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for foaming 





Ornamental Draftsman and Designer. 






Xtoitara : 


re-printed 188(5. 


" WE feel an apology due to Mr. Page, for not before noticing 
his truly and interesting and highly useful Work, which, (at 
this period, when the florid ornamental style is so predominant, 
not only in engravings, but in cabinet work, and in the fittings- 
up of shops, and interior of houses) must be a valuable 
instructor, to all inlayers, modellers, cabinet-makers, orna- 
mental workers, and carvers, and also to students in every 
department of the fine arts to engravers on wood for designs 
and instructions for ornamenting capitals, and head and tail- 
pieces letter-founders,for new and chaste patterns for flowers; 
and, as the splendidly-ornamental shop-bills which shed such 
a brilliant lustre on the artistical talent of the last century, are 
now being happily revived, 'Page's Guide' will be to them of 
the most vital importance. 

" The letter-press remarks and instructions in the first part 
are illustrated by innumerable beautifully engraved specimens 
of the various schools treated of, designed and engraved by the 
talented author ; reflecting on him the highest credit as a 
writer and artist of pure taste and varied talent. 

" This production has our heartiest commendation ; fearlessly 
and earnestly recommending it to all lovers of the fine arts. 
Young ladies with the assistance of the above work, may, with 
the greatest ease, exercise their judgment by forming fanciful 
borders for the pages of their scrap-books. 


"It is really gratifying to witness such a concentration of 
genius emanating from one of the British school, and in that 
peculiar branch of art wherein we have hitherto looked only to 
foreign countries for examples ; it proves, also, the truth of our 
oft-repeated assertion that, if patronized, our artists can rival 
those of any country. We again especially implore our young 
and fair readers to cherish and uphold, to the very uttermost 
of their power, let it be however insignificant, the talent of our 
beloved country, and not to be led astray by the present 
fashionable predilection for those innumerable muddy-looking 
and ugly productions of foreign artists, which unfortunately 
disgrace the shop-windows of our book and print-sellers, and 
are purchased and prized merely because they are the works of 
strangers, whilst our own artists are literally starving for want 
of employment." Mirror. 

" The producer of this Work for he is, it appears, the 
author, editor, designer and engraver of it is one of the 
masters at the School of Design ; and his object in publishing 
is to afford easy instruction by certain rules to enable the 
young draftsman to base his designs on safe and secure founda- 
tions. It is a most creditable production ; one that will interest 
all classes, and be of rare value to those whom it more especially 
concerns. The Author exhibits proofs of great industry as 
well as of patient research; and where his own inventive 
powers are applied he is eminently successful. The book 
abounds in explanatory illustrations of all the subjects con- 
sidered : the style is clear and comprehensive ; the merest tyro 
in art may study it with advantage. We rejoice to welcome a 
publication of the kind ; our English ornamental designers 


are nearly all of them slavish copyists, and scarcely dream of 
thinking for themselves, while they can beg, borrow, or steal 
from the wits of France. The School of Design has already 
done something to lessen this crying evil, and will, no doubt, 
ere long achieve much more; meanwhile this cheap work, 
issued, with upwards of a hundred engravings, and one 
hundred and fifty pages of letter-press, will, we trust, attract 
general attention, and recompense the producer of it, by 
forwarding the purpose for which he labours. We shall refer 
to it again." Art Union, April 15. 

" This Work is one of the best and cheapest that has been 
written on the subject, and from the pen and pencil of a 
practical man, who has had the advantage of being able to see 
his instructions carried into effect under his own inspection, as 
director of the class of ornamental drawing at the School of 
Design ; as a further recommendation of the Work, it is worthy 
of mentioning, that the illustrations proceed from the graver, 
as well as the pencil of Mr. PAGE." Civil Engineer and 
Architects 1 Journal. 

" We hail with pleasure this Work, it has been long wanting 
in the Schools of Art : the rules are explicit, and the matter 
interesting and instructive ; we wish he had treated further on 
the vine leaf, that being much used by the ancients ; we doubt 
not but its success will repay the labours of the Author, who is 
the Alpha and Omega of the Work." Polytechnic Journal. 

" We have before us an entire and new Work, entitled ' PAGE'S 


contents are such as must inevitably repair that loss usually 
found in our Schools of Art ; we wish the spirited and talented 
Author every success; the letter-press is excellent, and the 
plates well got up." Literary World. 

"This is a Work in which great spirit for the benefit of the 
Arts is shown ; the rules laid down are excellent ; the whole of 
the Work is completed by the Author, which, to praise too 
much would appear a boast ; it is illustrated with innumerable 
wood-cuts and plates. We wish the Work every success, and, 
in our opinion, no school or student should be without it." 
Weekly Dispatch. 



Abacus, the upper member of the 
capital of a column. 

Acroter, a pedestal on the summit 
of a column for supporting a 

Acroteria, small pedestals placed 
on the apex and other extremi- 
ties of a pediment, originally in- 
tended to support statues. 

Antce, pilasters attached to a wall. 

Ashlar work, rough stone laid in 
irregular courses. 

Bevelled, slopped off. 

Buttress, the projecting portion 
of a building, used generally to 
strengthen a wall as well as give 
effect, in Gothic architecture, 
and when separated from the 
building by an arched piece, it 
is termed a flying buttress. 

Campa, or Sell, that part of the 
Corinthian cap, on which the 
foliage is placed, and on which 
the abacus rests. 

Cap of a Chimney, the upper and 
projecting part of the snaft. 

Capotum, a kind of Hindu torus 
moulding, with an ornament re- 
sembling a pigeon's head at its 

Cello,, the part enclosed by walls 
of a Grecian temple. 

Check-plate, the piece of wood in 
the lintel of a doorway, against 
which the door shuts. 

Chevron moulding, an indented 
moulding in the Anglo Norman 

Chimney shafts,ihe part of a chim- 
ney which rises above the roof. 

Cincture, a ring or fillet serving 
to divide the shaft of a column 
from its capital and base. 

Clere-story,the centre of a church, 
when it rises above the two 

Clere-story tvindoivs, windows 

in ditto. 
Coins, corners. 

Congee, a species of moulding. 

Corbel heads, the extremities of 
corbel stones, often carved. 

Corbelled, one stone projecting 
over another to support a super- 
incumbent stone. 

Corona, the crowning member of 
the entablature. 

Corrugated, wavy or fluted. 

Croivsteps, the coping stones of a 
gable rising one above another. 

Crypt, a vault. 

Cumuda, a kind of Hindu circular 

Curbed, contracted towards the 
ceiling by being carried up into 
the roof. 

Cuspa, points formed in the upper 
corners of the window by unit- 
ing the two curves. 

Cyclopian walls, walls built with 
land stones heaped on each 
other without mortar and 

Dado, the flat side of a pedestal 
between the plinth and the cor- 
nice ; applied also to the space 
between the skirting and the 
chairs' back moulding in rooms. 

Dormar windows, windows in a 

Dressings to windo^vs, mould- 
ings, or rather architectural 
lines and forms surrounding 
windows, so as to prevent them 
from being "mere holes in a 

.us, a species of moulding. 
'ngaged columns, columns at- 
tached to a wall, and projecting 
from it half or three-quarters 
of their diameters. 

Entablature, a horizontal mass 
placed on Grecian columns : it 
consists of three parts the 
architrave, frieze, and cornice. 
JVpistyliuHi, or architrave. 
Facade, the principal face, front, 
or elevation of any building. 


Fascia, the face or principal mem- 
ber of the architrave, generally 
divided into three parts, to the 
Ionic, Composite and Corinthian. 

Finial, a pointed ornament termi- 
nating a gable, in Gothic archi- 

Frets and guillochis. Frets are 
ornaments composed of a series 
of small straight fillets ; and 
guillochis of a series of curved 
fillets, intermixed with straight 

Frieze, the plain surface between 
the corona and cornice, on which 
the triglyphs are placed in the 
Doric, and ornaments in the 
three remaining orders. 

Frustum of a pyramid, the lower 
part, the upper having been cut 
off horizontally. 

Greek cross, a rectangular cross, 
the limbs of which are all equal. 

Haunches of an arch, the part 
behind the springing of the arch. 

Inter columniation, the distance 
between the columns of any 

Label moulding, an outer mould- 
ing, crowning a door or window 
head, always returned at the 

Lancet windows, windows formed 
with lancet heads, in the pointed 

Lintels, the side pieces of a win- 
dow-frame or doorway. 

Lotus ornaments, the water-lily 
used by the Egyptians. 

Minutes, division of 60, for work- 
ing the orders of architecture, 
the foundation being the width 
of the base of any column. 

Modules, equal parts into which a 
diameter is divided, for the pur- 
pose of facilitating its measure- 
ment or delineation, and then 
into minutes. 

Mullions, upright pieces, dividing 
a window into three or more 

Mutules, the modillions in the 
Doric order are called inutules. 

Neck of a chimney, the part im- 
mediately under the cap. 

Newel the turning-post of a stair- 

Octostyle, a building with eight 
columns in front. 

Pagoda caps, caps for ventilation. 

Palm-leaf ornaments, leaves of 
the palm, in general used by the 

Patera, an earthen cup, or vessel, 
used by the Romans. 

Patera, an ornament something 
like a rose, used to conceal small 

Pilaster, a rectangular pillar at- 
tached to a wall. 

Pinnacle, a pointed ornament 
terminating a pediment, or 

Rustic-work, stones made rough, 
on the outer surface, by tools. 
There are several kinds of rus- 
tic-work; the most common of 
which are the lined, in which 
the hollow marks are in straight ; 
and the yermiculated, or worm- 
ed, in which they are in curved 
or tortuous lines. 

Soffits, the ceiling or under side of 
any member, or mouldings in a 

Spandrels, the space between the 
springing of an arch and the 
flat surface it is intended to 

Splayed, bevelled off. 

String-courses, marked a.nd pro- 
jecting lines of separation on the 
face of a building. 

Tazza, a cup. 

Triglyphs, certain distinctive 
marks in the frieze of the Doric 
order, and formed by three 
glyphs, or grooves. 

Vestibule, an ante-hall, or inner 

Volutes, scrolls of the Ionic, Com- 
posite, and Corinthian caps. 






CHAPITERS . . ....... 21 









ON ARABESQUE . . ...... 160 

ON ELIZABETHAN ........ 167 


AND PERIODS . . . . ..... 210 

ON GEOMETRY ......... 221 

ON MOULDINGS ......... 239 




IT has often appeared to the Author of the " GUIDE 
TO ORNAMENTAL DRAWING," that, notwithstanding the 
many valuable works that have been, and are at present 
publishing on ornament, from various foreign works, 
and ancient edifices, that some other was required to 
prepare the pupil and student, not as copyists, but for a 
much higher class in the art, viz., their own designers; 
to accomplish this has not been a very easy task. After 
many years' study, as a self-taught draftsman, difficulties 
continually arose on the principle I followed, as a basis 
for improvement, that of never copying, but holding 
retentive in my memory all I saw, until I transmitted it 
to paper, and then referred to my origin, and corrected 
accordingly ; and thus I proceeded, keeping in mind a 
boldness and freedom of hand, which, when acquired, 
always holds a predominancy in the arts, over the frip- 
pery, patched, and meagre line, which is aimed at by 
many ; and, like all injurious habits, easily acquired, but 
not so easily amended. After studying until I accom- 
plished my object, that of dissecting and obtaining a 
thorough knowledge of all the various ramifications 


belonging to the many characters or styles in general 
use, and seeing the difficulties that appeared to others in 
copying from different works, for the want of perseve- 
rance to take the right method. Pupils are generally 
taught (merely to please their parents and spoil paper) 
to commence drawing a forest, without first knowing how 
to draw the bough of a tree, and on this plan many who 
receive instruction at schools are spoiled, whose innate 
ideas, if properly trained, might have filled the vacuum 
now existing in our British schools of art and manufac- 
tures. The object of this work occurred to me about 
five years ago, and after trying many geometrical dia- 
grams, those contained in this work occurred as being 
the most simple and efficacious, but yet had not sufficient 
confidence to bring them forth to the public, without 
first knowing their value. Subsequently I commenced 
throwing them open to all who thought proper to follow 
them, which has been by no means few; and the 
principles laid down in this work have since been duly 
appreciated, both by connoisseurs and amateurs, and in 
no instance have they failed. By the request of many 
friends, I revised them well, with a determination to 
throw them open to the public at large, with feelings of 
arduous enthusiasm, which was really wanted to aid and 
improve the art of design. Being dubious in entrusting 
the spirit of my wishes to another, I commenced this 
work as Author, Engraver, and Printer, resting assured, 
under this impression, that, where I may have shewn a 


want of classical literary attainments, it will be pardoned 
on the part of my numerous subscribers, my only wish 
being to give that instruction under confined heads of 
explanation ; the engravings not as first specimens of 
art, but give that outline and form which is usually lost 
sight of when so much labour is bestowed. It is hoped, 
therefore, that this work will afford that assistance as a 
self-instructor, and be a valuable auxiliary and remem- 
brancer to the universal draftsman, it will then repay 
the labours of yours, obediently, 





N introducing to the attention 
of the student, artist, mechanic, 
and the public in general, to 
whom this work may concern, 
a History of the Acanthus, 
solely of its being first brought into notice, as 
regards the adaptation in architectural details, 
would be of little service, although known to 
many, and y n t to the youth and others unac- 
quainted with it, it may be interesting, if not 
original. A. virgin died at Corinth, and being 
buried under or near a pyramidical tomb, her 
nurse or companion, after her interment, placed 
her jewels, &c., for which she shewed a parti- 
ality when living, in a wicker casket by the tomb ; 
and, for safety, placed a tile on the top to avoid 



the atmosphere, for the longer preservation of 
its contents. This tribute being placed on a 
root of the Acanthus, (acanthus mollis,} com- 
monly called bear's breach or brank ursine, (in 
botany a genus of plant belonging to the dydy- 
namia angiosspermia class, or the spinosa acan- 
thus, commonly termed the dock leaf,) is uncer- 
tain ; but in the spring it burst forth and spread 
itself fantastically around the casque. Nature 
having given the design, one day, a celebrated 
architect and sculptor, Calamacus, who, for the 
delicacy of work upon marble, and genteel- 
ness of his invention, was by the Athenians sur- 
named Catatechnos that is to say, Industrious 
passing near this monument, cast his eye upon 
the image before him, and began to consider the 
pretty tenderness and playfulness of the foliage 
which grew about it; the manner and form 
whereof so much pleased him for its novelty, he 
copied it in its rude state, and with his power- 
ful imagination added and improved it to a 
graceful modelled form : shortly after, erecting 
columns at Corinth, he capped them with this 


new idea and ordained its symmetries, distri- 
buting afterwards in his works proportions equal 
and agreeable to each of its other members in 
conformity to his the Corinthian mode. 

Vallalpandus must needs give to it a more 
illustrious and ancient origin. He pretends to 
assert, that the Corinthians 'copied it first from 
the temple of Solomon, of which God himself 
was the architect; and, better to elude the 
previous account, states that the Acanthus was 
rarely used by the ancients; and by the des- 
cription of this divine piece of architecture, 
there is no doubt that the originals of the tem- 
ples were of palm branches bearing fruit, to 
which the leaves of the olive have a near corres- 
pondence. The finest example of the ancients 
in the adaptation of this description of foliage, 
was the frontispiece to the Torre de Nerone, in 
Rome, which has been destroyed within the 
last century and a half, to the great reproach of 
'the age, by the avarice of some particular per- 
sons : this was one of the rarest specimens of 
antiquity, not only for the richness of its orna- 

1 * 


ments, but for the contour of its different mem- 
bers; the columns were six feet in diameter. It 
is not precisely known by whom it was caused 
to be erected, or to what purpose ; some imagine 
it was a temple erected by the Emperor Aureli- 
anusj and dedicated to the sun ; others, that it 
was only a palace. Another tradition asserts that 
Nero raised it to behold the conflagration of 
Rome, which is very improbable, being too great 
a work to have been accomplished in so short a 
time. Be it what it may, certain it is, according 
to the splendid illustrations of its different parts, 
it was the most magnificent specimen of Corinth- 
ian architecture that Eome could boast of. 
Other specimens of this order are in the chapters 
of the baths of Diocletian, in which the volutes 
are of ram's horns; this temple was built by 
Pyrrho Legorio, in the year 1574. In the tem- 
ple of Jerusalem, the chapters of the columns 
were entirely of the palm leaf. The castle of 
Lions, at Verone, and the arch of Titus, were of 
the composite order, and erected to the glory of 
that emperor, on his return from that famous 


enterprise, the siege of Jerusalem. The frieze 
of this arch pourtrayed the spoils and ravages 
of the temple; moreover, this arch was the 
first of its kind of structure ; mentioning these 
specimens are not to deteriorate from the speci- 
mens of the present day, far from it; but, as 
these were the originals, and from whence our 
present architects derived their knowledge, not 
only for the different orders, but for their sym- 
metries, which they, as men of sound sense and 
reason, will allow, that if these rules are deviated 
from, all is thrown out of proportion, and never 
attracts the eye of the common observer with 
that grandeur which even a common print of 
an ancient edifice would do. 

I shall continue my description a little 
farther previous to delineation, as it may be 
acceptable to many. According to Virgil, the 
Acanthus is an evergreen plant, producing ber- 
ries, or a small round fruit. Theosphrastus 
describes it as a prickly tree and bearing pods, 
like beans, of which, in some instances, we have 
no reason to doubt; for on examining works 


of Roman and ancient architecture, upon the 
friezes will be seen starting stalks and pods be- 
tween the scrolls, as is heretofore represented. 
The Greeks used the cultivated Acanthus, 
(Spinosa,} it being smaller in its parts, and 
more suited to the style and taste of that coun- 
try. In respect to this description of ornament, 
the author has made it his study to simplify it 
by rule, that any person, commencing to draw 
ornaments for sculpture, stonemasonry, model- 
ling, plastering, and carving, on whom rest the 
execution of that portion of the work from the 
architects and designers, who for the want of such 
foundation to work upon, render such under- 
takings extremely difficult, is the reason that the 
following rules have been studied to facilitate and 
bring a correct principle into design. It would 
be wrong to assert that lessons have not been 
laid down before, yet in so complicated a style, 
that not only places it beyond the easy com- 
prehension of the workmen, but is generally 
beyond their circumstances to obtain such valua- 
ble works : the present is far more simple than 


any yet brought forward to the public, and with, 
trifling study and perseverance would render the 
draftsman and mechanic perfect in this and every 
other description of foliage. 

It is surprising that no other foliage than the 
Acanthus is ever made mention of by any 
ancient or modern writers. Ovid mentions it in 
representing an immense vase of bronze, adorned 
with a mythological story, the border being 
covered with the flexible Acanthus, wrought in 
gold. Pliny, the younger, asserts it is nature's 
chosen plant, for, throw it in whatever form you 
may, certain it is to fall into graceful curves. 
Atlienaius relates that the canopy ordained to 
convey Alexander the Great to Egypt, the car 
was of golden columns, intermixed with the rich 
foliated Acanthus. The observation of the cele- 
brated French author, De Cordemoy, is very rare, 
but very true : it is strange, he observes, people 
soon cease to esteem that which is natural; nature 
and reason must always be violated, and we 
prefer a confused jumble of painted leaves of 
the laurel or olive, to the simple and graceful 


contours of the Acanthus : how well this speaks 
of the many trials that have been made in 
designing to alter this foliage, still a substitute 
has never yet been found where such freedom 
and beauty exists ; some attempts are very good, 
but they are sure to fall into the original ap- 
pearance, and when once a fundamental rule 
is got perfect, how soon will the student be 
able, with strict attention, to arrive at that state 
of perfection which must repay all his labours, 
with the pleasure of conquering, and making 
every study in design easy in itself. 

I think sufficient has been said respecting 
this description of foliage, and as every other 
has been derived from that one, except sundry 
variations and styles, of which each will be ex- 
plained in its due course and place. We will 
now commence delineation of the first four 
rules, to complete an Acanthus leaf to any di- 
mensions. Eule 1, plate 1, is the first outline 
or base principle of the foliage. 

Draw a perpendicular line, a b, to whatever 
height you may require, or think proper, being 


careful to have the width of your base, or hori- 
zontal line in due proportion, which is half 
the height, or thereabouts, according to the sit- 
uation in which it is to be placed; but I have 
found half to be sufficient, and on those prin- 
ciples the chief of my illustrations will be 
formed. Your base line, c c, is to be divided 
into six equal parts, one of each, d d, from the 
perpendicular line, will give you where to start 
your conical lines to form the pistules on ; then 
divide the perpendicular line into five equal 
parts and one-fifth, will give you the springing 
for the head, or circular portion of the leaf, 
which starts from a line drawn parallel with 
your pistule line, as this small diagram will 


Plate 1 will shew you what 

sub-division to proceed with pre- 
vious to forming the exterior line 
of the leaf; and better to prove 
it, we will suppose that I have 
a given size to execute an Acan- 
thus foliage, height 2 feet, base 





1 foot. I will make this my outline, accord- 
ing to the previous diagram; now, I have 24 
inches to compose six raffled leaves on each side 
of my perpendicular line, the bottom or base of 
the leaf is always the largest, consequently we 
may give most to that, and gradually diminish 
as we rise to the top, so that the bottom raffle 
will be 6 inches, then 5 inches, 4 inches, 
3^- inches, 3 inches, and 2J inches for 
the top, which, properly curved, will 
give the same appearance as plate 1 ; 
having done this, the plan is laid for plate 
2, which shews the exterior plan ; on each 
intersecting line you can form a dot, and 
from this dot you will carry your pistule 
5 and starting of the leaf ; then by gradual 
curves, rising from these points, and meet- 
ing the next one as if it were passed 
e through the leaf, as the following dia- 
gram shews. 
You perceive that you have a leaf in fact, 
which, on gaining this point perfect, I may say 
the greatest part is conquered, as on this rest all 


the grace of the foliage afterwards. I will now 
leave the diagram lines and proceed with plate 3, 
where the contour of plate 2 is kept by the 
dotted lines, and by dividing each of these leaves 
into three parts, as will be seen by diagram 3, 

you have the third process complete, and gives 
you where to terminate the centre stalk, or 
stamina of the leaf, which runs between each 
pistule, as the enlarged accompanying diagram 
will shew ; on this alone depends the freedom 
of the foliage, and this rule applies to every de- 
partment of scroll work whatever, or however 
curvilinear it may chance to be, this is very 
feasible upon consideration, as this foliage is a 
portion of a plant, of course every fibre must 
arise from the base or root, and to whatever 




In this figure you will perceive the perpendicular line is divided into 
only four parts, and B B the springing points. 



height or size, the origin is the same, or what- 
ever way it may have grown. I do not say it is 
necessary to illustrate this, but to prevent mis- 
takes, another shall be placed aside the scroll, 
to prove that should any other course be taken 
than heretofore mentioned, a peculiar character 
would appear, and out of all proportion, yet cor- 
rect. You will see by these two diagrams the 
principle of my ideas. 

