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SIHIAW ' SHAW WA J»i«' Jf/i SB _ 'JV'^ h''/,<-» 










):j the 




' .* ■ 

Editor of an Account of Major Long-'s Expedition from Piltaburgli 
to the Rocky Muuntaine. 





wm^- ii Htf^ ^- 

Southern DislrkI of Netje-York, ss. 

BE IT REMKMBKRKD, Thai on tlic mnfh day of April, A. D. 1830, in the fift}-- 
fourtli ypar of the ImleptindiMicc ol' the tJnitml States of Amnrica, G. & C. & H. Cnrvill, 
of the said disliict, have dojiosited in this otlice llie title of a Ixiok, the right whereof 
they claim as proprietors, in the words following, to wit : — 

A Narrative of the Captivity and Adventures of John Tanner, (U. S. Interpreter at the 
Sant de Stc Marie,) during tJiiirty years residcnr* among the Indiajis in the interior of 
North America. Prepan^ for the press by Edwin James, M. D Editor of an Account of 
Major Long's Expedition from Pittsl)\irgh totlie Rocky Mountains," 

In confoimity to tlie Act of the Congress of the United StaU-s, entitled, "An A'U for the en- 
couragement of Learning, by securing the copies of Maps, Chans, and Books, to the 
authors and proprietors of such copies, during the time therein mentioned." And also to 
an Act, entitled, " An Act, supplementary to an Act, entitled, an Act for the encourage- 
ment of I>Miriiing, by securing the copies of Maps, Charts, and Books, to the authors and 
proprietors of sijcli copies, during the times therein mentioned, and ext<?nding the benefits 
thereof to the arts of designing, engraving, and etching historical and other prints." 

aierk of the. Southern District of Ncm-York 

7 / 



John Tanner, wlioso life and adventures are detailed in the 
followinaf pngei^, is now almut lilty years of age. His per !u is 
erect and rather robust, indicating great I tardiness, activit , find 
strength, whicii, however, his numerous ex}^)osures and suller- 
ings have deeply impaired. His face, which was originally 
rather handsome, l)ears now numerous traces of tliought and 
passion, as well as of age ; his quick and piercing blue eyes?, 
besj)eak the stern, the violent, and uncontjuerable spiri), which 
rendered him an ol)iect of fear to many of the Indians- while he- 
remained among them, and which still, in some measure, dis- 
qnaiilies him for tiiat submissive and compliant manner which 
his dependent situation among the whites renders necessary. 
Carefully instructed in early youth, in all those principles and 
mavims which constitute the moral code of the unsophisticated 
and uncorrupted Indian, his ideas of right and wrong, of ho- 
nourable and dishonourable, dill'er, of course, very essentially 
from those of white men. His isolated . d friendless situation, 
iu the midst of a community where the right of private warfare 
is lecognized as almost the oidy defence of individual posses- 
sions, the only barrier between man and man, was certainly in 
the higliest degree unfavourable to the formation of th;it en- 
during iiid patient submissiveness, which, in civili/ed scxMetiep, 
surrenders so great a share of individual rights to the strong 
guanlianship of the law. Accordingly, to a correct sense of na- 
tin'al justice, he unites a hill share of that indomitable and un 
tiring spirit of revenge, so prominent in the Indian character. 
The circumstimces into which he has l3een thrown, among a 
wild and lawless race, have taught him to consider himself in 
all situiUinns, the avenger of his own »|uarrel ; and if, in the 
better reguLfrCil comtiiLUiity into which he has been recently 



J •!£ 










tlra\vn, he lias, 1)y llie consciousnesrf of aggiavaf etl insult, ov in- 
tolerable oppression, been driven «o seek redress, or to propose 
it to himself, we cannot be snrprised that he slioiild have recur- 
red to the method, which long habit, tnid the paranionnt influ- 
ence of established custom, have tiuight him to consider the 
oidy honourable and proper one. He returns to the pale of ci- 
vilization, too late in life to acquire the mental habits which 
befit his new situation. It is to be regretted, that he should 
ever meet among us with those so destitute of generosity, as to 
he wiUuig to take advantage of his unavoidable ignorance of 
the usages of civihzed society. He has ever been found just 
and generous, until injuries or insidts have aroused the spirit of 
hatred and revenge; his gratitude has always been is ardent 
and persevering as his resentment. But it would be superllu- 
ons to dwell on the features of his character, whicii art; bej^t dis- 
played in his narrative of those events and scenes, to which he 
might, with so much propriety, apply (he liackneyed motto. 

«]ua;que ipse miserrima vkli, 
Et quorum pars magna lui. 

The preceding remarks would not, perhaps, have been ha- 
zarded, had not some harsh impntations been made to rest on 
lire character of our narrator, in the distiict where he has for 
.some tinie past residetl, in consequence of differences growing, 
as appears to us, entirely out of the circumstance of tbe Indian 
character, Avith nifmy of its prominent peculiarities, being inde- 
libly impressed upon him. However such a character may, 
under any circumstances, excite our disapprobation or dislike, 
pome indnlgence is duo where, as in this case, the solitary sa- 
Aage, with his own liabits and opinions, is brought into contact 
with the artificial manners and complicated institutions of ci- 
■\ ilized men. 

In an attempt to aid this unfortunate individual in addressing 
his countrymen, it seemed desirable to give his narrative, as 
nearly as possible, in his own words, and with his own nwrnner. 
The narrator himself is not without a share of that kind of elo- 
quence which we meet with among the Indians ; but. as this 






coiiiikis more in action, eiupliusiis, iuid tlic oxi)re-s;ion of tlie 
countenance, (hail in words and sentences, lie. lias Ixmmi followed 
in the style of the humblest narralion. This plainness, it is 
hoped, will render the history little less acceptable to the. general 
rca<ler, while the philosophic inquirer will nndoiihlcdlv prefer 
to trace, in the simple -t possible it'ui-e. the operation.- of a mind 
subjected for so long a time to the inlluenr-e of all the circnni- 
stances peculiar to savage life. It ouyht to be distinctly mider- 

it stands 


Htood, that his whole story was given as it stands, wi 
liints, suggestions, leading (picstions, or advice of any kind, 
other than " to conceal nothing." The sentiments expressed, 
in relation to the clwuacter and conduct of individuals on the 
frontiers, or in the Indian country, or on other subjects connect- 
ed with tiie condition of the Indians, are exclusively his own. 
One liberty it has been found necessary to take, namely, to 
retrench or altogether to omit many details of hunting adven- 
tures, of travelling, and other events, which in the sini[)le lives 
of the Indians have oidy a moderate share of importance, but 
on which, in the lack of other matter, they learn to dwell very 
much at length in those long narrative conversations with 
which it is their hal)it to amuse each other, it is probable 
the narrator might have pro\cd more acceptable to many of his 
readers, had this retrenchment been carried to a greater extent; 
but it is to he remembered, that the life of the savage, hke that 
of the civilized man, is made up of a succession of little oc- 
currences, each unimportant by itself, but which require to be. 
estimated in making up an opinion of the character of either. 
Some particulars in Mr. Tanner's narrali\e will douittless 
cxcile a degree of incredulity, among such a< have never 
attended particularly to the history and condition of tlie Indian 
tribes. Many will find their confidence in him mu( '. ,7 paired, 
wlien he tells of prophetic drt;anH, and of the of in- 
dications, and promises, neces.sarily implying the interference 
of invisible and spiritual beings. Ke will appear to some, 
weakly credulous — toothers, stupidly dishonest ; — so would any 
one among us, who should gravely relate tales, which tlie ad- 


- ,11 





r T 

vatice of education, and the frcneial intelligence, have, within 
two centuries, converted from estahlished doctrines, to " old 
wives fiihles." To ejiforce tins rentnrk, wo need not refer to 
the exumples of Cotton Muthci, and others of his times, not 
less renowned for luunan learnints', 'haii for exemplary piety. 
The history of the human mind in all ajres, and among all 
nations, alli)rds ahimdant examples of credulity ; ch»sely re- 
seinl»ling that which we feel disposed to ridicule or to pity in 
the savaije. It may he of sonii' importance toward a clear 
comprehension ol the lu ian character, to he nssur.Ml that the. 
powerful mind of our narrator, was at all times stmngly 
influenced hy a belief in the uhii|uity, anil frer|uent interposi- 
(ions in tlie affairs of men, of an over-ruling Providence, His 
may have been a |)urer and more consistent Theism, than 
that of many of his untaught companions, but in nian\' im- 
portant particulars his belief was the same as theirs. If he was 
less entirely than his Indiiiii associates the dupe of those crafty 
prophets, who are constantly springing up among them : yet 
it will l)e found he had not, atall times, entire confidence in the 
decisions of his own uiind, which tan<rht him to despise their 
knavery, and to ridicule their preteusinus. In all times of 
severe distress, or of uruent danger, the [iidiaii<, like other men. 
are accustomed to supplicate aid from superior beings, and 
they are often confideni that a gracious answer has been grant- 
ed to their petitions. 'IMiis belief need not shock the pious ; 
as it certainly will not appear in any respect remarkable to 
those who have accustomed themsehes to close observance of 
the workings of the human iiiind, under all variations of cir- 
cumstances. We !)elieve there is nothins; inconsistent with 
true reli<rion,or sound reason, in supposinsr that the same Lord 
ovcr all, is gracious uvto all who worship him in f^incerity. 
It will be manifest also, that this inherent principle of ::'Ii£rious 
feeling is made the instrument, by which superior minds 
govern and inlluence the weaker. Among the Indians, as 
among all other races, from the times of tiie philos<i|»bic leader 
of the lietrent of (he Ten Tiuiusand. to the [)resont day, reli- 

I. i 



, •?.,- 


'* ^m&-^ 

gioii has hceu an ei inc in the liands of the few, vvlio in vir- 
tue of intellectual or accidental superiority, assume the right to 
govern the nmny. 

Doubtless inany of the representations in the foilowinsr nar- 
rative, are somewhat iiilluenced by pcculiiirities in the mental 
constitution, and the accidental tircunistances of the narr;itor ; 
yet making all admissil)le allowances, they present but a 
gloomy picture of the condition of uncivilized men. Having 
acquired some idea of those things considered most reprehen- 
sible among us, it would be siupiising if he should not have 
felt some reluctance to giving an explicit detail of all his ad- 
ventures, in a conununity whose modes of thinking are ou 
many subjects so dillerent from ours. Traits, wliich nnist in 
our estimation constitute great blemishes, he has freely con- 
fessed ; whether other or greater faults remain nndivulyed is 
unknown ; but it should not be forgotten, that actions consiiler- 
ed among us not only reprehensible, but highly ciiminal, arc 
among them accounted sinning virtues, in no part of hid 
narrative will he probably appear in a more unfavourable light, 
than when he details his severity to an unfortunate captive 
girl, througli whose negligence his lodge, and all his little pro- 
perty, was consumed by fire, in the midst of winter. Tliis 
kind of cruelty, as well as the abandonment of the sick, the 
aged, and the dying, practised so extensively by the ( 'hippe- 
wyans, and other northern Indian^, and more or less by all 
the tribes, remind us, how nuich even in what seem spontane- 
ous and natural courtesies, we owe to the infiuence of civili- 
zation. The conduct of the Jndians in all these cases, how- 
ever we may see fit to call it, is certainly not unnatural, being 
ill strict and implicit obedience to that impulse of nature, which 
prompts so irresistibly to self-preservation. How admirable is 
that complicated machinery wliich in so many instances avails 
to overcome and control this impulse — which postpones the 
interest, the happiness, or the life of the individual, to tlie good 
of the associated whole ! 

The sketch which the follov^ring narrative exhibits of the 




\ '■ 

evils and miseries of sav.vicfo life, is pi()])ably fioe IVom exag- 
rj^eraliou or distortion. Few will read it without some seuti- 
inents of compassion for a race so destitute, so debased, and 
Jiopeless; gladly would we lielieve, it may have a tendency 
(0 call (he attention of an enlightened and benevolent com- 
nnuiity, to the wants of those who are silting m darkness. In 
vain do we attempt to deceive ourselves, or others, into the 
belief that in whatever '• relates to their moral condition and 
prospects, the Indians ha\e been giiiners by their hitercoiuse 
with Europeans."* Who can believe that the introduction of 
ardent spirits among them, " has added no new item to tlic 
catalogue of their crimes, nor substracted one from the list of 
their cardinal virtues?'' Few, comparatively, have the oppor- 
tunity, fewer hove the inchnation. to visit and observe the In 
dians in their remote haunts, or even on our inunediate fron- 
tiers ; all who have dont? so, must be convinced that wherever, 
and for w hatever purpose, the Indian and the white man come 
in contact, the former, in all that relates to his moral condition, 
is sure to become severely and irretrievably a sulferer. Every 
unbiassed in(|uirer, wiio will avail himself of the aljundant 
means of information before the public, will be convinced, that 
during more tlum two hundred years, in despite of all the 
benevolent exertions of individuals, of luunane associations, 
and of governments, the direct tendency of the intercourse be 
Iween the two races, has been tlie uniform and rapid depression 
and deterioration of the Indians. 

Among the most .niive of the extraneous causes which 
have produced this conspicuous and deplorable change, must 
be reckoned the trade for peltries, which has been pushed 
among them from the earliest occu|)ation of the country by 
the whites. The ensuing narrative will afford some vieM s of 
the fur trade, such as it formerly existed hi the north west, 
such as it now exists throughout the territories claimed by the 
United States. Tliese views are certainly neither those of a 

♦ N. A. Review, No. CO. p. 101. 



stuiesmau, oi a political economist, Iwt they may be relied on oi 
exhibiting a fair exposition of the infinence of the trade upon the 
aborigines. Recently, the Indians in all that wide portion of 
North-America, occupied by the Hudson's Bay Fur Compan}', 
have been, by the consolidation of two rival associations, reh»n'ed 
alike from the evils, and deprived of the advantages, accruijig 
from an active competition in the trade. Among other advanta- 
geous results supposed to be attained by this exclusion of com- 
petition, one, and probably the most important, is the eflectua! 
check it interposes to the introduction of spirits into the Indian 
country. Even the clerks and agents stationed at the remote 
interior posts, are forbidden to introduce the smallest quantity 
of spirit or wine, among their private stores. This one mea- 
sure, incalculably of more value than all that has been effected 
in times remote or recent, by the interference of government?, 
or the exertions of benevolent associations, has originated in 
the prudent foresight, and well instructed love of gain, of an 
association of merchants; and while it makes us fully ac 
quainted with the views of those best informed in relation to 
the effect of the introduction of whiskey among the Indians, 
it shows the possibility of remedying this great evil. 

In former times, when the whole of the northwest of our 
continent was open to the competition of rival traders, all the 
evils and all the advantages of the S3'^stem at present existing 
in the United States territories, were felt to the remotest and 
least accessible of those dreary regions. The Indian could 
probably in all instances realize a higher price for his peltries, 
than he can hope to do at present. The means of intoxica- 
ting himself and his family, were always to be had at some 
rate, and the produce of his hunt was artfully divided, and 
disposed of in the manner which seemed to promise him the 
greatest share of this deadly indulgence. During the times of 
active competition, it was found accordingly, that the fur bear- 
ing animals, and the race of native hunters, were hastening with 
(iqual and rapid strides towards utter extinction. The ellect of u 
competitionary trade, managed, as it will always be, in districte 




tanner's KAKKATIVL. 






for the niosL part or wholly without the jurisdiction ot the 
governments of civilized countries, upon the animals whose 
skins constitute the sole object of the visiJs of the traders, must 
be obvious. The vagrant and migratory habiis of the Indians, 
would render it impossible for any individual, or any association 
of men, to interrupt or even to check the destruction of and 
inals, wherever they could be found. The rival trader was 
ever at hand to take advantage of any forbearance a prudent 
foresight might dictate. Thus it will appe.-ir that districts, 
where game had existed in the greatest abundance, were in 
the course of a few years so stripped, that the inhabitants 
I ould avoid starvation only by migrating to st)me less ex- 
hausted region. Wherever the Indians went, the traders were 
sure to follow, as the wolves and buzzards follow the buflfaloe. 
But in the state of things at present existing in the north, the 
traders are represented to have entire control of the motions 
of the Indians. The most valuable part of the territories of 
the Hudson's Bay Company is the forest coimtry. With the 
Indians of the plains, who subsist almost entirely by hunting 
th<! buflfaloe, they concern themselves no further than to pur- 
chase such robes or other peltries as they may, on their visit to 
a post, offer for ready pay. The people of the. plains having 
few possessions beside their horses, their bows and arrows, and 
their garments of skins, are so independent, and the animals 
they hunt of so little value to the traders, that they arc left to 
pursue whatever course their own inclination may point out, and 
at present they never receive credits. With the forest Indians 
the case is quite dilTerent. Such is their tirgent necessity for 
amnmnition and g«ms, for traps, axes, wtX)llon blankets, and 
other articles of foreign manufactiue, that at the api>roach of 
winter, their situation is almost hopeless, if they are deprived 
of the supplies they have so long been accustomed to receive. 
A consciousness of this depondance sufficed, even in times of 
competition, to some extent, but fur more at present, to render 
iheni honest, and pimctual in discharging tiie debts they had 
incurred. The practice of the traders now is, whetiever they 




lind the animals m any district becoming scarce; to wilhdratv 
iheir trading establishment, and by removing to some other 
part, make it necessary for the Indians to follow. Regions 
thus left at rest, are found to beconie, in a few years, in a greai, 
measure re|)lenished with the fur-beiuing animals. The two 
regulations by which the clerks and agents are Ibrbid to pur- 
chase the skins of certain animals, if killed before they have, 
attained their full growth, and by which the use of traps, 
which destroy indiscriminately old and young, is interdicted, 
doubtless contribute essentially to the attaiiunent of this im- 
jwrtant residt. It cannot be otherwise, than that the moral 
condition of the hunter population in the north, must be 
somewhat improved, by the severe discipline vvhicli conveni- 
ence and interest will ecjually prompt the Company |K)ssessing 
the monopoly to introduce and maintain ; but wlietlier thiy 
advantage will, in the event, counterbalance the effect of the 
rigid exactions to which the Indians may l)c compelled to su)> 
niit, must be for time to determine. 

It is manifest that plans of government adopted and enfoi 
ced to subserve the purposes of the fur traders, will Ik". framed 
with the design of keeping the Indians in a state of efficiency 
as hunters, and nuist thus in the end be directly opposed to all 
ftrtbrts lo give them those settled habits, that attachment to the 
soil, and that efficient industry, which must constitute the first 
step in their advance towards civilization. Such are the cli- 
mate and soil of a great part of liie country northward of the 
great lakes, as to render it extremely improbable that any 
other than a rude race of hunters will ever be found there; 
and for them it would probably be in vain to lio|H; for a 
milder government, than such a kind of despoti-in as can be 
swayed by a company of traders. Hut within the country 
belonging to the United States, are many rude tribes distri- 
buted at ijitervals through boundless forests, or along smilhig 
and fertile plains, where it would seem that industry and civi 
li/alion might be introduced. Here it is not probable that the 
fnr tradf can '"vcr I. ;ne a protected and exihisiv e joonopoly : 





iA>NtR's ^ARRATlv^;. 


! i 

and since, while conducted as it is, and as it must contuiue to 
be, it is the most prohlic sources of evil to the Indians, it may 
be allowed us, to look forward to the time, wlien many among 
the remnants of the native tribes, shall escape from its in- 
lluence, by becoming independent of the means of subsistence 
it offers them. 

Some change may reasonably be supposed to have taken 
place in the course of two centuries, in the sentiments of the 
European intruders towards their barbarous neighbours. In 
relative situation, they iiave changed places. Those who are 
now powerful were then wealc ; those who now profess to offer 
protection, then lookeil with anxiety and trembling, upon the 
superior strength of the race which has so soon perished from 
before them. In the early periods of our colonial history, the 
zeal of religious proselytism, and the less questionable spirit 
of true philanthropy, seem not to have availed, generally, to 
overcome the strong hatred of the savage race, produced liy 
causes inseparable (iom tht; f«;eble and dependant condition of 
the colonies, and from the nccessily which com[)elled our fore 
fathers to become hitruders upon the rightful possessions of tht; 
Indians. In the writings of the early historiiuis, particularly ol' 
the Puritanical divines of Ncw-llngland, we (ind these people 
connnonly described as a brutal and deril-drivcn race, wild beastt\ 
hloodliounds, heathen demons ; no epithet was considered too op- 
probrious, no execration too dire, to bo pronounced against them.*"' 

V, ,.f. , 

* "'I'lu' lilllt' AiH^frfoiii'. and ^-^/of/V.-.'," snvH Cotton i\?i)llu'r, " of Ihr groat ineii 
union^ the Indians, was u iKiworl'iil obstacle to tlic sncrcss of Mr. KUinl's minis- 
try ; and it is olisorvublo, lliat M'vrrnl ol'tliosp nations wlio (lius rrCuM'd the t'osprl, 
were quickly al'tor so dcril-drivcn ati to begin an unjnst and liloiHly war upon tho 
En^liHli, which iMsned in their speedy mid utter e\tir|)ation from the face of (iod's 
eurth. It was piirticninrly rcinnrkalile in I'liilip, the ringleader of the niostcalanii- 
touH war ever made upon uh; our Elliot made a tender of the cm lustinif salva- 
tion unto that king, hut the monster entertained it with contempt ami anger, hiiiI 
after the Inilinn mode of joining signs with words, he (inik a button u|M)n the coat 
of the reverenil man, adding, that hr cared for his goapcl as nnnh as he raredjor 
that button. The world has hoard what lerribli^ ruins soon came u|Kin that nio- 
uarch and npon all his |>co|ile. It was not long before the h»n<l that now writes, 
(rpon a ccrtaiji occasion, tuuk ull'tliu jaw fa>ui llie oxi)oscd i>kutl uf that blasphc- 

'lA^^'IiRS KAKftAlUL. 


It may be supposed, that in losing tlie power which made 
ihem formidable, they became less obnoxious to the hatred ol 
the whites. Accordingly, we find tliat it wos long since the 
fashion to profess much good will and com|Kission towards this 
ill-starred race. Some ellbrts have been made, and many moro 
have been talked of, for their civilization, and for their conversion 
to the true religion. Here and there, a Penn has appeared 
among our statesmen ; an Elliot or a Brainerd auKjng oiu' 
religionists — some have been incit<;d by motives of pure bene- 
volence, or by a love of natural justice, to laljour perseveringl)' 
and faithfully in the work of reclaiming and benefitting the 
Indians. Could we trust implicitly to the statements of many 
who in our day write and speuk on this subject, we might 
infer, that the only sentiment inflnenchig us, as a people, in 
our intercourse with our Indian neighboms, is an ardent de- 
sire for the promotion of their best interests. But if we- 
estimate public sentiment by the surer criterion of public 
measures, we must admit that the present generation are seek- 
ing, with no less zeal and earnestness than iJieir forefathers, 
IJie utter exterminati(ni of these bloody and idohtlmis Canaan- 
iles. The truth is, it has been, and still is. <:on\enient to con- 
sider this a devil driven race, doomed by inscrutable desliny tn 
sudden and entire destruction. This opinion accords well 
with the convenient dogma of the moral philosopher, who 
teacher that such as will make the best use of the soil, should 
drive out and dis|H)ss(>ss those who, froni ignonmce or indo- 
lence, suffer it to remain uncuhivaled. It is of little im|)ortanco 
tocfivil at the injustice of sucli a course. The rule of m mnjor 
.^ccjns- to be with ahnosi ecpial force obligatory on both |>artie.-', 

■mous ^-ria^/iiDi, luid tlu' rcnowiicil Siiiiiml lialli since Ihtii n pastor of an 
En(;liHh coiijirt'iiatioii, soiiM(liii<;!iii<l Kliowiti^r l!n' prm.scs of liravcn \\\H)\i Ihiit very 
spot of jtroimd wlion- t'liilip mid his Indiaiis wcrr hilclv worsliippititr llir ncvil.'' 
t'liristiiin iVlayuzinc, p. T)!!. \'ol. I. Boston. Many [Kissairi''', lirciilliiii!; llji'miiio 
spirit, will at oiico iH-cur to tlic rciollirtion of those who arc faniiliiir with tho 
wriiiiiijHof the oarly puritaiiH of New-Kii(ilaiid. When such was the lao^uo^c 
IcurneH dixincH chose to nvord (iir posterity, it is not ditficult to diwover whnt 
nittBt hovn Iweii tho ccneral lonn of feelinu toward tlm Indian*. 

J 4 




and it would perhaps be now as impossible for us to avoid d>& 
placing the Indians, and occupying their country, as for theni 
to prevent us. 

The long agitated subject, of tlie " melioration of the con- 
dition of the Indians,"' appears therefore to present two ques- 
tions of prunary importance : 1st. Can any thing be effected 
by our interference '? 2d. Have we in our collective character, 
as a people, any disposition to interpose the least check to the 
downward career of the Indians ? The last inquiry will be un- 
hesitatingly answeii'tl in the negative, by all who are acquaint- 
ed with the established policy of our govermnent in our inter- 
course with them. The determination evinced by a great part 
of the jjeople, and their representatives, to extinguish the Indian 
title to all lands on this side the Mississippi — to push the lem- 
)iants of these tribes into regions already tilled to the utmost 
extent their means of subsistence will allow — manifests, more. 
cJearly than volumes of idle and empty professions, our inten- 
tions toward them. The vain mockery of treaties, in which 
it is untleistooil, tliat the nei^otiation, and the reciprocity, and 
the benefits, are all on one side ; the feeble and misdirected 
eflbrts we make for their civilization and instruction, should 
not, and do not, deceive us into the belief that we have eithoi 
a regard for their rights, where they happen to come in com- 
petition with our interests, or a sincere desire to promote the 
cause of moral instruction among tlieni. The efforts of cliari 
table associations, originating as they do in motives of the most 
unquestional)lc purity, may seem entitled to more respectful 
notice ; l)Utwe deem these efforts, as far as the Indians are con- 
cerned, eijually misapplied, whether they be directed, as in the 
south, to drawing out from among them a few of their children, 
and giving them a smattering of "astronomy, moral philo.'^o- 
phy, surveying, geography, history, and the use of gloltes,"* or 
as in the north, in educating the half breed children of fur 
traders and vagabond Canadians, in erecting workshops and 

* L,<>ltrr to Col. M'Kpmicy, from the Priiirii)al of thr [.nnraHtcrian ("hocktaw 
!^1)<H)I nt tbt' Grent Crossincs. Krntucfiv, iniho Nationnl Intellurencer. Julv. 182S. 

1 ■^ 



■* ^i^^aw 



employing mechanics in our frontier villages, or building ves- 
sels for the transportation of freight on the upper lakes. These 
measures nmy be well in themselves, and are doubtless useful ; 
but let us not flatter ourselves that in doing these things we 
confer any essential benefit on the Indians. The Chocktaws 
and Chickusaws will not long retain such a knowledge of as- 
tronmny and surveying., as would be useful to guide their 
wanderings, or mete out their possessions, in those scorched 
and sterile wastes to which it is our fixed intention to drive them. 
The giving to a few individuals of a tribe, an education, wliich, 
us far as it has any influence, tends directly to unfit them for 
the course of life they are destined to lead, with whatever in- 
tention it may be undertaken, is certainly far from ' iiig an 
act of kindness. If, while we give the rudiments of a;, educa- 
tion to a portion of their children, our selfish j)olicy is thriis-ting 
back into a state of more complete barbarism the whole mass 
of the people, among whom we pretend to qualify theuj lor 
usefulness, of what avail are our exertions, or oin* professions 
in their favour ? We cannot be ignorant, that u» depriving the 
Indians of the jneans of comfortable subsistence, we take from 
them equally the power and the inclination to cultivate any of 
the branches of learning commonly taught them at our schools. 
Will the Indian youth who returns from the Mission school, 
after ten or fifteen years of instruction, be likely to become a 
better hunter, or a braver warrior, (ban those who liave remained 
at home, and been educated in the discipline of his tribe ? Will 
he not rather find himself encunilwred with a mass of learn- 
ing, necessarily as uncurrent, and as little valued among his 
rude comi)anions, as would be a parcel of lottery tickets or 
bank notes ] On this subject, as on many others, the Indians 
are (|ualified to make, and often do make, extremely just 
reflections. To say that they consider the learning of the 
whites of no value, would lie to misrepresent theni. On the 
contrary, they speak in terms of (he highest admiration of some 
branches, particularly writing and reading, which, they say, 
ena))les us to know what is done at a distance, to recall with 






i U 



the greatest accuracy, all that we or others have sait!, in past 
times. 6ut of these things tliey say, as of the reUgion of the 
whites, " they are not designed for us." " The Great Spirit 
has given to you, as well as to us, tilings suited to our several 
conditions ; He may have licen more hountiful to you than to 
us ; but we are not disposed to complain of our allotment." 

In relation to the other branch of this |)art of our subject, 
namely, the practical)ility of l)iuiefiting the Indians by our in- 
structions, a few words may suffice. More than two hundred 
years have passed, during all which time it has been believed 
that systematic and thorough exertions were making to pro- 
mote the civilization and conversion of the Indians. The en 
tire failure of all these attempts ought to convince us, not that 
the Indians are irreclaimable, but that we ourselves, while we 
have built uj) wilh one hand, have pulled down with the other. 
Our professions have been loud, our philanthropic exertions 
may have been great, but our sellish 'cgard to our own interest 
and convenience has been greater, and to this we ought to at- 
tribute the steady decluie, the rapid deterioration of the In- 
dians. We may be told of their const itutioiial indolence, their 
Asiatic temperament, destining them to be forever stationary, 
or retrogradent ; but while remaining monuments and vestiges, 
as well as historical records of imquestionable authority, assure 
us, that a few centuries ago they were, though a rude, still a 
great, a prosperous, and a happy people ; we ought not to for 
get that injustice and oppression have been most active among 
the causes which have brought them down to their present de- 
ploral)le state. Their reckless indolence, their shameless 
profligacy, their total self-abandonment, have been the neces- 
sary consetjuences of the degradation and hopelessness of their 

* " Therp arc no hcirgars among thcni, nor falherlcssc cliildren unprovided for." 
Roger Willmm's Koy, eh. 5. 

" Obs. They are as full of Inisincssr, and as impatient of hinderaner, (in their 
kind,)a» any merchant in Europe. Many of them naturally princes, or else indus- 
trious persons, arc rich; and the pooro amongst them will say they want nfw 






That there exists, in tlie moral or physical constitution of the 
Indians, any insuperable obstacle to their civilization, no one 
will now seriously assert. That they will ever be generally 
civilized, those who know them intimately, and who have ob- 
served the prevaihng tone of feeling of both races towards 
each other, will consider so extremely improbable, ihat they 
will deem it scarce worth while to inquire what system of mea- 
sures would be best calculated to effect this desirable object. 

thincr." Williams, ch. 7. " Ohn. The women of the family will commonly rui e two 
or three heaps [of corn] of twelve, lifteene, or twentie Imsliells a heap, whicli they 
drie in round broad heaps ; and if she have help of her children or friends, much 
more." Ch. 16. " I could never rliscerne thr.t of scandalous sins amongst 
them which Europe aboundeth with. Drunkennesse and gluttony generally they 
know not what sins they lie. And although they have not so much to restrainc them 
(both in respect of knowledge of God and laws of men) as the English liave, yet 
a man shall never hear of such crimes among them, of robberies, murthers, adii! 
teries." Ch. iirZ. Quotations to the the same effect might be adduced from nearly 
all the early writers. Yet we are told that in all that regards their moral condition, 
the Indians have been gainers by their intercourse with the whites ! 

It is |)robably within the recollection of many persons now hving, when the very 
considerable quantities of corn recjuired for the fur trade in the country about Lake 
yuperior, were purchased from the Indians, by whom it was raised at a place called 
Kctckawice Seebce, or Garden river, a small stream falling into the struit between 
Lakes Suiierior and Huron, about six miles below the Sauf St. INiarie. " 'I'lui 
Indians at the first settlement of the English, performed many acts of kindnesu 
towards them : they instructed them in the manner of [ilanting and ilressing the 
Indian corn," and " by selling them corn when pinched with fauiiue, they relieved 
Iheir distresses, and prevented them from perishing ui a strange land, and luiculti- 
vated wilderness." 'I\anihnWs Hit lory of Connecticut, Vol. I. Ch. 3. In another 
place, s|)eaking of a famine among the colonists, he says, " In this distressful situo- 
fion a committee was sent to an Indian .settlement calli il I'oronitoc^k, where th 'y 
purchusetl such quantities, that the Indians came down to Windsor and Hartford 
with fifty canoes at one time laden with Indian corn." Vol. I. Ch. (i. The In 
dians on Block Island, according to the same authority, " had nlwut two hundred 
acres of corn." This the English, after two days spent on the Island ''burning 
wigwams," and " staving canoes," destroyed, and then sailed for the Pequot coun- 
try, lb. Ch. 5. Charlevoix, a less exceptionable iuithority than most of the early 
French writers, sayF, that in an incursion into the country of the Senecas, the 
French destroyed four hunilred thousand minots [1,'2«M),0()() l)usliels| of com. 
"They also killed a prodigious numlw-r of swine, which caused much sicknes-s. ' 
Hist, dc la Nuurcltc h'rana; liv. XI. It is urmecessary incite passages, hundreds of 
which might be add\iced to prove, what few, except the reviewer above <iuote(J 
ever considered doubtful. 






tanner's narrative. 

Of what advantage could any degree of civilization have been 
to those unfortunate Seminoles, who were a few years since 
removed from their beautiful and fertile lands in Florida, to 
those deep and almost impassable swamps in the rear of Tam- 
pa Bay, where it has been found not only necessary to con- 
fine them by a military force, but to subsist them, from day to 
day, and from year to year, by regular issues of provisions ? 
Need we give them education, that they may be the better able 
to estimate our munificence and generosity, in suHering them 
to roam at large, in cypress swamps, in sandy deserts, or 
wherever else we may think the soil of no value to us ? 

The project of congregating the Indians, from the extended 
portions of the United States, in some place not only toest of 
the Mississippi, but westward of the arable lands of Missouri 
and Arkansaw, in those burning deserts which skirt the eastern 
base of the Rocky Mountains, is, perhaps, more pregnant with 
injustice and cruelty to these people, than any other. Such is 
the inveterate and interminable hostility existing, time out of 
mind, between the people of different stocks, portions of wliich 
are already in too near vicinity, such as the Dahcotah and the 
Ojibbeways, the Osages and Cherokees, that nothing but mu- 
tual destruction could be the consequence of crowding them 
together into a region aheady more than filled with warlike 
and jealous hunters. The region to which Mr. M'Koy, in his 
pamphlet, proposes to remove the Indians, would, such is its 
naked and inhospitable character, soon reduce civilized men 
who should be confined to it, to barbarism ; nothing but inevita- 
ble destruction could there await a congregation of fierce, subtle, 
and mutually hostile savages. 

Of all plans hitherto devised to benefit the Indians, by far 
the best, though doubtless attended with great difficulty in the 
execution, is, to let them alone. Were it possible to leave to 
them the small remnant they still hold of their former posses- 
sions, to remove from them all the poisoning influences of the 
fur trade and the military posts, and the agencies auxiliary to 
it. necessity might again make them industrious. Industry 




thoroughly le-establishcdj would bring in its iiaiii prosperitj , 
virtue, and happiness. But since we canirot reasonably hope 
<hat this plan will ever be adopted, the friends of humanity 
must continue to wish that some middle course may be devised, 
which may, in a measure, palliate the misery which cannot be 
removed, and retard the destruction which cannot be prevent- 
ed. The first labour of the philanthropist, who would exert 
himself in this cause, should be to allay or suppress that exter- 
minating spirit so common among us, which, kept alive by the 
exertions of unprincipled land jobbers, and worthless squatters, 
is now incessantly calling for the removal of the Indians xoest 
of the Mississippi. Many, and doubtless some of those who 
legislate, may consider the region west of the Mississippi, as a 
kind of fairy land, where men can feed on moonbeams, or, at 
all events, that the Indians, when thoroughly swept into that 
land of salt mountains and horned frogs, will be too remote to 
give us any more trouble. But suppose those who now so per- 
tinaciously urge this measure completely successful, let every 
Indian be removed beyond the Mississippi, how soon will the 
phrase be changed, to west of the Rocky Mountains '! We 
may send them into the sandy wastes, but cannot persuade 
them to remain there ; they will soon become not less trouble- 
some to the settlers in the countries of Red River, Whit« 
River, and the Lower Arkansaw, than they are now to tho, 
people of Georgia; Alabama, Missouri, and Illinois. Is it ab 
solutely necessary, that while we invite to our shores, and to a 
participation in all the advantages of our boasted institutions; 
the dissatisfied and the needy of all foreign coimtries, not stop- 
ping to inquire whether their own crimes, or the influence of 
an oppressive government, may have made the change desira- 
ble for them, we should, at the same time, persist in the de- 
termination to root out the last remnants of a race who w ^re 
the original proprietors of the soil, many of whom are better 
qualified to become useful citizens of our republic, than those 
foreigners we are so eager to naturalize ? It is certainly by 
no means desirable that any of the aboriginal tribes who have 

'.. *.■» *■ ■. ■'K^ 


TANNER .-^ N AJiRATi \ ti. 

I If 
' I 

retained, or acquired, or who shall acquire so much of civihza- 
tion as to be able to increase in numbers, and to gain strengtli, 
surrounded by the wliites, sliould be sullered to estabUsh in- 
dependent governments, which may, in time, actjuire such 
strength as to be highly troublesome to their neighbours. 
Could tlie project of colonization be carried into complete efiect, 
the measure, leaving out of consideration its daring and fla- 
grant injustice, would be of as (juestionalile \)ol\cy as our una- 
vaihng attempt to restore to Africa the descendants of her en- 
slaved children. It is believed by many, that national as well 
as individual crimes, are sure to be visited, sooner or later, by 
just and merited punishments. Is it not probable, that despite 
the efforts of the Colonization Society, the African race, now 
so deeply rooted and so widely spread among us, must inevita- 
bly grow to such a magnitude as to requite, fourfold, to our 
descendants, our own and our forefathers crunes against the 
aborigines ? 

The past history and tlie present condition of the Indians, 
make it abundantly manifest, that, if any thing is intended on 
the part of the United States, except their speedy and utter 
extinction, an immediate chaiige of measures is loudly called 
for. The most important particulars of the course to be pur- 
sued should be, the prevention, as far as possible, of the evils 
resulting from competition ; the introduction of whiskey, and 
other existing abuses in the fur trade ; the encouragement of 
agriculture and domestic industry, which may at length ren- 
der them independent of that trade. Donations of horses, cat- 
tle, tools, and farming utensils, handsome clothes, neat and 
tasteful ornaments, bestowed as marks of honourable distinction, 
and rewards for successful and persevering mdustry, may, by 
degrees, overcome the habitual indolence and contempt of la- 
bour, so generally met with among the Indians. With the ef- 
forts for the promotion of industry, the cultivation of the mind, 
not in one out of ten thousand, as at present, but in the whole 
mass of the children ; and the introduction of the English lan- 
guage should keep equal pace. No eflbrt should be spared to 



advance either. We deem it important that they shonld not, 
only learn the English language, but, at the same time, lay 
aside and forget their own, and with it their entire system of 
traditional feelings and opinions on all subjects, Could all this 
be effected ; could, furthermore, the rights and privileges of citi- 
zenship be held out as a reward for a prescribed course of con- 
duct, or attach as a right to the possession of a certain amount 
of property, the effect would doul)tless be a great and rapid 
elevation of the Indian character. By a system of measures 
of this kind, a portion of the remnants of these people might 
probably be preserved, by V)ecoming embodied with the whites. 
As separate and independent tribes, retaining their own lan- 
guages, manners, and opinions, it is probable they cannot long 
continue in existence. 

.. I 


11 >i 

1 i 

i t 



Itecollections of early life— capture — ^journey from the mouth of the Miami to 
Sa-gui-na— ceremonies of adoption into the iiimiiy of my foster parents — harsh 
treatment — transferred by purchase to the family of Net-no-kwa— removal to 
Lake Mchigan. 

The earliest event of my life, which I distinctly remember, is 
the death of my mother. This happened when I was two years 
old, and many of the attending circumstances made so deep an 
impression, that they are still fresh in my memory, I cannot re- 
collect the name of the settlement at which we lived, but I have 
since learned it was on the Kentucky river, at a considerable 
distance from the Ohio. 

My father, whose name was John Tanner, was an emigrant 
from Virginia, and had been a clergyman. He lived long after 
I was taken by the Indians, having died only three months after 
the great earthquake, which destroyed a part of New Madrid, and 
was felt throughout the country on the Ohio, [1811.] 

Soon after my mother's death, my father removed to a place 
called Elk Horn. At this place was a cavern — I used to visit it 
with my brother. We took two candles ; one we lighted on enter- 
ing, and went on till it was burned down ; we then lighted the 
other, and began to return, and we would reach the mouth of the 
cavern before it was quite burned out. 

This settlement at Elk Horn was occasionally visited by hostile 
parties of Shawneese Indians, who killed some white people, and 
sometimes killed or drove away cattle and horses. In one instance, 
my uncle, my father's brother, went with a few men at night, and 
fired upon a camp of these Indians ; he killed one, whose scalp 
he brought home; all the rest jumped into the river and escaped. 



tanner's NARRATIVL'. 

'< I 




» I 

In the course of our residence at this place, an event occun-ed, 
to the influence of which I attributed many of the disasters of ray 
subsequent life. My father, when about to start one morning to 
a village at some distance, gave, as it appeared, a strict charge to 
my sisters, Agatha and Lucy, to send me to school ; but this they 
neglected to do until afternoon, and then, as the weather was 
rainy and unpleasant, I insisted on r< inaining at home. When 
my father returned at night, and found that I had been at home 
all day, he sent me for a j)arcel of small canes, and flogged me 
much more severely than I could ; 'ppose the ort"ence merited. I 
was displeased with my sisters for attributing all the blame to 
me, when they had neglected even to tell me to go to school in 
the forenoon. From that time, my father's house was less like 
home to me, and I often thought and said, " I wish I could go 
and live among the Indians." 

I cannot tell how long we remained at Elk Horn ; when we 
jnoved, we travelled two days with horses and wagons, and came 
to the Ohio, where my father bought three flat boats ; the sides 
of these boats had bullet holes in them, and there was blood on 
them, which I understood was that of peojile who had been killed 
by the Indians. In one of these boats we put the horses and 
cattle — in another, beds, furniture, and other property, and in tho« 
third were some negroes. The cattle boat ami the family boat 
were lashed together; the third, with the negroes, followed be- 
hind. We descended the Ohio, and in two or three days came to 
Ciucinnati; here the cattle boat sunk in the middle of the river. 
When my fatlur saw it sinking, he jumped on board, and cut 
loose all the cattle, and they swam ashore on the Kentucky side, 
and were saved. Tlie people from C'incinnati came out in boats 
to assist us, but father told them the cattle were all safe. 

In one day we went from t'incinnuli to the mouth of the Big 
Miami, op|)osite wiiich we were to settle. Here was some 
cleared land, and one or two log cabins, biU they had been de- 
serted on account of the Indians. My father rebuilt the cabins, 
and enclosed them with a strong picket. It was early in the 
spring when we arrived at the nuiuth of the Big Miami, and we 
were soon engaged in preparing a lield to plant corn. I think 
it was not more than ten days after our arrival, when my lather 
told us in the morning, (hat I'rum the actions of th(; hoi'scs, be 



tanner's NAKRATIVi:. 





II \vc 


perceived there were Indians lurking about inliic woods, and ho 
said to me, " John, you must not go out of the house to day.'* 
After giving strict charge to my step mother to let none of the 
little children go out, he went to the field, with the negroes, and 
my elder brother, to drop corn. 

Three little children, beside mys-'elf, were left in the house with 
my step mother. To prevent me from going o\it, my step mother 
required me to take c;ire of the little child, tlien uol more than a 
few months old ; hut as I soon became impatient of confinement, 
I began to pinch my little brother, to make him cry. My mother 
perceiving his uneasiness, told me to take him in my arms and 
walk about the h(nise ; I did so, but coi\tii\ued to pinch him. 
My mother at length took him from me to give him suck. I 
watched my opportimity, and escaped into the yard ; thence 
through a small door in the large aate of the wall into the open 
field. There was a walnut tree at stune distance from the house, 
and near the side of the field, where I had been in the habit of 
finding some of the last year's nuts. To gain this tree without 
being seen by my father, and those in (he field, I had to use 
some precaution. I remember perfectly well liavina scon my 
-father, as f skulked towards the tree; he stood in ihe middle of 
the field, with his gun in his hand, to watch for I?idiaiis, while the 
others were dropping corn. As I came near the tree, I thought 
to myself, " I wish I could see these Imlians." I h;id parllv fill- 
ed Avith nuts a «traw hat which I wore, when I heard a crackling 
noise behind me; I looked round, and saw the Indians ; almost at 
the same instant, I w;is seized by both hands, and dragged off be- 
twixt two. One of 1 hem took my straw bat, emptied the nuts on 
the ground, and put it on my head. The [ndians who seized 
me were an old man and a young one ; these v\ ere, as I learned 
subsequently, Man'to-o-geezhik, and his son Kisli-knu-ko.* Since 
I retiirned from Red River, I have been at Deiroit while Kish- 
kau-kf* was in prison there; I have al-io been in Kentucky, and 
have learned several particulars relative to my rapture, which 
were unknown to me at the time. It appears that the wife of 

'► The nnmr of this man Tiinnrr pronnjincps frifh-gau-c^o. H« lias suW- 
qupnlly I'*'*'" w<*H Itnown in Miclvican, niul other |K)rlion» of th« nortli-wrHlorn 
frontifr, by Iiih iiunierouti niunli-rs and dcpnslulioa". He died in {irison ttt De- 
iroit, M lately as the full of ih2r>. 





..»•.-, =_lllL, 




Manito-0-geezhik had recently lost by death her youngest sou — 
that she had complained to her husband, that unless he should 
bring back her son, she could not live. This was an intimation to 
bring her a captive whom she might adopt in the place of the 
•jon she had lost. Manito-o-geezhik, associating with him his 
son, and two other men of his band, living at Lake Huron, had 
proceeded eastward with this sole design. On the upper part of 
Lake Erie, tln^y had been joined by three other young men, the 
relations of Manito-o-geezhik, and had proceeded on, now seven 
in number, to the settlements on the Ohio. They had arrived 
the night previous to my capture at the mouth of the Big Miami, 
had crossed the Ohio, and concealed themselves within sight of 
my father's house. Several times in the course of the morning, 
old Manito-o-geezhik had been compelled to repress the ardour 
of his young men, who becoming impatient at seeing no opportu- 
nity to steal a boy, were anxious to fire upon the people dropping 
corn in the field. It must have been about noon when they saw 
me coming from flie house to the walnut tree, which was proba- 
bly very near the place where one or more of them were con- 

It was but a few minutes after I left the house, when my father, 
coming from the (ield, perceived my absence. My step mother 
had not yet noticed tiiat I had gone oijt. My elder brother ran 
immediately to the walnut tree, which he knew I was fond of 
visiting, and seeing the nuts which the Indian had emptied out 
of my hat, he immediately understood that I had been made 
captive. Seaich was instantly made f(»r me, but to no pur- 
pose. My father's distress, wlien he found I was indeed taken 
away by the Indians, was, I am told, very great. 

After I saw myself (irndy si'ized by both wrists by the tW(> 
Indians, I was not conscious of any thing that passed for a con- 
siderable time. I must have fainted, as I did not cry out, and I 
can remember nothing that happened to me, until they threw me 
over a large log, which nuisl have been at a considerable distance 
from the house. The old man I did not now s»'e ; I was dragged 
alonir between Kish-kau-ko and a very short thick man. I had 
probably made some resistance, or done something to irritate 
this last, for he took me a little to one side, and drawing his to- 
mahawk, motioned to mc to look up. This I plainly understood. 



(1 of 

and I 
-w me 
I liad 
U9 to- 

tannf.r's nahrativl. 


tiom tlie exjiression of his face, and his manner, to be a direction 
for me to look up for the last time, as he was about to kill mo. 
I did as he directed, but Kish-kau-ko caught his hand as the toma- 
hawk was descending, and prevented him from burying it in m\ 
brains. Loud talking ensued between the two. Kish-kau-ko 
presently raised a yell ; the old man and the four otiiers answered 
it by a similar yell, and came running up. I have since under- 
stood that Kish-kau-ko complained to his father, that the short 
man had made an attempt to kill his little brother, as he called 
me. The old chicif, after reproving him, took me by one hand, 
and Kish-kau-ko by tlic other, and dragged me betwixt them ; 
the man who had threatened to kill me, and who was now an 
object of terror, being kept at some distance. I could perceive, 
as I retarded them somewhat in their retreat, that they were ap- 
prehensive of being overtaken ; some of them were always at 
some distance from us. 

It was about one mile from my father's house to the place 
where tiiey threw me into a hickory bark canoe, which was con- 
cealed under the bushes, on the bank of the river. Into this thej 
all seven jumped, and immediately crossed the Ohio, landing at 
the mouth of the Big Miami, and on the south side of that river. 
Here they abandoned their canoe, and stuck their paddles in the 
ground, so that they could be seen from the river. At a little 
distance in the woods, they had some blankets and provisions con- 
cealed ; they offered me some dry venison and bear's grease, but 
I could not eat. My father's house was plainly to be seen from 
the place where we stood ; they pointed at it, looked at me, and 
laughed, but I have never known what they said. 

After they had eaten a little, they began to ascend the Miami, 
dragging me along as before. The shoes I had on when at home, 
they tcok oil", as they seemed lo think I could run better without 
them. Although I perceived I was closely watched, all hope of 
escape did not immedialt K forsake me. As they hurried mc 
along, I endeavoured, withoii! their knowledge, to take notice of 
such objects as would serve as Inudmaiks on my way back. I 
fried also, where I passed long grass, or soft ground, to leave my 
tracks. I hoped to be able lo escape after they should have fallen 
asleep at niglit. When night came, they lay down, placing me be- 
tween the old man and Kish-kftU'ko, so close together, that thp 


,y M 







dame blankfi covered all three. I was so fatigued that I fell asleep 
immediately, and did not wake until sunrise next, morning, when 
the Indians were up and roadj' to proceed on their journey. 
Thus we journeyed for about four days, the Indians hurrying me 
on, and I continuing to hope that I might escape, but still every 
night completely overpowered by sleep. As my feet were bare, 
they were often wounded, and at length much swollen. The old 
man perceiving my situation, examined my feet one day, and after 
removing a great many tlujrns and splinters from them, gave me 
a pair of moccasins, which afforded me some relief. Most com- 
monly, I travelled between the old man and Kish-kau-ko, and 
they often made me run until my strength was quite exhausted. 
For several days I could eat little or nothing. It was, I think, 
four days after we left the Ohio, that we came to a considerable 
river, running, as I suppose, into the Miami. This river was 
wide, and so deep, that I could not wade across it; the old man 
took me on his shoulders and carried me over ; the water was 
nearly up to his arm pits. As he carried me across, I thought I 
should never be able to pass this river alone, and gave over all 
hope of immediate escape. WIicu he put me down on the other 
side, I immediately ran up the bank, and a short distance into 
the woods, when a turkey flew up a few steps before me. The 
uest she had left contained a number of eggs ; these I put in the 
bosom of my shirt, and returned towards the river. When the 
Indians saw me they laughed, and immediately took the eggt; 
from me, and kindling a fire, put them in a small kettle to boil. 
I was then very hungry, and as I sat watching the kettle, I saw 
the old man come running from the direction of the ford where 
we had crossed ; he immediately caught up the kettle, threw the 
eggs and the water on the tire, at the same time saying something 
in a hurried and low tone to the yo>mg men. I inferred we were 
pursued, and have since understood that such was tlie case; it is 
probable^some of my friends were at that time on the opposite 
side of the river searching for me. The Indians hastily gathered 
up the eggs and dispersed themselves in the woods, two of them 
still urging ine forward to the utmost of my strength. 

It was a day or two after this that we met a party of twenty or 
thirty Indians, on their way towards the settlements. Old Manito- 
O'geezhik had much to say to them ; subscipieutly I learned that 



it is 

they were a war party of Siiawnccse ; that they received infor- 
mation from our party, of the whites who were in pursuit of ua 
about the forks of the Miami ; that they went in pursuit of them, 
and that a severe skirmish happened between them, in which 
numbers were killed on both sides. 

Our journey through the woods was tedious and painful : it 
might have been ten days after we met the war party, when we 
arrived at the Maumee river. As soon as we came near the river, 
tlie Indians were suddenly scattered about tlie woods examining 
the trees, yelling and answering each other. They soon selected 
a hickory tree, which was cut down, and the bark stripped off, to 
make a canoe. In this canoe we all embarked, and descended 
till we came to a large Shawnee village, at the mouth of a river 
which enters the Maumee. As we were landing in this village, 
great numbersof the Indians came about us, and one young woman 
came crying directly towards me, and struck me on the head. 
Some of her friends had been killed by the whites. Many of 
these Shawneese showed a disj)osition to kill me, but Kish-kau- 
ko ami the old man interposed, and prevented them. I could per- 
ceive that I was often the subject of conversation, but could not 
as yet understand what was said. Old Munilo-o-geezhik could 
speak a few words of EngUsh, which he used occasionally, to di- 
rect me to bring water, make a fire, or perform other tasks, which 
he now began to require of me. We remained two days at th( 
Shawnee village, and then proceeded on our join*ney in the ca- 
noe. It was not very far from the village that wo came tu a tra- 
ding house, where were three or four men who could speak 
English ; they talked much with me, and said they wished to 
have purcnased mv from the Indians, that I might return to my 
friends; but as the old man would not consent to pail v. ith me, 
the traders told me I must be content to go with the Ind.ans, and 
to become the old man's son, in place itf one he had lost, promi- 
sing at the same time that after ten days llu-y would come to the 
villiige and release me. They treated me kindly while we staid, 
and gave ine plenty to eat, which the Indians had neglected to 
do. When I fo\ind I was compelled to leave this house with the 
Indians, I began to cry, for the lirst tinie since I had been taken. 
I consoled myself, however, with their promise that in ten days 
they would come for me. Soon after leaving this trading house, 


1 1 


tanner's narrative. 

l! V 

-^ ; 

we came to the lake ; we did not stop at night to encamp, but 
soon after dark the Indians raised a yell, which was answered 
from some lights on shore, and presently a canoe came off to us, 
in wliich three of our party left us. I have little recollection of 
any thing that passed from this time until we arrived at Detroit. 
At tirst we paddled up in the middle of the river until we came 
opposite the < nitre of the town ; then we ran in near the shore, 
where I saw a white woman, with whom the Indians held a little 
conversation, but I could not understand what was said. I also 
saw several white men standing and walking on shore, and heard 
them talk, but could noHmdorstaud them ; it is likely they spoke 
French. After talking a few minutes with the woman, the In- 
dians pushed otr, and ran up a good distance above the town. 

It was about the middle of the day when we landed in the 
woods, and drew up the canoe. They presently found a large 
hollow log, open at one end, into w hich they put their blankets, 
their little kettle, and some other articles ; they then made me 
crawl into it, after which they closed up the end at which I had 
entered. I heard them for a few minutes on the outside, then all 
was still, and remained so for a long time. If I had not long 
^ince relinciuished all hope of making my escape, I soon found it 
would be in vain f(n- me to attempt to release myself from my 
confinement. After remaining many hours in this situation, I 
heard them remo zing the logs with which they had fastened me 
in, and on coming out, although it was very late in the night, or 
probably near morning, I could perceive that they had brought 
three horses. One of these was a large iron-gray mare, the others 
were two small bay horses. On one of these they placed me, on 
the others their baggage, and sometiuies one, sometimes another 
of the Indians riding, we travelled rapidly, and in about three 
days reached Sau-ge-nouir,* the village to which old Manito- 
o-geezhik belonged. 'I'll is village or settlement consisted of se- 
veral scattered ho\ises. Two of the Indians left us soon after wc 
entered it; Kish-kau-koand his father oidy remained, and instead 
of proceeding innnediately home, they left their horses and bor- 
rowed a canoe, in which we at last arrived at the old man's house. 
This was a hut or cabin built of logs, like some of those in 

♦ Sa-gMi-nct. Th'- wonl San-i^e-nonc^, appears to mean, "the town of the Sail 





if sc- 




se in 

Kentucky. As soon as we landed, the old vvomun came down to 
us to the shore, and after Manito-o-gcezhik had said a few words 
to her, she commenced crying, at the same time hugging and kiss- 
ing me, and thus she led me to the house. Next day thoy took 
me to the place where the old woman's son had l)een buried. The 
grave was enclosed with pickets, in the manner of the Indians, 
and on each side of it was a sinootli open place. Here tlicy all 
took their seats ; the family and friends of Manito-o-geezliik on 
the one side, and strangers on the other. The friends of the fa- 
mily had come provided with presents ; mukkuks of sugar, sucks 
of corn, beads, strouding, tobacco, and the like. They had not been 
long assembled, when my party began to dance, dragging mc 
with them about the grave. Their dance was lively and cheer- 
ful, after the manner of the scalp dance. From time to time as 
they danced, they presented ine something of the articles they 
had brought, but as I came round in the dancing to the party on 
the oj)posite side of the grave, whatever they had given me was 
snatched from me : thus they continued great part of the day, 
until the presents were exhausted,when tliey returned home. 

It must have been early in the spring when wc arrived at Sau- 
ge-nong, for I can remember that at this time the leaves were 
small, and the Indians were about planting their corn. They 
ma'aged to make me assist at their labours, partly bv signs, and 
partly by the few words of English old Munito-o-geezhik could 
speak. After planting, they all left the village, and went out to 
hunt and dry meat. When they came to their hunting grounds, 
ihey chose a place where many deer resorted, and here they 
besran to build a long screen like a fence ; this they made of 
green boughs aiul small trees. When they had built a part of 
it, they showed me how to remove the leaves and dry brush from 
lliat side of it to which the Indians were to come to shoot the 
deer. In this labour I was sometimes assisted by the stjuaws and 
children, but at other «imes I was \> t alone. It n«)w began to 
be warm weather, and it happened mie day that having been left 
alone, as I was tired and (hirsty, I fell asleep. I cannot tell how 
long I slept, but when I began to awake, I thought I heard some 
one crying a great wav off. Then I trie<l to raise up my head, 
but cnid<l not. Being now more awake, I saw my Indian mother 
and sister stauUing by mu, aud perceived that my face and head 



tanner's narrativk. 

■ ■] 

I*' i 




were wet. The old woman and her daughter were crying bit- 
terly, but it was some time before I perceived that my head waf^ 
badly cut and bruised. It appears that after I had fallen asleep, 
Manito-o-geezhik, passing that way, had perceived me, had toma- 
hawked me, and thrown me in the bushes; and that when he 
came to liis camp he had said to his wife, " old woman, the boy I 
brought you is good for nothing ; I have killed him, ind you will 
find him in such a place." The old woman and her daughter 
having found me, discovered still some signs of life, and had stood 
over me a long time, crying, aiul pouring cohl water on my head, 
when I waked. In a few days I recovered in some measure from 
this hurt, and was again set to work at the screen, but I was more 
careful not to fall asleep ; I endeavoured to assist them at their 
labours, and to comply in all instances with their directions, but 
I was notwithstanding treated with great harshness, particularly 
by the old man, and his two sons She-mung and Kwo-tash-c. 
While we remained at the hunting camp, one of them put a bridle 
in my hand, and pointing in a certain direction, motioned me to 
go. I went accordingly, supposing he wished me to bring a horse; 
I went and caught the first I could find, and in this way I learned 
to discharge such services as they required of me. 

When we returned from huixting, I carried on my back a large 
pack of dried meat all the way to the village ; but though I was 
almost starved, I dared not touch a morsel of it. My Indian 
mother, who seemed to have some compassion for me, would 
sometimes steal a little food, and hide it for me until the old man 
was gone away, and then give it me. After we returned to the; 
village, the young men, wlumever the weather was pleasant, were 
engaged in sj)earing fish, and they used to take me to steer the 
canoe. As I did not know how to do this very well, they com- 
monly turned upon me, beat me, anil t)ften knocked me down with 
the pole of the spear. By one or the other of them I was beaten 
almost every day. Other Indians, not of our family, would some- 
times seem to pity me, and when they could without being ob- 
served by the old man, they would sometimes give me food, and 
take notice of me. 

After the corn was gathered in the fall, and disposed of in the 
Sun-je-gwun-nun, or Ca-ches, where they liide it for the winter, 
<hey went to hunt on the Sau-ge-nong river. I was here, as J 



1- } 


lA.\MiRsi NAKKAl'lM, 


In the 

a>< f 

had alivays been when among them, much distressed with him- 
As I was often witli them in the woods, I saw them eatina' 


something, and I endeavoured to discover what it was, but tb 
carefully concealed it from me. It was some time before I acci- 
dentally found some beach-nuts, and though I knew not what 
they were, I was tempted to taste them, and finding them very 
good, I showed them to the Indians, when they laughed, and let 
)ne know these were what they had all along been eating. After 
the snow had fallen, I was compelled to follow the hunters, and 
often-times to drag home to the lodge a Avhole deer, though it 
was with the greatest difficulty I could do so. 

At night I had always to lie between the fire and the door of 
the lodge, and when any one passed out or came in, they com- 
monly gave me a kick; and whenever they went to drink they 
made a practice to throw some water on me. The old man con- 
stantly treated me with much cruelty, but his ill humour showed 
itself more on some occasions than others. One morning, he got 
up, put on his moccasins, and went out; but presently returning, 
he caught me by the hair of my head, dragged me out, rubbed my 
face for a long time in a mass of recent excrement, as one would 
do the nose of a cat, then tossed me by the hair into a snow bank. 
After this I was afraid to go into the lodge ; but at length my 
inother came out and gave me some water to wash. We were 
)iow about to move our camp, and I was as usual made to carry 
a large pack ; but as I had not been able to wash my face clean, 
when I came among other Indians they perceived the smell, and 
asked me the cause. By the aid of signs, and some few words I 
I'ould now speak, I made them comprehend how I had been 
treated. Some of them appeared to pity me, assisted me to w^asli 
myself, and gave me something to eat.* 

* Tanner has much of the Indian habit of concealing emotion ; but when ho 
related the almve to me, the glimmering of his eye, and a convulsive movemcn', 
of his U|)|)er lip, lietrayed sufliciently, that he is not without the enduring thirst 
tor revenge which Ijelongs to the people among whom he has s|ient his life. "As 
HOon,"said he, in connexion with this anecdote, "as I landed in Detroit on my re- 
turn from Red River, and found a man who could speak with me, I said ' whero 
is Kish-kau-koT 'He is in prison.' ' Where is Manifo-o-gee/liik, his father .'" 
'Dead two montlii* since.' 'It is well he is dead.' " Intimating that though mure 
than thirty years had elapsed, he intended now to have avenged himself for the 
xpjurv done him when a Ixiy not eleven yean* of age.— -Ef- 






^.T ■' ..»— JilMJ^.M 1.1 -, , 



(r i 

f '■ 


h V 



\> I ■ I 



Often wlien the old man would begin to boat mo, my mothei , 
who generally treated mc with kindness, wo\dd throw her arms 
abont me, and he would beat us both together. Towards the 
end of winter, we moved again to tJie sugar grounds. At this 
lime, Kisli-kau-ko, who was a young man of about wenly years 
of age, joined with him four other young men, anu went on a 
war-party, Tiie old man, also, as soon as the sugar was finish- 
ed, returned to the village, collected a few men, an(' made his 
preparations to start. I had now been a year among them, and 
could understand a little of their language. The old man, when 
about to start, said to me, " now I am going to kill your father 
and your brother, and all your relations." Kish-kau-ko returned 
iirst, but was badly wounded. He said he had been with his 
party to the Ohio river ; tliat they had, after watching for somi; 
time, fired upon a small boat that was going dow n, and killed 
one man, the rest jumping into the water. He [Kish-kau-ko] 
had wounded himself in his thigh with his own spear, as he was 
pursuing them. They brought home the scalp of the man they 
had killed. 

Old Manito-o-geezhik retui-ned a few days afteiwards, bringing 
an old white hat, which I k.iew, from a mark in the crown, t(» 
be that of my brother. Tie said he had killed all my father's 
family, the negroes, and the horses, and had brought mc my 
brother's hat, that I might see he spoke the truth. I now be- 
lieved that my friends had all been cut oil", and was, on that ac- 
count, tlie less anxious to return. This, it appears, had been 
precisely the object the old man a ished to accomplish, by tell- 
ing me the story, of which but a small part was true. When 
I came to see Kish-kau-ko, after I returned from Red River, I 
asked him immediately, " Is it true, that your father has kill- 
ed all my relations ?" He told mc it was not ; that Manito- 
o-geezhik, the year after I was taken, at the same season of the 
year, returned to the same field where he hac' found me ; that, 
ns on the preceding year, he had watched my father and his 
people planting corn, from morning till noon ; that then the) 
all went into the house, except my brother, who was then nine- 
teen years of age : he remained ploughing with a span of horses, 
having the lines about his neck, when the Indians rushed upon 
him; the horses stm'ted to run; my brother wa? entangled in 

;l ., 







r, I 







♦fic lines, and thrown down, when the Indians caught hiiii. Tlko 
)iorses they killed with their bows and arrows, and took mj' 
brother away into tlie woods. They crossed tlie Ohio before 
night, and had proceeded a good distance in their M'ay op the 
Miami. At night they left my brother securely bound, as tliev 
thought, to a tree. His hands and arms were tied behind him, 
and there were cords around his breast and neck ; but having 
bitten oflsome of the cords, he was able to get a pen-knife that was 
in his pocket, with whicli he cut himself loose, and immediately 
run towards the Ohio, at which he arrived, and which he crossed 
by swimming, and reached his father's house about sunrise in 
the morning. The Indians were roused by the noise he made, 
and pursued him into the wo idc ; but as the night was very 
dark, they were not able to overtake him. His hat had been 
left at the camp, and this they brought, to make me believe they 
had killed him. Thus I remai-.ied for two years in this family, 
and gradually came to have less and less hope of escape, though 
I did not forget what the English traders on the Mauraee had 
said, and I wished they might reniemlier and come for mc. 
The men were often drunk, and whenever they were so, they 
sought to kill me. In these cases, I learned to run and hide my- 
self in the woods, and I dared not return before their drunken 
frolick was over. During the two years that I remained at Sau- 
ge-nong, I was constantly suftering from hunger ; and though 
strangers, or those not belonging to the family, sometimes fed 
me, I had never t-nough to eat. The old woman they called 
JNe-keek-wos-ke-cheem e-kwa — " the Otter woman," the otter be- 
ing her totem — treated me with kindness, as did her daughters, 
as well as Rish-kau-ko and Be-nais-sa, the bird, the youngest son, 
of about my own age. Kish-kau-ko and his father, and the two 
brothers, Kwo-ta-she and She-mung, were blood-thirsty anil 
cruel, and those who remain of this family, continue, to this time, 
troublesome to the whites. Be-nais-sa, who came to see mc 
when I was at Detroit, and who always treated me kindly, was a 
lietter man, but he is since dead. While I remained with them 
at Sau-ge-nong, I saw white men but once. Then a small boat 
jtassed, and the Indians took me out to it in a canoe, rightly sup- 
posing that my wretched appearance would excite the compas- 
sion of the traders, or whatever white men thcv were. These 

;i: « 


•»i ■ .» • 



1 \ 



gave inc bread, apples, and other presents, all wliicli, except one 
apple, the Indians took from me. By this family I was named 
Shaw-shaw-wa ne-l)a-se, (the Falcon.) which name I retained 
while I remained amoni^ the fndians. 

I had been about two years at Sau-ge-nong, when a great coun- 
cil was called by the British agents at Mackinac. This coun- 
cil was attended l)y the Sioux, the Winnebagoes, the Meno- 
monees, and many remote tribes, as well us by the Ojibbeways, 
Ottawwaws, &c. When old Manito-o-geezhik returned from 
this council, I soon learned that he had met there his kinswo- 
man, Net-no-kwa, who, notwithstanding her sex, was then re- 
garded as principal chief of the Ottawwaws. This woman had 
lost her son, of about my age, by death ; and having heard of 
me, she wished to purchase me to supply his place. My old 
Indian mother, the Otter woman, when she heard of this, prci- 
tested vehemently against it. I heard her say, " My son has 
been dead once, and has been restored to me ; I cannot lose 
bim again." But these remonstrances had little influence, when 
Net-no-kwa arrived with considerable whiskey, and other pre- 
sents. She brought to the lodge first a ten gallon keg of whip- 
key, blankets, tobacco, and other articles of great value. She 
was perfectly acquainted with the dispositions of those with 
whom she had to negotiate. Objections were made to the ex- 
change until the contents of the keg had circulated for some 
time; then an additional keg, and a few more presents, com- 
pleted the bargain, and I was transferred to Net-no-kwa. This 
woman, who was then advanced in years, was of a more pleasing- 
aspect than my former mother. She took me by the hand, after 
she had completed the negotiation with my former possessors, 
and led me to her own lodge, which stood near. Here I soon 
found I was to be treated more indulgently than I had been. 
She gave me plenty of food, put good clothes upon me, and told 
me to go and play with her own sons. We remained but a short 
lime at Sau'-ge-nong. She would not stop with me at Macki- 
nac, which we passed in the night, but ran along to Point St. 
Ignace, where she hired some Indians to take care of me, while 
she returned to Mackinac by herself, or with one or two of her 
young men. After finishing her business at Mackinac, she re- 
turned, and continuing on our journey, we arrived in a few days 






til »Shal)-n-\vy-wy-u-gun. The corn was ripe wlioii we rcachtcl 
that place, and after stopj)ing a little while, we went three days 
up the river, to the place where they intended to pass the winter. 
We then left our canoes, and travelling over land, camped three 
times before we came to the place where we set up our lodges for 
the winter. The husband of Net-no-kwa was an Ojibbeway, of 
Red River, called Taw-ga-we-ninnc, the liimter. He was seven- 
teen years \ ounger than Net-no-kwu, and had turned oil" a former 
wife on l)i mg married to her. Taw-ga-we-ninin^ was always in- 
dulgent and kind to me, treating ine like an equal, rather than 
as a dependant. When sj)eaking to me, he always called me his 
son. Indeed, he himself was but of secondary importance in 
the family, as every thing belonged to Net-no-kwa, and she had 
the direction in all allairs of any moment. She imposed on me, 
for the first year, some tasks. She made me cut wood, bring 
home game, bring water, and perform other services not com- 
monly required of the boys of my age ; but she treated me inva- 
riably with so much kindness, that I was far more hap|)y and 
4;ontent, than I had been in the family of Maiiito-o-geezhik. She 
sometijnes whij)ped me, as she did her own children ; but I was 
not so severely and freciuently beaten as I hail been before. 


tanner's narkativi::. 



First attompi to hunt — mcaKlt's — tra|)i)ing martins— emigration to Red River — 
death ol'iny foster lather and hrotlier — arrival at Lake \ViunijK'k. 

Early in tlie spriiijr, Not-no-kwa and her liusl)Hn(l, with their 
family, started to go to Mackinac. They left me, as they liad 
done before, at Point St. Itriiace, as they woidd not run the 
risk of losing mc by sulFering me to be seen at Mackinac. On 
onr retin';i, after we had gone twenty-five or thirty miles from 
Point St. Igiiace, we were flelained by contrary winds, at a place 
railed Me-nan-ko-king, a point rnnning tmt into the lake. Hero 
we encamped with some other Indians, and a party of traders. 
Pigeons were very mnnerons in the wooiis, and the boys of my 
age, and the traders, were busy shooting them. I had never 
killed any game, and, indeed, had never in my life discharged a 
gun. My mother had purchased at Mackinac a keg of powder, 
which, as they thought it a little damp, was here spread out to 
dry. Taw-ga-we-iiinne had a large horse-man's pistol ; and 
liiiding myself somewliat eml)oldened by his indulgent manner 
toward me, I requested permission to go and try to kill sonn- 
pigeons with tlie pistol. My recjuest was seconded by Nti-no- 
kwa, who said, " it is time for our son to begin to learn to he a 
hnnter." Acc(»rdingly. my lather, as I called Taw-ga-we-niime, 
loaded the [lislol and gave it to me, saying, "(Jo, my son, and if 
you kill any thing with this, you shall immediately have a gun, 
and learn to hunt." Since t have been a man, I have been placed 
in didicult situati(nis; Init my anxiety for success was never 
greater than in this, my tirst essay as a hunter. I had not gone 
far from the camp, before I met with jiigeon.-., and some of 
them alighted in the bushes very near me. I cocked my pistol, 
and raised it to my face, bringing the breech almost in contact 
Avitli my nose. Having brought the sight to bear npon the 
pigeon, I j)ulled trigger, and was in the next instant sensible of 
:i humming noise, like that of a stone sent swiftly through the 
air. I found the ]»istol at the ilislance of some paces behind me. 




and the pigeon under the tree on which he liad been sitting. 
My face was much bniistid, and covered with ijlood. 1 run home, 
carrying my pigeon in triumph. My face was speeihly bound 
up; my pistol exchanged for a fowhng-piece ; 1 was acc(»utred 
with a powder horn, and furnished with shot, and aUowed to go 
out after birds. One of the young Indians went with me, to ob- 
serve my manner of shooting. 1 kiUed three more pigeons in 
tlie course of the afternoon, and did not discharge my gun once 
without ivilhng. Henceforth 1 begun to be treated with more 
ronsi(U'ralion, and was aUowid to hunt often, that 1 miglit be- 
come expert. 

Great part of the summer and autumn passed before we re- 
turned to Shab-a-wy-wy-a-gun. When we arrived we found 
the Indians suH'ering very severely from the measles; and as 
Nel-no-kwa was accjuainted with the contagious nature of tliis 
disease, she was unwilling to expose her family, but passed im- 
mediately through the village, and encamped on the river above. 
But, notwithstanding her precautiiui, we soon began to fall sick. 
Of ten persons belonging to our family, incluiUng two young 
wives of Taw-ga-we-ninne, only iVel-no-kwa and myself escaped 
an attack of this complaint. Several of them were very sick, 
and the old woman and myself found it as nuicli as we co\dil do 
to take care of them. In the village, numbers died. b\it all of 
our family escaped. As the winter approached, tiiey began to 
get better, and went, at length, to our wintering ground, at the 
same place where we had spent the former winter. Here I was 
set to make martin traps, as the otiier hiniters did. The lirst 
day I went out early, and spent the wlnde day. relurninir late at 
night, having made only three traps; vhereas, in the siime time, 
a good hunter woidd have nuide twenty-live or thirty. On the. 
morning followinj), I visited my traps, and found but one martin. 
ThuH I continued lo do for some days, but my waitt of success, 
ami my awkwanliu'ss, exposed me to the ridicule of the young 
men. At length, my father bej/an to pity me, and he said, " My 
son, 1 mtist go and help you to make traps." So be went out 
and spent a day in makinir n large numlier of traps, which he 
gave me, and then I was able to fake as many martins as (he 
others. The yotmg men, however, did not forget to tell nu'. on 
all occasions, ul' the assiHtuncu i hud received iVum my father. 


tanner's narrative. 

This winter was passed like the preceding ; but as I becauit 
more and more expert and successful in hunting and trapping, I 
was no longer required to do the work of the women about the 

In the following spring, Net-no-kwa,as usual, went to Macki- 
nac. Hhe always carried a flag in her canoe, and I was told, 
that whenever she came to Mackinac, she was saluted by a gun 
from the fort. I was now thirteen years old, or in my thirteenth 
year. Bef(»re we left the village, I heard Net-no-kwa talk of 
going to Ked River, to the relations of her husband. Many of 
the Ottawwaws, when they heard this, determined to go with her. 
Among others, was Wah-ka-zee, a chief of the village at War- 
gun-uk-ke-zee,* or L'Arbre Croche, and others ; in all, six ca- 
noes. Instead of leaving me, in this instance, at Point St. 
Ignace, they landed with me in the night, among the cedars, not 
far from the village of Mackinac ; and the old woman then took 
me into the town, to the house of a French trader, [Shabboyer,] 
with whom she had sufficient influence to secure my confine- 
ment, for several days, in the cellar. Here I remained, not be- 
ing allowed to go out at all, but was otherwise well treated. 
This confinement seemed to be unnecessary, as subsequently, 
when we were ready to go on our journey, we were detained by 
head winds, at the point now occupied by the missionaries, when 
I was suffered to run at large. While we remained here, the 
Indians began to be drunk. My father, who was drunk, but 
still able to walk about, spoke (o two young men who were 
walking (tijjethcr, and taking hold of the shirt shieve of one of 
them, he, without intending to do so, tore it. This young man, 
whose name was Sug-gut-tiuv-gun, [Spunk-wood,] was irritated, 
and giving my father a rough push, he fidl on his back. Sug- 
jfut-tjiw-gun then took up a large stone, and threw it at him, 
hitting him in (he forehead. When I saw this, I became alarmed 
for my own safety ; and, as I knew that Me-to-saw-gea, an Ojib- 
beway chief, was then on the island, with a party going against 
the whites ; and, as I had understood they had sought opportu- 


• n'm-gun-uk-kc-icc inoitnA, an Tiinnrr wiys, tho lirnt troo; and thr ((iiic 
which "juvcimmr to Ilic iihicc calli'il liy the Fri'iii'Ii 1,'Arhrc Crihhr, waH Ktanding 
wjipn hi! firnl viHildl ihni vjlln^r. He s|Kik(' with crrnt iiidiciiHtion of th«In- 
t\)n who, throiurh inrrc wsn'oimrsH, cut doivn this roiiwrkablo tmr . 


'^ 'V, 




allies to kill me, I lliouirlii my situation iin«r.iV. 1 acconlingly 
made my escape to the uudiIs, where F hid myself lor tlie re- 
mainder of the day, and the night. On the following day, beinjv 
pressed by hunger, 1 returned, and secreted myself, for some 
time, in the low cedars near our lodge, in order to observe what 
was passing, and to ascertain if I might return. At length, I 
discovered my mother calling me, and looking for me through 
the bushes. 1 went up to her, and she told me to go in and sec 
my father, who was killed. When I went in, my father said to 
me, " I am killed." He made mc sit down with the other chil- 
dren, and talked much to us. IJe said, " Now, my children, I 
have to leave you. I am sorry that I must leave you so poor." 
He said nothing to us about killing the Indian who had struck 
him with the stone, as some would have done. He was too good 
,1 man to wish to involve lu- family in the troubles which such a 
course would have brought upon them. The youiiu' man who 
had woinuled him, remained with us, notwilhslaiuling that Net- 
no-kwatold him it wouM not be safe for him to go to Red Hiver. 
where her iiusband's relativ<!s were numerous and powerful, and 
ili.-posed to take revenge. 

When we eau»e to the Saut of St. Marie, we put all o\n' ba'^ • 
gage on board the trader's vessel, which was about to sail to the 
upper end of Lake Su|»erior, and went on o;ns('lves in our ca- 
noes. The winds were light, which enabled us to run taster 
than the vessel, and we arrived ten days before it, at the Por- 
tage. When she at last came, and anchored out at a little dis- 
tance from the shore, my father and his two sons, Wa-me-gou- 
a-biew, (he who puts oi; feathers,) the eldest, and Ke-wa-tin, 
(the north wind,) went out in a canoe to get the baggage, la 
junjping down into the hold of llie vessel, the younger of these 
young men fell with his knee upon a knot of the rope tied 
around a bimdie of goods, and rtctived an lujiay from which he 
never recovered. The same night his knee was badly sM-(»lleii, 
and on the next day he was not able to go out \)[' the lodge. 
After about eight or ten days, we commenced crossing the (irnnd 
Portage : we carried him on oia- siu)nldrrs, by fastening n blanket 
to two poles ; but he was so sick that we had to stop often, vvhicli 
made us long in passing. We left our canoes at the Irading- 
house, and when we r nnic to the other side of the Portage, were 



detained some days to make small canoes. When tliesie were 
nearly finished, my fiilher sent mc, with one of his wives, back 
to the tradini^-honse, to brinjr somclhinfr which had been forgot- 
ten. On our return, we met the two l)oys at some distance, 
(•oniing to tell mc to hasten home, for my father was dying, and 
lie wished to see nie before he died. When I came into the 
lodge, I found that he was indeed dying, and though lie could 
see, he was not able to speak to me. In a few minutes he 
ceased to breathe. Beside hii". lay the gun wliich he had taken 
in his hand a few minutes before, to shoot the young man who 
had wounded him at Mackinac. In the morning, when I left 
him to go to the Portage, he was apparently well ; my mother 
told me it was not until aliernotm, he began to complain ; he 
then came into the lodge, saying, " I am now dying; but since 
I have to go, this young man, who has killed me, must go with 
me. I hoped to have lived (ill I had raised you all to be men ; 
but now f must die, and leave you j)0(>r, and without any one t<i 
provide for you." So saying, iie stepped out, with the gun in 
Ids hand, to shoot the young man, who was at that lime sitting 
by the door of his own lodge. Ke-wa-tin, hearing liiis, began 
in cry, and, addressing his fallier, said, " My father, if I was well 
I could help you lo kill tl\is man, and could protect my young 
brothers from the vengeance of his friends, after he is dead ; 
but you see my situation, ai\d that I am about to die. My 
b.rothers are young and weak, and we shall all be murdered it' 
you kill this man." My fallior replied, " My son, I love you 
loo well to refus«' you any thing you request." So saying, In: 
leturned, laid down his gun, and, after having said a very few 
words, incpiired for me, and directed them lo send for me, he ex- 
pired. The old witnian procured a collin from the traders, and 
they brought my lather's body, in a wagon, to the trading- 
house, on this side the (Jrand Portage, where they buried him, 
in the burying ground of the whites. His two sons, as well as 
the young man who killed him, accompanied his body to the 
Tortage. This last was near being killed by one of my brothers; 
but the other prevented him, as he was about to strike. 

It was but a very short time after my father died, thai we 
started on onr journey to Red River. My brotlier Ke-wa-tiit 
^vp carried on ti litter, as we had done before, whenever it whs 


'\X \ 



A \< 


S' ^»<" 
■y ftnv 

\c ex- 

rrt, and 


1 liim, 

i\\ as 

i» the 

there ; 

lat wo 


it was 

necessary to iako him out of the canoe. \V(> liiui p;ir;se(l two 
carrying plaros, and arrived at tlie third, caUed ilic Moose car- 
vying place, when he said to us, " I must die here; J cannot gn 
iarther." So Net-no-kwa determined to stop here, and the re- 
mainder ol'tlie party went on. A part of our own family chose 
to continue on witli those goiny; to Fled River. So that, after 
they had started, there remained (udy the ohl woman, and one of 
tlie younger wives t)f Tau-ga-we-ninne, V.'a-me-gon-a-hiew, tin; 
cUIer brother, Re-wa-tin, the second, and myself, the youngest. 
It was about the middle of summer, for the small berries were 
ripe, when w;; sto[)ped here on ihe borders of Moose Lake, 
which is of cool and t dear water, like Lake Superior. It is 
small and round, and a canoe can be very j)lainly seen across 
llie widest })tirt of it. We were only two of us able to do any 
thing ; and being myself very young, and without any expe- 
rience as a hunter, we had apprehension that, being left thus 
jilone, we might soon bo in want. We had brought willi us one 
iif the nets used about Mackinac, and s»!ttin<> this, the iirst 
night, caught about eighty trout ami white lish. After remain- 
ing here some lime, we fouiul beavers, of which we killeil six; 
also, some otiers and muskrats. We had brought with u< some 
corn and grease, so that, with the lish we caught, and tlie ganu- 
we killed, we lived comfortably. But, at the aj)proach of win- 
ter, the old woman told us she could not venture to renuiin then; 
by herself, as the winter would be long and cold, and no people, 
either whites or Iiulians, near us. Ke-wa-tin was now so sick 
aiul weak, that in going back to the Portag*', we were compelled 
to move slowly; and when we arrived, the waters were begin- 
ning t<t freeze. He lived but a montli or two alter we arrived. 
It must have been in the early part, or before the middle of 
winter, that he di«'d. The old woman buried him by the side of 
iier husband, and himn U]) oiu- of her flaos at his grave. 

We now, as the weather became severe, began to grow poor, 
Wa-me-gon-a-biew and myself being unable to kill as much game 
as we wanted. He was seventeen years of age, and I thirteen, 
and game was not plentifid. As the weather became more and 
n\ore cold, we removed from the trading house, and set up our 
lodge in the woods, that we might get wood easier. Here my 
brother and mvself had to exert ourselves to the utmost, to avoid 




j^lnrv intr. We ii>cm1 to lumt two or ilireo days' distance irom home, 
jind often rolurned with but litlk; meat. Wo had, on one of our 
hunting paths, a camp hiiill of codar bousrhs, in which we had 
Kindh^l lire so often, tliat at lenirlh it became very dry, and at 
last cauglit fire as we were lying in it. The cedar had become 
so dry thut it flashed up Hke powder, i)uv fortunately we escaped 
with little injury. A.s we were returning, and still a great distance 
iioni home, we attempted to cross a river which was so rapid as 
never to freeze very sound. Though the weather was so cold 
that the trees were constantly cracking with the frost, we l)roke 
in, I first, and at'terwards my brotiu^r; and he, in attempting tu 
throw himself down upon the ice, w«'t himself nearly all over, 
while I had at first only my feet and legs wet. Owing to our 
hands being benumbed with the cold, it was long before we could 
extricate ourselves from our snow shoes, and we were no sooner 
out of the water, than our moccasins and leggins were frozen 
sliir. My brother was soon discouraged, and said he was willing 
to die. Our spunk wood had got wet when we fell in, and thougli 
we at length reached the shore, as we were unable to raise a fire, 
and our moccasins and cloalhes were frozen so stiff that we could 
nut travel, I began also to think that we must die. But I was 
not like my Indian brother, willing to sit down and wail patientlj 
lor death to con\c. [ kept moving about to the best of my jtower. 
while he lay in a dry place Ity the side of the bank, where the 
wind had blown away the snow. I at length found some very 
dry rotten wood, whicl. 1 used as a sul)stiliite for spinik, and was 
so happy as to raise a fire. We then aj)plicd ourselves to thaw 
and dry our moccasins, and when jjartly dry we put them on, and 
went to (collect fuel for a larger lire than we had before been able 
to make. At length, when night came on, we had a comfortable 
lire and dry cloathes, an<l though we had nothing to eat, we did 
not regard this, after the more severe siiirering from cold. At thr 
earliest dawn we left our camp, and proceeded toM'arda home : 
hut at no great distance met our mother, bringing dry clothes 
and a little fiiod. She knew that we oiisrht to have been home 
on the preceding day by sunset, and was also aware of the dilfi- 
eull river we had to cross. Soon nfter dark, being con\'inced 
that we must have fallen through 'he ice, she started, and walk- 



t tin: 

omi' : 



iiisr all night, met us not far from tlu; place where the accident 

Thus we lived for some time, in a suflering and ahn<ist starvinii; 
condition, when a Muskegoe, or Swamp Iruhan, called the Smo- 
ker,* came to the trading house, and learninir thai we were verv 
poor, invited us home with him, to his awn v-ouniry, saying h(j 
could h\mt for us, and would hrinu us hack in the spring. Wo 
went two long days journey towards the west, and came lo a place 
called We-sau-ko-ta See-bee, Burnt Wood River, where we found 
his lodge. He took us into his own Iodide, and wliile we re- 
mained with him, we wanted for nothing. Such is still the cus- 
tom of the Indians, remote from the whites ; but the Ottawwaws, 
and those near the settlements, have learned to be like the whites, 
and to give only to those who can jias . If any one, who had at 
that time been of tiie family of Miet-iio-kwa,were now, after so 
many years, to meet one of the family of Pe-twa\v-we-ninnc, he 
would call him "brother," ami treat him as such. 

W^e had been but a fvw days at the Portage, when another man 
of the sanH> band of Muskegoes, invited us to go with him to a 
large island in Lake Superior, where, he said, were plenty of 
Caribou and Sturgeon, and where, he had no doubt, he could 
jirovide all that would he necessary for our support. We went 
with him, accordingly ; and starting at the earliest appearance of 
dawn, we reached the islanil somewhat before night, though 
there was a light wind ahead. In the low rocky points about 
this island, we found more gull's eggs than we were able to take 
awav. We also took, with spears, two or three sturgeons, im- 
mediately on our arrival : so that our want of food was supplied. 
On the next day, Wa-ge-mah-wub, whom we called our brother- 
in-law, and who was, in some remote degree, related to Net-no- 
gua, went to hunt, and returned at evening, having killed two 
caribou. On this island, is a large lake, which it look us about 
a day to reach, from the shore ; and into this lake runs a small 
river. Here we found beaver, otter, and oilier game; and as 
long as we remained in the island, we had an abundant supply 

* Pe-twaie-ice-ninnr. — This, liovvi'vcr, is n ("r<'<: wi)rd ; tlio luiiio uniDng the 
Ojil'lipwiiys, IB Siig-gno-s^Fav'-ice-ijinnc. Miiskt'go*' is from .Miif-keek, a nwamp, 
und ia applied to a l<aud of the OjiblH'Wiiys, enjuyin^ in ffcnetil no very gocxi 

^ 'iuj. 

. iyK-, 




iANNER rt narhativi;. 


.k^ i 

I! I, 

«)f provisions. We met here the relations of Wa-ffp-mah-wub in 
eight (;anoes ; with whom we at length started to return to the 
Portage. We were ten canoes in ail, and we started, as we had 
done ill coming, at the earliest dawn of the morning. The night 
had been calm, and the water, when wv left tlie island, was j)er- 
I'ectly smooth. Wc had proceeded about two hundred yards into 
the lake, when tin; canoes all stopped together, and tlie chief, in 
a very loud voice, addressed a prayer to the Great Spirit, entreat- 
ing him to give us a good look to cross ihe lake. " You," said 
he, "have made this lake, and you have made «is, your children; 
you can now cause that the wat(!r shall remain smooth, while wc 
pass over in safely.'' In this maimer, he continued praying for 
five or ten mintites ; he then threw into tin; lake a small <iuanti- 
ty of tol)acc(t, in which eacii of tlie canoes fidlowed his example. 
They then nil started together, and the old chief conmienced his 
song, which was a religious one ; but I cannot remember exactly 
Ihe meaning of what he sung. 1 had now forgotten my mother 
tongue, and retained few, if any, ide;is of the religion of the 
whites. I can remember, that this address of the chief to the 
Great S|)irit, appenred to me impressive and solemn, and the In- 
dians seemed all somewhat impressed by it, or perhaps by their 
situation, beintr exposed, on the broad lake, in their frail bark 
canoes, they could not but f«'el iheir dependance upon that Power 
which controls the winds and the waves. They rowed and pad- 
dled, silently and diligently, and long before night, arrived in 
safety at the Grand Portage; the lake having remained perfectly 
calm. At this time, I was suHered to {jo entirely at large, being 
subjected to no manner of restraint, and might, at almost an\ 
time, have made my escape from the In<lians : but I believed mv 
father and all my friends had been murdered, and I remend)ered 
the laborious and confined manner in which I must live, if I re- 
turned among the whites; where, having no friends, and being 
destitute of money or property, I must, of necessity, be exposed 
It) all the ills of extreme poverty. Among the Indians, J saw 
that those who were too young, or too weak to hunt for them- 
selves, were sure to find some one to provide for them. I was 
also rising in the estimation of the Indians, and bt coming as one 
of them. I therefore chose, for the present, to remain w'ith them. 







cl ill 



an \ 

I my 


I n- 




IS one 

biit always intended, at some future time, to return and live 
among the whites. 

We were now again at the Portage, wlienee we had been 
twice removed by the friendly hospitality of the Muskcgoes : 
and were left to consult about the course we would pursue. When 
our mother had at lengtli v ' up her mind to continue on to 
Red River, acconhng to l.<r original plan, she heard, by one of 
the traders, that her son-in-law, the husband of one of her daugh- 
ters, who had continueil on from Moose Lake, at the time wt^ 
had been compelled to stop with Kc-wa-tin, had been killed by 
an old man, in a drunken frolick. The traders had brought the 
widow as far as Rainy Lake, whence she had sent word to her 
mother, that she wished her to come and join her. This was an 
(ulditional inducement to us to go to Red River, and we deter- 
mined to proceed without delay. 

Our canoe had been lent to the traders, and was sent on tin 
route towards Red River to bring packs. As they were al)out tt» 
(lespatcb more canoes, JVe(-no-gua reciuested tjiey would distri- 
bute us about, one or two to each canoe, s" that we might go on 
until we should meet our own canoe. Alter a day or two, we met 
ilie Frenchmen, with our canoe ; but as they refused to give it 
up, the old womim took it from them without thei>" conscnl, put 
it in the water, and ])ut our baggage on board. The Frenchmen 
dareil not make any resistance. I have never met with an Indian, 
either man or woman, who had so much authority as Net-no-kwa. 
She could accomplish whatever she pleased, either with the tra- 
ders or the Indians ; probaldy, in some measure, because she 
never attempted to do any tliina; which was not riirbt and just. 

At Rainy Lake, we found the old wonum's daughter, in the care 
of some Indians, but very poor. Net-no-kwa conferred long with 
her, on our situation ; she talked of all our misfortunes and losses, 
and the death of her husbaiul and son. She knew, she said, that 
her two little sons who remained, were young, but they w^'re now 
becoming able to do something ; and that, since she had come so 
far, for the purpose of going to Red River to hunt beaver, she 
was not willing to turn back. My brother and myself, although 
deeply interested in these consultations, were not alloweil to have 
any voice. 

It being determined that we should go to Red River, we con- 



-I WJI-H-^ IH . 1 


tanner's NAKKA'ilVi:. 

tiiiiiod on to tlio Lal<o of tlio Woods. Tliis lake is called by the 
Tiuliiuis Pub-bo-kwaw-waunfr-jiiiw Saii-jfi-e-gun, "the Lak(j of tho 
Sand Hills." Why it is ralifd "Lake of the Woods" by the 
whites, I cannot tell, as there is not much wood about it. Here 
we were much endangered by high winds, the waves dashing into 
our canoe so fast, that I was scarcely able, with a large kettle, 
to throw out the wat<'r as fast as it came in. 

In the fall of the year, we arrived at the Lake of Dirty Water, 
called l)y the wliites Lake Wiimepeg.* Here old Net-no-gua, 
being much cast down with gri(!f, in consc(juence of all the mis- 
fortunes and losses she had encountered since she left her own 
country, began to drink, which was unusual with her, and soon 
became druidi. We, being foolish, and iniaccustomed to direct 
our own motions, seeing that the wind rose fair, determined to 
j)lace the old woman in the canoe, and cross to the other side of 
the lake. The traders advised us not to attempt it in the pr*^- 
sent state of the wind, but we wouid not listen to them, and ac- 
cordingly pushed ofl' and raised our sail. As the wind blew di- 
reclly off the shore, the waves did not there run high; but we 
had oidy been out a short time, wlien they began to dash with 
great violence into the canoe. We now found it would be more 
dangerous to attempt to turn about, and regain the inhere we had 
left, than to continue on directly before the wind. At this time the 
sun went down, and the wind began to blow more violently. Wr 
lookeil upon ourselves as lost, and began to cry. At this time, 
the old woman began to wake from her drunken tit, and presently 
becoming conscious of our situation, she sprang up, and first ad- 
dressing a loud and earnest prayer to the Great Spirit, she a[)- 
plied herself, with surprising activity, to the use of her paddle, 
nl the same tinu; encouraging u>*, and <lirecting Wa-me-gon-a- 
biew how to steer the canoe. But at length, as we came near 
the shore, and she began to recogni/e the spot we were ap- 
proaching, she also began to manifest jniich alarm ; and said to 
us, " my children, it appears to me we nuist all perish, for this 
shore before us is full of large rocks lying in the water, and our 
canoe must be dashed ia pieces : nevertheless, we can do nothing 


* This word, Win-ne-{)Pg, is derived from win-)ir-bf-a, "dirty water," or trcep- 
iiu-gum-ma, whieli lias nearly the same meaning. 'I"he lake is called by the In 

(liiiTiK Win-'ir-hr-ii Slav-!^lc-"uv. "Dirtv Water Lake."' 

\ 'V 






but to nm directly on, and though we cannot sec where the; rocks 
lire, \v(! may possibly pass Ijctwocn them." And it so happened, 
our canoe beinjr thrown high upon a spot of smooth sand beach, 
where it first struck. We inunediately sprang out, and soon drag- 
ged it up beyond the reach of the waves. We encam|)ed, and 
had no sooner kindled a tire, than we began to laugh at the old 
woman for lieing druidi, and for the apprehension she had mani- 
fested after she waked. In the morning, we perceived that the 
shore was such as slie had described, and that in utter darkness, 
we had landed, where, with such a wind, tlie boldest Indian 
would not venture by day light. We remained at this camp great 
part of the next day, which happened to be calm and fair, to dry 
our baggage, and towards evening, embarked, and ran for the 
month of Red River. We did not enter the mouth of the river 
until late at night, and perceiving a lodge, we landed, and laid 
down without kindling a fire, or making any noise to disturb the 
people, as we did not know who they were. In the morning 
they came and waked us, and we found them to be the family of 
one of the l)rothers of Taw-ga-we-ninne, and the very people 
we had come to seek. 


it ad- 
he ap- 
re ap- 
iiid to 
nd our 




tanner's narrative. 


Friendly rrroplion anion;; tlic. Indiani^dU tlii-Assiiinclioiu— Hraini;l'i>rtai{c — N(H- 
no-kwa's (Iroani, luid its t'uHilnirnl — nirct with Pc-shuu-ba, a distiii^'uislicd 
warrior of the Ollawwaws — journry to Kau-wau-koniiijr, mid rc^idrnct" there — 
return towards l^ake .Sujierior — war-party against thu Minn»'tauks — mouth ot' 
Awsinneboin river. 


After a few days, wc staitrd to fjo up the Red River, and in 
two (lays came- to tlie iiiotilli of the Assimiehoiii, where we foii 
jrreat ntimbers ol" Ojibbeways and Ottawwaws encamped. A^ 
tioon a« we arrived, tlie rliiel's met, to take our ease iedo eonsi- 
deratioii, and to aoree on some method of providing for nf-'. 
" Tliese, our rehilions," said one of the chiefs, " liave come to us 
from a distant country. These two little boys are not able to pro- 
ride for them, and wo must not suffer them to be in want among- 
us." Then one man after another offered to hiuit for us; and 
they agreed, also, since we had started to conu! for the jjurposr 
of hujiting beaver, and as our himters had died on the way, that 
each shotdd give us some part of what they shotild kill. We 
then all started together to go up the Assinneiioin river, and the 
lirst night ue camped among the buflaloe. in the morning, I 
was allowed to go out with some Indians, who went to hunt 
buflaloes. We killed one of four bidls which we found. Wc 
continued to ascend the Assinneboin about ten days, killing 
many bears as we travelled along. The Assinneboin is broad, 
shallow, and crooked, and the water, like that of Red River, is 
turbid ; but the bottom is sandy, wliih> that of Red River is com- 
monly muddy. The place to which we went on the Assiimeboin, 
is seventy miles distant by land from the mouth ; but the dis- 
tance by water is greater. The banks of the river, on both 
sides, are covered with poplar and white oak, and some other 
trees, which grow to considerable size. The prairies, however, 
are not far distant, and sometimes come into the immediate hank 
of the river. We stopped at a place called Prairie Portage, 
where the Indians directed the trader who was with them, to 




i.ullil Ins lujiisf, iiml reinaiii during the wintrr. \\c |p(i all our 
rutidcs, iiiul went up into tiu' country to hunt lor Ixiivcr, amonu; 
the sMiall strciuiis. Tlie Indians ffwv Wa-nu'-gon-a-ltiew and 
nivscll'a little creel*, 'vhero were plenty ofheaver, and on which 
lliey said none hut ourselves should hunt. My mother ;fave mv. 
three tra])S, and instructed lue how to set them by the aid of a 
string tied arouiul the spring, as I was not yet able to set thenx 
with my hands, as the Indians did. I set my tlirec' traps, and on 
tlu^ loilowing nu)rning found beavers in two of them. Being 
unabh' to lake tlu'in out myself, [ carried lumu' the beavers and 
traps, one at a time, on my back, and had the old woman to as- 
sist me. Siie was, as usual, highly gratified and delighted at my 
success. iShe had always been kind to me, often taking my 
side, when the Indians would ultempt to ridicule or annoy mc. 
We remained in this |)iace about three months, in which time 
Me were as well jirovided for as any of tlie band; for if our owji 
game was not sullicient, we were sure to l)e supplied by some of 
our friends, as long as any thing could be killed. The people 
that r<'niained to spend the winter with us, were two lodges, our 
own making three ; but wc were at length joined by four lodges 
of CJrees. These people are tiie r«dations of the Ojibbeways and 
Ottawwaws, i)Ut their language is somewhat dilierent, so as not 
to be readily understood. Their country borders upon that of 
the Assinneboins, or Stone Roasters ; and though th(^y are not 
relations, or natural allies, they are sometimes at j)eacc, and an; 
morc! or less interndxed with each other. 

After we had r nuiined about three months in this place, game 
began to be scarce, and we all sutlered from hunger. The chief 
man of our band was called As-sin-ne-boi-nainse, (the Little As- 
riinneboin,) and he now proposed to us all to move, as the coun- 
try wiiere we were was exhausted. The day on which we werr 
to commence our removal was lixed upon, but before it arrived 
our necessities became extreme. The evening before the day 
on which we inti^nded to move, my mother talked much of ail 
our misfortunes and losses, as well as of the urgent distress un- 
der which we were then labouring. At the usual hour I went to 
sleep, as did all the younger part of the family ; but I was waken- 
ed again by tlu! loud praying and singing of the old woman, who 
<'onfinued her devotions through great part of the night. Very 


) i 



< ally, '111 tilt' rollowiiiji' morninir, she callotl ut^ all to gel up, and 
put on our moccasins, and l)e ready to move. She then called 
VVa-me-gfon-a-biew to her. and said to him, in rather a low 
voice, " My son, last night I sung and prayed to the (Jreat Spiril. 
and when I slept, there came to me one likc! a man, ami said to 
ine, ' Net-no-kiva, to-morrow you Bliall eat a bear. 'J'here is, at a 
distance from the path you are to travel to-morrow, and in such 
a direction, [which she described to him,] a small round meadow, 
with something like a path leading from it; in that path llieie is 
a bear.' N(»w, my son, I wish you to go to that place, without 
mentioning to any one what J have said, and you will certainly 
find the bear, as 1 have descril)ed to you." But the young man, 
who was not particularly diitil'ul, or apt toregaril what Ids mother 
said, going out <>i' the lodge, spoke sneeringly to the oth( r In- 
dians of the dream. " The old woman," said he, " tills me we 
are to eat a bear to-day ; but I do not know who is to kill it." 
The old woman, hearing him, called him in, and reproved him : 
but she could not prevail iipim him to go to hunt. The Indians. 
accordingly, all moved olT towards the place where they were to 
«'ncamp that night. The men went first by themselves, eac h car- 
rying some article of baggage; and when they arrived where the 
camp was to be placetl, they threw down their loads and went 
lo hunt. Some of the boys, and I among them, who accoinpa- 
jiied the men, remained with this baggage, until the women 
should come up. I had my gun with me, and I continued lu 
think of the conversation I had heard between my mother and 
Wa-nu'-iron-a-biew , respj'cting h«-r dream. At lenntb. I i< - 
.solved to go in search of the place she had spoken of, and with- 
out mentioning to any one my design. I loaded my gun as for a 
bear, and set ofl' on our back track. I soon met a woman be- 
longing to one of the brothers of Taw-ga-we-ninne, and ol course 
my aunt. This woman ha<l shown little friendship for us, con 
siih'ring us as a burthen upon her husband, who sometimes gave 
something for our support ; she had also often ridiculed nu . 
She asked me immediately what I was doing on the |)ath, and 
whether I expected to kill Indians, (hat I came there with i,n 
gun. I made her no answer; and ibinkiiig I must be not far 
from the |dace where my mother had lidd Wn-me-gon-a-bicw to 
leave tlie path, I turned olil continuing carefully to regard all 




!he (1 



;it SOI 

ope n 




had s 


jila< r 


the Ml 




the Ik 



Jiai! ill 


bul W( 

the o|) 
iiiv mi 

(•<1 tt< 


I n - 

it tr a 
III l»t'.- 



I nu . 
I, iiiul 
li un 
)l Ihr 
I vv to 
id all 

1 A.MNKr's N AKilATIV I 


she ilircctions she had "ivcii. At l('iif>th, I lomnl wiiut appoarfd 
at some Conner time to h;ive been a jioiid. It wasji small, round, 
open phice in the woods, now grown up with grass and sonn- 
-mall hushes. This i thoiioht must l)e the ineadou my mollior 
had s})oketi of ; and ( .\aminin<r it around. I came to an o[)ea 
plai'r in the hushes, vvln're, it is probable, a small brook ran from 
the meadow; but the snow \\as now so dee|) that I could sec 
iiothiiii;' (d' it. My mother liad nieiiii;tned, that ulun she saw 
the bear in her dream, she had, ai ilir -ante lime, seen a smoke 
risinji from the gro'.md. 1 was confi itni ihis was the place she 
Jiad indirated, and 1 watched lt»ii<r, expectinjj to see the smoke: 
but weariei! at leniiih with wailiii};, i walked a lew paces into 
the open place, resemldinji a path, w hen I uinxpeeleilly fell up to 
iny middle into the snow . I <'\lricaled niyst If without ditrK'uUy, 
iiiid walked on: but remembering that 1 had lieard the Indians 
speak of killiiii;' bears in tin ir holes, it occurred to me that it. 
iiiiuht be a bear's Jnde into which I had fallen, and looking down 
into it, I saw th«> h«'ad of a i)ear l.\ ing close to the bottom of the 
liole. I placed the inu/.zh' of my gun nearly between his eyei*. 
and discharged il. As soon as the smoke cleared away, I took a 
jiiece of a slick and thrust it into the eyes and into the wouiul 
in the head *d" thi' liear. and beinu >aii-lied (hat he was dead, I 
» ndeavoured to lift him out of the hole; but being unuble to do 
this, I returned houn-, lollowing the track I had made in ci)ming 
out. As I came near the camp, where the scpiaws hail, by this 


set U|) the lod 


I met the same wonuin 


Had seen iii 

going out, and slu* innnedialely began ajrain to ridicule me. 
•■ Have you killed a bear, that you come back s(» sfxm, and walk 
so fast ?" I ihoiiirht lo myself, "bow does she know that i have 
killed a bear?" Hut I |tass< d by her without sayinu any thing, 
and went into my nmther's lodge. After a few minutes, the (dd 
woman said, " My son, look in that kettle, and you will find a 
mouthful of beaver nu'al, which a man ga\e me since you left us 
in the moriung. You 

must leave half of it for Wa-me-tro 


bi( \v, who has not yet returned fnuii huntinsr, and has eaten 
nothing to-day." I accordingly ale the beaver nn-at, and when 
I hud tinished it, observing an opportunity when ahe stood by 
herself, I stepped up to her, and whis|)ere(l in her ear, " My 
mother. I have killed r bear." " What do vou say, my son?" 

Vi I 



.1 < 

1. V 


said shf. '• I have killed a bear." " Are you sure you have 
killed him?" "Yes." " Is he quite dead?" " V«'s." She 
watehed my face for a moment, ami then eauirht me in hc^r arms, 
hu^jrino ami kissini^ me with {rreat earnestness, and Cora lonff 
lime. I then told her what my aunt had said to me, hoth j?oint> 
ami returning, and this heiujr told to her husband when he re- 
turned, he not only reproved her tor it, but gave lier u severe 
tlogirinjir. The bear was sent for, and, as beinij the first I had 
killed, was cooked all together, and the hunters of the whole 
band invited to feast witii us, aceording to the custom of the In- 
dians. The sauu' day, one of the Crees killed a bear ami a moose, 
and gave a large share of the meat to my mother. For some 
time we had plenty of game in our new residence. Here Wa- 
me-irou-a-biew killed his tirst bullaloe, on which occasion my 
mother gave another feast to all the baml. Soon afterwards, 
ihe Crees left us to go to their own country. They were friend- 
]}• and hospitable peo|)le, and we wvvv. sorry to part with ihem ; 
but we soon afterwards went down )o the place where we had 
left the trader, and arrived there on the last day of December, us 
I remember the lollowing was new year's day. 

N»'ar this trading-house we remained for sometime by our- 
sel\i's; at length, ue received a message from the trader, and on 
going (i|> foumi lher«' I'e-shau-ba, a celebraletl war-chief of the 
Ottawwaws, who hud come from Lake Huron several years b» - 
f(MT. He, it appeared, heard in his own <'onntry of an old Ol 
tawwaw woman, who, with a family of two wcunen, t\vobo\-. 
and lliree little cliildreii, liavinii lost their men by death, w<>re on 
the A^sinneboin, ami sulfering fvoiu poverty. He had conw. 
villi his three companions, [which were what the Indians <'tini- 
monly call his young nu n, though one of them was, jierbaps, 
older than himsfdC] These were, Waus-so, (the li;ih(uini:.) 
Sug-gil-lo, (he that scares all men,) and Sa-ning-\Mil), (he iliat 
stretches his wings.) The (dd man, Waus-so, who was himsell 
rlislingiiished as a warrior, had lallen sick, and had been hfl ai 
some (lirttance behind. Pe-shan-lia had traced us from |»lace to 
jdnce, by the reports of the Indians, and at la>l found us at I'rairie 
Portage. He was a large and v«'ry handsome tdil man, and when 
we wcri' called in, he imniediulfly recognised Net-no-kwa um a 
relnlive. But lookiim round njton «s, he said, " Who are iht'Mr'" 


* \ 



lANNER S VARKAilVl.. ir.y 

JShe answered, " They are my sons." lie looked at me very 
closely, and said, " Come here, my brother." Then raising his 
blanket, he showed me the mark of a deep and dangerous wound 
on the chest. " Do you remember, my young; brother, when 
Ave were playiujcr together, with ginis and spears, and you gave 
me this wound ?" Seeing my embarr^snu'iil, he continued to 
amuse himself for some time, by describing the circumstances 
attending the woimd, at the time he received il. He at last tv- 
lieved me from some suspense and anxiety, by saying, it was 
not myself who had wounded iiim, but one of my brotlicrs, at a 
place which he menti(nied. He spoke of Ke-wa-tiii, who would 
have been <if about my age, if he had lived, and impiired parti- 
cularly to the tin)e and the circumstances of my cajjture, which 
had happened after he left Lake Huron. 

This was about new year's day, and soon after we started to- 
gether for the country of I*e-shan-ba, which was at a great dis- 
tance. The snow was deep, and our route lying, for the most 
part, through open prairies, we were not able to travel when (ho 
wind was high. When we commenced our journey, we wen; 
hungry, and in want of provisions ; but soon found plenty of 
l)uflitioe, which were very fat and good. Notwithstaiuling the 
.•^n v was deep, and the weather severe, the buJfaloe co\dd still 
; \ nishing aside the snow with their heads, and thus comiu),'; 

a> 'I _,iass below. We had thrown away our mats o( I'uk- 
kwi,* the journey being too long to admit of carrying them. 
In bad weather we used to make a little loduc, ami cover it with 
three <tr four fresh butlaloe hides, and tlnse being soon frozen, 
made a strong shelter troui wind ai\d snow. In calm weather. 
we conunonly encanii)ed with no (»lher covering than our 
blankets. In all this journey, IV-sliHii-ba and Sa-nin-kwub car- 
ried each one of our sister's little children on their backs. 
Thus we travelled on as diligently as the weather would pernul, 
for about two months and a half. In the middle of our jonrne\, 
we passed the truding-house and fort at Mouse River. The. 

