  a 
lemon-tree.  So  Jtaly  was,  by  Solinus, 
( ompar'il  to  an  oaken  leaf,  Simdis  querno 
I'olio,  feilieet,  procerUate  atnplior,  quam  lati- 
tudine ;  Like  to  an  oaken-leaf,  that  is,  longer 
than  it  is  broad.  Which  words  he  doubt- 
Icfs  tranfcrib'd  out  of  Plil:y,  lib.  5.  cap.  5. 

Now  to  come  to  Paris,  two  days  ago  I  Tlie  mi- 
went  into  that  part  of  it  they  call  the  uni-  "-""/'y- 
verfity,  which  I  think  I  need  not  tell  you, 
took  its  name  tVom  the  llveral  fehools  and 
colleges  in  it;  among  whicli  I  think  the 
never    iutliciently  exr.oU'd   H'^rbon   Ihines, 

velut  inter  ignes  luna  minores  ;    Like  the 

moon  among  the  Ljj'er  jlars  ;  anel  particu- 
larly for  divinity,  tho'  that  is  alfo  pro- 
fel's'd  in  the  college  of  Navarre.  There 
is  no  occalion  to  fay  much  of  it  in  this 
place,  other  books  being  full  ot  it  i  and 
in  the  famous  library  ot  our  iSignar  I'alletta 
there  are  three  whole  volumes  in  folio,  in- 
titled,  /fijloria  Univcrfilans  Parijienjis,  Tie 
htjlorycf  the  univerftly  of  Paris,  where  you 
may,  at  your  leifure,  learn  all  particulars 
relating  to  it.  Common  tame  will  have 
it  iouniled  by  Cb.vLnuiign,  but  that  opini- 
on is  refuted  in  a  little  book,  call'd  des 
I'Yeotes  Jy  ifeopalej. 

I  went  Hrlt  into  the  church  of  the  5fw^- vi'-jc 
dieline  nuns,  call'tl  Fal-de-Graee,  and  tbund-  Or.ui-  wo- 
ed  by  ylnne  of  yhjlria,    mother   u.   the ''V  V 
prefent  king.    Befules  the  regular  arclvtec- 
ture,  it  is  remarkable  for  its  ornameii'  ,,  the 
floor  being  laid  with  moll  curious  njarble, 
and  thearchesadorn'd  withexcellentcarv'd 
work  -,  the  Cupola  h  curioully  paiiucil  by 
ATignard,  and  the  high  altar  compos'd  of 
fixcolumnsof  bl.icL  marble,  fuUol  white 
veins,  and  adoru'd  with  tlowers,  ami  fo- 
liage of  brafs  gilt.     On  the  left  hand  of  tliis 
altar  is  a  large  chapel,   hung  in  mourning, 
and  in  the  miiUlof  it  a  bier  cover'd  with 


hns  on  which  the  -jitlory  was  obi 
'Vol.  VI. 


the  floor,  where  is  prellrv'd  the  heart  of 

B  b 



A  Defcription  of  Paris. 


I  pi 


1^  ■ 

Vi\  Im  T 


Gemflli.  the  queen,  who  was  the   i'oundrefs,    and 
^-'""^^'^  of  'cvcral  princefles  ot  the  blood  royal. 

I  went  hence  to  the  Incdrnatkn  of  the 
Cwmc'.ite  barefoot  Carmelite  nuns,  where  I  faw  a 
*"'"■  church  fmall  and  antient,  but  excellently 
adorn'd  :  The  afcent  to  the  high  altar  is 
of  fevcral  ftepsof  the  finell  marble,  which 
is  of  the  fame  ilone  -,  and  tiic  capitals  of 
its  columns,  which  are  of  the  Corintb'uin 
order,  are  of  brafs  gilt :  Before  the  nuns 
choir  are  two  marble  ilatuis  ot  St.  Peter 
and  St.  Paul,  and  above  them,  under  an 
arch,  St.  Mkhad'm  the  air,  tlrivingdown 
Lucifer  ;  an  excellent  piece  <if  workman- 
fhip.  All  tiic  chaiicls  are  well  adorn'd, 
particularly  with  chc.ce  pieces  of  Monf. 
h  Bruii,  aiul  other  mailers.  The  pifture 
molt  v.duM  by  curious  perfons,  is  that  in 
St.  Alary  Magdalen'i  chapel,  wiiere  flie  is 
rcpreli'iued  on  a  rock  weeping,  wir'.  her 
hair  ililhevcll'd,  tearing  oil"  all  h:r  vain 
wom.uiilh  drefs.  They  told  me  it  was  the 
lively  portraiture  of  Madame  la  Faliere, 
the  king's  once  moll  hclov'd  millrefs,  who 
now  leads  a  very  holy  life  in  that  mo- 

I'lie  church  of  St.  Clenrvicv,-  ftands  on 
the  top  ot  the  hill,  and  no  man  can  que- 
Ilion  its  antiquity  ;  for  in  the  miilll  of  tlie 
choir  is  the  tomb  of  Cloiloveiis,  the  firll 
chrilli.m  king  of  Frame,  and  at  a  fmall 
ilillance  tliat  of  Clotildis  his  wife.  Near 
thtle  tombs  is  St.  Cenevieve'^,  the  pro- 
lectreii  ol  Paris,  behinil  the  I'ijh  altar, 
cxtraortlinary  rich.  That  of  the  famous 
KfHd  cles  Carles,  the  light  and  ornament 
of  this  age,  the  rcllorerof  the  true  philo- 
fophy,  antl  lent  by  heaven  to  dil'pcl  the 
thick  cloud  of  ignorance,  which  had  long 
lain  on  the  minils  of  men,  is  worth  ob- 
krvin^;,  and  on  it  the  following  inf'criptinn, 


Fir  fiiVra  tiliilos  omnium  retro  '•hilojh[ho- 
ntiit,  Nobilis  ^^ciiere,  Armoricus  i;i';;/i',  Tu- 
ronicus  ory^ine  ;  in  G.Jlia  l-'lexirc  Jltnliiit  : 
in  Pannonia  wiles  meruit,  m  Batavia  Pbi- 
iojhji/jiis  deliltii;,  in  Suecia  vocatus,  oceuhnit. 
Taiiti  viri  prelio/as  rclijinas,  Galliarum /(•'•- 
Celebris  turn  I.i^atia  1'etrus  Ciiamut, 
CiiHisTiNAE,  fapienlijjunic  Re^^inic,  fafi- 
enlHin  ainatrici  imiJire  uon  fotnil,  nee  zin- 
dieare  pairia-  ;  fed  quihus  liciiit  cumuli  tus 
honorihus  \  terc^rina  lerrcr  mandai'it  invitus, 
yliino  Dim.  1650.  meiif  Feb.  10.  fetalis  54. 
n'andeiit  ('(.jl  lej lrml£ dieem  annos,  in^raliam 
CbriJlianiJ/uni  AVf;5  Lim)0VIci  XIV.  viro- 
rum  iiiligmum  eu/tnris  £5?  remu>ier,;toris,  pro- 
curnnie  Petro  Daliberto,  fepuhhri  jno  tf 
(imico  vinlalore,  Patrice  reddit/rfunt,  &  in  iflo 
firhii,  W  ariium  culminefnfilcc:  ut  qui  livus 
apud  extcros  otium  id  fimam  qucejierat,  mor- 
tuus  apud  fuos  cum  laude  quiefcerel ;  fuis  tJ" 
txteris  cxcmpliim  ^  doeumailumfntHtus. 

I  NUNC,  via:  OR, 

El  divinitalis,  immortalitalifque  animig 
maximum  is?  clarum  affcrtorem,  aut  jam 
crede  feliccm,  aut  precibus  rcdde. 

That  is,  Rene  Defcartes,  a  man  excelling 
all  the  antient  philofophers,  of  a  noble  fa- 
mily, born  in  Britany,  cf  Tourenne  by 
extratlion,  jludiedat  la  I'leche  in  !•' ranee, 
fen'd  as  a  Joldier  in  I  Inngary,  tn\i  a 
retir'd  fbilojbpher  in  1  loll.uid,  and  be- 
ins^  invited  intu  Sweden,  died  tberc.  Peter 
Chamul,  tbe  iben  French  ambajfador, 
could  not  refufe  Chriflina,  tbe  tnojl  learred 
queen,  and  lojer  of  learned  men,  tbe 
precious  relicks  of  fo  great  a  man,  or  re- 
jlorc  tbem  to  bis  country,  but  unwillingly 
committed  tbem  to  a  foreign  grave,  with 
wbat  honour  be  could,  in  tbe  year  of  our 
Lord  1650,  February //v  10//.),  and  the 
r-i^tthyearofbisage.  At  length,  fcventeen 
years  after,  in  favour  of  tbe  mojt  chrijUan 
king  Lewis  XJV.  tbe  admirer  anil  rt- 
ivarder  of  famous  men,  by  tbe  procurement 
of  Peter  DaJibert,  ivbo,  ivith  piety  and  af- 
fection, broke  open  bis  fepulehre,  tbey  -were 
rejlor'd  to  bis  native  country,  and  plac'J 
in  this  bigbejl  pari  of  this  city,  and  bigbeji 
feat  of  learning  ;  that  be,  who  living  fought 
leifure  and  fame  m  foreign  countries, 
might,  after  death,  rejt  bor.ouraHy  in  bis 
tiwn,  and  remain  a  pattern  and  example 
to  his  oiun  countrymen,  anil  /hangers. 
Go  noiv,  traveller,  and  either  believe  ibis 
great  and  clear  ajjerlor  of  tbe  divinity  iv:d 
immortality  of  tbe  foul,  already  happy,  or 
make  him  fa  by  your  prayers. 

From  thecluirch  I  went  into  the  cloiller, 
and  thence  tc  the  library,  retkon'd  one  of 
the  bcft  in  Paris,  both  lor  the  choice  of 
books,  and  the  curiolity  of  the  cafes  : 
Next  I  went  into  the  Mufrum,  or  clofet 
ot  P.  du  Alviinet,  mantiquary  of  no  fm.d! 
note,  where  there  arc  ..\cil lent  medals  of 
all  the  three  forts  of  metal  us'd  by  the  an- 
tients.  Among  ihe  greateft  rarities  are  tG 
be  reckon'd  certain  finall  knives,  of"  thofe 
they  formerly  us'd  to  cut  tiie  throats  of 
the  facritices,  or  vidims  i  and  a  Patera, 
or  fm.dl  jiKite,  in  which  they  mix'd  f"alt, 
flower,  oil,  and  wine,  to  .moint  the  laid 
victims,  which.,  if  I  forget  not,  were  tnere- 
fore  f"aid  to  be,  Mola  fufa  nfperfc-,  Sirinkkd 
-ii-itb  fait  dough.  Here  are  alfo  anti--  it 
keys,  and  fom.  of  thofe  call'il,  Annuli 
fignatoni.  Seal  rings,  to  dilliiiguilh  them 
from  the  Ilonorant,  worn  only  as  marks 
of  honour;  and  others :  As  alio  iron  bod- 
kins, us'd  inlleail  of  pens,  and  tablets 
cover'd  with  wax,  which  ferv'd  inllead  ot 
paper,  formtily  call'd  Pugdlares;  whence, 
among  our  civilians  we  read,  Ima  tabula. 
The  boltoin  of  tbe  tablet  ;  Ima  cera.  The 
bottom  of  ihi  mix  i  loexp  el's  tjie  laftjiart 


^•'5'     iLET. 


Let,  i$. 

A  Defcription  of  Paris. 

(»  excelling 
a  twble  fa- 
jurcnnc  by 
in  I'laiicc, 
ry,  IrSd  a 
d,  and  be- 
>ere.  Peter 
Hojt  leiin.ed 

men,    the 
uan,  or  re- 

'rave,  "d-'ith 
year  of  our 
i//),  and  the 
b,  fcventecii 
Vilt  chnjiian 
rer  and  rt- 
piety  and  af- 
■e,  tbey  u'ere 
,  and  plac'd 
,  and  bigheji 
living  JvKght 
n    countries, 
iirahly  in  hii 
and  example 
id   ftrangers. 
T  helicve  this 

divinity  ai.d 

ly  happy,  or 



of  the  will  or  tcftamcnt.  There  is  a  very 
great  number  of  weeping  veflels,  and  ot 
thofe  brafs  fpoons,  us'd  by  the  women, 
call'cl  Pneficd\  who  were  hir'd  to  weep, 
for  gathering  ot  their  tears ;  fo  eafy  and 
indlrtcrent  it  is  to  that  fex  to  bedew  their 
eyes,  and  betray  their  pleaiant  heart :  Se- 
veral other  rarities  I  neither  lik'd  nor  ad- 
mir'd,  and  therefore  forbear  mentioning 
of  them. 

Yefterday  I  walk'd  about  Icifurcl",  ob- 
ferving,  among  other  publick  ftnidtures, 
fomc  molt  beautiful  fountains.  There  is 
one  in  the  quarter  of  St.  Honore,  near  the 
Capuchin  nuns,  remarkable,  if  on  no  other 
account,  for  a  diftich  made  by  M.  Santciid  ■, 
which  is  this. 

Tot  loca  facra  inter pttra  eft  qucv  labittirimda, 
Hanc non impiiro,qiiifqtiis  'iorebibas.  1674. 

That  is,  Tht;  water  gliding  between  fo  many 
facred  places,  is  pure  :  IVhofoever  thou  art 
who  haft  an  impure  mouth,  dr.nk  not  of  it. 

That  they  call  des  Saints  Innocents,  of 
the  holy  Innocents,  in  the  Rue  St.  Denis, 
or  St.  Denis'ii-/trcet,  is  highly  commcnciable 
for  its  carving  and  Ifrudure  ;  ami  beyond 
it  another  newly  built,  over  whicii  is  to 
be  read, 

^i  fonles  aperit,  qui  flumina  dividit  urhi, 
lite  ejl,  quern  domilis  Rhenus  adorat  aquis. 

In  profc.  He  who  opens  fountains,  and  dif- 
tributes  rivers  into  the  city,  is  the  fame  to 
whom  the  conquer'd  waters  of  the  Rhine 
pay  homage. 

Another  there  is  in  the  Rue  Poifton, 
fecms  to  me  nothing  comparable  to  chat 
in  the  Rue  St.  Louis,  or  St.  Lewis' s-ftreet, 
on  which  there  are  two  curious  marble 
Tritons,  with  thefc  verfes  carv'd  by  the 
fame  author  ;. 

Felix  forte  tua  Naias  amabilis 
Dignum,  quo  flucres,  naila  fttttm  loci 
Cut  lot  fplendida  tel-ln 
h'uilu  lanibcr-'  contigit. 
Te  Triton  gcminus  pcr,onat  ermuhi 
Cnncha,  le  celchrat  nomine  rrg'.am  ; 
I  lac  tu  forte  fupcrba 
Labi  non  eris  immemor. 

Thus  l-.ngliniM, 

O  happy  nymph  !  happy  thy  lot. 
Who  hall  this  beauteous  province  got, 
Where  all  thy  waters,  as  iluy  flow. 
New  luftre  to  the  buildings  owe. 
Two  rival  Tnlons  found  thy  praile, 
And  high  thy  watery  empire  raife  •, 


But,  nymph,  take  heed,  thou  dofl;  not^'^^"'"-'- 
grow  s>^>r^ 

So  proud,  that  thou  forgei'll  to  fliw. 

As  for  other  publick  llrudtures,  worth 

mentioning,  I  le.-.i   I  fhall  want  ink  and 

paper,  before  I  can  compals  them,    and 

therefore  muft  be  content  to  pafs  them  by, 

excepting  fbme  few.     It  is  to  be  obferv'd, 

that  the  place  where  the  courts  fit,  call'd 

le  Palais,  the  palace,  is  an  antient  and  fpa- 

cious  llru:^ture,  which  was   the  refidence 

of  the  kings  till  Philip  the  Fair.     I  very 

much  admire  the  great  vaulted  hall,  t'or-TUv.jli! , 

mcrly  us'd  for  the  reception  of  ambafHi- "'''■'""•'' 

dors,  and  the  nuptials  of  the  princes  of '',"'' '''^^' 
111  1  11         '         ...    "'«"«■'• 

the  blood  •,  and  now  the  lawyers  walk  m 

it :  Between  the  columns  there  are  fmall 
fliops,    where  women,    according  to  the 
cuilom  of  the  country,  fell  many  forts  of 
fmall  wares  ;    and  there  are  llich  in   the 
tourt,  on  the  /Liirs,  in  the  galleries,  and 
in  other  rooms.     All  the  men  of  the  law, 
here  called  Gens  de  Rub:,  or  gown  men, 
wear  a  long  and  wide  upper  garment,  but 
the  lleevcs  lliorter  than  tlicy  ought  to  be  ; 
with  a  cap  Much  like  thofe  of  our  piicfls, 
but  that  it  has   a  tallel    in   the  middle  : 
Their  greateft  vanity  confilb  in  having  a 
fervant  to  carry  their  train  ;  and  there  was 
one  of  tliem,  who  walking  abroad  in  the 
night  with  only  one  fervant,  who  carried 
a  lighted  flambeaux,  rather  than  carry  his 
own  train,  brought  it  forwards  betwixt  his 
legs,  and  gave  it   his,  caufing  hiin- 
felf  to  be  led  like  a  bealt,  as  he  really 
was,  if  the  llory  be  true.      Not  only  the 
advocites  are  cover'd    here,    when    they 
plead,  but  all  the  llandcrs-by,  as  I  have 
feen  i'.  the  court  call'd  .<;^^ii/Wr/5;/<'. 

Yellerday  I  went  tor  divcrfion  to  feciv.  c.r- 
the  fair  kept  in  the  Fauxbourg  St .  Cermain,  '"■''■■•■• 
fo  called  from  the  antient  abbey  of  St.  GVr-' '''• 
main  des  Prez.  Certainly  no  place  in  Paris 
is  equal  to  it  for  flately  buildings ;  the  air 
is  ierene  and  clear  ;  there  are  delightful 
gardens,  many  dwellings  of  ingenious  fo- 
reigners, who  here  learn  all  gentlemen-like 
cxercifes  ;  and,  in  Ihort,  llrait  and  fpa- 
cious  ftreets,  well  pav'd  witii  pebbles : 
The  fair  is  kept  in  fix  cover'd  walks, 
crofling  one  another,  and  full  of  rich  fliops 
of  feveral  lorts  of  goods  :  lach  of  them 
is  let  from  Candlemas-lliy  till  thefirlKlay 
of  Lent,  for  fifty  jiiiloles,  anil  fometimes 
more,  when  the  t.ur  happens  to  be  con- 
tinued till  Eaftcr.  Then,  paying  thrte- 
|u'nce,  I  went  in  to  fee  a  puppet-fiiow, which 
had  been  aded  before  tiie  king,  by  litcy 
little  figures,  exactly  clad  like  gentlemen, 
very  well  worth  feeing.  At  the  place 
call'd  les  Petiles  ATaifiiis,  I  fcnind  a  won- 
derful multitude  of  people,  walking  in  the 
court,  I  know  not  to  what  purpole,  when 


n    it' 

.1'^  ■"  ..■{ 

>  i 





y^  Defcription  of  Paris. 



CiMrii T.  they  ought  nthCr  to  have  (lood  lUU  j  lor 
^■^V^^  there,   live  ihofc  wlio  keep  inonrters  and 

ftrange  creatures,  as   is  ul'ual  among    us 

before  the  caille. 

Returning  to  my  inn,  I  faw  the  palace. 

paint'-il  the  principal  battels  and  lieges  that 
have  been  honourable  to  Fniiia;  that  tlic 
memory  of  them  may  awake  in  the  maim- 
ed Ibldiers  fuch  fatisfiidlion  as  is  generally 
occafion'd  by  the  glorious  accomplirtimenc 

Hotfl  Je    or  /-/gi^i  lig  Condc,  nothing  anfwerable  to     ot  itifficult  undertakings,  unlds  ixrhaps  in 


Hotel  dc 




the  grandeur  ot"  llich  x  dan,    as  to  tlie 
ftrudure  ;  but  as  for  the   rich  furniture, 
it  is  impoflible  to  exprefs   tiie  leall  part 
of  it.     'I'Ik  garden,    tho'  fmall,    has  all 
the  embelliniments  that  can  be  contriv'd 
by  art,  and  tour  good  llatucs  ;  yet  is  not 
well  look'd  after  no  more  than  the  palace 
itielf,    the    prince  not    refiding  there   at 
prefeni.     That   is  much  more   to  be  re- 
gariled,  where  Mailamoilelie  (/^  Moiipcnficr 
lives,  CA\k\\  <ji  l.uxembiDX,  built  by  (jueen 
Maiy  o[  MrJicis,  widow  to  king  IliiiryW . 
being  the  iioblell  and  moll  regular  piece 
of  archiuccure  ever  built  in  l'tii':>  ;  and 
they  lay  tiie  model  ot  it  was  maile  by  ilic 
fime  man  that  invented  the  molt  beautilal 
frontilpiece  of  the  church  of  St.  dci-vni?. 
I  was  never  fo  much  tlilpleafed  with  my- 
felf  for  not  knowing  how  to  liraw,   which 
you  with  good  realbn  lay   is  requilite  for 
travelkrs,  as  now  1  fee  fonu' things,  which 
in  my  opinion  vie  with  the  noblill  Jlrur- 
tures   tliere   are   in    Roi/if  :    and,    on  the 
other  hand,  if  I  upon  fomc  occafi(;ns  make 
ufe  of  anotiier,  it  will  not  anfwer  to  do  fo 
always,    tor  I  am  not  the  richell  man  in 
the  world.     To  come  to  the  ]ioint  ;  tlie 
greateii:  p.irt  of  tlie  ouifide  is  ot' marble, 
wroiigiic  alter  the  manner  we  call  di.iiiioiKl 
cut.      Within  three  tides  of  tiie  beautiful 
court   are   adorn'd  with    regular   arches, 
forming    vaiilts   to  walk    under  covert  : 
Hence  we  go  into  a  curious  garden,  .ilong 
whole  walks  the  green  .md  fmall  myrtle 
ferves  ot  rich  carpets,  which  they 
C,lllJ\!r,'i/ii:   Then  follows  a  little  llower- 
garden,  lluit  up  with  iron  banillers  :  ami 
then  another  of  orange  and  lemon  trees, 
excellently  trimm'd.      I   have    not    here 
leifure  to  fpeak  of  the  apartments,  either 
as  to  their  fymmetry  or  the  rich  turniture, 
and  efpecially  the  noble  paintings,  repre- 
fenting    feveral    actions  of  c]ueen  Alary  : 
One,  above  all  the  rell,  is  wonderful,  be- 
ing i).;:;'»/ with  the  head  ot  6'(,//./'j,  which 
hangs  in  a  room  on  the  right  of  the  lirll 

In  tlii>  f.imc  fuburb  is  the  moll  celebra- 
ted hofpiial  cali'd  I' ll,jtd  Royid  il>s  liiva- 
//i/t'j,  for  entertaining  of  all  toldiersdil'.ibleil 
in  war.  We  ccjme  lirll  into  a  l.irge  fiiu.ire, 
cncloi'ed  with  a  dry  ditch,  and  guards  at 
convenient  places ;  then  a  great  gate  leads 
into  a  fpacious  court,  with  two  rows  of  ar- 
ches about  it,  like  the  cloylter  of  a  mo- 
nallery,  at  the  end  whereof  is  a  be.iutiful 
church.  On  the  other  tides  are  lour  v.ill 
reiectories,  or  hulls  to  cat  in,  wiicrcin  arc 

that  condition  they  curie  the  wars,  ami  the 
liay  they  lifted  themfelvcs.  'J  hey  all  lie 
in  the  rooms ;  there  are  about  tour  little 
courts,  on  the  liiies ;  but  the  fiek  are  taken 
care  of  in  tome  other  galleries,  feparate 
from  the  main  building.  Such  as  have 
the  ufe  ot  their  arms,  are  always  lome 
way  employ 'd  to  earn  the  tley  eat  1 
which  is  convenient  enough,  were  it  only 
to  keep  them  trom  the  ill  confequencesof 
idlenefs.  There  are  now  two  ihouliind  i7„„o, 
l!\e  hunilreil  of  them,  all  elad  in  blue,  mdii,;. 
at  the  king's  coll.  '^"":  M 

Whilll  I  was  in  this  place,  I  heard  two  ""''" 
gentlemen,  llrangers,  difcourfing  about 
Mont.  Bloiidct'f.  Miijrrum,  or  clolet  of  r.i- 
rities  ;  a  man  very  well  known  among  the  ,'.',",'. 
learned,  tor  his  new  method  of  lortilication, 
iiis  comparifon  of  /^/'/(/.;;' anil /A/.ur,  and  other  works  ;  lb  that  I,  who  am 
\ery  tond  ot  antiquities,  ajid  good  books, 
'^■•' "  '■■■  'iv'd  in  the  Kiu-  dc  i'U/inw- 

bein"  told  he  liv'd 

././(■,  iliricteil  my  courle  thitiier,     Firll,  1 
law  abundance  of  pictures,    of  the   betl 
mailers  that  have  liv'd  fincc  Rapbud  and 
Micid.l  y!)!_!^,!o  ;  as  alio  a  great  number 
ot  j)ieces  in  miniature,   with  fome  Mofaick 
works  ol    curious  colom  'd  wood  :   then  a 
fmall  quantity  of  good  books :  and  lallly 
the  antiquities.     1  ihall  not  here  mention 
them  all,  wliich  would    be  too   tedious, 
but  only  the  molt  to  be  admir'd  ;  as  tbi' 
inllmce,  tour  anticnt  agats,  on  which  are 
admirably  cut  the  heads  oi  Jultiis  Crfar, 
iMiik  .liiihv)i\\    I.i/<i,liis,    And  Cleopatra : 
Another  oval  precious  Hone  of  a  greeniili 
colour,  on  which  is  c.irv'd  a  column,  with 
an  lun  on  the  top  of  if,  a  liar  on  the  fide, 
ami  at  the  bale,  or  foot,  a  foldier  feenis  to 
touch  the  point  of  a  dagger  :  About  the 
Hone  are  cut  thele  words,   MART     \'i 
Al'X.  1).  JUL.  LACK,  thatis,  M7;/i 
t!!!on,    y-hxiluilori    D.    Jt'lio    hubryma  : 
Wlunce  it   woidd  iierhaps  be  no  'wron<'- 
notion  to  lay,   the  liar  the  lame  rlia" 
.i[)pear'd  alter  the  death  of  C.y.Vr,  ot  whieii 
/  "irgd  fays  ; 

Cir'iris  ajhrnn. 

Dr\dcH  ; 

F.icc  Dioiuri  proii-lfit 
Thus  render'd  by  Mr. 

See  Crtyj;  's  lamp  is  lightctl  in  the  lliics. 
.And  lluiace.  Ode  1:. 

M'leat  inter  onuies 

Jll'uim  Jidiii,   ve/nt  ii:!er  i^iids 
Luna  mimrci 





in  t 

PA  I 
Jills  t 


or  m 
the  I 

fur  a 
to  oft 
to  rev 
I  call 
tlu-  n, 

to  /..i 

great  i 
of  mc 

KIK-Scf  I    W 

ii'iiil.  t.ifle(j 
ved  an 

of  trad 
in  fc  ien 
their  w 



■rr^  •^f 

Let.  15.     1  r 

d  licgcs  that 
la;  ilwt  tlic 
11  the  inaim- 
is  generally 
Is  jKrhnps  in 
urs,  and  tlie 
1  hey  all  lie 
t  tour  little 
It  k  are  taken 
ies,  feparate 
ich  as  have 
ilways  lome 
ail  tley  eat ; 
were  it  only 
vo  iliouland  i,,.-,i 
lad  ill  blue,  i"f' 

1  heard  two  .,;, 
.irfiiig   about  4  : 
clolet  of  ra-  j,.^^,^. 
n  among  tiic,:., 
1  llvidcc,  and 
t  I,  who  am 
good  books, 
.'  lU  i'ljuiirr- 
ier.     l-iril,  1 
of  the   bed. 
Rdibacl  and 
;reat  number 
lome  Mojhick 
'ood  :  then  a 
i :  and  lallly 
here  mention 
too   tedious, 
lir'd  i  as  for 
on  whieh  arc 
'liliiis  Cafdry 
Cleopatra : 
f  a  green  ifli 
ihimn,  with 
on  the  fide, 
lier  feems  to 
About  tiic 
ART.  VL. 
at  is,  Marti 
hicbrymm  : 
•  no  wrong 
le  lame  that 
■ir,  ot  whitlv 


KT.  15. 

j4  Defer /pt ion  of  Paris. 

:;  the  fkic5. 


\n  Englidi,  The  Julian  ftar  jUna  amoi:^^ 
tl.K  rcjl ,  ai  the  moon  twwr.g  tbr  fmrJu  r 

A',  alio  Ov'ul.  Mftam.  15.  Ei^.  51. 

• froprratdfie  gloria  renim 

It:  ijiltis  vaiere  novum,  Jidlamqiic  comanteni. 

I'hai  is,  Jml  bi^ gloiious  iinioin  b.ijlrn  to 
Jlinc  in  a  nen;  lonjitlLiliois  and  k'uzuig 

The  column  is  tlu  l>ine  that  waseredlcd 
in  the  I-hriim, or  market-iijate, after  Ctrjiir's 
death, aeeording  to  tliat  o\St(clomiis  injiilio, 
£.;,".  S5.  fpeakiiv',  of  tlie  pjople  of  Rome. 
Pojlea   fctiiiiim  i  t^annam  prope    :.o   n\liini 
lapiiiis  A'timjiliii  in  I'oro  jlaliiit,  fniplilquc 
PARl'.Nl'I  I'ATRlAf..  .lpud,\im  U'^o 
tiin/'jri'  /iicrijicarr,  vJa  fiiji ipere,  conlroivr- 
Jiiis  qna.'.Lim,  inlerpojito  per  Cajhrcm  jnre- 
jiirandu,  dijlrahcrr  perfeveravit.  Impoi  ting, 
Jj'tci -wards  be  erected  a  pillar  of  Numidian 
Jlone,  ahnojl  Izcenty  fool  bigh,  in  tbe  Varum, 
or  market-pl.ue,  icitb    tbc    i);'cri;:'ion.   To 
the  father  of  his  country.  //  w.;;  pni'/ii'd 
for  a  long  time  n.Ur  to  o'Jer  at  ii, 
to  off:;-   up  vozvs,  and  to  decide  ftrne  an- 
Iroverfes,  fuYdring  /n'Gcfar.     The  foKlier 
miglit  denote  tlie  oatli  taken  by  tlu:  army, 
to  revenge  his  murder  ;  and  thereiore,  now 
I  call  it  to  miiKJ,  it  was  certainly  callM  by 
tiie  name  of  C'J:/!/ii:a  exrer.ita.    'i'here  arc 
bclidv's  theli;  abo'K  one-liundrcd  and  litty 
otlu-r  antient  carv'd  Hones,  reprefenting  a 
llicceflion  of  emi)erors,  from  'Julius  C  fir 
to  I.d'ienui  Pofibiinuis,  with  thiriy-fix  em- 
prelles,  a  thing,  in  my  opinion,  of  inelli- 
inablo  v.due,    lince  antiquaries  hnd  fiich 
great  ditliculty  in  making  fuch  avolleclion 
of  medals,  whieh  are  yet  lefs  rarer  than 
Hones  ■,  however  I  much  queflion  the  anti- 
quity of  lome  of  tiiem. 
tiimrsof      I  will  conclude  this  letter,  giving  you  a 
Vrtml.  taftcof  the  manners  I  have  hitherto  obfer- 
ved  among  vhe  Frcncb.  They  are  the  molt 
accompli  filed  and    loving  people   in    the 
world,  both  to  one  another  and  to  llran- 
gers,  g  'nerous  and  iiiagnificent  where  their 
honour  is  coiKcrn'd,  indullrious  in  the  way 
of  traile,  and  incredibly  addie'letl  to  me- 
rhanick  arts ;  and  as  tor  their  knowledge 
in  fciences,  you  may  better  judge  than  I  by 
their  works,  how  clean  and  nice  their  ob- 
fervations  are,  antl  how  plain  and  cafy  their 
method  of  committing  them  to  writing. 

Vol.  VI. 


The  gentry  look  upon  trade  as  mean,  in- r.iMii.n. 
Ibiiuieh  that  the   very  merchants ,  when  U'^'^J 
giDwn  rich,  buy  lome  place  for  i!  tons, 
that  they  may  in  time  be  ennobleu  ,  whi.h 
is  the  caller,  becaufe  all  but  thole  in  the 
army  are  venal,  as  among  us  they  are  made 
diilvcs  and  marquiffc's  not  without  the  in- 
ilignation  of  the  antient  nobility.  1  ilo  nor 
think  their  inclination  to  war  is  lb  natural 
as  reported,  lince  we  tee  all  mankind  love 
their  cale,  and  enilure  fatigue  to  purchale 
rell,  and  ilo  not  toil  for  toil's  fake  ;  and  on 
the  other  hand,   that  very  often  the  delirc 
ot  honour  is  an  incentive  to  noble  I'ouls, 
and  not  their  ultimate  em! ;  for  pray  who 
would  leave  his  (juiet  dwelling,  did    not 
kings  iiope  after  war  to  enjoy  a  more  latl- 
ing  peace,  anil  the  fubjeds  to  make  their 
old  age  happy  with  their  honourable  re- 
wards ?  'I'lius  it  is  here  become  of  talliion 
to  go  voluntarily  into  the  army,  becaufe 
this  i'.  t!ie  only  way  to  preferment  under  a 
warlike  king  •,  and  were  not  this  a  fulficitnc 
rcafon,  it  feems  to  me  to  be  very  antient 
in  the  world  for  all  fubjeds  to  partake  of 
the  genius  ot  the  iv/ince  he  is  born  under  ; 
and  thi)  more  particularly  in  I'r.inee,  than 
which  no  nation  in  the  v.oiiil  bears  its  king 
more  loyal   love  and  r.  fpecL     Yet  theic 
virtues  are  counter|;oifi:d  by  lome  vices,  as 
being  exceeding  fond  of  novelty  ;  rather 
ralh  than  daring,  and  more  hafly  than 
were  convenient  upon  lome  inditFerent  oc- 
calions;  more  than  men  at  the  biginning 
ot  b.'.itels,  and  worle  than  women  .\t  the 
end  ;  inconllant  in  triendlhip,   as  well  as 
eaiily  pacity'd;  too  great  lovers  of  wine, 
I  mean  the  meaner  fort,  and  of  female  plea- 
lures  ;    and  that  which  makes  them  lefs 
valu'd  by  us  Italians,  they  laugh  out  aloud 
npon  any  little  occallon,  thio  weakncfs  be- 
ing among  them  reckon'd  une  gayete  d'ef- 
prit,  a  gay  '.empcr.  'J'heir  too  much  con- 
tiding  in  lirangers,   which  however  is  the 
ell'eiH  of'  llnceriiy,  has  often  been  the  occa- 
fion  of  difmal    tragedies  among  them  in 
Lonibardy.mtX  the  two  .S'/V//v5.   Add  to  this 
in  the  ParifsaiK  an  exceilive  application  to 
profit,  tho'  without  fraud  ;  and  their  redu- 
cing themfelvcs  fometimes  into  a  very  low 
condition  through  the  extraordinary  pro- 
tulcnefs  of  their  wives.   The  pcafants  about 
the  city  are  f'omewhat  imperious,  relyin<?; 
on  the  nearnefs  of  the  parliament.   I  could 
write  you  many  obfervations  touching  this 
point,  but  the  letter  is  ended,  and  I  have 
Icarce  room  enough  to  fubfcribe  mvfclf,^"''- 

C  c 

f.  FTTFR 





h.: '■>■•' 

Jtjklf  I' 



j^  Defcription  of  Verfailles. 


'The  Dt'fcription  of  Vcrlliillcs,  //'«'  Menagerie,  aiiJ  Trlannon. 

Let.  16. 

IT  wouKl  be  a  great  happinefs  were  one 
always  as  well  able  to  exprefs  the  ideas 
of  Teniible  tilings  in  wiitiiiy  as  one  conceives 
them  in  the  tancy  by  means  ot  the  lenles. 
It  this  were  lo,  I  IlioukI  not  perhaps  be  li) 
much  puzzleii  as  I  am  to  begin  to  Ipeak  of 
Verfailles,  where  I  have  been  lince  yelUr- 
day,  unci  might  hope  in  thi-,  letter  to  give 
you  a  delVription,  it  not  well  eolour'ci  with 
noiile  exi'iLllions,  at  leall  well  drawn  and 
Jliadow'd,  l()  that  you  might  thence  con- 
ceive the  beauty  ot'  the  ori^yiial.  lint  IrC 
us  now  leave  ihefe  ufelels  introductions. 
At  other  timci  1  have  only  del'crib'd  li)i;K' 
particular  things,  that  putting  them  to- 
gether you  might  conceive  ibme  idea  ot  tlie 
wliole  i  but  it  would  be  now  in  vain  1  lor 
in  the  lirlt  place  you  will  never  thus  coiii- 
l>relK-nd  the  one  half;  and  beli'ks,  I  krow 
it  is  \\y  iniolerahle  trouble  to  dllfiofe  fo  m  ■.- 
ny  and  fuch  fumlry  conceptions,  and  to  r  •- 
prefent  to  your  fclf  a  great  extent  oi  l.n  d 
full  ofwontlerlul  things,  all  of  them  reg'.:- 
larly  and  uniformly  dilhibuteii  :  1  Ihall 
therefore  then  for  th's  time  follow  the  me- 
tiiod  <>f  iMiiverlals,  t'  o'  retrograde,  adding 
fome  lew  particulars,  .uul  thus  we 
both  of  us  have  the  lei's  trouble.  Of.i'  1  \e 
then  in  the  lirlt  place, that  king  l.fujis  XIII. 
made  choice  of  this  Ipot  to  divert  himlllf 
with  hunting,  ami  after  him  fo  great  a  king 
as  /,r:c7j  XI\'.  has  pitch'd  upon  it  for  his 
relidence,  fo  that  it  mull:  neeils  be  as  pl.a- 
fiiit  and  ot  as  ck'ar  and  ierene  an  air  ,is  any 
otlier  in  the  world,  convenient  for  hunting, 
and  fo  leated  as  to  all()rd  leveral  fine  i)ro- 
fpects.  You  may  judge  how  much  art  has 
been  ufed  to  embellilli  and  make  it  a  dwel- 
ling woithy  of  fo  great  a  king,  by  reject- 
ing, that  l-'raiKc  never  hail  one  more  mag- 
nanimous, more  pov.vrful,  and  a  greater 
!o\'er  antl  difccrner  ot'ex'cellency  ;  for  thro' 
his  mean-  not  only  the  moll  ioity  Iciences 
and  the  liberal  arts  are  rail'eil  to  a  moll  ad- 
vantageous degree  of  perfeclion;  but  the 
very  Miua  of  the  tabulous  Ildicon  feem  to 
have  remov'd  to  fettle  on  die  banks  of  the 
Seync;  and  I'r.uue  now  vies  in  all  particu- 
lars with  the  moll  lamousot  the  aiicienf., 
wliether  Roiiuuis  or  Gn.ks,  I  teiiee  it  liil- 
iows,  tliat  thearchitcdurcof  all  the  build- 
ings mull  be  incomparable,  the  ornaments 
of  painting  and  carving  moll  ex.ellenr, 
and  the  whole  contrivance  ilu]xndous.  As 
fV)r  moveables,  both  tl;e  matter  .uid  the 
workmanfliip  are  wonderful,  becaufe  the 

rerjliilles,  /IpH  ji.  16S6. 

king  very  well  knows  the  value  of  what  lie 
fees,  and  needs  not  another  to  inform  him, 
as  yarii  did  in  Sicily ;  for  this  reafon  lie 
has  the  bell  and  rarell,  whether  antient  or 
modern  ,  brought  him  Irom  all  parts  ot 
the  world,  it  being  well  known  that  the 
reward  will  anfwer  the  trouble.  IJelides, 
the  noble  inventions  of  architcc'ls  and  car- 
vers, and  all  other  artills,  are  not  left  to 
polKriry  in  embryo,  but  put  to  the  tryal 
without  Iparing  labour  or  colli  theietore 
tlio'  tlie  old  ca!lk'  was  extr.U)rdin,iry  rich  in 
painting,  yet  the  oiuw.u'd  part  of  it  was 
laken  down,  the  king  not  thinking  it  m\- 
Iwcrable  to  his  grandeur,  when  in  the  year 
1670  Ik:  refolv'd  to  eredt  the  building  as  ic 
nov/  is.  In  167S  he  added  to  it  two  wings, 
each  terminating  in  two  pavilions, or  fqu.ire 
llruc'tiires,  on  the  roail  that  comes  Ironi 
l\irii,  to  lodge  die  prime  minillers  of  the 
crown,  lo  th.a  the  interval  between  them 
forms  the  llrll  court  to  the  royal  palace; 
and  the  prime  noblemen  ot  the  kingdom, 
excited  by  his  exam[)le,  have  built  abun- 
d.UHi  or  curious  and  iiiagnilleent  houles  all 
about  ir.  VW-  r.rihb  architects  give  the 
nameol'a  jiavilion  to  a  fquaiv  pile  of  build- 
ing wliich  i^  nci  0:1  a  linev.'iih  the  rellcl  the 
tabriik,  and  is  lomewhat  more  lotty,  as 
tliat  may  be  among  us  by  the  gate  ot  the 
caftle  (;f  Ctipiiaua.  On  the  fides  of  the 
aiorelaid  road  are  alio  two  ilately  flable.s 
containing  no  Lf,  than  tive-hui.dreil  horfes, 
ot  iLveral  lort.s,  with  lodgings  over  them 
tor  tie- olHcers;  tiie  interval  between  them 
is  doled  with  iron  banilters,  where  horle- 
iiien  exercile  as  they  th'iik  fit. 

Vou  lee  I  am  come  to  particidars,  and 
yet  it  is  an  undertaking  tor  another  fort  of 
[Jen  th.ui  mine  to  write  the  leall  I'art.  Y'e- 
llerday,  as  loon  as  I  ;'.rn\'d  here,  1  look'd 
out  lor  Si'^H'if  T'lirot,  a  Keni.ui,  his  maje- 
fly's  wardrobe-keeiKT,  liiat  by  his  ali;ll- 
anee  I  might  have  the  better  light  of  the 
lodgings,  and  was  by  him  recommended 
to  one  ul  the  king's  jiages  of  the  bAlcham- 
b  T,  who  very  courteoully  llu  w'd  me  all. 
(■'ling  up  the  llairs  in  the  f:cond  court  1 
m.  t  the  duke  ile  Miiiu;  brother  to  the  dau 
j'liin  ( note  be  IS  a  brother]  by  a  foun- 
tain,where  there  is  a  flatue  reprel'enting  the 
king.  He  is  twelve  years  of  .ig:», well  lli.ip'd, 
but  that  he  limps  with  his  left  leg.  Being 
paiVed  the  flately  hall,  which  terminats 
ih.u  part  of  the  iLiir-cale  1  went  up,  in  tlu- 
roval  gallery  I  had  a  fight  of  Mhi.iKV''^-..'- 


Let.  1 6. 


1 6. 

A  Defcripllon  of  Vcrfailles. 

1.   1086. 

of  wliat  he 
nibrni  liiin, 
IS  re.ilon  lie 
r  iinticnt  or 

ill  11.1  Its  of 
vn  tluit  the 
;.  Bi-luks, 
.'b  aiui  lar- 

iioi  lift  CO 
to  the 
Li  thcTctorc 
in.iry  rkli  in 
rt  ol  it 
:ikitig  it  .111- 
1  ill  the  yiMi" 
iiikling  us  it 
t  two\\inj;s, 
;)iis,or  I'qu.irc 
coims  tiom 
iiilUrsot  ilic 
I'lwtcn  them  |  v 
!(.■  kiii[';i.lo!ii, 

built  .ibun- 
iwx.  houlcsiill 
•cts  givf  the 
pile  ot  buikl- 

he  relict  the 
>re  lot'ty,  as 
f.ite  ot  the 
"ies  ot"  the 

ili.'iy  iiiblcJ, 

.died  horfes, 

;s  over  them 
twecii  them 

where  iiorle- 

cul.;rs,  and 
(her  Ibrtot' 
ll  p.irc.  Yc- 
1  look'd 
lis  ni.ije- 
V  liis  ali;ll- 
i^;ht  of  the 
\v\l  me  all. 
ond  court  1 
to  the  dau 
1  by  a  io'.m- 
elentin<.!;  tiu' 

ell  \\\.\\:\\, 

eg.     Beiii:; 
u  up,  in  til,- 


\v.-  b 


Ic  ('jr 

,lc Bourbon,  the  duke's  fifter,  the  mod  bf  ,iu 
tiful  creature  I  have  beheld  thele  iii.iny 
tl.iys.and  then  the  brxvi' M'IiyJIImI ilc  lafeu- 
ilLnL;  the  dauphin's  great  l.ivouritc.  As 
for  the  lodgings,  it  would  be  a  great  pre- 
llimption  ill  me  to  pretend  to  deferibe  their 
curious  and  rich  tuniiture,  nuich  lefs  the 
noble  contrivance,  and  embellilhments  in 
marble,  tret-work,  and  gilding;  tor  if  all 
the  beauty  in  the  worUl  be  not  lure,  where 
Ihall  we  Hnd  it?  The  great  room,  ^yherc 
the  balls  are  kept,  1  mention  it  as  being  a 
thing  lingular,  which  pi  rhaps  you  cannot 
tane'y,  has  galleiT's  round  lor  the  iiiuliek, 
;iik1  the  lioor  is  ofwainl'cot,  as  is  that  ot  the 
audienee-cliamber.  We  could  go  no  far- 
ther than  the  gallery,  the  king  being  with- 
in, and  thei  Hire  having  by  the  way  lien 
the  tribunes  of  the  chapel,  which  is  fmall, 
we  return'd  tlie  fame  w.iy  to  go  to  the  dau- 
phin's apartment,  which  is  on  the  right  fide 
ot  the  palace  ,  we  there  tliund  him  at  din- 
ner,witli  the  dauphinefs,  abundance  of  peo- 
ple being  prefent,  who  came  our.  of  curio- 
lity.  He  is  very  fat,  his  complexion  curious 
white  anil  red,  hiseyesbkie,  his  hair  fair, 
liimfeit  che.uhil,  courteous,  well  brhav'd, 
as  becomes  a  young  prince,  and  much  ad- 
ili:led  to  hunting.  I'lie  il.uiphiiiel's  befides 
her  other  perU'Ctioiis,has  a  womli  lial  white 
skin,  and  fiir  hair,  and,  which  i,  a  great 
r.irity,  black  eyes.  'I'liey  fay  Ihe  loves  her 
plealuiv,  but  who  docs  not?  and  that  llic 
;s  too  talke.tive,  as  if  all  women  were  not 
lo.  Slie  was  let  oli'with  very  llately  and 
precious  jewel;. 

None  mull  go  in  with  a  cloke  where 
tlicfe  princes  dine.  The  cup-be.irer  takes 
the  eliiiy  ot  the  wine,  as  was  uled  among 
the  Romans,  by  the  perlbn  call'd  Pra-giiJ- 
Inlor  Cirfans,  or'a  t.iller ;  and  whilll 
they  Ik  at  table  the  mall.r  of  the  houfliold 
Hands  by  with  a  filver  ll.ili'in  his  hanil ;  the 
great  dillies  are  of  that  metal, but  the  plates 
of  gold. 

'ihen  I  went  to  fee  the  gardens,  attend- 
ed by  one  of  the  king's  tbotmcn.  All  the 
fabulous  llorics  ot  the  antients,  at  the  fight 
of  thefe  become  credible,  and  we  fcarce  be- 
lieve our  own  eyes  amidll  lb  many  wonder- 
ful things  as  fill  lb  great  a  trad  of  land  •,  at 
kail  a  thoufand  men  are  here  daily  at  woik, 
lomecleanling  the  llately  walls  Ibme  roll- 
ing thcgrals-plats,  fome  trimming  the  high 
green  hedges,  tome  watering  the  tragrant 
tlowcrs ,  and  other  tender  plants ;  Ibme 
looking  to  the  aqueiludls,  fome  to  the  wa- 
ter-works,fome  to  the  beautiful  fine  veifels, 
barges  and  galleys  on  the  great  canal ;  and 
Ibme,  in  fine,  feeding  perhaps  an  hundred 
forts  of  birds  and  ilrange  creatures  there 
are  in  the  McU({^a':i\  Going  firll  into  a 
banciueting-houfe  of  twenty- tour  moll  cu- 
rious marble  pill.irs,  I  found  there   two 


(ount.iins  nothing  magnificent ,  and  two  Cimum. 
others  little  better,  on  the  angles  of  a  f|)ot  ""-n/"^ 
fronting  llrudure.  'I'his  fc|uare  ison 
three  fides  cncomp.ifled  by  the  palace,  and 
within  it  I  rcckon'il  lixty-tour  marble  fl.i 
tues,  of  the  beft  I  ever  taw,  being  made  by 
the  ablett  t'ciilptors  of  the  royal  academy, 
vying  with  the  ancients  themlclves.  C3n 
the  twelve  columns  of  the  middle  front  are 
I  he  twelve  months,  with  their  planets  and 
hieroglyphicks  •,  and  the  like  number  on 
the  other  two,  witli  as  many  tlatues,  re- 
prelenting  liveral  tables  of  the  antients. 
There  are  alio  tliree  moll  noble  lountaiiis, 
with  wontlerful  line  marble  and  painted 
lead  figures,  many  pots  to  cont.iin  plants, 
and  oilier  luch  oriiami  nts.  The  wall  about 
is  inginioufiy  cover'il  with  cy[)refs,  and  a 
pl.u.C  the  liniib  call  Zilfc.  'I"he  middle 
w.d'.  leads  firll  to  that  they  call  A[oll'j\ 
to'intain,  bcc.iule  there  is  an  ///o//o  driving 
l.i>  chariot,  drawn  by  four  horfes;  and 
tl..  ;ice  to  the  alorel,.id  canal,  which  is  alto 
adorn'd  with  tlatues  about,  tho'  the  com  ■ 
p.ifs  be  a  l.irge  mile. 

Uefore  the  right  wing  of  the  palace  is  a 
fiiiall  fiower-garden  lull  of  marble  and  brats 
ll.Uues,  and  moll  curious  llower-]iots.  In 
;;  ll  the  three  fount. lins  there  are  T r'tions  and 
.'>'v;;v;.t  nobly  c.irv'd.  The  middlemotl  leatis 
t;)  a  tort  ot  Ciiji\h!i\  or  f.ill  of  water  ; 
beyond  that  the  dragon's  tount.iiii,  will 
a.lorn'd  with  flatues;  and  laltly,  a  Im.ill 

On  the  k'fc-haiul  is  a  banqueting-houfe 
v.ith  marble  banilKrs  aiitl  tlatues,  with 
two  Ipaciou'.'es  leading  to  certain 
v.iults,  pro\ided  to  prcterve  the  orange, 
lemon,  and  tlich  like  trees  in  winter  ;  alli) 
a  llatue  of  the  king's  on  horleback,  made 
by  our  Cnvalier  Birnini ;  a  level  to 
play  at  mall,  and  another  fmall  pool,  with 
two  little  boats  in  it.  I  have  no  more  to 
lay  ot  the  rcll,  fiir  they  are  now  levelling 
the  gro'.nid,  and  filling  up  the  cavities,  and 
erecting  an  amphitlieatre  ot  fixty-four  co- 
lour'd  marble  colums, which  will  be  tquare, 
or  of  the  .'////V/;  order  without,  and  round 
within,  to  that  in  a  fliort  time  this  will  be 
as  line,  or  rather  finer,  than  the  right  fide 
already  mcntiuncil. 

'I'he  footman  next  open'il  an  iron  gate, 
which  fiiuts  up  the  grove, and  leil  n  .■  to  the 
fountains  of  the  labyrinth,  or. Kji'i's  tables, 
being  tbrty-eight,  with  all  the  creature; 
mention'd  in  them,  and  thence  to  another, 
call'd  the  battel  of  the  birds,  confitling  of 
a  parcel  of  leaden  birds,  Ipouting  water  at 
one  another  from  the  tops  of  certain  trees 
planted  by  two  fount  liiis.  At  a  finall  di  • 
fiance  from  tlicP'-;  lie  fhew'd  me  the  ban- 
queting-houfe, being  a  place  built  in  the 
nature  of  a  theatre,  with  marble  ileps 
about  ir,cover'd  with  the  aforel;iidZ(//;,and 


•t   . 

ii^'^r  t 




Y  ■ah   !»" 


yl  Defer qnion  of  Vcrfaillcs. 