* P S P S PSP S Stem. 

Keturn to plate 3, the dotted lines will shew 
the principle of my previous explanation. Plate 
4 will soon convince the reader of the true work- 
ing of my diagrams : here is a leaf, on one side, 

* P Pistule. S Stamina. 


stript of all adjacent lines, and on the other is 
another sub-division of three parts, which com- 
plete the leaf to a certain extent, according for 
what it may be required ; as on this point the 
effect of many splendid designs are lost; they 
are worked to the greatest nicety, and when 
elevated, they form a confused jumble, and the 
architect, and others connected with it, are 
blamed; for friezes, plate 4, is sufficiently cut 
at the edges. You are not to suppose that when 
you have arrived as far as plate 4, that you have 
the leaf finished in so chaste and rich a style as 
it is sometimes required, far from it, the edges 
ruffling of that leaf is termed dentata, or tooth- 
shaped; this is sufficient when properly drawn, 
as plate 5, for friezes, modillions, mouldings, 
&c., or where altitude is required, as the height 
reduces the parts to the eye, and it looks perfect 
and rich to the passing observer ; be it as it may, 
this rule must be got perfect before you com- 
mence with plate 6. Here is a leaf as perfect 
and chaste as ever need be used on any depart- 
ment of work, either for foliated capitals, orna- 





mental embroidery, carving, or modellings, but 
chiefly for vases, bosses, ceiling ornaments, or 
wherever this style is required near to the eye. 
The same rule may be gone through to draw this 
foliage, as plate 1, 2, 3, and 4 ; and the whole 
of the leaf may be completed in the same style 
and character as plate 6 ; and for a running scroll, 
or frieze, on a small scale, no leaf can look more 
rich and perfect, as will be shewn in the follow- 
ing numbers ; in which every department of 
curvilinear foliage will be treated on and illus- 
trated ; thereby gradually producing portions of 
foliage, springings, headings, and terminations 
of bosses, &c., generally used in friezes and 
other description of scroll-work, that every 
separate piece when put together shall form a 
series of designs, and prove how easy a student 
may become his or her own designer. 















HEN you have gone thus 
far you have the first rudi- 
ment of an Acanthus leaf perfect in a perpen- 
dicular position, and the same rules must be 
carried through on the like principles for curvili- 
near foliage; I do not mean to state, that it 
is necessary for every design you make to go 
through those rules, and for this reason : after 
once or twice practising them you will naturally 
get them by art sufficiently to draw by hand, 


for when the mind is once fixed on any object, 
particularly where benefit and interest are com- 
bined, nothing can scarcely ever obliterate it ; 
still, I would wish to impress these principles, 
Where the work is on a large scale; for however 
practised a man may be, he seldom arrives to 
that perfection, like Phechotos, who could very 
leisurely take a piece of chalk and throw the cir- 
cumference or segment of a circle, in which way 
he pleased, without leaving off 1 ; and that was so 
well known to every person of note, that when 
he called upon his friends, he never required a 
card case, but would strike a circle to let them 
know who had called. I merely mention this 
anecdote to prove what practice will do, and a 
proper knowledge of fixing the hand will almost 
accomplish what I have previously stated, which 
I will illustrate, as nothing is, or can be more 
mechanical than the human frame, and the hand 
particularly, as will be seen in the following dia- 
gram ; for when once you fix your wrist in a firm 
position, the carpus bones, or seven bones of the 
wrist, will act as a pair of compasses, and one 


of the bones, properly named the os. lunare, 
you perceive acts on an apex, between the two 
bones of the arm, viz., 1} the ulna and c 
the radius ; for instance, you rest your arm 
on c, and through the elasticity of the ten- 
dons, sinews, and muscles, you are almost 
able to strike the annexed diagram, fig. 1, 
without moving the arm. You will per- 
ceive the principle by fig. 2 ; here I have 
placed an anatomical hand, holding a 
crayon, which shews by commencing at or about 
d, continuing your segment until you arrive at 
the diagonal line, e ; from the point a you strike 
an arc of sixty degrees, and by extending your 
fingers from that point, you immediately form 
a concave line adjoining, or more technically 
termed a cyma recta or an ogee for mouldings. 
I allude in this manner that your freedom of 
hand is obtained on this principle by practice, 
for sketching off quickly any ideas that might 
instantly occur to you, naturally concluding 
should an architectural, or working drawing, be 
required, you would immediately strike your 


moulding, and other curvilinear portions by rule 
and as there are so many publications on that 
subject, it is not necessary for me to illustrate at 
present those rules, at the same time every min- 

utia will be given that I consider necessary for 
different professions or occupations j there is no 
occasion to enter more minutely on this point, 
sufficient has now been stated respecting the 
principle, utility, and freedom of the hand ; thus, 
I feel confident that with perseverance, and fol- 
lowing a few simple but efficient practical rules 



that I shall lay down, they will lead you into 
such facilities for drawing foliage, that you will 
never regret the study and perhaps labour it may 
have at first cost you. The following diagrams 
were struck at once, without taking the pencil off. 

The hand placed in the position before stated, will accomplish the 
whole of the above diagrams. 

ow to proceed with 
I shall com- 
mence plate 7 with a rule for drawing a leaf to 
adorn the Corinthian or composite chapter, 
which is a very difficult thing to draw properly 
and gracefully ; you perceive the contour of the 
leaf is kept as in plate 1, No. 1, / being the 
apex, 0, of the leaf foreshortened ; and again, by 
striking a segment of a circle, e, from the point, d, 
or centre of the perpendicular line, d d ; the head 
curves are from two circles struck from c c, and 
meeting at the extreme point of a b ; you then 
draw two mixed segments as at a &, preparatory 
to your proceeding with plate 8, which you are 

now prepared for. This leaf is drawn precisely 


on the same rules as plate 7; you will see the 




/ 4 X 






dotted line where the segment is formed for 
bending the head of the leaf, each part touching 
the pistules and startings, kept exactly ; this leaf 
I consider looks much better than plate 5, be- 
cause, through the foreshortening, you lose a leaf, 
and it does not look so meagre, otherwise it 
contains the same number of raffles, but I shall 
now shew it completely finished, after just notice- 
ing a great failing in shading and colouring this 
leaf : you must always be careful to bear in mind 
that whatever distance the bend, either shallow 
or deep, is from the surface of your foliage, to 
mind your depth of shadow corresponds with it, 
as that enriches your drawing and adds to the 
appearance most materially. 

I think plate 9 will give you satisfactory 
reason and proof for following, and learning 
how to draw this description of foliage, and I 
shall now explain the rules for putting that 
folded leaf in perspective ; supposing it - were 
required to place it around the Corinthian or 
composite chapter, plate 10 will give you I 
hope sufficient explanation, at the same time 





PLATE 10. 


as explicit as possible. Strike a circle at a, 
which dotted exterior will give you how and 
where the centre stem falls in bending the head 
of this leaf, as at c; this is a very important part 
to be careful with, as the beauty of every des- 
cription of foliage depends entirely on the grace- 
fulness of the curves ; b is the centre of another 
circle, which gives you the extent or distance 
for the off-side raffling, by dividing the circle, c d, 
into eight parts ; the point, d, will give the head 
segment, starting from c to e, and from point, c, 
will give d to f ; the line, g, will give the proper 
distance for the off-side of the stem, drawing it 
tangent to the circle, b. This figure is about 
proportionate for the first perspective leaf of the 
capital, and before the student begins to draw 
this order, he ought to be well acquainted with 
drawing various kinds of ornament and foliage, 
otherwise he never will produce a masterly per- 
formance, or be able to make any considerable 
figure in drawing so elegant a subject. 

Plate 11 is another plan for turning the head 
of a leaf. Strike a semicircle from the point of 



PLATE 11. 



PLATE 12. 


d, another at a b, shewing where the stem will 
pass through, and from the same point you get 
the segment from the diagonal line, c, to the ex- 
terior line of the circle, d, which forms the bend- 
ing of the foliage. I see no reason now, if you 
have followed the foregoing rule, that there is 
any occasion for me to trouble you any more with 
the principles to obtain your pistules, &c., but 
shall now shew these leaves complete at once, at 
the same time notice to you, after the principle 
is thoroughly known, how and where you will 
have to deviate a trifle, not from any true 
cause, but to add to the beauty of the ornament. 
You will perceive in plate 11, I have care- 
lessly thrown in a sketch outline of the raffles, 
which in plate 12 you will find varied, on the ex- 
tremity of turning the foliage. To prevent any 
misunderstanding of this statement, I shall first 
finish the heading of one leaf in one way, and 
secondly, in plate 13, complete a piece of foliage 
in as pleasing a form as I consider necessary. 
Having previously stated, that it is an object of 
the greatest importance for the student thorough - 

3 * 



PLATE 13. 


ly to understand foliage, before he commences 
this order, not only for the cap of the column, 
but he must be aware that there is no exact con- 
finement, or to what extent, he is at liberty to 
decorate the other portions of the order, as the 
planseer or soffitte, which over-hangs the other 
parts of the capital for their protection, with 
different mouldings ; likewise the frieze, which I 
consider has given much more scope for im- 
provement of design and decoration, than any 
other department of architecture extant; for in 
ancient temples and edifices where this order 
was used, it seemed to be the chief fort of the 
architects to outvie each other in that respect, of 
which, previous to making any new design for 
that portion of a building, I shall give a few illus- 
trations from ancient masters, not those following 
each others' footsteps, but where I consider there 
is a variety, novelty, and distinctness of form, 
and I think it will be acceptable, if only to com- 
pare with my own principles of design. 

You must not consider that a leaf described 
in this form is only adapted to columns, but it 



PLATE 14. 


PLATE 15. 



is very useful in forming cups for centre orna- 
ments, and pillar bases ; in fact, a variety of 
figures may be made from it, as I shall presently 
shew in outline, consequently giving the student 
the first principle of making design. Now, all 
I intend copying from, is plate 9, 13, and 15 : 
suppose I require a pattern for a tamp- stand, or 
any other subject of the same description, I 
should form it thus; at the same time stating 
that, that is imperfect, but merely to shew the 
simplicity of the rule, and how easy when you 
know the different turns 
of leafage, it will be to ac- 
complish any design of that 
description of ornament, 
namely, Grecian, as fig. 3. 
Plate 14 is a diagram of the 
leaf, plate 15 is a bent leaf, 
being the first variation 
from the perpendicular : 
this may perhaps appear 
very simple to you, but let 
me inform you, that on the swelling and con* 



PLATE 16. 



tracting of these curves depend your design, as 
a trifling alteration will give a decided variation 
of appearance, although you may take the same 
leaf for your guide ; for instance, if you attend 
to the annexed diagram, I think it will be suffi- 
cient foundation for you to follow my principle 
of opinion; here you see are a few forms for 
perpendicular starting points, or bases, and 

which, according to the height or situation of the 
object required, you of course must be guided, 
and which, in the following number, I shall treat 
more largely upon, as well as the other portion 
of bent foliage ; it would not be justice to rush 
immediately into designs, without first explain- 
ing the true utility of each foliage ; otherwise, I 
of course could soon fill a work with scroll, or 
what not ; at the same time leave you in the same 
dilemma, as many other publications of much 



higher estimation to the eye have done ; parti- 
cularly as regards the superiority of illustrations 
on copper or steel, but, as before stated, this is 
not my intention, utility is my principle, and I 
sincerely hope, with unremitting attention for 
the improvement of the student, I shall not 
only be serving myself in one respect, but shall be 
adding to the benefit, pleasure, and support of 




AYING- informed you 
of the necessity in managing your curves, I will 
now explain plate 16, which is commonly 
termed the eccentric leaf, and is very useful in 
many points, for centres, startings, and bracket 
ornaments; the position of which requires a 
trifling consideration before you rashly make a 
design; for instance, I will place a diagram 
where it is most useful, and how to arrange that 


portion of curvilinear foliage : be careful never 
to place too many of any curved leaves together, 
otherwise you will cause a confused appearance, 
and nothing is so unpleasant to the eye of the 
common observer; and, for this reason, always 
allow a clearness of design that is to 
say, an equality of ground as well as 
ornament; and then, if properly 
managed, there 
will yet be a 
richness ; but 

be careful and ; 
understand me 
rightly when 

I say clearness, it is not to be meagre and 
scanty, but that of course depends on the taste 
and display of the designer, and which taste it 
is my intention to attempt to cultivate if possible, 
and, to prove, shall give three diagrams of the 
most convenient forms as regards utility. Fig. 


4 is the exterior form for a corner, either for a 
frame, or may be made, with a trifling alteration, 
suitable for the decoration of a room, by 
running a line from angle to angle, or towards a 
centre, which may be formed again from the 
same leaf, as fig. 5 ; it is in this very point of 
decoration I would call your attention. You 

are, I dare say, all aware of what is termed 
Hogarth's line of beauty, not that he was the' 
originator of this line ; but certainly wherever it 
is kept, not only in ornamental design, but in 
every other respect of the art, there is always a 
more agreeable feeling attached to general taste 
than when any other form is used : but to 
those who do not know what is meant by this 
expression, fig. 1, No. 2, is the form of it, or 
any undulating line whatever, where there are 


no angles to be seen; and when decorations 

are on a large scale, when I say a large scale, 

I do not mean that the ornaments are to be 

large, but, for supposition, a spacious room 

where decorations are from each extremity, 

or, in fact, almost every other description of 

decoration, as frames, chased borders, &c., be 

careful not to fall into the following error, 

which is a very prevailing one, viz., that of 

squaring your ornament; but I think when I 

give an explanation by principle, you will then 

agree with me. Suppose I have a border to 

design to a given size, either for a room, frame, 

or whatever purpose it may be required, my 

guide would be thus, as the annexed diagram 

will illustrate. Plate 17 you perceive is of an 

undulating form, and in which line I shall make 

a drawing, merely to shew the principle and 

utility of this foundation for forming designs, 

as will be seen by plate 17; here is a mere 

outline to shew how your ornaments are to 

be formed, and which suitable ornaments will 

be given in the course of the work, on a scale 



PLATE 17. 


sufficiently large for patterns. In fig. 6 you 


V perceive the centre and side ornaments 
like the form of the one in plate 17, 
and in making your design, you should 
lay that principle down and work to it 
accordingly, otherwise you may be like 

many over-talented draftsmen, who, when once 
they commence, they know not when to leave 
off, after making a good design, keep adding 
and adding, that the first idea is entirely lost; 
always bear this in mind, when you have a 
good design, leave well alone ; as it is not by a 
profusion of straggling leaves and ornaments 
that beauty exists, but as I before stated, 
clearness and equality without formality. I 
shall now illustrate another prevailing system, 
and which I think, after a little study from my 
observations, will be broken off, and a more 
pure taste be cultivated in the minds of all those 
whose capacity require the aid of ornaments; 
feeling confident in my own mind that it would 



not only improve the freedom of hand on the 
part of other artists, but would likewise improve 
their taste for forming a basis for whatever sub- 
ject they may require. Now to illustrate in 
opposition to my former remarks ; I shall merely 
give another centre and corner, which will I am 
sure be a sufficient foundation for all the rest. 
You perceive in fig. 7, page 54, a square form- 
ality, which on being compared with fig. 6, you 
must allow is not so agreeable to the eye ; and 
I hope, by this comparison, to give perfect satis- 
faction to your own good judgment, and, by 
practice, that such impressions will be made 
on your memory never to be erased; did I 
not consider this the basis of design, and being 
apprehensive that from the prevalent bend for 
ornamental foliage, not only of this descrip- 
tion, but of others which I will shortly treat 
upon, and return again to this in some future 



PLATE 18. 


ears ago there were schools of de- 
sign, but I may certainly venture to say, that of 
late years, there has never been in England an 
academy or school where these points of arts 
have been strictly adhered to, or true principles 
formed to train innate ideas; as I am certain 
the mind of man is like vegetation, which, with- 
out the immense care, trouble, and attention, 
that has been given to bring such articles to 
perfection, the luxuries and dainties of many 
could never have been supplied to the extent 
and gratification which they are at present; in 
this and many other points, no expense has 
been spared by those highly talented gentlemen 
who have taken the most prominent features in 


PLATE 19. 


botanical, horticultural, and many other branches 
of science ; but never since our immortal Fuseli, 
Opie, Joshua Keynolds, and last, not least, 
Barry, has there been what is rightly termed 
a school of design; there has been truly, a 
school for painting, and copying, but never 
pushed so far as making students their own 
designers ; and, why not ? are they afraid, or 
what ? nothing but copy, copy, and make pretty 

drawings and paintings, that this very ludicrous 
remark may flow from the parents' or friends' 
mouths : have you seen how pretty my son or 
daughter has painted his or her drawing ; it is 
quite wonderful! what an excellent master they 
are under : he draws and paints so beautiful, 
he is quite a wonder. And when this wonder- 
ful boy or girl ventures forth to the public, and 
has to compete with the proper trained student, 


PLATE 20. 


how fare the colours then ? men of science and 
art, who are competent judges, are not to be 
caught by the glaring show of blues, reds, 
and yellows, but can judge rightly and feel- 
ingly, from a bold, free sketch, either in pencil, 
chalk, sepia, or Indian ink : in these, to look 
well, you cannot hide your faults, they must 
appear, and so let them ; then you perceive where 
you are in error. You are able, by proper 
study, not to wait for copies, but having studi- 
ously attended to all the different turns and 
finishings of foliage, natural history, and human 
figure ; in plain matter of fact, let nothing pass 
you unobserved, retain all you see in your 
memory, either good or bad ; you will then 
form, by careful attention to the principles of 
the old masters, a pure, unadulterated taste, 
which will never be forgotten. Of design, its 
chief element is correctness and style; its ex- 
tinction, incorrectness, and manner. The first 
principle of correctness is the power of copying 
with precision and accuracy, studying each ob- 
ject of proportion with its relative attachment 


PLATE 21. 


to others ; it ought to be considered of such im- 
portance that no person should enter as a student 
of any academy without his mind is thoroughly 
bent upon the former remarks. Did I not con- 
sider this the basis of design, I perhaps should 
forbear to speak, were I not apprehensive of the 
prevalent bend for design and reigning taste 
for every novelty of the Arts. I speak thus, 
knowing you do not lay on it all the stress 
required ; if you neglect the power of copying 
with precision, you never can acquire that of 
imitating what you may have chosen for your 
model. The two words copying and imitating, 
have, in one respect, the same meaning, but in 
the Arts it is very different, not only in mean- 
ing, but in its operation : an eye geometrically 
l'ust, with a freedom of hand implicitly obe- 
dient, is decidedly "requisite for the former, 
without choice, selection, amendment, or omis- 
sion ; whilst choice directed with judicious 
taste, constitutes the essence of imitation ; and, 
by perseverance, raises the once humble copyist 
to the rank of an artist, which appellation, I am 



sorry to say, is very much abused, for every one 
that can use a paint brush a little and copy as 
much, must needs be termed an artist, being 
little aware of the labour and study he for years 
must persevere to obtain, not only in the art of 
drawing and painting, but he must be well 
versed in all histories and passing events ; in fact, 
his mind must be a library, not only as regards 
the time, or in whose reign he is referring to for 
a subject, but the very costume, actions, and 
deportment as well : the science of optics ought 
to be in his full possession, that he might know 
how to distribute his lights on a picture ; also a 
knowledge of the effect of gases contained in the 
atmosphere, so as to counteract them with his 
different drying oils and varnishes, to prevent 
the rapid destruction which too often takes 
place on the different portions of a painting; 
these and a few other little minutias, which are 
to follow, is the basis of design ; and following in 
those steps, you, I have no hesitation in saying, 
will arrive at that state of perfection in the Arts 
to repay all your labour. Be careful to attend 



PLATE 22. 


to the few following observations, and then I 
shall return to the former illustrations. Every 
thing deserving the title of beautiful, and every 
grand object, assumes an outline of definitive 
character; the former in undulating lines of 
elliptic curves, and grandeur in angular disposi- 
tions of figure lines of motions, assume a curved 
direction; in combining straight lines, so as to 
please the eye, they must be on a radiating 
principle ; our eye not only receives that form 
as pleasing, but, at the same time, prevents any 
geometrical form to detract the beauty of the 
above figure ; and when lines are placed parallel 
to each other, they have an appearance of a 
flight of steps, or pile of rods, and have a very 
opposite effect; upon the former principle it is 
that the rays of the sun and rays of light gen- 
erally are so attractive and beautiful. It is 
from this circumstance that right lines drawn in 
an inclined position to the plane of a picture, 
derive an interest from the angles engendered 
through the imagination. Combinations are 
like numericals ; many of these forms placed 


together with judgment and discretion, will at- 
tract us from the larger proportions of beauty 
that meet the eye at once, like a beautiful 
head of hair; a single hair, however gracefully 
bent, cannot impress us like an entire lock, nor 
will this single lock look like the whole upon the 
human head : we owe to combination and con- 
struction that pleasurable feeling denominated 
beauty. No person is allured with a single 
object, but a thousand, or even a million im- 
mediately arouse our anxious notice; thus, my 
instruction and previous diagrams of elliptical 
and circular forms exhibit, by a continuity of 
curves, the greatest approach to beauty of any 
of its predecessors. Even curved lines of a 
convex and concave form, drawn at random, 
without expressing or forming any sort of figure, 
please our eye much more than all right lines, 
however they may be distributed ; quantity and 
variety are absolutely necessary to the produc- 
tion of perfect beauty ; equalities being un- 
friendly to all symmetry which accord with 
nature. 1 think sufficient is treated at present 


on design, and will now continue my explana- 
tion on the previous plates. 