♦ Puk-kiFi, lilt' rnt-liiil (la^r, (Typha lutifolit},) o( which wo iimdc the coiirRr 
mnlH nillcil liy the Mfnoiiionii'H (t-fxili-kfuA, Iw ihc < >jililM'wa_v» ot Ihi- Tpprr 
MisMiBHippi, t)-pali-kvi-ituk. Then Ih a lake on the n»ulc fnini Grfeii Hoy l*» 
ihe WistxiiiHjui, nill«(| on the iu8|wi /»uc/rawoy, hut the word is) ill Uio count r>, 
(tronouiiccd Puk-k-rri. 






lAN'NER s Narrative. 

general direction of our route was a little north of west, till we 
arrived, at last, at a place called Kau-wau-ko-mig Hah-ki( -gun, 
Clear Water Lake, from which runs a small stream, called Sas- 
kaw-ja-wun, (Swift Water ;) but this is not the source or a part 
of the great river Saskawjawun, [Saskutchawiu,] which is 
farther towards the north, ("lear Water Lake is not, however, 
the principal source of the Little Saskawjawun, the head of 
that river lyinor far to the north. On the bank of this lake was 
the small log hut of Pe-shau-ba, where he had lived, with the 
three men I have mentioned, for some years. He had left his 
wife at Lake Huron ; and the other men, if they had ever been 
married, had no women with them. Immediately on his arrival, 
he opened his sun-je-gwun, and took out large quantities of 
beaver skins, dried meat, dressed skins, &lc. &c. all of which he 
delivered to the women, saying, " We have long been our own 
squaws, but we nnist be so no longer. It must now be your bu- 
siness to dress our skins, dry our meat, make our m(>ccasins, 
&c." The old won\an herself took charge particularly of the 
proj)erty of Pe-shau-ba. whom she called her son, and treated 
as s\ich. The daughter, and the daughter-in-law, made it their 
business to look after the other three men. Wa-me-gnn-a-biew 
and myself were, as heretofore, imder the particular care of our 
mother. In hunting, I was tlie comi)anion of Pe-shau-ba, who 
was always kiiul to me, and seemed to take pleasure in teaching 
ine how to become a great hunter. It nnist have been late in 
winter when we arrived at Clear Water liake; but the weather 
Was still so cold that water, \\ hen carried out of oin* lodge, would 
freeze iimnedialely. Whfii tfoing to hunt, we started long before 
the sun rose, and returned long after it set. At noon, the sun 
would scarce rise to the tops of the trees, though they are very 
low there. 

The countr> where we were was mostly prairie, with some low 
ledar and pine trees f but there are plenty of beavers and other 
game. It is not very far distant from the coimtryof the Mau- 
dans, on the Missouri. From Mttusc Hiver a man may walk to 
the Maudan villages in Coin- days. .lust before the leaves began 
to a|)pear in the spring, we started with all our peltries, and 
large (juantities of dried meal, and dried beaver tails, to come 
ilown to the lradinir-housc>. on Mouse River. In that country 




kiiir low 
1(1 olhn 
Ic Muu- 
Iwalk to 

ho^, and 

lo conu' 


ihcre is no birch or codur fit for makinir canoos, so that we were 
<'om|)cllc(l to ?i»ake one for our journey of irrvon moose skin.**, 
whieli, being sewed together with great care, and stretched over 
a proper frame, then sntl'ered to dry, niake a very strong and 
urood canoe ; bnt in warm weather it will not last lung. In a 
canoe of this kind, which would carry nearly half as nmrh as a 
cuinmon Mackinac boat, [perhaps five tons,] we all luihurkcd 
witli whatever belonged to us, the intention ol Net-no-kwa and 
Pe-shau-ba being to return to Lake Hiuon. 

We descended the Little Saskawjawun for several days. On 
this river we found a village of Assinneboins, with whom wo 
-stopped a short time. None of us could understand them ex- 
cept Waus-so, who had somewhere learned to sjieak their lan- 
guage. When we came from the Little iSaskawjawun into the 
Assiinieboin river, we came to the raj)ids, where was a village of 
one hundred and filty lodges of Assinneboins, and some Crees. 
We now began to feel the want of fresh provisions, and deter- 
mined to stop a day or two to kill sturgeons at this j)lace, where 
we found a plenty of them. We went and stood near the As- 
s-iimcboins, and saw an old man, when a sturgeon had just been 
drawn ovit of the water, cut oil the pendant part of his mouth, 
and eat it without cooking, or any kind of condiment. These 
pettplf generally apj)ear«'d to us filthy and I)rutal. H )methino 
of our dislike may |)crhaps ix- attributed to the habitually un- 
friendly feeling which exists among the ()jibl)eways for iho 
Abbwoi-mig.* In two days from these rapids wc came to Monk 
Kiver, where both the Northwest and the Hudson's Bay Com- 
pany have trading-houses!. Here Pe-shau-ba and his friends be- 
gan to drink, and in a short time expended all the peltries they 
had made in their lonjr and successful hunt. Wc sold one hun- 
dred beaver skins in one day for li([uor. The price was then 
six beaver skins for a cpiart of rum, but they |)ut a great deal of 
water with it. After drinkiuu here lor sonic time, we began to 
make birch canoes, still intending to continue on <Mir jomnev. 
Hut at this time the Assinneboins,! and Crees, and all the IniliaiiH 
of this part of the cotmtry, with whom the Maiidans had mad<5 
peace, were invited by the Mandans to come to their couiilry, 

* Or Spit HcmsttTo, so cuIIih] from their ronstinj; lluir lUPiits on woodni K|>its. 
i Awianuboiii», Stouo Koasivro, from iiKiiig hutted iJtoac» to boil their provision'' 







I 1 'i' 

and join in a war against, tlic people called by the Ojibbeways' 
A-giitch-a-ninne,* who live two days distant from the Mandant^. 
Waus-so, hearing of thivS, determined to join the war-party, then 
assembling at Mouse River. " I will not," said he, " return to 
my country before I get scarred once more. I will see the peo- 
ple who have killed my brothers." Pe-shau-ba and Net-no-kwa 
endeavoured to dissuade him, but he would not listen, and Pe- 
shau-ha himself presently began to show evidence of excitement 
at witnessing the t ntliusiasm of his companion. After delibe- 
rating a (lay or two, lie said to the old woman, " I cannot con- 
sent to return to the country of the Ottawwaws withuut Waus- 
so. Sa-ning-wub and Sag-git-to also wish to go with him to 
visit the neighbours of the Mandans. I will go also, and I wish 
you to wait for me at Lake Winnipeg, where I shall be in the 
fall, and you will not fail to have a keg of rum in readiness, as I 
shall be very thirsty when I return." They left the canoes un- 
finished, and all went off together with the war-party. Wa- 
me-gon-a-biew also accompanied them, leaving me only with the 
three women and three children. Hut this expedition, for 
which the Mandans had called assistance from such remote re- 
gions, failed for the Avant of concert and agreement between the 
different bands. Some of these being the hereditary enemies of 
the rest, quarrels were sure to arise, and the project was thus 
disconcerted, the A-gutch-a-ninne being left at peace in their own 

After they had gone, I started with Net-no-kwa and the re- 
mainder of the family for Lake Winnipeg. We were compelled 
still to use the old moose-skin canoe, as none of the birch ones 
were finished, and we did not wish to remain any longer at Mouse 
River. We had left llie trading-house but a short time, when 
we discovered a sliirg«on, which, by some accident, had got into 
such shoal water, on a sand-bar, that consitierable |)art of his 
back was to be seen above the surface. I jumped out of the 
canoe. ;ind killed him with little ditlicnity : and as this was the 
first sturgeon I had ever taken, the <dd woman thought it neces- 
sary to celtbratt' the feast of Oskenetahgawin, or first fruits, 
though, as we were quite alone, we had no guests to assist us. 

The month of the Assinneboin is a pla«'e much frequented by 

* A-gulcli-a-ninn£-iDug, the ticttlcil [(eoplc, called by the whites Minnetorcc;- 

of a I 
out to 
we pe 
J Ukj 
in abo 
we (let 
liers of 
there w 
went ( 
two mc 


V .m£^i 




tlio Sioiix wav-pavties, wlierc they lie concealed and lire uj)oi> 
such as are passing. Wc did not approach this place until dark, 
intending to pass through late at night; it was, accordingly, af- 
ter midnight, when carefully avoiding eitiier shore, we floated 
silently out into Red River. The night was dark, and we coidd 
not discern distinctly any ohj'>ct on shore ; hut we ha<l s<;arce 
cnlereil Red River, when the silence was l)roken hy the huoting" 
of an owl, on the left hunk of the Assinnehoin. This was quick- 
ly answered hy another on the right hank, and presently by a 
third on the side of Red River, opposite the mouth. Net-no-kwa 
said, in a whisper scarce audible, " We are discovereil," and di- 
rected to put th" cat' d)out, with the utmost silence. In obe- 
dience to her 'Clio. ? ascended with (he ■ ; caution, 
»ndeavouring to keep near the middle of Red River. I was in 
the bow of the canoe, and keeping my head as low as I could, I 
Avas carefully watching the surface of the water before us, hoping 
to be able to see and avoid any canoe, or other object, winch 
)night approach, when I saw a little ripple on the surface of the 
river, following a low, black object, which I took to be the head 
of a man, swinuning cautiously across before us. 1 pointed tiiis 
out to the women, and it was inunediattdy agreed that we should 
pursue, and, if possii)le, kill the man in the water. For this pur- 
pose, a strong sturg(!on-spear was put into my hand, and we 
commenced the pursuit ; but the goose, (for it was one, with a. 
brood of young ones,) soon became alarmed, and Hew. When 
we perceived our mistake, wc retraced our way up the river, witir 
Momewhat less of fear ; but could by no means venture to fur?i 
about, and go on our way. I was, I remember, vexed at what 
J thought the groinidless fears of the women ; but I do not 
know, to this day, whether u war-jiarty of Sioux, or three owls, 
j'rightened tis back. We returned several miles, and expecting, 
in about ten days, that the traders would be on their way down. 
wc determined to wait for them. Here we caught jrreat nuui- 
}>crs of young geese, swiins, and ducks; an<l I killed an elk, 
which, as it was my first, must be cidebrated by a feast, ihougli 
there were none but our own family to partake of it. 

With the traders who came, according to our expectation, wn 
went down to the house at Lake Winnipeg, where we remained 
two months. When they were about to return to tlie Aysinne- 







boin, we piiiThac-cd a bark canoe, and accompanied tliena. W e 
had a good many beaver sUins, and Net-no-kwa bouglit a keg ol" 
mm Avitb some of tliem, for Pe-sliau-ba. The keg held about live 
or six gaUons, and we gave six beaver skins for a quart. Many 
of tbesc beavers I had taken myself. I have killeti as many as 
one hundred in the course of a month, but then 1 did not know 
Iho value of them. 




Elk Iiuntinfi — bcavrr and bniraloe huntinji — cinlanarrcil in killinff a buflaloc cow 
— i-'all luiliiins — r mm to Hainy 1-akr — Swnnip |{i\er iiixl I'ortui^r — tho Bcgvvi- 
ouiisko lliwrand Luki' — honesty and (iixul (iiilli in the intiTciursc of the In- 
dians — hi)»iii(ality — suHbrings tVoni liun^in- — Ki-d Rixcr — loss of packs — kuji- 
posi'il dislioni'sly of tnidrrs— rapacity of tlio trailers of the N. W. company — 
ilisasters foilo^^■ing the loss of onr |ieltries. 

Tn the Assinneboin river, at one or two days above the 
Prairie Portaoc, is a place r;dled Ke-ncw-kau-neshe Wiiy-boaiit. 
(where they throw down the gray eagle,) at wliieli the Indians 
frequently slop. Here we saw, as we were passing, some little 
stakes in the i:;roiiiid, with pieces of birch bark attoched to them, 
and on two of these the ligtire of a bear, and on the othtM-s, those 
of other animals. Net-no-k>Aa imnieiiiately recognized the to- 
tems of Pe-shaii-ba, Waiis-so, and their companions. These had 
been left, to inform us that Pe-shau-ba had been at this place, and 
as directions to enal)le tis to lind them. We therefore left the 
traders, and taking the course itirlicated by the marks which Pe- 
shiui-l)a had caused to be made, we found him and his ])arty at 
the distance of two days from the river. They had returned tVom 
the abortive war expedition, to the trading Jiouse on Mouse River, 
finished the canoes which they had left incomplete, and de- 
scended along to Kenewkauneshewavboaiit. where, knowing there 
were good hunting grounds, they had determined on remaiiung. 
We found at their camp plenty of game ; they had killed, also, a 
?reat number of beavers. About this place elks were uunicrou,^, 



/ ». / 

•- .w^^ 



:in(l it was now llio nittinjr sei.son. I rcmoinbrv one day, Pe- 
sliaii-!)a sent mo with the two youiiitr woimii, ti> l)riii<r Home incut 
jVom an elk he had killed at some distance. The women, lindin"' 
that the elk was lar»^e and fat, determined on remaiiiiiiir lo dry 
the jural liefore lliey carried it home. [ took a load of meal, and 
gtarled for home l)y myscil". I had my i^un wiih me, and per- 
rcivintf there were plenty of elk, I loadetl it. and roniealiiiir my- 
self in a small thicket of hushes, heiran to imitate the call of the 
female elk ; presently a larsie hiick came houiidinir so directly 
towards the spot where I was, and with such violence, that he- 
coming alarmed for my own safety, I dropped my load an' fled; 
he seeing me, tiirn(>il and ran in an (ipposiie direction. Remem- 
bering that the Indians would ridicide me for such conduct, i de- 
termined to make another attempt, and not sutler any apprehen- 
sion for my own safety lo he the causr- of another failure. So 
hiding myself again, in a somewhat more carefully chosen place, 
I repeated my call from time lo time, till at length another huck 
came up, and him I killed. In thi-; maniuM-, great part of the 
day had i»een consumed, and I now perceived it was time to has- 
ten home with my load. 

The ohl woman becoming uneasy at my long absence, sent 
^Va-me-gon-a-biew to look for me. He <liscovered me as I was 
«-oniing out of a ])iece of woods into a li. ,e prairie, lie had on 
a black capot, which, when he saw me, he turned over his hciad 
in such a manner as to make himself reseinlde a hear. At first I 
took it to be a common black bear, and sought a chance to shoot 
liim ; liiit it so happened tliat h(> was in su(di a situation as ena- 
bled bim to see me, and I knew he would certainly have turned 
and fled from me hud it been a black bear. As he coiuinued to 
advance directly towards me, 1 goncluded it must be a orizly 
hear, so I turned and began to run from bim; the moie suit'tly 
I ran, the more closely he seemed to I'ollow. Tluiuifii much 
frightened, I remeuii)ered l*e-shaii-l)a's advice, never to fire upon 
one of these animals unless trees were near into '.vliich I could 
escape ; also, in case of being pursued by om . never to lir<' until 
he came very close to me. 'I'hree times I Hirned, and raised my 
piece to tire, but thinking him siill too far olli turned and run 
again. Fear must have bliiuled my eyes, or I should have seen 
that it was not a bear. At kiigili, geiliuir between liiin and the. 

./' -'-"■ fl^ 

» "i A 





lodge, I ran witli sucli speed as to outstrij. \, when I lieard a 
voice behind me, which I knew to be that ol Wa-me-gon-a-l)iew. 
I h)oked in vain for the bear, and he soon convinced me that I 
owed all my ternir to the (Hsiriiise which he had effected, with 
the aid only of an old biaciv coat. This aH'air being related to ihi 
old people when we came home, they reproved Wa-me-jron-a- 
biew; his mother telliiiir him, that if I had shot him in that dis- 
guise, I should have done riirlit, and according to the custom of 
the Indians she could have found no faidt with me for so doing. 
We continued here huntinir beaver, and killiuif great numbers, 
tnitil the ice became too thick ; we then went to the prairies in 
pursuit of bntiaioes. When the snow began to have a crust upon 
it, the men said thoy must have me with the women, as they were 
about to go to Clear Water Lake to nuike canoes, and to hunt 
beaver on their way down. But previous to their going, they 
said they would kill something for us to live on while they were 
gone. Waus-so, who was a great hunter, went out by himsell', 
and killed one buftiiloe ; but in the night the weather became ver)^ 
cold and stormy, and the buffaloe came in to take shelter in iho 
woods where we had our camp. Karly in the morning, Net-no- 
kwacalled us up, saying, there was a large herd close by the lodge. 
Pe-shau-ba and Waus-so, w ith Wa-me-ffon-a-biew, Sa-ning-wub, 
and Sag-git-to, crept out, and took stations so as nearly to sur- 
round the herd. Me they would not suHer to go out, and they 
laughed at me when they saw me putting my gun in readiness ; 
but old Net-no-gua, who was ever ready to befriend me, after they 
were gone, led nH> to a stand not far from the lodge, near which, 
her sagacity taught her, the herd would probably run. The In- 
dians fired, but all failed to kill ; the herd came past my stand, 
and I had the good fortune to kill a large cow, which was my 
first, much to the satisfaction of my nH)ther. Shortly afterwards, 
liavinir killed a considerable number of buffaloes, the Indians left 
lis : myself, the old W(»inan, one of the young women, and three 
children, six in all, with no one to provide for them but myself, 
and I was then very young. Wc dried considerable of the meat 
the Indians had killed, and this lasted us for some time; but I 
soon found that I was able to kill buffaloes, and for a long time 
we had no want of food. In one instance, an old cow which I 
had woimded, though she had no calf, ran at rae, and I was barelv 








able to escape from her by climbing into a tree. She was enra- 
ged, not so much by the wound I had given her, as by the dogs ; 
and it is, I believe, very rare that a cow runs at a man, unless sh<? 
has been worried by dogs. We made sugar this spring, ten miles 
above Mouse River Fort. About this time I was much endan- 
gered by the breaking of the ice. The weather had l)ecome mild, 
and the beavers began to come up through the holes on lo the 
ice, and sometimes to goon shore. It was my practice to watch 
these holes, and shoot them as soon as they caine up : once, ha- 
ving killed one, I ran hastily up on the ice to get him, and broke 
in; my snow shoes became entangled with some brush on tho 
bottom, and had nearly diagged me under, but by great exertion 
I at length escaped. Buflitloes were so numerous about this 
place, that I often killed them with a bow and arrow, though I 
hunted them on foot, and with no other aid than thatof dogs well 
trained and accustomed to hunt. 

When the leaves began to appear upon the trees, IV-shau-ba 
and the men returned in birch canoes, bringing many beaver 
skins and other valuable peltries. Old Net-no-gua was now anx- 
ious to return to Lake Huron, as was Pe-shau-ba; but Waus-so 
and Sa-niiig-wnb would not return, and Pe-shau-ba was unwilling 
to part with them. Sag-git-'o had for some time been very siek, 
having a large ulcer or abscess near his navel. After having drank 
for some days, he luul a violent pain in his belly, which at length 
swelled ami broke. Pe-shau-ba said to the old woman, "it is not 
good that Sag-git-to should die here, at a distance frcnn all his 
friends ; and since we see he cannot live much longer, I think it 
best for you to take him and the little children, and return to 
Lake Huron. You may be able to reach the rajiids, [Saut de St. 
Marie,] before Sag-git-to dies." Conformably to this advice, our 
family was divided. Pe-shau-ba, Waus-so, and Sa-ninu-uub re- 
mained; Net-no-kwa,and the two other women, with Sag-git-to, 
Wa-me-gou-a-biew, and myself, with a little girl the old woman 
had bought, and three little children, started to return to Lake 
Huron. The little girl was brought from the country of tho 
Bahwetego-weninnewug, th(! Fall liulians, by a war party of 
Ojibbeways, from whom Net-no-kwa had beught her. The Fall 
Indians live near the Rocky Mountains, and wander nuich with 
the Black Feet ; thcii language being unlike that of botli the Si- 


. — :zi-» 


I M 



mix anJ the Ojibboways. These last, ami the Crees, are move 
friomlly with the Mlack Feet, than they are with llie Fall Indians. 
Tlie little Bahwetifi n'ld lliat Nel-mi-Ixwa had IxMii-ht. was now 
ten years of a;ire, but liaviii" been sonic liino amonj;- the Ojibbc- 
ways, h ul learned their laiiiiiKiire. 

When we eaine to Kaiiiy Lake, we had ten packs of beaver of 
forty skins eaeli. Net-no-kwasoid some otlier peltries for riini, 
and was drunk for a liay or two. We here met ^oine of the tra- 

iler s eanoei 


their way to Red River ; 




biew, who was now eiifhieen years old, bein^ iiiuvilling to return 

to Lii 


uroii, lU 

terniined to 1:0 baek to the north with the 

trader's people. Tlie old woman said inueh lo dissuade hiin, 
but he jumped into one of the eaiioes, as they were about lo start 
otl, and allhoiiirh, at the re(juest of the old woman, they endea- 
voured to driv(> him out, lie wouhl not leav<' the canoe. Net-no- 
kwa was much distressed, buteould not make u]) her mind to lose 


ler only son: sln^ determined on retunnnii wi 

ith hit 

The packs of bejiver slie wouhl not leav(; vvitji the traders, not 
having sudicient eonlidence in their honesty. Wt;^ therefore took 
ihein to a remote jjlaee in the woods, h here we made a sunjc- 

irwun, or dejiosite, in tbe usual mannei 


We then returned to 

ihe Lake of tlie Woods. From this lake the Liidians iiave a road, 
10 go to Red River, which the white men never follow ; this is 
])y the way of the Muskeek, or swamp carryinir place. We went 
up a river which the Indians call Miiskeego-ne-guni-me-we-sec- 
bee, or Swamp River, for several days ; we then diagired our 
canoes across a swamp ("or one day. This swamp is only of 
moss and some small bushes on the lop of the uater, so that it 
quakes to a great disliince as people walk over it. Then we put 
our canoes into a small stream, which they called Heuwionusk, 
from the begwionusk, or <'ow parsley, which grows upon it : this 
we descended into a small Sahkiemni,* i-alled by the same name. 
This pond has no more than two or three feet of water, and great 
part of it is not one foot deep ; but at this time its surface was 

'< i,-?!l 

* Liikesof the iarficst class are callud by the Oltawwaws, Khchcgawnic ; of these 
tlipy reckon five ; 01m which they commonly call OjiblK-way Kitcheirawnie, Lake 
.Superior, two Ollnwwinv Kitclie<»;i\vtiip, Huron ioul .Micliiiriin, aiiil Krie and On- 
lurio. l.ake Wiai)ijM'>:, and the countless lakes in the nortli-west, they call .Satt- 






e went 

rcd GUI' 

inly ol' 
tliul it 

wo put 

it : this 

1 1 i;iTat 

ict; was 

of these 

nic, Lake 

iiiiil On- 

:h11 Sah- 

lovered with thirks, jrpcsr, swans, and other liinls. IFere we re- 
inained a lon^ time, and niado four packs of i)eaver skins. When 
the leuvcs bejran to fall, Sag-jfit-to died. We were now quite 
alone, no Indians or white men being within four or five days' 
ioiirney from us. Here we had packs to deposite, as we wero 
about to h:ave the country ; and the ground l)eing too swampy 
to admit of burying them in the usual manner, we made a sunjc- 
gwun of logs, so tight that a mouse could not enter it ; in which 
we left all our packs and other j)r(»periy, which wc could not 
carry. If any of tiu- Indians of this distant region, had found it 
in our absence, tliey would not have broken it up ; and we did 
not fear that the traders would penetrat*' to so poor and solitary 
a place. Indians who live remote from the whites, have not 
learned to value their peltries so highly, that they will be guilty 
of stealing them from each other; and at the ti>. e of which I 
speak, and in the country where I Avas, I have often known u 
hunter leave his traps for many days, in the woods, without visis 
ing them, or feeling any anxiety about their safety. It wf.:'l(l 
often happen, that one man having finished his hunt, and left his 
traps behind him, another would say to him, '• I am going to liunt 
in such a direction, where are your traps?" When he has nsed 
them, another, and sometimes four or five, take them in si .;c« s- 
sion ; but in the end, they are sure to return to th(> right ov ,ier. 
When the snow had fallen, and the weather began to be cold, 
so that we could no longer kill beaver, we began to suffer from 
hunger. Wa-me-gon-a-bicw was now our princi])al dependancc, 
and he exerted himself greatly to supply our wants. In one oi" 
his remote excursions in jnirsuit of game, he met with a lodge of 
Ojibbe.ways, who, though they had plenty of meat, and knew that 
he and hi^ friends were in distress, gave him nothing except what 
he wanted to eat at night. He remained with them all nighi, 
and in the morning started for home. On his way he killed a 
young Moose, which was extremely poor. Wb-a this small sup- 
ply was exhausted, we were compelled to g.* a" I encamp with 
the inhospitable people whom Wa-me-gon-a-biow had seen. Wo 
found them well supplied with meat, but whatever we procured 
from them, was in exchange for our orna;;'vnts of silver, or other 
articles of value. I mention the nigv tr.iliness and inhospitality 
of these people, because 1 had not before met with such an in* 





->*>-«i«Hk8# :.(|i('lP«->hi»., 





stancr amonp tlin Indians. Tlicv aro ronunonly rrady to divid<' 
what provisions thry hiivc, with any who conic to thcin in need. 
Wc had been about tlircc days with these Indians, when they 
liilU^l two Moose. Thcv calh'd Wa-nie-fron-a-biew and nic to go 
after meal, l)u( oidy ifa\e us the poorest part ot one h'tr. VV<; 
bonijht some fat meat Iroiii thcrn, ffivin^r tliein our silver orna- 
ments. The patience of oM i\el-no-kM a Avas at lenirlh exhausted, 
and she forhach" ns all lo purchase any thinir more fmin tlieni. 
Durin^r all ihe lime we remaitierl with these peoph'. we were sui- 
ferinfj almost the exirrniily of hun<ier. One morning Net-no-kwa 
rose very early, and tyinjjf on licr blanket, took her hatchet and 
Avent out. She did not return ihat niijht; but tlie luxt day, to- 
wards eveninjf. iis we were all lyinir down inside the lod^e, she 
ranie in, and shakinjj Wa-nu-uon-a-biew by the shoulder, said to 
him, "f!;et up, my son. ytni arr a jrreal runner, and now let >is see 
with what speed you will <ro and briuir 'li<' iTi»'at whw h the (treat 
SS|)irit ^ave me last niirht. Nearly all nijrht I prayed and sunjr, 
and when i fell asleep near morniiiir, the Sjiirit came lo me, and 
jjrave mo a bear to feed my hun^rry children. You will lind him in 
that little copse of bushes in tlu' prairie. (Jo immediately, the 
bear will nol run from yon. e\t'n shoidd he see you coming u|).'" 

" No, my mother," said Wa-me-fion-a-biew, '* it is now iicav 
•-veniufr : the sun will soon set, and it will imt be easy to fmd tlir 
Irack in the snow. In the morniiifj Shaw-shaw-wa ne-ba-si; 
^hall lake a blanket, and a small kettle, and in the course of the 
Hay I may overtake ihe bear and kill him, ami my little brother 
will come up willi my blanket, and we can spend ihe night where 
I Hhall kill him." 

The old Woman did not yield to the opinion of ihe liunler. Al- 
tercation and loud Winds followed : fur \N a-me-^on-a-biew had 
little reverence for his molhei, and as scarce any oilier Indian 
wonid h:ive done, he ridiculed her pretensions to nii inlercnurse 
with the (ireat Spirit, and particularly, for havini; said that the 
hear w<nild not run if he saw hunters coniimr. The old woman 
was olUnded ; and after reproachinir her son, she went out of the 
lod^e, and told tlie other Indians her dream, and directed lliem lo 
the pliice where sln-miid the bear would certainly be found. They 
aj{;rerd with Wa-me-fjon-a-biew, llinl it wan too late lo go that 
iiijrlit ; but aw lltev had I'ontitlencr in the prayers of iIm^ old wo- 





U'v. AI- 
»i(>\v liatl 
■ liiiliau 
ilijil Un" 
It n{ tlir 
tlwni Id 
. i'lMy 
no thut 
(»l<i wit- 

)riuii, ihcy lt»st no time in I'nlldwiiijL; lier diroclion lU ilio ^'rll•lie^^t 
ippi-arancr of lijjlit in the iiKimiiiir. 'I'licv Conml llic Inar al llu- 
place nlie luul indicated, and killed il w itlwMK dillicidty. He wa^ 
laiu<' and fal. Init VVa-in<'-yi»n-a-l)ie\v, wlioai roinpanied lluni, re- 
ceived iinl\ a small |)iece tor the poitinn ul' our tamilv. The oiil 
woman was anirry, and not witinnit just cause; tor althouoh she 
pretended that ilie hear had liOi-n {riven her hy the (Jreat Spirit, 
and the place where lie lay pointed out to her in u dreuni, the 
truth was, she had tracked him into the little thicket, and then 
i'ir<-]ed it, to see lliiil lie had mil ^oiie out. Artifices ol this kind, 
to iiiake her people helieve she had inlerctHirse with the Great 
.* irit, were, I think, repeatedly assay<'d hy her. 

Our suH'erintf from lnmu:er now compelled us lo move ; ami 
:ifler we had eaten our small portion of the I'ear, we started on 
^iiow shoes to jfo to Keil Uiver; hopiiij; lillier lo iiieel smne In- 
dians, or to finil some irame <mi llu' way. I hud now hecoine ac- 
tpiainted vtith the method of takini; rahhits in snares : nml when 
^\(' ari'ive<l al our first camp, I ran forwar<l on the route I knew 
we should lake oii tlii' f(dluwin<r day. and placed several snares, 
inti'iidinir to look at them, and lake llieni up iis we went on our 
jonrmy. Alter we had supped, for when »euer<' in want of 
provisi(ms we eommoiiU ale only at evellillL^ all the food we had 
icmainiiiii, was a cpiarl or inor<- ol' liear's iirease in ii kettle. It was 
now fro/en hard, and the kettle had a piece of skin tied over il 
as a cover. In the iiiornin<r, this, ainoii(r other articles, was put 
on my sled, ami I went torward to look at uiy snares. Finding 
one rahliil. I tliouohi f would surprise mv motlier, to make u 
luutfh : >^o I took the ral)liit, and put him ali\e under the cover 
of iho kettle of henr's frrease. Al iii^lil, after we had encamped, I 
watched her when she w«'iil lo open tlie kettle lo ml us somelhiii!; 
to eiit. expeclimr llie rahhil would jump out : hut was much dis- 
appoinled lo find, that iiolw ith>laiidiii<r the extreme cold weather, 
llu- yreas 

e was dissidted, and the little animal nearly drowned. 

The old wom.iii scolded me lery severely al the lime; hut for 
inanv yeais afterwards, she used lo talk and laui>li of this ralihil, 
and his a|ipearaiice when she opened the kettle. She cdiitinned 
also lo talk, as Umg as she lived, of the iii(>t>ardly conduct of llio 
Indians we had then seen. After travelling some dayn, we ilis- 
covfreil irnces of hunters, and were at ien^lh so forUinalc a" to 

»• * 







Jlnd the head ol'a biillalot' wliicli tliey hml loCt. This relieved us 
iVoin tli<> distress of hiirifrer, and we lollowed on in liuir trail, 
until we came to (he cncanijjnient of some ol our friends on Ked 

This was a considerable band of Crees, under a chief raliv^d 
Assin-ne-boi-nainse, (ihe Little Assinneboin,) and his son-in-law, 
Sin-a-[)eir.;i-ijriiii. They n't'cived us in a very cordial and friend- 
ly manner, ifave us |)lenty to eat, aiul supplied all our urjfent 
wants. Alter we had remained with them about two months, 
butlaloc and other game became scirce, and the whole encamp- 
ment was sntlerinir from hunffer. Wa-me-iron-a-biew and my- 
self started (o cross the prairie, one day's journey, to a stream 
called I'ond Kivcr. We found an old bull, so poor and olil thai 
hair would not jrrow upon him ; we could eal only the ton^rue. 
SVp had travelled very far, iu the course of the d!.y, and were 
much overcome with faliuue ; the wind was hijrh, and the 
snow driviuy violently. In a vast extent ot the plain, which w<' 
overlooked, \\v could set* nt) wood, but some snutll oak bushes. 
;«earce a< hijj;h as a num's slmulderM ; but in this poor cov«'r we 
were ciimjxiled to encamp. The small and {rn-en stalks of the 
oaks were, with the utmost ilidirullv, kindled, and made but a 
j)oor (ire. When liie lire had remained some lime in oe.e place, 
and the ground imder it become dry, we rennived (he brands 
and coals, and la\ down upon the warm ashes. We spent tin 
nisfht without -^h ep, and the n<'xt inctrninir. thoiiifh the weather 
had bec(Mue more severe, tlu' wind haviin; risen, we suirted to 
11 turn home. It was a hard day's Malk, and, as we were weak 
through hunjfer and cold, it was late when we reached the lod>re. 
As we approached hcune, Wa-me-iron-'t-biew was more aide to 
walk fa-*t llian I was. and as he turned back to look at me, W( 
peri-eived, at the same time, that each <il iiur lacr^ were fro/cn. 
When wo came nearly in siitlit of home, as I was notable to 
walk nuich farther, he left ine, and went to the lodire, and >ent 
.>^ome of the wcimen to help me to jfet huine. Our hands and 
liices were much fro/en ; but as we 'md jriiod moccasins, our 
feel were not at all injured. Ak himi;er continued in the camp, 
we fnuiul it necessary to separate, and i(o in difl'erent directions. 
N<t-nokwa determined tt> f(n with her fanuly to tlii^'tfhdinp;- 
houHf of Mr. Henry, who was since drowned in the Cohiinbia 






Ilivcr, by the upsetting ol a boat. 1 his place is near that wbero 
a spttli'iiifiit has since been made, called Pembina. Willi tho 
i)eople of lln' I'ur-lraders, we bunted all llie reiaaimler of the 
Aviiiter. In (be sprinjr "«' returned, in company «itli these 


res o 

f Indians, to lIn' lake where we li;iii leli onr canooi 

We found all out property sale, and baviiifr yol all (oiielber 
from our snniejrwniis, and all that we broiiLHil from Red 
River, we bad now eleven packs of beaver, of forty skins eacb, 
and ten packs of oiher skins. It was now onr intention to re- 
finti to Lake llnron, and to dispose of our |>('ltries at Vlackinur. 
We bad still ihe larije sniijeuwiin at Hainy Lake, llie c(mtentK 

of whicli, added to 


we no 

w bad, would have been sutlicient 

to make IIS weallliN. It will be it'colbctrd, that in a former 
seasmi, Net-no-kwa had inaile a de|iosii ol \aliiable furs, near the 
Iradcr'H bouse, on Kainy Luke, not baviiiii confidence emnijrh in 
Ihe honesty of the lrad<'i. to leave them in bis care. When we 
returned 'o this spot, we found the simjei:wun had been broken 
up, and not a pack, or a skin, lefl in it. We saw a pack in the 
Irader's bouse, which \\v believed to !)«• one of our own ; but we 
«()uld netcr ascertain wliether ihev or ■^niiie Indians, bad taken 


The old woman was iiiiirh irritaleil. and did not iiesilHlc 

1oa«'ribe (be tbel't to ibe tr.ider. 

When we reacheil the 


II house, at the oih<'r side of the 

(Jrnnd Portatre to Lake Superior, tlie people belonLnnc to the 
traders urirt'd us to put our packs in the wagons, and have iheiu 
carried across. Itiit the old woman. kiiowiuL' if they wi-re (Mice 
in the bands of the Iradern, ii would be ditlicnll, if not impossi- 
ble, for her to gel them again, refused to comply with this re- 
ipn-st. It took us several ilays to carry all our packs across, us 
the old woman woiilii not sntfer Ibeni to be carried in the iiad<T's 
roail. Nolw itbslandino all this caution, when wr c. one In ibis 
f-ide the portage, M;. Nl'<iil\tray ami Mr. Sb»bbo\ea, by 
Ireuting her with much attentiun, ami i>iving her some wine, in< 
dnced her lo place all Iht packs in a room, which ihev gav«< her 
to occupy. At first, ihev endeavoured, by friendlv sidicitation, 
to induce her lo sell her furs; hut fimliiiLf she wns determined 
not lo part «ilh ihem, ihe\ ibrealened her; and at lenulb, a 
young man. the -on of Mr. Shabboyea, atlem|)|ed lo lake llietii 
1>v fuiTti ; but the olil luun iutcrfvrej. and oriierinu his oun to 






I'-:) ,1 



desist, reproved liim for his violence. Thus Net-no-kwa vva.s 
enabled, for the present, to keep poss(!ssion of her property, and 
might have done so, perhaps, until we should have reached 
Mackinac, had it not been for the obstinacy of one of her own 
family. W<^ had not been many days at the Portaj^e, before 
there arrived a man called Bit-K -gish-sho, (the crookcil light- 
ning,) who lived at Middle Lake,* acconipaiued l)y his small 
band. With these people Wa-me-gon-a-biew became intimate, 
and though none of us, at that time, knew it, he formed an at- 
tachment for one of the daughters of the Crooked Li rhtning. 
^Vhen we bad made all our prt-parations to start for the Saut of 
St. Marie, and the l)aggage was in the canoe, Wa-me-gon-a-l)iew 
was not to be found. We sought, in every direction, tor him, 
nnd it was nSt until after some days, that we heard by a French- 
man, that he was on the other side the Portage, with the family 
of Bit-le-gisli-sho. 1 was sent for him ; l)ut could b\ no means 
induce iiini to return with me. Knowing his idislinacy, the old 
woman lictran to cry. *' If I had but two children," said she, 
•' I could be willing to lose this one ; hulas 1 have no other. 
I must go with him." fShe gave to the widow, her sister's 
daughter, but who had liveil with her from a child, five |)acks of 
beaver, one of which was for her own use; the remaining four 
pHcks, together with sixty otter skins, she told her to take to 
Mackinac, and deliver them according to her din'ction. .She 
came d(»wn in the trader's canoe, anil delivered them to Mr. La- 
jjomboise, ol the North West Company, ami look his due bill, as 
she was lidd it was, for the amount. Hut this paper was 
(pientlv lost, by the burniiig of our lodg«>, and from that day to 
this, Nei-no-kwa, or any of her family, hav*' not nreived the 
value of a c«'nt lor those skins. The old woman, beinir much 
dissatislieil at the mi oiiducl ol her son, the disappointment id' 
lier hopes of returning to Lake Huron, and other misforlunes, 
began to ilrink. In the cinirsr of a ninglv dai/, s/ir snld itin: 
huiidnii and twnitij hruvir skins, with o lar:S' ifutintity iif hiif- 
falin' nihrs, drrssrd nnd snutkid skins, and other articirs, for 
nun. It was her habit, whenever she drank, to nnike drunk all 
the lndiKn.s about her, at least as fur an her incanM would extend. 

* Naw-wc-Mh-kie-gujJ. 

I '. 

V i V 




Of all our large load of peltries, the produce of so many days of 
toil, of so many longr and difTieull journeys, one blanket, and 
three kegs of rum, only remained, beside the poor and almost 
Avorn-out eloathing on our bodies. I did not, on this or any 
other occasion, witness the needless and wanton waste of our 
peltries, and other property, with that indillerence which the In- 
dians seemed always to feel. 

Our return beiuff determined on, we started, with Rit-te-jrish- 
sho and some other Indians, for tlic Kukv of tin; Woods. They 
assisted us in making a canoe, crossing portages, &,c. At the 
Lake of the Woods we were overtaken by coltl weather, and 
Net-no-kwa determined to remain, though most of the others 
went on. Here it was found that the atlacliment of Wa-me-jron- 
a-hiew to the daughter of Hit-le-gish-sho, was not too strong to 
be broken ; and, iiuleed, it is somewhat doubtlul whether the 
anxiety of the traders at the (irand Portage, to possess them- 
selves of our packs, had not as much to do in ocrasioning our 
return, as any thing on the part of this ycning man. 

After these people had left us, we fomul our condition too 
desolate and hopeless to remain by mirselves, illy provi(h>d as 
we were for the coming winter. So we re|)aired to Hainy Lako 
trading-house, where we <»l)tained a credit to thi' ainomit of one 
humlred and twenty beaver skins, and thus ftirnished ourselves 
with some blankets, clothiiiii;, ami other things necessary fof 
the winter. Here a man joined us, called Waw-be-be-nais-sa, 
who proposed to hunt for us, and assist us through the winter. 
We acceiled cheerfully to his proposal ; but soon f<nmd he was 
hut a pour Imutur, as 1 wha always able to kill mure thuii he did. 



tanner's NAUBATIVt. 

i ill hi 



\' I 

.(* W 




Medicine hunting — indnleiico of an Indian liunter, and ooiigcc^uent sufTcring oi' 
his family — rclii-t' iVoin hiiiiiHnc tradors — a tninlcr amputates his own arm — 
luoosc rhasc — lii).s|iitalitv ul Suli-inuk, and ri'siiK'nc(! ai llainy Lako^arcaso 
of a imdalotM'ow wiiti'iicd liy a hull — .scmtc tiullL-hiig from cold — luj lodge, 
and most of my iiroix'rly, dtstroyt'd hy lire. 

With the deep snow ami lliick ice, came poverty ami liiinger. 
We were no longer able to take l)ea\er in traps, or by the or- 
dinary metliodn, or kill nioose, llioujrli llure were son)e in the 
country. It was not uiilii our .sulitrinjrs t'rom hunger began to 
be extreme, that the old woman had recourse to the expedient of 
spentlinga night in prayer and singing. In the morning she said 
to her son and Waw-lu -he-nais-sa, "(J(j and hunt, for the (Jreat 
Spirit has given me some meat." Utit Wd-me-gon-a-biew ob- 
jected, as he said the weather was too cold and calm, and no 
moose could be aj)proached so near as to shoot him. " I can 
make a wind," answered Net-no-kwa/'and ihougli it is now still 
and cold, the warm wind shall come helure night, (io, my sons, 
you cannot fail to kill soim-thing, lor in my dream I saw Wa- 
nie-gon-a-biew coming into the lodtre with a beaver and a large 
ioa<l of meal on his back." At length they started, having sus- 
pended at their heads, and on their shot pouches, the little sacks 
ol" medicine, which the (dd woman had provided for them, with 
the assurance that, having them, the\ could not possibly fail of 
success. They had not been a long time absent, when the wind 
rose from the south, and scum blew hii>h, the weather, at the 
same time, bccominif waritier. At nii>lil, lliev returned, loaded 
with the llesh of a fat moose, and Wa-nu-gon-a-biew witli ii 
beaver on his back, as the old woman had seen him in her dreum. 
As the moose was very large and fat, we m(»ved our lodge to it, 
and maile preparations tor drying the meat. This supply ul our 
wants was, however, only lem|)orary, though we found u few 
beaver, and succetided in killing soum'. Afti'r about ten days we 
were again in «ant of food. As 1 wad one day hunting for 


of the 
I did so 
draff the 
and our 
help nic 
woidd n( 
small sui 
of some 
our lodiTf 
Mich arti( 

'* ' 



- W3»^ 

ly soil;', 

(• sacks 
1, with 
lail of 
\v winil 
r, at lilt' 
witli a 
t£e to it, 
y ol oui 
(1 a few 
•lays wo 



tipaveis, at some clislaiicc (Voiii our lodirc, I (uimd ilu' tracks of 
I'dur moose, I hroko olF the lop of a husli, on \viii( h ihcj had 
Ixu'ii hrowsiiitr, and carried it ho»ic. On (MUeriiiu llic lodf^c, I. 
threw it down heCore VV^aw-be-bc-nais-sa, who was Ivinir by iho 
fire, in bis usual iii(b)hMit manner, sayinir, " Look at this, jrood 
liunter, and <ro and kill us some moose." lie took up tlio 
branch, and biokinuf at it a moment, he said, " How many arc 
there?" I answered, " lour." He rephed, " 1 must kill them." 
Early in the nu»rniii(r he started on my road, and killed three 
of the moose. He was a u^(»od hunter, when he could rouse hini- 
.self to exertion ; but nu)st of the lime he was so lazy that he choso 
to starve rather tlian ^o far to find <raine, or to rim after it, when 
it was found. We had now a short season of plenty, but soou 
became himirry ajrain. It often happened, that for two or tlirer; 
days \w had nothinij » eat ; tlien a ral)i)it or two, or a bird, 
^lould aHord us a prospect of protractina the sutl'ering of lum<rei' 
for a few days lonjrer. We said much to Waw-be-be-nais-sa, to 
Try to rouse him to jrreater exertion, as we knew he could kill vamo 
where any thin<> was to be foimd ; but he commonly replied, 
ihat he was loo pooi- and sick. Wa-ine-iion-u-biow ami mys«'lf, 
thiukinir that somethiiiir nii^lit lie fouiul in niori! distant excm- 
sions tlian we had been iifrA to nuike, started viry early one 
morning, and travelled hard all day ; ;ind w hen it was near 
night we killed a y«)un}> beaver, and Wa-me-u^on-a-biew said to 
nie, '• Mv brother, you must now make a camjt, and cook a little 
of the beaver, while I tro farther on and try to kill somethinti-."' 
I did so, and about sunsit he returned, bringing |)lenty of meat, 
having killed two caril)oii. Next day we started very earlv to 
drag the two caribou> llinmgh all the long distance between us 
and our camp. I could not reach home with my load, but Wa- 
me-gon-a-biew having arrived, sent out th«' young wonniii to 
help me, so that I arrived betore nddniglit. We now saw ik 
would lutt be safe for us to renuiin longer by ourselves, and this 
small sup|)ly cnalding us to move, «e determined to go in cjuest 
of some people. The nearest trading-house was that ut Clear 
Water Lake, distant about four or five days' journey. We left 
our lodge, and taking only our blankets, a kettle or two, anil 
such articles as were necessary for our journey, started for the 
trading-house. 'I'he coimlry we had to pass was full uf Ukes 




■ I iinw iwwWWt-sti 

I rid' : 






'■• ^^r 



and islands, swamps and marshes ; htit they were all frozen, so 
that we endeavoured to taki' a direct rowte. 

Early one inorninir, on this jonrney, Wa\v-be-bc-nais-sa, 
roused perhaps by excessive huntjer, or by the exercise be was 
fompclled fo lake, to keep alonovvitb ns. began to sing and pra\ 
for something to eal. At length he said, " to-day we shall see 
some earilxui." The old woman, whose temper was some- 
what sharjiened i>y our long continued privations, and who did 
not consider Waw-l)e-h«'-nais-sa a ver> enler|)rising hunter, said, 
•' Anil if von slionld see caribou you will not !)»■ able to kill 
them. Some men would not have said, * we shall see game to- 
day,' but ' we shall eat it.'" After this conv Tsaiion, we had 
gone but a little distance when we saw six ci'ribous, coining di- 
rectly towards us. We «"oncealed ourselt .'s in the bushes, oil 
the point of a little island, it ' tliev came within shot. Wa- 
me-gon-a-biew flashed his piece, when he intended to fire, ami 
the herd turned, at the sound of the lock, to run off. VVaw-be- 
be-nais-sa fired as they ran, and brok<' the shoulder of one of 
them; but though they pursued all day, they returned to camp 
at night without any meat. Our prosj)ect was now so dis- 
couraging, that we concluded to lighten ourselves, by leaving 
some baguage, in order to make the greater expedition. We 
also killed our last dog, w ho was getting too weak to keep up 
with us; but the flesh of this animal, for some reason, the old 
woman would not eat. After several days we were bewildered, 
not knowing what route to j)ursue, ami too weak to travel. In 
this emergency, the old woman, who, in the last extremity, 
feemed always more capable of making great exertions than any 
of us, fixed our camp as usual, brought us a large pile of wood 
to keep a fire in her absence, then tying her blanket about her, 
took her tomahawk, and went off, as we very well knew, to seek 
for some method by which to relieve us from our present dis- 
tress. She came to us again on the following day, and resorting 
to her often-tried expedient to rouse us to great exertion, she 
said, " My children, I slept last night in a distant and solitary 
place, after having continued long in prayer. Then I dreamed, 
and I saw the road in which 1 had come, and the end of it where 
I had stopped at night, and at no great distance from this I saw 
the beginning of another road, tiiat led directly to the trader's 

* ^ja(¥^ 



L * 


jiuiisf . In my dream I saw white men ; Icl \is, iliorctoro, lose 
no lime, for tlic Great .Spirit is now willing to lead us to a gooit 
lire." Being somewhat animaleil hy ihi- eonlideuce and Ijopc 
the old woman was in this way able to ins|)ire, we departed im- 
mediately ; but having at length eome to the end of her path, 
and i)a8sed a considerable distance beyond it, without discover- 
ing any traces ol' other human beings, we began to be incredu- 
lous, some reproaching and some ridiculing the old woman ; Init 
altewards, to our great joy, we found a recent hunting path, 
which we knew must lead to the trader's house ; then redoubling 
our efforts, we arrived on the next night but one, after that in 
which the old woman had slept by herself. Here we found the 
same trader from whom we had a credit of one hundred and 
twenty beaver skins, at Rainy Lake, and, as he was willing to 
send out and bring the packs, we paid him his credit, and had 
twenty beaver skins left. With these 1 bought four traps, for 
which I paid five skins each. They also gave the old woman 
three small kegs of rum. After remaining a few days, we 
started to return in the direction we came from ; for some dis- 
tance we followed the large hunting path of the people belong- 
ing to the trading-house ; when we reached the point where we 
must leave this road, the old woman gave the three little kegs 
of rum to Waw-be-bc-nais-sa, and told him to follow on the 
hunter's path until he should find them ; then sell the rum for 
meat, and come back to us. One of the little kegs he imme- 
diately opened, and drank al)out half of it belV»re he went to 
sleep. Next morning, however, he was sober, and started to gi 
as the old woman had directed, being in the lirst place informed 
where to find us again. Wa-me-gon-a-biew accomj)anied him. 
After they had started, I went on with tin- women to Sknt-tah- 
waw-wo-ne-gnn, (the dry carryinu place,) wiiere we had ap- 
pointed to wait for him. We iiad iieen here one day w hen \Va- 
me-gon-a-l)iew arrived with a load of meat ; bul Waw-bc-bc-nais- 
sa did not come, though hi-- little children had that day been 
rom|)elled to eat their moccasins. We fed llic woman and hci 
children, and then sent her 1(» join her husband. The huntern 
with whom Waw-be-be-nais-sn had remained, sent ns an invitn- 
lion by Wa-me-gon-a-biew to «'ome and live with them; but it 
was necessary, in the first place, to go and get our lodge, and 





1 ANM;(i .-i N Mil; \ I n r 

the properly wi' had h'll there. As we were on iiiir riiiuii \\« 
were sto|)|)t'(l al the ihy carryiiiir plae<' with t- xlreine hunger. 
liaviiisr Mil)sist('(l I'dr sonic linic almost cntiri'lv on the in- 
ner bark o!' trees, and |)artienlarl\ <d' a clindiMiir viiu' tbnnd 
there, our strcniTlli was nnirli reduced. NVa-me-tfon-a-biew 
C(ndd not walk al all, and everx one ol' ihe lanidv had lailed 
inore than the old xionian. She would (asl live or six days, ami 
set ni to ho iilll) alli'eted hy it. It was only because she (eared 
llie oilier members oC the Camily would perish in her absenee, 
thai she now conseiiled to lei me jjo anil try lo <rei some assistance 
from tlu' tradiim-house, « liicli we believed to be nearer than the 
cainpo!' liie himtei>. 'I'lie former we knew was abmit Uvo or- 
dinary days' journey ; bni, in my weak condition, it was doubltul 
when I eonid reaeh it. I started very early in the niorniiig : the 
weather was eolii, and the liiuh. I bad a laroe lake to 
rross, ami here, as the wind blew more \ iolenlly, I snllered 
most. I <!;aiiied the olnei- side of it a little belore suiisel, and 
fat down to rest. As soon as 1 be<>an to leel a little et)ld. I tried 
lo i^et up. but I'oimd it so di1iic\dt that 1 judi^ed it would not be 
,)rndent for nie to rest airain before I should reach the tradin?- 
lioiise. The nisrht was nol dark, and as there was less wind 
tlian in the day lime, 1 fuimd ihe Iravellino more pleasant. I 
Oontinued on nil niiilit. and arrived early next niornin<r Ht the 
trader's house. As so.m as I opened the dour they knew by m\ 
face that i was stavvinji, ami imnie<lialely impiired after m\ 
people. As soon as 1 had jriven the tieees.sary infornialiou, the) 
despatched a swift Frenehinau, wiMi a load of provisicms, to the 
iiimily. I had iiet n in ihe trailer's house but a lew hours, when 
I heard the voice of i\et-no-kwa outside, askinir, " is mv .son 
here?" And when I opemd llie door she expressed ilie nimosl 
.sati.^faction al sitrhl cii' me. She had not met the Frenchman, 
Avh(» had iione by a dillerenl route. The wimi had become vio- 
jent soon after i left <mr cani|i, and the idd vvoniun. thinking I 
could nol cros^ the lake, started alter me ; and ihe driltinu snow 
having (discured my track, she <oidd not f(dlow it. and came 
quite to the tradinir-honse with the apj)reh(>nsion thai i bad 
perished b\ Ihe way. After a day or two, Wa-me-gon-a-biew 
anil the remainder of the lamily came in, haviutr been rflievcd 
by the FrenchiUHii. It ujtpeured, also, that the Indians had sent 

|b. .; 

'lAVVl^WS Vahhativi. 



by m\ 
u r ni> 
. thr> 

to lllf 

, wlu'ii 
iiy son 

lie viu- 
ikiii^ I 
II snow 

(I CilllU' 

I I had 

i!i(l tsent 


\\a\v-l)c-br-nais-sa, willia load of meat, lo look Inv w-i ;il the dry 
I'arryiiitf place, as they knew we conld not ick li ihcii ciirainp- 
monl uifhoiil a snpjily. whicli il was not prohuhh- w«' could pro- 
cure, lie had heen very near the cain|> oldnrlaiinly iifier I ieCl, 
hut either ihronirh willidness, <»r Croni sliipiiliiy. I'aileil to tind 
th(!ni. lie had camped alnmst within call ol them, and eaten :i 
hearty meal, as they discovered hy the tract s he hit. Al'lei re- 
inaiiiinjr a lew ihiy> at tin- tradinir house, we all went lotjeiher l<i 
join the linlians. Tid^ parly consisted of tliree lodges, the |)rin- 
cipal man Ix'ina; VVah-iic-ivant, (crooked leirs.) 'I'hree ol tin; 
hesi hnnters were Ka-kaik, (the small lia^vk.) .Meli-ke-n;tnk, (the 
turtle,) and l*a-ke-kun-n<'-tfah-i>o, (he that sin i Is in ihe smoke.) 
This last was. at the time I s|)eak ol. a vers di . i.iirnished inniter. 
.Some tim<' at'terwards he was accidentally wonnded, recei\ inir a 
w hole char(>i' ol shot in his elhow. hy \\ hich the jinnt and the 
hones of his arm \iere much shaltered. As the woimd liid not 
show any tendem-y lo heal, hnt, on the contrary, liecame worse 
and worse, he applied to nraiu Indians, and to all tin; white men 
Ji saw, to enl il oil' for him. \s all reliised to do so, or to as- 
sise him in amputating it hinisidl, he < hose a lime when Ix' hap- 
pened to he left alone in his lodtfe. and lakinjjj two knives, the 
edirc ol' one of whitdi he had hacked into a sort of saw, he witit 
his ri<>ht hand and arm cut oil' his left, and threw it from him as 
far as he could. Soon after, as he refiteil the sl(n"v him-t If, he 
fell asleej), in which siiuatiorthe was found hy his iVieinis, haviiiii 
losta very trreal tpiaiili(\ of hlood : hiil he soon al'terw aids re- 
covered, and nolwithstandinu the loss of (me arm, he Ix came 
agiun a frrviW hunter. After this accident, he was commonh 
called Kosh-kin-ne-kait. (the cnt oil' arm.) With this iiand we 
lived some time, havinu always plenty Iti rat, thoujrl> NVaw-be- 
be-nius-sa killed nothin>i. 

When the weatlu r heuan lo he a little warm, we left the [n- 
dians, ami went lo huiil heaver near 'he Iradinir house, liavinu 
lately suH'ered so much from huu<rer, we were afraid lo j:o lo an\' 
distant place, rcdyiiiii tm lar»e iranu' Kn- supptn-t. Here wt found 
early one niorninji, a Moose track, not far fnnn the iradioL' heuse. 
There was m»w livinir with us. a man railed I'a-hah-mew-in. (he 
that <'arries about,) who, totfother with Wa-nie-ijon-a-hiew. started 
Ji) pursuil. The dotrs followed for an hour or two, and theu to 







tiirnefl ; at this Pa-hali-iiiow-in was <liHr«»;r> r**!!, aJhI Uirned l>ack . 
I)iit VVa-iiie-ir(»ii-H-l)iow still k('|)t on. Tin.- ..Uij* ^ '.hs« cdiiid run 
very sm ill, and lor a lon^ time In; [)assed a'i ;ht! ilo>fs, one or two 
<>i' \vlii< li rontiniH'i) on tlif truck. It was alter noon v, lien he ar- 
rived at a lake wliicli the nioose had attenipied to rros« ; but as 
ill some parts the ice was (piite smooth, which prevented him 
IVoMi running so last as on land, Wa-me-fjon-a-hiew overtook him. 
When he came ver\ near, the Coremosi dou. who had kept at no 
great distance iVom Wa-me-iron-a-hiew, pass«:d him, and ujol l)elorc 
the moose, whioii was now easily killed. We remained all this 
sprinii. about one day from the trading house, taking considera- 
ble game. I killed by mysell twenty otters, besides a good many 
beavers and olher animals. As I was one day going to look at 
my traps, I iotmd some ducks in a pond ; and taking the ball out 
of my gun, I put in some shot, and began to creep up to them. 
As I was <Tawlin!i cautiously through the bushe.^, a bear started 
up near me, and ran into a while pine tree, almost over my head. 
I hastily threw a i)all into my giui and fired; but the gun burst 
about midway of the barrel, and all the upper half of it was car- 
tied away. 'I'he bear was apparently untouched, but he ran up 
hiirher into the tree. I loaded what was left of my gun, and ta- 
kinir aim the secimd time, brought him to the ground. 

While we lived here we made a number of packs; and as it 
Mas inconvenient to keep these in our small lodge, we left them. 
lV(tin time to lime, with the traders, for safe keeping. When the 
time came for them to come down to the Grand Portage, they 
look (»ur packs without our consent ; but the old woman followed 
after them to Rainy Lake, and retook every thing that belonged 
to us. But she was prevailed upon to .sell them. From Rainy 
Lake w« went to the Lake of the Woods, where Pa-bah-mew-in 
left us. Here, also, Waw-be-be-nuis-sa rejoined us, wishing to 
return with us to Rainy Lake ; but Net-no-kwa had heard of a 
murder committed there by some of his relations, that would have 
been revenged on him ; for which reason she would not sufl'er him 
to return there. At the invitation of a man called 8ah-muk, an 
OtUiwwaw chief, and a relative of Net-no-kwa, we returned to 
Rainy Lake, to live with him. Wa-me-gon-a-biew, with the two 
women, and the children, went on to Red River. Hah-muk treated 
(IS with much kindneos. He built and gave us a large bark canoe* 




- ^fciTI^ 

\ I. ic-k . 
uid run 
• or twii 
I he ar- 
; but as 
otl liim 
n)k him. 
])t ul no 
)t lu'forc 
I all this 
od many 
) look at 
3 ball out 
to them, 
ir started 
my head, 
^un burst 
, was car- 
he ran up 
in, and ta- 

and as it 
left them. 
When the 
•tage, they 
n followed 
t belonged 
■om Rainy 
wishing to 
heard of a 
[vould have 
gulVer him 
ih-muk, an 
eturned to 
lith the two 
nuk treated 
lark canoe- 

intended for the use of the fur iruders, and which we sold to them 
lor the value of one hundred dollars, which was at that time the 
common price of such canoes in that part of the country. He 
also built us ii small canoe for our own use. 

The river which fulls into Rainy Lake, is called Kocheche-sc- 
bee, (Source River,) and in it is a considerable fall, not far dis- 
tant from the lake. Here I used to take, with a hook and line, 
great numbers of the fish called by the French, dory. One day, 
(IS I was fi.shinn here, a very large sturgeon came down the fall, 
nnd happening to get into shallow water, was unable to make his 
escape. I killed him with a stone ; and as it was the first that 
had been killed here, Hah-miik made a feast on the occasion. 

After some time we started from this place, with a considera- 
ble band ot Ojibbeways, to cross Rainy Lake. At the point where 
we were to separate from them, and they were to disperse in va- 
rious directions, all stopped to drink. In the course of this 
drunken frolick, they stole from us all our corn and grease, lea- 
ving us ([uite destitute of provisions. This was the first instance 
in which I had ever joined the Indians in drinkinff. and when I 
recovered from it, the old woman reproved me very shar[)ly and 
sensibly, though she herself had drank much more than I had. 

As soon as I recovered my wits, and perceived into what a con- 
dition we had brought ourselves, I put the old woman in the ca- 
noe, and went immediately to a place where I knew there was 
good fishing. The Ojibbeways had not left us a mouthful of 
food ; but 1 soon caught three dories, so that we did not sufler 
from hunger. Next morning I slopped for breakfast at a carry- 
mg place where these fish were very abundant ; and while thi; 
old woman was making a fire and cooking one thai I had just 
caught, I took nearly an hundred. Before we we^re ready to re- 
cmbark, some trader's canoes came along, and the old woman, 
not having entirely recovered from her drunken frolick, sold my 
fish for rum. The traders cimtinued to pass during the day, but 
I hid away from the old woman, so many fish as enabled me to 
purchase a large sack of corn and grease. When Net-no-kwa be- 
came sober, she was much pleased that I had taken this course 
with her. 

In the middle of the Lake of the Woods, is a small, but hiffb 
rocky island, almost without any trees or bushes. This was now 





■ i' ' < 

if' I 


'■■■ ' ^- iS- ■';* 

id i 



rovcrrd with yoiiiiir jriills mid cui ■.:<tiitiits, ot wliirh T killed firreai. 
miiiilx rs ; kiiockiiitj llifiii dtiwii wilh a stick. We sclcclcd our 
hundred and (wi'nly ot' tlic laltcst, and dried tin in in the snxike. 
paeked ihein in saeks, and earried them aionir witii us. Thenen 
\Vf went h\ May ol the Miiskeeif earryinir phue. to Red Kiver. 
As we u«re |ias(*in>r down this river, I shut a larue hearon shore, 
near the brink ol' the river. He sereanied out in a rerv unusual 
manner, then ran douii iiiio the water, and sunk. 

At this |)hie<-, (sinee eaHed I'endiinah,) where the Neheiiinnah- 
iip-sehee enters lied Hiver, had rurnuiiv Iteen a trathn^ hnusc. 
We found no priijih', whiles oi Indiaun; atni as we had not 
phnty ot provisions, we went on all iii<jht, hopiiii> soon to in<-el 
M'ilh some peoph>. .Alter snnrisf next morniiii>, we hinih-d, ami 
ihe i-ld woman, whih ('olhetiiDr wood to make a lire, diseoverod 
suiiir hullahx's in the woods. (ti\in>i me noliee <d tiiis, f ran u|i 
and l\ilh>d a hull; hut pei('ei\in<> that he was verv poor, I crept 
a little tartherand shot a lart>t' laltcow. Mie ran some disianee. 
and tell in an open prairie. A hull liial l(dlowi'd lit r. no sooner 
saw me (liter the open prairie, at ihe distance o| three <u- loui- 
hundred vards Imhii her, than he ran at me witli so much I'lirv , 
that i thought it |irudenl to retire into the woods. We reiiiuiiied 
all ilay al this plan-, and I made several attempts lo (ret til tlir 
cow: hut -<lie was -o xiuilaiiliv watched li\ tlic same hull, that f 
^vas at la^tt compelled to leave her. In Ihe rnttin(> seusoii, it in 
not unusual to see the hiiiU liehavi' in this way. 

Next dav, we met the traders c(miinu up to Nehetiiiiiiah-ne-sr- 
hre,* and uuvr them a part <•! the meal we had taken Iroin the 
Itiill. Without any other . wr w I iitoii to the I'niirie I'orlam- 
ot the \-siiiin I'uiii Kiver, where \»e IimiiiiI NN .i-me-ifon-a-hiew 
and \N aw -l)e-lie-iiais-ha, with the other memliers ol our lainilv. 
Innii whom we had hien so lonu separated. 

VVaw-l)e-he-tittiH-sa, since tiny hit us, had turned away liiH tbr> 
imT wile, unil married the daiiu'liter ol .N'tHio-kvvn's sister, who 
had hi I II hioui'ht up m (Uir lamiK, and whom the old woiniin 
had alvvavs treated us her own ihild. >Nel-:io-kwii no sooner un> 

» NclMiiimi.di 111' srU't— Hiiili < nimlxTrv Himt ; fiiicc fullid l'i'iiil>iiiali Tin 
Ilitliini luiiiii- Is (lrri\r(l tniiii Ihiil <<t Uic mIhii'iiiiiii, vmiIi liiri;i' red nlil>lr In rrit ~, 
MHiH'w hut n<H<>iiiiiliii|! lilt' iTimrii'Trv ; tlicnrc nilleil \. unycjHUJUs. " Hcil JJivM' 
I* from the Itiiliiin iMiMliwuwuun •m'Wfmilice. 




(iin tin- 

tiiinily . 

Iiis lor- 
r, «lui 

HUT 1111- 

nali 'I'll' 
U rrii -. 
Inl Jlivrr 

ilcrsiooil wliat liad taken itlaro, tlian slic took up wlml low arti- 
rlos she could see in tlir lodir*'. b«'lun^inir lo Waw-br-bo-nftis-sa, 
;ui(l tliiouiiifr llu'in out. said lo liiiii, " I liavc Ix'cii starved by you 
ulrcadv, and I wi.^li to have innhiiitr inorr to do with you. (Jo, 
and lUDvido lor your «iwn wants; it in more tlian so uiiscrablo 
a liuiitcr as you aii', is able lo ib». you sball not bavc my ilauirli- 
tor." f>o biiiiir turned out. be w enl oil' by biinsell' lor a lew 
flays; biii as Net-i,)-kwa soon b anied lliat bis loriner wit'e was 
iiiurr'.'d to anotber man, and ibal be was destitute, sbe adinilled 
liiin aj^Miii into ibe lodire. it was |irobably i'ront tear of tbc old 
woman, tliat be now beeaiuo a better liunter tliaii be bad boon 

'I'liat winter I bunted tor a trader, called i)y ibe Indians Aiieeis 
wbieli means an elm tree. As ibe winter advanced, and tbe 
weatber became more and more cold, I liMMid it (lil]i<'ub to jini- 
riire as nitieli I'.aine as I bad been in ibe liabil ol siijiplyinix. and 
;is was wanted by tbe trader. I'^rl\ one iiioniiius :diont midwin- 
ter, I stalled an elk. I |iio^ii(d until iuLilM,.ind bad almost oxer- 
taken bim : but bi)|ie and slren<>lb lailed inc at tlie same tiiin . 
Wbat idotbiiiiT I bad on iih . nutwitbstamlinu tiie exlrenie cold- 
ness of ibe wealber, was ilrem brd w ilb sweat. It was noi b.mjj 
.liter 1 Imned towards bonie. ibat I felt it stilb iiiii!> about me. 
Mv lejjains were ol' cbilb. and were loin in pieces in riinniu^ 
ll*iS»ui>b ibe briisb. I was conscious I Irozeii. be- 
torc 1 arrived at ibe jdace wliere I bad bit our lodge standitii> in 
ilie inorniiiu. and il was now inidnitdil. I knew it bad been tin* 
old woman's iiileiilion to move, and I knew wbere .sbewnnld^o; 
but I had not been inlorined >be would }>o on that dav. As I t'ol- 
liiwed on tlieir jiatb, I soon ceased lo siiilir rnuii cold, and fell 
tliat sleejiy sensation w liicli I knew prereded tbe last >|ii<re of 
weakness in sticli as me of told. 1 redoubleil m\ clbuN, but w ilb 
in entire coum iousne>> of tbe dan^'er of m\ siiualioii, it was w lib 
no small dilliiultx ibal I could |irevent in\.->elf from hiuti down. 
\t leiiirtb I lost all eonsriousiiess I'm' simie time, bow bnii; I can- 
not tell ; and awakiui! as from a dream. I found I bad been walK- 
inu round and round in a small circle, not more ibaii twenty oi 
twi'iily-live yards over. Alter tbe return of my senses, I lookid 
abt^ul to trv to discover iii\ palb, ;is | bad ini»s( d ji ; but nliile I 
wa* lookiiiL'. I discovered a lijflil at a di-Mucc. bv wbicb I df 





I ANMK >: \ M!n \X\\ f 

if J*'^^ 

V r 




rocU^d my <'nur-«r, Oiuc iiinir. Im'Iom- I rculicil iho lotljjo, I lo>i 
my HPlisos ; liiil I ilid nol fall iImwii : if I had, I slxtiild never hiivr- 
sjol up airniii : Itiil I liui niiiiid and round in a rirrlo as l)of«»rr- 
Willi; I at lasl ninir inln llic ll)d^^)', I innncdiairly Irll down, hut 
I did not lose ni\ sell' as liclorr. 

can I 

(in(inl»<r si cinii tin; lliirK 
and s|)arklin>i mat nl Inisl on tlii' iiisjilr oC the piikkwi lod^e. 
iind hearin<r mv innthrr say that she had kc|il a hirtfr tire in cn- 
|iri'talion of inv arrival ; and that shr had not thoii<rhi I slinuld 
Ml' in the niornin<', Imt that I should havr 

ut\i' tiren so Ion 

known lonj; lirtore niirht ol her haviiiir niovid. Il was a iiionlii 
liel'ore I was ahle to <{o out ai(ain, my I'aee, hniids, and ie^s, havinir 

•ecu inur 



Till' wi-athir was lnMiniiinji to lie a little warm, so that tlu' 
»ni)w sometimes melted, when I lieiran to hunt auain. (ioint; on<' 
day with Waw-he-he-nnis-sa, a jrood <iistaiu'e up the A.ssinneltoin. 
we (omul a lar^r In rd ol prolmldy '^N) ilk. in a littlr prairie, 
wliifh wasalmost Kurniinidril hy thr riu'r. In the iroru'e, whieh 
»»as ru> morr than two hundred \ arils aeross. NVaw-he-ln-nais->;( 
and I >iationid oiirscKrs. and the Iriirlitem-d herd heiny imwil 
Hum to vrntuir oil ilir -iiiootii lee in ihr riur. \u ^un to run round 
and round the lilllr prairie. It sometimes happened that oin 

:is pushrd within thr reaeh o| our shot, and in this way Wi 


eil two. 

our rai;i iiH>s to i>et iirarir, ue advaiu'ei 

d NO til 


towards thr ii titir ol th< prairir, that the hrrd was di 

part lirint> drivni on ihr hi, and a part rseapiiu' to the hit>li 


Urouniis. \^ aw-M('-lir-iiitis-sa lollowcil thr laltir. and I run on tn 
thr iie. 'The rlk>^ on thr rivrr, slippinij on the smooth ice, and 
luinu mui h (rinhliiird. erowdrd so dose toi;ither that their irreai 
weijrht hroke thr iii ; and ii- lliey wiiiled townriK thr oppositi 
-Ihire, iiiid liidi'in oiiri'd in a hody to riNe upon thr irr. it lonliii 
ui'd to lirrak ht'loir thrill. I ran hiisiijv and thou^litli<ss|\ itliinp 
thr hriiik ot thr oprii pliier, iind lis the water Wiis not so deep ii 
to swim the elks, I llioiii>ht I iiiiuht ai-t those I killed, and there 
lure eontiniied .slioiitiii!; tluin as last as | roiild. When inv I 



er«- iill e\|ieniliil. I drew rn\ knil'e, iind killed nnr or twu with 

it; hut all I killed in llie water, were in a lew minutes s.vept un 
der the ire, iind I ;>ot not one ot them. One onh , whirh I .struel. 
niter he rose upon the iee on the !«hore, i ^aved. This, in aitdi 
• iiill to the others we had killed on ihe sliore. made Imir : heint" 

I ANNtlls N \KKAI l\ I 


nil \vi' wncalilt l<i lukc out oT a yaiiff oi mil It .>s iliaii ivvo liiiii 
ilird. VVaw-l»t-lt<-iiais-sa unit iiiiiiioiliatcl). iiiiilrr {\w prctnict 
ol iu»lilyi"fr ''••' tradns, ami -^old the luiii ilk- a-, his dw ii, lhouir|i 
)i(' killed ImiI two of tlinii. 

\1 iliis tiiac, \N a-iiH'->ri>u-a-!ii«u was iiiialdc li> Imiil, lia\ iim. in 
a (Iriinktri IVidick, liirii sti stvcrilv htiiiiiii, tlmt lit- \v;i> iiol alilr 
1<( slaiid. Ilia U\\ da\s, I wciil afiaiii \*itli Waw -In -Ix-nais-sa 
to liiinl (Iks. We discuvrrcil sdimc in tlir inairic ; Itiit < raw liii;; 
ii|i li(liiii<l a lilllr iiu>i|iialily of siirtarr, w liirli iiialilcd ns to <-oit- 
«»'al oursilvcs, we < aiiic w illiiii a short (listaiicr. 'riicic was a 
viry lar^t' and iat luick wliirh I wislnd to nhuot, Iml NVaw-ht: 
hi'-nais-sii )4ai(l, " not so, ni> lirolht r, Itsi you should liil to kill 
him ; as hf is llu- hist in the hrrd I will shoot him, and you ma\ 
)rv to kill oiii' in tin sfualhr oms." So I told him thai I would 
shoot at (MIC that was lsiii<> down; we Itrcd iiolh tooi ihi r, liiil In 
lliiKHcd and 1 kilUd. Tin- hrrd then lan oil', ami I inirsm d with- 
out waiting' to huli hrr, or rvni to i xaiiiiin' tin uin I had killrd 
I continiinl thi' rhasc all day, and hrtori' niuht had killrd two 
nnn'r, as ihr ilks ucrr so niinli latiumd thai i ranic u|i lo tlirm 
pretty easily. As it was now ni<ihl, i madr ihr ln">l ol iiu \\a\ 
huuM', and whrii I arrivnl, I'ouiid that \N aw -hr-lir-nais-sa iiad 
iirou(r|it honie meat, and had heen ainusinu the lamily lt\ ileseri 
liin^ the manner in u hieh he said he had killed tin ilk. I said to 
ihi'Mi, "I am \iiy <|lad hr has killed an elk. lor I have killed 
three, Hiiil ti -niiirrou' we shall ha\e |drnt\ o| nn ai." Hut as I 
had soiiu' sn.spieiiiii ol him, I took him ouisidi', :ind askid him 
alxMil the one he had killrd. ami eas>l\ madr him .leknow Inl^i', 
that It was mt other than tin om 1 had shot, Irom whieli hi 
liroU(>ht in some ot tin* imal. lie was st-nt to the iruders to eall 
men I > hrin^> in (he, and airain sold .ill ihi ' his own. 

when he had not liel|>ed to kill e\fii one ol them. < iie oM wn- 
nuin, when she hrianie an|uairted uilh thi-' 'omhii '. |'i isii'iiIm! 
him SI) inueli, that he \»as mdmed to havin-. v\ a-nie-uon-a 
blow, aJNo, who liad married an (>jihhewa\ Moniiin <n thr i'*. 
now went to li»i' with his lalher-in-lHW, ai.i! ihe'e retniiiued ii 
our tamil\, onl\ the old woman and hi\si !i, the How'weli<_' (rirl. 
Ke-/liik-o-weninne, the son ol Taw-^'a-weninm*. now soim ihiiii 

• it a hoy, and the luo sihhII ehil'dreii. I uas now, for the Itrst 

• iim-. I«>|l lc» pnyi the winter bv mV'elt. with a (ninilv to provid' 



r.VN.NKIl > .NAKIIAin I. 

i'or, nml iin tnic lo assist iii(>. \Va\\-l)t'-lu'-iiiiis->ri ciKvinipcdnhoul 
Olio «luy iVoin us. I Inul, in tlx- Cfviirso oi the liill. killed u n^mnl 
iiiany heavers ami dllier animals, and we had lor some lime 
eiKtnirh to supply all our wanls. \> e had also jilentv oC hlaiikels 
and elolhinjf. One ver\ cold inorninii in the winter, as I was fro- 
iu^ out tu hunt, I stripped (dVall my silver orimmentH, and hmlg 
ihein lip in the loilir«'. 'I'he idd wcniian askeil me why I did so ; 
1 to! ' her that they were mil <-omlorlahle in snch extreme eokl 
weather; luoreoti-r, tiiat in piirsiiini< <rame I was liahle to lose 
them. She remoiisiraleil lor some lime, hut I persisted, and went 
to hunt without them. At the -tme time I started to hunt, the 
old woman started lor VV»w-!)e-lie-nai^-sa's lodije, iniendinii to 
be ahsent two da\s. The lodoe was Irt'l in the eare ot Skwah- 
shish, as the Howwetiu; ifirl was railed, and Ke-/.hik-o-weniime. 


ten I returned 


at ni>rht, all 

I loiiii am! lm«^lle«•ess 


hunt. I fttiind these two children slandiu<r shivering uiul n-)in(T 
I»y the side of the a>hes of our lod'je, m liich, ow iiiM lo their care- 
lessness, had lieeii Iturned dow n, and cMry lliin;^ \\v had eoiisii- 
incd in il. My silxrr ornamenl-i, one ul my <juns, several hlaii- 
l\els, and miieh cdotliiiiir. wen- lost. We had heen rather wealthy 
amoiii; the Indians of lliat coimfiy ; now we had nothins lelt hui 
.1 medicine hai: and a ket; of nun. When I saw the ket> of rum, 
I fell aiinrv ihal only what was ustdess and hiirtliil to us was left. 



e every tlimir valnalile hail lieen (jesiroyeti, and lakmu it iiji, 
throw it to a distance. I then r>trip|ied the hianket from the Itow- 
weliii tt'r'< i""l ^•■'•' herawn lo >\i\\ hy herself in the snow; tell- 
iiii: her ihat as iier carelessness had stripped iis ol eve r\ ihiiiif, il 
Vas hut ri|2;lil she should feel the cidd more than I did. I tiieii 
look the little liov. Ke-/,liik-o-wenimie, and we lay flown lo- 
•rether upon ihe warm ashes. 

Very early the mxl morniiiif I started out to hiiiil ; ami as ! 
Jviiew very well how llu-old woman would hehave when she came 
to a kliowledire of her misfortune. I did not wish to 


h h 


until late at nisihi. W Inn a|iproaehintr the plare where our lodtrr 
had lieeii, I heanl the tdd wiunan s(oldin<: and heatini: the little 
j^irl. At leniilh, when ! wen: to the lire, she asked me why I iiad 
lint killed h«'r w hen I first rame home and found the lodue huriied 



mee voii diil not, snid slie, 


must now 



Oh iiiv luother do nut kill ine. and 1 will pay yuu fur all you 

J anm;k > N.\ui:.vri\ i 


AVIiJit have v( 

on to sj;iv«' ? Iiow <';in you pay iric 

It ny, 
u- \\o\\- 
iw ; till- 

tllillsr, it 

n\ II to 

mil as ! 

II ( iim<* 

ir lo(lu«' 

liic \\n\v 

ly I IudI 


ill ll.T." 

all you 

!iav«' lost. 

^aitl ilu' old woman. *• I will yivc you ilic Maiiiin,"" saiil tlu; Ut- 
ile {fill, " tlu' gn'al Manilo shall vonw down to rowanl you, if 
vou ilo iii'i liill uif." Wc were now destitute of provisions, and 
almost naked ; but we dctcriiiiiiod to <ro to Aiirel/s Iradinir-housc, 
at KViiiikauucslu'wayii'iant, where we oiitaiiied credit for the 
amoiinl ol' one park ot lieaver skins ; and with the blankets and 
(loth whi<h we piirehuseil in this way, we returned to Wa-me- 
gon-a-biew'H lu«l)/e, whence he and his wife aecompanied us to 
our own place. 

We coiniuenced to npair our loss, by buildinif a small grann 
lodire, in wiiich to slielter ourselves while w<' should p. ?pare the 
pukkwi for a new wigwam.' The women were very industri- 
ous in makiniT these, and noiu' more active than Skwah-shish, the 
IJowwetifT irirl. At niifht, also, when it was too dark to hunt, 
Wa-me-iroii-a-biew and myself assisted at this labour. In a (f\v 
days our lodge wa> coin|)lete(l, and Wa-me-gon-H-biew, having 
killed three elks, left us for his own honte. 

After a little lime, plenty and g(»od hiimou:" were restored. 
One eveiiinir the old woman called to her ilie little Bowwelig 
•iirl, and asked her if she remembered what i>romise she had made 
to her when she was whipped for burniiiir ?he lodge. Skwah- 
sliish coulil make no answer; iuit the old woman look the op- 
portimilv to admonish lier of the impropriety of usiiiir llie iian\e 
uf the Deity in a light and irreverent manner. 

* Prouoiuu'ed bv llie liuliaii«. Wc jo-wlmm 

MX I 11*1 1 \ 





i ..[ 


Failure ot' an altnmiit to accoinpariy a war-party to the Missouri — removal to 
Eik Kivrr— joiiKil in my liiintiiii,' i;rouii;' i by soiui- Naudowiiys, from Lower 
f'aiiuda — liospilality ol'llic Crccs— pr.ictico oC im'ili"iii«' — (lis|mt«' with a Nau- 
(lo»a\ — l);iii(l oC Tus-kwaw-!i(i-ii('rs — Hriiii' SpriiiiT, on KIk Hivcr — I rcccivt' a 
si'vi-ri' injury liy liillinj; I'roin in\ liorsc — involved in (iinioulty liy niv lijHtev 
brittlier — haliils of the nuxwe-tloer — ran^je ol the moose, the elk, and the rrir 

At this |»ljir»' we rcmaiiind tintil s[)ring, when, at <he 
inciicciiiciil ol tiir sni^ar season, wo \v»'iil to Kt'-nii-kau-iio-shc- 
U'av-lioant. \\v applied lo ilu; Indians \\\vre to give us some 
Jri't^s to make sii<rar. They giivr us a plaro wlnre wrro a tew 

^niall tre 

l)iil llie old woiiiaii was dissatislivd, and rettised to 

reiuaiii. We tlierclore travelled two days by ourselvfs, until wr 
I'oiiud a good plaee to make sugar, ami iii the same (Uslricl were 
plenty ol heaver!-- as well as bireh lor troughs. When we had 
been iiere long < !iotij;h to hi-ve liiiislied making sugar. Wa-me- 
gon-a-biew rauH' to us in distress, with his rather-in-law, and all 
his large Comily. We were able to give them something, but old 
TVet-no-kwa did not present him ten ol' my largest and best beaver 
skins uithoiil remarking, " these, .inri many more, have ill bi'en 
killed by my little son, who is mneli weaker and less experieiired 
than either yoursell' or Wa-me-gon-a-biew." She was not verv 
well phased in uiviiiii, and the old man was a little ashamed t> 
receive her present. Altera lew days, they lett ns for ilietrading- 
lumse, and Waw-be-be-nais-sa joined us when we started in rom- 
pany to jro to the .Mintse Ki\er tradinif-honsc. Leaves w<'r<' out 
.)!! the trees, the bark peeled, and we were killino siiii-g«;on8 in 


rivers, when then' came a snuw more 



nee dei 


the frost was -in severe that the trees eraeked a> in the middle 
of V ii.ler. The riv»'r was frozen over, and many trees weri' 

At the Mouse River •..iding-hoiise, the Assinneboiiis, ("ri»ep. 
nnd Ojibhewnys, were uiiain assetnblinc tu go to join tlu.* Nhin 



dans, in making Avar upon the A-gtilch-e-ninnc-wug, the people 
i before mentioned. This time I wished to have aecom|)uiiied 
them, and I said to the old woman, '• 1 will g^o with mv niirles, 
who are goinjr to the Mundans." She trifd to dis-^uitiie me, h\\. 
lindinj^ me obstinate, took away my j^iin and n'occasins. This 
opposition rather inereased my ardour, and I followed ihe In- 
dians, barefoot ami unarmed, trustinijr tiiat sumc amono iheni 
would supply me ; but in this 1 was mistaken, for they drove uu; 
back, ami woidd by no means allow me to a<'(-(im|)any tiiem. f 
was irritated and <lissatislied, but I had no allerMaiive but to re- 
turn, and remain with the women and ehildren. I diil not ask 
the old woman for i.iy gun ajrain ; but lakinif my traps, I went 
from Innne, and did m>t niurn until I had eauirlil beavers enoujib 
lo purchase one; but when 1 had done so, my anxiety to over- 
lake uud aecompany the war-party hail sul)sided. Many of tho 
women they had left behind, now be<;an lo be huiiifry, and il 
was not without lurcat exertion on my part, and that of the ver\ 
lew youuir boys and old nun wlur w,'re left, that tlu !»• want-= 
I ould be s<i|>pli('(i. 

The war-party .<t leuffth returned, having aceomplisheil little 
or m)thinj^. We then left them, and in i-om,iany with one nwu, 
a relalivt of iNet-no-kwa, called VViiu-zhe-traw-inai>li-kuni. (he 
li)at walks alimy; the shore,) we started to ^^> to |]ik lliver. 
This man Imi! two wives; the name of one was ,Mt-sau-bis. (gos- 
Hn'sdowii.) He was also aeeum|)anied by anotln-r distint>uish« 
.(I hunter, eaUed Kaii-wa-be-nit-to, (he that starts them all.) 
Our course (rom Mouse Itiver was very near du»' north; and as 
we had six horses, we travciitd with consulerabh rapidilv ; but 
it was many <lays i)efore we reached the head o( KIk River. 
Hi e Wau-zhe-tiaw-inaish-kum left us to jjo lo thf Missouri, on 
a war-party ; but haii-wa-bc-nil-io remained, and uave us al- 
ways the timst and liest ol the jame he killed. He directed 
me abo to i; beaver dam uud poim, at some ili>lance, to which f 
went one day at evening, and havimr sa; down I lound a road 
which Uie beavers were then using to bring tnubir into tlie poml. 
By tins road I sat down to watch, suppttotng I shottM sutm ttr*-. 
them pass one way or the other. 1 had M-arce sat »''>wu, when 
1 heard, at no great distance, a sound which I kn(M^ wan that 
mnde by a wuinaa in dressinu skin-*. 1 was a littk alarmr'tl. n% 









k i 

I knew of no Indians in that <iiiarlor, and was apprclionsive that 
some of an nufriondly tribe niiglil liavc conip to encamp there; 
but being determined not to retiu-n home i;;norant who and what, 
they were, I took my gnn in my hands, in the position whicli 
wouhl enable me to tire immediately, and prorethd eautiously 
aUmg the path, to exaniin«'. My eyes w«re ecmimoidy directed 
consiih-rably ahead; but I had inH walked far, when lookinir to 
one side, I saw in the bushes, close to my side, and not one ste|) 
from the |iath, a naked and |)ainted Indian, lyiiitf tiat upon his 
belly, but, like myself, li(ddiii[r his trim in the attitude of firing. 
My eyes no sooner fell upon him, than simultaiu>ously, and al- 
most without knowinif what I did, I spranir to the other side of 
the path, and pointed my mm directly at liim. This movement 
he answered by a hearty lausili, wliicii innnediatcly removed m\ 
apprehensions, and he soon arose an<l addressed me in the Ojib- 
beway lanirua<^e. Like myself, he had supposed no other In- 
dians than bis own family were, at that time, in the country, and 
he had been waikinii from \i\> own lodt!;e. which stot)d very neai' 
to the beaver pond, when be was surprised to perceive a man 
approaching hiuj ilirouiih the buslies. lie had first perceived 
me, and concealed himself, not know inj^ whether I was a friend 
or an enemy. After sonu' conv«rsalion he returned home with 
me, and Nel-rio-kwa discovered that he was a relative of her.-. 
The family of this man remained with us al)out ten days, and 
afterwards went to encamp by themselves, at a distance. 

I was now let't, for the second (iine, with the prospect of 
spendiui: the winter alone, with the «'Xce|)tion of those of our 
own lamiK ; hut befor<' the counnenceuunt of cold weather tlier« 
came from Mo-ne-oiiir, (.Montreal.) ncven Naudoway hunters. 
one of them a nephew of Net-no-kua. They remained with ii>, 
and in the tall and earlv part of winter, we killed areat lunnber.-- 
of l)t;iver. l"'"' (■ (d the .Naudowa\s 1 surpassed in huulinj^, ami 
though they had teii traps each, and I only six. I caught nntre 
beavers than they did. Tw<» of the >even men could lieal me at 
almo8t any lhin<r. In the coiuse of lh«' winter, two uutre Nan- 
doways came to our canij). who were in the interest and employ 
of the company called by the lndian> (Ijibbewav Way-inet-e 
goosh-she-wuii, (the ("hippeway Fremhinen.) After these had 
been some time with us. the uame was exhausted, and we began 



t ol 

ol' our 
•r tlicn 

nil n>. 


iriK, ami 

lit iiiort 

at iiH' ai 









to he hnnirry. We a^jjrood all to po oiu> diiy in search of Iniflii 
lo(>s. At iiitllit, all liad returned exeepl a tall yoiinii man, and a 
very small old man, ol' the iNaudoways. Next day tlie tall nuni 
tame home, bringing a new bulliiloe robe, and having on a haiul- 
some pair oC new moerasiiis. lie said he had (alien in with 
seven lodires o( Crees ; that at tirst they had not known liini, 
and it was with <rreat ditliculty he had made them understand 
liim ; but being received into one of the lodges, and fed, and 
treated with kindness, he had remained all night. In the 
morning, he folded up the bulliiloe robe they had given him to 
sleep on, and would lia\'e left it, but they loid him they had 
given it to him, niuv observing, at the same lime, that his moc- 
••asins were not very good, one of the w«tintni had given him a 
pair of new ones. This kind of hospitality is much j)rartised 
among Indians who have liad but little intercourse with the 
whites, and it is among the foremost of the virtues wliich the 
idd men inculcate upon the minds of children, in their evening 
conversations ; but the Naudoway had Ijeen little accustomed to 
such treatment, in tho coniitry from wliicli he came. 

He liad not been long at home, b«-i'ore llie idd ni:iii arrived, 
who pretended that he had seen fitly lodges of Assiniu'boins, 
and had been kindly received by them ; and alllumgh he had 
nothing to show in proof of his assertions, that they had plenty 
of meal, and were disj)osed to be very !iiis| it,d)le. he persuaded 
us, that we had belter go to join them. In tlu' moniiiig we 
were all ready to accompany him, but he said. "1 cannot go yet, 
I have first to mer.d my moccasins." One of the young men, 
iliat there might be no unnecessary delay, gave him a pair ol 
new moccasins; l)iit in the next place, be said he must cut olfa 
piece of his blanket, and make liiinself some niitlens. One of 
them, who had some pieces of blanket, assi.-led him to makt- 
some mittens ; but Ik; still inv-nliil excn-es fordelaving his de- 
parture, most of which resulleil in the supplying, by some one 
of the party, some (if his lillh wants ; !)ut at length we began 
to suspect him of Iving, and having sent some (Uie to follow his 
trail, we ascertained that he had neither travelled far, seen In- 
dians, or eaten a mouthful since he left home. 

Knowing it wouM he in vain lo search for the fifty lodges of 
\'»«inneb(»ins. we went in pursuit of the CriM^s, whom onr Nau* 









I \\M;r.':< NAKI! I n >'. 




downy li:nl Hocii ; l)ul\\t> uiicxprclrdly iiicl \\ ilh aiiollit r haiul 
of tlir sanir lril)o. Tlics*' wort" slriinifcrs In iis, hut iM(|iiiiiiii; 
i'ot their rliicC, uc wciii inlii liis lodirc iind - ' duv ?i. 'I'lic wo- 
jneri iiiiiiuMiiatcly Imiif; the kctllc civit iIm i , aii<l llicn locdv 
mil (if a sack a suhslancf wincli was then mw and imknown to 
all of us, and wliicli cxrilcd in our |)ailv • 'iisidrialdr fiiriosit) . 
When I In' ('imd was |ila(t'd btlcir us. .v ; Mnid it consislcd ol 
Jittle lislu's, s( arte an inch Iciiii. and all dI Iiic same si/.c. NVIifii 
|Mit into tlir kciilc. liny ucrc in laiir*' iim>-cs, iVu/t'ii loirdluj 
Tlu'Sf little lishrs, with the lakiiiij i'nd ratinj; of « liicli \m al- 
tcrwards bee imic I'ainiliar, arc Ininid in ~ lall huhs which rciiiuiii 
uixii in the >liali.»w ponds, crowded toi. Iier in sncdi nii iber^: 
that one nia\ ^> >o|) n|i hundreds of ilu-ni at once, with tin 
hands. Alter we had linished (MM nn al, the woman who a)i 
{leared to he the prineijial wile ol the chief, examined onr moc 
rasins, and jjave us each a new pair. 'I'hese |ieople were on a 
l<Mirne\. and soon left us. We now determined to make a snn 
lejfwuii, and deposile stieli of our property as would impede: le 
ill a loiiij journey, and no to the plains in pursuit of hulfaloe 
We ai-eoidiui^ly fidlowcd the jialh (»f the Crees, and o\»rtook 
thrill ill l!ie Prairie. 

It was aliout the miildle of winter, when v\r arri* ed aiium;.; 
iht'iii, and soini aftcrwai'ds onr tall Nauilowa\ Icll sick. Ili^ 
I'neiid:^ ap|died to an <dd meijicinc man id the Crees, culled Milk 
kwali, (the hear,) re<|iii'stin<; him to do soiiiethiiiir for his rcdiel 
'• (ii\r iiie," said ihc <dd man. " t( n heaver >kins, ami I will ux 
my art to relie\e him." As we had hit our peltries hehind, and 
killed hut few heaver >ince w c started, we conlil raise only nine . 
lint we ; ;i\ e him a piece ol (doth, w hi( h w as more than e(|ual in 
vuhie t<» one luaver, and he coii>eiited to henin. He prepared 
his lodifc lor the first days' practice h( foi( the pati( nl was ad 
Illitled; lie then h* iiii> hroiiuht in, was seated on a mal near tin 
lire. Old Mukdxwah, who was a veiitrihxpiist of hut iiidillerem 
power.s, and a iiiedicine iiinn it( no i>reat fame, imitati d, as w( II 
a» he cuiiid, various S(iuiids, niid endeavoured to make tl> >m 
staiidiiij« In Ik lieve they |)roceede(l from the hr«'iist of tlie .sick 
man. At length he said, he Ik ird the sound <d had lire in the 
breast of the .\aiidowa>, nnd |>uttinir one linitd to his breast, tin 
(ithrr iind liis month to the back, he eoiitinueil for somn time 


— 'I^P^^^M 



ih aiiolluv baiul 
IS. I)ut iiKiniiiny, 
ilusui. Tlic wo- 
, iiiid llu'ii Uxilv 

;m(l iinkiitnvii to 
ilciiiWW ciiriosily- 
III it (•oiisistcd ot 
nine M/.<'- Willi' 
, lio/.*'ii luirrllui 
r (»!' wliifh w «t- 
)li s whicli niuaJM 

ill :,ii(li im ,ibri>; 
it Diuf, with thr 
• womiui \\l«> iM' 
xiiiitiiitil our mt)t 

l.(li|llf W»T«' «»> " 
1, (I ii> iiiiiKf a Sim 
, wniild iiiipi'tlt "' 
(llMlil I'l liull'ultM 
,.,<, anil uvcrHiuk 

wr ariH'il »<"<'"!^ 
,y l.ll si.k. Hi^ 
("nfs, nilli'l Muk 
iiiif lin" 111!* ii'lif' 
MS. aitil I will »'■'' 
Itiits l)rliiu(l, iiud 
,1 raise uiily nine 
more tlian nmal in 
mil. lie |ne|mr«'(l 
(■ jiatieiU was ad- 
iiii a mat near tin 
1 nC Iml iiidi»Vereiii 
e, iiiiilaled, as \v» 11 
icd to inakt' til 'M 
hreasl ol llif si«k 
I ni bad liif in llir 
,i to Ids liieast, tin 
I. led for some tiio-- 

)ilo\\in£r and ndthinii, wlierilie, as if by aceidcni, dropped a iitlli 
ball upon theirronnd. Allt r auaiiil»lo\x i!i<rand rniibin^.alternateK 
dro|)pini> the little ball, and ndibinir it between bis hands, lie at 
ienirlli threw i' into the lire, where it inirned, with a little w hi/ 


/iiiit noi-c, Ml»e iianip pnwite 

This did no! surprise me at all. 
us I saw lie had taken the precaution to sprinkle a little pnwdcr 
on that part of the lioor of the lodife wlicri' the ball tell. Per- 
c(>ivin<f, prid)ably, iiiat what lie bad now dime was not likely to 
prove satisliietory to his employers, he pretended that there \\a^ 
a snake in the breast ol the sick man, w hieh he eoidd not renu)V( 
(ill tin' I'olhiwinj^ day; when with similar preparations, ami 
-imilar mmnmeries, be seemed to draw i> ol the body of tin 
"iek iniiti, a small snake. One ol his i<.>Md^ be kc-pt for som< 
liiiie on the plaee I'roin whii li be pret< i to have drawn tin 

-iiake, as be said the hole eoiild not t\<' muediately. Tli( 
-inike he refused (udeslroy ; i)nt laid it r. il\ nside for prcsei- 

(alion, lest, as be said, it slionid tsvl into MunebiMly else. Tbi^ 
rll-cimdmted impi»ition did not fail to excite the ridicule of the 
Vandoways, and bad no perce|Uilile ellect upon the sick man 
riiey soon learned to imitate bis several noises, and made him 
a subject for sarcasm and ridicnic. Smne of ihe more sen-^iblc 
and rcspectid)le men amonu the Crees, advised ns to lia\c im- 
>liint; uuivv to say to Miik-kwab, as be was oteemed but a fool 
tin<mi> them. 

It was altmit this time that I had some ditliciilly with a Nan 
downy Indian, \\\u) was hmiliiiir for the Ojibbeway NN ay -nn-ta- 
j^oo-sbe-wiiir. He bad arrived since I had in the country, and 
his rJLrlil to hunt in any part of it was certainly no better than 
niim'. He had, it) one or two instances, complained of me for 

bmitinu where he said i had no ri^bl to hunt 


i<r now fiMim 

\ >:;ani; oi iieavers, I set m\ traps lor them, am 

I, as usual, leli 



till tl 

le next da\ , 


n i^oiiiir mxt morniii 

ir I f. 

oiiiM III Had 

owcil my trail, taken up all my traps, thrown them into the 
low, and set his own in place id them. He bad caui^bl but 


beaver, which I did not hesitate to 

r\ home 


I row III 


IS t 

ia|)s in the 



as in\ ow II. 

-■el mine ai>ain as l>e- 

l<n°«'. Till' allair soon became public, iml all ihe band, even lii^ 
f)Wii friends, tin Naiidoways, sided against him, and assured me 
they would Mipiiort n\v \x\ the coiirsr \ had taken. In allaii> of 




< <? 





10 ■- 



1^ 1^ 

If 1^ 


L25 ill 1.4 









(7)6) •73-4503 









;i:- 1 

c( •. " 

! ■ I 

'/m ' 



I'/ li n n.f 

k ' 


I A\M;K a NAUUA'llVl.- 

llii.s liiiul, llu; customs of the tribo are as a law to the Indiau^, 
and any o;ie who ventures to depart I'roin them, can expect 
neitfier support nor countenance. It is rare that oppression or 
injustice in allairs of private right, between man and man, taiie 
place among the Indians. 

We staid about one month in the prairie, then returned to the 
lodge where we had left the old woman, thence to our trading- 
house on Elk River. Here a lodge of Tus-kwaw-go-mces, from 
Canada, came into our neighbourhood. I had now separated 
from the Naudoways, and was living by myself. When 1 tirst 
visited the Tus-kwaw-go-niees, and went into tlieir lodge, I did 
not know who they were. The man presently went out, brought 
in my snow-shoes, and placed theni by the lire to dry ; finding 
they were a little out of repair, he directed an old man to mend 
them. He then proposed to go and hunt with me, until they 
fihould be repaired. He killed, in' the course of the day, several 
beavers, all of which he gave me. The kindness of this liimily of 
Tus-kwaw-go-mees continued as long as we remained near them. 
Their language is like that of the Ojibbeways, differing from it 
only as the Cree differs from that of the Mus-ke-goes. 

When the sugar season arrived, I went to Elk Hiver, and made 
my camp about two miles below tlfc fort. The sugar trees, called 
by the Indians she-she-ge-ma-winzh, are of the same kind as are 
connnonly found in tlu! i)ottom lands, on the I'pper Mississippi, 
and are called l)y the whites " river maple." They are large, 
but scattered; for this reason we made two camps, one on each 
side of the ri\er. I remained by myself in one, and in the other 
were the old woman and the little children. While 1 was making 
sugar, I killed plenty of birds, ducks, geese, and beaver. There 
was n»!ur my camp a large l)rine sj)ring, at which the traders used 
lo make salt. The spring is about thirty feet in diameler, the 
water is blue, and, with the longest poles, no bottom «'an be 
i'ound. It is near llie bank of the I'lk River, between the Assin- 
ueboin and Sas-kow-ja-wun, about twenty da\s' journey from the 
trading-house at Lake Winnipt-g. There are, in that part of the 
country, many brine springs ami salt lakes, but 1 have seen no 
other as large as this. 

At this trading pttsi I met a gentleman who took nuich notice 
of iiic, and tried lo persuade me to accompany him to England; 




not b 

of tlu 




the .>i 

as us 



they ( 


\, '"^ 

l\NNEJif> NAKKAilVI,. 


lul made 

••s, callefl 

111 as an 


n; lars[i', 

on each 

"ic otiici 



rs used 
tr, llic 
ran be 
■ Assin- 
runi the 
I ol' the 
seen no 

I notice 
!^i Inland; 

but I Was apprehensive he might leave me there, and that I should 
not be able to reacli my friends in the United Slates, even if an)' 
of tliem were living. I also felt attached to hunting, as a busi- 
)iess and an ;Mnusement ; therefore 1 declined his invitation. 
Among other Indians who assembled at this tniding-liouse, in 
the -ipring, came our old companion and friend, IV-shau-ba. and, 
as usual, they expended the products of their winter and spring 
hunts, their sugar, «fcc. for whiskey. After they had drank all 
<hey couhl pun base, old >iet-no-kwa gave them an additional ten 
gallon keg, which she had hid the year before uuder the ashes 
back of the trader's house. Their long deliauch was attended 
by mischievous quarrels, and followed by hunger and poverty. 
Home one proposed, as a method of relieving the pressure of hun- 
ger, now bec(uning severe, that a hunting nuitch should be made, 
to see who, of all those that were assembled, could take, in one 
day, the greatest number of rabbits. In ihis strife I surpassed 
Pe-shau-ba, who had been one of my first instructors in hunting : 
but he was yet far my superior in fakin^r large animals. 

From this trading-house we returiu'd l)y the way of Swan 
River, and the \Ie-nau-ko-nos-keeg, towards Red River. 
About the Me-nau-ko-nos-keeg and Ais-sug-se-bee, or (Mam 
River, whose head waters interlock, we stopped for some time 
to trap beaver, beinir assisted by a young num called iNau-b.i- 
shish, who had joined us some time before ; but at length falling 
in with a trace <mi which Indians had passed oidy two days be- 
fore, I determined to try to see them. Leaving the <dd wo- 
man and the faniily with Nau-ba-shish, I mounted my best, 
horse, aiul followed the path through the prairie. After a few 
hours I passed a place where had been a lodge the day beHne, 
and my horse was steppinix ovir a log which lay across the 
path, when a prairie hen flew from umler it. The horse being 
friirlitened. threw me, and I fell upon the lou, afterwards upon 
the ground ; but as I still held the bridle rein, the horse stepped 
with his lore foot upon my breast. For scune hours I was not 
able to get on my horse ; when I at last succeeded, I determined 
still to follow on after the liulians, as 1 believed myself nearer 
to them than to my own lodire. When I arrived aiuouii them I 
enuld nut upeuk ; but they perceived that 1 had bec-ii hurt, ami 


► * ;'« < mw I 1 ^ . w ■-«».■.«- - .__,,^ 

^. _aaBif«<y 

I I 


tanner's NARRATIVr.. 

treated mc with kindness. From this hurt, which was very sc- 
Aore, I have never since recovered entirely. 

A part of my ol)ject in visiting this band, had been to try to 

hear sometiiinif from Wa- 

but thev had not met 


witli iiim. I now determined to leave the old woman at Menau- 
konoskeeg, and go to Ked River by myself. I lia<l four horses, 
one of which was a very licet and l)eautiful one, being considered 
the best out of one hundred and eighty , which a war-party of 
Crees, Assinneboins, and Ojibbeways, had recently brought from 
the Fall IntMans. In this excursion they had been absent seven 
months; they had fallen njion and destroyed one village, and 
taken one hundred and fifty scalps, besides prisoners. 

Ten (lays after I left Menaidvonoskeeg on this horse, I ar- 
rived at the Mouse Hiver trading-hcvise. Here I learned that 
Wa-me-gon-a-biew was at Penibinali, on Red River. Mr. M'Kee 
sent a man to show mc the road to the head of the Pend)inah Ri- 
ver, wlieri I found Ainel), a trader with whom I was well ac- 
quainted. One day's journey from this house, I found the lodgc' 
of the father-in-law ol' Wa-me-gon-a-biew, but I saw nothing ol 
my brother, and the old man did not receive mc kindly. He was 
living will) a party of about one hundred lodges of Crees. Per- 
ceiving that something was not as 1 could have wished, I went U< 
spend the night with an old Cree whom I had seen before. Li tht 
morning, the old man said to me, " I am afraid they will kill your 
horse, go and see how they are abusing him." I went as he di- 
rected, and found that a parcel of young men and boys had 
thrown my horse down upon the ground, and were beating him. 
When I canu' uj), I found some were holding him by the head, 
while »uie num was htandinu' on his body and bealinii him. To 
this n)an I said, '* my Iriend,* you must come dowi. ;'' he an- 
swered, '* I wont." '* I shall help you down," said F, and j)usli- 
ing him down, I to(d\ the bndle fnun those who held him, aiul 
led him home ; but he had received an injury from which he 
could never recover. 

I now en<|uired the cause of this unexpect(>d and very un- 
friendly lrea(nienl,and learned that it was on account of Wa-me- 


f hi f 

♦ Neoiljrp- 
Innjiung*', ■ 

'V fripiul, is coninionly uwd in Iricudly mnvprKntion ; Iml, ns in ow 
\ usi'cl with a |icciiliur tone and uianncr, when a thrrjtt is in- 

/evy !><•- 

try to 
not met 
r horses, 
party of 
jIU from 
nt seven 
age, and 

rse, I ar- 
•ned that 
r. M'Kce 
binali Ri- 

1 well ac- 
the lodge 
otlihig ol 

. He was 
■es. Per- 
, I wentt>' 
re. In the 
1 kill your 
L as he (li- 
viys had 
lintr him. 
the head, 
nn. lo 
;"' he an- 
nul |)nsli- 
lini, and 
which he 

\('ry un- 
,1 VVu-mt- 

iiii.ii!* iiifrtii- 
thrrnt is in- 



>fon-a-biew', who had turned away his lornier wile, and quarrelled 
with his father-in-law. In tins <)iiarrel, tiie old nmn's Ixtrse and 
dog had been killed ; which injury his young friends were visit- 
ino- upon my horse. The origin of this quarrel seemed to me to 
be such as to leave some appearaiu-e of right on the part of Wa- 
me-gon-a-biew. He had treated his wite as well as is usual among 
them, and only parted with her bt:cause her father nfiistd to part 
with her ; insisting that Wa-nu!-gon-a-l)iew should acconqjimy 
him in all his movements. Rather than do this, lu; chose to leave 
his wife altogether, and had done so in a peaceable numner, when 
her relatives showed a disposition to oiler him some molestation. 
As I was alone, ' feared they might follow me, and try to do me 
some injury at my next encampment; hut they did not, and on 
the following day I arrived at the place where Wa-me-gon-a-bieM' 
was now living with his new wife. The old man, his father-in- 
law, whom I had seen before, met me outside of the lodge, and 
was surprised to hear that J had come from Menaidionoskego, the 
distance being greater than they usually go by themselves in that 

Here I remained four days, hunting with my friends ; then I 
slarted, accompanied by Wa-me-gon-a-biew and liis wife, lo i<- 
turn. We went to the village wheVe they had tried to kill ni) 
horse; and though ^he old man had moved lo some distance, he 
soon heard of us, and came in accompanied by his brothers. We 
slept at a lodge near ihe trader's lent. I intended to have watched, 
as I was apprehensive that they would attempt either to roi) or 
otherwise injure us; hut ihrouirh fatigue, I fell asleej). Late 
at night I was waked by Wa-me-gon-a-biew, who said the old man 
iiad been in, and taken his gun frcun over his head. He admit- 
ted that hv was awake when the old man entered, and had watched 
him from under his blanket until he went out with the gun. I re- 
proached him for pusilanimity, telling him he deserved to lose his 
gim if he wouhl suffer an old man lo lake it away while his eyes 
were open. Nevertheless, I made an attempt, though an unsuc- 
cessful one, to recover the gun. 

Before we reached Mouse River, my horse had become so poor 
ami feeble, that even the woman could not ride him. We rested 
two days, and then went on. We had sull'ered much from liuiiirer. 
having for many days killed only one po(u- buHhloe, when we ne t 





I ■ ■ 


with a small band of Crces, under a cliief railed O-ge-mali-wah- 
shish, a Cree word, meaning chief's son. Instead of relieving 
our wants, they treated us in an unfriendly manner, and I over- 
heard them talking of killing iis, on account of some old quarrel 
with a band of Ojibbeways. They would sell us nothing but a 
small badger, and we lost no time in escaping as far as we could 
from them. We were starved for two days nujre, when we met 
an Ojibbeway, called Wawb-uche-chawk, (the white crane,) wlu> 
had very lately killed a fat moose. 