Let.  1 6. 

r.fMi  I.I.I,  at  ronviiiicnr  ilill.iiiccs,  moll  curious  works 
**''V"^  ill  fni.ill  [!,rc(.n  inyrtl'',  little  fount;ii  r.,  ;uul 
HowiT-pots  iKWuiroiiii  ly  wrought,  i  in- 
ill.uiil  ot  love  is  tint  mighty  louiitaiu  fiMtcil 
between  two  i'm.ill  pools,  hoih  of  tluiu 
li't  about  with  iiiic  11  itui's,  ami  liflii^'Jitlul 
tjunits  o(  w.iter.  In  ihc  ti.i  ol  the  o.ik  ll.iiuls 
;ui  oak  m.uii' ol  tin,  with,  Kavcs  well 
I'aint'd,  whieli  Ipout  wate- every  w.iy,  as 
ill)  tiie  little  pipes  toneealM  ainony  the 
pral'son  the  grturntl.  /^.''»//o',s  bath  is  alio 
moll  luriniling  to  behoKt,  tor  within  an  in- 
( loliire  ol  ^iit  iron  b, millers  is  another  of 
marble,  and  in  the  miilllot  that  the  loun- 
t.iin,  wiiii  exejiiilite  llatiies,  repri  lentin'',  lix 
nym|>hs,  and  .-/ivj,  G'.;A//(.(''.  lover  i  by  it 
arc  two  lit;!  ■  rooms  to  take  the  trelh  air, 
all  linM  wiili  curious  marble,  and  very 
odd  dcvitr-s  anil  iT'otto's  on  '  'I'herc  is 
another  thinp  very  remarkable  ,  being  a 
tiratre  m.\d.'  ct  mvrile  aceorili'i;^  to  all  the 
rules  of  ait,  wliere  the  front  ol  \...  da<.;e  is 
beautily'd  with  Hulls  of  fillies,  and  the 
water  p'.iils  ple.ilantly  trom  the  tops  of 
certain  low  fir  ami  cyprcfs  trees. 

But  certainly  I  know  not  what  I  am 
a'-iout  to  pretend  to  {peak  of  all  the  foun- 
tains in  lu'h  a  vail  ;!,arden,  and  therefore 
it  will  be  better  to  <j,ivc  you  the  ,iamesof 
the  moll  remarkable,  and  tii'.n  pioeitd. 
'i'hey  .'.re, 

J.ii  (Irnlh'. 

J.f  Hiilhii  tie  la  Cf>i!ioiiiu\ 
J.c  11'/': II  ilc  Li  Siren,: 
l.a  ibi:i.iinc  ik  la  P\yainlh\ 
J.n  N(i/'fi\ 

1.' .Ire  (!(•  -Tiiomphc. 
l.a  loiiliiiiii-  (hi  Dia^^oii. 
I..I  i'oiil.iim  (ill  Pavilt'.ii. 
l.'AIUf  dii  BcrtiMu  li'Iiaii. 
Lt  Bnjhii  ik  Hon: 
La  Salle  ths  l-eiliiis. 
Lc  lUjiin  il\4i'olicn. 
I.C  ljlt\  ci<  Li  grand  Piece. 
Le  Bajnn  tie  S.iuirni: 
Le  Bol'quet. 
I.C  BaJ/i)i  (le  Bacchus. 
La  Fontaine  de  la  Kcnommrc. 
Le  BaJ/in  de  l.aloiu: 
Le'Lrvilhe,  i^ 
Lc  Parterre  d'Kau. 
In  my  reuirn  I  obferv'd  the  famous  fi;alle- 
ry  ot  the  llatiies,  among  which  there  are 
near  forty  truly  antiques, and  the  fincll  that 
ever  were  teen. 
r?fMin-      This  morninp;   betimes,    joining    with 
C  '"■<■'■        other  llrangers,   1  went  to  fee  another  plca- 
Ibrc  houfc  ot  the  kiiif^'s,  call'd  Li  A/ena- 
gcric,    about    two   miles   from   I  erjailles ; 
goiny;all  x.]v  way  with  extraordinary  fatis- 
fadlion  umler  the  fliade  of  green  trees,  re- 
gularly difpos'd,  on  which  lat  very  tame- 
ly, a  wonderful  number  of  pheafants,  par- 

triilges,  plovers,  and  oilier  birds  lit  for 
the  tables  of  the  greatcll  princes.  'I  lie 
llrut'turc  is  redly  beaciiful,  and  ailorn'd 
with  all  that  is  proper  for  royal  apartments-, 
but  Urangers  go  thither  only  to  lee  the 
great  v.iriety  of  irc.iiures  feverally  lhutu|>. 
il'ie  are  white  Hags,  anil  fallow  deer, 
bl.ick  foxes  from  Riijjia,  p.inihers,  porcu- 
pines, wild  goats,  by  the  hroich  call'd 
Chamois ;  and  among  the  flrangcll  birds, 
not  to  fpeak  of  the  leveral  forts  of  geefi:, 
(wans,  ducks,  hens,  pigeons,  and  cranes, 
wonderfully  lieautilul,  tlure  are  fivegry- 
J'lions,  that  is,  vultures,  relembling  the 
c.igle  1  one  cill'd  a  I'.ajucl'.c,  ot  a  ihiliuit 
colour, with  lome  black,  .uul  its  f.athers  arc 
like  hair,  and  a  long  bone  upon  the  head  j 
leven  birds  ashigas  (heep  i  live  whereof 
have  black  wings,  tipp'd  with  white,  as 
are  their  t.iils  ;  the  other  two  of  an  afli- 
coliiiiri  but  they  are  all  ot  the  fimc  Ihape, 
h.niiig  very  long  necks,  and  they  feed  on 
grifs.  Other  birds  arc  as  big  ,is  a  ir.ine, 
with  a  long  beak,  and  a  pouch  under  the 
tliroat,  tor  which  realbn,  in  tome  parts  ot 
Jlaly,  tlicy  .ire  call'd  Co/am,  fom  ■  of  them 
white,  others  afh-colour'd.  I  fiw  two 
cre.itures  of  thisfimc  colour  t.imely  graz- 
in;',  by  the  pond,  whole  legs  and  necks  were 
i  long,  ami  on  their  heads 
ihey  had  curious  lulls  ot   te.ithers. 

Proceeding  thence  along  the  c.mal,  which 
bring  ol  running  water  never  has  any  ill 
lienr,  and  I  aving  teen  a  tine  fliip  on  it, 
we  cum-,  in  let's  th.m  an  hour,  to  the  other 
plealure-huiili',  c.dl'd  the  'T'r:aiiiion,  which 
i:  .ill  p.iinted  without,  as  it  it  wire  made 
(it  line  China  ware.   It  is  divided  as  it  were 
into  three  little  palaces,    the  middlemoll 
whereof  is   the   biggctl,    and   the    king's 
dwelling.     L'lofe  by  it  are  two  large  bird- 
cigcs  ;  that  on  the  right  leads  to  a  Hower- 
garilen,  in   which  are  tour  fpacious  foun- 
tains ;  next  i'.  a  lower  garden,  near  which 
are  the  dwellings  of  the  gardeners  ;  ami 
lallly  another  little  palace.     O.i  the  left, 
an  caly  tlair-cafe,  leads  up  to  two  other 
flower-gardens,  parted  only  by  a  beauteous 
and  delightful  hall,  whence  two  other  fpa- 
cious   Hair-cafes   lead  tlown   to  the  lake, 
adorn'd  in  like  manner  with  water- works, 
and  brats  vefllls  ;  .ini!  all  this  fpacc  is  fliut 
up  with  gilt  iron  b.inillers.     The  llair-calc 
that  fronts  the    king's    apartment,    goes 
down  into  another  fine  flower-garden,    in 
the  midll  whereof,  not  to  fpeak  of  the  ar- 
tificial fetting  of  the  plants,  is  a  fountain, 
nothing  contemptible.      On  the  right  of 
the  gre.itcft  walk,  are  two  rows  of  Heps, 
colour'd  like  China  ware,  in  the  nature  of 
theatres,  with  very  fine  gilt  vetVels,  pour- 
ing out  water,  and  at  the  end  four  other 
little  houfes,    painted  without,    after  the 
fame  manner,    with  alJ  their  ornaments. 


Let.  1 6. 

In  fine, 
tour  toiin 
already  m 
Im.ill  bo.i 
I  lavin) 
the  monii 
next  tlu'g 
nifuent  ai 
loling    ai 
gu.ird  ih.i 
tier  walhii 
the  tame 
but,  after 
boys  clad 
I  lad  in  till 
tiet  •,  and  i 
did  not  ap 
maj'.lly  w 
Maine  am 
under  the  wo 
fu-k?    1 


1 6. 

Let.   1 6.  A  ^Defcriinion  of  Verfailles. 















c  ar- 



111  line,  loming  out  ot'  tin-  yrovc,  I  I'lw 
lour  loiiiu.iins  notliiii|^  interior  to  tliolc 
alrL-aiiy  nuMUii)nM,  ami  in  one  of  them  ;i 
iinall  boat,  hanitlonx' cnou^ii. 

1  laving  kxn  all  this,  I  rt-turnM  by  ten  in 
ilic  morning,  to  the  royal  palace,  whicii, 
luxt  the  garilcns,  is  certainly  a  moll  mag- 
iiilkentand  regular  llruc'ture  •,  and  without 
luling  any  tune,  went  into  niailanic's 
guiril  I  lumber  to  lee  the  preparations  tor 
iier  walhing  the  Icet  ot  ti»e  poor,  anil  en- 
tertaining them.  i  know  not  whether 
the  lame  be  ilone  every  Miiiindy  Thurjiliiy; 
but,  alter  long  waiting,  I  law  twelve  |ioor 
boys  rtail  in  reil,  ami  the  ilau|ihin  being 
(lad  in  the  lame  manner,  walhM  all  their 
Icet  1  and  tlu'n  alter  (lining,  wiiere  tiiey  hail 
thirteen  dillies  each,  he  g^ve  tiiem  fix 
pilloles  apiece.  'I'hc  oth.r  cenmonies, 
perlorm'd  thi:^  day  in  the  royal  ehajiei, 
did  not  appear  to  me  extraordinary.  His 
niaj'  lly  was  in  his  tribune  ;  t.'ic  duke  ile 
Maiiii-  and  Ibme  l.idies  in  anotiier;  and 
under  them  the  gentlemen  ol  the  court.  would  you  have  me  lay  ot  thcmu- 
fick  ?  I  he  voices  were  none  ot  the  bell  in 
the  world,  and  thj  compoliiion,  not  only 
ilirterent  from  the  Italuiu,  but  lb  void  of 
art  and  of  invention,  as  alio  of  rliole  flights 
and  connexions  proper  to  the  words  of  this 
(lay,  thu  our  learned  .uid  judicious  Jommtijh 
('.(irajHlla,  would  have  laugh'd  heartily  at 
ic.  'I'he  body  of  our  Saviour  was  laiil  in 
.1  moll  curious  gilt  fepulchre,  in  the  cha- 
pel by  the  pulpit,  the  .S'a;/j  guards,  wit' 
mulkets  on  their  Ihoulders,  keeping  th: 
door,  the  halbardiers  Handing  without. 
As  I  went  to  dinner,  one  thouiantl  men 
mounted  the  guard,  being  part  .S'wvy}  clad 
in  red,  and  part  Fiemb  in  blue ;  thefe 
hnlging  their  arms  on  the  right,  the  others 
on  the  left  of  the  court. 

About  three  in  the  afternoon,  going  to 
walk  in  thcgardcn,  I  faw  the  king  come 
in,  attended  by  a  few  of  his  courtiers,  and 
marefchal  Dunis,  captain  of  his  Gardes  de 
Corps,  who,  in  token  of  his  poll,  is  always 
allowed  to  wear  a  cap  edged  with  furs. 
Whilll  his  majefty  walkM  along,  fome- 
times  looking  at  the  work  of  the  Orangerie, 
fometimes  at  the  fountains  before  the  pa- 
lace, and  complimenting  the  dauphinefs, 
who  was  in  one  of  the  galleries,  I  had  all 
the  leifure  I  could  with,  to  obferve  his 
perfon.  Me  is  tall  and  llrongly  made ; 
his  eyes  brisk  and  fparkling  ;  his  nofe  like 
a  hawk  -,  and  tho'  his  face  be  mirk'd  with 
the  fmall  pox,  it  is  neverthelefs  amiable, 
and  majeflically  terrible.  Ic  may  be  faid, 
that  every  prince's  face  appears  fuch  to 

thofe  who  arc  prepolTcfs'd  with  a  ftrong  CJiMtn-"- 
idea  of  his  power-,  but  tliould  tiiey  fee  it,  ^"OT*^ 
without  knowing  him,  it  would  a[)pear  like 
the  countenances  of  other  men  •,  t  /en  as 
on  the  contrary  fome  |K:rfons,  who  being 
in  a  low  condition,  appear  meek  and  hum- 
ble i  when  afterwards  rais'd  to  high  polls, 
tiio'  they  do  not  at  all  grow  haughty,  yet 
they  incline  fuch  as  look  on  them  lorelpect ; 
and  lb  the  fouls  of  the  departed  appearing 
in  a  dream,  fecm  more  llately  and  great 
to  fome  weak  minds,  that  are  afraid  of  the 
dead.     But  1  anfwer,  that  tho'  this  be  true 
for  the  moll  part,  yet  there  are  fome  greater 
minds,  which  are  never  abafli'd,  or  lofe 
any  thing  of  their  tleadintfs  in  the  pretence 
of  the  mighiicll  men  \  and  on  the  other 
hand,   we  fee  fome  men,  who,  tho'  call 
down  by  adverfe  fortune,  and  reduc'd  to 
a  low  condition.  Hill  retain  fuch  an  afpedt 
as  is  not  to  be  defcribed,  and  almoll  obliges 
moll  people  to  rcfpedt  and  value  them ; 
and  thence  it  is  faid,  that  they  have  a  fu- 
perior  genius.      I  have  no  leifure  to  dif- 
courfc  c(jncerning  the  attending  Ccnit,  and 
the  like  cuiinions  ot  the  Slo'uks  and   Pla- 
lon'uks  \  but  tell  you  in  Ihort,   that  fuch 
rnajetly  derives  it,  original  from  a  certain 
harmony  of  tiie  parts  confilling,  to  fpeak 
pythagorically,    of  lets  adlive  numbers  -. 
tor  the  (juick  incline  to  mirth,    and  the 
rapid  to  anger ;  or  elfe  from  a  certain  com- 
polition  ot  thofe  parts,  like  that  which  ufes 
to  appear  in  the  countenance  ot  a  perfon  in 
authority,  when  he  punifhes,  or  rewards  i 
orof  the  mailer  of  a  family,  who  advifes, 
and  lovingly  rebukes  ■,  which  raifes  in  ui 
a  fort  of  refpedl,  that  borders  upon  fear. 
Now,  as  I  was  faying,  this  charaifler  is  lb 
imprinted  on  the  countenance  of   Lewis 
XIV.  that  tho'  a  mortal,  he  would  by  the 
ancients  have  been  reputed  a  god.    I  Ic  is  of 
a  martial  inclination,    as  Europe  has  found 
to  its  forrow ;  addifted,  as  much  as  is  conve- 
nient, to  hunting,  without  ncgleciling  the 
great  alTairs  of  the  government:  a  lover 
of  juftice,  generoufly  rewarding  the  good, 
an(i  fevcrely  punilhing  the  wicked  ;  and  ac 
the  fame  time  a  (harp  difcoverer  of  the 
fecrets  of  other  princes,  and  concealer  of 
his  own      I  liiynothingof  his  amours,  for 
he  is  flv    1  and  blood  as  well  as  others  •,  and 
could  a  king's  faults  be  as  well  conceal'd  as 
thofe  of  private  perfons,  I  am  fatisfy'd  he 
would  be  reckoned  as  modefl  in  that  refpe(il 
as  any  other  man  in  his  kingdom.     I  have 
nothing  more  at  prefent  to  acquaint  you 
with,  and,  not  being  fond  of  modern  com- 
pliments, remain,  fr. 

Vol.  VI. 





A  Dejcription  of  Vcrfaillcs, 

I.  i;  r  T  K  R   XMi. 

'F.T.    17. 


CoiiclitiUi  the  DiJiri/>/ii/n  of  Vcil'uillt.s,  </'/</  fioneJi  to  ll.iit  of  ist.  furiuain, 

lh(  L 

uuvrc.  tind  the  'I'liillcriis. 

'^l:  ''"i* 


If''  '''llli 

hf  mi 

HI',  h  curious  Iv;kI  ritcil  ol  nun l> 
lutiiru'ci    tor  my  ji.iri,  I   li.ivf  .is 
niiuli.i-,  liTVi.i)iiii->l)lcrvc  things, 
luit  I  know  not  wlii'tlicr  yours  will  lioiii  to 
ri-.ul  my  trcqucnt  .uul  r.uiiblitij;  li  ttiri.     I 
writ  to  \oul()ur  il.iy>  riiiic,  liom  Ifrjuilla, 
.ifuilii  iiij;  tluii  in  .\  l()rt  ol  r  i|Huri'  with  .iii- 
mir.itii)ii,  uiu'ticci  loiiiiLJiing 
t.ikin;!;  iu-i..ij  ot  i  whicii  is,  tliiie  ;ire 
not  only  loiininj^s  in  the  l.iIUc  tor  all  the 
court,  .ukI  otficirs  ot  tlir  crown,  Inil  even 
ti>r  .ill  the  ^;rc,it  nun  th.u  ntint  thithiT. 
H^iiik-s  molt  ot  till'  b.mlcimnis,'ics, 
anil  other  orn.umnts,  whitli  ti  i  min.ue  the 
rtriKtine,  areyilt,  .I'l.ire  the  iron  b.inillcis 
ahoiit  the  courts.      Now  I  will  .idil  I 
l.iw  on  /'v././v,  lieing  the   m.iehine  which 
tarries  the  w.itt-r  Irom  the  river  ^ v. ",  three 
lea'i;ues  ilill.uit,   to  the  i  lille,     Jt  were  re  ■ 
(juilite  to  leni.1  you  a  ilrauyht  ol  it,  bec.ui!i: 
lueh  thinii,s  cannot  well  be  e\[)lainM    in 
worils;  but  I  know  not  how  to  h.ive  it  .it 
preleni,    and  theretbre  ileliie  you  will  be 
iatistyM  with  btinj^  inlorniM,  th.u  the  very 
r.ipiil  llreain  of  the  river  chives  tourteen 
t!,  woo-.lin  wluels,  which  move  thnl' 
cn}!;inc.s  draw  u|i  the  water,    in    th  ■ 
n.iture  ot"  a  pum').      I'hence  by  means  ol 
another  machine  a!j,itating  th;  water,    it 
rites  a  conliderable  liuce  ayain,  to  the  top 
ot  tiie   hill,   to  the  lirll  pond,  where  are 
two  little  hollies,  and  here  m.uiy  men,   by 
the  help  of  certain  wheels    move  twelve 
iron  engines,  which  let  the  aton  liiid  ma- 
chincat  work;  which  i^  wonderful  to  be- 
hold, [\k  of  thole  inline' mo\in^lorwards, 
and  ti:c  backwards,   in  the ure  ol   laws. 
A  little  higher  (lands  another  houle,    tu 
which  tiiC  water  is  drawn  in  the  l.ime  man- 
ner from  the  other  two.     'I  heme  it  runs 
out  through  thirteen  letter  |iipes  into  level) 
;.';rcater,     which    empty   themfelvcs    into 
a    kadtn    bati)n,    iup[)oited   by    mij^hty 
beams,  on  the  top  ot  a  lofty  tlron;^;  houte, 
about  a  inulk.  t  thot  from  the  former,  and 
rall'd   L  j^o's  tower.      b'tom  this  it  tails 
down  with  a  mij^hiy   noife  throujrh  rrne 
pipes,  conveying  it  into  three  lar^e  chan- 
nels,   which   end    in  another  vail  pooh 
whence  ag.iin  it  patVts  into  a  curious  Hone 
.u)ii"durt  to.ui'ither  furh  pond,   twomiks 
diltant  i  .ind  thus  procivils  to  disburden  it- 
felf  into  tlie  live  lakes,  on  the  lev^ll'd  hill, 
oi'pofirc  to  I'erf.iiil.s.     I'rom  the  hill,  the 
Ns.iter  runs  into  nine  lubttrrancous  pafTigei:, 

Pam,  /Ifiil  I  J.   1686. 

aiitllifinj'.conif  to  the  Miii/in  <lis  F.iiiix,  or 
water-liDide,  on  whiili  is.illoa  large  leaden 
(itlerii  liip[iorteil  by  beams,  it  tails  into 
two  poiuis,  on  the  right  ot  the  cattle, 
whence  it  is  atterwards  divided  into  that 
iinmenle  variety  ot  louiuains.  One  P<iiil 
fiiiikiii,  a  l.iij^dii,  is  t.iid  to  li.ive  Ixeii  the 
inventor  of  all  this  work,  and  that  it  has 
coll  the  king  torty  millions  ot  livres. 

At  .1  liiiall  dillance  from  this  hill  is  ni!„ 
the  ilog-kennel,  where  levcral  forts  ot /''«•'«' 
dogs  are  fed,  tor  game  v  as  alio  the  palate 
ot  the  prince  </(  la  Roihf  jur  2bn  -,  the 
prince  ot  Coiiii's,  and  a  ll.ible  (or  the  king's 
hiirtef,  with  .ibiiud.mce  o(  lodgings  over 
it',  iH'tween  which  and  the  tt.ibles,  I  told 
you  of  ill  my  l.ill,  i',  the  fpot  ot  ground 
on  which  the  dauphin  lalt  year  had  the 
great  revelling ;  and  it  is  laid,  the  fame 
will  be  pertorm'd  by  a  comp.iny  ot  ladies  -, 
but  here  the  gentry  d.iily  ule  (everal  (brti 
o(  exeri  ill'. 

.\ttir  dinner  I  went  to  the  king's  cha- 
pel, to  hear  the  divine  o/lice,  which 
lung  ill  iiuifiek,  much  better  I  ex- 
petted,  lonfidering  the  judgment  I  inadi; 
in  the  morning  ot  the  mailer  ot  the  niulick. 
the  dauphin,  ami  d.iuphiiK  Is  weie  in  a  tri- 
bune, hung  with  CI  iiiiloii  dam.isk.  I'lut 
evening  hi-,  maiclly  w.ilk'd  in  thegaiilcn, 
and  ilun  I  obferv'd  the  ollicers,  to 
dillingiiilli  themlllves  troiii  the  Ibldiers,  j'.ik  corfelets. 

Un  //i/i'y  '■  '/'ir.Ln,  about  ten  in  the 
iiKJi'iiing,  I  faw  tlie^'i;'/ /..  and  Criihin 
guard-,  drawn  up  in  the  inner  com  t,  liand- 
(bmely  cl.ul  in  red  and  blue,  with 
velvet  c . 1 1.. and  gorgets,  and  white  te.ithers, 
alter  their  t.itliion  1  then  in  the  lecond 
court  (ix  companies  of  I-'rcihL\  and  two  of 
Siaiji,  with  otlur  troops  orderly  extending 
to  the  parilh  church  1  and  lalUy,  the  king 
came  Irom  his  apartment,  in  a  black  coac 
tlower'd  with  gold,  .md  went  in  a  chair  ol 
crimlon  velvet,  c  iiibroider'd  with  gold,  to 
his  chapel,  but  the  capt.iin  of  the  guard 
went  in  a  black  mourning  chair.  1  laving 
heard  mats  d  voutly,  he  received  the  blel- 
led  facramcnt,  and  then  alter  he.iring  ano- 
ther, pray'da  cjuarterof  an  hour.  In  the 
mean  while  came  fome  i)oor  Clares,  and  .' ■  ■ 
other  maids  to  b^  g  m\  aim-,  and  lieg,i\'e''" 
them  tour  pidok's.  Tiiis  done,  he  can  e 
into  the  .itorefaid  fecond  court,  whereabout 
(ixteen  hundred  jierfons  troubled  with  the 



7,>    I.o;:- 

■,      r     ^    IM.  t'. 

^F.T.    17.     I      j,[.T.     17. 

the  Louvre,  Tuillerics,  &c. 



*'       iCl- 


kiiif/vcvil  made  .1  Line,  to  Ik  luMled  l>y 
Iiiin,  .iitoi>liii(^  ii)  .mcicru  cuUoiii.  lli; 
tluncoii  liM  llicm,  Diic.ituT.inotlur,  (ign- 
^M^  iliim  witli  thciiwrkol  our  lilv.itioii, 
aiul  I  lyinc,  ^Fbekim  inmbn.,  (j' ihci: \ 
■tier  wl,i>li  llu;  biiliop  ot  iit.Om.r,  who 
IbllowM,  B.vvc  every  (iin-  halt  ;i  trown,  if 
he  wtip  .»  (Iriinyir,  ami  a  (ittrcnpdiny- 
j'ifcc  it. I  Di'Miniuiti,  I'o  li)nii-,  who  I'lr- 
li.ip;  only  iMW  tor  rlic  lakf  ol  tlie  nioniy, 
tlk' king  rmilin;;  liiiJ,  .Irf yoii  juk  luo'f  I 
i.iiiiiDt  iill  wlutliiT  tiny  wiiv  (irt.iinly 
IkmIM,  or  lu)W  viitiii'  lunns  to  be 
intailM  on  tlie  crown  ol  l'/\i>iu\  but  rc- 
men.lier  1  li.ivc  rcul,  tli.u  tlii'>  is  praiitisM 
ever  lime  the  il.iy.  of  St.  J.ruii.  H  this 
be  true,  there  ^^lll  li''  no  o  lalmn  to  look 
oit  it  •i'.  ii  t.ibulii  !•  llory,  wliiili  iluy  tell 
11;,  ol  tliole  who  .'.re  ol  tlu'  ot  St. 
/'.//</,  Iriving  .1  virtue  a^aiull  the  hites  ol' 
\eminiuus  treatLircs.      Diiv.  de  I  Eiiroff. 

I'his  act  ot  charity  being  perlorniM, 
tl"-  king  retiiM  to  his  ap.irtment,  anil  I 
hailed  .iway  to  Jinner  ;  .liter  wliieh  I  went 
with  lome  f^entK  mkii  lirangirs  to  St.  GV;- 
tf:.i:ii  1 1!  I.iiw.  1  lis  is  a  e.illle  li-.ittil  on  a 
biautilul  ami  lull,  on  the  ri^lit 
li.iml  ol  till'  .'■;)';.,  loniKily  the  reruK'nce 
of  kin^s  ti)r  ni.iny  years,  as  now  riT/.uZ/a 
is.  In  this  j)l.Ke,  .June  of  Eny^land,  wife 
to  \im\^CiiiiUi  VIII.  of  l-'raitu,  in  the  year 
i.|i/^,  j;ave  St.  i'ruihii  ot  l\iiilu,  then 
coinioutot  /../'.,  .1  niolUiirioLisfarrn,  to 
foiiiul  ilicre  .1  iiii'M  I'.kry  ol  liisorikr,  which 
is  llill  inellim.ibly  ailutn'il,  el|'eti,illy  with 
p.iiiuiny,  anil  yet  it  every  where  inl'imes 
piety  ami  devotion. 

From  St.  (.Itrmain  I  went  to  fee  the  pa- 
laee  eall'd,  built  in  the  forell  ot 
Bologiu;  by  king  i'raiuis  I.  alitr  the  model 
of  that  where  he  w.u  kipt  pi  ifoncr  in  .S'/',««, 
'1  he  other  honli.' e.ill'il  St.  Dims  Ji'  Camp, 
i<  .dli)  hiMuiilid,  but  not  turnilh'd  as  it 
fliould  be,  .md  only  the  j;.irden  is  well 
kept,  and  worth  fteing.  It  takes  name 
from  a  very  antient  abbey,  where,  in  the 
year  12O0,  IJizahith  filler  to  St.  Lewis, 
plai'd  fome  //../.'( ifcan  nuns. 

YclUrday  morning  larly  I  mounted  at 
St.  Genn.nn,  iml  having  heanl  mafs  at  the 
vill.igeof  Rnt:'(\  returm\i  to  /  ('i/.nlles  be- 
fore noon,  where  having  din'd,  I  eami' 
thele  lour  leagues  by  coaeh,  in  a  fhort 
time.  At  my  i.ntranee  into  Paris  I  law 
twelve  lerv.mts,  li.x  of  them  carrying  the 
like  number  ot  gri-at  wa.\  torches,  ami  the 
other  lo.ives  a  prefmt  trom  the 
king  to  the  p,u ilhioner  of  St.  Gtimaiu  -, 
moiifuur  the  duke  of  OiUiuts  lending  as 
much  to  the  parilli  of  St.  Eiijltuhius. 
lit  I.ou-  In  the  evening  I  walk'd  to  take  a  better 
■■"/'';'•'■  view  of  the  i)al.iee,  eall'd  le  Chateau 

Mih  i.!. 


Ju  L'j 


lird  founded  liy  I'hthp  /Insulin <,  .ibout  < 
tlie  yiar  ot  our  Lord  1^.14,    who  in  tli'- 
nudltot  ii  built  allroiii.';  lower,  wlure  ho 
.itterwards  iinpril<)n'd  ier.luiaud,    earl  ot 
I l.iiiJiii,  who  lud  ribellM,  and  was  by 
him  overthrown  .it  the  I.uhouh  battle  of 
Iktivines,  togetJr.T  with  tlie  emperor  Otbo, 
.md  the  king  ot  l-.tij^Liml.     'I'he  propc  r  ulb 
oj  that  tower  was  t()rmerly  to  ki  ip  the 
king's  treafure,  and  to  receive  the  liiiji«di 
homage,   bung  .111  i  inblem  ol  authority  v 
.md  lor  this  realoii,  all  gn  it  men,  who  held 
lorillhips  which  lud  loVi n  igiiiy  ovcroihi  rs, 
built  .1  very  l.irgc  tower  in  iluir  c.iIlK  s,  .\\\A 
on  that  another  ImalK  r,  which  was  cill'd 
the  DjUjuh       I  hat  1  now  Ipeak  ot  was 
pull'd  down  b\  king  l'rn;,i)  I.  Iiec.iufe  it 
darkned  ,ind  hindrcd  tin    pi()l|)iit  ol  the 
billapartduiits,  and  yit  had  been  lulier'd 
tollaiid  by  many  ot  his  iircJecefliirs  1  par- 
ticularly Cbailes  V.  who,  in  1  ^''4,  mueli 
impro\  M  the  caiUe  ■,   wlun  enlarging  tlu? 
city    v.'.dls,    he  inelo.M   it  within  ihem. 
/'/■.(»(  n,  ;'.forefaid,  before  Iiis  ilcith,  which 
liappcn'd  in  i ',47,  to  biiiki  iIk  hill 
lor  tlie  hundreii  Si^iji,    ,ind  the  p.ivilion 
lacing  the  Ibutli,  oppolite  to  the  gate,   ilis 
liMi  /,v;.-;vll.  linilli'd  tliei'i  borh,  adding  the 
two  apirtmciKs  joii  ing  to  the  afore  liid  p.i- 
vilion i  the  or;iaments.'.reot  the  Coiiuibum 
order  in  that  part  which  fronts  the  lame 
court,  where  isotten  I'een  his  device,  being 
a  crefcent,    with  the  motto,    Doiii\-  toumi 
imflrn  oiirm,  'Ii!l  /h,  k  [till ;  and  lallly, 
ill  ill':  l.ime  hall,  a  gaiKiy  fujijiorted  by 
lour  Cirii'liiles,  the  ruts  whercot  :ire  to  l)e 
teen  in  Mr.  Perranit's  tranllation  of  / 
•vuis.     Architects  give  the  name  ot  Cati- 
iiliiles  to  certain  tiguresof  women,  ferving  of  cohiir.:is  ;  and  this,  becaufe  the 
Cirecki   having  ilelVroy'd   the   province  of 
Ciiiia,  which  had  tided  with  the  Pcijians, 
and  carry'd  aw.iy    the   women    captiver, 
alicr  putting  all  the  men  to  the  fwonl  1  tiic 
architecis  in    thole  d.iys,    to  it-rni/e  the 
iiKinory  of  ihat  action,   plac'd  the  effigies 
ol  tholi  women  in  the  publick  ItruiTtures, 
with  the  bands  they  were  led  captive  in, 
to  tupport  weights,    in  the  nature  ot  co- 
lumns.    Henry  IV.  built  the  Itately  gal- 
lery, we  fee  next  the   river  from  call  to 
well,  running  to  one  ol   the   pavilions  of 
the  palace  ol  the  "Imlleries.     Leu-is  Xlll. 
tinilh'd  the  well  front,  and  rais'd  that  great 
pavilion  over  the  ancient  gate,  whole  fe- 
cond  lloor  is  llipportcd  by  eight  Cariatides. 
I'he  arc.i  ot  this  gate  is  fullain'd  by  two 
rows  of  large  columns  of  rhe  lomck  order, 
eachot  one  intire  piece,  and  llanding  two 
and  two  together.     The  prefent  king  has 
built  moil  flatcly  apartments  on  three  lidei 
of  the  fpacious  fc]uare  court,    with  thre^; 
ranks  of  columns   of   the  Corintbiivi  ami 
pnlite  orders;   and  has  beautifv'd  xV<i 



tnd  thacofthe'7;f;//tv/'«.     The     Comfojile  orders;   and  has  beautify'd  tin 



A  Defer Iption  of  the  Tuilleries.         Let.  17.     %  Lhi.  i 

GtMFixi.  call  front,  where  the  great  gate  is,  with 
forty  columns  of  the  Corinthian  order,  de- 
tach'd  from  tiie  folid  wall,  and  maiving  a 
noble  appearance.  This  portico  is  very 
wonderful,  on  account  of  its  being  cover'd 
with  only  two  ftones,  each  of  them  fifty 
foot  long,  and  the  walk  over  the  apart- 
ment over  it  is  remarkable,  for  affording  a 
view  of  all  Paris.  Within  this  place  is 
held,  once  a  week,  the  aflembly  of  the 
members  of  tlie  royal  French  academy,  fo 
call'd  from  tlieir  application  to  polilhand 
improve  their  language,  according  to  the 
king's  direftions.  Among  other  com- 
mendable cultoms  oblcrv'd  here,  one  is, 
that  every  two  years,  on  St.  Lewi'' ^ dixy, 
two  gold  niidals  are  given,  one  to  him 
that  gains  die  preference  in  eloquence,  and 
the  other  to  the  perfon  excelling  in  poetry ; 
wiiich  as  Tacitus,  yhinal.  14.  jbfevves,  is 
a  gieat  encouragement  to  virtue,  which  of 
itieif  effedts  renown.  Oratoritm  &  vatiim 
licloridi  incitamenttim  ingcniis  allaturas ; 
The  z-ictcrics  of  orators  and  poets,  ichich  ivill 
prove  incentives  to  icils  ;  and  the  Greeks  are 
Jiighly  to  be  commended  for  wifdom,  who 
iirll  inilituted  this  cullom.  They  us'd  to 
L'.ive  the  potts  an  ox,  w!\o  made  tiie  bell 
vcrfes  at  the  Delpbick  games,  or  ilfe  a 
tripos,  witii  an  infcription  in  tlieir  com- 
mendation ;  tho'  the  Spartans,  as  more 
rigid  and  fparing,  gave  them  no  other 
reward  than  a  fingle  cake  made  of  flower 
and  honey  ;  or,  according  to  Hrjlcbiiis,  of 
lit  and  honey,  which  he  calls  Syr  men. 
They  alio  added  a  garland  •,  for  Sueloniits 
tells  us,  that  Aero  fang  his  tragetly  of  Niobe 
for  ten  hours,  without  intermidlon,  and 
tiiat  Coronam  earn,  &  reliqiiani  certaminis 
partem,  in  annum  feqiicnlem  tiijlu/it.  lie 
put  ojf  the  giving  of  that  garland,  and 
the  rejl  of  the  trial  till  the  next  year.  And 
tiiere  is  no  queftion  but  that  Nero  per- 
form'tl  all  thisaccortling  to  the  cuitom  of 
tiie  Greeks,  as  Suetonius  himfelf  affirms. 
Jnjiituit  y  quinquennale  certamen,  primus  om- 
nium Romx",  tnorc  Gritco,  triplex  ;  muji- 
cum,  gsmr.ieum,  equejire;  that  is,  Ik  -i.ihis 
the  firfl  that  at  Rome,  nflir  the  manner  of 
Cjreece,  infiiluted  three  Jorls  of  fforts,  or 
trials  of  Jkill,  to  he  perform'' d  every  five  \ears, 
ivbich  "-jjcre  mttfick,  -xrejlling,  and  riding. 
And  again,  Deinde  in  orchejlram,  fenatum- 
que  de/cendit,  y  orationis  quidem,  carminif- 
que  Latini  coronam,  de  qua  honeftiffimus  quif- 
</ue  contcnderal,  ipforum  concenfu  concejfam 
Itbi,  rccepit.  Then  he  went  down  to  the 
theatre  and  fenate,  and  received  the  garland 
ccnfcrr'd  on  him  by  them,  as  (xeelling  in 
iaiin,  poetry,  anil  oratory,  for  ivhicb  the 
ihjl  of  men  had  contended.  Tacitus  alio 
fecms  to  declare  it  was  given  him  out  of 
mere  flattery.  Eloquentice  primes  partes 
vemo  tulu,  fed  vitlorem  effi  Cafarcm  pronun- 

ciatum.  No  man  bore  away  the  reward  of 
eloquence,  but  Cicfar  was  dcclar'd  vit'tor. 
To  this  purpofe  I  think  we  may  obfervc 
a  fort  of  contradidion  in  this  author,  for 
in  his  fourteenth  book,  he  fays,  That  the 
i^tiiiquennial,  or  fport,  celebrated  every  five 
years,  were  inflitutcd  by  Nero,  when  he  was 
conful  the  fourth  time,  w/VACorneliu  Coffus; 
and  that  he  bore  away  the  prize ;  and  then 
in  the  following  book,  fpeaking  of  the 
conful  (hip  of  C.  Leccanius  Bajfus,  and  M. 
Licinius  Craffus,  being  at  leall  four  years 
later  V  that  A^tvo  not  daring  to  prefumc  to 
fing  on  the  publick  theatre  at  Rome,  Nea- 
polim  qitafi  Grsecam  urbetn  delegit ;  inde  itii- 
tiutnfore,  ut  tranfgrrffus  in  Achaiam,  inftg- 
nefque,  (d  antiquilus  facras  coronas  adeptus, 
majorefamajludia  civium  eliceret ;  He  pitch' d 
upon  Naples,  as  a  Greek  city,  there  to  begin ; 
whence  pajjing  into  Achaia,  and  having 
gain'd  the  renown'd  and  formerly  facreJ 
garlands,  he  might,  by  acquiring  gre.iter 
jume,  attratl  the  inclinations  of  the  Romans. 
Now,  if  he  had  four  years  before  gain'd 
the  prize  on  the  theatre,  how  can  it  be 
likely  he  fliould  be  adiamed  afterwards  to 
appear  in  publick  at  Rome  ? 

The  fime  difficulty  may  perhaps  be 
found  in  Suetonius,  who  fays,  Et  prodiit 
primum  Neapoli,  He  appear' djirjl  in  publick 
at  Naples ;  whereas  fome  chapters  before 
he  had  mention'd  the  inllitution  of  the  fliid 
fports  i  but  this  author  writing  loofely, 
without  much  regarding  the  order  of  time, 
I  willingly  fpare  him. 

By  what  has  been  faid,  it  appears  to 
have  been  a  moll  ancient  cuftom  among 
both  the  Greeks  and  Latins,  to  beftow  ho- 
nourable rewards  on  the  bell:  poets  and  ora- 
tors, upon  publick  trial  made  of  their  abi- 
lities-, and  that  among  other  things  they 
had  garlands  giver  them;  which  were  of 
fcveral  forts ;  that  is,  of  oak,  of  olive, 
of  palm,  of  laurel,  of  ivy,  of  myrtle, 
and  of  fmallage.  In  the  fports  inilituted 
by  Domilian,  we  read,  they  us'd  thofe  of 
oak,  and  of  laurel,  both  peculiar  to  he- 
roick  poets,  and  that  the  ivy  was  ajipro- 
priated  to  the  lyrick ;  the  myrtle  to  the 
amorous  writers  of  elegies,  that  plant  be- 
ing dedicated  to  Fcmn  :  It  is  necdlefs  to 
fpeak  of  the  refl. 

This  digreffion,  God  knows  to  what 
purjxjfe  !  made  on  occ.illon  of  the  French 
royal  academy,  hasnot  mademe  forgctlam 
to  fjicak  of  the  palace  of  the  Tuilleries,  but  7/«  iv 
being  almoft  at  the  bottom  of  my  paper,  I  '•"'■'-'■ 
Ihall  be  oblig'd,  notwithllanding  my  bab- 
bling genius,  tocutofl'ihort.  It  was  founded 
by  Catherine  of  Medieis,  and  Ilcurv  IV. 
and  brought  to  the  condition  it  is  now  in 
by  the  prefent  Lewis  XIV.  The  main  bo- 
dy of  the  ilruc'fure  terminate  in  two  great 
pavilions,  and  there  is  another  in  the  mid- 


lile  li 
rich  a 
the  ft 
fiih/l-itfly  to  the 
I  ;;.«/.".',•■•  tbrco: 

:,;.■/;//      quartt 
'  twcen 

cefs  o 
to  wh 
two  1 

I'.,iupn  i.  it  i 
,;„•     I  Lire     ,,    ^1 
[.:,/, he  ^^^  till 
■  -inr.i:!.-  There 
'■''■^'■'  and  od 
'     ' "      tains; 
'  '  fides  w 





a  D  mij 
of  Italy 
of  learn 
the  lirll 
we  cam 
our  cou 
ties.  II 
I  endea 
with  fu 
bk-  to  I 
about  i 
ami  wo 
ly  have 
too  jire 
lure  to 

fei  11  tlv 
able:  ' 
q  liar  let 
Mere  1 




Lhi-.  iB. 

A  Defer ipt ion  of  Paris, 



cAc  liku  a  cupola.     I  law  nothing  cxtraor- 

(.lin.iry  within,  but  the  theatre,  not  very 

l.irgt-,  but  adornM  with  gikling  ;  and  the 

il.uiphin's  apartment,  rcniarkiblc  for  the 

rich  and  curious  furniture,    and  cxquiiire 

paintings.     In  that  part  next  the  river  arc 

the  llables  underneath,    and   the  gallery 

over  them  ;  both  void  of  what  is  proper 

rhhlitrly  to  them.     A  bridge  is  here  building  over, 

j:mtti-U;c  f-Q^  conveniency  of  communication  with  the 

''!7J"'"'  quarter  of  St.  Gcnnuiii.     All  the  fpacc  be- 

''"     '      twcen  tills  palace  and  the  Louvre,  which 

Hands  on  the  fame  line,  is  defign'd  in  pro- 

cefs  of  time  for  a  garden  to  the  liiid  Louvre  j 

to  which  purpofe  they  mull  pull  down  the 

lioftels  of  LoiiguevilU'  and  Crcqui,  and  the 

two  little  churciies  of  St.  N'tchnLis  and  St. 

Thomas.  As  for  the  gartlen  of  tlic  TuiUcrks, 

fc.iupo  h  jj  jj  ,^5  i(.  ^y^^^r^.  th(.  pojilipo  of  Paris,  where 

l'.''r/i/"^"  "^'i*^  gentry  walk  morning  and  evening. 
Jc.tUvM  There  arc  mofl:  curious  plots  of  beautiful 
,r'N.i-.'lcs,  and  odoriferous  (lowers ;  three  large  foun- 
'" '  ""■  tains  i  flraic  and  fpacious  walks  fet  on  both 
fides  with  (ir,  linden,  and  fuch  like  trees, 
curioufly  rang'd  ;  hedgesof  fniall  myrtle, 


fo  green,  that  it  almofl  looks  black  1  a  fiiMFu-i. 
theatre  neatly  made  of  dwarf  trees,  with  <-^'^>''"'*^ 
ftone  liiats  before  it,  covcr'd  with  myrtle, 
moll  delightful  to  behold.  Near  the  gate 
call'il  lU  III  Conference,  I  took  notice  of  four 
figures  mallerly  cut  in  marble,  reprefenting 
time,  envy,  truth,  and  a  fatyr,  which 
may  fignify  impudence,  all  four  alfording 
a  curious  theme  for  a  moral  difcourte.  At 
a  fmall  diftance  is  a  great  fountain,  from 
which  two  fpacious  walks  lead  up  to  the 
city  wall  ;  and  thence  is  a  profpert  of  tiie 
race,  which  is  alfo  a  broad  way,  without 
the  walls,  with  flrait  rows  of  trees  thick 
fet,  to  lliade  it. 

I  concUule,  rather  by  compulfion  than 
choice,  fo  great  is  my  itcii  of  writing.  I 
am  fiuisfy'il  that  you,  who  are  a  friend, 
after  the  finceie  manner  of  former  ages, 
will  not  be  olfended ;  for  the  refl,  ,"Ho 
like  nothing,  I  value  them  not,  and  there- 
fore am  the  leis  difturb'd  at  the  knowledge 
of  my  failing.  It  only  remains  to  defire 
you  will  often  comfort  me  with  your  moft 
agreeable  letters,  tft. 


CoHtiiitu's  the  Dejcril'tion  of  Paris. 

ry^lIE  day  before  yefterday  I  had  the 
JL  giioi-l  fortune  to  get  acquainted  with 
a  D  uiijb  gentleman,  who  was  return'd  out 
of  Italy,  and  iicard  from  you  when  1  leafl 
cx[)e(!rted  it,  for  he  brought  with  him  a  lilt 
of  learned  Neapolitans,  and  had,  with  good 
reafon,  plac'd  your  name  among  thof;  of 
the  firll  rank.  I'iien  falling  into  difcourfe 
we  came  to  talk  of  tiic  great  negligence  of 
our  countrymen  in  relation  to  our  antiqui- 
ties. 1  Ic  mucli  lilani'd  us  for  that  none  had 
attempted  to  write  our  hiflory,  and  when 
I  endeavour'd  to  excufe  it,  with  tiie  want  of 
nruerials  for  the  ancient  rimes,  charg'd  us 
with  fullering  many  ancient  pi.cesof  mar- 
bh'  to  be  put  to  common  uies,  and  to  lie 
about  in  corners,  whereas  there  are  many 
notable  iiifcriptions  on  tlvem  unregarded, 
and  worn  out  with  ill  ulage.  I  would  glad- 
ly have  anfwer'd  him,  but  that  truth  was 
loo  prevalent  on  his  fide,  and  therefore  was 
forc'd,  the  bell  I  could,  to  change  the  dif- 
courfe, rather  than  contend  where  I  was 
fure  to  be  worfled. 

To  fturn  10  Parts,  and  what  I  have 
fein  there  lallwcck,  which  .s  remark- 
able :  'J"hc  loyal  garden  of  plants,  in  the 
quarter  callM  L'  IJle  iwjire  Dame,  or  Our 
Lady's  Iftand,  is  extraordinary  valuable. 
Here  fome  months  in  the  year  boLuiy  is 
taught  _i;ri///..,  and  in  certain  rooms  on  the 
Vol..  Vi. 

Paris,  April  20.   1686. 

left  of  the  court  fevcral  chyniicil  operations 
are  alfo  publickly  perform'd,  for  the  in- 
llruftion  of  phyficians,  that  they  may  be 
taught  by  experience  what  it  is  they  '^o 
carelefly  force  into  the  bodies  of  their 
wretched  patients.  In  the  midll  of  the  gar- 
den is  a  little  mount,  witii  a  fmall  path 
winding  about  it  that  leads  to  the  top, 
whence  is  a  confiderablc  profpert  along  tlic 
river,  and  over  mofl  of  tiie  I'uiixb'jurg,  or 
fuburb  o(  St.  Antony.  In  this  fuburb  is  re- 
markable the  callle,  the  avenue 
to  which  is  between  a  moll  beautiful  row  of 
trees,  beginning  at  the  triumphal  arch. 
The  building  is  fquare,  witii  lofty  towers 
about  it,  and  a  deep  ditch,  and  the  court 
having  refided  there,  not  long  fince  cardi- 
nal Mazarine  added  two  wings  to  it,  with 
good  apartments.  The  middle  tower,caird 
the  DonjoH,  is  llrong  and  beautiflil,  but 
being  a  prifon,  accefs  to  it  is  not  cafily 
allow'd.  The  chapel  is  i.iid  to  have  been 
founded  by  Charles  V.  and  thefe  Fremb 
gentlemen  put  a  great  value  upon  the  figures 
on  the  glafs  windows.  The  garden,  and 
grove  by  it,  is  much  frequented  in  funimcr 
by  ladies  in  their  coaches, for  the  lake  of  the 
fliade  and  coolnefs,and  to  fee  the  many  wild 
bealls  lliut  up  in  the  park. 

Returning  into  the  city,  tliere  occurs  the  ^",  *-'.'"' 
famous  place  of  la  Greve,  where  moft  oi'Z„j,\""'' 
E  e  the 


•I  "M 

•34  Iff  f 


A  Defer  i in  ion  of  Paris. 

Let.  1 8. 



i:   ,*«f;    ■'«■;    1 

,1 ,,: 

CiFMEtLi.  the  publick  (hews  arc  pcrroniiM,  ami  on 
^^V^  one  iidc  of  ic  is  tlic  Maifon  lie  yUle,  or  town- 
houfe,  built  by  king  branch  I.  on  tlie  foun- 
dation of  the  anticnt  hofpitai  of  tlic  Holy 
Ghoft,  and  here  the  citizens  meet  tor  eleft- 
ing  o\  the  Pyevojl  des  Marcbiuuh  and  the 
Ejihevins,  or  the  lord-mayor  and  Ihcrifls. 
The  brafs  ftatue  on  horfebaek  ovi  r  the  gate 
reprefents  king  Henry  the  great,  and  the 
horfe  was  taken  from  that  oi  Aluniis  Aurc- 
//«j  intheeapiti  1  xtRomc.  Kvcrv  body  that 
hears  fo  much  •iv.iuion  made  in  modern 
hidory  of  the  llij'Uc,  will  certainly  con- 
clude it  is  foine  coiifiderable  fortrefs, where- 
as it  is  only  an  antient  citadel,  built  by 
Ch.irlesW.  ill  the  year  13O0,  witii  eight 
fine  towciJ  about  it,  where  prifoners  of 
ihte  are  kept. 

The  Ihui  dc  Fendofine,  in  the  quarter  of 
St.//i^.'w;c',fcaice  defervcs  to  be  t.'.ken  notice 
ot.  The  llir^onot  church  is  a  regular  ftruc- 
ture,  but  not  magnificent,  as  I  cxpeded, 
I'eeing  ir  feared  in  the  famous  place  oi" 
Buluir  ;  but  he  who  happens  to  be  in  this 
quarter  of  the  city,  ought  to  go  into  that 
clofe  by  of /.(  Riii  Sl.Rocb,  ;;nd  fee  the  duke 
uf  On', ..';;..';;  palace,  and  near  that  tlie  palace 
ol  Bri.n,  where  the  royal  academies  of 
liainiing  and  kuliiture  are  kept, in  tlie cou:  i 
wliereot  lluids  that  incomparabl;;  bra  Is 
horfe  his  majelly  caus'd  to  be  brought  from 
Nancy,  and  certainly  that  alone  is  moii.' 
worth  than  all  the  fpoils  brought  from 
I;.  IVocecdin!';  hence  to  tl;:'  Rui;  Irjien,  w? 
coine  to  the  king's  library,  in  the  houf 
call'd  /(•  CahiucI  d:i  Row  Here  are  above 
lifty-thoufaiid  volumes  of  ihc  c!u)i(  It  and 
rarefi:  books  that  can  be  wilh'd,  with  a 
wonderiul  number  of  excellent  manufcripts 
in  fevcral  languages,  w!iich  is  the  reafon  we 
fo  often  read  .imong  the  Frcncb  Criticks, 
ltd  hi  vet.  Ccd.  Bitlio!.  Rt'glr,  and  Codex 
renins  habit ;  that  is,  So  ttv  find  in  an  old 
vtamifeript in  toe  kind's  library;  and.  So  the 
king's  miiniifcript  has  it ;  fo  that  M.  Raluze 
will  have  cjiougii  to  fwcl!  the  number  of 
his  mil'cellanies.  All  the  books  formerly 
h.Ionging  to  monfieur  Colbert's  library,  are 
now  in  the  king's,  and  therefore  wholoevcr 
finds  them  quoted  among  the  learned,  antl 
would  produce  other  teflimonies,  mull  feek 
them  here, and  jiotelfewhere.  There  is  alio 
an  incredible  quantity  of  antient  medals, 
;'.nd  the  bell  that  could  be  found  out  by  an- 
tiquaries. Vaillint  made  feveral  voyages 
into  Greece  to  enquire  after  them,  and  was 
fo  fuecef-iful  therein  as  to  find  enough  to 
compleat  his  hiilory  of  the  kings  of  the 
race  o\'\.\\cSeleucidir  very  accurately,  and  to 
put  dii  Frehe  in  a  way  to  publilh  ihe  Bi- 
zantin:  families  witli  fo  much  ornament. 
There  :'re  many  other  rooms  full  ot  un- 
bound books,  becaufe  all  pcrlbns  whatfo- 

ever  who  publifli  any  book  ihioughout  the 
dominions  of  France  are  oblig'd  to  fend  a 
copy  thither. 