Plate 18 may be formed into either a con- 
cave or convex leaf, in the throwing off the 
extreme end or curl; care is required in this 
simple point, as the freedom entirely depends 
on the manner that you carry the stem. This 
piece of foliage is not only useful as a portion 
of adjustment to a running scroll, as the follow- 
ing diagram shews, but will also form a good 

starting point, if aided by another convex curve, 
as fig. 8 ; it likewise may be used in another 
way, for a centre if necessary, as fig. 9; and 
by a trifling alteration in many other figures. 
Care in drawing or carving this leaf, for instance, 
and a very important one it is, being careful 


not to have the back and front of this descrip- 
tion of foliage both alike. Should I have the 

carving of the front of the following figure, 
what will the appearance of the back be ? 
now, mind this, it is not only attending to the 
accuracy of drawing, but greatly to the effect, 
as fig. 10. Through the rotundity of the 



pistules, a high light will fall on the face, and 
at back, it being hollow, of course they will be 
dark, almost black : to prove this, in plate 19 
I have given the back-view of the leaf, and 
the difference will be observed on the turning 
of the head ; the raffles, instead of passing 
over as they do in the front, you perceive it 
passes under, which has a very different appear- 

PLATE 23. 




ance; this is chiefly needed in design, where 
you have a confused group; in this case, of 
course, you must see the back as well as the 
face of the foliage, and on that point the 
variety of effect upon natural causes is the very 
thing you have to pay the greatest attention to, 
as that gives the whole life to your picture. 





Now to proceed to plate 20. This is a piece 
of foliage seldom brought into play ; why ? be- 
cause of the difficulty in producing the true ap- 
pearance ; it is generally termed the ogee curve, 
and requires great ease and knowledge of foliage 
to bend it properly; in this you will observe 
how I have kept to the principles referred to in 
plate 18 : you perceive in the lower part, that 
the pistules are black, the upper ones light, and 
by that, it produces a different effect, than if I 
had kept it all one colour ; of the utility of this, 
I shall treat hereafter in a more efficient man- 
ner, and by those means cause a greater variety 
of foldings and twisting than is generally pro- 
duced, at the same time break that flat and 
dull appearance which too often presides in de- 

5 * 


signs of running scrolls, &c. Plate 21 is a very 
important part in several portions of running 
scrolls for friezes, and many other departments of 
borders, it is usually the most prominent feature 
beyond the boss or centre; how it should be 
introduced is shown in the following diagram, 
page 78 ; you will there perceive by the continu- 
ation of its own figure alone, it will form a very 
good running scroll, and partakes more of the 
Roman than of the Grecian leaf, the varieties of 
which you will perceive accurately drawn fur- 
ther on in the work ; at the same time, I think 
you have almost sufficient, and I may say all the 
general turns of foliage. But previous to my 
leaving the turning of leafage, I will introduce 
the Acanthus, comprising of every turn that can 
reasonably be given, from which you will be able 
to select all you may at any time require, for 
what is generally termed pickings ; for however 
proficient you may be in designing, yet you can- 
not sum up every thing that may be brought into 
action in your mind at once, and by that reason, 
as I have before stated, let nothing pass you un- 


observed; at the same time, possess yourself with 
as great a collection as you possibly can, I do not 
mean of expensive, or what is termed rare sub- 
jects, as that very sound will, when a valuable 
print comes before you, draw more attraction and 
attention from you than a common penny print ; 
but let me tell you, that I have known many who 
have obtained a grand collection of designs, &c., 
for the trifling sum of ten shillings ; in fact, I 
have myself, at a stall and different places, often- 
times bought more to my advantage for a few 
pence, than if I had given half-a-guinea for a rare 
specimen of engraving more than the design ; and 
why ? because my eyes are upon every thing that 
I pass, or that passes me; and it is by attention 
to this I know what I do. Feeling this much, 
I consider myself no more blessed than my fellow- 
creatures, and am certain if they follow this piece 
of advice, they will be able to do as I have done; 
yet not feeling myself to know one half of what I 
hope to know and arrive at; for I am never satis- 
fied with saying I can do as well as another ; that 
will not do, I wish to do more and better thau 


another; and while you and 1 are thus striving, 
it not only renders the study pleasant in itself in 
one respect, but will, in course of time, place you 
in circumstances generally enviable to those who 
have neglected their studies. 

In a portion of my collection I have copies 
from the finest specimens of Roman and Grecian 
sculpture that have been executed, from which 
I intend giving you the several principal leading 
points, and its variety of characters ; and by care- 
ful attention to them will insure success. Should 
you in the course of study have to lay your draw- 
ings before professional gentlemen or travellers, 
by whom they may be recognised as true 
Grecian, Roman, or other ornamental foliage, 
do not imagine that all ornament must contain 
foliage ; I can execute a great number of designs 
and yet not have the least portion of leafage at- 
tached to it, and this description generally 
runs in the Grecian ; although at the same time 
there is a foliage for that description of decoration, 
and which is very different from all others. The 
different characters of ornament, I may say, are 


as others have done from much more scientific 
men, and whose affluent circumstances have 
placed it in their power to travel and study 
when I could not ; but trusting I have collected 
and seen sufficient at least, not to misguide you, 
and to this end, the following paragraph is very 
appropriate, and at the same time, I think no 
harm in noticing it, particularly when it is ob- 
tained from such an author : 

" From small beginnings, great conditions rise ; 
Act well your part ; there all the honour lies." 


Not that I have risen to great conditions, but 
I recollect about seven or eight years ago, when 
in my struggling moments to achieve at-something 
I had the conducting and designing of the orna- 
mental department of a work, entitled the Album 
Wreath, for a firm in the City ; many appear- 
ed before, but this was to surpass all ; and, as it 
often happens, when we strive to do our best, we 
are conquered by an over-anxious feeling, and our 
mind is entangled and confused with ideas, that 
a jumble of objects appear to our eye, and we know 
not which to choose ; this was the very case with 


me. I tried borders, flowers, &c.,but nothing gave 
me satisfaction, yet my employers were contented 
with each sketch, and they knew not which to 
choose. At last, waiting on a friend one day, 
whose children were playing in the parlour, one 
of them held up a piece of looking-glass and 
simply said to the other, " let this be our mirror/' 
That very word was all I wanted ; I immediately 
took my pencil, and while waiting, formed the 
rough idea, thinking all the way home, how to 
fashion that and many other portions together : 
when I shewed the design, all others were thrown 
aside, and this one immediately commenced and 
finished as a frontispiece; and reckoned by all 
who saw it, to be the master-piece of Ornamental 
Typography, and my employer had the whole of 
the work ; and this was all through, as I before 
stated, immediate attention to all that passed. 

I will now return to the explanation of my 
former plate, and to one of the most important 
portions of ornament, be it in whatever style, 
character, or era, it is for, viz. freedom. I cer- 
tainly have previously mentioned respecting the 


figures and curvilinear forms necessary to be 
observed in designs, but I will now treat more 
fully on the subject, and I hope sufficient for your 
guidance hereafter. This point will refer to plate 
22, here I have given a mere outline of what is 
termed the volute, or ram's horn turn of a run- 
ning scroll, but it does not always partake of that 
form; I may use the following, figure 11, the 
centre of which has' the appellation of the ram's 
horn. You see by the 
foregoing plate, 22, in the 
centre of the foliage is a 
dark line, which line, when you commence form- 
ing design, or making a copy, is to be your lead- 
ing feature or basis, and that once done properly, 
you can always insure freedom in your positions 
or decorations; in this case, as I have before 
stated, nothing should appear to partake of the 
tendency to an angle ; for this reason, let your 
drawing be ever so richly executed and carefully 
finished, if there is a fault, it is to that point 
alone that the eye will be attracted, because if 
there is a circular figure to view, the eye will 



naturally carry itself around that figure, if it 
were a yard long, and drawn on a small scale ; 
but should there be any breakage in the curves, 
it immediately breaks the traversary orbit of the 
eye, and that very error is retained in the 
memory if the eye could see the whole yard 
length at once, that would still be the most pro- 
minent; to prove which I will give three small 
illustrations on this subject, and then finish the 
explanation of plate 22. 

Fig. 12, you perceive is of a true running un- 
dulating form ; fig. 13 is of the same description, 
but broken and full of what is termed shoulders, 


glyphics, birds, insects, and beasts, all of 
which they have worshipped as idols. The 
Grecians followed them narrowly from the first 
description, and instead of having straight stalks 
to support their cups, they have formed them 
into volutes, making the cup, or flower, the 
support of the stalk in many instances, instead 
of the stalks supporting them. This will be 
seen in plate 26, which I shall treat upon 
presently, as well as to prove my foregoing 
remarks, that all scroll work does not con- 
tain foliage, It is to this point the Grecians, 
in my opinion, as well as many others, excelled 
in beauty, for their basis was clearness and 
regularity ; aod this is a point that no other 
character or style can boast of; even in their 
capitals and pilasters, there is more delicacy 
and clearness than in the Eoman, whose forte 
seemed power and might. To prevent any 
mistake of my ideas, I will explain, as the plates 
proceed, the number of starting points known 
to the Roman, Grecian, and Arabesque, being 
about eighty-five different descriptions, each 

6 * 


having its particular use, name, and character ; 
this to many may seem absurd, but those who 
think as I do, will agree with me how essential 
it is that this description of study should be 
thoroughly entered into previously to their 
attempting design. I once knew a young man 
who termed himself a designer, and so he really 
was, what I term an original designer, for his 
chief forte was to jumble almost every descrip- 
tion of foliage, &c., into one mass, which was 
certainly perfectly original, but very ridiculous ; 
and I would have you pay great attention to 
this point, for whatever style of ornament you 
commence, adhere to that, and no other. If you 
compose Roman, use Roman ; if Grecian, the 
same. It would be rather ridiculous for me to 
erect a Grecian temple with Gothic pinnacles, 
or a Gothic structure with Grecian ornaments. 
I think you will now see how necessary it is 
that you should give your mind more to these 
particular points, than you have ever been 
taught before, or shewn the necessity required, 
as regards attention to this portion of the arts. 


In the first plate of starting points, I have com- 
menced with the most simple forms used, both 
with and without their basin and cup. 

The annexed diagram, fig. 16, is one of the 

most simple forms possible to be used; and fig. 

iG. 9, page 64, of the most simple 

in general use. The cup, or 

-V^ \w 

^^ ^1} flower, on the same line with 
fig. 1, is its proper attachment, 
but both can be used separately ; this is 
termed the lily cup. This starting point is 
chiefly used in what is termed modern Grecian. 
Fig. 2, is the second description of lily, used 
generally as a double starting point ; that is to 
say, confining the two stems running transverse 
to each other; the basin, or flower, behind 
is the portion to be attached to it, if required ; 
both of these may be used separately : and, 
previous to my leaving this figure, I will explain 
its advantage over the former one, You will 
perceive at the base of the bell a quirk, or 
opening between that and the stem, which, in 
bas-relief, has a very powerful effect, as the an- 
nexed figure will shew. Figure 3 is another 


description of cup, called convolvulus-head, this 
has its cup attached, and has a very pleasing 
effect when well executed. Fig. 4 is the wood- 
bine, or honey-suckle, and daisy cup ; the hinder 

part in juxtaposition, you see is of the simplest 
form, represented in fig. 4, and is chiefly used 
in a centre running scroll of three portions, 
and formed generally to break the traversing of 
the eye from its chief point, which is usually 
the centre scroll, boss, or finishing, and ought 
to be the most commanding portion of a confined 
scroll, generally under shop windows, as you 
will perceive in plate 32 ; here I have given the 
framing of the window, and the department 
where such ornament is useful, not only as a 
decoration, but at the same time useful, as it 
affords light to the kitchen, warehouse, labora- 
tory, &c. below, and answers much better than 


the straight bars. I have given in the same 
plate, three designs for that purpose, and intend 
giving, as the work advances, a variety of illus- 
trations for that, and every other department 
where decorations are required. This is done 
to show the utility 
of those portions call- 
ed starting points. 
Tig. 18 is of another 
simple form, termed the crocus-head, a very 
useful portion where you are confined in space, 
and where castings are required for balustrades ; 
in designing for that department, you must be 
very careful not to have much straggling work, 
but close and full, to prevent as much as pos- 

sible the chances of different parts being broken 
off, as fig. 19 shews. I will now illustrate 
fig. 20, termed the bell-head, seldom used in the 
body of scroll work, but is the starting point for 
the little cups and small springings of design, as 


you perceive in the annexed figure. Here it 
is given slightly, showing you what I mean by 

small springings ; I shall now refer to plate 26, 
where you will more clearly understand my 
previous remarks : fig. 1, you may say is formed 

by the double lily 
and the convolvulus- 
head, forming a very 
good frieze round a 
room, or for chased edges and rims; the foun- 
dation of this is taken from the Cymatium, 
in a temple at Parma. Fig. 2, in the same 
plate, is from an antique bronze, and very differ- 
ent from any at present in general use; the 
corded reed at the top, and the egg and button 
at the bottom, is a very great improvement to 
the effect of the moulding, as well as the novelty 
of the different ornament between each division 


of the raffling; the section of this is shewn in 
fig. 22, which is very symmetrical. Fig. 3, in 


the same plate, is likewise from the temple at 
Pa,rma, as fig. 1, and shews a portion of a 
frieze; here is introduced starting points, only 
formed from the Grecian dock leaf, as shewn in 
plate 27 ; likewise the small springings as before- 
mentioned, and of which the Grecians were 
very partial, and that to a particular extent and 
description, of which I intend giving a plate, 
containing all the chief characters they used ; 
in this instance, it seems as if the cups contain 
the stem, which are in the form of volutes, 
instead of the stems holding the cups, as with the 
Egyptians, as the following figure shews. Plate 
27, represents the three foliages used by the 
Grecians ; fig. 4 is seldom brought into play in 
running foliage, but confined chiefly to the chap- 
ter of columns, and fig. 5 and 6 are both gen- 
erally used in running scrolls, cups, startings, 
and columns ; plate 28 brings all these into 


play, the semi-honeysuckle, lily, lotus, and 
dock-acanthus, and I think is very well adapted 
for the purpose designed. By continuing it 
along a cornice, or frieze, it has a very rich and 
imposing effect ; it is spread rather more than 
the original, yet the proportions are good, 
you perceive how equal they have made the 
appearance ; you cannot see the ground- work, 
but the ornament itself imposes upon you im- 

mediately; and when looking at the ornament, 
it is not so confused, and the ground appears at 
the same time. I do not recollect aoy so sym- 
metrical among the specimens I have ever seen. 
I have in a work, from which I have selected a 
few of my ideas, some splendid specimens of the 
Koman, which, in the following number, I in- 
tend to illustrate, to show the overpowering 
richness their designs have over the Grecians. 












^jjjhiS 1 **^ 

k~ \\- 


As I have just stated that the 
beauty of Grecian ornament lies 
in its equality of foliage, stalks, 
starting points, and ground- 
work, which alone com- cj^| 
bine an universal 
delicacy ; not 


as with the Romans, whose delight seemed, in 
many instances, to obtain an overpowering 
richness with their designs ; in fact, so far as to 
cause an unintelligible confusion of flowers, 
foliage, starting points, animals and figures : 
to prove which I will illustrate a portion of 
a Roman frieze, taken from the Temple of 
the Sun, plate 37, this being a competent part, 
(which of itself is a complete division,) and, 
when joined together, as here given, forms the 
whole of the frieze around the upper portion 
of the temple. This foliage you will perceive 
is of the Acanthus order, but of a richer and 
different description than I have heretofore 
illustrated or spoken of. You perceive a greater 
number of raffles, and more closely and irregu- 
larly serrated at the edges than the Acanthus 
Mollis, or Spinosa ; at the same time there is a 
much greater depth allowed by them from the 
centre stamen, or stalk, for the pistules, as you 
perceive in the next diagram, fig. 24, where it 
is more closely delineated. This body of the leaf 
seems to be formed of a number of stringy fibres, 

- \ 



PLATE 37. 

Outline division of one of the circular portions of the frieze around 
the Temple of the Sun. 



which, when properly sculptured, drawn or model- 
led, gives it that richness I have before described. 
24. ^-v-^ On referring 

to the illustra- 
tion in plate 36 
fig. 1, you will 
perceive my for- 
mer observations 
brought into prac- 
tice : here you 
see are the 
starting points, 
compos e d of 
pods, containing 
berries, or other small round fruit, which agrees 
with the account given by Theophrastus. I 
shall shortly delineate a few principal starting 
points alongside of the Grecian, giving you, at 
the same time, a decided and clear proof, how 
careful you should be in keeping character to 
style ; in many instances, I have seen the most 
elaborate designs and elegant formations spoiled 
by these combinations; the original plans 




bei'ng laid on sound principles, and the rich 
ideas of the designer spoiled by this apparent sim- 
ple, but yet 
glaring fault. 
Whenyou rea- 
son with your- 
self, compare 
the delicacy 
and richness 
of the Grecian 
brought in 
contact with 
the massive Roman style, you will then observe 
the necessity required in calling your attention 
to this particular point ; and I sincerely hope, 
by perseverance, that you will make the neces- 
sary alterations in your mind, (should you 
have possessed them,) the result would be to 
me, all I have wished for, your improvement. 
In plate 37 is another description of frieze, 
from the Torre de Nerone, at Rome. In this 
you will observe the combination of foliage, 
animals, and figures. These friezes, I have no 




doubt in stating, could they be read, would speak 
volumes ; for I have no reason to suppose that 
such would be introduced without a why or a 
wherefore, and I believe that such has been 
spoken of before in books that I have not been 
able to obtain, whereby I might give you that 
information, which it is my earnest wish to do ; 
nevertheless I will assist you all that lies in my 
power, by giving you a series of those that 
have been executed on baths, palaces, or tem- 
ples. In plate 38 is a frieze from the Arch 
of Titus; this is composed of figures and ani- 
mals alone. Here I can describe the reason for 
this, and a just one too, being led to believe, and 
knowing from ancient history, and that valuable 
and sacred volume, the Bible, that their chief 
principles of carrying out the solemn rites of 
religion was by strict adherence and attention 
to their holy altars, temples, incense burnings, 
and the offering up of sacrifices. These cere- 
monial rights were attended with great rever- 
ence and splendour ; this being adhered to with 
such rigidness, is the reason that processions 


F >/ 


and sacred rites were introduced in their exterior 
and interior decorations. I shall now give you, 
by illustrations, the necessary articles used on 
those occasions, and which were sculptured on 
the Arch of Titus, and many temples at Kome. 
Mentioning this topic is not entering into 
theology; far from it: but, you are all aware 
that, in the course of studies and occupations, 
no one can tell how, or to what extent his 
capabilities may be called into action : so, for 
this reason, I consider it my duty to call your 
attention to this point. I have previously said 
that, for whatever era or style you are decorat- 
ing, illustrating, or designing, strictly adhere to 
the articles, costumes, and manners of the 
time. Suppose you are designing for Roman 
decorations; you should endeavour to obtain 
a thorough knowledge of ornamental flowers, 
different kinds of moulding, weapons, dresses, 
armour, and sacred utensils, in case you should 
have occasion to introduce them; as these 
trophical introductions, when properly man- 
aged, give a very pleasing, instructive, and 

7 * 


lively effect to the model, sculpture, or paint- 
ing. All these principles were, I have no 
doubt, taken from the Egyptians ; which, for 
your instruction, I shall enter rather minutely 
into, as far as regards its application to draw- 
ing, &c. But first I will explain the whole 
of the Roman utensils, used for sacred purposes. 
The golden candlestick, or more properly 
speaking, candelabrum, or lamp-bearer, (which 
is represented, with various other articles, in 
plate 39,) we are given to understand, was 
of pure gold; and, according to Josephus, was 
of hollow tubes, or brackets, and was com- 
posed of seven branches; one in the centre, 
and three on each side; each bracket, or 
arm, was joined in separate compartments by 
lily flowers and figures, in the form of pome- 
granates : and being composed of about seventy 
different pieces : at the extremity of each arm 
were seven golden lamps. Many fanciful repre- 
sentations have been formed of this lamp; but 
my illustration is from the Arch of Titus. 
Some historians have asserted that it was 


likewise adorned with birds and marine mon- 
sters, which, after the victory gained over 
the Temple of Solomon by Vespasian, or 
Titus, these sacred utensils were altered, and 
the shaft fixed in a new base. I shall now 
illustrate the ark, table for shew-bread, pro- 
bable form of the shew-bread, altars of in- 
cense, censers, drinking vessels, knives used 
for sacrificing, the laver, and golden calf. The 
utility of these were for the purpose of bring- 
ing fully into effect their sacrifices, which were 
divided into different descriptions; namely; 
first, the herd-offering ; such as goats, sheep, 
oxen, and rams; this was also done by the 
Egyptians in the following manner: horses 
to the sun; hogs to Ceres, or the goddess of 
corn or wheat, and sometimes Bacchus; dogs 
to Hecate ; and wolves to Mars : no fish was 
ever brought to the altar. Second, burnt- 
offering, of which there have been questions 
often discussed; but, it seems that, to avert 
the vengeance of Divine Power, it was only 
by the offer of a representative victim. To 


illustrate the antiquity of this practice, I need 
only refer to the instances of all the Hebrew 
patriarchs; but persons, whose circumstances 
could not produce such oblations, might offer 
either a bullock, a male of the sheep or goat, a 
turtle-dove or pigeon. When the animals were 
killed they were flayed and opened, their intes- 
tines taken out and washed, the feet also were 
washed, the back bone cleft, and the carcase 
divided into quarters, and all parts exposed to 
view : this sacrifice was then salted, and the 
whole, except the skin, consumed on the altar. 
Third, meat-offerings were carried out by 
vegetable products, and preparations of meal, 
bread, cakes, ears of corn, parched grain, oil, 
and frankincense. Theophrastus states that lit- 
tle figures in paste were made by the Greeks, 
mixed up with oil and wine. The Greeks and 
Romans did not consider an animal offering 
complete without the above-mentioned articles 
were placed upon the head of the victim while 
still alive and about to be sacrificed. Fourth, 
the sacrifice of peace was by offering a lamb, 


and other animals as before, only males and 
females might be offered, but males alone in 
the others. Fifth, sin offerings : when a ruler 
sinned the offering was a ram ; a private person, 
a sheep or a goat, two turtle-doves or an ephah 
of meal : so that scarcely any could be deterred 
by poverty, when his conscience prompted him 
to the confession of his sins. 