With this man we lived about a month ; during all which time 
we had plenty of food, and slept in his lodge. He was moving 
in the same direction tliat we were ; he did not leave us until we 
arrived at Rush Lake River. The old wonuin had gone from 
the trading house where I left her, to live with Indians, at the dis- 
tance of four days. My three horses, which, before starting, I 
had fettered and turned out, that they might become accustomed 
to the place, had been neglected, and were now dead ; notwith- 
standing I had given very particular charge to Nct-no-kwa to take 
off the fetters at the comnieiicenient of winter; but she had neg- 
lected it. My horse which I had rode to Red River, was also 
dead, and I had none left. INet-no-kwa having apparently relin- 
i[uished her claim to me, and Wa-me-gon-a-biew now leaving me. 
I remained for some time entirely alone, about the trading house. 
The trader, whose name was M'Glees, at length took notice of 
me, and invited me to live with him. He said so much to induce 
me to leave the Indians, that I felt sometimes inclined to follow 
his advice ; but whenever I thought of remaining long at the tra- 
ding house, I found an intolerable irksomeness attending it. I fell 
an inclination t(t s])end all my tiuie in hunting, and a strong dislike 
fo the less exciting emj)loyments of the men about a trading 

At the head of th<> Menaukonoskego river, was a trading house. 
Mhich I started to visii, in company with five Frenchmen and one 
Ojibbeway woman, sent by Mr. M'Cilees. We were furnished 
only \ ith enough meat for one meal ; all of which we ate on the 
lirst night after we started. About the middle of the third day, 
we came to a small creek of salt water; and on the summit of a 
little hill by the side of it, we saw a man sitting. We went up to 
him. but h(. onve no answer to our questions ; we thon took hold 




1 over- 

ig but a 

^e could 

we met. 

le,) who 

ich timo 
until wr 
)n(' from 
ii tlie dis- 
tarting, T 
vu to take 
had nog- 
was also 
Illy n-lin- 
aving mt". 
ng house, 
notice of 
l() induce 
to f■ollo^\' 
t the tra- 
it. I fell 
ng dislike 
a trading 

and tried to rouse him by shaking, but we found him siilVened bj- 
the cold ; and when we took our hands off him, lie tumbled to 
the ground as if lie had been frozen entirely stiff. His breath still 
came and went, but his limbs were no longer flexible, and he ap- 
peared in most respects like one dead. Beside him lay his small 
kettle, his bag, containing steel and flint, his moccasin owl, and 
one pair of moccasins. We tried all the means in our |)o\ver to 
vesuscilate him, but all in vain. Kegarding him as one dead, I 
advised the Frenchnieu to return with him to the trading house 
from which we came, that lie might be properly buried. They 
did so, and I learned at'terwards that he ceased breathing an hour or 
two after they started. It appeared that he had been sent awa\ 
J'rom the tradina: house at the head of the river, as too indolent 
to be sutlered to remain. He had started almost destitute of pro- 
visions, and come some distance to Wa-me-gon-a-biew's lodge. 
Wa-me-gon-a-biew had fed him, and offered him plenty of pro- 
visions to take with him ; but he declined, saying he should not 
liave occasion for it. He was then very much enfeebled, and liad 
been about two days i.i coming the short distance to the place 
where we had found him. After they started willi him, I went 
on with the Ojibbeway woman, and soon arrived at Wa-me-gon- 

I had remained here about a month, hunting with my brother, 
when Net-no-kwa arrived, having come in search of me. Wa-me- 
ixon-a-biew went by my direction, to a place on Clam Kiver, to 
hunt beaver, and I relumed with Net-no-kwa to Menaukonos- 
keeg, where we made sugar. There were ten tires of us together ; 
and after the sugar making was over, we all went to liunt beavers 
in concert. In hunts of this kind, the proceeds are sometimes 
ccpially divided ; but in this instance every man retained what he 
had l^illed. In three days I ccdlected as many skins as I could 
carry. But in thes. distant and hasty hunts, little meat could be 
lirought in. and the whole band was soon suffering of hunger. 
Many of the hunters, and I, amon^r others, for want of food, lie- 
lame extremely weak, and unable to hunt far from home. One 
day, when the ice in the jionds was covered midling deep with 
water, I reach. J a place about a mile distant from camp, and in a 
low swamp I discovered fresli moose signs. I followed up the 


IWSEU s NAi'.KAj i\ r:. 

i,m ' i 

' -l» 


!;'1,.I iA 


ii; ■ :' I 




animal, and killed it ; and as it was tlie first, it was made a least 
for tJm whole band, and all devonrod in a singlo day. 

Soon afterwards, all the Indians came down, in two days' join 
iiey, to the mouth of the river, where we were joined by Wa-me- 
gon-a-biew, who had made a very successful hunt on Clam River. 
We stopped at the trading house, one mile from the lake, and re- 
mained here drinking until our peltries were all sold. Then wt 
started, accompanied otdy by Wa-me-gon-a-biew, to come down 
to the mouth of the river. The distance was so short, that we 
did not take the dogs on board the canoes ; us they ran along the 
:shore, they started an elk, and drove him into the water in the 
lake, whence we chased hiui on shore with the canoe, and killed 
lum on the beach. 

About this time, we met with an old Ottawwaw chief, called 
Wa-ge-to-tah-jrun, (he that has a bell.) more commonly called 
Wa-ge-toat. He was a relatii e of Net-no-kwa ; and had with him 
at that time, three lodges and two wives. One of liis sous had alsc 
two wives. With him we remaijied two months ; and almost 
every morning, as he was going out, he calhnl me to accompam 
him to his hunt. Whenever he hunted with me, he gave me all, 
or the greater part of what he killoil. If e took mtu'li ])ains to tear 1 1 
me how to take moose and other animals which are difficult ti- 
kill. Wa-me-gon-a-biew, with his wife, left us here, and went tn 
Red River. 

There is an opinion ])revalent among tlie Indians, that tin 
nioos(?, among flu; methods of self-preservation with which he 
seems better acquainted than almost any other animal, has tin 
power of remaining for a long time inider water. Two men oi 
the band of Wa-sre-lo-tah-gun, whom I knew perfectly well, and 
considered very good and credible Indians, after a long day's ab- 
sence on a hunt, came in. an<l stated that they had chased a moosr 
into a small poml, that they had seen him go to the mi<ldle of it. 
and disappear ; and then choosiuir positions, from which lhe\ 
could see every part of the circuinlerence of the pond, smoked, 
and waited until near evening; during all which time, they could 
see no motion of the water, or other indication of the position ol 
the moose. At length, beinu' discouraged, they had abandoned 
all hope of taking him, and returned iiome. Not long afterwards. 
I ame a stditarv hunter loaded with meal, who related, that haviiiu 


. I- 

•ftt*,^^- •■*— - ^ ''J 




wm '\ 



^: IHl 


«^' ^mU 

H . 


■■ ' 

7 mi 


ef, callcu 
ily calU'f^ 
with him 
s hail alsc 
ii(\ ahiiost 

ivo me al'> 
ns to teai-l* 
(liiricuU li 
lul went t" 

lis, that till 
which hr 
al, has th< 
jwo men «^l 
ly well, and 
iiir (lay's all- 
ied a moosr 
niddle of it- 
Iwliieh the\ 
1(1, smoked. 
|-, they could 
position o1 
I abandoned 
Ihal hiuin;. 

>l)ll(J^^cd the track of a moose for some distance, he had traced it 
fo the pond l)efore mentioned ; nut havino- also discovered the 
Tracks of two men, made at tin- same time us lliose of tlie moose, he 
concluded they must have killed it. Nevertheless, approacliinf! 
cautiously to the margin of the pond, he sat down to rest. Pre- 
sently he saw tlie moose rise slowly in the centre of the pond, 
which was not very deej), and wade toward ll;" shore where he 
was sittino. When he came surticieiuly near, he shot him in the 
water. The Indians consider the moose shyer and more difficult 
to take than any other animal. He is more viffilant, and his 
senses more acute, than those of the buftiiloe or caribou. He is 
lleeter than the (dk, and nu)re ])rudent and crafty than the ante- 
lope. In the most violent storm, when the wind, and the thun- 
dii)-, and the fallino timber, are making the loudest and most in- 
cessant roar, if a man, either with his foot or his hand, breaks the 
smallest dry limb in the forest, the moose will hear it ; and though 
lie does not always run, he ceases eating, and roiises his atten- 
tion to all sounds. If in the course of an hour, or thereabouts, 
the man neither moves, nor makes the least noise, the animal may 
begin to feed again, but does not forget what he has heard, and is 
for many hours move vigilant than before. 

VVa-ge-to-tah-gtm, the chief with whom we were living, took 
every opportunity to instruct me as to the habits of the moose 
and other animals, and showed great pleasure when my exertions 
in the chase were crowned with success. As we were now about 
fo part from him, he called out all the young hunters to accom- 
jiany him for one day ; several young women went also. Hf 
killed a fat buck moose, which he gave to me. 

The country betw(!en Lake Winneiieg and Hudson's Bay, is 
low and swampy ; and is the region of the caribou. More to the 
west, towards the Assinneboin and Haskawjawun, is t'le prairie 
country, where are found elks and bulUiloe. The ca ,'i).i is not 
found among the elk, nor the bitter amomr tin; former. 

. I 


1 •' V> 







* !l 


1 ivorivt; a proposal from a chief to marry liis daughter — thoft ami drunkenness — 
iiiauiu'r of pursuing the elk on foot — disease, and great mortality ainoni; the 
beaver — seeoiid oiler of marriage from an A-go-kwa — liaimted encampmcntj 
called the " |)lace of the two dead men" — Indian courtship — ihstressing sick- 
ness — insanity and attempt at suicide — gambling — several otli'rs of young wo- 
men in marriage — my courtship and marriage with Mis-kwa-bun-o-kwo, (the 
red sky of the morning.) 

The spring having now come, we returned by the way of our 
old sugar camp, towards Menaukonoskego ; but as I disliked 
to be with the Indians in their seasons of (h'unkenness, I dis- 
suaded the old woman from accompanying them to the trading- 
house. I talked to her of the foolishness of wasting all our pel- 
tries in purchasing what was not only useless, but hurtful and 
poisonous to us, and was happy to find that I had Miflucnce 
enough with her to take her immediately to the place I had se- 
lected for my hunting camp. She went to see Wa-ge-tote, to 
lake leave of iiim ; but when she returned, I readily perceived by 
her manner that something inuisual had passed. Presently sho 
took me to one side, and began to say to me, '* My son, you sec 
that I am now become old; I am scarce able to make you moc- 
casins, to dress and preserve all your skins, and do all that is 
needful about your lodije. You are now about taking your 
place as a man and a himter, and it is right you should have 
some one who is young and strong, to look after your property, 
and take care of your lodge. Wa-ge-tote, who is a good man, 
and one respected by all the Indians, will give you his daughter. 
You will thus gain a j)owerful friend and protector, who will be 
able to assist us in times of difficulty, and I shall be relieved from 
much anxiety and care for our family." Much more she said, 
in the same strain ; but I told her, without hesitation, that I 
would not comply with her recpiest. I had as yet thought little 
of marriage among the Indians, still thinking I shoidd return 
before I became oldj to marry to the whites. At all events, I 

i ', 









ikpnncss — 
amoni,' tlie 

yoiiiig wo- 
)-kwa, (the 

ay of our 

I disliked 
ss, I dis- 
e trading- 

II our pol- 
iirtful and 

Ml flu once 
I I had se- 
rc-tote, to 
rcrived by 
seiitly she 
II, you sec 
you moc- 
all that is 
iiiuji; your 
loiihl have 
good man, 
10 will be 
i-ved (Voni 
p she said, 
on, that I 
uirht little 
Hild return 
events, I 

assured her I conld n^ti now marry the woman she proposed ti> 
me. Slie still insisted that I must take her, stalin<r that thr 
whole afliiir had been settled between Wa-ge-tolc and herselt', 
and that the younir woman had said she was not disinrlined to 
the match, and she j)retended she could do no otherwise than 
bring her to the lodge. I told her if she did so I should not 
treat or consider lu'r as my wife. The atiliir was in this situa- 
tion the morning l)ut one belbre we were to separate from \Va- 
ge-ti)tc and all his band, iitid, without coming to any better tni- 
derstandinu with the old woman, I took my gun early in the 
morning, and went to himt elk. In the course of the day I killed 
a fat buck, and returning late in the eveninu, I hiuig u|) the 
meat I had brought before the lo<lge, and carefully reconnoitered 
the inside before I entered, intending, if the y(nnig woman was 
there, to go to some other lodge and sleep ; but I could see no- 
thing of her. 

Next morning Wa-ge-totc came to my lodge to see me ; he 
expressed all the interest in me which he had been in the habit 
of doing, and gave mc much friendly advice, and many good 
wishes. After this Net-no-kwa returned again, urging me to 
marry the daughter, but I did not consent. These attempts 
were afterwards, from time to time, renewed, imtil the youns>- 
woman found a husband in some other man. 

After Wa-ge-tote and his baixl had left us, we went to the 
hunting ground I had chosen, v» here we spent great part of the 
summer by ourselves, having always plenty to eat, as 1 killed 
great numbers of elks, beavers, and other animals. Late in the 
fall we went to the trading-house at Me-nau-ko-nos-keeg, where 
we met with Waw-/,he-kwaw-n\aish-koon, who had left us the 
year before, an<l with hiin we remained. 

As the trader was cominji to his wintering ground, the Indians, 
having assembled in consiilerable numbers, met him at the lake, 
at the distance of a ivw miles from his house, lie had brouoht 
a larsre quantity of rum, and, as was usual, he encamped f»ir se- 
veral days, that the Indians might buy atid drink what they coidd 
before he went to his house, as they would give him less trouble 
at his camp. I had the ftresence of mind to purchase some of 
the most needful articles for the winter, such as blankets and 
ammunition, as soon as we met hun. After we had completed 





ianner's narrative. 


'i fi':,vr 

our trade, tlio old woman look ton line beaver skins, and pre- 
sented tliem to the trader. In return for thin aceuslonied j)reseiil. 
•she was in tlic habit oC receiving every year a chief's dress and 
ornaments, and a ten {jallon kejr of spirits; hut when the trader 
sent for her to dehver his present, she was too dnmk to stand. 
In this emeri^eney, it was necessary for me to jjo and receive the 
artich;s. I had been drinkinif sometliiiifr, and was not entirely 
sober. I put on the chief's coat and ornaments, and takinjr the 
kejj; on niv shoulder, carried it home to our lodyte, placed it on 
one end, and knocked out the head with an axe. " I am not," 
said I, " one of those chiefs who draw litpior out of a .small hole 
in a cask, let all those who are thirsty come and drink ;" but I 
took the precaution to hide away a small ketr full, and some in a 
kettle, probably in all three oallons ; the old woman then came in 
with three kettles, and in about live minutes the keg war; emptied. 
This wa^ the second time tlial I had joined the Indians in drink- 
ing, and now I was guilty of much greater excess than before. 
f visited my hidden keg frecpiently, and remained intoxicated 
two days. I took what I had in the kettle, and went into the 
lodge to drink with \Vaw-zhe-kwaw-maish-koon, whom I called 
my brother, he being the son of Net-no-kwa's sister. He was 
not yet drunk ; but his wife, whose dress was profusely ornn- 
menled with silver, had been for some lime drinking, and wa> 
now lying by the lire in a state of absolute insensil)ility. Waw- 
zhe-kwaw-nudsh-koon and myself took oiir little kettle and sat 
down to drink, and presently an OJibbewaj', of our ac<piaintance, 
staggered in and fell down by the (ire near the woman. It wa^ 
late at night, but the noise of drunkenness was heard in everv 
part of the camp, ami I and my conipanion started out to !^-o and 
drink wherever we could lind any to give us liffuor. As, how- 
ever, we were not excessively drunk, we were careful to hide 
iiway the kettle which contained our whiskey, in the back pari 
of the lodge, covering it, as we thought, eilectually from the 
view of any that might come in. After an excursion of some 
hours, we returned. The woman was still lying by the fin!, in- 
sensible as before, but with !ier dress stripped of its profusion of 
silver ornaments ; and when we went for our kettle of rum, it 
was not to be found. The; Ojibbeway, who had been lying by 
the fire, had gone out, and some circumstances induced us ii> 



>usr)fct him of the iIr-I'i, and I .soon imdcrslood that ho liud saivl 
I had given hiin sonu'lliiiig to (h'ink. i \v«miI next inoi ninjr to 
Jiis lodfff, iind asked him lor my Htth; kettle, which he ihreeted 
his squaw tohring to me. Having thus lixed the thel't upon him, 
Waw-zhe-k\v.i\\-n»iiish-ko(in went and recovered tlie ornanuiUs 
of his wile's dress. This Ojil)heway was a nutn of considerahle 
pretensions, wisliing to he reckoned a chief; hut this unforlunato 
attempt at theft injured his standing in the estimation of the peo- 
ple. The affair was long remembered, and he was ever after 
mentioneil with contem[)t. 

About this time, old Net-no-kwa began to wake from^ier long 
continued drunkenness. She called me to her, ami asked mo 
whether I had received the chief's dress, and the keg of rum. 
She was unwilling to believe that I had suifered all the contents 
of the keg to be expended without reserving stone for her ; hut 
when she came U) be assurc'd not only that this was the case, hut 
that I had been drunk for two days, she reproached tne severely, 
censuring mc not only for ingratitude to her, but for being such 
a beast as to be drunk. The liulians hearing her, told her she 
had no right to complain of n\e for doing as she luM'self had 
taught me, and by way of pacifying her, they soon contribmed 
rum enough to make her once nu>re completely drunk. 

As soon as their peltries were all disposed of, so that tluy 
were compelled to discontinue drinking, the Indians began to 
disperse to their liunting grounds. We went with the trader to 
his house, where we left our canoes, and thence to the woods 
with Waw-zhe-kwaw-utaish-koon to hunt. We now constituted 
but one family, but his part of it was large, he having many 
young children. Cold weather had scarce commenced, and the 
snow was no more than a foot deep, when wt* began to be pinch- 
ed with hunger. We found a herd of elks, and chasing them 
one day, overtook and killed four of them. When the Indians 
hunt elk in this manner, after starting the herd they follow thetri 
at such a gait as they think they can keep for many hours. 
The elks being frightened, outstrip them at first hy many miles; 
but the Indians, f(dlowing at a steady pace along the path, at 
length come insight of them; they then make another efVorf. 
and are no more seen for an hour or two ; but the intervals at 
which the Indians have them in siaht, grow more and morn frr - 

'}, '1 

.—i«»«J^I,^^.. ->..•.' »-. T-r— *,. 

.■- ) 

f-— .*i ill jpatTffm 

*' / 







Banner's naruative. 

quent, and longer and longer, until tlicy cease to lose sight ot" 
tlicin at nil. The elks are now so nuirh fatigued that they can 
only move in a slow trol, at last they ran but walk, by which 
time the strength of tiie Indians is nearly exhausted, but they are 
conunonly able lo come uj) and lire into the rear of the herd : 
but the discharge of a gun quickens the motions of the elks, and 
it is a very active and detf'rmiued man that can in this way come 
near enough to do execution more than once or twice, unless 
when the snow is pretty deep. The elk, in running, does not 
lift his feel well from (he ground, so that, in deep snow, he is 
easily taken. There are anu)ng the In<lians some, but mtt many, 
men who can run down an elk on the snu)oth prairie, when there 
is neither sm)w or ice. The moose and the bulliiloe surpass the 
elk in ileetness, and can rarely be taken by fair running, by a 
)nan on foot. 

The flesh of the four elks was dried, but by no means equally 
divided between us, nor in proportion to the size and wants of 
our respective families ; but 1 made no complaint, as I knew I 
was a poor hunter, and had aided but little in taking them. Af- 
terwards, I directed my aitentitm more to the hunting of beaver. 
I knew of more than twenty gangs of beaver in the country 
al)out my can\p, and I now went and began to break up the 
lodges, but I was much surprised to lind nearly all of them 
empty. At last I fouiul that some kind of distemper was pre- 
vaihng among these ai\inuils, which destroyed them in vast num- 
bers. 1 found them dead and dying in the Mater, on the ice, 
and on the land; sometimes 1 found one that, having cut a tree 
lialf down, had died at its roots; sometimes one who had drawn 
a stick of limber hah' way lo his lodue, was lying dead by his 
burthen. Many of them, which I tq)ened, were red and bloody 
id)out ihe heart. Those in large rivers and running water suf- 
fered less; iihni'st all of those that lived in jxinds and stagnanl 
water, died. Since; that year the beaver have never been so 
pleiilifiil in llie country of Red Kiver and Hudson's Hay, as lhe\ 
used formerly lo be. Those aninuils which died of this sickness 
we were afraid to eat, bul their skins were good. 

It often happeiu'd while we lived with Waw-zhe-kwaw-maisli- 
koon, that we wpre suH'ering from hunger. Om-e, after a day 
anrl night in which we bail iini tasted a mouthful. I went with 



ghl ot" 
ley cau 
lu'V arf 
i herJ : 
Iks, and 
ly come 
, unless 
i(Hs not 
V, he is 
)t many, 
en there 
■j)iiss the 
ng, hy a 

? equally 
,vants of 
I knew I 
tnn. Al- 
ii' beaver, 
e country 
ik up the 
ot iheni 
was pre- 
vast num- 
II the ice, 
nl a tree 
mil drawn 
ail by his 
1(1 bhiody 
viittr snl- 
r been so 
y, as llu'N 
Is sickness 

Itler a day 
Lvent with 

him to hum, and we found a lierd of elks; we killed two and 
wounded a third, which we pm-sued until night, when we over- 
look it. We cut up the meat and <overed it in the snow ; but he 
took not a moutliliil for our immediate use, thoiiirh we were so 
far fiiini home, and it was now so late thai we did not think of 
moving towards home until the following day. I knew that he 
liail fasted as long as I had. and tlnnigh my suH'ering from hun- 
ger was extreme, I was aslianu'd to ask him for any thing to 
eai, thinking I ccnild endure it as long as he could. In the 
morning he gave me a litllc meat, but without stopping to cook 
any thing, we started for honu'. I» was afternoon when we ar- 
riveil, and Met-no-kwa seeing we had brought meat, said, " well, 
iny son, I suppose yon have eaten very heartily last tiight, after 
yinir long fast." I told her [ had as yet eaten nothing. IShe im- 
niedialely cookeil part of what he had given me, all of which 
lasted us no more tliaTi two days. I still knew of two gangs of 
beaver, that had est'aped ihe prevailing sickness, and I took my 
traps and went in pursuit of ihem. In a day or two I had taken 
eight, two of wliich i gave to Waw-zhe-kwaw-maish-koon. 

Some time in the course of this winter, there came to our 
loilge one of the sons of the celebrated Ojibbi-way chief, called 
Wesh-ko-bng, (tlie sweet,) wh(» li\((lat Leech Lake. This man 
was one of those who make themselves women, ami are called 
women by the Indians. There are several of this sort among 
nuist, if not ail ibe Indian tribes; they are connnonly called 
A-go-kwa, a word which is e.\pr»'ssive of their condition. This 
creature, called O/aw-weii-dilt. (the yi'llow head,) was now near 
fifty years old, and had li^ed with man\ hiisiiands. I do nor 
know whether she had seen me, or only heard of me, but she 
soon let me know she had c(»me a long distance to see me, and 
witli th«' hope of li\ing with me. She often «)flered herself to 
me, but not being disconrasjed with one refusal, she r(>pe«led her 
disgusting ad' am'cs until i was almost driven from the lodge. 
Old Nel-no-kwa was perfectly well ncquainted with her charac- 
ter, and only laughed at the embarrassment ami shnme which t 
evinced whenever she addressed nu'. She seemed rather to 
countenance and enc iirage the ^ellow Head in ninaining at 
our I'kI e. The lalli ■ was very expert in the various em|d<i\- 
menis of the women, to which all her lime was given. V» length. 



I If 

\ ' ' i^ 

1 !t 



r )5 

despairiiifi of success in her iiddrosHOs lo iiio, or i)oiii(r too mnclt 
pinched by huiii^cr, which wiis coinnionly Icll in onr lodge, shi: 
disappeared, and was al)senl three or four days. I lu'tran to 
liope I slioidd l)(^ no more troul)ied with tier, when she came back 
k)a(Uul witli dry meat. She staled tliat she had Coinid the band of 
Wa-jre-to-tah-jrun, and that tliat cinef had sent by her an iiwitalion 
for IIS to join liini. lie had heard of tlie nigirardly con(hict of 
Waw-zhe-kwaw-maish-koon towards us, and had sent the A-go- 
kwa to sa\ to me, " my nephew, I (h» not wish you to stay there 
to h)ok at the meat that another kills, but is too mean to give you. 
Come to me, and neither you n(u' my sister shall want any thing 
it is in my power to give you.'" I was glad enough of this invi- 
tation, and started immediately. At the first encampment, as 1 
was doing something by the fire, I heard tiie A-go-kwa at no great, 
distance in the woods, whistling to call me. Ai)proaching the 
place, I found she had her eyes on game of some kind, and pre- 
sently I discovere<l a m<iose. I shot him twice in succession, and 
twice he fell at the report of the gun ; but it is |)robable I shot too 
high, for at last he escaped. The old woman reproved me se- 
lercly for this, telling me she feared I should never be a good 
hunter. But before night the next day, we arrived at Wa-ge-to- 
te's lodge, wliere we ate as nnich as we wished. Here, also, I 
found myself relieved from the persecutions of (he A-go-kwa, 
uliich had bec(»me intolerable. Wa-ge-tote, who had two wives, 
marrii'd her. This inlroducti(»n of a new inmate into the family 
of Wa-ge-tote, occasioned some laughter, and produced some 
ludicr(Uis incidents, but was attended with less uneasim>ss and 
tpiarreling than would have In-en the bringing in of a new wife of 
the female sex. 

This baiul consisted of a large nundn'r of Indians, and the 
country about tliem was hunted poor; so that few even of the 
best hunters were aide to kill iraine often; but it so happen«'d, 
that myself ai\d another man, who, like nu', was re|)uted a j)oor 
Inmter, killed more frei|uently than others. The Indians now col- 
lected for the solemn ceremony of the meta or mediance dance, 
in which !Vet-no-kwa always bore a very C(ms|)icuous j>nrt. I be- 
gun to be dissatislied at remaining with large bands of Imlians, 
as it was usual for them, after having remained a sht)rt lime iu 
•A place, to snfj'er from hunger. I therefore made a road for my 



;c, sh«-. 
jran to 
\c back 
iinil of 
ilurt of 
p A-go- 
lv tliero 
ivi- you. 
iiy tluiis 
his invi- 
>nl, as 1 
no great, 
liing the 
ami prc- 
;sion, and 
I shot ton 
!d mc so- 
bp a gooil 
IT, alrso, I 
wo wives, 
the family 
iced somr 
siness and 
ew wife of 

s, and tin' 
^•(•n of the 
led a poor 
IS now <•<»!- 
iH-e dance, 
)arl. I ''e- 
,f Indians, 
)rl time iit 
»ad for inv 



self, and set my traps in a fianir of Ix avers. \Vli(ii I sioiiified to 
Wa-ge-tote my intention of loavini) liiin, he snid he was much 
afraid I sliould perish of liniigor, if I went far away liy mvsclf. I 
refused, however, to listen to his advice or persuasion to remain 
witli him, and he then determined to accompany me to my traps, 
to see wliat j)lace I liad selected, and judfre whether I shoidd he 
able to support my family. When we arrived, he fo\nul I had 
caiijilit one larjfe heaver, lie advised and encourajred mc, and 
after tellins)' me wliere I should iind his camj), in case of being 
pressed by poverty, he returned. 

My family had now been increased by the addition of a poor 
old Ojibbevvay woman and two children, whet bcino destitute of 
any men, had been taken up by Net-no-kwa. Notwith>tan(lin;L^- 
iliirf, I thouirht it was still best for us to li\e by ouisehes. 1 
hunted with considerable ("uceess, and remained by my.self until 
the end of the season for makinj^ sugar, when Net-no-kwa deter- 
mined to return to Menaukonoskeejf, while I should jro to the 
tradiuir house at Red River, to purchase some necessary articlcb. 
C made a pack of beaver, ami started by myself, in a small bullU- 
loe skin canoe, only large enough to carry me and my pack, aiul 
descended the Litth' Saskawjewun. 

There is, on the I)anl\ of that river, a place which looks hke 
one the rndians vv(mld always ciioose to encam|) at. In a bend 
of the river is a beautiful laiuling place, behind it a little plain, a 
thick wood, and a small hill rising abruptly in the rear. Uul with 
that spot is coniH'cted a story of fratricide, a crime so uiu'om- 
nion, that the s|iot where it happened is held in detestatiim, and 
regarded with terror. Mo liulian will land his canoe, much les.s 
eiH-anip, at ''■ the place of the tmidcad iikii.''* They relate, that 
many years ag«>, the Indians were encampeil here, when a <|uar- 
rel arose between two brotb-rs, having she-she-gwi lor totems, 
One drew his knife and slew the other ; but those of the band 
who were present, looked upon the crime as so horrid, that with- 
out hesitation or delay, they killed tlu! murderer, ami bin-i»'d them 

As I approached this spot, I thought much of the story of the 
two brothers, who bore tin; same totem with myself, and were, as 

• .Irbiu({-iier/,li-i>-shiii-nniit — Two (Jrnd Ur tlicrq. 






thor. I lia<1 heard it said, 


I supposed, related to my Indian nio 

that if any man encamped near llieir <;raves, as some had d 
soon after ihey were l)uried, they would be seen to eome ont of 
the jrronnd, and either react tlie (piarrel and the murder, or in 
some other manner so annoy and disturb their visiters, that they 
could not sleep, furiosity was in part my motive, and I wished 
to be able to tell the Fn-Uaiis, tliat / had not only stopped, but 
slept ([uietly ata place wliicii lliey shunned with so much fear and 
caution. The sun was jroin^' down as I arrived; and I pushed 
my little canoe in to the shore, kindled a fire, and after eatins( my 
supper, lay down and slept. Very soon, I saw the two dead men 
come and sit down by my fire, opposite lue. Their eyes were 
intently lixcd upon me, but they neither smiled, nor said any 
thing. I got up and sat (tpposite iheni I)y the tire, and in this situ- 
ation I awoke. The night was dark and gusty, but I saw no 
men, or heard any other sounds, than (hat of the wind in the 
trees. It i^" likely I fell asleep again, for I soon saw the same 
two men standing below the bank of the river, their heads just 
rising to the level of the ground I had made my fire on, and look- 
ing at me as before. Alter a few minutes, they rose one after the 
other, and sat down o|)|iosite me; but now they were laughing, 
and pushing at me with slicks, and using various methods of an- 
noyance. 1 endeav(tnred to speak to them, but my voice failed 
me : I tried to fly, but mv feet refuseil to do their office. Through- 
out the whole night I was in a state of agitation and alarm. 
Among other things which they said to me, one of them told nic 
io look at the top of the little hill which stood near. I did so, 
and saw a horse fettered, and standing looking at me. " There, my 
brother," said the jebi, " is a Innse which I give you to i ide on your 
journey to-morrow ; ami as you |)ass here on your way home, you 
can call and leave the horse, and spend another niiiht with us." 

At last came the morniuir, and I was in no small degree pleased 
to fmd, that with the darkness of the night these terrifying vi- 
sions vanished. But my long residence among the Indians, and 
the frei]uent instances in which I had knowu the intimations of 
dreams verified, occasioned me Io think seriously of the horse 
ihe jebi had given me. Accordingly I went to the top of the hill, 
where I discovered tracks and other signs, and f(dlowing a little 
distance, found » horso, which I knew belonged fo the trader I 






mt they 
[ wiisheil 
jx'il, hut 
r«'iir and 
I piislied 
aliiii? iny 
lead men 
ITS wcro 
said any 
lliis situ- 
I saw no 
nd in the 
the samo 
cads just 
and look- 
? after the 
(ids nl'an- 
lice failed 
id alarm, 
n toKl lac 
I did so. 
There, my 
\v on your 
lonie, you 
vith us." 
ee ph'ased 
ri tying vi- 
ians, and 
\ations of 
the liorsc 
if lliehill, 
uu a little 
ic trader I 

was going to see. As several miles travel niiirht he saved by 
crossing from this point on the Little Saskawjewun to the Assin- 
nehoin, I h'fl the eatioe, am! having raiiahl the horse, and put my 
loud upon idm, led him towards the trading house, where I ar- 
rived next day. In all snhse(|uent jonrr ns through this eountry, 
I carefully siunnied '* tlie plaee of tlie twodearl ;" and theaceount 
I gave ot what I had seen and stiil'ered there, coutirnied the su- 
perslilioiis terrors of the Indians. 

After I reinrned ti':iilin:,r at the Ued River, I went to live 
at Naowawifiinwu !jn. the hi!l of the liullidoe cha'^e, near the Sas- 
ka« icwiin. 'I'lus is a hiiih rocky hill, wliei-c mities may proha- 
bly he t'ouiul, as tliei'e are in the roeks many sinirnlar looking 
masses. Here we found sui;iir trei's in plenty, and a tjood jdaee- 
for piissinu' the spi'inir. (Jame was so almndant, and t) situation 
so desirahle, that I eonchided to reiniin, instead of ifoi tT with all 
the Indians to Clear Water Lake, where they assemhled to have 
tlieir usual drunken frolick. I hud s( nt for VV*a-me-gon-a-hiew, 
;ind he miw j 'iM( d us here, with one horse, makinsj our whole 
luimher three. All these, all otir doirs, anil ourstdves, were loaded 
vith ihe meat of one moose, which I killed at this time, the lar- 
gest ind the fattest one I had ev»'r seen. 

Wi-me-aon-a-hiew, after reMiainiiisi with me four days, went 
to look tor Wa-ge-tote, hut without lellina me any thing of his 
business. In a few days he returned, and l(dd nu' tliat he had 
heeii to see Wa-ge-tote on aecoinit of his daniihter, that had been 
so often ollered to me, and wished tc know if I had any intenlioii 
to marry her. I told him I liad not. anil that I was very willinii 
to alllinl him any aid in my power in furtherance of his design. 
II(> wished me to return with him, probably that I mii;lit remove 
any inipressiim the old people miuht have, thi.i I would marry 
the iiirl, ami accompany him in brini^inn; her home, f assented, 
wilhoul reflection, to thi~^ |)i'o|iosal. ami as we were about making 
our preparations to starl. I perceived tViun \et-no-kwa's coim- 
fenance, though she said nothinjx, that the course we were taking 
(lispleii^ed her. I then rec(dleeted, that it was not the hitsiness 
of young men to brins: home their wives, an I I told Wa-me-gon- 
a-l)iew that we should he ridiculed liy all the people, if we per- 
sisted in our desiLni. " Here," said I, "is cnu' nuither, whose bu- 
siness it is to Jiiid wives for us when we want ihciu, aud she will 

♦ J 





. \ 

mii-^ .. 


V V V 



bring them, and show thorn our places in the lodge, wlienever it 
is right she should do so." The old woman was manifestly 
pleased with what I said, and expressed her willingness to go im- 
mediately and bring home the daugliter of VVa-ge-tote. She went 
accoriiingly ; ami it so haj)i)ened, thai when she returned bring- 
ing the girl, Wa-nie-gon-a-hiew and myself were silting inside 
the lodge. It appeared that neitlier Wa-me-gon-a-biew, nor the 
oM woman, had been at tiie j)aii)s to give her any very particular 
infum itioii, for when she came in, she was evidently at a loss to 
know which of the young men before her had chosen her for ii 
wife. IN'et-no-kwa perceiving her end)arraissment, told her to sit. 
down near Wa-nie-gon-a~l)iew, for him it was whom she was to 
consider her husband. After a few days, he took her home to his 
other wife, witli whom she livid in harmony. 

In the ensuing fall, when 1 was something more than twentj- 
one years of agi^ I moved, with W;i-iut;-gon-a-biew, and man\ 
other families of Indians, to the Wild Rice. While we were en- 
gaged in collecting and preparing the grain, many among us were 
seized with a violent sickness. It commenced with cough and 
hoarseness, and sometimes bleeding fntm the mouth or nose. In 
a short time many died, and none were able to hnnt. Althougli 
I did not escape entirely, my atla.'k appeareil at first less violent 
than that of most others. There had been for several days, 
no nuat in the encampment ; some of the children had not 
been sick, and some of those who had been sick, now began 
to recover, and needed some food. There was but one man be- 
side myself, as capable of exertion as I was; and he, like myself, 
was recovering. We were wholly nnable to walk, and could 
scarce mount our horses when tlicy were brought to us by the 
children. !lad we b( en able lo walk, we coughed so loudly and 
so incessantly, that we could iu>ver havt' approached near enougli 
to any jrame lo kill it by still hunting. In this entergency, we 
rode into the plains, and were fortunate enough to overtake and 
kill a bear. Of tlir tlesh of this animal, we could not eat a nmutli- 
ful, but we took it home, and dislrii)Uted to everv lodge an equal 
j)ortion. Still I c(mtinued to get better, and was among the first 
to regain my health, as I sujtposed. In a few days I went out to 
hunt elk ; and in killinu two of them in the s|)acc of two or three 
Jjours.I becante somewhat excited and fatigued. I cut up the meat. 




hcnevev iL 
s tu go iin- 
She worn 
neil bring- 
ing inside 
\v, nor the 
' particular 
at a loss to 
n her for u 
(1 iier to sit 
slie was to 
UMne to his 

lan twentj- 
, and man) 
ve were en- 
ung us were 
rough and 
or nose. In 
less violent 
veral days, 
n had not 
now Itegan 
le man be- 
ike myself, 
and could 
us by the 
loudly and 
•ar eno\igli 
geucy, we 
eriake and 
lit a moutli- 
Xt' an e(|ual 
iig the first 
went out to 
wo or three 
ip the meat. 

and as is usual, took home a load on my bacli, when f returned, 
late heartily of some which they rooked for me, liicii lay down 
and slept; but before the middle of the night. I was waked by a 
dreadful pain in my ears. It appeared to me that sonieiliing was 
eating into my ears, and I called Wa-me-gon-a-biew to look, but 
he could see nothing. The pain became more and inure excru- 
ciating for two days ; at the end of which tinn; 1 became insensi- 
ble. When my consciousness returned, which was, as 1 icanu-d 
afterwards, at the end of two days, 1 fimiul myselt' sitting out- 
side the lodge. I saw the Indians on all sides (\( me, drinking, 
some trader having come among them. Some were (juar-elling, 
particularly a groupe amongst which I distinguished Wa-ine-gon- 
a-biew, and saw him slab a horse with his knite. Then I imme- 
diately became insensible, and remained so probablv lor soino 
days, as I was unconscicms of every thing that jmssed, until llie 
band were nearly ready to move frniri (he place where we had 
been living. My strength was not entirely gone, and when I 
came to my right mind, 1 could walk about. [ rcllected much on 
all that had passed since 1 had been among the Indians. I had 
in the main been contented since residiiiir in tlie family of Net-no- 
kwa ; but this sickness I looked upon as the comineiicement of 
misfortune, which was to follow me through life. Mv hearino 
was gone, for abscesses had formed and discharat'd in each ear. 
and I could now hear bill very imperfectly. I sat down in the 
lodge, and could see the faces of men, and their lijis movinir, but 
knew not what they said. 1 took my gun and went to hunt ; hut 
the animals discovered me before I could see them, and if bv ac- 
cident I saw a moose or an elk, and endeavoured to gel near him, 
I found that my cunning and my success had deserted me. F soon 
imagined that the very animals knew that I had become like an 
old and useless man. 

Under the influence of these painful feelings, I resolved to de- 
stroy myself, as the only means of escajiing the certain miser}- 
which I saw before me. When they were ready to move, Nel- 
no-kwa had my horse brought to the door of the lodge, and asked 
me if I was able to gel on and ride to the place where they in- 
leniled to encamp. I lold her 1 was, and reiiuesting that my gun 
might be left with me, said I would follow the parly at a liltle 
di«itanre. I look the rein of mv horse's bridle in mv hand, and 





sitting flown, watched the people, as group after group passed ine 
and disappeared. When the last old woman, and her heavy load 
of pukkwi mats, sunk behind llie little swell of the prairie that 
bounded my prospect, 1 felt much relieved. I cast loose the reins 
of the bridle, and suflereil my horse to feed at large. I then 
cocked my gun, and resting the l)utl of it on the ground, I put the 
muzzle to my throat, and j)rocee(led with the ramrod, which I 
had drawn for the purpose, to discharge it. I knew that the lock 
was in good order; also, that the piece had been well loaded but 
a day or two before ; but I now found thai the charge had been 
drawn. My pow<ler horn and ball pouch always contained more 
or less ammunition ; biU on examination, 1 fouiul tli(;m empty. 
My knife also, which I commonly carried appended to the strap 
of my shot pouch, was gone. Finding myself baffled in the at- 
temj)t to take my own life, I seized my gun with both hands by the 
muzzle, and threw it fn)m me with my utmost strength ; then 
inounteil my horse, who. contrary to his usual custom, ami to 
what I had expected from him, had I'emaiiied near me alter bt'iuL;' 
released. I soon overtook the party, for being probably aware 
of my intentions, Wa-me-gon-a-biew an<l Net-no-kwa had gone 
but far eiu)ugh to conceal thtihselves from my view, and had then 
sat down lo wait. It is prol)able, that in my insane ravings, I had 
talked of my intention to destroy myself, aiul on this account, 
tliey had been careful to deprive me of the most ordinary and di- 
rect means of eflecting my purpose. 

Suicide is not very unfrei|nfnt anuing the Indians, and is effected 
in various ways; shootina, hanging, drowning, poisoning, &-c. The 
causes, also, which urge to the desperate act, are various. Some 
years previous to the tinu^ F now speak of, I was with Net-no- 
kwa, at Mackinac, when I knew a very i)roniising aiul hiifhly re- 
spected vounu man of the Ottawwaws, who shot himself in the 
Indian burying ground. He had, for the lirst tinu^ drank to in- 
toxication; ami in the alienation of mind produced by the liquor, 
had torn off his own clothes, and l)ehaved with so much vi(dence, 
lluU his two sisters, to prevent him fnun injuring himself or 
others, tied his hands and feel, ami laid him down in the lodge. 
Next luorning, he awoke sober, and being untied, went to liis sis- 
ter's lodire, which was near the buryiuir gnmnd, borrowed a gun, 
under pretence of goiui! to shoot pigeons, jind went into the 





the j 


the (J 



I I 

in un 

it wa< 


but m 


ing, a I 

fiad \h 






Most o 

ears, oi 

This di 

to use 

On d 
some ai 
dan vi 
were to 
these w 
♦he Pat 

game w 





burying ground and sliot himself. It is probalde, that when hf 
awoke and found himself ti«'d, he thought he had done somelhinjr 
very inij)roj)er in his drunkenness, and to relieve himself from 
the pressure of shame and mortiticntion, had ended his davs hy 
violence. Misfortunes and losses of various kinds, sometimes 
the death of friends, and possii)ly, in some instances, disappoint 
raent in adiiirs of love, may he considered the causes which pro- 
duce sincide among the Indians. 

I reproached Wa-me-gon-a-biew for his conduct towards me, 
in unloading my gun, and taking away my ammunition, though 
it was [)robably done by the old woman. After I recovered my 
health more perfectly, I began to feel ashamed of this attempt, 
but my friends were so considerate as never to mention it to me. 
Though my health soon became good, 1 did not recover my hear- 
ing, and it was several months before I coidd hunt as well as I 
Iiad been able to do previous to my sickness ; but I was not 
anuiMg those who suflered most severely by this terrible com- 
plaint. Of the Indians who survived, some were permanently 
deaf, others injured in their intellects, and some, in the fury oc 
casioned by the disease, dashed themselves against trees and 
rocks, breaking their arms, or otherwise maiming themselves. 
Most of those who survived, had copit)Us discharges from the 
ears, or in the earlier stages had bled profusely from the nose. 
This disease was entirely new to the Indians, and they attempted 
to use few or no remedies for it. 

On going to Mouse River trading-house, I heard that some 
white j)eople from the L'nited iStates had been there, to purchase 
some articles for the use of their party, then living at the Man- 
dan village. I regretted that I had missed the opportunity of 
seeing them; but as I had received the impr«'ssion that they 
were to remain permanently there, I though I would take some 
opportunity to visit them. I have since been informed, that 
these white men were some of the party of (iovernor Clark and 
Captain Lewis, then on their way to the Rocky Mountains and 
the Pacilic Ocean. 

Late in the fall, we went to Ke-nu-kau-ne-she-way-bo-ant, when; 
game was then plenty, and where we determined to spend tho 
winter. Here, for the first time, I joined deeply with Wa-inc 
2[on-a-bie,w and other Indians, in gambling, a vice scarce If-i 





f' i4 i'i- 


tavjJer's narrative. 


W:. 4lA 

hurtful to them than drunkenness. One of the games we nsetl 
wus that of the moccasin, which is playeil l>y any number of 
persons, but usually in small parties. Four moccasins are used, 
and in one of them some small object, such as a little stick, or a 
small piece of cloth, is hid by one of tiie betting parties. The 
moccasins are laid down beside each other, and one of the ad- 
verse party is then to touch two of the moccasins with his linger, 
or a stick. If tiie one he tirst touches has the hidden thing in 
it, the player loses eight to the ojiposite party ; if it is lutl in the 
second he touches, but in one of the two passed over, he loses 
two. If it is not in tiie one he touches lirst, and is in ihc last, he 
wins eight. The Crocs play this game ditlVM-ently, putting the 
hand successively into all the moccasins, endeavouring to come 
last to that which cojitains the article ; but if the hand is 
thrust first into the one containing it, he loses eiglit. They fi\ 
the value of articles staked by agreement ; for instance, they 
sometimes call a beaver skin, or a blanket, ten; sometimes a 
horse is one hundred. With strangers, they are apt to play 
high ; in such cases, a horse is sometimes valued at ten. 

But it is the game called Bug-ga-sauk, or Beg-ga-sah, thai 
they play with the most intense interest, and the nii- 1 hurtful 
consequences. The beg-ga-sah-nuk are small pieces of wood, 
bone, or sometimes of brass, made by cutting up an old kettle. 
One side they stain or colour black, the other they aim to have 
bright. These may vary in number, but can never be fewer 
than nine ; they are put together into a large wooden bowl, or 
tray, kej)t for the purpose. The two parties, sometimes twenty 
or thirty, sit down opposite each other, or in a circle. The pla) 
consists in strikinor the edije of the bowl in such a manner as to 
throw all the beg-jra-sah-nuk into the air, and on the manner in 
which they fall into the tray depends his gain or loss. If his 
stroke has been to a certain extent fortunate, the ])layer strikes 
again, and again, as in the game of billiards, until he misses, 
when it passes to the next. The ])arties soon become much ox- 
cited, and a freepient cause of (|uarrelling is, that one oflou 
snatches the tray from his neighl)0\ir, before the latter is satislicd 
that the throw has been against him. 

Olil and sensible people among them are much opposed to 
mis uame. and it was never until this winter that Net-no-kw!i 

'' .:■ 





we tiscrt 

iiiber of 

are used, 

Lick, or a 

es. The 

f the ad- 

lis finger, 

I thint? in 

not in the 

, lie U)scs 

li(^ lust, lie 

uUiiig the 

ir to coniP 

c hand i> 
Tliey tiK 

ance, they 

•metinies a 

ipt to play 


rii-sah, that 

i,,t hurtful 

2i^ of wood. 

1 old keltl(> 

aim to have 
r be fewer 
111 bowl, or 
mes twenty 
The pla) 
an nor as to 
|e manner in 
loss. If lii^ 
layer strikes 
he misses, 
|ne much ex- 
t one often 
r is satisfii'il 

opposed to 

siiflt'i'ed me to join in it. In the beginning, our party had some 
success, but we returned to it again and again, until we were 
stripped of every thing. Wiieii we had nothing more to lose, 
ihe band which iiad jjiayed against us removed and camped at a 
distance, and, as is usual, boasted much of their success. When 
1 heard of lliis, I called togetlier the men of our party, and pro- 
posed to them, that by way of making an ellort to regain our lost 
property, and put an end to their insolent boasting, we woidd 
cro aii<l shoot at a mark with them. We accordingly raised some 
property among our friends, and went, in a hody, to visit them. 
Seeing that we had brought sonietliing, they consented to play 
uilh us. !So we set down to Beg-ga-sah, and in the course of 
the evening re-took as much of our lost property as enabled us 
to offer, next morning, a very handsome bet, on the residt of a 
trial of shooting tlie mark. We staked every thing we could 
rommand ; they were loath to engage us, but could not decently 
ilecline. We fixed a mark at the distance of one hundred yards, 
uid I sliot first, placing my ball nearly in the centre. Not one 
of either party came near me; of course I won, and we thus re- 
gained the greater part of what we had lost during the winter. 

Late in the sjjring, when we were nearly ready to leave Ke- 
mi-k'iu-ne-she-way-bo-ant, an old man, called O-zhusk-koo-koon, 
(the musk rat's liver,) a chief of the Me-tai, came to my lodge, 
Ininging a young woman, his grand-daughter, together with the 
oiiTs parents. This was a handsome young girl, not more than 
fifteen years old ; but Net-no-kwa did not think favourably of 
lier. She said to me, " My son, these people vvill not cease to 
trouble you, if you remain here ; and as the girl is by no means fit 
to become your wife, I advise you to take your gun and go away. 
Make a hunting camp at some distance, and do not return till 
they have time to see that you are decidedly disinclined to the 
match." I did so, and O-zhusk-koo-koon apjtareiitly relinquish- 
ed the hope of marrying me to his grand-daughter. 

Soon after I returned, I was standing hy our lodge one evening, 
Avhen I saw a good looking young woman walking about and 
smoking. She noticed me from time to time, and at last caino 
up and asked me to smoke with her. I answered, that I never 
^moked. " You do not wish to touch my pipe ; for that reason 
\ on will not smoke with me." I took her pipe and smoked ft 



I ; 

,-- * * - 

' —>■><«■ 



•i I 





mm ' 

flJi :'"' 

little, lliough I liatl not been in (lui habit oC smokiiiij; before. Shi' 
reiiiained some time, and tnlked with inc, uiid 1 be^ran tu be 
pleased with her. After this wo saw each other often, and 1 bc» 
came gradnally attached to her. 

I mention this because it was to this woman that I was after- 
wards married, and because the commencement of our accjuaint- 
ance was not after the usual manner of the Indians. Among 
them, it most commonly happens, even when a young man mar- 
ries a woman of his own band, he has |)reviuusly iiad no per- 
sonal ac(|uaiiitance with her. They have s<'en each other in the 
village ; he has perhaps looked at her in passing, but it is proba- 
ble they have never spoken together. The match is agreed on 
by the (dd people, and when their intention is made known to 
the young couple, they conmionly find, in themselves, no objec- 
tion to the arrangement, as they know, should it prove disa- 
greeable mutually, or to either party, it can at any time b(! 
broken ofT. 

My conversations with Mis-kwa-bun-o-kwa, (the red sky of 
the morning,) for such was the name of the woman who olfercd 
me her pipe, was soon noised about the village. Hearing it, 
and inferring, probably, that like other young men of my age, I 
was thinking of taking a wife, old ()-zhusk-koo-koon came one 
day to our lodge, leading by the hand another of his numerous 
grand-daughters. " This," said he, to Net-no-kwa, " is the 
handsomest and the best of all my descendants ; I come to offer 
Jier to your son," So saying, he left her in the lodge and went 
away. This young woman was one Net-no-kwa had always 
treated with unusual kindness, and she was considered one of 
the most desirable in the band. The old woman was now some- 
what embarrassed ; but at length she found an opportunity to 
say to me, " My son, this girl which O-zhusk-koo-koon offers 
you, is handsome, and she is good ; but you nmst not marry her, 
for she has that about her which will, in less than a year, bring 
her to her grave. It is necessary that you should have a woman 
who is strong and free of any disease. Let us, therefore, make 
this young woman a handsome present, for she deserves well at 
our hands, and send her back to her father." She accordingly 
gave her goods to a considerable amount, and she went homr 

— I ■ml jr 

V '1 



iANNiClt'ri NAKRATIVl.. 


Less fhan u year uflerwards, according to the old woman's pro- 
diclioii, she diod. 

In llii' mran time, Mis-kwa-l)iin-o-kwa and niystdf were be- 
coniiriff nidio and more intiniiiti-. It is jjrohahlc lNct-no-U\va did 
not disa|)|)rov(' of llie {■(iiiivf 1 was now about to lake, as, llioutrh 

said iiothinir l(» lur on the suhji-rt, she coiihl not have been ig- 
ifcorant of what I vv.i- doing. 'I'hal she was not I i'oimd, when 
•AUi'r spending, for the lost lime, a eonsideralde part of the night 
vyith my mi.~iress, I crept into the hidge at a late hum, and went 
tl) sleej). A smart rapping on my naked feet waked me at tlie 
fivst ap]iearaiic«' of dawn, on llie foUowing morning. " Up," 
said the (dd woman, who stood !)y me, willi a stick in her hand, 
" up, young man, you who are about to take for yourself a wife, 
lip, and start after game. It will raise you more in the estinui- 
tion of the woman you wouhl marry, to see you bring home u 
load of meiit early in the morning, than to see you tiressed ever 
so gaily, standing about the village after the hunters are all gone 
out." I could make her no answer, but, putting ou my mocca- 
sins, took my gun and went out. Returning before noon, with 
as heavy a load of fat moose meat as I could carry, I threw it 
down before Net-no-kwa, and with a harsh tone of vmcv said to 
lier, " here, old woman, is what you called for in the morning." 
She was much pleased, and commended me for my exertion. I 
now became satisfied that she was not displeased on account of 
my affair with Mis-kwa-bun-o-kwa, and it gave mc no small 
pleasure to think that my conduct met her approbation. There 
aje many of the Indians who throw away and nejilect their oKI 
people ; but though Net-no-kwa was now decrepid and infirm, I 
felt the strongest regard for her, and continued to do so w hile 
sh»' lived. 

I now redoubled my diligence in hunting, and commoidy came 
home with meat in the early |)art of the day, at least before night. 
I tlcn dressed myself as handsomely as I could, and walked about 
tlie village, sometimes blowing the Pe-be-gwun, or flute. For 
some time Mis-kwa-bun-o-kwa pretended she was not willing to 
marry me, and it was not, perhaps, until she ))erceived some 
abatement of ardour on my j)art, that she laid this affected coy- 
ness entirely aside. For my own part, I found that my anxiety 
to take a wife hom« to my lodj^e, was rapidly becoming less and 



r •/ 

I \ 


I L 


tanner's narrative. 

, r 


less. I made several efforts to break off the intercourse, and 
visit her no more; hut a lingeriiiir inclination was too strong for 
me. Wlien she perreived my growing indiilerencc, she some- 
times re|)roat'hed me, and sometimes sought to move me by tears 
a'ld entreaties ; but 1 said nothing to the old woman about bring- , 
mg her hi>me, and became daily more and more unwilling to ac-j 
knowledge her jjidjlicly as ms wiCe. / 

About this lime, I had occasion to go to the trading-house oii 
Red Uivei, and I started ii com|iany with a half breed, l)el(»ngr 
ing ti» that establishment, who was mounted on a fleet horse. 
The distance we had to travel has since been called, by tin 
English settlers, seventy miles. We rode and went on foot by 
turns, and the one wiio was on Ibcii kept hold of the horse's tail, 
and ran. We passed over the whole distance in one day. In 
retinidng, ! was by myself, and without a horse, and I made an 
effort, intemling, if possible, to accomplish the same journey iit 
one day; but darkness, and excessive fatigue, compelled me to 
stop when I was within about ten miles of home. 

When I arrived at our lodge, on the following day, I saw ]VIi>- 
kwa-bun-o-kwa sitting in my place. As I stopped at the door 
of the lodge, and hesitated to enter, she Ining down her head : 
but Net-no-kwa greeted me in a tone somewhat harsher than 
was common for iier to use to ine. " Will you turn back from 
the door of the lodge, and put this youiiL^ wtuiian to shame, who 
is in all respects better than you are. This affair has been of 
your seeking, and not of mine or hers. You have followed her 
about the village heretofore ; nctw you would turn from her, and 
make her appear like one who has atleniptcfl (o thrust herself in 
your way." I was, in part, conscious of the justness of Nct-no- 
kwa's reproaches, and in part prompted by inclination ; I went 
in and sat down by the side of Mis-kwa-bun-o-kwa. and thOs 
we became man and wife. Old Net-no-kwa had, while 1 was 
absent at Red River, wilhotit my knowledjrp or consent, made 
her barirain with the parents of the young woman, and brought 
her home, rightly supposing that it would be no difficidt matter 
to reconcile me to the measure. In most of the marriages which 
happen between young persiMis, the parties most interested have 
less to do than in this case. The amount of |iresenls which the 
parents of ii woman expe<'l to receiic in ex<'haniie for her, dimi- 
in'shes in proportion to lite unmber vi' hiishnnds she may have had. 


urse, and 
trong lor 
lie some- 
; by leare 
)iit bring- , 
ing to aC'i 

-house oil 

1, brlitngr 

>pl horse. 

<1, by th 3 

11 loot by 

)rs(''s tail, 

(lay. In 

I math' an 

oiirney in 

led me to 

[ saw Mis- 
t tlie dooi 
her Jiead : 
isher than 
back I'rom 
lainc, who 
been ol 
o\\v{\ hei 
her, and 
icrseir ill 
»(■ Nct-no- 
; I ui'iit 
and thils 
ilr I was 
lit, ma(h- 
lilt maltei- 
ges which 
<t»'d have 
which the 
her, diini- 
hn\ e had. 





l'rp]mrntinns lor a war pxcursion — ticnlri of bulliiloc heard at a ctrt'iit distHnct'— 
ti'rrililc i(iiniicts:iiiioni; llic hulls— olisiTNiUiccsoI'llii' yoiinjx wiirriors — Kii-/.au- 
buii-zicli-r-jjiin, ordiviiiiitiori lo diHcovi'r the situation of an enemy — Jeelii-ufr, 
or iiieiMoriuls of decpiiscd friends to he thrown away on the field of battle ; and 
the desijrii of the custom — war-party hrokeii u|) hy the iiitert'erence ol' a rival 
chiefs — stupidity of tlie poreujiiiK' — I save the li(e ol my foster hrolher — Alhino 
bears — Waw-lM'-no — marria;:,'e of Hi-che-to and Sk wu-shisli — attack id a Sioux 
war-party, and pursuit to the village ut thief Muuntain, and the head of the St , 
Peters, &c. 

Four days after I returned from Red River, we moved to the 
woods; Wa-ine-gon-a-l)iew, with his two wives, and his laiiiily; 
Waw-be-be-nais-sa, with one wife and several children ; iiiyselt" 
and wile, and the rainily of Nel-no-kwa. We directed our course 
towards the ('raiieberry River, [l*eiiii)iiiali,] aswe wished to select 
near that |)lace a favourable spot where our women and children 
might remain encamped, it being our intention to join a war-party 
then preparing to go against the Sioux. When we had chosen 
a suitable jilace, we applied ourselves diligently to hiintiiig, that 
we might leave dry meal enough to supjdy the wants of our 
families in our absence. It liappeiicd. one morning, that I went 
to hunt with only three balls in my pouch ; and finding a large 
])uck moose, I fired at him rather hastily, and missed him twice 
in succession. The third time I hit, init did not kill him, only 
WDundiiig him in the shoulder. I pursutMl, aii<! at leiigih overtook 
him, but having no balls, I look the screws out of my gun, tying 
the lock on with a string, and it was not till after I had shot three 
of them into him, that he fell. 

We had killed a coiisichrable tiuanlity of meal, and the women 
were engaged in drying il, when, fei ling ciiriinis to know the 
state of forwardness of the war-purly at Pembinnh, and how soon 
they would start, we loidv our horses and rode down, leaving 
Wnw-he-be-nnis-sn with the women. When we arrived we 



i( 'J.: ' 

I ' 


tanner's NARRATIVi;. 

found forty men of the Muskegoos, ready to depart on the fol- 
lowing morning, and though we had come witliout our mocca- 
sins, or any of llie usual preparations,- we determined to accom- 
pany them. Great numbers of Ojilibeways and Crees had as- 
sembled, but they seemed, in general, unwilling to accompa- 
ny the Muskegoes, as this band is not in very high repute among 
them. Wa-me-gon-a-biew was willing to dissuade nje from 
going, urging, that we had belter put it off, and go with the 
Ojibbeways in the fall. But 1 assured him I would by no means 
lose the present opportunity, inasmuch as we could both go now 
and in the fall also. 

By the end of th<' second day after we left Pembiiuih, we had 
not a mouthfid to eat, ai\d were beginning- to be hungry. When 
we laid down in our camp at night, and put our ears close to the 
ground, we could hear the tramp of bullaloes; but when we 
sat up we could hear nothing, and on the following uu)rning no- 
thing could be seen of them, though we could command a very 
extensive view of the prairie. Xa we knew they must not be far 
olK in the direction of the sounds we had heard, eight nuMi, ol 
whom I was one, were selected and despatched to kill some, and 
bring the meat to a point where it was agreed the j)arty shoidd 
stop next night. The noise we could still hear in the morning, 
by applying our ears to the ground, and it st-emed about as far 
distant, and in the same direction, as before. We started early, 
and rode scune hours before we could begin to see them, and 
when we first discovered the margin of the herd, it must hav«' 
been at least ten miles distant. It was like a black line, drawn 
along the odfye of the sky, or a low shore seen across a lake 
The (listaiK-e of the herd from the place where we lirst heard 
them, could not have been less than twenty miles. But it was 
now the rutting season, and various parts of the herd w«'re all 
the time kept in rajtid motion, by the severe tights of the bulls. 
To tile noise pr(tdu("ed by the knocking together of the two di- 
visions of the hoof, when they raised their feel from the irronnd, 
nnd of their incessant tramping, was added the loud and lurious 
roar of the bulls, 'ogaged as they all were in their terrific ant? 
ap|)alling conflicts. We were conscious that our approach to 
the herd would not occafiion the alarm now, that it would have 
ilone at any other lime, and we rode dirfxtly towards (hem. A»- 

\ t 



we came ueav, we killed a wounded bull, which scarce made an 
effort to escape from us. He had wounds in his flanks, into 
which I could put my whole hand. As we knew that the flesh 
of the bulls was not now good to eat, we did not wish to kill 
them, though we might easily have shot any number. Dismount- 
ing; we put our horses in the care of some of our number, 
who were willing to stay back for that purpose, and then crept 
into the herd to try to iiiil some cows. I had separated from the 
others, and advancing, got entangled among the bulls. Before I 
found an opportunity to shoot a cow, the bulls began to fight 
very near me. In their fury they were totally unconscious of 
my presence, and came rushing towards me with such violence, 
that in some alarm for my safety, I took refuge in one of those 
jioles which are so frequert where these animals abound, and 
which they themselves dig to wallow in. Here I found that 
ihey were pressing directly upon me, and I was compelled to 
lire to disperse them, in which I did not succeed until I had kill- 
ed four of them. By this firing the cows were so frightened 
that I perceived I should not be able to kill any in this quarter ; 
«o regaining my horse, I rode to a distant part of the herd, where 
(he Indians had s\iccoedi'd in killing a fat cow. But from this 
row, as is usual in similar cases, the herd had all moved off, ex- 
cept one bull, who, when I came up, still kept the Indians at 
bay. " You are warriors," said I, as I rode u[), *' going far from 
your own country, to seek an enemy ; but you cannot take his 
wife from that old bull, who has nothing in his hands." So 
saying, I passed them directly, towards the bull, then standing 
something more than two hundred yards distant. He no sooner 
.saw me approach, than he came plunging towards me with such 
impetuosity, that kuowiiiff tiie dauirer to my horse and myself, 
I tuin.^d and fled. The Indians laughed heartily at my repulse, 
but they did not give over their attempts to get at the cow. By 
tlividing the attention of the bidl, and creeping up to him on dif- 
ferent sides, they at length shot him down. While we were cut- 
ting up the cow, tlie herd were at no great distance, and an old 
cow, which the Indians supposed to be the mother of the one wo 
had killed, taking the Hccnt of the blood, came running with 
great violence directly towards us. The Indians were alarmed 
md fled, many of them not having their guns iji their hand;;; 




f h.vf j 



t ( 



but I had carefully ro-loadod mine, and liad it ready lor uhc. 
Throwing myself down close to the body of the row, and behind 
it, I waited till the other came u]) within a few yards of the car- 
ease, when I fired upon her ; she turned, gave one or two jumps, 
and fell dead. Wc had now the meat of two fat cows, which 
Avas as much as we wanted ; accordingly, we repaired without 
flelay to the appointed place, where we found our party, whose 
hunger was already somewhat allayed by a deer one of them had 

I now began to attend to some of the ceremonies of what may 
be called the initiation of warriors, tliis being the first time I had 
been on a war-party. For the three lirst times that a man ac 
companies a war-party, the customs of the Indians require somt 
peculiar aud paiiiful observances, from which old warriors maj . 
if they choose, be exempted. The young warrior must constant- 
ly paint his face black ; must wear a cap, or head dress of some 
kind ; must never precede the older warriors, but follow them, 
stepping in their tracks. He must never scratch his head, or an) 
other part of ills body, with his lingers, br.t >f he is compelled to 
scratch, he must use a small stick ; the vessel he eats or drink^ 
out of, or the knife lie uses, must be touched by no other person. 
In the two last mentioned particulars, the observances of the 
young warriors ar«' like those the females, in some bands, use 
during tlie'r earliest juMMods of menstruation. The young war- 
rior, however long aiul fatiguing the nuirch, nnist neither eat. 
nor drink, iu)r sit down by day ; if he halts for a moment, he 
must turn his face towards his own country, that the Great Spirit 
may see that it is his wish to return home again. 

At night, they ol)serve a certain order in their encampments 
If there are bushes where they halt, the camj) is enclosed b\ 
these stuck into the groiuul, so as to include a sipiare, or oblong' 
s))ace, « ith a jtassage, or door, in one end, which is always that 
towards the enemy's country. If there are not bushes, they 
mark the ground in the same manner, with small sticks, or thi 
stalks of the weeds which grow in the ])rairie. Near the gate, or 
entrance to this camp, is the principal chief and the ohl warriors; 
next follow in order, according to age aud rejtutation, the young- 
•'r men; and last of all, in the extrenu" end of the camp, those 
« itli bluekeil t'lice . whi> are makintr their first excursion. Ali 


1 ANNKR ,S NARKA'l U i.. 


I- for uht'- 
id behind 
f the car- 
vo jumps. 
rs, which 
d without 
ty, whos(? 
; them had 

what may 
time 1 had 
a man ac 
juire some 
riors ma} . 
it conslant- 
ss of som<' 
How them, 
ead, or an> 
impelled to 
# or dr^nk^ 
her person, 
nces of the 
bands, use 
young war- 
neither eal. 
moment, lu 
[treat Spirii 

nelosed b\ 
or oblong' 
always tliut 
ushes, they 
(ks, or thf 
\\u' jrale, or 
d warriors; 
the young- 
amp, thosr 
orsion. Ali 

the warriors, both old and young, sleep with their fares toward.- 

their own country, and, on no consideration, howevir uneasy theii 

1 position, or however great their fatiiruo, musi make any ehange 

I of attitude, nor must any two lie upon, or be coverrd by the same 

' ■' blanket. In their marches, llie warriors, if they ever sit down. 

* must not sit upon the luiked frromul, but must at least liave some 
grass or bushes under them. They nnist, if possible, avoid wet- 

* ting their feet ; Init if they arc ever compeHed to wade thvongli 
a swamp, or to cross a stream, they must keep their clothes dry, 
and whip their legs with bushes or grass, when they come out 

f of the water. They must never walk in a beaten path if they can 
i avoid it; but if they cannot at all times, then \\\v.y nuist put me- 
dicine on their legs, which they carry for tliat purpose. A.ny av- 
' tide belonging to any of the party, such as his gun, his blanket, 
tomahawk, knife, or war club, must not be stepj)ed tiver by any 
other person, neither must the legs, liands, or body of any oin' 
who is sitting or lying on tlic ground. Should tliis rule be inad- 
vertently violated, it is the duty of the one to whom the article 
stepped over may belong, to seize the other and throw him on 
the ground, and tlie latter nnist sulfer liiinself to hv, thrown down, 
even slioidd he be much stronger than the other. The vessels 
which they carry to eat out of, are commonly small liowls of 
wood, or of birch bark ; they are nnirked across the middle, and 
the Indians have some mark by which they distinguish the two 
sides; in going o\it from home they drink invariably out of om- 
side, and in retin*ning, from the other. When on their way home, 
and within one day of the village, they suspend all tlu's«! buwl>^ 
on trees, or throw them away in the jirairie. 

I should have mentioned, that in their em'umpnuMifs at night, 
the chief who conducts tin; party, sends sonu' (d' his yoniig men 
a little distance in advance, to prepare what is called I'ushkwaw- 
gumme-genahgun, the piece of cleared groinnl where the ko/,a i- 
bun-zichegun, or divination by which the position of the enemv 
is to be discovered, is to Ik; performed. This spot of (lea.ed 
ground s prepared by removing the turf from a considerable sur- 
face, in form of u parallelogram, and willi the hands breaking up 
the soil, to make it fine and soft, and which is so inclosed with 
poles that none can step on it. The chief, when he is informed 
that the place. i« ready, goes and fits down at the end opjioHJto thai 


^ .iftBri 



'i • 




of the enemy's country ; then, after singing and praying, he placea 
before him, on tJie margin of the piece of ground, which may be 
compared to a bed in a garden, two small roundish stones. After 
the chief has remained here by himself for some time, entreating 
the (ireat Spirit to show him the path in which he ought to lead 
his young men, a crier goes to him from the camp, and then re- 
turning part way, he calls by name some of the principal men, 
saying, " come smoke." Others also, if they wish it, who are not 
called, repair to the chief, and they then examine, by striking a 
light, the result of the kozau-bun-zichegun. The two stones which 
the chief placed on the margin of the bed, have moved across to 
the opposite end, and it is from the appearance of the path they 
have left in passing over the soft ground, that they infer the course 
they are to pursue. 

At this i)lace of divination, the ofl'erings of cloth, beads, and 
whatever other articles the chief and each man may carry for sa- 
crifice, arc exposed during the night on a pole; also, their je-bi- 
ug, or memorials of their dead friends, which are to be thrown 
away on the field of battle, or, if possible, tlirust into the ripped u]:i 
bowels ol' their enemies, who may fall in the fight. If a warrior 
has lost, by death, a favourite child, he carries, if possible, some 
article of dress, or perhaps some toy, which belonged to the child, 
or more commonly .i lock of his hair, which they seek to throw 
away e-i the field of battle. The scouts who precede a war party 
into an enemy's country, if they happen, in lurking about their 
lodges, or in their old encampments, to discover any of the toys 
that have been dropped by the children, such as little bows, or 
even a piece of '^. broken arrow, pick it up, and carefully preserve 
it until they return to the party ; then, if they know of a man who 
has lost his child, they throw it to him, saying, " your little son 
is in that place, we saw him playing with the children of our ene- 
mies, will you go and see him ?" The bereaved father commonly 
takes it up. and havintr looked upon it awhile, falls to crying, and 
is then ready nnd eager to go against the enemy. An Indian 
chief, when he leads out his war party, has no other means of 
control over the individuals composing it, than his personal in- 
fluence gives him ; it is therefore necessary they should have 
some method of rousing and stimulating themselves to exertion. 
A-gus-ko-gaut, the Mu^kego chief, whom we accompanied on 

T' ^..~-'- 



; he places 
ch may be 
les. After 
ght to lead 
lid then re- 
el pal men, 
vho are not 
r striking a 
ones which 
;d acrorfs to 
e path they 
r the course 

beads, and 
;arry lor sa- 
, their je-bi- 
3 be thrown 
le ripped up 
If a warrior 
ssible, some 
to the child, 
ek to throw 
a war party 

about their 

of the toys 
tie bows, ov 

y preserve 
fa man who 
lur little son 
1 of our ene- 
r commonly 

crying, and 
An Indian 

r means of 

)ersonal in- 
lould havf 

to exertion. 

impanied on 

this occasion, called himself a prophet of the Great Spirit, like 
the one who appeared some years since anions^ the !Shawanee«. 
He liad, some time before, lost his son, and on this party he car- 
ried the jebi, with the determination of leaving it in a bloody 
rield ; but this design was frustrated by the interference of Ta- 
busli-shah,* (he that dodges down,) who now overlook us with 
twenty men. This restk'ss aiul anil)ilious Ojibbeway, was unwil- 
ling that any l)Ul himself should lead a party against the Sioux; 
more particularly, that any (>f his own daring Hctions should be 
eclipsed by the prowess of so despised a people as the Muskegoes. 
But on first joinina: us, his professions manifested ncthing un- 
friendly to our undertaking ; on the contrary, he pretended he 
had come to aiil his brethren, the Muskegoes, A-gus-ko-gaut 
could searce have been ignorant of the feelings and intentions of 
Ta-husli-shah ; but nevertheless, he received him with the utmost 
;ipparent cordiality and pleasure. 

We journeyed on in company for some days, when In crossinti' 
some of the wide prairies, our thirst became so excessive that we 
were compelled to vitdate some of the rules of the war party. 
The principal men were acquainted with the general features of 
the country we had to pass, and knew that water could be found 
within a few miles of us, but most of the older warriors being on 
foot, were exhausted with fatigue and thirst. In this emergency, 
it became necessary that such of the parly as hatl horses, amoni; 
whom were Wa-nie-gon-a-biew and myself, should go forward 
and search l.»r water; and when it was found, make such a sig- 
nal a.s would inform the main body what course to pursue. I was 
among the Hrsl to "lisrover a place where water could be had ; 
but bel'ore all the men could come u]) lo it, the sulVering of some 
of them had become excessive. Those who had arrived at the 
spring, continued to discharge tiu'ir guns during the niaht, and the. 
stragglers dropped in from dilTerent directions, some vomiting 
blood, and some in a state of madness. 

As we rested at this spring, »< old man called Ah-tek-oons, (the 
Little Caribou,) made a Kozau-liun-zichegun, or divination, and 
announced afterwards, that in a particular direction whieh he 
pointed out, was a large band of Sioux warriors, coming directlv 

♦ From tub-biiz-zreii. imperative, " Do thou dodije down." 


.— j 

. ■ . II Mp g -wr 

i \ 







towards us ; that if wo could turn to the right or to tiie iett, autj 
avoid inoetinif them, we might proceed unmolested to their coun- 
try, and be able to do some mischief to the women in their villa- 
ges ; but that if we suflered them to come upon us, and attack us. 
w-e should be cut off, to a man. Ta-b\ish-shah affected to place 
the most implicit reliance on this prediction; but the Muskegoc 
chief, and the Muskegoes generally, would not listen to it. 

There was now an incij)ient murmur of discontent, and some 
few openly talked ol' abandoning A-gus-ko-gaut, and returning- to 
their own country ; but for some days nothing occurred, except 
the discovery, by some of our spies, of a single Indian, at a dis- 
tance, who fled immediately on being seen, and was fron\ that cir- 
cumstance supposed to be one of a Hioux war party- One morn- 
ing we came to a herd of butfaloe, and i)eing withoiit any food, 
several of the young men were dispersed about to kill some. W( 
had iH)\v, since the discovery of the Sioux, been travelling only 
by night, k(;eping ourselves concealed in the day time. But the 
unguarded manner in which the Muskegoes suffered their younj: 
men to pursue the buffaloe, riding about in open day, and dischar- 
ging their guns, aflorded Ta-bush-shah an opportunity to effeci 
what was probably the sole design of his journey, a disunion ot 
the party, and eventually the frustration of all the designs ol 

Our camp being profusely supplied with meat, we had some- 
thing like a general feast ; the party was regularly and compactl\ 
arranged, and after they had eaten, Ta-bush-shah arose and ha- 
rangued them in a loud voiee. " You, 3Iuskegoes," said he. 
" are not warriors, though you ha-e come very far from your own 
country, as you say, to lind the Hioux; but though hundreds ol 
your enemies may be, and probably are, immediately about us, 
you can never find one of iheni, unless they fall upon you to kill 
you." In the close of his address, he expressed his determinii 
lion to ahainlon the cause of a party so bailly conducted, and re- 
turn to his owi\ country with his twenty men. 

When he had spoken, Pe-zhew-o-ste-gwnn, (the wild cat's head,) 
the orator of A-gus-ko-gaut, re|died to him. "Now," said he, 
" we see plainly why our brothers, the Ojibbcways and Crees. 
were iu)t willing Income with us from Red River. You are near 
your own country, and it is of little importance to you, whethe- 

I hi ' 




lett, ami 
leir coun- 
licir villa- 
attack u?. 
I to place 

and some 
turniiiff to 
ed, except 
1, at a dis- 
,in that cir- 
One morn- 
t any food, 
some. W(> 
elling only 
>, But the 
;heir youns; 
md discbar- 
ity to effect 
disunioTi ot 

designs ot 

had some- 
osp and ha- 
said he. 
in vour own 
inndreds ol 
Iv about us, 
1 vou to kill 
ted, and n- 

! cat's head,) 

f,'' said he, 

and Crees. 

Ton are near 

lou. whetbp'- 

^ ou see the Sioux now, or in the fall ; but we liave come a very 
Treat distance ; we bear with us, as we have long borne, tliose that 
were our friends and children, but we cannot lay them down, 
except we come into the camp of our enemies. You know 11 
that in a party like this, large as it even now is, if only one turns 
back, 'inother and another will follow, until n.>ne are left. And 
it i; loi this reason that you have joined us; that you may draw 
off our young men, and thus compel us to return without having 
done any thing." After he had spoken, Ta-bush-shah, without 
making any answer, rose, an<l turning his face towards his own 
country, departed with his twenty men. A-gus-ko-gaut, and the 
principal men of the Muskegoes, sat silently together, and saw 
one after another of their own young men get up and follow the 
Ojibbeways. In the first moments, this defection of Ta-bush- 
shah seemed to arouse some indignation in the breasts of some of 
the vfiung Muskegoes, for they imprudently fi.-ed upon tlu; rear 
of the retiring Ojibbeways ; but though some of the latter turned 
to nsent this treatment, their prudent leader repressed their ar- 
dour, and by so doing, gained the good will of those who might 
so readily have been rendered dangerous enemies. For the greater 
part of the day did A-gus-ko-gaut, and the few that remained 
firm to him, continue sitting upon the ground, in the same spot 
where he had listened to the speech of Ta-bush-shah ; and when 
at last he saw his band diminished from sixty to five, the old man 
could not refrain from tears. 

Wa-me-gon-a-biew had joined the deserting party, and at that 
lime 1 had removed to a place u few rods distant from the chief, 
where I remained during the whole time. I now rejoined the 
chief, and told him, if he was willing to go on himself, I would 
aocompiiny hint, if no other would. The other three men who 
remained, being his persomil friends, were willing to have gone 
on if he had wished it ; but he said he feared we could do very 
little, being so few in number, and if the Sioux should discover 
us, we could not fail to be cut off. So the excursion was aban- 
doned, and every man sought to return home by the most con- 
venient and expeditious way, no longer paying the least regard 
io any thing except his own sa^'ety and comfort. I soon over- 
took Wa-me-gon-a-biew, and with three other men, we formed a 
)ii)rty to return together. We chose, in om- return, a route ditfo- 




I I 

'i • ll I* 

\] ' : ^ ' : 

■ ■ i 1 


rent from that taken by mostuf the party. Game was plenty, 
ami we did not suffer from hunger. Early one morning, 1 was 
lying wrapped in my blanket by a deep buffaloe path, which came 
down through a prairie to the little creek where we were en- 
camped. It was now late in the fall, and the thick and heavy 
grasses of these prairies, having long before been killed by the 
frosts, had become perfectly dry. To avoid burning the gras«, 
we had kindled our little lire in the bottom of the deep path, where 
it passed through the corner of the bank. Home of the Indians had 
got up, and were sitting part on one and pari on the other side of 
the path, preparing something for breakliist, when our attention 
was called to some un\istial sound, and we saw a porcupine conio 
walking slowly md slouchingly down the path. I had heard 
much of the stupi(Hty of this animal, but never had an opportu- 
liity to witness it till now. On he came, without giving any at- 
tention to surrounding objects, until his nose was actually in the 
fire ; then bracing stiflly back with his fore feet, lie stood so near 
that the flame, when driven towards him by the wind, still singed 
the hairs on his face, for some minutes, st« uidly opei)' g and shut- 
ting his eyes. At leiigth one of the In-liui s, tired of looking at 
him, hit him a blow in the face with a piece of moose meat lu 
had on a little stick to roast. One of them then kflled him Avilh 
a tomahawk, ami we ate some of the meat, which was very good. 
The Indians then, in conversation respecting the habits of this; 
animal, related to me what I have since seen, namely : that as i\ 
porcupine is feeding in the night, along the bank of a river, a man 
may sometimes take up s 'i/.e of his food on the blade of a pad- 
dle, and holding it to his nose, he will eat it without ever per- 
ceiving the presence of the man. When taken, they can neither 
bite nor scratch, having no protection or defence except what is 
yii'Ided them by their barbed and dangerous spines. Dogs can 
rarely, if ever, be urged to attack them ; when they do, severe in- 
jury anil suileriiig, if not death, is the certain consequence. 

Ill four days after we started to return, we reached Large Wood 
Riv»;r, which heads in a mountain, and running a long distaiut) 
through the prairie, and ten inili^s under ground, empties into 
Red River. Below the place where it disappears under theprai- 
lie, it ia called by another name, but it is no doiibt the same river, 


^ Vi 

tanner's NAKKA'l'IVE. 

iras plenty, 
ling, 1 was 
ivhich came 
e were en- 

and heavy 
lied by the 
r the gras-, 
pativ, wiiere 
Indians had 
iher side ol' 
ur attention 
•ujiine come 

had heard 
an opportu- 
ving any at- 
tually in tin; 
tood so near 
, still singed 

^ and shul- 
f looking at 
ose meat li( 
led him with 
IS very good, 
labits of this 
ly : that as a 
i river, a man 
ide ol" a pad- 
lit ever pcr- 
can neither 

cept what is 
Dogs can 
o, severe in- 

arge Wood 

ong distaiUHi 
mpties into 
ider the prai- 

le same river. 


Here we killed one of the common red deer, like those 
tucky, though this kind is not often seen in the north. 

"When I returned to my family, I had hut seven balls left, but 
as there was no trader near, [ could not at present get any more. 
With those seven I killed twenty moose and elk. Often times, 
in shooting an elk or a moose, the ball does not pass quite 
through, and may bo used again. 

Late in the fail, I went to the Mouse River trading house, to 
get some goods, and there Wa-me-gon-a-biew determined to go 
and live by himself, but Net-no-kwa preferred to live with mc. 
Before Wa-me-gon-a-biew left me, we met at the Mouse River 
trading house some of the members of a family that in times 
long past, had quarrelled wit.i ti\e predecessors of Wa-mc-gon-a- 
biew. They were part of a ccnsiderable band, strangers to us, 
and in themselves were far toj powerful for us. We heard of 
their intention to kill Wa-me-gon-a-biew, and as we could not 
avoid being thrown more or less into their power, we thought 
best to conciliate their t^ood will, or at least purchase their for- 
bearance by a present. We had two kegs of whiskey, which wc 
gave to the band, preseiting one particularly tp the head of the 
family who had threatened us. When they began to drink, I 
noticed one man, who, with great show of cordiality, invited Wa- 
aie-gon-a-biew to drink, and pretended to drink with him. The 
more elTectually to throw my brother oil' his guard ; this man, in 
due time, began to act like a drunken man, though I could per- 
ceive he was perfectly sober, and knew that he had drank very 
little, if any thing, since we had been together. I had no diffi- 
culty to comprehend his intentions, and determined, if possible, 
to protect Wa-me-gon-a-biew from the mischief intended him. 
We had, with the hope of securing the friendship of the family 
of Crees, made our fire very near theirs, and as I found Wa-me- 
gon-a-biew becoming too drunk to have much discretion, I with- 
drew him to our camp. Here I had scarce laid him down, and 
thrown his blanket over him, when I found myself surrounded 
by the hostile family, with their guns and knives in their hands, 
and I heard them speak openly of killing my brother. Fortu- 
nately our present of spirits had nearly overcome the senses of 
all except the man I have before mentioned, and I regarded him 
as the most formidable among them. As two of them approached, 


^ff ^ l ^ 


'Mill if-' i 



apparently intending to stab Wa-mc-gon-a-bicw, I stepped be» 
t\v(!cn and prevented them ; they then seized me by the arms, 
whieh I allowed them to hold without any resistance on my part, 
knowing that when about to stab me, they must let go at least 
with one hand eacli, and intending then to make an ellort to 
escape from them. I grasped firmly in my right hand, and at the 
same time kept hid in tlie corner of my blanket, a large and 
strong knife, on which I placed great reliance. Very soon after 
they had seized me, the Indian on my left, still holding my left 
hand by his, raised his knife in his right to strike me in the ribs. 
His companion, who was somewhat drunk, having felt his belt 
for his own knife, found he had dropped it, and calling out to his 
companion to wait until he could find his knife, that he might, 
lielp to kill me, quitted my riglit hand and went towards the fire, 
searching for it. This was my opportunity, and with a sudden 
sj)ring I disengaged myself from the one who still held my left 
hand, and at the same time showing him a glimpse of my knife. 
I was now free, and might have secured my own safety by flight; 
but was determined not to abandon Wa-me-gon-a-biew, in a situ- 
ation where I knew, for me to leave him, would be certain death. 
T^'c Indians seemed for a moment astonished at my sudden re- 
sistance and escape, and not less so, when they saw me catch up 
the body of my drunken companion, and at two or three leaps, 
place him in a canoe on the beach. I lost no time in passing 
over the small distance between their camp and the trading house. 
Why they did not fire upon me, before I was out of the light of 
their camp lire, I cannot tell ; ])erhaps they were somewhat in- 
timidated at seeing me so well armed, so active, and so entirely 
sober ; which last circiunstance, gave me an evident advantage 
over most of them. 

Shortly after this, Wa-me-gon-a-biew left me, acccording to his 
previous determination, and I went to live by myself, at a place 
on the Assinneboin River. I had been here but a few days, when 
A-ke-wah-zains, a brother of Net-no-kwa, came to stay at our 
lodge. He had not been long with us, when we one day disco- 
vered a very old man, in a small wooden canoe, coming up the 
river. A-ke-wah-zains immediately knew him to be the father 
of the men from whom I had so lately rescued Wa-me-gon-a- 
biew. The old man came promptly to the shore when called, 

I ' 

"fr*""^ r*~ 



eppcd be« 
the arms, 
II my part, 
go at least 
I cHbrt to 
, and at the 

large and 
soon atter 
ing my left 
in the ribs. 
L'lt his belt 
iir out to his 
t he might 
rds the tire, 
h a sudden 
leld my left 
( my knife, 
ty by flight; 
>w, in a situ- 
ertain death. 
T sudden rc- 
me catch up 
I three leaps, 

in passing 
adiiig house, 

the light of 
omewhat in- 
I so entirely 
it advantage 

ording to his 
f, at a place 
/ days, when 
stay at our 
le day disco- 
ming up the 
e the father 
,vhen callp<l. 

but it soon appeared that he was ignorant of what liac? passed 
between his children and us. A-ke-wah-zains, as he related 
these adiiirs to him, became excessively enraged, and it was not 
without (liHicuity 1 prevented him from murdering tlie helpless 
old man <m the spot. I was content to siillir him to take part 
of the rum the old num had brought, and i assisted the latter to 
escape immediately, as I kiK'W it would be unsafe for him to re- 
jnain aiiHuig us, after his liquor had begun to have its ellect. 

The -ame evening, A-ke-wah-zains asked me for my gnn, 
whicli was a long, heavy, and very excellent one, in exchange 
for his, which was short and light. I was unwilling to exchange, 
though I did not as yet know how great was the dis|)arity be- 
tween the two pieces; and though Net-no-kwa was unwilling I 
should ex(;hange, I did not know how to refuse the man's re- 
quest, such a thing being almost unknown among the Indians of 
this country. 

Shortly after this, I killed an old she bear, which was perfect- 
ly white. She had four cubs, one white, with red eyes, and rc(l 
nails, like herself; one red, [brown ?] and two black. In size, 
and other respects, she was the same as the common black bear, 
hut she had nothing black about her except the skin of the 
lips. The fur of this kind is very fine, but not so highly valued 
by the traders as the red. The old one was very tame, and I 
killed her without diflicully ; two of the young I shot in the hole, 
and two escaped into a tree. I had but just shot them, when 
there came along three men, attracted, probably, by the sound 
of my gun. As these men were very hungry, I took them home 
with me, fed them, and gave each of them a piece of meat to car- 
ry home. Next day, I chased another bear into a low poplar 
tree, when I became convinced of the W(.rthlessness of the gun 
I had from A-ke-wah-zaii\s, for I shot fifteen times without kill- 
ing the bear, and was compelled, at last, to climb into the tree 
and put the muzTile of my gun close to his head, before I could 
kill him. A few days afterwards, as I was hunting, I started, at 
the same moment, an elk and three young bears, the latter run- 
ning into a tree. I shot at the young oears, and two of them fell ; 
as I thought one or both of them must be only wounded, I sprang 
immediately towards the root of the tree, but had scarce reached 
it, when I saw the old she bear come jumping in an opposite direc- 

■' -V> gpl 




tion. Hlic caught up the cub which liad fallen nearest her, and 
raising it with her paw.s, while she stood on her hind feet, hold- 
ing it as a woman holds her child ; she looked at it for a mo- 
ment, smelled the ball hole which was in its belly, and perceiv- 
ing it was dead, dashed it down, and came directly towards me, 
gnashing her teeth, and walking so erect that her head stood as 
high as mine. All this was so sudden that 1 had scarce re-loaded 
my gun, having only time to raise it when she came within 
reach of the muzzle. I was now made to feel the necessity of a 
lesson the Indians had taught me, and which I very rarely neg- 
lected, namely, after discharging my gun, to think of nothing 
else before loading it a>;ain. 

In about a month that I remained here, I killed, notwitlistand- 
iiig the poorness of my gun, twenty-four bears, and about ten 
mo(»se. JJaviiiir now a great deal of bear's fat, which we could 
not eat, I visited llie suiijogwuii I had made, where I killed the 
twenty moose, with seven balls, and put the fat into it. At 
length, when provisions became very scarce, I returned with my 
family to this place, expecting to live until s|)ring on the meat 
I had saved; but I found that Wa-me-gon-a-biew, with his own 
family, and several others, had been there, broken it oj)eii, and 
taken away every pound of meat. Being thus reduced to the 
apj)reliension of imn.ediate starvation. I was compelled to go iu 
pursuit of buiValoe. Forluiiatidy, the s»'verily of the winter now 
drove these animals in towards the woods, and in a very few day> 
I killed plenty of them. I was now joined by Wa-nie-gon-a-biew 
and other Indians. We were encamped at a little grove of tree? 
in the prairie. It happened one night, that the old woman, as 
well as several others of our family, dreamed of a bear close to 
our lodge. Next morning I searched for him, und fountl him in 
his hole. I shot him, and waiting a moment for the smoke to 
clear away, as I saw him lying at the bottom, I went down head 
foremost to ilraw him out. As my body portly tilled the h(dc. 
and excluded the light, I did not perceive that he was alive until 
I laid my hand on hiiM. lie then turned and sprang upon inc. 
I retreated as tisHt as I could, bnt all the way lie was snappintr 
his teeth so near me that I felt his breath warm on my face. Ilf 
might have seized 'iw at any moment, but did not. I caught in\ 
gun as I leaped fr nn the nioulh of the den. the bear pursuing ine 

- I 



St her, and 
teet, hold- 
lor a mo- 
[1(1 perceiv- 
jwards me, 
id stood as 
e re-loaded 
line within 
•essity of a 
rarely neg- 
ol' nothing 

d about ten 
h we could 
I killed the 
nto it. At 
0(1 with my 
111 the meat 
ith his own 
it open, and 
iuced to the 
ml to go in 
winter now 
ry (ew (lay> 
ove of trees 
woman, as 
ear rlose to 
ouiid him in 
le flmoke to 
down head 
1 the hole. 
is alive until 
^ upon me. 
as snappintr 
y fare. Ilf 
I rau}rht ni\ 
pursuing liif 

very closely. As soon as I ihouglit 1 had gained a little dis- 
tance, I lired behind mc, ami JjrolxC his jaw, and soon killed him. 
At'terwanls I became more cautious alxnil going down into bear's 
holes, before 1 had ascertained that the animals were dead. Late 
in winter, the butlaloe were so plenty aixtut us, lliat we Uilled 
tliem u'itli bows, and caught some of the younger ones with 
nooses of leather. 

As (be sugar season came on, we went to Pe-kau-kau-ne Sah- 
ki-e-guii, (Hul'iiloe Hump Lake,) two days" journey from the 
head of Pemiiiuah River, to hunt beavers. We took our wives 
to the lumting grounds, but left old Net-no-kwa, with the chil- 
dren, to make sugar, it was now our object to kill beaver 
enough to enable us to purchase each a nood horse, intent'ing to 
accompany the war-party against the Sioux, the ensuing sum- 
mer. In ten days I killed forty-two large and fine beavers, and 
Wa-nic-gon-a-biew about as many. With these we rejiaired to 
the Mouse River trading-house, to buy horses. Mr. M'Kie hiul 
pnnnised to sell me a very large and beautiftd horse of his, which 
I had before seen, and I was much dissatistied when I found the 
horse had been sold to the North West Company. I tidd him, 
since the horse had gone to the north west, the beavers might 
go there also. So crossing to the other side, I bought a larwc 
gray mare for thirty beaver skins. This was, in some respects. 
as good a horse as the other, but it did not please me as well. 
Wa-uie-gon-a-biew also bought a horse from the Indians, and 
then we n'turned to (Jreat Wood River, to look for old Net-no- 
kwa; but she had gone to Red River, whither we followed her. 
As we rentained for s(une time at tin- mouth of the .\ssiunc- 
boin, many Indians gntheretl iironnd us, and among others, seve- 
ral of my wile's relatives, whom 1 harl not before seen. Among 
these was an uncle, who was a cripple, and had not lor years 
been able to walk. As he had (miy heard (hat I «as a white 
man, he supposed that I could not hunt. When he saw my wife, 
he said to her, " Well, my dansrhter, I bear you are married ; 
does your husband ever kill any game ?" '• Yes," said she, ** if 
n moose or an elk has lost his road, or wants to die, and comes 
and stands in his path, he will sometimes kill him." " lie has 
gone to hunt to-day, has he not ? If he kills any thing I shall 
s:o and brim; it iu, and you will give me the .skin to nuike some 



i i* 


I f 



iQocrasins." This he saul in derision, but I gai'e him the skiij 
of" the elk I killed that day, to make hi.s inorcasius, and ron- 
liniiiiijr to be successful, i ^ave frame to all my wife's relatives, 
and soon heard no more of (heir ridicule. After some time, the 
game was exhausted, and we found it necessary to disperse iu 
various directions, i went about ten miles up the As'^iinuboin, 
wlure we foutui two lodges, under a man called I*o-ko-tau-ga- 
maw, ((he li((le pmid.) 'I'licse people were rela(ives of my wife. 
When we (irst arrived, the wile ol I'o-ko-taw-iia-maw happened 
to be cooking a moose's tongue (or her luisba(ul, w ho had not 
yet returned from hunting. 'I'liis she gave us innnedia(ely, and 
would, perhaps, have farther relieved our distress, had not (Ik; 
man then arrived. After this, they gave us nothing, tliough (nir 
little children were crying for hunger, and they had plenty of 
meat about their lodge. It was now too late, and 1 too much 
iadgucd (o <ro a huudng (hat evening ; neverllieless, I would m)l 
suller the women to buy meat fnnn (hem, as they wished to do. 
A( (he earliest appearance of dawn, o\\ (he ensuing morning, 1 
tcxdv my gun. and s{anding a( (he door of my lodge, I said piu- 
j)osely in a loud voice, " Can [U)ne bu( Po-ko-taw-i>a-maw kill 
elks ?" .'My w ife canu- out of my hidge, and hanihd nu a piece 
of dried nieat, abouf as large as my hand, which she said her sis- 
ter had s(olen to give to her. Ky this (ime, manyof the people had 
come out of the lodges, and I threw the piece of meat from uu'. 
a(nontr the dou-;, saying, "Sliall such food as this be ollired tn 
my children, when there are plenty of elks in (he woods.'" He- 
lore noim I had killed two fat elks, and re(ui'ne(i to my lodgt 
with a heavy load ol meat. 1 soon killed great nmnbers of bulla- 
Iocs, and we dispersed mirselves about to n; ike dry meat, |irepa- 
tory to leaving (Uir lamilics to go on tlie |)roposed war-|»arty. We 
then rettiriu'd to (he woods, to select scnne nood elk and moose 
skit(>, for moccasins. The skins of animals living in (he op<'u 
pruiries are teiitler, and do not nuike good lea(her. 

As we were one day travellitig thnnigh (he prairie, wt looked 
back, and saw a( a distance a nuin loaded with baggage, and 
having two of the large 'ra-wa-e-gim-num, or drums used in the 
ceremonies of the Waw-be-no. W»' looked to our yointjj wiMneii 
fur an explanaticm, as we soon recognised the approaching (ru- 
veller to he no oth«'v than I'ich-e.-to, one ol' the. hHiid of inhuspi- 



rANN'KU's N'AKR*TtVr. 


the skill 
111(1 con- 
timi", the 
spcvse iij 
r 111) wife, 
u) had not 
aicly, and 
ad ii(»l the 
hmiirli our 
I ph'iiiy ol' 
too much 
would not 
slu'd to do. 
iiioniiiii:. I 
I said piir- 
)ii-nia\\ kill 
iiu' a piece 
^aid litr sis- 
X opie had 
Iroiii me. 
(tlleied to 
r Be 
my lodut 
(•;it, pvepa- 
iiirly. NVe 
and moose 
n llie op«'U 

we looked 
rirage, inid 
used in ihe 
iiii; women 
laeiiinn lia- 
t inhoMpi- 

tablc relatives we Iiad lately left. The face of Skwaw-shish, 
the Bow-we-tig girl, lietra ed the consciousness of some know- 
ledge respecting the motives of Pich-e-to. 

At this time, the Waw-be-no was fasliionahle among the Ojib- 
bewavs, but it has ever been considered iiy the older and more 
respectalile men, as a false and daiigrrous religion. The cere- 
monies of the Waw-be-no dillir very essentially from those of 
the Melai, and are n-uallv accompaiiieil by much licentiousness 
and irregularity. The Ta-wa-e-irim used for a drum in this 
dance, dilli-rs from the VVoin Ali-ki^ek, or Me-ti-kwaw-keek, 
u.sed in the Me-tai, it being made of a hoop of bent wood, like a 
soldier's drum, while (he latter is a portion of the trunk of a tree, 
hollowed by fire, and having the skin tied over it. The Slie- 
zhe-gwun, or rattlt<. dilfers, also, in its constriiclion from that 
used in the Metai. In the VVaw-lie-no, men and women dance 
and sing together, and there is much juggling and playing with 
fire. The initiated take coals of lire, and red liot stones, in 
their hands, and sometimes in their mouths. So.netimes ihey 
put powder on the insides of iheir hands, (irst moistening them, 
to make it stick ; then by ruldiiiiij them on coals, or a red hot 
stone, they inaki; the powder burn. Somelimes ime of the prin- 
cipal performers at a V\'aw-b(>-no, ha^, a kettle brouj;lit and set 
down befiu'e him, whicii is taken boiling from the lire, and be- 
fore it has lime to cool, he plunges his hands to the botloin, and 
brings up the head of the dog, or whatever other animal it may 
be which had bi'en juirposely jiut there. He then, while it re- 
mains hot, tears off the (lesh with his teeth, at llir same time. 
singing and dancing madly about. After devouring the meat, 
he dashes down the bone, still dancing and capering as before. 
They are able to withstand the (fleets of fire and of heated sub- 
stances, by what they would persuade (he iiiiioraiil to be a super- 
natural power; but this is nothing else than a certain prepara- 
tion, ellected by iIh- application of heriis, which maki- the parts 
to which they are apjdied, insensible to tire. The plants they 
use are the Wa-be-no-wusk, and I'e-zhe-ke-wusk ; the fmnier 
grows in abundance on the island of Mackinac, and is called 
yarrow by the jieople of the United Stales ; (he oilier grows 
only in the prairies. These ihey mix and bruise, or chew to- 
gether, and rub over their huiids and anus. The Waw-he-no- 


;.^?= -'|M"MM 



tanker's NARKATIVL. 

1 ' 

■ 4 



■ '1 



Wiisk, or yarrow, in the form of a poultice, is an excellent reme- 
dy for burns, and is much used by the Indians ; but the two, 
when mixed together, seem to give to the skin, even of the lips 
and tongue, an astonishing power of resisting the effects of fire, 
Pich-e-to, with his two Ta-wa-e-guns, at length came up, and 
stopped with us. Old Net-no-kwa was not backward about in- 
quiring his business, and when she found that his designs extend- 
ed no farther than to the Bow-we-tig girl, she gave her consent 
to the match, and inarrieil tiieni immediately. Next morning, 
Waw-be-be-nais-sa, who, as well as Wa-me-gon-a-biew, had come 
with me from the mouth of the Assinneboin, killed a buck elk, 
and I a moose. I now made a change in my manner of hunting, 
which contributed much towards the skill I finally acijuired. I 
resolved that I would, whenever it was possible, eve at the 
expense of the greatest exertions, get every animal I should shoot 
at. When I came to look upon it as necessary that I should kill 
every animal I shot at, I became more cautious in my approaches, 
and more careful never to fire until my prospect of being able to 
kill was good. I made this resolutitni in the spring, and hunted 
much, and killed many animals during the summer ; I missed 
only two that I fired at. It recptires much skill, and great cau- 
tion, to be able to kill moose at all, particularly in summer. Ah 
I began to be considered a good hunter, Waw-be-be-nais-sa be- 
came envious of my success, and often, when I was absent, he 
went slily into my lodge, and bent my gun, or borrowed it un 
der pretence of his own being out of repair, and returned it tt» 
me bent, or otherwise iftjureil. 

Very early in the spring, we had niiu-h severe thunder and 
lightning. One night, Pich-e-to becoming much alarmed at thr 
violence of the storm, got up and offered some tobacco to thr 
thunder, intreating it to stop. The Ojibbeways and Ottawwaws 
believe that thunder is the v«iice of living beings, which they 
call An-nim-me-keeg.* Some considering them to be like men, 
while others say they have more resend)lance to birds. It is 
doubtful whether they are aware of any necessary connexion 
between the thunder and the lightning which precedes it. They 

♦ An-iiim-tiic-kirff tms-rc-tali goo<i-e-viik\ (Ottawwaw,) it lliunders. — Xi- 
■mah-kc-wuk kuu-kc-lo-ituk, (Mpnoiiiiiif,) it tliumliTf.— They are butb, howevrr, 
4'luriil nonunttion-*, and have vcrlw in the plural. 


lent reme- 
It the two, 
af the lips 
cts of fire, 
ne wp, and 
I about in- 
rns extend- 
ler consent 
:t morning, 
J, had come 
1 buck elk, 
of hunting, 
c(iuired. I 
ve at the 
hould shoot 
[ should kill 
eing able to 
and huntetl 
r ; I missed 
d great cau- 
nmmer. As 
e-nais-sa be- 
s absent, he 
rowed it un 
eturned it ti> 

tliunder and 

armed at the 

)bacco to thf 


which they 

be like null, 

birds. It i^ 

ry connexion 

es it. They 

itiunders.— .Vi- 
; butb, howevrr. 


think the lightning is fire, and many of them w ill assert, that by 
-earching in the ground, at the root of the tree lliat has been 
struck, inime<liately after the flasli, a ball of fire may be found. 
I have myself many times sought for this ball, but could never find 
it. I have traced the path of the lightning along the wood, al- 
most to the end of some large root, but where it disappeared I 
was never able to find any thing more in the soil than what be- 
longed there. After the storm which I first mentioned, we found 
in the morning an (dm tree still burning, which had been set on 
lire by the lightning. The Indians have a superstitious dread 
of this fire, and none of them would go to bring some of it, to 
replace our^, which had been extinguished by the rain. I at 
last went and brought some of it, though not without apprehen- 
sion. I had fewer fears than the Indians, but I was not entirely 
free from the same unfounded apprehensions which so constant- 
ly pursue them. 

After we had killed and dried large quantities of meat, we 
erected a sunjegwun, or a scaffold, where we deposited as much 
as we thought would supply the Vi ants of our wcjmen in our ab- 
sence. Befitre we had entirely finished the preparations for our 
journey, we were fallen upon by a war-party of about two hun- 
dred Hioux, and some of our people killed. A small party of 
Assinneboins and Crees had already gone out towards the Sioux 
country, and falling, by accidc^nt, on the trace of this war-party 
of two hundred, had dogged them for some time, coming re- 
peatedly near enough to see the craiu''s head, used by their chief 
instead of stones, in the Ko-sau-bun-zitch-e-gun, or nightly divi- 
nation, to discover the position of the enemy. This little band 
of Crees and Assinneboins, had not courage enough to fall upon 
the Sioux, but they sent messengers to the Ojibbeways, by a cir- 
cuitous route. These came to the lodge of the principal chief 
of the Ojibbeways, who was hunting in advance of his peo|)le ; 
but this man scorned to betray fear. By retreating immediatelv 
to the trader's fort, he might have escupeil the threatening dan- 
ger. He made his preparations to move, but his old wife, being 
jealous of the younger one, which was now in higher favour 
than herself, reproached him, and complained that he had given 
more to the young woman than to her. He said to her, "You . 
have for a K)n<r time annoyed me wi»h vour jealousy, and your 








complaints ; but 1 shall lioiir no more of it. The Sioux are near, 
and I shall wait for thcin." Ih- accortlingly remained, and con- 
tinned hunting. Early one morning, he went up into an oak 
tree that stood near his lodge, to look out over the prairie for 
buffaloe, anc' in descending he was shot from below by twu 
young men of the Sioux, that had been concealed there grcai 
part of the night. It is ])robiilile they would have fallen upon 
him sooner, but for fear. Now the trampling of horses wa-; 
heard, and the men who were with the chief had scarc(! time Id 
run out of the lodjre, when the two hundred Sioux, on thci; 
Jiorses, were at the door. One of the two runners who had 
come forward, and had been concealed in the hazle bushes, was 
an uncle of Wah-ne-taw,* at present a w ell known chief of iht 
Yanktongs, and the party was led by his father. Wah-ne-tau 
himself was of the party, but was then less distinguished than Ik 
lias since become. The fight continued during the day ; all tli( 
Ojibbeways, about twenty in number, being killed, except .\is 
ainse, (the little clam,) a brolber of tiu^ chief, two women, and 
one child. 

Mr. H., the trader at l*end)inah, gave the Ojibbeways a tci 
jjallon keg of powder, and one hundred pounds of balls, to pur 
sue after the party that had killed the chief, his father-in-law. 
Of the four hundred men that started, one hundred were Assii, 
jieboins, the remaining three lun^dred Crees and Ojibbeways, 
with some Muskegoes. In the course of the tirst day after we lefi 
Pembinah, about one hundred Ojibbeways deserted and went 
back. In the ibllowing night, the Assinneboins left in conside- 
rable numbers, having stolen many horses, and, among other>. 
four belonging to nu' and W'a-mc-gon-a-biew. I had taken Init 
seven pairs of moccasins, having intended to make the whole 
journey on horse back, and it was now a great misfortune for 
me to lose my horses. I went to Pe-shau-ba, who was chief oi 
the band of Ott(twwaws, to which I belonged, and told him that 
I wished to make reprisals from the (vw Assinneboins still br- 
longing to our party; but he would not consent, saying, veiy 

♦ The nanip of this di8linguiKli<Ml t-liicf is t^ix-ll in " Major Long's Seronil ES' 
pfHlilion," \{'a-no-tan. To an Knjrlish roadrr, this orthography conveys as iiicm- 
rflct an idfa of tho Kound of his naine, lU! the engraved portrait in that work, doe? 
of his haiitlRomo face and j)cn?cm. 


■.A- .. 



IX are near, 
.'(1, and ton- 
into an oak 
e prairie for 
low by two 
I there grcai 
fallen upon 
horses was 
:arce time Id 
iix, on the!, 
■rs who had 
! bushes, was 
chief of lilt 
shed than in 
day ; all tin 
, except Ais 
women, and 

beways a Ici: 
balls, to pur 

were Assin- 

y after we let; 
Led and went 
ft in eonsidc- 
niong others, 
ad taken Init 
ke the whok 
nisfortune for 
) was chief ot 

told him that 
loins still be- 

saying, ver)' 

mg'H Sprond Ex 
convoys as iiicoi- 
n tiiat work, doe? 

justly, that the dissension growing- out of such a nuasiirc, on my 
jjurt, might lead to tjuairels, which woidd entirely interrupt and 
frustrate the designs of the whole party. His advice, though I 
knew it to be good, as far as the interest of tlie whole was con- 
cerned, did notliing to remove my private grievances, and I went 
Innn one to another of the Ottawwaws, and those whom I con- 
.-idered my friends amono- the Djibbeways, and «'ndeavoured to 
persuade them to join me in taking horses from the Assinneboins. 
None would consent, but a young man called (jish-kau-ko, a 
lelative of him by whom I was taken jji-isoner. He agreed to 
watch with me liie thirteen Assinnei)oins remaining with our 
parly, and, if an opportunity offered, to assist in taking horses 
from them. Soon after, f saw eight of tliese men lingering in 
the encampment one morning, and I believed it was their Miten- 
tion to turn back. I called (Jisli-kan-ko to watch them with me. 
and when most of th(^ Ojibbeways had left the camp, we sau 
rlu ni ifi't on their hor'\s, and tmii their faces towards home. 
We followed after them, though they were well armed. As \\c 
knew we could not lake their horse-; by violence, we tlirew down 
our arms in our camp, and followed them with nothing in our 
bands. One of them stojipcnl sonte distance in the rear of the 
retiring party, and dismounted, to hold a parley with us ; but. 
tiiey were too wary and cautious to give us any opportunity of 
taking their horses. We tried entreaties, and at last, as I saw 
there was no hope, I t<dd them their five companions that were 
left in our camp, woidit not be safe among us; but this, instead 
of ha\ing any good effect, oidy induced them t(( send a messen- 
ger on their swiftest horse, to warn thos«' men to beware of me. 
We returned to the main party on foot, and took the first op- 
portunity to visit the cani[» of the live remaining Assinneboins ; 
but they were notified of our approach, and fled with their 
horses. At a lake near Red Kiver, we found hanging on a tree 
in the woods, the body of a yoimg Sioux, called the Ked Tlum- 
der. We wi-re now on the path of the retiring war-party, 
which had killed our chief, and to which this young man had be- 
longed. The Ojibbeways threw down the body, bent, kicked, 
and scalped it. IV-shau-ba forl)ade me and the other young 
men of his party, to join the Ojibbeways in these unnianly out- 
rag. «. Not far from this place we fotmd a prisoner's pole. 




I." 1 ' i 

I ■ 




where thoy had danrcd some prisoners, whicli first convinced up 
that some of onr friends had been taken alive. The trail of the 
party was still recent, and we thought ourselves but two or three 
days behind them. 

At Lake Traverse, our number had (^iminished to one hundred 
and twenty ; of these, three men were half breed Assinneboins, 
about twenty Crees, and as many Ottawwaws, the rest ()jil)be- 
ways. Many of the party had been discouraged by unfavou.a- 
ble divinations; among others, one by Pe-shau-ba, the Oltaw- 
waw chief, made on the first night after we left Pendiinah. He 
told us, that in his dreuni he saw the eyes of the .Sioux, like the 
sun ; they saw every where, and always discovered the Ojibbc- 
Tvays before the latter came near enough to strike them ; also, 
that he had seen all our party returning, unharmed, and without 
scalps ; but he said, that on the left hand side of Lake Traverse, 
opposite our road, he saw two lodges of .Sioux by themselves, 
which he intended to visit on his return. 

