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Cm-l No. 90 f. 093 9 IS E.m 
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Volume IV : Part II 





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C O N T H N T S 



$ 100. The -Camp-Stool* Fresco of the North-West Sasctvari Ham 
ami the Evidences of a Sacramental Class of Pedestal 

Goulets .3?V 

Korth-W^t Sanctuary Hull; 1 Gimp-Stool Fresco cwmerteti with it; Iraitmentaiy 
condition of remains": Evidence of double Alternating colours of fields: 

Elements of restoration: Sealed figures on folding-chairs, others stand mg; 1 La 
1 'arhitnne' : ‘Sami Knots J and win- tike excrescencesj Short-staved Jackets of 
l>oth sexe*; [eng robes; Young Miiintaui on similar ‘Crmp Stool : tuitldess 
similarly *ated ri vidence of gloves : Confronted silting figures-| flying of * Loving 
< 'urn ’; Sacramental character; Juke of fciered Tree a suur<rc of Possession; Silver 
uc.hlet; Gold chalice as restored - comparison of Myceiuu: chalice with j hives and 
* Nestor's < up‘: Similar ‘dotation -like chalice held by GoddftM on 1 nryns ring; 
Parallel form of tain filled bv Mioenti Genii: Restoration of part of paintedstucco 
design ot staled Goddess, iti this case, too, probably reoeiring lilsnlions » < *ficttanr 
seeiu;s on signet types compared j Clues to chronological place or ‘ Camp-Stool 1 
Frescoes—|availably 1- M. !.#• 

tot. LoNG-uoiiED Priestly and Rovai. Personages on- Skais from 
Knos-sos and Vahieio: Orientalieinu Influences, through 
Cyprus, on Cult of Dove Goddess—Syrian Axes 
* x B Sanctunrv Hall’ a Sacral College; Gubcrdincd costume due to Oriental 
influences • Simitar vestment* seen in - Palanquin Frv-co ’; Other ritual parallels ; 
I-irlkr representations of Priest kings : Port rails on Hiumglyiifeic Sealings; flu- 
■ Priestkinii 1 Relief and ‘Y,nng Prince' ql H. f’nada Cup; llie latter wear 
uidrn.irY liulIo apparel; Attire uf Male divinity also normal, though later, kesln-ph 
.L»... jjvfian Influence: Lftler version of <iodtk-*« in cdierdiiied gue-e, ami 

roatacciice m ('ypridH end Svrian Cult with Minunn- a Mimic cylinder from 
Greece; Importance of Paltaii.m L^CtaMal phenomenon t !'■_ 

Rock Hove of Cretan C.ivc Sanctuaries; Priestly WskWge ' nrtm * ; V, , metl 

n, ale figures in similar long rota-p-rson^ holding single I Aided axo -f >•)«»- 
F-v,.!im, tviw: Origin and evolution id this *mn «l Aw; Vit . normal Onental 
r Syrian infMnrt through (IjfftOS ■ I^e e.v.imp e on t Wnjtfy* 1 

Warrior Prince in chariot on Vaphcin ; Seals of pn.-Hellenic Pricst-amgs 
of Sp^rtim region—tnltmai*: oannesion wnh knossas. 

Jos Discovery is the 1 Initiatory Area ot- Lapis-la inn.i Cylinder 

Cypro-Misoas Cylinder from Knossoh district 

rivui-Hitiite Cylinders: Earlier traces 
ruin Agi!; Lapk^uU 
i- ^ t i noun < a' \ i nders— 

example from Ktw*«* district: The • Naked <K«iae>» on Cylinders-derived from 
primitive 1 Idols'; lhe Mother Goddess. 





$ icj. The Minoan Genii and their Rei .ation to Tim Egyptian Hippo¬ 
potamus Gomnss: Tiikik Beneficent Function* and Divine 


The Minoan Genii mid their origin—Earlier Views Hiltbhijfier. ac,; Winters 
Comparison with Hippo|)Otamus Goddess Ta-urt; Wear dew] appendage, not skin 
of Victim : Impersonation of animal victims excluded; Predominance oi lions head 
type; Genii sprung frontTurnft hut transformed in Minoan sense: Characteristic* 

•ind attributes of Hippopotamus Goddess—resemblances presented In tin- Simoon 
daemons ; Astral relations of laur; also reflc< led: la-urt = £-Vm- '*}>>:•>* : • ontrels 
‘haunch ' sign of Set (Uria Major) ; Impersonation of Isis. Guardian of Homs; 
Asimimmic Ceiling of Sen-min Tomb; Early imported scarab with Ta urt type from 
Mesarft tomb ; First appearance of Mia nan Genii; Examples on IfftiiHt hydrttu 
from KuRon l . M I A; Suggest! "tut ol Crocodile between Genii; Cornsptmdcncts 
with details of Egyptian astral scenes ; The ’Daemon Seats’ of Knossns ; Genii ns 
carriers and leaders of animals; Hull and cow led by horns—paialldisin with 
Vapheio scenes; Genius leading lion; TalUmatm class of hi .id-seals with libation 
Vessels, o: M.M. Ill-E-M. 1 a date; Vegetation charms; Rain-hearing ritual on 
Seal types from Knossos and Thfsbt-; Kwer-linkling Genii engaged m similar ritual; 
Confronted daemons on Vapheio gem. pouring lihuiinn- tolu fountain basin before 
sacred phn-tlie fountain of Ikmnton ; Genii [touring libations into tripod caul¬ 
drons on pilt.its and over altar-lilocks and cairns: Tu-urc and Minoan Genius on 
Cylinder Seals.‘Svro-W tithe’ and *Cypro Minoan’; Minoan Genii Lear drink offerings 
to Goddess on Tirvns signet: < ’yUnder from Kakmatos wiili Genius guarding lion- 
staying hem—Minoan jlcrakfcs; Analogy of Ta-nrt assisting Homs ngurasi Ox of 
Set: <bruit between lion guardians as representatives of divinity ; Genii as Ministers 
to youthful God—Bead seal of Spartan basalt from Kytlonia, 

§ 1C4 , Fresh Discovery of a Cn rykelefhantinb Image of Boy-Guu: 

the Minoan Tonsure ami Evidences of Hair-Offering . . 4<S# 

New < bn.'elephantine figure of boy-God: Comparison w ith earlier ilisecwLtcd 
example : Or somewhat maturw age: Gold plates of loin clothing- parallel to those 
of ’Goddess of Sports'; ‘Proio-Armenaid’ physiognomy; Shorn head—evidence 
nf tonsure; Hintta worn; Primitive custom of hair-offerings—hni r source t>f life and 
Strength; Cutting off of * Childhood's locks' at Age o! Puberty; I iair-offerings to 
Syrian Goddess Dedicaliora of locks of hnir in Temple of Guinn Zeus Panama ros; 
Cretan connexions of his * Tilt—a God of the Double Axe . Sculptural reprcst-nu- 
tions of votive nesses—Thos.dtan /iWli ; Evident l- of votive representations of haw- 
offerings in Minoan Shrines: Plaited steatite tresses used a*affixes at Kncwsos ami; £,v n# of this kind found in, relation to 1’a'ace Sanctuary or DuTiiextic 
Unortcr; Rite of tonsure a-, seen on tin chryselephantine image associated with 
Youthful God. 

$ toj. Retrospect of minoan Bead-seals and Signet-rings : Typical 

Forms and .Select IllOstratjONs.4*4 

Primitive bead-seats of ivory and soapstone; M. M* 111 and Transitional phase 
illustrated by hoards of sealings: Similar deposits at close of palatial period at 
Knns-au; Early Nilotic sculptural influences—pttno-dymislic ivories imitated in a 
more natural manner; Sculptured style common to stone vases and scats—Owl type ; 
Middle Minoan Seal-types on hard stone*, &c.—hieroglyphic [imuii; " Signet * seals 
and those with forcjctrts nf linns; Disuse of hieroglyphic seal-typos at close of 
M, M. II; Appearance of portraiture, naturalistic animals, and rock scenery] Flat- 
sided disks precursors ol lentoid iv[h: ; l^ntoids in vogue by M. M. Ill—the 
Zakro seal impressions s [.entoid types: thing bird, '.ill's bead, arid insiimiuneous 