In  this  fame  palace  the  royal  academy 
of  fciences  meets,  with  very  good  realbn  ; 
befides  which  there  is  another  magnificent 
flrudlure,  call'd  I'Obfcrvatoire  Royal,  in  the 
bookfellers  ilreet,  or  Rtie  dc  St.  Jacques, 
where  the  mathematicians  ot  the  academy 
rcfide,  and  have  their  private  conferences ; 
and  the  flrufture  takes  its  name  from  the 
obfervations  they  take  on  the  top  of  it.  Of 
the  two  octangular  towers  on  the  extremi- 
ties of  it,  that  on  the  eafl  is  not  cover'd, 
for  the  conveniency  of  making  obfervations 
from  the  bottom  of  it,  without  going  up 
to  the  top.  I  was  mightily  pleas'd  when 
there,  to  lee  fo  many  globes,  fpheres,aflro- 
labes,  teleicopes,  and  innumeral  le  other 
mathematical  inllruments,  not  to  fpeak  of 
a  fleel  plate,  the  fined  and  largefl  I  ever 
liw.  Not  tar  oil"  is  a  wooden  tower,  with 
a  flair-cafe  of  two-hundred  tleps  leading  up 
to  the  top  of  it,  which  they  lay  was  built, 
I  know  not  for  what  ufe,  when  the  water 
was  firll  convey *d  to  Ferfaiiles,  antl  coll  no 
lefs  than  ten-thouland  crowns,  whence  ic 
was  afterwards  remov'd  to  this  place,  for 
the  ule  of  the  ri)yal  alho:ionurs,  with 
tlirce-thoufand  crowns  more  expencc. 

There  is  another  place  worth  li'eing, 
call'd  /('.'  (I'obelins,  where  abundance  of  han- 
dicrafts of  feveral  Ibrts  are  eniploy'd  by 
the  king,  fome  about  tapiflry,  which  is 
there  wove  very  rich  in  rpld  -,  others  ma- 
king a  fort  of  c.i'-kct  all  uf  moll:  beautilul 
and  inellimable  jewels  ;  fome  p.dnting, 
others  carving  in  marble  and  wood,  eveiy 
one  ai^art,  with  fii;gular  order  and  conve- 

Latl  Tuefday  I  went  to  St. Denis,  a  town 
two  1;  agues  from  Paris,  ieated  in  the  mofl 
fertil  and  delightful  plain  in  all  France. 
The  great  fquarc  or  market-place,  where 
they  I'eep  the  fair,  is  call'd  I.ondis,  from 
which  the  two  great  ftreets  proceed.  The 
famous  abbey  (landing  at  the  eall-cnd  of 
the  town,  near  the  palace,  to  which  the 
king  with  all  the  court  ufes  to  rej)air  on 
(bme  fblemn  days,  was  formerly  only  a 
chapel  erefted  over  St.  Denis's,  tomb-,  but 
king  Dagobcrt  about  tlie  year  of  our  Lord 
641  founded  there  the  liately  church  we 
now  fee,  and  woukl  be  bury'd  in  it  himfelf, 
whence  came  the  cullom  of  interring  in  it 
almoft  all  the  bodies  of  the  kings  his  fuc- 
cellbrs,  and  of  their  queens;  fo  that  in  the. 
choir  th.ere  are  feventeen  tombs-,  and  in  a 
chapel  on  the  north  fide  all  thofe  of  the 
cxtindt  houfe  of  Valois,  except  Francis  \. 
and  Lcii-f:  XII.  who  are  without  the  afore 
faitl  choir ;  and  in  another  place  are  dejio 
fited  the  bones  of  llenryW .  and  L«c';'j  XIII. 
their  coflly  monuments  not  being  as  vet 


S:.  I>  :■ 


■     -I 

Let.  i8. 

loiit  the 
I  ll-nd  a 

cademy  ilf  o 
R-albn  1  '  "'■ 
/,  in  the 
L'rences ; 
rom  the 
if  it.  Of 
ioing  up 
,'d  when 
le  otlicr 
ipeak  oi 
(I  I  ever 
■cr,  with 
.iding  up 
as  built, 
lie  water 
d  coll  no 
■hence  it 
lace,  for 
rs,  with 

I  feeing, 
e  of  iian-  ;., 
loy'd  by : .: 
which  lb 
hers  ma- 
,  cveiy 

a  town  Si.  i>  c 
the  mofl. 

,  where 
f/j,  from 
;d.  The 
-end  ot 
liich  the 
L'pair  on 

only  a 
lb  -,  but 
|ur  Lord 
lurch  we 
Ing  in  it 

his  fuc- 
lit  in  the 
Ind  in  a 
of  the 
intias  I. 
le  atore 
[e  depn 


as  vei 

Let.  19. 

j4  Defcription  of  Paris. 




fnii'li'd.  Among  the  bodies  of  private 
noblemen  bury'd  in  thischurch,as  a  fpccial 
favour,  the  moll  remarkable  are  thole  of 
Birlrmul  de  Giufelin,  conftable  of  France, 
who  dy'd  in  the  year  1380,  and  oillmiry 
(if  l.i  Tour,  marcfchal  vifcount  de  Tiircniie, 
kill'd  in  1675.  The  aforefaid  Dagoberl 
endow'd  the  church  witli  many  wealthy 
and  rich  manori,  the  revenues  whereof 
plentifully  maintain  the  Benedtttine  monks 
who  are  poffefs'd  of  it.  h\  the  treafury  are 
eight  cupboards  adorn'd  with  many  noble 
and  valuable  jewels,  and  containing  many 
royal  crowns.both  of  gold  and  filver, which 
have  been  prefented  v  and  wliit  is  much 
more,  fome  relicks  of  the  apollles,  and  one 
of  the  nails  which  falten'd  our  Saviour  to 
the  crofs.  Recarning  to  P.vis,  by  the  way 
I  went  into  the  devout  little  church  of 
Nojlrc  Dame  des  Verliies,  or  Our  Lady  of 

From  this  time  forward,  pray.  Sir,  do  not 
pretend  to  contradict  any  m.m  that  main- 
tains Naples  is  not  lb  populous  as  Parts. 
The  multitude  of  people  is  lb  very  great, 
that,  adding  the  violent  running  of  the 
infinite  number  of  coaches,  it  feems  almoft 
impofiible  to  advance  four  Heps  without 
joltling  feveral  pcrfons,  as  I  have  heard  fay 
it  was  there  before  the  dreadful  plague  in 
1647.  It  is  true  the  women  here  walk 
about  as  much  as  the  men,  but  then  the 
compafs  of  the  wall,  without  magnifying, 
is  double  that  of  Naples.  To  avoid  this 
trouble  I  ufually  take  a  ciiair,  as  is  us'il 
here,  or  elfe  a  coach,  which  colls  me  twenty 
or  twenty-fi"e  pence  an  hour.  By  reafon  ot 


this  great  extent  of  the  city,  it  is  become  a  Gjmeli.i 
falhion  to  fend  about  printed  bills  to  invite  '^-'V*-' 
people  to  the  funerals  of  noted  perlbns. 

I  can  give  you  no  manner  of  intelligence 
as  to  learning,  being  intirely  difappointed 
in  that  particular ;  fbr  being  wholly  em- 
ployed going  about  to  fee  fo  things, 
I  have  had  no  opportunity  to  get  acquaint- 
ed with  men  of  letters,  as  I  intended.  This 
day  I  have  lighted  on  a  poilimmous  piece  of 
7.  Metirfius,  call'd  Themis  yJliica,  jhve  de 
tegibusAnkis,  publilli'd  at  Uirecbt  lall  year 
by  the  learned  Grevitis.  The  argument  was 
worthy  the  author's  extraordinary  erudi- 
tion, but  if  I  may  be  allow'd  to  judge  of  it, 
I  am  of  opinion  that  either  he  did  not  whol- 
ly apply  all  his  talent  to  it,  or  elfe  when  he 
dy'd  there  was  only  a  sketch  drawn  of  what 
\v:  dcfign'd  ;  and  in  fhort,  here  is  no  men- 
tion of  very  many  things  relating  to  the 
Athenians,  and  what  there  are,  three  times 
repeated,  that  is,  in  the  author's  words, 
after  the  manner  of  a  fummary  ;  then  in 
thole  of  the  Greek  authors  he  quotes,  and 
lallly  in  the  tranHation  of  tliem,  which  is 
certainly  tiie  faithfulleft  that  can  be  made 
of  them.  As  imperfedt  as  this  his  work  is, 
I  reckon  it  much  more  valuable  than  all  the 
cl'.imerical  ravings  o\  Salmnfius  av\A  Petit ; 
lo  that  it  would  be  a  commendable  task  for 
fome  perlbn  of  folid  judgment  to  take  the 
bell  and  ulefuUcIl  part  of  all  three, and  form 
one  compleat  body  of  the  Athenian  law, 
witli  the  alTillance  oiDemojlbenes,  Ejcbines, 
Arijlidi's,  and  other  Greek  orators  tiiat  are 
to  be  had.     It  remains,  iy'i-. 


Concludes  the  Defcription  of  Paris. 

Paris,  May  i.   i686'. 

WOuld  to  God  all  my  friends  would 
do  by  me  as  you  do,  and  I  fhoukl 
reckon  mylelf  tiie  moll  fortunate  man  in 
the  world  •,  bcfidcs  that,I  fliould  now  know 
more  than  I  do  •,  but  this  is  rather  to  be 
wiih'd  than  hop'd,  fo  remote  are  men  now 
from  the  ways  of  jullice  and  honefty.  How 
genteelly  do  you  fhew  me  my  faults  !  how 
motlellly  do  you  reprove  me  !  how  wifely 
do  you  dcmonllrate  the  truth  !  I  have  this 
Week  receiv'd  a  mofl  welcome  letter  of 
yours  of  the  28th  ofM;rr^, wherein, among 
other  lavours,  you  fweetly,  learnedly,  and 
mildly  inform  me  that  I  made  a  great  mif- 
take  wiien  I  faid  Livy  dy'il  in  the  fourth 
year  of  /lu^uftus  Cirfar,  and  in  all  likeli- 
hood rather  at  Home  than  at  Padua  ;  fbr 
Rufebius  in  Chron.  pofitivcly  fays  it  was  at 
Padua,  and  in  the  fourth  year  of  Tiberius. 

If  I  may  be  believ'd,  I  protefl  my  defign 
was  then  to  write  Tiberius  Cefar,  but  the 
name  flipp'd  me,  as  is  frequent  with  thole 
whole  pen  runs  before  their  thoughts  •,  and 
the  reafon  of  not  corredling,  was  my  ill 
cullom  of  never  reading  the  letters  I  write. 

I  thought  once  to  have  llay'd  a  niontii 
longer  in  thisciiy,  but  have  been  oblig'd 
on  a  fiiddin  to  alter  my  refolution,  tor 
feveral  fiifiicient  realbns.  To-morrow, 
God  willing,  I  fliall  let  out  with  fome 
French  gentlemen  for  Cidais,  in  onler  to 
go  over  into  England.  If  I  have  been  neg- 
ligent in  feeing  all  the  rarities  q\  Paris,  and 
now  repent  my  lol'sol  time,  it  is  no  more 
than  I  deferve.  However,  that  you  mav 
have  no  jult  caufe  to  complain  of  me,  I  will 
not  omit  acquainting  you  with  fome  other 
particulars.     In  the  firll  place,  the  theatre 





A  Defer iption  oj  Paris. 


GiMiiii.  for  O/'cr.i's  is  im.-'l,  as  containing  onl/ 
^•'^'*^  thirty -tlucc  hoxcsi  but  on  the  ocIkt  iiantl 
tlie  fccni'5,  and  m.xcliincs  arc  commonly 
wonilcrlLil,  as  is  the  dancing,  and  mulick. 
The  mailer  of  tlic  chapel  Jobn  Bdpiijl.i 
Lulli,  x  Florentine,  who  compolcs  the  niu- 
fick,  has  the  charge  of  them ;  and  the 
theatre  being  always  full,  and  every  place 
halt  a  crown,  the  advantage  he  makes  is 
incredible  •■,  infomucii  that  I  reckon  him 
worth  half  a  million.  There  are  two 
other  theatres  in  Paiiii  bcfides  this,  the 
one  for  French,  and  the  other  for  lialiiin 
plays.  I  have  been  fometimes  at  the  lalt 
gratis,  tlianks  to  Jojlflj  Barioldti  of  Mef- 
Jina,  an  aflor,  with  whom  I  pick'd  ac- 
quaintance. I  le  was  fome  yars  fincc  in 
F.iigLtnd,  and  hail  a  medal  of  one  hundred 
and  fifty  crowr-  value  given  him  by  king 
Charles  II.  The  prime  ador  in  this  thea- 
tre is  Doniimck  Bologncfe,  who  imitates 
Hnrh-f(ui,  and  is  in  fuch  cfteem  at  court 
for  his  wit,  that  he  has  no  lefs  than  fix 
thouiaml  crowns  a  year  penfion.  Take 
notice  that  iiis  comical  fayings  are  pre- 
ferv'd,  in  order  to  be  printed,  under  the 
title  of  Arlequin'uvw,  after  the  manner  of 
the  Sciilherinnn,  Menngiana,  and  the 

It  remains,  that  I  give  you  fome  account 
of  the  government.     Hut  am  I  about  to 
compole   fame   book  of  France    when  fo 
many  authors  treat    of  that  fubjciit  ?    It 
will  therefore  fuffice  to  lay,  that  at  Paris, 
the  arciibifliop  governs  in  fpiricuals,  with 
much    zeal,    and  a  Itrit^t  dil'ciplint,    and 
the  king  with  ablolutc  authority  in  tem- 
porals -,    and,    to  lay  the   truth,  when  a 
monarchy  is  othcrwile  man.ig'd,  no  good 
comes  of  it ;    and  it  foon  degenerates  into 
an  .liiftocracy;     belides  that  tlir  wretched 
fubjee'ts,    inltead  of  one   fbvcrcign,    iiave 
as  many  as  there  are  great  rucn  in   the 
kingdom,    or  as  thofe  are  who  have  the 
curbing  of  the  prince.     The  Prcvofts  iles 
Manhands    and   four  Efcbevins,    that    is 
lord    mayor  and  fherilis,  are  chofen  eve- 
ry two  years,    and   take  care  of  the  pub- 
lick  buildings,   the  markets,  and  all  that 
regards  the  fplendor   and   beauty    of  the 
city  ;    like  thofe    we  among  us   call  the 
deputies    of  fortification    and    building : 
They  alio  keep  the  keys,     fct  the  price, 
and    look  to  the  weight    and  meafure  of 
all  things  fccfiary  for  tiie  fupport  of  life  ; 
they    licenfe    liandicralts,    and    have  the 
command  of  the    capt.iins   of   the   Guel, 
that  is,  the  officers  that  go  the  rounds  at 
night ;    which  perhaps  is  in  imitation  of 
the    Praftvlia   Figdum,  or  captain  of  the 
watch,    inflituted    by  Aiigtifttis  at  iiomc, 
who  commanded  feven  Iquadrons  of  fol- 
diers,    and   was    judge   in    leveral    cafes. 
Before    tlie   time   of  Anguftm   were   the 

Triumviri  incindtis  arcendii,  that  ir,  the 
three  joint  oflicers  for  |>reventingof  fire;-, 
who  had  equ.d  power  to  punilh  thieves, 
robbers,  ami  incendiaries.  Livy,  lil/.  ^9. 
makes  mention  of  ^^tinqueviri,  thus,  Ut- 
qiie  ab  iiuendits  caverelur,  adjulores  Tri- 
iimiires  qutnqiieviri,  uti  cis  Tykrim,  jids 
qiiifqiie  regioms  <rdijiciis  pro-^ejjent.  Thau 
is,  And  there  -zirre  Quinqueviri,  five  joint 
oljiccrs  added  as  hypers  !u  the  I'riumviri, 
Jor  preventing  of  fires,  that  each  of  them- 
might  take  care  of  the  buildings  in  his 
icard,  on  this  fide  the  Tyber.  But  that  1 
may  not  fly  from  one  fhing  to  another  i 
theie  Efcbevins,  or  fhcritfs  of  Paris,  as 
f®on  as  out  of  their  office,  are  ennobled, 
a!M.!  have  the  title  of  Chevaliers,  that  is, 
arc  knighted.  Their  original  is  very 
obfcure ;  and  tho'  there  be  mention  of 
the  Scabinii  in  the  conllitutions  of  Cbar- 
Ifmaign;  yet  lliefe  were  only  a  diltindt 
fort  of  judges  in  criminal  atlairs ;  and  if 
we  fland  by  what  Afarquardus  Fribcrus 
writes,  in  his  little  book,  de  occultts 
fF'eJtphaliic  Ji/diciis,  their  authority  in 
Ibmc  places  in  Germany  was  extravagant 
and  dreadful.  In  fome  fmall  towns 
they  are  not  cali'd  Ejchevins,  but  Aiaires, 
anil  in  others  Confuls,  perhaps  in  imi- 
tation of  ancient  Roman  colonies,  the 
Duumvirs  whereof  are  in  fome  ancient 
infcripiions  cull'd  confuls;  as  is  ieanicd- 
ly  dilcours'd  by  Rcinejius  in  his  epiltles, 
and  the  moil  ingenious  D.  Carlo,  your 
nephew  in  his  Antichitudi  Crtimenline, 
which  ir  is  a  great  fin,  that  they  arc  not 

Uitlerences  between  traders  are  decided   --i 
by  the  Jiige  des   Ahirchamls,    with    four('' 
confi.ils,    who  are  always    to   be  citizens  ''' 
of  Paiii.      The  adminiltration  of    jullice 
is  in  the  Prevojl  of  Paris,  who  is  a  man 
of  the  fliort  robe,    as  among  us  the  Rcg- 
gt-nte  dilla  Ficaria,  and  his  three  deputies, 
or    lieutenants    under    him,    that  is,    the 
civil,    the  criminal,    and    the  particular, 
with   fome  counlbllors,  an  advocate,  and 
filcal.     'l"o  the  place  of  lieutenant  of  the 
civil  aflairs  is  annex'd  that  of  conlervator 
of  the   king's    privileges.        From    tliis 
court  appeals  lie  to  the  parliament,  con- 
filling   of  the  Grand  Chumurc,    ;ukI    five 
others;   and  tho'    there   be  other   parlia 
ments  of  equal  authority  throughout  the 
kingdom  v    howevei ,    in    regard    to    the 
prefbnce  of  the  king,  caufes  are  alio  re- 
niov'd  hither    by  appeal    from  the  pro- 
vinces.    The  great  council,    confiltin;    M 
a  prelident,  and  twenty-four   counf'elkirs, 
handles  the  moll  important  aliairs  of  the 
crown.     The  king's  tainily   has    its   own 
pro|)cr  judge,  that  is,    the  lieutenant,    or 
deputy  to  the  great  provoll  ofthehoufe- 
hold,  and  all  thcle  minillers  above  men- 


Ihr  Mm- 

Let.  19. 

Great  Aflions  of  Louis  XIV. 


lilt  Mm- 

tion'd  meet  in  a  place,  not  far  from 
the  palace,  oppofite  to  the  parilh  ol 
St.  Germain.  The  reft  I  niuft  pals  by, 
againft  my  v  111,  left  1  become  too  tedi- 
ous, and  becaufe  I  know  you  have  learnt 
enough  out  of  books,  and  jierhaps  know 
more  than  I  i  therefore  it  will  be  neeJ- 
lefs  for  me  to  trouble  myfelf  in  inform- 
ing you  of  the  Chainbics  des  Compts,  hi 
Coiir  dcs  Aydes,  and  many  other  courts. 

As  for  the  monarchy,  I  need  not  fay 
much  of  that  n-ither,  its  antiquity  being 
well  known  -,  and  how  the  Franks  coming 
out  of  Germany,  by  degrees  expell'd  the 
Romans,  and  lectled  their  kingdom  there, 
in  the  reign  of  the  emperor  Galerius ; 
but  that  it  may  be  queftion'd,  whe- 
ther Pharamond  was  the  firft  king,  in  the 
year  420,  or  his  father  Manominis  fome 
time  before,  or  elfe  Mdlohaudus,  men- 
tion'd  by  Ammianus  Murcellinus,  lib.  i. 
Eigne  Mellobaudem  juiixit  pari  potefta>e 
collegam,  domejHcorum  comitan,  regemqtie 
Francoritm,  viriim  bellicofum  t?  fortem ; 
that  is.  And  to  him  hejoin'd  as  a  collcgiie, 
with  equal  power  to  Mcllobaudus,  the  carl 
of  the  hoiijhold,  being  ?niijler  of  ihi"  houji- 
hold,  and  king  of  France,  a  brave  and 
warlike  man ;  tho*  the  Franks  had  not 
then  fix'd  their  abode  in  Gaul.  It  is 
alio  doubted,  whether  Pharamond  was 
the  true  author  of  the  law,  which 
cnjcin'.d,  that  women  ll.oiild  not  inherit 
the  ialick  I.'nd  ;  ami  the  F.i:g,'iJ/j,  who 
lor.g  bloody  wars  with  France  on  ac- 
count of  that  law,  affirm  ilicre  was  no 
fuch  thing  in  nature,  but  tliat  it  ought 
to  be  look'd  upon  as  a  cunning  inven- 
tion of  Pbili/)  de  yalois.  Be  it  as  ic  will, 
this  is  certain,  that  only  three  races 
have  reign'd  (ince  the  firft  erefting  of  the 
monarchy  to  this  time.  The  firft,  of  the 
fucceftbrs  of  Pharamond,  or  Merovetis, 
call'd  jVIerovingians,  which  ended  in  king 
Childeriik  IV.  confin'd  to  a  monaftery 
for  his  cowardice,  in  the  year  of  our 
J.ord  751.  The  fecond  began  in  Pepin, 
fol  to  Charles  Marlel,  and  w^s  called 
Carolingian,  from  Charlcmaign,  his  fuc- 
cefTor.  It  ended  in  Lewis  V.  in  the 
year  987  ;  for  Hugh  Capet,  earl  of  Pa- 
ris, defccnded  from  IViltehind,  duke  of 
Saxony,  ftripp'd  of  his  dominions  by 
Charlcmaign,  having  got  as  much  power 
as  the  mafters  of  the  palace  had  under 
the  firlt  race,  after  the  death  of  Leivis, 
made  iiimfelf  king  of  France,  having  in 
a  fhort  time  fubdu"d  the  duke  of  Lor- 
rain,  who  pretended  to  be  of  the  Caro- 
lingum  race,  and  to  I'uccecd  in  the  throne. 
The  Valoifes  were  of  the  race  of  Hugh 
Capet,  which  expir'd  in  Francis  the  firft, 
and  fo  arc  thofc  of  B'jurbon,  now  reign- 
ing gloriouny. 
Vol.   Vf, 

It  would  be  reafonablc  for  mc  in  this  fitHtLLi. 
place  to  write  a  panegyrick  on  Lewis  XIV.  '^■^'V^^ 
but  tho'  I  were  capable  of  the  perfor- 
mance i  perhaps  it  would  not  be  well 
taken  by  all  men  ;  and  particularly  by 
tiiofe  who  are  prejudic'd  by  antipathy  to 
the  lording  nations  i  it  will  therefore  fuffice 
to  nuke  a  Jhort  compendium  of  his  life, 
whicii  will  be  no  fmail  commendation. 
He  is  fon  to  Lewis  XIII.  and  Anne  of 
Atijlria,  filler  to  our  moft  glorious  king 
Philip  IV.  born  in  September  i6?S,  and  was 
chriften'd  Lnvis  Auguftus  Adcodatus.  He 
fuccecded  in  the  throne  at  the  age  of  ' 
four  years  and  fight  months,  his  father 
dying  on  the  twelfth  of  May  1643  j 
from  which  time  till  his  inauguration  at 
Reims,  on  the  feventh  of  July  1654,  the 
government  was  manag'd  by  his  mother, 
a  princefs  of  extraordinary  worth.  In 
1659  the  famous  Pyrcncan  treaty  was 
concluded  between  hii.i  and  Spain,  and 
tlic  next  year  he  took  to  wife  the  moft 
fcrene  princefs  Mary  Tcrefa  of  Aujlrit, 
by  whom  he  had  the  dauphin,  bon.  on 
the  firft  of  November  1661.  In  1664, 
he  fent  the  emperor  a  powerful  fuccour 
into  Hungary,  which  of  luch  confe- 
quence,  that  it  gain'd  the  memorable 
vi(5lory  at  Raab,  over  the  'Turks.  Scarce 
three  years  after  he  went  into  Flanders  in 
perfon,  and  having  taken  Tournay,  and 
other  pl.ices  of  note,  bent  his  defigns 
againft  the  Franche  Conie,  in  Burgundy  ; 
.ind  about  the  end  of  y-i'Z'/iv./n'  166S,  mad"; 
himfclf  mafter  of  it,  in  fpight  of  the  Spa- 
nijh  power,  and  the  feverity  of  the  win- 
ter ;  tho'  he  afterwards  reftored  it,  upon  a 
treaty  of  peace,  concluded  at  Aix  la  Cha- 
pelle.  I  pais  by  the  embafTy  fent  him  by 
the  Grand  Seignior  in  1668,  and  will 
only  fpeak  of  his  magnanimous  enterprise 
u^on  Holland,  in  the  year  1672,  when  at 
the  head  of  a  moft  compleat  army,  he, 
in  lefs  than  three  months,  reduc'd  at  leall 
fifty  of  the  enemies  towns.  It  is  true,  a 
body  ofDw/t/jlaid  ftreight  fiege  to  f^f^oer- 
den,  and  the  prince  of  Orange  to  Charle- 
roy ;  but  to  what  purpofe  .'  For  the  for- 
mer inmiediak'ly  fled  from  the  valcrtir  Of 
the  marefchal  de  Luxembourg ;  and  the 
other  loft  all  hopes,  the  place  being  re- 
liev'd  by  the  count  (/f  A/i5«/rf//.  Ii.  167^, 
the  king  took  Macjhicht,  and  the  next 
year  lubdu'd  Franche  Conte  again,  whilft 
his  generals  gain'd  other  vidtc.ies  in  Ger- 
maiiy,  and  the  low  countries ;  where  on 
the  tentli  of  Augujl  happened  the  famous 
battle  of  Senef.  l"he  year  leventy-five 
was  no  lefs  favourable  to  France,  on  ac- 
count of  the  taking  of  Limbourg,  by  the 
duke  (/'  Anguien  \  but  none  will  be  ever 
more  glorious  than  fcvcnty-lix,  when  the 
king  in  perlbn  took  the  citv  of  Cande,  the 
F  f  duke 




Journey  from  far'is  to  London.  Let.  20^ 

'".t«ri.ti.  duke  of  Orlcivis  Bouchain,  inarefchal 
^""yr^  Scboniberg  rclicv'd  Mafftrkht,  v.hich  had 
been  fix  months  befieg'd  by  ^hc  prince  ot 
Orange;  the  inarefclial  d'  Htintures  took 
the  city  of  Arras  in  Artois,  and  the  fort 
of  Linky  in  Flanders ;  and,  to  conclude, 
tiie  marefchal  duke  de  f^ivonne  t.-nte'-'d  the 
port  of  Palermo,  after  burning  xheSpani/h, 
and  Dutch  fleets.  About  the  latter  end  of 
the  enfuing  April  the  king  had  taken  Cam- 
bray,  and  Valenciennes  \  and  the  duke  ol 
Orleans  St.  Omer,  and  gain'd  the  battk'  of 
Montcaffcl,  over  tlie  prince  of  Orange. 
The  latter  would  have  in  fome  meafure  re- 
triev'd  iiis  lofs  by  befieging  ot  Charleroy, 
and  perhaps  he  mi^lit  h.ivc  compalTed  his 
defign,  as  the  allies  recovcr'd  Plilipsburg, 
and  Treves,  had  not  Luxembourg  come  a 
fecond  timetodifturb  him.  Frtburg  r;Ifo 
fell  into  the  king's  hands  about  the  end  ot 
the  year;  as  did  Cant  the  next,  being 
1678  J  nor  could  tiiere  have  been  aiiy 
other  llcp  to  his  fuccefs  but  the  concluding 
of  a  peace  between  him,  the  Spaniards, 
and  the  Dutch;  and  atterwards  between 
the  emperor,  and  him;  hereftoring  fome 
places,  and  keeping  others  for  a  Itrong 
bulwark  to  hisdominic>is.  To  conclude, 
in  1680,  and  8i  he  poflefs'd  himfelf  of 
the  earldom  ot  Ching,  in  the  province  of 
Luxemburg,  the  city  of  Aremberg,  and 
that  of  Strasburg,  by  us  call'd  Argentina, 
as  hiftorians  fully  inform  us. 

The  king  of  France's  arms  are  three 
flower-de-luces,  or,  in  a  field  azure,  be- 
ing reduc'd  to  that  number  by  Charles  VI. 
for  before  there  was  no  fix'd  number. 
Some  aflign  it  to  Clodoveus,  the  firft 
chriftian  king  ;  others  affirm  there  was  no 
knowledge  of  them  before  Lewis  VII. 
and  that  all  the  flower-de-luces,    we  fee 

on  ancienter  tombs  were  added  fince  that 
time:  but  on  the  other  lund  fomt.  main- 
tain they  arc  of  mighty  antiquity  •,  be- 
c.iulc  the  tomb  of  Childerick  I.  being 
found  in  this  age  at  Tcurnay,  if  I  millake 
not,  among  orher  ornaminti  there  were 
gold  flower-de-luces  in  it,  which  are  now 
preferv'd  with  all  the  rcfl:  of  the  tomb, 
in  tile  king's  library  ;  tho'  molt  under- 
Handing  perfons  have  judg'd  them  to  be 
bees,  ami  not  flower-de-luces.  l'i;e  fliield, 
contrary  to  others,  has  an  impv-iiai  clofed 
crown  on  the  toji,  which  terminates  in 
two  gold  flower-de-luces ;  and  about  it 
are  the  collars  of  the  two  military  orders 
cl  the  Hoty  Ghojl,  and  St.  Micbiul. 

The  firfl  of  thcfc  was  inllituted  by  M./iur, 
IlenrylU.  in  the  year  1579,  -'"f*  hashithotto  "'•'"'• 
loll  nothing  of  its  honour,  as  has  happen- 
ed to  others;  but  is  in  thegreatelt  elleem 
imaginable;  the  king  himielt  being  great 
matter,  and  the  number  of  them  is  never 
to  exceed  an  hundred ;  but  the  olHcers  be- 
longing to  it  alfo  wear  the  badge,  and 
collar.  The  knights  are  to  prove  their 
gentility  for  four  defcents,  and  wear  the 
crofs  of  the  order  hanging  by  a  blue  rib- 
bon, the  faid  crofs  being  ot  gold,  and 
fomething  like  that  ot  Malta  ;  but  in  the 
middle  of  it,  on  the  one  fide,  is  enamell'd 
a  white  dove,  and  St.  Michael  on  the 
other.  The  habit  or  robe  is  of  crimton 
velvet,  with  a  yellow  lining,  all  thick 
ftrew'd  with  flames  of  gold. 

I  am  c  -me  to  the  end  of  my  fervice,  (d 
fum  totus  ti  colligendis  vafis,  am  bufy  pack- 
ing up  my  awls ;  tor  I  thall  fet  out  to- 
morrow at  tarthcft,  and  have  already  paid 
the  half  of  twenty-five  iivrcs,  which  is 
the  price  for  a  place  b  the  coach  to  Calais. 
I  am  yours,  i^c. 


The  Author  s  "yottrney  from  Paris  to  London. 

J  SET  out  from  Pan;,  as  I  told  you  in 
my  laft,  on  the  fecond  of  this  inttant, 
about  >on,  and  had  the  .'brtune  to  thare  in 
at  hatl  five  collations,  prov.'-ied  for  an£>/f - 
///2ilady,  of  three  there  were  in  our  com- 
pany, by  a  gentleman  her  countryman, 
and  gallant,  who  took  the  pains  to  attend 
her  fix  leagues,  to  the  little  village  of 
Lufarcbe,  where  we  lay  that  night.  Mov- 
ing the  next  morning,  at  fun-rifing,  we 
pafs'dthro'  the  little  town  ot  Creil,  and  then 
through  Chantilly,  where  is  the  much 
celebrated  caftle  and  garden  belonging  to 
the  prince  of  Conti.  There  is  fuch  plen- 
ty of  game  in  thofc  parti,  that  1  counud 

London,  Alay  15.  1686. 

twenty  hares  in  a  very  fmall  compafs  ot 
ground,  tamely  feeding  near  acorn-field; 
and  a  flight  of  pigeons  palled  by  fo  clofe 
to  our  coach,  that  I  Ihot  one  with  a  pittol, 
which  the  French  gentlemen  very  much 
admir'd,  as  not  kiiowing  that  the  Italians 
can  Ihoot  flying.  We  travell'd  on  fevcn 
leagues,  and  having  din'd  at  Clermont ; 
went  on  to  the  village  of  St.  7  ijt,  where 
we  loilg'd  that  night.  Having  travell'd 
feven  leagues  on  Saturday,  we  din'd  at 
Berteuil;  und  then  riding  lour  leagues 
farther,  reach'd  Amiens  before  night. 

Amiens,    the  metropolis  of  PicarJv,  is  ' 
a  large  city,    populous,    plentilul,  a' 
3  very 


Let.  20. 

ince  that 
K  niain- 
ity  i  be- 
[.  being 
1  mirtake 
crc  wore 
arc  now 
e  tomb. 
It  iinder- 
m  to  be 
x  fliicld, 
al  cluled 
liiiates  ill 
about  it 
ry  orders 

;utei.l  by  a/./.m-, 
IS  hithotto  "'""'■ 
s  hajipen- 
L-il  cikcni 
■ing  great 
1  is  never 
iFiccrs  be 
Jgc,  and 
ove  their 
wear  the 
blue  rib- 
;old,  and 
but  in  the 
(I  on  the 
f  crimton 
all  thick. 

;rvice,  6? 
[ufy  pack- 
t  out  to- 
;ady  paid 
which  is 
to  Calais. 

.ET.    20. 

'^owneyfrmi  Piiris  to  Londort. 


•very  grrat  trade,  and  very  hnndfome 
buildings.  Both  the  city,  and  its  flibiirbs 
enjoy  an  ancient  privilege  never  to  be 
burden'd  with  taxes;  which  was  con- 
firm'd  atter  it  -was  mluc'd  by  the  king, 
in  the  lallr-  'ublcs  of  Francf.  In  1597, 
it  was  taken  by  the  arch-duke  Albertus, 
and  not  long  a+tcr  rccover'd  by  king 
Jimry  IV'.  tbo'  not  without  great  cxpence 
ot"  blooil  and  treafurc,  whence  came  tlie 
proverb,  Amiciti  f-it  jrife  en  Renard,  re- 
prife  en  Lyon  1  tliat  is,  Amiens  tvas  taken 
hy  fraud,  andirlaken  hy  force.  Here  was 
afterwards  built  a  ftrong  citadel,  on  the 
highcft  ground,  with  other  not  contemp- 
tible forrifications  about  the  place.  The 
cathedral  is  one  of  the  fined  in  the  king- 
dom, both  in  refped  of  the  ftrufture, 
and  the  painting  that  adorns  it. 

On  Sunday,  after  travelling  fcvcn 
leagues  we  refrcfli'd  ourfelvcs,  and  relied 
a  while  at  the  fmall  town  of  Dourlem  ;  and 
then  proceeded  five  leagues  flirther,  along 
a  very  curious  road  to  St.  Paul.  In  the 
fame  manner  the  next  day  we  rode  feven 
leagues  to  dine  at  Arras,  a  city  made 
famous  by  the  king's  ridorious  arms,  who 
poflefs'd  himfclf  of  it  fome  years  fince. 
It  ftands  in  the  province  of  Artois,  in 
the  low  countries,  on  a  river,  whofe 
waters,  run  among  its  out-works,  and  per- 
haps into  the  ditch  of  the  adjacent  fort. 
By  St.  Peter's  church  I  took  notice  of  a 
ftately  tower,  bi'lk  with  a  fort  of  ftone 
that  is  eafy  to  work,  like  that  of  Leae 
in  the  kingdom  of  Naples.  We  went 
fhcnce  to  lie  at  St.  Omer,  a  line  and 
ftrong  town,  three  leagues  diftant,  whofe 
bifhop  is  fuftragan  to  him  of  Camb'^aw 
It  is  indifferently  populous,  but  the  built.- 
ings  are  too  low. 

Tiiefiay  morning,  wc  advanc'd  three 
leagues,  anildin'data  farm-houfc,  call'd 
Zoajji,  about  a  league  from  the  town  of 
Ardres,  which,  tho'  imall,  feem'd  to  me 
inferior  to  none  of  its  bignefs  for  good 
fortifications,  and  plenty  of  water  fur- 
rounding  if.  In  fine,  we  mov'd  four 
leagues  farther,  and  arriv'd  at  Calais, 
where  calling  up  my  expencc,  I  found  I 
had  fpcnt  twenty-eight  livres  and  four 
fcis,  fince  my  departure  from  Paris. 

Calais  is  a  city  in  fhape  trianguH", 
and  in  fifty-one  degrees  of  latitude;  ex- 
traordinary ft'ong  in  its  walls,  and  on  ac- 
count of  two  citadels  at  a  fmall  diflancej 
befides  the  tower  on  the  fhorc,  call'd 
Bel-Banc ;  and  is  therefore  reckoned  one 
of  the  keys  of  the  kingdom.  It  rcmain'd 
in  the  pofTefTion  of  the  Englijh,  at  the 
conclufion  of  the  treaty  which  put  ail 
end  to  the  bloody  wars  between  king  John 
of  France,  and  king  Edward  of  England, 
in  the  year   1260.      But  in  the  reign  of 

king  Charles  VII.    they  loft  that,  and  ail  Grmihi. 
the  territories   about  it ;    ib  that  to  this  '■^N'"*-' 
day  it  bears  the  name  of  The  country  rc- 
gum'il.     It  is  true  the  arch-duke  Alber- 
tus yi(AM%\\  himf.lf  of  it  afterwards;  but 
was  foon  cxpell'd  by  the  fuperior  genius  of 
king //<■///;>' IV.  Befides  the  garifon,  there 
are  fomcwhar  above  three  thoufand  inhabi- 
tants;   few  of  the   buildings  being  confi- 
derablc  befides  the  great  church.     Here 
is  a  wontlerful  clock,  for  whilft  it  ftrikes 
the  hours,  two  figures  on  horfeback  fight, 
which  is  very  odd,    and  pleafant  to  be- 
hold.    The  country  women    wear   long 
mantles,    woolly   like  rugs,    which  make 
them  look  uglier  to  ftrangcrs,  than  they 
really  are.      Here   are  two  harbours  for 
fliips,  both  of  them  Ihutup  like  our  Darfe- 
na,  where,  upon   every  ebb,    the  vefllls 
are^  left  upon  the  dry  land  ;  which,  like  a 
child,    I  fpent  much  time  in  beholding, 
during  my  fhort  ftay  in   the  place ;   for 
I  took    much   delight   in    oblcrving   the 
water  by  degrees  fall  oft'  above  a  musket 
fhot  from  the  port.    I  could  here  willing- 
ly play  the  philofopher  upon  this  mighty 
fecret    in   nature;     but    Ihould  find   too 
much  to  do  to  refute  the    ignorant  opi- 
nions of  thole,  that  have  hitlierto  writ  of 
it ;    and  particularly  thofe  who  afTigning 
the  moon  for  the  occafion,    pretend  fhe 
caulls  I  know  not   what  waters    to   fer- 
ment under  the  water  ;  as  if  a  fix'd,  and 
regular  motion  could  proceed  from  fuch 
a  fermentation;   not  to  mention,    the  no 
lefs   fenfelefs  conceit  of  the  comprelTion 
made  by  the  moon  on  the  air,    and  by 
that   on    the  water.      Nor  is    much   ac- 
count to  be  made,   in  my  judgment,    of 
the  great  dfs  Cartes's  opinion  ;  for  then 
we  muft  in  the  firft  place  pofitively  grant 
his  Cortices  or  whirlpools ;    then  the  mo- 
tion of  the  earth ;    and  laftly  fome  other 
moll  uncertain  hypothefcs,  which  he  pre- 
fuppofes  as  certain,  for  making  out  this 
matter.     Were  I  to  trace  the  occafion  of 
it,  I  fhould   find  no  other  but  the  figure 
and  fluidity  of  the  waters  themfelves ;  the 
reperculTion  of  the  folids  that  encompafs 
them ;   and  a  motion  adlgn'd  them  from 
the  beginning  of  the  world  by  the  infinite 
providence  of  the  Creator ;    for  I  queftion 
not  but  that  feveral  reafons  might  be  af- 
fign'd  for  the  Other  irregular  motions. 

On  Sunday  I  cinbark'd  aboard  the  pac- 
quet-boat,  a  finall  velTel  that  carries  over 
letters,  and  pafltngcrs  to  Dover,  paying 
five  ftiil lings  for  my  paffage  ;  and  having 
lain  at  anchor  all  night  for  want  ot  wind, 
did  not  reach  Dover,  till  the  next  day, 
the  paffage  being  but  fovcn  leagues. 

This    town   has   a    convenient,    and  D„i<r. 
flife  little    harbour,    between    two    high 
hills ;   on  that  to  the  right,  which  is  in- 


I  12 

Journey  from  Paris  to  London. 




iWmfi.i.i.  clos'il  i)y  deep  craggy  rocks,  ft.iiKl:,  ;i 
'■^''VNJ  VLTy  nntit'iu  ami  fiucious  talUc,  better 
fortit'y'il  by  nature  than  by  art.  Some 
autlior-.  pretend  it  was  founded  by  jfuliui 
Ctej'ar  ;  howfoevcr  that  was,  it  is  now  rcc- 
kon'd  one  of  the  keys  of  C!n\.:  Britain, 
and  thc'ie  are  between  forty  and  fifty 
pieces  of  heavy  brafs  cannon  in  it.  Tiiis 
lort  in  fiicli  elleeni  formerly,  that 
Philip  yJii'^tijliii,  king  of  France,  wiio 
liad  a  pofuivc  conceit  he  Ihoukl  fubdue 
Jiiij^iiii.'.l,  talking  of  his  fon  Lewis,  let 
(lip  tl'.Ll'e  words,  May  my  fon  have  no  place 
to  jct  hii  fout  oil  ('^/England,  if  be  has  not 
firft  math  himf'lf  mujUr  of  Dover. 

On  the  ot.ur  hill  appear  the  remains  of 
an  .intient  liuih.t-houfe.  K'ng  Henry  VIII. 
dcfign'd  to  li.ive  made  a  harbour  under 
it,  caufing  mighty  piles  fait  I'nk'd  toge- 
tiicr,  to  be  ihove  down  into  the  land,  with 
a  prodigious  'jxpence;  then  laying  over 
them  flones  of  an  immenfe  bigiiefs,  fand, 
and  trees,  With  ail  things  elfe  proper  for 
that  end-,  but  the  boillerous  fwi  foon 
overthrew  it  ;  and  it  was  afterwards 
reckoned  a  great  happinefs  tiiat  queen 
Eliziil'elh  could  repair  it;  towards  which 
tpxence  file  for  feven  years  exai^teii  a  duty 
from  every  merciiant  lliip  that  put  in 

Here  I  hir'd  a  horfe  for  five  flfillings 
to  carry  me  fixtecn  miles  to  Canterbury  \ 
and  iiavint;  ro.le  abvjut  ten  miles  over  a 
v.vll  cultivated  and  plealant  country,  came 
tipon  a  hill,  on  wliich  Hands  a  beacon, 
to  give  notice  of  the  approach  of  any 
enemy  ;  and  looking  down  thence  on  the 
pl.iins  b-jlow,  obllrv'd  fevcral  marlhes, 
maile  by  tlic  over-llowing  of  the  (ea. 

About  noon  I  reach'd  Canterhury,  an 
indiiFerent  city  as  to  magnitude,  ilanding 
in  fifty-one  degrees,  twenty-five  minutes 
latituiic,  cdl'd  lormcrly  by  the  Romans 
Can.'naiia,  or  Canlium,  and  Diirovern'um 
in  jittoniniii'i  itinerary.  In  the  time  of 
tlic  Saxon  heptarchy  it  was  the  metropo- 
lis of  a  kingdom,  and  the  king's  feat, 
till  I'Jbelhert  bellow'd  it  on  St.  Aii^njlin 
the  archbilhop,  who  the  proteflants  fay 
was  the  Hrll  that  brought  the  church  of 
Ei{i;luiiil  under  the  fubjcdion  of  the  pope, 
about  the  year  598.  I-or  this  reafon  the 
.irchbilhop  of  Cai:!ey!"iry  hath  the  title 
given  him  of  piimate,  and  metropolitan 
of  all  Eii^Lir„l,  and  always  refided  there 
as  legate  of  the  holy  fee  of  Rome;  but  at 
the  national  falfe  council,  held  in  15.54, 
it  was  decreed  that  the  title  of  archbilhop 
and  primate  Oiould  be  rctain'd,  without 
any  mention  ot  tiiatof  legate  apoll(>lick, 
as  prtjutiicial  to  the  ^  retended  liberty  of 
their  church. 

After  the  Norman  conqueft,  H'tlliam 
tlic    conqueror   coniirm'd    the  donation 

made  by  EtbeWert  to  the  bifljops,  by 
whonj  the  city  walls  were  afterwards  re- 
pair'd,  and  enlarg'd,  and  it  was  adorn'd 
with  notable  ftrudhires,  inferior  to  none 
in  the  ifland.  A  fuflicient  tcflimony  here- 
of is  the  cathedral,  call'd  Christ 
church,  formerly  burnt  down,  anjd  after- 
wards rebuilt  by  Lanfranc,  and  IVilliam 
Corboyl,  and  their  fuccelTorsi  tho'  king 
Henry  \'I1I.  befides  expelling  the  prietls, 
l.icrilegioufly  robb'd  it  of  all  the  rich  fur- 
niture, and  particularly  the  treafure  con- 
ferr'd  by  the  devotion  of  the  faithful  on 
the  tomb  of  the  holy  martyr,  and  arch- 
bifliop  ihomas  ot  Becket,  otherwifc  call'd 
of  Canterbury.  There  was  once  on  the 
caft-fide  another  famous  church,  dedicated 
to  St.  /iu^ujlin,  and  founded  by  king 
Ethelbert,  and  the  aforefaid  archbiihop 
Jugujlin,  and  plentifully  cndow'd  ;  but  it 
is  now  niofl  gone  to  ruin,  and  fallen  to 
the  crown.  Over  the  portico  is  iHll  the 
following  infcription. 

Hie  reqtiiefei!  Doininm  Auguftinus  Doro- 
vernenfis  Arcbiepifcoptis  frimtu,  qui  dim 
Lire  a  B.  Gregorio,  Homana:  urbis  Ponti- 
Jue,  direitiis,  (j}  a  Deo  operatione  miracu- 
lonnn  fiiffiiltus ;  isl  Ethelbertum  Regem, 
fc'  gentem  itliui  ab  idolorum  ciiltu  ad  jidem 
Cbiijil  tcrduxii  ■  y  complctii  in  pace  diebui 
ojjiiii,  defunclus  eft  feptimo  KaUndat  Junii, 
eodem  Rege  Regnante. 

i'hat  is.  Hen  refts  tie  lord  Auguftin, 
frft  arcbbifljop  of  Canterbury,  who  being 
formerly  fent  bither  by  St.  Gregory,  pope  of 
Rome,  and  affifted  by  God  with  working 
of  mirea.'es ;  converted  both  king  Ethelbert 
and  bis  nation  from  the  worfhip  of  idols  to 
the  faith  0/  Cn  r  i  st,  and  having  ended 
the  days  of  bis  fund  ion  in  peace,  dy'd  on  the 
feventb  day  before  the  kalends  of  June,  [which 
is  the  iweniy-fourth  e/May)  in  the  reign  of 
the  fame  king. 

This  city  at  prcfent  is,  as  has  been  faid, 
indifferent  large,  well-built,  and  has  rich 
inhabitants  -,  .ind  the  archbilhop  has  eigh- 
teen fulfragan  bifhops. 

To  return  to  my  journey  ;  I  hir'd  ano- 
ther horfe  at  Canterbury  for  four  fliillings 
and  fix-;ence,  on  which  I  rode  fixtecn 
miles,  amidft  curious  fields,  to  the  town 
oi  Sittcnburn  ;  and  then  chs.  jing  horfe, 
nine  miles  farther  to  Rochejler,  a  fmall  Rtihit 
city,  but  noted  for  its  famous  bridge  over 
the  Mediuay,  which  is  there  fait  as  the 
fea,  and  look'd  to  me  like  it,  by  reafon 
of  t!ie  many  fliips,  and  particularly  forty 
men  of  war. 

At  Rocbefter  I  took  a  frelh  horfe  to 
Gravefend,  a  fmall  town,  on  the  river  of 
Tbamci,    which  has  two  forts.     That  on 


Let.  70, 

Let.  21. 


vho  being 

',  pope  of 



idols  to 


I  on  the 


reign  of 

'd  ano- 


fix  teen 

>e  town 


fmall  r<./y,c 

Ige  over 

as   the 



orfe  to 
iver  ot 
hat  on 

Jlccount  o/^  England  in  General. 

1 1 








the  top  of  the  hill,  commanding  the  road 
to  LtiiJoH,  ftcm'd  to  me  ill  proviileii  •, 
but  the  other  on  the  oppolite  bank,  call'd 
Tiil'ury,  beliilcs  the  good  cannon,  has  a 
garifon  of  tour  hundred  men.  Here  I 
took  boar,  and  l.oiling  fail,  wc  made  tor 
London,  m  figiit  of  an  infinite  number  of 
(hips:  We  pafs'il  by  fVaokvicb,  on  the 
lelt,  and  Bhukwiill  on  the  rigi\t,  whence 
all  the  banks  on  both  fides  are  'mbel- 
lifli'd  with  abundance  of  curious  houfcs,  as 
lar  as  London ;  and  not  far  from  thence,  is 
a  fine  lioufe  of  the  king's  at  Greenwich, 
not  of  brick,  as  molt  llrudures  in  Eng- 
land  are,  but  of  folid,  and  well  hew'd 
Itonc.  In  fine,  ytllerday  towards  night  we 
got  to  London,  where  paying  four  fliillings 
for  the  boat,  I  found  I  had  travell'd  le- 
vcnty-two  miles  in  one  day,  from  Dover, 
with  the  expence  of  thirty-lour  fliillings, 
amounting  to  tvio  Spanijh  pillules.  Tiic 
inn  I  took  up  my  lodging  at,  was  fo  difa- 
greeable  to  me,  that  I  have  this  morning 
contriv'd  to  rtmnv^',  with  theallillanceof 
SigHor  Francejco  Branelli,  an  Italian,  to 
whom  I  have  been  recommended;  and  I  am 
now  at  my  cafe,  becaufe  of  the  neighbour- 
hood of  tile  (aid  Bninetli;  belides  that  we 
are  in  Jork-BiiilJings,  which  is  not  far  from 
the  king's  palace. 

lean  fay  no  more  to  you  at  prelent  con- 
cerning this  city,  but  that,  as  you  know 
ic  is  feated  on  the  Thames,  in  a  fandy  plain, 
about  fixty  miles  from  the  lea,  and  in 
fitty-one  degrees,  thirty  minutes  latitude. 
The  figure  of  it  is  very  irregular,  for  being 
about  eight  miles  in  length,  the  grcatcll 
hrcaidth  is  not  above  two  miles  Moll 
of  the  houfes  are  of  brick,  and  built  after 
the  fame  manner,  and  there  being  much 
timber  in  them,  are  very  fubjedt  to  fire ;  and 
therefore  in  i666,  fifteen  thoufand  were 

burnt,  lieing  the  fifth  part  of  the  city  in-  Oumf.!  Lt. 
eluding  the  luburbs.  To  prevent  the  like  ^"■''V"^ 
misfortunes,  ihey  have  now  invented  a 
portable  engine,  -vhich  throws  tlic  water 
lo  high  as  to  quench  fire,  when  it  has  hold 
on  the  top'>  of  the  houfes.  Few  cities  in 
Grcil  Britain  Ixing  wall'd,  London  has 
none  but  fucli  as  are  imaginary  i  for,  ba- 
ting lome  part  on  the  north-fide,  all  the 
rtll  are  entirely  gone  to  ruin.  However, 
there  are  fcven  principal  gates,  which  are 
Ludgate,  Newgate,  Alderjgaie,  Crij ['legate, 
Moregale,  BiJ/jo/'Jgale,  arul  Aldgate.  The 
number  of  inhabitants  is  laid  to  amount  to 
a  million,  and  by  computation  there  arc 
between  fifteen  and  lixteen  tliouJ"and  infants 
chr'lten'd  every  year;  yet  others  affirm 
here  ire  not  above  three  hundred  thoufand 
fouls  1  but  they  mufl  needs  millakc.  In 
other  refpedb,  the  llrcers  are  always  dirty, 
and  pav'd  with  fharp  Hones,  which  arc 
trt>uo!efbmetofirangers-,  for  which  howtver 
tluie  is  a  remedy  at  hand,  b^-ing  abun- 
dance of  coaches,  and  chairs,  which  may 
be  hir'd  by  tiie  hour.  The  name  of  Lon- 
don, whence  the  lioinans  maile  Lond:ntiim, 
comes  from  die  word  Longdin,  which  in 
the  Br.iijh  language,  flill  I'poken  in  Jl'aUs, 
figtiifies  a  city  of  Ihips  ;  and  with  very 
u,i)ud  reafon,  confideiing  the  multitude  of 
lliips  riding  in  falety  on  the  Thames.  I 
will  not  f[)eak  a  word  of  itsfirlt  founder, 
becaufe  I  fliould  be  lure  to  run  into  fables, 
fo  that  all  we  cin  .".ifirm  is,  that  it  is  very 
.iiitient,  and  the  more  for  tii.'.t  wc  know 
not  it:  original. 