Due Avest from Iiake Traverse, and at the distance of tAVu 
days' travel, is a mountain, caller! O-ge-mah-wud-ju, (chief moun- 
tai?i,) and near this is the village to which ilu; party we were 
pursuing belonged. As we approached tliis mountain, we moved 
in a more cautious and guarded manner, most coiinnonly lyin^ 
hid in the woods during the day, and travelling at night. When 
at last we were within a few miles, we halted in the middle of 
the night, and waited for the approach of the earliest dawn, the 
time the Indians commonly choose for an attack. Late in the 
night, a warrior of high reputation, called the Black Puck, took 
the reins of his horse's bridle in his hand, and walked on towards 
the village, allowing me to accompany liim. We arrived at 
early dawn, at the little hill which sheltered our approach from 
the village. Raisinj/ his head cautiously, the Black Duck saw 
two men walking at some distance before him. He then de- 
scended the hill a little, and tossing his blanket in a peculiar 
manner, made a signal to the Ojibbeways to rush on. Then fol- 
lowed tearing off of leggins, stripping off of blankets, and in an 
instant the whole band leaped naked to the feet of the Black 
Duck; and now they moved silently, but swiftly, over the crest 
of the hill, and stood upon the site of the village. The two men. 
whpn they discovered the war-party, instead of liying, came de- 





invinced ue 
trail of the 
ivo or three 

ne hundred 
est Ojihbe- 
ihe Ollaw- 
binah. He 
iix, like the 
the Ojibbe- 
them ; also, 
and without 
e Traverse, 

nice of twu 
chief moiin 
rty we wen 
1, we nu)ved 
monly lyino 
rht. When 
e middle ol 
St dawn, the 
ate in th< 
~)uck, tooK 
on toward^ 
arrived at 
)roach from 
Duck saw 
e then de- 
a jieculiar 
Then fol- 
and in an 
the Black 
r the rresl 
le two men. 
. came de- 

liberately towards them, and presently stood before the leaders — 
two of the youn^ men of their own band. They had left the 
party when they halted, and, without «riviiiof notice of their in- 
tention, <rone forward to reconnoitre wlial they supposed to be 
the position of the enemy; but they tomul the camp had been 
deserted many hours bH'ore, and when the paily cuine up they 
were wallvinj^ about, an'' carinji away tlie wolve-^ (roni among 
the rul)bisli. The Sjis-sah-kwi, (m- war whoop, was raised by 
the whole !)and, as they rushed up. 'I'his loud and jnercino- 
shout intimidates and overcomes the weak, or those who are sur- 
prised without arm.5 in their hands, while it r.iuses the spirit of 
such as are prepared fv)r battle, [t has also, as I have seen in 
many instances, a surprisiiicr etl'ect iij)on animals. I have seen a 
buiialoe so frii|;hteneil I)y it as to fall down in his steps, beini! 
able neither to run, nor to make resistaiu'e ; and a bear, at hear 
ing il, is sometimes so terrcn'-stricken, as to (piit his hold, and 
fall from the tree in utter helplessness. Tlie chiefs whom wo 
Ibllowed, were m)t willinji to reliiKjuish the objects of the jour- 
ney, and we still followed, from day to day, alonir the recent 
trail of the Sioux. We found, at each of their encampments, the 
j)lace of their ko-sau-bun-zitch-e-irun, from the appearance ol 
which we were able to infer, that they knew accurately our po- 
sition, from day to day. There was now maidfesl amonj^ the 
)'^oun)r men of our party, a previiiiinir disposition to desert. This 
the chiefs laboured to prevent, by appointing certain person;^, 
whom they could trust, to act as sentiind-^, both in the encamp- 
ments and during ilio marches ; but this measuns thouirh often 
tried, is always so far from being elleciual, that it seems greatly 
to increase the number of desertions, |)erhaps because the young 
men despise the idea of restraint of any kind. They, on this oc- 
casion, became more and more restless and trovd)lesome, after 
we had crossed over to the head of the river St. Peters, in pur- 
suit of the Sioux. The traders have a fort somewhere on the 
upper part of this river, to which the Sioux had (led. When we 
arrived within a day's march of this [dace, fear and hesitancy be- 
came manifest nearly throughout the band. The chiefs talked 
of sending youmr men forward to examine the position ol the 
enemy ; but uo young men oflered themselves for the under- 

i. li 

/ .;^v 

i <f'.. 

(.* ■ - 

< T 

' ri u 





We remained some time stationary, and the opportxmity was 
taken to supply the wants of some who were delicienl in niocca- 
sinti, or other important articles. Any man who is on a war party, 
and whose supply ol mocciisiiis, or o!' powder and ball, or any 
other common and necessary article, has failed, takes a little of 
what he stands in need, and if it he moccasins,, he takes a single 
moccasin in his hand, and walks about the encampment, pausing 
a moment before such of his companions as he hopes will supply 
his demand. He has no occasion to say any thing, as those who 
happen to have plenty of the article he wants, are conunonly 
ready to furnish him. Should this method fail, the chief of the 
party goes from one man to another, aiui from those who have 
the greatest cpuintity, he takes as much as may be necessary, of 
the article re(]uiied. He is, on these occasions, dressed as for 
battle, and accompanied by two or three young warriors. 

After a delay of two days, on that part of our path nearest tho 
Sioux trader's fort, we all turned back : but not entirely relin- 
quishing the objfct of our journey, we returned to the vicini'y of 
the village at the Chief Mountain, hoping we might hnd some of 
our enemies there. We had many horses, and the young men 
rode so recklessly and noisily about, that there was no chance of 
coming near them. After leaving I'hief Mountain, and proceed- 
ing some distance into the plain, in oin* way t wards home, wc 
found we were fidlowed by a party of about one hundred Sioux. 

At the (iaunenoway, a considerable river which heads in the 
Chief Mountain, and runs into Red Fiiver, several days' journej' 
from Lake Traverse, Pe-shau-ba (|uarrell('d with an Ojibl)ewa\ 
called Ma-nien-o-guaw-sink,on account of a horse I had taken from 
some Crees who were the frieiuis of the Assinneboins, l)y whom 
I had long before been robbed of mine. This man having killed 
a Cree, was now anxious to do something to gain friends among 
that people. It happened that Pe-shati-l)a and myself were tra- 
velling together, at a little distance from the main body, and I was 
leading the horse I had taken, when Ma-nie-no-guaw-sink came 
uj) to us, accompanied b\ a few friends, and demanded the h(»rse. 
Pe-shau-ba, cockiuiJ his gun, placed the muzzle of it to his heart, 
and so intimidated him by threats and reproaches, that he de- 
sisted. The Ottawwaws, to the number of fen, now stopped, Pc- 
shau-ba remaining at their head, and fell in the rear of the main 

tanner's nakkativk. 


ity was 


r party, 
or any 

liltle of 

a sinfflo 


1 supply 

lose who 


ef of the 

vho have 

ssary, of 

5ecl as for 


earrst tho 

ely reUii- 

'ioini'y of 

(1 some of 

[)uni!; men 

chiinre of 

i\ proceed- 
home, wo 

lieil Sioux, 
ads in i\w 
s' journey 

taken fiom 
hy whom 
king killed 
nds among 
If were tra- 
, and I was 
|-sink camo 
the horse. 
|o his heart, 
lat he de- 
Lopped, Pe- 
lf the main 

body, in order to avoid farther trouble on account of this horse, 
all of them being apparently unwilling that I should relinquish it. 

There were four men of this war party, who walked, in six 
days, from the Chief Mountain to Peml)inah ; but our band, tliough 
many of us had horses, took ten days to travel the same distance. 
One of the four was an old man, an Ottawwaw, of Wau-gun-uk- 
kezze, or L'Arbre Croche. When I arrived at Pembinah, I fotmd 
my family liad gone down to the mouth of the Assiiuieboin. After 
the separation of our party, most of my parlindar friends having 
left my route at Penibinali, my horse was stolen from me at nigiit. 
I knew who had taken him, and as the man was encamped at no 
great distance, I took my arms in my hands, and went in the 
morning to retake him ; but on my way I met Pe-shau-ba, who, 
M'ithout a word of enciuiry, comprehended my j)urpose, and pe- 
remptorily forbatie me to proceeil. Pe-shau-ba was a g(jod man, 
and had great influence with the people of his band. I might 
have gone on to take my horse, contrary to his positive injunc- 
tion, but I did not choose to do so, and therefore returned with 
him on my way. I had now no moccasins, and felt so much irri- 
tated on account of tlie loss of my horse, that I could not eat. 
When I arrived at home, in two day's walk from Pembinah, I 
founrl I was worn out with fatigue, my feet swollen and raw, and 
I found my family starving. Three months I had been absent, 
my lime having been occupied in long and toilsome marches, all 
■'^suiting in nothing. 

It was necessary for me to go to hunt immediately, although 
the condition of my feet was such, that I could not stand without 
great pain, and I had the good fortune to kill a moose the first 
time I went out, on the morning after my return. The same day- 
snow fell about two feet deep, which enabled me to kill game in 
great plenty. 





%!.<:< '• 



tanner's NARKAXIVB, 


Visit to sp.veral Assinnrboin villages, in pursuit of stolen horsps — peculiar customs 
— I Bcizc a horse Ix-longing to an Assinnrlioiii — war excursion lo Turtle Moun- 
tain — battle at a village of the Mandans — doctrines of the SJhawncse prophet — 
drunkenness, and its eflects. 

W'. i 

I HAD been at home btit a short time, when I heard that the 
Assinneboins had boasted of takini; my horse. As I was iirepa- 
ring to go in pursuit of them, an Ojibbeway, who had often ♦ried 
to dissuade me from any attempt to recover him, gave me a hoi -c, 
on condition that I would not attempt to retake my own ; ac- 
cordingly, for some time, I said no more about it. 

Having spent the winter at the month of the Assinneboin, I 
went to make sugar at (ireat Wood River ; but here it was told 
me that the Assinneboins were still boasting of having taken my 
horse from me ; and I, with some persuasion, prevailed upon Wa- 
me-gon-a-biew to accompany me in an attempt to recover him. 
At the end of four day's journey, we came to the first Assinne- 
boin village, ten miles from the Mouse River trading house. 
This village consisted of about thirty leather !■ dges. We were 
discovered before we came to the village, as tlie Assinneboins, 
being a revolted band of the Sioux, and in alliance with the Ojib- 
beways, are in constant apprehension of attacks from the former, 
and therefore always station some persons to watch for the ap- 
proach of strangers. The quarrel which resulted in the separa- 
tion of this band of the Bwoir-nug, or "roasters," as the Ojibbe- 
ways call the Sioux, originated in a dispute concerning a woman, 
and happened, as we are informed, not many years ago. So many 
Ojibbeways and Trees now live among them, that they are most 
commonly able to understand something of the Ojibbeway lan- 
guage, tliough their own dialect is very unlike it, resembling 
closely that of the Sioux. 

One of the men who came out to meet us, was Ma-me-no^ 



uliar custoiua 
rurtli' Moun- 
Bse prophet— 

rd that the 
was irepa- 
lofii II 'ied 
me a hill ^c, 
iV own; ac- 

sinneboin, I 
? il was told 
II g taken my 
ed upon Wa- 
lecover him. 
irst Assinne- 
uling house. 
We were 
th the Ojib- 
II the former, 
for the ap- 
11 the separa- 
the Ojibbe- 
ng a w oman, 
go. So many 
,ev are most 
libbeway lau- 
L resembhng 

Is Ma-me-no- 

Kwaw-sink, with whom Pe-shau-ba had quarrelleil, some time be- 
fore, oil my arrouiU. When ho eame up to us, he asked whither 
we were ffoiuir. I told him, " I am come for our horses, wliieh 
the Assiriiioborus stole." "You had better," said he, »• return as 
you eaiiie, for if you go to the village, they will take your life." 
To these threats I j)ai(l no attention, l)ut eiKjuired for Ba-gis-kim- 
nung, the men of whose family had taken our horses. They re- 
plied they could not tell ; that Ba-gis-kuu-nuug and his sons had, 
soon at'ter the retiun of the war |)arty, gone to the Mandans, and 
Jiad not yet come hack ; that wlicn they came among the Man- 
dans, the former owner of my mare, recognizing the animal, had 
taken her from the son of Ba-gis-kun-nung ; but that the latter 
contrived to remunerate himself, by stealing a fine black horse, 
with which he escaped, and had not been heard of since. Wa- 
me-gon-a-biew JH-ing discouraged, and perhaps intimidiitcdhy the 
reception wo met in this village, endeavoured to dissuade me from 
going farther ; and when he found he coidd not prevail, he left 
ine to pursue my horse by myself, and returned home. I woidd 
not he discouraged, but determined to visit every village and camp 
of the Assinneboins, rather than return without my horse. I went 
to the Mouse River trading house, and having explained the ob- 
ject of my journey, they gave me two pouiuls of powder and 
thirty balls, with some knives and small articles, and directions 
to enable me to find the next village. As I was pursuing my 
journey by myself, I had occasion to cross a very wide prairie, 
in which I discovered at a distance, something lying on the ground, 
resembling a log of wood. As I knew there could be no wood 
in such a place, ludess it were drop})ed by some person, I thought 
it was most probably some article of dress, or perhaps the body 
of a man, who might have ))erished on a journey, or when out 
hunting. I made my a])proach cautiously, and at length disco- 
vered it was a man, lying on his belly, with his gun in his hands, 
and waiting for wild geese to fly over. His attention was fixed 
in the direction opposite that on which I approached, and I came 
very near him without being discovered, when he rose and dis- 
charged his gun at a flock of geese. I now sprang upon him ; the 
noise of hawk bells, and the silver ornaments of my dress, notified 
him of my appuoach, but I caught him in iny arms before he had 

time to make any resistance, his gun being unloaded. When he 


) i 


, iX 

I i'^ '. 



saw hiiiiseil captured, hv crird out " Assiniiehoiu," and f au- 
Mwercd, "Ojibhpway." We were both jilad to find tlint we could 
ireat eaclj other as Irioiids ; and tiioiijrh wi' rmdd not conversfc, 
on account of" till' dissinnlarily of our dialects, I motioned to him 
to sit down upon the jjround beside mo, willi which re(iuest ho 
immediately com])li(>d. 1 ^ave him a ^oose I had killed not lon^; 
holbro, and after restin<rfora f«'w moments, signified to him that I 
wo\dd accomj)an> him to his lo<l}re. A walk of about two hours, 
iirou^rhi us in sijrlu of his villajfo, and when we entered it, 1 fol 
lowed him immediately to his lod{fe. As I entered after him, { 
'saw the old nutn aiul woman cover their heads with their blan- 
kets, and my companion immediately entered a small lodge, 
merely larf;o enough to admit <nu', and to conceal him from tlx 
remainder of the family. Here he remained, his food beiiii. 
handed to him by his wife ; but thoujrh secluded from sight, li< 
maintained, by cctnversation, some inferco\n'so with those wiili 
nut. When ho wished to pass out of the lodj^e, his wife jravi 
notice to her j)ari'nls, and they concealed their lieails, and ajrain. 
in the same manner, when he came in. 

This formality is strictly observed by the nuirried men ainoiiL 
the Assinneboins. and I believe aiuonir all the Hwoi-nuL^ or Daii 
ko-tah, as they call tluniselves. It is known to exist amoiiii tin 
Omowhowsof the Missouri. It affects not only the intercoms 
between men and the parents of their wives, but that with tluii 
aunts ami uncles ; and it is the business of all parties alike, ti 
avoid seeinif each other. If a man enters a dwi'lliutf in whid 
his son-in-law is sealed, the latter conc<'als his face until he ii( 
|)arts. While the younif men remain with the parents of tlin: 
wives, they have h little separate lodj^e within, or a part dividn 
off by Huspendin<r units or skins ; and into this little apartment ili 
wife retires at niirlit; by day she is the orifan of conimunicalin; 
with those without. A man rarely, if e\or, meiilimis the uniiK 
of his father-in-law, and it is considered hiifhly indecorous iiiiil 
ilisresj)ectfnl for him to do so. This custom does not exi>t iii 
any shape amonjr the Ojibbeways, and they look upon it as a 
very foolish and troublesiune one. 

'i'lie people o| this lod>>c tieateil me with niu.h kindnifo 
VotwitlHtamliuif the ureal scarcity of corn in the country, tliev 
had a little reserved, which ihev cooked and l'Hvp me. Tl'' 

10 star 
on a t 


I had 

ihey h 

used l( 





into noi 

i<) HOC i 

Id" the 
<hu-t. in 



lANNKR S NAIMl.V'l 1\ I.. 


and I au- 
at wc could 
t converse, 
)nod to liiiii 

rf<ivH'st li'' 
til not lonji 
1) him that I 
I two hours, 
•rod it, 1 M 
alliM- ]nn\, \ 
I tht'ir blau- 
small h)dgc. 
iin> from thi 
< food bt'iiis; 
oin sitrht, Iw 
li those willi 
his wife tra\i 
lis, and agiuii. 

d men amoiis: 

i-nutr. or l^'*'' 

isl innon^ tin 

he intereour-i 

lilt with tlitu 

ities alike, u 

iii^r in whirl 

until he di 
rents of lluii 

part ilividi'i 
Hmrtnienl iln 
Dus the uaiiii 
uleeorous ain' 
•s not exi>t ill 

ti|)on it ;i< 1 

ui.h kini'iit'i'^ 
ronntry, i'"'^ 
Hve me. Th' 

\ ouug nuni mid them how much he had been friglileiied by me 
in the prairie, at whieli tlity all laughed heartily. This village 
i-onsisted of twenty-five lodges ; but although I iiKpiired of many 
<jf them, none knew where Ba-gis-kun-nung was to be found. 
There was another village at the distance of about one day's jour- 
ney : he ndght be there. I renuiined a little while at the lodge 
of the young man I had found in the prairie, anti then went out 
to start f(»r the next village, (ieese were Hying over, and I raised 
mv gnu and shot one. It fell in the nndst of a nund)er of Assiu- 
nehoins. Seeing there a very old and miserable looking man, 
[ motioned lo him to go and get it. Hut he must come up 
to me to express his gratitude, by a method 1 had not before seen 
iise»l. lie came up, and placing both haiuls on the lo|) of my 
head, jiassed them .several tinu's down the long hair that himg 
over my shoulders, at the same lime saying sonu-lhing in his own 
iiuiouage, which I could not imdt^rstaml. He then went and took 
lip the goose, and returning, connnunicated to nu' by signs which 
I iiad no dittictdty to understaml, that 1 must goto his lodge and 
<'at with him, before I could leave the village. While he Avas 
looking the go(»se, 1 went about from lodge to lodge, to look ai 
iheir horses, thinking I might see mine among them, but i did 
not. Some ot the young men uf the village accoin|)anie(l mv, hiil 
\iithoiit any arms, and all seemed friendly ; but when I was ready 
10 start (or the next village, I noticed that one of them, mounted 
on a fleet horse, starlt-d to |)rece(le me. 

When I arrived al this villajre, no one took the slightest notice 
i»f ii'p. or even seenud to si'c nu-. They were a baud with which 
I had previously had m» acipiaintance, and I could p«'rceive that 
they had bi'en prejudiced against me. 'I'heir chi«'f, whom we 
used lo call Kali-(»ge-uiaw-we( t Assinncboin, (llie ciiief Assiune- 
l)(un,) was a distinguished hunter, but he was soini afterwards 
killed. He had been unusually long absent from honu , and b) 
following his track, they found he had been attacked by a grizzly 
bear in the prairie, ami killed. 

Fiudiuti the peoph> of this baud decitledly unfriendly, I weni 
into none of their lodges, bin stood about, watchiiii: th«'ir horses, 
io see if I conhl discover mine among them. I had heard nnicb 
id" the fleetnesrt and beauty of a young horse belonging to the 
' hief. and I s«ion recoifnized this animnl. known to me onlv by 

/;•■ ,' if 

* < 

. \ 



W ' ' . 

hi :'( 

flescription. I had a lialter under my blanket, and watching u 
favourable opportunity. I slipfx'd it on llic head of this horse, 
mounted him, and Hew ratiier than fled. I was excited to this 
action, principally by a ieelinffol' irritation at the unl'riendly con- 
duct of the people of the villaire, as it had not been my intention 
to take anv liorse but the one which beionjred 1(» me. When the 
horse and myself were out of breath, 1 slopped to look bark, and 
the Assinneboin lodges were scanv visible, like little specks on 
the distant prairie. 1 now rellected that I was doing wrong, to 
steal away the favctnrite horse of a man who hail never absolutely 
injured me, though he had refused the customary dues o( hospi- 
tality towards a stranger. I got down and let't the liorse, but 
had scarce done so, when 1 saw thirty or forty men on horseback, 
who had before been concealed in a depression in the prairie ; 
they were in pursuit, and very near me. 1 had scarce time to 
fly to a thicket of low hazel bushes, when they were upon me. 
They rode about for s(»me time on horseback searching, and this 
delay gav«' me some little time to choose a place of concealment. 
.4t length they dismounted, and dispersed themselves in variou> 
directions, seeking for me. Sonu' came near me, and then turned 
ofl' Id search in other directions. My position was such that I 
could watch their motions without the risk of exposing myself 
One young man stripped himself as for battle, sung his war song, 
laid aside his gun. and canu' with only his war did) direcii\ 
towards the spot where I lay. He was witlun about twenty step^- 
of me, my gun was <(i(ked and aimed at his Inarl, when lie 
turned and went back. It is not probable he 8aw mc ; but the 
idea uf being watched l)y ati imseen enemy armed with a gun, and 
whose position he could not hope to ascertain until he was al- 
most over iiini, pr«bubly overcame his res(dution. They con 
tinned their unavailing search until mar night, and then returned, 
takiiur the chief's horse to their village. 

I travi lletl towards home, rejoicing in my escape, and without 
slopping for the nijrht. either on ihut or the succeeding one, and the 
third night arrived at the Mouse Kiver trading house. The tra- 
ders told me I wan a fool that I had not brought the chief's 
horse; they had heard much of his ipialities, and would, as they 
nniti, have paid iin> a hiuh price for him. 

In the Assinneboin village, ten miles from iIiIh trndiiig houi»r. 




[filing u 
1 horse, 

lu this 
idly con- 
VI ion the 
mr k, and 
pocks on 
vroug, to 
of hospi- 
lorse, l)Ut 
B prairie ; 
e tinu' to 
upon nic. 
tr, antl this 
ill variolic 
H'li tnnu'cl 
lull that I 
lljr iiiysill 
; war song. 
il) direr I ly 

iMity sli'p>- 

wlu'n lit; 

\v . hut tin 

a ginii ami 
[he was al- 

riicy I'on- 

ji relumed, 

Lid without 

[lie, and the 

The tra- 

he «hit'fV 

Id, as they 

lliiig houur. 

J. had a friend called Be-na, (pheasant,) and when I had passed 
throu'rh I recpM^sted him, while I should he absent, to endeavour 
lo discover my horse, or at least to ascertain, and be able to tell 
me, where I could lind lia-iris-kun-iiiiiijf. When I returned 
thither, after visiting Mouse River iradiiiij; house, Ue-na took mo 
immediately into a lodge wh( re a couple of old women lived, 
and looking through the crevices, he pointed out to me the lodgo 
of Ba-gis-kun-nunir, and those of his four sons. Their horses 
were feeding about, and amoiiir them we distin<riiished the tine 
black one they had brought frnm the Maiidaiis in place of mine. 
VVa-ine-ffon-a-blew had been lo the trading house, but returned 
thence to the village belore I arrived, and was now waiting for 
me at tlu" lodge of smne of the sons of a br'ilher of Taw-ija-wc- 
niime, who wei«' of course his cousins, and were very frieiidiy to 
jiim. He had sent messengers to Ba-gis-kun-nung, otleriiiir him 
a good gun, a <liief's coal, and all the |>ro|)erty he had about him, 
for a horse to ride home on. But when I heard this, I reproved 
liim severely, and told him that if Ba-gis-kun-nimt> had accejited 
his ])r<'sents, it wmild only have (iccasi(uied addititmal tr<nible to 
me, as I should have been c om|ielled to take not only a horse, but 
those presents also. 

Soon after my arrival in the village, I went to Ba-gis-kun-nung. 
-;'d to him, "I want a horse." "I shall not give you (uie," 
n vered. "I will tiike one from you." "If you <lo I will 
.ioot you." With this I returned lo the lodge of B«'-na, and 
made my preparations for siartiiiir at an early hour in the morn- 
ing. Be-na gave me a new bidlaloe r(die to ride home on, and I 
got from an (dd woman, a piece of leather thong litr :t lialler. 
havinnr left mine on the chief'-i horse. I did not sleej) in Be-iia's 
loda^e. but with our cousins, and very early in the inorniiiir, as I 
was reaily to start, I went to Be-iiu's lodo(>, but he was not awake, 
I had a very irnod new bliinkel, whi<h I -|»nail over him without 
makinu any noise; then, loixellier with Wa-me-guu-a-biew, I 
aturted. When we came in siirlii (d" tlir lodirc of Ba-t,ns-kun-nim>{, 
we s;iw the eldest of his sous silliiiif dm the oiilside, and watching' 
the horses. Wa-mc-gmi-a-biew endeavoured lo dissuade me from 
the desiirn of allempting lo lake (»ne, since we could not do it 
withoiii being seen, and liad every reason to believe they were 
prepared to uhp violent measures to prevent us from succeeding 

ij 4. ■ 

^m f 




1 i 


'. u 

in the attempt. I told liini I would not listen to liis advice, but 
consented to go witli him two hundred yards on our road, and la> 
down our bagiriiae ; then we were to return together, and take 
the h(»rs(?. When we liad proceeded as I'ar as I thought neces- 
sary, I laid down my load ; but Wa-me-gon-a-biew, seeing me re- 
solute in my determination, began to run. At the same lime that 
he star?f>d to run from the viilaiie, I ran towards it, and the son 
of" Ba-gis-kun-nung, wluii he saw me coming, began to call out 
as loud as he could in his own language. I could oidy distinguish 
the words " Wah-kah-towali," and " Shoonk-ton-gah," (Ojibbe- 
way — horse.) 1 siip|)ose(l he said, "an Ojibbeway is taking a 
horse." I answered, " Kah-ween-gwautch Ojibbeway," (mu al- 
together an Ojibbeway.) The \illagewas instantly in motion. 
In the faces o(" most of those who gathered round, 1 could see no 
settled determination to act in any way ; but there was en- 
coiiriigement in the countenances of m\ friend Hc-na and a luiin- 
ber ot I'rees who were al)oiit him. There was manitest hostility 
only in the Ba-gis-kun-nungs. 1 was so agitated that I could not 
feel iny feet touch the ground, but i think I was not afraid. 
Wlii-n I had got my halter on the head of the black horse. I stood 
for a moment hesitating to get on liim; as in the act of doing so. 
1 must for llie nutment, deprivi- myself of the power oi t'sing m\ 
arms, and could not avoid exposing myself to an attack behind. 
But recollecting (hat any thing like indeci-ioii, would at this time 
hav<' a most uidiivonrable effect, I jiave a jump lo moinit th, 
horse, but jiimpeil so much higher and farther than was neces- 
sary, that I fell sprawling on the gruuiid on the other side of the 
horse, my (run in one hand, my bow and arrows in the other. I 
regained my feet as soon as I could, and looked romid to watch 
the motions of hiv • nemirs ; but piesetitly an imi\eisal shout ot 
laughter, in whicii all joined but the Ba-gis-kun-nunirs, gave nic 
!S<Mne C(m!'dence, Mid I procee 'ed more deliberately to mount. 
I knew if ibey could hav«! ventured to nuike any open attack on 
me, it WMuld have been at the tinu- I was lying on the gromul. 
and not in a situati(ni to make any danger(Uis resistance. The 
loud and hearty laut^hter of the Indians, c(mvinced me also, tlinl 
whul I was doing wns not generally (dli-nsive to them. 

When I turned lo ride ofl', I saw Wa-me-gon-a-biew still rui\- 
nine like a t'riuhtenod turkey : he was almoHtout of siiihl. When 





and lay 
ul tako 
L neces- 
r me rc- 
ime that 

tlie son 

call out 
lakiiig a 
' (not al- 

ik! SCO no 

was cn- 
1(1 ii luim- 
t hoslilitv 
cotiltl nm 
lol afraid, 
sc, I stood 
f doing so. 

csing •»> 

k behind. 
\ tViis time- 
monnl thi 
was ncces- 

sidc of till' 

other. 1 

1(1 to watfh 

il shout of 

s, gave nu 
til nuxiiii. 

|u attack uu 

ic ground. 

knee. The 

[«■ also, that 

l\v still riiit- 
Lhl. "When 

1 overtook him, I saidv " My brother, you must be tired, I will 
lend you my horse," and we went on together. At length, we 
saw two men coming on horseback from the village, to pursuit 
us. Wa-me-gon-a-biew was alarmed, and would have rode olV. 
leaving me to settle the difliculty w iih them as i could ; but per- 
ceiving his intention, 1 called to him to leave the horse, which 
he did, and resumed his race on foot. Wiieix the two men had 
approached within about half a ndle of me, I got down from tlif 
Jiorse. aiul taking the halter in my hand, stood with my face to- 
wards tliem. They stoj)peil in the j)aih, at a distance frotn me. 
and looking around in the other direction, I perceived that VVa- 
me-gon-a-biew had concealed himself in the bushes. The two 
men stood in the road, and 1 remained holding my horse nearly 
in the same place until near noon. The people of the village 
stood, in great numbers, on a little elevation close by the lodges, 
anil watched to see what woidd be done. The two IJa-gis-kun- 
nunirs, after they W'cre tired of standing, sei)arated, aiut one 
came round on one side, the other on the other, and came up op- 
posite to me ; and it was then 1 thought they woulil approach me. 
one on one side, the other on the other, and thus get an opportu- 
nity to shoot me down ; but after coming near me once or twice, 
they went on, aiul got together in the road, between me and Wa- 
me-gon-a-biew. I now began to tire of their pusilanimous be- 
haviour, and getting on my horse, 1 rode toward them ; but they 
Imiied out of my way, and went around to the village. In this 
iilVair, I foimd Wa-iiie-gon-a-biew more cowardly than it was 
usual even for him to be; but it hap|)ened that the chiefs, and 
the considerate men of the band to whom Ba-gis-kun-nung be- 
lomred, were glad I had come to take a horse. Ua-gis-kuii-mmg 
and his sons were considered troublesome and bad men ; hence 
it was, that I was able to ,arry throiigii this enterj)rise without 
any assistance from \N a-me-jjon-a-bicw. 

After tlm two men turn«'d hack, I rode along, and Wa-me- 
gon-a-biew joined me fr<tm the bushes, where he had been con- 
cealed. We found that niglit the lodire of our old friend, NVaw- 
ao, who used formerly to live with Pe-shau-ba. The horse I 
Iwd taken I concealed in the woods, and did not wish to tell Waw- 
so of what I had done. Hul in the mid le of the night, after I 
fell aslec)). Wa-me-uon-a-biew begai» to relate to him all that hud 





tanner's narrative. 

W f 

I '<:■. 

t < 4 

i \ 


happened the preceding day, and when he came to hear of my 
juniping over the horse, ol" which I had tohl Wa-nie-gon-a-biew, 
the ohi man waked me with liis loud and hearty laughter. 

We spent the night with Waw-so, and next morning continued 
on our journey, towards Ko-te-kwaw-wi-ah-we-se-be, where I 
lived. 1 had now two horses, and a friend of mine coming 
along, who had none, I promised to give him one ; but as he was 
not then going home, he del'eired taking it unlii he should pass 
again. In the mean time, the horse 1 had intended for him, 
died of a brok( n lilood vessel, so that I had none remaining but 
the black horse, which I called Mandaii, and to which I had be- 
come much attached ; but when the man returned, 1 could do no 
otherwise than give him this one. My wife cried, and 1 felt 
much regret at parting with iliis valuable horse. 

Three months alter this, the Crees sent tobacco to the Ojibbe- 
ways, to accompany them to the Mandans, and join in an attack 
on some of the Bwoi-nug, in the country of the Missouri. As 
these messages were going about, I recived word Irom Ua-gis- 
kun-nung, that he did not wish to liave me join in the war-j)arty. 
This amounted to a threat to take my life if I went, but 1 i)aicl 
no attention to it. 

In six days 1 could go I'rom my place to Turtle Mountain, 
where the Crees were assembling, in considerable numbers. I 
had been waitins; about one month, when Wa-ge-tole arrived 
with sixty men, on his way to IIk' rende/vous. Here eit[ht of us 
joined him, and ga\e wliat assistance we could in j)rovisiuns, to 
his party, who ha<l been starving for some lime. Soon we were 
all suffering alike ; we bad liavcllcd on two or three days, when 
twenty young men were selected t<i go and hunt biilliih»e. Wn- 
ge-tt)te insisted that I must go witli them, but I declined. He 
urged it upon me rejiealedlv, and, at last, taking my load on his 
own shoidders, lie said, " i\ow, my mpliew, you must go, audi 
will curry your load (ny \iiu, till you join us again." I went 
forward a short distance, and Inul tin good foilime to kill an elk. 
Th«' Indians fell on it like hmiiiry dogs, and so(»n not a particle 
of it was left, tlnMigh 1 believe not more than half of those that 
were in a starving condition tis.ed of it. The twenty men tliut 
had been sent out, returned without having killed any thing. 
They now becfune so weak from hunger, that nund)ers were loO, 




■ ot my 

whoro I 
IS he was 
)ulil pass 
lor liim, 
iniiiii but, 
I hail l)c- 
iild do no 
ami I felt 

ic Ojibbc- 
aii attack 
iouii. As 
mi Ba-gis- 
but I paid 

!)eing unable to walk. For many days we had no other food 
than the roots of the Me-tush-koo-she-min,* (grass berry,) an 
esculent root, called Pommeblanch by the Frenchmen. I was 
myself about to fail, when late one night, as all were asleep, an 
old man, a relative of my wife, waked me, and put carefully 
into my hand a small quantity of pemmican, which he had car- 
ried concealed about him. This enabled me to reach the Turtle 
Mountain, to which place, probal)ly, about half of Wa-ge-tote's 
band arrived at the same time. Of those that had parted from 
us, some afterwards joined, some returned to their own country, 
und others were no more heiird of. 

The Assinneboins and Crees whom we had expected to meet 
at Turtle iMount mi, ' eft it some time before ""'' wc had fol- 
lowed on their ! bui "'w days, when we }u *nem return- 
ing. They related to us, that they had arrived at the Mandan 
village just as a war-party of the Sioux had reached the same 
jdace, with a design to attack the town. The Mandan chief said 
lO them, as soon as they came, " My friends, these Sioux hav»! 
come hither to put out my fire. They know not that you are 
here. As they have not come against you, why should your 
blood flow in our quarrel ? Remain, therefore, in my village, 
and you shall see that we are men, and need no help when they 
come to fight us at our own doors." The Mandan village was 
surrounded by a wall of pickets, and close to these the Sioux 
fought all day. At length, an intermission took place, and the 
Mandan cliief, calling to the Sioux from the inside, said to them. 
" Depart from about our villa^re, or we will let out upon you 
our friends, the Ojibbeways, who have been sitting here all day. 
and are now fresh aiul unwearied.*' The Sioux answered, "This 
is a vain boast, made willi a design to conceal your weakness. 
You have no Ojibbeways in your house, and if you had hun 
dreds, we neither fear nor regard them. The Ojibbeways arc 
women, and if your village were full of them, we would, for that 
reason, the sooner come among you." The Crees and Assinne- 
boinfl, hearing these taunts, became irritated, and ran out to at- 




♦ ThiH is one of the sperioit of Pwiriilen, so ahuiulunl in the open countries of 
the MistMturi. When tioiled or roiihtod, the rootB arc exceedingly palatable and 
nulriticiuHi but the exclusive UHe of them commonly ocuusionti deruigement cf 
'he bowels 




I * 


iANNER S N&KKAl'lVi::. 

f . 



lack the Sioux, which the latter perceiving, fled in all directions. 
The Ojibbeways, though they had little share in the fight, were 
^llowed to have some of the scalps taken during the day, and 
one of these fell into the hands of onr chief, Wa-ge-tote, though 
he had not been within several days' march of the scene of ac- 
tion, and with this trophy he returned towards his own coun- 
try. When we reached Turtle Mountain, on our return, we 
were all suffering the extremity of hunger, and many were quite 
unable to travel farther. VVe were, therefore, compelled to stop, 
and of the whole party, there were found only four who had 
strength and resolution enengh remaining, to undertake to hunt. 
These were an old man, called (iitch-e-weesh, (big beaver lodge,) 
two young men, and myself. Gitch-e-weesh, the old man, was 
in high spirits, and expressed the utmost contidence that he 
should kill something. " When I was yet a little boy," said he, 
" the Great Spirit came to me, after I had been fasting for three 
days, and ;old me he had heard my crying, and had come to tell 
me that he did not wish to hear me cry and complain so often, 
but that if ever I was reduced to the danger of immediately 
perishing of hunger, then I sho\dd call uj)on iiim, and he would 
hear and give me something. 1 have never called before, but 
last night I spent in prayer and singing, and I have assurance 
that I shall this day be fed by the boimty of the (Jreat God. I 
have never asked before, and I know that he will not forget his 
promise." We all started at the same time in the morning, but 
went to hunt in ditferenf directions. I hunted all day without 
finding any thing, and so weak was 1, that I could traverse but 
a very small «'Xtent of groimd. It was late when I came in ; the 
two young men were in before me ; all began to desi)air; but old 
Gitch-e-weesh was still absent. At a very late hour he arrived, 
bending under a heavy load of meal. I was selected to cook 
and make an emial division of what he had brought. Next day 
we went to the place where the moose had been killed, all the re- 
mainder of which we soon devoured. 

Near this place, Wa-me-gon-a-biew discovered a large quanti- 
ty of property, which had been left by a band of Assinneboiiis, 
as a medicine sacrifice. Property left in this way is called me- 
tal sas-sah-ge-witch-e-gnn, or puk-ketch-e-gun-nun, and may be 
taken Iiy any friendly party. Rut the ofl'erinifs made to ensure 



success in war, commonly called sah-sah-gc-wiich-c-jorun, may 
not be taken from the place wliere they are left. Wa-me-gon-a- 
biew having been in the top of a tree, at the time he made this 
discovery, and having pointed out the place to the Indians im- 
mediately, was so late in coming down, that every blanket, every 
piece of cloth, and, indeed, every thing of vahie, was seized and 
appropriated before he came up. He said little of his dissatisfac- 
tion at this, though it was evident enough. He went aside and 
s-it down by himself on a log. Disturbing with his foot a pile of 
dry leaves, he found buried under it a brass kettle, inverted, and 
covering a quantity of valuable offerings to the earth. These he 
of course seized upon for himself, and his portion was more 
valuable than that of any other. The blankets, robes, strouding, 
etc. &c. were suspended in trees; but the quantity was largeF 
than is usually seen in places where such sacrifices have been 
made. The Assinneboins had worshij)ped here, when on tiieit 
way to the country of the Sioux. In travelling from this place 
to my home, I killed no more game, and was of course nearly 
famished. When I arrived, my family were in the same situa- 
tion ; but next day I had good luck, and killed an elk ; after- 
wards I was able, by my own exertions, to procure a plentiful 

It was while I was living here at Great Wood River, that 
news came of a great man among the awneese, who had been 
favoured by a revelation of the mind and will of the Great Spirit. 
I was hunting in the prairie, at a great distance fiom my lodge, 
when I saw a stranger approaching ; at first, I was apprehensive 
of an enemy, but, as he drew nearer, his dress showed him to be- 
an Ojibbeway ; but v\hen he came up, there was something ver}' 
strange and peculiar in his manner. He signified to me, that 1 
must go home, but gave no explanation of tlie cause. He rv- 
fused to look at me, or enter into any kind of coiiv< isation. I 
tho\ight he must be crazy, but nevertheless accompanied him to 
my lodge. When we had smoked, he remained a long time si- 
lent, but, at last, began to tell me he had come with a message 
from the prophet of the Shawneese. •' Henceforth," said he, 
" the lire must never be suflered to go out in your lodge. Sum- 
mer and winter, day and night, in the storm, or when it is calm, 
von must remember that the life, in your body, »nd the fire in 




* n 

r ■ ' 





A our lodgr, arc the same, and i, the same date. K you sutter 
your lire to be extiuf^uislicd, at ih, ' n M-nt your life will bv at 
its end. You must not nufler a di live; you must never 

strike cither a man, a woman, a eiiild, or a dojf. The prophet 
himself is cominjf to shake hands with you ; but I have come be- 
fore, that you may know what is the will of the (Jreat Sjiirit, 
eommunicated to ua by him, and to inform you that the jM-eser- 
vation of your life, for a single moment, de|)ends on your entire 
obedience. From this time forward, we are neither to be drunk, 
to steal, to lie, or to go against our enemies. While we yield an 
entire obedience to these commands of llic Great Spirit, the 
Sioux, even if they come to our country, will not be able to see 
us : we shall be protected and made happy." I listened to all 
he had to say, but tohl him, in answer, that I could not believe 
we should all die, in case our lire went out ; in many instances, 
also, it would be dillicnlt to avoid punishing our children ; our 
dogs were useful in aiding us to hunt and take animals, so that I 
could not believe the (treat Spirit had any wish to take them from 
us. He continued talking to us until late at night ; then he la) 
down to sleep in my lodge. I happened to wake first in the 
morning, and perceiving the tire had gone out, I called him to 
get up, and see how many of us were living, and how man\ 
dead. He was prepared for the ridicule I attempted to throw 
upon his doctrine, and told me that 1 had not yet shaken hamls 
with the prophet. His visit had been to prepare me for this im- 
portant event, and to make me aware of the obligations and 
risks I should incur, by entering into the eUf^agement implied in 
taking in my iuind the message of the prophet. I did not rest 
entirely easy in my unbelief. The Indians, generally, received 
ihe doctrine of this man with great humility and fear. Distress 
and anxiety was visible in every countenance. Many killed 
their dogs, and endeavoured to practice obedience to all the 
commands of this new preacher, who still remained among us. 
But, as was usual with me, in any emergency of tliis kind, I 
went to the trarlers, firmly believing, that if the Deity had any 
communications to make to men, they would be given, in the 
first instance, to white men. The traders ridiculed and despised 
the idea of a new revelation of the Divine will, and the thought 
that it should be given to a poor Shawnee. Thus was I conlirm- 



)\\ sutler 
ill be at 
rtl never 
•ome be- 
ill Spirit, 
i proser- 
lur entire 
ie ilruiik, 
^. yield an 
■Spirit, the 
l)le to see 
ned to all 
lOl believe 
dren; our 
?, so that 1 
them from 
lien he lay 
irst in the 
led him to 
how man\ 
1 to throw 
a ken hands 
ior this im- 
ations and 
implied in 
Ilid not rest 
y, received 
llaiiy killed 
to all the 
amonjr us. 
lis kind, I 
Ity had any 
|ven, in the 
lul despised 
the thtMight 
Is 1 conlirm- 

ed in my infidelity. Nevertheless. I did iioi openly avow my 
nnbeliet to ilie Indians, only 1 n'fiised to kill nty dojrs, ami show- 
ed no {Treat dejfree ol" anxiety to comi)ly with his other reiiuire- 
nients. As lon^ as I remained amoM{Lr the Indians, 1 made il ni) 
business to eonlbrm, as far as a|)peared eonsisteiit with my im- 
mediate eonvenienee and comfort, with all their customs. Many 
of their ideas I have aiiopted ; but I always found amon^' them 
opinions which i could not holil. The . sjihbeway whom I havo 
mentioned, remained sonu' lime -.mtini!, the Indians, in my iieiffh- 
bourhood, and gained the attention of the principal men so elVec- 
tually, that a time waH appointed, und a lod^'C j)repared, for the 
solemn and public esponsinjr of the doctrines ol' the prophet. 
When the iK'ople, and I amonsr them, were brought into the lonff 
lodire, prepared for this solemnity, we saw something caref\dly 
concealed under a blanket, in figure and dinu'nsions bearing 
some resemblance to the form of a man. This was accom|)unied 
l>y two young men, who, it was understfiod, attended constantly 
upon it, made its bed at night, us Hir a man, ami slept near il. 
But while we remained, no one went near it, or raiserl the blank ''t 
which was spread over its imknowii contents. Four strings of 
mouldy and discoloured beans, were all tin' remainintr visil)Ie in- 
-iirnia of this important mission. After a lon^j haranoiie, in 
which lli<f prominent features of the new rev lalion were siat<'d 
;iml urged upon the attentiiUi of all. the finir slrintrs of beans, 
which we were tctld were made of the Ue-h itself of the projjhet. 
wen; carried, with muili solemnity, to each man in the lodiie. 
;ind he was expected to take hold of each string at the top, a. id 
draw them gently through his hand. This was called shaking 
hands with the proi»het. and was .-onsidered as solemnlv engaging 
to obey his injunctions, and accept his mission as iVom the Su- 
preme. All the Indians who touched llie beans, had previoiislv 
killed their dogs: they gav( up their me ne hairs, and show- 
ed a disposition to comi)ly with all that should he r''i|uired of 

We had now been for some time assembled in considerable 
numbers; much agitation and terror had |)revaileil among us, 
and now famine began to be felt. The faces of men wore an 
aspect of unusual gloominess ; the active became indolent, and 
the spirits of the bravest seemed to be subdued. I started to 

1 \i 



S' "' 




I'ANNER's) NAnRATlVib'. 

< I, 


hunt with my dogs, whu-h I had ronsiaiitly rrfuserl to kill, ok 
sufler to be killed. By thrir assistance, I louiul and killed a 
bear. On returning home, I said to some of the Indians, ** Mas 
not the Great Spirit giv»^n us our <logs to aid us in proruring 
what is needful lor the support of our life, and can you believe 
he wishes now to deprive us of their services ? The prophet, 
wi are told, has forbid us to sutler our fire to be extiiiL^uished in 
our lodges, and when we travel or hunt, he will not allow us to 
use a Hint and sle<'l, and ue are told he recjuires that no man 
should give tire to another. Can it please the (Jreat Spirit that 
we should lie in our hunting camps without tire ; or is it more 
agreeable to him that we should make lire by rubbing togetlier 
two slicks, than with a Hint and a piece of steel f" But they 
would not listen to me, and the serious enthusiasm which pre- 
\ailed among them so far atU'Cted me, that I threw away my tiint 
and steel, laid aside my medicine bag, and, in many particidars, 
rom])lied with the new doctrines ; but I would not kill my dogs. 
I soon learned to kindle a lire by rubbing some dry cedar, which 
I was careful to carry always about me; but the discontinuance 
of the use of Hint and steel subjected m;iny of the Indians to 
jnuch inconvenience and suH'ering. The inlluence of the Shaw- 
nee prophet was \ ery sensil)ly and painfully tell by the remotest 
Ojibbeways of whom I had any knowledge ; but it was not the 
common impression among them, that his do<'trines had anv 
tendency to unite them in the accomplishment of any human 
purpose, f'or two or three years drunkenness was much less 
frequent than formerly; war was less thought of, and the entire 
aspect of affairs among them, wa-< somewhat changed by the in- 
lluence of one man. But gradually the impression was obliter- 
ated, medicine baLf^^, Hints, and steels, were resinned ; dogs were 
raised, women and children were beaten as before, and the 
Shawnee proplut was despised. At this day he is looked upon 
by the Indians as an impostor and a bad man. 

After the excitement of this afl'air had somewhat subsided, and 
the messengers had left us to visit remoter ba»uls, I went with a 
larjie party of Indians to some of the upper branches of Red 
River, to hunt beaver. I know not whether it was that we were 
emboldened by the promise of the prophet, that we should be 
invisible to the Sioux, but we went much nearer than we, Imd 

IANNKR's narrativk. 


kill, or 
kilU'tl a 
i, " Has 
1 holW-vc 
iiiislu'tl in 
ow us to 
t no man 
spirit that 
is it nutiT 
r totfollier 
But they 
•liich pre- 
ly my tlint 
1 my (h)<!;^. 
liar, which 
Indians to 
■ the Shaw- 
lie remotest 
as not thf 
^s hatl any 
any human 
nnieli less 
the entire 
hy the in- 
« as ohlilev- 
ilogs were 
1', and the 
oked upon 

ibrmerly ventured to their country, it was here, in a border 
region, where both they and ourselves had been afraid to hunt, 
that we now found beaver in the gr«'atest abundance ; here, with- 
out the aid of my gun, I look one hundred large beavers in a 
singh' month, by trapping merely. My fainilj was now ten in 
nuud)er, six (tf whom were cnphan children, and although there 
was no one but niystdf to hunt or trap, I was able, for some time, 
to supi)ly all their wants. At lengtii, beaver began to grow 
scarce, and 1 was comi>elled to shoot an elk. My family had 
been so long unaccustomed to hear guns, that at the sound of 
mine they left the lodge and fled to the woods, believing the 
Sioux had tired upon me. I was compelleil to carry my trajis to 
a greater distance, and to visit ihem only in the middle ot the 
(lay. My gun was constantly in my hand ; if I had occasion to 
do any thiiijr, I held my gun in one hand and lalwured with the 
other. 1 slept a little by day, but during the night, and every 
night, I watched around my lodge. Heing agal out of meat. I 
went to the woods to hunt moose, and in one day killed four. I 
butchered and cut them open without laying down my gu.i. A > I 
was cleaning the last, I heard a gun not more tha.; two hue Ired 
yards from me. I knew that I had advanced nearer to the fron- 
tier of the Sioux than any Ojibbeway, and I did not believe there 
were any of the latter tribe living near me. 1 therefore bc'Vved 
this must be the f?un of a Sioux, and immediately called out o 
him, as 1 sujjposed he must have heard my tiring ; but ko an- 
swer was returned. I watched about me more anxiously than 
before, and at the ap])roach of night stole toward home as silent- 
ly and as cautiously as I could. On the f(dlowing day, I ven- 
tured to examine in the direction of the place where I had heard 
the gun, and found the tracks, which proved to be those of an 
Ojibbeway, who had fired upon a bear which he was pursuing, 
probably with too much eagerness to hear me call. Soon after 
this, I found many tracks, and ascertained that I was not far dis- 
tant from a place where the Ojiiibeways had built and fortified a 
camj). Three times I received messages fr to the chiefs of the 
band living in this camp, stating that my s,' ' lon was too ex- 
posed and dangerous, and urging me to come in. I disliked to 
live in a crowded place, and it was not until I discovered the 
fracks of some Sioux, that had been n i-onnoitering my camt^ 

s ' 

4^ **. 

.4 • f 


tannkr's narrative. 

that I (Iptermiiipd to lly into this work. The ni^ht before my 
(h'(»arliirc, uan one, at my lodfre, of terror and alarm, greater even 
than is conunonly iVIi ainonir the Indians. I had mentioned tlir 
tracks tliat I had se«>n, and I did not doul)t tliat a |)sirty oi llie Si- 
onx were in my immediate n*'iy:liliourhood, ai\d wouKl fall ni>oii 
me hefore mornin)r. More than lialf the iii^ht had jmssed, and 
not one of us had slept, when we heard a sudden riishinu; wilhoiil, 
and our do^rs came runnin>r in in e\ iihiil alarm, i tohl my ihil 
dren that the time was come for us all to die lojidluT. I jdaced 
myselt in the front part of mv lod^e, an<i raisiii^r the door a little. 
put out the muzzle of my ^un, and sat in momentary ex|u>elation 
of the approach of the enemy. K(»otsleps were distinctly audi 
ble : hut the ni^hl hein^ dark, I could as yet see iiothin<r. Ai 
length a little hiack ohject, not larger in appearand' than a man's 
head, came slowly and «lirectly towards my lodge, litre agaii. 
1 experien<ed how much tear iidliiences the power of sight ; foi 
this little ohject, as it came near, seemed at oiw instant to shoui 
up to the height of a man. and at the next, to he no larger tliaii 
it really was. When I was tiitirely convinced that it wa« nothini; 
but a small animal, I stepped out, and limiing it to Ix* a porcii 
|)iiie, killed it with a tom.diawk ; the remainder of the night wn- 
spent in the same itutimer as the heginning. Karly next morn 
ing, 1 lletl to the fortified camp, (hi my arrival, the chiefs coiin 
eilled, and sent two young men to look after the property left iii 
uiy lodoe ; hut as I knew the Simix wer«' lurking in thai direr 
lion, and that, slhuild the yoiiiii; men he killed, or injured, theii 
friends would <'(/iisider me the caus«' of t!ieir mislortime, I wein 
hefore ihem, hut )i\ a circuitous route, determining that if an 
tiling happened, I would lie present, uml have a part in it. I 
found my lodge safe, and we experienced no molestation in n 
moving in\ liai>i>ai>e to the tort. 

The Sioux, Iroiii lime lo lime, came near and looked at imi 
work, hut never ventured toaltack it. When the spring arri\iil. 
all the Ojihlicwavs left it in one da) ; hiil I whs roiiipelled to n 
main, liavinu taken < liarge of some packs for a trader who u.i- 
then uliseiit, and which I could not reinov<'. The (hiels irmini 
slraled, telling me it was little heller ihaii throwing mvself auiiv. 
lU rRiiiain, an the Sioux would immediately know when the iiiuin 
hodv left, ami would not looe the upportuiiitv of falling on mi 

. • 




[ore my 
tcr even 
>n«tl the 
i' the Si- 

r wilhnul, 
1 ,uy ••!\il- 
I jih»c<'<i 
„ui» liuh'. 

jelly «"•'' 
tliinst- '^'^ 
•an H ini"»'' 
[l.rf auaii' 

ml U< shoot 
laijrcr tluiii 
was nolliin;; 
hi' tt |>t»n(i 
le ni^ht was 
iifxl morn 
,hu fs ntuii 
.p. rly l«t» ii 
u iluil (Urtt 
iiitirnU tlifii 
luur. I Wfii' 
lliul if itn 
Hill in it- ' 
iiiliiin ill I' 

when I should 1)P h'ft ah>nt'. The sailiUniiiij anil aliirnung t'ffect 
of llu'sc ailnionilions was somewhat inrn-ascil by the many in- 
stances they relali'ii of nun, wonu ii, and chiUlren, tlial iiad been 
kilhMl on this very spot by the ^Si()ll.\, but I was eonipeMed to re- 
main. At nifjhll closed the entranees to the eanip as eHeetually 
as I could, ami cautioning my family to remain entirely silent, I 
stationed myself by the wall to watch. The nijrht was but little 
advanced, when by tlie liuhl of the moun, which then slume 
bri^fhlly, I discovered two nu n, who came directly towards the 
usual entraiH'e, and findiiiL' it closed, beijan to walk ar<»und and 
look at the wall. Fear slronjily prompted me to shoot then» 
uilhout liailiiifj; but recidleclinjr liuit they mif^ht not be Sioux, 
I took an opportunity, when I could aim my ^un directly at 
till I) without Ix'in^ mu<-li exposed, and called out. They proved 
to be the trader cm whose account I had stayed back, and a 
Frenchman. 1 gladly opened my fort to let them in, and with 
tlii-; aildition of streujrih, spent a pretty (juiet nijiht. Next morn- 
in>r we moved, taking the trader's packs, and following the path 
of the Ojibbeways. 

I did not wish to rejoin this band, but went t«) live for .some 
linu'. I)y myself, in the woods; alterwards I joined sonu* lied 
Kiver Ojibbeways, under a chief called He-gwa-is, (he thai cut-; 
up the beaver lodge.) All the hunters ol this liaud bad lieen for 
r'oine days trying to kill an old buck moose, who had become no- 
torious among them lor his shyness and cunniug. 'i'he first day 
that 1 went to hunt, I saw this moose, but could uol kill him; I 
liowever killed auotluM', and next da\ retiiriu'd to the piusuit. 
with the full determiualion lo kill him if possible. It so hap- 
pened, that the weaiher and wind were favourable, and I kiMeil 
the l)uck moose. My siieri-ss was attributable, in a great measure. 
t<i ai'cident, or lo circinnstances beyond my eonlr(d ; but (he In- 
dians gave me credit lor "upenor skill, and I was thenceforth 
rprknned the best hunter in that hand. 

We now started, twelve men in number, under Be-gwa-is, to go 
to the Sioux rountrv, lo hunt beaver, leax inir our women beliind. 
O'l this hunt nil tlie Imlians became snow-blinil, mid I being the 
otdy <me able lo hunt, fed and took <iire of (hem for si-veral days. 
Ah soon as the snow went ofl' in the spring, ihcy hegnn In grt 
*irlt»»r. We then separated iiiio three portimt ; one, of whirh hr. 




!' ■» 



/ . 



ingtbnr in mimlicr, wont to BiilUiloc River, wlu'rc tliey were at- 
tacked by the Sijtiix. hi'd one niaii killed, and another wounded 
nnd ni;ide prisoner. 

I had Avounded myself l>y aecideni, in niy aneie hone, with a 
lomahaAvk, and heranie, in ('onseipienee, unable to travel last. 
About this time my eoinpanions iie( ame |)aine struck, si _'|)osin» 
ijie Sioux to be near us, and on our trail. They paid not the least 
i'eptrd to my situation, but lied with all llu' speed they ccndd 
make. It was now early in the s|)rinij: ; rain and snow had been 
tallinij throu}fhout the day, and at night the uinil be^an to l)l<^\\ 
I'rom the north-west, aiul the water to iree/e. I lollowed my 
co;, pan'Oiis, thouirh ,\\ a (li>liin( c. and came up with them late ai 
)iiy;ht, when 1 lound them peiishin!> in their c(un)orlless cau\p : 
ihey being the disciples ot'tlie propliet. and not havinjr ventured 
to .'Strike a lire. Wa-mo-ffon-a-biew was (uie of these men, and 
?ie, as well as the rest oC them, was wiiliutr to desert nw. when- 
ever there was any appreliension ol' dauirer. Next morning ice 
was stronir eiunifrh in the ri>er to walk upon, and as this cold 
had been preceded by warm weather, we siillercMl severely. We 
>pent lour days at the sugar camp of our women, ami then started 
to retin-n to the Sioux country. On our way we met the two whd 
had escaped, of the party on which the Sioux had lalleii. Their 
appearaiu'e was that o| extreme misery aiul sUirvation. 

We met also, in this jotirney, an American trader, whose nurm 
I do not now recollect. l)Ul m ho treated me with nnich allenlion. 
and ur<;ed me to leave the Indians and return with him to tin 
Stales. But I was poor. Inuiiiu lew pellries ol any value ; I hail 
also a wife and om- i liild. Me told me the governmenl, and tin 
])eo|>le of the Tnited Stales. w(i\dd be generous lo iiU', and he liiiii 
s(>lf |)ron)ise<| to ri ii(h'r n\e all the aid in his power; but I dr- 
clined acceptin0 his odir. |)rel'erring for llie present to remain 
amonir the Indians, ihouijrh it was still my w isli and intention, ul- 
timately lo Ic.ive them. I heard fnun this man, llmt Hoiiie of rn, 
relations had l)een as far as Mackinac in search of me, and I dir- 
taled a letter to them, which this gentleman undert(*ok to hiu 
eon\eyed toils destiiuition. Whm about to part from ns, lie 
gave lo VVn-in«'-g(Hi-a-birw nnd myself, each a bark < unuc, ami 
some oilier valuable presmts. 

\s we were iravollinir townrili* Red River, our principal in«" 



I ANNKK'> S auk a IiV I. 


/eve at- 

, with a. 
vol fast. 
llic liHist 
(.y could 
htul tii't'i* 
„ to l)l<-w 
lowc<» my 
iMU lait' lU 
ess «'ami) ■■ 
|r vtntured 
i- nuMi. anil 
lUf. Avlu-n- 
loi-ninii; !<■'■ 
,s this «-»>l'> 
iTfly. We 
i\w\\ slartoil 
Uii- two \\\w 
lien. Tlu-ir 


uliost! iiami 

,li utimtioii. 

1 him to lli< 

|v;il»u- ; \ 1'"'* 

Kill, ami lilt 

, iukI hr him 

L; hm \ 'l*"- 

L to rt'inuiii 

inlfiilion, "1 

[t SOllU' »>t '"' 

inc. ■A\\*\ 1 "iif- 
[ilook ti» hiiu 
\\ tVoin "I*. ^'* 
k <ttnoc, 8U*^ 

l)rinri|»»\ '""'' 

Wv-ong-je-cheweon, to whom wo liad roitimillcd ilu diroctiou oi 
our party, became alarmed. We wcrr iidlowinii a lony iiv«'i 
which discharges into lied River; 1 saw liiiii anxiously looKinii 
about, on one side and tbe other, and atteniivolv watcliiiii; lor alt 
lliose indications of tbe jiroxiinity of' men, wliicli could be al- 
ibrded by the tracks of animals, tbe Hitrlit of birds, and otber 
marks, which they so well know bovi t(t iinderstaMd. lie said 
nollnn>( of fear: an Indian in such cii'cunislancrs. rarely, if cm r, 
does. liut when he saw me, at niaht, IryiuL'^ to kiudU' a lire for 
our encampment, he rose up, wrapped bis blanket alxuil him, and 
without sayuiir a word, walkeil away. I watched him until i saw 
liim select a place, combininif (he re<piisile.s for the entire C(ui- 
cealment of his person, and atfordini; biui tin power of overlonk- 
inff a considerable extent otCouiitrv. KnowiuL^ llie motive which 
had occasioned this, I followed his evampie. a-; diil the remain- 
ing men of mu' pariy. Nevt mornini; we met. and ventured 
(o kindle a lire to prepare a little breakliist. Oin- kettle was bin 
(list bnn^ over the tire and (illed. when we dis<'overed the Sioux, 
fui a point not half a mile behind us. We da-ihed the content^ 
(»f the kettle mi the lire, and lied. \t <ome di' aiice beiou. we 
built a stronjr «'am|). nnd I set my traps. 

Amonir the presents I had received tVom the Xniericaii trader, 
was n small keg «'(Mitainini> i\t( en ipiarts oi sinuig rum. which I 
liad brought thus far on my back. \Va-me-u(>n-a-lii<'w and the 
other Indians had often hegnred me for a taste of it. which I had 
constantly refused: tellinir them the I'bl men. and the ihiel-*. and 
;dl, should taste it toufelher, « hen we reaeheil home. Itiit iion 
tliey look an oppiniimity when I wa* ab-;ent to look at m\ trap-, 
tu optui it; and when I retnnied. I found them ,dl dnnik, and 
qiiarrtdlimi with each other. I vvasauare ol mir ilangermis and 
exposed situ.ition. and felt wniiiewbat alarmed, when I fonnd >o 
many 'd' us totally disabled by intoxication. I tried, how«\er, to 
quiet their n<dse : but in so doinir, I endauL'ered mv own safetv 
As I held two of them apart, otu' in one band, the other in the 
Other, the third, an old man, came behind and made a thrust ai 
my bai'k with a knife, which I virv narrow K avoided. They 
were all alii onted, as I had reproached them w ith cowardice : 
trlliiig them they prcfern'd remaininL^ like rabbits, in their hide, 
and darod nei liter vontiirr out lo iruuirainst their enemies, or even 

r • 

I i 4 

■ I 

m\ [ 



to liiint (in- pomcthinfr to rat. In fact, I had for some time icd 
and supporter! tluin, and I was not a little vexed at their foolish- 
ness. We had, however, no more alarms immediately, and the 
Indians at length venturing to hunt, we met with so mueh success 
as nearly to load one canoe with skins. The remainder of my 
little cask of rmn, which I had used great care to keep out of their 
way, caused them one more drunken frolick, they having stolen 
it in my absence. 

After we had completed our hunt, we started down together. 
Approaching Red River, we heard great numbers of guns befr re 
us, and my companions, sujiposiiiir them to be those of the Sioux, 
left me and (led across land, in which way tliey could reach home 
in less than a day. As i was determined not to abandon our 
property in the canoe, I continued on by myself, and in about 
four days, arrived safely at home. 

The Indians were now about assembling at Pembinab, to dis- 
pose of their peltries, and have tJH'ir usual drunken frolick. f 
had but just arrived at the encampment of our band, when they 
began to start; some going forward by land, ami leaving the 
women to i)ring on their loads in the canoes. I tried to persuade 
Wn-mc-iroii-a-biew and ollii rs, which were particularly mv 
friends, not to join in this toolisb and destructive indulgence, but 
1 could not prevail \\\ui\\ them; they all w«'nt on in advance of 
me. I moved slowly along, hunting and making dry meat, and 
did not reach Pcmbiuah, until most of the men of the hand had 
passeil several days there in drinking. As soon as I arrived, 
some Indians came to tell me that Wa-me-gcm-a-biew had lost 
jiis nose; another had a large piece bitten out of his cheek; one 
was injured in (me way, another in another. 

I learned that my br(»lher, as I always called Wa-nie-gon-a- 
biew, had but just arrived, when he happened to go into a lodge. 
where a young man, a son of Ta-bush-shish, was beating an old 
woman. Wa-me-gon-a-biew held his arms ; but presently old Ta- 
bush-shish coming in, and in his drunkenness, probably misappre- 
hending the nature of my brother's interference, seized him by 
the hair, and bit his nose off. At this stage of tin' affair, Be-gwa- 
is, an old chief who had always been very friendly to us, came in, 
and seeing that a scuffle was going on, thought it necessary to 
join in it. Wa-me-gon-a-biew perceiving the loss of his nose. 

»1f '•, 


lAwr.R's XAnuATivi;. 


mc led 
iiid the 


: of iny 
of their 
5 atolen 

,s bef' re 
le Sioux, 
uh home 
ndon our 
in about 

lb, to Jis- 
rohck. I 
,vheu they 
•avina; th<' 
i» persuade. 
»\larly my 
l(ren<'e, but 
idvaiice of 
uieat, and 
band had 
w had lost 
\eek; one 

ito a h)dge. 
ling an ohl 
ily o\d Tu- 
zed him by 
r, Be-gwa- 
u«, came in, 
iccHHary to 
f his nohe. 

suddenly raised his hands, though still slooping his head, am! 
seizing by tlic hair the head that was nearest him, bit the noso 
off. (t happened to l)e that of our friend He-ir\va-is. After his 
rage had a little abated, he recognized his friend, and exclaimed, 
" wall ! my cousin !" Be-g\va-is was a kind and good man, and 
being perfectly aware of the erroneous impression ui\der which 
Wa-me-gon-a-!»iew had acted, never for one moment betrayed 
nnv thing like anjrer or resfntinent, unvards the man who had 
thus been tlx' unwilling cause of his nnitilation. " I am an old 
man," said he, "and it is but a short lime that they will laugh at 
me for the loss of my nose." 

For my own part, I felt much irritated against Ta-bush-shish, 
inasmuch as 1 doubled whetht'r he had not taken the present op- 
|)(trlunity to wreak an oM grudge upon \Va-me-gon-a-biew. I 
u ent into my brother's lodge, and sat by him ; his face, and all 
his clothes, were covered with blood. For some lime he said 
nothing ; and when he spoke, I found that he was perfectly sober. 
■'To-morrow," said he, "I will cry wiih my children, and the 
next day I will go and seeTH-bush-shish. We must die together, 
;is I am not willing to live, when I must always expect to be ridi- 
culed." 1 told him I would join him in any attempt to kill Ta- 
bush-shish, and held myself in readiness accordingly. Ihit a little 
■sober reflection, and the day's time he had given himself to cr\ 
with his chihlren, diverted Wa-me-gon-a-biew from his bloody 
intention, and like Be-gwa-is, he res»)lved to bear his loss as well 
;is he could. 










Prcsfncp ol' mind and eplf-dcviilfdnr«.s in an Indian motlipr — Indian warlarc — 
convi rsiiliciM 111 a cliict' — winlt'r hunt uii tin' lii'mviouuskn Uivc r — Mi' dii'ini- 
hnniinL' — cuslmris, in fuse-; ot nianslaiisilitcr — sunlu'lir, iir |ii>'tnrp writing — 
death oi' I'l'-slianUi — ilisasl.T at Spirit l.alir, and doath ol'tiu' Littjp C'lain. 

Within a lew days alter lliis ilniiikcn (jiiarrcl, Ta-l)nsli-shisli 
was spizt'd uitli a violnil sirkm ss. He Iml (or many flays a 
biirnina I'l'Vcr. his llc^li wasu'd. ainl lie was a|>|)ari'iiily near tly- 
ilij^, vvlu'ii lie sent •(• \Va-inc-Lf<>!i-a-l>i('\v tun kclllfs. and otlirr 
])r('S('iiI-<. ul" coiisidf lahlc v diii . uilli a nMssair*'. " !My iViriid, f 
liaM' made von look nirlv. and \(iii iiaxc made ine sick. I hiivc 

siitrcrrd iniK li, and il 

ilic now mv V 


rt'U mils 

t sill) 

»'r m 


more I have sent yon this |ir<scnl, I'lal yon inav let inr live." 
\V'a-nif-Lfon-a-hi(\v instrnclcd his mcssfnL'f'r to say to 'I'a-hn-^li 

^liish. •• I ha\r not made \on siik. 

cannot rcslort' von 

to h< alth. 

;tnd will not arcc|il yonr presents." He liiiirprctl lor a monili oi 
more in a >ial<' of -^nr li severe illness, that his hair nil Cell Iroiii 

IIS head 


(■r Illl^ 

lie t)ec; 

in to aintMid, and when he was near 

\ \\> 


renin\e(| io the prairie; Iml were scaKeredal 


in dilli'ieni dire( lions, and at consideruhle distances iVoin eacli 

Alter oin- spritiir ImnliDjir, we hriran Io think of iroinsi aiiain 

the Si 

lonv. and an inconsiderahl • party asseinhled. anion!/ Ilmsi 
who lived iinmediateh ahoiil mr. Wa-me-fion-a-liiew and I ac 
etnnpaniel them, and in loni days we ;irrived at l!ie htllo \illai;. 
wlicri" 'I'li-hnsh-shish then lived. Helore oiir arriial here mi 

)ia.l I 


joiiH'd liy NV'a-ufe-loie, with ^ixh men. 

A I 

ter we liml 

rested and eaten at oin' encampment netir Ta-luish-shish's lodm'. 
and Mere ahoni Io start, we saw him come oul naked, hut p.ainl- 
0(1 and ornamented asfma war, iiiid haviiii; his arms in his haini- 
Hp rnme slalkinu up to ns with a very anjjry face, hut none ni 
ii« fullv comprehended his desijrn. nnlil we saw him no up hiiI 

tanner's NARKATlVi:. 


warlart'^ — 

w riling— 


V ilays ii 

near ily- 
ainl titlin 

tVit'inK t 
i. I lvav( 
ilVt-r imi<l> 
, ine livi'." 
, Ta-biisli- 
1 to h( alth. 

I monlli oi 

II itll Innii 
rcd aliniu 
'iMMii fa<!i 

I. afiaiii-' 

Ollif tllOSl 

,inil I I'- 
1.- \ill;i- 

• r \\v tiiiii 
ll's IdiIu' ■ 
hut |;a'nii- 
his hallll^ 
)Ut none t»l 

1 ;r(» U|) Hlv' 


j)ri*!«Piu the muzzle of liis jriin to Wa-inc-gon-a-bicw's bark. 
" My liioiid," said he, "we liavc lived loiitr <'iiou^l., and liave 
o-jvi'ii trouble and distress enougli to each oiher. I sent to you 
my renuest tliat yon would be satisfied wilh tbe siekn< s.i and 
pain you had made me sulier, but you refused to listen lo me; 
and the evils you continue to iiilliet on me, rendei- my life \v( ari- 
souie ; let us therefore die toirether." A snn of \Vii-ir<-tcte, 
and another youn>f man, seeing ilie intention nf 'ra-bush-slnsli, 
piesented the point of their spe.ns, (jne lo one o; his sides, the 
Othei- to the other; but lie look no O'liici; ol" tiuui, Wa-uie- 
iron-a-biew iiilimidated, and d.ueil nol rai>e Ins head. Ta- 
tiush-shish wished to have foiii:hl, ami to have ^iven NVa-me-gon- 
a-hiew an equal ehanee for his lite, but the latter had nol enura^c 
enough to accept his oiler. Henceforth 1 esieemed Wa-me-gon- 
a-biew less even than I had formerly done, lie had less of 
bravery and generosity in his disposition than is (onmion among 
the Indians. iN'-ilh . Ta-bu.^h-shish nor any of his band joined 
in our war-party. 

We went on, wandering about from place to place, and instead 
of going against our enemies, spent tin; greater part ol the sum- 
mer among the l)nlIiiloe. In the fall, i returned to Pend)inah. 
my intention being to go thence to lln' winiciiiig iiromid ot tlie 
trailer :ibove menti'»i\ed, who had proposed to assist me in mtiing 
to the slates. I Uiiw heard of the wai' heluci n th<' I niieu States 
an>'i (ireat Hrilain. and of the <'a|>lure of Mackinac, aiiil ihis in- 
telligence deleiri'd me from anyain mpl In pa«;s ihrongh the fron- 
tier of the I'nited States territory, which were then ihe scenes of 
warliki- operations. 

In the ensuing spring, there was a very sreneral movement 
among the Ojibbeways of the Ited lliver. toward llie Sioux coun- 
try ; but the (iesi<iii was not, at least avowdly, lo liiii upon or 
molest the Sioux, but to hunt. I oavelled in <omi>any w illi u 
lar^e band, unde; the diieclMui of \is-aiiise. (ilie lillle clam.) 
Hi-< l>rolher, called Wa-ge-lonc. was a ; of considerable con- 
seipicnce. W'c had ascended Ked Hiver about one hundred 
miles, when we met Mr. Ilaiiie. a trader, who gave u- a liltie 
rum. I lived, at this time, in a long lodg*', having two !>•• three 
fires, and i occupied it in common wilh several olher men, with 
tlieir fanulics, ni(»sllv the relatives of mv wil'c. ft w«> inidni:>hl. 

'rf r ^?**iM-" * J ^ 








! 1 

1 ' 

• i« 





or after, and I was sleeping in my lodge, when I was waked by 
some man seizing me roughly by the hand, and raising nie up. 
There was still a little fire Inirning in the lodge, and hy the light 
it gave I recognised, in the angry and threatening eounlenancc 
whieh hung over me, the lace of Wa-ge-lone, the brother of the 
Little Clam, our principal chief. " 1 have solemnly |)romised," 
said he, "that if you should come with us to this country, you 
should not live ; up, therefore, and be ready to answer me.'" 
He then went on to Wah-zhe-gwun, the man who slept next me, 
and used to him similar insolent and threatening language ; but. 
by this time, an old man, a relative of mine, called Mah-nuge, 
who slept beyond, had comprehended the purport of his visit, 
and raised himself up, with his knife in his hanil. When Wa- 
ge-tone came to him, he received a sharp answer. He then re- 
turned to me, drew his knife, and thre;(tened me with instant 
death. " You are a stranger," said i.:-, "and one of many who 
have come from a distant "^vniry, to feed yourself and your chil- 
dren with that which doc.N not belong to you. You arc driven 
out from your own country, and you come among us because you 
are too feeble and worthless to have a home or a country ot 
your own. Y(»u have visited our best hunting grounds, and 
wherever you have been you have destroyed all the animab 
which the (Jreat Spirit gave us for our sustenance. (Jo back, 
therefore, from this place, and be no longer a burthen to us, or I 
will certaiidy take your life." 1 answered him, that I was not 
going to llu- country ue were iniw about to visit, particularly to 
hunt beaver, but that even if I were to do so, I had an ecpial 
riohi with him, and was as stnnig to maintain that right. Tin- 
dispute was becoming s(»mewhat noisy, when (dd Mah-nuge 
came iij), with his kriif<' in his hand, and drove the noisv and 
h.ilfdnniken Wa-ge-tone out of the lodge. We saw this man 
no m<M-e for a long time, but his brother, the Little Clam, told u- 
(o think nothing of what he said. 

Here a niesseiiirer overtoitk us to bring to the Ottawwaws llu 
informalion that Mid\-kud-da-l)e-na-sa, (the black bird,) an Ot- 
tawwaw of Waw-giui-uk-ke-zie, or I/Arbre Croche, had arrived 
from Lake Huron, to call us ail home to that country. So wc 
turned back, anil one after another fell back, till Wa-ge-tone only 
n-as left, and he went on and joined a war-party ol" Ojibbewayt 

Jng to 

♦ Gah 
I'lunts, shr 

tawf.r's narrativk. 


iked by 
me lip- 
he light 
■r of the 
itry, you 
■er me.'" 
next me, 
Lgc ; but, 
his visit, 
-hen Wa- 
e then re- 
i\\ instant 
nany «lu> 
your ehil- 
are driven 
■cause you 
c«nmtry »tt 
junds, and 
.he aniniaW 
do hark, 
to lis. or I 
1 was not 
licularly to 
(1 an eijual 
jrht. Thi- 
noisy auil 
w this num 
him, tohl u- 

llien starting I'rom Leerh Lake. A part ol" this baud stoppi'd at 
the Wild Rice River,* and went into the Corl, or fortified camp 
before mentioned. Here they began to hunt and trap, and were 
heedlessly dispersed about, when a large party of tSioux came 
into their neighbourhood. 

Ais-ainse, the Ojibheway chief, returned one evening from a 
successful hunt, having killed two elks; and on the following 
jnorning, his wife, with her young son, started out to dry ihe 
meat. They had proceeded a great distance from the lodge, 
when the lad first discovered the Sioux partVi at no great dis- 
tance, and called out to his mother, " the 8ioux are coming.'' 
Tlie old woman drew her knife, and cutting the belt which 
bound the boy's blanket to his body, told him to run for home 
with all his strength. She then, witli her knife in her han<l, ran 
to meet theapprtiaching war-party. The boy heard many guns, 
and the old woman was no more heard of. The boy ran long, 
when, perceiving that his pursuers were near, he lost <'«)nscious- 
ness ; and when he arrived at the fortifier! cam]), still in a state 
of mental alienation, the Sioux were about one hundred and 
fifty yards behind him. He vomited blood for some days, and 
never recovered his health and strength, thougli he lived about 
one year afterwards. 

Several of the ()jibl»cways were hunting in a different direction 
from that in which the wife of the Little Clam had met the war- 
partv. As soon as the Sioux disappeared from about the fort, 
young men were sent out, who discovered that they had taken 
the path of the hunters, and one or two, taki ig a circuitous di- 
rection, reached the Little Clam just as the Sioux were creeping 
up to tire upon him. A liirht ensued, which lasted a long tin.e, 
without loss on either side. At length, one of the Ojibbeways 
being wonnded in the h'H, his companions retired a little, in order 
to give him an opportunity of escaping under cover of soma-' 
bushes; but this movement did not escape the notice of the 
Sioux. One of their nmnber followed the young man, continu- 
ing to elude the notice of the Ojihbeways while he did so, killed 

* Gith Menoinonif. gah-vun-zhc-guir-vic xcr-hci; (the river of the wild rico 
straw.") (iau'-uuii-jr, or guiC'Wun:li, is iipplicatilo tn tlie stalks or trunks of many 
)ilants, slirubs, &c. us Mrt-iia-gatr-ttungr, (whortk'ljerry bu£b|)or, in the plural, 
Meena-gaw-iea-checn. (whortleberry bushes.) 








him, and took iiis sciil|) Hitd mrdal, lie hpin^ u favourite boii oi' 
Ai.s-aiiiKe, the Ojilibcway chid : then returning, he Hhook ihtHjc 
trophies at the t)jibl)eways, with some exulting and vaunting 
words. The enraged lather, at sight of the scalp and medal, 
rushed from his cover, shot down one of the Sioux, cut ofl" his 
head, and shook it exultingly at the survivors. The other Ojib- 
heways, being emi)oldened at this conduct of the Little Clara, 
rushed forward together, and tlie Sioux Ihd. 

Another considerable man of the Ojibbew ays, who was also 
named Ta-bush-shish, had becti hunting in a ditlercnt direction, 
accomi»Hiiied by one man, and had heard the firing, either where 
the old woman had been killed, or where Ais-ainse was fighting, 
and had returned home. The Indians said of him, as, indeed, 
they often say of a man after his death, that he had some pre- 
sentiments or forewarnings of what was about to happen. On 
ihe preceding evening, he had come home, as the Indian hunter 
nflen comes, to be aimoyed by the tongue of an old wife, jealous 
of the attentions bestowed on a younger and more attractive tmc. 
On this occasion, he said to her, " Sc(dd away, old woman, for 
now I hear you the last lime.'' He was in the fort when some 
one arrived, who had skulked and fled with the news of the tight 
(he Little Clam was engaged in. Ta-bush-shish had two fine 
hor8e.s, and he said to one of his friends, " Be-na, I believe you 
area man; will you take one of my horses, and go with me to 
see what Ais-ainse has been doing all day ? Shall we not be 
ashamed to let him light so long, within hearing, and nevei 
attempt to give him assistance ? Here are more than one hun- 
dred of us, who have stood trembling within this camp, while 
our brother has been fighting like a man. with only four or five 
young men to assist him." They started, and following a trail 
of the Sioux, it brought them to a place where a party had kin- 
dled a fire, and were, for a moment, resting themselves around 
if. They crept up near, but not thinking this a favourable op- 
portunity to fin . Ta-bush-shish and Be-na went forward on the 
route they knew the party would jmrsue, and laid theniselve;- 
down in the snow. It was now night, but not very dark. When 
the Sioux began to move, and a number of them came near the 
place where they had concealed themselves, Ta-bush-shish and 
Be-na ro«e up togethei'. and fired upon theni< and the latter, a;- 

^ ■ -i 

tannkh's SAKHM I\ I.. 


; bOll of 

ik the«c 
1 niediil, 
I oft' his 
ler Ojib- 
le Clara, 

was also 
ler where 
s, indeed, 
some i)rc- 
pen. On 
iin hunter 
t'e, jealous 
ictive one 
M)man, for 
/hen some 
)f the tiglit 
il two fine 
•eheve you 
ivith me to 
we not bl- 
and neve I- 
jii one Inm- 
imp, while 
four or five 
wing a trail 
ty had kin- 
ves arouiul 
iiurable op- 
!var«l on the 
.rk. Whtu 
me near the 
ih-shish and 
he latter, a>- 


jie had been instructed \o do, iiisfiintly llid. When ;ti a consi- 
derable distance, and finding he \va>i mil iiiirr<uiil, lie st(>|)i>('d to 
listen, and for groat pnrf of the ni/ht licanl now and linn a <j;u\u 
and sometimes tli«> shrill mid scdilary sali-sah-Kwi of 'I'a-hiisl* 
shish, shifting from place to place ; at last, many guns discliarycd 
at the same momeiit; then the shouts and whoo|)s of ilic SioiiN 
at the fall of their enemy; then all was silent, and lie leturneil 
home. These were all that were killed at that time, the old wo- 
man, Ta-l»ush-shisli, and the son of Ais-aiiise. 

It was on the same day, as we afterwards heard, thai (he war- 
party from Leech Lake, wliich Wa-gp-tone had joined, fell upon 
forty Sioux lodges, at the htiig prairie. They had tought for 
two days, and many 'vere killeil on each side. Wa-jre-tone \va> 
the first man to strike a Sioux lodge. Wa'i-ka-zhe, the brother 
of Muk-kud-da-be-na-sa, met those Ottawuaws who returned 
from the Wild Rice Kiver, at Lake Winnipeg. He had lieen 
ten years in the Rocky Mountains, and the country near them. 
but now wished to return to his own people. He had, in tin 
course of his long life, been much among the whites, and wa- 
well acquainted with the different methods of gaining a subsist- 
ence among them. He told me (hat I woiiM lie much better si- 
tuated among the whites, but that 1 could not become a trader, as 
I was unable to write ; I should not like to submit to constani 
labour, therefore I could not be a farmer. 'I'here was but one 
situation exactly adapted to my habits and ipialilications, that ot 
an interpreter. 

He gave us, among other information, some account of a mis- 
sionary who had come among the Ottawwaws of Waw-gun-iik- 
kezie, or some of the Indian settlements about the lakes, and 
urged them to renounce their own religion, and adopt that of 
the whites. In ccmnexion with this subject, he told us the an- 
ecdote of the baptized Indian, who, after death, went to the gate 
of the while man's heaven, and demande<l admittance ; but the 
man who kept watch at the gate told him no redskins could be 
alloweil to enter there. " (io." si id he, " for to the west there 
are the villages and the hunting gruunds of those of your own 
people, who have been on the earth before you." So be dejyart- 
ed thence ; but when he came to the villages where the t'eud of 
his own people resided, the chief refnscfl him admitf>»nce, "Yon 


* 1 








have bc'fii ashamod of lis while you lived ; you have ehohtu 
lo worship tho while inan's (Jod. (»•) now W hiss village, 
und let him provide lor you." Tin ' vvas ni»?cted by both 

Wah-ka-zhe heinjr the most consideri : <«) r'^ian anionp us, it de- 
volved on him to direct our movements; but throiifih indcdenee, 
or perhaps out ol' rcfrard to me, he determiiieii that not oidy 
himself, l»ut his band, sluudd, for the winter, be (guided by mc. 
As we had in view no object beyond i)are sidtsistence, and as I 
was reckoned a very good hunter, and knew this part of the 
country belter than any other man of the band, his course was 
not an im|)()litic one. 

It was in conformity to my advice ihat we went to spend the 
winter at the He-gwi-o-nush-ko Fliver. The He-gwi-o-nu.^h-ko 
enters Red River, about ten miles below Pendunah, and at the 
<ime I speak of, the country on it was well slocked vvitii game. 
We lived here in greal plenty and comfort, and Wah-ka-zhe often 
boasted ot his sagacity in choosing me to direct the ujotions of 
his party. But a j)art of the winter had passed, when Wa-me- 
jron-a-l)iew began to talk of saeriticing Wah-ka-zhe, the latter 
being in some manner connected with the man who, many years 
before, had killed Taw-ga-we-ninne, Wa-me-gon-a-biew's father. 
1 refused to join, or in any manner countemince him in this un- 
dertaking; but notwithstanding my remonstrances, he went one 
day to the lodge «»f Wah-ka-zhe, with his knife in his hand, in- 
tending to kill him ; but as he was entering, Muk-kud-da-be-na- 
sa, a son of Wah-ka-zhe, perceived his intention, and prevented 
him. He inmiediately tried to provoke Wa-me-jron-a-biew to 
engage him in single combat, but he retreated in his accustomed 
manner. I not only reproved Wa-me-gon-a-biew for this unman- 
ly conduct, but proposed to Wah-ka-zhe to have him driven from 
the band, aiul Jio longer considered him my brother ; but Wuh-ka- 
zhe was a considerate and friendly man, and unwilling that trouble 
or disturbance should be made, and therefore forgave his oH'ence. 

One of the young men, the son of Wah-ka-zhe, was accounted 
the best hunter among the Indians of this band, and there was. 
between us, while we resided at Be-gwi-o-nuah-ko, a friendly ri- 
valry in hunting. O-ke-mah-we-nin-ne, as he was called, killed 
Xiiuf teeu moose, one beaver, and one bear ; I killed seventeen 





iiioosr, one huiulie*! hc-avers. ancJ seven hears; but lie was con- 
^idoreil the lietter hnnU-r, moose hciiijr the niosi (liflirult of ''I 
Muiniiils H) kill. Tliere are many Iiidiiins who hunt tlironirh tlie 
M'inler in that roimlry, ami kill no more than Iwo or three moose. 
;ni<i some never are al)h! to kill one. 

We had plenty oltrame at the Be-|r\vi-o-iuish-ko, unti] another 
hand of ()iil)he\vays came upon us, iii irnal nuiuliers, and in a 
fttiir\ inir eoudititin. While \\v were in this siiuatiun, and man\ ot' 
tliosf who had recently joined us on the point of perishing with 
hunjfcr, a man called (Jish-ka\v-ko, the nephew ol' hitn by whom 
I was taken prisoner, went a Inintiny;, and in one day kilhd two 
moose, lie call'd ine to i;,, with him and nvl sonu- nuat, at the 
same timi' sifrnit'yinsf his intention to keep his succ«'ss concealed 
from the remainder of the hand ; hut I refused to have any part 
with him in such a transaction. 1 iinmediat* ly started on a hunt 
with Muk-kud-da-he-na-sa, and one or twt) other.s. and we having 
(rood luck, killed four bears, which we distributed amonjr tho 

We now found it necessary for our large party to disperse in 
various directions. With .Muk-k\id-da-be-na-sa, RIack Bird, and 
Wah-ka-zlie, and one other man, 1 went and encam|)ed at the dis- 
tance of two days' journey fnun the place where we had been 
living. While here, we all started together one morning, to 
hunt, but ill the course of the day scattered from each other. 
Late at night [ returned, and was surprised to find, in plac«' of 
our lodge, nothing remaining but a little pile of the dried grasr? 
we had used for a bed. Under this I found Black Bird, who, 
having come in but a little belore me, and after the removal of 
the lodge, had laid down tosh'ep, su|)|)osing himself th»' only one 
Ict't Ixdiind. As we followed the trail td" (»ur companions on the 
succeeding dav. we met messcnireis cnnii'iir to intorm us that the 
sow of ^ah-aitch-e•gum-lne, the man who, with Wah-ka-zhe, 
had left us so unexpectedly, had kilhd himself by an accidental 
discharge (d'his gun. 'PWy()un>r man had been rcstinir can h-ss- 
ly on the muzzle of his jint, when the butt slip|)inir from tho 
snow-shoe on which he had placed it, it had fired, and the con- 
tents passing through the arm-pit, had entered his head ; but 
though so shockingly wounded, ifn young man lived twenty 
davH in a state of stupor and insensibility, and then died. The 





lilm •: 



174 ianner's Karrativk. 

Indians attribuloil to a presentiment of evil on the part of Nali- 
<7it(-h-e-<rinn-iiie a;><| \Vali-ka-/.he, tlieir abrupt abandonment ui 
Black Hird and niVHcll. 

Slicrlly after this, we were so redure<I l)y bunker, that it was 
tlniiiifht neci'>*-<arv lo have reeoiirse to a rnedirine hunt. Nah- 
giirh-e-4.nnn-nte sent to me and (>-<ie-niah-w»:-ninne, the two best 
hnnt»rs of the band, each a htlJe leather sack of medicine, consist- 
in^r iif certain roots, pounded fine and mixed with red paini, lobe 
aj)plinl to the litiie iniaces or figures »d'the animals we wished in 
kill. I'recisidv the same method i.- practised in tliis kind of bnntinir 
at least as fur as the use of medicine is concerned, as in those in- 
stances where one Indian attem[)ls to inllici disease or siiliirinj; on 



A dm 

iwiiiii, ora little ima<rt', is maoe lo repres<'iil llie man 

le lo 

the M oniaii, or the aniinal, on « lii<h tin jiower ot'the medicine in to 
be tried ; tlun the part represeniiiitr the heart is pnnrtnred with a 
sharp iiislrimient, it' the disiirn lie to cause <leath, and a little ol 
the medicine is applied. The drawinir or imatre ol an animal 
used in litis ca>e is called mii/./i-iie-neen, miiz/i-Me-iieen-iii>, (pi.) 
anil the same name is applicable to the little liifiires of a man oi 
W(»maii, and is som«'limes rudely traced on birch bark, in dlhe; 
instances more carefiillv carved of wood. VVc started witli miicli 
eonlidencc of soccers, bnl NVab-ka-/.lie bdlowed, and overtakiii!. 
IIS at noine distance, cautioned ii> airain>t usintr the mediiin< 
ISah-iritchf-jriim-me had jriven iw, as he said it wmuII be ihi 
means ol niiscliief and misrr\ to us, not at present, but when ui 
«'ame to die. VVc therefore <lid n il make nst- of ii, but, never 
theiess, Iiap|ieninir to kill some iraine, Nab-iritcli-e-irum-me thnuulii 
himself, on account ol the supposed eHlcaey of IiIk medicim-, en 
titled to a h.imisoine share of il. Findinii ihai himiriT was like 
to |)r«'ss severely iijion us, I sejiarateil from tlie band, and m imii 
to live by iiiysell, feeliiii; always conli<lenl that by so doinu I 
could ensure a plentiful siippiv for the wants of my tamilv. Wih- 
ka-/he and Dlack Itird came to Lake Winnipei;. from whenrr 
they ilid not return, .^ I had expected the\ would. 

After I hail tinisbe.j my hunt, and a! about the u-< lime fm 
ussembliii(r in the spriiiir, I bejran to descend the lie-i;wi-o-nush-ke 
to go to the traders on Ki'd Kiver. VIost of the IndiatiK hud led 
thrir rumps, and ironc on before inf>; ax I wiim one morniiiir pasx 
ing uitt^ of our usual cnrHinpinir placeH, I saw on nhore a httle 




rt of Nali- 
oniiiont ot 

:liat it was 
ml. Nah- 

IC I wo lust 

ic, consisl- 
|)i»int, to l)r 
(• wishetl 10 
uf liiiniin;:^ 
ill tluixc in 
<)il)('ritii> oil 
>iil the man. 
t'dicim' in If 
lun'il with a 
I ii little ol 
r III) iiiiimnl 

nf a mail or 
ik, ill nlhc: 
il Willi nuK'Ii 
lie mcdicini 
Miilil I'O iht 
ml \\ lull \V( 

l)lll. IM'VCl' 

nir tliim!:lii 
"(liriiii', I'll 
•r wax liki 
, anil \» cm 
•'Il (liiiiii; I 
iiilN. NViili- 
iiiu whrncr 

u,il time loi 
, i-o-mixh-ki' 
iaiiK liail li'tt 
.riling paHH- 
ihiire H IimI' 


slick Btandin^ in the bank, and altailicd to llir ioj) ol' it a piece of 
liinli liurk. On cxaminalion, I toiind tlu- mark of n rattle snake 
with a knilc, the handle tou('hint> the snake, and the puinl stick' 
inf,' into a bear, the head of the latter beiiif? down. Near the rat- 
tlesnake was the mark of a lieaver, one of its dugs, it being a 
li'iiialc, touehiiiK ihe snake. 'I'liis was left fur my information, 
uu>l 1 learned Ironi it, that Wa-me-gon-a-bieM, wluise totem was 
She-slie-gwali, the rattlesnake, had killed a man whose totein 
wa> Miik-kwah, the bear. The miirdeier could be no other than 
\Va-m«'-goii-a-biew, as it was specified that he was the son of a 
woman whose was the beaver, and this I knew could be 
no .tlh/r than Net-no-kwa. As tJiere were but few of the bear 
totein in our band, 1 witscoiitideiit the man killed was a young mail 
lulled Ke-zha-zhoons ; tliat he was dead, and not wouiuled mere- 
iv, was indicated by the drooping down of the head of the bear. 
I was not ileterred iiy this iiilnrmation from continuing' my jour- 
ney i on the contrary, I hastened on, and arrived in time to wit- 
ness the interment of the youii^ man my brother hud killed. 
Wa-me-goii-a-liiew went liy himself, and dut: a !£ra\ e w ide enough 
lor tw(i men ; then the Iriends of Ke-/.ha-/lio(ins brought his 
'iiidy, and when it «as let down into the gra\e, NVa-me-trmi-a- 
hicw took oil uli his clothes, exee|it his bree< h ilolli, and sitting 
iliiwii naked at the head of the urave, drew his knile, and oller- 
i-d the handle to the nearesi male relative ol the deceased. 
■Mv Irieiid," said he, "I have killed your brother. Vou 
>t'e I have made a grave wide enoiiuh lor both of us, and I am 
now ready and willing to sleep with him." The first and He- 
aind, and eventually all the friends of the murdered young man, 
icliised the knife which Wa-im-tfon-a-bieu oHired them in siic- 
lession. TIh- relations of V\ii-iiie-gon-a-biew v\ere powerful, 
and it was tear of them which now saved his life. The ollenco 
of the young man whom he killcii, had been the calling him "cut 
nose." FindiiiK that none of the male relations ot the deceaHed 
were \n illing to undertake publicly the piniishmeiit of his mur- 
derer, Wa-me-gon-a-biew said to them, " iroiilde nie no more, 
now or hereafter, about this business ; I shall do again as I liave 
HUH duiw, if any uf you venture to jyrive me similar provucu- 
The molliud by wliich iuromialiuii of ihitiairMir WHscoiiiinuni 


r i 

4 i 







i-ated to mp at a distance, is out' in coniinon use among the In- 
dians, and, in most rases, it is perffctly cx(iii('il and salislacUtry. 
Tlu' men of the same tribe are extensively acquainted with the 
totems which belong to each : and it un any record uf this kiiitl, 
the figure of a man apjxars without any desigiuitory mark, it is 
immediately understood that he is a iSioux, oral leasl a straniier. 
Indeed, in most instances, as in that al>ove mentioned, the figurt'< 
of men are not used at all, merely the totem, or sirname, bi in^f 
given. In -ases where the information to he conummicaleil 
is tlial the party mentimied is st;irviiiir, ihc figm-e of a nuin 
is sometimes drawn, and his mouth is jiainted white, or white 
paint may be smeared about the mouth of the uniinal, if it hap- 
pens to be one, which is his totem. 

After visitinir the irader mi Red River, I startet! with the in- 
tention of ruining to the Siat(< ; but at Lake Winnipeg i heani 
that the war between <M(at Hritaiii and the rnited Slates still 
continued, with such disturbances on the frontier as would render 
it ditVicult for me to pass with safety. I was therefore com)>ellp<l 
to stop by myself at that place, where I was after some tiiiu' 
joined by Pe-shau-Iia. VVaw-/,h<-kah-maish-koon, and otlx-rs, 1 1 
the number uf three lodges. The tdd coni|ianion and ass<iciiitr 
of Pe-shau-ba, Waw-so, had been acci<lenially killed by iin A 
siiineboin in liunting. Here we lived in pbniy und contentment, 
but Pe-sliau-ba, upon whom the death of Ins friend Waw-so hail 
made some impression, was soon taken vi<d«'ntly ill. He wa- 
C<uiscious that his end was approaching, and very fre<|iientlv 
told IIS he should nui live lonu. One da\ he -aid tome. *' I 
remember liel'ore I came to live in this world, i was with tin 
(ireal Sjiirit above. And I olten looked down, and saw iiit h 
upon the earth. I saw many gooit and desiraide things, an<l 
amone others, a beautiful woman, and as I looked day after <l:i\ 
at the wmnan, he said to iiie, ' Pe-shiiu-bii, do you love the wn- 
mull \ on an' -^o olten lookiiii: at f I (old him I did : then h' saitl 
to me, ' (io down and spend a few winters on the earth. V<mi 
cannot stay long, and you must remember to be always kind uiM 
good to my children whom you see below.' So I came down. 
but I have never forgotten wliui was said to me. i have alwuV': 
stood in the smoke between die two bands, when my people lm\c 
fuuffiil with their enemies. 1 have not Htruckmy iVifiids la thi-i' 


tanner's NAUKATIVi:. 


vith the in- 
P)j I lu'iinl 
Stall's still 
(iiiltl render 
V ctiinpellpil 
some till!' 
il olheri*, II 
nil assoeiali 
1 liv a II A- 
\Viiw-«o liail 
He wii-^ 
|| III me. " 1 
rt as with till 
|i\)l saw nun 
lliinifs, iw\ 

[lay al'lei- 'l^t^ 
love iIm' \mi 
llien \\r xanl 
earth. Y'ni 
lays kiiiil iiiiii 
raiue down, 
have alway-i 
lieojile huM' 
Lends ill ll»«*'' 

|o(l|TeH. I have disrofirarded the foohshness of yoiiii^ men who 
AVould have ofl'ended me, hut have always heeii ready and willing 
to lead our brave men against the Sioux. I have always gone 
into battle painted black, as I now am, and I now hear the same 
voice that talked to me before I eame to this world ; it tells me I 
can remain here no longer. To yon, my brother, I have been a 
protector, and yon will lie sorry when I leave you ; but be not 
like a w<Mnan, yon will soon follow in my path," lie then put 
on the new rloth*'- I had liiven him to wear below, walked out 
(if the lodtre, lookeil at the sun, the sky, the lake, and the distant 
hills; tht n came in, and lay down composedly in his place in th«! 
iodfie, and in a fow miiinles c»'as<'d to breathe. 

After the death of Pe-shau-ba, I wished t(» have inadi another 
attempt to come to the States; but Waw-xhe-kah-maish-koon 
prevented me. I lived with him the remainder of the winter, 
and ill the fsprinff to Ne-bo-wese-be, (Dead River.) where wc 
|.hiiited corn, and spent the stimmer. in the tall, after the com 
was Leathered, we went to onr hunting jircnmrls. 

An old Ojibbeway, ^-alled Crooked Fiiurer, had been livlny in 
my lod^re about a year; In all that time, havinjr never killed any 
ihintr. When I started to hunt biilhiloe. be follovveil nie, and wc 
tame at the same time in view of a larire bcnl, when the old man 
nuleavonred to raise a ipiarrel about my riirht to use those hunt- 
iiH( urminds. "Yon Ojiawwaws," said he. " have no riyht \\y, 
this part of the country ; and lliouLfh I eannol control all of yon, 
I have you, at last, ni>w in my power, and I am dilerinined, that 
if ynu do not yo back to your own country from this very spot. 
I will kill y<>u." I had no apprehension on account of his thrent. 
and I defied him to injure or mol«>st me. Alter an hour or more 
(tf idtercati(m, he crept up. and at lei.irih besran to shoot at the 
herd of iintliiloe. Soon alter lie had left me, tw o Oilawwaw--. 
who had overheard the ipiarrel as ihey were comiiiu up, and haii 
concc il-'d themselves in ibe liushes near, joim-n m The old 
iiiuii, after three or lour misuccessful shots ..i tl e h Ulaioe i'.jrne»I 
an<l went home, ashamed alike of hi^ in<(deiice \' ;.ie, and of hi-) 
ftuiii of sincess. Then I went forward with the iwu Ot- 
tawwaws who had joined nie, und we killed on;>inerHble iio:<>- 
her of fat eown. 

•Shortly after this, when i had been huniiufir all day, on reluvn- 

!r '-:f*m 




♦ 1 


? t 




ing home late at niglit, I lound a very imusiiul >iloomin«»sK in tht; 
(^ounteiiaiu'cs of nil tin- inmates of my lodiro. I saw tlu're a niau 
named Cliik-ali-t<», who was almost a stranger to me. He, and 
all the rest of llu'm, seemed as if east «lowa by some sudden and 
unexpected bad news ; and when I asked my wife the rausc of 
this apparent distress, she returned me no answer. At len^ilh, 
VV'aw-zhe-kah-maisIi-koon, in re|)Iy to my earnest impiiries, told 
me, with the utmost seriousness, anil a voice ol' solemn emieerti, 
thm the (neat Spirit bad e<Mne down asrain. " What, has he 
come again so soon ?" said I ; " lie eomes ot'ten of late ; but 1 sup- 
pose we must hear what he has to say." The lisiht ami irreve- 
rent manner in whirli I treated the subjeet, wa- very ollensive t(j 
many of the Iiulians. and they a|)parently all determined to 
withhold iVom me all coinnumieations respeeling it. This was to 
me a matter of little ronsei|uence, and I went, as usual, to my 
huntinjr, on the followinir nutrninu. Mv own indillerenre and 
eonlempt for these preleiideil revelations of the Divin.- will, kejH 
me in ignoraiice, for some time, of llu- purport ot the present (Mic. 
But at a subsequent period of my life, I found, that thoutrh my 
skeptirism might not be olfensiv*' to the (ireal (Jod, in whosn 
name these revelations were made to us, still it was liighly so to 
those who were pleased to stile themselves his messengers ; and 
that, by ineurrinu; their ill v.ill, 1 exposed m).self to much iiicoi'.- 
vcnienre and danger. 

Ill the s[iring of tlie year, after we had assembleil at the trading: 
Jjouse at reinbinah, tlie rliiel's built a liieal lodirc, and I'alled .ill 
the men logelber to receive some inl'orinatioii eoiieerninj> lli.' 
newly revealed will ol the (Jreat Spirit. The messenger of ihiv' 
revelation, was Maiiito-o-geezliik, a man of no great faiiK-, Inn 
well known to most of the (>iibbe^tays of that eoimtry. He had 
disap|)eareil lor about (me year, and in that time, he pretended In 
have visited the abode of the (Jreat Spirit, and to have listened 
to his instriK-tiiHis : but some of the traders informed me, he had 
only been to St. liOiiis, on the Mississippi. 

The l.illle Cliim loolx it upon him to explain (he object ot 
^\^^ iiieeliiiti. He then sung anil pra\ed, and proceeded to ik- 
tail the principal features of the revelation (o !Manito«(i-gcc- 
zhik. The Indians were no more to go against their enemies; 
they tnuft bo longer steal, defraud, or lie ; they must neither Ni 



<iruiik. noF eat their fcuul, mtrtlriiik lluir tnvuli wlicii ii was lini. 
Few ot" the injiiiiftions ul" Miiiiit(i-(i-<r((/.liiL were li()iil)le!i(tme 
or (liHicult «»f Obs'^rvaiiet', like ihosi- ol' the Shiiw lui' prophet. 
Muiiy of the iiiaxiins and iiistructiniis eoiiiinniiieateii to the In- 
chaiis, at this time, were of a kiixl to he permiinenily and valua- 
bly useful l«) them; and liie elii-cl of ihcir influcnre was manifest 
for two or three years, in the more orderly eoiidnet. and some- 
what amended condition of the Indians. 

When we wire ready to scparalc (Vom the tradinij-house, Ais- 
ainse, (the little <lam,) invited several o| us, myself in partienlar, 
tu areompany hint to his residence at Maii-e-to Sah-iri-e-sinn, or 
Spirit Lake,* hut I would not join him, as I wished lo remain iii 
a woody connlry, for the purpose of hunlinir the fnr-l)earin>: ani- 
mals. 'l\'\\ nwn, amonif whom were VVa-i;«'-lone and <ii-ah-<(e- 
jrit, together with ^real numbers of women, aeicpiel his invita- 
tion, and went with him. A yinmi; man. a fri(Mi<l of the Little 
Clam, named Se-trwnn-oons, (-iirimr deer.) l)efor(> tiny sejiaraleil 
from us at I'einbinah, predicted that he would be killed al Spirit 
Lake, ^kany other predicli(Hi-< he made, which were verified 
from day to day, until the Indians cam«> to ha\e such < ontideiire 
in him, that his admonitions ot' impending; danu;er to those who 
sliould t5<» to Spirit Lake, liei>an to be so much reijarded, that 
^V;!-lne-^on-a-i)iew, and many others, became alarmed, and re- 
turned. Last ol all came Malch-e-loons. a I'tndish ami lyinj; 
youn^ man, who reported ihat the indications of danirer thick- 
ciiinti around the Little Tlam and his band, he had >ttden away 
ill the ni^rht, and <.he next mornin<i, thouah he had lied a consi- 
derable distance, hi' heard the jiuiis of the Sionx at tiie camp hr 
had left. We did not innnedialely creilit the acemmt of tlii.>« 
man, but waited anxiously, from day to <fay. till at last the chiefs 
fin rmin«'d to send twenty UKn, to ascertain whether there wnt^ 
any louiulation lor his statement. This jiarly, when they ar- 
rived at the |)loce where lh<' Little Clam had been encamped, 
found that the whole band had been cut oil'. First, and in ad- 
vance of all the camp, lav the body of Se-trw un-oiuis, the vftimp 
Oitiu who had |)redicU'd the attack before he left reml)inah. 
.Near hiiu lay some young men of iiis own age, and farther back 

Lt neither b-i 

» JDc'rfi LoAf. ujwl on the Norih VVivst Compunv's map, (iijd'g J^tJ<r 


ir^ -^l. 





the stoiil l)(»(ly of the Little Clam, stuck full of arrowsi. In tin- 
camp the tiroimil was strewed with the iKuiies of tlie women and 
chiltlrei). At a distance was llie liody of one of the Sioux, in a 
siltinjf posture, and covered willi the puk-kwi, or mats, which 
Iiad bell red to the ()jii)heway Iodtf«s. Not one escaped cxcejx 
Malch-e-toons, but some afterwards doubted whether he had not 
fled in lli<' lime of the furhi. insleail ol (he eveninif before, as ht 
iiad stated. Thus died the l^iille ('him, tiu' hist of liie considera- 
ble iiwn of his ajre, l>eion)iin!f to the Ojibiu ways of Red River. 
Our villajfc seenu'd thsidalc after the recent hiss of so many men. 

We then went down lo Dea.I I{iver, |)lanled corn, a'«l sjteni 
the suninitr tlure. Sha-awaw-koo-sink, an Oltawwaw, a friend 
ol nunc, and an <dd niaii, first introduced the cidlivation uf corn 
ailion^r the Ojibbeways of the Red River country. 

Jn the tnsuin^ fall, when we w<';ii lo our hunting irrounds, the 
wolves were unusually nuiuerous and troublesome. 'I'hey at- 
tacked and killed my hor.^e, anti s( xeral ol my doirs. One day. 
when I !iad killed a nioos(>, and mmv with all my lamily to briiiij 
in the meat, 1 found, on m>> return. liu> wolves had pulled down 
my lod>;e, carried oil inunv skins, carrying-straps, and, in line, 
whatever articles of skin, or leather, they could come at. 1 kill- 
ed ((real numbers, but they still coiilitiiied to trouble me, parti 
culurly an old doir wolf, who Imd l)eeii so often at my door lliai 
I knew ! s appearance, and was perfectly actpiainted with In- 
habits. He used, w h< i!c\er he came, to advance boldly ujton m\ 
(logs, and drive them in ; he would then prowl about, to sei/- 
whatever he could find of lood. At last, I loaded mv (run. nm 
went out, when he spruiii; directly at me; but I shot Intu In 
furc h« JihU time lu fastvn ujiun niu. Hull' ht» hair hud fuileti oil 



, » 



In th« 
iiiiru und 
oux, ill a 

fd except 
t> had not 
,re, urt he 
led llivir. 
uiiiiN nun. 
((■id i^\)vu\. 
V, u friend 
oit ot com 

•ounds, thr 

Th«'y i>t- 
Oni' diiy. 
i!y tt> hrini: 
»ill»'d down 
lid. in linr. 
at. I kill- 
iiir, parti 
y »l»)«»r ihm 
I'tl with hi- 
lly upon w) 
il, lit sri/' 
IV (iun. ai" 
ol hini l)r 
d Ittlh-n "'1 


Rapncitv r.f the triidrrs — rcvclalioii of .MitnilK-o-gci-zliik — ijretonsions ol As- 
kiiwlia-wis — (■r('iliilit\ nl the Iinliniis— <i)liiiiy :il |{cil K'lvrr, |.liiiiti'.l hy the 
lliiil-itn's l!n\ traders — lar^t' \var-|iarty iissriiilili'd ;it 'I'urtli Muuntaiii — want 
(if iliriciplinr. 