sketch of three watcr-llml ; Xiloth nu^estion# of water-fowl motives —Utvr version'! 
cuntireierl; A wpical iencoid hcad-«ent: iVcdcirainamv »f knitiid type Iron 
of E, Ms Almond shji|>edf>r 'amygdaloid ' haul-scab; Tr^nsitjonal M M. Ul- 
[ ja M, I ti examples r l/crspi'cii^e view of fhli [ b liilinriuxiiic ti^si^ns . I■„lon^sted 
tttti'.'cidaloLcl bead-seals their L. M- 11 daLe^ Cylinder form—Early Augwn 
adaptation cf Oriental type ; Actual sm|wir( of Babylonim cylinders in M d. n ; 
but shape tint lijpEird in 1- M, l*i: JJaemauie specimen trom H. Pelagia, with 
ch>L£ti uf oTi^inal Mintain CDiiijKisitiuEt : Reaction nl Synj-Iliititc motives; ‘i y V ra : 
Minoan* elites; Minotaur an cylinder from harbourtwn ui Knossos ; ^ I’kittened 
cylinder 1 type—M. M, 1 *t prototype from Platanus; _ M. M- II examples; Onki- 
plated slice inien From Palaiknsinj ; Gold beads of ibis form with tin eh t-w* uled 
intLV’lioH - Agau hvad showing hull caught at cistern; niafardony bpd wliIi 
tumblers ftbm KnosMiv—stair Eibvan plumes; TiiLuL.lin^ figure* on early Nil-itsc 
. y tindery &ir.. i \nu|*n*d wiili tf iuiuri; Minam tiiinhlhij in bull s[Km» ; Egyptian 
female acrobats: Male tumblers of Muf: Gait uwd dog on flat cylinder—an 
illustration of Fable: Gold Signcl-fin^—evolved from Early Mmnm taad seals : 
hrinuatu: religious fpEsodes presented by them: Occasional scenes of combat ; 
1 Elongated P gold bead-seals from Thisbe tomb; <>edipus whin Sphinx ami with 
Luos; Slaughter «f Acgisthos and Klytenimstm by Orcste*: Historical records tit 
the hands of Minoan jHtisls + 



Spliragiatic ttedition indfgenmis tn Crete: Early Nilotic ami Egyptian ptotoiywa at 
limes (rateable; Primitive pictorial motives: Potters* sells— owner playingdraughts; 
Survival of tvj >e of sealed rowers ; Trussed wild-goatu on pule hue? r?r>i<'ii, misled 
|i on • liuntinc .,f Cretan WiId gu;Uii—hound leaping on wild-goat ■ Hound samting 
rta-’s. neck—i Idyssi-us* breocji computed l Lion leaping on quarcy—irefcrewlli at 
itie ituliEcnim* lyiHrs : First appearance <>i l-:<>u on primitive Cretan mmIv under 
Nilotic influence i Liroi types in M.M. II of Mainland inspiration: l.mna dinnti 
guardians ; Lion seining deer on Slide Grave dagger blade - Fully developed scheme 
T.f lion leaping mi quarry signet-ring ; Oriental group .onimvt.d with 
Mimr.ui: Oriental scheme influenced by cylinder types—lion’s hmd-lvgs rm gmuntl; 
ijon and hull cm tupt-r weight from TdUl-Amama: Kxceptiimal Mmatn gK»u|H 
with ItiuiN hind-legs on ground ; Ksamples of tr.iditional scheme where lion leaps 
on victim's luck—This scheme direct outgrowth of that of dug and < n-tstitgiMi ■ 
Reaction of sphmgistic mutive- on greater Art: Lion and hull on Minrun ivories— 
Enkojni mirror handles- Mimwn Colonial fabrics km Syrian and «. ilician ( nasis; 
1 Mino-Cilician' ccmmic motive of lion and bull; Minnnn influences un Assyrjiui 
\Vt • Lion and bull on Beirfli iisuab? Cypriot Greek, Ionian, and Phoenician 
versions; Com-ty[...' S ; Early [Minted reliefs of Akmpcilis, Athens; Latw Greek 
vers juris, revival uf Minoiin lype. 



Quark v Type - - * - 

U'cutndt-il quarry typesvalue to hunters: Artistic designs -stu r eed the 
meielv magical Stricken calf trying to mtoct arrow; bmnhr [;p« <A 
litm : Scheme .is apjilicd to hounds; Uountlcd hmi, seated : Uoumled urjii tet^hidt 
triave bead-seal; Comparison with Assyrian reliefs and tradition in Greet Art. 

^ tefic. Indigenous Sphracistic l ralution {emtifim'ii) 

Aiumal Mickling voting : Wild-goat and kids; Cow and redf—Egyptian version 
schematic; Kcligioias association of Minwm type—also conoeetcd with by nan 
Cioddess; Influence nf Minivan version on Arslan lash itones; Assyrian parallel* 



VI u 

from Nimrud ; Minuan qulpost Lit Ras-^hamra * Cow and ca]t m\ Archaic Greek coin 
dk-iJ: Stag stick!ini’ fawn : Maned Hon suckling cub : Hull licking hind font—revival 
on coin types; Bull scratching head with hoof—pan!Id motive on coins ; Seal hi- 
prc-siuns from entrance to Royal Tomb, Isopata bull over archiiectuml frieze with 
spirals; Lule Minoan vugue uj iruc s Cattle pieces’; Recumbent ox with outline of 
smother—recurrence of stepped Imsehdow; I^rge sealin'' with Cattle group from 
X. i.ntmncc Passage^ frieze below of sacrificial purport 

i 107, Hunting and other Animal Types on Late Mjnuan Seals; 
Influence of Oriental Cylinugr Sciiemks and kvolution of 
the - Lentojd 1 Class of Designs. 

rreEAii homed sheep—Its Moral aspects; Lflssoing scene; Domestic swine; H<ar out for sumficc ; IlnntingoE wild hoars uscol tice ; Huntsman spearing hoar; 
\ amors attacking |[<jn—mfhiary aspect of sport,; Sprarnmn and archer on Kvdonia 
™“ l,0n Hum on dagg^r-bkde compared; Huntsman stabbing Agrittt'i ; Alinpan 
(.raidess. as JJiktyuna, puling stag with how; Tht= fallow deer represented in 
Mnioaii Art; Stag-h Milling in chariot on Mycenae signet—royal sport; I .a dir, in 
1 iryi^ fresco: Hunting-dogs on Fresco and sweats—greyhound iVotyiiiiencc 

'*E lion motive on L AL seals ; Lion holding up hulk as Mi naan fkniiis ; Reflections 
0 cylinder types, f «i3g;uncsli and Ivahani; I'reijuency of ] .ions' tkite scheme 

rmni M U onwards; Single-headed and twoluodied Utms 1 Oate type—bizarre; < resting animals; Lions sewing stag atul fighting fortiturrr; Adaptation 
01 designs tu circular field of lentuids ; Coiled and contorted anitmil figures: 
acrobatic Minotaur type; Evolution oi 1 lentoid 1 style, 

§ 10H. Tme Late 

K NOS sos 


i 'a lathi. Deposits of Clay Seal Impressions at 

Long indtgenous tradition of Minoru 1 At-al-lypcs; Deposits of day seal impression*, 
belonging to Ureal I mnalional Age of intaglio work— M. M. Ili-1, M J a [ u u 
Palatial hr^rds associated with tablets of Class II: Inferior tpiali tv of clay and liking; 
Mostly preserved, wnh documents, in upper-floor rooms; Sealing Imibcn and 
lf >' pra-lAantiii; S.W, Basement Deposit (A) -the dav -matrix - ;uU J its 
'!uf U!l 'ei n : *»TUli,.ji r,f L, M. m dale; Hoard from Central 

- a r ’ J lt -Vrchix-es I lepbsit 1 {GJ—chronological COOcluEjanS : | Jeposit 

derived _.. hast Hall borders (I tj; Deposit L from Little I 1 ;, I nee r Intrusive seal 

tmpres-mm with wrestling bout: Pan If el „f thrown champion in steatite rdief- 
’ , . date; isolated linds, with tablets j Summary catalogue of Eat* Palatini 

SS ^™ m van ?S ,s ,Jc l M)sils ; lrapre.ssi.nift of -.1.1 -Ln,. ..J .diets 

with Religious subjects : Illustrating of Central Palace Cult; Frequency 0 f Lions' 
, j0I,j . M-hcme—djym..- presence variously indicated ; Fragmentary seal impression 
showing sculptural group of Lions' Date type un Cornice of Portico; Origins of 
guardian lion types on Mi man seals—oqnnectud with portals of shrines; Double 

iw <S 0, | ,UVV y grOUJ l Iud T^ t sli(in '* L ’ ei,il1 @ \ Mtm i Predominance of lentoid 
wad-seats,. large examples; Krerpiency of hucollc motives ; Typical lentoid designs; 

