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Dominion School 
Telegraphy and Railroading 

Toronto, Ontario 

Practical Instructions and Special Lectures in 


Second Edition 

| Instruction Paper with Test Questions | 


Part 2 

Entered according to act of the Parliament of Canada in the year 1911, by 
Joseph Edward Cassan at the department of Agriculture. 
All rights reserved. 



1. The lessons are divided into parts and numbered, and are 
only supplied to the student as he progresses with his studies 
Study a few pages at a time. Do not skip from one section of 
the paper to another. If there are any statements you do not 
understand, ask the instructor, or drop us a card or letter, advis- 
ing what section and page you are having diffieulty with, and 
we will explain the matter in detail. Review thoroughly, and 
write out the answers to the test questions at the end of this 
paper, and send or hand in your work for criticism. Your elass 
letter and number is given you on your certificate of enrollment, 
and it is important that you put this on your examinations, as 
well as any letters you write to the schools. Failing to write 
this on, will cause delay in answering letters or returning exami- 
nation work. Send one examination at a time. Don’t write 
out the examination questions themselves. Use the num- 
ber of the questions and write out your answer. In writing the 
aaswers, simply head you: naper thus :— 

Answers to Test Questions. Telegraphy Part 1. 
John Smith, G.D. 215, 
440 Delaware Ave., 
Nov. 30/10. Toronto, Ont. 

2. We desire to get in close touch with you in your studies, 

and would ask that you keep us informed regarding your pro- 
gress and any difficulties you may meet with in your studies. 




1. The second step in the study of telegraphy, is the writ- 
ing or making the characters on the telegraph instrument, 
known as the key. This may be done alone. It requires a 
great deal of practice before one is thoroughly familiar with 
the method of operating, but we trust the instruction in this 
book will serve to give you the practical information necessary 
to attain the art of good sending. 

2. In writing on the telegraph key, it is important that 
you sit erect in an easy natura: position, facing the key. Both 
feet should be on the floor, the right foot slightly in advance of 
the left. The left arm in the same position as if you were hold- 
ing a page of paper to write on. In reality, this is the proper 
position for penmanship. 

8. The student should bear in mind that accurate sending 
is of greater importance than speed. Take good care that you 
send slowly at first. Strive for a uniform, even, smooth style 
of sending. Speed will come by practice. 


Fig. 1. 

4. The proper position for holding the key is shown in fig. 
1, and is the one adopted by the majority of the most speedy 
and perfect operators. : 

5. Rest the first finger on the top and near.the edge of the 
key button, with the thumb and the second finger against the 
opposite edges, as shown. e the first and the second finger 
so as to form the quarter .--.ion of a circle. Avoid straight- 
ness or rigidity of these fingers and the thumb. Partly clor> 




the third and the fourth <1 ser. Rest the elbow easily upon 
the table. allowing the wrist t be perfeetly limber. When 
the proper ‘‘swing’’ is acquired, the forearm moves freely in 
conjunction with the wrist and fingers. The fingers and © jumb 
should act as the end of a lever, the wrist and forearm doing 
the work. Let the grasp on the key be moderately firm, but 
not rigid. Grasping the knob tightly will quickly tire the hand 
and destroy the control of the key, causing what is termed 
‘*telegraphers’ cramp,’’ or the ‘‘glass hand.”’ 

6. Another position may be mentioned, although we do 
not think it is as good a position as the +e illustrated  Plaee 
the first two fingers on the farther edge o1 the key kn — with 
the thumb under the edge. This position sometimes r the 
hand from the first position mentioned. The balance of the 
information given for the position illustrated in fig. 1 will 
apply in this case as well. 

7. Avoid too 1.uch foree or too light a touch, and strive 
for a medium firm closing of the key. It is not the heavy pres- 
sure of the key but the evenness of the stroke that constitutes 
good sending. Telegraph repeaters can be adjusted for both 
light and heavy senders, but not for an uneven sender. A 
telegraph repeater adjusted for either a light or a heavy sender 
might be out of adjustment for a perfect sender. The motion 
should be directly up and down, avoiding all side pressure. 
Never, of course, allow the fingers or thumb to leave the key; 
that is. do not tap or strike the key with the fingers, or allow 
the elbow to leave the table. The correct met'od of sending 
is an easy one, and, when it is properly doae, an operator 
should be able to send for 12 hours continuously without tiring. 