IVIu. IIknrv had traded tpu y^ars at Peinhinah; he was suc- 
fccfh'd l)y a Mr. M'Kcnzic, who rrniained Imt a sliort tiiiip, and 
iifttr him cjimi.' Mr. VVtdls, <-all«Ml l)y the Indians (iah-sc-moaii, (a 
>:iil.) from the runndncss and fulness of his person, lie huiit a 
slroim^ lorl on Hi d Uiver, near the inoiilh of the Assinnehoin. 
The Hudson's Hay ( niiipiiny Inid now no post in that part of 
iln- country, and the Indians were soon made conscious of the 
idvantajre whieh had formerly resnlK'd to them front the rompe- 
ilioii htlween rival tradinif eoinnnnies. Mr. ^V ells, at the com- 
iiieiieeiiieiii of winter, <'alled n^ all together, mive <lie Indians il 
'.en s;alloii !'e)r of nmi, and sonie tohaeco, tellinsr them, at ihc 

f-Hine time. It oiild not ere<lil one of them the value of a sinjjlc 

heedle. *Vh« n they hroiiirht skins, he wotdd l>ny them, and 
irive in exehani>e such urtieles as were ne«'«'ssar lor their eoin* 
tort and sid)sist«Miee diirini> llir winter. I was not with the In* 
diiin.' •vhen litis i dk was held. NVhen it was reporlf! to mc, 
iiiil a i.hare of the [iresenls oHered me, I not only reluseil to ac- 
K plans thiiiLN hnl repricic' ed the Indians f r tlseir pn lanimity 
ill ■iidnnitli:!^ to siiehiitis. They had een aenistoined, tor 
nnuiv years, to receive eredits in lln* fall; iliey were now en- 
tirely destitute not of elotliintr merelv. hut of ammunition, and 
many of the of ^uns and traps, li • \ were they, without 
die neeiisioined aid from thi< iiaders. to siihsi-^t heinselves and 
their familie-^ diiriiiii the en uniif w inter ? A tew days afuru ariis, 
I went to Mr. WellH, ami tidd hini t i I wbh poor, with a liari^ 
family l" supixirt by my own exertions, and tlui I muM no* 
^uiilnbly sullier. and perha|>s peritth. unless hi wnold ffivr me 




It y 



eucli a rrrdit as I had always, in tlie fall, been accustomed to re- 
ccivc. lit' wtiidd not listen to my rf|ircs«-iitation, and told inr, 
roughly, to i>v gone from his house, i then took eight silver 
heaveis, siuh as are worn by the women, as ornuments on their 
dress, and which 1 harl purchased the year before at just twice 
the price that was coiinaiinly given lor a capote; 1 laid tiiem be- 
for«- him, on the table, and asked him to give me a capote for 
(hem, or retain tlu ni as a pU-dge for the pa\menl of the price of 
the garment, as soon a> 1 could procuri' the peltries. He took 
up the ornaments, threw them in my face, anil told me ne\er to 
come inside of lii-< house again. The <-(dd weather of the winter 
had not yet s«'t in, and I wint imnuMliately to my limiting ground, 
killed a numl)er of moose, and set my wife to make the skins into 
siicli garments as were best adapted to the winter season, and 
uhi( h 1 now saw we should be compelled to sul>stitute tor the 
bliiiikels and woollen ilothes we liad been accuslomeil to receive 
from the traders. 

I continued my hunting with good sueress, but the winter had 
not half passed, when I lieanl thai Mr. Ilanie, a trader for the 
Hudson's Hay people, had arrivi-d at I'endiin.ih. I went imme- 
diately to him, and he uave me all the credit I asked, which wa-; 
to the anmunl (d' seventy skins. Tln'ii i went to Muskral Kiver, 
where 1 hunted the riniainder of the winter, killinn great num- 
bers of martens, beavers, otters, «5te. 

Karlv in the siirinif, I sent word by some Indians to Mr. Ilanie. 
that 1 would go down to the imnith of the A-isinneiioin, and iir ct 
him there, to pay my credit, as I had skins more thait enough for 
tliis puipos«'. 

When I arrived at the Assiiuieboin, Mr. Ilanie had not yri 
passed, and I slopped to wait for him ojipusite Mr. VV( H's tradiii;j 
hcMise. An idd {''renchman nl]ei'ed me a loiJMini; in his house, 
and I went in and d p ite ' ni. peltries under the place he gave 
me to sh-ep in. Mi. W. lis, having card of my arrival, sei\i 
thr<'e li es, urii'ng me ti> - ome and sec him. At last, I yiiddcrl 
to the s'-'icilations of rny brother-in-law, and crossed over wilh 
him. Mr. Wills was glad to see me, and treated me with much 
politeness ; he afVered me wine and provisions, and whatever his 
house Htlorded- I had taken nothinir except a little tobacco. 
>vhen I saw his Frenclinian eome in with my packs. They car- 




ricd them past me into Mr. Well's bed room ; lie then locked the 
door, and lookout the key. liiunediiitely his kiiidiiess and at- 
tentions to me rcla.xed. 1 said nothing, but tVii not ihe h'ss 
anxious and uneasy, as i was very unwilling to be deprived of 
the means of paying Mr. llanie his credit, still more so to have 
my property taken from n»e by violenee, or without my own con- 
soiit. 1 watched about the house, uikI at length luunii an oppor- 
tunity to slip into the bed room, wliile Mr. Wells was then lakii^; 
fiometiiing from a trunk. He tried to drive me, and al'terwa.-ds 
to push mc out, but 1 was too strong for him. Alter he had 
proceeded to this violence, 1 did not hesitate to take up uiy packs, 
but he snatched them I'roin me. Again I seized them, and in 
the struggle that ensued, the thongs thai boimd them wero 
broken, and the skins strewed about the tloor. As 1 went to 
gather them up, he drew a i»i»tol, cocked it, ami presented it to 
my itreast. For a moment I stood motioidess, thinking ho would 
cerlaiidy kill me, as i saw he was much eiiiauH d ; then 1 seized 
his hand, and turned it aside, at the same moment drawing iVoin 
my licit a large knife, which I grasped tirmly in my right hand, 
still holding him by my left. Seeing himself thus sudilenl\ ;inrt 
entirely in my power, he called lirsl for his wife, tlu'ii for his in- 
terpreter, and told them to put me out of the house. To this, the 
interpreter answered, " You are as able to put him out as I am.*' 
H(une of the Frenchmen were also in the house, but they refused 
to ifive him any assistance. Fimling he was imt likely to in- 
timidate or overcome sue by \ iolence, lie had rfcoursc onco 
more to milder measures. He (diered to divide with me, and to 
allow me to retain half my peltries for the lluilsmi's Bay people, 
" You have always," saiil he, " bcloiicred to the north west ; 
why should yon now desert us for the Hudson's \V,\\ I"' He 
then proceed) d t<> count the skins, di\ idiii>^ tin in into two par- 
cels ; but I told him it was unnecessarv, as I was delermlMed he 
should not have o'le of them. "I w«'nt to you,'' said I, '■ last 
fall, when I was huuLny and destitute, and you drove nx', like a 
dog, fiMun your floor. The ammunition with which I killed 
these animals, was credited to me by Mr. Hanie, and the skins 
belong to him; hut if this was not the case, you should not 
have one of ihetn. You are a coward ; you have not so much 
courage as a child. If you had the lieart of a si^uaw, you wouM 



I ■' 

ili - 



• '1 



not have pointed your pistol at my I)rea3t, and have failed to 
shoot me. My life whs in your powi r, and there was mitliiiig 
to prevent your lakinfr it, not even the fear of my friends, f(ir 
you know that I am a stranger here, and not one among tlie In- 
dians would raise his hand to avenge my death. You miglit have 
thrown my body into the river, as you would a dog, an<l no one- 
would have asked you what you had i iie ; but you wanted the 
spirit to do even this." He asked me il 1 had not a knite in my 
hand. I then showed him two, a I r .<• and a small oiu>, and told 
him to beware how he provoked me t.» use thein. At last, wea- 
ried with this altereation, he went and sat down o|)posite me in 
the large room ; thouirh he was at eon-iderable distance, so great 
was his agitation, that I rould distinctly hear his heart lieat. ^^Ilc 
sat awhile, then went and began 'o walk hack and forth in the 
yard. I collected my skins togetlx . and the inter; -eter helped 
me to tie them up ; then taking them on my back, I walked out, 
passed close by him, put them in my canoe, and returned to the 
old Frenchman's house, on the other side. 

Next mornino, il appeared that Mr. Weils had thought better 
of the subject, than to wish to take my property from me by vio- 
leiue, for he sent his intcroreter to otl'cr me his horse, which was 
u very valual)le <me, if I would think no more of what lie h;ul 
done. " Tell him," said I, to the interpreter, " he is a child. 
and wishes to tpiarrel ami forget his ijuarrel in one day ; but he 
shall not find I am like him: I luive a horse of my own; I will 
keep mv packs; nor will I foruet tlial Ik pointed bis pistol at 
my breast, when lie lind iioi tlie coiirat:e to shoot me." 

On the following morning, one ot the clerks of the North West 
Company arrived from the trading-house at Mouse River, and 
he, i! ai)prared. told "Mr. Wells, wInn he liranl what had |>assed. 
that ho wcMilil lake my paiks from me; and llmugh Mr. Well- 
eauti.>ned him against it, Ik determined on maixing the attempt. 
It was near noon, when the old Frenchman, after looking out of 
his house, said to ute, " My friend, I believe you will lose your 
packs now ; four men are cominu this way, all well armed ; their 
visit, I am sure, is for no gooii or friendly purpose." Ilraring 
this, i placed my packs in the middle of the tioor, and Uiking u 
beaver trap in my band, sat down on them. When the clerk 
e«ine in. arcompauied by three youug mou. he a-sked mc for ins 

V. iV 

I-ANNKU's NAIillATlV t\ 


and have (&\M to 
there was uotliiug 
of my IVitnils, iov 
one amonil the In- 
1. You mishl have 
1 a iU)tf, antl n<» oiu; 
but you wanted tlu; 
111 not a knil'e in my 

small one, and told 
hem. 'Vt last, wea- 
lown opposite me in 
lie ilistanre, so preat 

bis lu-arl heat. ■5^110 
uk and forth in the 
IH' interv eter helped 

back, I walked .ml. 
, and returned to th« 

Is had thought better 
)crty from me by vio- 
; his horse, whieh was 
uore of wbal be li;id 
■vU-T. " he is a ebilil. 
el in one day ; hnt he 
se of my '»wn ; I will 
pointed bis pistol at 
;liool me." 
llvsoftbe North West 
at Movisr Kiver, ami 
Lard what had passed. 
Ll tliMiigh Mr. Well- 
|, maiviii}! the attemi>l. 
I. after looking out ol 
V,. you will lose youv 
I, all well armed; their 
V purpose." H.aiiiifr 
be tioor, and Uikinij f 
lu'in. 'VVheii the elerk 
u. he a.skcd me fur im 

'tacks. " What right have you," said I, ♦' lo (Ifioanil liiein *"' 
• Vou are indebted to inc," said he. "When did 1 owe the 
\..rth West any tliintr, that was not paid at the time airreed on?'' 
'■Ten years ago," said be, ")()iir brother, Wa-me-gon-a-bie\v, 
had a criMJit Ironi ine, which he paid all but ten skins; those arc 
sUlldue, and I wish you to pay them." "Vory well," said I. "f 
will pay your demand, but you nnist, at llie .^ann- time, pay mr 
for those four packs of beaver we sent to you from the (Iraud 
Porlaire. Your due bill was, as yini know, burned with my 
lodge, at Kc-nu-kaw-ne-she-wa-bo-ant, and you have never paid 
me, or any member of our family, the value of a single needle 
for those one hundred and sixty l)eaver skins." Finding this 
method would not succeed, and knowing, though he disregarded 
it, the justice of my reply, he tried the eH'ect of violent measures, 
like those used on the preceding day bv Mr. Wells ; but when 
he perceived these were and would Ix ■ .|ually unavailir)g, he rc- 
turred to the fort, without having k«-n a single marten skin 
from me. 

When I ascertained that it would ume time before Mr. 

Hanie would arrive, I went down (o Dead Ki\ ( i , and whih' I was 
waiting there, killeil four hundred nniskrats. \l last. Mr. lianip 
arrived at the place where 1, with another man, bad been waiting 
for him. He told me that he had passed Mr. Wells' trading- 
house, at the moutli of the Assinneboin, in the middle of the dav. 
with his crew singing. Mr. Wells, on seeing him, had immedi- 
ately started after him, with a canoe strongly maimed and armed. 
On perceiving this pursuit, Mr. Ilani*' went on shore, and leaving 
his men in his canoe, went up aliout twenty yards into a smooth 
prairie. Hither Mr. Wells followed him, attended l)y several 
armed men; but Mr. Hanie made him stop at the distance often 
yards, atid a long dispute lollowed, which ended in bis permit- 
ting Mr. Hanie to pass down. I related to him my story of the 
treatment I had received, and paid him his credit. I traded with 
him for the remainder of my peltries, and after we had fmislied, 
he gave me s(une handsome presents, anumg which was a valua- 
ble gun, and then went on liis way. As I was re-ascending Red 
River, I met Mr. Wells. He was destitute of fresh game, and 
asked me for some, which I should h.ave given, had it been in 
my power ; but he attributed my refusal to ill will. Afterward'^, 









;!f 1^ 12.0 

IL25 i 1.4 




r^ -5i;^.:> 










(716) 173-4303 









tlioiigJi I \vas livinir at a distance from liim, he .sent his horse ly 
ine, and ajrain subsequently to Pembinali, but I constiuitly refused 
(o accept it. Notwithstanding my steady and repeated refusal, I 
^vas informed lie always said the horse belonged to me, and after 
his death, which happeinpd three years later, the other traders 
(old me I ought to take the horse ; but I would not, and it fell 
into the hands of an old Frenchman. After the death of Mr. 
Wells, I returned to the North West Company, and traded with 
them, as before : but never while he lived. If he had shot me, 
and wounded me ever so severely, I should have been less of- 
fended with him, than to have him present his pistol, as he did, 
lo my breast, and take it away without firing. 

Esh-ke-buk-ke-koo-sa, a chief of Leech Lake, came after this 
<o Pembinali, with alioui forty young men, and I went, by invi- 
tation, from the Be-gwi-o-nus-ko, with others, to hear him give 
some account of the recent revelation from the Great Spirit to 
Manito-o-geezhik. We were all assembled one night in a 
long lodge, erected for the purpose, to dance and feast, and lis- 
len to the discourse of the chief, when suddenly we heard two 
guns, in quick succession, in the direction of the North West 
Company'strading-housc, now unoccupied, except by two French- 
men, who had that day arrived. 'I'he old men looked at each 
other in doubt and dismay. Some said the Frenchmen are kill- 
ing wolves, but Esh-ke-l)uk-ke-koo-sa said, " I know the sound 
of the guns of the Sioux." The night was very dark, but all the 
voung men took their arms and started immediately, and 1 among 
the foremost. Many getting entangled among logs and stumps, 
made but little progress. I kept the path, and was still foremost, 
when a dark figure shot past me, and, at the same moment, I 
iicard the voice of the Hlack Duck, saying, neen-dow-in-nin-nr, 
(1 am a man.) I had often heard of the prowess of this man. 
and in one instance had seen him at the Sioux village, at (,'hief 
Vlountain, lead in what we all supposed would be an attack. 
Now 1 delennified to keep near him. We had advanced within 
.ibout gun shot of the fort, when he began to leap, first to one 
<\(\(\ and then to the oilier, thus moving in a zig/ag line, though 
lapidly, towards the gate of the fort. I followed liis example, 
,ind when he leapt into the open gate of the fort, it was with a 
•>in'pri)5inff efi'ort of arlivily, which carried his feet near two 

I r 



rANNtU .S NAllUAl'n i;. 


hovse ic^ 
y refused 
refusal, I 

aiul after 
BV traders 
uul it fell 
th of Mr. 
aded with 
1 shot me, 
en less of- 

as he did, 

B after this 
It, by invi- 
r him give 
at Spirit to 
night in a 
ast, and lis- 
hcard two 
North West 
.wo Fronch- 
»ked at eacli 
nen are kiU- 
vv the sound 
i, hut all the 
and 1 amonir 
and stumps, 
lill foremost. 
c moment, I 
of this man. 
jre, at Chief 
)e an attack, 
anred within 
first to one 
line, though 
lis example. 
I was with a 
( t near iwf' 

\ards from the ground. We saw witliin llie Ibrl a liniisc, at tin- 
window .ind door of whicli we perceived a hri'^iit light. Tli< 
JMack Duck had a huflaloe robe over his shoulders, the dark co- 
lour of which enabled him to jiass tho wiiidou' undiscovered by 
the man who was watching within ; but my white blanket be- 
traying me, the muzzle of a gun was instantly presented to my 
head, but not Uischarged, for the Black Duck at that instant 
caught in his arms the aH'righted Kniuchman, who had mistaUot 
me for one of the Sioux, and was in the act of firing upon mo. 
The second Frenchman was with the women ami children, who 
were all lying in a heap in th>' corner of the room, crying through 
fear. It appeared that the one who was watching l)y tlut window, 
who was the most manly of the two, had, a i"ew minutes before. 
i)een driving his horse out of the fort, to give him water, when 
the animal had been shot dead in the gate by some men concealed 
near at hand. He at first thought we were the poo[)le who had 
:>hot his horse; but he was soon convinced of his error, as we did 
not even know that the body of the horse was lying at the gate. 
having jumped entirely over it when we entered. This French- 
man would not leave the fort : but the Black Duck, who was ii 
relative of one of the women, insiste.i that they should be taken 
to the Indian camp. Others of our young men had by this tiin<^ 
come up, and we determined to watch in the fort all night. Next 
morning wc found the trail of the two men who had crossed tho 
Pembinah river, a considerable Mar party having l)een concealed 
on the other side. The two men were the celebrated Yauktong 
chief, Wah-ne-tow, ami his uncle. They had concealed them- 
selves near the gate of the fort, with the determination to shoot 
down whatever came out ;ir went in. The first that [)asse(l, hap-- 
pening to be the Frenchmaii's horse, he was shot down ; and the 
two men, probably without knowing whether they had killed man 
or beast, fled across the river. 

When it was ascertained that the Sioux war party was not ;i 
very large one, many were disposed to pursue after it, but Ksh- 
ke-buk-ke-koo-sha said, " not so, my brethren ; Maiiito-o-geezhik. 
whose messenger I am to you, tells us we must no more gn 
against our enemies. And is it not manifest, that in this instanco 
the Great Spirit has protected us. Had the Sicuiv come about 
our lodge when we were fi'Hstinjr >n pecurify. M'ithout our arm"- 






ill our hands, liow easily inighl they huvc killed all of lis; but 
ihey were misled, and made to mistake a Frenehman's horse for 
an Ojibbeway. 80 will it continue to be, if we are obedient to 
the injunctions we have received." I began to be apprehensive 
for my family, having left them at home, and fearing that the Si- 
oux might visit them, on their way to their own country. " Go," 
said Esh-ke-l)uk-ke-koo-sha, when I tohl him of my anxiety, " but 
do not fear that the Sioux can do any injury to your wife or chil- 
dren ; but I wish you to go, that on your return you may bring 
me your medicine bag, and I shall show you what to do with the 
contents." I did accordingly, and he ordered the contents of m\ 
medicine bag, except the medicines for war and hunting, to be 
thrown into the tire. " This," said he, " is what we must hence- 
forth do ; if any one is sick, let them take a bowl of birch bark, 
and a little tobacco; the sick person himself, if he is able to walk, 
otherwise his nearest relative, and let them go to the nearest run- 
ning water. Let the tobacco be offered to the stream, then dipj)iu(: 
(lie bowl in the same direction in which the water runs, let them 
take a little, and carry it home, for the sick person to drink. But 
if the sickness l)c very severe, then let the person that dips up 
the water, plunge the bowl so deep that the edge of it shall touch 
(he mud in the bottom of the stream." He then gave me a small 
hoop of wood to wear on my head like a cap. On one half ol 
this hoop, was marked the figure of a snake, whose office, as the 
chief told me, was to take care of the water ; on the other half, 
tlie figure of a man, to re()resent the (Jreat Spirit. This band, 
or fillet, was not to be worn on ordinary occasions — only when I 
.should go to bring water for some of my family or friends who 
f^hould be sick. I was much dissatisfied at the destruction of the 
contents of my medicine bag, many of them being such roots and 
other substances, as I had found useful, in the disorders incident 
to my situation ; and I was still more displeased, that we were 
not, henceforth, to be allowed to use these remedies, some of 
which I knew to be of great value. But all the Indians of the 
band were in the same situation with myself, and I was com- 
pelled to submit. 

When the spring came on, I went to fulfil an appointment I 
liad made the preceding fall, with Sha-gwaw-ko-sink, to meet him 
at A cert^i place. 1 arrived on the spot at the time appointed. 

I ' 


I !■ 

Uis ; bvtt 
horse for 
lediem to 
lat the Si- 
•. "Oo," 
iety, " bvil 
ife or chil- 
may bruig 
lo with the 
ents of my 
ting, to be 
lUSt hence- 
birch bark. 
)le to walk, 
learest run- 
len dipping 
lis, let them 
drink. But 
that dips up 
, shall touch 
; nic a small 
one half ot 
)frice, as the 
other half. 
This band, 
[only when I 
friends who 
liction of the 
;h roots and 
ers incident 
|hat we were 
[OS, some of 
Idians of the 
I was com* 

kpointment I 
to meet him 



and shortly afterwards, the old man came, on foot and alone, to 
search fur me. llv had encamped about two miles distant, where 
he bad been for two days, and tbey had plenty of fresh meat, 
which was particularly grateful to me, as for some time past I 
had killeil l)Ut little. 

I lived with him during the summer. Slia-gwaw-ko-sink was 
now too old and feei)le to hunt; but he had some young men with 
him, who ke|)t him supplied, while iraine was lobe ha I ; but late 
in the fall, the hunting grounds about us liecame poor. The 
weather was very cold, and the ground hard frozen, but no snow 
fell; so that it was diflicult to follow the tracks of the moose, 
and the noise of our walking on hard ground and dry leaves, gave 
the animals timely .varning of our a|)proacli. This state of things 
continuing for some time, we were all reduced nearly to starva- 
tiiiu, and had recoiusc, as a last resort, to medicine hunting. 
Half the night I smig u-id prayed, and then lay down to sleep. 
I saw. in my dream, a beautiful young man come down through 
the hole in the top of my lodge, and he stood directly before me. 
•• What," said he, "is this noise and crying that I hear? Do I 
not know when you are hunffry and in distress ? I look down upon 
you at all times, and it is not necessary you should call me with 
such loud cries." Then pointing directly towards the sim's setting, 
he said, " do you see those tracks?" "Yes," 1 answered, " the\ 
are the tracks t)f two moose." " I sive you those two moose to 
eat." Then poii\ting in an opposite direction, to\vards the place 
of the sun's rising, lie showed me a bear's track, and said, "that 
nlso I give you." He then went out at the door of my lodge, and 
as he raised the blanket. I saw that snow was fallin<? rapidly. 

I very soon awoke, and feeling too much excited to sleep, I 
railed old Sha-gwaw-ko-sink to smoke with me, and then pre- 
pared my Muz-zin-ne-neen-suk,* as in the subjoined sketch, to re- 

♦ MtiT-zin-TW-ncen, mut-Tin-nf-nrcn-s'ii^ — siiiffuliir and plurn!. Mrxhe-nin- 
nc-shdh, Menhc-iiin-ni-sltuk — .MciiDiiinniiMliiiloft. Tht'so little imiincs, or draw- 
ings, tor they arc called by Oie same iiaiiit'R, wlirthor of carvpil wood, or rags, or 
onlv rudely sk."t('hrd on Inrrii liark, or men trai'cd in sand, are niuch in use among 
si'veriil, and proiiably all the Aluonkin Irilx's. Their use is not eontined to hunting, 
hut extends to the making of love, and the irratifieation of hatred, revenge, and all 
maliirnant passions. 

It is a prevailing belief, to whirh the influene* of eBtabliahed 8U|iprBtition has 
|hv en aaastorii»luiig (wwvi, that the necronwnccrn. men and women of medicine. 





i i« 









present the animals whose tracks had been shown me in iiiy 
dreani. At the earliest dawn, I started from the lodge in a heav^- 
i'all of .inow, and taking the course pointed out to me, long be- 
fore noon I fell on the track of two moose, and killed them both, 
a male and a female, and extremely fat. 

or those who arp acquainted with the hiilden powers of their wusks, run, l\v pi'ac- 
tisins u|)on the Muz-8iii-nc-neence, exercise an unlimited control over the IkkIv and 
mind of the person represented. As it may have been, in former times, among the 
people of our rare, iruiny a simple Indian <;irl (rives to nomeeraftv old squaw her 
most valued ornaments, or whatever property she may [)ossess, to purchase from 
lirr the love of the man she is most anxious to please. The old woman, in a casn 
of this kind, commonly makes up a little ima<ie of stained wooil and ruffs, to which 
.«he gives the name of the )X'rson whose inclinations she is expected to control ; and 
to the heart, the eyes, or to some other part of this, she, from time to time, ajjplies 
hrr medicines, or professes to have done so, as she may lind necessary to dupe and 
encourage her credulous employer. 

But the influence of these images and conjurations, is more frequently tested in 
rases of an opposite character ; where the inciting cause is not love, hut hatred, and 
the object to be attaintid, the gratification of a deadly revenge. In cases of this 
liiiid, the practices are similar to those above mentioned, only ditferent medicines 
lire used. Sometimes the Muz-zin-ne-nnence is pricked with a j)in, or needle, in 
various parts, and pain or disease is supjwsed to be proiluced in the corresponding 
prt of the person practised upon. Sometimes they blacken the hands and mouth 
f.t' the image, and the effect expected, is the change which marks the near ap- 
jiioach of death. 

In the sanguinary chapter of the Calica Puran, we find reference to a similar 
^uporstition among the Asiatics. 

'• Let a figure he made, either of barley m(!al or earth, representing the person 
with who.m the sacrificer is at variance, and the head of the figure struck ofi'. 
After the usual texts have been used, the following is to be used in invoking th<^ 
;ixe on the occasion : KffunK, rffuse blood ! be terrific, be terrific .' .n'i:e, seize ! 
destroy, for the love of Ambica, the head of this enemy. Having struck ofl' the 
bead, let him present it, using the texts laid down hereafter f<)r the occasion, con- 
iluiling with the word phat. Water must Ik? sprinkled on the mral or earthen 
victim, which represents the sacrificer's enemy, using the text conmiencing with 
Rada, draibaih, (i. e. by streams of blood,) and marks must be made on the fore- 
iiead with red sanders ; garlands of red flowers must be. j)Ut round the neck of the 
image, and it must be dre-^sed in red garments, tied with red curds, and girt with 
a red ginlle. Then placing the head towards the north, let it be struck olFwitli 
on axe, using the Si'anda text." 

So general and prevalent, among the Indians, is the confidence in the efficacy 
(if these charms, and of those practised by means of a hair from the hcatl of the in- 
U'luled victim, that the Wlicf in them, lias extended to many of the more igno- 
rant of the Canadi. .s who reside with the Indians, and even to some of tin- (rii 
''•'IN Instances in which a iiair is used in place of the image, or niu/.-ziu-ne-neeni<- 


?•*'■■ 'J-!?^ 



tanner's narhative. 

The songs used on occasion of those medicine hunts, have re- 
lation to the religious opinions of the Indians. They are often ad- 
dressed to Na-na-boo-shoo, or Na-na-bush, whom they intreat to 

i .<; 



are frcquptitly those of young women ; and various, and sometimes dreadful, are 
the consequences su|)|K)sed to result. So confident are the representations ol' 
whites, and tliose even of some shrewdness, and so stronfi the lieliefot the Indiang, 
in the power of tliesc drawings, as to enlorco the conviction, that effects have been 
proiluced, in connexion with thes<' mummeries, eitlier hy the intluence ot'imagiiia- 
tion, or the still more |iowert'ul and ci-rtain operation of poison, admini ,tcred se- 
cretly. Poisoning is a crime of perhaps greater frequency among the Indians, than 
could ha\e been ex|)ected from their situation ; and they attribute ecjual guilt to 
the poisoner, whether he actually and craftily administers some powerful drug, or 
whether, at the distance of one or two hundred miles, or at any placi*, however re- 
)notc, he so applies medicine to the Muz-zin-ne-neence, or to a hair, as to produce 
pain, 8i('kness, death, or other .suirerinsi, in his enemy. The inlluence of these 
superstitious and absurd fears, is l)0un<lless, and would, periiaps, surpass compre- 
hension and bi-lief, if we could not look back to the time, when the minds of our 
own race were similarly enthralled ; and when the dread of supernatural powers, in 
the hands of the malicious or the en\ious, formed one among the most s(>rious and 
real evils, in the hie even of the most enlightened and inde|>endent. Many cases 
of sudden sickness ocrur among them, arul many deaths hap|H-n entirely in tiic 
way of nature, which they, l)eiiiu; vnnorant of the true cause, attribute to poison, ur 
more frequently to bad medicine ; but enough of well authenticated instances exist 
to {)rove that they, in some cases, practice upon each other by poison ; sometinip^ 
using such noxious jilants, or other substances, as their own country affords, and 
in other instances prorurinsi ars<'nic, or other drugs, from the whites. To destroy 
life in this way, is perfectly in accordance with their ideas of bravery, or tough- 
ness of heart, (Soiig-ge-d.i-win ;) he being often esteemed the braveft nian, wiio 
destroys his enemy with least risk to his own life. 

The C'hippcwyans, wliose bleak and inhospitable country, affords neither hircli 
bark or other similar article, indeed nothing from the vegetable kingdom to serve 
as a substitute for the birch bark, and whose extreme rudeness has left them igno- 
rant of any method of pre])aring from stones or earth, any thing suitable to wile 
or delineate figures upon, use, in their i)reparafions for the me<licine hunt, tin; 
scapular bone of the rein deer, or such other animals as are found in their country. 
With an apparent poverty of languatre, corresfKinding to the meagerness of tlii'ir 
.soil, and the bluntness of their intellects, they denominate the drawing used in 
this kind of hunting, Kl-kul-lah ki-ecf-ze, (th^ shoulder blade Iwne.) It woulil 
apj)ear, also, that tiie accopijHinying ceremonies of this su|)erstition are pro|K)rtii)ii' 
ably rude and inartificial. After awkwardly sketcliing the rein deer, or whatevf; 
unimalthey may happen to consider as indicated to them by their dream, they cast 
the bone on which the dniwinj; is made into the fire, if, by chance, they hnjiifn 
to have one ; and this fulfils all those imjiorfant ends, whi 'li, in the imasrination of 
the Ojibbewiiv hunter, are de|K'ndant u|)on the proper application of his mecticinci:| 
iind the patient chanting of his prayer*:. 


' '.4 




, have i'«- 

» often ad- 

intreat to 

dreadful, aiP 
5i-ntatioi\s ol' 
,( tlie Indians, 
■cts havf iH'en 
cc ot ima|Tina- 
iniiii.tercd sc- 
> Indians, than 
' P(iual guilt to 
verful drug, or 
Tie, however rc- 
r, as to produce 
luence of these 
;ur\>ass compre- 
w mindt* of ouv 
tural powers, in 
nost serious and 
Lt. Many cases 
I entirely in tho 
3uU- to pois*)n, ur 
d instances exist 
lison ; sometimcj 
ntry affords, and 
iites. To destroy 
ravery, or tovigh- 
raveft man, wlw 

irds neither hireh 
kingdom to serve 
as left Ihem igno- 
auitahle to wito 
licine hunt, tin 
in their oountn . 
oatrerness of tlifir 
drawing usi'din 
\>one.) It would 
in are pro|>ortion- 
deer, or whatever 
ir dream, they cast 
anee, they hnpiicn 

;he imaiiinii'i"" °^ 

he their interpreter, and coininnniciite tlunr reqiiesls to tlie Su- 
preme ; oftentimes, also, to Me-suk-kum-mik 0-k\vi, or the 
earth, the great-ifiand-mother of all. In these sonsrs, they relate 
h(»w Na-na-bush created the ground, in obedience to the com- 
niands of the Great SSpiril, and how all ihinirs for the use, and to 
.sup|ily tiic wants of the uncles and aunts of Na-na-bush, (by which 
live meant men and women,) were committed to the care and 
Keeping of the great mother. J\a-na-bush, ever the benevolent 
intercessor between the Supreme Being and mankind, procured to 
be created for their benefit, llit> animals whose flesh should be for 
their food, and whose skins were for their cloiliing. He sent 
ilown roots and nu'dicines, of sovereign power, to heal their sick- 
)iesses, ami in times of hunger, to enable them to kill the animals 
of the chase. All these things were committed to the care of 
Me-suk-kmn-mik O-kwi ; and that his uncles and aunts miglit never 
call on her in vain, the old woman was directed to ri'main con- 
stantly at home in her lodge. Hence it is, that good Indians nevev 
dig up the roots of which their medicines are made, without at 
the same time depositing in the earth something as an offering to 
3Ie-suk-kum -mik O-kwi. They sing also, how, in former times, 
the Great Spirit having killed tl\e brother of Na-na-l)ush, the 
latter was angry, and strengthened himself against the Su[)reme. 
Na-na-bush waxed stronger and stronger, and was likely to prc- 
va against Gitch-e-manilo, when the latter, to appease him, gave 
him the Me-tai. With this, i\a-na-bush was so pleased, that he 
brought it down to his uncles and aunts on the earth. 

Many of these songs are noted down, by a method probably 
peculiar to the Indians, on birch bark, or small flat pieces of 
wood ; the ideas being conveyed by end)lematic figures, some- 
what like those before mentioned, as used in counnunicating or- 
dinary information. 

Two years previous to this time, a man of our band, called Aiji- 
kaw-ba-wis, a (piiet and rather insignillcaiit person, ai> > poor 
hunter, lost his wife by death ; and his cliildreii began, even iiiore 
than formerly, to sutlisr of hunger. The death of his wife was 
attended with peculiar circumstances, and Ais-kaw-ba-wis became 
melancholy and despondent, which we attributed to the sluggish- 
ness of his disposition ; but he at length called the chiefs to- 
gether, and vvitii much solemnity, announced to them that he had 



'^^ ■ ! A' 




been favoured by a new rovclaliou from the (ircat JSpint. He 
.showed thciii a round ball of earth, about four or five inches in 
diameter, or more than half as large as a man's head, rolled 
j-ound anil smooth, and smeared with red j)aint. " The Great 
Spirit," said he, "as I sat, from day to day, cryinjf, and praying, 
and singing in my lodge, at last callei! to me, and said, ' Ais- 
Jiaw-ba-wis, I have heard vour prayers, 1 have seen the mats in 
your lodge wet with yoiu- tears, and have listened to your re- 
qtiest. I give you this ball, and as you see it is clean and new, I 
give it to you for your business to make the whole earth like it, 
even as it was when Na-iia-i)ush first made ii. All old things 
must be destroyed and done away ; every thing must be made 
anew, and to your hands, Ais-kaw-ba-wis, I commit this great 
work.' " 

I was among those wliom he called in to listen to this iirst an- 
nunciation of his mission. It was not until after he dismissed 
us that I said any thing ; but then, in conversation with my 
companions, I soon betrayed my want of credulity. " It is 
well," said I, " that wc may be made acquainted with tlie whole 
mind and will of the Great S|)irit, at so cheap a rate. Wc 
have now these divinely taught instructors springing up among 
ourselves, and, fortunately, such men as are worth nothing for 
any other purpose. The Shawnee prophet was far off. Kc- 
zhi-ko-we-ninne and Manito-o-geezhik, though of our own tribe, 
were not with us ; they were also men ; but here we have one 
too poor, and indolent, and spiritless, to feed his own family, yet 
he is made the instrument, in the hand of the Great Spirit, as he 
would have us believe, to renovate the whole earth." I had al- 
ways entertained an imfavourable opinion of this man, as I knew 
him to be one of the most worthless among the Indians, and I 
now felt indignant at his attempt to pass himself upon us as a 
chosen and favoured messenger of the Supreme Spirit. I hesi- 
tated not to ridicule his pretensions wherever I went ; but not- 
withstanding that bad luck constantly attended him, he gained a 
powerful ascendancy over the minds of the Indians. Ilis inces- 
sant beating of his drum at night, scared away the game from 
our neighbourhood, and his insolent hypocrisy made him offen- 
sive to me, at all times ; but he had found the way to control 
the minds of many of the people, and all my efforts in opposition 
to him were in vain. 


-■f*-^... . - 

-.-■■■ .r^errrara . •^y.^ajy ' _ 



s first aii- 

with m> 
» It if 
the whole 
rate. We 
up among 
nothing for 
r off. Kc- 
own tribe, 
e have one 
family, yet 
Spirit, as he 
I hail al- 
,, as 1 Unev 
lians, ami I 
pon us as a 
lit. I hesi- 
|it; but not- 
he gained a 
His inces- 
game from 
him offeu- 
ly to control 
n opposition 

i)i\ one oeeasion, wliile \vc reiTMined at ihir; placo, and hvn\ 
been suffering some d.iys I'ntin liiiniier, I went out to hunt, and 
wounded a moose. On my return, I related this, and said 1 be- 
lieved the moose was so hadly wouiuled that lie must die. Ivirlj 
next morniup, Ais-kaw-ba-wis came to my lodtrc, ami, with tlu 
utmost seriousness iti his manner, said to me, tliat the Great 
Spirit had been down, and told him of the moose I had wound- 
ed. " He is now dead," said he, " and you will lind him in 
such a place. It is the will of tlie (ireal Spirit that he shoidd be 
broujrht here and cooked for a sacrifice." 1 ihougiit it not im- 
j)robable tlat tlu^ moose was killed, and went in search of him 
accordingly, Init I found he was not dead. This a Horded me 
another opportunity to ridicule the pretensions of Ais-kaw-bn- 
wis ; but all seemed in no degree to impair the confidence of tiie 
Indians. Verj'^ shortly nflerwards, it ha|)pened that I again 
Avmnided a moose, and went liome williout i>etling it. "This," 
said Ais-kaw-ba-wis, "is the moose which the Great Spirit sliow- 
ed me." So i went out and brought him in, and as I knew man\ 
of the Indians were hungry, I was willing to make a feast, though 
not out of deference to Ais-kaw-ba-wis. As we were too few in 
number to consume all the meat, we cut it off the hours, and 
these were heaped up before Ais-kaw-ba-wis, care l)eing taken 
tliat not one of them should be broken. Tliey were afterwards 
carried to a safe place, and hung up out of the reach of the dogs 
or wolves, as no bone (»f an animal offered in this way nuist, by 
any means, be broken. On the following day, I killed another 
fat moose, on which occasion Ais-kaw-ba-wis made a long ad- 
dress to the Great Spirit, and afterwards said to me, " You see, 
my son, how your goodness is rewarded ; \-ou jrave the first 
you killed to the Spirit; he will take care you shall not want." 
Next day I went with my brother-in-law, and we killed each one. 
and now Ais-kaw-ba-wis extillerl much in the efficacy of the sa- 
crifice he had caused me to make, and his ascendancy over the 
superstitious minds of the Indians was confirmed. Notwith- 
standing this higli degree of favour he had <d)tained by his cun- 
ning, he was a man who, once in his life, had eaten his own wife 
for hunger, ami whom the Indians would then have killed as one 
unworthy to live. 

When the snow began to harden on the top, at the approadi 


^ . 





i it 


V^ X 



of the sprino-, the men oC our Iniiid, Sha-<nvnu'-koo-siiik, Wau 
/ht'-<finv-iTiai-!li-ko(>ii, Ha-|)o-\vasli. (Jisli-knii-ko. myscll', and somr 
ollu'i's, went to make a liuntinjr vnmp a» sonic distanco, f(»r the 
purpose of tnakinir dry moat, and left only Ais-kaw-ba-w is at 
liomi; witli llic vvonun. We kill»'<l mncli <:ann>, as it is very 
easy to lake moose and elk at lliat season; tlio erust on ilir 
snow, while il will hear a man, alnntsl (lej)iives them of the 
power of motion. Al leiiir'Ji, (iish-kau-ko went home to see his 
faniilv, and on his return he hroujrht me a little tobacco troin 
Ais-kaw-ba-wis, with this messajne, " Your life is in danger." 
" My life," said I, " belongs neither to Ais-kaw-ba-wis nor my- 
self; it is in the hands of the (Jreat Spirit, and when he sees fit to 
place it in dantrer, or brinir it to an end, I shall have no cause to 
complain ; but I cannot believe that he has revealed any part of 
his intentions to so worthless a man as yVis-kaw-ba-wis." Fiul 
this intimation alarnied all the Indians who were with me, and 
they made the best of their way to the place where Ais-kaw-I)a- 
wis was encamped with the women. 1 took a circuitous route 
by myself, to visit some of my traps, and havinnf caught an otter. 
I took him on my i)ack, and arrived at home s(une time aflci 
them. Here I found all our lodges converted into one largi 
one; the women and children, together with the men who had 
arrived long before me, were shivering with cold by a fire in tlir 
open air. When I inipiired the meaning of all this, they told 
me that Ais-kaw-ba-wis was preparing for some im|)ortant com- 
munication to be given through him from the (Jieat Spirit. M( 
had been a long time in preparing the lodge, during wliich ever\ 
one was excluded, and he had arran<red that at a certain siiinal 
Ba-po-wash, who was to lead the dance, should enter, and tlu 
others were to follow him, and after having danced four times 
around the lodge, to sit down, each in his place. Hearing this, 
I immediately entered the long lodge, and throwing down my 
otter, seated myself by the fire, Ais-kaw-ba-wis gave me one 
angry and malicious look, then closed his eyes, and affected lu 
go on with a prayer that I had interrupted. After s«nne time, he 
began to drum and sing aloud, and at the third interval of si- 
lence, which was the signal agreed upon with Ba-po-wash, th( 
latter came dancing in, followed by men, women, and children; 
and after circling the lodge four times, they all sat down in their 




plare:^. For a fow momonts all was sileiirr, wliilo Ais-kaw-ba- 
wis roiitiniird siltiiiir with liis eyes closod, in tlic middle of tin 
lodnc, by a spot oC smooth and suit irroiind, wliich he had pro- 
()ar('d, lilvP that iiscd by the war chill's in their Ko-zati-biin-zitch- 
f'-kiiii ; then he betran to call the men, one l)y one, to come and 
jiit down by him. I/ist of ail, lie called me, and I went and sat 
down as he directed. Then addressing himself to me, he said, 
" Sliaw-shaw-wa ne-ba-sc, my son, it is |)rol)al)le yon will now 
be iVififhteneil. as I have very un|)leasant inluniialion to jrive you. 
Tlif (Jreat Spirit has, as yon, my friends, all know, in former 
times, faV(nn'e(l me with the free coinmiiuication of his mind and 
will; lately he has been pleased to show me what is to happen 
to each of us in fntini-. For you, my friends, [to Slia-juwaw-go- 
ntick and the (ither Indians,] who have been careful to rejrard 
and obey the injunrtions of tiie (ireat Spirit, as conniiunicated by 
me, to each of you he has <riven to live to the full aj^e of num : 
ihi; loniT and straitjlu line is the imatfe of your several lives. For 
you, Sbaw-shaw-wa le-ba-se, who have turned aside from the 
rijrht |>ath. and despised the admonitions you have received, thi- 
short and crooked line represents your life. Yon are to attain 
only to half of the full aije of man. This line, turning; off on 
the other side, is that which shows what is determined in rela- 
tion to the yountf wife of Ba-po-wash." As he said this, he 
showed us the marks he had made on the irround, as below. The 
lonsr, straiirht liiu*, a, representino;, as he said, the life of the In- 
dians, Sha-jrvvaw-koo-sink, VVan-zhe-gaw-maish-koon, &c. The 
short crooked one, /), showing the irregular course and short con- 

} I. 






tinuance of mine; and the abniplly terminating one on tlie oiiai 
side, showinj^f tlic life of llie favourite wife of Ba-po-wash. li 
liappeiied that Ba-po-wash Iiad ch-ied tfie clioice i»arts of a fit; 
bear, intendiiiir, in the spring, to make u feast to his medicine; 
and a iew days previous to ihi- tiii;e; 'vhile we were absent at 
our hunting eanip, Ais-kaw-ba-wis iiad suiii lo the old woinun, 
the mother of Ba-pu-washV wife, " 'I'lie tireat S])irit has si<fnifieil 
to ine, that all lliiiiiis are not as they should be; send out and sec. 
therefore, if liie fat bear wliieli your son has hung U|» for a fcasi 
to his niedieine, is all where it was hit.'" She went out acconl- 
ingly, and found that the feel of the l)ear ere gone, Ais-kaw- 
ba-wis himself, who was a great gl Hon, having stolen them, 
This .as now lusak' known to B>i-po-wash, who was niucii 
a'arnied at the threatened evil, and to avert it he not only gavr 
Ais-kaw-ba-wis the remai'i er of ilie l)ear, but a large f|uantily (il 
marrow he had saved for his least, and other valual)le preseiil-, 
After this, we started In eonie to an island railed Me-nau-z!ic 
taw-naun, in t!ie Lake of the Woods, wher-' we had rtniplirU-d t.. 
jdant e<un, instead of our <dd fields, at Dead River. On our 
vay we sto|)pe at a plaee t ■ make sugar; then v went to visit 
the traders, Icavinu Ais-kaw-ba-wis with our women. hn]i- 

peued that the wife of (Jish-kau-ko had left her eltle at the sii- 
gai ramp, some distaiiec from the plare where they were td 
wait for our return. Sometime after the men had gone, Ai.»- 
kaw-ba-wis, who lived by himself, in a little lodge, pretendina \i> 
be 00 holy to go into a ■■ nun n hol!^e, or to ingle with 
men in their ordinary pursuits, sent for the wife of (lish-kau-lvn. 
and when she eame to him, he said. " The Great Spirit is iki: 
pleased that yon should abandon and lose your pro|)erty. (.ie, 
therefore, aiul get thi' kettle that ymi ha e left at the suiiiii 
eantp." The W(Mnan obeyed; :ind he, soon after she had left iIk 
ramp, took his yun, and under the pretence of going t ) hunt, 
went out in a dlH'erenl directi(»u; but lie bud no sooner got out 
of sight of the lodtres, than he turned, and by a <'rruitous routr 
enme upon the track of the wife of ('ish-knu-Vo. She, who hiid 
been before annoyed l)y his particular attentions, and siirmiscii 
the real object he had in view, in sending her for the kettle, kept 
a look out behind her, ami when «he snw him come running after 
her. she bfgau to run also. .Inst at this lime I wnn returninir 

I , 


the ollifi 
\vasl\. It 

■; ol' a I'll I 

iiu'ilioinc -, 
abst'iil at 

tl WOllliUl, 

IS sigiiilicil 
ml and !<('C, 

ft)!- a tVusi 
jul acctii-d- 
, Ais-kuw- 
oleii llu'm. 

was nuii'l' 
I only ijavc 

(|U!iiitity ol 

lie |H•^>S^Mlt^. 

'onclu'lcil til 
:^r. On (tur 
wont to vi.^ii 
rn. '■ 1»"1'- 
le at the su- 
n>y were U< 

•otonilinti '" 
iiiglo wiili 
)irit is no\ 
)crly. t^«" 
tlic svi!:;iir 

liiul ll'l'l till 

HIT I 1 hunt 
ncr !i"t "tit 
viilcnis nttitc 
It', who liixl 
ntl snnnisotl 
ketllc, Ivt'pt 




fnn rftnrninir 



from the trading-house u itli the other [ndiaiis, w lion we descried 
this chase at a distance. It occasioned us much alarm, when 
wc saw first a woman, then a man, running with so inu<'h appa- 
rent earnestness ; we thought notliing less than thai tiic Siuux 
had come to the country, and were murdering our women and 
thildren. But when we came a little marer, the pretended pro- 
phet gave over his pursuit of the woman, and came and sal down 
with us, to drink of the rum which the Indians hail bruughl from 
thf inuhng-iiouse, ami which they gave him very liberally. The 
woman was, however, a iter her arrival at home, compelled to 
irive some account of the race, and she acknowledged that Ais- 
kiiw-ba-wis had often sought similar opporluinlies to be alone 
ivitli her, though such was her fear of him that she never dared 
make any disclosure, or offer any other resistance than an at- 
tempt to escape by flight. This discovery occasional no dis- 
tiiibance, and seemed, in no degree, to diminish the inllneiuc of 
\is-kaw-ba-wis, A large proportion of the rum we had broniihl 
Iroin the trading-house was seta|»art lor him, but when the prin- 
cipal man among us sent lor him to come and receive it, he re- 
turned for answer, that he could not come. " Ttdl the chief," 
faid he, " that if he has any business with me, he em come to 
my lodge." The liijuor was accordingly carried to him ; but 
its effect seemed to render his ilisp i-ilion somewhat more social 
and condescending, for about the middh- of the night he came 
staggering into the lodge where I was, without the least cover- 
ing on any part of his body. To mr bis a|ipearance was ludi- 
iTOiis in the extreme, and 1 did not refrain from a good deal of 
irreverent merriment (m the occasion. 

After this, we came to the Lake of the Woods, where 1 hunt- 
nl for about a month, then went back into the country I had left, 
ill the Indians remainint> behind to clear the ground where thev 
iiilcnded j)lantingcorn at Me-naii-zhe-laii-nauiiir. I now began to 
experience the inconveniences resulting from having incurred 
lilt' ill will of Ais-kaw-ba-wis. Itoitwas who prejudiced the 
Indians so much a, ainst me, and particularly the relatives of my 
wife, that my situation at Me-nau-z'ie-tau-itainiif was uncomforta- 
bir, and I was compellpti to return to Hed Kiver. 

It was about this time thiit the Scots people, to the numlier of 
tne hundred or more, ar '"'^d to settle at Uod Kiver, under tin 


y 1 

r- •! 

4 11 • 

|ini^ ! 

f 1* •' 



tanner's NAKRATIVt, 

protection of the Hudson's Bay Company, and amon^ these I 
«a\v, for the first time in many years, since I had become a man, 
a white woman. Soon after my arrival, I was taken into tlie 
employment of the Hudson's Bay Company, and Mr. Hanie, the 
agent, sent nie, accompanied bv Mr. licss, an interjjreter, and 
some men, to kill builiiioe. The butJiilof were, at that time, ai a distance, and the Scots people in great distress for want of 
provisions. I hajjjjened to lind and kill two bulls near home, 
and after sending back the nu'at, 1 went on to the herds. 

I had hunted here a few days, when our number was increased 
to four clerks and about twenty men, the latter employed in 
bringing in the meat I killed to my lodge, whence it was carried 
in carts to the settlement. All of these lived in my lodge ; but 
one of the clerks, named IM'Donald, was very abusive to iiiy wile 
and children. Mr. Hess repeatedly checked him for this cou- 
dud, but as lie continued it, lie coiiijilained t(j Mr. Ilaiiie, wlm 
sent M'Donald to a place several miles distant, where the In- 
dians had killed about twenty bufUiloes, which it was not eon- 
venient, at present, to bring out, and there he remained by him- 
self for two mouths, having no oilier occupation m amusement 
than to scare the widves away from the meat. Mr. M'Ken/ic 
was one of the three remaining clerks who lived in my loi'go. 
and he was so ditlbrent from M'Domild, that at the end of foiii 
months, when the greater part of the peojile were called in to 
the .MUtleinent, he stdicited and obtained from Mr. Hanie j)cr 
mission to remain lonncr wilii me, to improve hi self in tlu 
Ojibbeway language, and he did not leave me until after the 
sugar season. 

I killed, in the four months ihat I hnnted for the HudsonV 
Bav Company, about one hundred butlaloes ; bill as part, or nil 
of many of these were eaten in my own lodge, I d«'liveied onl) 
forty entire and fat ones (o the company's jieople, for which 
Mr. Hanie |mi<l me, in the spring, three hundred and ten dollar>. 
Those Scots labi'iirers who were with me, were much mon 
rough and brutal in their mannrrs than any (leople I had before 
seen. F.veii when ihey had plenty, they ate like starved ilogs, 
und never failed to ipiarrel o\er llu'ir meat. The clerks fie- 
ipiently lieat and punished them, but ihey would still (juarrel. 

Mr. Hanie, and the ftovernor for the Hudson's Bay'.** Conip!' 



»-«B.3r "-^ag" 



r these I 
ic a man, 
into the 
[anic, the 
eler, and 
tiiae, ai a 
,r want ol" 
ear home, 


, iiirrcased 

iployecl in 
vas carrunl 
lodge -, but 

to :uy wife 
,1' iliiri <"un- 
llanie, wlio 
liere the In- 
viis not t'on- 
ned V)y liim- 


Ir. M'Wenzie 

in my lot'u,p. 

. Olid ol' foiM 

called ill t" 

Hanie jum- 

sell' in tlu 

jilil alter thi' 

tiy, proposed to me to hiiild ine a lionse, and engage me perma- 
nently in their employment: but I delayed aeeepiing their otl'er, 
as I thouglit it doubtful whether llieir attempt at settling the 
country would finally sneceed. Some of the Indians whom I 
liad left at the Lake of the Woods, had followed me out, spent 
die winter witli me, and returned long ago. I was still by my- 
self at Red River, when Wa-irc -tote came from Me-nau-zhe-tau- 
iiauiig, with a message from my father and mother-in-law. They^ 
liud lost several of their ehiMren by death, and feeling lonely, 
they sent for me to come to them. This message Wa-gc-totc 
delivered to me in the presence of the traders, and some other 
persons : but afterwards he called me out by myself, and said to 
me, " Do not bidieve that your father-in-law calls you to Mc- 
nau-7,he-tau-naung, to be at peace, or with any kiiul intention. 
When the children were sick, they called Ais-kaw-ba-wis to do 
something for them, and lie having made a ehees-suk-kon, said 
lie had called you into his »'ii(dos(ire, and made you confess that 
vou had shot bad medicine at the children, though you was at 
tiiat time at Red River, He made your tiitlnr-in-law believt; 
that you had the |)owe>- of life and (hath over his children, ami 
he continues to btliive, as do nnisl of the Indians of the band, 
diat it was your medicine which killed them. He assured, there- 
fore, that they call you thither with du' desiiiii of killing you." 
Notwithstanding this admonition. I started immediately, as 1 
knew if I did not they would be but the move confirmed in their 
unfounded opinion ttf my culpability. 

I had bought a shirt from sonu' of the Scots jieople at Red 
River, which I put on as I was abmit to start on this jinirney. 
Probably it was frcmi this I contracted a diseas(> of the skin, 
wliieh became so troublesome and violent that I was eompelled 
to stop at the Be-gwi-o-nns-ko River. Here I remained lor a 
month, beinii for a hnig lime unable to mo\e. AVIieii I fust 
stopped I set up my lodire on tli^' brink of the river, and after I 
was unable to walk, I subsisted niysi If and family by lying in 
my canoe uinl fishing. After being placed in my canoe, some- 
times I lay there for three or four days without being moved, 
covering myself with a mat at niglit. My wife was not so se- 
vere!/ ad'ected, being, though very sick, still able to walk. 
When 1 began to get a little better, I tried all sorts of raedicine«! 





\ J 


iawkr's naurativk. 

I It 



I could procure, but none seemed to do mc so much good aa g\in 
powder, moistened a little, and rubbed upon the sores, which 
were very large. This disorder, caught originally from tlic 
Scotch people, spread among the Indians, and killed numbers of 

After I had recovered, I went up the Bc-gwi-o-nus-ko, to the 
small lake of the same nau)e, v\ here I stopped to hunt, and killed 
plenty of meat. While 1 remained here, there came one day to 
my lodge, four young men from our village at Me-nau-zhe-tau- 
naung. In one of the , who was painted black, I recognized my 
brother-in-law. The three other children being dead, grief, and 
a feeling of loneliness, intluenced him to leave his father, and 
start in searcii of some war party, that he might accompany them 
against their enemies, and thus have an opportunity of sacrilicing, 
lionourably, a life that had become irksome to him. The three 
young men his companions, being imwilling to see him depart 
alone, had voluntarily accompanied him. I ^r;ive him my horse, 
and then went uj) to tiie Lake of the Woods to y father-in-law, 
where I remaincnl a few days. As it was then the time when the 
wild geese, having cast their cpiills, arc unable to fly, wc caught 
great numbers of them. 

After four days, I said to the old people, " I cannot remain 
here, while my little brother has gone crying about, with none to 
protect him. I know there is danger in the path he will walk, 
and I ought to follow, to shi>w him where it lies. He wishes to 
join a war party, that he may walk in a dangerous road ; but there 
is often danger where we least expect it." I knew that Wa-n!c- 
gon-a-biew woidd fall upon this boy, and insult, or perhaps kill 
him, on account of his renu»te relalionshij) to the man wlm 
wounded Taw-ga-we-ninne, at Mackinac, or at least with this pre- 
tence. Hha-gwaw-koo-sink, hearing my determination, and thi 
reas(ms I giive for it, said he woidd iiccompaiiy me : so we started 
together, and on our arrival at Red Kiver, we heard that Wa-nic- 
gon-a-biew had taken from the boy the horse I gave him, and 
had already threatened to kill him. I went inuiiediately to Wn 
ine-gon-a-biew, and a (]uarrel would probably have taken pliire 
at once, on account of the young man, had iu>t old Net-no-kwa 
come between and separated us, as we were about to come to 
blow- We were all now about to join the (Jrees and Assinne- 


niaB'aiy#y' jU !» Ei : 



boin?;, to go against the Sioux, and I cuutioiicd inv \ ouiig bro- 
lier-in-law to he, on this journey, always watcliful of the move 
nients of Wa-ine-gon-a-bie\v. We were about forty men in num- 
ber when we started from Red River. As we j)assed along 
tiu'ough the Crec and Assinneboin encampments and villages on 
our route, our party was augmented to the ntunber of two hun- 
dr(!(i men, long before we arrived at Turtle Mountain. While we 
were encamped near one of the ('ree villages, Wa-gc-tote and th« 
principal chiefs being called away to a feast, Wa-me-gon-a-biew 
began to talk of my brother-in-law; and as I did not like to hear 
him, I went out and walked about at a distance from the camjv 
When 1 thought the chiefs had returned from the feast, I re-en 
icred the camp; but from the expression of concern and interest 
visible in the faces of those about me, I immediately compre- 
hended that something had happened. I went to search for the 
young man, on whose account particularly I felt an ous ; and 
finding him safe, was returning to my own place, when I disco- 
vered in the hands of an old man, who was trying to replace them 
in their original shape, the splinters and fragments of my new 
gun. I was at no loss to comprehend the nature of the accident 
which liad deprived me of tlie use of my gun, at a time M'hen it 
was likely to prove so important to me; and in the first moment 
of irritation, I seized the barrel, and was walking towards Wa- 
me-gon-a-biew, to beat him with it, when [ met Wa {jje-tote, who 
interfered to prevent nte from striking him; though Wa-ge-tote 
himself, as well as the other chiefs, expressed the greatest dis- 
satisfacti(»n at what he had done. 

But notwithstanding the h»ss of my gun, I did not turn back. 
Arming myself with my gun barrel in place of war club and spear, 
I went on. In two days from this camp, we arrived at the head 
of Turtle Mountain, beimr now about four hiind-ed men. Thii^ 
was the place agreed upon for the assembling of all wh(» should 
join in the party ; and we had sujjposed that those we should 
meet here, wouM be few i > number in oom)>nrison with ourselves. 
We were theret'ore somewriat surprised, when we found already 
on the ground, one thousand Assinneboins, Crees, and Ojibbe- 

We stopped at a little distance, and some comnumication took 
place between tbft chiefs, respecting the ceremony of salntatiou 




WIV i 



i % 


J a\m;k 


<() 1)0 Tisoil. If is rnstoinary fi)r j)aitit'S, ono'ogpd in llicsumc' 
cause, ov friondly to oacli other, wlicii tlioy noct, to oxcliauirc 
a few shots by way of a sham l)alllp, in whidi they use all th( 
iuin|)iii<i, the \v]ioo|)in<r, and yclliiii>- of a real lighl. 15ut on this 
occasion holh bands were so lar<>e, undone so much larirer ihaii 
the other, that the chiefs ihoufiht it more pru(U'ut to >ise a d lifer- 
ent method of exchaiiaiiii;- coMiplimenls on meetinjr. It was 
agreed, on the pari of Match-a-to-uie-wub,* the principal chief, 
that his younsr nien should all remain in tlieir lodges, and that 
twenty warriors of our baiul slionll salute tlieir encampment, l)y 
practising the manoeuvres of allackiug a village. A large lodge 
was set up for them to cut in pieces by their tiring. I was one 
of the twenty selected for this performance, having supplied my- 
self with a gun, which I i)roc\U'ed from a man who turned back. 
It was not without the utnu)st exertion of all my strength, that I 
kej>t even pace with my companions, in running, leaping, loading, 
and yelling; and though we rested four times, when we arrived 
at the chief's lodge, and hail Idowu it to fragments, I was entirel) 
ex!iauste<l with fatigue. A man of our own party, imprudently, 
and without any authority, exi)osed himself in the villaije. while 
this salute was in progress; but his clothes were blown ami 
scorched oft' his back, his lodge slioi down, and himself nnicli 
hurt. Hut as the exposiwe had been altojiether voluntary on his 
part, ami the notice taken of him rather honourable than othcr- 
M'ise, he had no cause of comj)laint. 

On the lirst night after we came together, three men of the 
Ojibbeways were killed ; on the next, two horses behmging to 
the Assinneboins, and on the third, three more. When such num- 
bers of men assemble from diirereiU and r»'niote parts of the coun- 
try, some must be brought into contai't, between whom old 
grudges and enmities exist; ami it is lutt sinprising, that the iin- 
.stable power and inftuence of the chiefs, should be insuHicieut to 
prevent disturbances and bloodshed. On this occasion, men were 
'jl assend)led from a vast extent of country, of dissimilar feedings and 
dialects, and of the wIkjIc fourteen hundred, not one who would 
acknowledge any authority superior to his own will. It is true, 
that ordinarily they yield a certain deference, and a degree of 

* Malrh-a-to-gf-irub, (in tlipCrce, MaU-clia-to-ke-wub,)intheO)ihheYi»y, ineons 
ntmly " Many Eagles sitting." 

y mr 




e all th( 
t on tlii- 
•jTor iliaii 
;• a (lilVer- 
It \va^ 
l)iil fliiff, 
, and tliiit 
|)in('i\l, by 
irj>c Unhv 
I was onn 
iplietl iny- 
ncc' liack. 
Till, lluil I 
g, loading. 
\vr arrived 
•us cntiri'l) 
lai;o, whilf 
blown 11 nil 
iiscir nniol) 
ilary on lli^ 
than olhcr- 

iiu«n ol" thr 
loiijiinir to 
such nuni- 
)!' the roun- 
whoin old 
hat tlu' nn- 
iitllciont to 
. men wore 
|(('linns and 
who would 
It is true, 
(Icijree of 

lUiwaVf ineons 

obedience to the cliief each may have umlerliiken to follow; but 
this obedience, in most instances, c.ontinnes no lonircr lliaii the 
will of the chief corresponds entirely with the inclination of those 
he leads. In this party, were some who had iiecii a year on their 
iourney to reach this place. Two lumdred lodges had their 
women with them. 

Soon alter we joined the main body at Turtle Mountain, a 
Creo, of I'raiiie Fort, adopted uie into his family, taking my ba<r- 
giiire. and invitiiiii me into his lodoe. He called me constantly 
Ni'-je.* (my friend,) and treated me with great kindness. Many 
other men who were without I »dges, were in like manner taken 
inio the families of those that had. 

But a I'i'w days had passed, when tlie little boys commenced. 
in the lirst instance a very small iiundier, by kicking at each 
otiier in playfulness merely ; but it happent'd that on one side 
wtre Assiruieboin children only, and on the other (^rees and 
Ojibbeways ; by degrees larger and larger boys, and at last men, 
iiiiiied in on either side, and what had commenced in l>lay, was 
like to terminate in a serious and bloody brawl. Malch-a-to-ge- 
^\ id> ran between the combatants, exerted his voice and his hands; 
iifterwards VVa-ge-tote and all the other principal chiefs, but the 
young men paid little or no reirard to them. Th(> excitement 
which had kindled among them, was maddening to raue, and llu; 
chiefs were running about in the utmost distress and fear, when 
;in old man, whose head was white as snow, and w ho was so bent 
down with age that he walked on two sticks, and looking more 
like a dotr ihan a man, came out ; and thouiih his voice was too 
feeble to lie heard at any distance, he no sooner apjieared, than 
all the Assimnd)oins desisted entirely from tlieir violence, and t le 
([uarrel ended. Of those that were wounded and injured in this 
iifiair, only two died immediately ; but many were so mm-h in- 
jured, that tliey were sent back to their own country. Had not 
the greater number entered into the allray withoni their arms, 
inure extensive mischief would have resulted. Thouirh I iiKpiired 
iiiiich, I could neither learn the mime, or hear any ihintr satisfac- 
tory of the history of the old man, by whose interference this 
adiiir was brought so timelv to an end. Vague, ami proliably 
very extravagant reports, circiilatfd among us respecting him. 

* .Vc-je, luv fheiul, uaeU to lualue; and nin-dong-gioa, used by tnuuJi« (o onf> 


! ii 






Siipprstitions of the Indians — violent and unjust prcjudicn — family misibriuiics- 
reinarkahip Ifnacily of lilt' in I lie otter, and some otlier small animals — disliir 
biinces between the Hudson's Hay and North West Fur Companies. 


In the evening after this affair, the chiefs walked throna^h iIk 
village, and addressed all the people. Theanionnt of what the, 
.said, was to direct, that instead of remaining lunger to (nuind 
with and destroy each other, we should all move on the follow 
ing morning towards the Sioux country. Accordingly, the canij) 
was broken up, a})out half the number returning towards honu. 
the remainder continuing on. It was now late in the full, ain! 
we had travelled only two days from Turtle Mountain, whin 
there came on a cold and violent storm of rain and snow. Tu. 
horses perished, and many men were near sharing the pame faU; 
but most or all or the Ojibbeways, carrying each man on his ba(k 
a puk-kwi of birch bark, large enough to afford a partial coveriii;: 
for three men, and all being disposed to extend to the destitiiii 
all possilde assistance and relief, many of them were sheltered. 

It was immediately after this storm that some one told iin 
Ba-jris-kim-nunsr was cominji to see me about the horse I liail 
taken away from him. "Very well," said I, " I believe Ba-ijis. 
kun-nung has one or two nu)re horses, and if he gives me am 
troidde about the one I have taken, I will take another." Ai 
noon he came, but VVa-ge-tole, Ke-me-wim-iiis-kmig, and other 
men of my friends, had pre|)ared themselves to resist any vio- 
lence he might attempt to |)ractise on me. He walked up to iiir 
!is I was roasting some meat, and stood a very long time, I should 
say two hours, regarding me sternly, without saying a single 
word, and then walked off. 

Two days afterwards, two hundred of the Assinneboins turned 
back. They were reviled and insulted at parting, by those who 
still continued on ; but this seemed not in the least to shake theiv 


am^-rtlf^-y^- '- 



.letermination. Desertions, in small bodies, wvw. now very nu- 
merous, and the rem.iinincr chiefs, with the hope of clieckiuir it, 
appointed fifty of the best of the young men to art a^ sentinels 
over the others; but this nieusiu'e was productive of no benefit. 
When at last we arrived within two days' march of ihe viihijirc 
it was our intention to attack, four hundred men were all that 
remained, and the next day very few of these were found williiiir 
lo follow Match-a-to-tre-wub. He started at the usual time, and 
walked on by himself, but when at the distance of almut a mile, 
he saw that none followed him, he sat down in the praiiie. 
From time to time, one or two men woiild start forward to join 
him ; but for one who went forward, twenty or more would com- 
monly start to go back. With my younj^ brother-in-law I stood 
at the camp to see what would be the result, and when, at last, 
I saw that of the four hundred, only about twentywere willing 
(0 follow the chief farther, we determined to join them. We 
had proceeded but a little distance, when one of the Assinnc- 
hoins, who had turned back, purposely set fire to the prairie, and 
wc now all turned back excej)t the chief and one or two men. 
He went on to the Sioux village, and was lurking ab(jut it for one 
or two days, when, finding himself discovered, he fled without 
attempting any thing. The Sioux juirsued on our trail, and 
came in sight of us, but ofl'ered no molestation, and, in due 
time, we all arrived at home in safety. Thus eudeil this war ex- 
cursion, for which such extensive pre|)arations had been made, 
and from which so much had been expected. On the way home, 
Kc-me-wun-nis-kung look away the horse of the Assinneboin 
who had set the prairie on fire, and beat him, he daring to make 
no resistance. 

When we returned to Pembinah, there was, as is usual on a 
return from a war-party, a drunken frolick, in which I joined, 
though not to very great excess. After I had drank a little, { 
heard some one speak sneeringly about my gun, which Wa-me- 
gon-a-biew had broken. I had lent my knife to some one to 
cut tobacco, but there was lying by the fire a pointed stick, on 
•which meat had been roasted. Tliis I seized, ran out, and find- 
ing his horse standing by the door of his own lodge, I stabbcrl 
liim with it, psing, at the same time, in a loud voice, the same 




words I had been told lie had spoki-n wlion lie broke iny jriai. 
The horse tell iininediiilely, but did not dii- uiilil next nioi iiing^. 

There were six of us to return together to the Lake of ilic 
Woods, and our principal man, She-f{\vavv-koo-sink, being ahinn- 
ed, took a little canoe and set oH' in the night. I would not start 
then, nor even early in the morning, h'sl Wa-me-gnn-a-bi('\v 
should think I was afraid ol him. I remained near his loi.^rc 
until I had seen him and i\et-no-kwa, and shaken hands witli all 
my friends, and at al)out noon I was ready to follow fShe-gwaw- 
koo-sink, whom I found wailing for me in the woods. Wa-nic- 
gon-a-biew made no complaints of my having killed his horse; 
probably he was perfectly satisfied that I liad done so, as an In- 
dian always expects any outrage he commits shall be retaliated, 
according to their customs, and a man who omits to take proper 
revenge is but lightly esteemed among them. 

Heavy snow and severe cold came upon us at the Muskeeg' 
carrying place ; the trees cracked with tliecold, but the water in 
the swamp was not yet frozen hard enough to bear ; our canoes, 
however, could not be pushed through. The utmost exertion oi' 
our strength would no lunger avail to move them. We wen; 
hmigry and much fatigued, and sat deliberating what was best 
to be done, when we discovered our women coming from the 
Lake of the Woods, and dragging their light canoes through 
water, ice, and snow above their knees. When they came up, 
we found they were my wife, the wives of She-gwaw-koo-sink 
and Ba-po-wash, and my mother-in-law. Three of our j)arly. 
whose women had not come, had to continue on to the Lake of 
the Woods. Our wives laughed at us, telling us it was mon 
like old women, than like warriors returning to their village, ti> 
sit shivering in a canoe which coidd move neitln-r way, thrt»ugh 
fear of a little water and ice. They had brought us a supply of 
corn, sturgeon, and otlier food, and with them we relume ' to 
our last encampn\ent, where we rested a few days, then went 
down to Red River, with the intention of spending the winter 

There was now no snow on the ground at Red River, though 
the weather was very cold, and the ground so hanl frozen thaf 
it was nearly impossible to kill any game. 1 hunted day after 

* Mus-kceg, a marsh or KWiun4r 


' ^ 





iliiy vviiliout the least success, and wc were reduced to extreme 
lumger, when one day I found a moose, and alter I had, with 
the ^rreatest difficulty, crept near, I was about to shoot him, 
when my host dog, which I had confined at home, came runnino- 
pajit me, and scared the moose away. I returned home, and 
calling my dog to me, outside the lodge, 1 told him that it was his 
fault that there was now no food for my children. 1 then killed 
and gave him to my family to eat. 

Other families heside my own being in distress for the want oi 
food, the Indians called on me to make a medicine hunt. 1 ac- 
loidingly told Me-zhi(;k-ko-naum to go for my drum, and as pre- 
paratory to the commemement of my prayers and songs, I di- 
rected all my family to take such positions as they could keep 
ibr at least half the night, as, after 1 began, no one must move 
until I had finished. I have always been conscious of my entire 
dependence on a superior and invisible Power, but I have fell 
this conviction most jjowerfully in times of distress and danger. 
] now prayed earnestly, and with the consciousness that I ad- 
dressed myself to a l?eing willing to hear and able to assist, and I 
called upon him to see and to pity the sufferings of my family. 
The next day I killed a moose, and soon after, a heavy snow 
having fallen, we were relieved from the apprehension of immc 
iliatc starvation. 

But though wc were temporarily relieved, plenty did not re- 
(urn to us. I was about this time hunting one day, and fell on 
ilie track of a l)ear. My dogs f()ll(»weil for three days, antl most 
of the time I kept nearly even })acc with them ; but at the end of 
tliat time they had not overtaken him. My moccasins and leg- 
ijings were worn out, and I was almost in a state of starvation. 
I was compelled to return home, having killed nothing but eight 
plieasants. Me-zhick-ko-naum, Ba-po-wash, and the other In- 
dians, now left me by myself, and I was soon able to kill enough 
to sup])ly the wants of my family. I si)ent the winter here, and 
ill the spring my friends rejoined me, and we returned together 
io our village at the Lake of the Woods. 

At Me-nau-zhe-tau-naung great niisfortime-i aw ited me. I 
omitted to mention an event of some importance, which hapj>en- 
od long before the time I have now arrived at, being a very short 
lime after the death of 'mv friend Pe-sluui-ba. I was then at 





W •. 





■ r; 


;' 'i; 

Dead River, at our cum fields, where nn Ojibboway of Red Lake, 
railed (ii-ah-jte-\v!i-go-mo, eame to my lodge in my absence, and 
took away one of my sons, a boy six years old. On my return, 
my wife told me wiialliad iia|)])ened, and I immediately pursued, 
and overtaking (li-ah-ge-wa-go-mc* at llie distance of one day's 
journey, wiliiout his consent took one of his horses to i)rinp; 
my son back. 1 threatened iiini, that if he should make any 
.similar attempt in future, he should not escape unpunished. Bui 
about four months after, when the snow was on the ground, 1 
returned home from my days' hunt to hear the same acco(mt of 
my son being taken away by Gi-ah-ge-wa-go-mo. I now felt, 
much irritated, and having incpiired from the men in my lodge 
what horse he rode, I mounted my best, and pursued after him. 
They had lately moved from the place where I found them be- 
fore, but following on, I overtook them on their journey. As I 
was coming near their party, I discovered Gi-ah-ge-wa-go-mo 
and another man, called Na-na-bush, watching for me in the 
bushes, a little behind their party. Before I came within gun- 
shot, I called out to let them know I had discovered them, and 
holding my gun in my hand, cocked, and in a position for imme- 
diate use, I passed them, overtook the [)arty, and discovering my 
little boy, without dismounting I stooped down and lifted him 
into my lap ; then turning back, went to meet Gi-ah-ge-wa-go-mo 
and Na-na-bush. 'JMn^y had now left the thicket, and were stand- 
ing in the path, the former holding his favourite horse by the 
halter. When I rode up to them, I left my son on the horse, 
with the reins in his hand, got down, and stabbed Gi-ah-ge-wa- 
go-mo's horse twice, with a large knife I had carried for the pur- 
pose. He clubbed his gun, and was about to strike me, but I 
caught it in descending, and wrested it out of his hands. He 
threatened he would shoot my horse whenever he could get a 
gun. I handed his own to him, and told him to shoot the horse 
now ; but he dared not. " It seems,'' said I, " you have forgot- 
ten what I told you four months since, when you took away my 
son before ; but I have not forgotten it, as you see. I am dis- 
posed to kill you now, but as you are so much frightened, I will 
let you Jive, to see if you will steal away any of my children 
hereafter." With this I left him. My friends could scarce be- 
lieve I had killed his horse, but they did not blame me, neither 




1(1 Lake, 
nee, and 
y return, 
me day's 
i to bring 
nuke any 
led. Bui 
crrouiul, 1 
iccount ol' 
now fell. 
my Iodide 
after liim. 
1 them be- 
ley. As I 
me in tin- 
i^ithin gun- 
[ them, and 
1 for imme- 
overing my 
lifted him 
were stand- 
orse by the 
I the horKC, 
for the pur- 
? me, but I 
ands. He 
;ould get a 
it the horse 
[lave forgot- 
ik away my 
1 am dis- 
jeued, I will 
ny chihhcn 
scarce he- 
me, neithn- 

(lid Gi-ah-go-wa-go-mo ; at least I never lieiird that lie coniplinn- 
ed of it, and at the linu- ho molested nie no more. 

It was on my return to Me-nau-zhe-lan-nanng. and w hen I was 
about clearing for myself a Held there, that I foinni tin- ill will of 
the Indians, intluenced, as I liiought, prinei|)ally by the unl'riend 
ly otiices of Ais-Uaw-ba-wis, bet'oniinj,' -o strong against '.iie that 
I determined to leave llu-in. itnt at this lime an accident hap- 
pened to me, which lisabled nu for many months. I had as- 
cended a large tree, lo eut oil' the limbs, and having trimmed off 
the greatest |)art, I went np to nit the toj) oil". Some of the up- 
per branches struck the lop of another tree, and threw the trunk, 
which I had cut oil', against my breast, by which blow I was 
thrown off, and fell from a great height to the ground, where I 
lay for some time insensible, and wlu'ii consciousness returned I 
could not use my voice, so that it was some time before I could 
make the Indians understand that I wished them to bring me 
water. I fainted three times in attemj)ting to reach the lodg(\ 
where I then lived. 

Several of my ribs being broken, it was long before I recovered 
so as to walk about withoui assistance. Dr. M'Laughlin, a tra- 
der at Rainy Lake, hearing of my situation, sent Mr. Tace, with 
instructions to take me to his house, at White Fish Lake. For 
a long time I vomited blood, and felt, if moved, the sensa- 
tion of a hot liquid in the cavity of my body. At Rainy Lake I 
experienced much attention aiul kindness from Mr. Tace, and 
other gentlemen belonging to the North West Company. In 
the latter part of the ensuing winter, I was better, but when the 
warm weather of the spring came on, I again relapsed, and be- 
came unable to hunt. 

In ascending the long rapids of Rainy Lake River, in the 
spring, our canoes sunk, and I carried my children ashore on 
my back. Mr. 'Face's canoe sunk also, but all the men were 
saved. A few days after this, we reached the trading-house of 
Dr. M'Laughlin, at Rainy Lake. This gentleman f-ave me a 
room in his house, where my children took care of me for some 
lime. Every thing necessary was furnished me, and the Doctor 
would have had me remain with him a year ; but I felt lonely 
;ind dissatisfied, and determined on going back to the Lake nf 



1 1 




. 1 






rAXXF.u s XAniiATivi:. 

the Woods, where my wife was, ho])iiiff that thelrouhlc Ais-kaw 
ba-wis hiul raused me, miglit now be at an end. 

My reeej)ii()n was not swh as I could have wislied ; butnever- 
iheleris, I remained in the vilhige until tlie corn was planted ; then 
wo went to colh^'t and dry the bhie berries which grow in great 
quantises in that country. Altcrwards to the rice swamps; then 
We ntnrned to gather our corn. Thus we were busy during all 
the sunnner. 

Late in the fall I became sick again, not having yet recovered 
from the hurt I had received in falling from the tree; and at abouf, 
the same time some kind of su'kiiess became frei|nent among the 
lu'iians. I \\'as one day lying in my loilge, unai)le to sit up or 
walk about, and the women were at work in the field, when my 
mother-in-law unexpectedly ranie in with a hoe in her hands, and 
began to beat me on the head wiih it. I was unable lo maki 
much resistance, and as I did not attempt il, I eiideavctured to re- 
concile myself to die, as I believed she' would certainly kill me. 
While at work in the field, she had beirun to cry for her children : 
and probably thinking that the man who liad catiscd their death 
was 1U1W in her power, she ran in with the determination of kill- 
ing me ; but for some reason unknown to me, she desisted aftei 
she had beaten me for sonn^ time, and as [covered my head willi 
my blanket, and \\ilh my bands and arms warded ofl' the blow-: 
after the hist, I was less severely injured, than I had cause toa[)- 
prebend. iSo entire was the confidence my mother-in-law re- 
posed upon the representations of .\is-kaw-i)a-wis, that she did 
not doul)t but I was in reality gnilf' of the ileath of her children: 
and as I well knew that this was the rase, I blamed her less fui 
Iter conduct, than I should otherwise have done. Hut notwith- 
standing she forbore to take my life, the unfriendly let lino on her 
part, and that of my wife, was becoming every day more and 
more manifest. This might have been in some measure owiiij; 
lo those misfortunes which had now impaired my health, anddis- 
iiualilied me for making so comfortable provision for ni) familv 
us I formerly had done. Ilut n.ttwitlistandingall the disciMinigiii:; 
and distressing circnmstances attendant mi my present situation. 
I gradually recovered health and strength, and late in the fall. 
when tlie Indians were about to move to visit a trader, 1 wasabh 
'0 nccoiiipanv ihein. 


i' r 


\ N 





ut ncvev- 
ted; then 
ill greal 
ips ; then 
luring all 

1(1 at ahnul 
iiaong llic 
sit up or 

whei\ m> 
hands, and 
If f.> niiiU' 
mri'd to ro- 
ily kill mc 
■ !• children : 

their deatli 
lion ol' Kill- 
csisled at'tev 
IV head with 

the blows 
•ause to a\)- 
-in-law re- 

lat she dill 

HI- less tu\ 

It nt>lwitl\- 
iliniT on her 

\,- nM)re and 
asiire owini; 

111), anddis- 
iiiy laniily 


nl sitnntiini. 
in llie liill. 
r. I was a 1)1' 

1 had a small ranoe of my own, in which I embarked myself 
■.\\u\ my children, but my wife and my mothet-in-law were in the 
lartre canoe, with the provisions, and the baooage. During the 
(irst day of our journey, I went forward, with others of the In- 
dians, leaviiiu the women to come up to the encamping place, 
after we had sto|)ped. [ cut aiiil put up the poles fur my lodge, 
but no |)ukivwi, iu> provisions, and no women can\e. Next day 1 
was ashamed to tell the Indians I had nothing to eat, though my 
children began to cry of lumger; antl for the same reason, I 
would not encamp with diom. I iiucw that my wife had deserted, 
and ( had no reason to suppose she would immediately rejoin 
me. I therefore kepi ahead of the Indians, and went, before I 
-topjied, beyond the place where I knew they would encamp. 
Jlere I killed a fat swan, and was able l(» give my children some 
food. The weather was now becoming very c(dd, ami 1 had 
about thi'i time a wide traverse to cross. The weallu r was some- 
Avhat rough, but as I did not wish to remain to he overtaken by 
the Indians, I made my childnii lie down in the canoe, and co- 
vered the whide, as well as I couM, with a bullaloe skin. The 
wind blew more and more violently, and the waves broke over 
my little canoe. The water froze upon the sides, and the chil- 
dren getting wet, sutl'ereil severely. I, also, was so much over- 
powered by the <'(>ld, that I could not manage the canoe properly, 
ami it struck and was daslied in pieces on a rocdiy >lio.d, not far 
from the shore where I wished to land, rorfiinately the wat( r 
was not dee|) about the rock, nor betueen it and the land, und 
though a (hill ice had formeii, I wa-; able to break it, and carrv 
mv children on shore. Hut here we had nearly perished from 
fold, as my spunk wood was wel, and I had no means of kindling 
a tire, until I thought to split open my powder limn, wlien i 
found in the middle (d' the mass of powder, a lililc which the 
vvaier had not reiched. This en.ihled me i > kindle a fire, and 
was the means of savino all our lives. Next ii>;y, Mr. Siyre, at 
the trading house near by, heard of my situation ; or al least the 
Indians having come up, and reported that I was hist, he sent out 
some men, who found me, and assisted me to reach the houHC. 
Here I look a credit for my whole lamily. not knowing but my" 
Mile would join me ut some future lime. 

The chief »il" llmt country, from whom I had previously ob- 





•'-if ' ' 



taincd permission to hunt in a little i)iece of ground whicli I 
had selected, and a promise that none of his people should inter- 
i'ere with me there, now endeavoured to dissuade me from going 
to spend the winter by myself. I ought, he said, either to remain 
near the Indians, or t(» take some other woman for a wife; as my 
children were young ami unable to assist me, and my own health 
Homewhat uncertain, he thought it would be very imprudent for 
me to attempt wintering alone. But 1 would not listen to his ad- 
vice. At present, I had no inclination, either to remain with the 
Indians, or to take another wife. I therefore began to make a 
road immediately to my wintering ground. First I took the 
goods I had purchased, and carried them forward, then returned 
and brought up my children. My daughter Miirtlia was then 
three years old, and the other children were yet small. In two 
or three days I readied my hunting groiuul, but was soon after 
reduced to great distress, from which I was relieved by a medi- 
cine hunt. 

I had no pukkwi, or mats, for a lodge, and therefore had (n 
build one of ])oles and long grass. I dressed moose skins, madt 
my own moccasins and leggins, antl those for my children ; cut 
wood and cooked for myself and my fanuly, made my .snow shoes. 
&c. &.C, All the attention and labour I had to bestow about 
home, sometimes ke|)t me from hunting, and I was occasionallv 
distressed for want of provisions. I busied myself ai)out my 
lodtre in the lught time. When it was suiliciently light, I would 
bring wood, aiul attend to other things without; at other limes 1 
was repairing my snow shoes, or my own or my children's 
clothes. For nearly all the winter, I sh'|)t but a very small pari 
of each ni'^lit. 

I was still living in this way in the sprinjr, when a young man 
called Se-bis-kuk-gu-un-na. (lough legs,) a son of Wau-zhe-gaw- 
maish-koon, who was iu)w dead, came to nn-. Me was in a 
starving condition, as were his friends, who were eu«'an)ped at no 
jrreat distance from me. My dogs were mow so well trained, Ihni 
thpy could draw half a moose. I put on a full load of meat, and 
told him to go with ihe letim, meet his people, and l»ring them to 
Jive with me. In three days they arrived; but thouuh their hun- 
i^er had been relieved by the .supply 1 sent ihem, iheir appearance 

» ' 



'Inch 1 
I inter- 
im goinu 
. ; as my 
a heallh 
idont fov 

Ills ad- 
wilh the 

1 make a 
took the 

was tluMi 
. l\i two 
soon after 
)y a nu'tli- 

,re had to 

kins, mad< 

iMrcn ; en' 

;no\v shoes. 

stow ai)OVit 
about nn 
it, I \vo<dd 
vr limes I 
small part 

young ma\i 
If was in a 
|tinp«'tl i^t "'^ 
|raii\e<l, that 
LC meat, and 
ling them to 
li their hvm- 



wa9 extremely miserable, and it is probable they must have pe- 
rished if they had not found me. 

As the spring was approaching, we returned to the Lake of the 
Woods. Ice was still in the lake when we arrived on the shore 
of it ; and as I, with my companions, was standing on the shore, 
I saw an otter coming on the ice at a distance. I had often heard 
the Indians say that the slron<;est man, without arms of some 
kind, cannot kill an otter. Pe-shau-ba, and oiIut strong men 
and good hunters, had told me this, but I still doulited it. I now, 
therefore, proposed to test the truth of this common opinion. I 
caught the otter, and for the space of an hour or more, exerted 
myself, to the extent of my power, to kill him. I beat him, and 
kicked him, and jumped upon him, but all to no purpose. I tried 
to strangle him with my hands; but after lying still for a time, 
he would shorten his n»!ck, and draw his head down between my 
hands, so that the breath would pass through, and I was at last 
compelled to acknowledge, that I was not able to kill him with- 
out arms. There arc other small, and apparently not very strong 
animals, which an unarmed man «'annot kill. Once while on a 
war parly, in a sort of bravado, I had tried to kill a pole cat with 
my naked hands, but I had nearly lost iny eyes by the means. 
The li(juid which he threw upon my face, caused a j)ainful inflam- 
mation, ami the .skin came off. The white crane, also, is danger- 
ous, if approached too near ; they can, and sometimes do, inflict 
mortal wounds with their sharp beaks. 

After I had killed this otter, I went in pursuit of a bear. I had 
now three dogs, one of which was not yet fully grown. This 
(log, which was of a valuable breed, and had been given me by 
Mr. Tace, escaped from his haller at lunne, and came after me. 
When he came up, he passed me and the other dnirs, and imme- 
diately assailed the bear's head ; but the enraged aninnil ahm)st 
instantly killed him, caught him up in his mouth, and carried him 
more than a mile, until he himself was oviTcom'^ and killed. 

It is usually vcrylate in the pring. before th<' ice is goiu' from 
the Lake of the VVoIral. When I arrived at our village with the 
son of Wau-zhe-gaw-inaish-koon, the Indians who were there 
had been for a long time sulfering from hunger ; but I had my 
i'an(»e loaded with provisi(»ns, which I innnedialely distril)nteil 
Inr their relief. On the day after my arrivBl, came my wife and 








• m 



tanner's NARKATIVL. 

]»er mother. She laughed when she saw me, and came to live 
with mc, as heretofore. She-gwaw-koo-sink and Ais-kaw-ba-wis 
Averc both there, and both nnlriendly to me, but I made it niy 
business to seem wholly ignorant of the many attempts ihev 
made to injure me. About planting- time, tjie traders of ilu 
North West Company sent messengers and presents to all thr 
Indians, to call them to join in an attack on the Hudson's IJay 
establishment at Red River, F()r my own part, I tlioujrht llusc 
({uarrely between relalives unnatural, and I wished to take no 
share in them, though I had long traded with the people of the 
North West Company, and considered myself as in some measun 
belonging to thein. Many of the Indians obeyed the call, and 
many cruelties and nninlers were connnitted. On the part of 
the North West were many half-l)reeds. among whom, one called 
Grant, distingui'^hed himself as a leader, Home of tlie Iluilson's 
Bay people were killed in open fight, others were murdered after 
being taken prisoners. 

A iMr, M'Donaid, or M'Dolland,* wlio was called a governor 
for tlie Hudson's Hay, was waylaid, and fell into the hands of a 
Mr. Herschel, or Harshield, a clerk of the North West. This man 
sent him in a canoe with some Frenchmen and a half-breed, willi 
directions to kill him and tlirow him into the water. When the\ 
luul gone sonu' distance, the hall-breed, whose name was Maveeii 
wished to have kilUd hini, but the Frenchmen would notconseni, 
Tiiev Icl't hiin on a ssnall roeky island, from which he had nu 
jneans of escape, ami where they thought he must perish; but 
be was discovered and laken up by sonu^ Miiskegoe Indians, wlm 
^et him at lilf^'rty. Mr. Harshield beat and abused the Frencli- 
men for having neglecletl to kill the governor when Jie was in 
their power, and despatched (tther men in pursuit of him. Wlun 
again taken, he entrusted him to tlu^ half-breed Maveen, and oik 

* Sonic ol'tiu' I'ilcumcitiiiirc.sot'lluH niurtltr, sci'iii li» identity it witli that of K( ■ 
veiiv, li>r wliifii (harli's Dc Kiiiilianl and Anliilmlil Mi."ll:iii wcro Iriiil at Uiic 
I'l'c, ill IHIH, and till' loinu'r i-oiKl(Miiiiod to ilralli. Ue Reinharil, Maim illc, mid 
Jow, (ir Joseph, all Indian, ollierwise (ailed thnSon of the While I'arlridjfo, Heoni 
tohave U'Pii the iiiiiiiediute lu'tors in this a'liiir. It is not Hiirprising that 'rainier 
who was then, as tar as opiHirlunilieK tor parlieular intiirnmlion on llim Kulijcii 
were eoncerned, (in a |inr with the wildest liuliun, Hlioiild have iniHiakcii forei|;ii 
names, as* wfll as the eoiiipiirntiv(! rank mid iinporlaiict! of (lirt'iiriiers in tli' 





. ^ 



e to live 
lie it nu 
ipts ihcy 

to all thf 
soil's Bay 
ijrht these 
D take no 
iplu of the 
le jueasuvi 
e call, and 
he [)art ol' 
, one called 
e Hudson's 
rderoil after 

a governor 
' liands of ti 
i. This mail 
r-bi-ced, Willi 
When lhe\ 
was Maveeu, 
not conseni. 
1 he had no 
perish; bill 
udians, who 
the Fvenrli- 
I) he was ill 
him. When 
(-011, and oiu' 

Iro tried sit Uiic 

ll. Miiinvillc, aii.l 

Iraririili:'', *'>'<'i'> 

(ngtiiat 'rniiniT 

on tliw Hulijfii- 

Lshikcn fi)rri(!ii 

Lieiuuers in !'»' 

Avhite man, who had been a soldier, but whoso well known cru- 
elty of disposition made him fit to be chosen for such business. 
These two murdered him, in a manner too cruel and shameful to 
be particularly narrated, and then returned with the account of 
what they had done to Mr. Harshield. 

After the settlement at Red River was reduced to ashes, and 
ihe Hudson's Bay people driven out of the country, the Indians 
and half-breeds in the employ of the North West, stationed thcin- 
rielves at a place called Sah-gi-uk, at the outlet of Lake Winni- 
peg, to watch for, and destroy, any of the Hudson's Bay people 
Ai'Iio should attempt to enter the country in that direction. Ba- 
pi)-wash, my brother-in-law, was at length tired of starving there, 
and started by himself to come to our village, where I remained, 
lel'using to take part with either side. On his way up, he met a 
Mr. M'Dolland, of the Hudson's Bay Company, who, with Mr. 
Bruce for his interpreter, was going into the country. This gen- 
tleman wad slow to listen to the advice of Mr. Bruce, who being 
better acquainted with the state of affairs in the country, had 
many fears on his account. On meeting Ba-po-wash, whom he 
tt'ell knew, Mr. Bruce, by pretending to be still in the interest of 
the North West, was able to gain full intelligence of all that had 
passed. Being convinced of the truth of this information, Mr. 
M'Dolland was persuaded to turn back, and probably saved hi,s 
life by so doing. 

He came to me at Me-nau-zhe-tau-naung, and I confirming the 
4atement of Ba-po-Avash ; he; hastened back to the Saut De St. 
Marie, where he met liord Selkirk, then coining into the country 
to settle the affairs of the two rival companies. 

For my own part, I spent the sunimer in the usual quiet inan- 
wr, being occupied with huntinij, and the employments about 
our cornllelds; in gathering wild rice, and fishing. Wlien we 
upre returning trom the rice swamps, I stopp.ed on one of the 
-mall islands in the route towards Rainy Lake, to hunt a bear 
with whose haunt 1 had loiio been aciiuainted. Late at night, 
after I had killed my bear, and as 1 was lying cpiietly in my 
lodge, I was sur|>rise(l to hear at the door, a voice, which I knew* 
immediately to be that of the Mr. Harshield I have already men- 
iioned. [ soon learned that he was on the look out (ur some one 
.'u; had not found. Having discovered my light at » distnuce, hf- 


ti 1 

■ -i, " III' 

lis t 



lir ,M 



Willi'*' ^ 




had supposed it to be that in the camp of Lord Selkirk, and had 
crept up with the stealth of an Indian warrior, or he could not 
have approached my lodge without my beincr aware of it. He 
did not immediately mention his intention of killing Selkirk ; bu). 
I knew him and his companions, and was not at a loss to compre- 
hend his purpose. Nor was I ignorant of the design with which 
he, with mu(;h art, endeavoured to get me to accompany him to 
Rainy Lake. But when he found that insinuations and dubious 
hints wotdd not eflect what lie had in view, he openly avowed 
that it was his intention to kill Lord Selkirk, whenever he should 
meet him, and he then called uj) liis two cunoes, and showed 
them to me, each with ten strong and resolute men, well armed. 
He tried many methods to induce me to join him, but I would 

After leaving me, he went on to Rainy Lake, to the tradinp 
house of Mr. Tace ; but that gentlenian being less inclined to vi- 
olent measures, advised him to return immediately to his own 
country. What argvmients Mr. Tace made use of I know not. 
but after two days Mr. Har.shield returned towards Red River. 
leaving concealed in the woods near the trading house, the soldier 
who had taken part with Maveen, in the murder of the governor 
the year before. It was not certainly known among us whai 
this man's instructions were, but it ajjpeared he did not like hi^ 
solitary residence in tlic woods, for after four days he returned to 
the fort. 

In the mean lime. Lord Selkirk had taken Fort William. 
which was then held by Mr. M'Gillivray, for the North West. 
From Fort William, he sent on an ofHcer, with some troops, u< 
take possession of Mr. Tace's trading house, in which the soldier 
who had killed governor M'Dolland was found. He was senl. 
Avith others who had attempted to rise after they had surrendered 
at Fort William, to Montreal, and I have heard that he was luiiij;. 

About this time, I made uj) my mind to leave the Indian coun- 
try, and return to the States. 1 had many difliculties to encoim- 
ter, originating in the ill will which had been raised against iiiu 
among the Indians, particularly in the family of my father-in-law, 
by Ais-kiiw-ba-wis. Mr. Bruce, with whom I now met, gave me 
much information and advice ; he had travelled more, and seen 
iTjore of white men than 1 had. and his sfatemonta encowatred 


" ■ WJ - J-J 

and had 
ould not, 
it. Ho 
kirk ; bui 
) comprc- 
ith wliich 
ny him to 
id dubious 
ly avowed 
• he shoukl 
nd showed 
p'ell armed. 
)ut 1 wouW 

the tvadinfi 
dined to vi- 
r to his own 
1 know not. 
i Red llivcr. 
c, the soldicv 
the governor 
long us what 
Li not like hi^ 
relumed to 

"ort Williaiu. 
North West. 
ine troops, tc 
•h tlic soldiiM 
He was sent' 
d surrendered 
he was huiiv;. 
Indian eouu- 
IPS to encouu- 
xl against luc 
met, gave uu 
lore, and seen 
Its encouraued 



me. Tlie war of 1812 was now over, and there was, I thought, 
no insiirmountabh! obstacle in the way of my return to my own 

f had a fine crop of corn, and plenty of wild rice; and as I 
wished to move to Rainy Lake, where 1 could spend the winter, 
Mr. Bruce, who was going the same way, agreed to take twent) 
Hacks of my corn, and at length I followed with my family. 
Wiicn I arrived near the trading-house at Rainy Lake, and where 
I expected to have found Mr. Tace, being as yet ignorant of the 
changes that had taken place, I foimd the captain I have before 
nientioned. He treated me with much attention, and would have 
given me some goods ; but all those left in the house by the 
North West, had already been disposed of to the Iiulians. After 
several days' conversation with me, he succeeded in convincing 
nic that the Hudson's Bay Company was that which, in the pre- 
sent quarrel, had the right on its side, or rather, was that which 
was acting Avitli the sanction of the British government ; and bj 
])romising to aid mc in my return to tlie states, by liberal pre- 
sents, good treatment, and fair promises, he induced me to con- 
sent to guide him and his party to the North West Company's 
house, at the mouth of the Assinneboiii. The winter was now 
coming on, and had already commenced, but Cupt. Tussenon, 
lor that was his name, as nearly as I can recollect, said his party 
could not live at Rainy Lake, and it was necessary for him to gu 
mmediately on to Red River. 

I started with twenty men in advance, and went to Be-gwi-o 
iius-ko Sah-gie-gun, (»r Rush Lake, whence the horses were sent 
back, an<l the captain, with the remaining fifty men, came up. 
\t Rush Lake we had snow shoes made, and engaged Shr- 
i^waw-koo-sink, Me-zhuk-ko-nong, and other Indians, t«> ac- 
company us, as hunters, and as we had great (juantities of wild 
rice, we were pretty well supplied with food. We had, howe- 
ver, a long distance to travel over the prairie, and the sin)W was 
deep. When we were out of meat, there was occasionally some- 
thing of a mutinous disposition mu:. lest among the soldiers, but 
little serious difficulty occurred. Ii> forty days after we left 
Rainy Lake, we arrived at Red River, and took the fort at the 
iijouth of the Pembinah, without any diillculty, there beinjf fev 

' i 







or no persons there, except sijuaws and chililren, and a few old 
French. ..eit. 

From rembinah, where I loll my children, we went, in four 
days, to the Assinneboin, ten miles above tlie mouth, having 
crossed Red River a short time before. Here Be-gwais, a prin- 
cipal man of the Ojibljeways, met us, with twelve youn|ir men. 
Our captain ami governor, who was with us, though they un- 
derstood there were no more than tweh'e men in the INorth 
West Company's fort, at the mouth of the Assinneboin, seenietl 
at a loss to know in what manner to attempt its reduction. 

They counselled with Be-gwais, and he advised them to 
march immediately up to thi' ft)rt. uud show their force before it, 
which he thought vvould lie sutKcient to insure immediate siu'- 
render. When ("apt. Tussenon had engaged me at Rainy Lake, 
I had told him I could make a road from that place to the door 
of Mr. /•arshield's bed rooai, and considering myself able to dii 
.so, I was dissatistied that they took no notice of me in these 
consultations ; and at night, we at that time having approachoil 
very near, I communicated my dissatisfaction to Loueson No\\- 
lan, an interpreter, who was well ac(|uainted with the countr). 
and who had a half brother in the fort, a clerk for Mr. Harshickl. 
We talked together, as we left the place where they had been 
counselling, and after we had lain down by our own fire, and 
Nowlan agreed with me that it woidd be in the power of us two 
to go forward, and surj)rise, and take the fort, and we determin- 
ed to attempt it ; but we comnuinicated our intention to sonit 
soldiers, who followed us. There were no hills, bushes, or 
other objects, to cover our approach ; but the night was dark, 
and so extremely cold, that we did not suppose the people within 
could be very vigilant. We made a ladder in the way the In- 
dians make them, by cutting the trunk of a tree, with the liinb 
trimmed long enough to serve to step on, and placing it agaiiisi 
the wall, we went over and got down on the inside, on the top ol 
the blacksmith's shop, whence we descended silently, one after 
another, to the ground. When a suflicient number of the mcu 
had got in, we went to find the people, first cautiously placing 
two or three armed men at the doors of the occupied rooms, to 
prevent them from getting together, or concerting any meHn< 
of resistance. 

' Li 



tannkr's xarrativl. 



We (lid not discover the bed room of Harshicld until day lighf . 
When he loiind we were in the fort, he came out, stronf>ly arm- 
ed, and attempted to make resistance, l)Ut we easily overpower- 
ed him. He was at first bound, and as he was loud and abusive, 
the governor, who, with the rt plain, had now arrived, dirt ' 
us to throw hin. out intu the snow ; but the weather bein<f too 
cold for him to remain there without much dan^^or of being fro- 
zen, they allowed him to ctime in, and lie was j)laced by the fire. 
When he recoguised me among his captors, he knew at once 
that i must have guided the party, and he reproached me loudly 
with my ingratitude, as he pretended formerly to have done mc 
many favours. I told him, in reply, of the murders he had com- 
milted on his own friends, aud the people of his own colour, and 
that it was on account of them, and his numerous crimes, that I 
had joined against him. " When you came to my lodte last 
fall, and I treated you with kindness, it was because I did not 
then see thai your hands were red with the blood of your own 
relatives. I did not see the ashes «d' the houses of your brothers, 
which you had caused to be burned down at Red River." But 
he continued to curse and abuse not only me, but the soldiers, 
and every one that came near him. 

Only three persons were kept in confinement, of those that 
liad been captured in this trading-house. These were Mr. Har- 
shield, the half breed boy, Maveen, who had been concerned in 
the murder of the Hudson's Bay governor above; mentioned, iind 
one clerk. The rest were suflered to go at large. Joseph Ca- 
dotte, the half brother of Nowlan, made a very humble and sub- 
missive apology for his conduct, and promised, if they would 
release him, he would go to his hmitiiig, and be henceforth no 
more concerned with traders. He was accordingly liberated, 
but instead of doiuo as be had promised, he went immediately to 
Mouse River Iradiug-house, and having collected forty or fifty 
half breeds, he returned to retake the place; l)Ut they approach 
ed no nearer than about a mile distant, where they remained foi 
some time in camp. 

After twenty days, I returned to Pembinah to my family, and 
then went, with Wa-ge-tote, to hunt buHiiloe in the prairie. I 
now heard that many of the iialf breod people in the country- 
were enrau,ed against me, for the part I had taken against the 

1 M 

\ t 



I. .i- 





North West Company, anil iVoin some of the principal men I 
heard that they inteniUid to take «ny lii'e. I sent ihcni back for 
answer, tiiat they must fall on me as I had done on the peoph 
of the North West, when I was sleeping, or they would not hi- 
able to injure me. They came near, and were several times 
lurkinjT about, with intention to kill me, b^ t they were never 
able to ell'ect their object. I spent what remained of the win- 
ter among the Imlians, and in the spring returned to tlie A»- 
sinneboin. Lord Selkirk arrived from Fort William in the 
spring, and a few days afterwards Mr. Cumberland, and anollier 
clerk, belonging to the North West, came up in a canoe. As they 
did not stop at the fort, Lord ^Selkirk sent a canoe after them, 
and they were brougiit back and placed in coniinement. 

The people of ihc Mouse River trading-house, belonging In 
the North West Company, came down about this time ; but be- 
ing afraid to pa^^s by the fort, they stopped and encamped at jm 
great distance above. The Indians from distant parts of tht 
country, not having heard of the disturbances and changes thiii 
had taken place, now began to assemble ; but they manifested 
great astonishment when they found tliat heir old ti..ders wcrr 
no longer in possessior, of the fort. 

A letter was this spring, or in the earlj part of summer, re- 
ceived from Judge ('odnian, offering two hundred dollars reward 
for the apprehension and rlelivery of three half breeds, who had 
been very active in the preceding disturbances, namely, Grant. 
the principal leader of the l^df breeds for the North West, Jo- 
seph Cadotte, and one cpUe.! Assinneboin. These were nil 
taken by a l)arty from our fi i , aided by the interpreter, Nowlaii. 
but they were released upon their promise to appear again when 
Judge Codman should arrive. This party had sc rce return- 
ed home, when Assinneboin came and surrendered himsell'. 
at the same time giving information that Grant and Cadotte had 
fled the moment Nowlanand his parly turned their backs. Thev 
went to the country of the Assinnebnins, from whence they did 
not return initil thev were sent f )r, md brought to attend tlic 
court; but tlie man who had given himself up was pardoned. 

Lord Selkirk had, for a long time, expected the arrival of the 
judge appointed to try those accused of capital crimes, and to ad- 
just the dispute between the two rival companies : and becoming 


Iht. , "v 

f. : 



\«ry impatient, he despatched a messenger to Sah-gi-iil vritli 
provisions and other presents, who was instructed to pro<^t d «u 
until he shouW meet the judge. At one of the North West Com- 
pany's houses, beyond Sah-gi-uk, tliis man was taken prisoner, 
and severely beaten by the company's agent, Mr. Black ; but 
about this time the judge arrived, and Mr. Black, with a Mr. 
M'Cloud, fled, and secreted themselves among the Indians, si) 
that when Judge Codman sent lor them from Red River, they 
were not to be found. 

Th« trial continued a long time, and many prisoners were, 
from day to day, released ; but Mr. Harshield, and the half breed 
Maveen, were loaded with irons, and put in more rigorous con- 
finement. The judge had his ramp in the middle, between our 
fort and the camp of the Norl.i West Company's people, proba- 
bly that he might not seem partiril to either- 
One morning, as I was stand'.ng in the gate of the fort, I saw 
the judge, who was a large, fat man, come towards me, attended 
by Mr. M'Kenzie, and a half breed, called Cambell, and an old 
Naudoway Indian. They came into the house, looked from 
room to room, and at last entered the one in which Selkirk then 
was. Cambell followed the judge in, and having a paper in one 
hand, he laid the other en Selkirk's shoulder, and said something 
I did not understand. Much discussion followed, all of which 
was incomprehensible to me ; but I observed that Mr. M'Kenzie 
and Cambell wero standing near the whole day. It was nearly 
night when Nowlan told me that the judge had fined the North 
West a considerable sum, I think either three hundred or three 
thousand dollars, and that Lord Selkirk was released from arrest. 
After this, Mr. M'Kenzie and Cambell went out, and were much 
insulted on the way to their camp, by the people belonging to 
the Hudson's Bay ; but the judge remained to dine with Lord 

Col. Dickson, who was now at Red River, sent a man for the 
Sioux, as it was thought desirable that they should be called in, 
and made acquainted with the state of afliiirs. In the preceding 
winter, after I had returned to Pembinah, two Ojibbeway women 
had arrived there, with pipes from the Sioux country, to invite 
(he Ojibbeways to make peace. These women had been prison- 
ers among the Sioux, and their" release, as well a.s the messagr 


i t 

: J 



tanner's NAKRATIVK. 



I :' .-* 

they bore, was considered as indicative of a disposition on tho 
part of the Sioux to bring about a peace with the Ojibbeways. 

One of these women had been married to a Hioux, and l\ei- 
husband had become attached to her. When the common voice 
of his people made it necessary she should be sent back to her 
own country, he sent a mesHajre to her husband, among tlic 
Ojibbeways, offering to give him, in exciiange for her, which- 
ever of his own wives the Ojibbeway might choose to take. Hut 
this man was not disposed to accept the olfer of the Sioux, and 
there was no one to return to answer the messages the women 
had brought, until Mr. Bruce, the interpreter before mentioned, 
offered his services. These negotiations, though they had pro- 
duced little apparent eflect, had pre))ared the minds of the Sioux, 
in some measure, for the message from Mr. Dickson, and the\- 
sent, according to his request, twejity-two men, and two Ojibbeway 
prisoners, that were to be given up. One of these prisoners was a 
young woman, the daughter of Gitche-o[)e-zhe-ke, (the big bufliiloe,) 
and she also had been married among the Sioux. Her husband, 
who was one of the twenty two who now arrived, was a young 
man, and was extremely fond of his Ojibbeway wife. The chiefs of 
the party, when they were about to return, tried to persuade him 
to leave her ; but this he obstinately refused to do, and the}- 
were at last compelled to abandon him, though it was evidently 
at the imminent peril of his life, that he ventured to remain by 
himself among the Ojibbeways. After his companions had left 
him, he went out, and wandered about, crying hke a child. See- 
ing his distress, I called him into my lodge, and though, on ac- 
count of difference of language, I could not say much to him, I 
endeavoured to console him, and make him believe that he would 
find some friends ev»'n among the Ojil)beways. On the follow- 
ing day, he deternuned to follow his companions, and to return 
to hi^ own country. He started out, and followed along their 
path two or three hinidred yards, tluMi he threw himself down 
upon the ground, cried, and rolled about like a mad man ; but 
his affection for his wife getting the better of his wish to return. 
and his fears for his own life, he came back, and would have re- 
mained among us. But about this time we heard of other Ojib- 
beways, who had threatened to come and kill him, and we well 
Ttnew th»t it would be scarce possible for him to remain loni 



ainou" us, wiihmit nllenipts hinng made against liis lite. Wa- 
ge-tote and Bo-g\vais, our chit-fs, intcrlVrcd tu send liim a\vay» 
and having selected eiirht trusty men, of whom I was one, di- 
rected that he should be taken (uu; day's journey towards the 
Sioux country. We were compelled to drag him away by vio- 
lence, nor could we urge him forward in any other manner, un- 
til we arrived at the crossing place of the Assinneboin River, 
where we met a party of two hundred Assinneboins. The young 
Sioux hai" taken the precaution to dress himself like an Ojibbe- 
wav, and when the thief of the Assinneboins asked lis where we 
were going, we told him our chiefs liad sent us to hunt buflaloc. 
This man, Nc-zlio-ta-we-nau-ba, was a good and discreet chief, 
and although the terror of the young Sioux immediately made 
him acquainted with the deception we trie<l to practice upon 
him, he appeared to take no notice of it ; he even placed him- 
self in such a situation as to divert the attention of his own peo- 
ple from the young man, until the band had passed. He then 
addressed the Sioux in his own language : " Fly, young man," 
said he, " and remember if you are overtaken before you rcacli 
your own country, there are few among the Assinneboins, or 
Ojibbeways, who Avould not gladly take your life." The young 
man started to run accordingly. At the distance of one hundred 
yards we heard him burst out crying ; but afterwards, we under- 
stood that he overtook his party at Pembinah, and returned in 
safety to his own country. 

Much was said of this peace between the Sioux and Ojibbo- 
way.i, and Col. Dickson often boasted that the Sioux would not 
be the first to violate the treaty, as he said they would venture 
to do nothing without his consent. He was even boasting in 
this way, when a chief of the Ojibbeways, with forty men, ar- 
rived, having in their hands the still bloody arrows they had 
taken from the bodies of those the Sioux had recently killed at a 
trading-house belonging to Mr. Dickson himself. This, for some 
time, checked his boasting. Lord Selkirk, also, about the same 
time, called all the Indians together, and presenting them a quan- 
tity of tobacco, spirits, &c. &c. made (»ne of those long and fa- 
tlicrly speeches so common in Indian councils. " My children," 
said he, " the sky which has long been dark and cloudy over 
^onr heads, is now once m<)re clear and bright. Your great 



r 'V 



m 4 


lA.NiNtR 6 .NAKRAin i;. 