1 , ‘•ramroHgns of Class ii as signatures and cou nut-marks on 

,Mark ° f ArmoUT y I Counttranarited scalings 

$ toy. Later Phase of West Marines, Upper and Lowers Cereal' 
Tablets am* Basement Oil Storace; Types of On Jars or 
Pmwi . Discovery of stand a kj> Weight—‘Balakce* and 
" *ngot 1 Signs on Clav In yen Tories 

v[ sip -" ofSt ' ri I rt with tablets, from upper 

chambers, 1 be Upper H tot Magazines; Stored grains and * Granary' tabk-ts pre- 






cipitiUcd Into Lower Magoxfne 3 ; Bifid vegetable %n—[KThnps Millet—suggestive 
of Millet tieor; Appearance on Lentoid signet; Bariev sign—ear* moulded on jugs, 
also oat-like sprays; Enclave ol ‘Kasdles' -once Treasure Cists; larger vats 
lor oil; Final phase of West Magazines—oil ^forage predominant, with sujierilciu] 
basins ; l k^gencriite survival of "Medallion' type among later pithoi\ True 1 Medallion * 
pithm on earlier floors, others transferred to Inter floors ; Evidence of original plait- 
work bands on J Medallion 3 pit hoi ; Us hearing on steatite examples found in 
■ At reus ' tomb : M. AL III prototypes of piUm of L. M_ 11 I 'lass ; L. M. 1 f* 
ins era bed pittwi from Phaestos; Influence uf L M. 1 painted designs on pithoi of 
Inter class—plant designs, loop decoration and Mittal "Adder mark 1 ; Kim profiles 
tit pitk&i \ + Botile-shaped p class derived from basketry: Evidence of about joq 
pitim in position accommodation for $Sq in W, Magazines ; Estimate of total oil 
su jrage ; Knofing over of M agw* i 111 s V11 X — ieruai n > oi painu:d dadi ■ v > : I) iscovery 
uf standard Polncc weight with octopus reliefs, representing light lalent; Copper 
ingots of this talent weight; Jjatc I'alutial disk shaped weights; Their graduated 
numeration and equivalence to Egyptian units ( nhers answering to light Babylonian 
siundard : Equations with Egyptian gold unith: * Os-head' and 1 Spheiulonoid 1 
weight 1 1 Balance ’ dgn on [ikition vase of hard stone with hoostropAMa w inscription ; 

The *ign (tuAciktoi ) on tablets coupled with 1 ingot 1 f>o with ono-eighih deducted ; 

Late Minoun 'dinn^ 1 , predecessors of Coinage—d'tfcirum example from Palace 
.site ; Gold tings and bars mediums ol Currency—a Mi moan "shilling' (skilling); 
Discovery of gold * weight seal 1 —an Egyptian gold unit. 

§ 1 10. First Discovery of Large 1 {gards < >f Clav Tablets in Advanced 
Linear Sr hi it (RE Signs of Class B compared with A: 
tii Lik Analysis a so Associate u System 01 Numeration* . 666 

Discovery of hoards of day tablets (associated sealings, already described) j At the 
linie uiijmalided phenomenon: The first hoard* brought to light in SAV. region ; 
'Granary * and "Chariot 1 tablets; Armoury deposit; Mostly stored on the upper 
floors ; * Chariot' tablets in basement closet with remains of diesis; 'Adze' tablets 
in original order ; Clascal traditions of finding of prehkrerit Writing ; Ifranxe (ablet 
uf Alkmunc's Tomb ; Earthquake reveals tablets at Knossos in Nero's time—Dikiys 1 
1 Qrronido of Trojan War 1 ; The Tablets of Linear Class B—forms contrast with 
earlier documents : Rein ispvet and Sytiopri* of (less A transitional examples luring 
on to the Hieroglyphic tvjh?: 'Monumental' group of A msL:ripiic;ui3 on stone vessels 
of ric li. 1 1 class f Clav series; Ibgia Triad a group of tablets, illustrating commerce 
uru! industry : Synopsis of Gas* IS; Signs used both phonetically and ideograph ically ; 

A und 13 dosse* compared—common sou no. but B more advanced ; Egypt ion i ring 
element in It papyrus wand and orbits ; I >liicial and priestly emblems 'throne and 
sceptre 8 arid ‘homed head-piece \; Numeration of A and B—practically same; 

" Percentage Tablets 1 ; -Signs of Addition. 

§ in. Tablets of the Linear Seri it li i^w/i: Meticulous 
Business Miuntoas: Lists of Perkins and Inventories of 
Possession .*.►■♦*■*•* 6^4 
4 Mines a* a bureaucratic organker as well as lawgiver- Correbomiiem of Greek 
1 rad it inn ; Elaborate business methods ; Inventories docketed ; Methodical disposi¬ 
tion of tablets—Aristides The Unjust'; "File Grammarian at work—conventions 
common to A mid 11; Bulk of Tablets inventories and lists of persons; Example of 
exceptional document; 1 luman figures—; Mars sign; "Overseer 'sign ; Large tablet 
with Hats of men—elegant inscription-of similar kind ; Mynian sign—lists o I female 
name 4 ; Signs indicative -vl children : The nanie groups—with and ni'iliout ‘man' 
or A woman'sign; Ideograms in personal names—interest of goat' sign; + Sliip 1 
and 1 rudder' in name-formsj Male and female terminals—evidtuce of Uedvnsicm; 




Correspondence dF names in Classes A and 11 ; Lmgufsrie unity—extends to 
CycUdcs ’ Olive culture -syndio! nt' sUfjerintisndcuce; Saffron culture and cereal 
ssgns ; 1-locks and Kurds ; Swine and horses ; 1 ! lurried catlle p and b flock Htgns— 
IndicMduEis of se\ : $\gm specially connected with >.|uaniitics or numbers ; factorial 
figures of uncertain meaning ; Deposit of J Vase Tablets coniprisons with hoards 
of metal vessels and relation lo Central Palace Sanctuary ; Marly B tablet with 
1 rbytoni and 'Ynpheio* cups; Services of vessels ; Signs of script rclaiing in 
vessels ■ Hoard r«f tablets referring to clay * stirrup vases 1 marked by ‘ Double-Axe* 
cbftnicter; Stratigraphic interest of deposit— | +1 M. Ill* Stirrup vases' on day 
floor above. 

§ 11 K xefcisux Script R in Mammas t> Greece— the Tit Kuan Evident l ; 



of a 1 1 so a n Decor at i v f. M r n i v es on H n j ite Pott e r y 

Nun'occurrence of inscribed tablets in jH^palirtlal depo&iis - lAthtcd inscription on 
L. M. Ill Sherd From Rrm^os: Discovery of + Surrup-vases J with painted uiscrip- 
tions oJ Claris in 1 House of Kadmns at Thebes; Similar from Oruhomcnosi, 
I iryns, Mycenae, and Kkusis; Those from Thebes; Comparisons with Class It— 
solitary A nan ; The Mainland divergence from A tradition—remarkable pheno 
JTiCnon ; Probable that Class A was previously used there ; Ceramic parallels to 
intrusion of Class B ; Conventionalized vase lyjws, dependent on J.. M, U : Also at 
IVIt^I-Amarna ; Short interval between Fall of the Kltostian Palaue and Tdl d- 
Aniarna telks: Ck^ enrre^wndenee ofThchan inscriptions with those of Knossian 
Ikdacu : Similar arrangement and composition; Examples uf identical narnegmups; 
The same language, portly perhaps the same persons ; Only occasional adoption of 
Mainland elements—a few novel >igns; the * Gridiron 1 ; Perhaps badge of Master 
<_,nok ; Rim of Jar from AstnC- with gmfthu decani lion pertly suggested by characters of 
script II - Found in Shrine of traditional Mitioan class; Mate dait\ t. x 200 n.c + ; IjlU 
Mimjan Script in Cyprus; fouprisons with Linear Script U und Cvpriuic Greek: 
Rsiduum of unknown elements- Karlkr Cypriote linear class: Did "Men of 
Kdiur propagate their script on Cilician side? Relics there of un UL III 
Ceramic style; Indications of Mi noon contact with Pontic region : Two stalked 
J,. M : I ivy and 1 evils 1 puuivc on Vases from Sam-min (Amuo*}, Ac-; Vmivt clay 
mm from there with Mmcun graffito in* ription^of t lass A ; Wiitu-n Ami 
in Hume fashion. 