8. Assuming that you have memorized the telegraph codes 
as given in the first instruction paper, we will discontinue the 
use of the symbols in this book, so that all the practice exer- 
cises taken up in order, will be helpful to the memory in re- 
calling what stands for the characters, and in this way, ad- 
vance the work more rapidly than would otherwise be the case 
if the symbols were shown underneath each letter, figure, ete. 




9. You will remember in the first instruction paper, the 
dot was taken as the unit by which the lengths of the dots, 
dashes and spaces were measured, and a table was also given 
you, showing the difference in the time of making a dot, dash, 
ete., the dash being three times the length of the dot or 3 units. 
This dash has reference to the letter ‘‘T.”’ 

10. The dot ‘‘E’”’ is made by a firm downward stroke of 
the key, followed immediately by a quick upward motion. On 
the sounder, the dot is indicated by a down stroke, and im- 
mediately followed by an up stroke. 

11. The dash ‘‘T’’ is made by holding the key down as 
long as it takes to make 3 dots. On the sounder, the short 
dash is indicated by a down stroke, followed (after an inter- 
val of 3 dots) by an up stroke. 

12. The long dash ‘‘L’’ is made by holding the key down, 
as long as it takes to make 6 dots. 

13. The extra long dash ‘‘O, cypher,’’ is made by holding 
the key down as long as it takes to make 9 dots. This will be 
noticed to be one-half longer than the long dash ‘‘L.’’ How- 
ever, in practice, the ‘‘L’’ and the ‘‘O’’ are generally made 
the same. Occurring alone, the long dash will be read as ‘‘L,”’ 
but when found among figures, it will be translated as ‘‘O, 

14. Nore.—When the student has thoroughly mastered the 
art of sending and receiving, the length of the dash, long dash 
and extra long dash may be shortened as follows: Dash to 2 
units, long dash to 4 units, extra long dash to 5 units. This 
will be done unconsciously in rapid sending. By thus shorten- 
ing the dashes, a material gain and rapidity of transmission is 
affected without any great disadvantage. 

15. The intervals between dots and dashes in the same 
letters are called breaks, and in letters that do not contain 
spaces, the dots and dashes should follow one another as closely 
as possible, but in the spaced letters, O, C, R, Y, Z, & the space 
should occupy the time required for 2 units, that is, the space 
between the dots in the letter. Such a space is indicated on 
the sounder by an interval of the duration of 2 units between 
the instant of breaking and the making of the next character. 
The down and up mofions occupy about 1 unit of time. 

16. The interval between letters in a word, should occupy 
the time required for 3 dots or 3 units. The interval between 
words, should occupy the time required for 6 units, that is, 
the key remains against the upper contact for 5 units, the 
up and down motion occupying 1 unit of time. 





17. In telegraphy, the same as in penmanship, it is im- 
portant that a eareful study of the position of the body and the 
movement of the wrist should not be slighted. The more at- 
tention given to the correct position and movement, the better 
and faster will be the gain in sending. 

Uniform spacing, with a firm smooth style of sending 
should be attained by giving proper time in practice to the 
various exercises that are to follow. 

All letters must be made perfect, and do not get into the 
habit of sending too fast at first, without any regard to uniform 
spacing. Some are inclined to put the characters in letters too 
elosely together, which creates jerky uneven sending, which is 
not only hard to copy, but hard to read- 

A very good rule for a beginner to observe in order to get 
good spacing between letters in words and between words in 
sentences, is to pronounce each letter after it is made, then the 
word after you have pronounced the last letter of each word. 
You will notice in this plan that in pronouncing the word after 
the letter you give about twice the space between the words 
that you do between the letters of the words, which is correct. 

If an error is made in sending, the interrogation mark 
should be made, just in the same way as a person would say in 
carrying on a conversation and had made a mistake, ‘‘1 beg 
your pardon,’’ repeating the last word that was spoken, or, in 
the case of telegraphy, repeating the word in which occurred 
the mistake. A sending operator is always supposed to recog- 
nize his own mistakes and correct them, as the receiving 
operator has no other method of knowing what is actually to 
be copied other than what he, hears on the sounder. 



18. At this stage of the instruction, you arrive at a time 
when you now apply to practical work what you have studied 
in the preceding instruction, and it must be borne in mind 
that in sending, careful thought*should at all times be given, 
remembering that the more practice you have on the key, the 
more it disciplines the ear to recognize the sounds of the vari- 
ous characters. so that no matter who might be making the 
characters. they could be reeognized and copied down. 