I think these are sufficient observations 
upon this topic to enable you to illustrate all 
you may require in that department; and I 
shall now refer to Roman and Grecian arms. 

By the insertion of these articles, either for 
war, torture or triumph, is not entering into any 
very detailed history, but as such things are 
universally required in drawing, or design for 
trophies and other emblems, to illustrate ancient 
history, or to adorn the different compartments, 
as well as the friezes for triumphal arches, or 
columns ; in fact, almost every department of the 
arts, where ornamental work is brought into 
requisition, a thorough knowledge of this de- 
scription is highly . necessary, and it is my in- 


tention that nothing shall pass me unobserved, 
if possible, that is requisite to be introduced 
for utility of decoration. I shall give a compi- 
lation of Koman arms, as halberds, shields, 
helmets, standards, flags, battering rams, and 
other implements, which contain the most pro- 
minent, and those most universally known to be 
used, and a short history of their origin will, 
no doubt, be acceptable. 

" And oft conducted by historic truth, 

We tread the long extent of backward time." 


I am aware, as well as you are, no doubt, 
that there are many Grecian and Roman his- 
tories, but very few, if any, that will bring to an 
apex those points suitable to this work, and lead- 
ing facts required for the arts. 

The earliest establishment of arms, under 
a regular government, was introduced by the 
Egyptians ; they communicated their discoveries 
to the Greeks, who improved upon the instruc- 
tion of their predecessors : from thence to the 
Romans, from whom the other European nations 


received the first ideas of the arts, and which 
have been in a state of improvement to the pre- 
sent day. As warfare was the leading character 
of the Romans, it is to them we owe the origin 
of crowns, triumphal arches, columns, and tro- 
phies. Of the Roman habit and dress, would 
be useless for me to enter into, as it would en- 
tail more on me, than I consider a work of this 
description requires. It was found necessary to 
distinguish those who had signalized themselves 
by some more valorous deeds than their fellow 
soldiers, not as in the present day with money, 
but with coronets or crowns; the original of 
which was worn by the high priest, of a plain 
gold fillet placed upon his forehead, and tied 
behind with ribbon, which was taken off for a 
certain time: to assume the appearance of one 
in mourning; afterwards they wore two ban- 
delets ; and, by degrees, they took branches of 
trees of various kinds ; subsequently they added 
flowers ; and, at last, there was scarcely a plant 
of which crowns had not been made. 


The Eomans had various crowns which they 
distributed as rewards of military achievements. 
The oval crown was composed of 
myrtle, as shown in fig. 26 ; this 
crown, or coronet, was bestowed 
only on such generals as had the 
honour of a triumph. 

Fig, 27, the olive crown; this was awarded 
to him who had signalized himself by feats of 
gymnasium, in the different arenas. The olive 
tree was originally a native of Asia, whence it 
was transplanted into Egypt, and the South of 
27 - Europe ; the wood is heavy 

and of an agreeable odour ; 
the fruit is of the form of a 
damson, with a soft oily pulp, 
and a hard nut in the centre. 
The olive was consecrated to Minerva, by the 
Athenians, who regarded the culture and pro- 
tection of the olive tree as a religious duty. 
The oil of the olive is pre-eminent among vege- 
table oils, and has not only always had an exten- 


sive use in culinary purposes, but formed the 
menstruum, or vehicle, for the most celebrated 

Fig. 28, was made from the branch of a green 
oak, and was awarded to the soldier, who had 
saved the life of a Koman citizen in an engage- 
ment, and was considered the most honorable, 
although of no better materials than the oaken 
bough ; the reason why this 
wreath had the preference to 
all others, because it was sa- 
cred to Jupiter, the guardian, 
of their city ; besides this, the 
oak might well claim the preference in this 
case, the tree alone being almost sufficient in 
primitive time to preserve life ; its acorns were 
their diet, and its honey their liquor. Persons 
on whom this merit was conferred, when they 
attended any public show, the senate and the 
whole of the attendants, would rise on their 
entrance, to signify their respect, and they 
were allowed to take their seat among the 



Fig. 29 is a triumphal crown, made of 
the laurel, and was presented by foreign states 
and provinces, to generals who 
had gained great victories. 

Fig. 30 is a crown of valour, 
being a circlet of gold, raised 
with palisades and jewels, and 
was awarded to him who had first forced the 
enemies' entrenchment. 



Fig. 31 is the naval crown, bestowed on those 
who had distinguished themselves at sea ; this 
was set round with figures in the form of beaks 
of ships. 

Fig. 32 is the mural crown, 
awarded to those who first scaled 
the walls of any city in a general 
assault, and under these circum- 
stances, we must suppose why it is formed in 
the shape of battlements and brick-work. 


The most remarkable person upon record in 
history, for obtaining the greatest number of re- 
wards, was Dentatus ; he received in the course 
of his military services, eight crowns of gold ; 
fourteen civic and three mural crowns; eighty- 
three golden torques, or collars of gold and sil- 
ver ; sixty golden armlets, for the upper part of 
the arm ; eighteen hasta pura, or small spears of 
wood, generally bestowed on him who had killed 
an enemy engaged hand to hand: these were 
reckoned honorable gifts. From this it is sup- 
posed, the custom of our officers carrying white 
rods, as ensigns of their places, originated. He 
also obtained seventy-five phabrce, or horse and 
body trappings, see figs. 33, 34, and 35. But 
still further, in honour to victorious generals, a 
number of days were kept as holidays, and the 

Trappings, Collar. Armlet. 

ceremony of triumph was conducted in this 
manner : scaffolds were erected in the forum, 


and different parts of the city; the spectators 
were clad in white garments, the temples were 
strewed with wreaths, garlands, and perfumes. 
This triumph lasted three days : on the first day 
was carried the largest statues, pictures, and 
images drawn upon chariots ; on the second day 
was carried the armour, which was piled up in 
order; such as helmets, coats of mail, shields, 
targets, bucklers, quivers of arrows, and horses' 
bits : through these were intermingled swords 
and spears. On the third day the trumpeters 
announced the procession of the oxen, led to 
be sacrificed, accompanied with the consecrated 
bowl, and gold and silver cups, of the most ela- 
borate workmanship; then came the chariot, in 
which was placed the armour, diadem, &c. of 
him that had been conquered : after this, were 
carried some hundreds of crowns, sent from the 
different cities, from their respective ambas- 
sadors, as a reward due to their valour. Then 
came, seated on a chariot, the victor, clad in a 
garment of purple and gold, holding in his 
hand a branch of laurel, his army, likewise, bear- 


ing the same, and singing songs of triumph. 
When any general had killed a chief com- 
mander, the arms of the slain captain were 
carried on a stock of oak, before the victor. 
The first who performed this piece of religion 
was Romulus; and all the spoils were taken 
and presented, first, to Jupiter, and, secondly, 
to Mars, in form of trophies. 

Besides all this, they had porticos, tern- 
pies, and arches. These arches were public 
buildings, designed for the reward and encou- 
ragement of noble enterprises, erected generally 
to the honor of such eminent persons as had 
either gained a victory of extraordinary con- 
sequence abroad, or had rescued the common- 
wealth at home from any considerable danger. 
At first they were plain and rude structures, 
by 110 means remarkable for beauty or state ; 
but, in latter times, no expenses were thought 
too great for rendering them in the highest 
manner splendid and magnificent : nothing 
being more usual than to have the greatest 
actions of the heroes they stood to honor 


curiously expressed : or the whole procession 
of the triumph cut out on the sides. The 
arches built by Romulus were only of brick ; 
that of Camillus of plain square stone ; but, 
then, those of Ccesar, Drusus, Titus, Trajan, 
Gordian, &c. were entirely marble. 

As to their figure, they were at first semi- 
circular, whence, probably, they took their 
names. Afterwards they were built four- 
square, with a spacious arched gate in the 
middle, and smaller ones on each side. Upon 
the vaulted part of the middle gate hung little 
winged images, representing Victory, with 
crowns in their hands ; which, when let down, 
they put upon the conqueror's head, as he 
passed under in triumph. 

The columns, or pillars, were none of the 
meanest beauties of the city. They were, at 
last, converted to the same design as the 
arches for the honorable memorial of some 
noble victory or exploit, as well as to hand 
down to posterity the chief ornaments of 
the .sepulchres of great men; as when Juno 


foretold the death of Sarpedon, and speaking 
of carrying him into his own country to be 
buried, the following words are very attri- 
butable : 

" There shall his brothers and sad friends receive 
The breathless corpse, and bear it to the grave ; 
A pillar shall be rear'd, a tomb be laid, 
The noblest honor earth can give the dead." 


The pillars of the Emperors Trajan and 
Antoninus, have been extremely admired for 
their beauty and curious work, and therefore 
deserve a particular description. 

The former was set up in the middle of 
Trajan's Forum, being composed of twenty- 
four great stones of marble, but so curiously 
cemented, as to form an entire stone. The 
height was one hundred and forty-four feet. 
It has one hundred and eighty-five winding 
stairs, and has forty openings for the admis- 
sion of light. The whole pillar is incrusted 
with marble, on which are expressed all the 
noble actions of the emperor, but particularly 
in the Dacian war. One may see all over it 





the several figures of forts, bulwarks, bridges, 
ships, and a great variety of arms, such as 
shields, helmets, targets, swords, spears, dag- 
gers, &c., together with the several offices 
and employments of the soldiers : some dig- 
ging trenches, some measuring out places for 
tents, and others making a triumphal proces- 
sion. But the noblest ornament of this pillar 
was the statue of Trajan on the top, of a 
gigantic size, being no less than twenty feet 
high. He was represented in a coat of armour 
proper to the general, holding in his left hand 
a sceptre, in his right a hollow globe of gold, 
in which his own ashes were deposited after 
his death. 

The column of Antoninus was raised in 
imitation of this, which it exceeded only in 
one respect, that it was one hundred and 
seventy-six feet high; but the work was much 
inferior to the former, as being undertaken in 
the declining age of the empire. The ascent 
on the inside was by one hundred and six 
stairs, and the openings in the sides fifty-six. 


The sculpture and other ornaments were of 
the same nature as those of the first; and on 
the top stood a colossus of the emperor. 

Both these columns are still standing at 
Rome; the former most entire. But Pope 
Sixtus the First, instead of the two statues of 
the emperors, set up St. Peter on the column 
of Trajan, and St. Paul on that of Antoninus. 

8 * 



The form of trophies cannot be better un- 
derstood than by the following description : 

" And first they lopp'd an oak's great branches round, 

The trunk they fasten'd in a rising ground ; 

And here they fix'd the shining armour on, 

The mighty spoil from some proud warrior won. 

Above the crest was plac'd, that dropp'd with blood, 

A grateful trophy to the warlike god ; 

His shatter'd spears struck round. The corslet too, 

Piec'd o'er in places, hung deform'd below : 

While the left side his massy target bears 

The neck the glittering blade he brandish'd in the wars." 


They next commenced with trunks of mar- 
ble, hung round with spoils, and covered with 
scaly corslets, shields, and other military orna- 
ments. At the base was placed a captive, with 
his hands behind him, and winged images of 
victory around. Others were composed of com- 
mon military garbs, having shields of unequal 
forms., and helmets; some open, and adorned 
with crests; others close, without crests. On 
the same trophy hung soldiers' habiliments, 
with several other designs, which, by reason of 


the decay of the marble, are very difficult to 
be discovered.* 

Designing trophies in a pleasing form is not 
very easy to accomplish. I do not remember 
having seen above three or four well planned 
trophies; when I say well planned, I mean 
those that stand on pedestals, pediments, or 
bases. The best I ever saw stood upon Carl- 
ton Palace ; and, I may say, my attention was 
so attracted by them, and upon their prin- 
ciples, and strict observance of others on the 
same rule, I formed the idea of following those 
as a base for my future routine of design. 

There are numerous descriptions of tro- 
phies as trophies of war, naval and mili- 
tary ; of peace, the arts, the sciences ; of hus- 
bandry, of music, of the seasons, and universal 
trophies. In designing trophies of war, your 
mind must be directed to the two countries 
engaged in hostilities; these are termed signal 
trophies. They should be planned or designed 
to a conical figure, being careful to keep the 

* These two trophies are still standing at Rome. 


largest description of arms the most promi- 
nent feature for the centre and base. If mili- 
tary, the arms introduced must be according to 
the era ; a cuirass, supported by the largest guns 
and carriages, shewing the mouth and breech 
if possible, breaking the symmetry by wreaths 
of laurel, or subjects of a similar description; 
then should be introduced the smaller arms, 
rising gradually from the base, keeping the 
smallest arms to be thrown carelessly around 
in a radius position; the whole should be 
encompassed by banners, but without forma- 
lity : let these principles be your leading cha- 
racter. For naval trophies, observe the like 
principle, and, instead of being conical, they 
should be semicircular, as you cannot find 
sufficient articles to give a light appearance to 
your design. Implements of naval warfare to 
be introduced, should be the stern, or the prow 
of the vessel, and those the most prominent; 
with anchors, compass, quadrant, and various 
other articles connected therewith. Mixed 
trophies are composed of naval and military 


arms of all countries, and all ages. The finest 
specimen now standing of British arms, ancient 
and modern, is the one compiled by an Eng- 
lishman, on the grand staircase in the Tower 
of London. After perusing these ideas, to 
furnish your mind for such objects, feast your 
eyes on all around ; you will then find sufficient 
to accomplish all you may wish for in that de- 
partment. I have now given you all the infor- 
mation I consider necessary for your basis ; 
and, to perfect yourself, study the artist* who 
honoured this country by his indefatigable per- 
severance and attention in accomplishing a 
display of arms, in a manner rightly termed 
a master-piece, and for which he was justly 
awarded a pension of two hundred pounds per 
annum ; and I may with justice quote, 

" He was a man, take him for all in all, 
We ne'er shall look upon his like again." 

He was not famed for deeds of arms, but only 
for the display of them; and it proves, by 

* These were arranged by a man of the name of Harrison, 
a carpenter, employed in the Tower, in the reign of William and 
Mary, and, by their orders, he planned the several designs and 
stands of arms as they now appear. 



perseverance and industry in obtaining a taste 
for design, how many forms may be made, and 
changed about, by having only one description 
of article enumerated. 

Who would imagine that the figure of the 
seven-headed hydra could be formed from pis- 
tols and daggers, or St. George and the dragon 
from sword-blades ? I would advise my readers 
to see, and judge for themselves ; but I will 
illustrate a few of the leading points, and 
various arms in ancient and modern use. 



I shall commence with 
swords, as they were, most 
likely, the first description of war- 


like and murderous weapons, to defend, or 
offend. The earliest of these were, no doubt, 
of wood or bone; and as the arts increased, 
and metals were discovered, these instruments 
attracted great attention for their utility. To 
speak of copper swords may seem very strange 
to many ; but that metal was wrought long be- 
fore iron, and applied to domestic and general 
purposes. We find in Homer that all weapons 
were made of brass; and, from the earliest 
time, they were highly enriched. Some of 
these weapons have been assayed, and found 
to contain a portion of iron and zinc ; and are 
supposed to have been cast, and filed, to give 
the necessary rigidity of a weapon. It should 
be observed, that the swords of civilized na- 
tions were straight, and those of barbarians 

As this forms but a small part of the in- 
formation necessary in this work, I shall return 
to that portion most suitable for building and 
ornamental purposes. 



1. 2. 3. 4. 


5. 6. 7. 

12. 13. 14. 

16. 17. 18. 

1, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, ancient Persian swords and daggers; 2. 14, 15, 16, 
Roman swords ; 13, 18, Grecian swords ; 12, Dacian swords ; 17, ancient 
' i of the Jews ; 9, Turkish sabres ; and 8, 10, 11, Turkish daggers. 







It is not my intention to enter into the 
history of Egypt ; but, as before stated, simply 
to give you the necessary information and cor- 
rect figures, should you at any time require 
them. It is imagined by a great many, that 
any twisted line will form either Egyptian, 


Chinese, or Arabic characters, or any grotesque 
figure will form either an idol or a god; 
but the days of improvement and literature 
are so far advanced, that it behoves every one 
to be careful how he speaks, and still more 
careful how he acts; and although Egyptian 
architecture is not based on such rigid prin- 
ciples as others, in conformity of a number of 
members, as other orders of architecture, yet 
many state that two oblique lines, a hollow, a 
fillet, and a reed, are almost sufficient to erect 
an Egyptian temple. But all this requires pro- 
portion, to give it the grandeur it possesses. 
The first form is the great hollow, which their 
cornices were made to assume ; these were 
sometimes ornamented with a perpendicular 
reed; and this, in character with its primitive 
members, few and bold, appropriately simpli- 
fied to the earliest works of art. By mental 
culture they sought for beauty in the sublimity 
of nature ; and, from their limited architectural 
skill, sought those objects that would excite 
the feelings, or gratify the mind; and hence 


it was that the subjects of nature, and par- 
ticularly those of the vegetable world, were 
soon reduced to the purposes of decorative 
taste. I have read many authors, who assert, 
they commenced decorating the tops of their 
columns, that it should be secure from the 
reach of injury; but this I deny, as the base 
and shaft of the column were alike decorated. 
The chapters of their columns were confined 
chiefly to the palm tree and lotus leaf, but 
laid out in various forms. 

Variety in beauty is next to be sought 
after symmetry. It is commonly imagined that 
it requires a number of different articles to 
produce variety ; or, that a number of different 
qualities must exist in the same thing, thus 
compounding diversity with variety. An al- 
most endless variety may be produced, by 
altering the position of any one single object. 
The contrast in the position of objects of the 
same kind, is the fundamental principle of va- 
riety. On this basis were the columns of the 
Egyptians founded. The idea of an analogy 




between the top of a column, and the blossom- 
ing summit of a tree, furthered their principles 
for beauty, which made 
them form the shafts of 
their columns of reeds 
and scales of the palm- 
tree bandaged together, 
Uiv- I and seemed as if spring- 

&~- ^ ing from a bed of flowers 

or leaves, for an ornamental base. 

Thus far, I think, you will admit, sufficient 
has been treated to you on this early style of 
architecture, of which the following figures will 
exemplify; and I shall now commence with 
their decorations, relief, and sculpture, prin- 
cipally derived from nature. 

It is more reasonable to suppose that the 
palm tree was originally used for ornamenting 
their chapiters, as many of them are formed of 
the scaly portion around the shaft, and the 
branches springing to form the capital ; but, in 
fact, we may trace the imitation of natural objects 
in every portion of an Egyptian column. Square 



and octagon columns nave also been formed ; and 
figures were introduced, as caryatid, but chiefly 
used as pilasters. The 
most common form of a 
capital was that of the 
calyx of a plant, chiefly 
the lotus ; which simple 
plant received the most 
graceful modifications 
from the Egyptian mason, 
for the purpose of archi- 
tectural ornament ; even 
the bulrush has been 
introduced. One of the 
most curious capitals is 
that of the portico of Dan- 
derah; it is of a quad- 
rangular form, with the 
head of Isis at each 
facing; and above that, 
the model of a temple, previous to reaching 
the architrave, or cornice, which has a very 
imposing effect, and seems to have been intro- 

Caryatid Pilaster. 


duced on many other monuments, intermixed 
with different portions of sculpture. 