Sitamra : CoKUiatj i> Vaults with Bush Opemntw as Royal 
T oitu nr Isoi'ata, ash Votive Silver Bowl with Inscription 
ov Class B 

Ei-itktu .-, of Minnan trade and settlement at Minet-uMfeida and Ras-Shonira— 
I'MA^or SeWfcrs discoveries i Opposite Cyprian Salami ; Link with Euphrates 

and station of f.utn.:i import ; I VriLtent traditions t«f Mi.. settlement in Nortli 

Syria; * Kir^ Knsbi'; t 'unciform Alphabet evolution : Built ‘ Roval Inmlis * 
with corbelled mu Its identical in structure and debuts wiih Koval Tomb of Isopata • 
Opening* in uusonrv connected with idind wells 1r*r drink-rowings ; l-’citturcs. in 
Iso|«it.T local) explained—blind of*Mings backed b> virgin soil; Further i«tr»lld 
supplied L>y smaller built totith at hcijwtD ; Minonii types flit' Vessel associated with 
Ras-Shttfiir.i J’onibs; Mouthpiece of fUVe-ncc ‘rltyton ' from Assur of L. M. 1 <i 
t.ibrifl., \ otive siittr howl from Rsts-Shamra deposit ptvsentiti" gmfHto ins(itit>tioii 
of Class 11 , 1 

77 ° 




§ 114. Deposits of Tablets depicting Chariots: Mi mar Types of 


Military aspect of Xew Dynasty—the Shield Fresco ; Significant break in the history 
of neighbouring sites ; Hoard of tablets depicting Chariots ; Formulas on * 1 harlot 
Tablets'; Throne and biirfHim signs; Numbers before whole Chariots and parts; 
Body and parts of Chariots sejiaratdy depicted; Pole and charaeuristic support, 
Yoke and Collar; Wheels— in relation to M Inrun roads; Four wheeled vehicle on 
Tylissos tablet ^ Fcunspoked wheels as in contemporary Egypt and Syria: MUu- 
nietrii a! 1 Creek and other later wheels rix and tight poked; Saw on MTuiriot 
Tablets" Carpenters sign ; Horst s head on 4 Chariot 'Tablets 1 ami derivative sign ; 
Fodder sign ; Corslet or breast*plate on "Chariot Tablets*«— part of frill k Knight's 
equipment 1 ; Bronze talent shown as equivalent $ Signs on < orslets ; Cup-sign of 
Official—Cup-bearer's symbol ; Whip sign ; First appearance of wtieded vehicles in 
Crete—miniature wagon in painted day from PaTuikasiro* M + M- Itf; Ojakhiean 
prototypes of Chariot* ; Primitive Mesopotamian 1 'ar-type, A—[iotr- projecting from 
bottom; 1 draught animals oxen and asses : Chariots on ‘ War panel r ot ■ Standard' 
of Ur; Chariot l\pe B- pole running up front of box; Sumerian Chariot* of 
Type 31: Persistence of Type I" on Chatdaeau dies; Diffusion of Type l> in Hilliie 
regions ; k* tip^M ranee in Aegean urea : Good example of U on Hits be head-sea I; 
Type It in Cyprus UAL Ilhr; Chariot Type U with upper support to poie ; 
General Minoan use of TypeCf Furl;. example on VaplHio bead-s^U; *Dual' form 
of Chariot on Tablets—its general diffusion : Intrusion of a Sym Egyptian form in 
Cyprus ; Sardonyx rit^ from Avdtl, near Lyktbs, with Hiariot of Type C drawn by 
wild-goats; k Dual* Chariot {Type C) of Tiryns Hunting frescoSurvival of Type C 
in isarlv Greek Art. 


15, Armah ri. in' Tin: Last Palatial Age \&nfiuutti ): Sea-1 kansfort 
OF THOiuiruimm* Horse; Hnw r Sn: ak p and Sword Tablets, 
and Sepulchral Materials * 

Sea tmiMsport oftheihow^hbredhapa; I ..irge sealing showing horse on ship: Minam 
iraiwwrt vessels mi seal xtoiirw: Fine horses <n sealings from 13 - Trfoda and Mattie 
|/,lI;l(v’—1 hanuaeristi.- tufts of mimes ; Nose-bands ; Riding 5,1 U| unknr.wn ; Uariike 
assuciatirws of Chariot* mi Tablets insertion of cuirass; Early appearnm-e »f borst.s 
iin Mainland ride; Galloping herd mi Shaft Grave blade; tablets relating to m:inn- 
theturt of horn-bows; Semi domesiiualed wild-gouts; Homs also obtained by 
bunting; Earlier Cretan bow of Nilotic and Libyan type 5 Sealings and document 
rebuin -10 .irrmvs : - Armuiirv ' deposit with Chests of snows ; 1 ablet referring 10 
H hio arrows; The bronze 'arrow plates'- their Mainland diffusion ; Plates inserted 
in hardened wood poim*; Tablet relating to javJuisand dan*; Speare mmdigwd 


specimen ; "Crudform 

Ltun,r. .. rwMr: ttova] Olflcer’s name un ‘Swonl IttblcL i J.abfotreferring to 

mo- s*ioual Meal riiaped outline: Great 
riform ; Xu racial distfor 

oE crystalhik found near: R<Aal ()lhcer 
More of 50 swords ; Sword D pes on 

** ■- . miii iFii 


swdccl type—chiiraL-ufistic of Ijtc I'alnct: ; Et idaict: of 
kic Chamber Totitb, Mycenue— perils nf Kti<tsr>iiiii 

Mirieiv ol' bcimliuru ut Ktwsso^ but ciilinral coittents uniform : rami dhum> 

tiui, jj ToiBl! Ktrmps; Arms indiscriminately dapoMra m I aub4 at vanoiis typen; 
1 1'lie Chieftitirts Crave' relatively unimportant in si a;—a simple sltali gnne. KnJi 



Comenu; Vessels for food and drink, mirror and hunting spears set above covering 
slabs ; Gold necklace— M main sign of rank; 1 Horned’ sword; Cruciform sword 
with agate pommel and gold plated hill; On each hilt-plate two engraved scenes of 
lion hunting wild-goat. 

§ iiIa* The Latest Palatial Age of Kxqsscls (L*M. I b L. M. IL. 

Farmer Elements ami Intermediate and Final Renova¬ 
tion i * Argonaut* Frieze and Bull-Spoilt Frescoes: In¬ 
terrupted Work in East Basements . 872 

Seismic catastrophe towards close of L, M. I a ; Palace restored in L, M. I ^ style; 

Older elements inherited from 1 Great Rebuilding' of M- M. Ill ^; Survival of High 
Reliefs ; Ceilings spiral reliefs XVI [ 11 h 1 Jy nasty derivative : Ceiling fragment 
with lotus relief from 'Queen's Megaton 11 parallel in limestone at Orchnmetms ; 
Mmiliir lotus and spiral pattern* in the flat succeed these at Knossos and on Main¬ 
land sites: Tiryntbian and Kno^ian designs mui billed to same hand—typical 
execution of‘buds 1 ; Hat versions of such designs part of L, M. decoration in 
Palace ; Radical reconstitution visible on ' Last Slain*" seismic deposit of L. M r 1 a 
pottery beneath them; Other contemporary L M + I a deposits ; l Artier Tatuce lint* 
largely maintained ; Great extension of Processional frescoes in earlier of New 
Palace : Their Egyptian derivation ami parallelism with scunefi showing tributanes 
from Kelliu ; 4 Shield Frtfeo h —growing Conventionalism and Military parade* 
Egyptian and Syrian religious influences— t ho ‘Mir. nan Genii' and the long-robed 
votaries of Camp-stool I rescu l Indications of New Dynasty ; GerutTftl unity of latent 
P.ibtbl culture^ illustrated h\ Deposit: Gen Enduing and aggressive character of 
\l;w regime; Signs of destruction on other Cretan sites and on Mainland side; 

Hid 4 Minus II' use black mercenaries there?; Great scheme of renovation in 
Palace—intrusion of 'Throne room System"; Incipient redeccration in Lust 
Charter—'Argonaut ‘ frit /.t;; Hull-sport frescoes and 'marbled si [uur-es "; Un¬ 
finished + amphora3 in ' SealpiOf s Workshop 1 ; General signs of sudden catastrophe. 

§ ij'6 il Last Palatial Age, 'The Room of the Throne* and Con¬ 
nected Block: The Closing Scene t , 901 

Abrupt intrusion of Throne Room system—evidences of early I„ M. 11 date ; Traces 
ot bull-sport frescoes in Ante-room opening into * Room of fhrone r ; Double 
doors to Et + liter removed; Excavation of 4 Roam of "Phront-— Wall -paintings. 
Gypsum Throne and benches balustrade and Lustra! Basin; Judications uf 
existence of clerestory over basin ; Reties precipitated from /tiggfa a hove l Marbled 
Itind and Grirfin Frescoes; Features of Griffins ; Conventional reeds of background 
as on 'Argonaut frieze'; Hatched shading of Griffin^ body early instance of 
C/iinrosatro ; Wingless Griffin—an unique appearance; The Gypsum Throne 
Daces of coloured designs ; 1 Gothic" crockets ; t Punier-arch and evidences of wood¬ 
work original; Carbonized remains of wooden 'I'hrone in Antc-nmrn ; Representa¬ 
tions of incurved uLtatdxLscs heddo Throne ; Inner Sanctuary ami altar ledge ; The 
''I krone Room r Suite; Winding staircase to upper room* j A$ggi& above Room of 
I'hrone; ' lantern 1 afen. Lusttal I la-, in restored; L'pp-.-r Rn-.?oi re-used far Gallery 
nf fresco copies : Service quarters in liaseieent Section—Woman's seat at entrance ; 

Si one drum with sunken quadrant*; Probable place of wooden hack-stairs ; Kitchen 
with woman's ^eat 4 table, and side-board : Precious relics precipitated in arid about 
1 Liwtral Basin — presumably derived from */.eggin'; Crystal plaques of gaming 
hoard* smd caskets—plaque with miniature of charging hull; ‘Rhyton 1 relief with 
1 Ambushed octopus 1 ; Shell cameu of dagger and k.-h ; Malachite Tridaenu shell; 

All these relics M. M_ 1110 dale; Throne □! State to be sought in I lomestic 
Quarter; Ritual aspects 01 Room of Ihrone—a Consistory Clwmbcr; Ante-room 




a scene at initial rites ; The purple gypsum font—holy-water sprinklers : 1 Uisiml 
Rasin' for anointing and day oil flasks ; Flat fitaiasira in course of filling—ladles 
for extract rag oil: Fallen casket with faience disks ; Alphabet! fontt signs on disks; 
Sudden interruption of preparatory filling; Symptom- of fresh Earthquake shock 
Evidences of conflagration during gale from South-West: No sudden break an she 
Culture itsi-If; Cumulative effect of seismic menace— Situ deserted by Palace t^tds; 
Probable transference of Scat of I ioveriinicnt to Mainland side—Knossiau influence 
there in Ait* and diffusion of later Palace Script. 