19. The receiving off the instruments is considered the most 
difficult part in learning telegraphy, therefore, we cannot im- 
press upon vou, too much, the importance of plenty of prac- 
tice. in order to get the various signs thoroughly fixed in the 
mind. The exercises will be taken up in numerical order, and 
should be mastered in regular order, as each is designed to 
unlock the exercise that follows. Do not be afraid to repeat 
the various exercises over and over. until such time as you 
can make them without any mistakes, and do not leave one 
exercise until it is thoroughly mastered. 


20. After referring to the illustration of the proper method 
of holding the key, learn the movement first on the dot char- 
acters, making each character at the average rate of 3 dots per 

21. As you progress in your practice exercises your speed 
will gradually increase without any noticeable effort on your 
part and this gaining in speed siowly is desired—a student 
shoul not send but a trifle faster than he ean receive. 

ee ee ee 

22. In practicing these characters, make each letter in 
order, thus:—One dot, two dots, three dots, ete., going through 
the exercise forward and backwards, until you are sure you 
get the proper number of dots each time for each individual 
letter. After this has been accomplished, drill on each indi- 
vidual letter, until you get in the habit of making each letter 
as it comes to your mind without the slightest hesitation. After 
this, write the exercise in the various combinations, so that if 
they should come in the same manner as they would in a word 
like ‘‘his,’’ you would iot hesitate to make them. 




a ee 




23. If after making a character about 20 times your hand 
becomes tired or stiff, let go the key, pick up a piece of paper, 
or book, relax the muscles by simply closing and opening the 
fist, and bending the wrist in a straight up and down motion, 
then in taking hold of the key again, be sure your fingers drop 
into the proper position at once. 

24. As the dot characters appear more often than any other 
letters in the alphabet, this is a very important exercise, and 
constant practice should be devoted to these all through the 
course, in order that you will gradually gain in speed. 

25. Be careful to make the spacing between the dots uni- 
form, and not prolong the last dot into a dash. It is a very bad 
habit to make 6 dots when you only want 5, or vice-versa, 

Instructors’ check here :— 


26. This exercise is similar to the first, in as much as it is 
composed of dots and spaces. In making these letters, the 
space should be made just double that ordinarily allowed be- 
tween the elements of the letter. Avoid making the space too 
long, as there is more likelihood that it be made too long rather 
than too short. Hold the key down for the duration of one dot 
only; the down and up motion of the key is equivalent to 
another dot, so that the total space is equivalent to 2 units. It 
will be remembered that in the table given in the first instrue- 
tion paper, that the space in spaced letters was equivalent to 2 
units. The space in these characters, is simply a pause equiva- 
lent to 2 units. The more rapid they are sent. the shorter the 
space will be, yet it will be uniform. As there are more dot 
and spaced characters, found in ordinary words, it is very 
important that they be thoroughly mastered, because it is in 
these characters that the beauty and pride that most oper- 
ators have in sending, is usually shown. Here are the char- 
acters :— 

OCR Y 24& 

27. Repeat this exercise on the key, backwards and_for- 
wards and in various ways, so that any letter can be made at 
will, and do not leave the exercise until it is thoroughly mas- 

Instructors’ check here :— 



28. Learn the movement on dashes by inaking them at 
the rate of one a second. Special care should be taken to make 
the breaks between the dashes as short as possible. If a good 
free movement is used, the dashes cannot be made too close 
together. In making letters compused of two or more dashes, 
the beginners have a tendency to make the final dash too short. 
Hold the key down the length of three dots for the ordinary 
dash. Here are the charecters:— 


T L M 5 O 
29. Drill on this exercise until each one can be made in 
any order desired. 

Instructors’ check here :— 


oO. In this exercise, be careful not to hesitate in making a 
dash in each ease. In making U it is similar to 8S, and should 
be made just as uniform as 3 dots. with the exception that you 
hold on to the last one and turn it into a dash. Beginners have 
a tendency to hesitate before coming to the dash, and apparently 
seem to put on extra stress in trying to make the dash uniform 
with the dots. Let the dots and the dashes follow one another 
closely, and avoid making the dash too short or too long. 


A U V 4 

31. Practice on these backwards and forward and in vari- 
ous ways, until they can be made at will without any hesitation. 