Give  me  lea/e  now  to  conclut'.e,  that  I 
may  at  anot'icr  time  give  yoM  a  better 
account  of  '.ondon,  and  all  I  iliall  liappcn" 
to  lei  wor.n  obferving  ,  till  when,  I  kif; 
your  hands,   Wc. 


A:coiHtt  of  England  in  General,  its  Riligion,  Covcmncnt,  ^c. 

SI  N  C  li  I  have  undertaken  in  thcfe  letters, 
to  play  the  hifforian,  and  even  the 
critick;  and  you  inllcad  of  reproving,  or 
correcting  me,  leem  rather  to  be  pleas'd 
thanotlierwife  ;  you  mulf  makeufe  of  your 
patience,  and  read  what  I  am  about  to  fay 
of  England;  for  tho'  they  be  things  well 
known  to  you,  perhaps  you  don't  remember 
ihemall  alike,  and  conli;quently  may  find 
tome  fatisfadtion  amidll  the  tedioufnets.  I 
mull  then  briefly  inform  you,  that  this 
country  was  by  the  Romans  call'd  Britannia, 
from  the  word  Prydain,  deriv'd  from  Pryd, 
lignitying  in  the  antient  tongue  beauty  ;  or 
Vol.  VI. 

London,  May  2^.    iC26. 

elfe  from  i?/-;//.),  t'latispainted;  becaufe  the 
antient  Britom ro\our\\  anc'  'viintcdall  their 
bodies  with  ftrange  figures,  _. deriving  their 
original  from  the  Scythians,  who  tlipertliti- 
oully  obferv'd  that  culli>m  i  for  as  to  the 
opinion  ot  one  Brute,  the  fbn  of  Ajcanius, 
and  grandfon  ofy£w('j,  llibduing  thcfe 
parts,  and  giving  Mj  name  to  them,  I  con- 
clude it  to  be  an  ablblute  fable.  Why  it 
was  alfo  call'd  y^/Wo';,  is  not  fo  eafy  to  be 
difcover'd,  as  fome  Ihallow  brains  imagine ; 
tiirasto  the  whitencfsof  ihecl'iVs,  who  told 
them  that  white  was  in  the  antient  fiW/iy/j 
language  call'd  album,  as  it  is  in  the  La- 
it  "  tin? 


(J  IM' 






yl  kief  Account  of  England. 

'ET.  21.     I  Let.  2 

:in?  However  ili.u  was,  it  cinv  .Utcr- 
'  w.iriK  to  be  t.ill'd  l\ upland,  in  tin'  reij^n 
ol  kiii^  /;i,i'v;/,  wiio  h.iviii<;  .iboiii  tiie  819  lululuM  the  I'eviu  Stixon  Uiiig- 
doms,  whoukl  li.w>'  all  llwt  tr.ict  i)f  l.iiul 
t.illM  ////i,'.V.'.;';./,  tli.ic  is,  tlie  touiitry  of 
the  .///ifiV.i,  .1  [voiile  ot  the  iiirle  |)roviiue I'll  "w /;,;,.',  horderint;  on  .•///.■.•((■,  in  the 
country  01  S.ixoin,  who  Wv  re  rtLkonM  the 
printiiui toncjiriors.  J  lie  re.Uon  ot  iliis,  bet.uile  tile  iiih.ibit.uUiol  tlie  I'oulh. 
cm  y.\n  ot  tiie  ill.ind  being  inipl.icible 
i-nimiis  to  thofe  we  now  e.iU  ScfJi,  and 
not  b'.  iny  able  to  liibdue  them  by  tbree  1 
llicy  ill  tlie  year4i!i,  lali'd  in  the  ^.awwj 
to  allliianee,  or  ruher  ilelb iiciioii  1 
;i  inislortiine  freip.ntly  betalhng  thole, 
who  to  vent  fonu-  private  malice,  make 
ul'e  ot'  the  more  jiowertul,  which  iort  ol 
I'liccoiir  litlpM  v.ry  mi:e])  to  cnlar!i,e  the 
R'jIiu:<i  dominions,  Thele  Stixom  not  only 
repell'd  the  S,ii.<,  but  ereetcd  leven  king- 
doms, alLjr\v.u\l..eaird  tin-. V,;.vo/;//i7 /.(/c  tM', 
to  tlie  cter.'.al  Jiiime  ard  infamy  ot  tlie 
"ri.'ors.  l-.a-'h  of  theli-  little  kingdoms  is 
.aid  to  havj  been  divided  into  Icveral  ili- 
(Iriel;,  and  . aeh of  them iiuo lo  many  IJuifs ; 
I \ cry  ot  the.I  coitaining  as  inuch ia;id, 
as  a  yoki  oi  oxeii  can  plow  in  a  year. 

At  pref^.Tt,  under  the  dinoniination  ol 
(/'•('.i/  Bi.luii:  are  coinprehtnded  two  larj^e,  that  ot  Eir^Luul,  vi'nhScuiituul .m- 
nexM  to  ii,  and  that  of  Iidaml,  befules 
.ibou:  lorcy  Ir.i.dler,  lying  in  the  northern 
ocean,  towanl.i  i\v;;.',?v,  Deiiinuik.,  the 
low  coii:itri^;-,  and  ./h/wic.  As  to  inet.ils, 
il  pro.kiee'.  topp.'r,  tin,  le.'.d,  anil  iron, 
all  ol"  them  excellent  in  tlieir  kind  ;  a '.'.lib 
fjine  lilvcr  and  gokl;  and  abmulanee  ol 
pi;-:oal.  I'or  neceliaries  to  life,  it  wants 
V,  ine,  whiihii  liii>plyM  by  e.\eellent  beer, 
oi  I",  vera!  forts,  and  by  importation  tfoni 
oiii'.r  eounrriei.  Molt  jMrts  abound  in  all 
forts  of  corn,  efpecially  wheat;  but  above 
all,  its  pailure  is  molt  valu.ible,  wl.ieh 
makes  the  Iheej)  bear  a  very  long  .ind  white 
v.'joll.  1  key  lay  there  are  no  wolves 
th.i)'.i;_ilioi!t  ail  /'./(;'/.;«,'/,  and  that  if  they 
are  bruughtiromoilier  parts,  thry  foon  die ; 
as  if  provident  li.iture  had  only  allow'd 
mm  to  live,  where  he  pleafesv  but  perhaps 
they  had  never  been  without  thole  rrea- 
turcj,  it  not  for  the  great  indullry  al- 
ways iifed  by  \.\v:^hjb  lu  deilroy  them, 
afHguingrew.ird.-.  to  iliofe  that  kill'd  them, 
and  even  i():u,ivii!g  them  the  oiienees  tin  y 
had  committed ;  orelleadjudgingcriminals 
to  deilroy  kicii  a  number  of  them  -,  as  alio 
llu'^ei),  ih.;t  none  (hould  come  out 
oi'SiOlLwi!,  wiiete  they  fiy  tliey  have  many 
liiil.  ThemafUve-,are  incrediiily  fierce,  and 
llrong,  a.  iswell  known.  It  would  be  im- 
pertiiier.t  in  me  here  to  Ipeak  of  the  leveral 
Ibrtiol"  fea,  and  frefli-watertilh  ;    and  vet 

perhaps,  this  would  not  be  fo  prepofterous, 
.1,  the  llory  lome  ttdl  us,  thai  the  pikes 
in  this  country,  lieing  ripp'd  ojkii  by  the 
hlhmongers,  to  Ihew  liow  tat  they  arc,  i( 
the  galli  be  lew'd  up  again,  and  they  laid 
down  on  a  tilhmongers  Itall,  where  there  arc 
tenches,  recover,  and  live,  only  by  virtue 
ot  that  llimy  or  glutinous  moilture  there  ii 
on  the  tenches,  to  which  the  |>ikes,  by  in- 
(tinCt  ot  nature,  clirig  dole:  This  is  a  tale 
not  tit  to  be  imjios'ii  u[ion  the  meertll  ig- 
noramus. I'ray  how  is  it  poil'iblc,  that  ;i 
lilh  ihould  live  out  of  the  water,  on  the 
lillinK)n[',(rs  Itallsf  And  tho'  they  might 
tor  (bme  time,  as  the  eels  do,  how  could 
it  be  alter  ri;>pingopen  their  bellies?  How 
an  that  lluninels  ol  the  tench  cling  fo 
dole  to  the  wound,  notwithllanding  the 
watei  flill  runs  Irom  them  .-' 

But  I  think  my  brains  are  a  wooll-gather- 
ing,  that  I  go  about  to  difcourfe  of  I'ucli 
nonfeiile.  Let  us  proceed,  and  obfervc 
that  ti.i)  ;',reat  illand  is  fix  hundred  miles 
in  length;  but  that  part  of  ii,  properly 
call'd  Kn^laiui,  is  but  three  hundred  and 
twenty,  that  is,  from  Pottfmoiith  to  Ber- 
■nick,  on  the  borders  of  Scotland;  the 
breadth  is  two  hundred  and  feventy  from 
D'jvcr  f)  the  laud's-end  ;  and  it  is  fo  Rated, 
betw.Mi  litty  and  htiy-leven  degrees  ot" 
latitude,  that  the  longcit  day,  in  the  moft 
northern  parts,  is  ot  I'eventecn  hours  and 
thirty  minutes,  and  the  Ihortell  in  the 
fourhi  rn  of  about  eight. 

'lie  Romaiii  diviiled  it  into  three  parts, 
wlii  il  wvn:  liritaum.!  ptma,  En,\iijHMje- 
cuiiiLi,  now  the  princip.dity  ot //''.;/(j,  and 
A[.;.\:i/i,i  Clhricnjii.  But  thefe  names 
kill'. d  only  tinir  hundred  years,  that  is 
Irom  the  rei^n  ot  Doiniiuni,  till  that  of 
lloiwiiui,  who  recall'il  the  legions  from 
hence,  to  lend  them  againft  tlic  Goths  m 
li.ily.  It  is  true,  that  Julius  Crrjlir  came 
into  thefe  p.uts,  but  as  Sut.'ouiiis  in  'Jul. 
cap.  .'.-.  fays,  yi(;^rt'lfuiii  Rntiuims,  tgtw- 
los  a):!t.i,  ii/iniiiifjuc,  pccunitis,  (S  ol>Jidt\- 
impcrwjit ,  that  is.  Having;  invadid  the 
Britons,  before  u>ik/:oui/i,  and  dffcatcd  them, 
he  order'd  them  to  pay  a  Jum  of  money,  and 
deliver  hojla^es.  Xo  that  this  was  rather  \ 
diliovcry  than  conquefl: ;  and  Tacitus  in  the 
lite  ot  Ap-ietLi  Ipeaking  of  the  fame  Julius 
C/i/ar,  with  good  reaion  writes,  Poteji 
lideri  ojlendijfe  fojteris,  non  Iradidi/fe  ;  He 
may  feem  lo  have  di  i overcd,  not  lo  hav 
delivo'd  them  do-a:n  lo  pojierily.  As  iav 
Ju^  'us  and  Ttberins,  they  meddled  not 
there  ;  the  tirfl  of  them  intending  to  aflign 
certain  bounds  to  theempire,  and  thenfor-  inlelling  of  foreign  nations;  and  the 
other  relijlv'd  to  make  the  life  of  the  otiier 
his  pattern  and  guide.  This  was  certainly 
the  worll  ot  policy  ;  for  experience  has 
long  lince  demonlbucd,  that  whenfbever 


'ET.  21.    I  Let.  21.  A  hrief  Account  of  England. 



;/(.(,  and 
tluit  is 
tliat  of 
s  trom 
Ciot/ji  in 
If  came 
(■/;  JkI. 
iws,  igiio- 
>adtd  the 
t\l  Ibem^ 
athcr  a 
tus  in  the 
ne  Jtdius 
fe;   lit 
to  havr. 
As  f bi- 
lled not 
to  ufTign 
clu-n  tor- 
aiul  the 
u-  otluT 
•ncc  has 

the  motion,  and  aftion  o\  enlarging  ccafis, 
it  is  extraordinary  diflicult  to  keep  at  the 
Cime  Hand,  without  loliny  Ibnu'thiii^  of 
what  lias  been  gain'd  i  it  b.'ing  no  late 
method ot  leaning ones'-lelf  by  txpcding 
to  be  invaded  by  enemies  at  home-,  but  ra- 
ther to  kc(  ji  them  emi'loy'd  in  the  deti'nce 
of  their  own.  On  the  otiier  hand,  allow- 
ing of  their  maxim,  why  Ihould  flW/o/// be 
lett  at  liberty,  which  lay  convenient  at  all 
times  to  tavoiir  the  revolts  of  Cnrmatiy  and 
Qatdy  both  of  them  impatient  enough  ol 
their  yoke  •,  anil  then  to  march  againll  the 
Piirtbiitiii  and  th(  /I'menians,  who,  tho' 
they  had  been  reduc'd  into  the  form  of  a 
province,  yet  could  not  be  kept  under, 
withoutinuii!  nlecodand  induihy  ?  I'nder 
the  enii)er()r  (.'.dudtui.,  as  lus  been  obllrv'i', 
a  confiderable  part  o*'  it  was  rotujuer'd, 
and  all  the  rell  fub'Li'd  by  Ihmiti.m  ;  but 
to  what  purpMC,  fince  ihu  lirildins  llip- 
ported  by  lUeir  own  fiercenefs,  and  the 
negligence  of  the  Kinuiiti,  in  a  fliort  time 
call  oif  their  dominion,  and  gain'd  fuch 
rciHitation  of  valour,  that  the  emperor 
/,  as  Spiiy.'ian,  Dio,  and  orhers  in- 
torin  us,  havmg  n-cover'd  fom.  ;iart  of 
tiiat  coiKitiy,  built  a  w.dl  eighty -five  miles 
in  length,  tho'  others  fay  but  thirty-five, 
the  better  to  lellrain  the  JJiiii/  witiiin 
dieir  own  bounds  ? 

To  pais  by  that,  the  Saxoits  being  van- 
quifiiM  by  tl>e  D.uiiS  in  1028,  and  thele 
again  ill  io(i(),  hy  \.\vi,  undei  he 
conduct  of  the  ballard,  as  wa^ 
laid  above  •,  it  is  not  now  to  be  admirM, 
that  the  i'j{{lijh  (liould  flill  retain  fomc 
culloms  of  all  thole  nations,  from  whom 
tliey  arj  defcended.  The  gentry  arc  cour- 
teous and  generous  to  Ihangers ;  and  to 
fay  the  truth,  vie  with  the  Fniicb  in  this 
particular,  but  they  are  not  lb  ojien-hearted, 
i!or  their  countenances  fo  alVable  and  atl'ecU- 
onate  to  others  ;  for  they  rather  appear 
proud  and  haughty  than  othcrwife.  What 
I  much  admire  is,  that  if  a  man  converfes 
with  them  modellly  and  humbly,  they  do 
not  look  upon  it  as  civility  and  good  breed- 
ing, but  as  meannefsof  fpirit,  and  there- 
fore they  undervalue  him,  tho'  they  would 
have  all  to  lubmit  to  them.  They  arc 
fond  of  titles  and  other  marks  ol  honour  ; 
oblige  their  many  fervants  to  attend  them 
in  very  fervile  luanncr  •,  and  feldom  in  their 
lettLTs  ufe  any  terms  of  fubmillion.  On 
the  other  hand  the  commonalty  are  rude 
and  cn;el,  addi;ted  to  thieving  and  rob- 
bing, faithlels,  headdrong,  inclin'd  to 
ftrite  and  mutiny  •,  gluttonous,  and  luper- 
ftitioufly  addlitL'd  to  the  predictions  ot 
foolilli  altrologers ;  in  fhort,  of  a  very  ex- 
travagant temiJcr,  delighting  in  the  noife 
ol  guns,  drums,  and  bells,  as  if  it  were 
Ibmc  fvveet  harmony.     To  fpcak  without 

thisdillincTion,  betwixt  gentry  and  meaner  t>iMrt,i.i. 
torts,  there  is  not  much  truth  in  the  great  ^•^'^^'^ 

iSV,j/(^.v 's  opinion,    that  the  hiij^lijh    arc, 
Injhiti,    (J  cnnti-mptora.    Proud  and   con- 
Ici/ineii  of  olhtn  ;  as  alio  Imiiitinrs  isi  inboj- 
fitaks,  Sav,\^(  and'k  -,  however, 
without  lying,  they  may  be  allow'd  torty 
prr  (■(■nt.  ot  thofe  faults.     'I'hey  are  cou- 
rageous in  b.ittle,   rather   as  men   mailly 
difpiling  death,  than  out  ot  true  valour  •, 
attended  by  prudence  v  or  indeed  we  mufl: 
lay,  they  have  no  good  notion  of  the  im- 
mortality  of  the    tbul,     the    knowledge 
whereof,  caufes  a  Itrtmg  apprehcniion  of 
death,    even  in  the  brav  'It  fouls.      It  is 
now  among  us  become  a   proverb,    that 
thele   people    will  rather  burn  themfelves 
with  tl  eir  Hiipsand goods,  than  fall  into  the 
h.mils  ol'thi  ir  enemies.    I  remember  I  have 
read  an  at'ion  ot  m  bln^lijb  foldier,  worthy 
to  be  ever  remeniber'il  torthe  ralhnels  of  it : 
whiv.h  is,  that  the  united  provinces  of  the 
low  countries  having  revolted  againll  their 
lawtiil  Ibvereign,  it  happeneil  that  twenty- 
four  folcliers  ot  the  Spaiiijh  camp  fell  into 
their  enemies  hands  1  who  thinking  it  hard 
to  ]-(ut  them  all  to  death,  order'd  that  eight 
Icrolls  of  I'lper,    widi   ileath  writ  upon 
them,   Ihould  be  put  intoa  htlmer,  among 
as  moiv  white  ones,  as  made  up  their 
number,  whence  every  man  drawing  Ihould 
take  his  lot,  cither  to  live  or  die,  having 
the  halters  about  their  necks.     An  h'.ngl'tjh- 
III  III  o^'  that  dilconfolate  gang,  fte]iping  up 
to  the  helmet,  drew  fuch  a  lot  as  he  could 
willi,  and  (hen  taking  notice  of  a  poor 
Spiiiiiard,  who  ilooti  quaking  at  the  danger 
he  was  to  run,  oHer'd  toundergo  the  hazanl 
himfell'  tor  ten  ducats,  ileliring  iW:  com- 
manding officers  todifcharge  the  Spaiiiurd. 
They  confented,  feeing  the  man  make  fo 
little  account  ot  his  lite,    and  he  efcap'd 
again.     Non  hue  gemiiia  modo,  fid  fmiplici 
Jhliiti'   iiidigniis,    qiuim   adco    viUm  fecerat. 
Being  not  only  unworthy  to  efiape  tKtee,  but 
even  once,  Jhicc  he  valu'  d  it  Jo  ItttU.     Barclay 
in  Icon,  aninwum. 

Thus  you  will  fee,  not  without  altonifli- 
ment,  a  man  condemn'd  to  be  hang'd,  go 
to  the  gallows,  as  it  it  were  to  a  wedding, 
and  his  nearelt  kindred  pull  him  by  the 
heels,  with  the  r.reatell  indifference  in  the 
worlti,  lb  that  i:  is  very  llrange  th't  they 
fhould  be  lb  cautious  ot  lighting  duels.  All 
their  valour  in  warconfillingin  the  firit  heat, 
as  not  able  to  endure  much  martial  fatigue, 
they  are  fitter  to  conquer,  than  to  prefervc  they  have  gain'ti ;  wiience  it  is,  that 
having  formerly  liibdu'd  a  confidcrable 
part  of  the  kingdom  of  France,  infomucli 
that  l/enry  V.  was  crown'd  at  Paris,  in 
I J4S,  they  havenot  at  prcfent  one  footof 
land  there,  to  tcftify  their  ai^tions  there  to 
poftcrity.  Howbravctheyarcatleaplainly 


11  il 



A  hrlej  Accamt  of  England.         Let.  2 r.   j  £  ^T. 



r.iMiiLi.  appears  by  great  Sfaiiijh  Armada, 
'  rallM  iiivmcil)lp,  whirh  they,  witli  a  I'tmll 
numlii-r  ol  IhipsniinM  in  thcnlgnot  queen 
ElizMtb,  in  tlie  year  i;5S8  v  ami  by  the 
anions  of  Sir  Framis  Drake,  Cncnvttle, 
Gxenbam,  anil  many  others,  too  teilious 
to  repeat.  They  tr.ule  in  all  parts  of  the 
worlil,  b'lt  in  liich  manner,  that  it  may 
well  be  faivl  of  their  Ihips,  that  they  are 
one  hall  hirnilh'ii  lor  war,  ami  the  other 
h.ilt'  t<jrtraile  ;  lor  there  are  none  of  them 
but  vviui  will  pl.iy  the  pyralL'.at  the  Ca- 
nurui,  Hrajil,  Cih')  I'erJc,  .iiul  the  ll^cjl- 
Intlici  i  and  they  are  I'u  loml  ot  this  inla- 
mous  p.iin,  that  many  li-H  all  they  have 
tp  nurciiall'  .i  Ihip,  .\in.l  let  out  a  robbing. 

As  lor  iL unkennels  they  tleli^ht  in  it 
lb  iinieh,  that  tho'  they  own  ii  to  be  a 
great  Kuil:  in  their  nation,  yet  they  never 
endeavour  to  relrain  i  aiul  as  the  'tujum 
poet  I'aiel  of  himUll, 

Nbjlra  iiatura  vinta  dal  ajlumc  : 

Cujhm  prevails  abuvc  our  nature  ; 

The  Jj:xli/^J  miyht,  without  lying,  fay  of 

Noslra  tiaturiifij:  rco ioilume  : 

This  hajl  nislom  proceeds  from  our  nature. 

TIic  coiniiioneil,  and  nV>ll  aietptabic 
meat  isbeii,  .mJ  they  eat  lomutli  ot  it, 
it  is  woiidcrlui,  or  r.uher  a  pity  ;  anil  what  is 
worfe,  they  reekon  tlieinlelves  now  ablUn'i- 
ous,  becaiill-  tluy  eat  but  one  a  day, 
whereas  tbrmerly  they  made  tour  at  leall. 
They  kill  at  leall  fevcn  hundred  oxen,  or 
cows,  and  ten  thouland  (heep  every  week, 
betides  tlie  d.iily  eonliim[)tion  of  t.imeand 
wildfowl.  Then  they  till  themlelvcs  ex- 
travagantly with  leveral  torts  ot  liquors, 
as  beer,  and  ale,  aqua-vitx',  periy,, 
cyder,  mum,  and  ulquebaugh,  a  violent 
burning  drink  ;  and  it  would  be  worte  did 
not  the  ul'e  of  collee,  tea,  and  tobacco 
foinewhat  corrcdl  it.  In  lliort,  they  eat 
more  than  x.\v:Italiuiis,  drink  like  the  (jcr- 
nans,  and  live  like  the  Mujlovitci.  Hetbrc 
I  proceed  any  further  it  is  to  be  obtervM, 
th.ii  wliLU  they  einnk  to  one,  he  fays,  I 
will  pledge  you ;  the  original  of  which 
tutlom  tliey  lay  h,  that  in  the  time  of  the 
D.iKJs,  the  Ew^l:jb  coukl  not  drink  with 
fafety,  beeaufe  whilll  they  were  in  that 
artion  tiie  others  balely  murder'il  them  v 
to  prevent  the  which,  every  m.'.ndefirM  his 
next  neighbour,  or  the  pertbn  he  drank  to, 
Co  defend  ami  ti.cure  him  during  that  time, 
againrt  the  malice  of  others. 

l-'rom  what  lias  been  faid  ot  thecxcclTivc 
'.'ting  and  drinking,  every  man  ol  found 

jmlgment  wdl  inter,  that  the  h.nj^lijh  are 
llupid  and  dulU  but  it  is  quite  otherwifc, 
lor  betidi  s  their  being  cxtraonlinary  llurp 
traders,  they  in)prove  wondertuily  in  all 
leientes  wlutloever,  us  alto  in  all  liberal 
arts,  as  well  as  meilunicks,  as  plainly  ap- 
pears by  their  books,  reckoned  extraordi- 
nary learnevl  all  over  l.urope;  fo  na- 
ture feems  to  have  allowM  iliem  this  to 
balance  all  their  ^  ia-s.  They  allei^l  a  I.a- 
(utt'xik  llile,  mortally  luting  .dl  figurative 
and  ihliourles,  tho'  their  owi) 
language  is  very  copious,  ami  enrit  h'd  with 
the  moll  (igniticant  words  ol  .dl  i.uroptan, 
or  other  languages.  I  leiice  lollows  .i  dc 
teift,  which  is  common  to  ill  great  wits, 
which  is,  that  thinking  they  have  tulHci- 
entlyexplain'd  their  notions,  it  often  hap- 
pens that  indiiiereiit  capacities  can  Icrarcc 
comprehend  them  without  miieh  Ihidy. 

'V\\<i  Eii^lijh,  asto  their  p^rfons,  are  ex- 
traordinary handlome,  anil  very  neat  in 
their  drels,  lair  ot  complecHion,  .ind  many 
black  ey'd.  The  women  are  very  beautitui 
and  genteel,  anil  courteous  of  behaviour* 
being  in  Ihort  look'd  upon  as  one  of  thr 
valuable  things  £«^/.;;/i/ atlbrds,  which  are, 

Anglid  monsyfotis,j'oiis,eccUf,ii,fAmina,  laiia. 

That  is.  The  fam'.ns  hings  of  England, 
are  bills,  hrulgis,  fountains,  (hiiri.L'i>, 
women  and  uiooll. 

Add  to  their  commendation,  tliat  they 
do  whatloever  tliey  plealt.-;  and  ilo  to  'j^i- 
nerally  wear  the  breeches,  as  we  ufe  to  l.iy, 
that  it  is  now  become  a  proverb,  Tba, 
I'aigland  is  tbe  bell  of  borjis,  aud  faradife  if 
iLomiit;  and  that  if  there werea bridge troiu 
the  illand  to  the  continent,  all  the  women 
in  Europe  would  run  thither.  Here  they 
ute  the  f.ilute,  or  kiti,  not  on  the  cheek, 
\\i  in  Frame,  but  on  the  mouth.  I'or  wo- 
men to  [\o  abroad  every  where,  and  leave 
their  husbands  at  home,  is  no  j^reat  matter, 
and  u.s'd  in  other  countries  -,  but  what  part 
of  the  World  did  you  ever  hear  ot,  whrrc 
a  poor  isoblig  d  to  acknowledge  a  foil 
got  on  his  wife,  during  his  ablence,  as  his 
own?  And  yet  the  law  ot  A'.;:^'.'.;«i.'oblii'cs 
all  husbands  to  it,  who  are  not  without  the 
En^^iij.h  teas,  tho'  tliey  have  been  never  fu 
long  abfeiit. 

'I'his  liberty,  as  well  as  the  temper  of 
the  .lir,  1  believe,  is  the  otcalion  that  tome 
young  m.iidens,  not  above  twelve  or  thir- 
teen years  ot  age,  have  t'ucli  I'wollen  breatls, 
as  it  they  had  two  or  three  children  i  and 
doubtlels  it  is  the  virtue  of  valcntinefliip 
that  makes  them  thrive  to.  You  mult  uii- 
derrtand,  that,  on  .St.  yalfiilive's  day, 
which  is  on  the  tourtccnth  of  February, 
when  tlic  tun  begins  to  bellow  a  certain 


c//  brief  Account  of  l-'ngland. 

1111  per  ot  loiue 
:  or  ihir- 
I  brcalts, 
en  i  anil 

Inult  un- 
's  il.iy. 



w.irnuli  upon  f'l''  rirtli,  whicli  .iltcrw.inli 
t.uill's  .mimil-i  to  multiply  n-ijuil  niniilKrs 
ot  yDUHjj;  nan  .nul  woiiuMi  nii-tt  ii);.^fclu r, 
ami  wi  itiiin  i1k  ir  n.iinc";  on  li  rolls  ot  pajur, 
ilr.iw  llii'in  hy  way  ot  lots  and  tlnn  i.ill 
one  .inocluT  /',//.v/.'i;.ri,  thf  nirii  wrarin^ 
llioi;  papirs  in  tliiir  lutn,  ami  tin-  women 
(in  tin  ir  1)1-1. alU  anil  tlumuakinp,  love,  noc 
hy  (  hiiiie,  but  by  i  lianir,  llii-y  pri li-nt, 
anil  I  ait  Is  one  anotiur,  anil  viry  otton 
an-  drawn  into  matrimony  \  but  this  does 
not  always  happen. 

Tlie  lifiiih  talhion  Ij  usM  in  eloatliini;, 
bating  that  tome  women  ot  the  meaner 
lort  wear  ru(;ar-l()al  ham  but  the  worll 
is,  that  ni)  woman  will  yield  to  another  in 
oxtravanan'y,  and  time  is  no  dilierence 
between  a  lady  ot  quality  mm\  the  meancll 
trad<  linan's  wile,  or  between  her  and  her 

As  to  the  religion  in  I'.n^l.ind,  you  mull 
underlUnd,  that  our  holy  taithwasj-re.ich'd 
there  in  the  .ipolUes  days,  and  lome  will 
have  St.  I'liid  iiinilelt'  to  have  been  the 
loundir  ot  this  chureh,  contrary  to  the 
opinion  ol  thote  who  aliribe  it,  without 
any  jfooJ  j^round,  lo  ynjifb  lA'  /Irimiitbci. 
I  lowever  clirillianity  be^an  to  tlourilli  in 
the  :  eign  ot  I.tuiiis,  the  tirll  chriltian  king, 
converted  in  the  year  i8o,  by  Eluunin  and 
j'lliiiiiiis  i  and  it  is  to  be  oblerv'd,  againit 
tJK  tettaries,  that  this  king  would  not  rc- 
cciv;  the  taith  till  he  had  heard  trom  l:lcu- 
tbn-iiis,  the  twiltth  pope,  it  I  millakenot, 
after  St.  Pi:tei\  that  tiie  taith  ofthei  hrilUans 
in  Britain  was  agreeable  to  tiiat  ol  Rome  \ 
and  conlequentiy  he  look'd  upon  it  as  cer- 
tain, thr.tthe  /^o/;)i;;;  church  was  to  be  the 
nde  ol  wiiat  all  others  ougiit  to  believe. 
The  lieatlien  Saxnin  coming  in  atierwards, 
p.iganilin  prevailM  again,  and  continu'd 
till  tl>e  year  51)6,  when  St.  Giygory  lent 
over  //ir^ujlin  tile  urehbifhop,  who  con- 
verted ti>e  Siix'jiii,  and  their  king. 

It  we  would  I'pe.ik  ot  the  prefent  religion, 
you  very  well  know  upon  what  occalion 
king  Uitiry  \'IiI.  withdrew  himlelt  and  all 
his  kingdom  trom  their  I'ubicdtion  to  the 
pope,  and  how  he  united  the  cccleliatliLal 
«nd  regal  power,  confounding  heaven  and 
•arth  to  pleafe  his  humour.  However,  it 
muft  be  own'd,  that  not  only  he,  but  his 
fon£</a'.7/i/,and  atterwards  queen /iV/zi/^iV/i, 
who  again  tet  up  the  reformation  after  the 
death  of  queen  ALiry,  who  had  abolilh'd  it, 
usM  another  fort  ot  moderation  in  this  par- 
ticular than  the  Lutherans  and  Caivtmjh 
have  done  ;  for  notwithftanding  all  their 
hatred  to  the  Romnn  church,  they  rtill  re- 
tain'd  tome  outwanl  ceremonies,  according 
to  the  gofpel  and  the  dilcipline  of  the  pri- 
mitive chrillians.  Some  other  protellants, 
lets  blinded  by  prejudice,  were  of  this  opi- 
nion at  full.  Now  tho'  there  be  many  dif- 
VoL.   VI. 


lereiu  tei  t.  ill  /•.i;i;/<//;i/,wliu  li  d.iily  O.T.irioti  '-i  >'"  '  1 
trouble',  in  the  Hale,  yet  the  chief  of  tluin,  >*^"^^ 
c.ili'd  the  chureh  ol  l-.Hii^luiul,  is  ol  the 
ipiliopal  party,  is,  who  admit  ol  liunc 
loll  ot  hier.iri  hv,  contrary  to  the  noncon- 
tormills,c,ill'd<///;'i'«/c/ j,andagrcewithothcr 
protell.mi  churches  in  tund.imeni  ils,b.itin}i; 
the  way  ot  woi  Ijiip,  as  i>  laid  above  ;  but 
the  fitter  will  noi  he.irof  l)ilhops,  .dledg- 
ing  thai  the  primitive  church  was  not  go- 
v^rn'd  by  ihem.bui  by  eldi  rs,oi  presbyters, 
M\^\  then  lore  a  lonliderable  part  ot  theni 
are  call'd  l'i,:<huii(ins.  1  lu y  ixilaim 
againll  the  lu.xury  ot  billiops,  agiinlt  their  reveiuii  s,  anil  ag.iinll  the  authority 
tliev  have  en(i,rolVil  \  but,  .is  I  have  l)ccn 
told,  they  do  this  out  ol  prejudiie,  In  emit; 
the  epilcop.d  p.irty  h.ivi  been  loy.d  lo  their 
kings, whereas  they  hate  inoii.irchyibelides, 
the  I'l-iihliiiii/h  oblei  ve  iic  liturgy, or  toriii 
of  prayer,  and  liK)k  upon  c\cn  the  1  .oni's 
prayer  as  inditiirtnt ,  .ind  they  look  upon 
it  as  a  heinous  lin  to  make  the  lign  ot  the 
crols,  to  bow  .it  the  holy  name  o\Ji-ji,i, 
and  to  kneel  at  the  conmiunion  -,  .wid  in 
lliorr,  tin  y  are  fdd  to  lerve  dod  loKli^  ily, 
and  without  cerenmny  •,  liowever,  their 
hyi)oerify  is  to  great,  that  their  number* 
and  power  are  nuich  inereafed. 

I'lie  next  among  the  dillenters  are  the 
/  :,lr/<rnil()its,  or  all'-inbly-men,  lo  call'J 
l)ecaule  every  one  of  them  would  m.ike  .1  congregation  lubjeit  to  no  other 
laws  but  their  will,  and  thefe  by  w.iy  of 
contempt  call  the  churches  lleeple-houles. 
'i'hen  lollow  i\\c  ^iii,il>J/tijh,  who  are  not 
now  altogether  lb  profane  and  blafphemous 
as  formerly  thole  of  Aliinjtir  in  Germ, my 
under  Jobi:  of  l.ewLii  w  re,  but  maunaiii 
that  thole  who  come  over  to  their  lict 
ought  to  be  bapti/.M  again,  and  that  lay- 
men may  pn-acii  the  word  of  God. 

riie  Millrnarki  are  otherwil'c  call'd 
Fi'ib-monirchf-men.,  who  grounding  their 
o;nnion  on  feveral  literal  texts  ot  fcripture, 
fondly  believe  that  J  e  s  i'  s  Chris  t  will 
have  a  temporal  reign  of  a  thoul'and  years 
upon  eirth. 

I'he  y^jfaktn  condemn  all  ccclefiallical 
ceremonies, and  all  minillry,rci!e:l  all  laera- 
ments,  laugh  at  Ihidy'd  termons,  and  will 
not  allow  the  'cripture  itielf  as  an  inf.dlible 
rule  of  life  i  and  what  is  Hill  worte,  not- 
withllanding  all  thefe  abfurditics,  pretend 
to  live  like  the  primitive  chrillians.  I'hey 
boall  of  h.iving  no  gilide  but  the  lioly 
(ihofl,  which,  tho'  a  fpirit  of  peace  and 
tranquillity,  yet  they  tremble  expei'Ung 
thei'  infpirations,  and  thence  have  their 
name.  L'pon  this  belief  both  men  and 
women,  Hll'd  with  a  ditlercnt  rapture  tioni 
that  of  the  >S\/';/j,  preach  at  their  meetings 
after  the  molt  extravagant  manner  in  thu 
world,  and  utter  all  that  comes  next,  whe- 
H  h  rhcr 


if  'k^\''- 

'4y-  ■ 

;  .  iS'Sf    •"ij'ij  ;j,::!ii 

tl,  i'id 


yl  brief  AccovMt  oj  England. 


Crsuni.  tlicr  good  or  b;ul.  One  of  their  maxims 
"^"^^''''^  is,  that  all  mm  (irc  eqitiil,  and  thertt'orc  ihc 
mcancll  lloundrcl  {^ivcs  a  prince  no  otii' r 
title  but  tl.wu,  and  iii^'cps  his  hat  on  bt;luri.- 
the  king  hunilU.  'I'licy  alVcrt  an  extraor- 
dinary limplicity  in  outward  appearance, 
inl'omuch  that  they  reckon  it  a  iuinous 
crime  to  wear  ribbons,  or  llicli  like  orna- 
ments ;  a  thing  coninundable,  did  it  pro- 
ceeii  from  a  real  contempt  ot  worliily 
tilings,  and  were  not  attended  with  a 
counicrlcit  humihty. 

Amiditall  tliisdivi-fity  of  opinions  and 
libeity  (if  conlcicnce,  nie  catholick  religion 
bviiins  anain  to  profpjr,  tiiro'  the  exti.ior- 

powtrful  than  we  imnginc  ro  hrcod  ilifif- 
tection  between  the  nearclt  relations  ;  and 
1  am  of  opinion  it  is  imjiollible  thit  all  the 
nii'mbcrs  of  a  comnionweaUh  llionKI  con- 
cur to  act  ord-jrly,  lor  the  publick  good  of 
the  llite,  where  there  is  lucli  liifagreenicnt, 
which  dillurbs  the  nobhll  and  dnine  part 
ot  man  •,  I  mean,  he  can  never  be  a  real 
monarch  whole  lubje(;:lsdo  not  all  agree  in 
opinion  as  lo  fpiiitual  alliiirs  ;  ;ind  this  was 
plainly  demonllrated  undt  r  king  Chdrhs  I. 
by  the  factions  of  the  PrfibUirinin,  and 
other  nomoiiiormills  againlf  the  bilhops. 
It  woukl  have  bren  proper  for  king  y^w.-i 
to  declare  himfelf  a  catholick,  had  he  any 

dinary  piety  and  zeal  of  the  king,  who  per-  hopes  of  being  foUow'd  by  all  his  fubjeiits, 
lornis  all  ihe  duties  of  a  good  chrillian  for  then  he  niight  expect  one  day  to  have 
openly  s  baref  ic'd  •,  he  olten  goes  to  the  abfolute  dii'pofd  ol  them;  but  when 
mala  LO  i.'u  chapel  of  the  BenaliMiiiL  monks  there  is  no  likelihood  that  this  will  fucceed 
in  St.jiima's  park,  near  which  alio  lives  what  elfe  is  the  conl'eqaence  of  iiiiblilhin"- 
iVlonf  Diuia,  tiie  fnlt  Aundo  from  RotHi.  himlelfof  a  religion  that  is  odious  to  the 
that  has  been  feen  thefe  many  yeato  in  fubieifls,  but  purchaling  at  a  dear  rate,  firit 
London,  and  is  befides  building  a  chapel  their  averfion,  then  open  haireil,  and  laltly 
within  his  own  pa!  ICO.   Some  days  fince  I     barefac'd    contempt    and    ililobediencc  ? 

law  a  jirelate  in  his  •  jach  wearing  the  long  If/lina  Icnu,   liiys  the   old   proverb,   l-'air 

black  robe,  and  am  told  he  is  a  catholick  and  Jhflly  goes  far ;  and  were  it  falfe  in  all 

biiho[)  newly  come.     To  (Uy  the  truth,  I  other  n  ipeds,  yet  ought  it  to  be  obferv'd 

much  admire  iuch  hafty  proceeding  'ji  a  hi  things  of  this  nature.     l\.\C\  this  been 

matter  of  fuch  confequence.     Such  is  the  done  in  a  country  where  the  prince's  will 

hatredof  the  commonalty,  and  efpRcially  were    the   fovcreign   law,   there   were  no 

the  Scots,  that  the  epifcopal  party  and  the  fpeaking  againlt  it,  the  zeal  would  be  com- 

Prcsbytt-iians  will  certainly  unite  to  oppofe  menilable,  and  might  perliajis  prove  very 

the  king's  defigns,  as  being  Ijoth  equally  fuccefstul  ;  but  here  the  blood  of  a  kino-, 

concern'd  in  oppofing  the  catholicks,what-  Hiamcfully  flied  by  an  executioner,  and  ro 

foever  their  private  quarrels  are.     There  the  everlalting  infamy  of  the  nation,  is  Hill 

begins  alreaily  to  :!ppear  a  difjHjfitior  to  reeking,  and  cries  for  vengeance.  Succeed- 

mutinv,  which  my  friends  and  I  call  the  i'lg  ages  will  be  told,  and  perhaps  will  not 

fmoke  of  a  great  tire  that  is  kindling.  The  believe,  that  a  parliament  aflembled  by  the 

envoy  of  Lunnnburg  has  open'd  a  chapel  in  iving's  authority  Ihould  have  the  inioleno 


his  lioufe,  which  the  protettants  will  nor  to  judge  that  fame  king.     If  we  rightly 

fuller  on  any  account,  infomuch  that  for  conlidcr  it,  the  TiiikiJIj  government  is  cer- 

three  Sundays  fuccelFively  above  two  thou-  tainly  much  better  than  this  of  England  ; 

land   apj)rentice;;   have    aflembled    there,  for  tho'  both  be  faulty,   yet  the  tirll  is  lo 

throwing  Hones,  and  committing  the  great-  Jn  the  unlimited  power  of  the  monarch,  the 

eft  villanies  in  tiie  world.     The  king,  as  other  in  laying  too  many  burdens  on  him  ; 

I  am  inform'd  by  Signior  Rtva,r.\\K.  queen's  yet  in  my  opinion  that  ftate  ou"!u  alwavs 

to  be  "^oll  preferable  which  is  lealt  fubic'a 
to  degenerate  into  a  worfe,and  lefs  expos'd 
to  civil  broils.  Lngtund,  as  lar  as  man  can 
pretend  to  lorefee,  according  to  its  pircfent 

wardrobe- keeper,  is  much  concern'd,  and 
has  ordsr'd  the  Lord-mayor  of  London  to 
make  the  envoy  fatisla<ffion,and  punifli  the 
infolency  ot  that  rabble.    Tiiey  fay  there 

are  an  hundred  thrown  into  gaol,  but  no  dif'pofition,  mull  ot  necedky  fall  from  a' 

man  knows  what  will  be  the  end.     I  am  nionarchy  into  a  llrange  mixture  ot  arifto- 

not  of  opinion  that  changes  from  one  ex-  cracy  and  democracy,  or  rather  an  oligar- 

ireme  to  another  can  be  brought  about  all  chy  and  anarchy,  till  one  of  the  two  pre- 

at  once,  and  king  James  II.  ought  to  li^ve  vail,  with  the  utter  deltru(5tion  of  the  coun- 

known  the  extravagant  genius  of  his  fub-  try.   The  Turk,  as  I  have  laid,  takes  more 

Jeds,  and  remember'd  the  ilifnial  tragedy  upon  him  than  belongs  to  a  lawful  monarch 

lb  lately  acted  in  liis  kingdom.   The  kings  and  is  properly  a  tyrant  acconling  to  our 

of  England  were  never  abfolute,  as  become  lav/s  .md  cullonis,  but  perhaps  t\KAjhitick>, 

kings,   but   more    particularly   fince    the  having  been  long  us'd  to  the  ablbluie  power 

reformation,  by  reafon  of  the  multiplicity 
of  fects,  proceeding  from  liberty  of  con- 
fcience,whi(ii  I  call  ILw  forniinncr  ofJlbeij'm. 
The  diverfuy  ot  rtligions  is  much  more 

of  a  lingle  ]xrU)n,  may  tiiink  that  iie.ivy 
yoke  i)leafuit  .md  agreeable ;  however  it  is, 
1  am  ot  o])inion  that  the  dileales  of  that 
nionarchy  are  caller  to  cure  than  ihcEnglijIi. 





'ET.  21.  m  Let.  2r. 

yi  brief  Account  of  England. 


Fvtry  govcrnmcn'^  ought  to  be  perfcifl  in 
its  kiiul,  but  the  monarchical  above  them 
all,  l.n-  tiie  fame  rc.ijbiis  which  prove  that 
government  to  be  more  perfect  than  any 
otiur  ;  it  WIS  tile  firll,  according  to  Juftin, 
tint  was  inllituteil,  that  the  perfon  reigning 
iniglu  be  as  I'ollicitous  lor  the  advantage  of 
iiis'peo;  1.-  as  mailers  ot  families  arc  in  their 
private  iic'afjs,  and   this  with  more  real 
liberty  tii m  is  to  be  found  in  any  other  Itate  i 
for  as  the  greateft  liberty  confirts  in  obeying 
no  man,  fo  ought  it  to  be  reckon'd  lefs  fer- 
vitadc  to  be  obedient  to  one  than  to  many. 
I  couki  bring  abundance  of  inlVanccs  for 
wiiat  I  aikdge  both  out  of  the  iacred  and 
protane  writers  but  left  I  grow  tedious, 
fhall  rert  fatisty'd  with  putting  you  in  mind 
lirft  of  what  TiUiliis  hys, /liiint!.  i.  Earn 
cijiuliiionem  <;//"  impcrcindi,  ut  >ioii  ali'er  ratio 
conjta,  quam  ji  I'tii  reil^atur :  'The  iiatyre  of 
y  ^.,-nme)it  isfiich,  that  ':'  cainicl  be  coiififtcnt 
intlefi  flit  into  the  po-ivcr  of  one  perfoii.  Then 
of  Martial'i  words,    Slut  Rex  esi  Rc^em, 
Maxim^*,  ncii  habeat  :  lie  who  is  a  kii:^, 
Maximus,  titiift  ri'.t  have  another  to  reign  over 
him.    An  1  Ihmcr,  Iliad  i.  vcrf.  204.  tells 
us,   Ti.H'  domii'ion  of  many  is  not  good.  There 
imiji  be  but  one prinee,one  king,  on  vjhom  Jove 
has  bejloiu^d  lbefre/ter,and  the  right  ofreign- 
iiiX-     You  yourlclf  will  be  able  to  judge 
wJK'ther  tliefe  conditions  can  be  found  in 
the  rule  ot  tlvj  F.riglip}  monarchs,  by  exa- 
mining their  culloms  and  'aws. 

The  parliament  is  compofed  of  two 
houfes,  the  upper  and  the  lower,  or  lords 
and  commons,  only  the  king  can  call,  dif- 
folve,  and  prorogue  it,  orelfe  the  perfons 
by  iiim  deputed  in  his  abfence,  or  govern- 
ing in  his  minority.  When  it  is  to  meet, 
circular  letters,  cali'd  writs,  are  fent  forty 
days  before  th.e  appointed  time  to  all  j)ccrs, 
hotli  fpiritual  and  temporal,  who  compofe 
the  upjicr  houfe  •,  and  fo  to  the  counties, 
cities,  and  boroughs,  each  to  choofe  one  or 
two  rejirellntatives,  according  to  their 
charter,  lor  the  lower  houfe,  that  they 
may  tlius  all  be  afTeinblsd  together,  to 
confult  upon  fomc  important  ailair  for  the 
advantage  and  fafety  of  the  realm.  The 
houfe  ot  lords  confills  of  dukci,  marquifles, 
carls,  vifcounts,  barons,  archbifliops  and 
bilhops ;  the  lower  of  knights  of  the  feveral 
fliires,  citizens  and  burgefles,  and  the 
barons  of  the  cinque-ports.  At  the  oj^iiing 
of  the  parliament  the  king  goes  to  the 
houfe  of  lords  in  his  robes,  and  the  crown 
on  his  head,  where,  being  feated  on  the 
throne,  he  makes  a  Ihort  fpcech,  declaring 


the  occafion  of  their  meeting,  which  tlic  OrMfiLi. 
chancellor  enlarges  upon,    the   houfe  of*'^"^'''^ 
commons  llaniling  all  the  while  bareheaded 
at  tiie  bar.     Then   they  aj-e   order'd  to 
choofe  a  fpeakcr,  which   ihcy  do   when 
return'd  to  their  houfe,  and  prefent  him 
to  the  king  a  day  or  two  after.     Then  the 
fpeaker  asks  three  things  of  the  king,  viz. 
accefs  to  his  majefty,  liberty  of  fpecch,  and 
freedom  from  all  arrcfts.     If  any  tax  is  to 
be  laid,  it  is  lirlt  debated  in  the  houfe  of 
commons,  bccaul'e  the  commonalty  bearing 
the  greatcfl  burden  are  moll  concern'd  in 
it.  They  have  alio  liberty  of  carrying  up 
impeachments  againft  the  greateft  men  in 
the  kingdom,  whereupon  fometimes  the 
commons  appear  bare-headed,  and  Hand- 
ing at  the  lords  bar,  proceed  againll  peers, 
whilft  they  fit  upon    the   tryal  of  their 
own  brethren.    Every  member  of  parlia- 
ment may  r'fer  whatfoewr  he  thinks  for 
the  piiblick  good  to  either  houfe,  and  this 
they  call  a  bill,  ■  hich  the  clerk  reads  to 
tliem,  and  then  tlie  cxamir.uion  oi  it  is 
reflrr'd  to  a  c.rtain  number  appointed, 
cali'd  a  committee  ;  whence  twice   read, 
committed,  and  ingrols'd,  it  is  read  a  thircl 
time,  and  then  if  carry'd  by  the  majority, 
the  clerk  writes  under  it  in  Freiieb,  Soit 
bailie  aiix  eowmnnes,  or  aux  feigiteurs,  that 
is.  Let  it  be  fent  to  the  commons,  or  to  the 
lords,  according  to  the  houfe  it  is  pals'd  in. 
Tie  votes  arc  not  given  by  balloting,  but 
crying  out  cont'ifedly  yea  or  no  ;  fo  that 
if  there  is  no  difcerning  the  majority,  the 
one  part  goes  out,    and  the  other   ftays 
within,  and  lb  are  counted.     In  the  houfe 
of  lords  it  is  order'd  otherwife,  for  the  lall 
liaron  gives  his  vote  firft,  and  then  the  rell 
in  courfe  anfwer  content,  or  not  content.    In 
cafe  one  houfe  pafs  a  bill,  and  the  other 
hefitate,  they  appoint  a  conference  between 
perfons  appointed  by  both  houfes,  and  if 
they  agree,  it  palTes,  if  not,  'tis  rejefted. 
I  could  write  you  a  thoufand  more  parti- 
culars touching  this  aliair,  but  my  letter 
fwclls  into  a  book,  and  therefore  I  think  fit 
to  conclude,  informing  you,  that  when  the 
parliament  is  to  be  prorogu'd  ordiflblv'd, 
the  king  fends  the  ufher  of  the  black  rod  to 
call  up  the  commons  to  the  bar  of  the  lords 
houfe,  where  either  the  king  or  the  chan- 
cellor declares   his  will.     Tlie    aforcfaid 
officer  is  cali'd  ufher  of  the  black  rod  from 
a  black  rod  about  three  fpans  long,  tipp'd 
with  filver,  he  carries  \n  his  hand,     I  am 
your,  ^c. 




A  hrief  {Recount  of  England.  Let.  22.  ^  jLiji-. 


I'    si  I 


Of  li'hat  the  Author  faw  in  London,  und  at  Windlbr. 