^117, Epilogue: Part l The Royal Signet-Ring .... <H7 

1 liscovcr ) 1 of the Royal Signet-ring ; Headed geld hoop resembling that of * Ring <>i 
St-stor 1 ; rural Id arrangenicm of designs—three successive scenes; ■ The Ring of 
Minos 1 ; Subject, the migration of Uoddufcs to new abode overseas ; Sacred Tree 
feature of both Sanctuaries; Goddess steering vessel across arm of sta; Prow in 
$hapc of hippocamp ; Parallel scents of departure overseas ; Nude female mini hi rant 
<*f first shrine—-remarkable pose and action ; Reticulated convention id sea-waves ; 
Goddess reposing on these in Palace Sealing j The Minoan Prototype of Hagia 

$ sij* Epilogue: Part IL Legendary and Literary Tradition be¬ 
gan ding Minos' Ring and his Temple Tomb * 957 

Tlie Signet-ring of Minos in Greek legend; Theseus recovers ring with Amphitritu's 
aid; Amphitrite as reflection of marine aspect of Minoan Goddess; Records of 
Mine inn mastcrpi^CiiS in Greek 1C pic ; I radii ton of 1 Double lomli ot Mines iii 
Sicily; Epimonides and the Cretan traditions preserved 1 iy Iriod-Vros; Minos 
Sicilian Expedition l His late and 1 temple foinb 1 ; Royal lamb at Isop&ta ol 
different type; Hopes borne out by disemery of Temple Tomb at Ktuwasoa. 

j u 7 . Epilogues Part Ml. Discovery op Temple Tomii: Upper Shrine 

am> Pillar Crypt with Rock-cutSepulchral Chamber muxm 9 ^ 

Clue supplied by finding of Signet-ring; lateral glen of river gorge South of 
Knosso* l Discovert of Chamber Tombs; Presumed Tumb-robbers titifm' wuh 
choice beads of gold and other materials—dated to L. M. 3 a by pottery* &c.; 
Discovery new by of Temple Tomb; Upper Structures—Colunm-base and Horns 
of Consecration ; A small Upper i\ tuple; Id entrance from paved roof terrace^ 
Traces at red painted stum i an wall* j l ull evidence supplied of timber floor 
supports ; The Pjltar Crypt below and Double Axes finely cut on Hex-fcs ; Entrance 
from Crvpt to Sepulchral t luutilKfr 1 nt in imk ; A I emple I omb like that m 
Minns in Sicily ; Its clearance neee^stateH sinking shaft feet through ro> k ; Rock 
chamber with central pillar; Motive cypress crossbeam s above vault; IntemiMCs 
of rock ceiling painted &w#as blue; Plain day vessels ^within, *'L M- ill but 
valuables (including rin^f removed : Sepulchral chamber itself a mual Pillar t rypt, 

1 up.hed offerturv block of shim? of prehistoric Egyiman type ; Denvauves o. 

similar block, Sli Early JUnonn Ossuaries, accompanied by other obj^ts of early 
Nilotic tradition : Other nrebirtwic V.^thn slone vessels tn mi : Rchgiaus 

connexion with Delia; Rnosso* Hilary Cretan fmd-spoi -r eariy Imported 
I gviitian sttiiie vessels. prehistoric ami pn^dui^nc; Middle and Now Empire 
connexions with Crete recalled; Increased Egypt ton tan 1011 under Lite Dynasty. 

1 \j m Epilogue: Part IV - 

-mm Of Catastrophe lo Monument al end of 1.. M. I a-^na of Earthquake 
v \ai ms within Pillar t typi—wholesale burtrU of remains there ; Associated pottm 





L. M* I j Much rough rebuilding uf structure at this epoch ; Basement entrance 
hall anil sEiiies to roof lemrt-—primitive key : Small Court with massive paving and 
verandah; btltty of egress for Guardian from inner Staircase; Exterior con¬ 
nexions of Monument with ' High Priest's House" and* by the Great South Koad, 
w Town and Palace; Entrance at N.E. corner and 4 bridge 1 \mssge to roof of 
Pavilion t Paved Court m front of Pavilion suitable for ceremonial rite* and sports- 
roof terrace vantage ground for spectators; Flower vases placed on roof terrace; 
Glimpses of formal Minonn flower garden from Harbour Town of Arttftboa; Rock 
chamber re-used for burial; Pit with sepulchral relics; Ivory comb: Cylindrical 
alabaster vase; I-urge globular vessel of - Palace Style* (L. M, 11} with 'three Cs 1 
pattern ; Group of miniature vase-; child's toys; fhtinnn remains Inside pit and 
entrance ; Old man's skull uf mixed -Yrmenotd and 1 Mediterranean" tyjieandchikPs 
lionet (explaining the toy vm-c*): Skeletons originally on floor or in eoilins : Pit for 
relics paralleled in 'Tomb of Tripod Hearth *; Incense burner or fuinignEar 
ceremonial type with painted decoration; Its hridiatit foliage typically L. M, II i 
Siriaied sprays as Tel |-el-A mania vase-|aintmgp but he' Rnosdan trad Ft ion, derived 
from |ulm«teaves; Traces of Snake < nit—small 1 milk-jugs " on roof terrace identi¬ 
cal with those u! 4 Snake Room’; Evidences of later memorial cult; Offertory 
vases, L. M. II—L.M. Hid no bier sherds; Abrupt termination ot memorial 


Fig. 31fi. Upper Plan of [Mrt of North-West Palace Area: conjvcturaUy restored, 
showing 'Sanctuary Hall' with which the ‘Camp-stool FV^roes were conrtecied . 
Fig. 317 to. Section of West Magazine* including parr ruoLed over 
Fig. 605. Revised Plan of Upper Palace Section above part of West Magazines and the 
Ijong Corridor showing Upper Magazines A-F .... 

Fig. Gji, Part of West Section of Paltn e showing ■ Enclave uf Kasdlt^ r 3 together will 
Area, hast* including Pi I L-ie Rooms and Temple Repositories . 

Mg- 71a. Plan of Central Section ofWcst Wing of tlie Palace showing Distribution of 
the 1 Vase 'I ablets 1 ... . - 

Fig, 752. Plan of Inner Chamber and Fore Hall uf Royal Tomb of limpata, near 
Knossos . . * * , 

Fig- 75^- Smaller Built S. 'piahhral Chamber Tomb l t at Isoriata, with Oncninc in 
Ik ck Wall . . . , . T . ... 

Fig. 7- Ground Plan of Block containing Throne Room. System and Sen ice Suite 
together with Koto on Finds and Details . . . , + . facingjwg 

Fig. KSo, Section of knds of Projecting Walls at Entrance of - Room uf dironc 1 . " . 

Rfi. Kgo. Front and side Elevation of Gypsum Throne, by Theodor* Fyfe . 

Mg. Plan and Section of Gypsum Throne, by Theodore Fyfe 
Fig, Sect tun of Moulding of Frontal Arch of Throne , . 

Fig. S98, 4 Stone Drum 1 ; upjier plan * 

1 'ig, “3^ Section of West Pari of Tent pie Tomb showing Sanctuary above and below, 
opening from Pillar Crypt ; the Rock-cut Sepulchral ChumbLr (Pici rle jnng} 

Fig 950. hkisterrt Section of Up[wi* Plan of Monument showing Entrance PI info 
Lines of Access lhence, nbove and below „ 

Fig. 952, Eastern Section of Basement Plan of Monument showing Fnlmnce System 

form and 




7 *Z 



r yflj 

b °5 


u 17 



Q i|S 




general plans 

( 7 ji Poektt tit End of I'otumo 

Restored Finns and Statons of Upper %o«sy of Tenurt! lumli, 

Isontclrtc \ iew of Temple-Tomb partly reconstructed showing constructional details. 


AND script 
































650. Synopsis of Signnr> id Class A . 

60 o. Supplement to List of SiLins of Class A 
66*. Additional Ideograms of Class A . 