The only specimen that I can refer to as 
regards the idea of an Egyptian edifice, is the 
Egyptian Hall in Piccadilly, which was erected 
at sufficient expense to have enabled the 
builder to have represented an exact model of 
an Egyptian temple; but some portions, how- 
ever, of the upper stories, are sufficient to give 
to many the character of its style : a few half 
round mouldings up the side, and a bold carved 
cornice at the top, finishes this Piccadilly tem- 
ple. There is a very striking difference be- 
tween the Egyptian and Grecian decoration : 
the geometrical figures of Egyptian columns 
render them more deserving of merit than the 
Roman or Grecian, as they had only one foun- 
dation as regards its figure; whereas, had the 
Egyptians finished their leaves as the Greeks 
have done, in many instances they would have 
commanded greater power on the mind for 
grandeur of design, than the after ages of 
Grecian and Roman beauty; but, as it is, we 




cannot familiarise ourselves with an Egyptian 
portico, as it has an incomplete appearance. 

The genuine rule for Egyptian pillars is 
of irregular rounded forms, but of no esta- 
blished diameters; but when the eye is accus- 
tomed to look on the Ionic or Corinthian 
column, the Egyptian then appears stunted ; 
as they seldom took above five diameters, and 
the Composite and Corinthian, nine : the bot- 
toms were like the leaves of the lotus, rising 
above a number of concentric rings, binding 
the columns like the hoops of a cask ; and 
above them are vertical cuttings, giving the 


appearance of a bundle of rods which, I have 
no doubt, gave rise to the flutings of columns. 





only other orders are always concave, and the 
Egyptian convex. Some have been erected 
to the height of forty feet, including their 
capitals, and about twenty-eight feet in cir- 

Another style of pillar is, apparently, no- 
thing more than a number of palm trees bound 
together, to make a strong support. I have 
read, from the works of a French traveller, 



who asserts, that the origin of these massive 
props was from the slender stalks of the 

The forms of animals having been delineated 
on the different sculptured monuments with 


such scrupulous fidelity to nature, that we 
cannot help inquiring into their origin ; and, 
further, when we find these animals not only 
sculptured, but embalmed and entombed, is a 
just cause why we should do so. Ancient 
writers have transmitted to us that it was a 
religious system; and we have had before us 
a spacious field of research, which has been 
dregged by the most zealous inquirers and 
travellers, but is still found to be a difficult 
task to authorize, for certainty, the real cause 
for such objects. Innumerable conjectures of 
ancient and modern writers are that we should 
place this with the Hindoo superstition. As 
we are as far off as ever from having a satis- 
factory conception of the origin, or symbolical 
meaning of the greatest portion of Egyptian 
forms, my object on this will be limited, in 
regard as remarks on their religious systems, 
but merely, compare the sculptured figures on 
existing monuments in the British Museum, 
with the forms of animals now extant. 

It is not from personal experience that the 




following remarks are laid before you, but from 
the most authentic writers of the past and pre- 
sent day upon that subject alone. 

The print herein given I believe to contain 
the chief, or nearly the whole variety of animal 
forms, birds, &c., then introduced. 

The bull was one of the sacred animals of 
Egypt, and formed a model for the god Apis, or 
great visible deity of Memphis. It has been 
observed on fresco paintings, with a hump 011 
his back, like unto the Bramin bull, (as may 
be seen at the present day at the Zoological 
Gardens,) whose appearance, I consider, de- 
notes kindness, gentleness, and beauty of form 
not seen in any other animal of its kind ; but 
they were never embalmed. The antiquity of 
worshipping the bull, is shewn by the fact of 
the Israelites falling into the gross idolatry of 
worshipping the golden calf. I am not quite 
sure whether all sacred animals were embalmed, 
or were used as hieroglyphics, or both ; but I 
should suppose they only embalmed those ani- 
mals that they held sacred the cow, the bull, 


the horse, the camel, and the giraffe ; the 
ostrich, and others, were chiefly thrown into 
the Nile. The dog, the ram, the she-goat, 
the fox or jackal, the monkey, the hawk, the 
ibis, the crocodile, the lizard the goose, the 
owl, the crane, and the scarabaeus, or beetle, 
have been found embalmed. The serpent, 
scorpion, lion, fishes, and many others seen in 
the foregoing plate, were used as hieroglyphics, 
as well as for worship, among the rest. 

This trifling information, as I have pre- 
viously said, is not for history, but utility : as, 
in describing Egyptian architecture, any of the 
above named figures may be introduced with 
propriety, and the introduction left entirely 
to the taste of the artist. In many reason- 
able works on the history and customs of the 
Egyptians, will be found detailed accounts, and 
forms and characters of their writing, which 
I could of course give ; but previously to en- 
tering upon that description of study, I should 
advise you to obtain them, that your ideas may 
be carried out with accuracy. 


I will now return to the variety of their 
columns, cornices and chapiters, chiefly com- 
posed of the palm, the reed, and the lotus, of 
which the annexed plate is a specimen. This is 
compatible in appearance with the Roman and 
Grecian ; here you see a grandeur and weight 
in the composition of the lotus, with a neat and 
graceful appearance of the palm. After being 
well acquainted with their irregular principles, 
it is very little use attempting to design upon 
them ; you may, of course, arrive to a certain 
degree of perfection, but still there is an ap- 
pearance, in my opinion, as well as others, 
about the originals, which gives a pleasing 
effect. The Egyptians based their ideas upon 
nature's form, although in a rude style of draw- 
ing, but yet above all conception of after- 
ages in grand productions, as regards massive- 
ness of sculpture; and it seems, that when 
they found an immense vein of rocky substance 
running in the earth, they were not contented 
till they formed immense temples, or sepul- 
chres, hewn out by manual labour from the 


solid rock, leaving intervening masses, of which 
they formed their columns, and sculptured 
hieroglyphic ornaments upon them, which are 
handed down to the present day. 

It is unnecessary to dwell longer on this ; 
I shall leave the remainder to illustrations, 
and now treat upon a very opposite style, and 
which character is greatly in use at the pre- 
sent time, but seldom accomplished accurately, 
namely, Louis the Fourteenth's 

Lotus Boss. 





GUIS the Fourteenth's style, 
or, as many persons term it, 

French, is like unto all 
others, capable, by the ingenuity 
of the artist, of being thrown into 
an innumerable number of figures 
particularly as it is not restricted to any 
decided form. You have the liberty in this de- 
scription of decoration, of using even the square 
octagon, or any other geometrical outline you 
may feel inclined to base your design upon; its 





principles being quite reverse to all other cha- 
racters, and, for that reason, I intend dissecting 
almost every portion of the French, or Louis the 
Fourteenth's style, which meet at angles, either 
right, obtuse, acute, or that which partakes of 
the mixed curve ; when I say obtuse, acute 
and mixed curve, I mean as the four annexed 

Obtuse Angle. 

Mixed Curves. 

figures shew, that by lines of this kind, you 
may by attention, very soon plan a design for 
anything you may wish to introduce in this 
description of ornament. Having sufficiently 
studied thus far, your attention should next be 


drawn to the disposing of these different forms, 
so as to place them agreeable to the observer ; 
the principle of which I will now lay before you, 
by such rules as I have always found to possess 
the most pleasing forms. In the annexed plate 
you will perceive a number of plans introduced 
their basis being shewn by a heavy line ; and 
around, you see upon what principle you should 
roughly sketch in the adjoining parts to com- 
plete the design, after throwing carelessly 
around such pieces as you, in your imagination, 
may think suitable for the purpose. Having 
gained this position, rub out the careless out- 
line, and commence placing such portions as 
will appertain to the first sketch, being careful 
to keep the standard form in one continued 
figure, so that the mere contour will be com- 
pleted by the introduction of flowers, fruit, ani- 
mals, birds, figures, or landscapes, which should 
be introduced in the back-ground : you must 
be careful what form will surround it, as 
every thing depends on that. Remember you 
have two subjects to study, viz. ornament, 


which should be prominent, and landscape, 
which must retire in the distance, to give a 
pretty finish to the back- ground, and drawn at 
such a distance as not to attract attention from 
the framing. As these two points will require 
your particular notice, I will give in plate 42, 
two comparative designs, that may hereafter 
lead you the right way, and shall here illustrate 
what forms should be given for the introduction 
of landscapes, &c. In placing animals amongst 
your frame-work, never let them stand quite 
prominent, but be intermixed with scrolls or 
flowers, that the eye may not retain the draw- 
ing of one, and forget the gracefulness of the 
other. Never introduce animals, or any subject 
of natural history, unless as incidents, without 
rendering them interesting, and, if possible, 
graceful. Incidents of this description should 
be managed in the following manner : where 
two curved or angled scrolls meet, as shewn in 
these diagrams, there is room for subjects of the 
following description : such as a dog alarmed 
at the appearance of a serpent, a tiger at an 


hedgehog, or a bird at a dog; a small portion 
of water, with a swan in graceful position, 

pecking at a snake ; a dragon and lizard in 
combat ; dragon and eagle ; rabbit and cupid ; 
cupid and vines; in fact, the greater the con- 
trast which may occur in your imagination, 
oftentimes the better the design ; but, as before 
stated, always have something interesting in 
view, but let these be placed in the most 
graceful postures, and in the most convenient 
places, so as not to disturb the whole outline of 
the design from the attention of the observer. 

Figures, when properly managed, have a 
very amusing appearance ; but, to be prom- 
inent, they should be sparingly introduced, 
unless the article manufactured, chased, or 
drawn, is for some particular purpose ; or, when 
otherwise, choose such subjects, as are either 
historical or fabulous, ancient or modern; and 




always study to group those subjects that are 
most likely to attract the attention of the ge- 
neral observer, and which are most generally 
known. Mythological figures may be very 
often introduced with propriety and effect, 
as the different parts of the scroll-work pre- 
sent opportunities for displaying the various 
sudden changes, which are generally under- 
stood to have taken place with the hea- 
then gods and goddesses ; and the minutiae 
around, should be those emblems that may 
lead to the discovery of the artist's imagina- 
tion; but do not let these objects, so com- 
bined, be confused, for that would ruin the 
whole, however good the drawing or the idea. 
I have alluded to this point before, but in this 
description of ornament it is of greater conse- 
quence than in any other; although there is a 
vast difference between Louis the Fourteenth's 
and what is generally termed the French ; as 
the first-named is often composed of a very 
massive and rich description, which is perceived 
in the designs of Le Potre and De la Bella, 



whose principles of design I intend illustrating 
from their chief works, as well as many others ; 
and, by those means, perhaps, cultivate such 
taste, as may hereafter be beneficial to the 
workman and the student, as all these studies 
and styles are to be divided into several com- 
partments, previous to their forming a complete 

I shall now commence anatomizing that or- 
nament which is termed Louis the Fourteenth's, 
and, if possible, prove, by your exertions and 
my instruction, that there still exists a beauty 
and richness in this description of ornament, 
that will always be a standing dish of paste ; 
although Mr. Hope, a dear friend to the style, 
in his History of Architecture, observes, the 
want of good taste is seen daily in the man- 
sions and buildings of our great men, their 
decorations consisting chiefly of shields and 
scrolls, of that uncertain and irregular style 
used in Italy, and, soon after the re-adoption 
of the classic style, passed into France ; which, 
about the time of Louis the Fourteenth, be- 





came so neutralized, as to be termed the style 
of his period ; and, within a few years, through 
an inordinate desire for novelty, this frippery 
style became quite prevalent in England, and 
all the old clumsy scroll, which the French had 
long rejected as unworthy, has been eagerly 
brought to decorate the houses and mansions 
of the present day; and not content with ran- 
sacking every pawnbroker's shop in London 
and Paris for old buhl, old porcelain, old plate, 
old tapestry, and old frames, they even set 
every manufacturer to work to corrupt the mo- 
dern taste, by the renovation of this wretched 
style. However wretched, still the cork must 
go with the stream ; and so it is with the em- 
ployer and the employed; whichever way the 
employer opens the flood, the taste or plans of 
the artist seldom stop the rush, however dirty 
the waters may be, but he must float with the 
stream himself immediately, and get out of it 
not only with credit to himself, but try to ob- 
tain the admiration of all observers; and that 
perhaps, you may do, through a little assist- 



ance, and I sincerely wish you success. To 
aid it, I will lend you a preserver, although 

Block Volute Heads. 

in pieces, which I have no doubt, you will be 
able to arrange together for your own safety. 

Shell Heads. 

This kind of ornament is divided into a 
number of portions, as block volute heads, 


shell and foliaged heads, as seen in the annexed, 
figures; these are the points that terminate at 
various angles, as the arch, either ribbed, plain, 
foliaged, shelled, or perforated; centres com- 
posed of shells, foliage, or figures, either for 
the top or bottom of the design; the lattice, 
plain or scrolled; the fish-scale panelling, for 
different descriptions of tables and brackets; 
tapestry droppings; shield, both scrolled and 

Scroll Heads. 

shelled; the balustrade, flowers, and fruit. In 
arranging all these compartments, it is neces- 
sary to inform you, that it is not compatible 
with good judgment to introduce the whole of 
them at once ; by so doing, you will very soon 
exhaust your store. But suppose for instance, 
you make a design of a number of ribbed 



arched friezes, at one angle, you would put 
a shell or scroll head, at the other side, 
a table or bracket ; to these different portions 
you might add the shelled arches, as the fol- 
lowing figures ; in another portion, the scrolled 
arch, and these parts broken by flowers or 
fruit, with square tablets and panelling. Be sure 
not to place these pieces together, but sepa- 

Scroll Shell Centre. 

rate them as much as you can with convenience, 
so as to cause a variegated appearance, as I 

mentioned before, that 
by proper management 
a great variety may 
be made by one single 
object, and I do not know where a better op- 

Scroll Shell Centre. 

Scroll Shell Centre. 

portunity is given than in this instance. I 
shall now arrange the different arch pieces. 



Fig. 40 is termed the ribbed; fig. 41 the 
perforated; fig. 42 the shelled; fig. 43, the 
flowered; to which you may add fruit, or any 
other object that may be pleasing, as shells, 
small openings for paintings, or water-falls, and 
heads of figures, or dolphins. Having shewn 
you the various arched pieces, centres, and 

40. 41. 

finishings, which combined, are the rudiments 

of this description of ornament, I will now 



refer to that portion called panels and tablets, 
which are faced, or otherwise fitted with lattice- 
work, fish-scales, and eccentric curves; these 
may be either perforated or solid, which depend 
entirely on the article manufactured, whether 
it be of metal or wood ; for, when it is per- 
forated, it has, in most instances, a meagre ap- 
pearance, and defeats the solid and rich appear- 
ance of this description of decoration. 


Tablets and panels are mostly placed be- 
tween the finishings and angular joints of 
various combined arched friezes, and are often 
moulded, instead of the aforesaid mentioned 
fittings ; but this must be done only where 
there is a small compass to fill up, as it then 
will give the appearance of a solid and firm 
piece of frame-work. I will now draw your 



attention to a practice, which I have often seen 
represented ][/both right and wrong, viz., the 
placing j of tablets or panels at two opposite 

a, 6 Panellings. 

angles, or many on one side, and none on the 
other; for instance, in the two previous dia- 
grams, you see the effect they produce ; and, 
on your referring to the various plates, you will 


see, by management, and avoiding any definite 
outline, they have a very pleasing appearance; 
but all this depends on study, and furnishing 
your mind with every finished termination, 
and this is done only through practice and 
perseverance; but most draftsmen, after know- 
ing a few component parts of various orna- 
ments, when feeling themselves at a loss, and 
in want of something to fill up a vacancy, and 
not knowing the different variations that this 
simple ornament may be changed into, have 
immediate recourse to panelling; never study- 
ing or thinking of the observations that may be 
passed by others, who, perhaps, do not possess 
their talents, but have persevered so far as to 
understand the different compartments, and 
yet not sufficient ideas to be able to form and 
complete a design. To enable those who have 
not talent in arrangement, sufficient to com- 
pete with their perseverance in study, I would 
advise them to notice the general variety of 
diagrams heretofore given, and by drawing and 
cutting out a number of these pieces, of various 


sizes, they will be enabled to join and plan 
many designs and forms, which might not other- 
wise have occurred to them, even after an im- 
mense deal of study; it is a very simple plan, 
and I think will prove advantageous, and re- 
pay the labour it may at first cost. The idea 
is not a new one, except to this purpose, as 
many would, and perhaps will say, any one 
could have done or found that out, because it 
is so simple; but, like Columbus and the egg, 
if they had thought of it ; this is not intended 
to damp your imaginations, but having proved 
the same, I consider it my duty to inform my 
friends of it, and they, of course, can use their 
discretion in putting it into practice. 

I will now refer to the department of tables 
and brackets, which comprise another very pro- 
minent feature in this description of decoration, 
and partake chiefly of acute and curved angles; 
their chief feature is prominent mouldings, 
scroll-head finishings, angles, and the bases 
finished with scroll leaves, shells, and flowers, 
as the following figures shew; their utility is 


to finish off prominent points, where any ne- 
cessary articles, or symbolical ideas, may be 
required; and its beauty consists in blending 
the same with the accompanying scroll, or 
frame-work, in an imperceptible manner, with 
freedom, -to the body of the design. In some 
instances, this ornament, in Louis the Four- 
teenth's, is of a firm and decided form; but in 
Louis the Fifteenth's it has always seemed to 
me, that they are attached to that meagre and 
undecided form, termed the Chinese, which, like 
themselves, are composed of such grotesque 
forms and figures, never to be understood, 
although patronised by many whose ideas and 
mental capacities ought to enable them to form 
a better taste; but, as its character bestows 
richness of effect, by various burnishings, gild- 
ings, &c., nature, of course, is forgotten. 
Many, however, assert that they follow na- 
ture: yes, like Hogarth's perspective, the 
very reverse to what it should be ; but as there 
are at present so many diligent enquiries from 
some of my friends respecting this description 

LOUIS, 14 



of design, of course I am in duty bound to do 
my utmost to oblige them, in explaining and 
dissecting the same; and shall, after a little 
more explanation, respecting the French orna- 
ment, attack this splendid foreign character, as 
regards the style of decorations. 

I am now departing from my track, and will 
return to that section, termed the balustrade; 
as a portion of that, when properly placed, is 
very acceptable, and breaks, most considerably, 


the monotony that would often exist. They 
are of various angles, and generally placed at 
the top or bottom of drawings. The follow- 
ing diagram will give you an idea of the 
shape generally to be used, but be cautious, 


and not make too free use of them when you 
are designing, as they must be used very care- 
fully, for they have a powerful and promi- 
nent effect ; but, used judiciously, add greatly 
to the appearance, as well as the variety of 
form. The moulded scroll, with block finish- 
ing, is the best, and is sure to fall into that 
outline which will ensure a decided graceful 


figure. I would have you pay attention to 
that part of the finishing in which flowers are 
a portion ; for, unless great freedom is used, 
however good your formation and foliage may 
be, yet a stiffness and want of freedom on 
that particular point will entirely destroy the 
other. Now, to avoid this, as in fruit the 


same, you must be very careful, and not crowd 
too many large flowers together, so as to ap- 
pear square or formal; but let your flowers be 
open and straggling, and they will give as great 
a variety as can be well defined, I mean those 
that are generally known. 

I will here illustrate a few of the flowers, 
though it entirely depends upon your own 
taste, and is a circumstance not biassed or con- 
fined to any particular portion or kind ; but be 
careful not to introduce them too profusely. 


In fact, this description of decoration is greatly 
aided in appearance by the introduction of 
these articles, as flowers, fruit, and other 
items of the kind, and is never finished with- 
out them ; and for this reason, would have you 
turn your attention to study flowers from na- 
ture, being the best master I can refer you to ; 




and not only learn to draw them in one posi- 
tion, but turn them in every direction, and copy 
them, so as to be able, with one flower alone, 
to form or give the appearance of a group, or 
variety, when, in fact, there is but one. The 
same principle must be followed up rigidly in 
regard to different leaves, their different ex- 
ternal forms, and turns, the vine, fig, dahlia, 


woodbine, honeysuckle, convolvulus, rose, and 
passion-flower leaves, are the most useful, as 
they have a full and decided character in them- 


Having now illustrated the most convenient 
and pleasing sections, I hope it will not be 
without rendering you an essential service, not 
only in this, but in all the foregoing diagrams, 
feeling confident that this system has proved 
successful to all those who have thought proper 
to follow my advice; and shall now leave you 
to your studies, and proceed with that descrip- 
tion called Arabesque. 



PREVIOUS to entering into a description of 
Arabesque foliage, &c., I shall give a number 
of illustrations of the above-mentioned orna- 
ment, the characters of which are purely Gre- 
cian, on the part of the fret, but may be termed 
Gothic, on the part of the guillochi. The 
beauty and principle of the fret lies in an equal- 
ity of ground and fillets, meeting at various 
right angles. To gain this end, it cannot pos- 
sibly be done by hand, without first laying 
down a geometrical rule for the same, as with 
the mixed fret ; or that which is partly angular, 
and partly circular. To accomplish this inter- 
mixture of lines or fillets, you must take the 
width required, and divide it into a certain 
number of divisions, agreeing with the space 
allotted, avoiding, if you have a narrow com- 
pass, not to put too confused a pattern ; and 



\\5\\n\ \n\\n\m 










divide accordingly, as the annexed diagrams 
will shew. The white lines are the divisions; 

Odd, producing eight fillet fret. 

Odd, producing five fillet fret. 

and, by making out every alternate one, you 
gain your pattern. I have given almost every 
one in general use; but by perseverance, or, 
as in many instances, by chance, the patterns 
are unlimited. 