Instructors’ check here :— 



32. In making the Dash-and-Dot Characters, there is a 
great tendency to make the break between the dash and the dot 
too long, and should this be done in making the letter N, T E is 
made instead of N. In making the letter B, when you hold the 
key down to make the dash, the other three dots should be 
made uniform, and the letter should be made compact before 
the instrument is allowed to break. The dots following the 
dashes, should be made in a sense the same as if the whole 
character consisted of dots, with the exception that the pressure 
is held on the first part of the character, and the moment the 
instrument is released the dots should be made uniform. 


N D B 8 

33. Practice these slowly at first, and strive for a firm, uni- 
form motion on the key. In making the letter N, the dash-dot 
might be timed by pronouncing the word ‘‘Nine-ty,’’ holding 
the dash while the first syllable is pronounced, and the dot 
when pronouncing the last. Drill on each letter individually, 
going backward and forward in the exercise as well as in vari- 
ous orders, until you have thoroughly mastered the movement 
of each one. 

Instructors’ check here :— 


34. In this exercise, it will be noticed that if the last dot 
in I, S, H, or P is carelessly prolonged into a dash, the letter 
following it in the exercise will be made instead of the one in- 
tended. Notice A is the opposite of N, U the opposite of D, V 
the opposite of B, and 4 the opposite of 8. If A and N are 
made too closely together, you make the figure 1; similarly, too 
little space between T and H will produce figure 8. 



35. Practice this exercise backwards and forwards and in 
various combinaticns, until each one can be mastered without 
any hesitation. 

Instrr tors’ check here :— 



36. Two of the most difficult characters to make correctly 
are K and J. If the final dash in K is made too short, it will be 
D, and if too much space is made between the dot and last dash 
it will form N T. Similarly, too much space before the second 
dash in J will transform it into NN. Keep in mind that each 
letter made up of two or more symbols must be made compact 
as if each one were set out by itself. Practice this exercise 
until it is thoroughly mastered. 

Eo Gik sg WE Ss SF <9 

Instructors’ check here :— 


37. As the period, comma and interrogation mark are used 
more often than all others, it is important that this exercise be 
given careful attention, as the indication of punctuations in 
messages, train orders, ete., is so frequent, that it is absolutely 
necessary for an operator to know these. Practice the follow- 
ing in various combinations, until each one is thoroughly mas- 
tered. It is advisable to drill on each one several times before 
making the other, then go through the whole exercise in the 
order that they appear. 

The uses of the punctuation code will be taken up in 
another lesson, and various examples will be illustrated, to give 
the student the correct idea of how and when they are used. 
Period. Comma. Interrogation. (SX). Cents (C). 

: i ? ‘ e@ 
Quotation at beginn’g (QN) Quotation at end (QJ) Dash (DX) 
ce 9? 

Instructors check here :— 

ASB GoD heh Ge Tek) heal tN vO sR Oras 
aE ER Ve Wa eke We Fe 
Instructors’ check here :— 

1 BE eS Ge eR ad), 
Instructors’ check here :— 


. | 



38. In this exercise we will combine letters from the pre- 
ceding exercises, with a view of having the two or three letters 
made, using the same spacing as if they belonged to a word, 
and also using the same space between each exercise as if it 
were the space between words in a sentence :— 

' Si Hi Se Re He Hi His Has Sat 

Pa No Ro Na Gu Wh Je Ju Wr 
Ru Ri Ak Di Dn Mu Mi Ry Vi 

Instructors’ check here :— 


39. In writing large numbers, a short space is usually made 
between every three figures. The decimal point is transmitted 
by spelling out the word ‘‘dot.’’ Practice on this exercise in 
regular order, until you can make them with ease. Do not 
make the period w hich is shown at the end of each set of fig- 
ures, nor do not make the comma, as it is only shown here to 
separate the three figures where the short pause is to be made. 
In writing a number of figures following one another (such as 
ear numbers), it is customary to put a comma between each set. 

1,000. 1,506. 1,508. 2,320. 3,125. 
14,135. 123,708. 978,467. 875,900. 1,315,479. 
4.5. Slay 6.25. 12 esl ae 

215.01. $1.25. 17.0005. $154.25. 

Insturctors’ check here :— 


40. In fractions,a dot (that is the letter E) represents the 
dividing line. It is also used when a hyphen is shown between 
figures, which is the same as the fraction sign. In making the 
E, it is customary to make it quickly and immediately follow 
it with a figure. 