66». Component Character;- of Cl«* A - . j - ./ 

663. Characteristic Signs of the Linear Claw A omitted m III , ■ ■ 

no 1 Cli inn tcristic Signs that make their lust Appearance n the t.lass H 
i omioraiifc Samples of Name-growps belonging to ‘ Iwsui.A ind H - 
6f,n 1 t)-(c). Synopsis of Linear Signary liand Companions with - 1SI » ■' L ’fating ( »$4 

666 (n), Siippkmvmary Signs oi Class LS . • ■ ■ ' ' . 6 «( 

(»j6, Numeral* of Classes A ana IS ► 

Exiimpte of Signs of Addition 
6S4. Human Figjtfffcs . 

( J.% „ Xamc-gmnns of Linear Script 31 associated with W oman -Sign . 

[Hfni-ritthi. Signs etjntiected with AgncuUujpe and t-erca --. ■ * ' ’ 

J5 SXS 1&; B -to. Horned Cattle; B 9 L Horned Sheep {«£-*■■• 

VtSSSii SSg t: 

$ XS3&3S& SKlSE* w*- tm- - 

£m^ Name-groups with 

Kroradan of Class U ■ ■ “ . t ' u r ', n , 

7 L4 Cypw-Minoftn Signs cottipoi^d with Cretan - 

( ")3 


7 Q| 

7 ID 


7 2 5 

74 2 

74 5 

75 1 





XXX 1 1 1 I 


xxxv + 

Camp-stool Frescoes: ‘ l-otiug Cop ' of Mmoan Ritual . Eddng 3S5 
j.’ rBS ™ of Wingless tJriflm. couctant. betiu 
ii i n..L. i * kfuiiii thf the I li nine . 

Mtnoan Ruuiil . imMttg 
between Pupjfus Ru«tK over 

* 'Cnrhl^ Lla'dot ‘Room oftheThrone . . ■ Eating s 

■ £L «t *; u—.; ““V ? .T :.""' 1 I " 5 ' ° n ISm. 

7 L [ ' l Sf;S‘.U Amdhfsl, < -■<■ Mmce, and 

* 4 ** — Tt ~» u % i . s , M 

i < , rwmonial Inoense Burner, from Rods-cut Burial Vault 

*^4^ ST!Simitar ^ed S pra} , ; Knossas MJ* 

A mams. 




Flute Lin. 


















„uxvii i « i a 



Chiyseleplumtme Figure of Boy^God : *t. Profile View with Tines of Cold 
Loin dothiing attached; A Front View ol Ivory Figure without Plates; 
r t Profile View without Gold Platen. Wee p. 46K seqqj 

Select Intaglios of Early Fine Style; a r M_ M, II ; b-m f M-M, Til and 

H l r:s n sit i otutl. t facing yVJ£r jo r j 

Selection of Lite Minoun Intaglios (L. M. I t* L- M. II) with Animal Forms 
mostly symmetrical])- arranged. {firetstg fage tp.) 

View 11 l'Sou tli End of Lower 1 Lung Corridor \ showing Position of tros^wall 
constructed in M.XL III shutting oiT Magazine r 3, but subsequently 
removed. The Pavement ends nt thib puinL (See [1. fijoseqq*, and c(, 
p <Li P Fig, 0 (>G.) 

a, /'Mas from Magazine IX of ' Bottle-shaped 1 Type w ith numerous ‘ corded ’ 
zones, (See p.645.1 

A Piibits bom Magazine IX with 'Roped Hand 1 imitating ‘Adder-mark’* 
(See \ 3 . 642,) 

J*itAps from Magazine VI of *1 Late Type showing Jncised 1 Adder- murk 1 
Ikcoration on Flat Bund*. (Seep, fc43-) 

d, Pithsi\n Marine V ; A pit has of Magazine Yl ; <r T Pitfrai of Magazine IX : 
Xo. 2 compared with UiskeMype front Kordofan; d, fiiboi in .Magazine 
IX ; 2, vBottlv shaped r - (Sec p. fijj seqq.) 

Racket (fur suspension) used tor Butter by Itnaarra Tribe. Knrdofon, compare 
with /Vfhm\ Sup pi. Pi. I.IX. ■ ; T Ac, See pp. 645-7.) 

Long Magazines XI, X11, with Single Lines 01 / Wad, closely patched as 
ex-cavaied. (Sec p. 647.) 

Tablet inscribed on both Faces with Lists cl Men, the + Man " Sign being 
reflated after each Sign group. (See pp. 70 r 0 and Fig- 03 7 t tj t A) 

View looking down on 1 Room of the Tbi-und with Lustral Ravin, and of part . 
uf Anie-ruom beyond when first cleared. (Si-c p. 907 seqq.) 

Section ol Argonaut Fresco with Colour Key* £Sve p, «Hfru.} 

j e, Intaglio Design of "king of .Minus', from Cast; ft t r Y </, r, Photographic 
1 ’opies o f Ring. (Fadug fngi 9/9, j 

it r i, ?. Wined Alabaster Spurn, t>l Bridge uKiutlicd ' V'.tse (Middle MinoanK 
from Temple Tomb* <See p, 976.) 

A Incomplete Graffito Sketch, apparently of ]mrt of a Minoan Galley, 
on Alabaster Slab of Sepulchral C hamber: Temple; Tomb, Kno.^o*. (See 
p* 95 b ) 

c 1, * 2, Fresco Fragments shoeing Kceds with Striated Sprays ni Knossiun 
L M, I I Style, Mycwnnc* (See p> 1013. and ct /'..S', C xstiy Tl. JX, n, 13.) 

Frescoes from Mansion nt Ammsos, the Eastern Haven of Kfidsmi^ from 
[ Jr. Spi M ar i ratios' Esc a va t ions (as rtsto red 1 >y M ons. E. (h Slieron, fils), (See 
p. 1002 .) 

Bronze Long-swords., jiHout a metre in length, uf M. M. Ill /* date. Front 
recently discovered Active I "it [11 Cave of ArkaJukhori, S.K. of Rtlossckl 
(See p. 846.) 

ti. Inscribed Stirrup Yttse, Elciisi^: fin in lhe Excavations of Truf* K. 
Kouronioteji: A Inscription of Class R on Stirrup Yn->e t Ektu&is. (Sec 
P- 744 ) 

$ ioo. The ’Camp-Stool' Fiasco of the North-West Sanctuarv 
Hall and the Evidences ok a Sachamektal Class ok Pedestal 

Xorth- West Sanctuary Mall; 'Camp-Stool Fresco connected with it; 
fraginentciry condition of vaumias ; fvidem;e of double bands ; . IIfti Hating 
colours offields ; Elements of restoration ; So ted fir arcs on foldingchairs, 
others standing; ‘La Parisiennfc’; ‘ Sacral Knots and wing-like i.v- 
creseenees ; Short-sleeved'fockcts of both scares; long robes ; ' Young Mi not am 
oh similar ‘ Camp Stool ; tioddess similarly seated ,■ 11 mat tin of glares, 
Confronted sitting figures—passing of * Loving Ynfs '; Sacramental 
character; fade of Sacred Tree a son re e of Possession; Silver goblet: Cold 
chalice as restored — comparison of Mycenae dial ice with Doves and ' IS estor s 
Cup ' ; Similar ' a tabus trim '-life chalice held by Goddess on 'firms ring; 
Parallel form of basin filled by AltHoa.ii Crenii ; Pest orat ton of part of painted 
stucco design of seated Hodden, m this case, ioo, probably i cccivtug libations ; 
Offertory scenes on signet types compared; Clues to chronological plat e of 
' Camp-Stool ' frescoes—-probably L. M. I b. 

So far as the * Palace Style ’ pottery is concerned, its most abundant 
source was the areas where it originally came to lit;hi in the South-W cst 
angle, and the North-West border of the Palace itself. In the last case 
we have every reason for connecting it with the Sanctuary Hall of which 
we have other evidence, while the quantity of remains of painted clay 
goblets of a specially ritual type found outside the collapsed South-West 
corner of the building points to the existence there of another offertory 
shrine, apparently of more popular resort. 

The Sanctuary Hall to the North-West seems to have borne a 
more select character, and was certainly more richly equipped. To this 
area belong the finely carved relief bands adorned with 1 triglyphs' and 
rosettes described in the Second Volume of this work . 1 Beyond the great 
* amphoras ’ and jars found in relation to it—including the most magnificent 
group of these palatial vases anywhere discovered—painted clay vessels 
were only very exceptionally forthcoming, while on the other hand, as will 
be shown below, the fresco remains Imre precipitated have preserved a 
record of sscranieiital scenes, in which vessels in precious metals wi.rt. in 

* F. of M., ii, PL II, [J. 59° .«*M‘ Mvl Hgs. 3U8, 370. 

2 2 I SCfjq. 



C C 

Comsat, loo f above, 5 

I lall to 

rtJfC? ill 



NS > 


^-iSANCTUARyj 'hALL || 

<at o3t s . 