Am  upon  departing  to  crofs  the  fca, 
and  might  very  well  fend  you  this  letter 
from  the  continent ;  but  fince  love  thinks 
every  inconfidcrable  delay  an  age,  and  the 
poft  will  be  tiiere  before  me,  I  think  fit  to 
write  to  yoa  now  ;  and  the  rather,  becaufe 
my  defign  being  to  acquaint  you  with  fonie 
particulars  concerning  this  city,  I  may 
perhaps  forget  fomething  you  will  be  glad 
to  know.  To  triHe  away  no  more  time,  I 
am  of  opinion  tnat  one  great  argument  of 
the  populoiifnefs  of  this  phace  is,  iti:  con- 
taining one  hundred  and  thirteen  pariflics 
in  all  its  three  parts,  which  are  London, 
South'ji'ark,  beyond  the  river,  and  Wefl- 
viinjhr,  tho*  this  lad  be  adiftind  city,  in- 
dependent of  the  otiier,  and  only  fubjeiit 
to  the  kings  courts. 
St  Paul's  '^'^'^  magnificent  catLedral,  dedicated 
{hurrh.  to  St.  Paul,  W".s  firll  founded  by  king 
Slgebert,  in  the  year  6io  ;  then  being  con- 
fum'd  by  fire,  was  begun  to  be  rebuilt  by 
bifhop  Maurice',  about  1083,  and  not 
finilh'd  till  1221.  In  the  dreadful  fire  in 
1666,  it  was  again  reduc'd  toadies;  and 
king  Charles  II.  in  1673,  with  much  fo- 
lemnity,  laid  the  firll  Hone  of  the  ilrufture 
now  erec'ling,  God  knows  when  to  be  per- 
fedt'-d,  by  an  impofition  laid  on  fea  coal. 
It  will  liavc  :!iree  ifles,  in  the  nature  of  a 
cathedral,  with  a  large  cupola,  allot  Port- 
land done,  being  not  much  inferior  to  mar- 
ble. The  old  eliurch  is  faid  to  have  been 
one  hundred  and  two  foot  high,  one  huii- 
dreii  and  thirty  in  breadth,  and  fix  hundred 
and  ninety  in  length,  that  is  twenty  foot 
more  tiian  St.  Pdcr's  at  Rome.  On  the 
trofs  ftootl  a  tower  two  hundred  and  fixty 
foot  higli,  indcad  of  a  cupola  v  anel  on 
tiie  tower  a  wootlen  fpire,  covcr'd  with 
lead,  two  hundred  and  fi,\ty  foot  higher ; 
on  the  tojJ  whereof  was  a  ball  of  gilt  cop- 
per nine  foot  diameter,  witii  a  crofs  on  it, 
four  toot  and  half  high,  and  on  the  crofs  a 
gilt  eagle. 
Wcnniin-  In //w;,'? «)»//? (T  is  another  church  anil  ab- 
lur.ucr,.  bey,  dedicateii  to  St.  Peler,  formerly  be- 
longin;j;  to  the  Benediilims,  and  afterwards 
by  q'.ieen  Eliz.dhth  made  collegiate,  and 
given  to  twelve  prebends  and  a  de.m.  It  is 
a  m.ignilicent  Itru'.ure,  with  three  ides, 
and  the  llone  very  good.  In  it  are  the 
tombs  of  moll  of  the  kings  of  England, 
and  other  great  men.  In  the  cloitler  isa 
gootl  publiek  libraiy,  free  to  all  people, 
open'd    in  Ttvvw-awi'J  morning  and  after- 

London,  May  10,    1686. 

noon.  Clofe  by  was  formerly  a  royal  pa- 
lace, much  ot  which  being  burnt  ilown  in 
the  reign  ^ji Henry  V'lII.  was  never  rebuilt  1 
but  there  is  Hill  a  part  kept  up,  where  the 
parliament  meeu,  and  is  not  to  be  fiightly 
palled  by.  When  I  was  tiiere,  the  parlia- 
ment had  beenjull  prorogu'd  to  the  twen- 
ty- fecond  of  Nozymkr,  and  conlequeiitly  the 
houles  were  empty.  In  the  lower  1  f  iw  many 
benches  fet  about,  cover'd  with  blue  cloth, 
in  the  nature  of  a  theatre,  and  the  Ipeaker's 
chair  at  the  end.  The  upper  houle  i:i  much 
finaller;  and  in  it  is  the  king's  throne,  all 
of  Icarlet  and  purple  brocade.  I'he  order 
of  fitting  here  is  as  follows;  none  can  bo 
under  the  king's  canopy,  but  his  children 
by  his  fide  ;  on  the  upiier  bencii,  wiiich  is 
by  the  wall  on  the  king's  right  lumii,  fit 
the  two  archbidiops  ;  a  little  lower  the 
bidiops  of  London,  Durham,  and  JVin- 
cbcjler ;  and  then  the  other  bidiops,  ac- 
cording to  their  feniority.  On  the  letl  are 
alfo  benches  for  the  ciiancellor,  ib.e  trea- 
furer,  the  j)refident  of  the  council,  and 
lord  privy  leal ;  yet  lb  that  if  they  are 
barons,  of  any  blood  but  the  royal,  they 
take  place  of  the  dukes ;  if  not,  they  fit 
above  the  bench  on  wool-facks,  cover'd 
with  yellow  cloth.  On  this  tame  tide  fit 
the  dukes,  marquilfes,  and  earls,  accord- 
ing to  feniority  of  their  titles.  The  vif- 
counts,  fit  on  the  fird  of  the  benches 
that  arc  acrofs  the  houfe,  behind  wool- 
facks  ;  and  the  barons  on  tiie  rell.  On 
the  atbrelaid  wool-facks  fit  the  judges,  the 
privy-counfcllors,  the  king's  otiicers,  and 
mailers  ot  chancery,  who  have  no  vote, 
if  they  be  not  barons,  but  arc  ailmitteil 
to  give  their  opinion,  it  ask'd.  The 
cudomof  fitting  on  \vool-f\cks  was  inlli- 
tuted  by  the  ancients,  as  may  be  luppos'd, 
to  put  tliem  in  mind  of  the  great  .idvantage 
the  idanil  reaps  by  thetr.uleor  wool,  that 
they  may  therefore  endeavour  to  promote 
it.  The  chancellor,  or  keeper  of'  the 
great  feal,  who  is  the  ufual  fpeaker  ot  the 
houte  of  lortls.  Hands  behind  the  kiiiii,, 
when  he  is  prelent,  or  cite  fits  on  the  fiid 
bench,  having  his  gilt  mace,  and  the  great 
feal  by  him.  The  lad  wotjl-laek  is  tor  the 
clerks  of  tlie  crown  andot'  the  iiarliameiit. 
The  firtl  of  them  takes  care  ot  tiic  records, 
and  the  other  enters  down  ail  that  is  done, 
and  theretbre  has  two  tither  clerks  un.ier 
hitn,  who  write  kneeling.  The  udi.-r  of 
the  black  rod  fits  without  the  bar.      It  ii 


LkI.  2  2. 

A  brief  Account  of  finglaiid. 


firthcr  to  be  oblcrv'd,  that  when  the  king 
j^  on  liis  throiu',  the  lords  are  bare  ;  and 
fo  are  even  in  his  abfence  the  icing's  officers^ 
the  mailers  in  chancery,  and  the  judges 
aforefaid  •,  and  thele  may  not  fit  down  till 
I'jave  had  of  the  icing  and  the  lords. 

In  the  lower  houl'e  tiiere  is  not  fo  much 
ceremony  us'd,  but  they  all  fit  as  they 
come,  without  diftindion,  except  the 
I'pcaker,  who  is  in  th.;  middle,  and  tiie 
clerk  by  him.  All  the  members  are  clad 
as  they  pleafe,  whereas  the  lords  wear  long 
fcarlet  robes,  like  fenaiors. 

As  to  the  other  courts  in  the  royal  hall 
at  fVeJimiiijler,  on  the  right  hand  coming 
in  is  the  court  of  Common  Picas,  where 
all  fuits  between  man  and  man  are  try'd. 
There  are  four  judges   belonging   to  it ; 
who,  with  good  reafon,  are  not  perpetual, 
but   durin"  the  king's  pleafure,  [This  is 
f:ncc  alter'' d]  as  are  all  the  other  judges  in 
England,  and  the  firft  ot    them  is  call'd 
lord  chief  jullice.     Some  days  they  wear 
long  purple  robes,  others  black,  and  others 
fcarlet,  lin'dwithermin,  according  to  the 
trials  they  fit  on,  and  the  days;  and  over 
thofe  robes,  when  they  are  in  court,  they 
have  a  purple  mantle,  or  rochet,  putting 
a  fmall  cap  on  their,  which  covers 
riieir  ears,  like  the  popes,  and  then  a  large 
fquare  one,  after  the  manner  of  tlie  ancient 
Swifs.      From  this  court  appeals  lie    to 
the  King's-Bench,  confiding  of  four  otiier 
judges,    who  try  criminal  caufes.      The 
court   of  chancery,    othcrwife   call'd   ol 
equity,  is  above  them  all  ;  where  they  de- 
cide controvcrfies  two  feveral  ways,  either 
according  to  the  cuftom  of  tlie  kingdom, 
and  then  the  proceedings  are  in  Latin  ;  or 
clfe  according  to  equity  and  confcience, 
mitigating  the  rigour  of  the  law,  accord- 
ing to  the  ilri<5l  words  whereof  the  othc'r 
judges  often  pronounce  fentence  ;  and  then 
the  other  proceedingjs  are  in  Engli/b.    From 
this  lame  court  are  ilfu'd  I'afe  condufts  ;  and 
here   treaties  and    leagues    with    foreign 
princes  are  regiller'd.     It  is  true,  the  char- 
Cellor  alone  is  judge,  but  wh'-n  the  confe- 
quence  of  the  matter  in  han^  requires,   he 
advifes  with  tlie  other  judges,  or  with  his 
twelve  coadjutors,  call'd  mailers  in  chan- 
cery, every  one  of  whom  is  intrulled  with 
fome  particular  matter  relating  to  chan- 
cery.     This  court  is   open  all   the   year 
about,  whereas  the  others  fit  but  four  times 
a  year;  at  the  four  terms.     The  firll  is 
MichiU'lmas  term,  beginning  the  twenty- 
third  ot  0:hber,  and  lads  till  the  twenty- 
ni'  ..1  ot  November ;  the  fccond  is  Hilary 
term,    commencing    tlie   twenty-tiiird  ot 
January,    and  ending  the    thirteentii    nf 
February ;  the  third,  Eajler  term,  begins 
tJic  Monday  after  Eajler  week,  and  lalls 
Vol.  VI. 

four  weeks;  the  fourth,  Trinity  Krm,  be-  c^melm. 
gins  in  that  week,  and  laflis  three  weeks.       Vi^vx^ 

The  Exchequer  court  attends  all  thing* 
relating  to  the  king's  revenue,  and  confiits 
of  four  judges,  call'd  barons.  It  would 
be  tedious  to  fpeak  in  particular  of  all  that 
relates  to  this  court ;  butit  is  worth  obferv- 
ing,  that  among  tiic  records  is  kept  an 
ancient  book,  on  which  every  foot  of  land 
throughout  England,  is  fet  down  and  va- 
lu'd,  with  the  tax  laid  on  the  owners  by 
king  IViltiam  the  conqueror  ;  as  alfo  the 
nanus  of  all  the  cities,  towns,  calUes,  and 
villages,  in  the  realm,  the  number  ot  fa- 
milies, foldiers,  peafants,  fervants,  and 
cattle  ;  and  the  rent  of  every  farm,  and 
how  paid.  So  that  all  fuits  about  thofe 
aftiiirs  being  then  decided  by  the  faid  book, 
it  was  with  good  reafon  call'd  doomfday- 
book,  as  deciding  all  controvcrfies. 

The  affiiirs  relating  to  the  dutchy  ot 
Lancajler,  are  manag  d  in  a  feparate  court, 
in  the  fame  palace  at  IVejlminJler. 

In  this  fame  city  is  the  royal  palace,  wiuiclu!!, 
call'd  IVbiteball,  where  the  king  now  re- 
fides,  built  by  the  famous  Cardinal  fFoljey, 
on  a  plealimt  fpot  of  ground,  between  the 
Thames  and  the  park  ;    but  the  flrudlure 
very  irregular,     and  diiagrceable  to    the 
Italian  talte  ;  fo  that  to  tell  you  the  truth» 
I  thought  nothing  handfome  but  a  fine  hall, 
much  later  built,  and  the  place  for  recep- 
tion of  cnibalTadors,  painted  by  the  famous 
Paul  Rubens.      As  for  the  furniture,  the 
workmanihip,   and  the  materials  feem  to 
vie  with  one  another ;   and  what  wonder, 
fincc  it  is  the  palace  of  io  rich  and  powerful 
a  king?  There  are  feveral  pieces  of  cannon 
below  mounted,  defign'd  perhaps  to  fervc  in 
cafe  of  any  mutiny, confidering  the  nature  of 
tliis  people.  The  garden  is  pleafimt  enough, 
and  adorn'd  with  feveral  good  brals  and 
marble  ftatues ;    tho'  the  trees  and  plants 
bear  nothing  but  leaves,  and  fome  choice 
flowers,  by  rcaibn  ot  the  coldnels  of  the 
climate,  and  moifbncls  of   the  foil,  which 
doesnotanfwer  the  labour  of  the  gardeners. 
The  park  has  a  fine  collection  ot  flrano-e 
creatures,  but  has  nothing  elfe  delightful, 
bcfides  a  long  canal,  into  which  the  Thames 
runs,  and  on  it  is  a  wonderful  multitude  of 
geefe,  ducks,  and  fiich  like  fowl  ;  ;uid  as 
for  the  many  thick  and  full-headetl  trees, 
it  is  hard  to  decide,  whether  their  Hiade 
is  more  pleating,  than  the  continu'd  noifc 
of  the  numerous  grafiioppers  is  difagreca- 
bic.     On  one  fide  of  this  canal  is  the  palace 
ot  St.  Jamesh,  the  ufual  refidence  of  tlui 
duke  of  Tork  ;  and  before  it  is  the  mall, 
I  went  into  the  protellant  chapel  in  this 
palace,  and  law  St.  John  Bajiijl  over  the 
altar,  with  two  candles  never  lighted,  and 
two  books  on  it :  a  miniller  then  preaching 
1 1  ill 



t '  4 '^  'l*^ 

■-■  ^^i'S 



h  'M 

■  t'! 



il.;,; , 

:i|f 'j'JM,! 


A  brief  (Recount  of  England,  Let.  22. 

GEMti.Li.  in  EngliJIj,  and  not  underftanding  that  hin- 
Vp*?*^  guagc,  1  went  out  again  immediately. 
clungc.         Let  us  now   fay  fomething  of  the  fo 
much  celebrated  merchant's  Exchange.     It 
was   firll  bulk,    in   tlie    year  1566,    by 
Thomai  Grejham,  a  valt  rich  merchant  in 
thof'e  days ;  but  being  burnt  down  juft  an 
hundred  years  after,    was  rebuilt   by  the 
chamber  ot  London,  and  the  mercers  com- 
pany.    The  fird  founder  was  fo  great  an 
encourager  of  learning,    that  he    left  the 
one  half  of  the  revenue  arifing  from  the 
fliopsto  the  city,  and  the  other  half  to  the 
mercers,  obliging  tliem  always  to  maintain 
and  repair  tlut  nobli!  ilrufturev    and  that 
beiides,  that  the  city   Ihould  choolc  four 
learned  profcflbrs  in  divinity,    agronomy, 
geometry,  and  mufick,  to  teach  thofe  fci- 
encesin  the  colkge  founded  by  him.  Befides 
that,  the  mercers  company  Ihould  appoint 
profcflbrs    of  civil   law,    phyfick,     and 
rhetorick,   to  read  before  dinner  in  Latbu 
and  afct  rnoon  in  Englijh.  The  prefent  fa- 
brick  is  fquare,  and  of  good  llone.     All 
the  great   court  is    inclos'd    with  arches, 
forming   a  mofl:  (lately   portico,    for  the 
merchants  tu  be  Ihcltti'd  from  tiie  rain, 
and  above  are  two  liuudrcd  (hops,  lurniih'd 
wiili  th_-  riche!':  commodities,  with  many 
orlicrs  below.     It  is  very  wonderful,  that 
ii  piece  ci  ground  which  does  not  extend 
above  one  I'undncl  and  leventy  teet  from 
n:)rthto  foaih,  and  two  hundred  and  three 
troni  eatt  to  weft,  can  railc  four  ihoufand 
pounds  a  year  rent.      Among  the  finell 
ornaments  of  this  place,  are  to  be  reckoned 
tiie  niches  above  the  arches  containing  the 
It.uues  of  the  kings  of  F.ngLii:d\    but  for 
futisfaftion,    it  is  very  pleafant  to  fee  fo 
great  a  number  of  merchants,    and  to  hear 
]ome    ncwfmongcrs,    in. ike    extravagant 
judgments  of  the  afiairs  of  the  world,  and 
impofe  wild  chimeras  on  tiie  ignorant. 

In  the  way  from  the  Exchange  towards 
Wci}m\nfia\  at  Slack's- market,  is  a  fcurvy 
flatue  of  king  Charles  II.  on  horfeback,  near 
u  fountain  ;  whereas  that  of  king  Charla  I. 
at  Charing-Crofi,  is  extraordinary  tine. 
Cui'.Jhal.  Guildhtill  is  alfo  a  hne  ftrufture  within. 
In  the  hall  below  are  the  pifturcs  ot  the 
former  lord-mayors;  within  on  the  right- 
hand  is  a  rcoin,  where  the  court  ofcon- 
fcienre  (\i'^,  with  tlie  king's  arms,  and  his 
pidurc.  Going  ur)  about  ten  Heps  from 
thence,  is  a  fm.dl  court,  where  the  judges 
of  the  king's-bcnch,  in  the  afternoon,  try 
caufes  between  citizens,  arid  farther  on, 
other  courts  for  the  commonalty,  which  I 
omit  for  brcvii  y.  It  is  to  be  obferv'd 
appeals  lie  from  the  judges  on  the  bench, 
wluch  in  matters  of  <;ieai  concern  are  fbme- 
times  remov'd  into  the  houfe  of  lords. 
The  power  of  the  city  courts  docs  not  ex- 
tend to  '['fjlminjicr,  or  Sc'.tih-xark,   wlicrc 

and  in  the  parts  adjacent  the  jufticcs  of  the 
peace  handle  fuch  nutters  as  occur  daily, 
and  have  their  quarterly  felTions. 

The  lord-mayor,  tho'  chofcn  from 
among  fhop-kecpers,  and  even  retailers, 
is  much  refpeded,  and  therefore  bears  the 
title  ot  lordlhip,  only  given  to  peers, 
judges,  and  great  officers  of  the  crown. 
The  king  generally  knights  him,  if  he  had 
not  tliat  honour  before,  and  goes  to  the 
fcafl  of  his  inftallmcnt.  His  attendance  is 
very  great,  four  gentlemen  always  follow- 
ing, and  another  carrying  the  fword  before 
him,  when  he  rides  on  horfeback,  as  he 
often  does,  in  a  fcarlet  robe,  richly  lin'd  ; 
but  in  a  coach  the  fword  is  held  at  the  door 
of  it.  He  has  alfo  a  matter  of  the  hunt, 
a  fteward,  and  fcvcral  other  officers,  who 
have  good  falaries.  Upon  the  king's  death, 
he  is  prime  magiltrate  in  the  nation,  and  at 
the  coronation  is  cup-bearer,  the  bowl  the 
king  has  drank  out  of  being  his  fee.  He 
is  cliofen  at  Michaelmas,  by  the  livery- 
men of  the  leveral  companies,  from  among 
the  twcnty-lix  aldermen,  who  are  as  it 
were  the  fenators  of  the  city,  wealthy  men, 
and  mull  be  free  of  one  of  the  twelve  com- 
panies, oi  Alercers,  Grocers,  Drapers,  Fijh- 
luangers,  GoUfmilhs,  Skinners,  Mercbant- 
Tuylois,  llaberdajbcrs.  Suiters,  Ironmongers, 
I'inlners,  and  Clotbworkers.  Upon  the  for- 
feiture of  the  city  charter,  the  choice  was  in 
the  king,  who  dill  took  him  out  of  the  fame 
number,  and  he  mull  have  ferv'dfeven  years 
apprenticelhip,  as  mud  every  ihop-keeper. 
In  iivmory  of  the  fire  in  i666,  a 
monument  or  column  is  creeled,  near  the 
place  where  it  began,  two  hundred  and  two 
feet  high  ;  whereot  forty  go  to  the  pede- 
llal,  whole  diameter  is  twenty-one  foot, and 
that  ot  the  column  fifteen,  there  being 
within  a  handfome  winding  black  nurblc 
ftair-cafe,  of  three  hundred  fifty  lleps, 
leading  to  the  top,  where  there  is  an  iron 
balcony  round  it,  which  affords  a  prolpect 
of  all  the  city. 

On  one  fide  of  the  pcdeftal  is  the  follow- 
ing inlcription. 
AnnoCliridi  i6b6,die^.Nci:.Septcmbris, 
Line  in  oricntcm  pedum  zuz  inter -juHc,  quis 
ejt  htijiijce  Columna  altitudo,  ae  mcd:d 
noiie  incendium,  quod,  \;ento  fpiranle,  bau- 
jit  etiiim  longinqua,  (J  partes  per  omne^  po- 
pulal/unduiK  Jcrebaiur  cum  impel u,  tJ  fra- 
goreincrcMbili.  LXXXIX  Tcmpla,  Portals, 
Prcrtorium,  ^-Edes  public js,  Ptocbotrophiu, 
Si  bolus,  Bihliolbecas,  Injulariim  magnum 
7iumerum.  Domuum  13200,  i<ici,s  ^00  ub- 
fumpji: ;  de  id  Regiombus  15  Jundittis  dele- 
Tit  1  alias  8  laccrns  (J  femiujtcis  rcliquil. 
Urbis  cadaver  ad  436  j'lgera  bine  ah  arce  per 
famijis  ripamadTemplarioruin  Fanum,  illinc 
ab  Euro  Jftiilonah  Porta  fee  nudum  mu/cs  ad 


Let.  2 

Let.  22.  ui  kief  Account  of  England. 



vailc,  qua 

:  de  tiudui 

Inte,  bau- 

Vjinnii  po- 


1,  Purtiii, 



400  ab- 

\itiis  dele- 


I  aice  pii' 

l«m,  illiiii: 

\  mitfCi  lid 


FolTa  I'l-uvia  Caput  porrexit  ■  Advcrfus  opei  Jaxo  quadrato,  aut  co^o  latere  filUarentur  ■,Gmm^. 

Civium'  &  forlunas  wfcjlum,  crga  vitas  in-  utique  nmun  liu-rel  ultra  Jeptetimum  edifi-  '^^T^ 

nocHum;   ut  per  omnia  refcrret,  fupremam  aimio  immorart.  ^  Au  hwc,  lues  d,  termims 

mmmimdi  csiiftionm.     yelox  ciades  fuH  ;  ontiiras,  lege  lata  prefcdit  ;    .idjeat  qtwque 

rximim  tmpus  e.vulem  vidit  Civitalem  fio-  fuppheatwnesaHnuas,i^adiCteynampoj}e,vrum 

rentil/im.wt,    ^mdlam.     Tertio  die,    cum  mmoruim  H.C.  V.  C.  Irjhnatur  u>id,que : 

jam  plane  evicerat  humana  conjilia  ^  fubftdia  rejurgtt    Londimim,    majm    celentate     an 

omnia,  cxlitus,  ui  par  eft  credere,  jujji,s,ftetit  fplendorc  tncerturn.    Unum  tnenmum  abjohit, 
fatalis  igiiti,    ^  quaquaverfum  elanguit. 
The  fame  in  Englijh. 

1666,  the  fecond 

Inthe  yc.v  rf  Christ 
da_^  (^y'Scpccmber,  eaftward  from  hence, 
lit"  the  d:iiancc  of  two  hundred  and  two 
foot    (the   hcighth  of  this  column)    aboui 
midnigb:,  a  terrible  fire  broke  out,  which, 
driven  un  by  a  high  wind,  wafted  not  only! part),  but  likewij'e  places  very 
remote,  wiih  incredible  noife  and  fury,  it 
fonfumed  r;gh!y-nine  churches,  the  city  gales, 
(Juildhdl,  many publickftrncl tires,  hofpi- 
tals,  fcbcoh,  libraries,    a  vaft  number  oj 
(latch  edifices,  thirteen  thoiifand  and  two 
hundred    dwelling -houfes,    four  hundred 
jircets;  of  twenty-fix  wards  it  utterly  de- 
Jlroy'd fifteen,  and  left  eight  others  Jhatler'd 
ar.d  half  hurr.t ;    the  ruins  of  the  city  were 
four  hundred  and  thirty  fix   acres,  from 
the  tower  by  the   Thaincs-fidc,    to    the 
Temple-Church,  and  from  the  nortb-eaft 
^ate  along  the  city  wall  to  Holboni-Biklgc. 
To  the  eftates  and  fortunes  of  the  citizens  it 
was  tncrcdefs,  but  to  their  UvesJavOi.rablc, 
that  It  might  in  all  things  refemble  the  Lift 
conflagration  of  the  world. 
the  dfftriiiVton  was  fudden  ;  for  a  final! fpaca 
of  timefaw  the  fame  city  moft  Jlourijhing, 
and  reduced  to  nothing. 
On  the  third  day,  when  this  fatal  fire  had 
baffled  all  human  couiifds  and  endeavours  in 
theopinior  of  all,  by  the  command  of  heaven 
it  flopped,    and  en  every  fide  Linguifljing 

On  the  otlier  fide  is  this, 
Carolus  II.    Cnroli  Martyris  Ml.  Mag. 
Bntan.  Franc.   iJ  Hibcrn.  Rex,  Fid.  De- 
fcr.fur.    Princeps    clemeniitjimus,     miferatus 
luil'iofam   rerum  faeiem,  pluriina,  jumanti- 
hus  jam  turn  Ruinis,  infolattum  Civium,  id 
Urbis  flue  Ornamentiwi,    providit,  tributiun 
remijit ;  preces  erdinis,  y  populi  Londiiienfls 
retuli:  ad  regnifenalum;  qui  continun  decre- 
vit,    uti  publica  opc'-a,  pecunid  piihiua   ex 
vei'ligali  earbonis  f'jfiHs  oriundd  in  meltorcni 
foniiam  reflituerentur,  utiqtie  Aides  facne  & 
D.  Pauli    Templum,    a  fundamentis,    omni 
magniflcentia  extrtierentur ;    pontes,  portir, 
carceres  novi  fierent ;    emundarentur  alvei  -, 
vici  ad  regulam  refponderent ;  clivi  complana- 
ren'.iiy,    aperirentur   angiporlus ;    flora,    ii? 
inaulia  in  areas jepofltas  elimmarentiir.  Cen- 
fiiit  eiiain  uti  flnguLe  domtis  muris  interge- 
rimii  concluderentur ;  univeifa  pari  in  fron- 
lem  aliitudiiie  confurgerent,  omiiefque  pariete^ 

quod  fit culi  opus  crcdebatiir. 

The  fame  in  Engliflj. 
Charles  II.  fon  of  Charles  the  Martyr,  king 

of  Great  Britain,   France  and  Ireland, 

defender  of  the  .aith,  a  tnoft  gracious  prince, 
commiferating  the  deplorable fl ate  of  things, 
whilft  the  ruins  were  yet  flmoaking,  provided 
for  the  comfort  of  his  citizens,  and  orna- 
ment of  bis  city,  remitted  their  taxes,  and 
referred   //j»  petitions  of  the  magiftrates 
and  inhabitants  to  the  parliament,    who 
immediately  paffed  an  atl,    that  publick 
works  fljould  be  reftored  to  greater  beauty 
with  publick  money,  to  be  rayd  by  an  im- 
pofition  on  coals;    that  chutihes,    and  the 
cathedral  ofl  St,  Paiil'.s  fl.wuld  be  rebuilt 
from  their  foundations  with   all   magni- 
flcence ;    that  bridges,   gates   and  priflotts 
Jhould  be  nezv  made,  the  jborcs  cleanjed,  the 
flreets  made  ft  rait  and  regular,  fluch  aswere 
lleep,  levell'd ;  and  thofe  too  narrow,  made 
wider ;  markets  and  fhambles  removed  to 
fleparate  places :    Ihey  alfo  enabled,    thai 
every  houfefl.'ould  be  built  with  party-walls, 
ami  all  in  front  raifed  nf  cjual  height,  and 
ihofle  walls  all  of  fquar:'  flone,  or  brick  ; 
and  that  no  man  fboidd  delay  building  be- 
yond the  [pace  of  flven  years.     Moreover 
care  was  taken  by   taw  to  prevent  all  fluits 
aboui  their  bounds:  alfo  anniverfliry  prayers 
were  enjoin' d  ;    and  to  perpetuate  'he  me- 
mory hereof  to  pofterity,    they  c.iufcd  this 
column  to  be  eref led. 

— —  Carried  on  every  where  with  hafte  : 
I  .ondon  rifles  again  ;  but  whether  w'tb 
greater  celerity  or  flplcndor  is  uncertain: 
One  three  yean  flmjbid  what  was  fluppoflcd 
to  be  the  work  ofl  an  age. 

Over  tiie  door,  on  the  cail-fide, 



PR/TiT.  LON'D. 

M.  DC.  LXXI. 

pi:rducta  altius 

gforg.  waterman  f.qu  pr^.t. 

roberto  hanson  eqlj.  pr^t. 






ANN.  nONf. 







A  hrief  jlccomt  of  England. 

CEMti.i  I.   This  pillir  was  begun,  Sir  Richard  Ford, 
^■^"V^^      kniglu,    being  lord-mayor  of  Londuu, 
ylitnoDom.  1O71. 

Carried  on, 
Sir  George  TVatennaii,  Kt.  -s 
Sir  Robert  IJumoii,  Kt.  r 
Sir  (rdlLiin  Iluokcr,  Kt.  >Lon.l-M.iyors. 
Sir  Robert  Fiiur,  Kt.  ^ 
Sir7ofiphSJjeldoii,Kt.      •* 

Anil  finillied,  S\r  Thomas  Dazies,  knight, 
being  lorJ.-ni.xyor,  AiinoBom.   1C177. 

Not  from  the  monument  is  one  of 
the  finelt  bridges  in  Europe,  over  the 
Thames,  coiifilting  of  nineteen  arches, 
twenty  toot  dillant  from  ow:  another,  which 
m.ike  eight  hundred  foot  in  length,  tiu; 
breadtii  lieing  thirty-  In  the  rnidiile  is  the 
draw-bridge,  and  tine  Ihojis  on  both  tides, 
witii  the  ill  profpectof  many  traitors  headi 
on  poles  to  territy  olVenders.  This  bridge 
Jcails  troni  London  to  Southwark,  but  to 
vilely  impertinent  is  the  rabble  about  it, 
that  a  7'W«i./^  gentleman  and  I  intending  to 
have  gone  over,  we  were  oblig'd  to  turn 
back,  and  I  was  fain  to  go  another  time 
with  tome  En^HJ/jiiieii.  Here  ilood  for- 
merly a  brotiiel-houfe,  wiiich  was  put 
down  by  king //c«rv  VIII.  and  now  I  am 
much  atraid  the  whole  city  is  no  better. 

At  a  fmal!  ditlance  from  the  bridge  is 
thecuftom-houle,  built  by  king  Churles  II. 
with  the  expence  of  ten  thoufand  pounds ; 
and  that  leads  to  the  tower,    a  fortrefs  lb 
callM  from  a  great   fquare   :ow:r  m   rhe 
middle  of  it.      Before  it   is  an  efplanade 
where  traitors  are  fometimes  beheaded,  as 
tlie  duke  of  Monmoi'th.     The  tide  flows 
into  the  liitch.     The  caftle  itfelf  is  an  irre- 
gular pe:iCagon,  with  round  towers  at  t!ie 
angles,    itcer  the  antient  manner.     On  tlie 
walls,  which  are  near  a  mile  about,  is  abun- 
dance of  good  cannon,  and  within  many 
lioules  for  the  garifon,  officers  and  mint, 
all  the  money  in  the  kingdom  being  coin'd 
here,  and  is,    in  my  opinion  the  tinell  in 
Europe.  There  is  alfo  a  moll  noble  armory, 
llifhcienr,  as  they  told  me,  to  furnilh  lixty 
tliouland  men,  and  therefore  the  mafler  of 
the  ordnance  has  his  court  here.     In  that 
part  next  the  river,  they  fhew'd  me  feveral 
wild  bearts  fhut  up   in   cages,    as  tiger-;, 
lions  and  the  like.     The  fquare  tower  in 
tile  middle  has  a  wet  ditch  about  it,  and  on 
every  angle  of  it  is  a  very  fm.'H  turret  for 
ornament.     This  fortrefs  was  formeriy  'lie 
refKlcnce  of  fbme  kings,    and  now  fervts 
to  confine  ])rilbners  of  tlate,  and  in  it  tlie 
recordsof  the  crown,  and  eiifigns  of  royal- 
ty are  kept.     The  crown  among  the  rell  is 
reckoned  one  of  tlie  richetl  in  Europe,   by 
rcafon    of   the  exquilite  jewels  fet  on  it  ■, 

viz.  on  the  top  where  it  clofes,  two  eme- 
ralds, almoll  as  big  as  an  egg,  and  on  the 
circle  a  ruby  of  the  bignefs  of  a  Ihiall 
nut,  a  pearl  little  fmalkr,  and  many 
very  tine  diamonds. 

For  the  reft  of  the  city,  there  arc  few 
fquarcs  that  delerve  being  taken  notice  of 
except  Leicejter-fietds,  i>l.  James' s-fqunre, 
I.iihoIn-iiiii-Jjehls,  Southampton,  and  Cilden- 
j'quares,  anil  the  llreets  leading  to  Hide- 
Park,  a  fpacious  place,  where  reviews 
are  made. 

I  have  km  no  rarities  but  a  Riiiiocero:, 
and  a  beautiful  Irijh  girl,  all  hairy  from 
the  waift  upwards,  like  a  bear;  and  on 
thoulders  the  had  natural  bags  full  of  a 
w.itery  lubflance,  and  the  like  about  her 
privities.  The  Rhinoceros  is  a  tame  crea- 
ture about  as  big  as  an  ox,  with  large  hard 
tcaiesonit,  the  eyes  tiiiall,  the  fhout  long, 
and  only  two  teeth  in  its  mouth,  and  over 
the  fhout,  a  long  bone,  like  a  horn,  form- 
ing an  acute  angle  with  the  i.ofe,  and  the 
back  bowing,  likeafaddle. 

I  was  at  the  plays  in  a  fmall  theatre,  bur 
uni.lerflood  not  one  word;    yet  I  thought 
the  players  pleafant,  but  too  full  of  adion. 
The  bell  of  it  is,  that  the  intervals  between 
dancing,    conclude  in  eating.     Don  Pedro 
Roiiqmllo,     the   Spanijh   cmbafiiidor,    has 
treated  me  in  a  very  obliging  manner  1  but 
the  truth  of  it  is,  that,  laying  afidc  his 
good  breeding,  all  the  reft  is  not  to  be  re- 
ly'd  on.     Laft  Sunday  I  went  in  a  fhgc- 
coach  to  jyimlfor,  a  fmall  town  where  the 
king  often  fpends    the    fummer,    twenty 
miles  from   London.      Af:er  the  firft  fiit 
miles  I  law  the  vill.igc  of  Richmond,  on  the 
left-hand,  feated  on  a  hill,  and  continuing 
our  journey  between  pleafant  paflure  lands, 
came  to  ir.ndfor,   flanding  on  a  delightful 
hill,  whence  it  is  hard  to  defcribe  what  a 
curious  profpecl  there  is  of  beautiful  fink- 
ing vales,    water'd   by   the  Thames,    and 
other  cryllal  ftreams ;    and  of  cafy  rifing 
pleafant    hills,    all    fhaded    with    groves. 
Edii'ardlU.  was  born  in  this  catlle,    who 
having  afierwards  fortify'd  it  with  a  ditch, 
and  ftrong  walls,  made  it  a  jirifon  to  fecure 
his  conquer'd  kings,  'John  of  France,  and 
David  of  Scotland.     In  the  outward  p.irt  is 
the  church  of  our  lady  and  Si.  George,  with 
many  houfes  -,  within,  palTing  over  a  bridge, 
is    the    king's    palace.        In    the   midlt 
of    tiie    court     here    is    a     noble    bra  Is 
ttatue,    reprefenting  king  Charles  II.  with 
feveral    apartments  about   it,    and  fome 
haiidtbme  towers,  in  the  greateft  of  wliiih 
is  a  fine   armory,    fufficient  to    furnilh  a 
thoiifuid  men,    and  thence  they  go  to  the 
duke  of  J'ork's  loi  gings.      In   the   king's 
apartment  is    anotlur  armory    tor  .dwiit 
two  thoufand  f'-i'livrs ;    whence  on  the  left 
lollowsan  anti-ch.imber,  with  a  canopy  of 
J  crind'ou 


nil  ^0- 

ancl  el 


Let.  23,HLet.  23. 

,  two  f  mc- 
;uk1  on  the 

ot  ;i  Ihiall 
and  many 

A  brief  Account  ©/"England. 


crimfon  Vl-Ivcc,  and  gold  fringes  ;  the 
next  has  a  blue  canopy,  witli  the  fame 
garniture,  and  then  other  rooms  all  hung 
with  rich  tapillry,  and  otlier  ornaments 
becoming  a  royal-palace.  On  the  right- 
hand  of  the  armory  [that  is  the  guard- 
chamber  J  is  a  large  hall  [St.  GVurj f'sj  where 
the  chapter  of  the  order  of  the  garter 
meets,  and  then  the  chapel  built  by  king 
Cbuila  II.  and  painted,  as  is  all  the  palace, 
by  Si^^iior  Ji.tonio  yaiio,  our  Neupolitan. 
The  fame  hall  leads  to  prince  George  of 
Denmark's  apartment. 

I  have  no  more  to  add,  but  that  I  ex- dmiui . 
pecfl  a  fummons  from  the  count  'le  Salazar,  ' 
commiflary  of  the  horfe  in  Flanden,  and 
envoy  from  the  govcrnour  of  that  country 
to  his  inajefty,  wl  .>  takes  me  along  with 
him  in  one  of  the  king's  y.ichts,  for  which  I 
am  beho'  '  jn  to  him  and  the  marquefj  Cata- 
»i,  at  whole  requell  he  dots  me  the  fivour, 
and  has  offtr'd  me  his  table ;  and  thus  I 
laugh  at  fomeD«/fZ»Mf;;,  wiio  would  have 
made  me  pay  fix  crowns,  to  go  in  their 
veflTel  i  but  I  am  not  to  be  put  upon  by 
fuch  men.     I  am  yours,  ts'*-. 


1'lf  Roui!  Soiiity,  the  Julian  Kalendar,  and Foyage  to  Newport  and  Bruges. 

rid  ^i>- 


Wri  EN  lldt  Lon.loii  the  other  day, 
I  had  refoiv'd  to  fay  no  more  to 
you  concerning  FJiyl.iiul,  thinking  I  had 
writ  enough,  aiid  juTliaps  more  than  was 
proper  by  way  nf  leuci  ;  L)Ui  h.ivin;.',  reflcdl- 
cd  on  what  I  faid  bclore,  1  tliink  it  conve- 
nient to  give  you  an  accouiic  of  fonu-  cither 
partiCLil.irs,  which  I  then  iiappeiiM  n-jt  to 
think  of.  In  the  firft  place  I  mull  fpeak  of 
the  ro)  .il  fociety,  fo  famous  throughout  all 
fftr/r.  It  is  grown  from  a  very  inconfi- 
deral)lv  beginnin;^  lo  tin-,  height  of  honour 
and  cfKem  ;  for  Ibmc  learned  mc'i  of  the 
univi'rfiry  of  Oyfoni  having  fettled  mLomlon 
about  the  year  1656,  began  to  have  meet- 
ings abmit  lit'-'raturo  in  Grfjkim  college, and 
ih^-  tame  of  tlitir  learning  foon  fpread  fo 
much,  that  it  did  not  only  conliderably 
increafe  their  numbers,  but  king  Charles  II.  reftor'd  after  hi?  exile,  granted  that 
noble  affembly  many  ronfKkrable  privi- 
leges on  the  22d  ot  April  1663,  would  be 
hiiiilllt  call'd  the  founder,  and  gave  it  the 
title  of  7le  <S  icit-ty.  I'he  prelident 
calN,  puts  oil',  anddidblves  the  aflemblies, 
didributes  the  matters  thought  fit  to  be 
hantlkd  among  them,  and  admits  new 
members  into  the  fociety,  with  the  confent 
of  tlie  phirality,  or  rather  of  twenty-one 
aboVk.'  the  one  half, at  which  time  the  perfon 
admitted  is  to  p.iy  in  to  the  treafurer  forty 
fhillings  and  tldrteen  every  quarter,  as 
long  as  he  continues  a  member.  The  meet- 
ing is  held  in  Grr/kim  college  every  'f^ed- 
nefihy  at  three  in  the  afternoon,  where  they 
chiefly  liifcourle  upon  mechanick  inven- 
tions and  experimental  philofophy,  which 
is  thus  advanc'd  to  a  high  degree  of  perfec- 
tion. The  two  fecretaries  commit  all  things 
to  writing,  as  alio  enter  and  anfwerail  let- 
ters from  the  abfent  and  ftrangers.  I  fup- 
pofe  yoa  have  leen  thofe  books  in  i2«9 
Vol.  VI. 

Bruges,  June  2.   1686, 

printed  yearly  in  Englijh,  and  tranflatcd 
into  Latin,  under  the  title  oi Acta  Ph'dqfo- 
pbiia  Socictcitis  Regiir  LonJiiienfis,  and  thus 
I  need  trouble  you  no  more  wii:li  it. 

In  the  next  place  I  mull  inform  you  that  fuliin 
the  /:;.;i,'„/j  Hill  follow  the  yiiliun  kalendar,  ;>■•''""''"•■ 
bee. Hill.-  in  thfe  year  I'^Hi,  when  pope  Gre- 
gory corredled  it,  they  had  call  off  the  obe- 
dience to  the  church,  and  would  rather  be 
fubjedt  to  all  the  errors  the  moveable  tijafts 
are  liable  to  by  that  computation,  than  be 
behol.ien  to  the  pope  for  fetting  them 
right  V  lb  that  very  otten  i'mit  E,ijier  fails 
two  full  moons  after  the  equinox,  contrary 
to  the  primitive  inllitudon,  which  direfts 
it  to  be  kept  on  the  firll  Sunday  after  the 
firll  full  moon  following  the  equinox  -, 
befules,  they  have  fbmetimes  two  Eajler's 
within  the  fparcof  a  year,  as  happen'd  in 
1667,  and  then  none  the  next,  as  in  1668. 
A  certain'tjh  dodlor  has  judicioufly 
obferv'd,  that  all  the  pall  errors  proceed- 
ing from  alfigning  to  the  year  three  hun- 
ilred  fixty-five  days  and  fix  hours  (whereas 
ic  really  conlills  of  three-hundred  fixty-five 
days,  five  hours,  forty-fix  minutes,  and 
fixteen  feconds,  which  ditfercnce  of  almoil 
eleven  minutes,  every  hundred  thirty-four 
years  makes  up  a  whole  day)  it  would  be 
rcqiiifite  in  the  firll  place  to  place  the  con- 
ception ot  our  Lord,  that  is.  Lady-day,  in 
March,  on  the  vernal  equinox,  Cbrijlmas- 
day  on  the  winter  Iblilice,  and  St.  John 
Baptijl'i  on  the  fummer  loHlice,  and  fo 
make  a  perfedl  computation  of  the  year 
from  Chrijlmas-day  forward,  according  ro 
the  atorefaid  true  courfe  of  the  fun  •,  anu 
thus  having  examin'd  how  many  exad 
years  the  time  elaps'd  amounts  to,  invent 
good  and  nice  rules  for  the  future. 

As  for  the  continuation  of  my  journey, 

having  taken  leave  of  the  ambaflador  and 

K  k  Signer 

i;  '-'i 


1 1 :  ■« 


12  J 

The  Low  Countries. 

Let.  7^. 

"  i 

O'Mn.i.i.  .S';«wo/-  Bninelli,  wlio  was  extraordinary 
'"'^'''^  civil  during  ail  tlic  time  of  my  ilay,  I  dc- 
parteil  London  in  a  boat  tor  Greenwich, 
where  count  Snlazar  cxpefted  me  in  the 
yacht.  Coming  to  it,  when  the  infolcnt 
waterman  pleas'd,  I  was  courteoufly  re- 
ctiv'i,  wlicn,  it  being  niglit,  and  no  wind 
iUiring,  the  yacht  was  tow'd  down  the 
river,  wliirh  is  lull  of  windings  '  far  as 
li'.dckiviill,  tor  near  tiiree  leagues,  where 
we  call  anchor,  and  were  entertain'd  by 
the  count  with  a  molt  noble  fupper,  and 
alter  I'ome  dilcourle  rctireil  to  rell. 

As  loon  as  it  was  day  we  fct  fail,  leaving 
Cravi-jiiiil  bjhind  us  and  tv.o  leagues  be- 
low it  another  town  on  the  left-hand,  the 
name  whereof  1  hive  forgot,  and  lallly 
.V/i;;yi;/f  on  tlie  fea-fliorc.  '  To  conclude, 
having  fail'd  ail  the  night,  wearriv'd  half 
an  hour  after  eight  in  the  morning  at  the 
port  of  Ne-u.'p6rt  in  Hinders,  the  governor 
whereof,  D.  Diri^o  Covamibias,  who  came 
witli  us,  carry'd  all  tlic  company  to  dine 
at  his  iioufe,  wliere  we  were  treated  with 
iinl'p^akablc  magnificence  and  plenty.  The 
culloin  was,  tor  him  that  was  next  to  the 
pcrfon  tliat  drank,  to  uncover  tiie  glafs, 
and  fo  it  went  round.  After  dinner  the 
count  fliew'd  me  tlie  prefent  he  receiv'd 
liom  liis  m.ajtily,  being  ids  pic- 
ture mallerly  painted,  and  let  round  with 
fine  large  and  final  1  diamonds,  valu'd  at 
two  thoufand  crowns  ;  fo  that  it  is  no 
wonder  that  the  lount  fiiould  rcciuite  him 
that  brought  it  with  fixty  piftoles. 
N.'wpDit.  An  hour  after  I  took  leave,  the  bed  I 
could,  of  the  comp.iny,  and  went  to  fee 
the  town.  It  is  Hated  near  the  mouth  of 
a  river,  four  leagues  call  from  Dunkirk, 

tince  well  from  Ojlaid,  and  three  north 
from  Ifirei,  reckon'd  one  of  the  (Irongeft: 
places  in  the  Spanijh  Flanders,  and  oi  the 
falell  harbours  on  the  German  ocean  ;  but 
there  is  nothing  remarkable  among  the 
private  buildings.  Nor  far  from  it  the  arch- 
duke Albertus  was  wounded,  fighting  with 
prince  Maurice  oi  Orange,  on  the  fecond  of 
'July  1 600,  in  which  battle  6000  of  the 
Jiijirians  were  kill'd  upon  the  fpot. 

About  eight  this  morning  1  went  into 
the  boat  with  the  count,  and  came  to  this 
city  of  Bruges,  along  tiie  canal.  It  is  leatedBruf;, 
in  a  plain,  three  leagues  from  the  fea,  to 
which  the  inhabitants  have  carry'd  the  ca- 
nal, capable  of  Hiips  of  good  burden,  an 
incredible  qu.uitity  ot  water  running  into 
it  out  ot  the  neighbou'  ig  rivers.  In  the 
year  15O1  pope  Pius  \V.  rais'd  it  to  the 
dignity  ol  a  biflioprick,  at  the  requcfl  of 
our  mon  ;rch  king  Philip  II.  the  church  of 
St.  D'ji.:..:iinits,  vulgarly  call'd  Dona/us, 
being  made  a  cathedral.  Here,  befidcs 
many  other  beautiful  ornaments  of  fine 
marble,  there  are  four  llately  tombs  of  as 
tuAny  (.hikes  of  Burgundy  in  the  choir.  In 
other  rcfpeifls,  no  city  in  the  low  countries 
lias  finer  ilruftures,  wider  and  ftraighter 
llrec. ,,  and  a  finer  exchange  for  merchants. 
The  women  wear  on  their  heads  a  fliarp 
pointed  fort  of  hood,  made  fail  to  the  neck 
of  their  mantle,  which  tor  its  fliorcnefs  is 
alio  very  remarkable. 

I  am  very  foon  to  depart  for  Ghent,  eight 
leaj^ucsdiltant,  and  to  fay  the  truth,  have 
had  enough  to  do  to  write  you  thefe  few 
fcraps.  You  will  pardon  my  unufual  bre- 
vity, and  I  remain,  tfc. 


OJ  Client,  Bruni-1<!,  Mechlin,  «;?</ Antwerp. 


SIgnor  Brunctti  convey'd  to  me  your 
moll  acceptable  letter,  direifted  toLon- 
don,  for  vvliich  I  fliall  be  ever  oblig'd  to 
him.  I  cannot  cxprcfs  the  fatisfaftion  I  re- 
ceiv'd witli  it.  'io  proceed  where  I  left 
oll'in  my  iail ;  On  Sunday  I  left  Bruges,  and 
came  to  Gh<i:t  by  water,  in  fight  of  fruitful 
and  plcafant  plains,  and  tliC  count  refolv- 
ing  to  be  gone  immediately,  I  was  forc'd 
to  take  leave  of  them  to  have  leifure  to 
view  the  city. 

G/.'(ni  is  the  metropolis  of  the  earldom 
of  Flanders,  having,  as  fomc  think,  been 
firll  call'd  IFanda,  from  the  Vandals, 
or  Ganda,  whence  the  Latins  made 
Gandnvum ;  it  is  full  ten  Italian  miles  in 
compafs,  but  all  chat  fpace  is  not  taken  up 

Antwerp,  June  9.  1686. 

with  houfes,which  would  make  it  too  great 
a  city.  The  fined  thing  in  it,  in  my  opi- 
nion, is  the  ninety-eight  great  bridges,  j,,,., 
which  join  the  twenty-fix  little  idands, 
form'd  by  the  canals,  and  the  four  rivers 
that  run  thro'  it,  being  the  Schetd,  the  Lys, 
the  Liene,  and  the  Mocre,  without  reckon- 
ing an  infinite  number  of  finall  bridges 
there  are  at  every  ftep.  BefiJes,  there  are 
above  fixty  churches,  and  hofpitals,  and  cWA, 
five  very  rich  abbeys,  p.irticularly  that  of 
St.  Peter,  founded  by  Dagobert  king  of 
France  in  the  year  640,  after  St.Amand  had 
preach'd  the  gofpel  there.  I  alTure  you  I 
never  faw  any  churches  out  of  Italy  more 
magnificent  and  compleat  than  thofe  of 
Cbent;  Si,  John' a  and  Si,  Michael's  are  al- 



The  Low  Countries. 


et-  nortli 
id  ot  the 
tan  i  but 
nong  the 
the  arch- 
iting  with 
HcoikI  of 
JO  of  the 


went  into 
me  to  tiiis 
It  is  leatedBrugti. 
lie  ItM,  to 
'd  the  ca- 
Lirden,  An 
ining  into 
;.     In  the 
I  it  to  the 
requcll  of 
thiircli  of 
I  Doualiis, 
re,  befidcs 
Its  of  fine 
ambs  of  as 
choir.     In 
N  countries 
,ds  a  fliarp 
:o  the  neck 
lliortnefs  is 

Iheyit,  eight 

ruth,  have 

1  thefe  few 

ufual  bre- 


bur  ilu 

9.    1686, 

It  too  great 
In  my  opi- 

bridgcs,  j„j^,„ 

le    idands, 

four  rivers 

/,  the  Lys, 

lit  reckon- 

ll   bridges 

there  are 

Itals,  and  cAwrfn.  | 

jly  that  of 

king  of 

nand  had 

lure  you  I 

\ily  more 

Jthofe  of 

I's  are  al- 


moil  all  cafcd  with  good  marble,  and 
adorn'd  with  itatucs  and  exquifite  paint- 
ings ;  that  of  St-.-llixiiii  is  linall,  but  ex- 
traordinary beautitul  and  rich  in  marble  •, 
and  in  the  mona<!.Ty  there  is  a  room  full 
of  pidures  of  the  greatelt  maftcrs  ;  and  to 
conclude  in  a  word,  almoft  all  the  churches 
are  wonilerlully  fine. 

There  are  thirteen  fquarcs,  all  worth  ob- 
fervin<^,  but  chiefiy  that  they  call  l^ryda^hi- 
tni:rki,i.)r  /•>(i/jv-markct,  where  the  princefs 
fjiiM,  or  Elizukth,  countels  of  ManJen, 
plac'd  a  Ibatue  in  honour  of  the  molt  invin- 
cible cmiJcrc.  Clhirli'i  V.  'Ihe  palaces  are 
uniform  Itrudtures,  tho'  low  •,  the  inns  very 
convenient,  and  ihe  lliops  decent  enough, 
anil  lurnilhM  \s  i'  !i  rich  commoilities.  On 
the  walls  are  walks  of  long  rows  of  thick 
green  poplars,  10  walk  in  the  Ihade  in  fum- 
niLT,  and  are  a  delightful  light.  The  moll 
general  habit  is  atter  the  i'nncb  talhion, 
but  the  meamr  fort  of  women  wear  that 
fort  of  hood  I  meniion'il  at  Bruges,  and 
there  are  IbniL-  devotees  who  put  it  on  after 
iiich  a  manner,  tiiat  they  look  like  lb  many 

Among  the  moll  not.ible  ltruiflun-s,ncxt 
to  the  Itrong  callle,  is  a  palace.eneompal^'d 
with  a  wet  ditch,  like  a  fort,  and  callM 
1:1  Cniir  dti  Priiice,  in  which  there  were  for- 
merly three  hundred  rooms, in  one  of  which 
the  glorious  em[H'ror  CbarUi  V.  was  born, 
but  11  is  now  m.u  li  gone  to  ruin,  and  fcarce 
al]i)itls  convenient  lodgings  for  the  gover- 

1  i:\n  give  you  no  account  of  the  manners 
of  the  inhabitants,  by  rcalbn  my  fiay  was 
fo  lliorc,  but  in  lieu  of  it  will  inform  you, 
that  at  a  finall  dillance  fouthward  from  the 
town  there  arc  fomc  antient  ruins  of  walls, 
which  the  learned  fiippofe  to  have  been 
fume  llrong  calUe  of  the  Romans,  which 
they  inter  from  Ibmc  medals  found  there 
with  the  effigies  of  Nf>'o,  Gonliiin,  and  other 
emperors  down  to  CohjliUitin/:  It  it  be  law- 
ful to  guefs,  I  would  fay  here  flood  the  an- 
tient Utiiid  -vum ;  and  as  for  the  medals, 
that  it  does  not  follow  Irom  them  that 
there  was  a  Roman  c.illle,  for  thofe  may 
be  found  in  any  place  where  their  army  en- 
camp'd  or  fought  a  battel. 