1/3 2-3 3/4 7-8 
9/10 15-16 13/14 6-7 

Instructors’ check here :— 



41. In the following lines, the first two characters, im- 
properly connected by too short an interval, will make the 
third character. Thus, if a and t are connected by too short an 
interval, w will be made; and if e and d are made with too 
short an interval between them, an x will be made, and so on. 

a t w e d x 
u e q Vv e 3 
u i 2 u d (Period) 

42. Repeat the above exercise, being careful to form each 
character correctly, as this will lead to a perfect style in send- 
ing. There are almost as many styies of sending among oper- 
ators as there are styles of penmanship. 

Instructors’ check here :— 


43. The following exercise contains simple words, without 
spaced letters, and also words containing spaced letters, and it 
will be noticed that in words where no spaced characters are 
shown, they are much easier to write. The words (and, the, is, 
at, ete.) will be recognized more quickly than any others, as 
* they do not tax the memory or the mind to remember what they 
really are. Practice this exercise until each word can be made 
without a mistake. 

And Warrant Practice 
Is Tee Judgment 
Nominate Vas Little 
Vacant Limited Poison 
Teicle Let It 

The Quotation Opinion 
Terminate Rice Desire 
Maintain Were Train 

44. Be careful to make An, H, J, K, P, S, and Th correctly 
in order to avoid their being taken for other characters as pre- 
viously indicated. 

Instructors’ check here :— 





45. In practicing the following sentences, the student. will 
have acquired all the various combinations of letters, figures, 
ete.. and the balance of the instruction, so far as the practice 
work is concerned, should be devoted to various exercises that 
you feel you need the most practice in. Coupled with these, you 
should practice (when the times comes for you to receive in- 
struction in messages, train orders, ete.) the proper way of 
sending railroad and commercial messages, train orders, train 
reports, ete., keeping in mind that all through the course, prac- 
tice is the secret of success in learning telegraphy. 


How are you? 

Hlow is the weather there? 
Have you any freight for me? 
Do you want to stop 54? 

I am busy. 

The shipment was delayed. 
Ask him to speak. 

Is that so? 

Your way bill is incorrect. 
When will shipment go forward? 
The train was delayed. 
Original copy was attached. 

The train was late. 

Instructors’ check here :— 




46. Sending accurately is more important than high speed, 
for it is only by accurate sending that a student may hope to 
form a proper habit. and the constant application of the proper 
habit will increase the speed gradually. When writing on the 
key. it is necessary to have the various characters thoroughly 
fixed in your mind; when you desire to make a character, the 
mind instantly recalls what represents it, and no hesitation is 
necessary. The student should cultivate a firm, even, smooth 
style of sending, and strive for accuracy rather than speed. 

47. The custom of timing to ascertain tue speed of send- 
ing should be very sparingly indulged in by the beginner, for 
it is likely to produce careless habits. The speed of sending 
should be graduated to suit the capacity of the receiver. The 
letters should never be crowded. 

48. An operator is no judge of his own sending, and there- 
fore should not try to see how fast he can send, until he has 
had corf$iderable experience, yet if you know you have formed 
the proper habit, and that the character is made properly, it is 
desirable that you endeavor to gradually increase the speed in 
writing. While fast sending is seldom indulged in by strictly 
first-class operators, yet fast time is made by them on account 
of their steady, even gait, their perfect characters and few repe- 
titions or mistakes. 

49. When you are writing for some one to copy down 
what is being sent, and the receiver tells you you are not writ- 
ing properly, or not spacing evenly, accept the suggestion, and 
endeavor to improve by it, realizing that it is for your own 
future benefit. A great many mistakes are made unconsciously. 

50. Before taking up the next lesson, which is on receiving, 
a student should carefully review all the exercises in this book, 
and feel satisfied with himself that he can make them without 
error. After this thorough review, write out the answers to the 
Test Questions that appear at the back of the book, and hand 
them in or send them to us for criticism. 





1. Describe the method of holding the key. 

2. What direction should the arm move in when writing 
on the key? 

3. (a) Have you gone through the exercises given in the 

(b) Do you feel satisfied that you can make them on the 
key perfectly ? 
4. What is most important m sending? 

5. Give a list of the characters that are the reverse to each 

6. Is it proper to time yourself for speed? 

7. Make a report in your own words of the progress you 

feel you haye made, advising any particular part of the lesson 
that appears difficult to you. 




Special Examination No. 2 

(a) When aw train order has been repeated or ‘' N°" response 

sent. and before ‘‘eomplete’’ has been given, how will 
the order be treated? 214. 