■ ( 


\ ^ 


I'athor beyond tlie waters, who lias ever, as you know, ueaiesi 
his licart the interests of his red chikhen, has sent me to remove 
tlie briars out of your patli, that your feet may no more bleed. 
We have taken care to remove from you those evil minded whiU; 
men who sought, for the sake of their own prolit, to make you 
forget your duty to your great father ; they will no more 
return to trouble you. We have also called to us the Sioux, 
w ho, lliough their skins are red, like your own, have long been 
your enemies. They are henceforth to remain in their own coun- 
try. This peace now places you in safety. Long before your 
fathers were born, this war began, and instead of quietly pur- 
suing tlie game for the sui)port of your women and children, yon 
Jiave bettn murdering one another ; but that time has passed 
away, and you can now hunt where you please. Your yount; 
men nuist observe this peace ; and your great father will consi- 
der as his enemy any one who takes #ip the tomahawk." 

The Indians answered with the usual j)romises and pro- 
fessions, and being about to leave the fort that evening, they 
stole every horse- belonginir to Lord Selkirk aiul his party. In 
the morniiiir, not a single horse was left, and the Indians had 
most of ihem disappeared also. ' 

It was now so late that I could not come that fall to the stati'>. 
Lord Selkirk having, jn ihaps, heard souHUiiing of my history, 
began to be attentive to mv. ile inijuired about the events nl 
my past life, and 1 related many things to him, parti«'ularly llic 
part I had borne in capturing the fort. Judge; Codman,* also, 

* -Miiiiy ot'ilif iiaiiics (irwhilo nioii, in tlir uortli wp.-.t, and in ntlirr purls til'lhi 
country, wliii'h sire infiiiioni'd in tins narrative, arc grossly inisspclt ; tlu-Mim 
|irniri|)l(' liavinij licrn t'ollnvvt-d in writinir IhiII) l'(prt'ii;n and Indian names, in ah 
in>tanccs where llie name the narrator intendi'd to nienlion did not iinnieili,i!ii 
recur to the reeolleetion oil lie writer. 'I'hus t'odmanishere written for Coll uutii , 
ill other placets Maveen for \Iaii\rilh' ; 1'uKiienon liir D'Hrsonnrns; &c. It is 
oUo not iniprolialile lliat names iiiny lia\e iM'coiiie e.iiil'oiiiided in the mind of our 
hunter himself, wiio apfiears to ha\e Ihtu more conversant with Indians tli.iu 
wlutenien. Thus, in liis account of tiip murder of a (rovernor of the Hudson's li.iy 
(onipany, of llie nameof M'DoiiaM, or .M'llollaiid, he may (nissilily have used mu 
of these names in place ol thni of .Mr. Seinple, who was one of the victims to llial 
spirit of liliMidy tivulry which (xrasioneil Ihesi- troubles lirlwern tho tmihiiucoin- 
jmiueH. This wnnt of precision, particularly in the s|(ellini;of name.-, will not, 
t«ith tliee.indid.' liie crcilil<diiy oftliis linml<lc nurraliM' 

■ V 




wlio remained tliere, often spoke to Lurk Selkirk rrsipectius; nic. 
" This man," said he, " conducted your party from the Lake of 
the Woods hither, in the winter season, and performed a very 
important part in the taking of this fort, at the expense of great 
labour, and at the hazard of his life, and all for the sum of forty 
dollars. The least you ought to do is to make his forty dol- 
lars eighty, and give him an annuity of twenty dollars per year 
for life." Lord Selkirk did acordingly. The annuity for tlic 
five first years has been paid mi". 'J'hc second five have not jet 

Lord Selkirk was not able to leave the month of the Assinne- 
buiii so early as he had ii\lendfd, fur tcir of the North \Ve>i. 
They had sent men, disguised as Indian-^, iinioiig whom was one 
they called Sacksayre; they hitd also sent Indians, with in- 
structions to waylay and nuirder him. Htariii!' of tlii-;. lie . 
thought it best to despatch Col. Dickson to the Sionx country 
(or a guard of one hundred Sioux, ami it was not until these m- 
rived, that he dared venline out. Tin ii he escaped i'rom the 
tort at night, and joined Dickson at Pembiiuih. 

He took with him a letter, wiiich he had himself written fur 
me, ami in my name, to my fi ieiu!« in the states, ijiviiiji scmie ul 
the most prominent of the particulars of my early hisiury. Ilr 
had tised much persuasion to induce me to accompany him, aiul 
1 had inclination enough to do so; but 1 then belit \tti lliat 1110^1 
of my near relatives had been nuirdered b\ the Indians; ami il 
any remained, I knew that so onat a lap-^e ipf time must liu\e 
made us, in ail respects, like strangers to cnIi other. lie alsu 
|iroposed to take me to England with hin>; but my attachnn-uls 
were among the Indians, and m\ homo was in the Indian c.ouU' 
tiv. I hat! spent great part of m\ lil'e there, and I knew it wa« 
iP() late for me to form new association^, lie howe\( r sent six 
uu'n to take me to the Lake of the Wood^. where I arrived late 
111 the tall, after the corn was gatiu'red. In the begiiming of 
winter, I wtnt to the Be-gwi-o-nus-ko Lake, thence, when the 
>iiow had fullen, to the prairie, to hunt bullalMe. 

The Indians gathered annmd, one aftrr another, until we be- 
came a consid'Table band, and then we began to snller of hunsier. 
The weather was very severe, and our suHiring iiu'reased. .V 
voimg woinnti was the first lo die of hunuer. Suun nfter tbi>'. a 


J a.\M:;r ft; NVRiiAin i;. 

young man, her brother, was taken with tliat kind of deUriuni, 
i»r madness, which precedes death in such as die of starvation. 
In this condition, he had left tlie lodge of his debilitated and 
desponding parents ; and when, at a late hour in the evening, I 
returned from my hunt, they could not tell what had become of 
him. I left the camp about the middle of the night, and follow- 
ing his track, I found him at some distance lying dead in tlie 

i : ■ ^^ ' 

Ai^ ' ' 

•<: ■: 

'I- -'* , 

■' 4 


Sufl'frinjis of llip Ojibboways from liungrr — persecutions of Waw-lio-bi'-nai-sa, and 
unkiiidncssof my Indian rdiitivos — journoy to Detroit — Governor Cass — coun- 
cil at St. Mury, on the Miami. 

All the men who were still able to walk, now determined U> 
yitart after buffaloe, which we knew could not then be very near 
us. For my own pari, I chose to remain, as did one good huntor 
besides, who knew that the prospect of getting buffaloes was not 
good. We remained beiiind, and in a sliorl lime killed live 
moose; all the flesh af whicli being immediately distributed 
among the sufl'ering women and children, alTorded some reliel. 
and checked the progress of death, wliich was making extensive 
havoc among \is. The ni* u rcttinioil one after another, more 
worn out and reduced than when they had left us. Oidy a single 
buffaloc had been killed. As the most incessant, and the inost 
laborious exertions alone, could save us from perishing, 1 went 
immediately out lo hunt again, and having ^•tilrted a bear, I pur- 
sued him for three (lays, Milhout b< iiiL,^ able to come up with him. 
At the end of this time I found myself so fur exhausted, tiiat 1 
knew I could never overtake the bear, and I should not have 
reached home, liad not some Indiuiis, litllo less miserable and 
hungry than myself, happened t.i meet with me. I had slopped 
at night, and being in\a!)le to make a camp, or kindle a tire, I 
was endeavouring to reconcile myself to the immediate u|)proacli 
of death, which I thought inevitable, when these people unex- 
pectedly found me, and helped me to return to camp. This !•< 
but a fair epecimcn of the life which many of the Ojibbcways of 


-^ am 

'■*i^e=^ ■#- -.*^.^«»*-ie . ^ 




tateil and 
jvening, I 
ecome of 
11(1 follow- 
cad in the 

termincd to 

)e very noiir 

jvood huutor 

loos was not 

> killed livo 


some relicl. 

ntr extensivr 

ither, niovf 


11(1 tlie nio-t 
iin<l, 1 wem 
bear, I \m\- 

up with liiui. 

lUsted, that 1 

lid not have 

iserablc ami 

had slo\)l>eil 

ndle n lire, I 

iite u])i)roaeli 

n'ople unex- 

|)np. This i^ 

lihbcways of 

the norili lead during the winter. Their barren an<l inhospitable 
fountry affords them so ^ antily the meaiis of subsistence, that 
it is only with the utmost exertion an«l activity, that life can be 
sustained ; and it not unfrequentiy happens that the strongest 
men, and the best hunters, perish of absolute hunger. 

Now the Indians again determined to move all together, to- 
wards the buffaloes, and endeavour to reach them with their fami- 
lies. Only Oon-di-no, the man who had remained with me be- 
fore, wislied to stay, that his women might dry the skin of the 
last moose he had killed, so that they might carry it with them, 
to be eaten in case of the failure of all other supplies. I conclu- 
ded to remain with him ; but in the middle of the first night after 
the Indians left, the distress of my children became so great, that 
I could no longer remain in my lodge. I got up and started, and 
told liim that if I could kill or procure any game, I would return 
to his relief. I pursued, iaj)idly as my strength would permit, 
the path of the Indians, and about morning came up with their 
ramp. I had no sooner arrived, than I heard the sounds of a 
feast and going up to the lodge, I Jicard the voice of an old man, 
llianking the Great Spirit for the supply that had been bestowed 
ill the time of their necessity. He did not mention the animal 
by name that had been killed, only calling it Manito-wais-sc, 
which means nearly " Spirit beast." From this I could not as- 
certain what had been killed, but from another source, I learned 
i: was an old and poor buffaloe. From this I inferred that herds 
must be near, and two young men being willing to join me, wc 
went immediately in tlie direction in which we believed the herd 
would be found, and after having walked aliout three hours, as- 
rended a little hill, and saw before us the ground black with buf- 
faloes. We crawled tip, and I killed immediately two fat cows. 
As I was cutting these up, I began to hear the guns of the men 
of our party, they having followed me on, antl being now arrived 
among the buffaloes. It Avas somewhat late when I was ready to 
go to our camp, most of the men were in before me. I had ex- 
pected to have heard t!ie sounds of feastinuf and rejoicing ; but 
when I entered the camp, not a voice was to l)e heard. No wo- 
men and children were running about, all was silent and sad. 
Can it be, thouglit I, that this relief has come too late, and (hat 
our women and children are all dead. I looked into one lodire 


r I 




after another; in all, the people were alive, but none hail aii\ 
thing to eat. The men having most of them come from a forcsi 
country, anil having never hunted buffaloe before, all failed to 
kill except myself. The supply I had brought, I having loaded 
the two young men that were with me, somewhat allayed the 
hunger that was prevailing. 

There was at this time with us, a man called Waw-bebc-nal- 
sa, (White Bird,) ivitli whom I had formerly been somewhat ac- 
quainted, aiul whose jealousy and ill will against me, seemed lo 
be excited and irritated by my success in hunting. It was on ac- 
count of this man, and because I wished to avoid all ostentation, 
that I now forbore to make a feast in my own lodge, as woiilt! 
have been proper for mo to have done on this occasion. Never- 
tiieiess, one of the younu men who had been with nie inado . 
least, and I, after reserving sutFicient food to allay the prcssinir 
hunger of my own children, sent the remainder to the faniilit- 
about me. The young num who made the feast, called, amonii 
others, Waw-bt!>e-nais-sa, the man I have mentioned. In tlii 
course of the evening, he said, as I understood, much to prejudici 
tne in the opinion of the Indians ; accusing me of pride, insolence, 
and of having in various ways done mischief among them. Hi; 
1 remained in my own lodge, and at present took no notice ol 
this, further than to contradict his unfair statements. 

Next morning, long before the dawn, the women started 1',.: 
the remains of the two bullaloe 1 had killed: aiul several of tin 
men, most of them having obtained from me some instruction 
iihcnit the part to be aimed at, again went in pursuit of the henls, 
iind this day several of them killed. We soon had pkntv d! 
meat, and all that were sick and near death recovered, except om 
woman, who having gone mad with hunger, remained in a slitl 
of derangemenf f<a* more than a month. 

The principal man (tf this band was called O-poih-gini,* (iiii *' 
pipe.) He, with llirec lodges, remained with nn-, the otlicis 
scattered here and there in pursuit of the bullaloe. One of tin 
mm who remained back with me, was Waw-bebe-nais-sa, and 
another his son-in-law. I killed great nimdx-rs of fat IiuDIiIik. 
and the choice parts of forty of them I had dried. We had su;- 

•) (xnh-jjuii— i)i|)o ; 0-)H)ili-Run-niin — jtiiK*.". 

1 j 

, • 




had any 
a a lorcsi 

tailed tit 
nu loaded 
ilaycd llu: 

newhat ae- 
secmed to 
was on ac- 
e, as woiilil 
,n. Nevev- 
nie, made ■ 
Lhc prossiiKi 
llip lamilii« 
lUcd, amonu 
lU'd. In ill. 
I to prejudici 
]v, insolence. 
r thoni. Rii 
no iioliee ut 

n started lo 
several of tin 
ic instruetit)!! 
«>f thfi lienl^. 
ad \'>\v\\\\ o! 
d, exeeptoiii 
u<d in a stut 

,ih-i>uii/ (lii' 
., the otliei' 
One nl' tin 
-nais-sa, ami 
If fat liulValne. 
\Vi! had sill- 

j'ered so much from hunger, tliat I wislicd to secure my family 
af^ainst a rctmn of it. I also still had it in contemplation to make 
my way to tlic States, when I knew it would be necessary for mo 
to leave them for some lime, without any one to hunt for tliem. 
1 made twenty large sacks of pemmican ; ten kegs of ten gallons 
eacli, which I procured from the Indians, I filled with tallow, and 
jireserved, besides, a considerable number of tongues, &c. 

It was not immediately that I discovered Waw-bebe-nais-sa's 
design in remaining near my camp, which was solely to, annoy 
;ind molest me. I had such large quantities of meat to carry, 
when we came finally to move, that I was compelled to return 
M'ith my dogs four time!5, to carry forward to my camping place, 
one load after another. One day he contrived to meet me alo^e^V 
at the place where I deposited my loads, and I had no sooner 
slopped, tlian he thrust both his hands into my long hair, which 
ihen hung down on both sides of my head. " This," said he, '' is 
the head of your road, look down and see the place where the 
wolves and the carrion birds shall pick your bones." I asketl 
Iiim why he ofTered me this violence. "You are a stranger," 
said he, "and have no right among us; but you set youself up 
for the best hunter, and would make us treat you as a great man. 
For my own part, I have long been weary of your insolence, and 
T am determined you shall not live another day." Finding that 
lemonstranee was likely to have no eflect upon him, but that he 
was proceeding to beat my head against a po])lar tree that siooi! 
there, by a sudden exertion of strength, I threw him uptm the 
j;round, and disengaged uiy head at the expense of part of my 
iiair. But in the struirgle, he cauglit three of the fingers of my 
light hand between his teeth. Having sunk his strong teeth <\uite 
til the hones of my fingers, I could not draw them out of his 
mouth, but witli my left haml aimed a blow at one of his eyes ; 
his jaws flew open, and he leapt instantly to his feet. My toma- 
hawk was lying near me, and his eye happening to fall upoi\ it. 
lu^ caught it in his hand, and aimed so hearty a blow at my head, 
that as I eluded it, his own \ iolence brought him to the ground. 
I juinped upon him, wrenched the tomahawk fVnn> his hand, and 
ilirew it as far a> I could, while I contii\ued to hold him fast in 
the gr(»und. I was uuieh enraged at his uiiproAol<ed and violeni 
attack n|.oi, me: nevertheless I would nut kill him. but sei iiiu 



-V , 

! ■ iV. ' 


there a piece of a stout lodge pole, I caught it in my hands, and 
told him to get up. When he did so, I commenced beating him; 
and as he fled immediately, I followed, and continued to beat him 
while he ran two or three hundred yards. 

When I returned to my load, his son-in-law and two other 
young men belonging to him, having heard his cries, had come 
up. One of them said angrily to me, " what is this you have 
done ?" and immediately the three rushed upon me, ard I being 
already overcome »vith fatigue, they threw me upon the ground. 
At this time Waw-bebe-nais-sa had returned, and he caught mti 
by a black silk handkerchief that I wore about my neck, stran- 
gled, kicked, and beat me, and thrust me down in the snow. I 
remember hearing one of them say, " he is dead," and as I knew 
I could not hope, while I was down, to make resistance against 
four, I endeavoured to encourage this opinion. When they took 
their hands olT me, and stood at a little distance, I sprang upon 
my feet, and seized a lodge pole, probably very contrary to their 
expectations. Whether through surprise or fear I know not, 
they all fled, and seeing this, I pursued Waw-bebe-nais-sa, and 
gave him another severe beating with uiy pole. For this time 
they left me, and I returned once more to hang up the meat I hud 
brought. But Waw-l)ebe-nais-sa and his people returned to the 
lodges, where my dogs, which my wife had taken back, were 
lying, much fatigued, before the door. He drew his knife, and 
stabbed one of them. My wife hearing the noise, ran out, but 
lie threatened to kill her also. 

jNoxt (lay, as .Vaw-bcbe-nai.-s-sa was much bruised and sore, 
and his face in particular very badly swollen, I thought probable 
he would remain in his lodge; and apprehending danger to my 
wife, if she should be left alone in the lodge, I sent her to cany 
forward meat, and remained myself at home. But I was much 
fatigued, and being alone in my lodge, about the middle of the 
day I fell asleep. Suspecting, or perhaps knowing this, Waw- 
bebe-nais-sa crept slyly in with his knife in his hand, and was 
almost near enough to strike me, when I awoke and sprang up. 
As I was not unarmed, he started back and fled, but I did not 
pursue him. lie still continued to fhreaten and molest me. 
Whenever he met me in the path, he would not turn aside, thou<;li 
lie was unloaded, and I might have a heavy burthen on niv bad. 


i' ■fM 


s\\ ^ 


rANXER's Narrative. 


ids, anJ 
ng him; 
)eat him 

\io other 
lad come 
/^ou have 
I 1 being 
i ground, 
aught me 
ck, stran- 
snow. I 
as 1 knew 
ce against 
I they took 
rang upon 
,ry to their 
know not, 
\ais-sa, and 
ir this time 
! meat 1 had 
rned to the 
back, were 
knife, and 
•an out. but 

His eye was I'or many days so swollen that he could not sec out 
of it, and his whole appearance very ludicrous, he being at best 
lint an awkward and homely man. Once, after an unsuccessful 
uttcmpt to slab me, he went home, and in the impatience of his 
Ijullled rairp, nuide the S(juaw's gesture of tonlempt towards my 
lodge,* which exposed him to the ridicule, even oi his own friends 
among the Indians. 

His persecutions were, howev<'r, troublesome to ine, and I en- 
deavoured to avoid him. One day I had j)receded the jjarty, and 
as we were tni veiling in a beaten i)ath, which I knew they would 
follow, I turned a little out of it, to place my camp where 1 should 
not necessarily be in the way of seeing him. But when hecanio 
(o the fork of my road, with his little son twelve years old, I 
lieard him say to the lad, "stop here while I go and kill thin 
white man." He thei\ threw down Iiis load, and though his son 
entreated him not to do any thing, he came up within about lifty 
yards of me, drew his gim from its ca-e, cocked it, and jiointed it 
at me. Having lield it in this position some time, and seeing h»? 
(lid not excite my fears, he began to appro.uh me, jumping from 
-ide to side, and yelling in the manner of warriors when they ap- 
proach each other in battle. He continued pointing his gun at 
me, and threatening me so loudly, that I was at last irritated, and 
caught up my own gun. The little boy ran up, and throwing his 
arms about me, entreated me to spare his father, though he wai? 
a fool. I then threw down my gun, seized the old man, and took 
his from him. I reproa»'hed him for his obstinate perseverance 
in such foolish practices. " I have," said I, '• put myself so often 
in your power, that you ought i)y this time to know you have not 
coin-age to kill me. You are not a man; you have not the heart 
oven of a scpiaw; nor the coinage of a ilog. Now for the first time 
I si)eak to you. 1 wish yon to know that I am tired of your fool- 
ishness, and that if yon trouble me any more hereafter, it will be 
at the hazard of your own lil'e." 

He then left me, and with all the others, except my own family, 
went on in advance. Next day I followed, drawino; a loaded sled 
myself, and driving my dogs, with their loads, before me. As we 




* > 1 

■ -S. 




• A'»«-«i-Aun-ji'-^a kivi-uk wc-ke-viah-mik: Sf-enole at theendof tke volunlf, 
01 tlio ixipnoiiionio woitl Ki'-kUh-ko^lL-kav-pe-vii 



\vr. ■ 

I f 


W -^'^ 


' ? 1^ I'- 




approached a thicket of bushes, I cautioiied my daughter Martha, 
that Waw-bebe-nais-sa might probably be lying in ambush some- 
where among them. Presently I saw lier leap several feet from 
the ground, then she came running towards me, witli her hands 
raised, and crying, " my father ! my father V I seized my gun 
and sprang forward, examined every place for concealment, passed 
the lodge poles, and the almost extinguished fires of their last 
encampment, and returned witliout having discovered any thing. 
AVhen I inquired of my daugliter wliat had occasioned her alarm, 
she said she had " smelt lire." So great was the terror and ap- 
prehension with which her mind was agitated, on account of the 
annoyances Waw-bebe-nais-sa had given us. 

I was 80 glad to be released from the persecutions of this trou- 
blesome man, that I now resolved to stop at Rush Lake, and re- 
main there by myself, as I thouglit it was the intention of Waw- 
bebe-nais-sa and the other Indians, to proceed immediately to 
the Lake of the Woods. So I selected a place where I intended 
to establish my camp for the remainder of the winter. Here I 
left my children to take care of tiie lodge, and my wife and my- 
self returned to bring up loads of meat. On coming home at 
night, the children told us, their grandmother had in our absence 
been to see them, and had left word, that her daughter must come 
on the following day to see her ; and that there were, in that 
place, three or four lodges of our friends encamped together. I 
readily gave my consent to this arrangement, and as my mother- 
in-law had left a message particularly for me, I consented to ac- 
company her, saying that we could bring up the remainder of the 
meat after we should return. But that night I dreamed, and tlir 
same young man whom I had repeatedly seen in tlie preparations 
for my medicine hunts, came down as usual through the hole in 
the top of my lodge, and stood directly before me. " You must 
not go," said he, " l(} the place you propose to visit to-morrow ; 
but if you persist, and will disregard n»y admcmition, you shall 
see what will happen to you there. Look there," said he, point- 
hig in the opposite direction, and I saw She-gwaw-koo-sink, Me- 
zhuk-ko-naun, and others of my friends coming. Then pointing 
upwards, he told mr to look, and I saw a small hawk with a 
banded tail, flying about over my head. lie said no more, but 
turned and went out at the door of my lodge. I awoke mufh 



troubled in my mind, and could sleep no more. In the morning. 
I told my wile I could not go witii her. " Whut is the reason," 
said she, " you cannot accompany me, as you pr(»miscd yester- 
day ?" I told her my dream, but she accused me of i'ear, and as 
she continued her solicitations, I finally consented to go. 

In th(! morning, I told my children that their uncle ami other 
Indians would come to the lodge that day. 'I'hat they umst tell 
them, if I returned at al! would be by noon : if I did not come 
then, they might conclude I was dead. I then started with my 
wife, but I had not gone two hundred yards, when I looked up 
and saw the same small hawk that had appeared to me in my 
dream. I knew that this was sent to forewarn me of evil, and 
again I told my wife I could not go. But though I turned back 
to go towards my own lodge, she again reproached me with fear, 
and pretended to ridicule my apprehensions. I knew, also, the 
strong prejudice that existed against me in the family of my mo- 
ther-in-law, and the tendency of my refusing, in this case, to visit 
her, would be to confirm, and make them stronger. I therefore, 
though contrary to my better judgment, consented to go on. 

When I arrived at the lodge of my mother-in-law, I h'I't my gnu 
at the door, went in, and took a seat ijetwccn two of the sisters 
of my wife, who were the wives of one man. They had young 
children, and 1 was playing with two of these, with my head 
down, when I heard a loud and sudden noise, and immediately 
lost my senses. I saw no one, and I remembered nothing, till I 
began to revive ; then I found several women holding my hands 
and arms, and I saw the expression of terror and alarm in the 
laces of all about me. I could not comprehend my situation, 
and knew nothing of what had happened, until I heard on th(^ 
outside of the lodge, a loud and insulting voice, which I knew to 
be that of Waw-bebe-nais-sa. I now began to feel .something 
like warm water on my face, and putting my hand to my head, 1 
laid my fingers on my naked skull. I at length broke away from 
the women who held me, and pursued after Waw-bebe-nais-sa ; 
but I could not overtake him, as the Indians assisted him in keep- 
ing out of my way. Towards night I returned to my lodge, 
though very severely wounded, and, as I Ixdieved, with the bones 
of my skull broken. A very little blood had run down upon mj 
fiicc when I was first wounded, but for a considerable time after 



' M 








T5gl.»;-'., «-■' 

'^^f^i^ ^' 

,»': ■ 





wards nono ilowod, and Uxjujrh I Iioard -flranirc noises in my head, 
I did not lixint or fall down until I reached my own lodge. My 
gnu Waw-bcbe-nais-sa iiad taken from the door of tlie lodge ot 
my mother-in-law, and I had to return without it. 

Ai my loilge, 1 found She-gwaw-koo-sink, Me-zhuk-ko-naim, 
and Nah-gaun-e.-sh-kaw-waw. a son-in-law of Wa-ge-tote, more 
commonly called Olo-i)un-ne-l)e. Tiie moment I took She-gwaw- 
koo-sink by the hand, the blood si)outed in a stream from my 
head. " What is the matter my son T' said he. " I have been at 
play with another man, and the water of the J3e-gwi-o-mus-ko 
Jiaving made us drunk, we have j)layed rather roughly." I wished 
io treat the matter lightly, but as I inunediately fainted away, 
they saw the extent of the wouiul I had received. Oto-pun-ne- 
l)e had formerly been an acquaintance of mint-, and had always 
fshown a friendly disposition towards me. He now seemed much 
flflerted at my misfortune, and of liis own accord, undertook to 
punish Waw-bebe-nais-sa for his unjust violence. This man, to 
■wlunn I was often under obligation for the kindnesses he be- 
stowed upon nn;, has since exj)erienced the fate which overtakes 
^o many of all characters and descriptions of peojjle among tin; 
Ojibbeways of that country: he has perished of hunger. 

When I had entered the lodge of my mother-in-law, I had 
omitted to pull off the hood of my thick moose-sl in capote, and 
it was this which prevented me from noticing the entrance of 
Waw-beb'e-nais-sa into the lodge, or seeing, or heating his ap- 
proach towards me. It is prol)ablc also, that had not my head 
been thus covered, the blow, had it been made, would have proved 
instantly I'atal to me, as the force of it nnist have been somewhat 
broken by this thick covering of leather. But as it M'as, tlie 
skull was fractured, and there is still a large ridge upon that part 
<?f it where the edge of the tomahawk fell. It was very long be- 
fore I recovered from this wound, though the immediate confinr- 
nient which followed it, did not last so long as I had feared il 

Waw-bebe-nais-sa fled immediately to our village at Me-naw- 
7he-tau-naung ; and the remainder of the people, having never 
hunted in the prairie before, now b(!came panic struck, at the 
idea that the Hioux would fall upon their trail and pursue them. 
I was too weak to travel, and moreover I knew well we were in 






Tanner's naiirativk. 


)io (larifff r from the Sioux ; but my mothrr-in-law found much 
fault because 1 was not williuj^ to sUut willi the Indians. I i<new 
that my mollu'r-in-law, and I had reason t((siij)j)osc that my wife, 
liad been willing to aid Waw-bebe-nais-su in his attein[)l on my 
hfe, and I therefore told them both to leave me if they wished. 
They went accordinjrjy, and took all my childicn with them. The 
only person who did not desert me at ihi^ tinus was Oto-pun-ne- 
he, as he was called t'roni his bear totem, with his cousin, a lad 
o( fourteen years old. These two remained and perlMined for 
me those offices of attention and kindness which my situation 
retjuired, while those who should have been my li lends abandon- 
ed nu' to my fate. Alter the lourlh day, I became much worse, 
and was unable to sit up, aiul almost to move, until the tenth 
daj', \\ hen I befraii to recover. 

After I had srained a little streutrth, we left the lodges as they 
liad been abaniloned by the Iiuiians in their fright, all standing, 
some of them filled with meat, and other valuable property, and 
started together for the villaire. Our trader lived at some dis- 
tance from the village, and when we arrived at llie |)lace where 
llu' roads forked, I agreed with ()to-pun-ne-bc that 1 would meet 
lum at an appointed place, on the day which he named, as that 
on which he would return from the village. I went accordingly 
to the trach-r's, and he to the Indian's camp. We nu't again at 
the time and place agreed on, when he related to me, that he 
nent to the village, entered the lodge of one of the principal 
(.aiefs, and sat down. He had not been lonif there, when Waw- 
behe-nais-sa came in and sat down opposite him. Alter rc- 
ganling each other for some time, Waw-bebe-nais-sa said to him, 
"You, Oto-pun-ne-be, have never been in our village before, and 
I am not ignorant of the occasion which has brought you so far 
to see us. You have no brothers of your own, the Long Knives 
having killed all of them ; and you are now so foolisi) as to call 
the man whom I beat the other day your brother." " It is not 
true," saiil Oto-pun-ne-be, " that the Lons)- Knives have killed 
any brother of mine ; hut if they had, I would not suffer you t't 
fall upon my friend, who is as one of us, and abuse and injure 
him, as you have done, without cause or j)rovocation. It is 
true, I call him my brother, and I will avenge his cause as if he 
irere such ; but 1 will not spill blood in the lodge of this chief. 

• i 




;l I 

»■■ J 


{'.?}' s 

^ f i w 




who has rprpived mo as a frinid." So sayinj^, be took Waw-bc- 
l)c-tiai.s-sa by tlio haiul, diagjrod him out oC the loiljro, and was 
about to phjiifrc th«' knil'*' to his heart, wlion tlic chief, who \va« 
a slronff man, eaut^ht his hand, took away the knife, and broke 
it. In the senllh: whieh ensued, three or four men were at once 
uj)oii Ot()-[)un-ne-l)e ; l)ul he beiiiir a piMverful man, and not for- 
gettinjf tlie object of his journey, kept fast his gy\\iv upon Wavv- 
bebe-iiais-sa, and (Hd not (juit him until two of his ribs were 
broken, and he was otherwise severely injured. Oto-pun-ne-he 
was a (piiet man, even when drunk, aiul if he ever entered into 
a <iuarrel, it was more commonly, as in this case, in the cause of 
his friend, rather tlian Jiis own. 

I was content witli (he pimishment that had been thus be- 
stowed upon Waw-bebe-nais-sa, as I thought two broken ribs 
about e(|ual to the broken head he had given me. We fe led 
together on game I had killed, so rapid liad been my recover 
and then returned to the deserted camp, where we found tli. 
lodges all standing as we had left them. After about ten (lay^ 
more, the people began to come back to look after their proper- 
ly. Oto-pun-ne-be took my canoe and retm-ned to Red River. 
Avhere he lived. 

All our peoi)le returned, and removed their lodges and their 
property to Me-naw-zhe-tau-naung. 1 had now a great store ot 
meat, suflicie?»t, as I knew, to sup|)ly the wants of my family for 
a year or more. Alter making the best disposition I could of 
all my allairs, \ took a small canoe, and started by myself, with 
the intention of coming to Mackinac, intending to go thence to 
the states, and endeavour to fuid some of my relatives, if any re- 

At Rainy Lake, I fell in with Mr. (Jiasson and others, in ihe 
employ of the Hudson's Bay Company, who told me it would 
not be safe for me to suffer myself to be seen by any of the Nortli 
West Company's people, as they were all much enraged against 
me, on account of the course I had taken. Nevertheless, F 
knew well that the Hudson's Hay people, having no occasion to 
go to the lower end of Lake Superior, could not conveniently 
aid me themselves, and that if I altemjited to go alone, I must 
tmavoidably fall in with some of the North West; I went, there- 
fore, directly to the trading-house at Rainy Lake, where I found 





tanner's narrative. 


nd was 
ho was 
1 broke 
at once, 
not Ibr- 
n VVaw- 
ibs were 
'rod into 
cause ol 

rs. in the 
e it would 
the Nortli 
cd afj;ainst 
rtliclcss, I 
ccasion to 
ic, I must 
ent, there- 
re I found 

my old trader, Mr. Taec. He was standing on the bank when I 
came up with my little canoe. He told »ie to come into the house, 
and I followed him in accordingly; he tlien asked me, rather 
sternly, what I had come to him for. " Why do you not go," 
said he, " to your own people (»f th(! [fudson's Hay Company?" 
I t<dd him I was now wishing to go to the states. " It would 
have been well," he replied, " had you gone long ago." 1 wait- 
ed there twenty days, receiving all the lime the kindest treat- 
ment from Mr. Tace. He tinii brought me in his own canoe to 
Fort William, whence Dr. M'Laughlin sent me in one of his 
boats to the Saut l)e Ht. Marie, and thence Mr. Krmatinger 
brought me to Mackinac. All the people of the North West 
Company, whom I saw on this journey, treated me kindly, and 
no one mentioned a word of my connexion with the Hudson's 

Major Puthuff, the United States Indian Agent, at Mackinac, 
^ve me a birch bark canoe, some provisions, and a letter to Gov. 
Cass, at Detroit. My canoe was laslied to the side of the schoon- 
er, on board which I sailed for Detroit, under the care of a gen- 
tleman, whose name I do not recollect, but who, as I thought, 
was sent by Major Puthuff expressly to take care of me on the 
way. lu live days we arrived, and the gentleman tellinjj me to 
wait until he could go on shore and return, he left me, and I 
heard no more of him. Next day I went on shore by myself, 
and walking up into the street, I stood for some time gazing 
around me. At length, I saw an Indian, and going uj) to him, 
asked who he was, and where he belonged. He answered me, 
"An Ottawwaw, of Saw-ge-nong." " Do you know Gisli-kaw- 
ko?"saidI. "He is my father." "And where," said I, " is 
Manito-o-geezhik, his father, and your grand-father ?" " He 
died last fall." I told him to go and call his lather to come and 
see me. He called him, but the old man w ould not come. 

Next day, as I was again staniling in the street, and looking 
one way and the other, I saw an old Indian, and ran after him. 
When he heard me coming, he turned about, and after looking 
anxiously at me for a few moments, caught me in his arms. It 
was Gish-kaw-ko ; but he looked very unlike the young man 
who had taken me prisoner ho many years before. He asked 
me, in a hurried manner, many questions ; inquired what had 


n » 


I *• 

W^' ^" 

r ^r'-) 




happened to me, and where I had been since I left him, and 
many sueh (questions. 1 tried to induce him to take me to the 
houtie of Gov. Cas;?, but he appeared afraid to iro. Findinir I 
could not j»revail upon him, I took Major PutiiuH's letter in my 
hand, and having h'arned lioni tiie Indians in whicii iiouse iho 
governor Hved, I went toward the gate, till a soldier, who was 
walking up and down before it, slopj)ed nie. I could not speak 
English so as to be at all understood ; but seeing the governor 
witting in his porch, 1 held up the letter ti>wards him. He then 
told the soldier to let ine pass in. As soon as he had opened tlui 
letter, he gave me his hand, and having sent for an interpreter, 
he talked a long time with me. (iish-kaw-ko having been sent 
for, confirnK'd my statement nsptcting the circumstances of my 
caj)ture, an<l my two years residence with the Ottawwaws oT 

The governor gave me clothing to the amount of sixty oi 
seventy d»dlars value, and sent me to remain, for the present, at 
the house of his interpri tcr, mor»' than a nnle distant, where lie 
told nu- I must wait till he should assend)le many Indians and 
white nu^n, to hold a council at St. Mary's, on the Miami, whencr 
lie would send nu' to my relatives on the Ohio. 

1 waited two months or nn»re. and becoming extremely im- 
patient to no on my way, I started with He-nais-sa, the brotlici 
of (lisli-kaw-ko, and eight oilier men, who were going to the 
couiu'il. I went without (he knowledge of (Jov. Cass, and wa^ 
therefore destitute of any supply of provisions. We suflereii 
much iVom faliuue. and still more from huiiirer, particularly aflpi 
we jiassed the rajiids of the Miami, w here we b'ft our canoe. 'I'lic 
Indians amoni; whom wv |)assed, oflentimes refused ti> give ih 
any thing, thoULdi tliev had plenty. Sometimes we stopped id 
nleep near a white man's corn lleld, and thouir|i {\\c corn was nnu 
lit to roast, and we alnn>st perishinij willi himiier. wc dared iioi 
take any tiling. One niirlil, w( stopped near a good lookiiii; 
house, where was a large and line corn held. The Indians, he 
ing very hungry, said to me, '• Slmw-shaw-wa ne-ha-se, m)ii 
have route very far (o Hee your relations, now go in and sec 
whether they will give ynu any ihinir to eat." 1 vent ami 
stood in tin- door, but the peo|)le williin, who were then eaim?, 
drove ine away, and on my return the Indians laujiheU at mr 

im, and 
to ihr 
ndiiiff I 
r ill iuy 
juse the 
x\w was 
lot speak 

lU- ihou 

been sent 
oes of my 
rtwaws ol 

of sixty ov 

t, where he 
lutUans and 
inii, whencf 

itreiiu'ly im- 
the brother 
{ruing to thi- 
lass, antl wa- 
\Vi- siilVenMl 
i.ularly al'lfi 
cunoe. '!'!>'' 
■tl to ^nve vi-^ 
J. stopp'"'! In 
,)iii was imw 
we .lare.l iiol 
Tuiul hiokiiii; 
Indians, Ih' 
c-ha-se, y<'»i 
o in and sci 
I vent and 
. llien eating. 
bed at iHf 

tanner's nakrativi;. "^1 

Some time after this, as wo wore sleepino; one night in the 
road, some one came np on horsel)ark, and asked ns, in the ()t- 
lawwuw dialect, who we were. Oni; ol" the Indians ai;swered, 
•' We are Ottawwaws and Ojihheways. and have with ns one 
Long Knil'e. from Red Uiver. wlio was taken iirisoner many 
years ago by (iish-kaw-ko." He tohl us. after he understood 
who we wen-, and where we were i;oini>, that his name was 
Ah-koo-nah-goo-zik. " If you are brisk iraveUers," said he, 
'• you may reach my liouse lu xl (hiy after to-morrow, at noon, 
and then you will lind plenty to lat. It is necessary that I 
should travel on all night, that I may reach home to-morrow;" 
and thus he left us. Next day. my strength failed so much that \. 
was only ahlc to keep up bv l)i'iug released Iroin my load. One 
look nty gun, another my blanket, and we reached that night the 
forks of tlu' Miami, where was a settlement of Indians, and a 
trading-house, as well as sev«'ral lamilies of whiles, I applied 
to the trader, and stated my situation, and that of the Indians 
with me, but we could obtain no relief, and on the next day 1. 
was totally unable to travel. We were indebted to the Indiana 
for what relief we obtained, which was sullicient to enable us 
the day after to reach the hospitable dwelling of Ah-koo-nah- 

This man had two large kettles ol' corn and venison ready 
conked, and awaiting our arrival. One he placed before me, 
with some wooilen dishes, and sjxtoiis; the other before He-nais- 
sa. After we had eaten, he told tis we had better remain with, 
him ten or fifteen days, and refre-li ourselves I'rom our long 
jounu'v, as he had plenty of corn, and fat venison was abundant, 
about him. I told him. that tor my own part I had for many 
years been wishing to make the journey I had now so nearly 
iiccoinplished, and that I was exlrimely impatient to see v|i«'thev 
or not any of my own relatives were still alive; but that I should 
lie glad to rest with him two or three days, and afterwards to 
Ixu'row one of his horses to ride as far as Kau-wis-se-no-ki-ng, ov 
St. Mary's. " I will tell you," said he. After two or three days. 
IS we wire, early one morniiit;. makitig up inn- loads to start, he 
came to me, leading a line horse, and putting the halter in m>' 
liand, lie said, " I give you this for your jonrnoy." I did not 
agnin tell him I would leave if at hau-wis-se-no-ki-ug, as 1 hnd 






.'i .• \ 



;ilrp.'uly toiil him tliis, nnd I knew tliat in sncii rases the Indian? 
do not wish to hofir nuirh said. In two da\s I arrived at the 
jdafc appointed for the council. As jet, no Indians had assein- 
l)led, bnt a man was stationed tliere to issue provisions to such 
as should come. I iiad been hi.a a sliort tinu' at this place, uduMi 
I was seized with lever and ague, which, ihou^ili it ditl not con- 
lino mo all the time, was yet extremely painful and dislressini;. 

After ahont ten days, a noumit man, of the Ollawwaw 

s, whon> 

Be-nais-sa had frjveri me to cook for me, and assist alxnit me in 
my sickness, »ent across tin? creek, to a camp of the Po-ta-\va- 
lo-niics, who had r«cenlly arrived, and were drinkiuff. .\t mid- 
night, he was broufjht into the lodye drunk, and one of the men 
who came with him, said to me, as he pushed him in, " lake care 
of y(nir yomi;? man, he has been doing mischief." I immeili 
ately called Be-nais-sa to kindle a tire, when we saw, 1)\ the 
light of it, the young man standing with his knife in his iuind, 
and that, together with his arm, and great |)art of his body, co 
vered with blood. The Indians coul I not make him lie down, 
but Avhen I told him to, he obeyerl immediately, and I forbad" 
llwm to make any inquiries about what he had done, or take anv 
notice of his bloody knilV. In the morning, having slept sound 
ly, he was perfectly unconscious of all that had passed. He said 
he believed that he had been very drunk, and as he was m»w 
hungry, he must hurry and get ready soiuelhing to eat. lie wa- 
astonished ami confounded when I t<dd him he had killed a man 
He remembered only, that in his drnnlanness, he had began to 
• rv for his lather, u ho had been killed on that spot, se^»'ral venr- 
before, by white men. He <x|)ressed much C(nH'ern, and weni 
lumu'diately to see the man he hnil stabbed, who was not\( 
dead. NVe learmd from the Po-ta-wato-niies that he had fonnn 
(he young man sleeping, or lying in a stale of insensibility from 
jnto.vication, and had slabbed him, without an\ words havin;; 
bi'cn exchanged, anil ap|)aienlly without knouii'ir who he wa>. 
The relations of the wounded man >aid nothing to him, but tin 
interpreter ol (Jov. Cass reproved him ver\ sharply. 

It was evident to all, that the young man he had woundn! 
could not recover; indeed, he was now nninifestly near his end. 
When our companion returiUMl, we had made up a eonsiderabli 
present, one giving a blanket, onon piece ofslrouding. soine (>n> 

. > 

- *■ 




ihiiig, and some anothor. Willi these lu' imintdiaul) retuvnod. 
and placing iliein on the ground beside the wdinided man, lu 
-aifl to llie relativ'»?s, who were standin>i, iiiioiit, " My triends, I. 
liave, as }ou see, killed this, yonr itrother; hnl I know not wliiu 
1 did. 1 had no ill will against him, and w !icn, a lew days since, 
he came to our camp, I was glad to see him. IJiil drunkemiess 
j;iaile ;ue a fool, and my life is justly forl'i ited lo vo\i. I am 
poor, and among- strangers; but some oi' those who came from 
my own coimlry with me, would gladly l)riiig me i)ack lo my 
parents; they have, thereibre, sent me with this small present. 
.M\" life is in your hands, ami' my present is hel'ore you, take 
u hl.h ever you choose, mv I'riendy will have no < ause to com- 
plain." He then sat down beside the; wounded man, and st.)op- 
mg his head, hid his eyes with his hands,. and wailed !'(;r them lu 
strike. But the nn)thi'rot' the man he had wounded, an old wo- 
man, came a little forward, and said, " For Knysellatul my chil- 
dren, r can answer, that we u isli not to take vour life ; but I 
laniioi promise lo protect yon frcnn the re.sentnienl of my Ims- 
Ijand, who is now absent; ntverlheless, I will accept yr»nr pre- 
sent, and whatever inllnence I njay have with him, I shall not 
tail lo use il in yonr beliidl. [ kin)w that it was not from dt.- 
;>ign, or on acccnmt of any prex ions haired, that you have done 
ihis, and why should your mother be made lo cry as well as m\- 

|i '" She look the |)resents, and the whole affair iieinsj re- 
.ed to (lov. Cass, he was satisfied with the course liuil iiad 
been taken. 

On the folliiwing day, the wounded man died, and soineof oui 
party assisted the younjr man who had killed him, in making his 
!j;rave. When this was coni|)leled, the govcrn(»r gave th«' dead 
man a valuable present of blank<'l-, cloth, •.Vc. to he buried with 
him, accordinu to the Indian cnsttnn, and tinse were broughl 
and heaped up lui the brink (d' the urave. Hut the old wnman, 
iii>tead of havinj: thcni biuied. pro|)osed lo the v(Mmg men tn 
play for them. As ihe articles were somewhat numerous, va 
lions jrames were used, as shootinif at the mark, leajting, wrest 
linir. «!tc. but the hamlsome'^l piece of cloth was reserved as the 
l>ri/.e for tlu' swiftest in the loot race, and was wmi by ihe >oung 
man himself who had killed the other. The old woman imme- 
diately al'ierwards rullnd him to Iter, and said, " Vomig man. he 

? 1J 



P'. (' 


i t 

> , 


1 i 

1 «l 





who was my son, was very <1oar to me, and I fear I shall cry 
much and often for him. I wftuld he glad if you would consent 
to he my son in his stead, to love me and tako care of me as he 
did, only I fear my liushaud." The yoiing man, who was 
irrateful to her for the anxiety she showed to save his life, imme- 
diately consented to this arrangement, and entered heartily upon 
it. But the governor liad heard that some of the friends of the 
deceased were still determined to avenore his death, and he sent 
his interpreter to the young man, to direct him, witiiout loss of 
time, to make his escape, and fly to his own country. He wa^ 
unwilling to go, hut as Be-nais-sPt and myself concurred with the 
governor in his advice, and assisted him in his preparations, he 
went off in the night; but instead of going imnunliately home, 
«s he had l)een directrd to do, he lay concealed in the woods, 
only a few hiuidred yards from our lodiic. 

Very early next morning, 1 saw two of tiie friends of the 
young man that was killed, coming towards our lodge. At lirsi 
I was somew^iat alarmed, as I supposed they came with the in- 
tention of doing violence: init I soon perceived they were with- 
out arms. They came in, and rmt a long lime silent. At last 
one of them said, " Where is onr hrother .' VVc are sometimes 
lonely at home, and we wish to talk wilhhim." I told them, he 
luxd but lately gone out, and woidd soon return. As they re- 
mained a long tinu\ and insisted on seeing him, I went out, with 
llie pretence of seekini.'^ for him, hut without the remotest ex()ec- 
lation that he would he foinid. lie, howiver, had ()l)served, from 
jiis hilling place, the visit of tin- two young men to our lodge, 
and not believing it t(» have been made with any unfriendly de- 
sign, discovered himself to me, and we returned together. The\ 
shook hands with him, and treated him with great kindness, and 
we soon afterwards ascertained that all the reports of their wish- 
ing to kill him were faNe, 

i 1 





shall cry 
cl conseni 
me as he 
who was 
f'e, inline- 
rtily upon 
ids or the; 
he sent 
III loss ol' 
He was 
with the 
lions, he 
I'ly hoiTir, 
U' woods. 

Is of the 
At lirsi 
h the in- 
ert' witJi- 
At las I 
them, he 
they re- 
oul, with 
si expec- 
''t'd, from 
ur lodjro. 
■iidly (le- 
r. I'hev 
H'ss, and 
fir wish- 


Journpy toKfiitucky — liospitiiliticsot' tlic wliitcs — ri'turn to Dftroit — Jackkou — 
St. Louis — (u'lieral Clark — return to the I.aUt'ol' tin: SVojils — Col. Dickson — 
second journey to St. Louis, hy Chikiigoaiul Fort Clark — kindness of the Fota- 

AnouT the time of the conclusion of the council, Gov. Cass 
culled ine to dine w ith him ; ami as many trenllemen asked me to 
drink wine with them, I was, alter dinner, .scarce able lo walk 
home. A few days alterwards, the inter|)reter told me the gover- 
nor had a curiosity to know whether I had ac(piired the same 
fondness the Indians nsnally have liir intoxicating li([uors, and 
whether, when drunk, I would behave as they did. But 1 had not 
fell the intluence of the wme so miuh as to fortrel mysell, or be- 
come unconscious of my situation, and I went immediately to m\ 
Iodide, ami lay there til I was «'ntireiy sober. 

Some of the Potawattmnies had stolen (he Innse that was lent 
ine on the road l)y the friendly old man, culled Ah-koo-nah-iroo- 
zik : but he was recovered by the younir men who followed :n) 
friend Ue-nyis-sa, and I rest(M-ed him to the owner, who was at the 
council, liovernor Cuss, umlerstandinir how kind tliis man had 
been to me, directed that a very handsome ami valuabl',; saddle 
shtndd l)e jrjven him. The old man for sonn- time persisted in 
dedininir this present; but at last, when prevailed upon to re- 
ceive it, he expres>fd much uruiiiudc. "This," said he, " is that 
which was told me by the old men who jrave me instrtiction many 
years a^fo, when I w.i a rhjld. They told u e to be kind, anil to 
do ;ro(»(l to all men, particularly to the strauner who should cinnc 
from a distant country, and to alt who were destitute and afllifted ; 
saying, if 1 did so, the (Jreat Spirit woidd also remember me, to 
do good to me, and reward me for what I had done. Now, thougit 
I have d(me dO little for this man, how amply and honourably am 
I rewarded !" lie would ]iave (jersiiadvd me to take his horse. 


S i 



W J 




Uf t 



i k 


as he said he Iiad more, ami the saddle was more valiiai)ie tliiui 
llic horse he hail lent me; and ihoujfh I deeliiied his oilir, siiH 
he insisted upon it, until I eonsented that he should cunsiiUr it 
as heliniiiinsr to me. and should lake oare of it (uitil I relurnci 
and ealled for it. Here tlie governor jiave me -roods to the anioim! 
of one hundred and tueiitv dollars value, and as I had slili a nu: 
siderahle joiu'tiey t» make, I purchased a horse for eighty doilut<. 
for which f jrave a |);irl of the "oods I had received. There wevi- 
al the council, anumo- others, two men from Kciitncky, who Knev, 
something' of my rclati>n>, one of tlieni iiaviui; livxl Iroinuchiiil 
in 'he family of one of my sisters. 

Willi these luo men i started, thouoli my healtii wa--' stiil verv 
poor. In a few days [ had hc^come so much worse, that I eouii' 
)iot sit on my hmv-^e, and they concluded to purcha-c a skill", an.', 
one (d'theni to take me down hy watt=r, while llie oilier went wiih 
the horses, by tlu" usual roiitt . In that pari of the IW'j Miiun^ 
are many mill-dam<, ami oilier (disiruciions. u liicli rendered i-ve:i 
this method, not only slow and laliorii.u-;, jjui extremely disire 
injjlo me, on account ol niy ill iu'altii. At last I \\.\: ;educed ;. 
such a slate of weakn<'ss, as to lie (juite unablr to nujve, and ! 
stopped at the hou^-e ol'a poor man, who lived on the hank oi 
the riv er, and as he seemed srreatly to pity me, and was disposijd 
lo do all in his power lor my ndicl". I determined to remain will; 
him, the man with whom I had travelled thus far, nnd^m!.'- me im 
dersland that he would iroto the Ohio, ami either come hack him 
self, or send some one after me. 

This man with whom I st>>[»f)ed, tould speak a li w word-, i' 
Otlaw waw. and he diil every thinix in his power to rcmler m* 
sitnati(m comt'orlaide, until m\ nephew, «liowas the person si-n' 
))y mv iVi'Mids in Kentucky, came for nn-. I>y him I iu'ard oi 
the death ot' my father, ani also scmie particulars of my sur\ i\ in;; 
relatives. I i. fore I saw (iish-kau-ko, at Detroit, 1 had alwav- 
supposed thil the <ireater part, if not all of m\ liilher's ('imilv. 
had lieen nnu'dered hy Manito-o-ireezhik and his part\,lhe >ear 
subsetiueni to my caplme. 

Our journey was very tedious and dillicult to Cincinnati, wlierr 
we rested u little. Theiwe we descended the Ohio in a skill". My 
fever conlimied to return daily, and when the chill connnenced, 
we wpre comptlled to .stop for some tiinr^ st» that our j)rouire«-« 

I !- 


1 1 ^. 



i ANMIl .; NAKK.Vl M ;.. 


IMC fill- 

cr III! 
-on .scir 
;ir(i (It 
[•\ iviiiH 
alv\,i\ ^ 
I' year 

« li« rr 
li: My 

uan not rai»i(i. VVc won- accoinpaniiMl by mw man, wlio assistcil 
iny nophow to put mo in and take mo oiit of ihi- skill, for I \vai« 
now reduced to a mere skeleton, and had n(jl stivuirih cnoujih to 
valk or stand by myself. 

Ah the iii;rlit was eoniinar on, after a very dark and cloudy day. 
we arrived at a handsonn' farm, where was a kir^re and rather 
•rooil htoking house. It was (initedark when we were reat'.v to 
Iciive (he skill"; they dieii raised me by the arms, and led, or ra- 
ther •■arried me to the house. My nephew told l!ie man our 
-ituation, and stated that I was so unwell, it would be extremch 
.lilllrult, and must even endanij;er mv lil"e, if we attempted to oo 
farther; but ho told us we eould wd stay at iiis bouse all niylit; 
iind whin my nephew persisted in bis request, he drove us 
'ouiihly and vi<>'' t! (d" the bouse. The ni ■ ' d oow eon- 

Milerably advai.i , .., an. .e di-^tanee to the ue^i bouse was a 
mile and an half; but as it stood ba<'k front the river, we could 
not. i^o to it in our skill". 'I'hey aeeordinoly supported nu' lie- 
iween ihrMU, and we went on. It was pudtably after midniirhl 
when we arrived at a large brick house; the j)eoji!e witl'.iu were 
ill ill bed, aiul all the windows wiTe dark, but my nephew knocked 
It the door, and after a little time a man came out. When he saw 
me be took hold of me, and assisted me to i>o in; then be called 
\ip hi-, wife and dauifhter-', and gave some supper to my eonijia- 
iiioris. For me he prepired some medicine, and then made me go 
to bed, where [ slept very i|uietly until late in the morning. At 
this house I reimiiued nearly all the next day, and was treated 
widi the utmost kindness. From this time I began to gel a little 
iiclter, and withotit mutdi more difliculty. I rcaidied the plac«^ 
nhere my -;isti>r's (hildren were living. I staid one lugbt at the 
house of one of my mphews, who-e name was .lohn ; then [ went 
to the house of another brother, where I lay sick about a snontli. 

A Ktter was m»w received, which they nuidc me umlers'aml 
was for me, but though they rea 1 it to me rejteatediv, I could not 
cumprfdiend a siniile word of the contents. All the time since- 
my arrival here, I had lain sick, and no one being tor any C(m- 
siderable part of the time witii me, i had not learne either to 
understand, or make inys( If understood ; but as I was now some 
better, an ' able (d'len to walk about, when a second letter came, 
I could imderslaud from it, thut my brotlier Edward, whose name 

^■1 < 




H w ) 






W ! 




tanner's NARRA'iln;. 

i- i 

r-i '^ 

I had never forgotten, had gone to Red River to search lor me. 
Also, that one of my uncles, who lived one hundred miles distant, 
had sent for me to come to him. 

My greatest anxiety was now on account of my brother Ed- 
ward, and I immediately called for my horse, intending to return 
towards Red River and search for him. Twenty or thirty of tin: 
neighhuurs asseml)le(l around me when they heard that 1 wished 
to go back, and I could comprehend that they wished to dissimdo 
me from going. But when they found I was obstinate, they gave 
me each a little money : some one shilling, some two sliilliiig:>, 
and others larger sums, and I got upon my horse and started. I 
had rode about ten miles, when fatigue and sickness overcame 
me, and I was compelled to stop at the house of a man, whose 
Jiame, as f afterwards learned, was Morgan. Here I staid four 
days, and when I again called for my horse, the neighbours, as 
before, began to gather round me, and each to give me some- 
thing. One gave me some bread in a bag, another tied a youii" 
pig behind my saddle, and among them all, tliey furnished nw 
with a good outtit of ])rovisions, and some money. I wished tii 
return to Detroit; but as I was still very weak, Mr. Morgan uc- 
com|)anied me to (Jincinnati. 1 had found that it made me sick 
to sleep in a house, aiul on this journey I constantly refused to do 
so. Mr. Morgan would sleep in the houses where we stopped at 
night, but I chose a siood place outside, where I lay down and 
slept, and I found the advantage of doing so, by the partial re- 
covery of my health. After Mr. Morgan returned from Cincin- 
'"nati, I travelled on alone, and was before long destitute of pro- 
visions. About this time, an old man who was standing by tlir 
door of his house, when lie saw me, called out stop ! come ! I 
could understand no more than these two words, but I knew t'rom 
the expression of his countenance, and his manner, that his design 
was friendly, and accordinsily went into his yard. He took uiv 
horse and jjave him |)lenty of corn, and I accompanied him into 
the house, where, tlioui>li they placed lood before me, I could not 
eat. Seeing this, he gave me some nuts, a few of which I ate. 
When he saw that my horse had eaten, and I was impatient to 
start, he put on the saddle, and brought the horse. I oll'ered him 
money, but he would not take it. 

\ «lay or two afterwards. 1 stopped at a house witere I saw !\ 

ij. J 






for ine. 

j distant, 

)thov Ed- 
to rctdru 
rty of the 
I wished 
D cUrfsvuuhi 
they <fave 
I shillings 
itartod. I. 
lan, whoso 
staid four 
jhbours, as 
me somo- 
,ed a young 
rnislujd nie 
I wished to 
Morgan :u',- 
ade me sick 
•efiiriod to do 
c stoppPtl at 
,y down ami 
partial rc- 
roni Cincin- 
Uite of pro- 
iding- by tlir 
\ come '. 1 
I knew from 
ut hisilesiirn 
Ic took my 
it-il him into 
i, I could not 
Iwhifh I ate. 
limpatient to 
: offered him 

kiere I saw ;\ 

oveat quantity of corn lying in the yard. My hovHe was very- 
hungry, therefore I got down, and taking a dollar out of my 
pocket, I handed it to the man who stood there, and then I 
counted ten ears of corn, and took them and laid them before my 
liorse. I could not make the pt^ople comprehend that I was hun- 
gry ; at least they seemed determined not to understand me. I 
went into the house, and the woman looked displeased ; but see- 
ing there part of a loaf of corn bread, I pointed first to it, next to 
my moutli ; but as she appeared ni)t to understand my meaning, 
I took it in my liand and raised it to my mouth, as if I would eat 
it. Seeing tliis, she called to the man outside, and he coming in, 
took the bread from me, pushed me violently out of the house, 
then went and took the corn from my horse, and motioned to me to 
be gone. I came next to a large brick house, and hoping I might 
meet gentler treatment, I determined to try here. But as I was 
riding up, a very fat man came out and spoke to me in a loud 
and harsh tone of voice. Though I could not understand his 
words, his meaning, which I thought was very evident, was, as I 
supposed, to forbid my entering the yard. I was wilhng to pass 
on, and was about to do so, when he ran out and caught my 
horse by the bridle. He said much to me, of which I under* 
stood little or nothing. I thought I could comprehend that he 
was cursing me for an Indian. He took hold of my gun, and 
tried to wrench it out of my hand. I c since understood that 
lie kept a tavern, and was a magistrate ; but at that time I was 
sick, and hungry, and irritable, and when I found that he wanted 
to take my gun from me, I became angry ; and having in my 
hand a hickory stick, about as large as my thumb, and three or 
lb\jr feet long, I stiuck him over the head with it, so hearty a 
blow, that he immediately ([uitted his hold on my gun, and 1 rode 
off. Two young men, whose horses were standing by this house, 
and wh(> appeared to me to be travellers, soon overtook me, and 
we rode on together. 

This journey was a painful and unpleasant one to me. I 
travelled on, from day to day, weak, dispirited, and alone, meet- 
ing with little sympathy or attention from the people among 
whom 1 passed, often suffering from hui ger and from sickness. 
I was willing to sleej) in the woods, as 1 constantly did ; but it 
was not easy to kill any game, nor did the state of my health al> 










1 1 

low me to go far from the road to unt, I had ascended nearly 
to the head ol" tlie Big Miami, when ^' "'fht, after having of- 
fered a dollar to a fanner, and been drivv way without refresh- 
ment for myself or my horse, I lay dowi in the woods near by, 
and after I supposed them to be asleep, 1 took as much corn as 
was sufhcicnt to feed my horse. I iiad, some time in the course 
of the preceding day, bought a chicken for twenty-live cenis, a 
part of which 1 now ate, and llic next day 1 began to feel a little 
stronger- I had now arrived where the intervals between the 
settlements were very wide, and seeing a gang of hugs in the 
voods, I shot one, skinned him, and hung the meat on my sad- 
dle, so that I was, for some time, well supplied with provisions, 
^t the forks of the Miami of Lake Erie, was a trader with whom 
I was well acquainted, and who spoke Ottawwaw as well as I 
did ; but when I asktvl him for something for my horse, he told 
me to begone, as he would give me nothing, though he offered to 
sell me some corn for my bear meat, as he called the pork I had 
hanging at my saddle ; but I disliked him, and therefore went 
across the river to sleep in the woods. 

This night I was again taken very sick, and when in tin- 
morning I found that my horse had escaped and gone back, I 
was scarce able to follow him. When 1 arriveil at the river op- 
posite the trader's house, I saw the horse standing on the ollur 
side, and calling to the trader, I asked him to send or bring thi 
Jiorse over to me, as I was sick. When he replied that he would 
not, I asked him to bring me a canoe, as being sick myself, 1 did 
not wish to go into the water ; but this In; refused to do, and I 
was compelled to swim across. I took my horse and returned 
to my camp, but was too sick to travel forther that day. 

On the day after I resumed my journey, and had the good 
fortune to come to a house where the woman treated me kindly. 
She led my horse, and then ortired me some salt pork ; but as I 
could not eat this, I returned it to her. Then shi- brought iiic 
some fresh venison, and I took a shoulder of it. She made 
signs to me to sit down in the house ; but as I preferred the 
woods, I declined her offer, and selected near by a pleasant 
place to encamp, and there cooked the meat she had given inc. 
Before my supper was cooked, she sent a little boy to bring mf 
rfome bread, and .«onie fresh and sweet butter. 



hen iu the 
one back, I 
he river oy- 
>n the other 
or bring th*^ 
lat he would 
my self, I JW 
to (h), ii'"^ ^ 
anil returned 


lail the good 
,\ lue kiuilly. 
,vk ; b"t as I 
u. V>rought nic 
It. She madd 
Ipreterred the 
ly a pleasant 
|iad given inc. 
,y to bring taf 

banner's narbative, 

Next day my route was principally out of settlements. At 
rhe villafre of Ah-koo-nah-goo-zik,, [ would not stop, as I was aJ- 
peady under sufficient obligation to him, and I thought he would 
again urge me to take his horse. I had arrived within about one 
hundred ndles of Detroit, wlien I was airaiii taken very sick. 
Feeling wholly unabh* to travel, I (h'termined to take some 
euietic tartar, whieb 1 had carried for a long time about me, 
having received it from Dr. M'Liughliii, at Rainy Lake. Soon 
after I had taken it, rain begaii to fall, and as the weather was 
now somewhat cold, and 1 was unable to avoid getting wet, the 
cramp atfected me very violently. After the rain had ceased, 
the creek near which I was encamped froze over, but as 1 was 
suffering >mder a most violent fever, I broke the ice, and plunged 
nn self all over into the water, (n this situation I remained for 
some time, totally unable to travel, and almost without a hope 
of recovering. Two men passed me with the nuiih one of whom 
could speak a little Indian ; but they said they coulil do nothing 
for me, as they were com[)elled to proceed on their journey with- 
out loss of time. 

But at length, 1 was a^rain aide to travel, ami resumed my 
journey. [ was two days* journey from Detroit, when I met a 
man in the road, with a Sioux pipe in his hand whose strong rc- 
scmblace to my father inmc iliately arrested my attention. I en- 
deavoured to make him stop and take notice of me, but he <niVe 
)ne a hasty look, aiul passed on. When 1 arrived, two days af- 
terwards, at Detroit, I learned that this man was, as I supposed, 
uiy brother ; but the governor would not allow mc to return after 
him. as he knew that my havinjj passed towards Detroit would 
be known at the Indian traders' houses on the way, and that my 
brother, who would incniireat all of them, would very soon hear 
of me, and return. His opinion appeared to have been well 
foimded, for about three days afterwards my brother arrived. 
He held me a lonsj time in his arms ; but on account of my igno- 
rance of the Rnglish lanjruaire, we were unable lo speak to each 
other, except throuirh an interpreter. He next cut off my long 
hair, on which, till this time, I had worn strings of broaches, in 
the manner of the Indians. We visited (Jov. Cass together, and 
he expressed much satisfaction at my having laid aside the In- 
dinn costume. But the dress of a white man was extremely on- 





i'omfortable to nic, so that I was, from time to time, compelled to 
resume my old dress for the sake of convenience. 

I endeavoured to persuade my brother, with whom I still con- 
versed through an interpreter, to accompany me to my residence 
at the Laiie of tlie Woods ; but to this he would by no means 
consent, insisliiiji that 1 must ^o with him to his house, beyond 
the Mississippi, and we set oft' together accordingly. From the 
military connnandant at Fort Wayne, we received much friendly 
attention, and our journey was, in the main, a pleasant one. For- 
ty days brought us to the Mississij)pi, iifteen miles above New 
Madrid, wliere my brother resiiled. Another of my brother's 
lived near by, and they botli accompanied me to Jackson, fifteen 
miles from Cape (iirardeau, where two of my sisters were living, 
From this place we started, six or seven in number, to go in 
Kentucky; and crossing the Mississippi, a little above Cape Gi- 
rardeau, we went by the way of (iolcouda, on the Ohio, to Ken- 
tucky, where many of my relatives lived, not far from the small 
villages called Salem and Princeton. 

?Iy sister Lucy had, the night before my arrival, dreamed that 
-she saw me coming thnnigh the corn field thpt surrounded her 
house. She had ten children. Relatives, friends, and neigli- 
Jjours, crowded around to witness my meeting with my sister.^, 
and though we could converse together but little, they, and 
most of those who assembled about us, shed many tears. On 
the Sabbath day after my arrival, greater numbers than usual 
came to tny sister's house, and divine worship was performed 
there. My brother-in-law, Jeremiah Rukker, entleavoured to 
find in my father's will some provision for me. He took me to 
the court at Princeton, and showed me to the peo|)le there ; but 
nothing could be accomplished. My step-mother, who lived 
near by. gave me one hundred and thirty-seven dollars. 

I went, accompanied by seven of my relatives, some men. 
some women, to Scottsville, where I had an uncle, who had sent 
for me. Here the people collected and gave me one hundred 
dollars, and on my return. Col. Kwing, of Hopkinsviile, raised, 
in about one hour that I remained with him, one hundred dollars 
more, which he gave me. This gentleman showed me very dis- 
tinguished attention and kindness, and remains, to this day. a 
•^ordikl and active friend to mc. 




pelleil Id 

still con- 
10 means 
3, beyond 
From the 
h friendly 
one. For- 
bore New 
f brother's 
son, fifteen 
irere living. 
r, to go to 
re Cape Gi- 
lio, to Ken- 
m the small 

[reamed that 
rounded her 
, and nei},di- 
^ my sister-. 
they, and 
tears. On 
than usual 
iivoured to 
took me to 
> there; but 
who lived 


some men, 

who had sent 

one hundred 

sville, raised, 

indred dollars 

me very dis- 

Ito this day. ^ 

From llopliinsville I returned to the house of my step-mother, 
where I nuule my preparations to jio to tlie Lake of llie Woods. 
Part of my relatives, who had accompanied me from beyond the 
Mississippi, had returned to their own homes ; but my brother 
and his wife stayed to travel with me. From my brother F.d- 
wurd's house, near New Madrid, 1 went aj^ain to Jaikson, where 
I was taken sick. My stock of money had now increased, 
through the voluntary dDiialions of those friendly and charitable 
people anions whom I had passed, to live hundred thdlars, and, 
this being all in silver, world, my brotlier tliought, be the means 
of exposing me to danger, and l)ringinir me into didiculty, should 
I travel by myself; he, therefore, rel'used to leave me. 

From Jackson we went together to St. Louis, where we saw 
Gov. Clark, who had already given much assistance to niy brother 
in his journeys in search of mv. lie received us with grent kind- 
ness, and odi-red us whatever fissistance we niiiiht think neces- 
sary III accomplishing the ohject 1 now had in cw, which was, 
1o bring my family from the Indian country. My brother wished 
to accompany me, and to take a considerable number of men. lo 
:iid, if it shoidd l)e necessary, in taking my children froi, the 
Indians; but I went one day to (Jov. Clark, by myself, and told 
him he must not listen to my brother, who knew little of the 
country I was going to visit, or of wliat was needful to mv suc- 
cess in the altem|)t to bring out my family. In truth, I :ul lot 
wish my brother, or any other white man, to accompany n.e, as f 
knew he could not submit to all the hardships of the journey, 
and live as I should be compelled to live, in an Indian lodge, all 
winter. Furthermore, I was aware that he would be rather an 
incumbrance than any help to me. tiov. Clark wished tf send 
nie to tlie Lake of the Woods by way of the Upper Mishissippi; 
but I was not willing to go that way, on account of the Kioux, 
through whose country I must pass. He gave me a Mackinac 
boat, large enough to carry sixty men, with a sufficient crew, 
three barrels of flour, two of hard bread, guns, tents, axes, &c. 
&c. Having prevailed on my brother to refrn, I set oil". The 
current of the Mississippi, below the Misaonn vioon convinced 
me that my larue and heavy boat was not well adaj)ted to the 
nature of my undertaking, and at Portag«^ De Sioux 1 left if. 


*^ i 

..« A ■■rtf^-r. 

'm .. 

.'1,1 >■ ,.t.i 



^ i 

•M 1 

1 ' 

mi" II Mil '•! 

V ■ .' ; / 

From tfiis place I procrodtMl in a winall ranor, with two men, fy 
tlu; licad of the Illinois Hivcr, llicnro to ("liikatio. 

I had a letter Croin («ov. Clark to Mr. M'Kenzie, the Indian 
sment at ilial {»laee, and as lliere was no vessid ahont to sail Hir 
Maekinac, lie lilted onl a hark cantu', with a crew of Indians, tci 
lak«i nu' on n\y jonrney ; hut the Indians st()|)ped lo drink seve- 
ral days, anil, in (lie niean lime, a vessel arrived, in whieli [ 
Hailed oti her return. I had waited ten days at Mackinac, when 
C'a|)t. Kn;i|)|>, <>[' the re\enue cutler, ollered nu' a |)iissaire to 
Driiininoiiii'r- Island. Here Dr. Mil(iiell, and the Indian aucni. 
<!ol. Aiuleisoii, treated me in a \eiy Iriendly manner, until the 
hUler liMil an i>|)|MtrlMnity to send me to the Saiit Dv Si. Mario. 

At the Sam I remained iwo <n' three months, as (;<d. Dickson. 
M'ho was there, would not alliivv me to <ro up Lake Superior in 
(he iNorth West (*i)nipan\'s vessel, which went and returned 
three linns while I \\a~ iletaine<l uaitintr lor him. At last. In 
\\as ready to start, and I went on hoard his hnat. We w«'re no 
so(mer out l'i<nn shore, than he handed me an oar. and thon:ili 
my health was very poor, ho loinpelled me to row as lonu a-: I 
was aide to set up. Iiein&) at last ipnte disahled, ho lot't me on 
sliore, at a spot twenty miles ahove l'\)rl William, where wi 
tbmid Mr. (iiarson, who was there to take care ol" some propert} 
tor the Hudson's l<;i\ pei pie. I was much dissatisli<<d with tin 
treatment I ri'c<ixed Iroin ('(d. Dicksmi. and at partiiiir I loM 
liim, that notwitlisiandinL! lie leCt mo so liir (Vom (he end of iii\ 
joiirnev, I would still reach Me-naw-/he-Iau-naun!i helore him. 
.\ll mv liairiiajre I led in the care o( Mr. tiiarsim, and wt'n( on in 
a small ( anoe. w illi one old Kietichman, w Imm I hired, and havii 
^ood link to cross thr lake, I ,irri\ed helore him. 

Mv tiimily were all well. Next day, -ome one tuld ine i|i;ii 
the red heailed t'.n!.'li-hmau. as thev called Col. Dickson, was 
eoiiiiu!.' up to my lodi<o. I (old him, withoiil iroinu ou(, (ha( In 
need not <'oiiie in. " Von liinl me here in my loiliie." said i, 
"tliouuh \ oil ahandoned me on (he lake shore, when verv fir (Vom 
my home, or fnnn any place wliere I coiild have oxpeelodio (InrI 
help; hilt my lodifo in not lit for such uh you, tlioreforo I lio|ie 
yon will n i( ccnie in." f knew lie wished (o nsk mo for some 
thinv; tu ohI, hut I wax deicniiinrd not to t*oo him. or i;ivc him 


V V 

IAN'VER':* naukativl. 


men, Cu 

10 liitVum 
I sail li)r 
idians, t(i 
rink si-vc- 
i \vhi<l> I 

)iissatft' to 
liaii airi'Ul. 
I-. uniil llic 
1. Mario. 
,1. DicUsiiii. 
Sii|H'ri<)r ill 
„| ifiunnil 

At la^«' •" 
\Vr wen- iiu 

anil lli">m'i 
as lonif "■* ' 
„. lot! »»•• oil 
I. wlicri' \\i 
|.,„o |)roi>fily 

hmI w i»l> >1" 
.,,.,, im I t"lil 
,. , ml of iin 

1,1 r.irr liiiii. 

,1 Willi on ill 

inld mt' 'li:" 
>i(|,-<.ni, \v;i« 

L ,.ul. tliK' '" 
L,.." saiil I. 
Imiv Oh- 
|„.,.|,.<h.> liii'l 
111. ire 1 li"l"' 
line f'»'" '«'i'"' 
or i{ivc him 

any thing. He left our villatre, ami went by tlu- Iniliaiis' road to 
Red Hiver, tliouirh, as the walir was uniisimlly low. we licaid ho 
had a journey of exlrenu; dillienliy, and had nearly perished of 
hunjfer. There was, on the way, an enilosed luiryiny; ground, 
where one of my hrother's-in-law, a tiauuhter of Oto-jmn-ne-be, 
and others of my friends and acijuaintanees, had be<>n linried. 
Many ol (lu'se jriaves wire well eovered, Init (id. Dit kson broke 
down the |)ailin!rs, and destroyed the htlle houses that had btiMk 
raised ovt-r 'he jiraves; at whith ((inrluii tin- Indians \\«ie niuili 
ollended. They threalmed to lake his lilt, and mii;ht liavedono 
so had an opportunity olleied ; he went to l\'iiii)inah. ihenee to 
Lake 'I'raverse, and relurm d no more iiilo tiie i:oiintry of the 

A few days after :ny arrival at Me-naw-zhe-lan-naunti, one of 
mv ehildren sickened and died of the measles, a eoinplaint nl that 
lime very fatal amonir the Indians. The oihers were subsc- 
(|uently attaeked, but 1 now knew i)elter how to take care of 
tiiein, and no more died. Soon alter this, provisions beeamo 
scar» e, an I I was, with Me-zhuk-ko-iiaim, niakiiiir preparations 
for a medieine hunt. In my dream i saw the same yount; '^i'*^" I 
]ind betorc seen on .-limilar oeeasions, eoine down in the usuni 
inaiiner, ant stand before me. lie reproved me with more than 
usual harsliness for my eoiii|ilaints, and iieeausc I rrird lor the 
cliild I had reeently lost. " lleiieelorth," said he, "you shall 
see me no more, and that whi< h remains before \ou, of your 
path, shall be full of briirs and thorns. It is on aeeoiint of the 
iiuiny erimes, and the Itad ecnidnet ol vcMirwifr, tiiat all y(Mii- 
(tnninu days are to be filled with Iroi.ble. Ni verlheless, as you 
liavi" ealled in< this linir. I uivi \ on soniethiiiir to cat." When 
lie said this, I looked and saw before iiu> many dueks covering; 
the surfaee of the waltr, and in another place a stiirirenn, in u 
third a raindeer. This dream was lidlilled, as Usual, at least as 
iinieli of it as related to in\ hunting and lis|iin<>. 

As the winter came on, I went to Ked Kiver to hunt bullhlor, 
and make dry meat, ami early in the spring; I started to eome to 
the slates. From my first wife I had parted ten years beforr" 
the time I now speak of; but the urueney o| ilie Indians, and. in 
[mrU ihu necesiiily ul' uiy Hiluatioii, iiad cuiupellrd lun lo lake 



I : 




tanner's NARRATIVt. 



\":! i 


another.* By tliis woman I liiul thrco children ; those by niy 
former wiff were not at present in the village. My wile rclusinc 
to accompany me, I took the three children and started without 
her. At Rainy Lake she overtook me, and agreed to accompa- 
iiy me to Mackinac. 

On niy way down, I was assisted hy the Noith Wes't Compa- 
ny. At Drunimoiid's Island ' was disappointed of large p -scnts 
given me when on my wav to (he Liike of the Woods, I)mI which, 
as I did not then wish to take, were promised me on my return. 
The cinnmandiiig otlicer who had shown me so much kindness, 
had heen relieved by another, of a very diflerent character, one 
who s('»'nipd to iiml tio satisfaction in doing any iliiiig for any 
person connected with the Indians. This man refused to see mc, 
or afl'ord me any assistance. By the kindness, however, of Mr. 
Enimtinucr, of the Saut l)e .St. Marie, 1 was enabled to reach 

Col. Boyd, the Indian agent at that time at Mackinac, called 
me to him* and wished to hire mc as a striker in his smith's 
shop ; but not liking the employment, I did not wish to remain. 
He gave me one hundred pnumls of flnnr, the same quantity ol 
pork, some whiskey, tobacco, Ac. There were two vessels 
about to sail for Cliikatro, but neither of them would take nic 
as a passenger, ihouuh i had money enouijh, and was willing Id 
pay them. As I had no other alternativ<', T was rompelled to 
pur<'hase from the Indian^ a poor and (dd biirk canoe, for which 
1 gave sixty ilollars, and I cnifaijed three Frenchmen to acconi- 

panv me ; but Col. B would not |)ernnt them to go. He 

gave me, however, a letter In Dr. Wolcolt, who was now Indian 
agent at Chikago, ami I -tarti d with onl\ one man to assist nic. 

At tlie (Utawwaw settlement of Waw-gtm-nuk-kiz-ze I stop- 
ped for a -"Imrt tirn*', ai\d fnidiui; ihat n y cinoe was t<'o trail 
and leaky to perform the voyage, I purchased another, a now 
one, for which I gave eighty d<dlars. Several of my ac(|uaiiit- 

* The piiinl'iil tii|iir of iloiiH-tiic iritulilcit, ;inil tho iniwonilurt of jursona rii'Hrly 
allii'il to him, m'i'iiisIo JK'llir onlv one on wliicli llitMiurrulor IiiimiioI s|M>kcn hii' 
cJeHriirhs. TlH'rc is, in rrlition to lhif« miIijci'I, somr wmil ot'dintiiictrifSD ; liulii 
is bcU«*v<Hl tliiK will not Im> iliciuirlit in .iiliti tin- rrt'ililuJitv of ttu- niin:iiivi>, iiuii- 
luucli iiM wr ilincoviT no ili-jmrtuni I'roui trulii, uiiIub» the bU|i|ir(!S8iou c<f some liici* 
'nn Iw con»iii«Tf(| •nirli 


, t 

*' 1 





by my 


. "sents 

i\ v/\\n'\h 
iv return. 
acter, one 
pr for any 
to see. mc, 
cr, of Mr. 
il to reach 

iiac, raUed 

his smith' r^ 
1 to remain. 

quantity ol 

two vessels 
,„h\ take me 

,s willinp; t" 

cmipelhMl to 

,e, for which 
11 to arconi- 
to }I0. Hr 
MOW IncVwii 
to assist mc. 
i/.-ze I stoiv 
was too frail 
,ther. a new 
my ttcipiaiii' 

^,f ,M rsons ni'Htly 
\,. u» luiivp,"'"'- 

■jnces union^ the Otawwaws, determined to unouipaiiy me, and 
started accordingly, eitrKf men in one canoe, and six in another, 
with some women. They went on with me until we arrived 
within one or two days' journey of ("hikuixo, when meeting 
iilliir ln(hans, with discourairing accounts of the state uf the 
water in the Illin<iis, ihey left me and went back. My wife re- 
turned with them. 

When I arrived at ("hika^ro, I was sick of a fever, and my pro- 
visions beiu^^ exiiiiuslerl, I was in ifrcat distress. 1 went to Dr. 
Wnlcott to present liim tlie letter from ('id. Hoyd, the Indian 
aijcnt at Mackinac, l)ut he would not receive it, nor take any 
notice of me. He km w well who I was, as he had seen me. 
when f passed Cliikatio Ik lore, and I could not tell why hr re- 
fused iiie assistance. I had nty tent set up at a little distance 
iroin his house, near a wild rice swamp, and lor several days, 
ilimiirh I was so much nnire unwell ilial I was scarce aide to sit 
up live minutes at a tini< , I sidisisted mv children liy shooting 
llic hiack hirils as tlu'j came ami settled on llu' rice. When I 
uas afram aide, with the aid of two sticks, to crawl to the houst; 
of Dr. Wolcott, I went to re|)reseril to him thai my «hildreu 
\uiein danuer of perishinn of hunger; hut he drove me harshly 
.iWiiy. When I left his door, i shed some tears, whieh it wa.s 
not connntm tor me to do : hut I was rendered womanish hy my 
sickness. Three or fmu' linus I (ainled. and lay lonir hy th«; 
road side, *m the way tVom his house to my tent. Hut my snf. 
icrin^s, and those ol ui\ children, were shortly afterwards re- 
ijrved hy a l-'renchman, who had heen to <'arry sonu- boats across 
lie I'ortaize. His wife wa^ an ()|il>heway woman, and eoninu)!!- 
h accompanied him when he went to take an\ boats across. 
Tliou^[h his horses were now nmch worn out with the lonij jonr- 
lay from which he had retinned, he atrreed to take me and my 
i;iiioe sixty miles, and if hi> hor»es eonlil Indd out, the wlioln 
(iMc hundred and lweut\, which was, at the present sta>i<' of wa- 
irr. the ien>{tli <if the Portaue, for which I aifreed to pay him 
agreeable to his di nuind, which I thonulil ver\ moih'rale. Ho 
lent me, also, a yoimu horse to ride, as I was far t»»o weak to 
think of walkini*, and he ihouuht I could ride on horseback much 
more conifortablv than in the carl with the canoe. Before wo 
irrivcd at the end of the eixlv mile^. he wos taken sick, and as 


A r 



there was now a liulc wator in tlie river, I conciniied to put my 
canoe in, and try to ilesrend in it. Ills yonufr Imrse, the niffht 
after I gave it up to him, was :Uoh'n by tlie Po-ta-wato-mies. 
He was seized with the bh)ody fhix, hut as he had a young man 
with him, 1 rendered him what assistance I couhi in starting, and 
let him go back. My Frenchman iiad deserted from me soon af- 
ter I h'ft Chikago, and I Iiad now nw person to assist me excej)! 
an ohi Indian, caHed <ios-so-kwaw-waw, (the smoker.)* We pui 
llie canoe in the water, but we couhi not get into it ourselves, 
only sometimes llie chihiren were put in, anri we took them 
down, one walking at the bow, the other at the stern of the ca- 
noe. We had proce«'ded no more than three iiiles, when I 
Ibund that this method was likely to prove so laborious and 
slow, that I thought best to encase a Po-ta-wat(i-mie, whom 1 
met there, and who agreed for a blanket and a p-'ir of leggins, to 
lake my baggatre and my children rm his horses (o the moiitli 
of the An-num-mun-ne Se-be, «ir Yellow Ochre River, a distance 
of sixty miles. The An-num-ninn-iie comes from towards tin 
Mississippi, and below it there is always, in the Illinois, wattr 
enough for canoes. I felt somewhat afraid to trust the Po-ia 
wato-inie wilh my children, and the bag^riij>e, which contained 
some valuable [)ropert\, but old (Jos-so-kwaw-waw was ol 
opinion that he would prove hcmest. When he put the childrcii 
on the horses, he said, '* In three days I shall be at the mouth w 
(he An-num-muii-iie River, and shall wail for you there." 

Without an\ farlhcr words, we parted, and the old Sntokci 
and myself coniiiiiUMi our laborious anil ditlicull route almig tlu 
bed of the Illinois. Most of the country, on both sides the route, 
from Chikago to the Yellow Ochre River, are prairie, in wliicli 
liorses and carls can be driven willio\it any diflicidtv. On our 
arrival at the place appointed, we found ihe Po-la-wat(»-inif 
there, and all safe. 

We now embarked ever) iliirii; together in the canoe, uiul wrnt 
down to Fort Clark, which is on a narrow neck of land, betworu 
two lakes, aiul is ihence called by Ihe Indians Ka-gali-guia- 
ming,t (ihe islhmns.) Here I lound some ac(|uaintances, (H 
rather those who rlaimeil relationship in consequence of thcii 

♦ SuKKUH-HWnw-wiiw — ihr .'^inuktr, in Ojibbowoy. 

f Ka-jfa/i-»um-mif>!r. oliiuNif watpr 

( . 


. 't 


;) put uiy 
he nijflit, 
jung man 
rtinu;, and 
le soon al- 
mc t'xrept 
)* Wt- pui 
took llieni 
, of Ibc fa- 
PS, when I 
l)orious anil 
ie, whom 1 
,f h'jigins, t(t 
, the moiitli 
r, a tlistanco 
towards thi 
Hinois, wattv 
isl the Po-lii 
eh contained 
kvaw wdA of 
t the ehihlrn, 
the mouth I" 

,. ohl Snuikci 
iiite uh)ntr tin 
,lfs the route. 
I vie, in wliifli 
uliy. On oui 

iiiop. autl w rm 
hiixl, hetweru 
iiaintunees, i>i 
luencc of tlicii 

lANNtU S NAUK.\1'1\ I.. 


having been in somo measure connected with iho lamiiy tliat T. 
belonged to among llie Indians. Here was a Taw-ga-we-nin-ne, 
a son of him that had been the husband of Net-no-kwa, and some 
of the relatives of one of my wives. One of ihes(\ :ia old woman, 
ffave nu! a sack of \Viskol)inun( nidi, or that sort of corn which is 
jilucked green, boiled, and tlien dri<'i). 'J'wo or three miles 
beyoni! this, as I went on my way, I saw a man standing on the 
bank, who, as I came opposite to him, called out, "my friend, do 
yon love venison .'" When I told liim I did, and had put my 
canoe in slu)re, he lifted a lartie and fi»t deer into it, saying, 
•'perhaps y(tu will like to eat some o'' this, which I have just now 
Icilled." He was goinji to turn away, when 1 called him hark, 
anil thonifh he refused any compen-^atiun for the deer, I irave him 
a little powder and shot, and some llinis, for which he appeared 
very thankful. 

About this tinu', when 1 was one day warm at work. 1 sliol a 
crane, and got into the water to lake it up. Shortly after I fell 
somewhat unwell, l>ut iu)t retlectinir on the cause of my illness. 1 
went again into the water to sret r<omethin<r I had shot, when im- 
mediately I fell down, and was unable to get up. Mv fever rr- 
iiirned upon me with such violenc*-, that being in immediate ex- 
pectation of death. I t;ave the Old Snu)ker directions to take my 
children to (io\crnor ("lark, who, I was conlident, wonid assist 
them in reaching my relatives. Uui contrary to my expectation. 
1 became gradually better, andalUT somi' days was ai)le to goon 
my journey. We jmssed great numbers of I'otawallomies, their 
lodges standing manv to'rither, in almost every bend of the river. 
Sonu' ol them siarud out in their canoes occasionally, and ac- 
companied me some distance on my way. One day a man came 
iinming from his lodge to the bank ol the river, and asked me 
who I was. When I had told him, be in<;nired if my children 
could eat h(UU'\ ; and w hen I tolil him I b< lirved they could, be 
sent two young men, each with a large wtntden l)owl lull, whicli 
ibey bromrht wading into tin water, and banded to me. 

In this manner 1 descended the Illinois Hiv<'i, killing plenty of 
sfanu', and bavinu at all times enouirb to eat ; my health, also, 
graduall\ inijiroving, until I came to St. I^onis. Here (iovernor 
<!|urk showed his wonted kindness, not only to ine and mvcliil- 
drfn, hut to the Old Snmkrr, who had been so oervieenbie to mr 


J: . 




f •; 


p % 



1^ w .1^ 

< f^k 

U,i ijfi, 



in my .jovirnr\ . Al'tnr irivinjr tlir old man a Iiandsoiur pvesoni, 
ho' provided (or }iis return to his own country, and dismissed lijin. 
J was detained loiifrer at St. Louis than I h;id wisheil, as new 
clothes were to he tna(U" for my rhildren. Some of these not 
havinir hccn etnnpieted in time for me to take with nie, the (In- 
vnrnur sent liien) afterwards to Keiitncky. rrom Si. Louis, [ 
■went to Capeliuirardeau, in my hirch l)ark canoe, having; a leilei 
from (Jovernor ("lark to the IndiaM iiiient at that place. 

At Cape (iuirardeau. wliere I lel't my canoe, and where I re- 
mained i)ut a very short time, I saw scnne of the frciitlemen nf 
Major Lonji's j)arty, then on their return from tlu' liocky Moiiu 
tains. This was in the fall of the y(ar li^'^O, and was alxmi .nir 
year a ;er mv lirst arrival on ihe Ohio, in i^^li). Frinn the tiiiic 
of my <apture hy Manito-o-j:rezhik aiid (iish-kaw-ko, just iliirt\ 
years liud ela|)- d, lieforc f siartiii in tin' sprintr ot IHI9, Inun thf 
Lak<> of the Woods. So that it inusi iiave heen in the spriny: <M 
the year !7*^'.>. that i was taken prisoner. I am now forty-seven 
years idd. 

Four months I remained with my sisters at .fackson, fiftern 
miles from ('ape (Juirardeau ; then I went t(» Kentuckv, and tin 
m^xt fall I retin'ued to St. Lotiis, to see (Jovernor ("lark; hnt In' 
was not at home, and as many |)eopl«' uere then dvinsr in Si. 
Louis of fevers, 1 made tun a short sia\. t)n my 'Aa\ home, I 
Jell siek of a violent fever at the (Jrand I'rairie, which is cinhh 
miles from the place wher*- I had left mychihiren. FortunatiK 
I tell into the hands ol a woman who trcat'd me \\ilh inncli li<i- 
manitv and kindm-ss, and i soon heiran to reenvir. I now hean! 
that my children were dyiuif with the fever which prevailed sn 
•renerally thnnijrhont the coimtry, and notwilhstandinir mv own 
iniserahle and dehilitnted eondiliim, I hastened home. Onh mio 
of my children died. The othe.s, tiiouirh very sick, at last ir 
covered. Hut I was not alone in this aliliciion. Seven died oiit 
of the eirclf of my near relatives, with whom I then lived, amliiii 
alarmiiur nuutality prevailed throuirh(mt that part of the state. 

On the eiisuinir sprin":, an attempt was made to recover sonu- 
lliinir for my heiielit. from the estate of m\ talher: hut my step- 
mother sent several of the m'uroes, which it was thouuht mi lit 
fall to me, to the island of (^uha. where thev were stdd. Tlii- 




V ^. : 





ssoil him. 
\, as new 
tlit'si' not 

0, tllf tiu- 

1. liiHiis, I 
ing 11 liiViei 



Jivisinoss is yet. unsettled, and iTiiiaiiis in the lianils oC the 

In the sprinjr of 1822, I started to tin a^ in t(» the north, not 
findinif lliat I \ias ((Miteril aniDnu my tViends in Kenlueivy. I went 
iiy the way of ihe (irand Prairie, and haviiiif irivrn rnv eaiioe to 
)ii\' hrutlicr. I look horses, ami pultinir ni\ ehiidren iin iheui. I 
eaine to !Sl. Louis, ihenee hy way of the llhiuiis, lowarils Clii- 

The Indian anient for F<>rt ('iarl\ liv(>d at tliis time at a jjhice 
ealh'd 1,1k Heart. s(inie distance lieiuw. Jle. as well as most of 
the j)i ii|ih! on this route, had heen kind, and had shmvn a dispo- 
sition to as.^isl me whenever I nci'ded any ihini:. On tliis joiir- 
uey I sloppvd at i Ik Heart, at the hou-e of tlie a-j-ent, and thou^ili 
he was not himsc ll at home. I liad my liorses l\'{\. and was sup- 
plied with what relVeshment I ne<'ded for myself and ehiidren. 
iVee of expense. On the lollowinii day, I met the airenl on his 
way dome from Foi . »'lark.nnd told him nf the reeeption i had 
met at his hou.-e in his alisenee. lli- was tflad to liear of tliis. 
and he tol-i me tliat I shouhl soon eoni<' to a had river to cross ■ 
*• hut," said he, '* there is a hoat now (m this side, in which I have 
Vist crossed. The man to whom it lKdon«is, lives on the other 
>ide. Y(ni must use the hoat to cross, and then tell him to lakf 
it around to the other river, which is heyond his house, and hcl() 
vou to cross that, and \ will pay him for his trouhle." We crossed 
accordiiiifls, hut my daiisrhtt-r Martha heinn m»w sick, we stopped 
all day near the house of the man to whom the canoe helonjred. 
i had one very handsome horse, whicli had hi"n ijiven me hy my 
hrolher, and which this man said he was determined to have from 
me. He tdl'ered to hiiy it: hut I Itdd him the horse was iieces- 
sary '<> niy journey, and I coidd hy no nn'aiis part w ilh it. Still 
he insisted, and said, unless I would let him have the hor>e, [ 
should not have his ranoe to cros^, the oilnr rixer. He cursed 
and ahused me, hut all the means he could use, did not induce me 
to yi\c up the horse. The canoe had l.itM laktMi arotntd to the 
iiv«'r I had to cross, for the use ol' some other person, and wheit 
I was ready to no I started, (•xpeclinii; lo fnid il there, lint nw my 
way to the ferrv , I met tin" man <m horsehaek, who said lo me, 
•' i havt taken awa\ the canoe, atid \oii cannot <'ross," Without 
vc'iardina this, 1 went on. and wiien i arrived, 1 found the cnnno 


, I 

I' (■■ 


■f I. 


' ' i 




was iiiclecil gone, and thai then" wore no loijs, or othrr niatcriaN 
to niai-yaralt. Frarini^ to t'U(lan!<t'r llic children, liy s\viiiiuiin<; 
them across on the horse's backs, [ sioorl fcr some time in (lonlit 
what to do. At last 1 rccoUccted, that if lie had hid the canor. 
as was tnosl |)roi)ably the case, his track wo(dd h-ad nic tu it. 
Tliun iroini; Itack to the road, a ooiisidoraldc disiaace Iroin tin 
river, 1 I'onnd his track cuniiritr into it. This i luiiovvcd, until I 
found the caiKic hid in ihick hii-hcs, ahout a mile hclnw the i'crrv, 
Takiiio- it up to the cn.-sinir |)lace, I carried my children, and led 
the horses over; then irivinir ihi' canoe a j)u«-li into the str»'ani. 1 
said to it, " ifo, and stay where your master hides yon." 

At Chika-fti, I was comixdied to sell inv horses (or nnndi less 
than tiieir value, to ('a[)taiti Hradh>y and a Mr. Kenzie, who wa* 
then ajreiit in place oC Dr. Wolcnil, as they 'old me I conld iioi 
gel them taken t(» iVIackinac. Oncfdd horv.'. wlii:h I IctY as ix in;: 
of little or no value, I afterwards received lifieen dollars for, from 
sotnc (jfcntiemen who wish > make use ol' him, hut \vhr> niiahi 
hav(! had him tor noihiiiix. \Vhen (-"a|»lain Keith, in the schoo- 
ner Jackson, arrived, he told me, on seein;r the paper jriven iik 
by (iovernor Clark, (hat lie would hav<' taken my horses to Mack 
inac for nolhinir; but it was iiuw ton late, as they were sold, 

A ])riiici|)al partof inv desitrii in retiirninjr to Mackinac, waste 
fUiratre m\ self to Col. Hoyd, the Indian aLniil there, as an inter- 
preter; he havinj) very often expressed a wish that I shoidd dc 
.so, whenever I had acipnreil such a knowlediie ol' the Kn-ilish Ian 
ffua^e, us would fiualify me to dis<diarire ihe dinies of ihal stu 
tion. It was now. therefore, a dis.'ippidntment to nu'. to be in 
formed that I had come too late, an interpreter havinir recrulh 
been hired to till the |)Iace. He iiifdrnu'd me, however, that ai 
ageni to be statiom-d at ihe .Saut Jle St. Mary, woidd probaliK 
arrive in the steam l)oal which was expected iinmediahdv, iind 
Col. Iloyd thoiiirhl i miiilit nbtain tin- situation of interpreter for 
Iiim. When Mr. Schoidcrafi, the ircntleman e\-))ecte 1, arrived 
at Mackinac, he r»'adily a<ce|>ieil my proposal. Hiil as he wav 
to stay but an Innn- (m* two nu (he inland, he direrted me to make 
my pre|)aratiiins and follow him, allowing me four davs after his 
arrival at the .Saut, before it was nec«'ssarv for me to be there. 
I made my [)rep nations accordini,dy, and was nearly ready to 
start, when a letter ranie from Mr. Schoolrrnft. stating that hf 


, ( 




(' U> il- 

vinlil I 
10 iVrvy. 
, ami U'tl 
Uram. I 



Imd loiuitl an interpreter at the 8aul, anil tlieroforc iliil not wish 
jue to juin iiiin. 1 carried buck to the traders ihc luriiiture and 
other articles which i had purchased with the expectation ot' re- 
siding at the aJaut, and they villiiigly restored me my money. 


rraiiiactioiisol ilic aftcnla iiml clerks of tho Aiuprican Fur C'oinpniiy, in ihc counlry 
alM)Ul ilif Lille of the Wmxls — trcaclicr\ of tin Imliaii woman — i:iislbrtuai'K at 
trndunt on an.ittoni)it to liriiii; iny cliililrcn from tlu- Iiuliart romitry. 

Being now destitute of empK>yment, I engaijed to Mr. Stewart, 
the agfent of tlie American Fur Company, to go with the traders 
into the Indian country. This I preferred to remainiii<r with the 
Indian ajreiit, thouf^h he a^ain proposed to hire me for a striker 
in his smith's shoji. For my services with the people of the. 
American Fur ('ompany, 1 was to receive two iiundred ami 
twenty-five doUars per year, and a suit of ciotlies. 

My children I placed at school at Mackinac, and went to the 
Saiit He St. Marie with Mr. Morrison, one of the <onipanyV 
prii\cipal clerks. Thence they sent me, in a boat, with some 
Frenchmen, to Fond |)u Lac. I was unacipiainlcfl with the man- 
ners of these people, and should have sutlered, and perli;ips pe- 
rished for want of jirovisions, had I not |)iirchased sume oc<'u- 
.-it>nallv from the crew. From Fom<I Du Lac I went to Rainv 
Lake with Mr. Cote ; !)ut my iijnorance of the business ja whi< (i 
1 had embarked, exposed me to much inconvenience. I had still 
-ome of my (raps with me, witli which I took a consideral)lc 
iiuml)er of musk rats on tills journey, ami I was init less surprised 
than dis|)leased, to be told that the >kins did not belonj^ to me. 
IJut f was not only compellerl to jiive these up: I was made to pad- 
tile by myself (1 canoe, heavily loaded with wild rice, and to sub- 
mit to variotis other laborious employments, which I <Iid very 

When we arrived at Rainy Lake, I went to hunt, but killed 
nothine. Soon afterwards, they sent nic to the rapids of Kniny 



.'.> I 


.'■ ', 




Lakf River; iiml before llie ice liad I'orimul so as» to put an end 
to the fishing, I had taken om? hiiiidreil and tiCiy sitirijcdns. Tho 
winter had now comnienrcd, and Mr. (Unv sent mv, with one 
clerk, tour Frenchnuii, and a small ouUit of jrirnds, ii|ual to one 
hundred and sixiy dollars in value, to tradi' anicinu; the Indians. 
We were furnislied with no other food than wild rice, at the rat* 
of ei^rliieen (|iiarts |)er man, and insiructcd not to return until wo 
should have exchanjrcd for [xdtries all our {roods. As I knew wo 
slioidd l)r compelled to travel far before we found the Indians, I 
requested <d' Mr. Cote |)ermissiun to remain w Idle I could |)re|)are 
a train and harness for two good dogs which belonged to me ; 
also snow shoes for ourselves, but he would not hear of a mo- 
ment's delay. 

Four days alter we started, a heavy snow fell, and our wild 
rice being all e\|)endiii, the <derk and three of the Krciwhmen 
left me and returned to the P'ort. There was now only myself 
and one Frenchman named V<'iage, who houever was a hurdy, 
|)ati«iil, and most exct llent nnm, and we struggleil through tlu: 
snow with oin- hea\ \ I. ..ids as \ve might. 

After sonu- days, ami when we were extremely reduced through 
uani of provisions, we found some lodges of Indians, but they 
also were in a starving condition. With these I left Veiaije, ami 
with a few goods, went to visit another encampment at some dis- 
tance; these also I found perishing of himger. On my return to 
the place where I had left my companion, the lodtres were re- 
moved, and no person remained. Here my strength failed en 
tirely, and I sat down expectini; to perish, as the niiiht waN very 
cold; but an Imlian who had < ome ba(k to look at his traps, 
found me, made a lire, and after he had raised me up, assisted uk 
to his lodge. He had taken one beaver, and (his was now to Ik 
divided ammig twenty persons, not one of whom had eaten a 
mouthful in two days, and all ucre in a starvini< condnioji. 

Soon after this, ;is I continued on my journey according to nu 
strength, 1 loinid the lodge of my friend Oto-pun-ne-be, the man 
who had taken my pat I in the alliiir with VVaw-bebe-nai.s-sa. 
His wife began to cry when she saw the ( \irenie misery of my 
condition, s(t much was I reduced and chanired in a])|)earanro 
by hun;ii'r ami fatigue. About this lime eisfht starving French- 
men cuine upon us, who had been sent by Mr. i'uic, he suppn 


/ rt 


TANM::U ;> NAUKAltV i.. 


Miig lliat I liad loiinti liiiflTalor, itml iniisi liy ilii-, umc liave nuai 
ill groilt abiiiidaiuT. One (il my <loirs ilicil, iiiid \\v ate him. We 
were travcllinjr on tlio old trail of llio Indians, but a deep snow 
liad fallen since they passed. Under lids snow we found several 
lead doirs, and other lliiiiifs llir(»\vu auay or left !>v the iudiaus, 
such as bones, worn out moccasins, and |)ieces of leather. With 
these we were able to sustain lil'i'. We killctl also, and ale m\ 
l;ist dojr ; bill we had yet a long distuiico to travel before we 
could reach the bulliiloe, and a< we W(!re all rajiidly failinix, wo 
consulted together, and determined to kill one of the Fur Com- 
pany's dogs. Wc did so, and this enabled us to reach the buHii- 
loe, when our distress was for the present at an i^iu\. 

After I had killed many buflidoes, and meat had for some 
uiiie been jilenty in our camp, the Krenchmeii became lazy and 
insolent, and refused to l^) for im at, to carry | ks, or render me 
;ii\y assistance wlintever. When we were ready to return to the 
tradinir lumse, every one of these men refused to take any load 
init his own blanket and |)rovi^ions, excejit Veiaife. and u'ith him 
1 divided our peltries, which in all weiirlied six luinrlred pound'-. 
\Vp were of course a considerable time in carryin<r liicsc heavy 
Iliads to the Fort. 

Vlieii I arrived, I accounted for my whole outfit: ha\in<r the 
peltries I had pun based in exchan^ie for every artiile, except 
>iime powder and shot, which we had ourselves expemled in 
!imitin]ff. The price of this was tleducted from my pay, in my 
linal settlement with the aj^ent of the American Fur flompany ; 
ihcii ten dollars, the price .tfthe doo we had killed in the extre- 
mity of our hunger, ami which had i)een t tie means of saving, 
!!0t my life only, but that of the nine Frenchmen that were 
with me. FJut Mr. ("otc <Iid not consider my return* a good one, 
md complained of me for Iiavin<r refused to take whiskey with 
iiiv (lutlit. I told him tiiat it I had taken w hi-:key, I could cer- 
tainly have obtained a much greater tpiaiitil\ id' peltries, but I 
wasuverseto tradinur with the Indians when intoxicated, and did 
not wish to be one, on any occasion, to introduce whiskey 
among them. But a'j he had determined on sending me out 

• Tills word, in the langimfiP of Ihc fur trailers si^^nilics not the coniiiie back of 
iliiilcrk or iKTsoiisfiit out Imt llir iK'ilries iiri|uir(<l liy llic outlit, and tt fMjtjdlv 
'•>h\ if ilif iniilor never rcliirn.s in juthui Icj Iur cin]>lovi r 





I i 




• I; ( «t 

t \ 

again, nnti iiisistod [ should tiikr wliiski-) , I told him I Wouhl lur 
once, conform ciilirpiy !•> his iiislnictions. which wav "tousr 
overy method to proriin; the jrrt';»'vsJ f: s'sildr (jiiimlity uf skins, 
at theh)U('st price." 'I'his time I ^wn. tjo ttii' foiiiitry about tlie 
Lake of the Woods, ;ind with an ov; : • vaKuil U two huudrcil 
Hollars, I purchased, by means of whiskt^y, more than double tlie 
anionnl of peltries I had iiefore brotiuhl in. J^av Mr. Cole cx- 
presst'd the hiirjiest satisfaction at my success; but I told hiai. ji 
he Mishcd to have his jroods s(dd in that way, he must eniplov 
.«oine otluT |)erson, as I could not consent to l)e the instrunicnt 
ef such fraud and injuslice. I had !)een so lonu anioiifj the In- 
dians, that many of tlieiii were personally my friends, and ha\ inir 
ween the exti'iit of the mischiefs occasioned l)y tlie introduction 
of intoxicating li(piors, I liad become desir(Uis of preventin<f it. a-j 
far as in my power, at least; I was not willinir to he myself active 
in spreading such poison amonji them ; nor was I willing to ii>i 
the advantage, their unconquerable appetite for spirits might uivr 
me, in bargaining \\ ilh them, as i knew, that llnnigh they niiirh' 
easily be defrauded, any fraud thus practised must be known i.i 
them, and they would feel resentment and dislike, in proportion 
as they were made to suller; more particularly against me, whom 
they looked upon as one of their own number. 

I remained lifteen months in l)ie American Fur Company'- 
employ, during all which time, I sle|)t oidy thirteen nights in iln' 
house, .so active and laborious were my occupations. It had bctn 
an iti'in in mv ajrreement with Mr. Stewart, that I should bi; al- 
lowed to go to lied Itiver to .see n\y chilihen, and make ana- 
tempt to bring them out with me. Accordingly, when the tradir^ 
were about to make their yearly visit to Mackinac, I was alloweil 
to go by myself; but having been disappointed of moccasins and 
other articles that liad been proiiiis(>d me by Mr. Cote, 1 suHlreii 
much inc«>nvenience, travellinj;as I did !)> myself in a small canoe. 
My children were three in inimber, two daughters and one son. 
and had been a long time separated from me, even before I tir?: 
left tlie Indian country. 

Mr. Clark, of the Hudson's Hay Company, who was now sla 
lioned at Red Fliver. and to whom I had a letter, refused to uiv 
me any assistance in recovering my children. In the mornini;. 
when I arrived there, I had left my blanket in his, expcc • 


:\v 0-. 


Llio was now sla 
|r. rol'iisea to L'iv | 
In the mornins;- 
Lis house, exi)e«- 



iDL'. al Icasi. liml 1 slmulil sltTji tlicri' ; liiit wliou at the approacia 
oi iiiirlit I was altoul to jjo in, he sent tin- lilaiiktt (iiit to nii 
(•'i"m tlin iiianiicr in uhicli this was lionc. 1 knew if I went iii 
jcr;iiii. it would only he to he drivfii out, ami I wt-iit inimctliatrl)- 
tn sflcct a placi' to sU'c|) in tju- woods at a liltic (listaiicf. liul 
Ml. Hrucr, lite interprt'lor wlunn I liavi' het'orc iiuntioiird, saw 
mi', and calliiii^ nu into his liiiluc, iiuilni me (o remain, and 
while 1 liid so, treated nie in the most iVieiullv and liospiuihle 
iiianner. Knowing that I had no reason to expect any assistance 
I'roin Mr. Clark, v, ho was soon to leave the eountry, I went to 
('a|)lnin hiilt^cr, ilu' military ronuiiandant, to stale my biisincHs, 
:iii(I received from him a nuist attentive and tViendly liearini^. 
Iiiunediately on my calliiiix l<* ^^K' hinu he a-^ked mv where 1 had 
sji jtt. as he knew ihat I had arrived the <lay helore. When he 
liiard lliat I had l>een refused a lodjjinii in the tradiiif^ house, he 
invited me to eoine and eat with him, and sloop in his honso as 
Idiiir as I slioidd remain there. Me knew of my business to the 
riniiilry, and a.-.ked me if 1 eotdil tell where my children were. 
I liad uscorlained that they were vvitli iho Indians about tlie 
Cnirie Poriajic. 