I shall next proceed with the mixed fret, 
which is upon the same principle, keeping the 
curvilinear portion exactly within the division 
marked out for the angles; and the same may 
be done with this as with the former ones. 


The guillochis are on a very different plan, 
and are formed on different principles ; to 
which may be added a variety of ornamental 
designs, bosses, or cups. As all these charac- 
ters rest entirely upon the taste of the designer, 
or draftsman, I shall not enter very minutely 
upon this portion of decoration, as it is not so 
extensively used as many others; but I will 
shew, by illustration, the rules to be observed 
to gain many points, which is the chief thing 
required, and can only be accomplished by geo- 
metrical rules. 

The following diagram, I think, will be 
a sufficient guide to all the rest : 

The above simple guillocki would, if you 
knew no principle to work upon, give some 
trouble to draw correctly. It will shew you 
the plan I discovered; and I think you will 


agree with me, that it is very simple, but to 
the purpose. You draw or strike the circles, a, 
at equal distances, and proportionate to the 
two outer edges; after which, draw your ob- 
lique lines, as at b; then, by rounding each 
angle, you will gain the point required. 

The other diagrams are upon the same 
principle, and give you every facility, by study, 
to draw the following designs, in which I 
think, every pattern worth notice is given. 
This description of ornament is useful only to 
a certain extent, as on a cornice, rim, or small 
border, as there is not sufficient in itself to be 
a very prominent feature in decoration; but 
yet I would have you direct your attention to 
it, for, in some instances, it is very useful, with 
judicious treatment, when combined with other 




ON referring to that description of compo- 
sitions, called Arabesque, of course, I adopt 
the term as it is generally understood, but 
must certainly say it has a tendency to the 
cinque-cento style, its application being ori- 
ginally confined to the paintings and stuccoes 
of antiquity, which represent foliage, fruits, 
beasts of every species, and imaginary crea- 
tures, intermingled. This decoration is some- 
times called grotesque, from the grottoes or 
under-ground buildings in which they have 
been found the most splendid specimens 
having been excavated from Herculaneum and 

Pliny mentions, that, in his time, gaudy 
colouring and curious forms were held in greater 
estimation than real beauties of art. If we 
examine the ancient Arabesques, we shall find 


endless beauty, variety, and originality ; grace- 
ful details, and great skill and freedom in the 
mode of execution ; and I doubt whether the 
Arabesque style really had the effect of dis- 
couraging painting of a higher class; as, at 
Pompeii, poetical compositions of great merit 
have been found intermixed with this light 
and playful decoration. Vitruvius describes it 
rather accurately. After pointing out and 
classifying what he considers legitimate objects 
for painting walls, as architectural composi- 
tions, landscapes, gardens, and sea pieces the 
figures of the gods, and subjects drawn from 
heathen mythology, he proceeds thus : " The 
Greeks, who took truth for the model of their 
paintings, are no longer followed. Nothing is 
now represented upon walls but monsters, in- 
stead of true and natural objects. In lieu of 
columns we have slender reeds, of flimsy stems, 
and leaves twisted into volutes. Temples are 
supported on a mere nothingness, and foliage, 
on which figures are seated. In another place 
we have demi-figures issuing from flowers, 



some with human faces, others with the heads 
of beasts, all things which are not, never 
have been, or ever can be." And further states, 
" that painting is to be esteemed only so far as 
it represents truth, good execution, and the 
design be consonant to reason." 

The Arabesque style may, at first sight, 
appear fanciful; but, no doubt, it may be 
treated according to fixed principles of art, and 
the artist will be more successful as he keeps 
those principles in view. A due 
balance of composition is very 
essential, that the heavier parts 
may sustain the lighter through 
every gradation (as I intend il- 
lustrating), and not to cover too 
much or too little of the ground. 
Unity of design must be studied 
in connection with each other ; and should, as 
much as possible, tend to some decided end. It 
would be deviating from my original advice to 
enter upon the subject of colours ; but, observe, 
that in ancient decorative painting of this de- 


scription, the beauty existed by the balance of 
colour being strictly attended to. Their walls 
were chiefly of dark panels, with various lighter 
colours, according to the designs upon them; 
their ceilings, were, likewise, arranged by the 
natural effects of light, shade, and reflection. 
As lightness and grace are the peculiar attri- 

butes of Arabesque, the foliage, which forms 
its most fertile resource, should never be over- 
loaded; its details, and modes of ramification, 
ought to be drawn from nature. Foliage and 
flowers may be represented with the greatest 
accuracy in these decorations; as one single 
flower, gracefully formed, with a little scroll, 
will form a picture. Small fountains, ovals, 
and circles, containing subjects of interest. 




Portraits and medallions may be introduced. 
The leaf is generally of the deeply serrated 
acanthus, long thin stamen, and starting points, 
terminating with cup-bosses, holding some sort 
of tablet, that baskets of fruit or flowers may 
be placed thereon ; long starting volute scrolls 
from each side of a reeded 
and cupped pedestal, or 
small columns, composed 
only of figures and bases. 
In fact, any slender ob- 
ject may be used, that 
will fall gracefully into a 
variety of forms. 

I have introduced a 
few small pieces, as dia- 
grams, of the leading feature ; but, of course, by 
study and attention, you will be able to form 
an infinite variety of patterns, being careful to 
adhere to the previous remarks. Your next 
attention must be to the colouring; for the 
character of the style is not sufficient by itself, 


but requires the aid of an infinite number of 
colours to shew the effect, and in that depart- 
ment it is out of my power to give you instruc- 
tion ; but there are so many examples of pretty 
colours, that I am of opinion there is no need 
of so doing. In fact, it is the study of many 
to arrive at perfection in producing effect with- 
out a thorough knowledge of drawing, and by 
very simple means; yet I never could find suf- 
ficient courage to pay any attention to that 
department, but always strove to produce light 
and shade without any variety of colours, and 
I would advise others to do the same ; and, if 
nature should have bounteously bestowed on 
them an overpowering development of colour, 
as phrenologists term it, you must reach the 
apex of perfection. The best specimen of co- 
louring, of this description, I have seen, is at 
the Pantheon, in Oxford-street, where a day 
or two's study will be sufficient ; but, previous 
to your proceeding with your glowing tints and 
gaudy effect, learn well to shape your orna- 



ment, and plan your designs, and the other 
will, no doubt, very soon follow. 



THE general outcry, at the present day, for 
this description of decoration, involves on me 
a task not easy to compete with, as regards 
giving a decided opinion respecting the true 
character and date of its introduction into this 
country. I know not of any style of decoration 
and building, on which architects and authors 
have differed more widely; under these cir- 
cumstances, it will be my study, in this in- 
stance, to bring all accounts together, and, ii 
possible, glean that substance on which I may 
base those principles, that the Elizabethan 
decoration may be formed into decided laws 
and rules, for classing it as an established cha- 
racter or style. 


As I have stated, my intention is, in this 
instance, if possible, to base the Elizabethan 
architecture and decoration as a style of itself ; 
and previous to illustrating too extensively its 
component parts, except where necessity re- 
quires, I shall give a brief account of its origin, 
progress, and detail. The successful travels 
and researches in ancient and modern times, 
for the improvement of art, has, no doubt, 
been the cause of so many variations in the 
different styles of architecture, at the present 
day ; not that it is my intention to enter into 
the various orders of architecture, but, in this 
instance, I must appropriate a few lines upon 
that subject, to bring my ideas to a bearing. 
We are informed by many, in fact most archi- 
tectural authors, that we are in possession of 
five distinct orders to class our building and 
internal decoration upon ; that may be very 
well ; yet, out of those, if you think proper, you 
may make fifty more ; and, for this very reason, 
I class the Elizabethan as an order of the latest 
period, or decorated Tudor, particularly in the 


variety of its forms and component parts, let 
them be copied from whom, or wherever they 
may, or however displayed, it is these items 
that constitute originality, whether good or 
bad; and, as I before stated, with the five 
orders of architecture, we have the Tuscan, 
Doric, Ionic , Corinthian, and Composite; 
thus far, so good. 

Now, what visible difference is there be- 
tween the Tuscan, and Doric, or the Corinthian 
and Composite, that is the point ; and, before 
you give your ideas too freely, you should con- 
sider that the first principles and rules for 
diminishing and designing of columns were laid 
down by the Grecians, who were the inventors 
of the three distinct orders, all different in 
appearance at one glance ; the DORIC, the 
IONIC, and the CORINTHIAN. The annexed 
illustrations will prove the variety, and shew 
at once the inventive genius of that country. 

After making yourself acquainted with their 
appearance and names, you never can mistake 
them at first sight, but you may clash the 



Tuscan and Doric as one, or the Corinthian 
and Composite the same, there being such simi- 
larity between them. Now, the Ionic stands 
without a rival, except being plundered by the 
Romans to murder the appearance of the Co- 
rinthian, as an attempt to claim an original order 
of their own, in that, as well as in the Tuscan. 
If this piracy is allowed in the architectural 

Doric. Ionic. 

world, as an original order or character of itself, 
there are, I am sure, many better and more 
original designs to be gathered from some of 
the old Norman and Saxon cathedrals, than are 
shewn by the Romans in their Composite, which 
is done, merely by robbing the Ionic of its 
grace, and the Corinthian of its richness. I 
here give a small illustration of the Composite 



chapiter, that you may not be at a loss to un- 
derstand my remarks, and shall now proceed 
with my ideas respecting the Elizabethan. As 
the wreaths of originality are allowed to the 
Romans, by their combining the Grecian order 
to make one of their own, and are given credit 
for the same, why not do so with any other 

Corinthian. Composite. 

that works upon the same principle, although 
it cannot be expected ever to meet with the 
encouragement of the Roman orders, or do 
I wish it; for, on looking at their structures 
they seem transparent, (if I may use such a 
phrase,) that you immediately recognise Gre- 
cian art within them, which art has never, or 



ever will be, obliterated, or surpassed; and, 
as originality is recognised, chiefly by variety 
of forms, I cannot do better than give a proof 
of the same ; for instance, I have given an 
outline of four different descriptions of build- 
ings, the Pyramid of Egypt, the Temple of 
the Parthenon, St. Paul's Cathedral, and York 
Minster. Here is originality and variety of 

form, that being required in decoration of 
every description. A variety of external ap- 
pearance, if properly displayed, is sure to 
attract the attention at once of the passing 
observer, or the connoisseur; and, in no in- 
stance can it be more practically brought for- 
ward than in the Elizabethan, which contains a 
greater variety of forms than any other class of 
decoration in use. The earliest specimen, bear- 
ing resemblance to its internal appearance of 



decoration, I have seen, is dated as far back as 
Henry the Eighth. Other prototypes are in 
the cinque-cento, or Italian, the Germans, and 
many others; but most likely the originators, 
or compilers, were artists of our own country ; 
and it is my opinion, that the Elizabethan is 
that which succeeded the perpendicular style, 

and was practised until the reign of James the 
First, and was the standard style during the 
sixteenth century. I consider its course was 
shortened by the powerful imagination of Inigo 
Jones, who, by-the-by, had a small share in 
it, as the gateway of Whitehall, which has been 
removed some years, was designed in that style ; 
but it is also asserted to have been from the 


pencil of Holbein. By Walpole, and many 
others, the style, which we call Elizabethan, 
was termed, in derision, King James' Gothic, 
being of itself so compounded and hetero- 
geneous; and we have no reason to disbelieve 
otherwise, it being a compilation from foreign 
artists and foreign styles, at the same time not 
forgetting to take advantage of the fixed orders. 
The earliest and most successful effort in 
attracting the attention of the admirers of the 
arts, was the ceiling at the Chapel Koyal, St. 
James', painted by Holbein in 1540, shewing 
a decided proof of his taste and architectural 
skill; and the result of all his imperfectly di- 
rected efforts of genius were such, you might 
perceive a grandeur and richness, combined by 
the effect of the grotesque and eccentric ; and 
its character is of that description, to appre- 
ciate its beauties, (if it has any,) it must be 
studied by an unbiassed mind, and requires a 
very careful examination, before the com- 
plexity of form and enrichment can be well 


The following style is deceptive to many 
persons; for wherever gables, ornamental fini- 
als, pendants, oriel, or projecting windows, and 
pinnacles, are seen, it is immediately termed 
Elizabethan. There you are wrong, all 
these addendas are formed on the basis of the 
old English school, or, more properly speak- 
ing, domestic architecture ; but the theory on 

Gable-end Roofs ; or, a number of Triangular Roofs, springing from 
various directions. 

which Hakewell and Richardson would fix the 
pure Elizabethan, is the cinque-cento of Italy, 
unmixed with any Gothic detail or Gothic en- 
richment. And they are certainly correct to 
a certain extent, otherwise from whence do 



they make use of the pinnacle and finial, al- 
though 'not exactly of the Gothic form. Still 
it has a resemblance ; and, as before stated, it 
being of itself but a compilation wherever we 
trace a figure most prominent in any other 
style. Of course, we are at liberty to accuse 



them of pilfering from that, or from others ; 
but, to place before you a correct notion of the 
Elizabethan architecture, is to strip it of all 
those hideous and grotesque forms, which, in its 
progress, overloaded it, and refer to it in its 
pure and original state ; we shall there find it 


combined of Roman orders, and mouldings 
purely the same, enriched in various compart- 
ments, of a sort of mixed fret-work, and forming 

Key Pendant. 

Gothic Pendant . 

a style particularly adapted to street archi- 
tecture, and may be either simple in its appear- 
ance, or ornamental in the highest degree, 
(this, in my opinion, is its original character ;) 
but, in the reign of Queen Elizabeth, there 
seems to have been no lack on the part of the 
artists to add grotesque forms, as I intend 
illustrating. My opinion is, that her pride and 
will was such, in building, could it have been 
executed with propriety, that houses, palaces, 




and halls, would have been covered with pre- 
cious stones ; and, as that was out of all reason, 
the favourite artist in those days, John Thorpe, 
added carved enrichments, to imitate the same. 
The pure specimens of his drawing, &c. are in 
the Soane Museum, and a grand collection 

Bay Windows. 

they are, not only ornamental designs, but 
architectural elevations, in which he has shewn 
great skill and taste. 

My first endeavour to illustrate the Eliza- 
bethan, will be to anatomize the various fea- 
tures and peculiarities, as regards the deco- 
rations ; not as regards its architectural eleva- 



tions and measurement, but give you that 
portion, that you may not be led astray by 

every grotesque form that meets your eye, to 
call it Elizabethan. For instance, I am sure, 
in many of my future illustrations, you will be 
apt to think me going beyond the point of 

reason, when I introduce the Roman acanthus 
scroll, the honeysuckle, (purely Grecian,) 
Gothic pinnacles, and the orders of Grecian 
architecture; yet all these combined, without 
grotesque form, are Elizabethan; but as I 
before remarked, that when, as some would 

18 * 



suppose, it had reached the apex of perfection, 
it was so overloaded with a profusion of orna- 
ment, and indecent grotesque forms, that the 
richness it once possessed was entirely gone, and 
all beauty of architectural decoration vanished. 



Roman as. altered to suit the character of the Elizabethan. 

I shall now commence delineating what I 
consider its pure character, remarkable fea- 
tures, and separate peculiarities, as well as the 
general outward appearance. Its exterior form 
was composed of gable roofs, as before shewn ; 
oriel and bay windows in abundance ; arcades, 
columns, and pilasters, (the moulding purely Ro- 
man ;) their columns, Grecian and Eoman com- 
bined ; and grand terraces and canals in their 


gardens, imitated from the Italians, adorned 
with vases, fountains, &c. The most splendid 
set of terraces, at the present day, is stated 
to be at Claverton, the seat of Gr. Vivian, Esq. ; 
and a very beautiful example is likewise to be 
seen at Holland House, Kensington. Entrance 
porches to the halls, formed a prominent fea- 
ture to hold benches or seats, and were con- 
venient places for private conversation, and the 
halls were used for dining-rooms ; for we see 
in John Thorpe's designs, the nobles, and their 
principal guests, seated at meals ; and this 
ha,bit was likely to linger, as Dr. Johnson justly 
states, "For in those times both virtue and 
vice would unite to preserve it, and the hos- 
pitality and pride of the owner would desire 
to retain it." Immense screens of decorative 
panelling, with seats around, divided the dif- 
ferent apartments. Immense panelled. and orna- 
mented doorways, large handsome fireplaces, 
an illustration of which I have given in the 
annexed plate, and which was added, to com- 
plete the room, (bought by the Hon. Lieut.- 


Colonel Gust,) of the internal fittings at the 
Star Chamber, or King's Palace, which he had 
fitted up at his own mansion, as it stood in Old 
Palace Yard, Westminster. The ceiling of that 
was most elaborate, it was purely Gothic; 
and, at each extremity, terminated with the 
white and red rose of York and Lancaster, the 
port-cullis, and the pomegranate, which, with 

Rose, Fleur-de-lis. Pomegranate. 

the fleur-de-lis, was a very favourite ornament 
of that time. 

I have given one of the small compartments 
of the ceiling, as well as a portion of the deco- 
ration around; or, more properly speaking, the 
screen over the fireplace. It is intermixed 
with Grecian columns, pilasters, circular-headed 
panelling, the mixed fret, and Arabesque, com- 
bined. The consoles, or soffit bracketSj were 



of a very curious description, chiefly of an ec- 
centric section, and terminating with pendants. 
Grotesque and scroll shields, to contain their 
armorial bearings, were very much used ; the 

Ceiling of the Star Chamber. 

ceiling, chiefly moulded in different geometrical 
forms ; the panelling very richly moulded, and 
forming figures, terminating with an immense 
number of angles, which, when of polished 
oak or wainscot, gave a very bold appearance 



and richness combined, as very little furniture 
was used to detract the attention of the in- 
ternal fittings. 


I shall now draw your attention to consoles 
and soffits, as illustrated in fig. 44, 45, 46, 
47, 48, 49, and 50. Fig. 4*, is from the Star 
Chamber ; you perceive, by the section, the 
eccentric form as before spoken of, and it 
has a very light appearance in this view ; but in 
fig. 45, being the front-view of the same figure, 
you perceive a heaviness which prevails in the 
whole of them. Fig. 46 is another description, 
having the form of an Italian circular frieze, 
adorned with an imitation of a cut stone, and 
small scroll shield. Fig. 47 is the front-view. 
Fig. 48 is very rich and proportionate, it is 
from the pulpit of North Cray Church, erected 
in the year 1637; it is one of the most graceful 

IP, Del el-Sc, 

1,2 , E LI ZABTHIAN,2>, TUDOR, 4, 5,6, GRECIAN 

& B 



forms I have seen of its kind or style. The 
section, fig, 49, still carries that perforated 
character, but not to an extent that many do ; 
the front does not seem to overbalance the 

side : this is a very excellent study, and the 
most likely to have been executed when Eliza- 
bethan was in the zenith of its glory. Fig. 50, 
is from the same; and you might almost ar- 
range this with the Grotesque, or semi-cary- 
atides, but here it is in character with the 
edifice : the figure seems to represent Old 
Father Time, with the scythe in hand, and 


the hour-glass over his head; these trophies 
speak volumes in themselves, and seem to say, 
that, when my glass is run, which is set for 
all men, then will I cut thee off like a shadow. 
I merely mention these points, to draw your 
attention, that, however grotesque many forms 
may appear, yet, when well read, there is 
always a history or good meaning to be placed 
on the ideas of the artist, however deficient 
he might have been in point of execution. 
Of all the specimens I have seen, this outvies 
all for symmetrical form. The 
plan is of a pentagonal figure, 
and the erection is composed of 
moulded panels, Ionic pilasters, 
enriched consoles, and carved en- 
riched cornices and mouldings, an 
enriched back board, with circular- 
headed panel, and carved, as I before stated, in 
imitation of jewellery. The sounding-board 
has a blocking course, consoles, and pendants ; 
in the panelling are enriched scroll shields, or 
tablets ; and on one is carved the date of its 





erection. I intend illustrating, in detail, the 
various ornamented scroll shields, upon it ; and, 
in the annexed plate, I have given you a mere 
sketch of the form and exterior outline, which, 
with the detail, I am sure, will be sufficient 
explanation of what I consider the purest speci- 
men of Elizabethan carving and wood erection 
of the kind in this country. 

I shall now refer to the pinnacles : these 
were generally square, some solid, and others 
perforated in the form of a circular lancet 
Gothic head, and mostly separated from their 
base by four round balls, and bound round the 
centre ; others of an eccentric, and some start- 
ing from scrolls. These ornaments were used 
in interior decorations, as well as exterior, and 


formed prominent features at the extremities 
of gables, as will be seen by the previous illus- 
trations; but they were generally of a slender 
form, and shews more conspicuous by the se- 
veral indentations at their base. To add effect 
to many minor decorations, I have seen pin- 
nacles starting from the scroll turns of a shield, 
and at the angles of various projecting orna- 
ment. I have here given you a specimen of 
one, which is quite sufficient as a guide for all 
the rest. 