= £ 




a! ^ 

T' 35 
■Li * 

r A Z 

S 2 
+ r * 




use. These painted stucco remains, to which, from their most characteristic 
features, the name of the ‘Camp-Stool Fresco’ has been given, are the 
principal theme of the present Section, 

From the conjectural plan of this Sanctuary Hall, here reproduced in North- 
F 5 g, 31 (},’ it will be seen that it stood in intimate connexion with an sanctuary 
entrance system, including an ascending flight of steps, near the North- 
West angle of the building. ^ 

This Sanctuary lay over the nth, 12th. ami 13 th Magazines, and its Sl * u T P 
South-West angle projected in front of the facade of the 1 Great Hall’, more or FreKOi " 
less square in shape, about the structural arrangements of which, including its 
two columns with their supporting piers below, we have sufficient information. 

In order to protect the contents of some ol the more important Maga¬ 
zines, sections of the floors of both this and of the adjoining part of the 
* North-West Sanctuary Hall' have been restored, as shown in the photo¬ 
graphic Figure 317. Column-bases belonging to its central lines are con- 
jecturally shown. The piers of those ol the Great 1 1 all are preserved, 

(Cf. Revised Plan C in pocket at end of Part I of this Volume.) 

The ‘Camp-Stool Fresco’. 

The fresco remains occurred above the top of the West wall of the under- Jfi©!™. 
lying basement Magazines and on either side of it. about a metre above the .W 
g rotm d level. As to their original position in the Sanctuary itself there re3! '’' 
was however no due. They were in a very fragmentary condition, and it 
was only after long study that it has been possible to carry out a restoration 
of at least one scene and to offer some suggestions as to the further com¬ 
pletion and grouping of other iigures. a (See Coloured Plate XXXI.) 

As a working hypothesis we may assume that there were originally two 
broad bands, divided from one another hy a border consisting of black, red, 
and white horizontal stripes. The upper of these bands consisted of at least 
two row's of subjects, since part ol a mans toot anti of the sloping leg ot 
a camp-stool on a blue ground is seen immediately abo^c the border ot the 
yellow field of the underlying zone here restored. This upper band, of 
which we have only a small fragment, was. we may suppose, framed above 
by a black, red, and white border like that below it. 

1 Pm ji, pi, JJ, p. 59Jl Fig. 369 Knotttan Alia!, then projected. They have 

too, Revised FhUi C In pocket at end of Part 1 since been redrawn by Ids soil ill accordance 
of this Volume* with the pram! scheme of partial restoration* 

* The fragments were originally drawl* fur The lower fart of k w,is at first mfeundersteod 
me by Monsieur E. Gillieron P iAre p in view of a (sco Rtp&rt^ h.uoss&i t 1901* j?. 5 ^) + 

C C 2 

* s 

£ + . 
Lfli ■ 










+ woai B S4T| g-J .M Q i 

4 4 4 

«MO x?a.v\ 



The other fresco band, of which parts are here restored, shows a 
similar border above, here taken to form part ol that of the upper /one. 
For symmetry's sake, moreover, we are entitled to suppose that another 

band of ecjiial width had been executed beneath this, set below on a simitar 
triple border. There would have been thus two double bands. 

1 udgimr front the evidence supplied by the second band (32 cm. m width 1 . 
the height of each double row of subjects was 64 centimetres. ] )oubhn- 
this and adding tS more for the total breadth of the three borders, the height 
of the painted frieze would thus have been .46 centimetres* or nearly 
a metre and a half. It is to be observed that the borders With a succession 
of plain stripes—though in this case they are less numerous— fit on to those 

1 The borders were exactly fi cm, in breadth. 

: Or 4 ft, *>4 inches. 



lien df 







of that earlier class of wall paintings, of which such a rich scries of frag¬ 
ments occurred in the ‘ House of the Frescoes '* 1 

1 o add variety to the eitect, the successive pictorial bunds of the frieze 
were divided vertically into 
fields of different colours, a 
practice of which we have other 
examples from Minoan wall- 
paintings. This is dearly shown 
In the case of the blue ground be¬ 
hind the seated lady [ PI. XXXI, 

K). where part of the border of 
the adjoining orange field is 
visible on the same stucco frag¬ 
ment. The seated boy, D, has 
been conjccturally placed imme¬ 
diately behind the female figure, 
its orange background being 
assumed to belong to that seen 

on the border of e. According 


to the analogy supplied by n 
and (, we may infer that both of these subjects belonged to facing couples. 

I he alternation of colouring was also carried out in relation to upper 
and lower zones. Ihus we see the small fragment, \, with its blue ground 
placed above the orange field of the subject in the row below. Another 
small fragment (Fig. 31 S), not illustrated in the Plate, shows two feet 
ot an apparently standing male figure on an orange ground, while imme¬ 
diately below this is the upper part of a male head with a blue back¬ 

I lie painted stucco fragments belong to at least twelve persons* nine 
of them apparently seated. From the traces in three cases of folding-chairs, 
with legs that must certainly have been of metal-work, the general name of 
' Camp-Stool Frescoes* has been given to this group. The upper surfaces 
of these stools, which probably consisted of leather, was covered with what 
may be recognized as woollen fleeces, not improbably of sacrificial animals. 

Fic. tttS, Fragment hhowixm Part or Two 
Fresco Z&neh* thk Background of mt . Ur pick* 
Or a ace, of the L&weh, Blue* ({) 

5 Sec especially / J , ef Jf. t ii t pt, It: SuppL 
PI. XX. 

1 Brides the fragments shown on the 
Coloured Plate XXXI there were two small 
pieces. One show* the feet turned [efi of a 

sealed youth, wearing a long robe with a blue 
border, and part of a white and a red hand 
of the outer border bdftflf* The other is given 
in Fig, :i] 8 . 



In one case only, lo be referred to below—the fragment PJ. XXX t, H—the 
upper part of the seat is of a different character, 

From the long robes worn by most of the figures and their flowing 

hair, it might at first sight 
bt 1 supposed that they were 
of the female sex, but the 
red skin colour is quite de¬ 
cisive in the matter, and 
they must be regarded as 
youths or bovs. The smaller 
figure is clearly a young boy. 

The important frag¬ 
ment, e, however, from its 
white fiesh colour, is evi¬ 
dently a girl. 

The heads of the figures 
with their staring eyes, the 
highly conventional hand of 
c, as well as the stiffly 
arranged pose anti drapery, 
evidence a very crude style. 

The seated lady, e. in¬ 
deed, here repeated in Fig, 
319, has had a certain success in the modern world, and is often referred 
to as 4 la HansienneV Her elaborate coiffure and suspiciously scarlet lips 
are certainly marks of a highly artificial social life, such as we already have 
glimpses of in the Miniature Fresco of considerably earlier date depicting 
conversational groups of ladies in the front rows of the Grand Stand.® 
But the figure before us, though not wanting in a certain picturesqueness, 
lacks the vivacity and individual characterisation of the older group. 

She is wearing a kind of scarf bunched up behind and tied in what 
from other analogies must be regarded as a 4 Sacral Knot 1 , Her high- 
bodied dress shows a kind of broad sleeve, adorned with three fringed 
loops. It looks, indeed, as if the material were of a diaphanous texture, 
and that the light ground against which the blue and red frills are dis¬ 
played should lie taken for the while flesh colour showing through. 

The wingdike excrescences that spring from the back of the seated boy, 

Fic. at n. La Parisi&xke* 

1 See Dussaud, Lts Ck’iluali8itspriht!!lniqkes t $. 78, ‘Fresquede Cnosse, ditedc k Fansienne’. 
* Ste IK of iii, 46 seq<y, Coloured I'ls, XVI, XVII. 



known ll* 
La Puri* 


Men in 




tubes uf 





uot the companion group, differ from the ‘Sacral Knots' of the female 
figure. W ith the exception of these two features, however, there Is a close 
agreement in the dress of the figures of both sexes. They are draped in 
Ion^r robes of an 

ruthfy hfftvfrt hf>r\i<r- 


unwonted kind, 
reaching to the 
ankles. This dress 
terminates above 
in short sleeves, 
recalling those of 
the usual female 
jackets, as seen cm 
the figurines of the 
Goddess in the 
Temple Reposi¬ 
tories and else* 
where. Similar 
short sleeves, in¬ 
deed, appear on 
the forepart of a 
male personage 
seen on a painted 

mdHy hrowtj 

cirri- hht? basking 

cterk brawtt 


I 1 art or Malt. Pkssoxage clad ijj Short-sleeved 
Jacket ; Kxossos, 

Stuc.-,. fragment in the Small of the 1‘alace (Fig. sail), and this element in 
costume was known, therefore, to Minoan Oce .. well „ to the Mainland 
regions, where it becomes general in Mycenaean Art 

Simple bands here take the place of the nsual close-fitting belts, n„d 
die long skirts are composed rather of broad diagonal bands than of Honnces 

Snell a .earl, may well have been worn over the normal belt and loin-clothinv 
ot the men s costume. & 

Liken as a whole, the costume lias certainlv a feminine n h m 
-d the assimilation of the dress in both sexes may be taken t^ h ve a 
significance. A parallel example has already been supplied in l]lf i 

tile bti 11-sports of the Palace arena, where the girl performers am iT ° 
selves in the most characteristic articles of themen a dml ’ • 1 iem ‘ 

Minoan equivalent of the 'Libyan sheath *. So too tlreG^dT ^ I"* 
as * Lady of the Sportsis depicted in her chrv Ji j ’ C ? ddess herscl1 - 
loins dad in the same male fashion as that 

Oi the significance of these lon-r robes is -u\ PV f i ^ r performers, 
at this time of Syrian influences more will Lc wild below'' mtr " S “" 


.;s 7 

In ihret cases (A,c,antl p) ive have direct evidence that the figures were 

seated on folding-chairs or camp-stools, and we may infer that others, like 

the female votary with the 1 Sacral Knot", 
were seated in a similar manner, though 
an exception to this, described below, is 
illustrated by the fragment n. From the 
use ol this kind of seat—-as already 
noted—the general name tif * Camp-stool 
Frescoes' has been given to this series. 