Some Indians aliout the Fort, told mo tliat those of the band 
vith vvhont my childrou were, had heard of my arrival, and wore 
•ictrrmined to kill me if I slwndd attempt to take nty cliihlron 
from them. Nevertheless, I visited that band as soon as I oouUi 
make the journoy, and went into the h)dt;o of tho principal chief, 
wlio treated luv kindly. I remained some time, always staying 
II ihe lodge with my children, who appeared pleased to see me; 
liiit I easily discovered that it was by no nu-ans tho intention of 
;!ir Indians to siilVer me to take them away. (iiah-<ro-wa-go-mo, 
Jic man who had lon<f bofor<' stolen away my son. and whom I 
!ia(l been compelled to beat, as well as to kill his horse, now 
treated mo with some insolence, and threatened even to lako my 
iilp. I said to him, " if yon had been a man, yon would have 
killed nto lonuf a^o, instead of now threateninir mo. I have no 
uar of you." But beinu entirely alone, I coidd accomplish no 
more at present, than to induce the band to remove, and encamp 
mar the fort al iled liiver. This was a considorablo journey, 
and on all of it, my children and myself wore made to carry heavy 
htirlhen?. and were treated like slaves. They did not indeed give 


fi. '^^ 



• f ; 






^, 1- 


// If 





a luad to car>'\, h\il tlirv were (arcliil >o liir to ovorloml 


thililiTii, thai wliri. I hail taken as imicli as I cdiild move iiiiilcr, 
tlicH' Merc licavv l(»a(ls In. '-ir ilicin. Aricrlhcy liad (•iicaiiipnl 
near llic toil. I asked tliem tor my eliildn ii. iuit llicy iitteily ir- 
I'uMcd to jrive lliem up. (Jiali-L'-c-wa-Lro-iiio uas the |triiiei|)ul man 
ulio was ai live in resisliiifr me. and with liiin tlie dispute hii,! 
Siroun lo so o|ten a t|narre!. lliat I was al>nin to proet ed lo vio- 
leiil measures, but I Ik tliiMijIit me tiiat I should do \vron<>; lu ii|. 
tempt to shed bhuxl uiihout niakinir my intention known t.< 

a plain 


er, ulio 


oxpresst'd so much iVicndly lee 

towards me. i went accordiuulv, and ndd him mv siiiiaiin 


aiul tliai I was now convinced I ctudd nol lake my cnildren with 
out ii-'mfi viidcut measurer- wilh (iiah-i>e-Ma-t;o-iii •. He approvci 

of mv 




mm w 

ha I 

was ahout lo d 

ami iinmei 


scnl Mr. Hrucr to call mv children into ihc lurt. 'ri\e\ camc;i.'. 
cordluiil',, ami stood helorc his house, i)iit will) tenor twelve!:] 
tiiuns accompany in:( ihem. and who were caretiil Id stand iii;i 
hy on each siile oi lliein. ilaxiiiir pointed out my children ; 
him, the captain direcled his scrv ar t lo leed ihem. Sometliiiii 
uns accoriliiiiily lirouiihl Irnin his own lahle, he havino just ilm 
rat<*n, ntid uiven lo ihem: hul the imlian> immedjalely -^iiahlin 
It away, hiuini!' them not a luoullilnl. A lual oi' hread was ihci 
?>rontfhl. Iiiit il went in the same way. not a particle ot it hcin. 
li'fl lo thiin. Captain Hidiicr now direcled a store house hi lir 

opencil. am 

) lol 

(1 me to uo m ami )rel Ihem -oim tluiiir in r..] 


I'indiii^Mln re simie hai.'- <>| pemtmcan, I look the liall o| ii;m 
ithout twenly pimmls. and makimr tlieiii sit ihtwii. ull purtdnj. 
• It' it. 

'I'lu- Indians refused the children lo the (h'luand of ('apt, Hul 
<rer, as ihey had done to me; hut next dav he called all the prin 
cijiiil men, and amont; others tiiah-iic-wa-iro-mo, to come aini 
cutim-jl with him. The chief man of the hand was very williii<' 
liuit I should take away the children, and when we all weiii inir 
ilu'ccnmcil room, he inok a seal with r'aplain Hulirer aiul my>rli, 
iherehy placing; the lour men who were primipailv active in ilr 
lainiiiiT tiieni, in the situaiioti ot persons who were Hciing in o|ifi\ 
c(»ntrnvenlion to Iuh wixlien. 

I'rPii'iilf to tlip amuiiiit ol' ubont on« imiidrrtl dollars in vnhir. 






orloail i\i\ 
lovc iiiiilcr, 

I turaiMpi'd 
iitWily n • 

'ni('i|)ul niiiii 
dispute liiiil 
[•I'l'tl l<» vio- 

III Umi>\\ii t ' 
iidly t"(Tlii\', 
nv sium>i<m. 
iiildrcn with- 
III- :i|ipriivni 

iiiiiiu'di 111 U 
'li.'N camt;!- 
(.I- iwtdvcln 

II slan'l WW 

IV rliildnii 1 

. SoliH'thini 

viiiu i"!*' 'I'll 
,tcl\ <na1(lnM 
nad was \\u\ 
lie til it liciii. 
•V \w\iM' <" III" 
tiling Id r;ii 
hall't'l "'I' 
all pailoi'l' 

.1 ('ap'- '*"' 
I all lii«'pnii- 
til coiiif am' 

vrr> williM" 
all MflU nil' 
1 and myxli. 

artivr in tl<' 
atiiii^ in oprn 

dlaru in valnr. 

were brou<rlit in. and plarcd on ilic lloor betwcpii the two par- 
;iud. Caplaiii Hnlt^cr llicn >:iid to tin' lndian(<: 

"My cliiMrcM. I iiavi* canscd to lie placed Ik fori' yon here, a 
jiipc lull of tiiliacco. uol lu'rausc I am willing to lia\»' you siij)- 
•(tosc 1 <\iiul'l piirclia«i(' (Voui vcnia liLilit I'T tliis ui;in tocorncuud 

lake what is his own. hut ti 

;ii!l\ lo Villi, liiai I ..(ill Imld vol! 

by the liaiiil. as Iuml' as vi.ii are icaily to li-irii aiUuiiM'ls lo my 
\Mnds. As lor tl!i.> miiii. he comes to vou iml iii hi-, own iiainr> 

oiilv, and speMKiiiy 


OV\ll WOl'i 

bill li 


iks tl 

10 w orils lit 

\oiir irrea 

I lath 

'1 -It. Ill M lliwc ll;i||ii ue a 

M ho is li 

• nd ll 

If « 

aiers, and ot ihe (ireal 

and w bo c;av •' llie-e i 


ren to 

hi hi>. Voii mnsi, iherefore. uillioul viiiliirinir lo j;ive 



t'arlber trouble, deliver to 'liin his rhildron, ami take lliese jire- 
-'eiils, as a memorial of llie iroml will iliat subsist- bf twee n us.'" 
The liidiaiiA b(<^aii to delibi rate, and were aboiii to make a 
reply, vvlieii tliey saw a considerable armed (orcr briuiiibl am! 
(laradeil bclore the door ol the coir.iei! house, and lindin(j; them- 
I l\es romplelt Iv surrounded, iliey accepted the pres< iits, and 
jirtunised to surrender the children. 

he mother o 

d tl 

lese ( 


ren was no\r an oM \\ inn.-in. ami as 

• ho said she wislud lo accompany tlnin, I readily r-oiiscnlrt 
The buy. who uas o( "iiii- to »,•{ (up himself, prelerred to remain 
anioii>> the Indian-", and as ibe linu lor L^ivinu liiin an eduealion, 
am! Iitlin<r him to live m any otln r maniiei thin .ts the imlian> 
do, bad passed, I conscnied he '.hoidd act a^ be llioiiolii best. 
Several Indians accompanied lis lour days' journey on tmr re- 
liirn, ihen all went bai k, eMcpl my iwo danulilers and their 

I did not retmn lo ihe hake o| ilie WooiU by the \\a\ oT ihr 
Me-mvi-o-inis-ko Se-be, but cbuse aiiolher route, in I had 
lo lra\el a part ol' the way by wiiler, a part b* land. In asci ml- 
iul' iIu Had Kivcr. there is a sli.'rt road by what is called Stiir- 
j:eoii Uiver, iiml a jiorlaue lo coincauaiii into ihi; principal river. 
Not liir I'rom the moiiili of Siiirjieon Uiver was. at ihis lime, an 
I IK iimpiiinit. or villaur, ol' six or seven Indues, .\ yoiniL' mnii 
Iiclonirin;.' to (hat baml. and whose name v\as Ome-zhuli-uwiit- 
onus, had noi lontr prrvious lo llijx been whipped bv Mi. Cole, 
/'or Hoiiir real or alletred misromiucl about the Irnding-houtip. 
>w\ ferlinii di'SBlislied. he wlien )ie heard 1 liad pBH^ed up Stur- 



-X •- 






i I 



gcon Rivrr, started alii r iiii' in his liilli- fanoi*, iind soon ovcr^ 
Uiiik inc. After lir had |oiiinl nu . h<- showed, i thought, an imii- 
biial dis|)()>iti(in to talk lo nir, and rlaiimd to lie, in sonu' man- 
ner, rehiled to nic. lie en<'ain|Hil wiih ii« that niuhi, an<l the 
UCXl inoi'iiinir we started (»n loijelher. '11 

ns day. when we slop, 
jx'd, and \\ei-e resting on -hnre, I n"lifed ihai he look an opjior- 
Uuiily lo meet one of my daiii;liier> in tlie l>nsh<s ; hiil she re- 
turned nninediatelv, sonieuhal a^ilaied. Her inollier. also, was 
(sexeral (inns, ni llu' loiirse ol ihr day. in ehise conversaticm 
with her; liei ihr \ouni: woman emitiniied sad, and was several 
times eryinii- 

Ai niiihi. afler we slo|>|;ed to enran\|>, (he \ onnjj man very 
soon h'll ns ; hii( .i> lie renianied at a liiile distance, appaieully 
iniirh liiisied ahinn somelhin<r, I went and (onnd him with his 
inedieincs ,ill (({icned alii nl liiin, and he was iiiseriinir a thon^' 
of deer's .sinew, alioni li\i inches in len>rih, inloa hnllel. i said 

(o linn, ' 
<fiv( 11 mi 



\ iirollKi 


I lor 1 1 

ll:< W 

a> (he name he had hinis<'|t 

if \ on want powder, or 


Its, I h 



i\ , aiiil w ill iine \ on a- 

nnch as \ on wish. 





also Ii;id plenty, and I lell hiin and returned to camp. Il 
siniu- time hefore he came in: when at la>t In- made his appear- 
ance, he was dressed and oiiiamented as a warrior tor Imtlle. He 
I (Mitinned. dnrinu: the first part ot the iii;:ht. to watth me much 
loo cioselv. and ni\ suspicions, which had been already excited, 
were now more and mine coiifiriiied. Itiil he coiKinneil to be 
iis talkative, and lo seem as frienilU a- etcr. Ill' asked me foi 
iiiy knite, .is he said, lo cm sinni' (ohaeco, and iiwd'ad ol redirii- 
imr il lo me. ^lippe'l it into his own hell ; hii( I lhoiii.'lit, perliap-. 

lie won 

hi n (nrn it to me in the iiioriiiiijr. 

I laid iiivsejf (low II at ahont ihe nsiial limr, as ( wmild not np- 
pear to suspect hi'< inteiiliiin-^. i had noi put up ni\ tent, linini: 
(Hilv ihe lillle shelter aliorded liv a piece ol painted cloth ihal 

I ch 


had heen <ii^eii me ,ii Ked Kiver. VN hen I hi\ down 
>iich a pnsiliim as would enahle me lo wad h (he voiiiitf man's 
motion-. I (oiild set, a- he siii opposiit (he (ire. (hat his e\es 
were open ami waiclHiil. and (hat he tel( iio( (he least imdiiialinri 
to sleep. NVIien a( leimlh n llninder shower commenced, he aji- 
piMireil more anximis.niid i-i-xdeHH than before. When the rnin 
IiTffnn to fall. 1 Hsketl him to come and place hiinsell'lienr me. ^'i 

\ > 




I unu- 

,(\ ihc 

;' SlOp- 

■ lio rc- 

iO, WHS 


Mnr mo. 

aw to fnjoy the bcnclil, of my sliollcr, iiiitl lie did so. The shower 
was very heavy, and entirely cxtiiiffiiishcii cnir lire; hut soon 
after it had eeased, llie inos(|iiiliies liccniniiiif vt-ry trouhiesoinc, 
Oiiie-zhiih-awut-odiis ivkiinlied ii, iiiid liicaixititr oil' a liraneh of 
a l)iish, he sal and dinxc iheiii away liiiii nie. i was (•oiisciniis 
tliat I ouifhi iiHi to sl( <|i ; Imt druwsiness was j>ainiriir some htdd 
on uw. when another thinider show or. more vioicnl th;in the 
first, arose. In the inlcrval nl' the showers, 1 hiy as one slecp- 
iii).', hut ahiiost uithoul uiovinir or o|i('nini; uty eyes. I watched 
ihe motions of the \iimu_r man: at ime time, when an uiuisuallv 
h)ud elap uf ihinnhr alarmed liim, Iw wuuid throw a iiitle lidiar- 
co itito the fir*', as un olicriiiff ; at another, when he seemed to 
sii))])ose me asleep. I saw him w)ilehin:!ine like a eat ahoul to 
sj)rinir on its prey; hnl I did not -iiller ni\ self lo sleep. 

II*' hreakfasted with us as usual, then started liy himself, be- 
fore I was tpiile ready. My dautiht«T, whom he had met in the 
liushe.s, was miw a|)|)arently more alarmed ihaii helore. and ah- 
S(dulely refused to enter the canoe; hut her mother was very 
nnxions to i|ni<'t he. hi^ilaiion. and appartiilly Ner\ desirous to 
prevent my payiiij; any parti<'ulrtr attitilion to her. Al lasl. she 
was induced to aet into the canoe, and we went o'l. The youn^' 
man kepi alonu helore u", niu\ .it a little disiimce, nn'il alxnil l.'^ii 
o'ehiek, wlien, al lurnin!.' a |>oinl in a dilliculi ami rapul part t)f 
the river, ami jraininy a xiew of n eimsiderahle retieh above, I 
was snrjtrised that ( could ^ee neither him nor hi> eanoe. Al this 
place the river is about ei(>lil\ \ards wide, and ihtre is, about ten 
yaids frmn the point before mentioned, a small island ol naked 
rock. I had taketi oil my coal, and I, with tire:!! eUbrt, 
|)Usliintr lip my canoe auainsi the pow* ritil curreiil, which eom- 
j)elled me to keep Mrv m'ai the -.iKMe, when the dischiirtre of u 
<;im at my siile airesird inv proure>-. I heard .1 bullet whistle 
pa>t m\ iiead, and lelt my side louched, at the .m » iiistanl thai 
the pMldle lell from my ri^'ht hand, and the ham. -.elf dr-ippnl 
powerh'ss to my ride. The bushes were idtscurrl Ia lh<' -.mnko 
of the gun, Init at a seeoiid look I F<nw (Mne /.|.un-i;wut-o<MiH r^- 
rupiiit;. Al thai lime the screams of my cliiidren cirew ,.e nt- 
tenlion to the canoe, and I found every p. ri .1^ it •.* ts heeoininu; 
covcrecJ with bhtod. I emleavoured, will, my Irfi hand, to pwHJi 
fhA r.aaor in f*lKirr, that 1 iui|r|il piir^iir aficr him; but ihr fif 



.■r tr. 




rent being too powerful for mo, took my caiioo on the oilui 
side, and threw it airainsl the small rocky island jjelort; mention- 
ed. 1 now «r<)t onl, pulled tin- caiioc a little on to the rock, with 
my left haml, and then made aii atl('iii|>t to load my <run. l)el'or( 
1 could liiiish loailiiiy i lainled. nn 1 Icll on the rock. When J 
came to niysell' a;/ain, I was alone on ilie island, and the canoe, 
with my (Uiuiihltrs, wii,s just i>(>ini> oulof fsitrln in the river helow 
Soon alter it (Iis.ip|M nrcd. I lainled a second lime; but coji 
ficioiisiu'ss at Iniiiih miirnc'l. 

As 1 believed that the man v Iio had shot me was still watchinj; 
from liis coM<'eiiliMeril, I exiiiiiru J my wounds, and lindinfi in\ 
situation dcspi r.ilc, my ri'^ht arm beiiipf much shattered, and tlii 
l)all haviii!,' mti'ri'd iiiv body, in liu' direction to reach m\ lnnn<. 
and not havin<r |)as.-<k'd out, I called to him, reiiuestiiiir him to 
come, anil by putiinu; an immediate v\u\ to my life, to release 
me from the pro;ract((! sulli-rinii I had in pros|K>ct. -• Yon have 
Uilled me." Mill I; "'»iit thun;;h the hurl yon have yiven iiu- musi 
be inorial. i tear it may be some lime belore I shall die. (!ome. 
therefore, if yon area man, am! shoot me atrain." Many times) 
called to him, !>,il hr rcliirneii me no answer. My iiody wa'^ 
now almost naked, as I had im, wlnti .>hoi, beside my pantaloons, 
only a very old and rain:eil shirt, and miiili of this had been torn 
oil' in the course of the morninii;. i lay exposed to the sun, and 
the idack and irreeii he.tded Hies, on a naked rock, the j/reotei 
part ol a day in .lidy it \ni:iisi, and no pri.>pecl before me. 
hut that of a liiiiri rinj; death ; liut as tlie sim went down, my 
hope and strenL'th bei.'aii to ri". ive. and plniiuinir into the river. 
} ^u.iin across in the other <idi'. W hen I reached the shore, \ 
I'oiild stand on my lict, and i raised the sas-sali-kwi, or win 
whoop, as ;i civ ol exultation and deiiancc to my enemy. Dii' 
th(! additional loss of Idood, occasioned b\ the excriioii in swim 
ininjr the river, raiised me anotlier fiiiiitiiitr lit, Iroiii which. «hen 
f recoxerid, I coiicealed myself near the bank, lo ualch for him 
Presently I sav, <hiii-/.hiili-irwut-nons citine from his liiditiL 
place, put his canoe into the water, embark, and begin to d«'Heeiid 
the ri\er. lie caincvery m-ar inv hidiiit! phu'C, and I fell te!n[< 
ed to make n s|irini;, and i tidea.onr to sei/.e and straimic him ii^ 
the water; but I'l arintf ;hal my siren^'th miuht not Ite eullirieni, 
I 'el him pa«i without tliscovrrinc myself. 



i\SSk,U S NAKKAllV I.. 


, wilh 

hen 1 



ami tht- 
ly liiiia;'. 
; liim to 

r'lui liiivc 
1 iMi'iniiJ-i 
ly limosl 
body wit" 
V sun, nn«i 

t„. iriH-alOl 

i,i>('itrt' \w- 
|(l.)\v\i. m\ 

till river. 
ir shore, * 

1. or w:i 

L hi Kwim 
lliiili. wln'ii 
1, tor hiiK 
lliis liiiiii '. 
to il»';»<-oiit 
I, It UMlip' 
ii,ilt' l>i»" '" 

I M'iis MOW lovinciilod with iho must •■xccssivT thivfit, and as 
the bunk was steep iind rocky, I eoidd not, w iih my wounded 
arm, lie down to drink. I was therefore eompeUed to go into 
file water, au«l let my body down inio it, iiMtiJ I broujflit my 
iiioulh to a level wilh ihe surlaee. and thus I was able to drink. 
Hy this tune, the cveniny i.ndwiiij< soiiicwhal cooler, nn strength 
was, in part, restored ; but the blood seemed to (low nu)re freely. 
1 nuw ap|)lied mysril to dressiiiir the wound in my arms. I en- 
deavoured, tlnuiiih tiie tlesh was already imudi swollen, to re^ 
plaee the I'raunu ills ol' the bone ; to accomplish which. I lore, 
in strips the remainder of niv shirt, and will) my leeih and my 
left hand I ccmlrived to lie tli<se around my arm, at first loosely, 
but by dejrrees tiirhter and tJLditer. iiniil I thouehl il had assumed. 
as nearly as I could Li^ive il. the pro|)er form. I ihcii lied on 
small slicks, whicii I broke from the blanches of trees, to serve 
as splints, and then suspended my hand in a siriiit{, which 
passed arouiul my neck. After this was emnpleted, I took sonie 
of the bar! of a choke cherry bush, whicli 1 observed there, and 
chewini: it fine applied it to ihe uoimds. hopiii<>- Ihiis to chock 
iheflowiiiir ol the Ijlood. Tlie bnslio .dtoiii me, and for all the 
(listance between me tiid ihe ri\er. wen covered with blood. 
As niirht came <»ii, I chose a place where was piLiily of moss, l<i 
lie down on, wilh the Iriiiik of a fallen iree for my pillow. \ 
wa> careful to select a place near the ri\er, that I miffht have a 
thance <if seeinir any ihinu ihal iniirhl pass; also, lobe near the 
water in case mv thirst should ajrain become uryoiit. I knew 
lliat oiu- trader's canoe was expected, aluuit this lime, to pass this 
place, on the way towards l*ed Hiver. and il was this canoe 
frtun which I vxpecled relief and assislaiK e. 'i'liere were no In- 
dians nearer than the villa<;«' from which Onu'-zhuh-jrwul-oons 
had followed me, and he, with m\ wife and daiiirhters, were the 
only persons that I hud any reu.soi: to su|>poRr w«'re within many 
milc'* (d me 

I I'lid myself down, and prayed to ihe firoat Spirit, that hr 
wmiid sec and pity my condition, and send help to inc, now in 
ihc time of my distress. \n I continued prayinir, thr mu8(|ui' 
foes, which had settled on my naked body in vast luimherR, and 
wcrp. by their slii;ir^, adding greatly to the torment I suflVicd, 
htgan to rire, and nftrr huvcring at a little dietancc «bove i ntl 







around me, disappeared entirely. 1 did not attribute this, which 
was so great a relief, to the inimediato interposition of a Sui)crior 
Power, in answer to my prayer, as the evening was, at that time, 
becoming something cool, and I knew it was entirely the effect 
of change of temj)erature. Nevertheless, I was conscious, as I 
have ever been in times of distress and of danger, that the Master 
of my life, though invisible, wad yet near, and was looking upon 
me. I slept easily and quielly, but not without interru|)ti(in. 
Every time I auoke, f re!nenil)ered to have seen, in my dream, u 
canoe with white men, in the river heforc me. 

It was late in thr nii'lit, probably aiier midnight, when I henni 
female voices, wlvrli I sup|)08ed to be those of my daughters, not 
more than two humlred yards from me, hut partly acr(»ss th<' 
river. Ibelieved tliiit Ome-zhuh-gwut-oons had discovfred iheii 
hiding place, and was, perhaps, olli-i ing tli<in some violence, ti- 
the cry was that of distress ; but ho great was my weakness, 
that the attempt to afford them any relief seemed wholly beytmu 
my power. I learniMl afterwar';., that my cMldrt'o, as soon as I 
fainted and fell on the rook, ^iijUHisinsf me deail, had been in 
flufuccd by their mother to turn thr ranue d<isvn tin; riv<'r, ami 
exert themselves to make their escaj;*-. They had noi pro- 
ceeded far, when the woman steer-jd the canof into a low point 
of bushes, av 1 threw out my m i, and some otht-r articles. Th< ; 
then ran on a consit'craM*^ listnncc, and coiucaled themselves: 
but here it occurred to the woman, that she might have done bet- 
ter to have kept the property belonging to m*;, and aecordinul- 
returned to get it. It was wIh'h ihey carne to se ' thjsi^ thin*; 
lying on the shore, that tlie child.' ii burst out crying, t'nd ii v,a 
at this time that 1 heanl them. 

Bef»»re ten o'clock next morning, I heard human voices on tie 
river above me, ami from the situation I had chos<n, 1 could m-i 
n canoe coming, like (hat I had seen in my dreian, Joatietl uii!, 
white nu>n. Tiny landed it a lillle distance aiiove nu", and hi 
gan to make preparation^ for breakfast. I knew that this wa 
the canoe belonging to Mr. Stewart, of the ilndsmi's Hay Com- 
pany, who, together with Mr. (irant. was expected about itii* 
time; and being conscious ibut niv appearance wtndd make .: 
pair ' impreHsion upon them, 1 deternuned to wait until they 
had breajifasied, before 1 ahowcd myself to thrai. After ihr 

|. ■ 

/ ^, 



it tunc, 
c cfl'ect 
us, as I 
Mas lev 
n& "pou 
ilveuiu, •». 

n I hcaru 
htcra. not 
icros!* ih'' 

Lilfnc«s »" 

lly l)Cy(»lH! 

^ soon as^ I 
a Itpcn in- 
i, v\M't, am' 
1(1 noi pro- 
a low poii^i 



u'lnrtiAve.- ^ 
,. ,lnl\.' hpt- 

Vlv-hr thini; 

iMul il ^'•» 

uicJ-s on til' 

llml l»>if ^^'' 
•^ Hay Com- 

v(l iiboul llii- 

uil until lln-y 
\lier iltf 


liati taieu, ami put llieir can(»e again in tlic water, i wailed out a 
little distance into llie river, to attract tlioir attention. As soon 
iis they saw me, the Frenclinien ceased paddlinjj, and lliey all 
td£ei\ at me, a.s if in dotibt and amazeiuent. As the current oi" 
die river was carryinir tliem rapidly nie, and my repeated 
calls, in the Indian iangua<;e, seemed to )>roduce no etlect, I 
called Mr. Stewart by name, and s|ioke a tew words of p^nglish, 
which I could command, ref)iR^sling iheni to come and take me. 
In a nH)nient their paddles were in the water, and they bri light 
llie canoe so near where i stood, that I was able to gvl into it. 

No on(! in the canoe recognised me, though Mr. Stewart and 
Mr. (irant were both well known to me. I had not been able to 
wash the blood <»H my body, and it is probable that the suH'eiing 
t had untlergoi'c, hud much changed my appearance. They 
were very eager and rapid in their inquiries, ami soon ascertained 
who I was, and also became ac()nainted wlh the principnl tacts 
I have related. They made a bed !'or me in the canoe, and at 

oy urgent recpiest w»iit to search (or my children, in the direc- 
tion where 1 had heard tluin crying, and where I told ihnn I 
feared \vc should lind ihev had been murdered ; but we sought 
here, and in other plans, to nt) purpose. 

llavinii ascertiiii.( d who it was that had woimded me, these two 
naders agreed to lake me immediately to the village ol" (Mne- 
zhvdi-ifW\it-oons, anil they were determined, in case of discover- 
ing and taking him, to aid me in taking my revenge, by putting 
riim innneilialiK to death. They therefore concealed me in the 

aiMie, and jit iandiiiir near the Indues, an old man cam ■ down 
',o the shore, and askerl them, " what was the news in the coun- 

rv they cai?ie from ?" '* All is well there," answered Mr. Stew- 
aii; " \\v have no oth' =• news." "This is the manner," said 
the tdd iJ^an, " in which white people always treat us. i know 
very well soinethini: has happeneil in the countrv you have come 
frtnn. bol vuu Mill not tell iisoi it. ()me-zhuh-ifwul-o.>ns, one ol" 
our vouiiii men, has been tip the ri\er two or three days, and he 
tells us that the Long Knife, railed Shaw-shaw-wa-ne-ba-se, (the 

falcon.) w lio passed here a fiu da\>* sinc«'. with his wife an<t rhil- 
iir<'n, has murdered them all ; bii' am learfnl that he himsrlf f»«* 

heiMii!oiiii>somethiiiu:wronLr. tor he is watchful andr^<tie»ii, and Hm 

lUst fled from this place before vou arrived." Mr. Stewart and Mr. 


iahnkr'k NABRVnVt., 

i i 

i J ■ 

:■> 1 

Grant, notwithstanding this representation, sought for him in ali 
the lodges, and when convinced that he had indeed gone, .said 
to the ohi man, " It is very true that miscluef ima been done in 
the country we come from ; hut the man whom ()me-zhnh-|/wut- 
oons attempted to iiill, is in our canoe with us; we do not yet 
know whether he will live or die." They then showed me to 
the Indians, who had gathered on the shore. 

We now took a little time to refresh ourselves, and to examine 
my wounds. Finding that the hall had entered my hody, iiiiine- 
diatclv undir ilie hroki-ii part of uiy arm, and gone forward and 
lodued against the hreasi hone, I tried to persuade Vlr. (trant to 
cut it out; but ncitlur lie nor Mr. Stewart being willing to make 
the atteni|)t, I was roin|><'iled to do it myself, as well as I roiild, 
with my Irfl hand. A lanct-t, w lii( h Mr. (irant lent ini-, wa** 
broken innncdiatcly, as was a pen knilc, the tlisli ol that |>art of 
the body being very hard aiul touirli. Thev next brought me u 
large white handled ra/nr, and mIiIi this I suceeeded in extract 
ing the ball. It was M'r\ mm ii ll;iii( iicd. and ilie ihoin! of lierr'^ 
t'inew, as ««'llas ihe medicines tMnc-zboii-iiwiu-nons lunl ins( ried 
in it, were left in my body. Moiwiflisiaiidinir this, when I found 
that it had intl passed nniler my rd>s. I began tu hope that I 
should finall\ recover, thoiiirli I had reason to suppose, that lln 
woinid brinu poisoned, il would lie Ioiil'' in lii'alin<r. 

Alter litis was done, and the wound in my breast taken care 
of, we went on to Ab-kee-ko-bow-we-tig, (the Kettle i'".il|,) to 
the villa>re of the chief NVaw-wisli-e-irab-lio, the lirnilier of Omr 
/ludi-gwiil-Mons. Here Mr. Stewart used the sai .e precaution 
of hiiiinu me in the canoe, and then trivin<r tobacco, wh. h In 
called every man in the villatre, by name, lo receive; but when 
there appeared no prospect of fMidinii birn, tliev m.idc me airain 
stand up in the canoe, and <uu> of llieni told the chief that il was 
his own brother who had atleinpli'd to kill ine. The cbiel' hini! 
his head, and to iheir int|uirii's abnnt Ome-zhnli-irwut-oons be 
wotdd make mt answer. We, however, ascertained other 
Indians, that my daut^hlers and their nioiber had stopped here a 
moment, in their way towards l{ainv Lake. 

When we arrived at the North NN est ("ompanv's house, al 
Rainy Lake, we f'lmid that m\ dauL^liters and their mother had 
b^fln detained hv the traders, on acoounl of su8])iciuns arisuiu 


f ( 




I in all 

c, i^aid 
lone in 
nol yet 
I me to 

', iiiiinc- 

liraiil to 
to inukc 
1 I couWl, 
„„•, wa« 
It |)nrt •>!' 
mill iiK' "^ 
n rMiiirt 

.'. ins( rted 
(Ml 1 I'tuind 
ope • 
<o, ihutlh- 

lakon ravo 
I.. i'MI.) <«' 


wli, h lu 

l)iit •.vlini 

.■ me ;iL'iiiii 

that it >*•'> 

llt-llOII') ll*! 
I, lltl oiluf 

iptil here II 

IS liovme, at 
jiuiiilier liail 
Ions ari»ii>i> 

Irom their manifest aifitation and (error, and iVom the know- 
ledge tlial I had pas.srd nj) with th« ni l)ul a t'tw da\s before. 
Now, when I lir«t eanie in sitjht of tlie fori, the old woman lied 
to the woods, takinir the two jrirls with her. But the (Compa- 
ny's people sent out and brought them in airaiii. Mr. Stewart 
and Mr. (iranl now left it to me to say what puiiishmeni siiould 
beinflieted on this woman, who, as we all very well knew, had 
been guilty of aiding in an attempt to kill me. They said they 
considered her C(|ualiy criminal with Ome-zhuh-gwut-oons, and 
thought her deserving of death, or any other punishment I might 
wish to see inflicted. Hut I told them I wished she might i>e sent 
immediately, and without any provisions, away from tiie fort, 
an"! never allowed to return to it. As she was ihe mother of my 
chiiilrcH, I did not wish to see her hung, or beaten to death by the 
labourers, as ihey proposed; but as the sight of her had beeome 
Iiaieful to me, I wished she might be removed, and they accord- 
ingly dismissed her without any punishment. 

Mr. Stewart left me at the Rainy Lake trading house, in the 
■•are oi Simon M'dillevray, a son of him who many years ago 
was so important a partner in the North West ('ompany. Ho 
(ravi- me a small room, where my daughters cooked J'or me, and 
ilres'ied my wounds. I was very weak, and my arm badly swol- 
Vn, fragments of lione eomiiig out from time to lime. I had lain 
liere Iwi iily-<'iirlit days, w lien Major Delalield, the Ihiited States 
i-onuni><si(»ner fiu' the iiomidary, came to the trading house, and 
having heard something of my history, proposed to l)ring me in 
ills canoe to Mackinac. Ibii I was loo weak to midertake such a 
JDUrnex , thouirii I \\islit"! to have accompanied hini. I'indin^' 
lliiit tliis was llie cise, Miijiir Deialielci oa»(' nie a larjre suppl\ of 
ixceiieiit pr(»visions, two pounds o| tea, some siiijar and other ar- 
ticle^. ■■< li'Ml. lid soiiif i-l'ihiiiLT. iUiil li'l't me. 

Two days after this. I pulled oui of m\ iiriii the llioiia ()f deer's 
sinew wliitli had liet n atiiiclied, as i have belorr staled, to the 
huliel. it was still ahutit ti\e inches lono, bin nearly as large ns 
my linger, and of a ur»'eii colour. ()ine-zluili-ir«iit-tii»iis had two 
Imlls ill his gun at the lime he >liot ine ; mie had jiassed near my 

Immediately after ihe deparlnre of Major Delalield, the un- 
friendly disposition of Mr. M'Ciilleviay made itsolf nianife«i : it 




i 'i 

iiiUi, '^^ 



/AN NJ.U > NARItAl 1\ JL. 

Iiail bot'ii only t'rar of Major P.'lafu-lil that had indiu-til Iijh, 
hillit.'rl(» to Ileal me with some iitUMiioii. Insults and almso 
Were heaped upon nic, and at last I was lonibly turned out ol 
the house. But sonuiofthe Frenrlimen had so niueh roinpassioii 
as to steal out at niiiht, and without Mr. M'(iillevray's knowlcdi/c, 
furuisii tf'Mt poles, and sn up my (cut. Thanks to the bounty 
of Major Delalicid, I had a supply of i\<ry thine needl'ul, iind 
my (huiirhter- still remained with inc. ihoiiirh .Mr. M*(jillevray 
repeatedly thruateiu-d that he wuuid i <Tnuve them. His jxisc- 
culions did not abaie when I let', the lori, and he went so Car a- 
to take my ilawtfl'ters trom nn;, and semi ihem to sleep in ilic 
(piarters of the nu.-n ; but they escaped, and lied l(i the house ol' 
an old frenchman, near by, who nas Mr. M*(iillevray's luther-in- 
law, and with whose dau^^hters mn had heroine iuti/nate. 

Forty-tlirt'c days | had lain in and m-ir this iradiiiir h(Mtse,aml 
was now m i most miserable comiition. havinir lucn Cor soim 
time entirely dej)rive(l ol the assistance ol my claiijjhters, wIicm 
my Conner aeijuainlance and Criend, Mr. Uruee, unexpectedly en- 
tered my tent laic in the eveniinj. He was with MajtM- l.otiL'. 
and w par;y <d' sientlemen then retuniiiiir Crom LaKi- V\ iimiptsi. 
who. as Mr. iJruce thou£r|it, would be wiilinif and able to alion' 
!iie some assistaiiee in takiii" my daujrhters out oC the hands of 
Mr. M"<iillevray, and perhaps in {relling out to Maekinae. 

'I'bree times I \isitetl Major Long at his cam p, at lliat late hour 
of the nifilil, tboui,di I was srarre ai)h' lo wilk, and each lime lie 
lobl me that bis canoes were Ctdl. and timt he rould do inMhiii!: 
lor me ; but at leiisflh becomintr a little arcpiainied with m, lii«. 
torv, be srcpied to take more interest in nu-. and when he sa\i 
ilie papers i had Crom tiovrriior (,'lark and otliers, he loi I me ! 
was a t'lol noi to have shown him tliese before. He had, he said, 
taken me C<ir one nC ihotf worlldess white nun, who remain in 
the Inilian eounirv from inil(d:'nct'. ami for the sake of marryiiii'^ 
M.^uaw-: but now that he understood who I was, he would try In 
do somelhirnf fitr me. He went hiitisell, wiih several men, am! 
sonfibl in the iiailiuir house C(»r my dauixhters. He lunl intended 
to siart early the next mornin!.' after his arrival : but haviiis/ been 
-lirrinsr marl) all ni:.di) in my alliiirs, he deiirinined "> reiiiain 
over ihc next day. and make larther exerlions Cor the recovery 
of mv f Inldren. All the search we could make for niv daugli 


jt ?* 

had im\u<Mil luiii 
Insull!* iiiiil almsi'^ 
•ihlv Uirnetl out ol 
,o much r»>m|wssioii 
mks to 111*' bouiuy 
iliinir n«!ftlt'"U a>"^ 
rh Mr. M'<iill<viay 
I llifiii. ili>^ l'''i>^- 
,„i Ik- wcHt so tar :i- 
hi-ni to hU-»l' i'> ll"- 

t\,.,l (I. ill'' '»••"*'■ *'' 

;'Com*' ii>ii">''''*'- 
,1s irmVmir l«<Hl^(^ 'W"! 
avins l.'iMi for «ouk 
; ,ny (laii^rlilors. wluMi 
uce, uMrxpfctt-aiy <ii- 
viis Willi Major l.oni> 
,V„m LuKf NN i'u>il"u 
linir and a»>»«^ t" »"'^^"' 
rs out of i1h> hai»'l« ol 
ml io Ma.Uinac. 

, ,\k, ami tiK-h liin»> !'< 
al lir rould tlo no»hii)|: 
,,uaini»"<l with my hiv 
,iu'. i-.i>il \vh<'ii he sa>A 
,.;.,th.MV. ho toM uiel 
.,• „t.. 11,. h;ul, he ^itiii. 

iiuo. "I>" vi-'"»'"> '" 
,,. x\\v saU<- or murrym-: 
J wns 1>«' wouhi iry l" 
wiih srvt-ral men, an'! 
,,.rH. lie hu.l iiUfn-led 
rrivttl ; hut haviiiL' !» on 
a.'l.Tmii.."! ". n-mam 
riions for thf rorovrry 
U luake lor mv ilauiih 



lor^, at and about tlie tratUntr hoiit«r, rci<uU«;*l in the conviction, 
that lhrou)yfh tho aircncy of Mr. M'JJiilcvray, and the family of his 
fathiT-in-lu\v, they had faiicn into the hands of Kau-l)t'Cn>tiiHh- 
kwaw-nau, a rliicf of mir vihaiff iit Mc-iiaii-zhc-laii-naiiiiir- Tiiis 
briny; tlio rase, I was compcHtMl to r«'hiniiji;^h llif Ih>|)0 nf Ininiriu.'i' 
tht'in out the (iresent year, aod mist-nihlv as I was siiualcd, ) 
»9«s anxious •oidnic to my own |ioo|i|<', and to my three ilijl Iron 
at MacK'nac, to spend the winter. 

I knew the eharacti-r nf Mr. M'(iilievray. and al>o that tli< tra- 
ders of the Nortli W( st ("on\|mn\ neneiiiily, iiad ie-s to 
feel friendly towards me, tlian tiny mi^ht have had, if 1 had not 
toneerned myself with Lord Sellurk'^ part), in iIk e.i|iiurft of 
tli'-ir |).isl at Red Ivivei. I knew, nl^ii. that my ()eruliar siiualion 
with r<'sj)eei lo the Indians, would makt; it verv dithenlt for me to 
gain permission lo remain at or near «itln of the houses of the 
North West, or of tiie Ameriran Fur ("oi cjianv . I had l>een sr- 
verely and dantreroiisly womuledhyai ■ Uan, and aeeurdinir to 
iheir eustoms, 1 was Ixnmd. or .it least « led, to av»'ni;e I'ly- 

>elf on any ol the same iiaiid that mi^t ,.dl in tity way ; and 
should it lie Known ilial I was al either oi iht iradinji houses, 
very few Indians would venture to visit ii. Ti.kiiitf these tidngf; 
iiit(» etHi-.ideration, I determined to a< cepi the frieiidlv (dlir of 
Major Ijoiiy;. lo iM'iiiy nie to ihe Slates, and aceordinjjiy took a 
place in one of Ids canoe s. IJut after proceedini! on our way an 
hour or two. I hecanu; convinced, as did .Major Lonir and the 
^entleiiien uith him, that I could not salel\ uiidertak«' so long 
niid diirn ult a journey in my present situation. Aeccrdiniily they 
jiut me in charire of some people helonging to the traders, and 
H'M ine litck t.i the fort. 

i knew that the doiu's of the Noitji West Company's hons^* 
wtniM he closed auaiiisi nie, and accordiijMlv made application to 
my late employrs, the Ain.'rican Fur ( 'ompany. ^ imiu;; Mr. 
Davenport, in whose care the house then was, trranteil a ready 
compliancr with my reijnest, and ijave me a room ; hot as pro- 
visions were scarce on that side I was supplied daily by Dr. 
M'Laui/hlin, of the North West, who liad now taken the place of 
Mr. M*<Jillevrny. He sent fvery day as much as sulFiced to feed 
me and Mr. Davenport, titgether with his wife. 

1 had not been lonjf here, wlien Mr. Cote arrived, nnd look 

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charge of the house in place of Mr. Davenport. Mr. Cote caiiio 
to my room, and seeing me on the bed, only remarked, " well, 
you have been making a war by yourself." That night he al- 
lowed my supper to be brought me, and early next morninjr 
turned me out of doors. But he was not content with driving 
me from the house; he forbade me lo remain on the 'Inited States 
side of the boundary ; and all my entreaties, together willi the 
interference of Dr. M'Lauahlin, coulii not influence Mr. Cote to 
change his determination. In this emergency. Dr. M'Laughlin, 
though he knew that the success of his post in the winter's trade, 
must be injured l)y the measure, consented to receive me on tlic 
British side, where he fed and took care of me. Early in the 
winter, my wounds had so far healed, that I could hunt a little, 
holding my gun in my left hand. But about new-yars, 1 went 
out one evening to bring water, slipped and fell on the ice, and 
not only broke my arm in the old place, but also my collar bone, 
Dr. M'Laughlin now took tbe management of my case into hi> 
own haiuls, it having been left entirely to my own treatment be- 
fore, and I was now confined as huig as I liad been in the fall. 

In the sj)ring, I was ayjain able to h\mf. I killed considerabl 
numbers of rabbits, and some otiier animals, for the skins ol 
which the Doctor paid me in money, a very liberal price. As tin 
time ai»proached for the traders to leave the wintering grounds, 
he told me, the North West had no boats going to Mackinac, but 
that he would oblijje Mr. (Jotr to cany me out. It was accord- 
ingly so arranged, and Mr. Oote promised to take me to F(tn<l Dii 
Lac in his own canoe. But instead of tins, he sent me in a boat 
with some Frenchmen. In the route from Fond Du I<ac to the 
Saut De St, Marie, I was dependent tipon Mr. Morrison ; hut the 
treatment I received from the boatmen was so rough, that I in- 
duced them to put m(^ on shore, to walk thirty-tive miles td the 
Saut. Mr, Schoolcraft now wished to engage mc as an inter- 
preter, but as I heard that the little property I had left at Mack- 
inac had b»'en seized to pay my children's hoard, ami as I knew 
their situation rei|uired my presence, I went tliither accordinrly. 
and was engaged by Col, Boyd as Indian interpreter, in which si- 
tuation I continued till the summer of 1*^28, when being dissatis 
fied with his treatment, I left Mackinac, and proceeded to New- 
York, for the purpose of making arraneements for the publication 


« H J.u 

lote ca»ii(' 

h1, " well, 

ighl he al- 

t mormn<r 

ith (hivinir 

lited Stales 

:.r with ihc 

yir. t'ote to 


liter's trade. 

e mc on the 

Early in the 

hunt a little. 

oars, 1 weni 

1 the ice, ami 

r collar bone, 
case into hi> 

treatment hi ■ 

in the fall. 

il consiilerabl 
the skins ol 

price. As thr 

crinir gronnds. 
Mackinac, bill 

lit was accord- 
e to Fond D" 
,t me in a boat 
On to the 
•vison; hut the 
lugh, that I in- 
e miles u< the 
ic as an inter- 
h left at Mark- 

ftn«l as ^ '*"^^^' 
ler accordin.rly. 
|or, in which si- 
being (lissatis 
jcede.l to New 
the publication 



of my narrative ; and upon my return to the north, was employed 
by Mr. Schoolcraft, Indian agent at the Saut De St. Marie, as his 
interpreter ; to which place 1 took my family, and have since re- 
sided there. 

Three of my children are still among the Indians in the north. 
The two daughters would, as I am informed, gladly join me, if 
it were in their power to escape. The son is older, and is at- 
tached to the life he has so long led as a hunter. I have some 
hope that I may yet be able to go and make another effort to 
bring away my daughters. 



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01' feasts — of fasts and dreaming — their idea of the human soul, and of a future 
existence— customs of burial — of their knowledge of astronomy — traditions 
concerning the sun and moon — of totems — of tlieir acquiiintonce with plants, 
animals, and minerals. 


Among the Indians, the man wlio gives many foasis, or \vln>, 
in the language of their songs, " causes the pcojile to waii^ about 
continually," is accounted great. In times, therefore, when 
game is abundant, feasts are multii»ii(!d. IJefore the whites in 
troduced among them intoxicating drinks, it is probable the a. 
sembling together for feasts, Mas tlmir principal and most f 
vourite source of excitement in times of peace, and coniparativi 
inactivity. They have several kinds offcasts: — 

1st. Metai-we-koon-de-win — Medicine feast, or that feast- 
ing which forms a part of tlioir great religious ceremony, the 
IVIetai. This is under the direction of some old men, who on- 
called chiefs for the Metai,* and the initiated only are admitted. 
The guests are invited by u Me-zhin-no-way, or chief's man of 
business, who delivers to each of the guests a small stick. In tlic 

♦ Some discussion has heretofore taken place concerniiij^ the. existence of a pricst- 
liood among the Indians. A little inquiry will convince any one, that the medicine 
men area set of crafty impostors, who subsist, in a great measure, by practising on 
their credulity ; by seUing them medicines, or charms, for ensuring success in 
hunting, for enticing the females, and for other purposes. Wlien one of these has 
been so fortunate as to gain an astiendance over their superstitious and credulous 
minds, he sometimes sets up for a prophet, and claims intercourse with BUjierior 
j.nd invisible beings. 

h I 




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U, W-r 

:iouih thpy use small pieces of cane; in the north, quills air 
sometimes substituted, which are died and kept for the purpose. 
\o verbal message is delivered with this token. The numerous 
preparatory measures, and the various steps in the performance 
of this ceremony, need not be here detailed.* Dogs are always 
rhoscn for the feast, from a belief, that as they are more saga- 
cious and useful to men, so they will be more acceptable to their 
divinities, than any other animals. They believe that the food 
they eat, at this and sonic other of their feasts, ascends, though 
in a form invisible to them, to the Great Spirit. Besides the 
songs sang on occasion of this feast, and some of which have 
been translated for this work, they have numerous exhortations 
from the old men. Among much of unintelligible allusion, and 
ridiculous boasting, these addresses contain some moral precepts 
and exhortations, intermixed with their traditionary notions con- 
lernin;:- \a-n;i-hush, and other personages of their mythologv. 
Whene\-er tlie name of the Great Spirit is uttered by the speaker, 
all the audience, who, if they remain sober, seem wrapped in the 
deepest attention, respond to it by the interjection, Kwa-ho-ho- 
ho-ho-ho ! the first syllable being uttered in a quick and loud 
(one, and each of tlic additional syllables fainter and quicker, 
mtil it ceases to be heard. They say the speaker touches the 
Jreat Spirit, when he mentions the name, and the effect on the 
udience may be compared to a blow on a tense string, which 
vibrates shorter and shorter, until it is restored to rest. This 
peculiar interjection is also used by the Ottawwaws, when thev 
blow or shoot with their medicine skins, at the persons tc be ini- 

2d. Wain-je-tah We-koox-de-win — Feast called for bv 
dreams. Feasts of this kind may be held at any time, and no 
particular qualifications are necessary in the entertainer or hi*- 
;j;uests. The word Wain-je-tah means common, or true, as they 
often use it in connexion with the names of plants or animals, as 
Wain-jc-tah 0-muk-kuk-ke., means a right or proper toad, in dis- 
tinction from a tree frog, or a lizard. 


* A copious account of the Medicine Diince, or Metai, .is it exists amonff th^ 
.Me-no-mo-nies, is contained in a manuscript paper, entitled, " Remarks on the 
-Muhology of the A!i;oni\ni.s," &c. comnmnicated to the New- York Historical Sn- 
ii( t\ . in lS27, bv the Editor of ttiis nurrstive 

\ V 

, s. 



ijuills air 
I purpose, 
ire always 
nore saga- 
Die to tlieir 
it the food 
ids, though 
Besiiles the 
,vhich have 
Uusion, and 
ral precept? 
notions con- 

the apeakei. 
•apped in the 
, Kwa-ho-ho- 
ick and loud 
and quicker, 
• touches tho 

effect on the 

tring, whicli 
,o rest. This 
when they 

Ions tc be ini- 

ailed for by 
time, and no 
plainer or hi"^ 
true, as they 
lor animals, as 
Ir toad, in dis- 

lexistB amona thf 

' Remarks on th> 

lork Historical f^"- 


:{d. Ween-dam-was-so-win — Feast of giving names. These 
are had principally on occasion of giving names to children, and 
the guests are expected to eat all, be it more or less, that is put 
into their dish by the entertainer. The reason they assign for 
requiring, at this and several other feasts, all that has been cook- 
ed to be eaten, is, apparently, very insuflicient ; namely, that they 
do so in imitation of hawks, and some ntlier birds of prey, who 
never return a second time to that they liave killed. 

4th. Menis-se-no We-koon-de-win — War feast. These 
leasts are made before starting, or on the way towards the ene- 
my's country. Two, four, eight, or twelve men, may be called, 
but by no means an odd number. The whole animal, whether 
deer, bear, or moose, or whatever it may be, is cooked, and they 
are expected to eat it all ; and, if it is in their power, tliey have a 
large bowl of bear's grease standing by, which they drink in 
place of water. Notwithstanding that a man who fails to eat all 
his portion, is liable to the ridicule of his more gormandizing 
companions, it frequently happens that some of them are com- 
pelled to make a present of tobacco to their entertainer, and beg 
him to permit that they may not eat all he has given them. In 
ihis case, and when there is no one of the company willing to 
oat it for him, some one is called from without. In every part 
of this feast, when it is made after the warriors leave home, they 
take care that no bone of the animal cafen shall he broken ; but 
iifter stripping the flesh from them, they are carefully tied up, 
and hung upon a tree. The reason they assign for preserving, 
in this feast, the bones of the victim unbroken, is, that thus they 
may signify to the Great Spirit, their desire to return home to 
their own country, with their bones uninjured. 

5th. Gitche-we-koon-de-win — The great feast. This is a 
toast of high pretensions, which few men, in any band, and only 
those of principal authority, can venture to make. The animal 
is cooked entire, t !-r as they are able to do ir. This kind is 
sometimes called iWe? ziz-a-kwa-win. 

6th. Waw-bun-no We-koon-de-win — Wawbeno feast. This, 
and the other mummeries of the Wawbeno, which is looked 
upon as false and mischievous heresy, are now laid aside by 
most respectable Indians. These feasts were celebrated vt'ith 
iimch noise and disturbance ; they were distinguished from all 


M ii Mo t.. _ 



other feasts, by being held commonly in the night time, and the 
showing off of many tricks with tire. 

7th. Je-bi Naw-ka-win — Feast with the dead. This feast h 
eaten at the graves of their deceased friends. They kindle a 
fire, and each person, before he begins to eat, cuts off a small 
piece of meat, which he casts into the lire. The smoke and 
smell of this, they say, attracts the Je-bi to come and eat with 

8th. CHE-BAir-KOo-CHE-nA-wiN — Feast for his medicine. 
During one whole <lay in spring, and another in autumn, every 
good hunter spreads out the contents of his medicine bag in thr 
back part of his lodge, and feasts his neighbours, in honour of 
his medicine. This is considered a solemn and important feast, 
like that of the Mctai. 

9th. 0-sKiN-NE-oE-TAH-OA-wm — Boy's feast. This might Ix 
called the feast of the tirst fruits, as it is made on occasion of ;i 
boy, or a young hunter, i<illing his first animal, of any particular 
kind. From the smallest bird, or a fish, to a moose, or buffaloi', 
they are careful to oliserve it. Numerous instances of it occur 
in the foregoing narrative, therefore it need not be dwelt upoii, 


Utuoiious and long continued fasting is enjoined u])i)n youiii; 
and unmarried persons, of I)oth sexes, ami they begin at a very 
early age. The parent, in the morning, offers the child the usual 
iireakfast in one hand, and charcoals in the other; if the latter is 
accepted, the parent is gratified, and some commendations, or 
marks of favour, are bestowed on the child. To be able to con- 
tinue long fasting, confers an enviable distinction. They, there- 
fore, inculcate upon their children the necessity of remaining 
long without food. Sometimes the children fast three, five, 
seven, and some, as is said, even ten days ; in all of which timr 
they take only a little water, and that at very distant intervals. 
During these fasts, they pay very particular attention to their 
dreams, and from the character of these, their parents, to whom 
they relate them, form an opinion of the future life of the cliili] 

>, and the 

lis feast 13 
^ kindle a 
ifl' a small 
invoke and 
id eat with 

lumn, every 
ic bag in tho 
n honour of 
portant feast, 

'bis miglit 1m 
orxasion of " 
any particxdar 
,e, or bviffaloc, 
;s of it occur 
,P dwelt upon. 

led upon youiv: 
,egin at a very 
child the usual 
; if the latter i^ 
mendations, 01 
be able to con- 
They, therc- 
ty of remaining 
[fast three, fivf- 
I of whic^^ timr 
istant intervals, 
tention to their 
arents, to whom 
life of the chilli 


Dreaming of tilings above, as birds, clouds, the sky, &c. is con- 
sidered favourable ; and when the child begins to relate any 
thing of this kind, the parent interrupts him, saying, '• it is well, 
mv child, say no more of it." In these dreams, also, the chil- 
dren receive impressions, which continue to influence their cha- 
racter through life. A man, an old and very distinguished war- 
rior, who was some years ago at Red River, dreamed, when 
fiasting in his childhood, that a bat came to him, and this little 
animal he chose for his medicine. To all tlie costly medicines 
lor war or hunting, used by other Indians, he paid no attention. 
Throughout his life he wore the skin of a bat tied to the crowu 
of his head, and in his numerous war excursions, he went into 
battle exulting in the confidence, lliat the Sioux, who could not 
hit a bat on the wing, would never be able to hit him. He dis- 
tuiguished himself in many battles, and killed many of his ene- 
mies ; but throughout his long life, no bullet ever touched him, 
all of which he attributed to the protecting influence of his medi- 
cine, revealed to him, in answer to his fasting, in boyhood. Of 
Net-no-kwa, his foster mother, the author of the foregoing nar- 
rative relates, that at about twelve years of age, she fasted ten 
successive days. In her dream, a man came down and stood 
before her, and after speaking of many things, he gave her two 
sticks, saying, " I give you these to walk upon, and your hair I 
give it to be like snow." In all her subsequent life, this excel- 
lent woman retained the confident assurance, that she should live 
to extreme old age, and often, in times of the greatest distress 
from hunger, and of apparent danger from other causes, she 
cheered her family by the assurance, that it was given to her to 
crawl on two sticks, and to have her head like the snow, and 
roused them to exertion by infusing some part of her own con- 
fident reliance upon the protection of a superior and invisible 

The belief, that communications take place in dreams from 

i superior beings to men, is not peculiar to this people, or this age 

of the world. Men, particularly, when their minds are little cul- 

livated, are ever ready to believe themselves objects of particular 

attention, and the subjects of especial solicitude to their divinities. 

I .\mong the Indians of the Algonkin stock, many, and perhaps 

II, believe that not only their prayers, in times of distress, are 





;iski M' 

h' ' 


lit'urd aMil iiiif^wfied, hut llioy lliink, that io some among fhcm, 
;nr roinrniniicatcd in dnnnis intinialions of things which are 
lo happen in ronioto linu-s, and even after death. It Ih probable 
llirir traditional belief of a fntiire slate, and of the circnmstancfs 
.iltciidintr it, have made s(» wtronff an impression on the minds of 
children, that iIk y may oflcii dream of it, and eontinuc to do ao, 
at intervals during life. Aecordingly, several may he found 
among them, wlio, having in extreme sickness had their thoughts 
paitirnlarly directed to this subject, and having, perhaps, been 
reduced so low as lo be considered in a desperate condition — [of 
a person in Avhicli situation they speak as of one dead]— .may- 
have dreamed, or imagined the impressions of their early child- 
hood to have been realized. Hence, wc hear them relating, 
Midi confidence, that such and such persons have !)eendcad, and 
have travelled along tlie path of the dead, till they have come to 
the great strawberry, which lies by the road, this side the river; 
they have seen the river itself, some have even passed over it, 
jind arrived in the villages of the dead. Dreams of this kind 
^rrm to have bee;) frequent among them. But they have, most 
comnionly, to tell of vexation, annoyance, and disappointment. 
They have come to the great strawberry, at which the .le-bi-nff 
refresh themselves, on their journey ; but on taking up the spoon, 
and alteinpling to separate a part of it, the berry has become ii 
ruck, (which, with the people about Lake Superior, is a soft, red 
sand rock, because the type exists in their country.) Thov 
have then gone on, have been much alarmed at the Mc-tig-ush-r- 
]io-kif, (the swinging loo,) on which they have to cross, or at the 
great dog, who stands beyoiul it. They have received taunt?, 
and gibes, and i.-.sidts, amon^jr their friends ; have been ii cired 
at, and called Je-bi ! have had ashes and water given them, in 
])lnce of Mun-dah-min aw-bo, or corn broth, bark for dried 
meat, and O-zluish-kwa-to-wuk, or the large puckwi, called pud" 
bulls, for squashes. Some men have commonly seen, in that, 
country, onh^ squaws, numbers of wliom liave competed for them, 
»•< an husband, and the dreams of all have been tinged with some 
!>liade of colour, drawn from their own peculiar situation. How 
liiose ]ieo|'le came first in possession of their opinions respectins; 
the country <tf the dead, cannot, jierhaps, be known; but haviiiii 
ii. v\e shuiiU! not be surprised that it influences their dream?. 


cKiir.MuXlDs \i inti;kmi;n IS. 


long tlitm. 

wliich arf- 

18 prolmblc 


he minds of 

luc to do so, 

vy be found 

leir thou^rbls 

crhHps, hm\ 

,n(Ution— [of 

! dcadl—niay 

ir early child- 

.hem relating, 

loen dead, and 

have come to 

side the river; 

passed over it, 

9 of this kind 

icy have, most 


ch the Je-bi-ns 

pg lip the spoon. 

y has become ii 

K, is a soft, red 

ountry.) They 

ic Me-tig-ush-f- 
cross, or at the 
received taunt?, 
ve been 'id red 
given them, i» 
bark for dried 
kwi, called puff 
y seen, in ('^'^ 
npcted for theifl, 
tinged with some 
situation. How 
uiions respcclins; 
own-, but bavins 
their dream?- 

In connexion uith this subjecl, wo nmy <ltvoit' a monuiil u< 
the consideration of llieir dcu of the human soul, or us they cull 
it, the shadow.* 'Diey think tliis bect)tuts iinscllhui, or as it were 
detached from the body in violent sii'kin.'ss ; and tlu'v look upon 
r person who is very low, as one already dead. Hence it is nol 
unusual to hear them speak of such and such n person, as beini;- 
now dying, and yet to lind him survive, not only many days, but 
years ; and when told of this, they seem conscious of no impro- 
priety in the expression : on the contrary, they often say of ;i 
person, he died at such a time, but came aguui. 1 have also 
heard them rcproacli a sick person, for what they considered im- 
prudent exposure in convalescence ; telling him that his shadow 
was not well settled down in him. and tliat therefore he was in 
danger of losing it. It would seem, liowcver, that altlioutrji tlitv 
believe the soul leaves the body previous to the coinmonci ineni 
of dissolution in the former, yet that it is not removed fur iVom 
it until ions after death. This is mai\ifest from tlieir usage in the 
feast of Che-bah-koo-che-ga-win, and from some of the cercmd- 
nies of interment, particularly in the case of women, wU^n tlnii 
husbands are buried. 

In the spring of the year 1826, a man of the Mtiiomoniesdicil 
and was buried, very nea-r ihu encampment of a part of the liflli 
regiment of United States infantry, on the hioli prairie in the rear 
of the village of Prairie Uu Ciiein, on the i\Iississi|)pi. 'I'he body 
was attended to the grave by a considerable number of the friends 
and relatives, and when it was let down into the shallow grave, 
the wife of the deceased approaclied the brink, and after lookiiiu 
down on the lude cofFm, she stepped upoa it, and imineiiialcly 
across, taking her course over tlte plains, towards the bhili's iherr. 
about a mile distant. This is a comnn>n practice of the women 
of that tribe; and the mourner is careful, if she contemplates a 
second marriage, never to look baek towards the grave she ha-^ 
left, but returns to her lodge by some devious and circuitous 
route. It is done, as they say, that the ('ha-pi (Je-bi of the Ojib- 
heways,) or the dead person, may not l)e able to follow litem at- 

* O-jce-rJmu-go-mau — Schoolcraft. Tlii.s is the sulistuiilivo without :tiiy in 
separable pronoun. It in comnicuy uscil in coinbimition, ms nc-tuhrlmk, my 
tliadow; ke-tah-chul:, thy shadow ; o-ioh-rhvl:. \\U nhail'iw. aiimiiL'' the .Afciio 



I ■! 

I I 


■>. 'f 

I ! 

V : 


( i;kemonies ax intehments. 

J' ^ 




icnvart]!'. If ihc woman should look back, they believe she 
would cither fall dead immediately, or beromc insane, and remain 
so ever after. On some occasions, but rarclj'. another person ac- 
rompanics the mourner, carrying a handful of small twines, and 
following immediately after her, flourishes it about her head, as 
if driving away flies. The verb applicable to this action, is in 
the third person singular, Wai-whai-na-how, the more general 
one applicable to the whole ceremony, Ah-ncuk-kun-new. 

In the instance above mentioned, the woman walked rapidly, 
and without looking back, across the wide prairie, in a direction 
almost oppoisite that leading to her lodge ; but her loud and bitter 
lamentings could be heard at a great distance, seeming to contra- 
dict the action by which she professed to seek an everlasting se- 
paration from the deceased. 

The more common and well known observances paid to thr 
dead by these people, seem not to indicate such a destitution oi' 
affection as the ceremony just described. In many of their cus- 
toms relating to the treatment of the dead, we can discover, not 
only the traces of kind feeling, but a strong confidence in a future 
existence, and the belief that their departed friends can know and 
estimate the value of friendly oflices rendered them after their 
departure. At the time of the great council at Prairie DuCheiii. 
in 1825, a 8ioux chief, of the remote band of the Sissitong, sick- 
ened and died of a bilious fever. He had been a distinguished 
man among his own people, and, as he had cornea great dislanct 
from his own country, in obedience io tlie call of our govern- 
ment, the military commandant at that post, was induced to bury 
him with (he honours of war. The men of his band were frathernl 
around his body, in the lodge w here he died, and when the escort 
arrived, they raised him upon his bier, a hundred manly voirr< 
at tlie same time cluintinfr forth a requiem, thus rendered bv u 
person well acquainted with their laniruage: 

Grieve not, ourbrotlirr! tin- j!;'.!!) thou nrt walking 
Is that in wliich we, ainl all inrti mimt llMlow. 

And this they continued to repent, until they nached the (rravi 
There is something impressive and allecting in their habit of pri- 
serving and dressing u|) the je-bi, or memorial of the deail, wliirli, 
like our weeds and crapes, finds a place in many a dwelling wherr 
little of mourning iii visible. Yet. though the place ", '""h drnl!- 





had made vacant in their hearts, may have been filh^d, tliey seem 
never to forget the supply they consider due the wants of the de- 
parted. Whenever they eat or drink, a portion is carefully set 
apart for the je-bi, and this observance continues for years, 
should they not, in the mean time, have an opportiuiity to send 
out this memorial witli some war party ; wlien, if it be thrown 
down on the field of battle, as they aim always to do, then their 
obligation to the departed ceases. 

Of the ('hippewyaus, the Sarcees, the Strong Bows, and other 
tribes inhabiting those dreary regions which border on the arctic 
circle, it is related, that they in many instances omit to bury their 
dead, and that they frequently desert their relatives and friends, 
whenever, from sickness or old age, they become unable to 
endure the ordinary fatigues of their manner of life. There is no 
more reason to question the accuracy of these statements, than 
of those in relation to the cannibalism, sodomy, and other shock- 
ing vices of more southern tribes. But as the destitution of na- 
tural afl'ection manil'ested in the conduct of many of the American 
tribes, towards their relatives in sickness and decrepitude, is un- 
doubtedly that among their vices, which is most abhorrent to the 
feelings of civilized men, so we sliall find the instances of rare 
occurrence, except where the rigour of the climate, or other na- 
tural causes, impose on them a necessity, to which we ourselves, 
in the same circumstances, should probably yield, as they do. 
The horrible practices to which men of all races have been driven 
in besieged cities, in cases of shipwreck, and other similar emer- 
gencies, should admonish us that the Ind' ns, as a race, deserve 
no peculiar detestation for crimes erowinu unavoidably out of 
ihcir situation. 



:\ ( 



, r 

#' * P: ^ ' 

J » 

II ^ 

'VI ' 

' / ' 

h f 

n { 


Found ill the country of the Ojihhcways ; with English names, 
as far as these could be ascertained. 

Metik-goao — Trees. 
Shin-oo-bekk — Ever greens, or cone bearing trees. 

Ma-ni-hik — Norway pine. 
A-nee-naun-duk — Balsam fir. 

Kik-kaun-dug — Spruce. The black pheasant feeds on the 

Mus-keeg-wah-tick — Harkmatack, swamp wood. 
Kaw-waun-duk — Single spruce. 
Mis-kwaw-wauk — Red cedar. 
Ke-zhik — White cedar. 
Kaw-waw-zheck — Juniper bushes. 
Kaw-waw-zheeti-sha, or Ah-kaw-wun-jc — Ycm. 
Kaw-kaw-ge-wingz — Hemlock sjiruce. 
Puk-gwun-nah-gfl-muk — White pine, (peeling bark.) 
Shin-gwawk — Yellow pine. 

Ne-bish-un — Trees with broad leaves. 

Nin-au-tik — Sugar maple, (our own tree.) 

She-she-gum-maw-wis — River maple, (sap flow.s fast.) 

Shah-shah-go-be-muk — Lnw-grouiul maple. 

Moons-omais — Striped maple, (moose wood.) 

Shah-shah-go-be-muk-oons — Spiked maple, (little shah-shali- 

Wc-gwos — White birch. 

Weeii-cs-sik — Black birch. 

Buh-wi-e-me-nin aw-gaw-wunje — Red Cherry, (the wood of tliu 
shaken down fruit, or berry.) 

Sus-Ruh-way-meen ah-ga-wunje — Choke cherry. 

Ruh-wi-me-iiah-ne-gah-wnnje — Black Cherry. 

.\ai-eo-wim-mc-nuh ffaw-we./heen — Sand-chcrrv buphe«. 

I 1, I 



; wood of tilt: 

Me-tik-o-meesh, (Mait-e-ko-nia, Menomonie) — Black oak, 
(wood cup.) 

Meesh-a-mish — White oak. 

Ah-sah-tia — White poplar. 

Mah-nu-sah-tia — Balsam poplar, (ugly poplar.) Mat-heh me- 
toos — Cree. Franklin's narrative, p. 78. 

Be-zhew-au-tik — Cofl'ce bean tree, (wild cat tree.) Found only 
'n the south. 

Way-miche-ge-meen-ah-ga-wunje — Honey locust, southern. 

Uz-zhuh-way-inish — Beech ; none northward oi" Mackinac. 

Me-tig-wawb-awk — Smooth hickory, (smooth wood bow tree.) 

Nas-kun-nuk-a-koosit Me-teg-wawb-awk — Hickory, (rough 
bark bow tree.) 

A-necb — Elm, white. 

0-shah-she-go-pe — Red elm, two varieties : the bark of ono 
only used for sacks. 

Wa-go-be-mish — Linn, (bark tree.) 

Bug-gaun-awk — Black walnut. 

Ke-no-sha bug-gaun-awk — Butternut, (long walnut.) 

Ahn-za bug-gaun-awk — Pecan, southern. 

Suz-zuh-widi-ko-niist — Hackberry. 

As-seme-nun — Pawpaw. 

Boo-e-auk — White ash. 

We-sug-auk — Black ash 

Bug-gaun-ne-me-zeesh-ah — Hazle busli. 

Waw-bun wah-ko-meczh — White arrow wood. 

We-ah-ko-meczh — Arrow wood. 

Mus-kwaw be-muk — Red ozior. 

O-to-pe — Alder. ()-to-peen — Alders. 

Sisse-go-be-mish — Willow. 

Bug-ga-sah-ne-mish — Plum tree, 

Mish-she-min-nnh ga-wunje — Crab apple tree. 

Mish-ghe-niin au-tik — Oab apple wood, or tree. 

Ne-be-min-ah-ga-wunje — High cninebi'rry bush. 

Tah-tah-te-niun-ah-ga-wunje — Black h:iw bush. 

Ke-teg-ge-manito — New-Jersey tea, (red root.) 

Koose-gwaw-ko-inizhc-ga-wunje — High blue berry bush. 

0-zhu8k-ko-mi-zheen — Musk rat berries. 

Be-mah-gwut — Grape. 





if J: 

«1 ' i 



We-gwos-bo-mah-gwut — Bircli grape. 

Manito-be-niah-gwut, or manito-ineeii i-gah-wunje — Cissus, u 
climbing vine, with scattered berries, somewhat hke grapes. 

Mus-ke-ge-min* — Cranberry, crane berries, (swamp berries.) 

Sa-zah-ko-mc-nah gah-wah-zheen, pi. — Saccacommis, or arbu- 
tus. The leaves of this plant, the uva ursa of the shops, are 
commonly used by the Ojibbeways, in whose country it abounds, 
to mix with their tobacco. 

Waw-be-ko-meen-aJi-ga-wunje — Nine bark, or spiraw. 

"Wis-seg-ge-bug, sing, wis-seg-ge-bug-goon, pi. — Bitter leaf; an 
andromeda, very highly esteemed by the Indians, as a remedy, 
and by them said to grow only about the Grand Traverse, in Lake 

Ne-kim-me-nun — Swamp whortle berries. 

Shug-gus-kim-me-nun — Thimble berries, or flowering rasp- 

Kaw-waw-be-ga-koo-zit — White bark, a small tree at Lak<^ 

Ut-tuh-bc-ga-zhin-nah-gook — A shrub said to be found only in 
the north. 

Pah-posh-geshe-gun-au-tik — Red elder, (popgun wood,) ver\ 
common about Me-nau-zhc-taun-naug, and the islands in thr 
Lake of the Woods. 

Bwoi-iim-me-nah-ga-wunje — Whortleberry bush. 

Ne-kim-mc-nah-ga- wnnje — High blue berry bush. 

Mus-keeg o-bug-goan — Labrador tea, (swamp leaves,) one of 
the most esteemed of the products of cold and swampy regions ; 
used in decoction as tea. 

Pe-boan-meen-ah-gaw-wunje — Winter berry bush, a prinos, 

Mun-no-mun-ne-chee-beegt — Red paint root. 

Me-nais-sa gaw-wunje — Thorn apple. 

Buz-zuk-ko-me-nais, sing., buz-zuk-ko-me-nais-ug, pi. — A kind 
of thorn apple growing in the north, which sometimes kill bears 

» Mns-ge-kwi-iuin-all — Zeis. p. 83. 



t A substance is brought by the Indians from a place called Na-kaw-wudj, on 
the shores of Lake Superior, which, when bruised, imparts a bright carnation 
< olour. It is a small root, prolably that of a species of Chenopodium, which i- 
••'•mctimrfi met with on the borders ofswampn about St. Marks. 


'.-- --ii'""?^^'^'^''^'" 



, or arbu- 
liops, are 


if leaf; an 
1 remedy, 
e, in Lake 

ing rasp- 

e at Lak<' 

ind only in 

^ood,) very 
nds in thr 

es,) one ol' 
>y regions ; 

when they eat them in large quantities. The Indians suppose 
that it is in consequence of t)ie strongly adhesive quality of the 
pulp, that they have tliis deleterious property. 

Meen — Blue berry ; meen-un — Blue berries, (fruit.) This is a 
word that enters into the composition of almost all which are 
used as the names of fruits or berries of any kind ; as me-she- 
min, or me-she-mecn, an apple, o-da-c-min, a strawberry, or heart 
berry, &c. The word ga-wuuje, added to the name of any fruit 
or berry, iidicatcs the wood or bush. 

Mcen-ah-ga-wunje — Blue berry, or whortle berry bush. 

Ma-ko-meen-ah-ga-wunje — Black currant bush. 

Mish-e-je-min-ga-wunje — This is a bush growing at and 
about the Lake of the Woods, which bears red currants, like 
those of the gardens ; but the currants arv3 beset thickly with 

Shah-bo-min- nil — Goose berries; Shah-bo-min ga-wunje — 
the bushes. 

Mis-kwa-min — Raspberry : mis-kwa-min-nug — Raspberries. 

Gaw-waw-ko-mcesh — Black raspberries. 

0-dah-tah-gah-go-min — Blackberry ; 0-dah-tali-gah-go-me-mig' 
— Blackberries. 

Muk-kwo-mc-nug, or muk-kwaw-mc-nug — Bear berries ; Muk- 
ko-mc-nah-ga-wunjc — The mountain ash, or American service 

0-gin-ne-mee-nahga-wunjc — Rose bush. The fruit is much 
eaten in winter by the starving Indians in the north. 

All these arc called Me-tik-goag, or woody plants. 

1 / 

a pnnos. 

Weah-oush-koan* — Wecis^ or herbaceous plants. 

I.— A kind 
h.s kill bears 

Lkaw-wudj, on 

light carnation 

lium, which i- 

Me-zhus keen, (Ma-zhus-koon of the Menomonies) — Grasses. 

Na-bug-U8-koaii — Coarse swamp Grass. 

Anah-kun-us-koan — Bull rush, (matt grass.) 

Be-gwa-wuii-us-koan — Soft coarse grass. The name of the 
Be-wi-o-nus-ko River and Lake, called Rush River on some of 
the maps, is from this word. This word seems, in some districts. 
to be used as the name of the row parsley. 

• Probably from H'rah-gmh-ke. dust; or that which i* mixed togethw. 


'■ i i 



As-ah-gu-nus-koaii — Biig-gusk — Iri>-. 

Puk-kwi-usk-oge — Flags. 

O-zhusk-gwuf-ie-beeg — INIiiskrat root, (a gratis.) 

The follow? II if are not called Mc-zhu3-keeu. 

Muz-zha-nush-koan — Nettles. 

ykib-waw-wc-gusk — Artichoke, a species of sim flower. 

Ke-zhe-bun-iish-koau — Rushes. 

O-kun-dum-moge — Pond lilies. 

Ma-ko-pin, Ma-ko-pin-eeg, sin. and p!. — Chinkapin, or cyainus. 

Waw'-be-ze-pin-neeg — Arrow head, (swan potatoes.) The 
roots of the common saggittaria, as well as the bulbs of some oi' 
the crest flow i^rirg lilies, which are eaten by the Indians, rcceivf 
this name. 

Mus-ko-ti-pc-neeg — Lily, (juairie potatoes.) 

Sah-sah-way-suk — Turkey potatoes. 

O-kah-tahk— Cicnta. 

Ma-ni-to O-kah-tahk — Sison.' heracleum .' 

O-saw-wns-kwun-wees — Green small balls. 

Siig-gut-ta-bo-way — Sticking burs ; hounds tongues, tScc 

Nah-nia-wiisk — Spear mint, (sturgeon medicine.) 

Wis-se-giche-bik — Indian's physic, (bitter root; Callistachiit.) 

Mis-kwe-wis-chc-bc-kilg-guk — Blood root. 

A-zhush-a-way-skuk — Square stem scrophularia. 

Bc-zhew-wusk — Wild cat medicine. 

Ke-na-beek-o-me-nun — Snake berries ; Dracaena borealiy. 

Main-wake — Angelica, or cow parsley. 

Me-(ush-koo-se-n>in —Apjde of the Prairie of the Canadians. 
(Psorulia,) much eaten by the Crecs and Assiinieboin.s, in whoM 
country it abounds. 

Mah-nom-o-negah-wah-zhecn, pi. — Wild rice, (the grass.) 

Muk-koose-e-mee-nun — Yomig bear's berries. 

We-nis-se-buff-goon — Wintergrecn. 

Mus-kee-go-bug-goon — Swan)p winter green; perhaps the lit 
tie rough wintergrcon. 

Be-na-bug-goon — Partridge flower. 

Mus-ke-gway-me-taus — Side saddle flower, (swamp bottles, in 
allusion to the pitcher shaped leaves.)* 

* More probubly compoumlej of Muh-kt-cg, (a swamp,) uiid Mi -l;iiis, (nlr;: 
tjin,) from \^* rpsi'inblHnce folhf* Icjijins worn by the Iiit?^ 

I I 

V > 



es.) Thr 
of some ol" 
ns, rcccivf 


(ic grass.) 
[rliaps tlic lii 
up bottles, ill 

ri.ANi- .\M< A -,> 


:\luk-kud-(Ja-\ve-cho-be-kiig-gul; — Black iooi>. 

Ta-ta-sis-koo-see-men — The flower that follows tlie sun. — Bullaloe medicine. Wild carrot ? 

Shc-wa-bug-goon — Sweet cicely, (sour leaf.) 

A-nich-e-mc-nun — Wild pea vine. 

O-da-na-me-na-gaw-wun-zhecn, pi. — Strawberry vines. 

Se-bwoi-gim-nuk — Corn stalks, (chaw sweet.) 

0-pin — Potatoe. 0-pin-neeg — Potatoes. 

O-guis-c-mauu — Squashes. O-zaw-waw-o-guis-se-maun — Yel- 
low squashes. 

Mis-kwo-de-sc-min — Be«n. Mis-kwo-dc-se-me-iiug — Beans. 

As-ke-tuin-moon^ — Melons. 

(jitche-un-ne-beesii — Cabbage, (big leaf.) tiitche-ne-beesh-uu 
-great leaves. 

Skush-kun-iluh-niin-ne-kvvi-iik — Plantain ; the leaves of thi- 
arc particularly observed by hunter, as they show, better than 
any thing else, the age of the tracks of game. 

Shig-gau-ga-uin-zheeg,* pi. — Onions, (•^knnk weeds.) 

0-kau-tauk — farrot<. 

Kitche-mus-kc-ke-mcen — lied pepper, (lireat medicine berry.) 

Ba-se-kwuuK — This is a red aslringenl luot, much valued b) 
ihe Indians, as an application to wounds. Aveiis root? 

Shah-bo-ze-gim — Milkweed. 'I'hc Ojibbeway word signitie> 

Waw-be-no-wusk — Yarrow, (Wawbeno n\edicine.) 

Ke-zhe-bun-ush-kon-sun — Stnall rushes, in prairie. 

Nah-nah-gun-o-wushk — Fern. .\ah-nah-<Tim-ne-wtish-koan — 

We-se-bain-jah-ko-nun — I .-nac(j. 

Wah-ko-nug — Lichi n^ ; the edible gyrophora. 

Ween-de-go-wah-ko-nug — (Jyrophora inedible. 

Waw-bah-sah-ko-nick — Spliairiutn, used by the women t(t 
make a bed for young childrrn. 

Ah-sah-ko-mik — Marchantia, and green mosses, on the idiady 
sides of trees. 

0-zliusk-kwa-toan-suk — Iltiindeer moss, citrariac, &,c. 

* From Shig-gaa-ga-uinjc, this woni, ia tin' siiicrular numbrr, some derive 
Iho name Chikago, which is commonly i)roiioiiiici .1 by tho Indians Shig'-f^au-ic 
-• Shie^-gau-f^o-onsf, at Chikajio. 

/?•- **r 



0-zm:sH-KWA-To-wiTG — Fvmri- 

r>„if iH 


Waw-but-to — Pine touch-wood. 

Me-tik-o-mish 0-zhusk-kwa-to-\viig — White oak touch-wood- 
much used to burn mortars for pounding corn. 

Sug-guh-tah-gun — Spunk. 

Je-bi-e-push-kwa-e-gun — Xylostroma ; dead peo» le's mocca- 
sin leather, is the literal meaning of this word, which is applied 
to the leather-like substance in the iissurcs of old trees. 

0-je-bi-e-muk-ke-zin — Ghost or spirit moccasin; puff ball; 
dead man's shoe ; sometimes called Anung-wug — stars. 

Aii-WES-siE-uo* — Animals. 

The diminutive termination is used for the young of animak, 
and is, in the Ottawwaw dialect, generally in the sound of ns, or 
7ice, when the noun ends with a vowel. Thus;, Gwin-gwaw-ah- 
ga, a. wolverene; Gwin-gxLiaw-ali-gaincc, a young wolverene; 
the c, in the last syllable, retaining the same sound as in the 
word without the diminutive termination. "When any distinction 
of sex is made, it is commonly by prefixing the words i-ah-ha 
onAno-zha, very similar in signification to our male and female, 
thus I-ah-ha Gwin-gwaw-ah-ga, is a male wolverene ; No-zha 
(rwin-gwaw-ah-ga, a female wolverene. 

G\vin-gwaw-ah-ga — Wolverene, (tough beast.) Carcajou. 
French, northern glutton, a very sagacious and mischievous 
animal, but not of common occurrence ; now principally found 
among the lakes. 

Na-nah-pah-je-nc-ka-se — A mole ? (foot wrong way.) 
Bo-taich-che-pin-gwis-sa — Gopher, (blow up the ground.) 
Manito Muk-kwaw — Great grizzly bear, always found in tlic 

Ma-mis-ko-gah-zhe-muk-kwaw — Red nail bear; very fierce ami 
dangerous, more feared by the Indians than the former, who very 
rarely attacks a man, unless wounded ; but the red nailed bear 
attacks when unprovoked, and pursues with great speed. }[•■ 
lives in rocky places in woods. 

* A-wes-sie-sae, Del. Zeisb. 2d ed. p. 46. 





ach-vvo Oti- 

s' s mocca- 
. is applied 
puff ball; 

of animals, 
mil of ns, or 

wolverene ; 
id as in the 
ly distinction 
vords i-ah-ho 

cne; No-zho 

cipally found 


found in tlif 

ery fierce and 
iier, who ver\ 
cd nailed bear 
at speed. H<' 

J Badger. 

Muk-kwaw — Common bear ; Ou-wash-ah, of the Menomonics. 

Muk-koons, or Muk-koonce — Cub ; Ou-wa-sha'Sha, of the Me- 

I-aw-ha-koons and No-zha-koons, are used by the Ottawwaws 
and Ojibbeways to distinguish the male and female bear, where 
the Menomonies would use Ou-xca-shah E-nai-ne-wow and On- 
wa-shah Ma-tai-mo-sh uh. 

Me-tun-nusk, Ojib. — Toothless, 

Mish-she-mo-nalj-na, Ott. — Great burrower, 

Mus-ko-tai Chil-ta-mo — Prairie squirrel. 

Mus-ko-tai Ah-gwin-gwoos — Prairie striped squirrel ; smail 
squirrel, with stripes and spots, burrowing in the prairie, some- 
times with the chittamo. 

Ah-gwin-gwoos — Cliijiping squirrel. 

Atch-e-ilah-mo — Red squirrel. 

O-zhug-gus-kon-duh-wa — Flying squirrel, (strikes flat on a 

Sun-nah-go, and Muk-kud-da As-sun-nah-go, and Mis-kwaw- 
sun-nah-go — The grey, black, and fox squirrels, not found in the 
country north of Lake Superior. 

Uk-kuk-koo-jees — Ground hog, smaller than in the states. 

Me-sau-boos — Hare, white in winter. 

Waw-boos — Rabbit. Meezh-way, Meezh-way-ug, sin. and 
pi. — Southern rabbit. 

Pish-tah-te-koosh — Antelope. This is reckoned the fleetest 
animal in the prairie country, about the Assinneboin. 

Pe-zhe-ke — Buffaloe. No-zha-zha-pe-zhe-ke — A cow that has 
a young calf following her. 0-neen-jah-nis-pe-zhe-ke — Farrow 

Jah-ba-pe-zhe-ke — Bull. Pe-zhe-keence — A young calf. 
0-saw-waw Koo-shance — A cal^ while the hair is red. Poo- 
nah-koosh — Calf, a year old. Ah-ne-ka-boo-nah-koosh — Two 
years old. 

Gitche-pe-zhe-ke — Fossil mammoth. 

Ma-nah-tik — Big horn. 

Gitche-mah-nish-tah-nish -Rocky mountain sheep. 




t'l.AN'is AM) A.MMAI >. 

An-ne-moo-shug — Doga. 

t . 


Small wolf, in prairie countries. 

Na-ne-mo-w liy, Ott. 
Mish-luh-lah-si, Ojib. 
Mi-een-gun-iiug — ("omnion wolves. 
Mi-een-gun — Common wolf. 
Muk-liii(l-da-mi-ecn-gun — Black wolf. 
Waw-be-mi-een-gun — White wolf. 
Shoon-slio — Long eared hound. 
An-ne-moosh — Common dog. 
Ta-tah-koo-gaut-ta-was-sim — Short leg dog. 
Be-gwi-wa-was-sim — Long haired dog ; Newfoundland. 
Ke-wis-kwa-mi-een-gun-nug — Mad wolves, sometimes .sorii. 
hut rarely bite, unless attacked! 

Waw-goo-shvg — Foxc.-'. 

If ^f I 

O-saw-waw-goosh — Common red fox. 
Muk-kud-da-waw-goosh — Black fox. 
Muk-kud-da-waw-goo-sliug — Black foxes. 
Wa-whaw-goosh — White fox, fur long, but of no value. 
Ne-ke-kwa-tug-gah-wa-waw-goosh — Grey fox. 
Pis-tat-te-moosh — Swift fox, (small dog.) 

m 'mi 

Kah-zhc-gainse — Common house cat, (little glutton.) 

Pe-zhcw — Wild cat. 

Ke-tah-gah-pe-zhew — Lynx, (spotted wild cat.) 

Me-she-pe-zhew — Panther, (big wild cat.) 

Ah-nieek — Beaver. Naub-ah-meek — Male beaver. Noazli- 

ah-meek — Female beaver. Ah-meek-koanse — Young beaver. 

Kin-waw-no-wish-shug, Cree, } m ^ 

^. , , , , I • ^v ■■, I Black tailed deer. 

Muk-kud-da-waw-wasli-gais, Ojib. ) 

Waw-wash-gais — Red or Virginian deer. 

O-mush-kooiis, Ojib. 

Me-sha-wav, Ottaw. / i o i • c 

• t iMe Saskawjawun,«Scc. 

W^aw-was-kesli, l-ree, J 

Ah-dik--Rein(lcer. Ca-ri-bou, French. The feet very larirc 

and broad, fitting the animal to travel over smooth ice, or dec p 

snow; fmuid on all the >^lini(s of Lake Superior, and sometinn > 

^ Elk. On Red River, Mouse Rivtr. 





limes sefi'' 



Ivcr. ISoazli- 
ing beaver. 

Imousc Rivti, 

red very larii*' 
\h ice, or dcq« 
land sometini. . 

.It the upper end of Lake Huron ; but most IVcquent farther 

Mooze, or Moonec, Ojib. ) Moose. Tlie nasal sound, at the 

Moon-swah, ('roe, S end of this word, is common in 

these dialects ; but it is didicult to represent, by the letters of 
our alphabet. 

I-aw-ba-mooze — Buck moose. No-zha-mooze — Deer moose. 
Moonze-aince — Little moose, &,c. 

A-yance — Opossum, only in the south. The word a-yance, 
means crafty. 

Shin-goos — Weasel, two kinds. 

Shin-goo-sug — Weasels. 

Ne-gik — Otter. Ne-gik-wug — Otters. 


Kecn-waw-no-wa waw-Avaw-bc-gun-o-jc — Long tail leaping 

Waw-waw-bc-gun-o-je — blouse. 

Ah-mik-waw-waw-be-gun-o-je — Reaver, or diving mouse. 

Kah-ge-bin-gwaw-kwa — Shrew. Two species are conmioti 
about St. Maries, in Avinter. 

Kahg — Porcupine.* Kahg-wug — Porcupines. 

Shong-gwa-she — Mink. 

Wah-be-zha-she — Marten. Woapckccs, Z. p. IH, 

A-se-bun — Raccoon. 

She-gahg — Skunk. 

O-zhusk — Muskrat. 

Ah-puk-kwon-ah-je — Bat. 

O-jeeg — Fisher weasel, a very stupid animal, easy to kill. 

* The j'oung of tluK aniinni, if taken out of the uterus with care immcdiati'ly oi i 
killing the dam, and put upon a tree, will cling to it, and otlrn live. The Indinns 
relate, that the porcupines, in the prairie countries of tht north, pasi? the winter.-^ 
on oak trees, where they oftentimes have no hole, or any other protection from 
the weather, than is atForded by the trunk of the tree. 'I'hey strip all the hark oil' 
one tree, before they go to search for another, and one may pass the greater part of 
the winter on a single tree, if it happens to be a lartrp one. They also pretend ti) 
latten the porcupine in the summer, whenever they r:\n i'md him in some hole, 
where he has cimstructed his nest, which is of his own excrement. This, they 
s.iy, he eats, and never fails, when tlius confined, to beeon\e very fat. The por- 
I'upine is not disposed to make any other resistance, when attacked by a man, than 
Ids spiny skin aflbrds, and the Indians have a saying of this anima], and of the ra! • 
liit. that those whom they bite will live to a irreat a^v. 





Nau-to-way — Thick, short rattle snake. [Sha-no-wc-naw — 
The rattier ?] 

She-she-gwa — Common rattle snake. Both these arc occa- 
sionally kept tame by the Indians. They sometimes make feasts 
to them, and they are said to be very docile and intelligent. 

Me-tik-o-she-she-gwa — Adder. 

Na-wa — Moccasin snake. 

Pih-kim — Prairie snake. At the head of Mouse River, and in 
the prairies towanis the Missouri, these snakes are more than six 
feet long, and proportionably large. Pih-kun-un are common 
snakes, but never half so large as the above. 

Mis-kwan-dib — Red head ; copper snake ? 

0-zha-\vus-ko Ke-na-beek — Green snake. 

Muk-kud-da Ke-na-beek — Black snake. 

O-mus-sun-dum-mo — Water snake. 

Wa-in-jc-tah Ke-na-beek — Garter snake, (right or true ge-Uii- 

0-kaute Ke-na-beek — Lizzard, (legged snake.) 

Gee-kut-tiHi-naung — Lizzard of some kind. 

Que-\ve-zains — Little boy, (also a lizzard.) 

Nib-be-kc O-muh-kuk-kc — Orbicular lizzard? (medicine frog. j 

Wain-jc-tah O-muh-kuk-ke — Right frogs, or common frog. 

Dain-(la — Bull frog, and hannie, Z. 19. 

Mis-ko-muh-kuk-ke — Red toad.* 

Be-go-muh-kuk-kc — C'ommon toads. These two last, at tlu 
approach of winter, place themselves erect on the surface of thf 
ground, on their hams, and by turning themselves round and 
round, they sink into the ground, which closes over them, and 
they keep below the frost. They are often found, several within 
two or three feet of each other, buried deep in the earth, but 
keeping constantly their heads erect. 

0-shaw-wus-ko-muh-kuk-ke — Tree frog. 

Me-zhc-ka, Ottaw. 

Me-kin-nauk, Oji 

Ta-ta-be-ko-nauk — Soft shelled tortoise. 

jib. \ ^""'^^ 


♦ Prom O-muk-kuk-ke, (Uy&A,)ajaA Ah-koo-se-win, (sickness,) is probably d«- 
rmvlthe \'nrd Ma-muk-ke-zc-win, (the small pox."^ 

i-wc-naw — 

e arc occa- 
make feasts 

liver, and in 
nore than six 
are common 

or true gc-u,>- 

)mmon frog. 

Lwo last, at till 
^e surface of the 
Ives round and 
over them, and 
I, several within 
the earth, but 

less,) is pw^*^'^''*" 

Winter hawli. 


l5oort-kut-la-\ — A tortoise with roimild(i|i sliell-:. 
Mis-kwaw-tais-sa — Terrapin. 
Siig-gus-kwaw-ge-iuii — Leech. 

Be-nais-se-wug — yj/'n/.v. 

Ive-neu — War eagle ; the master of all bird <. 

Me-giz-ze — White hcadod eagle. Me-giz-ze-wiig, plural 

Ka-kaik — Spotted iiawk. 

nc-ho-no-sa, Otta\v. ^ 

Ke-bu-niiz-/e, Ojih. ^ 

No-je-ke-na-bcck-we-zis-sc — Marsh hawk, (snake eating.) 

Wa-l>e-no-ie Ke-na-beck-we-zis-sc — White marsh hawk. 

Mis-ko-na-ne-sa — lied tail hawk. 

Pish-kc-ne\i — Black tail hawk. 

Muk-kud-da-kc-neu — Black liawk. 

J5ub-be-nng-go — Spotted tail hawk. 

['r-na-sern's — Small pheasant hawk. 

Clia-ecn-sa — A small hawk, so namtul IVoui ils er\ . 

I'e-pe-gc-wiz-zain's — Smallest hawk. 

VVe-nong-ga — Turkey buzzard. 

Kah-gah-ge, Ojib. i 

dau-ffau-ge-she, Ott. ) 

On-daiu; — Crow. On-daie-wno — (^rows. 

As-sig-ge-nawk — Black bird. 

Mis-ko-min-gwe-gun-nah Sig-go-nank — Ktil wing blackbird. 

O-pish-kah-gah-gc — Magpie. O-pish-kah-gah-ge-wug — Mag- 

Gwcen-gwe-slia — Similar in habits and locality to the former, 
nnd closely resembling, in size and colour, the following.* 

Teen-dc-se — Blue jay. These begin to lay their eggs before 
the snoAV is off the ground in the spring. 

Bc-gwuk-ko-kwa o-wais-sa — Thrush. 

* The Gwpcn-gwc-sha is met with about the Saut DeSt. Marie, in the winter 
season. It is a littie smaller than tlie bhio jay, and of a icaJen eolonr on the twck, 
the lower part of the nerk, and the wings ; a few of the feathers about the belly 
arc a dirty wliite above, but plumbeous below, as are those on the forward part of 
the neck, and about the insertion of the beak. It appears to be the Cormis Ca- 
''vknsu!o( Rees' Cyclop. It is snid to have been found as far south in tli« 
Iiiili'il Ststrs, as the Lilllf' FiiIIh ofllie Mohawk. 


Kah-gah-ge- wug 



r.. V; 

Ah-luk — Similar to the tlirinh in habits. 

W«?cii-dr-}To bc-nais-HH — Kinir bird, (the bird that eats his own 

O-pe-oIic* — Robin. 

Ma-mah-t\va — Cat bird. 

diaum-ma-wai«-shc — Anothc: ol' the same size. 

Kos-ko3-ko-na-rhini^ — firoiind bird ? A small bird so named 
iroin its note. * 


AVaw-bc-uing-ko-su — Snow birds. 

Che-ki-chc-gau-na-sa — A very small lively bird, peculiar to the 

Mis-kobr-na-sa — Red bird. 

Sa-ija-bun-wau-nis-sa — Waxen cliattercr. 


■ 'I'liis sociiil little hial srpjiis to bn uot less tlw fiivoiiritc and comp;iiiion of llip 
Indian than of tlir wliiti' man. Tliry relate, that long ago, t^oon after Nanabush 
bad made the ground, fhorc was an old chief, a great and j;tK)d man, who, with hi-, 
wife, had one son. Uut this young man disrcfjardetl the advice and adnionitinns 
of his [larent.s ; particularly he neglected to fast and pny, as all young men anil 
women are enjoined to do. For many successive days, had his father pr«>senlrd 
him hi;! breakfast in one hand, and in the other offered charcoals with which lu 
paint his fi»cc ; but the ungracious son had steadily preferred the venison, or thn 
broth, to the coals. One morning hii directed the old woman to mako a choice 
kettle of Mun-ilah-min-uw-bo, or corn broth, and taking a bowl full of it in one 
hand, and as nnual some coals in the other, he presented them both to his son. Tlu' 
young man chtwsnng the broth, the father returned to the fire place, atid takini; ,i 
handful of ashes, thri'w it into the bowl. The young man then took the coals, aiid 
rubbing them in hi.s hands, jiainted his face, and retired to the bushes near bj 
After he had lain thri-e or four days, his father ofliTed him something to eat, but 
he would not accept it. Thi.-. was rcptated from time to time, until the t«mth day ; 
then the young man still reniuiTiing in the buslus, cidled his father, and his niotluT, 
and his relatives, and addressed them thus : " .My friends, it has liei'ii unpleasant 
to you to see me eat so much as I have e^iten ; hcreafler I shall eat less ; but altlinurrli 
I can no longer live with you in the lodge, I shall remain near yon, and it shall be 
my busines.s lo forwam you when any stranger is B])proaching." He then took 
some red paint, and put it on his face and hi-* breast, to signify that his fast was 
finished, and was immediately changed to a bird calle<l 0-i)e-c,he. Still he deligliLs 
to live near the lotlgesof those who were his relatives; and oftentimes lakini^a 
iitand on the highest branch of a tree, Ii(> cries out n'doini-wateh-i'-go, n'lloati 
nutch-e-go, to forelel that someone is coming. Ibit having found that his pn 
diction often proves falsi-, he is ashamed as soon as he lias uttered it, and llyin^'. 
down, he hides hiiii'-elf ir\ thick tiushc. <>r on the ground, crying o\if chel civ' 
^he! rhe! 

\ . 

,8 his own 

I so named 

culiav to tlic 

after Nanabush 
111, who, with \i\> 
uiul adnioniliciis 
1 yoiinj? men and 
s fiitlioT prfscntrd 
a\s with whicli lu 
10 veniBon, or Ww. 
to make a choic- 
,\ fuU of it in one 
ithlohisson. 'I'lif 
Llaor, and tailing » 
[look the coiilx, and 
L- bushes nrar by. 
acthins •" <'a'i ''"<■ 
nlil the Uinth duy ; 
IcT, niiJ hit* nuilht'v, 
a botMi unjdcasiint 
Irs't ; but alllioupli 
[you, and it shall I)*' 
ijT." He then li>>V 
[y llnit hirt tas-l was 
Still he d«ligUt--i 
(flontimes taking a 
iitoUi'H". "''!«•'" 
„\md that hisi'f> 
[dred It, and llvmr. 
iii.^ out i-hel fh"' 


<)-zhah-wus-kobc-na-s:i — Green bird. 

0-zaw-we-be-na-sa — Yellow bird. 

Ma-ma — Red headed wood pecker. 

Paw-paw-sa — Spotted wood pecker. 

Muk-kud-da paw-paw-sa — Black pawpawsa. The male of this 
kind, has a bright yellow spot on the top of the head. Tliey are 
found about Lake Superior in winter. 

Mo-ning-gwun-na — Yaml, (highhold.) 

Ke-ke-ba-na — small spotted wood pecker. 

Chc-gaun-do-wais-sa — Brown wood pecker, confined to cedar 

Shin-go-beek-ai-sa — Cedar bird. 

Gitchc-o-gish-ke-mun-ne-sa — Great king fishrr. 

O-gish-ke-mun-ne-sa* — Common king fislirr. 

Shaw -shaw-wa-ne-bais-sa — Swallow. 


0-kun-is-sa — Loxia enudeator. found at Lake Superior in Feli- 

Pc, sing. Pe-ug, pi. — A fringillu, smaller than the waxen ciiui- 
terer. The female has a spot of red on the top of the head ; tin 
male, the whole head and neck of the same colour. The tail 
feathers are bent outwards near thr ends. Found about Lake Su- 
perior in the winter. 


Bosh-kun-dum-moan — Parakeet, (croch perons.) 

Moash-kah-o-se We-kum-mo, (Menomonie) — Stake driver, 

Kun-nuli waw-be-mokee-zhis wais-sa — Fly up the creek, (s>iu 

Me-mom-i-ne-ka-she — Rail, (rice bird.) 

Pud-(lush-k(»n-zhc — Snipe. 

Gitrhe-pud-dush-kon-zhe — Wood cock. 

Cni:-cHi;i;^-cHr.-Mi:-fK — Wader.-. 

Mo-voke — ('urliew, [a foreign word.| 
Alus-ko-da chc-checs-k«-wa — I'plimd plonr. 

*' /islvemaiiiH. /ein. liii. 




Yh i 

: I 

Wain-jc-lah clic-rliocs-kowa — Yellow leg piovrr. 

Che-to-waik — Bull licad plover. 

Chc-nhccs-kc-wais — Tern. 

WaM'b-uh-che-chawk — White Crane. 

0-saw-waw-che-chawk — Sand hill crane. 

Mc-zin-sa — Tin-key. 

Be-na — Pheasant. 

Mush-ko-da-sa — Grouse ; confined to pine and cedar countries, 

Ah-gusk, ((|jib.) Ke-waw-nc, (O ,.) — Prairie hen. 

O-nie-me — Pigeon ; o-me-ineeg — Pigeons. Amemi, Z. 10. 

Ko-KO-KO-OGE* Owls. 

Waw-wain-je gun-no — Great horned owl. 

Wain-jc-tah koko-koho — Uight owl. 

Koko-oanse — Little owl ; gokhotit, Z. IS. 

Bo-dah-wah doani-ba — Size of a pigeon, (memhrnm virile.) 

Kaw-kaw-bc-sha — Bro\rn owl. 

Wan-be-ko-ko — Snow owl, very Inr^e. 

"Waw-o-nais-sa — Whippooiwill. 

Baish-kwa — >'ig1it hawk. 




. V. 



NVaw-be-zco — Gre;\t Swan. 

Mah-nah-be-zee — Smaller swan, not common. Their cry n 
■iemblcs the voire of a man. The word means ugly or ill look 
Jig swan. 

Ne-kuh — Brant ; iir-kug, pi, 

Pish-ne-kuh — A smaller brant. 

Wa-wa — Goose ; >Va-\vaig — (Jeese; Waw-bc-wa-wa — Wliiii 
goose ; Waw-be-wa-waig — White geese. 

An-ne-nish-shecb — Unrk and mallard. 

Tah-gwaw-ge she-sheob — Fall duck, rod neck. 

Mah-lo-gun she-sheeb — Scrajier bill duck. 

Scah-mo — Wood duck. 

Wa-weeb-ge-won-gn — Blue wing teal, (swift winged.) 

( ' 

* Gnklios. 7. 1 1 

\ « 

f countries. 

, Z. i«. 

m virilo.) 

rheir iry i' 
Iv or ill look 




Ive-uls-tc-no-kwa sheeb — Crec woman duck. 

Muk-kud-da shecb — Black duck. 

Kitclie-waw-wc-bif^-wa-wya — Large blue wing duck. 

Pe-gwuk-o-she sheeb — Large bill, or blunt arrow duck ; frO!ii 
{)e-gwuk, the blunt or unbarbed arrow. This species has a largo 
bill, and head of a leaden colour. They are found throughout 
the winter, in the rapids between Lakes Superior and Huron. 

Ma-muh-tway-ah-ga — Wliistling wing. 

Kee-no-gwaw-o-wa sheeb — Long neck duck. 

A-ha-wa — House duck. 

Wah-ka-we sheeb — White duck. 

Claw-waw-zhe-koos — Shell duck. 

Ah-zig-wuk — Fishing duck. 

Sah-gah-ta — Mud hen. 

Shin-ge-bis — (trrebc ; Gitche-shin-ge-bis — Large ercr br. 

!Mahng — Loon. 

(\-sha-mahng — Small loon. 

Gau-gau-geshf! shecb — Cormoraiil. 

.Sha-da — Pelican ; sha-daiir — Pelicans. 

Shub-slnih-<rah — Blue h( ron. 

Gi-ArsiiK-wi'G —Gull.<. 

<iiiche-gi-aushk — Great gull. Gi-as-koo-sha of the Oltawwaw>. 
Paush-kaw gi-aushk — Black headed gull. 
Vas-so-waw-gwini-nus-kitte-kwah-gi-aushk — Fork tailed gull. 
Muk-kud-da gi-aushk — Black gull. 

MAN-E-TOANSE-srCi* — I/lffCCts. 

Bo-dush-kwon-c-she — Large dragon tly. 
Bo-dns-kwon-t-shcense — Small dragon iK . 
Gitche-me-ze-zaidit — Largt; horse lly. 
M(!-zauk — Cunirnoii horse lly. 
Mr-zauk-oons — Nat lly. 

' .Mnn-r-loans(<-su;i, or iimn-c-toaiisc-ug, wnall spirits ; not rxartlv synonoinoin 
):i tliisniipliciiitoii with our word insects, but usoil to tlfsiffuate, indiscrimiiiatrK , 
ill very Hiiiall aiiiiiuils. 

t Mesissachowak. Zci"*. 81. 



K< ; > 


Gitche-ah-ino — Humble bee. Atnoe, abee, Z. 10. 

Ah-mo, sing., ali-maag, pi. — Wasps, hornets, &,v. 

Wa\v-\vaw-lais-sa — Lightning bug. 

An-ne-me-ke wid-de-koam* — Miller, sphinx, thunder's louse. 

Pah-puk-ke-na — Grasshopper. 

Ad-de-sah-wa-a-she — Locust. 

Mow-wytch-e-ka-se — Beetle, (dung worker.) 

Gitche-o-mis-kose — Great water bugs. 

0-mis — Common water bug. 

Ma-maing-gwah — Butterfly. 

Metig-onishe-moan-ka-she — (He that sleeps in a stick.) Found 
in the bottom of springs. 

Sha-bo-e-ya-sa — Rowing water bug. 

Man-e-toanse o-ke-te-beeg pe-me-bui-toan — Literally, the little 
f creature or] spirit that runs on the water. 

O-mush-ko-se-se-wug — Grass bugs. 

0-o-chug — Blowing flies and house flies. 

Sug-ge-ma — Musquito. 

Pin-goosh, pin-goosh-ains-sug — Gnats and sand flies. 

Alat-wa-nuh-kai-moag — Swarming flics. 

8ub-be-ka-.Hhe — Spider, (net worker.) A-a-be-ko — Large bladv 

An-e-go — Ant.t 

Mis-ko-manetoanse — A little red bug common in the north. 

Me-nah-koo-sit manetoanse — Strawberry buff. 

Puh-beeg — Flea ; Puh-beeg-wug — Fleas. 

Eze-gaug — Tick. 

K-kwuh — Louse ; E-kwug — Lice. 

Mo-sAic — Wornu'i. 

l>-zah-wash-ko-mo-sah — Green worm. 
Way-muk-kwah-na — Great catterpillar, (bear skin.) 

* Thin in one of (hose chiiutiy Rphinxes, or moths, that arc found on thogrouiiii 
in (lump weather, or after nhowersof rain, ami the Indiimn imuirine that they full 
from the Arniimekcfg, the brincrs voice is the thunder. 

+ The Nimtowiiy Indians have a fable, of an old man and woman who watoh'il 
an aut lieiip until they saw the little iuHects i'haiii;ed to white men, anil the eg'."- 
'.vliic'h tlii'v c.irrv in their ttionth.v tn tides of miTi'limidise 



yy<(ff»Tft*y-p '**^-' • ' ^ -^a. ■ ^^^U 


r's lous^o. 

ck.) Found 
llv, the littli' 


—Large blad 
tlie north. 


iind on the grouii>'. 
Line that thoy fiiU 

Iniin wlw watctwM 
noil, nivl tlieoec*' 


Gitche-mo-sa — Great white grub ; gitche-mo-saig, plural, 
Me-shin-no-kau-tait-mo-sa — MilUpedf. 
Pe-mis-koo-de-scence — Snail. 

Ke-goi-yug — Fishef. 

Nah-ma — Sturgeon. 

Mas-ke-no-zha — Maskenonge, or pike. 

O-zhaw-wush-ko ke-no-zha — Green pickerel, only found in tlic 

Ke-no-zha — Pickerel ; from kenose, long. 

Nahrma-goosh — Trout. 

Na-zhum-ma-goosh — Brook trout. 

Ne-git-che — Buflaloe fish. 

Rush-shc-to — Sheeps head ; bush-she-toag, plural. 

Mon-nuh-she-gun — Black bass. 

Ad-dik-kum-aig, (attai-kuin-meeg, Menom.) — White fish, or 
rein-deer fish ; from ad-dik, rein-deer, and gum-maig, Avater. 

Buh-pug-ga-sa — Large sucker. 

Mis-kwaw-zhe-gun-no — Red horse. 

Nah-ma-bin — Sucker ; Mis-kwun nah-ma-bin —Red sucker. 

TIg-gud-dwawsh — Sun fish. 

Siih-\va — Perch, (yellow.) Sah-waig, pi. 

0-ka-ali-wis — Fresh water herring. 

We-be-chec — A flat fish larger than herring; only found in 
Red River. 

Mon-num-maig — Great cat fish. 

Ah-wa-sis-sie — Little catfish. The Indians say this fish hatches 
its young in a hole in the mud, and that they accompany her for 
some time afterwards. 

Ke-na-beek gwum-maig — Eel, (water snake.) 

0-da-che-gah-oon — Gar. 

Shig-gwum-maig — Shovel nose ; only in tlie Mississippi. 

Kuk-kun-naun-gwi — Littl-. toad fish ; Lake Huron. 

0-gah-suk — Little dories ; Lake Huron. 

()-gah — Dory. 

Bug-gwut-tum-mo-goon-suk — These arc small fishes, tli.'ii 
make tlicir appearance in ponds having no connexion with rivers 
T lakes, and which are sometimes quite dry. But though tliry 



t C! 

all periali in limes of drought, they re-appear when the pomls 
are filled. 

Shaw-ga-she — Craw fish. 

Ais — Clam ; Ais-sug — Clams. 

Ais-ainsc — Little clam. 

Mis-koan-su<r — Red clams. 

\ •, 

I. •■^ 

-tk. -ivV 


Tliat the Indians are less observant of inanimate substances 
tiian of organized beings, will be manifest from the following 
meagre catalogue of minerals. 

> \ 

r I •■, 

Bin-gwaw-beok — Lime stone, (ashes stone.) 

Mat-toat-wah-nah-beek — Granite. 

Aluk-knd-dah-waw-beck — Black stoiio. 

Mik-k\vuni-me-waw-brek — Wliitc Flint, (ice stone.) 

Pisli-a!>-be«'k — Sulphnret of iron. They often find this passing 
into sulphate of iron, and make use of it for dying black. 

O-poih-guii-irs-sin — Pipe stone ; farther distinguished accord- 
ing to colour. 

(>-ska\v-'<!uii-wa\v-bii'k — (Jneiss, (vein stone.) 

Mis-kwaw-siii — Red sand ston* . 

(raw-gaw-wusk — Gypsum. 

Waw-bc-gun — While clay. 

( )-iunn-un — Ochre. 

Mis-kwavv-be-gun — Red earth. 

0-sa\v-waw-be-i{un — Yellow eartii, 

Mukkuii-da-wuk-kum-mik — Black mould. 

Waw-be-gun-uk-kaw — Clay grouiul. 



lie ponil? 

le following 

H)f BM!^. 



Ahono the Indians of the Algonkia sioek, every ntaii receivet: 
from his father a totem, or family name. They aflfirm that no 
man is, by their customs, allowed to change his totem ; and a? 
this distinctive mark descends to all the children a man may 
have, as well as to all the prisoners he may take and adopt, it is 
manifest that, like the genealogies of the Hebrews, these totems 
should aflford a complete enumeration of the stocks from whicli 
all the families have been derived. It diflfers not from our insti- 
tution of surnames, except that the obligations of friendship and 
hospitality, and the restraint upon intermarriage, which it im- 
poses, are more scrupulously regarded. They profess to con- 
sider it highly criminal for a man to marry a woman whose to- 
tem is the same as his own; and they relate instances where young 
men, for a violation of this rule, have been put to death by their 
nearest relatives. They say, also, that those having the samf* 
totem are bound, under whatever circumstances, as they meet, 
iven though they should be of different and hostile bands, to 
treat each other not only as friends, but as brethren, sisters, and 
relatives of the same family. 