You will perceive in the accompanying 

diagram, in reference to the descriptions of 
scroll used in these points, that they are not 
what is ..generally expected when the word 
scroll is named. These scrolls were like the 
folding, rolling, and unrolling of paper, by 


which great richness of effect may be pro- 
duced ; for instance, the foregoing diagram is 
the principle that seems to have been worked 
upon. Suppose you unroll a sheet of paper; or, 
if you like, we will imagine this diagram to be a 
sheet of paper, rolled the reverse way at each 
end ; loose it and it will produce that form. 
When this is done, it will give you the proper 
form shewn; but yet there is that powerful effect 
gained, which you cannot obtain very easily by 
any other means. . In the first diagram you will 
perceive a dotted line. Now, suppose the light 
falls from the direction of the arrow, the ray 
of light produced by the sun is parallel, and, 
of course, falls in an oblique line to B. This 
shews, that, greater the projection, (providing 
in reason, or you might throiv the whole of 
your object in the shade,) you have a greater 
effect, and the reflective tints will cause a rich 
appearance in all the embossed parts, as the 
second diagram produces, for the chief portion 
of these panelled shields seemed to have ob- 
tained a predominancy solely for that reason, 



as I described in the foregoing diagram, by 
lines, which the following figure will shew 
shadowed, and point out exactly the principle 
always to be observed, and the most complete 
basis to work upon. In designing this de- 
scription of shield, it is not by putting a con- 

fused jumble of turns, or scroll-heads, because 
that would be wrong ; the general forms to be 
observed, are oblique lines, squares, ellipsis, 
and right-angled figures, bands, or garters, 
with various shaped perforations ; and are some- 
times bossed with scroll-heads, which I shall 
now commence delineating, and likewise ex- 
plain my illustrations in as explicit and simple 
manner as possible, for you to arrive at the 
right method for designing the same. 

The first of these illustrations is the ob- 



Wfti J^f- 




long square, being frequently ornamented with, 
the angled diamond, or lozenge, and at other 
times with the elongated square, chamfered off, 
as it is usually called, to an obtuse angle of 
about one hundred and twenty degrees ; any 
thing beyond that would throw off the desired 
effect, and produce too prominent a feature, 
and detract the attention from the surrounding 
decorations. This figure is sometimes flattened 
at the top, as the annexed illustrations shew. 

Fig. 51 is the rake of the angle generally to 
be observed, and the dotted line shews about 
the quantity to be reduced for the flat surface. 
I will now take the ellipsis, as the second 
si. description of centre, which is 

^rrflfllf^ sometimes confined to bands 

Rake of Angle. alone, particularly in that de- 
partment termed the bolted style; in others it 
has a boss, or scroll flower; and often the cen- 


tres are formed in the figure of a radiated shell, 
with fillets between. The annexed diagrams 
are the forms I have alluded to. 

These shapes chiefly compose the centres, 
and their exterior forms make the greatest va- 

riation, the component parts of which I shall 
next treat of. They are the surrounding 
scrolls, as before-mentioned, and the ends are 
frequently mounted with scroll cups, &c. ; these 
with the others combined, form the various 
shield panels generally seen, a few of which are 
compiled in the annexed plate. 

The first I shall treat upon is the turned 


and perforated head, fig. 52, being of itself a 
perfect scroll, the dotted line shewing the per- 
foration. Fig. 53 is more perfect; the dotted 
line only shews where you must start for the 
under line which is connected with it. * 


Previous to illustrating any further, I will 
explain to you the difference between this and 
Louis the Fourteenth's, in which the scroll- 
head has been treated upon variously ; but, to 
prevent any misunderstanding on your part, it 
is necessary for me to inform you, that the 
turned scroll-heads of Elizabethan are always 
parallel, except in extreme cases ; that is to 
say, perfectly free from what are termed ribs 
or fillets, except in the surface, which being in 
the Elizabethan, and not in the French, as the 
two diagrams shew. 

This is worth your particular notice, as 



their similarity is very likely to lead you astray, 
but as I mentioned before, only in extreme 
cases, which very seldom occur. It being my 
duty to give all I consider useful, I shall next 
draw your attention to the form consisting of 
two fillets, with a bulbous scroll-head in the 
centre, and rarely used without a scroll, or 
bearded ends accompanying it, (of which I 
treat next,) and are termed the elongated pan- 

elled scroll, fillet scroll, and perforated, and 
seem as if bound with a band, to prevent their 
growing or spreading too wide apart; and al- 
though these panelled ornaments are composed 
of single straggling pieces, yet, at the same 
time, in putting them together, there requires 
the greatest nicety to compress them into an 
agreeable and graceful shape. 

The following diagrams are the general 
figures of the spreading ends; and, before I 





leave this portion, I will give a few of the cen- 
tres, which are attached to the same ; and when 
all are combined, (as you can refer to in the 
plate,) you will, no doubt, see the utility of my 

Elongated panelled 

Circular Head, 

Scroll Head, used with 
Bulbous Scroll Centre. 

thus classing the different parts. The first, or 
most simple, is the bolted end ; second, the cup 
and flower end ; the third, the trefoil end. 

Bolted. Cup and Flower. Trefoil. 

I will now take up another prominent de- 
partment, namely, the entwinement of per- 
forated fillets, or mixed fret-work, of which 
there are two kinds, pierced and bolted, and 

14 * 


in some instances it is most lavishly used, 
and the conclusion generally drawn by the 
common observer, is, that wherever this is 
seen, it must be Elizabethan. This ornament 
was usually placed at the top of houses, and 
over various elevated positions, where there 
was sufficient scope ; but that usually placed 
on the top of the different projections in front 
of various halls and seats, is generally termed 

the bolted style, the difference between that 
and the intermixed fret, or pierced work, I 
now intend explaining. 

The bolted style, as I have before stated, 
was mostly placed on the top of the front and 
end facings of mansions or halls, and was com- 
posed or designed on the same principle as 
the intermixed fret, but that, in a lofty posi- 
tion, looked meagre; so, to prevent that ap- 






pearance, the forms of square and round-headed 
bolts were placed, to appear as if the whole 
of the outer work were morticed and bolted 
together. The general principle that seems to 
have been practised, was allowing the square 
and circle (from whence started the various per- 
pendicular and horizontal bars) to be double 
the width of the bar, as the previous diagram : 

and however complicated the form may be, yet 
the above is the plan to be observed through- 
out. The number of different pieces that com- 
posed this were few, but it was the intermixture 
and repetitions that caused the variety. 


I have now given you, by small illustra- 
tions, a few of the leading points, in fact, almost 
all; and you must be careful when designing 
this description of ornament, that wherever you 
have a square department, or the formation 
of a shield, that all your smaller squares come 
opposite each other, as seen in the foregoing dia- 
grams ; if you do not, it will not only be entirely 
wrong, but at the same time look very bad. 


Further illustrations of this kind you will 
perceive in the accompanying plates; and I 
shall now treat on the pierced, or mixed fret- 
work, which was most commonly used in every 
department where decoration was required, 
even surrounding the whole shaft of a column, 
the facings of pilasters, and the different por- 
tions of panellings, but more particularly on the 
upper extremity of cornices, a very peculiar 
appearance is given to this ornament ; and, 


when pierced and backed, the ground- work has 
a frosty effect, done with a small round punch, 
and at other times merely circular holes, at in- 
tervals, as the annexed diagrams. The addition 
of this ground-work is peculiar to* itself, and, 

is seldom or ever found in any other description 
of decoration or carving, or scarcely used where 
the bolted style is introduced, because it would 
detract the attention from the appearance of the 
face of the ornament, which, when carved on the 
frieze of a room, looks very well, with inter- 
vening soffits and block cornices around, cir- 
cular-headed doors, windows, and spandrels. 
All this is in character to a certain extent, if 
not profusely used, to compose or design this 
kind of ornament. 

I will now explain the intermixed perfo- 
rated fret-work, which is composed of the ec- 
centric scroll figure and plain volutes, intersect- 


ing points between, keeping them at a proper 
distance, so as not to jumble the whole together. 
All these are joined by perpendicular and 
horizontal lines and right angled bars, some- 
times terminating with a paper scroll-head and 
jewelled centre, and surmounted with pinnacles 
and bases, various little bosses, and corded 
laurels or flowers intermixed, Of these various 
portions you will find outlines in the adjoin- 
ing plate, merely as plans for you to design 
upon, and fill up, These may, in some in- 
stances, be surrounded by a fillet, (but not too 
broad or too deep, that it may have the ap- 
pearance of a great hollow,) and in other in- 
stances it may be bevelled off on each side ; 
which, when closely grouped, add greatly to 
the variety of effect. 

All these points, you will perceive, are at- 
tended to, as far as necessary, in the accom- 
panying plate ; and will conclude with giving a 
few illustrations of another prominent feature 
of earlier times, and which go conjointly with 
my previous remarks, viz. the carved oak 



and moulded ceiling; and, in some instances, I 
consider these portions of decoration gave the 

greatest opportunity for the display of Geo- 
metrical study in all architectural ornament, 
more than any thing that could possibly be 
thought of, and must have caused an immense 
opening for study, some of them being of a 
complicated form and variety of figure. I have 
introduced a few of them, leaving you to form 
others of your own, which may very soon be 
done, by laying down a rule, as I have added 
to some of the annexed illustrations. 

Fig. 54 is a portion of the ceiling in Queen 



Elizabeth's room, Dorton House; Fig. 55 is 
from the Sexton's House, St. James', Bristol; 
Fig. 56 is from a farm-house, once known as 
the Duke's House, Bradford; Fig. 57 is from 
the same house, in the upper floor. 

Dorton House. 

These explanations are all I think necessary 
to complete this portion, but will give an illus- 
tration of what I consider the origin of this 



curious kind of decoration, which it certainly 
is, and not very easy of comprehension, or to 
retain in your memory; the piece I allude 
to is on the annexed plate, taken from an 

Sexton's House, St. James', Bristol. 

old steel lamp at Nuremberg, dated 1586 ; it 
seems, in this instance, to have been in a very 
imperfect state to what it was brought to a 
few years after ; still, here we have the sup- 



posed original, and we should always look to 
that point with delight, as we can, no doubt, 
improve, but should always maintain the cha- 
racter and form of our first model, however 

Duke's House, Bradford. 

ancient; and, if we wish to renovate or call 
back that same style, it must be according 
to the character or manner in which it was 
executed. Although the arts have been so 



much improved of late, it is but in altering and 
forming the geometrical proportion more grace- 
ful, on which we ought to trespass. 

I will now leave you to your perseverance, 


Duke's House, Bradford, First Floor. 

in combining and accomplishing the true fea- 
ture of Elizabethan, as far as the ornamental 
department extends ; and, should you require 
to proceed further towards the architectural 


portion or plans, I cannot do better than refer 
you to Richardson's and HakewelVs "Eliza- 
bethan Architecture/' both as regards external 
and internal fitting ; fully assured, that there 
you will find all you require to complete your 
ideas; but the portion I have treated upon is 
merely to found a basis, or taste, whereby the 
ornamental draftsman, or student, may use his 
or her discretion as to the simplicity, or how- 
ever elaborate the plan or idea may be; at the 
same time impress on you, it is a style peculiar 
to itself, and when used with judgment, and 
in its proper place, it is very well ; but I would 
not have you waste your ideas and time too 
much upon one style, but learn of what it is 
composed ; and after that, treat with it as your 
judgment guides you, when it is required, as it 
is a bad plan to make too free use of only one 
description of ornament, which will throw you 
off your principles and ideas of other kinds 
that you may have studied. Thus, having made 
yourself acquainted with all my foregoing re- 
marks and principles, which, if properly paid 


attention to, must inevitably repay you for the 
perseverance, labour, and study it may have 
cost you. And I again caution you, let not 
your mind be led away to attempt building a 
mansion before you can plan a cottage, but go 
on gradually, from step to step, and study well 
all portions of the art that are good, but copy 
little, with the exception of that which you 
may have retained in your memory by looking 
at others. After that refer again, and study 
to make yourself acquainted with the ideas and 
styles of foreign draftsmen, from whom we 
have derived the chief knowledge of a variety 
of styles in ornament, and have in many in- 
stances improved upon, but more often spoiled 
them; and why? merely for the want of that 
scope which foreign schools throw open to all 
whose minds are fixed for perfection in any 
particular portion of the arts ; and, before we 
can arrive to that, we must fully make up our 
minds to defy competition, by having a true 
school of design. It is only the want of will, 
and not of mind ; for I am certain, were there 


sufficient scope thrown open to the British 
student, with unbiassed limits of instruction 
given, and tutors properly selected, for a strict 
adherence to the same, that our country would, 
in a very short time, laugh at foreign artists as 
designers, and should only have to thank them 
for their original principles. Then we should 
have the pleasure of hearing and saying, that 
those whom we have for years been obliged to 
copy and obtain designs from, will be glad to 
take advantage of our superiority over them, 
not only in design, but novelty of invention. 
To remedy all this, schools of design should be 
formed in different manufacturing towns, and 
in various parts of the metropolis, so that the 
student may go gradually through a routine of 
study, and put in possession of the best exam- 
ples that can be placed before him ; and until 
this feeling operates on the public mind, (which 
I hope it will shortly,) take my advice, go on 
that principle by yourselves, and in time it will 
fully shew what can be done by proper practice 
and training. 


I now intend completing this portion of my 
advice, by a trifling introduction to the Gothic 
rules and variation of arches, and of their in- 
troduction, which will be found essentially ne- 
cessary in the course of design, with geometry. 





AMONGST the various modes of architecture, 
there are none more suitable and open to va- 
riety in the study of geometry and propor- 
tion, than the Gothic. My intention, in this 
instance, is merely to give you the universal 
form of the various arches, and principle for 
striking the same, and leave you to fill them up 
yourself with tracery, as you please, (in those 
that require it;) feeling confident that it is of 
the utmost importance in designing or copying 
from any principal edifice, to know, when you 
perceive a Gothic window, that ofttimes the 
greatest difficulty arises to give the true form, 
solely for the want of knowing how to go geo- 
metrically to work ; and in another instance, it 
facilitates copying, in a very great measure, as 
regards a raving of time ; because, being tho- 







roughly acquainted with its form and character, 
you have only to note it down, and at your lei- 
sure you can complete it, without further trou- 
ble. There are at present more valuable works 
on that topic than of any other description of 
architecture, so that it would be folly for me to 
enter upon it further, than merely giving you 
that which is really useful to the universal 
draftsman, independent of its value, as regards 
knowledge ; for the many scattered remains of 
castles and cathedrals over the various parts of 
England, connect it with a variety of pleas- 
ing associations, that must render it a truly in- 
teresting study. I have found it so to a cer- 
tain extent, without attempting to give my 
time to those portions which are required to 
make an architect; and others, I hope, will 
do the same; although it may not be re- 
quired in your profession, it will, at least, give 
you the superior command of knowledge over 
many, and render you a pleasant companion, 
in giving an explanation of any particular ca- 
thedral, or other Gothic edifice, and in what 

15 * 


period they were built. The origin of Gothic 
was, no doubt, from the cognate race of the 
Saxons, Franks, Normans, and Germans, and 
we can easily mark its progress of improve- 
ment from the Norman conquerors ; and in this 
case, whether correct or not, the word Gothic 
is likely to survive, and bear that title, beyond 
any other appellation, according to various 
styles that might have been given to it. And 
as, in an earlier portion of this work, I have 
informed you, that it is only by reading and 
studying different masters, authors, and others, 
that I am enabled to draw your attention to the 
most useful parts required; and where I have 
been able to facilitate any difficult points,. I 
have done so, and feel a pleasure' in throwing 
open those rules, for the benefit of all who 
choose to follow them. 

The classification of Mr. Rickman on arches, 
is undoubtedly the most skilful that has been 
suggested, and is now generally followed. He 
divides them into four kinds. 

1st. The semi- circular, or Norman, extend- 



ing in its pure state from the time of the Con- 
quest to the reign of Stephen, A.D. 1136, and, 
with the mixed or transition style, which suc- 
ceeded to about the year 1190. 

2nd. The early-pointed, from the reign of 
Eichard the First, 1189, down to the end of 
the reign of Edward the First, 1307. 

3rd. The decorated, which prevailed during 
the greater part of the fourteenth century. 

4th. The perpendicular, sometimes called 
the Florid Gothic,* which commenced about the 
reign of Richard the Second, and prevailed 
during the whole of the fifteenth century and 
the early part of the sixteenth, down to the 
period of the Reformation. 

The arch being the most prominent and 
distinguished feature in this style of archi- 
tecture, I shall close these remarks by a short 
description of the different forms of arches in- 
troduced, with the periods during which they 
principally prevailed. These, and many other 

* Henry the Seventh's Chapel, Westminster, is the finest 
specimen of Florid Gothic and tracery in this country. 


illustrations which may be necessary, will be 
treated on the most simple principles, to enable 
any person who can handle a lead pencil and a 
pair of compasses, to make himself master of 
their contour and method of delineation. 

The Norman, or Saxon arch, is the first I 
will commence to describe, as it was the earliest 
specimen we have of the circular arch. The 
period of its rage was between the reigns of 
William the First and Henry the Second. 
The characteristics of the style are massiveness, 
twisted and capped columns, sculptured figures, 
and corbel heads of the most grotesque forms, 
and sometimes ornaments of very rich design; 
moulding chiefly of a zig-zag form, groining 
and intermingling of circular headings and co- 
lumns, forming a unity of style and effect ex- 
clusively its own. \Their intermixed column- 
iations is supposed to have originated the 
pointed arch, which will be seen in the annexed 
plate ; the front as well as the interior of Roches- 
ter Cathedral, offers for the student an immense 
opening for this kind of study. The specimens 


here are of the richest description : the doorway 
is most elaborate, as regards sculpture ; and the 
scroll hinges, (which ofttimes cover the whole 
door,) by their several ramifications, produce 
an effect both sparkling and rich. 

In reference to the plate, ABC are plain 
moulded openings ; D is an enriched zig-zag, 
and label-headed doorway, with the scroll 
hinges, as I before mentioned ; E is an open- 
ing, with what is termed cusps introduced, and 
an early specimen of a semi-trefoil head ; F is 
an interlined opening, with an arched cornice, 
terminating with the angled fillet and beads. 
These cornices were of many forms, as mould- 
ing-blocks, cables, chain fillets, &c., and some- 
times with flowers. 

I will now refer to the other variations, or 
progress towards the pointed arch, or florid 

The semi-circular arch, fig. 1, is the only one 
employed in edifices erected prior to the reign 
of Stephen, A.D. 1136. This arch is struck 
from the point A. 


In the horseshoe arch, of which, fig. 2 and 
3 are specimens, the centres are above the line 
of the springing. This arch is not very com- 
mon, but is sometimes introduced along with 
semi-circular arches, apparently for the sake 
of variety. Fig. 2 is a portion of a circle; 
but fig. 3, after arriving at the semi-circle, 
you carry perpendicular lines, to elongate the 

Fig. 4 is the segmental arch, in which the 
centre is below the springing line. This form 
is rarely combined with semi-circular arches. 
Its general application was to interior doors 
and openings, during the early and decorated 
periods; but even iu these it is not of fre- 
quent occurrence. This is got according to 
the segment required, and is termed the span 
or opening. 

Fig. 5 is the lancet arch, the height of 
which is greater than its width. Where this 
arch is used for the main outlines of doors, 
windows, and other openings, they may safely 
be attributed to the early pointed period. In 

OF THE ^\ 

Of J. 


the composition of tracery and wood carving, 
the lancet arch is continued through all the 
varieties. It is gained by dividing your base 
line, A B, into four equal parts, and from the 
two extreme points your intersection will give 
the figure required. 

Fig. 6 is the equilateral arch, of which 
height and width are equal, and is obtained by 
first getting an equilateral triangle. 

Fig. 7 is the drop arch, the height of which 
is less than its width, and is got by dividing 
the base into four equal parts, as A B C D, and 
strikiug from B C. 

Fig. 8 is the pointed segmented, the cen- 
tres of which are below the line of springing, 
and bisected, as at fig. 6. 

The three last-mentioned arches are used 
indifferently in the early decorated and per- 
pendicular styles. 

Fig. 9 is the pointed horseshoe. This form 
of arch occurs in a few buildings in the mixed 
or transition style, immediately succeeding the 
Norman. The choir of Canterbury Cathedral, 


erected A.D. 1154, offers, it is said, the finest 
specimens.* Divide the springing line into five 
parts, and after passing the semi-circle, it im- 
mediately collapses, as at C D. 

Fig. 10 is the ogee arch. This form was 
never used for the main arches of doors and 
windows of ancient buildings, as is sometimes 
absurdly done at the present day. Its use was 
confined to tracery, niches, tabernacle work, 
and other ornamental situations. The ogee 
form was also frequently applied to the cano- 
pies of doors and windows in the late deco- 
rated and early perpendicular ; it is gained from 
four centres, as at A B C D. 

Fig. 11 is the four-centred or Tudor arch. 
This form belongs exclusively to the reigns of 
Henry the Seventh and Eighth, after which 
time the Gothic style ceased to exist in any 
degree of purity. This peculiar form of arch 
has sometimes led to a separate classification of 

* The springing of an arch is the point from whence the 
compass, either in a semi-circle or segmental line, touches the per- 
pendicular line ; or, more properly speaking, becomes tangent. 


this period, under the denomination of Tudor 
Gothic ; but the mere form of the arch hardly 
seems sufficient to warrant this multiplication 
of classes. It is derived from the points, 

Fig. 12 is the three-centered or elliptic arch. 
This arch is sometimes, though very rarely, 
met with in England, in buildings of the late 
perpendicular : it frequently, however, occurs 
on the Continent, but marks the debasement 
and near approach of the extinction of the 
style ; it is obtained from the points, ABC. 

Fig. 13 is generally termed a lancet open- 
ing, for turrets and air openings. 

Fig. 14 is a canopy head, and usually placed 
over any recess, where a pedestal or figure is 
erected on the face of any Gothic structure. 