It  may  be  expected  I  ihould  now  fay 
fomething  in  general  of  the  earldom  of 
FLiihlcrs,  but  then  I  Ihould  never  have 
done,  and  only  entertain  you  with  what 
abundance  of  authors  write,  yet  I  mull  not 
omit  to  tell  you,  that  the  Flemings  and 
people  of  arc  much  beholden  to 
our  monarch,  fince  he,  whether  to  fupport 
the  dignity  of  his  crown,  or  out  of  afiTcc- 
tion  to  them,  or  elfe  that  he  may  have  a 
martial  fchool  for  his  Spaniards,  is  pleasM 
to  lay  out  upon  their  defence,  not  only  the 
whole  revenue  ot  the  provinces,  buc  even 

the  greateft  part  of  the  gold  and  filvcr  his  GrMFxi.t. 
reinotelt  dominions  yielii  him,  with  ini-  '-'"V^ 
menfe  elfufion  ot  the  blood  ot  his  fubjedls. 

Aiondiiy  morning  I  got  up  very  early, 
anil  took  a  place  in  the  bnijjtls  coach  tor 
nine  fchellings.  By  noon  we  had  travell'd 
about  five  leagues, when  we  llopp'd  to  bait, 
whi'  h  coll  me  four  fchellings,  but  I  would 
freely  have  given  five  or  fix  that  the  meat 
might  not  have  had  butter  f'uce,  according 
to  the  lalhion  of  the  country,  to  which  I 
cannot  conform.  We  tr.ivell'd  as  far  alter 
dinner  among  green  and  fertil  plains,  and 
came  into  Brujj'ds  betimes. 

'I'his  city,  as  geographers  inform   us,  Biuili;ls. 
took  its  name  Irom  a  cattle   the   people 
call'd  Siitones  built  here,  as  a  place  of  arms 
tor    the   war   they   intended   againtt   the 
Frciub  \  it  is  now  the  capital  of  Brabant, 
and  hefides  the  court  of  chancery  tor  that 
diik.i'om,  the  lefidence  of  the  governor- 
general  of  the   SpairiJ/j   provinces.     The 
country  about  it  is  moll  delightful,  and 
abounding  in  all  forts  ot  provifions,  info- 
much  that  the  inhabitants  never  knew  what 
want  was,  not  even  thin  when  the  emperor 
Cb.irlcs  V.  was  here  with  [\x  crown'd  heads, 
and  many  other  princes,  attended  by  the 
greatelt  retinues  in  the  wcfrld,  and  a  won- 
derlul  number  of  horl'e  and  foot.    'l"he  cli- 
mate leems  to  be  here  more  favourable 
tlian  in  any  of  the  adjacent  parts,  and  as 
for  the  inhabitants,  here  are  many  noble 
f'.milies,  out  ot  whiJi  the  prince  choofes 
th;'  magillracy,  adding  to  them  a  procon- 
tul,  and  fix  tr.iding  citizens,  whole  induf- 
try  cannot  be  outdone  in  curious  arms  and 
rich  tapiltry.     The  women  arc  beautiful 
and  frefli  colour'd,  as    are   all    the  Fle- 
mings ;  but  I  could  not  forbear  laughing 
to  fee  the  llrange  habit  of  the  Bi^uins,  or 
devotees,  for  fome  ot  them  wear  a  fort  of 
hood  on  their  heads,  with  a  thing  like  a 
wooden  difh  on  it,  cover'd  with  a  black 
cloth  V  others  a  cap,  with  a  great  tafiel  on 
it,  and  both  ot  them  a  curled  mantle. 

The  city  has  good  bulwarks  about  it, 
with  other  fortifications,  which  in  my  opi- 
nion fignify  nothing,  becaufe  tlic  place  is 
commanded  by  feveral  higher  grounds. 
The  river  Siitne  runs  thro'  it,  whole  waters 
run  into  two  tkcp  canals,  made  with  great 
charge  by  the  ingenious  inhabitants,  and 
running  to  the  /i«/v/and  Scbclde ;  and  thus 
large  vellels  laden  with  all  forts  of  com- 
modities pals  down  to  the  ia,  and  from 
the  tea  to  the  city.  The  citizens  houfes 
are  very  handfome;  chofe  of  the  gentry 
magnificent ;  the  town-houfe  worth  taking 
notice  of,  and  .adorn'd  with  a  fine  fteeple  -, 
and  here  the  burgomalter  hears  caufes,  with 
one  ot  the  therilFs,  whence  an  appeal  lies 
to  the  court  of  the  feven  flierilis,  and  from 
that  to  the  council  of  Brabant, 



The  Low  Countries. 



''ll'ii 'ii:'!' ' 



c'-mriit  The  governor's  palace  is  in  the  highflt 
l^'"^'^  part  of  the  city  ;  tho'  .\,\  irregular  ilrudtnri, 
iMmc!  is  bi'Uiitiful,  anil,  what  is  llill  better,  con- 
venient, riierc  is  Hrll  a  li]imre,  inclos'ii 
with  Itone  banillcrs,  where  the  guard  is 
kcpti  then  a  Ipacinus  court,  with  a  line 
touMUin,  anil  goinji  up  a  lew  lUps  Irom 
thence  we  come  into  the  hall  of  the  Ger- 
man guard,  about  whi'.h  there  are  many 
Ihops.  On  the  lett  hand  is  a  well-contnv'd 
chapel,  fupporttd  by  two  ranks  ot  won- 
deriul  columns,  that  are  hollow  within,  un- 
lets they  put  Ilium  me,  I'o  that  a  man 
mi^ht  go  up  to  the  top  ■,  which,  if  true, 
.IS  IS  laid,  he  w.isa  very  ridiculous  pcrlbn, 
ihat  would  call  ..w.iy  lb  much  labour.  Not  from  the  chapel  five  (leps  lead  up  to 
the  (econd  gii.".rd  chamber,  which  is  Imall, 
whence  follows  a  well  turnilh'd  anti-cham- 
ber, and  then  the  audience  room. 

I'he  way  to  the  park  is  up  a  few  (leps, 
icrminatin;',  in  a  delightful  liat,  with  a  foun- 
tain, and  lever.d  marble  Ifatues  along  the 
wall  that  fhuts  it  up.  On  the  right  hand 
1'.  the  little  grove,  with  perhaps  a  hundred 
lorts  ol  tull-iie.uled  trees,  (fandiiig  thick 
t'  j^eth.T,  uniK:r  which  there  is  a  plealing 
and  very  cool  Ih.ide,  not  only  in  the  even- 
ing, but  even  wiien  the  fun  is  in  '«■>  me- 
ridian akituile.  I'he  well-order'a  walks 
ar-j  no  lels  pleafant,  tho'  being  difpos'd 
in  the  nature  ot  a  labyrinth,  they  accept- 
ably delude  the  feet,  and  more  wiien  a 
ra'jhit  runs  one  way,  a  hare  llarts  out  in 
another  place,  ,uul  a  ftag  a[)pears  trilking, 
()]•  tamely  gr.izing  in  .i  tliirii.  But  there 
is  nothing  lo  agreeable  as  to  obierve  the 
large  filh-ponds,  and  in  their  cryltalline 
w.ucrs  perliaps  thirty  torts  of'  filh  gliding 
about  and  fportiiig,  or  clfe  fwimming 
about  in  flio.ils  from  one  hole  to  another 
to  leek  tor  too  1. 

In  the  midll  of  the  grove  is  a  curious 
po  id,  with  twenty  folid  columns  in  it, 
and  on  them  a  little  houfe,  or  room,  in- 
clo.'donall  fides  with  tranfparent  cryftal 
windows.  Near  it  is  a  pretty  fountain, 
and  little  flower  garden,  fpreading  a  fweet 
odour  for  many  pices  about.  In  Ihort,  1 
who  am  none  of  thole  that  admire  every 
thing,  was  a  confiderable  time  in  a  tort  of 
rapture,  and  almolc  befide  myfelf  in  this 
real  and  not  f.ibulous  garden. 
churd-n.  It  we  would  Ipe.iK  of  the  churches  in 
Bnilfi!},  they  are  very  numerous,  their 
Itruiture  m.ignificent,  and  well  adorn'd 
by  the  [jiety  ot  tile  inhabitants,  eipecially 
the  catheiir.d,  where  are  good  marble  co- 
lumns, andiUtuesi  and  among  the  moll 
ren\.irkahl(.-  things,  tliree  confecrated  hofts, 
which  there  is  an  undoubted  tradition  Ihed 
much  blood,  being  (truck  through  by 

'Ihereare  many  publick  fquares,  all  extra- 
ordinary fpaciousand  beautiful ;  but  the  firft 
plaie  is  dur  to  thatcall'd  deiSiihlvus,  where 
the  publii  k  thews  arc  t  erfbrm'd  -,  and  [h-t- 
haps  It  may  have  rrum'd  that  name  from 
the  antient  cultom  of  ftrewing  fund  in  the 
amphitheatre,  as  antiquaries  inform  us. 

'I'ljurjday  I  went  to  the  palace,  and  faw 
tli'governor,  Don  Antonio  Franctjco  Agurto, 
in  tlie  council  of  Hate,  who  fits  in  a  room 
on  the  left  hand  of  the  firlV  hall.  In  the 
evening  he  went  to  the  theatre  to  the 
opei.i,  c.ili'd  Hdlernphon,  which  was  tole- 
rably well  perform'd.  Only  Cfjoiui's  were 
fung  in  liahiVi,  all  the  rell  being  in  French, 
which  is  mod  us'd  liere  by  ttie  gentry. 
I'he  theatre  is  very  t'mall,  having  but  two 
rows  of  boxes,  and  I  paid  three  Ichellings 
formv  place. 

/•)  uiiiy,  which  was  before  yefterday,  the 
feven'h,  bidding  HruJJdi  adieu,  I 
went  into  the  I'ik'ord  boat,  jiaying  four- 
pence  i  and  the  dilfance  being  but  two 
leagues,  was  fooncr  there  than  I  cxpedtd. 
'I'iicnce  I  went  two  leagues  further  to 
Alivl'-'iii,  which  coll  two  tchel lings  in  the 
co.icli,  and  having  din'd,  proceeded  on. 
'i  his  city  is  leated  on  the  river  Dyh;  in 
filty-one  degrees  of  latit'ide,  and  is  not 
interior  for  beauty  to  any  ot.ier  in  Brabant, 
notwithflanding  the  fire  tha:  conlum'd  it 
in  the  year  1556.  The  llrcetsar  wide,  as 
flr.iit  as  an  arrow,  and  well  pav'd  with 
ji.bblesi  the  palaces  beautiful,  and  the 
ni.irkets  jilentilully  turnilh'd  with  all  things 
necelliiry  for  human  lite.  I  could  fee  no 
church  but  the  cathedral,  and  was  fatisfy'd. 
In  it  is  honour'd  the  body  of  their  firit 
aivhbilhop  St.  RumoUlus,  lying  in  a  fine 
filver  llirine  on  the  high  altar. 

About  one  in  the  afternoon  I  took  coach 
again,  with  tome  ladies,  for  the  ufual  price 
of  two  Ichellings,  and  having  rode  four 
leagues  came  into  this  city,  at  that  they 
call  the  AUchim,  or  St.  George's  gate, 
laughing  all  the  w.iy  at  the  fliarp-pointed 
Ihaw  hats  the  country  women  wear. 

A/ilWcTp,  by  the  country  people  call'd 
/iHtivirptn,  is  capital  of  a  marquifate, 
erei^feii,  as  fome  lay,  by  the  emperor  Otbo 
the  fecond,  and  therefore  call'd  of  the 
lacred  Roman  empire.  Opinions  vary 
about  the  original  of  its  name,  which  1 
do  not  care  to  enquire  into  ;  but  will  only 
tell  you  it  Hands  on  the  right  hand  fhore  ot 
the  Sibeld,  and  following  the  windings  of 
that  river,  feventceen  leagues  from  the  tea. 
Thefe  waters  furround  its  flrong  ballions 
and  moll  famous  citadel ;  and  running  into 
eight  large  canals,  carry  up  laden  velTels 
to  t!ie  city.  On  the  ramparts  of  the  walls 
arc  long  rows  of  trees,  making  pleafant 
walks  lor  the  inhabitants  -,  which  was  an 





F.T.    24. 

extra-  Sifunrr. 

ne  firft 
id  {)cr- 
:  tiotn 
in  tlie 

id  faw 
I  room 
In  the 
to  the 
s  tole- 
I's  were 
Franc b, 
)iit  two 

lay,  the 
dicu,  I 
ig  tbur- 
)ut  two 
rcher  to 
;s  in  the  Mcch,;, 
ikd  on. 
/J)/f,  in 
J  is  not 
lum'd  it 

wide,  as 
v'd  with 

and  the 
ill  things 

d  fee  no 


leir  firlt 

n  a  Jine 

ik  coach 
[ual  price 

iile  four 

|ut  they 

s  gate, 


jlc  cailM  Antws 


Iror  Otho 

of"   the 

Ins  vary 

Iwhich  I 

^ill  only 

I  Ihore  ot 

[dings  ot 

the  lea. 

I  ballions 

Ling  into 


Ihe  walls 


was  an 


Let.  25. 

Tic  Low  Countries. 


invention  of  Chailes  V.  when  he  cnlargM 
it  lixteecn  hundred  paces  in  kngth,  and 
two  hundred  torty-luur  in  breadth.  It  is 
faid  to  contain  thirteen  thoufand  five  hun- 
dred handfunu'  and  convenient  houfes  •,  but 
tl\c  number  ot  inlubitants  cannot  becalily 
.iliertainM;  being  a  place  of  great  trade, 
\hLvt.-  are  always  ni.iny  llrani^crs.  'I'Ac 
lujtice,  that  Ibmetimes  there  have  been 
two  tlioul.'ind  Civc  hundred  laden  velfels  on 
theriwr,  and  I  have  been  told,  lint  about 
an  huMilred  millioMsare  lure  tranl"ai!ted  iu 
buying  and  felling  ot  commodities  in  a 
year.  [  T/jIs  i/ikjI  I'f  uf  Morins.  ]  The 
llrtrt ;  are  long,  llrait,  and  well  [>av'd  with 
pebbles,  and  thi:  market  places  fpacious, 
and  beautitlil  ;  efpecially  rhe  nvrchants 
fiiuare  callM  the  AVw  Ext bailee.     This  cx- 

ihe  truth,   is  bigger  than 

change,  to  tpeak 

that  of  LoiiJ'j)/,  ,uid  more  ilately,  by  rea- 
Ibn  of  the  mignilicent  arches,  iupported 
by  loity-tliree  marble  pillars.  In  the  upper 
wnlks  titere  are  many  rich  fho|K,  ,uid  par- 
ticularly there  i.a  confulerable  tale  ut  good 
])idur.'s,  OL'cafionM  by  the  l'Io/iii{^s  hav- 
ing a  fpeci.d  g-'uius  and  imlin.ition  tor 
pai;uing,  as  w.ll  as  the  Ii.i/itiiis.  The 
m.r.hants  h.ive  another  lioule,  call'd  O/- 
.'(•/  .'iiii;;,  the  circuiulerence  w  hereof  they  f  ly 
is  thre.-  hundred  cubits. 

The  town,-huule,  or  courts,  is  one  ot  the 
belt  rtrudures,  all  ailorn'd  with  curious 
works  in  marble,  according  to  the  ibictell 
rules  of  architeelure.  There  are  in  it  two 
principal  apartm.ntsi  the  lirll  where  the 
co.incil  and  otiur  inti.'rior  juilge.'.  meet  1  the 
oiher  tor  chambers  call'd  ot  peace,  where 
the  publiek  alKiir..  are  handled.  To  this 
piu'poll',  you  mull  underltand,  that  -/'//- 
WiT/'h  govern'd  by  eighteen  lenators,  cuni- 
pofnig  the  aforef  lid  council,  among  whom 
are  the  rwocoiifuls;  the  one  internal,  who 
is  alio  call'd  Pniucps  Seiiatui,  or  chief  of 
the  fauitc;  and  the  other  external,  who 
rakes  care  of  tome  things,  which,  among 
the  Roi/iiij.'i,  belong'tl  to  the  lulil,  or  city 
Pftcior,  antl  to  this  council  app.alb  lie  from 
the  interior  courts.  There  are  alii)  two 
prefeds  of  the  city.;  the  one  a  gentleman, 
the  other  a  citi/en  ;  oi  vvhom  I  lay  no  more, 
to  avoid  mv  ulual  fault  of  tedioufnels. 

The  citadel  abovc-nicntion'd,  was  built  CitM«t.ti. 
by  king  /'/'(7i/j  [I.  in  the  year  11567,  Inv  ^^"^^^ 
ing  live  regular  ballions,  ami  the  lurtains 
with  ramp.irts.  The  g.irifon  confilts  ol 
ei^lit  companies,  conveniently  quarter'd  \ 
the  artillery  is  good  and  numerous  \  anj 
there  is  every  thing  requifite  for  a  thorough 
defence.  I  w...;  t!'.er>.  this  very  morning, 
and,  among  other  rarities  they  fliew'il  me, 
were  fijine  leather  boats,  in  which  th.- 
Dutch  once  came  to  furpri/.i  it. 

It  remains  to  lay  fometliing  of  the  Chunlm. 
churches,  among  which  the  lirll  place  is 
ilue  to  that  of  Our  l.iuh\  formerly  only 
collegi.ite,  but  made  cathedral  in  1559, 
by  pope  Paul  l\ .  at  the  inllance  ot  king 
/'/'////'  II.  All  parts  of  it  are  well  order'd 
and  adorn'd  i  but  the  lleeple  is  wonilertul, 
for  betides  the  extraordinary  height  oi 
loir  hundred  and  eighty-lour  cubits,  there 
u  molt  excellent  work  on  it  every  way. 
The  next  is  that  belonging  to  the  profelVd 
houle  of  the  JcfuHs^  .ill  finely  cas'd  with 
marble,  adorn'd  with  choice  paintings, 
and  let  oil'  with  much  gilding  1  not  to  en- 
l.irge  upon  two  ranks  of  iLitely  marble 
columns,  one  upon  .mother,  to  tlie  number 
of  thirty-lix,  wliieli  fupport  the  great 
mid.ile  ille.  The  church  of  the  Carmelites 
ii  mult  beautiful,  as  well  for  arcliitecturc 
as  ornaments  and  painting  ;  but  tlie  mofl 
reni.irk.ible  thing  in  it  is  r.  very  line  battle, 
with  a  landskip  carv  d  in  m.irble,  than 
which  I  Ihall  never  fee  one  better  delign'd. 
aii.l  reprelented.  The  beauty  of  this  piece 
did  lb  wholly  pofl'els  my  mind,  that  I  af- 
terwards made  no  account  ot  the  Itatues 
that  cmbellilh  tlie  l.imous  churches  ot  St. 
James,  St.  Ginrjri;,  St.  Alichad,  and  others, 
tho'  fo  fine,  that  it  would  be  too  tedious 
to  defcribe  all  iheir  perfections. 

The  citi.'.ens  are  'ery  hamllbmeand  well  Tlx  I'm 
bchav'd,  fo  Iprightiy  and  brave,,  that  in  ^""• 
13S5,  they  gave  the  great  .-Uixamkr  Far- 
H.jC,  duke  ot  Parma,  who  belieg'il  them, 
enough  to  ilo,  and  invented  fome  warlike 
en^;ines  tor  their  ilefence,  which  had  never 
been  known  betbre.  .Methinks  I  have 
writ  too  much  for  a  lliort  letter,  and  there- 
fore ought  not  to  trouble  you  any  more: 
with  my  unpolilh'd  llile  ;  but  am,  isi. 

Of  Dort,  Rottcrd.ini,   Dell",  ik  Hague,  Lcydcn,  ami  Hacrlem. 

'T'-HO'  too  often  writing  to  the  fime 
\  perfon,  be  much  like  too  much  b.d)- 
bling  ;  and  the  incroaching  on  a  friend's 
goodncfs  may  expofe  a  man  to  their  anger  -, 
yet  I  cannot  find  in  my  heart  to  forbear. 
Vol.   VL 

Arnjlrrdam,  Juiiei^,    16S6. 

when  frefli  matter  occurs;  and  I  know 
that  betides  your  having  enjoyn'tl  me  fo  to 
do,  you  t.ike  fome  pleat"ure  in  it.  Having 
writ  to  you  fix  days  fince  from  Antwerp,  I 
am  rcl"olv'd  Amjhrdam  fliall  have  no  caufe 
1-1  to 










The  United  Provinces. 

Let.  25.  ^  Let.  2 


.'-\'  ■"'.;•■■''  ■  I" 





to  complain  of  me,  as  if  it  didnotiJcfcrve 
you  Ihoulii  iuve  a  Ifttcr  about  it.  To  ob- 
Icrvi-  my  former  mctluHl,  I  left  that  tity 
on  the  the  tenth  of  this  inllant  month,  in 
a  boat,  arui  tiie  wind  provM  fo  favourable, 
tiiat  we  hul  been  very  foon  lure,  hail  not 
we  been  lloppM  at  Ldlo,  a  tort  beloii/.ing 
to  the  ftates  general.  Wc  firll  left  on  the 
right  hanil  Birxff)/'Zom,;.i  town  in  Hrahant, 
ami  then  i'o no!  in  /<w/.i/;iion  the  left,  ami 
on  Tui/tliiy  tlu-  eleventh  in  the  morning 
found  well  ul  run  twenty-one  leagues,  when 
we  came  to  Ihit,  or  Duidti-ihl. 

Some  think,  it  takes  name  from  a  river 
call'd  alio  Diit  \  but  feeing  it  feated  near 
(bur  rivers,  liz.  the  Micjie,  the  lyael, 
the  LiM^r,  and  the  Menvfi,  I  cannot 
think  till  in  to  be  altogether  in  the  right, 
even  iho'  oiu-  of  tlul'e  were  in  Dutil.n:\\\\\ 
Dirt.  It  was  formerly  on  the  continent, 
anvl  vTas  ni.ide  an  iflatul  by  the  ilreadlul 
inundation  in  th^-  year  1471,  when  feventy- 
Iwo  town",  were  I'wallow'd  up  by  the  water, 
and  one  hundred  tiioufand  men  drown'd. 
It  is  abo  :t  a  mile  in  length,  and  relembles 
a  giUey  in  llinu.  I'he  lioules  arc  high 
and  uniform  ;  the  main  ftreets  indiU'ea'nt 
Ibait  and  well  pav'd  ;  and  the  tinirches 
i-eimrkabk'.efpLeially  Our  Lady's.  Among 
til,'  Itraiigc  privik-ges  of  this  city,  bclides 
its  being  tiie  only  one  that  coins  money,  it 
has  that  of  fci/.iiig  all  goods  brought  to  it, 
ohli|.;lngtIie  owners  to  fell  them  to  tlie  in- 
liabit.uus,  wlio  tranfport  them  to  other 
plaees.  It  is  govc-rn'd  by  the  Sai.'f,  whom 
tiiL-  (ladiiioldcr  of  //oILiiiJ  rhufes  out  of 
three  nam'd  by  the  fenatc  ;  by  a  conlul 
clioi.nliy  theundtTfinators,or73«(/-/ii(.u«i 
and  by  tigludeiuities  of  the  pretors,  who 
are  call'd  Cocdlu^  tubt,  if  I  remem- 
ber rigiu  i  belides  nine  Iheriffs  ami  five 

I'Voin  D5/7  we  proceeded  to  IVdiiain/lndl, 
where  quilting  the  fea  we  enter'd  tlie  M(U-J?, 
and  hoUling  on  our  (ourfe  tour  k-agues, 
with  a  fair  wind,  came  to  liotlerdam  oon 
after  eleven,  where  I  gave  four fchellings 
and  two  itivirs  tor  my  pallage. 

It  is  generally  believ'd  that  Rotterdam 
takes  its  from  a  canal  near  it,  call' 1 
Roller  i  tho'  othersilitier  in  opinion,  i  low- 
ever  that  is,  it  may  now  be  reckoned  one 
ot  the  molhrading  cities  in  Euroju-,  tiianks 
to  the  Xiiiff  and  the  lea,  which  is  but  five 
leagues  trom  it  •,  or  rather  to  tiie  indullry 
ot  th.'  inhabitants,  wlio  had  rather  have 
ricli  Ikoj)',  and  wareiiouk-s  than  llately  pa- 
I.ices  ;  ami  tliis  is  tiie  rcafon  why  ilKre  arc 
none  but  wooden  bridges  on  the  branches  of 
the  can.\l,  tliat  run  through  the  feveral 
|>arts  of  the  city  1  and  the  exchange  ill 
built,  and  without  any  embellifliment. 
I  he  greatelf  orn.iment  of  it  is  a  brafs 
(taciie,  erected  in  die  greatell  markcc-place, 

in  honoar  of  its  famoin  native  Era/mui, 
the  glory  ot  his  age,  and  rcftorer  of  lite- 
rature on  this  fide  the  .-flps.  Could  I  hope 
torcach  the  dignity  of  the  fubjedl,  I  woulJ 
fay  fomething  in  praifc  of  him  ;  but  that 
isnoeafy  task,  and  my  letter  would  grow 
intolerably  long.  1  Ihall  only  fay,  that 
all  the  ill  opinion,  wrongfully  concciv'd 
of  him,  among  mod  catholicks,  proceeds 
from  the  too  much  freedom  he  took  in 
writing  wittily,  in  his  colloquies,  and  other 
places-,  ami  his  condemning  the  vain  and 
uleleis  fubtilties  ot  modern  P<ripatetuks ; 
cfpecially  thofe,  who  without  having  ever 
read  /Irijlollf,  put  off'  their  tollowirs  with 
a  tew  whimfical  dillinCtions,  that  fignily 
nothing,  and  only  fei  ve  to  confound  the 
poor  (ludcnis.  'Ihefe  lubtili/ing  doctors, 
who  in  the  uplhot  will  never  be  able  to  give 
any  good  account  of  what  they  ("0  dearly 
fell  ill  the  fchools,  have  always  taken  much 
pains  to  make  Erafmm  be  lookM  upon  as 
a  Luthtr.iH,  or  worte  ;  that  fo  his  learning 
might  be  equally  undcr-valuM  with  his 
pcrfon  1  and  the  more  for  that  in  his  days, 
the  world  was  fo  darkned  by  the  clouds  of 
ignorance,  that  the  affronting  of  Arijiotk 
was  look'd  ujK)n  as  a  matter  wherein  religion 
was  coiieernM  •,  whereas  St.  Jti^iijlin,  in  his 
Lity  of  God,  chap.  23,  plainly  tells  us, 
'That  It  is  the  divitus,  and  vol  the  phdofo- 
pbers,  that  miijl  bi cmiinifpefl  in  tbfir  words. 
Yet  tlie  univerlity  of  /"./Wjhad  long  before 
b.milli'd  Anjlotlc's  doctrine,  perceiving 
that  tiie  errors  of  /liinuui  hail  proceeded 
from  thence  in  the  fchools.  And  it  plainly 
apjiears,  how  tar  Erafmiis  was  averfe  to 
the  pretended  reformation,  and  the  re- 
formers, by  ieveral  of  his  epiflles  to  Cor- 
rardus  Pdluunus,  Melanilhon.,  and  others  of 
that  party  i  as  alio  by  tlie  efteem  the  catho- 
lickprincesand  the  pope  himtelf  had  for  him. 

Before  I  proceed,  you  mutt  hear  .t  llory  '''■Aw' 
they  tell  in  this  his  native  country,  con-'-'"' 
cerning  the  occafion  tliat  mov'd  him  to 
run  away  from  the  monaftery  of  Tfrgotu. 
They  fay,  there  was  a  moll  llately  pear- 
tree,  in  the  garden  of  that  monaftery, 
which  bore  the  finett  pears  in  all  tlie  country 
about',  which  being  fo  extraordinary,  the 
good  luperior  had  laid  a  niofl  fevere  in- 
juiidion,  with  grievous  threats,  forbidding 
.my  fryar  to  prefume  to  touch  tiiem,  upon 
pain  of  his  higheft  difplcafuie,  Incaule  he 
delign'd  them  all  tor  himlelf  But  Erajmrn, 
wlio  lik'd  them  as  well  as  the  luperior, 
got  up  feveral  times  very  early,  and  with 
much  fitistiuftion  eat  his  bclly-tull  of  that 
fruit  I  lo  that  the  fujH'rior  finding  they 
daily  grew  thin,  relblv'd  to  find  out  the 
thief,  and  to  make  him  undergo  a  molt 
fevere  penance  i  fo  that  having  lain  Ibnic 
mornings  upon  the  watch  at  the  window  of 
fiis  cell,  he  at  lengtti,  one  of  them,  law 


Let.  25.    I  Let.  25. 

The  United  Provinces. 



him  on  tlif  pcar-trcc.  Ik-  kccpint?;  ( lofc 
to  wait  lor  the  diy-liglu,  the  Ixticr  to 
dilicrn  tlic  jK-rlbn,  was  .it  Icn^tli  obli-rvM 
by  tlie  cunning  .mil  watthCul  Enifmin,  who 
fliiling  down  troin  the  tree,  lo  ptrtcdlly 
countcrHitcil  lamcnci's  .is  he  went  away, 

that  the  fiiixirior  was  fully  iJcrluailcil  it  was     'jfovi>  Iriiiiqiiilltlui  in  umlii,  tec 
not  lie,  but  another  lame  tryar,  eaten     kription  is  as  Joilows, 
I'luis  when  it  was  da 

ailorning  it  rcprcfcnt  his  principal  goal ' 
(|ualitics  and  heroiik  at^lions  v  as  i'ur  in- 
Itante,  one  witii  a  lut  on,  and  this  motto, 
/Itirta  IJberlas\  .\  device  taken  troni  ihc 
medal  t)t  C.  Citjfitis,  it  I  millake  not,  an- 
other holds  a  ballance,  witli  iliele  words, 

I'he  in- 

his  beloved  pears.  1  luis  when  it  was  ilay, 
having  call M  together  all  the  religious,  lie 
toll!  tlieni  many  tine  liiingi  concerning  the 
virtue  ot'  holy  obedience,  anil  tin  i  turning 
in  a  pall'ion  to  the  lame  nun,  Itverely  re- 
buk'd  him  tor  his  contumacy  and  liiiuoridi- 
nefi',  laying  the  ilolen  truit  to  his  charge. 
He  Icveral  tinusdeny'd  the  tact,  alledging 
his  innocence  in  that  caie  •,  yet  the  other 
thinking  he  had  leen  ligns  enough  to  be 
iully  convinc'd  that  he  was  the'mari,  en- 
joyn'd  i»im  a  moll  leverc  jxnance,  which 
made  the  real  thief  Liugii  in  his  (leeve,  ami 
relblv'd  to  withdraw  hinilelt"  from  his  in- 
juftice.  I  have  writ  this  filly  novel  to 
make  you  laugh  as  well  as  him  ;  tor  I  can- 
not entertain  luch  an  ill  opinion  ot"  Erafmus 
as  to  believe  lie  fluiuKI  delill  Iroin  his  good 
purpole  u[)on  lo  tVivoUnisan  occaiion. 

1  laving  teen  KutU'nlum  1  put  my  bag- 
gage into  a  beat,  that  goes  and  comes  to 
and  t'rom  Ddjt,  and  return'd  into  the  city 
to  change  a  piftole  i  but  in  the  mean  while 
the  boat  was  gone  without  me,  and  I  was 
fbrcM  to  take  coach  either  to  overtake,  or 
get  thitliLT  before  it.  All  the  way  was 
in  fight  ot  tine  plealiint  gardens  i  and  hav- 
ing rode  a  good  pace  about  a  league,  pals'd 
by  a  village,  I  think  they  call  Aniki, 
and  coming  to  Ddft  found  the  boat  and 
my  goods. 

Ddft  city,  built  by  Godfrey  of  Lorrain, 
furnam'd  the  Cruok-huck,  is  now  rellor'd 
in  a  beautiful  manner-,  alter  its  former 
misfortunes,  but  is  not  rtrong  ,  for  being 
almort  a  mile  in  length,  the  breadth  is  not 
anfwerable,  and  the  river  Ddfi  running 
thro'  the  midll  of  it,  makes  it  appear  the 
more  dilagrccablc,  as  teeming  to  be  but 
thin  of  houfes.  The  harbour  is  in  the 
M'lifc,  being  capacious,  and  convenient 
enough,  which  enriches  the  citizens,  moll 
of  whom  trade  in  beer,  and  linncn.  I'here 
are  many  fine  buildings  fcacter'd  about  the 
city,  which  I  had  not  leifurc  particularly 
to  obfervc,  during  thofe  lew  hours  I  (laid 
there.       I  (hall  only  tell  you,    that  the    fniit  ?  ^^mntis  mvifcinbiis  irquorh  terra pro- 

l).  O.  M 

/Kternic  memorue  CJuhelmi  Nalfovii./i- 
pnmi  Araufionenfium  Pnnci/'it,  Pat.  Pa- 
Irur:  qui  Belgii  y((r/««ii  fuas  fojibtibuit :  (J 
fiiorum  vaiuililtmoi  txtrcitus  are  plurimum 
privMo  hi:,  confcripfit,  hn  indtixit.  Ordinum 
iiu/piiiis  Hifpanicam  tyrannulem  propulfavit  \ 
ver<e  Relij^ioiiis  cullum,  avitai  patrire  le^es 
revccdvil,  rejlilidt :  ipfamdiniaue  libertatem 
liuititm  »on  ajfcitam  Mauritio  Pnncipi,  pa- 
tt-niii-  virlulis  hetedi  filto.,  J]ai)ilieud:im  reli- 
'jt,:l.  J/iiois  VtiY  pa,  pnidc'Mlis,  invitJi, 
firm  Philip.  11.  Hifpan.  Ji.  ilk  Europaj 
limor.,  limiiit,  non  domiiit,  non  ttrniit ;  fed 
i-mpto  peraijfore  fi  Auae  nrfinda  fuhjiulil. 
Focderat,  Belg.  Proline,  ptrfiini  ir  ritor, 
momim.  P.  C.  C. 

Then  going  into  another  joat,  which 
carryM  tome  gentlemen,  and  !.'■  .es,  I 
came  in  lets  than  ;in  hour  to  the  Hu^ue, 
about  a  league  dilhint.  In  thefe  parts  the 
boats  are  the  greatell  conveniency  in  the 
world  i  tor  they  are  wide  en'iugh,  and 
have  a  deck,  with  long  neai  benclies  on  the 
fides  to  fit  on  ;  and  wliat  is  more,  all  tliis 
convenient  y  at  a  cheaper  rate  than  you 
will  imag  ne.  By  the  way  we  tell  into 
dilciiurfe  about  our  city  of  Suples,  and  lb 
from  one  thing  to  i^nocher,  ol  the  antienc 
Bajtr,  to  mucTi  extoli'd  by  the  Romans. 
A  German  gentleman  of  our  company,  was 
ot  opinion  that  all  thofe  ruins  of  mighty 
llruftures,  which  he  had  teen  under  water, 
all  along  under  the  fort,  wc.v  formerly 
along  the  lea  fliore,  which  afterwards  in- 
croaching  upon  the  land,  as  i,i  other  places 
it  withdraws  farther  off",  rhey  came  to  be 
over-flow'd,  as  they  now  are.  But  I  loon 
undecciv'dhim,  plainly  demonftrating  fhat 
the  fea  had  only  recover'd  what  wa« 
wrongfully  taken  from  it,  and  happened 
to  remember  the  worils  of  Ciijfiodorus.,  va- 
riar.  lib.  9.  Epiji.  6.  who  lays,  ^uintis 
ihi  molihiii  marini   tennini    daeiiter   invaji 

church  call'd  yccbin  d'  ode  ke,kt'Hy  is  fine 
enough,  having  five  illcs,  and  in  it  arc  three 
rtately  tombs  of  curious  marble,  being 
thofe  of  Marinus  Ilarpretl,  Peter  fleiiifius, 
and  Elizabeth  'tegor.  In  that  they  call 
Dir.ivin  Kerken,  are  the  tombs  of  four  for- 
incr  princes  of  Orange :  The  chief  where- 
of is  that  of  lyUliam,  the  prime  indru- 
ment  of  the  Dutch  liberty.     The  ftjtucs 

mota  ejl  i'  That  is,  I lo-u; great  piles  are  there 
raii'd  lo  invade  the  border  s  of  the  fea  '/'  Hovj 
far  is  the  land  extended  into  the  bowels  of 
the  fea? 

Difcourfing  on  this  and  fiich  like  matters,  H.guc. 
no  way  plcafing  to  the  ladies,  we  came  to 
the  Hague,  a  village  much  preferable  to 
many  famous  cities ;  not  only  on  an  account 
of  its  plenty  of  all  things,  ftately  buildings, 




The  United  Provinces. 



.tIS      if  ■.    ■* 

ti.Or  i    p\- 

iili'J.IC.  ■ 
fXTtl  Us 

n:j..t  of 

I' lit  i  I  '.0  i 

i'tprc  :,  a  . 
ri  :iti!j.:- 
,.:■!.- h 

{.■■I,  .1 ..:  ... 
^;.rc./v  .,: 
of  l( 

I.  fpacioiis  markets,  and  well  pavM  ftreets  •, 
^  but  M  being  the  rcfidence  of  the  Statei 
General,  anil  of /A';///((w;  prince  ot  Orange, 
their  perpetual  ItadthoUicr,  as  it  formerly 
was  the  court  ot  the  carls  of /M(iH(/.  The 
prince  lives  in  the  famous  calUe  call'd  T'  IIoiLiiii!,  fignifying,  the  court  of 
Holland,  fo  call'd  troin  having  been  the 
habitation  of  the  faid  earls  ;  and  therefore 
in  the  chapel  Hill -remaining  are  to  be  leen 
the  tombs  of  .Ili/ertus  ot  Buvdiia,  and  his 
wife  Margaret.  The  prince  lives  more 
like  an  abfolute  prince  than  a  governor  •, 
for  two  companies  of  Dutib  foot  mount 
liis  guard  every  day  ;  one  of  Sn-ifs  halbar- 
diers,  anvl  a  troop  of  hortl",  or  dragoons, 
by  turns.  They  are  all  well  clad  in  blue  ; 
but  the  S-iiij's  have  alfogold  and  lilver  lace. 
The  pikes  among  tlie  toot  march  before  the 
musketicrs,  contrary  to  what  ihcSpanutrih 

Going  to  fie  the  princeat  dinner, I  thought 
the  ap.iriments  m  lietlically  a.lorn'd  ;  but 
mutt  fpare  being  ii.irtieular  as  to  tiie  furni- 
ture to  avoivi  fediouliiefs.  1  le  being  abroad 
to  fee  a  tryal  ot  caixalles,  I  only  fiw  tiie 
■u-  princeis  dine  alone,  above.  You  know 
'- her  nam.' is  Mary  Stti.ut,  d.iughter  to  tiu 
Iving  of  Ei:^i'..U!il;  and  I  will  not  wrong 
I'.iy  confcienee  in  tpcakingot  her  lorm,  by 
layin^j;  Ihe  is  bcaiititul,  for  I  have  mucii  ado 
to  loibjar  calling  her  ugly,  and  what  is 
worle  iiii^.:iteel,  .iukward,  and  incredibly 
haughty.  I  ler  ch.'.[)lain  iiaving  faid  gr.uj 
in  Duhl.i,  llie  fate  down  to  eat  very  iiallil y, 
and  a  great  quantity,  but  drank  not  much, 
and  wiien  (he  did,  the  laily  that  waited 
kncel'd.  The  prince  coming  afterwards,  I 
went  down  into  t!ie  lower  apartment, 
where  he  was  ai  t.ible,  with  eight  generals, 
in  a  room  adjoining  to  the  guard-chamber. 
.\11  the  ili;;erence  oetween  tliem  was,  that 
lie  liite  at  the  uj>per-end,  on  a  chair  ot' 
crimloii  velvet,  the  back  whereof  was  hall" 
a  f[)an  higher  than  the  rcll,  which  were  of 
cloih  of  the  lame  colour.    Hiscounten.mce 

court,  call'd  IIoogben-Raed,  from  which  no 
appeal  lies,  and,  to  conclude,  the  alTembly 
of  the  Siitci  General,  confdling  of  eighty 
deputies  of  the  united  provinces.  I  could 
not  go  into  this  latl  chamber,  they  then 
actually  fitting  to  confult  about  tome  im- 
portant matter ;  but  in  the  firft  room  I  faw 
abunelance  of  colours  and  arms,  taken  from 
enemies;  and  then  went  into  the  iullie 
hall,  and  Ex\hequer-Cotirt.  In  the  firlt  of 
them  arc  leveral  fhops,  of  fundry  forts  of 
goods,  particularly  choice  books.  Next 
I  went  along  a  clofe  gallery  to  the  room 
appointed  for  the  reception  of  embafTidors, 
all  hung  with  very  rich  tapiftry,  and  about 
the  bench  there  were  twenty-four  feats, 
covcr'd  with  green-cloth,  all  equal,  ex- 
cept the  prefident's,  which  was  Ibmewhac 
higher  -,  oppofite  to  whom  fits  the  cmbal- 
latlor  that  has  audience.  The  dignity  of 
prefident  goes  round  all  the  twenty-tour  by 
v.'.eks-,  but  when  the  emballador  is  to 
treat  about  any  particular  bufiiuis,  he  does 
it  with  only  the  deputies,  in  another  finall 
room  adjoining.  To.  conclude,  I  faw  a 
great  library,  very  full  of  excellent  manu- 
Icripts,  and  the  ehoicefl  books  that  can  be 

At  a  fmall  dillance  from  the  town  is  a 
delicious  grove,  with  curious  walks  among 
very  tall,  antl  full-he.ided  trees,  where 
thole  otren  walk,  wlio  delight  in  fome 
quiet  Iblitude,  to  divert  the  cares  of  the 
world  i  an.l  the  pleaiure  is  here  the  greater, 
becaule  there  being  no  fierce  creatures,  the 
tearful  liaLlils,  the  twift //.(/Vj,  the  nimble 
Deer,  and  the  fleet  Slags  are  wonderfully 
rumierous  i  lb  that  Ihoukl  all  other  latis- 
f.iction  f.dl,  tl'.ere  is  always  game  enough. 

H.iif  a  league  from  the  town,  is  the  an- 
tient  abbey  of  LayJnnen,  whereof  nothing 
now  Hands  but  the  church  ;  and  here  the 
prineefs  Margaret,  il.iughter  lo  Lhrentiiis 
earl  of  Iklland,  lies  buried  witii  all  her 
children  ;  having,  as  a  judgment  from  hea- 
ven,  been  tieliver'd  of  three  hundred  and 

L"-  '5-  I  Let.  2(5. 

;lier  liian  his  will's,    and  his  crouketl     'ixty-live  at  one  birth,  for  rcjiroaching  a 

hawk's  note,  according  to  the  rules  of  phy- 
liognomy,  fiiews  him  to  be  a  rap.icious 
cruel  r.i.'.ii.  Biitwliat  trifles  ilo  I  talk  ol? 
He  has  beeii  bred  to  arms  from  his  inf.uit  y, 
and  confequently  has  much  improv'd  his 
judgment  by  experience  in  martial  allairs  i 
v/hich  ma';es  fome  reckon  him  among  the 
b.llgener.dsot  thisage,  and  p-rhaps  tliey 
may  have  reafon. 

In  tills  fame  palace  is  held  the  prince's 
liipreme  coart,  as  he  is  Il.idihuldtr ;  .is 
alio  tiie  provincial,  confitling  of  twelve 
t'enators,  .\w\  a  prei'ulent ;  the  council  of 
Braian:,  which  rules  tlv  adiiirs  of  lb  much 
ot  that  dukeilom  as  is  lubjeLl  to  the  fl.ltes; 
the  Exebequer-C'iiirt,  co;ii[)os'd  of  tour  the  council  of  war;    the  jufiice 

poor  woman  that  had  t^^o  twins  with  dil- 
honefty,  who  therefore  wilh'd  herfo  many, 
,ind  her  prayers  were  heard.  The  llory  is 
well  known,  and  no  more  needs  be  laid 
of  it. 

Tburfday  i.^th,  after  hearing  mafs  in  the 
catholick  emballador's  chapel,  I  took 
boat,  paying  a  fchelling;  and  palling  on  a 
league  in  fight  of  wcll-iill'd  lands,  came 
to  Leyden,  by  the aiuients  call'd  Z.«;'(/;rraM  L-iJm 
BaUiV'jram,  and  now  very  famous,  not 
only  for  its  great  trade  of  woollen  and 
linnen-cloth  made  by  the  inliabitants,  but 
fbr  being  the  metropolis  ot'  Rbinland,  and 
one  of  the  famoiifelt  univerliiics  on  this  fide 
the  /llfi.  It  is  feated  in  fifty  degrees  forty 
minutcslatitiide,  if  I  millake  not,  in  a  plain, 


Let.  26. 

The  United  Provinces. 



delightful  country,  watei'd  with  fcveral 
canals,  infomuch  that  they  are  oblig'd  to 
join  the  feveral  iflands  torm'd  by  them, 
"with  one  hundred  and  fifty  bridge^  feme  of" 
wooii,  and  others  of  ftone  i  and  in  other 
places  to  crol's  the  broad  canals  in  boats. 
The  fhape  of  it  is  almoft  circular,  cnclos'd 
on  all  fides  with  good  fortifications.  The 
principal  llrects  within  are  adorn'd  with  long 
rows  of  trees,  and  pav'd  with  good  (tones 
and  bricks,  more  neatly  tiian  are  the  very 
floors  of  lower  rooms  in  fome  cities.  My 
flay  being  fo  fhort,  I  had  only  kifure  to 
fee  a  (lately  antient  church  of  St.  Peler, 
which  has  five  ides ;  and  that  of  the  bVencb 
Refugees,  where  a  minifler  was  then  prcacli- 
ing,  endeavouring  with  many  examples 
out  ot  holy  writ,  to  comfort  his  congrega- 
tion, then  concern'd  for  the  perfecution 
of  their  brethren  in  France. 

I  then  went  to  theuniverfity,  and  giving 
thebe.idles  a  fmall  fee,  was  conducted  to 
the  phyfick-garden,  which  is  adorn'd  with 
the  rarcfl  plants  that  either  India  or 
Afr'ick  produce,  and  full  of  lundry  ftranre 
ere;- tares  •,  of  all  which  they  give  Itrangei  ■> 
the  figures,  printed  on  two  fhccts  of  royal 
paper.  There  are  abundance  of  rarities 
proper  for  that  art  in  the  anatomy-hall, 
bcfkiL's  other  things  worth  obferving,  among 
which  we  mull  not  forget  a  dead  l.,a-horfc. 

To  conclude,  I  Iciz  Leyden  ycllcrd.iv,  (jpmfi.h 
and  proceeded  five  leagues  to  I/,urlein,  '»>^'>-' 
paying  two  fchellings  for  my  palFige  in  the  '^"'''''"'' 
boat;  which  is  drawn  by  one  liorle,  and 
advances  ahout  Cow  i/ulian  miles  an  hour. 
Thiscity,  capital  of  welt  y'';7V/A;;;</,otiier  wile 
call'd  Kennemerland,  is  five  leagues  from 
the  fea,  and  has  the  fccond  vote  among  the 
States  General,  as  inferior  to  few  others  for 
goodnefs  of  fituation,  and  fortifications, 
greatnefs  of  compafs,  and  fuitable  num- 
ber of  inhabitants.  The  natives  of  it  pre- 
tend that  the  invention  of  printing  is  theirs; 
alledging  that  the  firft  contriver  of  it  was 
Laurence  Cojhr,  or  according  to  otlicrs 
yiinfoH  was  born  here  ;  and  that  his  fcholar 
John  F<«/y?«.f  afterwards  carry 'd  kio/lmjhr- 
dam,  thence  to  Cologn,  anil  laltly  to  Miin- 
Jler ;  where  being  more  employ'd  than  m 
other  places,  thence  came  tiie  milhike,  that 
the  Germans  were  the  inventors ;  whereas 
tiiey  are  men  more  likely  to  follow  the 
inventions  of  others  heavily,  than  to  find 
any  of  their  own. 

I  departed /A)f>/iw  in  a  boat,  which  for 
a  fchellingcarry'd  me  two  leagues  to  tiiis 
famous  city.  The  little  time  I  have  been 
here  would  make  it  unrealbnable  to  pretend 
to  give  you  any  account  ut  ir,  and  there- 
tore  1  remain,  CTi . 

L  !•:  T  T  K  R     XXVI. 
0/  Ainik'rd:i!n,  a/iJ  Utreclit. 

TIIO'  it  feldom  happens,  that  he  who 
talks  much  upon  any  fubjeit,    has 
always  the  good  fortune  to  fay  the  bell, 
and  I'peak  to  the  purpofe  ;  yet  I  am  fo  de- 
firous  to  pleafe  and  divert  you,  by  giving 
an  account  of  all  that  occurs  in  my  travels, 
that  tho'  my  repi'tation  were  concern'd,   I 
could  not  forbear  writing  to,  and  acquaint- 
ing you  with  all  my  adventures.  To  obl"erve 
the  fame  iiutiiod  as  hitherto,  the  city   of 
Amjhrdum,  whence  1  writ  to  you  on  Satur- 
day lall,    is  in  fifty  degrees  twenty-four 
minutes  latitude,  on  the  river  /lii:J}fl,  which 
running  thro'  gives  name  to  it,  and  falls 
into  its  harbour  thro'  four  channels.     The 
faid  port  is  a  fmall  bay  of  that  they  call 
the  Zuyder  See,  or  South-Sea.     Its  firll  be- 
ginning was  in  the  thirteenth  century  by 
iom-'  poorfilhi-rmen,  h  tt'ing  there,  for  the 
conveniency  of  filhing,  and  building  fome 
fmall   huts  of  r.iud  and  Hones ;    but  the 
conveniency  of  its  fituation  caufing  it  to  be 
much  frequented  by  all  fliips  trading  into 
the  north,  has  brought  it  to  that  greatnefs 
itis  now  arriv'dto,  not  without  thf  envy 
Vol  VI. 

Ni/negueii,  yime  zi.  16S6. 

of  its  neighbours.  The  compafs  of  it  is 
about  thirteen  thoufand  nine  iuindred  and 
forty-five  paces;  the  fhape  femicircular ; 
lb  that  tiie  length  of  the  harbour  makes  the 
(Iring  to  the  bow.  The  walls  and  all  its 
other  fortifications  arc  lingular, and  it  would 
be  a  difficult  ta.,k  to  reprefent  the  beauty 
and  uniformity  of  tiie  bui'dings;  tho' the 
outfides  be  almoll  all  of  brick,  and  the  reft 
of  timber.  The  Itrects  are  long,  I'p.icious, 
well-pav'd,  and  Itrait,  with  large  canals 
in  them  full  of  the  fea,  and  river  water, 
over  which  are  many  good  ilone  bridges, 
and  along  their  fidr ..  long  rows  of  Ipreading 
trees.  Between  thefe  trees,  at  convenient 
dillances,  there  are  lights  at  night,  at  tlic 
charge  of  the  'nhabitants,  for  the  con- 
veniency and  fafety  of  people  palling  to 
and  fro ;  but  at  loine  diltance  from  the 
houfes,  for  fear  of  fire  ;  and  for  tlie  fame 
reafon,  the  inhabitants  are  warn'd  by  found 
of  trumpet,  to  take  heed  of  every  fpark  of 
fire  ;  to  prevent  mist'ortuiies.  I'he  evcel- 
five  care  of  the  itreeis  degenerates  into  ex- 
travagancy i  for  to  preferve  them,  they 
M  m  allow 


The  United  Provinces* 

Let.  26. 

Let.  26 


.  ^'"  '.r 

Cemf.lli.  allow  of  no  coaches  upon  wheels,  but 
^■'^'"V**^  drawn  on  fledges.  The  ni.iin  can.U  in 
Amfterdam  iscall'd  Dam- Rack,  and  divides 
tiiC  city  into  the  eaftern,  and  wtdcrn,  Tlie 
firft  contains  the  new  city,  and  part  of  the 
old  \  and  here  ftands  the  Eajl-Iiidui  lioufe, 
where  there  is  always  an  iniincnl'c  quantity 
of  cloves,  cinnamon,  pepper,  and  other 
commodities,  brought  from  thole  oriental 
parts.  Here  is  alio  the  Jrcft-Imiia  houfe, 
and  in  it  vail  rich  American  goods;  as  alio 
the  Exchange,  built  on  fuch  a  lofty  bridi;^e, 
that  fliips  fail  under  it  v  .md  in  its  Ihops  is 
fold  all  that  men  can  imagine,  i'rancis 
Stryker  fhew'd  me  many  rare  and  valuable 
things  in  his  houfe,  and  among  the  relt,  a 
little  cafket,  or  box  fo  ingenious  for  work- 
manfhip,  and  fo  rich  in  painting,  medals, 
and  jewels,  that  it  colt  the  owner  feventy 
thoufand  crowns. 