Of the origin of this institution, and of the obligation to ils 
i^lrict observance, the Indians profess to know nothing. They 
say they suppose the totem was given them in the beginniug, by 
their creator. Like surnames among us, these marks are now 
numerous ; and, as in the case of our surnames, it is difficult to 
account for their multiplicity, without supposing a time when 
they might have been changed, or new ones adopted, more easily 
than at present. 

It is not, as yet, well ascertained that any of the North Ame- 
rican Indians, except those of the Algonkin family, have these 
peculiar genealogical marks. Those of the great Chippewyan 
family, in the north, we are well assured, have them not. From 
long acquaintance with the Dahcotah bands of the Mississippi and 
St. Peters, in which designation we include the Hoochawgenah. 
m Winnebagocs, and the loways, and from a more transient so- 
MMiminfir ninoii<r i\w Otoc^, the KaiisR>'. liic Omawliawci". Ihf 




Pawnees, and other western tribes, we have, with careful inquiry 
and search, been able to collect no intimation of such a custom 
among them. But of the western Indians we cannot speak wilh 
entire confidence, as we recollect to have heard Renville, an in- 
terpreter for the Sioux, after much puzzling and cross-examina- 
tion, admit that something of the kind might exist among that 
people. It may be observed, that the Algonkins believr all 
other Indians to have totems, though, from the necessity ihcy 
are in general under, of remaining ignorant of those of hostile 
bands, the omission of the totem in their picture writing, serves 
to designate an enemy. Thus, those bands of Ojibbeways who 
border on the country of the Dahcotah, or Sioux, always under- 
stand the figure of a man without totem, to mean one of that 


l\: i '4 



Among the Ottawwaws and Ojibbeways, with the names of some 
to whom they belong. 

Muk-kwaw — Bear, the totem of Pe-ga-gun, 0-shaw-Ava-no, ami 
0-ka-taw, chiefs of Waw-gun-nuk-kiz-ze. 

Ke-no-zha — Pickerel, of A-ko-win-de-ba. 

Ad-dik-kun-maig — White fish, of Wawb-o-jeeg, (the wliiir 

Moons — Moose, of Naw-o-gcc-zhik, (in the middle of the sky.) 
This is said to be the original totem of the Ottawwaws ; havins? 
received many accessions of people Aom other bands, many 
other totems have been derived from them, and are now inter- 
mixed with the original stock. 

Ad-dik — Rein deer, o<"Ma-mi-ah-jun, (he that goes.) 

Mahng — A loon, of Too-beesh. 

Me-giz-ze — White headed eagle, of Me-zhuk-kwun-na-no. 

Ka-kaik — Henhawk, of 0-ge-mah-",ve-nin-ne. 

Pe-pe-ge-wiz-zains — Sparrow hawk, of Muk-kud-da-be-na-sa. 

Ah-meek — Beaver, of Wa-me-gon-a-bicw and Net-no-kwa 

MDs-sun-dum-mo — Water snake, of 0-kin-je-wun-no, Sin-iK • 
wav, &c. 


'u\ inquiry 
1 a custom 
speak with 
iUe, an in- 
among that 
believe all 
cessity they 
e of hostile 
iting, serves 
jeways who 
[ways under- 
one of that 

tames of some 
law-wa-no, ami 

jg, (the while 

Idle of the sky.) 
waws; having 
[r bands, many 

are now inter- 


Lun-no, Sin-i» 


Forked tree, of Ke-me-wun, O-jee^, &c. 

Gi-oshk — Gull, of Puh-koo-se-gun. 

Ad-je-jawk — Crane, of Au-da-menc. 

Nah-ma-bin — Sucker, of Nain-noh-we-ton. 

Pe-zhew — Wild cat : common totem among the Muskegoes, 

Ah-wa-sis-se — Smah fish, ofMatche-kwe-we-zainse. Some- 
times they call the people of this totem, " those who carry their 
young," from the habits of the small cat fish. 

She-she-gwun — Rattle snake ; the totem of Gish-kaw-ko, Ma- 
nito-o-geezhik, &.c. and by tliem given to Tanner. 

Many more might be enumerated, but these are sufficient to 
give an idea of the kinds of objects from which they choose to 
derive their names. The trivial or common name of a man may 
be, and often is, changed on his going to war, or at the occur- 
rence of any remarkable event ; but the totem is never changed. 
It is not true, that they have, in all instances, the figure of what- 
ever may be their totem always tattooed on some part of their 
body, nor that they carry about them a skin, or any other mark, 
by which it may be immediately recognised. Though they may 
sometimes do this, they are, in other instances, when they meet 
as strangers, compelled to inquire of each other their respectivf. 

■ The tribes known to the Ottawwaws, are by them denonunateJ as follows :— 

1. Ottawwawwug, Ottawwaws, ^ , , . ,. 

2. Ojibbewaig, Ojibbeways, { ^'^^^^ ""'" "» "^ ?*«* ^""^^ '""^ ^^"'^ '^'^' 

3. Potiwattimeeg, Potiwattomies, > '*''' '"^ ^"^^'"- 

4. Kekaupoag, Kickapoos. 

5. Oshawanoag, Shawnecse, or southern people. 
G. Wawbunukkeeg, Stockbiidge, or white tops. 

7. Muskotanje, Muskantins of the early French writers; formerly lived at 
Wawkwunkizzp, whence they were driven by the Ottawwaws, and the latter now 
consider them as lost. By some they are supposed to have been a band of Poti- 
wattomies ; but the Ottawwaws enumerate them as a distinct people. 

8. Osaugeeg, Sankcwi. 

9. Mahnomoneeg, Mcnomonies, (wild rice people.) 

10. Kneestenoag, Crees. They are said to call themselves Nahhahwuk. 

11. Muskegoag, Muskegoes, (swamp people.) 

12. Muskegoag, Nopcmit Azhinnenecg, or Nopemetus Aninceg, (bark woe' . 
people,) a second relationship of Muskegoes. 

13. Sheshcbug, Ducks. 
11. Bowwetegoweninnewug, FalllnJians. 

^ ; 



'I'lic word totem is of the Ojibbeway languiigc, and, like almost 
all others, is readily moulded into the form of a verb, as will ap- 
pear from the following examples : — 

Ah-neen en-dah che-un-net, 0>to-tem-e>waun maun-duh-pe ' 

How maiiy arc these are totems here? 

HoA. many arc the totems of this band ? 

Wa-nain way-gi-osh-kun wa-to-ta-met ? 
What the gull is hi« totem .' 

What is the guH's totem ? 



f^ ,( 

Of the opinions of the Indians respecting the heavenly bodie.--, 
little need be said. An extensive acquaintance with the motions, 
figures, distances, &.c. of these bodies, could not have been ex- 
pected from people situated as they are, and deprived altogethrr 

13 'i'uskwawpp'\eeg, Uskwawgomees; near Montreal. 

Thr above fiftpcii tribes arc tlioiight (o apeak lanfriia^fes wliii-Ii resemble Odav 

Ifi. Nautowaig, Naud nvajs, (rattle snakes. > 

IT. Mat-chc-nnw-to-waig, Bad Namloways. 

18. locwaig, loways. 

Jf>. Nabuggindebaig, Flat heads; said to have lived below the Illititiis Ftivn 

20. Wirinebagoag, Winiiclw^oe.'-', or Pimiits. 

'21. Bwoinug, Sioux; Naiulowcsseeg, Ott., iJoasfcrs. 

22. Ussinebwoiiuig, Assinnelxiine, (stone roasters.) 

•2'X .Agutrhanmnewug, Minnetahrees, (settled people.) 

Uf. Kwowahtewug, Mandans. 

■J.'>. Ahmeekkwun Flninnewug, Beaver People; among the Fall Indian ><. 
Mukkudda Ozitunnug, Black Feet. 
UssinncwudJ F.nlnncwug, Rocky Mountain Indian.-^. 
Pahneng, Pawnees. 

29 Wamussoivowiig. 

'M Kokoskeeg. 

31. .Aguskemaig, Esquimaux, (those who eat tlieir food raw.) 

o2. Wcendegoag, Cannilrals This last iii an imaginary race, said to inliabit 
an ivland in Hudson's Bay. They are of gigantic dimension, and extremely given 
to cannibalism. The Mu>ikegoes, who inhabit the low and cheerless swamp* on 
the borders of Hudson's Bay, and are themselves reproached by the other tribr<; 
aa cannibals, arc said to live in constant fear of the Weendegoag. 

33. Qjecg Wyahnng, Fisher Skins 



iWLti I. or AsTRONOMV. 


, 1 

ike almost 
as will ap- 

-duh-pe ' 


irenly bodie;--, 
I the motion?, 
lavc been ex- 
cd altogethrr 

) resemble 0(ta^^ 

le llli' Riv'^i 

"all Indians. 

ace, said to inliabit 

ind extremely givf 1 1 

heerless swamp* oil 

by the other trib<«^ 

written language. They pre 

se subjectr* than they lossr- 


iiUm of I) 


•mn and 

■^ wife, v/U- 

, . ■ V be ! 

lived on 
»iful boy. 

of the aids of inatr /lenl.-. and ' 
tend to no more kr wledge on i 

Au-do-me-ne, an idHgent O wwaw . 
answer to my inquiries conceminir their 
moon, related to mc the following fable :- 

Long ago, an old Ojibbcway chief, and 
the shore of Lake Huron, had one won, 
His name was Ono-wut-to-kwut-to, (he that catches clouds,) and 
his totem, after that of his father, a beaver. He would have 
been a great favourite with them, for he was, in the main, affec- 
tionate and dutiful, except that they could never persuade him to 
fast. Though they gave him charcoal, in place of his usual 
breakfast, he would never blacken his face, and if he could find 
fish eggs, or the head of a fish, he would roast them, and have 
something to eat. Once they took from him what he had thus 
cooked in place of his accustomed breakfast, and threw him 
some coals instead of it. But this was the last of many attempts 
to compel him to fast. He took up the coals, blackened his 
face, went out, and lay down. At night, he did not return into 
ihe lodge of his parents, but slept without. In his dream he saw 
a very beautiful woman come down from above, and stand at his 
feet. She said, " Ono-wut-to-kwut-to, 1 am come for you ; see 
that you step in my tracks." The lad obeyed without hesitation, 
and stepping carefully in her steps, he presently found himself 
ascending above the tops of the trees, through the air, and be- 
yond the clouds. His guide at length passed through a small 
round hole, and he following her, found himself standing on a 
beautiful and extensive prairie. 

They followed the path, which led them to a large and rich 
looking lodge ; entering here, they saw on one side pipes and 
war clubs, bows, arrows, and spears, with the various imple- 
ments and ornaments of men. At the other end of the lodge 
were the things belonging to women. Here was the home of 
the beautiful girl who had been his companion, and she had, on 
the sticks, a belt she had not finished weaving. She said to him, 
" My brother is coming, and I must conceal you." So putting 
him in one corner, she spread the belt over him. Ono-wut-to- 
kwut-to, however, watched what passed without, from his con- 
cealment, and saw the brother of the young woman come in, 







■n\ i 



most splendidly dressed, and take down a pipe I'rom the wuil. 
After he had smoked, he laid aside liis pipe, and the sack con- 
taming his pah-koo-se-gun, and said, " When, my sister, will you 
cease from these practices ? Have you forgotten that the Great- 
est of the Spirits has forbidden you to steal tiie children of those 
who live below? You suppose you have concealed this that 
you have now brought, but do I not know that he is here in the 
lodge ? If you would not incur my displeasure, you must send 
him immediately down tohis friends." But she would not. He 
then said to the boy, when he found that his sister was deter- 
mined not to dismiss him, " You may as well come out from that 
place, where you are not concealed from me, and walk about, for 
you will be lonesome and hungry if you remain there." He 
took down a bow and arrows, and a pipe of red stone, richly or- 
namented, to give him. So the boy came out from under the 
belt, and amused himself with the bow and pipe the man gave 
him, and he became the husband of the young woman who hail 
brought him up from the woods near his father's lodge. 

He went abroad in the open prairie, but in all this fair and 
ample country, he found no inhabitants, except his wife and her 
brother. The plains were adorned with flowers, and garnished 
with bright and sparkling streams, but the animals were not like 
those he had been accustomed to see. Night followed day, as 
on the earth, but with the first appearance of light, the brother- 
in-law of Ono-wut-to-kwut-to began to make his preparations to 
leave the lodge. All day, and every day, he was absent, and re- 
turned in the evening ; his wife, also, though not so regular in 
the time of her departure and return, was often absent great part 
of the night. 

He was curious to know where they spent all the time of their 
absence, and he obtained from his brother-in-law permission to 
accompany him in one of his daily journeys. They went on in 
a smooth and open path, through prairies, to which they could 
see no boundary, until Ono-wut-to-kwut-to, becoming hungry, 
asked his companion if he did not think he should find any game. 
" Be patient, my brother," said he ; " this is my road in which I 
walk every day, and at no great distance is the place where 1 
constantly eat my dinner. When we arrive there you shall scr 
how I am supplied with food." 

m . mw '■ ■**"*l**^*'ll*iPBIP'^w* 





[\ the wall. 
; sack cou- 
r, will you 
the Great- 
en of those 
d this that 
here in the 
a must send 
Id not. He 

was deter- 
)Ut from that 
,lk about, for 
there." He 
le, richly or- 
am under the 
he man gave 
man who had 

this fair and 
s wife and hei 
\nd garnished 
were not like 
[lowed day, as 
;, the brother- 
reparations to 
^bsent, and re- 

so regular in 
lent great part 

time of their 
1 permission to 
ley went on in 
Ich they could 
Iming hungry, 
^nd any game, 
aad in which 1 
[place where I 
vou shall f^ec 

They came at length to a place where were many fmc mats to 
^it down upon, and a hole through whidi to look down upon the 
earth. Ono-wut-to-kwut-to, at the bidding of his companion, 
looked down through this hole, and saw far beneath him the 
great lakes, and the villages, not of the Ojibbeways only, but of 
all the red skins. In one place he saw a war party, stealing si- 
lently along toward the hunting camp of their enemies, and his 
companion told him what would be the result of the attack they 
were about to make. In another place he saw people feasting 
and dancing : young men were engaged at their sports, and here 
and there women were labouring at their accustomed avocations. 

The companion of Ono-wut-to-kwut-to called his attention to 
a group of children playing beside a lodge. " Do you see," said 
he, " that active and beautiful boy ?" at the same time thro^ving 
a very small stone, Avhich hit the child, who immediately fell to 
the ground, and presently they saw him carried into the lodge. 
Then they saw people running about, and heard the she-she- 
gwun, and the song and prayer of the medicine man, entreating 
that the child's life might be spared. To this request his com- 
panion made answer, " Send me up the white dog." Then they 
could distinguish the hurry and bustle of preparation for a feast, 
a white dog killed and singed, and the people, who were called, 
assembling at the lodge. While these things were passing, he 
addressed himself to Ono-wut-to-kwut-to, saying, " There are. 
among you in the lower w urlJ, some whom you call great medi- 
cine men ; but it is because their cars are open, and they hear 
my voice, when I have struck any one, that they are able to give 
relief to the sick. They direct the people to send me whatever 
I call for, and when they have sent it, I remove my hand from 
those I had made sick." When he had said this, the white dog 
was parcelled out in dishes, for those that were at the feast ; then 
the medicine man, when they were about to begin to eat, said, 
" We send thee this, Great Manito ;" and immediately they saw 
the dog, cooked, and ready to be eaten, rising to them through 
the air. After they had dined, they returned home by another 

In this manner they lived for some time, but Ono-wut-to-kwut- 
to had not forgotten his friends, and the many pleasant things 
lii'had left in his father's village, and he longed to return to thr 






earth. At last, his wife consented to his request. " Since," 
said she, " you are better pleased with the poverty, the cares, and 
the miseries of the world beneath, than with the peaceful and 
permanent delights of these prairies, go. I give you permission 
to depart ; not only so, but since I brought you hither, 1 shall car- 
ry you back to the place where I found you, near your father's 
lodge ; but remember, you are still my husband, and that my 
power over you is in no manner diminished. You may return to 
your relatives, and live to the common age of man, by observing 
what I now say to you. Beware how you venture to take a wife 
among men. Whenever you do so, you shall feel my displeasure : 
and if you marry the second time, it is then you will be called (o 
return to me." 

Then Ono-wut-to-kwut-to awoke, and found himself on tho 
ground, near the door of his father's lodge. Instead of thr 
bright beings of his vision, he saw about him his aged mother, and 
his relatives, who told him he had been absent about a year. 
For some time he was serious and abstracted ; but, by degrees, 
the impression of his visit to the upper world wore off. He he 
gan to doubt the reality of what he had heard and seen. At 
length, forgetful of the admonitions of his spouse, he married a 
beautiful young woman of his own tribe. Four days afterwards 
she was a corpse. But even the etl'ert of this fearful admonition 
was not permanent. Ho again ventured to marry, and soon af- 
terwards, going out of his lodge one night, to listen to some unu- 
sual noise, he disappeared, to return no more. It was believed 
that his wife from the upper world came to recall him, accordinf; 
to her threat, and that he still remains in those upper regions, 
and has taken the place of his brother-in-law, in overlooking the 
affairs of men. 

It appears from this tradition, that Avorship, or sacrifices, arc, 
among the Ottawwaws, sometimes made to the sun and moon ; 
and tlu^y acknowledge that these luminaries, or rather the man 
in the sun, aiul the woman in the moon, keep watch over all our 

The various changes of the moon afford them a method of 
meaHuring time, very definite as to the periods, but variable in the 
names they give them. Their old men have many disputes about 
the number of moons in rnch vcar. and they give different nann- 


' i 

r:i.i"i.iwi.miiiD i .ji.n! ' 



" Since," 
care3, and 
iceful and 
I shall car- 
lur father's 
d that my 
y return to 
f observing 
take a wife 
lispleasure ; 
be called to 

isclf on the 
tead of the 
mother, and 
bout a year. 
, by degrees, 
off. He bo- 
ld seen. At 
he married a 
•s afterwards 
d admonition 
and soon af- 
to some unu- 
was believed 
m, accordinp, 
iper regions, 
jrlooking tht- 

Irrificcs, arc, 
]n and moon ; 
Ither the man 
over all our 

la method of 
lariable in the 
llisputes about 

Iflrrrnt nam<" 

10 tacli of tiiese. Some of tlic names in common use are tlie 
following. The first words are in the Ottawwaw, and the second 
in tlie Menomonie dialert. 
O-ta-ha-mene kee-zis — 0-tai-hai-miii ka-zho — Strawberry 

IVle-nes kee-zis — Main ka-zho — Whortleberry njoon. 
Menomonie-ka-we kee-zis — Pohia-kun ka-zho — Wild rice ga- 
thering moon. 
Be-nah-kwaw-we kee-zis — Paw-we-pe-muk ka-zho — Leaves 

falling moon. 
Gush-kut-te-ne kee-zis — Wnn-nai ka-zho — Ice moon. 
Ah-gim-me-ka-wc kee-zis — Wa-si-ko-si ka-zho — Snow shoes, 

Ojib. ; bright night, Menom. 
Mah-ko kee-zis — Wa-mun-nus-so ka-zho — [Manito o-kee-zis, 

Ojib.] — Hear moon, Ott. ; dear rutting moon. Men. ; 

[Spirit moon, Ojib.] 
Kitche-manito o-kcc-/.is — Ma-clia-li-witk wa-mun-nuz-so-wuk 

— Longest moon, i^ood for luuitiiig.* 
Me-giz-ze-we kee-zis — Na-ma-pin ka-zho — [I\a-ma-bin kec-zi>i. 

Ott.j — Snrker moon. 
>ie-kc kee-zis — Siio-bo-maw-kun ka-zho — llrant moon, Ojib. ; 

Sugar moon. Men. 
Ma\Mig-o kee-zis — .\s-sa-bini ka-zlio — Ja)on*s moon, Ojib. ; rai - 

coon moon, Men. 
Sah-ge-bug-ah-we kee-zis — Pe-ke-pe-niuk ka-zlio — Leaves 

Another moon spoken of by the iVIenomonies, is Wai-to-ke Ka- 
zho, the snake moon, which belongs to the spring season. 

The following short catalogue ol stars and constellations, will 
>lu)w that they pay some attention to the more remote of the 
heavenly bodies. Some few of their old men, it is said, have 
many more names. 

Waw-bim-an-nunjr — The morning star. 

Ive-wa-din an-nung — The north star. 

Muk-koo-ste-gwt)n — The bear's head. Three stars in the tri- 

Muli-koo-zhe-gwun — Bear's rump. Seven stars. 

* A ptruon born in thit* moon, (Janunrv ) will W long livei! 





•.♦. i 

m . < 

Oi-eogan-nung-wiig — Fisher stars. The bright stars in ursa 
major, and one beyond, which forms the point of the fisherV 

Mah-to-te-sun — The sweating lodge. One of the poles of this 
lodge is removed. They say the man whom they {>oint out near 
by, was so overcome witli the heat of the Mah-to-te-sun, that in 
his hurried attempt to escape, he pulled up this pole. 

Mahng — A loon. 

Nau-ge-maun-gwait — Man in a canoe hunting the loon. 

Ah-wali-to-wuh o-moag — The companions sailing. 

An-nung-o-skun-na — Comet. They have the oj)inion common 
;iinong ignorant white people, that the appearance of a comet is 
an indication that war is to follow. The Ojibbeway An-nung-o- 
^kuii-na, seems to signify blazing star. The Menomonies call 
them Sko-tie-nah-mo-kin, the seeing fire. Some of the Ojibbp- 
wayp, al.'io, Wa-ween-e-zis-e-mah-guk Ish-koo-da, fire that has 

Of the (rue cause of the increase and decrease of the moon, ot' 
ci'lipses, and of other phenomena which depend upon the motion^ 
of tie heavenly bodies, they have no correct conceptions. When 
the moon is in eclipse, they say it is dying, and they load and dis- 
charge tiieir guns at it ; and when they perceive the bright pari 
becoming a little larger, they imagine they have aided to drive 
away the sickness which was overpowering it. Of the milliv 
way, they sometimes say, that a turtle has been swimming alonu^ 
the bottom of the sky, and disiurbt'd the mud. Of tlie aurora bo- 
realis, which tliey call the dancf of the dead, their opinion, 
though a little more poetic, is equally childish. Several ircteorir 
phenomena they distinguish from those remoter appearances 
which are beyond our atniosiihore, and of the former they sonn - 
limes say, " they belong to us." 

What was long ago stated by Roger Williams, of the mytho- 
logy of the Indians of Rhode Island, agrees but in part with the 
opinions of the present daj' amrng the Otlawwaws. Of Cau-tan- 
to-wit, " the great south-west god," we hear nothing. Ning-gali- 
be-an-nofi;4 Manito, the western god, the younger brother of Nn- 
tia-bou-jou, the god of (he country of (he dead, has taken hii 
place. In his Saw-waw-nand, we recognize the Shaw-wun-nouji 
Manito, tho stmthcrn irod of the (>((;iwwaw's. But all these. \\i\\\ • 


mrs in ursn 
,he fisher's 

joles of this 
int out near 
sun, that in 


liou coinniou 
of a comet is 
f An-nung-o- 
lomonies call 
f the Ojibbc- 
fire that has 

the moon, ot 
m the motioib 
ptions. When 
J load and dis- 
he bright pari 
aided to drive. 
Of the milky 
imiaing alonu' 
the aurora bo 
their opinion, 
veral n"eteoii<- 
r appearanci"- 
lor they sonn - 

of the mytho- 
part with the 
Is. OfCau-tan- 
ig. Ning-gah- 
1 brother of Nn- 
has taken hi" 
ill these. WnM- 


hun-ong Manito, the god of the morning, or of the east, Ke-way- 
tin-ang Manito, the god of the north, witli Ka-no-waw-bum-min- 
iik, " he that sees us," whose place is in the sun, are inferior iii 
power to many others ; even to the Ke-zhc-ko-we-nin-ne-wug, 
the sky people ; a race of small, but benevolent and watchful be- 
ings, who are ever ready to do good to mankitid. 







!'• ;«o. 

1. Oto — Fro7n Say. 


i; \l 














•i. Konza. 











:{. Omau'hnw. 











'1. Yaukfiuig: 











S i , . i u ,m0m » i f i n0ii|r I i » 



5. Dahkotah — Of Upper Mississippi. 

Wau-zhe-tah Shah-kah-pr 

No-a-pah Sliah-koan 

Yah-min-iic Shah-han-doali 

To-a-pah Neep-chew-wun-kali 

Zah-pe-tah Weck-chim-mah-nc 

U. Minnetahsc. 










7. Pawnee. 





Pet-ko-shek-sha-bisl i 






8, Choktaw. 












0. Ojibbcway. 
Ning-gooj-waw, or Ba-zhik Ning-good-waw-swe 

Nis-swaw, 01 

or Neczli 
• Nis-swc 


Shong-^us-swc, or shong 
Me-dos-swe, or kwaitch 

10. Muskwake. 



m . 


'»■ .?; ,f 


I . 

H ^^ 












— From Hcckeweldcr. 











12. Algonlcin — From Heckioedder. 

Pe-gik Nin-gon-ton-as-sou 

Ninch Nin-chou-as-soii 

Nis-souc JN'is-soii-as-so\i 

Neon Ohan-gas-so\i 

!Va-san Mil-Ias-sou 

13. Dclawarr. — Froj/i Ilcckewclder. 












14. Mahnotnonic. 











16. Cree — From Say. 











./ ■ 






10. Winnebago. 












17. Adage — Frorri Duponceau. 
Nan-cas Pa-ca-naa-cus 
Nass Pa-caness 
(yolle Pa-ca-lon 
(-■ac-ca-chc Sic-kin-ish 
!Sep-pa-can Neus-ne 

18. Muskogee — Frotn Adair. 











19. Cholctah 

and Cliiksah- 

—From Adair. 













-From Adair. 












Ta-ra-too (12) 

31. Quaddies, [Maine.] — From Duponceau. 

lS*ai-gof Ni-lii 

Vrs Na-ho 



V /. 



I i 









23. Quawpaw—From Duponccau's MS. 

Milch-tih Schap-peh 

Non-ne-pah Pen-na-pah 

Dag-he-nig Pe-dag-he-nih 

Tu-ah Schunk-kah 

Sat-ton Ge-deh-bo-nah 

33. Penobscot — Fro7n Duponceau's MS. 

Pe-suok Neuk-tansg 

Neisc Ta-boos 

Nhas San-suk 

Yeuf No-cle 

Pa-lc-neusg Ma-ta-ta 

24. Miami — From Duponcemi's MS. 
Ng-goo-teh Ka-kat-sueh 



25. Skawncsc — From Duponccau's MS. 
In-gut-i, or, n'gut-i Ka-kat-swi 




2H. Unachog — From Duponceau's MS. 

Na-gwiii Na-cut-tali, or, cut-lali 

TVecs 'riim-po-wa 

Nos Swat 

Yaut Neone 

Pa, or. na-|iaa Pay-ar 



27. Natick—From Elliot's Bib. 












28. Nousaghausct — From. EllioVs Bib. in MS. 
Ne-guit Kwut-ta 









39. Sourihi'os-ioruM. — From John I)c Lad. 











30. Canadensis, 


— From 

Aitct. Lcscarbot. 











. Saukikani- 



D. Lacf 

Auct. Johaii. Sn 













■ — From 

/, Long: 






/ ( 


.^^S^'-^W^'-Jii*.— _ 

I tf* 

'III: lit 


I.M ' i 








33. Chipprivay — From J. Long. 

Pay-shik Nc-gut-wos-swoy 

Neesh Swos-swoy 

Nees-swoy Shau-gos-swoy 

Ni-on Mo-tos-swoy 

34. Ncv) Stockbridge — Fro7ii Kao-no-mut, a woman who had 
been living on Fox River, 1827. 

N'got-tah N'ko-taus 



Nau-w oil 




35. Mohegan. 






36. Monsrc — From an Indian at Buffaloe, 

N'got-tah N'got-wawp 

Ne-sliali Nush-waiis 

N'hali N'haus 

Na-ali No-wa-lah 

Naw-biin Wim-bat 

37. Nauduway — From Tanner. 

Wis-ka-ut Yah-gali 



Kia-nfcc Te-unk-teuli 

Wlnsk Wr-fifo-iii* 



iix. »■ 



38. Seneca— From an Indian at Biijaioe, 18^7. 
Skaut Yah-fli 

Tik-thuco Chah-duk 

'"^""■a^' Ta-ke-oh 

Ka-ac Teu-tolm 

^^«'s'' Wushan 

39, Potiwattomie—From an Indian at Detroit, 1827. 


Neesh No-okt-so 

^««s.wa Su-aut-so 

'^a-ow Slmli-kah 

Na-nun Kwetcli 

40. Ottawwaw—From Tanner. 
Nc-goch-waw Nin-got-wau-swa 

!Veesh-waw Neesh-wau-swa 

^''^^^vii^v Nis-wan-swa 

'^^•wi" Shaunk 

Nah-nun Kwetch 

41. Chippewyan—From u German Interpreter. 

*''h-''-a I-ka-lali-rali 

^^"''■>^" I-ka-taing-ha 


'^*'"g''^ Kas-ka-koo-un-nee-rah 

Sah-zhun-lah-lia Koo-im-nu-ah 

43. Chippewyan—From M'Kenzie. 
^'a-chy Al-ke-tar-hy-y 

^a-ghur Al-ki-deing-hy 

'^^Sh-y Ca-ki-na-ha-noth-na 

Dengk-y Ca-noth-na 


43. Chippewyan—From a woman, a native of Churchill, 
Ith-Iia Ting-he 

^»^-^^ Sah-zun-lah-lia 

Krah-ha, or tah-rhe 11-kel-tah-rah 




If ^ 

f I f 

1:^ Mli 









Anglo Sa 




Twe-gcn, or, 



Threo, or, th 



Fco-thcr, or, 



45. Cree- 

-From M^Kcnzic. 


Ne-gou- ta-woe-sic 










Als^okiii — From 












47. Chippewt/aa — From a Chippewyan. 

Lth-li-ah El-kat-hai-ri 

Nuk-km- rSlus-ing-ding-hc 

Tor-ri El-ket-ding-hc 

Ding-hc Kutch-e-r.3-ner-re 


48. Winnebago — From a Winnebago. 

Zhimk-kaifl Har-ker-ra 







49. Cree — From a native. 



f ' 








50. Mahneshcet, (slow'tongucs,) residing on the St. Johns, N. B. 

From a native. 











.: 'J 

• fc*y**-.-'*^ 

4 r>if i. 

!S,M « < 






Here, it must be ackiiowlodged, \vc enter a barren field, ofler- 
ing little to excite industry, or to reward inquiry. Without lite- 
rature to give perpetuity l(» the creations of genius, or to bear to 
succeeding times the record of remarkable events, the Americans 
have no store house of ancient hiarning to open to tlie curiositv 
of the European race. They have probably never thought like 
ihe Arabs, that the cultivation of their language was an object ol 
importance ; and though the orator must at times have experi- 
enced the eflect of a )iapj)y choice of expression, he must alwayi^ 
liave been confined to a narrow range, by tlie necessity of keeji- 
ing within the comprehension of his hearers. Hence tlieir pubh( 
speakers appear to liepend more on a certain vehemence and 
earnestness of manner, which is intelligible without words, than 
upon any elegance of tlunight. or refinement of diction. 

Their songs, whether of war or devotion, consist, for the mor>i. 
Ill a few words or short phrases many times repeated; and in 
their speeches, (hey dw«'ll long and vehemently on the same 
idea. One who hears an Indian orator without comprehendini' 
his language, w»»uld confidently suppose that his discourM 
abounded with meaning ; but tliese speeches, like their tedious 
and monotonous chants, when clearly understood, appear so poor 
and jejune, that few white men would listen to either, were it not 
with tlie hope of extiactinii inforinatinn, of which the speaker, or 
the sinirer himself, must be wholly unconscious. Hut after all is 
jieard and e\|ilained. and carefully examined in all its bearings, 
It must be principally the business of a <{uick and fertile imagina- 
tion, to fiiul in them moral instruction oi historical informatitm. 
If we fiinl amori>r the American Indians traditional items, bearing 
iiianilesi and strong ••'•s(i"t!:::.»,- to those of the great Asiatic fa- 
luily. from whom we have ado|)led many of our religious opi- 




field, ofler- 
Vithout lite- 
)r to bi'ar to 
c Americans 
the ru!iosil\ 
thoujrht like 
an object ol 
have experi- 
must alway- 
isity of kee]!- 
c their publii' 
liemence ami 
t words, lli;ni 

for the mo^l. 
tod ; and in 
,11 the sanu 
lin disrour^t 
llu'ir tediou- 
i)[H'ar so pool 
■r, were it not 
[(' speaker, or 
Int after all i- 
its bearings, 
jrtile imanina- 
jtenis. bearing 
at Awialif f»- 
Irelisiious opi 

nions, this can only be considered as indicating what needed no 
proof; namely : Thai this people, as well as ourselves, have de- 
scended from that primeval slock, which, i)lanted somewhere upon 
ihe moimtains .if Asia, has sent forth its branches into all parts 
of the earth. Thither, we are taught by the most ancient human 
records, and by the concurrent deductions of all soimd philoso- 
phy, and honest impiiry. to look for the i;reat fountain of the hu- 
man race: and if some of the streams, in des<;ending thence, have 
been concealed in swamps, or sunk beneath sands, we ought not 
ihcreforc to doubt that their origin is to be thence deduced. But 
that existing or retrieveable monuments or resemblances, will 
over enable the curious satisfactorily to trace the American 
br .nch to its origin, need not now be expected. Nevertheless, 
this part of the subject may have interest for those who love to 
trace the human character through all situations and exposures, 
and to contemplate the eflect of rev(dutions in external circum- 
stances, on manners, lanL'uage, and metaphysical opinions. 

Sufficient evidence proliably exists, to convince niaiiy, that the 
natives of the central regions of North America, whatever diver- 
sities of dialect may now exist, are essentially of the same race 
with the Peruvians, the Mexicans, and the Natchez ; betweeit 
whom and the ancient iidi;\l)itants of (Jreece and Italy, and thai 
liortion of the present population of India who worship Hrama, 
lloudd, <«anesa, Iswara, &c. a near relationship has already been 
isrertained. In the melamorphoses which tlie Indian traditions 
Ksign to many trees, plants, animals, and other thiiijrs. we an* 
-irongly reminded of the similar superstitions preserved by tlu 
Roman poets. Wo fiiul, also, in the American traditions, distinct 
illusions to a general dehigt , and to several other particular^ 
which we are accustomed to consider as restintr solely on the au- 
thority of the Mosaic history. Hut when we relied on the al- 
most universal distribution of these opinions, in some shape or 
other, among all known races of men, we may admit a doubt 
whether they have been derived from tin- historical bo(»ks of the 
Hebrews, or whether thev are not rather the ulimnu'rings i»f ihiil 
jirimilive light, which, at the first great divisitm after the llood. 
into the families of Shem, Ilam, and Japhel, and more recently 
^t the dispersion of Habel, must have been in possession of all 
'Mankind. We find in the Mosaic hislorv, written. n« it wax. 

m ! 


/' jT 

^'T^'^^^-^H^ifci,-*, v---e*»ii« •«»'L! 




f ' 


long alter the periorl here spoken of, abundant evidence, not only 
tliat traditional remembrance oC the deluge, and other great events 
in the early history of mankind, was stiil preserved ; but that di- 
rect revelations of the mind and will of the Creator had been, and 
were still made to men, at sundry times, and in divers places. 
Within two or three hundred years of the deluge, some know- 
ledge of the mechanic arts, at least ship building and masonry, 
iiiust have remained, or so many men would not have been found 
ready to undertake the erection of a tower whose top should 
reach unto heaven. At this time, Noah, the second father of 
mankind, and his three sons, who, as well as himself, had known 
the "world before the flood," were still alive. Any branch, 
therefore, of the family of either of the three sons of Noah, re- 
moved at this' time to " the isles of the gentiles," or to whatever 
remote part of the earth their knowledge of navigation and other 
arts might enable them to reach, would retain at least a traditional 
cosmogony and theogony, which, after ever so many years, or 
ever so wide and devious a wandering, must probably have pre- 
served resemblance, in some particulais, to the originals. Hence 
it will, we think, be evident, tliat although we may find a strong re- 
semblance between some of the observances of the Indians and the 
Hebrews, we are by no means to infer, that one of these races 
must have descended from the otiei . All that they have in com- 
mon, will probably b*- found to h;> v, i 6vit of similarity of 
circumstances; or may l)e traced > ' i ;• i long previous to the 
calling of Abraham. 

But lei us leave this profitles-s discussion, which has long sinrr 
received more attention than it deserves, and return to the sub- 
ject before mh. 

The poetry of the Indians, if they can properly be said to hau 
any, is the language of excitement, and the expression of passion ; 
and if what«'ver has this cliaracter, and is at the same time 
id)ove the tone and style of ordiimry conversation, and is or may 
br sung to music, is |)()rlry, it cannot be denied that they havr 
among them poetry and poets in abundance. Excitement ol 
whatever kind, calls forth a |)eculiar manner of expression; am! 
though measure aiul rylliui. polished and artificial structi:r('. 
equally balanced and harmonious periods, maybe wanting, the\ 
' ommonly ncrompitny <he utterance of (heir words by gome mo 


^ ' K 



;e, not o»\ly 
jreat events 
but that lii- 
(1 been, and 
rers places, 
lome know- 
td masonry, 
i; been found 
top should 
nd lather ol" 
, had Unowi\ 
Any branch, 
of Noah, rr- 
: to whatever 
ion and other 
;t a traditional 
-iny years, or 
ibly have prc- 
rinals. Heufp 
nd a strong n- 
ndians and tlif 
|of these races 
have in com 
similarity ol 
|)revious to tin 

[has long ^in<i' 
irn to ihc sub 



dulation of tlie voice, like what we call singino. In all their re- 
ligious feasts and solemnities, they ad(h'ess their prayers and 
praises to superior beings in song. In all times of distress and 
danger, or when sufl'ering under the apprehension of immediate 
starvation, or awaiting the approach of death in some more hor- 
I id form, the Indian expresses his anxiety, oilers up his petition, 
or perhaps recals some favourite and cherished idea, his boast in 
life, and his consolation in death, by a measured and monotonous 
chant, in which the ear of the stranger distinguishes principally 
the frequent repetition of the same word. 

Nor is it on the serious and momentous occasions of life only, 
that we witness these rude ellorts at poetry and music. Love, 
in its disappointment, or in its success ; sorrow, hope, and intoxi- 
cation, choose the same method of utterance. When in a slate 
of intoxication, as they often are, the men, and more particularly 
the women of some tribes, are heard by night, and often almost 
throughout the niglu, singing in a plaintive and melancholy tone 
of the death of their fri»'nds, or of other misforlunes. One who 
listens to these lamentations, while darkness ;ind distance inter- 
pose to conceal the loo often disgusting ol)j(;cts who utter them, 
and to soften down aiul mellow the tone of high pitciicd voices, 
will often find somdhing aflt'ctins in liicir honest and unpremedi- 
tated complaints. Tlu'ir voices are often line, and the sentences 
they utter, are the language, most commonly, of real snlTering, 
ilevested of allectation or art. From the great fr«(|ueiuy with 
which these nielanclioly ciiatitings, and the profuse tlow of tears 
(pccur, as the consequences of intoxication among them, one might 
infer, eitlier that their condition has in it a greater share of sor- 
row and of sulleriiig than that of some other races, or ihat the 
excitement of strong drink all'ects them in a dillerent maimer. A 
fair inference, at least, is, that in their sober moments, they, like 
other men, wear a mask. Indeed, those who best know the In- 
dians, are liest acquainted with the ccnistant ellorts they make at 
concealment, and how well they at length teach the outward 
.ispect to conceal or misrepresent the internal emotions. Hut for 
lhe>»e unpremeditated elhisions, |iarlicidarly for the whining and 
lirivolling of intoxication, the most eitthusiastic admirer of the 
Indians will not claim the a])pellalion of poetry- If any thing 
ninong them deserves this name, we must search for it among 



l>i I 

1 i 

n « 

'i ■ I 

L « i « m 



.1 V\ 

i' ! 



those traditionary songs which descend from father to son, and 
are transferred from man to man by purchase, to be used in their 
feasts, in the administration of remedies to the sick, anil above 
all, in medicine hunting. That some of tlie songs tlius preserved 
have considerable antiquity, we do not doubt; that they Imve 
much merit as poetical compositions, we arr not disposed to 
assert. The poetry of the Indians, like their eloquence, requires 
the assistance of able translators, and those not too scrupulous 
10 draw only from the materials of the original. 

The method of delineation, by which they aid the memory in 
retaining and recalling, on occasion, these compositions, e.\hibiis, 
perhaps, one of the earliest steps towards a written language. 
\et, from its existence among them, in the present form, one 
would not hastily infer, that had they never been intruded upon 
by men of another race, learning or arts would finally have 
flourished among them. There arc but too many evidences, 
that the aboriginal Americans arc, by temperament, by some pe- 
culiarity of physical structure, or moral propensity, a more slug- 
gish race, than the European; consequently, destined to a slow 
advance, or, perhaps, like most of the Asiatics, to be for agc^ 
stationary, or retrogradent, in the journey of improvement. \Vo 
would not risk the assertion, that the Americans are an inferior 
race; the barrier to their improvement iippears to be, that indo- 
lence which is not less a habit of their minds than of their bodic.-, 
and which distiualifies them for spontaneous and long coniinvicil 
and laborious thinking. Hunger may, and does, overcome the 
liabit of bodily ind(dence, or, at least, sometimes interrupts it; 
but, in the Indian character, the tendency is always to quiescence. 
Instances are intinitely rare, among them, of that restlessness oi 
mind so common in the European race, which is ever in quest oi 
something beyond the complete gratification of the wants of tin 
body, and which has been the true source of so many great and 
ennobling actions. The past history of this race of men, is not 
wanting in instances of the nianifrstation of that inherent slug- 
gishness of disposition, which has kept them back from the 
knowledge, the improvements, and the civilization, which have 
been so long urged upon them. Let it be granted, as doubtlcs" 
it should be, that the Jesuits, and, to some extent, at least tlir 
Moravian, and other prolestanl inisbiunaries. rommencei^ Hit i< 

III i .Mm, 

'?' I I 



to son, and 
ised in iheir 
, ami above 
IS preserve(5 
it they have 
dispoatnl to 
nee, requires 


ic memory in 
.ons, exhibits 
teu lantTuage- 
mt form, one 
ntruiled upon 

1 finally have 
ny evidenee?. 
it, by some pc 
•, a more slug- 
lined to a slow 
to be for agc^^ 
ovement. ^Vo 
1 are an inferior 
D be, that indo 

f their bo<lic.-. 
onjT conlinu* il 
1, overcome tin 
cs interrupts it ; 
s to quiescence, 
t restlessness ol 
ever in quest ol 
ic wants of tin 
many great and 
e of men, is not 
t inherent sluji- 
back from llir 
lion, whicb have 
,ed, as doubtlc*'' 
nt. at least tlif 
ommencei' <bi i' 

MISIU AM» I'ul.lRV. 

labours where tlicv siionld li;«\e ended ilicni, bv oticnnu: to tlio 
benighted minds of the Indians, the stupendous, and, to them, to- 
tally incomprehensible doctrines ol the cliiisiiau religion; and 
that they, in a great measure, neglected to leach them those arts. 
which, by ensuring an abundance of means for the sustenance 
of life, might enable them, first of all, to fix in settled habitations, 
and afterwards gradually to adopt those habits and o])inions 
which have ever been found indispensable in pre|)aring the wil- 
derness for the reception of the good seed. Yet. must we not 
acknowledge, that the descendants of those who were early re- 
ceived into intimate associatiim with the whites, and learned 
from them the mechanical, and all the cinnnKni arts of life, are. 
at this time, lamentably defuient in the virtues, as well as the 
knowledge we miirbt have cxjiected from them? 

It is no i)art of the desiirn of lliese reniiirks, to discourasfc anv 
iittempts that may be made to introduce the (•|iri>tiaii religion 
iiinong these people ; on the contrary, we look upon these etl'orts 
as always, in a greater or less degree, useful to the Indians ; they 
originate as well in a difl'usive and amial'le benevolence, as a feei- 
itig of ju.-tice, and severe, though tard\' compunction, whi( !i 
would seek, at this late day, to render to the starved and shiver- 
ing remnant of the people who received us to their country in our 
day of small things, some recompense for the fair inheritance 
which we have wrested from their forefathers. The example of 
the CheroKees. and some others in the south, ha.-" been sulhcient 
to prove, tjiat tmder the influence of a mild climate, and a ferlih- 
soil, thes<' people can be taught habits of settled, if not of perse- 
\ering industry. From this condition of things, we can already 
see how, an\oni{ that people habits of mental enterprise and in- 
dustry are to spring up, and we look forward with confidence 
to a source of continued imi)rovement. Tiiat all the other bands 
and tribes, under similar auspices, ami similar intluences, would 
pursue a similar cmirse, ctnnol lie doubted. Philologists and 
speculative theorists may divide and class as they please; to the 
patient and industrious i'liser\er. who has miiiuled intimntely 
with this race, in the low ami fertile distri<ts of the .Mississippi, 
in the broad an<l smilim; plains of Arkai> .w and Ked Uiver, in 
the forests of the Upper Mississippi, and anions the pines and 
the mosscK of the upper lakc«. it will be evident that the iibori- 



.^v .„ _ 



"i * 





MUSIC AM) tof;tu\. 

ginal people or the United States Territory, are all of one lamily. 
jiot by physical constitution and habit only, but by the structuri' 
and temperament of their minds ; their modes of thinking and 
acting; and, indeed, in all physical and mental peculiarities, 
which set them apart from the remainder of the human family, as 
a pecidiar people. Whatever course has, in one situation, proved 
in any measure eflectual, to reclaim them from their vague and 
idle habits, will certainly succeed in another situation, though per- 
Jiaps more slowly, as they may be intluenced by a less genial cli- 
mate, or a more barren soil. 

.' .1 








jne ianuly. 
ic structiue 
linking and 
n family, as 
ion, proved 
• vague and 
though per- 
is genial cli- 


Fig. 1. 



Fig. 1 '"«' e-gwuh ne-no-no-nen-dum ah-ine, Mc-tai we-nin- 
ne-wug, ne-kau-nug ane-nuib-be-un-neh.* 

Now I hear it, my friends, of the Metai, who arc sitting about 

This, and the tlircc following, are sung by the principal chief of 
ilie Metai, to the beat of his bwoin ah-keek, or drum. The lines 
from the sides of tlie head of the ligure indicate iiearing. 

2. O-wa-nain ba-me-je-waun-ga ? Man-i-to 0-ba-mc-jc-wa- 

Who nuikes this river How? The Spirit, he makes lliis river 

The second ligure is intended to represent a river, and a beaver 
«\vimming down it. 

3. Ka-weh-whau-bo-me-tai, ka-wch-whau-bo-me-lai neh-kau- 
uuk neej-huh nish-a-nau-ba ka-ke-ka-ne-me-kwaiii nch-kau-nuk. 

Look at me well, my friends ; examine me, and lot us under- 
.-tand that we are all companions. 

This translation is by no means literal. The words express 
the boastful claims of a man, who sets himself up for the best 
and moat skilful in the frateruiiv. 

n\ I 

♦ These rude pictures iirc curved on a flat piece of woocl, and scr\e to sugg^'st 
lo the inindx of tho«' who have lenriied the soiiirs the ideas, and their order of 
succession ; the words are not variable, l)ut a man must he taiiirht them, other- 
wise, tliou^h from an insptH-tioi) of the tisruro he niiiilit ■ jmprchend the idea, hn 
n'otild not know what to sin;?. 






f.i( ' 

,.^ < r 

4. O-ua-iiain ba-bah-mis-sa-haht, wt'oj-huli nisli-a-iiau-ba? Bc- 
tiais-se-wah ba-bah-mo-sa-haht, weej-huh 

Who niaketh to walk about, the social people '. A bird makctli 
10 walk about the social people. 

By the bird, the medicine man meatis himself; he says, tliai 
his voice has called tiie pi;oj)ie together. Weej-huh nish-a-nau- 
ba, or weej-a nish-a-nau-ba, seems to have the first syllable from 
the verb, which means, to accompany. The two lines drawn 
across, between this figure and the next, indicate that here tlic 
dancing is to commi nee. 

5. Neen ba-pah-mis-sa-gahn ne-goclio ah-\ves-sie neen-gah- 
kwa-tin ah-waw. 

I lly about, anil if any where 1 see an animal, I can shoot him. 

This figure of a bird, (prctbably an eagle or hawk,) seems in- 
tended to indicate the wakefnlness of the senses, and the activity 
rfquired to ensure success in limiting. The figure of the moose, 
which immediately follows, reminding the singer of tiie cuniiiiiu 
and cxtieme shyness of tliat animal, the most difliciilt of all In 



(». Neeii-go-te-nanii ke-da-ne,' ne-iiii/.-zlio-lauii ke-da-nc. ;ili- 
wis-sie k(;-(la-ii(', ii('-ini/-/.ho-taun ke-da-ne. 

I simoi your iicart ; i hit your hcail, oh aniniiil. your heart. I 
hit your iieart. 

This ap'>.<i)o|)he is mere lioasling, and i-; sung with iiiiuji t:i.>- 
ticulalion and grimace. 

7. A-zhe-nahng'^gwit-lo iaii-na i>;h-ko-tang a-zhe-nnhng pwii- 
1o ian-na. 

I make iiiyst If lo(di like lire. 

♦ Ki- i/ij-rii: ki-da, ftliy huarl :) Inif a --a llilili' U mldi'd in sinfrinj;. 




MUiJiC AND roETliV. 



■ba? Ui'- 

liril maketli 

e says, lliai 
yllable lron\ 
lines drawn 
at here \\w 

e neon-gali- 

111 shoot hisi. 
'k,) seems iu- 
(l \\\v artivily 
(»f the moose, 
if the cimniii:; 
icvill of all 1" 



k«-il;i-ii>'- ''•'- 

. voiir luart. I 

willi luiuli U'^- 

H'-nnlmii pvvii- 

,1 in siiiK""- 

Tliis is a medicine man, disguised in the skin of a bear. The 
.-mall parallelogram, under the bear, signifies Ore, and they, by 
oine composition of gunpowder, or otiier means, rontrive to 
give the appearance of fire to the mouth and eyes of the bear 
skin, in Mhicli they go about the village late at night, bent on 
deeds of mischief, oftentimfs of blood. We learn how mis- 
cliievous are these sui)erstitions, when we are informed, that ihey 
are the principal men of the Metai, who thus wander about the 
villages, in tlie disguise of a bear, to wreak their hatred on a 
sleeping rival, or their malice on an unsuspecting adversary. 
But the customs of the liidians require of any one who may see 
a medicine man on one of these excursions, to take his life imme- 
diately, and whoever does so is accounted guiltless. 

8. Gii-tah e-no-tum mau-na nc-be-way me-ze-ween, ne-be-way 
neen-dai, gin-no-tah mau-na. 

T am able (0 call water from above, from beneath, and from 

Here the medicine man boasts of his power over the elements, 
,nnd his abiUfy to do injury or benefit. The segment of a cir- 
cle with dots in it, represents water, and the two short lines 
loiic.hing the head of the figure, indicate that he can draw it to 

!). Yah-nah-we nah-gwe-liah-ga e-nai-ne-wah, kin-ne-nah. 

Yah-nah-we nah-gwe-hah-ga ma-tai-mo-sah, kin-ne-nah. 

V;di-nah-we nah-gwe-liah-ga o-ba-no-suh, kin-ne-nah. 

I cause to look like the dead, a man I did. 

I cause to look like the dead, a woman I did. 

1 cause to look like the dead, a child I diti. 

The lines drawn across the face of this figure, indicate pover- 
ty, distress, and sickness ; the person is supposed to have suflered 
i'rom the displeasure of the medicine man, Such is the religion 
of the Indians ! Its boast is to put into the hands of the devout, 
supernatural means, by which he may wreak vengeance on his 
enemies, whether weak or powerful, whether they be found among 
the foes of his tribe, or the people of his own village. This Me- 
lai, so much valued and revered by them, seems to be only the in- 
strument, in the hands of the crafty, for keeping in subjection 
'he weak and the credulous, which may readily be supposed to 
be tlie srreater part of the people. 


\ « 


— -'fl-'Ai> 

r' V. 


Ml/?r<' AND VOETRV. 


10. Ain-de-aun, ain-de-aun, ne-kau-iioh ; ah-wes-sie, an-wes- 
ale, nc-kau-neh, ne-nuili-incek ko-navv-waw, nc-kau-neh. 

I am such, I am surh, my friemls ; any animal, any animal, my 
friends, I hit him right, my friends. 

This boast of certain success in hunting, is another method by 
which he hopes to elevate himself in the estimation of his hearers. 
Having told them that he has the power to put them all to death, 
he goes on to speak of his infallible success in hunting, which 
will always enal)le him to be a valuable friend to such as are carr- 
In! to secure his ffond will. 

fi: i'i 


J , 

t '41 





ie, an-wes- 

animal, my 

• method by 
his hearer?, 
all to death, 
iting, which 
as arc care- 


Fig. I 

Fig. 1. Nah-ne-bah o-sa aun neen-no ne-mah-che oos-sa ja-ah- 
jie-no. [Twice.] 

I walk about in the night time. 

This first figure represents the wild cat, to wliom, on account 
of his vigilance, the medicines for the cure of diseases were com- 
mitted. The meaning probably is, that to those who have the 
!<hrewdncss, the watchfulness, and intelligence of the wild cat, is 
entrusted the knowledge of those powerful remedies, which, in 
the opinion of the Indians, not only control life, and avail to the 
restoration of health, but give an almost unlimited power over 
animals and birds. 

2. Neen-none-da-aun ke-to-ne-a, ma-ni-to we-un-iio. 
1 hear your mouth, you are an ill [or evil] spirit 

The wild cat, (or the sensible and intelligent medicine riaii,) 
IS always awake ; or if he seems to sleep, by means of the .super- 
natural powers of his medicine, he becomes acquainted with all 
that passes around him. If one man speaks evil of another, to 
bring sickness upon him, the wild cat hears and knows it; but 
ronfident in his own superior strength, he disregards it. At the 
bar they begin to dance. The lines from the mouth of the human 
figure, represent the speeches of the evil ntinded and malicious. 

3. Shi-a iu'-nio-kin-nuh-we,bc-zlie-wa-wah* neah-wa. [Twice.] 
Now I conic up out of the gro\md : I am wild ctI. 

i / 

• Th« Kounii <it' l> mill /> nn- luu'd iiidiscriliuiiatcly in many woiiU thus : oei}a, 
vena, fer tlif « rvpl turaiiins a |)hra^ant. 



.r > 




I am the master of the wild cats ; and having heard your talk, 
I come up out of the ground to sec what you do. This man, it 
appears, claims superiority over other medicine men, and now 
rouses himself to attend to what is passing. The bar across the 
neck of the figure representing the wild cat, indicates that he in 
just coming out of the earth. 

;% it 


i ^ 

I. Bin-nah ! neen be-zhe-wa-wah ke-mcen-waw-bum-me-na. 

Behold ! I am wild cat ; I am glad to see you all wild cats. 

This figure, with open eyes and erect ears, denotes earnest- 
ness and attention. [The word ke-meen-waw-bum-me-na, affords 
a strong instance of what has been called the synthetic character 
of this language ; ke, the inseparable pronoun, in the accusative 
plural, mecn, from ne-mee-noan-dun, (I love, or am pleased,) and 
waw-bum from ne-waw-bo-maw, (I see.)] 

5. Ni>mau-i-to, o-wa-she-na a-ai-gah nee-na ketto-we goh-wr- 

I am a spirit ; what I have I give to you in your body. 

This is the figure of a medicine man, with his pah-gah-ko-guu- 
un, or the instrument with which he beats his drum, in his hand. 
lie appears to be boasting of his own powers. 

6. Ah-iie ah-gah, kah-neen-na ke-taus-saw-wa-unna ke-nis-si'- 

Your own tongue kills you ; you have too much tongue. 

This is addressed to the malicious man, and the slanderer, one 
who speaks evil of others. His crooked and double speech goes 
out of his mouth, but is changed to an arrow in his hand, and 
turned against himself; his own body bears the marks of the in- 
juries he would have inflicted on otjiers. The lines across Uk- 

(,| nip \i 'I . 





your talk, 
lis man, it 
I, and now 
across the 
i that he i3 

cheat are tne traces of misfortune, brought on him by the indul- 
gence of his own malicious disposition. In the songs and ad- 
dresses of some of the most esteemed chiefs, or persons, who may- 
be considered in some measure set apart for the Metai, are many- 
attempts to convey and enforce moral instruction, or rather the 
inculcation of those opinions and actions which constitute the 
virtues of savage life. 

vild cats, 
jtes earnest- 
le-na, affords 
jtic charactci- 
hc accusative 
pleased,) and 

i / 

)-we goh-wr- 


1, in his hand. 

lina ke-nis-sf- 

Islandcrcr, one 
je speech goes 
Ihis hand, and 

irks of the in- 
hos acro,«s thi- 



' I 


h/ 1 

I « 

Fio. 1. O-mib-bo-tum-niaun. Mctai-wc-gauii, Manito-wc-ga- 

I sit down in tlm lodjjc of tlip Metai, ihr lodjrc of the Spirit. 

This figiiro is intended to represent the area of the Metai-wr- 
j>aun, or medicine lodjjje, which is ralh'd also the lodge of tin 
Manito, and two men have taken their seats in it. The mattci 
of ilie song seems to he merely introductory. 

y. Neezli-o-go-na wc-tah-him mah-knm-ma iie-kaun ; nc-o- 
!;o-na wc-tah-him maii-kuni-nui nc-ka-nn. 

'I'wo days must you sit fast, my friend ; four days mtist you sii 
fast, my friend. 

The two perpendicular lines on the breast of this figure, arc 
read ne-o-gone, (two days,) but are underst(»od to mean two 
years ; so of the four lines drawn obliquely across the legs, these 
ar»! four The heart must be given to this business for two 
years, and the constrained attitude of the legs iiulicates the rigid 
attention, and serious consideration, which the subject reijuirc<. 

',). Wha-be-nia, Meen-de-mo-sah, ke-ko-nia wha-bc-nia. 

Tlu'ow oil", woman, thy garments, throw oil". 

The power of their medicines, and the incanlntions of the 
Metai, arc not confined in their eflect to animals of the chase, to 
the lives and ilie health of men; they control, also, the minds of 
all, and overcome the modesty, as well us the antipathies of wo- 
men. The Indians firmly believe that many a woman, who has 
been unsuccessfully solicited by a man, is not only, b) Jie pow- 
er of the Meiai, made to yield, but even, in a state of madncs*;. 



thc Spirit, 
he Motai-wr- 
lodgf of tin 
Thf inattci- 

-kauti ; nc-o- 

< must you sii 

lis liijure, arc 
to mean two 
,hc legs, these 
siness for two 
ciitcs the rijjiil 
)jert reiiuiiTs. 

Intious of till 
1 the ehase, to 
, tlu' minds of 
)athi«'s of wo- 
iiiiiii, who has 
v, b> ihe pow- 
(' of inadnes--. 



it) tear off Iier garments, and pursue after the man she heforo 
despised. Tlicse cliarms iiave preater power than those in the 
times of superstition among the EngUsh, aserilied to the fairies, 
and they need not, like the plant used by Puck, be applied to 
the person of the unfortunate being who is to b(! transformed ; 
they operate at a distance, through the medium of the Miz-zin- 

4. Na-wy-o-kun-ne-nah wun*iiah he-nun-ne-wah ba-mu*su keen- 

Who makes the people walk about ? It is I that rails you. 

This is in praise of the virtue of hosj)itality, that man being 
most estj'enied among them, who most frequently ealls his neigh- 
bours to his feast. 




5. lle-o-win-nah ha-ne-mo-we-tah neen-ge-le-mah-hali 1io-che« 
oa-ha-ne Mo-c-tah neen-ge-te-mah hah-uah. 

Any thing I can shoot with it, (this medicine,) even a dog I 
can kill with it. 

0. Nin-goo-te-naun ke-ta-he, e-nah-ne-wah ke-ti -he. 

I shoot thy heart, man, thy heart. 

Ue means, perhaps, a buck moose by the wor • '■-nah-nc-wali, 
or man. 

7. Neen ne-na-sah waw-be-maung neen-ne-na-sah. 

I can kill a white loon. I can kill. 

The white loon, ram avis nis^roiiiir fiimillinn cyffnn, is cer- 
tainly a rare and most difficult bird to kill , so we may infer, that 
this boaster can kill any thing, which is the amount of the mean- 
ing intended in that part of his song, recorded by the five last 
figures. Success in himting they look tipon as a virtue of a 
higher character, if wc may judge from lliiti song, than iho pa- 



ticnce under sufl'crin?, or the rakishness among women, or even 
the hospitality recommended in the former part. 

8. Ne-kau-nah-ga. * * * 
My friends. * * * 

This seems to b. -^n attempt to delineate a man sitting with his 
hands raised to address his friends ; but the remainder of his 
speech is not remembered. This is sufficient to show that the 
meaning of the characters in this kind of picture writing, is not 
well settled, and requires a traditional interpretation, to render it 

9. Shah bwo-ah-hah-mah ne-mow-why-waw-ne-no ah-buh-hah- 
mah ge-we-na-she-mah-ga. 

I open my wolf skin, and the death struggle must follow. 
This is a Wolf skin, used as a medicine bag, and he boasts, 
that whenever he opens it, something must die in consequence. 

I ' 

»■ I 

m, or evpii 

ng with his 
(ider of his 
lOW that the 
iting, is not 
to render it 


d he boasts, 




lin. 1. ',». 

:?. 4. 5. (i. 7. 8. 

Vic-. 1, Wa\v-iiP-jTC-ah-n;i frah-no-geah-na Manllo-wah-ga gnli- 
gp-zho-hah-gwaw gah-no-gr-ah-na. 

I wishfid to be born, I was born, and after I was born I made 
all spiritH. 

'i. Gcc-she-hah-ga manito-whah-ga. 

I created the spirits. 

The figures in the commenreinent of this long and much cs- 
Icemed religious song, represent Na-na-bush, the intiTcessor, the 
nephew of mankind. They seem designed to carry back the 
thonirhts towards the beginning of time, and Iiave a iiianif»'st al- 
hision (o a period when this mysterious and powerful !)eijig ex- 
ercised a wish Jo assunu' th<' form of a man. In the secrmd flgun* 
he is represented as lu)lding a rattle snake in his hand, and he 
rails himself the creator of the mani-toge. The huhan.s calling 
invisible and spiritual beings by the same name w hich they give 
to the lowest class of reptiles, it is doubtful uhether Na-na-busli 
here claims to have created intelligences superior to man, or only 
reptiles, insects, and oilier small creatures, which they commonly 
• all Mani-toag. 

',i. Na-hah-be-ah-na nu-nah-boo-shoo. o-tish-ko-tnhn ma-jlie- 

He sat down Nu-na-biish ; his fire burns forever 

This figure appears to be descriptive n( the fust assumption In 
N'n-nti«bii>h of his office. «■< tlie iViend imd patron nf mm. He i- 

\ ml 



i 2111 


f ^ 

1)1 i r f if 




represented as taking a scat on (he ground. Fire, with ilie 
northern Indians, is the emblem of peace, happiness, and abun- 
dance. When one band goes against another, they go, according 
to their language, to put out the fire of their enemies ; therefore, 
it is probable that in speaking of the perpetual firecf Na-na-busli, 
it is only intended to alhide to his great power, and the perma- 
nence of his independence and happiness.* 


it ',' 






* In the s'.ti!if» figures of Na-ua-bush, as rudi-ly delineated by the Indians, Ihor. 
is some resi'tnbluuce to the Asiatu- Isuara, or Satyavrata, who, in tlic eastern 
mythology, is ronneeted with one of their deluges. Like Noali, hke Saturn, and 
like Iswaro, Na-na-bush prcservod, during the inundation, those animals and 
plants, which were atlerwanls to be useful to mankind ; and his addresses t ) the 
nnimiiJs, whieh the Indiansi often re|)eat, remind us of the age when one lan- 
guage was eonimon to men and lirutes. (Tooke's Pantheon, p. 118. Am. ed. i 
It is true, that, like the Ovidian Deucalion, Na-na-bush reproduced men, the M 
stock liavin;,' U-en entirely destroyed ; but it is to Iv remi-nil>cred, that any ri'- 
semblanre, however strong, In-tween these tnulitinns, have had ample time to W 
obliterated. Instead of ('om|)laniing that the similarity in the opinions of thesi' 
people to ancient fables, is no stronger, we ought, |M'rhap8, to In* surprised thai 
any resemblance exists. If any one would attempt a coiniarison l>ctween llit 
npinioDs of the Americans and the Pagans of former ages, or of any other ran 
he should bear in mind how Miirue and mutable must l)v all such traditions, ni 
an innvritten lan!;ungi>. lie must not Ih- surprised to find, on close examination, 
tlial the characters of all pagan deities, male and female, melt into each other. 
and, at last, into one or two, for it weins a well founded opinion, that tlie whoir 
crowd of gods and goddesses of ancient Itomv, the nicHlcrn I ar«»u;.<of the east, ami 
Aluni-toaff of the west, mean, originally, only the |)owers of nature, and princi- 
pally those of the sun, expressed in u variety of ways, and by a nuinbiT of fan 
ciful names. (Aaialic Ki'searclies, Vol. I. p. •2(>1, Load, ed.) 

The resemblance Ix-twcen the .Vlgonkin deity, (\a,) and Saturn an . 
Sntyarrala, or hteara, of the'rit, may U- tiirther traced in «-ach In-ing figun'il 
(vith a ser|K'nt, sometimes held in the hand, and in other instances, as in man> 
of the Koman figures of Saturn, in ilie ounith. This n-semblane*' is, perhaps 
the more worthy of retnark, as the .\niericanii seein not to have retained any very 
xatislaclory explanation of this circumstance. 

It will not be i,up|H)s<-(l that iIii'm- vague resembl.ances in religious opinioiiK, il 
they may l»> so e.dled, alVord the means of tracing the American triln-H to their 
origin. That tliese iMopIc have customs and opinion-. el,is4'lv resemblinj; those 
of the .\'.ialics, |Kirticularly of the Hebrews, previous to the christian dis|i»'nsa 
lion, will not Im> denied; but the final result of all imjuiries into this siibjiM-t will, 
|«rhaps, Ih' the adoption oi' the opinion of Hrijaut, of Sir W'UHitm Jonrs, aw\ 
<>ther men ol prolimnd ri'searcli, l)mt Knypliaiis, (ireekt,, and Italians, Persians 
Kthiopians, Phenecians, (VIIh, and Tuscans, proceeded, originally, frniii one '•"i 
•rsl pliicf, iltid that the same i)«ople carried their religion and sciences tnio rb' 


\ ^ 

ire, wiih llie 
88, and abun- 
go, accordiiKj 
es; therefore, 
«f Na-na-busli. 
nd the perma- 

r the Indians, ihcr. 
/ho, in <l>e caatcni 
1,^ likr Saturn, nnJ 

those animals iinJ 
lis acJaresses tithe 

iig,- when one Ian- 
„, 11. IIH. Ain.rtl.) 
Jucd mt-n, the oil 
iilH^red, that any tv- 

,iul ami.lo ti""^ '" ^''" 
de opinions of these 
to Ih' 9urpris»'d ili n 
K3ri*)n iKitween the 
or of any other rue 
11 sueh traditions, m 
u elose examination, 
melt into laeh other. 
mion, that the who), 
[rfiiui.'.of theeaHt,aiii1 
if nature, and jirinn- 
by a number of fan 

^h.) and Srtlurn ;iii 

Instances, ns in roans 
Iml.tance is perh'H'-^ 
,,,%.- retained any ver> 

^ ri liiion- opinions, if 
lieriean triU-s to tluir 
,.ly resemhliuU «1>»^'' 
L christian disin-nsn 
],nt.<thissnl.j«vt will, 
Hi/fiam Jonet, an<l 
[„,| Italians, Persian;' 
finally, from one '"" 
f.vl scienrr* int" Chi 

MIMC A.SU t'utlH\. 

I. Ta!i-gua iie-mali-go-«o-int'-ijo, iie-ah-ge-zhc-\t e nc-kaiin. 

NotwilhstaiuUnp y»iii speak evil of lue, trout above are n\\ 
trieitds, my friends. 

The fourth fi^tire, tvhieh, in the oii-jiual, isn priapus, indicate? 
that a man takes up the discourse. The circk> about his licad 
but descending no lower than his sliouhh-rs, .shows that liis helj. 
and his protection are from above, and ta the strengtli tiius de 
rived he is able to defy those who speak evil of liim, or seek, by 
the power of their medicines, to break his life. 

5. Chaw-gaw ko-no mau-na se-maun-duk waw-wau-o-sa-wai 

1 can use many kinds of wood to make a bear unable to walk. 

Tlie business of hunting is one of the first importance to the 
Indians, consequently, ii finds a place in his devotions ; indeed, 
devotion itself having apparently no object beyond the wants and 
weaknesses of this life, relief iti limes of hunger, is one of the 
most important blessings they ever ask for in their i)rayerH. 
Accordingly, their yoiiiiir men are directed never to use these 
songs, or to have recourse to tlie inedieiiie htiiit, except in times 
of the e.xtreinest need. 

0. Ke-te-iia-ne-me-na wt^-nis-ze-bug-go-iia aii-iio-kau-tum-mau- 
iia. ke-te-na-ne-me-iia. 

Of you I think, that you use the We-iii— /e-bug-gone. I think 
tliis of you. 

The common spicy winlergrctii, a stalk of which ibis figure is 
intended to represent, is much valued as a medicine by the In- 
dians. Il is called iLY-nis-fie-hu^-^oo/i, from wc-iu-sik, the 
spicy birch, and hus^-s^oon, which in compositio;; means leaf. 

na and Japan, to Mexiro and Peru, and, we may aild, to the l>aiikii of ilit- .^Iidalt 
.sippi, and tlie coasts of Hudcon's Kay. 

Some of the arguments a>ldneed iti sup|<ori of the favourite opinion, thai the 
Ameriean trilies are the loan loM renin. ml of the children of Uriel, eertaiiily re- 
quire no answer. An intimate aei|uaiiilan(-e with niiiiiy languages in now so 
widely dilfuwd, an to nu|H'reei|p the necessity of renmrkiiie, or I'f provinu, thai 
a stroll); Hiinilarily in the souml ol .■mjiih' few word:* of dillen>iit liinuuaije.s, even 
lliough they shiiuld Ih' liiuiid siniilir in meaning, ilues not eslalili h the tiiet of 
oomimiiiity of uii^rin : .in<l the \Mile diA<iiiiilarity Ixtwtvii the .Xinerieaii luid ihf* 
llehri'W, ami its einjiriie dialeets. in the one pirli 'ular, of the eompoundini; of 
Words, IS prolmlily. to the learned, coiicluiii^e proof timl our Irilies are, in no sort 
'"■rued from the llrhrew ^loi-k 





.MlSiIC A.ND rutlHV. 

7. Ma-nio-\ali-ii;t, mis-kwr, ina-nio-yah-nii. 
That whirh I lakr [is] blood, that which I take. 

Here is the figure of a bear Iyin» dead on the ground, and a 
hand is thrust into the body, to take out some of the blood. The 
instruction communicated probably is, (hat when the prayers of- 
fered in the preparation for tlie medicine hunt have been answer- 
ed, and an animal killed, offerings should be immediately made, 
by taking some of the blood in the hand, and pouring it on the 
ground : or, as is more commonly done, by throwing a handful of 
it towards each of the four cardinal points. 

8. Ili-a-gwo nc-ma-nah-ho-gahn nah-we-he-a ! whe-e-ya I 
Now I have something to eat. 

The two last words seem to have no very definite meaning ; 
they arc repeated at the end of some of the sentences, apparently 
only to lengthen out the sound. This figure is that of a lein and 
hungry man, who, having asked for food, has been heara, and is 
now proceeding to allay his hunger. 

If. !'*>. 

9. We-\\ah-kwa bc-gah-na niaiii-to-ga. 

I cover my head, sitting down to sleep, ye spirits. 

The figure is that of a man, probably designed to he represent- 
ed in a recumbent position, and drawing his blanket over him. 
His prayer having been answered, his wants supplied, he de- 
clares to (he spirits his intention to take repose. 

10. Moosh-kin a-guh-wah nian-i-to-whah, whah-he-yah ! whr- 
lin-ya ! &c. 

1 fill my kettle for the spirit. 

This is the liunter's lodge, and thoketlh? iianging in il confaiiic 
liic heart of the animal killed in the medicine hunt, of which none 
but a man and a hunter must venture to taste. Should a woman 

III!!! : 

■ tic' 

\ \ 

i;^^ k . 




)un(l, und ii 
,lo<.(l. The 
! prayers of 
)ecn answcr- 
iaU'ly niu(l»% 
ng it on tlio 
a handful of 

e-e-ya ! 

ilc meaning ; 
s, apparently 
of a lt"^n and 
hearo, and is 


I be roprcscnt- 

likrl over liini. 

ipliod, ho d( - 

Lhe-yah! whr- 

in il contain? 
lof which non*" 
loiild .1 wonjai^ 

• tr a (iotr cx'«'ii touch lliis Jicail. <ir tlit> bland of ilio animal, suddtn 
ifrntfi, or rniirciiiio- sickness, woidil f'dluw il. This efl'ci:!, as 
well as the dark colour whlcli the Imiiaiis say the skin of the fe- 
males assumes, in instances of the violation of this nde, they at- 
trihufc to the ellect of tlie medicine applied hy the hunter to tlio 
heart of the Me-ze-nin-ne-shah. They point out instances of 
women, formerly distinguished among them for beauty, and par- 
ticularly for the fairness of the skin, who, iiy eating of the heart, 
or touching the blood of an animal killed in medicine hunting, 
have not (miy lost that enviable distinction, but have become 
disgusting and frightful objects, the skin being blackened and 
covered with ulcers. 

11. Nah-nah-wa-kum-me-ga wa-nuk-ke-she nuh-neh keen-0- 
wah man-i-to-whah. 

Long ago, in the old time, since I laid myself down, yo arft 

This is the tigure of a snake running «»ver the ground ; but 
some are of opinion that the delineation should be dillerent, 
namely, an old woman lying down in the middle of the ground. 
A new speaker is here introduced, wliicli is the mytlMdogical 
personage; called Me-suk-kum-nie-go-k\va, tfic grand mother ol 
mankind, to whom Na-iia-bush gave in keeping, for the use of his 
uncles and aunts, all roots and plants, and otlier medicines, de- 
rived from the earth. She received, at llie s;une time, e-pcciai 
direction never to leave hotne. and always to surrender to men 
llie treasures deposited in her bosom, wlu ii they should be, in u 
-uitable manner, demanded of her. Jlence it is, that the medicine 
men make an addr-ss to Me-suk-kuni-nie-go-kwa. whenever they 
lake any thing from tlie eartli. which is to be n.-ed as medicine. 

I'-I. iNe-mo-kin-nen-naun she-inaim-dnk kwnn-ne-no nuh-pe- 

1 open yon for a hear, I open you. 

■yie-snk-knin-me-go-kwa speaks to one of the medicines whoso 
power she had ju^t acknowledired, by calling them s|)irits, and 
«ays, I disclose, or reveal you lor a bear, or to enable the hunter 
lu kill a bear. 

\',i. Me-loo-ga nian-i-to-loo-'Ta, heo-yeo->ah-yoh ! he-gp-tah- 
waw-kum-mc-ga wy-oan do-sa-jeek mc-to-ga-nah, whe-i-nh ! whr- 
,-oh ' 


iiiiJi' I 

1 1 

Mfk^-'^-li im t u . — ^. «- 


Misu AM) i'(ii;ru\. 

Tlial is a Sjiirit wliirli con\o< both from alxno and hrlow, 
jIFovo llicy i)pn;iii to danrr.] 

II. Wliain-jo-ncpn-(la sii-maii-qra rli.ili-gc-mah-ni-to-whah-ga. 

Nceii-iiis-sali wccn-iiecii-dali so-mah-«p-ncen-nah chah-ga-to 
man-i-to wliali-ga, yah-wc-hc-ya I whr-gr-a ! [Twirp.] 

I am ho that givelh siirross, hecausc all spirits help mr. 

15. Me-irc-iie-nali inc-go-iic-nah mc-gwim-iiah-ga me-ge-nc- 
nah, whc-hv-ya ! [Twiro.] 

The feather, the feather; it is the thing, the feather. 

It sometimes happens that the hunter has wandered far from 
his k dge, and has neither birch bark on which to delineate his 
Me-i-,en-ne-neenR, nor o-num-nii, or other powerful medicine, to 
..pply to its heart. In these cases he takes some of the ashes of 
his tire, and spreading it on a smooth ])lace, he traces in it the 
figure of tlie animal ; he llien takes a feather and sticks it in th'- 
heart, then a])p!irs (ire until it is consumed to the surface of the 
ashes, and on tliis he places the same reliance as on the more 
common method of Irealimr the Me-zen-ue-neen-'. 

'■■ 'i I 





i t 



|(i. Wha »i-m;ui-i-l()-\vhah .' Iir-dli-r-wln-i/ii ! nia-she-ge-na pc- 
po-sa-jrek wli:i-iii-|i' mau-i-lu-\vliah, ah-keeng pa-mo-sah fiuh- 
hr-whe-ya ! 

Who is n spirit ? lie ifiat walkelh with llie serpent, walkini' 
oil the iirouiul; he is a sjiiril. 

This fiijure is nearly the .same as is iriveii to Na-oa-bush, in 
the beiiiimiiigorihe souir, and an allusion is probably intended to 
the. time when this interpreter betwi-en mankiiul aiul the Supreme 
Spirit, the Oeator of all thinffs, was driven from the presence 
of his fatlier, to dwell with ibi- meanest ihiuirs of this world. 

(i\(l bcliiw. 



p me. 

I mc-ge-nc- 


•ed far from 
delineate hi^ 
medicine, to 
the ashes of 
ces in it the 
irks it in tlm 
iirface of tlic 
on the mori 


slir-ije-na |>i'- 
-iiio-sali hah- 

Kiit, walliint' 

a-uii-l)Usli, in 

y intended to 

tiie Sni)rcme 

the presenre 

(if thi^i world. 

Mvsic; AM) ri)t:iuv. 


The alhisioiis in the traditionary fable.s of the Algonkins, to the 
quarrel between Na-na-bush and the (Jreat Spirit, arc frequent, 
and eannol fail to remind any one oC the most important ot' the 
doctrinea of the ehrislian ridigion. It can scaree be doubted that, 
from some source or other, these people have derived some ob- 
.scure conceptions of the incarnation and mediatorial oflice of the 
second person iu the Divine Trinity.* 

* In Mr. M'Kcnnpy's "Tour to the Lakrs," p. 000, 005, some account is given 
of \a-na-hoii-Ji)ii, anil the rcnovatinn of liir cartli aftor llu' licluirc, wliich agrofs, 
in must particular»i, vcrv closely with the trailitioiis aniouu the Ottawwaws anrl 
MenoiuDiiies. Kut these last relat'' it v th the follDwiiiir addition : " When the 
earth, which was found in the claws and in the )nouth of the muskral, iK-iran to 
expand itself upon the surface of the water, Na-na-hou-jou sat, day aft<;r day, 
watching i.ft enlargement. When he was no longer utile to see the extent of it, 
he sent out a wolf, and (old him to run rouml all the gro\nid, and then return to 
him, that he might thus know how large it had Invome. 'I'lie wolf was absent 
only a short limi\ and returned. .After sometime he sent him out the second 
lime, with similar directions, and he was gone two years. Agniu, alter this. In; 
-ent him out, and he returned no more. Then Na-iia-l>ou-jou gave the animals, 
all of whom he called Ve-she-inih, (my younii'V I'rolher.J each his own pecidiar 
km(loft()o<l. lie also told such of them as were to Ih' ll)r food for men, that he 
had given them to his uncles, and they must expect, from time to time, to lie 
liimleil and killed ; he also enjoineii it upon them, that as lung as men should 
> liiwse a s|M'edy and merciful metluMl of killing them, they should make no resist- 
•incc J but, in ea«i's of wanton and cruel injury, they might turn to rewiwt."' 

Il is also to Ik" observed, that this renovation of (lii> earth is clearly distingui>h- 
iil, in the traditions of the Ottawwaws, from the origin.d creation, which was lon^r 
previous. How much of the instructions of the JesuitH, and of other whites, m«y 
now lie combined in these legends, it is dillicult to say. I'lit they rekale that 
men, before the (l.iod, though thi'y had been long betiire upright and good, had 
now become e\<'eedingly di-gi nenite ; but they ilo not assign this as the caus4> for 
which the deluge was brought upon the earth. They s.ay that the younger 
brother of .Va-na-iKiu-jon was slain by the (iieal Spirit, the fatlur of iHtth, and it 
was in grief and in aiigi'r that Na-n,ilH>u-iou himself caused the earth to be 
overwhelmed. To so great an extent did he carry his resj-ntnient against the 
Great Spirit, and the olhir Spirit-, that Ibey, with the hojieolapiieasiiig him, re- 
^tored his brother to lite. Hut Na-na-lxHl Jon said, " No, my brother, this cannot 
be, that anv should die ami come aunin to live here as U-liirp; return ,igain to 
the jilace to which they had si'ul you ; it is there that many of my uncles and 
aunts must come every year. Vou shall Ih' the triciul and the. protector of those. 
n« 1 am of the liviriL', who are here mi tliisearih " lie niuriied accordingly, and 
it is this brother of Na-nabou-jou, who is novvR|token of asXiNc-OAii-BE-ARNoNo 
Man-i-to, (the western gixl,) though this is not his name, by which he wa? 
known to hii* brother. He is the goil of the country of the dead, tlir< towns of 
■he Je-bi-ug, which are always towards the srltiiig sun. 




if i 


>\IAIC AM) 1'UK1K\. 

i. t 

17. Ilc-ah gut-tah wees-scnc, wim-iHt-kwa noeu-nali nceii-d*- 
kwa-wuir-L'<'-|?Ji weeii-dum iiiah-wuii iieou-nali-liali ncen-iiah wht- 
hc-ya ! 

Now they will *'at something, my women ; now I tell them 
they will eat. 

Tliis tigure, with open mouth and distended belly, seems Id 
speak the language of human thanksgiving, and gratitude for f;'- 
vours conferred by a superior power. 

18. O-num-mun-nah nin-go-ohe-we-nah. [Twice.] 
This yellow ochre, I will try it. 

The o-num-mun, a yellowish earth, wluch they find in many 
places, and which i:s particularly abundant on one of the branches 
of the Illinois Kiver, thence called O-num-mun-ne See-be, when 
roasted in tlie fir*', becomes red, and is a medicine to which they 
attribute great power. It is a little sack of this which is dispro- 
portionately represented in the hand of the figure. 

li>. Yah-hah nin-go-che-we-nah whe-he-ya-ha ! bc-nais-se-wa\v 
yah-hah nin-go-tin-non-gay nin-go-che-hah-hah, yah-hah nin-go- 

Now I wish to try n>y bird ; sometime ; I used to try, and somc- 
limes it used to be something. 

The figure is that of a bird's skin, in which his medicine i- 
contained, and it is that, and not the skin itself, he wishes to try. 

30. Ah-wes-sie necs-sah neen-no, ka-she-c-way ke-kaun-nc- 
nah ; ah-wis-sie nees-sah neen-no, whe-he-ya ! hc-whe-ya ! 

I can kill any animal, liecause the loud-speaking thunder help^ 
me : I can kill any animal. 

This large bird, whose open mouth indicates the power ot his 
voice, is not one who ird\abits the earth, or is ever seen ; he livc> 
in the clouds, and his voice is the thunder. He is more com- 
monly called a-nim-me-kce, but here ke-kaun ; our loud sounding 
medicine is strong to give us wind or rain, or whatever state of 
the air mav be needful to ensure success in the himf. 


y . 

I nccii-iU- 
i-nab wh»'- 

tcU them 

y, seems in 
itude for (>'- 

iml in many 
the branches 
ke-he, when 
i> which ihty 
ich iri ilispi'"- 

h-hah nin-go- 

,ry, ami sonic- 

s medicine i> 
wislies to try. 
,vhe-ya ! 
tlmndcr hclp- 

le power ot his 
seen ; he livc- 
is more com- 
Idiid sounding 

luitever state oi 





*J1. Mah-mo-yah-na hah-che-mauii-duk hah-yo-ta-he inah-mo- 

I take a bear, hi.s heart I take. 

The aUu.sion is here to the observances respecting the lieart 
and bloc) of animals kiUed in medicine hnnting, and the sacri- 
fices to I if made in the event of success. 

22. ()-she-shn-g\va-waw tun-wa-we-tun-ga necn-dah biih- 
zheen-ga tun-wa-we-tim-ga, whe-he-ya ! 

A rattle snake makes a noise on the poles of my lodge ; he 
makes a noise. 

The jealousy of rival hunters is a frequent of quarrels 
jiul troubles among the Indians. This man boasts that the rattle 
snake, which always gives notice when danger is near, is on the 
poles of his lodge, and no evil can come near him without his 
being informed of it. His life is guarded by a superior power, 
and he fears not what his enemies can do to liim. 

23. O-shaw-wah-no nah-o-bah-guh-he gun-nun-na, ho-kah-mik 
a-no-2rweh, whe-he-ya ! Neen-da-bwa-wa se-to nah-na, whc-hc ! 
ya-ha ! 

To a Shawnee, the four sticks used in this song belonged. 
When struck together they were heard all over the country. 

Th's is the figure of a man holding in his left hand the four 
iiah-o-bah-e-gun-nun, or sticks, on which this song was recorded, 
and the authorship is claimed by a Shawnee, from whom the 
Ojibbcways acknowledge to have received it ; and here, it is pro- 
bable, the performance originally concluded. The remaining 
figures appear to have been addtd from other songs. 

24. lli-ah shahwo mah-mo-ke-ah-na Man-i-to ne-whaw-baw- 
maw ah-mik-kwug n*' whaw-baw-maig, whe-ha-ya ! 

I come up from below; I come down from above; I see tli' 
spirit ; I see beavers. 

I ■li 




>li;.sic AND Vl»KTR\. 

ff I 


'V'"' <losiiTii of this fitriiiT is to suggest to the miixl, tliat tlu 
.•"p'sriS to whiun t\w jiriiyers in tlie medicine hunting are address- 
v(t ito only knows where animals are on the surface of the 
ground, hut that so great is his power, he can create them where 
they did not before (;xist, to supply the wants of those that pray 
unto him, and can cause tlu-m to come up out of the earth. 

iir>. Wc-waw-bun o-kah-tawn neen-gah-bcah no-kwa-nah we- 
^law-bun o-kah-tawn, we-he-lia-ya ! 

1 can mak(! an east wind come and pass over the ground. 

This is sung four times, tlie north, the west, and the soutii 
winds being each, in turn, substituted for the east wind here 
spoken of. The meaning is, that the spirit has power to give a 
wind in any direction that may he necessary for the success of 
the hunter ; that he controls all the chanires of the a1mos|)hcre. 
and will overrule them in such a manni^r as to ensure the success 
of those whose medicine is strong : in other words, whose prayer 
i^ eHectual. They nnist therefore neither regard the wind nor the 
sky, but go forward in contidence of success. The idea of thr 
circle in this figure, into which the wuids are represented as rush- 
ing, is derived from the apparent form of the visible iiorizon ; tin 
Indians neither know, nur will tliey believe that the foi.n of thi 
earth is L'^lobnlar. 


till." ^ 
I* I I 



' d 


-, I 

•-itj. Na-nah nub-be-gah-ne-na ha-ge-(ah wah-kum-me-ga uk-ke- 
ko-no-dah go-na, neen-na-nali nah-be-yahn-ne-na, ke-na-nali nub- 
be-ah n«'cn-na, whe-he-yah ! we-he-ya ! 

Thus have I sat down, and the earth above and below has lis- 
tened to me sitting here. 

This is agftin the figure of Na-na-bush, sitting on the earth, in 
ilir same attittuie in which he is represented in the first part of 


\ ^ 

Ml'SIC AM) l'liKIU\ . 


(I, Uiat tin 
:c aildress- 
icc of tlu' 
hem where 
e Unit pray 
wa-nah we- 


x\ the soutii 
t wind here 
iver to give a 
ic success oi" 
•e the success 
kvliose prayer 
I wind nor the 
le idea of t!\e 
enled as riish- 
; liurizon ; the 
,e foin of tht 

lii-mc-ga uk-ke- 
Ike-na-nah n\ib- 

|l below has lis- 

)n the earth, ii» 
Ihc first part "f 

ihe perroniiaiice. The nuiiniiiir i-*, tliat all who join in these de- 
votional exercises must, throughout their continuance, which is 
lor tlic {Treater part of the iii<fht, retain iuunoveably the same at- 
titude, and give a serious attention to the performer, who must 
observe the same rule ; and when all is tinished, he, without ut- 
tering a word to any of those about him, rises and walks out of 
the lodge. 

27. Pa-mo-ta-yah-na che-maun duh-kwa pa-mo-ta-yah-ga, whe- 
he-ya-ha ! 

1 make to crawl, a bear, I make to crawl. 

Probably the meaning is, that by these observances, and by 
Uiis prayer, the hunter may cause to crawl [kill] a bear, or any 
animal. It is to be observi-d, that a bear is never, in these songs, 
railed by the common name, but always che-mahn-duk. 

It requires two years of attentive study, in the intervals of 
leisure that occur in the life of a hunter, to learn this song, and 
he must pay his instructor the value of many beaver skins. It 
was first introduced into the band to wiiich Mr. Tanner belonged, 
liy an Ojibbeway of the village of Was-waw-gun-nink. Our nar- 
rator, as well as his foster brother, Wa-me-gon-a-biew, had paid 
this man, whose name was Ke-zha-shoosh, great sums for his 
medicines, and it was a quarrel originating in this subject, whicii 
ended in his assassination by Wa-me-gon-a-biew, as related in the 
preceding narrative. The Ojibbeways of Red River relate, and 
.^oinc of them hrliccc, that very wonderful efl'ects have been pro- 
duced by this soug, and the medicine belonging to it, such as. 
tliat after using it for four days one man succeeded in bringing a 
live moose into the midst of the village at Was-waw-gun-nink 
in such a state of fatuity, that he made, though uninjured, no ef- 
fort to escape. These extravagant fables remind us of the pow- 
rrs attributed by the ancients to the music of Orpheus, and others 
of the earliest poets. 

One of the established customs of the Indians, in relation to 
iiunting, tiiough not innnediately connected with the subject of 
the prccedini; song, may be here mentioned. As in the case of 
many other customs, its origin is unknown, but i\< tendency 
seems to be to encourage the spirit of generous hospitality, and 
'" render the proceeds of the chase the common property of the 


ll. " 


}■ '' 

»;• •■ i 



band tn Avhirli the hiiiilpr bclonrrs. Th<' riist(»ni is, that if any 
inaii, in iPtnrnint; from his hunt, no niatlor how lon^ and htho- 
rious it may have horn, or how trnat may \ir the nocossitifis of 
his own family, meet another just slarlinff out to himl, or cvrn a 
littli" l)oy walking from the rami) or \ illa^^ro, he is bound to thro\\ 
down at his foct, and ifivo him whatever he may have brought. 
It is partly to avoid llie efTert of this custom, that the men often 
limes hMve their game on the spot where they killed it, and thi 
women are sent to bring in th<' meat. In other insi.inces the 
hunter curries the animal on his baek as fir as he thinks he ran 
without the risk of meeting men, then eonreals it, and goes home 
iVo difference is said to be made when game is taktii which is 
not needed in the village for food ; l>eavers, otters, martins, or 
whatever the hunter may have taken, he is expected to ridinciuish 
fo the person who meets him. 

I'l i 

|swAK\ jf Iinliu, t/ir Satiun i>f Itahj, the NANAnrsii ofth' 


[Sec Atialic linenrclnf, Vol. /. p "Jl!* J 




that if ain- 
/ and \i\\w- 
:ossiUPs ol 
t, or even a 
lul to throv 
!V: brought 
men often- 
it, and lli' 
iisiancos tlu' 
links he can 
1 jroi's honn' 
rn wliich i^ 
, martins, or 
to rilimiuisli 

nisii «; 


\-,t rp'iV'l 


Vw. I. 


,^ ^, 

Via. I. Clio-inalin-dnk-kwa nr-muIi-kui-o-s:i nc-ali-hah-wa, no- 
an-liali-ua, nc-nuili-kwi-o-sa, Iw-ah-whc-hi -u/i ! 

A bear, I walk like a bear niysell"; myscll". I walk like a bear. 


le hu'dii'iiu' man here speaks in Ins disoiiiM 

ol' a bear skin 

\e-Minli-kui-o-~a mi),'ht he more literall) translated"! walk a 
liear;" it is the eumponnd olneen-mnk-kuaw and pa-[iali-mo-sa. 
• >r ()a-bah-nn>-sa. I'he-mahn-duk is < niiunonly used, in thesi- 
>onirs, lor a hear. 

•-I. Ah-wes-sie hi-ah-wa-nali hah-lw a-\M-lahni;-!{ih ! \Vaw- 
x\ash-ke^h r-wah hah-twa-we-tahnj>-nah. 

.\ beast, what beast comes eallinir f ll is a deer eonu-s eallin<;. 

The word hali-lwu-we-lahn>;->rah is ixpressive not only of the 
|ieeiiliai' eall of the male deer, at thi' riiltini) si-ason, hut also ol 

ilu- eireumstane." that tl 

u- annna 

s ap|iroachnii; IIk- speaker 


were he {joinu; the other way, or even :;itanding .-ilill, the word 
would he ditrerenl. 
'.\. O-innn-num-nali inn-tro-ehe-we-nah. [Twii'i. | 


IS \(llo\v oehre 

ill t 

rv It. 

This is the sann. in all respects, ns No, !>», in the preeedin^ 
sonj; to i\a-na-hiish. 

'i. VVun-nr ho-i-yahn, wmi-ne h<i-i-ali-na nali-we-lie-u he-o-ge- 
uiah-wah Ka-hr-Wiiw-hiii i-mt-kwain « un-ue-hoi-\ah nah-we-ne-n. 

I disjjiiist' myselC to clual vou, *io thai oid\ a rliirf, if he sees 

ine, ran know w 

ho i 


The himter, to dee«'i\e the animal he wi.shes to kill, putH on 
!|ie dre«H uf a white num. or .isMumes Mie nppenrnnee of %nmr 

}" m n: 


jt^; , ;-> ■►ft.'^ijifcig^^^. 



harmlrs^ cifatinT, and hr boa>tstliat his disguiM" is so porlofl as 
to deceive any but a rhiet medicine man, or a ureal hunter. It 
phoidd be remombered, that (he langiiage ol" tliese songs is com- 
monly that of distant allusion, rather than direct figure ; hence, 
though the words nuiy seem unmeaning to us, they ahvajs con- 
vey much signification l<t the Indians. Thus, in this instance, 
though the hunter say.i he puis on the appearance of a white man. 
it is probalile he means that he disguises himself as a ucar, or 
some other animal. e«iually harmless with a man who wears a 
hat, or a while man. Tliat the Indians should think liltlc of 
ihr white man's "^kill in hunllng, is by no means surprising. 




>(■■ 1 



• ' . -t 

o. l-ah-iir-wah-ho go-mo-yaun. i-ah-ne-wah-lio go-mo-yann . 
i-am-mik-gung-ga-nali ; i-ah-ne-wah-ho go-mo-yaun. 

Can any one remain longer under water than me ? I am bea- 
ver, and I can remain longer tiian any under waler. 

This language, descriptive of the dilfn iiliies in taking beaver. 
is put iiitii (he moiiili of (he animal liimsell. 

t>. I-an-we-be-ah-ne ne-hub-be-ah-na be-ah-na. [Many times 

I am well loaded ; I sit down (o re>l ; I am loaded. 

The iiunter hears, but he regards no( (he boasting language ol 
(he bcuvrr. The evidence of bis skill a id success is on his buck, 
suspi-nded by a sirap passing round his forehead ; and to nij^nify 
'!ia( his loail is heavy, Iw si(s down (o res(. 

7. Mah-mo-ke-hea hi-ah-maunii-w iig-e-he-a inan-i-(o-we-he-tnli 

He muHt come up, even the loon, though lie is ManKo. 

Thin in another answer of (he hunter to the boast of (he bruver. 
Are you h grraler diver (huii the loon ? Yet even he nni.-^t rise 
to the surface after a certain '.i;r.r. The coun(ry of (he Ojibbr- 
wav« aboundinir in small lake**, which sometimes lie verv near 

i I 



hunter. 1' 
nors is fom- 
u-c ; hence, 
ahvaj s con- 
\\s instance, 
i white man. 
i a near, or 
^lio wears ii 
ink liiilc of 




P ? I am beii- 

llHkinjr beaver. 



1. tl. 

\\Q liinsiuiit!;e ol 


and to fii£?niiy 



of ilie beaver. 
li he must rise 
|,M the Ojibbr- 
lir verv nenr 

i-ach otiier, without any visible eommnniealion, they have taken 
np the idea that eomnumieatitms exist under ground, and they 
believe a loon ean dive down in one, and eonie up in another ol" 
them. They think, also, that the beaver can carry down so 
much air entanfrlcd in his coat, that if left undisturbed at the bot- 
tom, he can thrust his nose into his fur, and breathe for some 

H. Whe-gah wecn-ah-wa\v sah-ge-mah-tik-o-waw, hio-go-mah- 
waw, sali-go-mah-tik-o-waw. 

I can cut down that chief tree, though it he the tree of a chief. 

The beaver says he can cut down any tree. Thougli a great 
hunter, and a man of medicine, may claim the tree, though ho 
may have placed it there, tlie beaver can cut it down. Sah-gem- 
ah-tik reminds us of the word Sa-chem, derived from some ol 
the eastern dialects of the Algonkin. 

J>. Neen-dah no-je-ah we-ah-wing nian-i-to-we-tah we-ah-wing. 

Though he is Maniio, I can work to take his bod\. 

This is the hunter, culling open the ice, or breaking up tiie 
beaver's lodge, in pursuit <<( him. (Al the bar lh(>v begin to 
dance. 1 





10. y .'. be-i5o-tin-no-waw a-zhe-tm-na chaw-gaw-Mais-sie a-zhe 

I woiiM .'h »oi, as you told me, any animal ; as you told me. 

Thi.* IS addressed to Na-iia-bush, ami the hunter professes his 
desiif to follow h' I'dvice in every thing, that be may lie assured 
s-; •I'T in I untin!;. .Naim-i)ush is partiiidarly the lumler's god. 
a. 1(1 fnmi him Ins best skill is derived. 

11. Ncen n'buh-we-hah he-na-ne-whaw, aa-nr-buh«we-hah. 
Nren n'buh-we-hah mcen-da-nm-sHh. na-ne-buh-we-hsli. 


!' ( 

' 07 



{. t 


■f^ i 



) ,..» 


Ml .-n AM) nil I K V 

I make to siuiul, a iiiun, 1 iiiuko iiiiii staiul. 

The words «Nnii-i'c-\vali and iiii't'ii-da-ino-sah, mrati licrn llif 
male or rcinale of the aniinais hunted ; and a>, at some seasons, 
only the males are fat, and at others only tin; temales, the one 
line or lh«^ otiier is snnif fn'st, aecordin^r 

to tl 

le s«'asoii, 


word n'huh-we-hah is more eomnionly spoken, |)articularly li\ 
the Mississippi Indians, n'po-we-ah. 

12. Nc-ttli-WH een-du-l)c-lo-na ne-uh-how. 

Myself, I do t,^(>t)d lo myself. 

It is eerlainiy pcditic I'or the medicine men, who reeeive ex- 
travagant fees not only for teacliinj' their s(m(fs, luit fur the me- 
dicines used conjointly with them, to remind their employers that 

nil th 

u< evpenditures they make arc not unavailin^r- 





i-- a li(.nn<' which seems to lie that of a Icmale, coxered pinfii-ely 
with the clotiiini: piirclia 'eil Ironi the pr(ict'('(l-< ol the medicint 
hunts; over the heail of the li^nre are blankets and cloth, uiiil 
aiiKind tiie waisi is siisjiended an ample irarnu-n', lielonijinir to a 

\',\. \e-knun-naw niM-m>-clie-liah iie-kaiin-naw . 

My friend-. I will l!\, my fritiul-. 

Prosperity, as arnoni: other nnii. It ad- lo insolence ani! tin 
ainise of powiT. 

This man, who, in iina<rinati(m, iias been sm 

cesslnl in h\< piir<iiil-;. whose medicine has made him rn-h, ami 
clothed his I'amilv. now proposes to turn il-^ powiT against hi- 
fellows. The victim of his malice lies on the (rround, trannfixed 


lui (>norm(ui> arroiv. 


14. Na-wi-ahn, na-wi-ah-na, o-ho-o wim 
pah-!)e-waw iMim-me-kwi-a-nc 

A mu 

ccasin sii.iKc 

a mociM»iii 

•nail he-na-ne-wnw we 

^kin is ni\ mediciiit 

bug; let any man i oiiw to see me that will. 

I( aii\ man is p;aloiis of iii\ -iicct -.s in hmitiiiif, l< t hiui know 
that a moccasin snake skin is my medicine bat; ; let him know 
that he cannot, without danu'er, come in mv wa\. 

' IjLM M 



Mi li; 10 ihf 
inc seasons, 
lies, tlie Dill' 
•asoii. TIk- 
iliculailv \>) 

} receive ex- 
it till- (lie lilt ■ 
iiploN ers lliat 
Hire, then, 
red |>riit'u-('l'' 
tlic mrilifiiK 
■III clotli, anil 
eloiiLriiiLr I"' •' 

»l»'ii»f ;iiiil til' 
him been siu 
liiiii riih. ami 
IT aiiaiii-*! I"- 
iin!, irai»nJiXf«l 

ia-iie-\va\v \\<- 

iii\ met 


1, 1 iiiiu kniiw 
(1 liim kii'tu 

{.'). Ne-ali-\ve-iia, iic-ali-Uf-na, waw-biin-duiu-mo a-zhe-naii- 
^wuk iie-ah-\ve-na. 

Myfselt", niyseir, helioM me, and see that I look like inyscU". 

This is sonn' jrreat mrdiriiie man, probably the author t)f (lif 
~(injj, wlio shoMs hiinseir U> the people. 

MS. ('he-be-^au-ze-nauiiK >j\vil-)(»-i-ah-na iiiaiin-dah-wccn ah- 
lue-ffe iieeii-M'a-nah L'na-kwaik ke-iiah gw it-lo-i-ah-na. 

I (Minie (o rhani;[e the ajipearanre of the ground, this ground ; 
I niaki! it hiok ditleriiit in earh season. 

This is a Manilo, who, mi arcount of his immensity of tail, and 
.ilhcr prcnliHrilies, has no prototy|H>. He elaims to he the ruler 

<i\t'r llH- seasons. 


probal)ly <iitehe-a-nah-ini-e-l)e-zhe\v. 

li^rtat uniler-irround wild cat.) 

17. Ka-«ha\v-buni-n»e-ia he-ali ne-haun-na ehe-mo-ke-ah-nii 
lirah ne-haiMi-na. 

You may see me, my friends; I have risen, my friends. 

This is the Manito of the ijrotind. who |)uls only his In-iul above 
ilii' surface to speak ; but in this limire his horns are omitted, 
j>rriiaps by nii-^iake. 

1*^. Muk-ko-we-tali-wa neen-dah-nees-sah e-kwnh-e-tah-wn. 

Were he a bear, i eould kill him, were he a lonsc. 

Thus aided by the Manito of the seasons, or of the wealhi i, 
ind by hnn of the j^round. as is expressed by the two priceilini.' 
li(.Mires, the hunter says he eould find and kill whatever was a 
bear, thouch it were no bit'^er than a louse. The tigiire is thai 
i)f a bear, with a louse on il. 

|U. (Maiiiih we-vo ehe-niahii-diik o-t:i-nuli-« r-yo. 

\\\^ tongue, a bear, his ion|/iie. 

The tongue, like the heart and blood in the other 8un|{, U now 
lit h«> kept from the profane tourli nfa woman or a dog. 




"'^5s^^CSt**^ •'•«^« •<»«■■. 



UO. Man-i-to uli-wc-slic-nah-iiaio-kiiii-na nian-i-to wc-slic-nali- 

A spirit is what I use ; a H])irif do tlioii use. 

Tho sjxaki'r, in this iiistaiiro, is Na-na-bush, who gave mankind 
an arrow ; that is, all those arms which give man (himinion over 
the brutes. He used these things before us, and we must use 
them agreeably to his instruction and example. 

Ul. We-ah-hah nuik-ko-we-e-tah yah nah-mah kummig, ain- 
dah-zheesh she-no-gwain niuh-ko-we-tah. 

Although it were a bear concealed under the ground, I could 
tirul him. 

Thus aided by the Maniloag, and armed with the weapons ol" 
iNa-na-busb, what animal shall be able to escape from the htmler ' 





h * 

r * 





i{i^? ' 

i \ 

ii lMtft i W iii I I k -^ 

Ml .-IC AND IMtrilV. 




c mankind 
Vinion over 
• must \is«' 

mmig, ain- 

jntl, I f""!^ 

weapons ol 
the hunior ' 


Fio. I. a. 


Flu. I. Nccii-iiali-hali ah-iu'-iin-do-irwain {ja-no-zci wain-je 
inan-i-to Mlie-jrwain, « c-lii-yali, wr-lic-ya 1 

What I kiutw not niakrs fra-no-zlif (the l(»ii<> moon) Maiiito. 

One of the winter moons, commonly called (litclic-manilo-n- 
gce-zis, (ihc (Iroal Spirit's moon,) which corresponds to luir 
month Januar), is con>i(l(rcd particularly laMJurahlc lor limiting. 
Children horn in (hat month arc r«'ckoncd lonQ; lived. 

2. H«'-ah neen-irwi-o-ho o-ho man-i-to-wc-t«h-hah j^ah-neen- 
nwi-o we-i-ah-nah wc-hc-a ! 

My painiinii, that makes nn a Maiiito. 

One ol the parlitular kinds ol medicine lo he used uilli tins 
>on^, is mixed with o-n\nn-un, and used in painting the face. 
The IndninH atlrihute to it the (^reatesi cMicacy in givinij imme- 
ilialf siicceHs ; bnl many of ihcm fear to use it, fmni a iirlief tha' 
i! will have an injurious cHect on them atler dcalh. A man whc 
'iiis uHcd it will, ihey say. in the ccnmiry to which we j^o aftei 
ilealh, have no tlosh upon those parts of his '^nrv where the inedi- 
line has touched. It is rare to ohMTve, anion^ the Indians, any 
id«UH which w«»dd lead t<» (he helief, that they look upon a future 
^late p.s one <>f rein'.uHMii. The irnnx cnl are those who fail to 
each (he \.ilaL'i> of the dtad; and l)u- unrortiii::ile art thosi 
who, when ihi V ariiv« theri. are disiiii!>ui>lied from others, l)V 
hring coiik|x lied (<< dHiti-e on (heir h«*Hs. \s might be expected 
("mm n pe-ipir in su« h profound ijfnoran<'« . i( »* not to tho^e ac- 



I'' .7: i ■ 

'.>• • ' 

m . 


1^ ( 

>. ^i 



tioas which are ptruicious lo huppinoss, and the true well bring 
of the socicly. <»r the iiulividiial here, that the idea of future 
punisliniriil is attaehed. 

3. [The words Indoiiging to this figure arc lost. He sneins tu 
be beating the Me-tig-waw-kcek, or mtlai drum, and is doubtlcs^i 
boasting of his great medicine.] 

4. Yah-hah-ween-gah wc-ah-hali ye-hi-ali-yah we-hc-a? yali- 
hah o-ge-mah-waw goan-dum-nio-nah o-ge-mah-waw. 

I am able to make a chief swallow an arrow. 

This has allusion to the thrusting of arrow.s, and similar in- 
struments, into the stomacli, by the medicine men. The word-< 
are put, perhaps, into the mouth of the medicine. Tricks of 
this kind arc often exhibited in the Metai, as well as several 
juiserable sleiglit of hand tricks, which all the initiated, at least, 
seem w illing to look upon as miracles. A common performance 
is that of suffering one's self to be shot at with a marked bullet, 
which had previously been shown to all the persons sitting in 
the lodge. The medicine man stands at one end of the lodge, 
with a small wooden bowl in his hand, and his companion, aftei 
having exhibited the bullet, loads the gun in the sight of all pre- 
sent; then dancing and singing backwards and forwards, dis- 
charges the piece, apparently at ilie head, l>nt taking particular 
care not to hit him. As soon as the smoke is disperso.d, the om 
who had stood to receive the fire is seen with a ball in his dish, 
marked accurately like the one which had been put in the gun. 
With this he dances, exulting and shouting, three or four lime-^ 
.nround the lodge. Other tricks are played with little pup|)ets ot 
wood and feathers moved by strings, bvit kept concealed in sacks. 
or otherwise. Many of these things, too childish and trifling to 
be minutely described, are the standing wonders of the boastei. 
i'cremonies of the IVIetai, or grand medicine, the |>rincipal reli 
gious leremony of the Indians. 

H I 


< ' 


I '■ 

well being 
a of luturo 

le scrms In 
is doubtless 

.-hc-a^ yah- 

I similar in- 
Thc \vonl-< 

Tricks of 

II as several 
alcil, al least. 
1 ncrforinanci* 
narked bullet, 
ons sitting i» 

of the lodge, 
mpanion, aft( i 
ight of all pre- 
forwards, dis- 
hig particulav 
lerso.d, tl\e oii« 
,)all i» I'i^ il''"''- 
)ut in ll»' g""- 
or four time-^ 

tile puppt^lJ^ <»' 

oealed in sacks. 

and tritling to 

of the boast»'i. 

principal reli 


(5. T. H. 



5. Wuh-wc-kwa-be-yah neen-na neen-go-ehe niecn-da-mo-sali 
iiei-un dun-nub bc-ah-neen-na. 

I cover over myself, sitting down in a secret plare with a 

*). Hujr-ge-ta a-a-ho ke-ta-nee-na kc-ta-nee-na. 

I speak of your heart; [to a moose.] 

7. Do-je-teem mam-mo-e-yahn ween-e-sc inam-mo-e-yahii o- 
iiah-ge-chc mam-mo-e-yahn. 

Your tripe, 1 lake your melt, I take ; your straifrlil jrut I take. 

These are the choire parts of a moose ; the attitude of the 
hunter is expressive of his exultation; il is the o-nah-ge-ohe 
which he holds in liis liands. It is this part of which those deli- 
lious sausages, railed fiiintvr\'> puddiiti^s, are made. 

N. Neen-dai-yuli gutrhe-hah hi-e-kwa-waw-hali, neen-noan- 
dali-waw sah-wecn n-ye-ke-tot»! whe-i-ah-hnh whe-hc-ya ! 

I can make her ashamed, because I hear wJiat she says of me. 

H. \V;ius-snh wa-kum-me-ga na-bah-gwaim, wlie-ah whe-he-a 
\ ag-ifali-mir\i;-^''o na-hah-gwa.