Fig. 15 is the spandrel. This seldom oc- 
curs except in the Tudor, or low segmental 
arches, and is bounded by what is termed a 
label moulding, and usually filled up with 
tracery vine, oak, or ivy leaves rudely dis- 


It will be perceived, by the foregoing re- 
marks, that the form of the arch is not, in 
most cases, sufficient of itself to determine the 
period or class to which an edifice belongs ; but 
we may arrive pretty nearly, by examining nar- 
rowly the tracery, buttresses, pinnacles, and 
openings, (which openings were composed of 
various foils), and the variety necessary to be 
known by the general draftsman, is given in the 
annexed plate. 


Cinque Scif 


OF THE >* 

OF ,/ 

7r in ?>ewfen the Tarty Watts. 



AN abridged history of the origin of Geo- 
metry will, I dare say, not be unacceptable to 
many of my subscribers, although the subject 
has been treated on many times before ; I shall 
dwell no longer than I consider necessary either 
for the youth or student, that they may be able 
to answer and solve any early or useful ques- 
tion. The word GEOMETRY is of Greek origin, 
and signifies measuring the earth, or any dis- 
tances thereon; it, no doubt, had its rise in 
Egypt, where the inundations of the Nile ren- 
der it necessary to distinguish lands by con- 
sidering their figures, that they might be en- 
abled to lay them out in just dimensions and 
situations. Some authors assert that it was 
the invention of the Babylonians ; others, the 
Egyptians ; and that they borrowed it from the 
Babylonians. Thales } a celebrated Phoenician 
philosopher, who died five hundred and forty- 


eight years before Christ, calculated eclipses, 
and gave general notions of the universe ; Py- 
thagoras, of Samos, who flourished five hun- 
dred and twenty years before Christ, intro- 
duced it from Egypt into Greece; and disco- 
vered the five regular Geometrical bodies, viz. 
the Cube, Tetrahedron, Octahedron, Icosahedron, 
and Dodecahedron. 

Euclid, of Alexandria, was particularly dis- 
tinguished in elementary Geometry ; about a 
hundred years after him, Archimedes extended 
the limits of Geometry, by his measure of the 
sphere and the circle ; at a later period, Apol- 
lonius, of Perga, who flourished two hundred 
and sixty, or two hundred and thirty years be- 
fore Christ, did much for the practice of higher 
Geometry. In Italy, about the sixteenth cen- 
tury, the sciences first revived after the dark 
ages, and several mathematicians were distin- 
guished for their studies ; the French, and par- 
ticularly the Germans followed. Justus Byrge 
laid the foundation of logarithms, and was the 
inventor of the proportional circle, although 


others ascribe the invention to Galileo. Rei- 
nerus Gemina Frisius, who died in 1555, in- 
vented the instrument used in surveying, called 
the plain table. Simon Stevin, of Bruges, ap- 
plied the decimal measure to Geometry ; and, in 
1684, Leibnitz advanced the science by the in- 
vention of the differential calculus ; arid Newton, 
by the theory of the fluxions. Robert Hook, 
who died in 1703, was the first who considered 
the influence of the refraction of light in mea- 
suring heights. Ludolph, of Ceulon, or Co- 
logne, who died at Leyden, in 1610, discovered 
the proportion between the diameter and the 
circumference of the circle. In recent times, 
the French have been most distinguished in 
this art, and have produced the best elementary 
works on the subject, some of which are excel- 
lent. Among the most approved modern works 
of this kind, are those of Euclid, translated by 
Simpson Ingram and Play fair : and the treatises 
of Professor Leslie and M. Legendre. 

From a Perusal of the above history of the 
progress of Geometrical science, it must be 


evident that any attempt at a complete con- 
scientious treatise on the subject, would swell 
the present article to a most inconvenient 
length, and indeed would be completely incom- 
patible with the general arrangement of the 
work : I purpose, therefore, confining myself 
to a series of useful definitions, which may 
be said to form the alphabet of the science. 
Problems, illustrative of the application of geo- 
metry to the useful arts, will be found in the 
annexed illustrations. 

In attempting to exemplify or illustrate the 
following definitions, I am perfectly aware that 
many of my expressions and illustrations will 
be objected to by the rigid mathematician, 
but as I have before stated, that my object 
is simplicity, and to convey the first rudiments 
of this science to those who may be entirely 
unacquainted with it. 


A point is that which has position, but not 
magnitude, as fig. 1. 


A line is the trace of a point, or that which 
would be described by the progressive motion 
of a point, and consequently has length only, 
as fig. 2. 

Superfices have length and breadth, but 
not thickness, as that might be unbounded ; for 
instance, the top is the surface, as fig. 3. 

A solid is a figure of three dimensions, 
having length, breadth, and thickness. Hence, 
surfaces are extremities of solids, and lines the 
extremities of surfaces, and points the extrem- 
ities of lines, as fig. 4. 

If two lines will always coincide, however 
applied, when any two points in the one coin- 
cide with the two points in the other, the 
two lines are called straight lines, or otherwise 
right lines. 

A curve continually changes its direction 
between its extreme points, and has no part 
straight, as fig. 5. 

Parallel lines are always at the same dis- 
tance, and will never meet, though ever so far 
produced, as fig. 6. 



Oblique right lines change their distance, 
and would meet if produced, as an acute angle. 

Angles are known and measured by the 
number of degrees they contain at the extreme 

One line is perpendicular to another, when 
it inclines no more to one side than the other, 
as fig. 7. 

A straight line is a tangent to a circle, when 
it touches the circle without cutting, when both 
are produced, as fig. 8. 

An angle is the inclination of two lines to- 
wards one another in the same plane, meeting 
in a point, as fig. 9. 

Angles are either right, acute, or obtuse. 

A right angle is that which is made by one 
line perpendicular to another, or when the an- 
gles on each side are equal. 

All angles meet at a point; when this is 
the case, each is denoted by three letters. The 
right angle is the criterion of judging of every 
other angle ; d b c is a right angle, a b c an ob- 
tuse angle, e b c an acute angle, as fig. 10. 




An acute angle is less than a right angle, as 
fig. 11. 

An obtuse angle is greater than a right 
angle, as fig. 12. 

A plane is a surface with which a straight 
line will every where coincide, and is otherwise 
called a straight surface ; for instance, if I 
cut through a piece of timber, or a tree, the 
end surface is the plane, as fig. 13. 

All angles are known from their extreme 
openings, and are divided into degrees, as 
fig. 16. Here is a diagram for explanation. 
From a to b will be an angle of 15 degrees ; 
from a to c, 35 ; and from a to d, 60. These 
are all acute angles, being within the right 
line. From a to e is an obtuse angle, of 120 
degrees. This diagram is on the principle of 
using the sextant. 

An equilateral triangle has all its three sides 
equal, as fig. 17. 

An isosceles triangle has only two sides 
equal, as a b, b c, as fig. 18 : this is the figure 
of one of the principal powers in the laws of 

16 * 


mechanics, viz., a wedge, being made according 
to the power required ; for instance, a wedge 
of so many degrees, is measured as an acute 
angle of so many degrees. 

A scalene triangle has all its sides unequal, 
as fig, 19, and is to be found in the following 
portion of a building, or angled bay window, 
whose ends are not equal to its front, as fig. 20 ; 
a being an equilateral triangle, and the two 
ends, b b, scalene triangles, forming the front 
elevation, as the annexed illustration. 

Trapezium is a quadrilateral figure; that is 
to say, a figure with four sides. In this in- 
stance every side is unequal, as fig. 21. 

An octagon is a polygon of eight sides. This 
figure is placed here, merely to shew the prin- 




ciple of gaining it. First form a square, and 
from each angle or corner you strike a seg- 
ment, whose arc shall touch the centre, and 
at the termination of each curve angular lines, 
drawn from end to end, the dotted line is a 
perfect octagon, as fig. 22. This principle is 
laid down for perspective. 

A rhombus is a parallelogram, whose sides 
are equal, but not at right angles, as fig. 23. 

A rhomboid, whose horizontal lines are 
equal, and oblique lines unequal, with the ho- 
rizontal, as fig. 24. 

Eadius lines. Those lines starting from a 
centre, and all acute angles, as fig. 25. 

Solids and bodies, when either are bounded 
by surfaces, sides, and ends. A book is solid. 
Hence a square, with six equal sides, is a solid, 
or cube; that is to say, in measurement. 
Twelve inches each way is a foot cube. 

When solids or superfices have more sides 
than one, then they become polygons ; if all 
equal sides, they are regular, if otherwise, irre- 
gular, of which they are named up to twelve ; 


beyond that they are termed polygons of thn> 
teen or fourteen sides, and so on; but I will 
name the figures, as it is of the greatest utility 
to know them : 1, a line; 2, a parallelogram; 
3, a triangle ; 4, a quadrilateral ; 5, a pentagon, 
five sides; 6, a hexagon, six sides; 7, a hepta- 
gon, seven sides ; 8, an octagon, eight sides ; 
9, a nonagon, nine sides ; 10, a decagon, ten 
sides; 1.1, an undecagon, eleven sides; 12, a 
duodecagon, twelve sides. 

Base is the part on which any figure stands. 
Altitude is the height of any body erect. A 
circle is a figure bounded by a line, termed the 
circumference, or periphery, and equi- distant 
from the centre, or point, from whence it is 
obtained. The interior of a circle is divided 
into component parts, each of which has its 
classification. On reference to the plate, fig. 
26, a & is the diamefcer ; c d is the cord of an 
arch ; and d b is the segment of a circle. 

Cones may be brought under one head, 
without entering into the number of terms 
usually given. Any solid figure rising to an 


apex, or point, is called a cone ; if angled, it is 
called a poly gon-cone, or cone of so many sides ; 
if the cone be circular, it may be divided into 
four parts, viz , a fru strum of a cone, that is 
to say, when it is cut parallel with the base, it 
is then a circle, as fig. 27 shews. If cut parallel 
to its axis, it then forms a hyperbolic curve, as 
a b c, fig. 28 ; and if cut parallel to the sides of 
the cone, it is called a parabolic curve, as a b c, 
fig. 29 ; and if cut through in the angle, it then 
becomes an ellipsis, as a, fig. 30. 

27. 28. 29. 30. 


i\ r \ 
r3 c3 

Frustrum. Hyperbolic. Parabolic. Ellipsis. 

Among the various geometrical figures that 
become useful to the ornamental draftsman, 
beside mouldings and archways, are the variety 
of ovals, ellipses, and foils ; the description of 
which terminates this volume. There are many 
who with the compasses can strike an ellipsis, 


no doubt, but we will suppose you have no 
instruments ; it then becomes necessary to be 
able to do without them, yet work with cer- 
tainty, and which, with a few useful diagrams, 
will be found not only essential, but pleasant 
to study. The first I shall commence with will 
be the ellipsis, using instruments. Fig. 31 is 
the elongated ellipsis, and is obtained by two 
circles, from the centres, c d : you gain by the 
intersecting segments the points, e f, from 
which you pass your diagonal lines, g h i k. 
By placing the compasses on the points c d, 
you strike from h to &, and from g to i ; and 
from / and e you obtain a curve g h and 
i k, and you have an ellipsis complete; but 
let me remind you, in striking any of these 
geometrical figures, you cannot be too parti- 
cular as regards your division ; for the least 
deviation will throw every other portion en- 
tirely wrong, and you will have the same work 
to do over again, for the want of a little care at 
first ; and where you should have but one point- 
hole, by carelessness you perforate the paper like 

X ** OF THE 



a sieve, winch always spoils a drawing ; to avoid 
this, you should get a pair of what are termed 
spring dividers, to enumerate your divisions, as 
by that means you can do without pricking the 
paper so much, by merely laying the points on, 
and having a screw to work the compasses, you 
can divide to the greatest nicety, and keep your 
divisions more true than with the other com- 
passes, the least pressure of the hand will 
close them a trifle, which, if imperceptible in 
one or two divisions, when you come to a hun- 
dred, it is then you find it out : this is advice 
which, perhaps, in the ardour of your studies, 
you might not think of 

Fig. 32 is a short ellipsis, got on the same 
principle as the first, but instead of forming 
two tangent circles, you intersect them and 
work on the former principle. 

Fig. 33 is a rule by which the oval is ob- 
tained, whatever is to be the width, the length, 
to be proportionate, must be three times its 
width, as for instance, the perpendicular line 
a b, is divided from the point c; strike the 


semi-circle, from which you form a parallelo- 
gram, d e f g, which is to be divided into twelve 
parts on each side, and the base to be twenty- 
four parts ; by merely intersecting these divi- 
sions it will form an oval of itself, viz. by 
passing lines from 1 to 1, 2 to 2, 3 to 3, and so 
on regularly; now, I always found too much 
trouble in this principle, and could not rest easy 
until I had found out a much better figure, 
and on a more simple plan ; which, after trying 
a great many without success, I at last hit upon 
one, and every person I have shown it to is 
satisfied of its superiority. 

Fig. 34 is an oval, the exterior form of 
which is gained by two circles, the sizes being 
governed by the diameter; strike the circle, a, 
then the smaller one, 6, tangent to it; next 
strike your intersecting arcs, c, which are to be 
divided into nine equal parts; draw your dia- 
gonal lines, c a b d, which gives you the stop- 
ping points for your segments, d d d d, then 
place the point of the compasses on /, and it 
will give you the segmental curve, d d d d; 



you will find this oval a complete egg shape. 
Now, we want to obtain a segmental arch and 
a semi-elliptic, without having sufficient room 
for striking the same with the compasses ; in the 
connected plate, fig. 35 and 36, I have given 
two very excellent principles, which I think have 
not appeared before. The elliptic one is the 
principle laid down by Kennie, in planning the 
elliptic arches of New London Bridge. In 
obtaining or striking this arch, whatever may 
be the height from your springing line, &, the 
same width you take from that line to carry 
your radius lines, as at c ; divide your springing 
line into eighteen parts, or more, remembering 
to keep even numbers. The greater the 
number of divisions, the more certain you are 
to obtain a segmental line; then carry your 
radius from the point, c, through each of the 
divisions to the boundary line, a e, a e ; next 
divide the end, a e, in nine equal parts, and 
from the point, b, you carry your lines to the 
end division, which intersection gives you the 
arc, a b c. 


The verse sine arch, fig. 37, is on the same 
principle, but requires no radius points. Get 
the height of your arch, and form two acute 
angles from the base line, a a to &, and on those 
angles, from the extreme points, a, obtain a 
right angle, a c, a c, and another at a d, a d, 
which will form one of your divisions of eighteen 
at the top; and next divide your springing line 
a a, into eighteen equal parts, and your end in 
nine parts, carry your lines out to e b, and your 
intersecting lines, b a, to b d, will be the seg- 
mental arch. 

There is another system by which you may 
obtain a segment, and which you will find in 
the plate. The more obtuse the angle, on the 
sides of which you make a number of divisions, 
the better the curve appears by the intersection 
of the numerous divisions; as, from a b c is 
divided into fourteen parts, cross from 1 to 1, 
2 to 2, 3 to 3, 4 to 4, and so on, and the seg- 
ment is given. This is a very useful diagram, 
especially when the angle is more acute in its 


altitude; you will find ifc the only way of 
describing an hyperbolic curve with facility. 

The difficulty of obtaining a quantity of 
division in a small space, as I before mentioned, 
with the compasses, I will now draw your at- 
tention to. To prevent your perforating the 
paper like a sieve, divide, for instance, one inch 
in length into twenty parts; you would, no 
doubt, go a great many times over that line 
before you would get the right division, but, 
on reference to the plate, you will find an un- 
erring principle to work upon. Let a c be the 
base, at a right angle, with that carry up a per- 
pendicular line, a 6, of any height, and at ran- 
dom run up your divisions, no matter how many, 
if you go to work accurately ; after this is done, 
carry a converging line from c to b, and from 
your base draw parallel lines, touching from 
side to side, until you have sufficient for your 
number of divisions, as d e; from that, at each 
intersecting on the angle, carry parallel lines 
from the perpendicular, e to /; so, by carrying 


these lines to the base, the number of divisions 
are obtained. This is exceedingly valuable in 
dividing modules into minutes, in drawing ar- 
chitecture; in fact, in every instance when 
small divisions are required. 

on m 



MANY of my readers may attribute blame 
to me for inserting the above-mentioned por- 
tions of architecture, and perhaps say, that it 
has nothing to do with ornament. No: that I 
will allow. There certainly is no occasion for 
moulding in a running scroll, but there is in the 
boundary of it, and that according to the cha- 
racter or style, of course. As a matter of fact, 
the moulding surrounding it should and ought 
to be in accordance with it, but it is not always 
the case; and to prove to you the necessity of 
such information, is the reason I trespass thus 
far. This portion of decoration is an indispen- 
sable accompaniment to all my former remarks, 
and co-practice of geometry. As an instance 


of the utility of your being acquainted with 
mouldings, how would an ornamented frieze 
appear, without the upper mouldings formed 
a cornice, and protection to all the bas-relief 
and ornamental risings, and which, in their ori- 
gin, were of a rude and massive form, brought 
into a subordinate one by the Greeks, to pro- 
tect, strengthen, and unite the whole of their 
buildings ? 

The number of mouldings generally used 
are eight, and each and every one of utility. 
The first and most simple form is the fillet, 
fig. 1, which is the smallest in proportion to 
the whole of the others, and its chief use is to 
divide the superior mouldings, and prevent the 
heavy inharmonious effect that would be pro- 
duced by two or more geometrical mouldings 
being placed together. 

Fig. 2 is the astragal, or round fillet, which 
may be, if required, ornamented as fig. 3. Its 
chief use is to divide the capital from the shaft 
of any column or pilaster, and may be either 
entirely round, or semi-circular. 





Fig. 4 is of the same character, but of a 
much bolder form, and chiefly used in the base 
moulding of a column, and termed alorus. The 
exterior end is got from the point a, and pro- 
jects no further than the vertical line in face of 
the plinth, as fig. 5. 

Fig. 6 is the ovolo, or quarter round, and is 
now chiefly used in an admixture of Roman 
mouldings; but there is so massive an appear- 
ance with it, that, at the present day, the in- 
ventive genius of architects has greatly im- 
proved upon it and adhered more strictly to 
what is termed the Grecian ovolo, as fig. 7, 
which is much lighter and more graceful in ap- 
pearance. Fig. 6 is the quarter of a circle, and 
gained from the point, a; but the Grecian is 
got from any acute angle. You may allow for 
the projection and depth of your moulding, 
from any angle you please, keeping the circular 
end in proportion, as fig. 7. 

Fig. 8 is termed the cavetto, or hollow. 
This moulding was chiefly used by the Egyp- 
tians, surrounding their temples, as I have 



before described; it is chiefly employed in co- 
vering the other members; and, being strong 
at the extreme points, supports others. This is 
obtained from the point, a. 

Fig. 9 is the cyma-recta, or cymatium. When 
you have ascertained the projection of your 
moulding, draw the angular line, a h, which 
you will divide into two equal parts, as at c; 
which divisions will form the bases for two equi- 
lateral triangles, as a e d, and c b e, From the 
point e, you strike c b, and from d, a c; which 
when joined, is the cymatreum of the moulding. 

Fig. 10 is the ogee, and drawn in the same 
manner as fig. 9, but reversed. It is a mould- 
ing well adapted to support other members, 
from the strength of its extreme points. A 
very rich effect is produced in this moulding 
by turning the top end, and leaving a small 
opening, as fig. 11 shews, and is termed a 
quirked moulding, by having the appearance of 
a black line, by the indentation of the hollow 
under the fillet. 

Fig. 12 is the cyma-reversa, and the same 

tf"'-f"f i%yxxx//^i^g^^%^%%^a W//////Wff/M'WfW/>/) 

Those above the line are sections of Gothic mouldings ; those below 
are termed mtillions, or sections of the upright bars and tracey in varioiw 
Gothic windows. 




as the above, in an inverted position and used 
for base mouldings only. 

Fig. 13 is a very peculiar moulding, and 
used to give power to the surrounding members, 
and to effect a good profile : it is termed a 
scotia mouth. After you have determined the 
projection of your top and bottom extremity, 
as a b, the perpendicular line, a c, is divided 
into three equal parts, and from the point, d, 
describe the quarter circle, a e ; then divide the 
horizontal line, e f, into five equal parts. From 
the point, f, draw e g, and by striking an arc 
from the point, /, from the two inner divisions, 
will give you the point to intersect your angle, 
c h, and from that angle you raise your perpen- 
dicular, b li y the extremity of which you divide 
into three equal parts ; then strike the arc, g k ; 
from that you strike the remainder of the arc, 
to complete the mouldings, from h, which is 
from k to 6. This moulding is an excellent 
study, and I would advise you not to be 
conquered by the seeming difficulty of its 



There is another more simple way of obtain- 
ing this moulding, by merely dividing the height 
into three parts, two for which will form the 
width, by intersecting six parts, as diagram. The 
point, a, will give you the arc from b c, and from 
the point, d, will form the other arc, c e. 

I think I have treated 
on every thing necessary 
for your instruction, ac- 
cording to my promise; 
and as my last advice (al- 
though it has been repeated 
before) is, study well and 
assiduously that which is good, and feel not 
daunted at trifling obstacles that may occur ; for, 
rest assured, after surmounting one, you will not 
rest, until you have surmounted others, and 
overtopped the apex of difficulties ; then all 
must run smooth, and your labours be repaid : 
and whilst you are performing these energetic 
feats of perseverance to reach perfection in the 
arts, you will be viewed with a jealous eye by 
your fellow-students, until they exert them- 



selves in the same manner. Then, by those 
means, the art of design ere long must become 
. extended, and hold the crayon of superiority 
over all other countries. 



TO ^ 202 Main Library 








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MAR 1 1991 

mm JAN * s iv 

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