In  the  well  town  is  the  Stadtbuyfc,  or 
town-houic,  with  fome  churches  and  ho- 
fpitals,  as  well  anticnt  as  modern  ;  and  two 
arfenals,  fo  well  turnifli'd  with  cannon  and 
all  other  warlike  (lores,  that  it  is  amazing. 
In  other  rcfpeds  Amjlcrdain  may  be  c.ill'd 
a  fccond  Vi'n'ue,  as  being  alio  built  in  the 
water  and  upon  piles;  but  the  dillennce 
is,  that  its  ilreets  are  regular,  fpacious,  and 
adorn'd  with  trees,  as  has  been  faid.  Be- 
lides,  when  were  there  ever  two  thoufand 
lliips  of  all  nations  (ii^n  together  at  t'eniif, 
as  I  myfclt  have  beheld  at  Amjleydam';' 
not  reckoning  forty  men  ot  war,  of  the 
navy  of  tiie  United  Provini.cs:  Yet  there  is 
tiiis  inconvcnicncy,  tiiat  by  reafoii  of  the 
Ihallownefs,  the  greatell  ihips  mull  jnit 
out  part  ot  their  lading  before  they  come 

I  will  not  talk  ot  the  manners  ot  th.e 
citizens ;  tor  traders  are  always  the  lame, 
and  therefore  I  cannot  conceive  why  they 
hate,  and  have  an  ill  opinion  ot  the  Italians ; 
for  tliere  is  no  wonder  they  Ihould  have  an 
averfion  to  the  Spaniards,  on  account  ot  their 
old  grudges.  All  flrangers  are  to  be  cau- 
tious of  being  abroad  at  night,  tor  there 
are  difmal  jelh  put  upon  them  ;  and  par- 
ticularly tiiey  mufl  avoid  lewd  women, 
wlio  conceal  their  Bullies  in  their  houl'es,  to 
rob,  and  abufe  thofe  that  fall  into  their 

There  is  a  great  number  of  learned  men, 
but  after  the  Dutch  falhion  ;  that  is, 
authors  ot  yailic  Lcclicncs,  and  wretclieil 
criticifms;  and  in  fhort  gooil  correctors  of 
the  Prefs.  I  do  not  condemn  criticifm, 
which  I  raher  admire,  but  it  ceales  to 
be  criticifm,  when  made  without  the  moll 
profou;.d  judgment ;  whereas  when  it 
otdy  confifls  in  abundance  of  fcraps  of  lite- 
rature, to  me  it  looks  more  like  the  work 
of  a  gazetteer,  than  of  .1  man  ot  f(.)und 
learning.     I  have  met  with  none  according 

to  my  heart  but  le  Clerc,  and  without  fay- 
ing any  more,  I  am  lure  you  will  be  of  the 
fime  mind,  when  you  begin  to  read  hi» 
Bibiiotbeqiie  Vniverfelle,  W  Hislorique  in 
twelves,  which  is  a  fort  of  journal  of  the 
works  of  the  learned,  containing  excellent 
and  learned  extracts  of  books,  with  ex- 
traordinary remarks  and  oblcrvations  on 

i^efore  we  leave  Holland  it  is  convenient 
to  put  you  in  mind,  that  this  earldom,  ;n 
the  call,  borders  upon  Gitclderland,  has  the 
ocean  on  the  north,  and  well,  and  Brabant, 
on  the  foutli,  fo  that  all  its  compais  is  not 
■;!>ove  fixry  leagues.  It  was  formerly 
call'd  Balavia,  and  contain'd  all  that  tradt 
of  land  which  lies  between  the  k/.'ine  and 
the  ocean  ;  and  if  we  carefully  examine  the 
antient  maps  fliall  !ind  it  was  never  entirely 
fubtki'd  by  the  Romans,  but  only  tributary, 
and  much  valu'd  by  them,  for  the  valour 
of  the  natives.  It  is  now  call'd  Holland, 
as  fome  think  from  its  hollownefs,  bccaufe 
every  foot  a  horte  fets,  founds  as  if  it  were 
hollow  underneath,  perhaps  like  the  ful- 
piiurous  grounds  at  Pozznoli.  I'he  chief 
rivers  that  water  it  are  the  Maeje  and  the 
Rhine,  befides  abundance  of  navigable 
canals  cut  by  art,  and  Ibme  lakes  and 
pools,  whofe  fpare  water  is  artificially  con- 
vey'd  into  thofe  long  canals;  which  ren- 
ders the  air  whokfome,  makes  plenty  of 
pallure,  and  occafions  great  llore  of  game. 

The   Dutch  are    large  of  body,     well 
enough  fliap'd,  andfliarp  ;  given  tochange, 
whence  the  proverb  ot  iidcs  Batuva,   and 
being  traders,  not  only  know  how  to  avoid 
being  imposM  upon  by  others,  but  how  to 
trick  .dl  mankind.     They  are  inclin'd  to 
all  commendable  arts,  and  particularly  the 
north  Hollanders  are  much  addicted  totr.ide 
and  navigation;  whereas  the  fouthernlove 
tillage  and  war  ;    but  they  are  all  equally 
indullrious,  and  as  it  were  naturally  form'd 
to  acquire  wealth  ;  for  tho'  their  country 
yields  very  little  wooll,   yet  they  make 
Ibme  of  the  bell  cloth  in  Kurope ;  they  have 
no  woods,    and  yet  build  fo  many  good 
Ihips ;  they  want  vines,  and  yet  there  i>,  no 
fort  ot  rich  wine  but  they  have  plenty  of 
it ;  and,  to  conclude,  they  fupply  tlic  want 
ot  trees  to  burn,   with  turf,  enduring  the 
flink  of  it  in  the  fire.     In  their  houl'es  they 
are  neat  to  excels,  walking  not  only  the 
floors,  but  the  walls ;  and  by  this  you  may 
judge  of  the  rell. 

As  to  their  government,  you  know  that 
being  much  molelled  by  the  Normans,  they 
chole  themftrlves  a  governor,  whom  they 
call'd  Grave,  retaining .dltiiejKnver  among 
the  Hates;  but  the  fuccelliirs  of  the  laid 
Grave,  about  the  ninth  century,  took  the 
llile  ot  Earls,  without  any  depcndance  on 
the  empire,    as  the  meaning  of  tlie  name 



ET.    26. 

Let.  25. 

The  United  Provinces. 



imported.  In  proccfs  of  time,  tlie  earldom 
fell  to  the  invincible  emperor  Charles  V. 
and  his  Ion  Philip  II.  king  of  Spain  ;  but 
whether  the  fcverity  of  the  duke  of  yllva, 
on  account  of  religion,  or  their  natural 
alFciftion  to  liberty,  was  the  occafion,  the 
Dutch  withdrew  their  obedience  from  their 
lawful  fovereign,  rebelling  in  1572,  and 
formed  their  republick  nine  years  after, 
by  the  advice  and  fupport  oi  the  enemies 
ot  Spain,  and  thro'  the  valour  oi  H^illiam 
of  Najfdu  prince  of  Orange  •,  who  from 
thence-forward  wasappointed  captain  gene- 
ral of  the  republick,  to  be  continu'd  to  his 

I  only  mention'd  Holland's  Ihaking  oR" 
the  yoke,  all  the  United  Provinces  being 
commonly  compriz'd  under  this  name, 
tlio'  they  are  feven,  viz.  Groningfn,  Fncf- 
iand,  Ziitpben,  Gueldrcs,  which  two  make 
one  province,  OveryJJel,  Utrecht,  Ildland, 
AnA  Zealand,  all  which  in  1519,  made  the 
famous  league  of  Utrecht,  from  which  they 
were  afterwards  call'd  United  Provinces, 
or  Protejtuiit  Low  Countries,  to  diftinguifli 
tiitm  from  the  catholick,  fubjeft  to  the 
lioufe  of  Jiijlria,  being  the  dukedoms  ot 
Brabant,  Limburg,  and  Luxemburg,  the 
counties  of  Namur,  Haynault,  /Ivtois,  and 
Flanders-,  the  lordfliipof  yV/t:fM«,  the  mar- 
quifate  of  tiie  holy  empire,  and  part  of  the 
dutcliy  of  Gueldres.  At  prefent  Spain  re- 
tains but  a  fmall  part,  if  ■  e  confider  what 
lias  been  taken  from  it  by  tiie  French  and 
Dutch ;  and  now  it  feems  to  have  loll  its 
riglit  over  the  rebels,  iirfl;  by  the  truce 
granted  them  by  king  P/j;///)  III.  and  then 
by  die  peace  Philip  IV.  concluded  in  the 
yoir  1648. 

Thurfday  tlic  twentieth  I  took  boat,  and 
having  gone  feven  leagues  in  fight  of  cu- 
rious gardens  and  pleafure-houles,  came 
to  Utrecht,  paying  two  fchellings  lor  my 
pafTige.  There  are  fo  many  and  lo  various 
opinions  concerning  its  name,  and  fo  un- 
certain an;  th;:  conjectures  of  feveral  au- 
thors who  have  undertaken  to  treat  of  it, 
that  it  would  be  a  difficult,  and  perhaps 
impolfible  task  to  find  out  the  truth.  Some 
will  have  it  fo  call'd  a  trajeila  Rheni,  from 
the  pafl'ige  of  the  Rhine ;  others  from  the 
legion  Trieejim,?  Ulpia  viHrix ;  and  others 
will  liavc  it  to  be  Ultriccjium,  or  the  Tri- 
ecfima  of  Ammianus  Marcellinus ;  but  how- 
ever that  is,  it  is  now  capital  of  the  pro- 

vince of  the  fame  name,  and  enjoys  a  Gemelli. 
wholfome  and  temperate  air,  as  being  ^■^^V*-' 
feated  in  the  leaft  marfliy  ground  in  the 
low  countries.  Two  canals  run  thro'  it, 
the  one  call'd  Vacrt,  if  I  mirtakc  not,  the 
other,  Niewe-Gracht,  over  each  of  which 
there  are  thirty-five  bridges  -,  and  tlicfe 
canals  bring  large  boats  laden  witli  goods, 
which  they  alfo  convey  to  the  neigiibour- 
ing  towns.  The  molt  valuable  conveni- 
ency  in  my  opinion  is,  that  there  are  i'Jty 
cities  within  a  day's  journey  of  Utrecht ; 
and  twenty-fix  ot  them  (land  fo,  tint  a 
man  may  go  dine  there,  and  return  home 
at  night.  The  fortifications  are  good, 
and  the  buildings  handfome  ;  among  wiiich 
the  moll  worthy  to  be  mention'd,  are,  the 
church  of  St.  Martin,  formerly  a  cathe- 
dral founded  by  bifliop  JFdlebrod,  St. 
Saviour's,  St.Peter'i,  St-John's,  and  Our 
Lady's  magnificently  built  by  the  empe- 
ror Frcd.riik  Barb.iroff.i,  as  it  were  in  fa- 
tisfaftion  for  the  damage  done  to  the 
churches  at  Milan.  The  citizens  are  cour- 
teous and  induftrious  •,  nor  have  they  ever 
wanted  men  of  learning ;  ^o\k  Adrian  W, 
once  tutor  to  Charles  \ .  was  one  of  them  1 
and  I  fliall  never  forget  his  epitaph,  which 
is  this, 




That  is.  Here  lies  Adrian  VI.  -juho  thought 
hii  being  in  /luthority  the  great ejl  Unhappi- 
ncjs  of  this  Life. 

Were  I  to  play  the  hillorian,  I  would 
obferve  liow  great  the  authority  ot  the  an- 
tient  billiops  here  was,  and  what  remedy 
was  apply'd  by  Charles  the  BJd,  king  of 
France,  and  iiow  in  proccfs  of  time  the  Ib- 
vereignty  devolv'd  to  the  Jiijhian  emj)e- 
rors,  and  was  from  tiience  transfcrr'il  to 
the  ftates  of  Holland;  but  my  defign  is 
only  to  acquaint  you  with  what  I  he,  not 
with  what  I  read  or  hear,  and  tlicretore 
only  tell  you,  that  having  paid  three  Iclicl- 
lings  ,ind  a  half  for  my  fupper  and  bed  at 
night,  I  fet  out  on  Saturday  morning  in  a 
coach,  paying  ten  fchellings  for  my  p'ace, 
and  having  traveil'd  feven  leagues  and  a 
half,  before  night  came  to  this  city,  where 
I  remain  your,  i^c. 

L  E  T  T  E  R 


'!■„■■■  I 




Nimeguen,  Cleves,  and  Cologn.         Let.  27. 


Of  Nimeguen,  Clcvcs,  n/ui  Cologn. 

HAving  ftay'd  fcarce  two  days  at 
Niincgiieii,  all  I  can  tell  you  ot  it  is, 
tiiat  it  llancls  on  the  left  liile  oJ  the  IVaH, 
which  is  deeper  here  than  eilcwhcre,  and 
therefore  the  inhabitants  have  with  great 
induftry  made  it  capable  of  large  Ihips 
down  to  the  fca,  which  has  convey'd  much 
wealth  to  them,  which  is  much  forwarded 
by  the  fafety  of  the  harbour,  and  the  citi- 
zens inclination  to  trade.  The  fortifica- 
tions arc  many  and  regular.  As  for  rtruc- 
tures,  there  is  rtill  the  antient  callle  of  y<tl- 
kenboff,  formerly  ruin'd  by  the  Normans, 
and  fince  rebuilt  by  the  emperor  Frederick 
BcU-bitrojTii,  together  with  Charlemnign''i 
palace.  The  cathedral  is  dedicated  to 
Sr.  Stephen,  and  is  reckon'd  one  of  the  no- 
bleft  in  thefe  parts,  as  well  for  magnificence 
of  ftrucfture,  as  largcnefs,  and  be  uty  of 
ornaments,  in  the  choir  is  the  ciiapel  of 
Catharine  of  Bourbon,  wife  to  /Lklphus 
duke  of  GtieUres. 

Not  far  from  this  churcli  is  the  free 
fchool,  cxtraorilinary  well  adorn'ii  with 
good  itatues,and  farther  on,  the  court, with 
many  ftatucs  of  emperors  on  the  frontif- 
piecc,  M.^  this  is  all  I  can  tell  you  as  to  the 
buildings.  As  to  other  particulars,  you 
know  it  is  an  imperial  free  city,  with  the 
piivik'ge  of  coining,  and  capital  of  the 
ilutchy  of  GueUres,  and  that  its   liberty 

Cologn,  'June  27.  1686. 

reaches  northward  to  the  aforefaid  river, 
callwarii  to  the  dutchy  of  Cleves,  fouth- 
wartl  and  weffward  by  Holland,  tho'  it  was 
formerly  comprehended  within  the  king- 
dom of  i">/(y/rt«i/,  on  which  it  ftill  borders. 
This  appears  by  an  antient  piece  of  marble 
found  on  the  neighbouring  mountain,  with 
this  infcription,  H  U C U .S QJLJ  E  JUS 
STAURIAE,  rhus  far  the  Liberties  of 
Stauria  ;  and  Slaiiria,  or  Stavera,  as  llorniui 
guefTes,  was  the  metropolis  of  Friejland. 
As  for  the  other  Itone,  with  the  infcription, 
is  the  extent  or  foot  of  the  Roman  Empire, 
perhaps  it  oughi  rather  to  be  underllood  of 
tlie  German  Roman  empire  than  of  the  an- 
tient Roman,  as  others  have  lefs  properly 

I  ,a(l  Monday  I  took  a  place  in  the  coach 
for  five  German  l-'lorins,  being  about  four 
Neapolitan  ducats,  and  let  out  with  a  gen- 
tleman of  Vienna  call'd  Signor  Varena. 
We  din'd  at  Cleves,  three  leagues  dillant,  Ckvt 
and  capital  ot  the  dutchy  ot  that  name, 
feated  in  52  degrees  latitude,  on  an  eafy 
and  pleafant  hill,  on  whicli  is  a  fquare 
tower,  formerly  the  refidencc  ot  the  dukes, 
which,  tho'  no  very  antient  t  ibrick  to  ap- 
pearance, is  believ'd  to  have  been  built  by 
"Julius  C(rfir,  becaufe  ot  the  infcription  flill 
on  it. 



That  is,  /;;  the  I'ear  692,  after  the  buihhng  of  Rome,  Julius  Csefar  the  Dilator 
having  ful'dii'd  tbeje  Farts,  founded  the  Caj'tle  of  Cleves. 

The  faid  dutchy  of  Cleves  borders  eafl- 
ward  on  that  ot  Berg,  IVejlphalui,  and  the 
county  of  Mark,  nortnward  on  Zutphnt 
and  Over\£(I,  wellvard  on  Gucldcrs  and  the 
county  of  Z,/V;,v,  .md  fouthward  on  tliacof 
ColugK  and  "Juhcrs.  Many  rivers  run  thru' 
It,  fonie  fmall,  otliers  great,  I'articularly 
the  Kbir.e,  which,  befiiles  fertilizing  the 
land,  aiibrds  the  advantagj  of  navigation, 
vpi-y  ULiH-'icial  to  feveral  places. 

Duke  Joir,  IViHiain  dying  in  the  yar 
1609  without  iirue,the  fuccefiion  was  Itillly 
contended  tor  between  the  marc|'jis  elector 
of  Brriidenburg,  the  duke  of  NeuLur:^,  the 
duke  of  D.ux-Ponis,  ,iiid  tiie  marciuis  of 
Burgau:,  all  pretending  by  wives  of  the 
lioufe  of  CliVi- ;  but,  as  you  well  know, 

only  the  two  firfl  divided  it  between  them 
by  force  of  arms,  lb  tiiat  the  dutchy  we 
I  peak  of  now  belongs  to  the  Branden- 
burgers.  The  city  is  fmall,  but  has  many 
beautiful  and  remarkable  Ibiidtures,  and 
good  churches  belonging  to  the  catholieks. 

We  proceeded  live  league>  I'rom  (Aleves 
to  Guelders,  where  we  lay,  and  on  Tiiefday 
Went  on  feven  leagues  to  Nuys,  and  lallly, 
yellerday  morning,  aft.r  riding  tour 
leagues,  we  came  to  this  city,  where  I  am 
at  your  fervice,  ri\uly  to  liepart  this  very 
day  as  loon  as  I  h  ive  din'd. 

Ctjlo;^):,  by  the  Germans  lail'd  Cceln,  lies  Coio:^!. 
in  fifty-one  degret-s  ot  latitude,  and  twenty- 
liven  and  forty  mir.utes  of  longitude.   It  is 
generally  thoii[;ht  to  liav;  been  built  by 


;   !_  . 

Let.  28. 

The  Empire. 



the  Ubii,  a  people  ^ennany,  who  at  the 
rime  when  Agrippa,  10  'a-l.iw  to  Augiiftus, 
commanded  rhtRoma,.  v  in  thefe  parts, 
pafs'd  the  Rhine,  flying  the  fuperior 

power  of  their  enemies  th  "(i  ''wwj,  and 
being  admitted  to  his  frieni;'!-!:;  obtain'd 
fo  good  a  place  to  fix  theu  '  "tation  •, 
but  it  is  not  tafy  to  find  wiiat  name  they 
gave  their  new  city.  Afterwards,  in  the 
days  of  the  emperor  Claudius,  it  wis  made 
a  colony,  and  call'd  Agrippina,  in  honour 
of  Juliu  Jgrippiiia,  mother  to  Nero,  who 
was  born  there.  It  was  aifo  call'd  Coloni.i 
Claudia  Aigujla  Jgrippineufium,  in  fome 
antient  inlcriptions. 

About  the  year  462  it  was  taken  by  the 
French  umter  the  condui-'t  ot  Cbildcrick, 
and  in  949  it  was  taken  from  tiiem  by  ihe 
emperor  Otbo,  who  made  it  a  free  city  1  it 
was  then  c  illM  the  new  German  Rome,  for 
its  magnificence,  wealth,  beauty,  and  mul- 
titude of  inhahiunts ;  but  at  prefent  I  am 
of  opinion  no  fuch  great  account  can  be 
made  of  it ;  for  tho'  rich,  and  driving  a 
confiderable  trade  by  means  of  the  river, 
yet  if  we  look  to  its  extent,  it  is  but  an 
Italian  mile  and  a  half  long,  and  a  quarter 
in  breadth,  in  the  form  of  a  half-moon, 
on  the  left  bank  of  the  Rhine,  for  which 
reafon  there  is  never  a  fine  ftrait  ftrect 
throughout  the  city  ;  but,  excepting  one, 
indifi'er'-ntly  feated,  and  Icfs  than  half  a 
mile  in  length,  all  the  refl  are  narrow, 
crooked,  and  mif-lhapcn.  As  to  the  forti- 
fications, there  is  a  double  wall,  but  weak, 
and  molt  of  it  antient  j  the  houfes  about 
the  £;^(///fi«-gate  may  be  call'd  conve- 
nient, and  indifierent  uniform,  the  refl 
towards  St.Srtvnw'sgate  the  molt  wretched 
and  barbarous  in  the  world,  and  in  fhort 
there  is  fcarce  any  thing  in  it  worth  taking 
notice  ot. 

The  town-houfe  was  formerly  a  good 
flru'lure  in  the  days  of  the  Sicambri,  for 

now  mens  tafte  is  extraordinary  nice.  The  c.kmh  i.i. 
cathedral  is  a  very  larg>;  and  antient  church  ^'V"^ 
of  five  iflcs,  but  lb  void  of  ornament,  than 
it  would  look  hideous  were  it  not  for  the 
fine  tombs  in  it  of  feveral  archbilhops  and 
princes  both  in  marble  and  brafs  i  and  be- 
hind the  high  altar,  in  a  tmall  chapel,  are 
kept  the  heails  of  the  three  holy  kings, 
Gafpar,  Melchior,  and  Balthafar ;  and  on 
the  altar  itfelf  is  the  body  ot  St.Engelberlus, 
and  other  confiderable  relicks.  St.  Mater- 
nus,  difciple  to  St.  Peter,  who  dy'd  in  the 
year  1:54,  is  laid  to  have  been  the  firft  bi- 
fliop  of  Cologn.  The  churches  of  the  Ma- 
chahees  .xnd  ot  the  eleven  tho'ifntd  virgins 
are  handfoiiic,  but  much  inte'jr  to  the 
mofl  indifferent  in  ftaly ;  you  may  guefs 
what  the  rell:  are,  being  very  many,  and 
yet  of  no  note.  In  the  palace  is  a  famous 
tower,  adorn'd  with  fome  ilatues,  and  at  a 
fjiLiIl  diftance  the  Jews  fynagogue,  call'd 
Jerujalem,  where  they  fliew  a  pidure  of  the 
hand  of  yjpcllcs ;  let  them  anfwer  for  the 
truth  of  it. 

On  the  bank  of  the  river  ftood 
formerly  a  fort,  built  by  the  Romans,  to 
which  there  was  a  bridge  built  by  Conjl. in- 
line the  Great,  according  to  the  tradition 
of  this  country  •,  but  it  was  afterwards  de- 
flroy'd  by  bifhop  Bruno  in  the  year  1 124, 
and  at  prefent  there  are  only  a  few  cottages, 
inhabited  by  Lutherans.  This  archbilho- 
prick,  which  is  divided  into  the  upper  and 
the  lower  diocefes,  borders  northward  on 
the  country  of  Cle^'es  and  Mark,  eaftward 
on  the  dutchy  of  Bergs,  fouthward  on  the 
archbillioprickofT/rviw,  and  weftwardoft 
Guelders  and  Juliers. 

I  know  you  are  acquainted  with  much 
better  things  than  I  can  write  you,  but 
thefe  may  ferve  to  clear  any  doubts,  that 
you  may  know  how  things  really  arc,  and 
not  fuppofe  them  to  be  better ;  and  lb 
I  remain,  (sPf. 


I  ,iin 

It  is 
!t  by 



7/jc  ylii tier's  "Journey  from  Co'ogii  to  Vienna,  tin,!  Defcrlpt'ion  of  Coblciitz, 
Mcntz,  Frankfort,  Nurcuiberg,  Raiisbon,  Pall'aw,  and  Lii""' 

HAving  ftay'd  but  two  days  at  Cologn, 
and  feen  what  was  moft  remarkable, 
as  near  as  I  could,  I  took  boat  on  the 
twcnty-feventh  of  the  laft  month,  about 
noon,  for  Frankfort,  the  watermen  working 
fo  well,  that  we  came  to  the  village  of 
fyilricb  by  the  time  it  was  dusk,  where  we 
fpent  the  night  very  pleafantly  i  but  as 
foon  as  it  was  day  proceeding  on  our  way, 
foon  came  to  Bon,  four  German  leagues 
from  Cologn. 
Vol.' VI. 

Vienna,  July  14. 


This  city, the  ufual  refidcnce  of  the  arch- 
bilhop  cledor  of  Cologn,  is  feated  in  fifty 
degrees  forty  minutes  latitude,  on  the  left 
fide  of  the  Rhine,  faid  to  have  been  built 
by  Drufus,  in  the  reign  ot  the  emperor 
/lugujlus,  ';o  fecurc  that  pafs  on  the  river  i 
yet  there  are  fome  long-fighted  wits  who 
place  thr,  foundation  of  it  I  know  not  how 
many  ages  before  the  deflrudion  of  "Troy. 
It  is  now  a  flrong  place,  yet  very  Itnall  for 
a  city,  without  any  handfbme  flreets  or 
N  n  tightly 


The  Empire. 

Let.  -2^. 

■■\   :'» 



C.tMiiui,   fightly  ftrudlurcs,  tlio'  tlie  clcdoral 
""^"^r^^  were  ;i  thouliiiid  times  more  Itatdy  tlian 
it  is. 

After  dinner  \vc  rctiirnVl  to  the  boat, 
and  as  we  advancM  I  was  plcas'd  to  ob- 
I'crvc  the  fun  gilding  the  topsot  the  hills, 
curioufly  cover'd  with  vines  and  truit-trces. 
Pairing  by  tiic  little  village  of  Nouiicourt, 
and  obferving  a  line  monallcry  ot  Bcimu- 
■iiiii  nuns  there  is  in  a  fmall  ifland,  we  pro- 
ceeded in  figlu  ot  many  noble  hoiifes  on 
both  fules  of  the  river  to  the  village  of 
Lrtrijiorf,  which  is  on  the  right,  oppolitc 
to  the  tov/n  o( /fiiikninch,  and  belonging 
to  the  archbilhopof 'TVfXYi,  where  we  lay 
that  night.  As  loon  as  it  was  day  we  went 
on,  pal's'd  by  the  village  of  /.:ins,  and  then 
the  archbifhop's  pahice,  ab;vndon'd,  as  the 
people  fay,  on  account  of  being  haunted, 
the  evil  fpirits  taking  delight  in  that  cu- 
rious phice  i  and  having  run  fix  leagues, 
came  to  the  fort  of  Erenbrclfteiii,  on  the 
ri[^htof  the  river,  and  fubject  to  the  fame 
archbilhop.  On  the  top  of  the  hill  is  a 
ftrong  and  regular  citadel,  with  a  conve- 
nient dwelling  for  the  governor,  and  on 
the  fide  of  the  hill  a  great  caftle  for  the 
aforcfaid  archbifliop  to  refide  in  when  he 
thinks  fit,  to  which  end  there  is  a  fine  fpa- 
cious  and  well  order'd  garden  •,  and  both 
thefe  places  are  well  furnilh'd  with  cannon. 
CuWcm?..  On  the  oppofite  bank,  over  to  which 
there  is  a  fine  Hone  bridge,  IVands  the  city 
of  CobUntZy  by  the  Latins  call'd  Conflucn- 
tla,  bccaufe  near  by  it  the  waters  of  tiie 
Rhine  and  the  Maefe  \oin  ;  and  by  another 
name,  Colonia  Aiigufta  Ulpici  I'  iiirix.  It  is  ot 
an  indifferent  magnitude,and  the  beft  of  the 
archbilhoprick,  next  to  Treves,  full  ot  rich 
thops,  and  a  numerous  garifon,  yet  the 
ftreets  are  too  crooked  and  narrow.  It 
abounds  in  all  forts  of  provifions,  and  par- 
ticularly the  German  Nectar,  that  is,  wine, 
by  reafon  of  many  pleafant  cryftal  dreams, 
which  running  down  from  the  truittul  hills 
to  the  river,  curioufly  water  the  well  cul- 
tivated gardens  and  fcrtil  vineyards. 

Since  we  are  fpeaking  ot  the  archbi- 
flioprick  of  Treves,  it  is  proper  before  we 
leave  it  to  oblerve,  that  it  borders  north- 
ward on  the  county  ot  h'affaii,  the  dutchy 
ot  Moiis,  and  the  archbilhoprick  ot  Cu- 
logn ;  eaflward  on  the  Landt^ruviale  of 
Ileffe,  Ibuthward  on  Lorrjin,  and  well- 
ward  on  the  dukedom  ot"  Luxemburg. 

To  return  to  my  journey,  the  tirll  thing 
I  law  after  dinner  was  the  'n^ill  city  of 
Lunlzre/i,  two  G.rmaii  miles  from  Ereu- 
hretjh-in,  and  on  the  right  tide  ot  x.WRbine, 
l)elonging  to  the  elector  oi Mentz  ;  thence 
we  advanc'd  fix  leagues,  as  the  watermen 
laid,  b  tween  pleafant  hilU,  cover'd  with 
rhick  vines,  and  Uy  at  Fiipen,  a  fmall 
villag':ot  the  diocctcot  Triva,  where  the 

I'oules,  as  in  moH  parts  of  Germany,  ars 
fram'd  with  timber,  and  the  refl  is  a  thin 
wall  of  mud,  and  ttones  ill  laid,  by  which 
you  may  guefs  at  the  ftrufture. 

Smday  morning  we  lirll  pafs'd  by  the 
vill.igc  oi Sangil,  belonging  to  the  prince 
ot  Ri'injehll,  who  has  there  a  beautiful  and 
ll.itely  houfe  on  the  top  ot  the  hill.  In  tha'; 
village  I  left  my  heart,  for  there  wc  parted 
v-ith  a  young  maid  that  came  with  us  from 
Cologn,  and  had  perteiftly  charm'd  me 
with  her  wit,  beauty,  carriage,  and  mo- 
dtlty.  But  this  is  a  fuptrfluous  obferva- 
lion,  and  I  have  not  now  leifure  to  talk  of 
love.  From  S,ingU  we  went  a  league  on 
foot  to  the  town  of  I'effel,  on  the  left  ot 
the  Rhine,  belonging  to  the  ilate  o'i  Treves, 
where  we  heard  mats.  A  German  mile  far- 
ther on  the  right-hand  is  the  village  of 
G!({]i,  with  a  t6wer  call'd  Palz,  built  in 
the  miillt  of  the  water,  well  provided  with 
men  and  all  warlike  itores.  Two  leagues 
farther  is  Rabaraba,  a  village,  where  the 
eleiilor  palatine  keeps  a  fmall  garrilbn,  and 
here  we  din'd  merrily ^  thanks  to  the  good 
wine  that  country  abounds  in. 

Haifa  league  from  thence  wc  pafs'd  by 
Lork,  belonging  to  the  eleiftor  of  Mrniz, 
and  two  leagues  farther  by  the  city  fingen, 
on  the  left,  feated  on  .t  iiill,  with  a  hne 
cartlc,  near  which  the  river  Nab  falls  into 
the  Rhine,  and  lallly,  lay  that  night  in  a 
village  on  the  right  call'd  Ruiteljhm,  a 
league  from  the  afbrel'aid  city.  The  next 
morning  we  heard  mats  in  the  neighbour- 
ing village  o'il'inekel,  and  having  feen  tiiac 
oi'ElJf',  j)afring  by, with  many  others  which 
adorn  that  fame  right  fide  tor  the  fpace  of 
feven  leagues,  came  late  to  dine  at  Mentz. 
I  mufl  obferve,  that  if  I  happen  to  err  in 
the  diftances,  the  fault  is  not  mine,  but 
theirs  who  impof'e  upon  me,  tor  I  could 
not  meafure  them  with  my  eyes,  cfpecially 
going  by  water. 

Mentz,  by  the  Latins  call'd  Maguntia-  Mc-r; 
cum,  is  feated  in  fifty  degrees  thirty  minutes 
latitude,  and  twcnty-teven  degrees  thirty 
minutes  ot  longitude,  on  the  left  of  the 
Rhine,  which  not  far  from  thence  is  join'd 
by  the  waters  of  the  Mcin.  Its  territory, 
bi-iiig  water'd  by  many  plealant  brooks 
flowing  from  the  hills,  produces  plenty  ol' 
all  things  necellary  tor  the  fup|)ort  of  hu- 
man lite,  and  [)articularly  rich  wine,  as  the 
river  and  hills  furnilli  abundance  of  filh 
and  game.  Part  of  the  city  lies  in  tlie 
plain,  the  other  part  riling  along  the  fide 
ol  the  hill,  but  the  upper  houles  are  moll 
turlakei.  On  the  hill  liands  a  callle,  with 
a  great  tower,  ill  provided  with  men  and 
cannon  i  nor  does  the  eiettoral  palace  on 
the  bank  ot  the  river  appear  to  me  any 
thing  couliderable  ;  tor,  not  to  fpeak  ut 
the  ouilide  and  lynuiK'try,  having  gone 


Let.  2'. 

over  a  1 

into  th 

thing  1 


'I'ho'  tl 


fome  g 




the  cor 

there  i . 

tcr  ol' 1 1 

ami  i\v 

by  a  bi 


out  in  t 

at  lels  tl 

into  the 

by  horll 

done  by 

a  fmall  f 

and  the 

then  tha 


ther  n.iii 

four  Ger 

as  eight 

];!kfort.  Tills 

tude,  an 
is  thougl 
army  ovt 
Era  Ilk  fort 
houfe s,  an 
fori,  as  w 
ber  of  ft 
other  rcr 
ilrong  w, 
it,  being 
mighty  t 
many  otii 
mous  thri 
and  in  Se^ 
fale  of  b 
more  nun 
have  the 
the  latter 
chief  of  V 
meiv,    a  IK 
which  file 
but  this  t 
the  fame, 
over  Ionic 
J'nd  north 


2  3. 

The  Empire. 


over  11  briJge  into  a  great  court,  and  tluncc 
into  tliL'  lo.lging'i,  the  molt  remarkable 
thing  I  (v'l  v/as  fome  tapiftry  of  torell 
work,  ami  tlie  gates  witliout  any  porters. 
Tho'  tlie  eity  is  rinall,  ill  wall'd,  and  the 
Itreets  winding  and  uneven,  yet  there  are 
fome  good  churehcs  in  it,  among  whieli 
the  firit  place  is  due  ro  the  catliedral,  for- 
merly dedicated  to  St.  Stephen,  and  now 
bearing  the  name  of  vSt.  Martin.  Befides 
the  convenicncy  of  the  ahircfaid  rivers, 
there  i3  a  can  d  cut,  which  conveys  the  wa- 
ter of  tlie  litile  nvcr  Omback  into  the  city, 
and  the  tv/n  banks  of  that  canal  arc  join'd 
by  .1  bridge  of  boats. 

•■TucfJay  tlie  R-cond  of  this  month  I  fet 
out  ill  the  common  Frankfort  boat,  which 
at  Iclsthan  half  a  league's  diftancc  turn'd 
into  the  river  Mi'/,  and  began  to  be  drawn 
liy  hories,  whereas  on  the  Rbine  that  was 
done  by  men.  We  firll:  found  on  the  left 
a  fmall  fort  furnilh'd  with  a  lew  iron  guns, 
and  the  village  of Flienkem  on  the  right, 
then  that  of  liifiljum  on  the  left;  and  laltly, 
having  gone  Icven  leagues,  din'd  at  ano- 
ther nam'd  Heckji,  whence  we'd 
lour  Gcrmcni  leagues  more,  being  as  good 
as  eight  of  Flanders,  to  Frankfort. 
F.jiikfott.  This  city  is  in  fifty-one  degrees  of  lati- 
tude, and  thirty-one  of  longitude,  on  the 
bnrdei.s  of  IFetterav'ta  and  Franconia,  and 
is  thougiit  to  have  been  fo  call'd  as  it  were 
F'rancorum  Iranfilus,  the  palTage  of  the 
Franks,  for  there  Charlemaign  pafs'd  his 
army  over  the  ford  againll  the  rebellious 
Saxons.  Tiie  city  is  diviiled  into  two  parts, 
whereof  that  on  the  Lf't  is  call'd  little 
Frankfort,  or  Saxen-baufen,  that  is,  Sason- 
houfes,  and  that  on  the  riglit  great  Frank- 
fort, as  well  on  account  of  the  great  num- 
ber of  llatcly  houfes,  broad  Itreets,  and 
other  remarkable  Urudlures,  as  for  the 
ilrong  wall",  and  batlions  'hat  encompafs 
it,  being  in  figure  almoll  oval.  Here  is  a 
mighty  trade,  not  only  of  Germany,  but 
many  other  parrs  at  the  two  fairs  lb  fa- 
mous throughout  wW  Europe,  kept  at  Eufter, 
and  in  September,  when  there  is  a  mighty 
fale  of  books.  Tho'  the  Lutherans  are 
more  numerous  than  the  catholicks,  and 
have  the  go-' •rnment  in  their  hands,  yet 
the  latter  'he  Iree  evercile  of  their 
religion,  and  fcveral  line  churches,  the 
chief  of  which  is  dedicated  to  St.Barlholo- 
mezi\  and  has  an  extraordinary  clock, 
wliich  lliews  the  motions  of  all  the  planets  1 
but  this  frei-dom  of  the  catholicks  is  no 
extraordinary  favour,  for  the  Jen's  enjoy 
t'le  fame.  The  liberty  of  this  imperial 
city  doth  not  extend  above  a  league  about 
over  fome  villages,  bordering  eallward  on 
Unr.ovcr,  foutlnsard  on  llelje  DannJlaJt, 
vvellward  on  the  archbiflioprick  of  A/fw/z, 
j'nd  northward  on  H'ctieravi.t;  fo  that  the 

bell  it  has  to  boaft  of  is,  that  the  king  of  Gt.MtLLi. 
the  Romans  is  eleded  in  it,  where  it  is  to  ^-"V"^ 
be  obferv'd,  that  if  two  princes  fliould 
happen  to  be  chofen  at  the  fame  time, 
neither  of  them  may  enter  the  city  till  he 
has  vanquilli'd  his  competitor  in  the  Held, 
and  prevail'd  on  him  amicably  to  quit  his 
title,  as  we  read  has  happen'd  1.  eral 
times.  The  houfe  where  the  eleifUon  is 
made  is  call'd  Remer,  and  before  it  is  a 
curious  fountain  •,  and  here  the  Scheffen  or 
Ihcriffs  meet,  with  the  Scult,  to  decide 
caufes,  as  do  the  burghcrmallers,  for  fuch 
matters  as  relate  to  them  ;  and  for  publick 
affairs  the  fenate,  compos'd  of  forty-two 
elders,  among  which  there  arc  always  two 
butchers,  two  Ihoemakers,  two  bakers, 
two  fmiths,  and  one  fliinner  ;  but  taylors 
are  not  now  admitted,  perhaps  for  tear  kit 
they  Ihould  cut  too  large  flip:  of  caobage 
from  the  publick. 

The  next  morning  1  fet  out  in  a  coach, 
paying  lour  tallcrs  for  my  place,  to  Nu- 
remberg, and  paffing  over  into  the  leller 
Frankfort  on  a  handfome  ftone  brjtigc, 
took  notice  it  was  very  well  fortify 'd,  and 
inhabited  by  rich  merchants.  Then  tra- 
velling thro'  a  delicious  wood  of  antienc 
pine  and  fir-trees,  at  two  in  the  afternoon 
found  we  had  travell'd  four  leagues  to  the 
village  of  Stateflaf,  where  having  eaten  a 
bit,  and  refled  a  while  in  the  coach,  we 
proceeded  half  a  league  to  the  town  of 
Jfebemhurg,  belonging  to  the  eledor  of 
Affw/z, where  is  a  fquare  callle,well  enough 
built  •,  then  pafTing  by  fome  villages  and 
delightful  plains,  all  cover'd  with  green 
vines,  we  came  to  lie  at  Reinfeld,  where 
we  had  a  fupper  and  bed  fit  for  Anchorites. 

Thurfday  morning,  having  gone  two 
leagues  in  the  coach,  we  were  fain  to  walk 
up  a  high  Iteep  hill,  and  then  leaving  be- 
hind us  a  good  town  c.\\\\\  Mildeviburi, 
din'd  at  the  village  oiKifeim,  where  the  ter- 
ritory of  Mentz  ends,  whence  we  advanc'd 
through  mountain  and  woody  grounds  to 
the  city  oi  Pifehinfebian,  if  I  name  it  right, 
and  lay  that  night,  uneafily  enough,  at  the 
village  of  Semiringben.  The  next  morn- 
ing we  travell'd  two  leagues  to  Nab,  be- 
longing to  the  bithop  of  JFirtzburg,  then 
three  farther  to  Kujhlor,  a  village  of  the 
eleftor  of  Brandenburg,  where  we  din'd. 
After  which  we  went  on,  thro'  fome  plains 
and  fome  hills,  to  JVtndfn,  a  city  lubjcct 
to  the  emperor ;  and  then  two  larther,  to 
the  village  of  Linden,  where  we  lay  with 
as  little  convenicncy  as  the  niglit  before. 

Saturday  the  lixth,  after  riding  four 
leagues,  the  one  hall  of  the  Wiiy  over  moun- 
tains cover'ci  with  tall  fprcading  jMne-trees, 
we  came  to  a  great  village  c.dl'd  Fiirt, 
and  a  league  thence  to  N:iremherg,h  nam'd 
from  the  antient  Nor'ui,  who  palVd  over 






The  Empire. 

Let*  28. 

i»  Sir  Iff  ii .. 



front,  and  over  , 
arms,  being  an  caf 

Cfmum.  from  till- other  fide  of  the  DmiuIc  to  dwell 
in  the  Uticynuin  lorell,  tor  fear  of  the 
lliin.i.  The  city  is  fcattd  on  a  fantly  foil, 
in  fifty  degrees  of  latitude,  and  thirty-four 
of  longitude,  the  river  Regtiitz  pafTing  near 
by,  and  that  of  Pegnits  through  it,  which 
laft  therfc  Ibrnis  two  illands.  Trade  has 
increas'd  and  cnlarg'd  it  to  near  feven  miles 
\n  compafs ;  the  broadeft  part  fronting  to 
the  fouth,  where  it  is  fartheft  from  the 
Ke^Hitz.  Both  the  llreecs  and  fquares  are 
fpacious,  and  well  pavM  ;  and  two  of  them 
are  very  remarkable  for  being  adorn'il  with 
moll  curious  fountains,  not  to  mention  the 
fine  palaces,  and  fcveral  markets,  taking 
their  names  from  the  fevcral  commodities 
fold  in  them  i  in  fomc  whereof  there  are 
llatues  no  way  contemptible.  The  town- 
houfe,  which  thev  call  yocan.\  has  a  llately 
eat  are  the  city 

•if   .      oman'thead. 
Along   the  walls     '  there  are 

bcnciies  rais'd  three  r;'«  '1  ■:'■)•    f  ground, 
witli  a  finall chair  on  t      ;.it  har  '     .nd  a 
fpace  in  till' middle,  fhuaip  with  L;    ,.  \\- 
niftersj  and  thro' tiiis  hall  is  the  way  into 
the  court,  whfre  tiic  fenators  meet  to  try 
caufcs.     Ever  fince  the  days  of  Charles  IV. 
when   the   government   of   the  city  was 
chang'd  from  a  Democracy  almoft  into  an 
Anjlocracy,  tliere  are  twenty-fix  of  thefe 
fenators,  whereof  thirteen  are  call'd  mafters 
of  the  city,  and  the  reft  fhcriffs,  being  al- 
ways chofen  of  twenty-eight  noble  fami- 
lies i  and  it  is  to  be  obfcrv'd,  that  by  their 
antient  conftitution,  no  dodlor  of  the  civil 
law  can  be  made  a  fenatori  and    iicreforc 
in  difficult  cafes  they  only  con. alt  three 
lawyers.    When  any  extraordinary  bufincfs 
requires,    two  huntired   citizens   meet   in 
council,  and  are  chofen  out  of  the  three  de- 
grees of  fenators,  merchants  and  commons. 
On  the  top  of  the  hill  are  two  callles, 
One  of  which  was  built  by  the  emperors 
for  a  dwelling,  and  the  way  up  to  it  from 
the  city  is  a  path  cut  in  the  rock  v    the 
other  at  this  lime  is  a  publick  granary. 
Moft  of  the  fabrick  is  of  a  fort  of  ftone, 
dug  out  of  tiie  neighbouring  hills,  which 
is  at  firft  very  fbft,  and  afterwards  hardens 
by  degrees  -,   and  the  walls  and  towers  of 
the  city  are  of  the  lame.     The  river  is  alfo 
of  great  ufe  for  corn  and  powder  mills ; 
as  alfo  for  the  iron  and  br.ifs  works,  and 
cafting  of  cannon.     Wlierc  it  is  to  be  ob- 
fcrv'd that  the  people  of  Nuremberg  have 
been  very  longmuchdelightcd  infire-arms; 
and  therefore  there  is  a  place  appointed, 
where  on  holyday.-,  befides  fcn.:ing,    with 
^rerman  activity,    they  praftifc  fhooting 
with   musket   and  cannon.      In  this  city 
is  alfo  f>ill  prefer\''d   the  antient   cuftom 
of  burying  the  dead  without  the  walls, 
and  therefore  there  is  a  large  piece  of  land 

callM  St.  7'"'"'*!>c-hurch-yard,  whither  thry 
carry  all  the  bodies  both  of  hereticks, 
and  of  the  few  catholicks  there  are.  As 
the  Mabcmctaiis  fet  up  two  Hones,  the  one 
at  the  heail,  and  the  other  at  the  foot  of 
tlie  grave,  with  the  pcrfon's  name  and 
country,  the  time  of  his  ikath,  and 
any  action  of  his  life  ;  I'o  the  people  of 
Nuremberg  hang  over  their  country  graves 
a  brafs  tablet,  containing  the  arms,  and 
fome  infcriptioM  in  praife  of  the  deceafed. 
But  if  a  man  would  make  the  very  Itones 
burll  with  laughing,  he  need  only  fhcw 
them  the  caps  the  meaner  fort  of  women 
wear,  and  Ibmc  other  things  I  know  not 
what  to  compare  to,  us'd  by  thofc  of 
better  quality. 

Sunday  the  feventh,  I  fet  out  for  Raiishn, 
paying  three  florins  for  a  place  in  the  coach, 
and  having  travell'd  tour  leagues,  din'd 
in  the  village  of  Pofpaw,  where,  much 
againft  my  will,  I  was  forc'd  to  ipeak 
Latin  ;  bccaufe  I  underftood  not  the  fevcral 
languages  of  any  of  my  company.  Con- 
tinuing our  journey  we  pafsM  through  the 
city  of  Nen-CK-Marcbl,  and  when  the  fun 
began  to  decline  reach'd  a  village,  call'd 
Deyningen,  belonging  to  the  duke  of  Ba- 
varia, as  does  the  aforefaid  city.  Here 
we  pafb'd  the  night  merrily,  thanks  to 
about  thirty  piafants,  who  had  features 
likefityrs,  and  play'd  on  their  ruftick  in- 
ftruments,  like  Bacchanals,  dancing,  and 
every  now  and  then  tolFing  off  their  extra- 
vagant goblets,  not  much  inferior  in  bignefs 
to  Minerva'%  Ihicld,  made  by  the  emperor 

The  next  morning  we  took  coach,  the 
weather  being  Ibmewhat  rainy,  and  riding 
four  leagues  came  to  the  village  of  Ilematii, 
in  the  dominions  of  the  clcdor  Palatine; 
where  in  a  flove  we  foon  eas'd  ourlirlves  of 
cold  and  hunger.  Here  I  made  a  good 
obfervation  of  the  need  we  have  of  fpittle 
towards  digeflion  ;  that  is,  I  confidcr'd 
the  mighty  providence  of  nature,  which 
has  lb  plac'd  it  in  certain  vefTcls,  and  par- 
ticularly on  the  tongue,  that  the  very  fcent 
and  nearnefs  of  meat,  or  even  the  thouglu 
of  it,  is  fufficicnt  to  provoke  and  draw  it ; 
whence  to  exprefs  an  earneftnefs  for  a  thing, 
it  is  ufual  to  fay,  it  makes  one's  mouth 
water  ;  by  which  it  plainly  appears  not 
to  be  barely  an  excrement.  After  dinner 
we  travell'd  three  leagues  along  a  very  bafc 
road,  and  about  evening  came  to  Ratisbon, 
or,  as  the  Germans  call  it,  Regenfpurg,  a 
name  taken  from  the  river  Regen,  which 
lofes  itfelf  not  far  off  in  the  Danube,  tho* 
by  the  Romans  it  was  call'd  Colonia  AugujU 

It  is  feated  in  a  plain,  on  the  right  fide  R,.ii'a„ 
of  the  Danube,    and  forty-eight  degrees 
forty  minutes  latitude,  in  the  lower  Bavaria, 


Let.  2I 


.ET*    28. 

Let-  28. 

The  Archdutchy  of  Auftria. 


U  fide  R,..,;.x„ 

;\nd  to  me  fecnis  miicli  longer  dian  it  is 
broad.  The  walls  are  alter  the  antienc 
nuniier,  fo  that  a  nun  may  cafily  walk 
round  on  them,  under  Iheltcr  from  the 
rain  •,  but  they  arc  fo  weak  they'd  fcarce 
keep  out  an  enemy  one  day  i  nor  do  the 
houfcs,  ftrtcts,  or  churches,  deferve  to 
have  much  faid  ot  them.  I  faw  nothing 
good  in  the  cathedral  but  a  brafs  llatuc, 
reprefcnting  Pbiiip  H^ilHiim,  cardinal  of 
Bavaria,  bilhop  oi  tiie  city,  kneeling 
before  a  crucifix  1  but  the  palace  is  magni- 
ficent, and  worth  feeing.  They  pretend, 
lluc  the  body  of  St.  Dt'>iii  the  Jreopa- 
Xilt,  lies  in  the  church  of  St.  Emcreittia- 
iiui,  Dcing  brought  thither  out  of  trance 
by  the  emiKTor  Arnulfus,  which  the  French 
deny,  atfirming  they  lUU  have  it ;  but  a 
certain  author  make  a  jell  of  them  both, 
laying,  that  St.  Denis  never  came  into 
f ranee.  I  faw  tiie  churcii  of  St.  /lugiijlin, 
an  indifferent  llrudlure,  and  tlic  nuns  offi- 
ciating within  an  iron  grate,  near  the  high 
altar,  with  the  alliltancc  ot  the  ficrillan  •, 
a  thing  utterly  new  tome.  There  are  two 
bridges,  the  one  over  the  Rc^en,  and  the 
other  over  x.\\<i  Danube;  this  lalt  built  by 
ijie  emperor  Henry  V.  may  be  reckoned  a 
gciod  llruihire,  confining  ot  eleven  aiciies, 
tour  hundred  and  levcnty  paces  in  length. 
The  habit,  both  of  men  and  women, 
would  among  us  be  thougiit  a  pretty  in- 
vention fur  a  mask  in  carnival  time  ;  for  the 
men  among  otiier  things  wear  coarfe  wool- 
len fteeple -crown  hati,  and  long  beaiils, 
as  rougli  as  pilgrims  1  I  me.m  tfie  meaner 
fort :  the  women  wear  a  little  black  mantle, 
with  the  fame  fort  of  hat  on  their  heads, 
or  elfe  a  great  cap,  made  of  feveral  lurs, 
with  an  hundred  forts  ot  hair.  It  is  a  free 
imperial  city,  tho'  the  liukes  of  Bavaria 
refent  it  fliould  be  fo  in  the  heart  of  their 
dominions ;  and  here  are  alio  held  thofe 
diets  ot  the  empire,  where  when  the  princes 
of  Germany  were  truly  free,  matters  of 
confetiucncc  and  general  advantage  to  the 
publick  were  handled  1  not  as  is  pradfis'd 
at  prefcnt,  when  nothing  of  confideration 
is  mention'd  there,  befules  the  fupplies  for 
the  war  againd  the  'Turki  in  Hungary, 
and  tho'  the  great  men  of  the  ?mpire  are 
at  fuch  charge  in  alTcmbling,  .is  foon  4s 
the  tax,  or  iiiipolition  requir'd,  is  once 
fettled,  the  reil  is  alw.iys  put  otfliom  one 
diet  to  another  for  ever  ;  a  mighty  griev- 
ance, connived  at,  and  perhaps  contriv'il 
by  the  prefent  reigning  family  1  obferv'd 
in  his  time,  by  M.  Paulm  Joviiis. 

Taking  another  coach  at  Ratiihon,  I 
came  at  night  to  the  village  of  Murin, 
dillant  from  the  city  five  leagues  ot  excel- 
lent road,  on  the  right  fide  of  the  Danube. 
Setting  out  thence  again  on  ft^ednejUay 
morning,  after  a  league's  riding,  I  came  to 

Vol.  VI. 

the  city  of  Straubing,  belonging  to  the  duke  Cr.Mu,i  r. 
ot  Buvaria\  which  tho*  Imall,  has  one  *i^VN,» 
handlbme  fquarc.  and  a  church  inditlereni 
llately.  Here  I  took  boat,  and  running 
down  the  river  took  mighty  plcafure  in 
viewing  both  the  banks  adorn'd  with  fine 
houles,  and  villages,  and  well  cultivated 
gardens,  for  the  fjiace  of  eight  leagues, 
at  the  end  whereof  we  took  up  our 
lodging  in  the  city  of  1-iltz-OKen,  fo  call'd 
from  the  river  Htz,  which  falls  not  tar 
from  it  into  tlie  Danube. 