(b) Hf the line fail before an office has repeated an order or 
has sent the ‘X"' response, how will the order be treated? 

Which copy must the Operator who receives and delivers a 
train order, preserve? 215. 

When a train is named in a train order and by its schedule 
number alone, are all seetions of that schedule included ? 

When must an Operator not repeat or give the ““X7" response 
to a train order for a train which has been cleared, or of 
which the engine has passed his train order signal? 219. 
How long do train orders once in effect, continue so? 220. 
May any part of an order be preceded or annulled ? 
When do orders held by cr issued for or any part of an 
order ‘relating to a regular train, become void ? 

What kind of a signal must pe used at each train order 

What is its normal indication ? 

Under what conditions will the normal indication be 

When an operator receives the signal ‘31"’ or ‘'19,’’ fol- 
lowed by the direetion, what is he required to do? 

(e) Under what conditions may the signal be restored to nor- 
mal indication ? 

(f) When may a train proceed after being stopped by a train 
order signal ? 

(g) What is required of Operators if the fixed signal should 
fail to work properly ? 

(h) If a signal is not displayed at a night office, what is re- 
quired of a train that has not been notified ? 

What is required of Operators with regard to reporting the 
arrival and departure of all trains? 222. 

_In the following order, how will trains run with respect to 
each other? 
No. 1 Eng. 262 meet No. 2 Eng. 275 at D.” 



Should a meeting order be sent for delivery to a train at the 
meeting point, what addition is made to the order? 
“Extra 87 West has right over No. 8 Eng. 453 B to D.”” 
Under this order, when may a regular train go beyond the 
point last named? 
“No, 1 Eng. 942 run twenty (20) minutes late A to BE.” 
“No, 1 Eng. 942 run twenty (20) minutes late A to E and 
fifteen (15) minutes late A to T.”’ 
How do the above orders affect the schedule time of the 
train named between the stations mentioned ? 
“No. Eng. 56 wait at H until ten (10) a.m. for No. 10 

Eng. 75.” 
In this order when may the first named train pass the 
designated station ? 
How will the last named train be governed ? 
“No, 1 Eng. 65 and No. 3 Eng. 73 wait at N until ten 
(10) a.m.—P. until ten-thirty (10.30) a.m. R. until ten 
fifty-five (10.55) a.m.”" 
Under this order may the train named pass the desig- 
nated station before the time given? 
(b) How will other trains receiving orders be governed ? 
When extra trains are run over working limits, what must 
they be given? 
_ (a) Eng. 292 work seven (7) a.m. to six (6) p.m. between 
QO and E, not protecting against east bound extras.”’ 
Under this order, how will the work extra be governed ? 

(b) If the wording in the above order were changed to read, 

not protecting against extras, how would the work extra 

be gove d? 
How will a train holding an order to meet a work extra be 

governed ? 


We always keen on hand the necessary supplies, so that 
students need not go outside the school to get anything they 
require in connection with their studies. 

A student bezinning his course in the Day School pays $2.00 
for his instruction books and a supply of stationery, The sta- 

tionery consists of seribbling books. writing nads, speed examin- 

ation pad. two pencils. pen holder. two pen points, in addition 
to having the regular station forms whieh are supplied in the 
stations. The message blanks. ete.. are not required ontil such 
ime as a student gets in the senior class. 
The following articles may be purchased any time throngh 
the school :— 
Teloeranh Learner’s Outfit. including dry cell batters 
and wire 
Tndividual Telegraph Key (Leg). each.. 
Individual Telegraph Key (legless). each 
Individual Telegraph Sounder, each 
Bell Wire for connecting instruments. 25 feet for 
Blue Vitrol (for Gravity Battery). per Ib 
Jar for Gravity Battery 




NIho — & 
“sito = 
i >) >) BS) BS) | 


Gravity Battery, complete. with copper. zine and Blue 
Vitrol. 1 Ib 

Dry (Cell Battery. each 

Fountain Pens. Special 


wr bo bo 
ao] es | 


Stvlusses for writing train orders, each 

Seribbling Pads. each 

Examination Pads (3 for 25s) each 

Pen Holders, each 

Pencils. 2 for 

rwentieth Century Telegraph Manual, bv Frederick T. 

aw Fel) og 

Mever, Chieago ; 
Penmanship Book, Part 1 bb 
Penmanship Book. Part 2 25 
Meecograph (A Hand Sending Instrument) 9.00 
Automatic Telegraph Transmitter (for home study pur- 

poses ) 25.00