The  next  morning,  having  travell'dfour  PalTiW. 
leagues,  between  hills,  wc  came  before 
noon  to  Pajfau;  a  city,  by  the  Latins 
call'd  Palaviuni,  and  Balavium,  giving 
its  name  to  a  great  diocefs,  whole  bilhop 
s  alio  a  temjwral  prince.  It  is  in  the  lower 
"•varia,  upon  the  very  fpot  where  the 
river  In  tails  into  the  Danube  on  the 
fouth  fide,  and  the  Ills  on  the  north,  fo 
tiiat  the  fn  palies  on  its  right,  and  the 
Danube  on  tiie  left,  'ilivtfc  three  rivers 
have  as  it  were  three  cities  oppofi'.e  to  on 
another,  viz.  Pa/fa-u) on  the  Danube;  In- 
jladt  on  the  In,  and  llljladt  on  the  Ills ;  h 
that  It  might  with  good  reafon  be  call'd  . 
city,  divided  into  three  parts,  and  jo  ■  d 
by  wooden  bridges.  The  bilhop  ■ 
good  palace  on  the  hill  over  Injiadt  anu 
on  that  of  Pajjaiui.  fort,  more  rema'^kable 
for  its  fituation,  than  for  fortificat;  or 
cannon.  The  faiil  rivers  obltruc  .ii  ; 
city's  extending  iti'elf  in  breadth  ;  but  in 
length  it  flretches  about  half  a  German 
league,  which  is  the  meafure  of  its  only 
great  llrcc-.  The  houfes  and  palaces  are 
all  unilorm  llnidures,  efpecially  thotl-  built 
fince  the  lire,  among  which  the  bilhop's  is 
moll  remarkable.  The  cathedral  will  be 
extraordinary  beautiful,  when  the  painting 
now  in  hand  is  finiili'tl  1  and  were  there 
nothing  elfe  it  deferves  to  be  ict^n  for  the 
fake  ot  a  moll  beautiful  iron  gate,  ot  mat'- 
terly  workmanlhip.  So  in  the  Jefuils 
church,  the  finell  and  moil  curious  thing 
in  my  opinion  is,  the  ornament  of  the 
chapeli*  delicately  wrought  in  ebony. 

Holding  on  our  courte  along  the  Danube,  V.w.r.. 
which  being  fwollijn  here  with  the  waters 
ot  feveral  river*,  is  now  ten  fithom  deep, 
running  fierce  and  fwelling  ;  we  ran  in  a 
(hort  time  ten  leagues  to  the  city  ot  Lintz, 
formerly  call'd  Colonia  .lureliana,  flated 
on  the  right  of"  t\\c  Danube,  in  forty -eight 
degrees,  thirty-four  minutes  latitude,  and 
thirty-two  of  longitude  1  but  there  are 
many  houfes  on  the  other  fide  of  th?  river, 
over  which  there  is  a  good  Hone  bridge. 
Some  reckon  it  the  capital  of  the  upper 
Auftria,  others  not ;  however  that  ii,  no 
place  ismore  pieafant  and  ddiglufuK  and 
affords  fo  much  fportof  filhing  and  hunt- 
ing. On  the  top  of  the  hill  is  a  large  and 
O  0  llately 




Let.  28. 

fuMiLi  I.  ftatcly  cadlc,  built  tlicrc  by  the  arcIuKikes, 
"^^V"*^  and  at  ii  fm.ill  ililhncc  u  inon.ilh'ry  ot 
Crtpucbiiis ;  nor  lio  tlii'  otlier  parts  ot  tlic 
city  want  for  gooil  clnirriics,  mari^cts  and 
palaces,  being  full  of  ricii  citi/xns,  by 
rcafon  of  its  two  fairs,  held  every  year, 
one  at  KaJlennA  the  other  on  tiie  twenty- 
fourth  of  /liij^uft,  not  to  mention  the  beau- 
tiful lliburb  leading  to  Pafnu.  I.iiirz  was 
formerly  very  famous,  on  account  of  the 
cmjieror  Fnulfiick  II's  being  befiegM  in  it, 
af'.er  his  return  troni  his  mighty  tnterprizes 
in  Ilttly  ;  but  it  afterwards  became  much 
more  renowned  in  the  year  15^1,  by  the 
(laughter  ot  almoll  fifteen  thoniand  Turks, 
who  came  to  attack  it. 

The  next  day  continuing  our  Journey 
along  a  mountainous  way,  very  pleafantly 
fhaded  by  very  tali,  thick,  and  fprcailing 
pine-trees  V  we  tirll,  after  a  league's  riding, 
pafTcil  by  the  the  town  of  Stnyfok,  lying  at 
the  foot  of  a  hill-,  and  three  leagues  fur- 
ther the  city  Ens,  ftanding  rdfo  on  a  hill, 
but  much  decay'd  from  its  formcrgrandeur. 
At  about  fifteen  leagues  dillance,  we  faw 
on  another  hill  the  famous  monaftery  of 
Melck,  the  nuns  whcicof  have  the  ibve- 
reignty  of  the  town  of  the  fame  name ; 
and  v,e  were  told  the  revenue  of  the  mo- 
naltcry  amounted  to  one  hundred  thoufand 
florins.  We  ran  ftill  down  the  fame  river 
five  leagues,  in  fight  of  good  vineyards, 
and  lay  that  night  at  S'lrjlain,  on  the  left 
fide  of  the  Danube,  not  far  dillant  from 
the  city  of  Krembs,  near  which  there  is  an- 
other mighty  wealthy  monaftcry  of  nuns, 
call'd  Kitovta. 

Yelterday  we  ran  full  feven  leagues  be- 
fi)re  dinner,  to  the  town  of  Dulim,  where 
the  river  fpre.uh  very  much,  becaufl:  the 
c«iuntry  is  plainer,  and  is  a  place  remark- 
able, for  that  there  the  king  of  Poland, 
with  his  army,  joyn'd  the  duke  of  Lorrain, 
ill  order  to  relieve  Vienna,  then  befieg'd  by 
the  Turks.  Two  leagues  beyond  it  wc 
f.iw  the  third  rich  monallery,  call'il  Clnfttn- 
nimherg,  and  a  little  further,  the  hill  Ka- 
hmbt-ri;,  from  which  the  chrifiian  army 
march'd  liown,  in  order  ot  battle  ;  and,  to 
conclude,  having  gone  another  league,came 
to  this  glorious  and  imperial  city,  about 
fun-fetting.  Intending  to  fet  out  in  the 
morning,  for  the  camp  at  B»i/i(,  and  hav- 
ing hitherto  feen  but  little  of  this  place, 
it  will  not  be  practicable  to  give  you  any 
account  of  it  till  my  return.  It  therefore 
only  remains,  that  I  beg  the  continuance 
of  your  f.ivour,  and  that  you  will  remem- 
ber me  in  your  prayers,  efpccially  if  it 
Ihall  pleafe  God  to  take  me  out  of  this 
world,  fighting  fiir  his  glory.  Dear  friend, 
perhaps  I  fhall  k.  you  again,  but  if  hea- 
ven has  decreed  otherwife,  afliirc  yourfelf, 
that,  as  far  as  may  be,  I  ihall  always  pre- 
ftrve  the  f ime  atftttion  for  you  in  another 
life,  and  am, 

Sir,  your  mod  affeftionate, 

and  obliged  fervant, 

and  moft  cordial  friend, 

D.  G.  F.  C. 



li    V 



Let.  28. 



T  O 


B  Y 

Colonel  NORWOOD. 

V    »'     '^    ^tf    oy    -w     -^    -Jif    ij-    -4?    -ft- 




TlKIt  tf 
lilting  "«■ 



T   O 


Tint  cf 
Inim^  tut 


HE  month  of  .ln^iifl,  .■inno  1649. 
being  the  time  I  en;»,iL>,M  to  meet 
my  two  comr.uli'i,  M.ijor  Francis 
Mornjhi,  anil  M.\]iix  liu  bard  Fox , 
at  London,  in  orJer  to  a  lull  .iceomphlli- 
iiient  of  our  purpolc  to  leek  our  fortunes 
in  rirginiii,  (purfuant  to  our  agreement 
the  year  before  in  IhlLind)  all  parties  very 
ptinrtually  appearM  at  the  time  and  place 
adign'tl,  and  wire  all  Hill  in  the  fame 
mind,  fully  bent  to  put  in  pradicc  what 
we  had  fo  Iblemnly  agreed  upon,  our  in- 
clinations that  way  being  nothing  abated, 
but  Wire  rather  quitken'd,  by  the  new 
changes  that  wc  faw  in  the  Itate  of  things, 
and  that  very  much  for  the  worfe  :  I'or 
it  our  fpirits  were  fomewhat  deprefsM  in 
contemplation  of  a  barbarous  reilraint 
upon  the  perfon  of  our  king  in  the  Ijk 
of  IVight  ;  to  what  horrors  and  defpairs 
muft  our  minds  be  reduc'd  at  the  bloody 
nnd  bitter  (Iroke  of  his  airafTination,  at 
his  palace  oi  IVhilrhall? 

This  unparallel'd  butchery  made  the 
rebels  cafl  away  the  fcabbards  of  their 
fwords  with  both  their  hands,  in  full  re- 
foluiion  never  to  let  them  meet  ;)g;iin, 
cither  by  fubmifllon  or  capitulation  i  fo 
that  the  fad  profped  of  afiairs  in  this 
jundure,  gave  fuch  a  d;imp  to  all  the 
royal  party  who  had  refn  cd  toperfeverc 
in  the  principle  which  ei ,  aged  them  in 
the  war,  that  a  very  conlidti.dilc  number 
of  nobility,  clergy,  and  gentry,  fo  cir- 
cumllanc'd,  did  fly  from  native 
country,  as  from  a  place  infcded  with 
the  plague,  and  did  betake  themfelvcs 
to  travel  any  where  to  fliun  fo  hot  a 
contagion,  there  being  no  point  on 
the  compai's  that  would  not  fuit  with 
fomc  of  our  tempers  and  circumllanccs, 
for  tranlportation  into  foreign  lands. 
Vol.  VI. 

Of  the  number  wiio  chofe  to  ftier  their  N  m*tMTt. 
courfe  lor  .inimtii,  fuch  of  tlum  as  in-  «^V%rf 
clin'd  to  try  their  foruines  at  Surinam, 
Harl)adouyl>:iiv,ii'>,  and  the  L--r-^.\ttd  //lands. 
Were  to  be  nun  of  the  lirll  rue,  who 
wanted  not  money  or  credit  to  balance 
the  expence  neceflary  to  the  carrying  on 
the  fugar  works  :  And  this  confiiieration 
alone  was  enough  to  determine  our  choice 
for  Fir^iri.i,  had  we  wanted  other  argu- 
ments to  engage  us  in  the  voyage.  The 
honour  I  had  of  being  nearly  related  to 
S\r  ll':'!iii»i  Biirk,!,'\  the  governor,  no 
fm.i'l  incitation  to  encourage  me  with  a 
linle  ilotk  to  this  adventure  :  Major 
Morrijon  had  the  king's  commillion  to  bi; 
captain  of  the  fort  i  and  Mr.  Fox  was  to 
fliare  in  our  good  or  bad  liiccels  :  But 
my  bell  cargaroon  was  his  majefty's  gra- 
cious letter  in  my  favour,  which  took 
eiYctt  beyond  my  expectation,  becaul'e  it 
recommended  me  (above  whatever  I  had 
or  could  delervc;  to  the  governor's  par- 
ticular care. 

To  proceed  then,  without  any  further 
exordium,  to  the  lubjeft  of  this  narrative  : 
It  fell  out  to  be  about  the  firft  day  of 
Siflrmhi-r,  Aniio  |64(),  that  we  grew  ac- 
quainted on  the  Ro\al-F.Xihaii'i<-\\\x\\QA\>i. 
John  Lodrr,  whole  bills  upon  the  polls 
made  us  know  he  was  mailer  of  a  good 
fliip,  (untruly  fo  call'd)  7'/','  rir^iiii.i  Mer- 
chant, burden  three  hundred  tons,  of  force 
thirty  guns,  or  more :  We  were  not  long 
in  treaty  with  the  captain,  but  agreed 
with  him  for  ourfelves  and  fervanis  at  fix 
pounds  a  head,  to  be  tranfportcd  into 
Javhs  River ;  our  goods  to  be  paid  for  ac 
the  current  price. 

"■  •!'- 




fn   } 

I:  :itt.j 

«:  J 

.  Ill 




y^  Voyage  to  Virginia. 

About  the  fifteenth  day,  we  were  or- 

'^*'V>-^  dered  to  meet  the  lhii5  at  G 



/,  wh 


the  captain  was  to  ckar  witli  his  mer- 
chants, and  we  to  inakc  our  feveral 
payments-,  which  when  wc  had  pertbr- 
med,  we  (laid  not  for  the  fhip,  Init  took 
pod  for  the  Dotins,  where,  with  fome 
nipatience,  wc  expi  (^ted  iicr  coming  tiicre 

Our  captain  dined  with  us  at  liis  hoiife, 
and  fo  did  captain  Tiilnrii,  wlio  in  likir 
courteous  manner  engaged  us  all  to  dine 
on  board  his  fhip  the  next  day.  \Ve  vi- 
fited  the  jieach-trees  for  our  del'crt,  ot 
which  I  took  at  leaft  a  double  ihare,  and 
did  not  fail  to  vifit  and  rcvilit  them  in 
the  dead  of  night,  to  iatisfy  a  ravenous 

the  whole  licet  under  fail,  with  a  fouth- 
weft  wind  i   which  having  brought  them 


ro  that  road,  kept  them  there  at 

until  our  money  wasalmoil:  Ipent  at  D,dl. 


2^.  the  wind  veered   to  the 

call,  and  we  were  fummoned  by  fignsand 
guns  to  repair  im  board.  Wc  had  a  frelh 
large  gale  three  days,  which  cleared  us  of 
:he  channel,  and  |nit  us  ou;  of  foundings. 


''lis   projjitious  bcginnnig  wc  piir- 

Uieu  our  c 

oiirle   for 

)Ut  twenty  ilays 

dcfiiin<T  to  m.'.ke  the  wellern  illar 

About  the  flxteenth  ililto,   wc  could  fee     apjntite  nature  has  too  prodigally  given 

nie  tor  that  fpccies. 

The  next  morning  we  furveyed  the 
ifland,  and  thought  the  callle  well  for- 
tihed,  efpeeially  on  the  lea-lian'd  jiarts. 
'J'he  governor  very  civilly  declared,  he 
h,id  lately  received  con'.mand  from  hi:; 
majefly  the  king  of  I'oiinca!,  to  treat  all 
fhips  tliat  belongeil  and  were  laithful  to 
the  king  of  Girtit  Brif.iiii,  w'ith  more  than 
common  courtefy,  as  he,  for  his  part,  did 
in  all  wc  could  defire. 

A  little  before  the  time  of  dinner  cap- 
tain iiiiaiK  hail  lent  his  boats  to  bring  us 
on  board  his  fliip  ;  ami  it  was  well  lor  us 
he  divl  fo,  our  fliip*s  long  boat  having 
been  flavedin  pieces  the  night  before,  by 
the  Icamens  negleft,  who  had  all  tailed 
fo  liberally  of  new  wine,  by  the  conimo- 
dioufnels  of  the  vintage,  that  ihey  lay  up 
and  ilown  deatl  drur.k  in  .ill  ijuaiters,  in  ;i 
i,id  pii  kle. 

J  he  lol's  of  our  long  boat,  as  it  was 
likely  to  make  our  watering  tedious,  antl 
ch.ugeable  to  the  owners,  fodid  itexpofe 
us  to  the  hazard  of  many  inconveniencies 
and  jierils  in  the  whole  courl'e  of  our 
voyage,  v,  iierein  frequent  occafions  occur 
that  render  that  boat  necefTuy  to  prc- 
lerve  the  whole  f.ibriik  and  lives  of  the 
f!ii[)  anil  company;  but  to  this  breach, 
no  other  reparation  was  applicable,  but 
by  recourfe  to  that  (lock  of  patience 
we  were  to  be  furnillied  wili.d  for  our 
fujiport  in  the  mighty  (Iraighis  we  mull 
em  ountcr  before  we  come  to  fafe  port. 

Oi;r  captain  difablcil  hereby  to  take 
the  befl  courl'e  fur  our  dilpatcli,  made 
choice  of  the  next  bill  way  to  clfect  ir, 
by  the  illand  boats  1  and  having  ordered 
his  officers  to  ufe  all  diligence,  and 
greater  care  than  before,  he  led  the  van 
into  "Tiilaw's  boat,  which  brought  us  i'.\fe 
on  board  the  JcIju. 

At  our  arrival  we  were  wclcoined  with 
a  whole  tyre  of  guns,  and  with  a  very 
kind  aljcd  in  the  captain.  He  gave  us 
(xcelknt  wines  to  drink  before  dinner, 
and  at  our  meat  as  good  of  other  forts 
for  comoiflion.  There  was  a  liandlbme 
plenty  of  fifli  and  fowl,  fcve  al  ways, 
looked,  to  relifli  the  Por'ti^nrlrh  and  ihi* 
J\i:^!ij/j  |).datesi  an  J,  which  made  our 
entertainment  more  complete,  lie  had 
priv.ulid  with  gle.U  lady,  with  her 
pretty  Jon  of  about  invcIvc  years  old  (tho* 


which  time  the  cooper  began  to  com]  l.'.in, 
that  our  water-cask  was  almolt  emiity, 
alledging,  that  there  was  not  enough  in 
hold,  (or  our  great  family  (about  three 
hundred  and  thirty  fouls)  to  ferve  a 
V  <>(;,'>  cf  Our  early  want  of  water  gave  the  ma- 
*'••''■•  fler  an  alarm,  and  an  mcafion  toconlult 
with  his  officers  for  1  reiiudy  to  fo  impor- 
tant an  evil  as  that  might  be,  if  not 
timely  helped.  Wc  wire  now,  by  all 
accounts,  very  near  the  wellern  iflands  ; 
{■\ii!l  was  that  we  were  likely  firll  to  fee, 
and  our  captain  relolved  to  touch  there 
to  fupply  this  defect,  as  the  mofl  (Oiumo- 
dious  port  for  our  purpoU-  ;  and  this  was 
good  news  to  the  p.ifllngers,  who  arc 
always  glad  at  fight  of  land. 

The  day-break  of  O.hha  14th,  Ihewcd 
us  the  peek  of  that  ifland,  the  highelt 
and  moll  conlpicuous  land  of  any  I  h.ivc 
heard  the  teamen  mention  for  land-mark<:, 
except  that  of  Tcinrifi'.  We  flood  dire-tly 
for  die  harbour,  which  is  alio  a  good 
road,  land-lock'd  by  the  peek,  which 
Hands  eaftcrly  about  a  mile  dillant  from 
the  town. 

Affoon  as  we  had  faluted  the  caflle, 
and  returned  thanks  (or  being  civilly  an- 
fwered,  captain  7&/1/; '7i(.'((;/;,  our  country- 
man, did  the  lame  from  aboard  his  goodly 
fhip  the  John.  He  was  newly  returned 
from  Biai:!,  in  the  kingdom  of /'(////d^./Z's 
fcrvice,  and  now  bound  tor /.///(/;,•,  with  a 
rich  freight,  and  tome  lady  of  great  note, 
who  with  her  family  took  pall'age  with 

The  F.i:»l[i).i  rnercliants  fiom  the  town 
Came  loon  on  board  our  fiiip,  and  gave 
tis  ft  Very  civil  welcome.  Of  them,  one 
JVlr.  .iiuliriif  nivited  me,  with  my  two 
comrade?,  to  rtfrctli  our  felves  with  fiuij 
iaii  meat  Vucli   "it  Ui«  illand  produced. 

A  Voyage  to  Virginia. 





)r  our 



lid  it, 
e  van 
■,  late 


IVC   Ui 

111  ilie 
111  her 

contrary  to  the  cuftom  even  of  the  meaner 
fort  at  land)  to  fit  at  the  table  with  us. 
r,!ic  was  taller  than  the  ordinary  itatureof 
that  nation,  finely  Ihap'd,  had  a  very 
clear  ikin;  her  eyes  and  hair  vying  for 
the  blacknels  and  beauty  of  the  jet  -,  her 
modeily  fervcd,  without  any  other  art, 
to  put  a  tindure  of  red  upon  her  face  ; 
for  when  flie  law  herfelf  environed  with 
a  company  of  ilrange  faces,  that  had  or 
might  have  had  beards  upon  them,  her 
blulhes  railed  in  her  face  a  delicate  com- 
plexion of  red  and  white. 

The  captain  was  our  interpreter  to  tell 
her  how  much  we  cfteemed  our  fclves 
honoured  with  her  prcfence,  which  (for 
her  better  juftification)  (he  was  in  a  man- 
ner forctil  lo  grant  us,  tiie  fiiip  affoniing 
her  no  otiier  place  lit  for  her  retreat  whillV 
we  were  there.  Her  young  Ion  fat  by 
her,  on  whom  all  our  eyes  were  fix'd  ; 
and  our  minds  united  with  one  opinion, 
that  the  air  and  lineaments  of  his  face,  full 
of  Iwectnefs,  made  him  fo  like  our  king 
when  he  was  of  chat  age,  that,  every  one 
whilperiiig  his  thoughts  to  his  neighbour, 
we  all  broke  out  at  length  in  an  open  ad- 
miration of  II)  great  releniblance. 

The  he.d;!is  of  the  two  kings  were 
palling  about  with  thundering  peals  of 
cannon  ;  the  youth  was  permitted  by 
his  niother  to  kifs  the  cup,  and  drink  a 
fmall  portion  to  that  of  our  king  ;  and 
Ihe  was  in  (o  pleal'ant  an  humour  at  this 
honoiir  done  to  her  fon,  that,  to  clolL- 
our  fiall,  lite  ordenil  the  table  to  be  co- 
vered anew,  and  a  handfome  banquet 
placed  upon  it,  which  we  mull  partake 
of  before  we  parted.  'l"o  conclude  this 
rare  treat,  Ihe  repeated  the  health  of  our 
king  in  a  fort  ot  choice  rich  wine  that 
they  make  in  Brafil,  and  drank  the  pro- 
portion Ihe  would  take,  without  the  allay 
of  water,  which  till  then  flic  drank  with 
little  or  no  wine. 

The  approaching  night  ma<le  us  take 
leave  fooner  than  our  inclinations  would 
have  led  us  afhore,  the  merchants  having 
told  us,  there  was  no  fafe  walking  the 
ftreets  in  the  night,  for  fear  the  Pscarncs 
(a  fort  of  land-pyrates)  fliould  fnatch  away 
our  hats  and  loofer  garments,  as  they  ule 
to  treat  ftrangers. 

When  we  had  paid  our  thanks  to  the 
captain,  we  delired  his  beft  language  to 
make  our  compliments  to  the  lady  and 
her  Ion,  whiih  flie  returned  with  her 
wiflies  for  our  happy  voyage. 

Whilft  we  were  carefs'd  in  this  manner 
en  Ihipboard,  the  fcainen  on  Ihore  con* 
tinned  in  their  deb.iuchery.  with  very 
little  advance  of  our  difpatch  ;  the  gerting 
water  was  lo  tedious  in  itfelf  for  lack  ol 
Our  boat,  and  fo  full  of  delays  by  drMnkcu 

contcfts  of  ours  with  the  iHanders,  and  Nonwoou. 
with  themfelves,  that,  after  fome  days  ^-"V^^ 
ftay  upon  the  illand,  when  our  captain 
relolved  to  fail  away,  he  found  the  Ihip 
in  worfe  condition  for  liquors,  than  when 
we  came  on  (liore  -,  for  if  we  got  a  new 
lupply  of  water,  the  pro[)ortion  was  hard- 
ly enough  to  balance  the  expcnce  of  beer 
that  was  Ipent  in  the  time  we  got  it. 

Some  days  before  we  paiieil,  we  law 
the  John  under  f.ul,  bound  for  Upon; 
where  the  captain  no  fooner  arrived  and 
dilcharged  his  Ihip,  but  he  lilltd  hinifelf 
as  a  man  of  war  in  a  fquadron  of  fliips 
then  there,  under  command  of  the  prince 
Rupert  :  which  I  mention  for  hi:,  honour, 
becaule  1  have  heard  the  i)rince  acknow- 
ledge in  his  favour,  that  he  did  his  duty 
very  well  when  there  was  like  to  be  an 
occafion  of  trying  his  valour. 

It  was  about  the  2  :d  of  0,7ficr  thacO^^"*"'"- 
we  took  leave  of  our  landlord  and  I-)al. 
We  had  Itore  of  black  pigs  for  frefh 
meat,  and  I  carry'd  peaches  without  num- 
ber. We  j-iarted  with  an  calUrly  wind 
a  toplail  g.ite,  which  loon  brought  us  in- 
to a  trade-wind  that  favoured  us  at  fifty 
or  fixty  leagues  in  twenty-four  hours,  till 

we  came  to   the  heiaht  of  B  "nm,, 


that  latitude  it  is  the  general  obl'ervation 
of  feamen,  that  the  leas  are  rough,  and 
the  weather  flormy.  It  was  my  fortune 
to  have  a  curiofity  to  look  out,  when  the 
officer  on  the  watch  fin  wed  me  a  more 
ihan  ordinary  agituion  of  the  lea  in  one 
particular  place  .ihove  the  rell ;  whiih 
was  the  elKct  of  what  they  call  a  fpoui. 

a  rajiin 

"  in  the  bowels  of  the  lea 

like  a 

violent  liirth)  llriving  to  break  out,  and 
at  laft  I'prings  up  like  a  mine  at  land,  witlt 
weiaht  and  force  enouiih  to  have  lioiled 
our  fiiip  out  of  her  jiroper  element,  into 
the  air  (  the  helm  been  for  it)  and 
to  have  made  her  do  the  Inperl'alt  ;  but 
God's  [irovidence  fecured  us  from 

The  fight  of  the  ifland  was  welcome  to 
all  :  the  mariners  learned  thereby  our 
true  d.illance  from  cape  H.iHrnn  ;  and 
the  palfengers  were  relieved  with  ho]ies 
to  be  loon  at  fiiorc  from  a  hungry  pelter'd 
fi'ip  and  company. 

lie  g.i.le  continued  fair  (ill  K'^vrmlrr  S:  X^v. 

we   obferved   the   water   ciiangei' 

id  havintr  the  lead  thirty-fiv;; 

fathom  of  water,  which  was  joylul  news  ( 
our  want  of  all  things  neccHary  for  hu. 
man  life,  made  it  fo. 

Towards  break  of  day,  weary  of  mjr_ 
ledging,  I  \ifited  mate  Pulls  on  the  \Mtch, 
rnd  would  have  treated  him  \v  ith  br.mdy,f 
but  he  refilled  that  oiler,  unlrls  I  coulil 
ttlfo  give  him  tobacco,  wliii  h  I  h  id  iiot, 
lie  latJ,  u  «'.'■»  near  break  of  day,  ;ind 


*  ' 

I   vf'srl 



iYM  ''^' 



.•  :       '\. 


St;  i 
It' ' 


^  /^oyfl'^^?  to  Virginia. 

NoRwoon.  he  would  look  ont  to  fee  what  change 
^^"V^  there  was  in  the  water.  No  fooner  wore 
his  f'cct  upon  tiic  deck,  but  with  Ihimps 
and  nolle  he  calls  up  the  teamen,  crying 
out,  >V.7  baiiils  aloft  !  Brnuhe.',,  hyauhci  on 
both  fides  !    All  bands  aloft ! 

The  fcamen  were  i'oon  on  deck  with 
this  dilmal  alarm,  and  faw  the  caufe 
thereof";  but  inlk-ad  of  applying  their 
hands  for  their  prtfervation  (through  a 
general  dcfpondtncy  )  they  fell  on  their 
knees,  cuminriKiing  iheir  fouls  as  at  the 
lall  galp.  riic  captam  came  out  at  the 
noifc  to  rectify  what  was  amils;  but 
icting  how  the  cafe  llood,  his  courage 
failed.  MatJ  /'.<//;  (a  llout  feamanj  took 
heart  again,  and  crycd  out.  Is  there  no 
f^ood  fellow  that  will  lland  to  the  helm, 
and  loofe  a  fail  ?  But  of  all  the  Ihip's 
crew  tliere  were  but  two  forLmad  men 
that  would  be  perfwatled  to  oluy  com- 
mands, namely,  '  Rcafin  and  John 
Smith,  men  of  innate  courage,  who,  for 
their  good  relblution  on  that  and  divers 
orher  occ.dions  in  the  various  traverfes 
of  this  vijyage,  dcftrve  to  have  their 
n.imcb  kept  iii  filling  remembrance. 

One  of  them  got  up  and  loolld  the 
r  re  top-lail,  to  put  the  fliip  (ifpollible) 
in  lleerage  way,  and  under  command  ; 
the  other  llood  to  tlie  helm,  and  he  Ihifted 
ir  in  .1  nick  of  time  ;  for  the  il)i|)  was 
r.i  the  point  of  dafliing  on  the  (larboard 
breach :  and  altho',  in  the  reft  of  the 
voyage.  Hie  was  went  to  be  blamed  for 
the  ill  quality  of  not  feeling  the  helm, 
the  did,  in  this  important  inftance,  re- 
deem her  credit,  and  fell  rountl  irli' lor 
our  refcue  from  that  danger.  Hut  the 
fcnfe  of  this  eicape  lalted  but  a  momen: ; 
for  no  fooner  was  Hie  fallen  from  that 
breach,  but  another  on  the  larboaril  bow 
•was  ready  to  recci\'e  her.  'I'he  fliip's 
crew,  by  this  time  (reproached  by  the 
courage  of  R,\i/:n  and  Smith:  were  all  at 
work;  and  the  helm  Ihifting  opportunely, 
Jhe  fi.ll  oil"  again  as  before.  The  light 
of  the  day  (which  now  broke  forth)  ilid 
difcover  our  condition  to  be  altogether  as 
ptrillous  as  pofliole  ;  for  we  now  f.iw 
our  felves  furroumleil  with  breaches  ; 
fcarce  any  water  like  a  channel  ap- 
peared tor  a  way  to  lliun  them.  In  this  condition  the  11. ip  llruck  grouml, 
and  railed  luch  a  war  ul  water  and  land 
together,  which  tell  on  the  main-chains, 
that  liosv  all  hopes  of  fafety  were  laid 
afide;  but  the  tliip  being  dill,  and 
the  leimen  all  of  them  now  under  com- 
mand, nothing  was  omitted  lor  our  pre. 
iVrvation  th.u  was  in  their  power. 

7om  Rriijii:,  feeing  t|u'  lhi|)  go  ahead 
in  rhe  likeliell    watur  for  .1  channel,   and 

orJaiiiii  llie  atcocdifii^ly,  J»cuvgii 

the  lead  •;  and  after  a  little  further  ad- 
vance into  that  new  channel,  wholly 
againtt  his  hopes,  he  had  a  good  deal  of 
water  more  than  the  fhip  drew,  which 
foon  mended  upon  us,  the  next  caft  of 
the  lead  affording  eighteen  or  twenty 
foot.  We  ftood  to  this  channel,  and  the 
light  of  the  morning  enabling  the  quarter- 
mafters  to  con  the  fliip,  we  were  by  this 
miraculous  mercy  of  God,  foon  clear  of 
the  breaches  at  cape  Hatteras,  and  got 
out  to  fea. 

No  fooner  was  the  fliip  freed  of  this 
danger,  and  gotten  a  little  into  the  offing, 
but  the  leamen  (like  io  many  fpirits)  fur- 
veyed  each  other,  as  if  they  doubted  the 
reality  of  the  thing,  and  Ihook  hands 
like  llrangers,  or  men  ril'en  from  the 
other  world,  and  did  Icarce  believe  they 
were,  what  they  teemed  to  be,  men  of 
llefh  and  blood.  As  they  recovered  force, 
they  made  what  lail  they  could  to  ftand 
to  iea-ward. 

The  t!,ale  caine  frefli  at  north-weft,  and  .,1  fi-, 
this  Ireth  gale  did  foon  grow  tip  to  a  vi- 
olent ftori:i,  which  increafed  to  lb  great 
a  rigour,  ieparating  us  troni  the  land  at 
the  rate  of  eight  leagues  a  watch,  merely 
wiili  our  fore-courfes,  inlbmuch  that  the 
mailer  thought  it  necefiliry  to  liop  that 
career ;  and,  in  or.ler  thereunto,  he  did 
advife  with  his  officers  to  bring  the  fliip 
about,  to  furl  all  fails,  and  to  try  with 
tiie  mizzen. 

1  he  mountainous  towring  north-weft 
leas  that  thisllorm  made,  were  Io  unruly, 
that  the  leamen  knew  not  how  to  work 
the  fliip  about.  W'c  were  already  at  a 
great  dillanee  from  land,  and  Ibmething 
mull  be  done  to  hinder  our  running  oil' 
at  that  excelfivc  rate.  The  firll  thing 
they  did,  was  to  lower  the  main-yard,  to 
give  tome  e.ife  to  that  mall,  by  laying  it 
on  the  Ihip's  walle.  Oiu-  great  dilficulty,  how  to  deal  l"o  with  the  lore-fails, 
that  the  llii[)  might  work  about  with  liife- 
ty,  or  at  leatt  with  as  little  hazard  as 
pofilble.  All  hands  were  too  little  to 
hale  the  flieet  clofe,  in  order  to  bring  the 
fliip  about.  M.iny  great  leas  were  IhippM 
as  flie  came  to  work  thro'  the  trough  of 
the  lea :  amongft  the  relf  one  cliancM  to 
break  ujion  the  poop  ,  where  we  were 
tiuartered)  and  wiili  to  lad  a  weight, 
tliat  we  gueK'd  a  tun  of  water  (at  the  leaft) 
ilid  enter  the  tarjiaulin,  and  let  us  all  on 
float  who  were  in  the  round-houfe.  The 
iioife  it  m.ide  by  dilchargin:;  itlelf  in  that 
manner,  wa?  like  the  report  of  a  great 
gin,  and  did  put  us  all  into  a  horrible 
flight,  whiih  we  could  not  foon  Ihake 
oil.  'I'his  lliock  being  paft,  the  fhip  about, 
and  our  fore-fail  hindled^  \vg  now  lay 
Uj'in!>  wiiKvur  iwucm. 


emit  I  c 

r.umiitri  0/  pf 

'  '  '       about 



A  l''*oy(ige  to  Virginia. 

1. 19 

A  p 



o  work 

ciy  ac  a 


iig  oil' 


ird,  to 

ing  it 


1.1  i  is, 


ird  as 

[tic  to 

ng  die 


gh  of 
M  to 


.ill  on 

n  tliac 



L)W   lay 

crtat  I  cannot  forjet  tiic  pi(iili£',ioi:s  number 

>:ii'i'l""  "f  Qf  por)  oiics  rlKit  liiLl  thar  evening  appear 


'"'"'  about  lilt-  Ihip,  to  the  allonil'im-jnt  ut  the 
oklffl:  I'-nnun  in  h(  r.  'J  hey  lieinetl  to 
cover  the  riirtace  ot  the  ll-a  as  Kir  ,i->  our 
eyes  couki  iliCccrn  -,  inlomuch  that  a  mm'- 
kct  bullet,  fliot  at  random,  coi  Id  hardly 
\.n\  to  do  execution  on  Conic  of  them. 
This  the  ieanicn  would  look  upon  as  of 
li.ul  portent,  prrdii'ting  ill  weather;  but 
in  our  cal'e,  who  were  in  prelent  pollef- 
fion  of  a  term,  they  appeared  too  kite 
tn  gain  the  credit  of  torecelling  what 
fliouki  come  upon  us  in  that  kind. 

'1  he  feas  thus  enraged,  and  all  in  foam, 
the  gile  dill  increaling  upon  us,  the  offi- 
cers on  the  w.itch  made  frequent  vifits  to 
the  round  houi'e,  to  prepare  the  captain 
for  fome  e\il  t  ncounter  which  this  mighty 
tem[H-ft  mud  bring  forth  :  and  tluir 
fears  proved  reiifonable  -,  for,  about  tiie 
I'lurs  often  or  eleven,  our  new  difafters 
did  begin  with  a  craft  from  aloft.  All 
Jiands  were  furnmon'd  up  with  loud  cries, 
that  the  fore-topmafl"  was  come  by  the 
board,  not  alone,  but  in  conjunftion 
with  the  fore-tiiall  head  broken  Ihort  otf, 
juft  under  the  cap. 

This  was  a  fore  bufincfs,  and  put  all 
to  their  wits  end  to  recover  to  any  com- 
petent condition  -,  what  could  be  done 
%vas  done  to  prevent  further  "-'("chiefs  ; 
but  tlir  whole  trim  and  riggin^"  '"  a  (liip 
(!q-en'lin;»  much  upon  Hays  and  tackle 
fi.crd  to  tliat  mad,  we  had  real'on  to  ex- 
pect rrrcater  ruins  to  follow,  than  what 
l;ad  alie.idy  befallen  us.  Mate  /'/(//  was 
then  on  the  warrh,  and  did  not  want  his 
ajipreiunlion  of  what  did  foon  enlue, 
wiiicli  in  all  likelihood  was  to  enii  in  our 
mter  peidition;  for  about  the  hours  of 
twelve  or  one  at  night,  we  heard  andfelt 
a  niiLdity  fca  bre.ik  on  our  fore-fliip, 
v,'!;iih  made  ficli  an  inundation  on  the 
d'lk  where  the  mat"  was  walking,  that 
he  retiied  ba^k  with  alUliligcnce  up  to 
his  knees  in  wnter,  with  fliort  ejaculations 
of  prayers  in  his  mouth,  fuppofing  the 
diip  was  foundering,  and  at  the  lad  gafp. 
This  looked  like  a  droke  of  death  in 
every  liaman'.i  opinion  :  the  diip  dood 
dock  dill,  with  her  head  under  water, 
feeniiiig  to  bore  her  way  into  the  lea. 
My  two  coniradcr.  md  myfelf  lay  on  our 
jifufonii,  Iharins;  liberally  in  the  general 
condernation.  We  took  a  Ihort  leave  of 
each  other,  men,  women,  and  children. 
j\\\  adaultftd  with  the  frefli  terror  of 
death,  made  a  mod  dolorous  outcry 
throi'j.'jiout  the  fliip,  whUd  mate  Putis 
j'erceiviiig  the  deck  almt.ll  freed  of  wa.. 
ter,  called  out  aloud  for  hands  to  pump, 
This  we  thought  a  lightning  before  death, 
bur  gave  me  occafion  (;«  Laving  tUe  belt 
Vol.  Vi. 

fea  legs)  to  look  out  and  learn  the  fib- 
jecl  of  this  allonilliing  .darm,  which  pro- 
ved to  ;-ifc  from  no  k  is  caul'e  than  the 
1'jIs  of  our  forecadle,  with  fix  guns,  and 
our  anchors  (all  but  <.ne  that  ^as  fadened 
to  a  cable)  togetiier  with  our  tv/o  cooks, 
whereof  one  was  recovered  by  a  drange 

This  great  gap,  made  by  want  of  our 
forecadle,  diil  open  a  palfage  into  the 
liokl  for  other  leas  that  ihould  break 
there  before  a  remedy  was  fountl  out  to 
carry  them  off,  and  this  made  our  danger 
almod  infuperable  ;  but  it  fell  out  pro- 
pitioudy,  that  there  were  divers  land- 
carpenter  padengers,  who  were  very  help- 
ful in  this  didrelii ;  and,  in  a  little  time, 
a  dight  platform  of  deal  was  tack'd  to  the 
timbers,  to  carry  otF  any  orvi:::  iry  lea  in 
theprefentdraigiit  we  were  in;  cv.ry  mo- 
ment of  this  growing  temped  cutting  out; 
new  work  to  employ  all  hands  to  laboiir. 
Tiie  bowfprit,  too  top-heavy  in  itielf, 
having  loft  all  days  and  rigging  that 
Ihould  keep  it  deatly,  fway'd  to  and  Uo 
with  fucli  l)«ngs  on  the  bov;s,  that  at  no 
lefs  rate  than  the  cutting  il  clofe  oil",  coukl 
the  diip  fubfid. 

All  things  were  in  miferable  dif  Jrdcr, 
and  it  was  cviilent  our  danger  increas'd 
upon  us  :  the  days  of  all  the  malts  were 
gone,  the  dnrouds  that  remained  were  loofc 
and  ufelels,  and  it  was  ealy  to  foretcl, 
our  main-topmaft  would  i'oon  come  by 
the  board.  'I'oin  Kcajin  (who  was  always 
ready  to  cxpofe  himlell )  with  an  ax  in 
his  hand,  ran  up  with  I'pccd  to  iirevcnC 
that  evil,  hoping  thereby  to  caie  the 
main-mad,  and  prcfcrve  it ;  but  tlie  dan- 
ger of  his  perfon  in  the  cnterpri/.c,  was 
ib  manifcd,  that  he  was  called  down 
amain  ;  and  no  fooner  was  his  foot  upon 
the  deck,  but  what  was  feared  c.:me  to 
pais  with  a  witnefs,  both  main  and  top- 
mall  all  came  down  together,  and,  in  one 
diock,  fell  all  to  the  winilwanl  clear  into 
the  fea,  without  hurt  to  any  man's  pcr- 

Our  main-mad  thus  fdlen  to  the  broad- 
fide,  like  to  inco:-imode  us  more 
in  the  fea,  than  in  her  proper  dation ; 
for  the  dirouds  and  rigging  not  lodng 
the  hold  they  had  of  the  lhii>,  every  furge 
did  lb  check  the  mall  (whole  but-end  lay 
charg'd  to  fall  perpendicular  on  the  (hip's 
fide)  that  it  became  a  ram  to  batter  and 
force  the  plank,  and  was  doing  the  lad; 
execution  upon  us,  if  not  prevented  in 
time  by  edge-tools,  whieh  treed  the  flii^ 
from  that  unexpet'b-d  alliiult  and  battery, 

Abandon'd  in  this  manner  to  ^he  fury 

of  the   raging  lea,  tolVed  up  and  down 

without    any    rigging   t»   keep   riie  fiiip 

ileady,  our  ieainca  iVc(y"-"''y  ^'"  '»veN 

Q^  q  boitrJ, 


I    ;  15 



*      ,    ♦ 





il ;. 


!  '•" 


A  Voyage  to  Virginia. 


NoKwnoD.  board,  without  any  one  rcn;ar'  tin 
lofs  of  anothir,  every  man  cxrctting  rlc 
fame  fate,  n')'  in  a  ditlcr  at.  iiv.:.ncr. 
The  ceiling"!  w"  ;h;$  luilk  (for  it  was  no 
'u''tter)  were  for  ihi.-famccaufc  lo  iinealy, 
that,  in  many  tii.-nbies,  the  dec  k  wouUl 
touch  th('  lea,  and  tiiere  Itantl  Itili  as  if 
flie  woiiid  never  malic  another.  Our 
mizzen  mall  only  remained,  by  which 
■we  hoped  to  bring  the  lliip  about  in  pro- 
per feafon,  which  now  lay  iVcmming  to 
the  cart, 

In  this  porturc  did  we  pals  the  tentli 
and  eleventh  days  of  November  •,  the 
twelfth  in  tiic  morning  we  law  an  Kudi/fj 
merchatst,  who  Ihewed  his  enfign,  but 
would  not  (peak  with  us,  tho'  the  rtorm 
was  abaed,  and  the  feafon  more  fit  for 
communication.  We  imagined  the  reafon 
was,  ber  lule  he  would  not  be  compelled 
to  be  civil  to  us :  he  thought  our  condi- 
tion delp?rate,  and  we  had  more  guns 
than  he  could  rcfift,  which  might  enable 
us  to  take  what  he  would  not  fell  i  r  give. 
He  fhot  a  gun  to  leeward,  ftood  his 
courfe,  and  turn'd  his  poop  upon  us. 

Before  we  attempted  to  bring  the  fliip 
about,  it  was  neceff.iry  to  refrefh  the  iea- 
men,  who  were  almofl  worn  out  with 
toil  and  want  of  reft,  having  had  no  lei- 
fure  of  eating  fet  meals  for  many  days. 
The  palfengers,  overcharged  with  excef- 
five  fears,  had  no  appet^e  to  eat ;  and 
('which  was  worft  of  all)  '.)oth  feamen  and 
pallengers  were  in  a  deplorable  (late  as  to 
the  remaining  viftuals,  all  like  to  fall 
under  extren  e  want;  for  the  (lorm,  by 
takingaway  tl  c  forccallle,  having tlirown 
much  water  irto  the  hold,  our  flock  of 
brcatl  (the  llati'of  life)  was  greatly  dam- 
nified ;  and  tl  ere  remained  no  way  to 
drefs  our  meat,  now  that  the  cook-rocm 
was  gone  :  the  incefHint  tumbling  of  the 
fhip  (as  has  beer-  obfervM)  made  all  fuch 
cookery  wholly  iini-radicable.  he  only 
expedient  to  make  fire  betwixt  decks, 
was,  by  fawinga  cafk  in  the  middle,  and 
filling  it  with  b;llaft,  which  made  a 
hearth  to  jiarch  peafe,  and  broil  fait 
beefi  nor  could  this  be  done  but  with 
great  attendance,  which  was  many  times 
Iruflrated  by  being  thrown  topfy-turvy 
in  fpite  of  all  circumfpeftion,  to  the 
great  defeat  of  empty  ilomachs. 

'1  he  leas  were  nnu  h  appeas'd  the  fevcn- 
teenth  day,  and  divers  KngHflj  fliips  faw, 
and  Were  leen  by  us,  buf  would  not  fpcak 
vith  u',  ;  only  one,  whc  kept  thi?  pump 
always  going,  for  havinji  tailed  too  libe- 
rally of  the  Itorm,  he  w;  s  lo  kind  as  to 
accofl  i..  He  lay  by  till  i)ur  wherry  (the 
Only  furviving  boat  that  wa  left  us)  made 
Y\-v  ■\\'\Cn.  I'he  mailer  fin  v  -(X  our  men 
i\i»  I«  ^la,  and  |irc>^)tikJ(  tii:<(.  «ur4  w««ilii 

Kn;  17. 

fpare  him  hands  to  pump  1.1  lieu  of  any 
Hung  he  could  Ipare  lor  our  r  '  jf.  fie 
promiled  however  to  keep  us  .w.  ■j-any, 
and  give  us  a  tow  to  help  to  weaihe.  i'le 
cape,  if  occalion  olier^d  •,  iit  was 
only  a  copy  of  his  countenance  •,  '  r  in 
the  night  we  loll  each  oihei,  a.iii  we  never 
heard  more  of  him,  tho'  he  was  bound  to 
our  port. 

The  weather  now  invited  us  to  get  the 
fliip  about  with  our  mizzen  ;  and  liaving 
done  lo,  the  next  coiilidei.ition  was,  how 
to  iii.ike  fill.  1  he  fore  mafl,  all  this 
while  (as  much  as  was  of  it)  flood  its 
ground  :  and  as  it  was  without  dilpute, 
tliat  a  yartl  mull  in  the  liirt  place  be  fixed 
to  It,  to  was  it  a  matter  of  no  Imall  diffi- 
culty how  to  advance  to  the  top  of  that 
greafy  flippery  flump,  flnce  he  that 
would  attempt  it,  could  take  no  hold 
himlelf,  nor  receive  any  help  lor  'lis  rile, 
by  other  hands.  1  his  was  a  cafe  that 
put  all  the  fhip's  crew  to  a  nonplus  i  but 
'/ow  Rfajin  (  a  conflant  friend  at  need, 
that  would  not  be  baffled  by  any  diffi- 
culty) fliewed  by  his  countenance,  ue  had 
a  mind  to  try  his  skill  to  bring  us  out  cf 
this  unhappy  crifis.  'l"o  enccurage  him 
the  more,  all  pallengers  did  promile  and 
lubfcribe  to  reward  his  lervice,  in  yjr- 
vinia,  by  tobacco,  when  God  JLould 
enable  us  lb  to  do.  1  he  proportions 
being  fet  down,  many  were  the  more 
generous,  becaule  they  never  thought  to 
tee  the  place  of  payment,  but  e.\pecled 
to  anticipate  that  by  the  payiuein  of  a 
greater  debt  to  nature,  which  w.'s  like  to 
be  exaifted  every  hour  by  an  arrell  of  the 
mcrcilefs  tea,  which  made  Iniail  fliev/  of 
taking  bail  for  our  appearance  in  llr- 

The  manner  of  '7bw  Rcajiii'i  afccnt  to 
thi<:  i'"prirtant  work,  was  thus.  Among 
'!;>■  )!.alt('d  parcels  of  the  fhip's  llores 
iu  iiad  >li.  luck  to  find  about  half  a  dozen 
ii  1  ipiKcs  fit  for  his  purpole.  llisfirfl 
ont'et  was  to  drive  one  of  them  into  the 
mafl,  almoft  to  the  head,  as  high  as  he 
could  reach  ;  which  being  done,  he  took 
a  rope  of  about  ten  foot  long,  antl  ha- 
ving threaded  the  fame  in  a  block  or 
puHey,  fo  as  to  divide  it  in  the  middle, 
he  made  both  ends  meet  in  a  knot  upon 
the  fpike,  on  both  fides  of  the  inafl  ;  fo 
that  the  block  falling  on  the  contrary 
fide,  became  a  flirrup  to  mount  upon  for 
driving  another  fpike  in  the  fame  man- 
ner: and  thus  from  Itep  to  Hep,  obl'er\-. 
ing  the  bell  advantage  of  llriking  with 
his  hammer  in  the  Imootheft  lea,  he  goc 
aloft,  drove  for  fhrouds,  to  reft 
tipon,  and  was  loon  iii  a  pollute  of  rc« 
teiving  fielp  from  his  comrades,  who  got 
*  y^rU  utd  U)ii  (siUiu;iitii  iiucommu* 






Msr.  tf. 

!     I; 


A  f^oyu^e  /-;  Virginia. 














t  rc« 





Xw.  \f. 

d.itici  U  ill  .1^  could  be,  iind  tiuis 
"•f  \vtT';  enabled,  in  tew  hours  tir.L,  to 
ni:ike  (onie  Tail  tor  our  port. 

The  main  yard,  that  in  the  (lorm  had 
been  lowered  to  tin:  watt  to  He  ort  ot 
harm's  way,  was  now  preferred  to  ilie 
\  lace  ol'  a  m,i!n  mall,  and  was  accoid- 
ingly  lilted  and  aecoutred,  and  grafted 
into  the  itump  of  what  was  left  in  the 
ilorm,  Ibme  eight  or  ten  foot  Irom  the 
deck.  It  was  a  hard  matter  to  find  out 
rigging  aniwerable  to  new-falhioncd 
mall  and  yard  ;  topgallant  lails  and  yards 
Were  moll  .agneable  tn  tlii.i  equipage, 
r.iid  'y-'i  the  bell  part  of  our  remaining 
ftores.  'J  he  leas  grew  every  moment 
fmoother,  and  the  weather  more  com- 
fortable ;  lb  th;M  tc)r  a  while  we  began  to 
lliake  01.  die  vi  age  of  utter  ciefpair,  as 
hoping  ere  long  'o  lee  our  lelves  in  Ibme 
capacity  to  fetch  the  tape.  We  difco- 
vered  another  lliip  bound  to  Fircjiiia^v/lxo 
as  frankly  promifcd  to  fland  by  us,  the 
wind  at  N.  N.  W.  We  did  wliat  could 
be  done  by  a  fliip  lo  mangled,  to  get  the 
weather-gage  of  the  cape  //,;.')  v,  conceiv- 
ing our  felves  to  the  fouthward  of  cape 
Halteras :  but  by  taking  an  oblcrvation 
on  a  fun-fdne  day,  wc  found  our  felves 
carrycd  by  a  current  we  knew  not  of,  to 
the  windward,  much  beyond  all  our  dead 
reckonings  and  allowances  for  tiiiling,  in- 
Ibtnuch  that  v.'hen  we  thouglit  we  had 
been  to  the  fouthwaid  of  t!  ;  cape,  wc 
found  our  felves  conlid(-rably  fliot  to  the 
north  of  .-Lhomal,  and  that  in  the  opi- 
nion of  mate  Pulls,  who  was  as  our  north 

We  palTed  this  night  with  greater  ala- 
crity ihan  we  had  done  any  other  fince 
we  had  left  l-Mili;  for  mate  Pulti,  our 
trully  pilot,  did  confidently  airirni,  that, 
if  the  llooil,  there  would  be  no  qiie- 
flion  of  our  dining  the  next  day  v/ithin 
tlie  capes.  i'his  wis  feafonable  news, 
our  water  being  long  fince  Ipent,  our 
meat  fpoilcd  (or  iilelefj)  no  kind  of  vic- 
tuals irm.'.ining  to  luft.iin  life,  but  a  bif- 
ket  cake  a  day  for  a  man  ;  at  which  al- 
lowance there  was  not  a  quantity  to  hold 
out  many  days.  In  the  dark  time  of  the 
night,  in  tacking  about,  we  loll  our  new 
comr.-ide,  and  with  much  impatience  wc 
expected  the  approaching  day  ;  the  wind 
N.  \V. 

The  morning  appeared  foggy,  as  the 
winil  veered  lo  the  call,  and  that  did  cover 
and  conceal  the  kind  from  our  clearer 
tight  i  howbeit  we  concluded  by  mate 
Fufti's  computation,  %vc  were  well  to  the 
riorthw.utl  of  the  c.ipes.  Many  times  he 
would  mount  the  mizzcn  top  for  dilco.« 
Very,  as  the  weather  feemed  to  clear  np^ 
atid  ttfoulJ  cf^iy  «aii  iw'uii,  at  cctuiu  huiu« 

work'<  of  trees  that  tiled  to  be  his  fevcral  N 
land-marks  in  moltof  the  tw