The use of such folding-scats in a 
religious connexion recalls the remarkable 
seal-impression depicting the strange calf- 
like monster, referred to above, as the 
‘ Young Minotaur' and here reproduced 
1 ), who is seated on a .similar 
folding-seat On a day sealing from the 
Little Palace (Fig. 3*22) a richly attired 
Female figure, in whom we may again 
recognize the M moats Goddess seated on 
a stool of the same form, bends forward 
and reaches out her hand to take what 
seems to be a food-offering from a bowl held out to Her by a male ministrauL 
So P too, on tile great Tiryns ring described below, the Goddess is seated 

on a folding-stool, though in that case a 
curved back has been fitted lo it, 

A curiously realistic touch Ls added 
to the folding-seat of c. What can only 
be interpreted as a glove -complete with 
thumb and four fingers-—is caught in the 
intersection of the legs of the seat. At 
the same time, the ends of three fingers 
and the thumb of a similar glove are 
seen on the side of the body below the 
waist on the upper margin of the lower 
fragment ol the design, the upper part 
of which had been evidently tucked into the girdle, as restored in the 

The group of two seated youths face iu face, with the knees almost 
touching, formed by u and c (see, too, Fig* 323) t preserve the best record 

FtC* 321- ThrYovNO Misoi u:r 
on Clay Sr u.d msession- (J) 

Fig* 322. Food Offering nan out 
by Male MikistraNt to Goddess on 

KoLDIK05 V. ,\T. < LAV Sn-IL- hiPkLSSlOX 

from Lmtlk Palace. (?) 

Use of 




of what seems to have been n recurring feature in this series of designs. 
The confrontation of the two figures and the certainty of the conclusion 

Fic - 32a - 1 wo cosmos n I- 'iclue* or hai a . Yon hs, u*jc holding out ■ ] ,vtsro Cut' 

Ttl TtlK ooim (top jut: Cqi.ouhk see I j l. XXXI.) 

that they originally formed part of the same group is shown by the fact 
that the fresco fragments above ami below include parts of both.' 


The intimate scene here depicted of the passing over of some kind of 7J® vjng 
‘loving cup’ from one seated youth to the other has certainly a sacraj Cup’™d_ 
mental aspect. It may be taken to stand in connexion with a form of sacral me niai 
brotherhood. It would seemingly imply in this case the plighting of a close 
personal relationship such as titan—still well known in Greece and the 

Fig. 324* SikVKR k Loving Cup " in \ otarv s Hanir* 

balkan countries—in which brmlterhoml of a Wilding nature between two 
men is secured by the mingling a few drops of the blood of each m a 
common potion. The fellowship ratified in the scenes before us. as we 
may gather from the seated girl, included persons of both sexes, am 
seems rather to connect itself with some sucre 1 godd m the service ol the 

From the blue ground colour of .he cup ..self we may infer that the eg- 
material of the original was of silver. The repeated black carves alternating 
in their directions in its two rones, like similar decoration on panned day —• 

• amphorae* described above.! may be taken to indicate tore* 1 he shape 
of the cuo. with its pedestal and two handles, is in Itself significant, since, 

‘ Sec above, Pl l r p, 175. 

i ) d - 

and Figs. SetH, I’D!!. 



exon 1 like 

of I rUll], 

as shown above, 1 it corresponds with a form of votive tablet much 

in vogue in the last palatial Age of Knossos and in the ensuing 
epochs & 

On fragment u we must recognize a ritual chalice of another class and 
material. [ here «s here depicted (see Fig. 3251 the forearm of another male 

Fic, 32u. (.Sold Chalice ; KKsmm-u. 

figure raised in the same manner as 
that ol n, and also holding the 
pedestal ol some iorm of cup, but 
in this case ol a bright orange hue, 
clearly significant of a gold original! 
the black bands possibly indicating 
niello decoration. From its slight 
forward inclination it would appear, in this case too, the bearer was 
about to hand it to someone in front 
of him, possibly the seated figure of 
the female votary wearing the sacral 
knot, which is on the 'same blue 
ground, 4 

The high stem of this goblet 
might at first sight suggest that it 
represented a gold version of the two- 
handled cup, of which a silver ex¬ 

ample has been recognized above. The tendency to repeat similar 
features visible throughout these fresco remains would, in itself, tend 
to confirm this conclusion. Hut a minute examination of the details of 
wliar remained of the painted representation of the vessel at the tim ¬ 
et its discovery shows that we have rather to deal with a different form 
ol beaker, (See Fig. 325.) 1 

Chlti« ./ he " tem . ' tSelns d ’ stinctT y slenderer than that of the other cun. A 

compared smal1 protruding piece of the blue background, moreover, indicates i]i*.t 

rVvUnr thwe was a nn S rmmd the of the cup. itself marking its junction with 
cfTiryns ™ t Was ori S mall - v a pedes*] made in a separate piece,’ 

rt,e ape—so lil<e an ecclesiastical chalice—corresponds with that of 

1 See above, p. 3(3^ seqq, 

Experience of thy remains of fresco fnig- 
iTitnta of ihesani^ class fallen near together 

as were tho^e of ilie * Camp-Stool P scries, shows 

ib-Sl in such cases there an d pti&ri prij|j b i T 

, / .. me same 


a I lit fragment is reproduced from ihe 
dnKin S m ^ for mu at the time* of ft, 
covery by Monsieur E, Gillffmn, pi re 


a well-known XVIII th-Dynasty type of ahbaslrstt, of which copies in 
white Cretan alabaster are known from the 
Fourth and Fifth Shaft Graves at Mycenae , 1 
from the ‘ Rhyton well’ (Fiy. 3‘Jf!) - there, and 
from other sources. 

That “oltl vessels of the same form had exist- 
ed may be gathered from the remarkable goblet 
found in the Fourth Shaft Grave at Mycenae/ 
which, from the cloves perched above the handles, 
has been naturally compared with the Homeric 
description of the "Cup of Nestor 1 iFig. 327)/ 

The model of this seems, in fact, to have been a 
vessel of the same alabastron-like shape as that 
held in the hand of this votary of the fresco, it 
is natural to suppose that die pedestal of a cup of 
this kind might need strengthening, and the re¬ 
quired stabili ty has been here gained by adding two 
1 Vapheio 1 handles from winch openwork sup¬ 
ports of gold plate run to the base/ The 
doves here, like those perched on the Mtnoan 
shrines and pillars, supply an interesting proof 
of die connexion of the chalice with the worship o\ the Minoan Goddess/ 

1’jG 320. ‘AI-ARA5TBOW 1 
from Fifth Shall 
Guayi, Mvckxak- 

1 G. Karo, Scktehfgrtilvr^ Atlas, B, 

cxxxvm, CXXXJX, No. 6 ck>* Text, p. 
trS and £54. p. 14S, The pedestal of No. 
600 was made separately* No, H54 shows 
si^ns of bronze fittings. 

■* A. Ji B. Wade, H* S, A- f salv, FL XII 11 , 
jmd pp. 2 c 1 . 502 . Only the foot of this was 
found. Another complete alabaster chalice 
of this type, Thera (Satitorin), is in the Athens 
Museum 1 ,No. 2964 : Wace h A\ S* *■/., xxv, 
1 ). A day imitation occurred there in the 
deposit of [tottery beneath the lava stratum 
(Rciiaudin 1921 s, p. u;, Fig 16 ,) 

4 Sehliemaiin, ^/vonac, p. 237 ,. Hg, 346 
(much bent, as found). As restored, see now 
Kart> T Scht^hf m qriji^r von Mvktwi. 1 * 1 - < ‘IX. 
No, 412 , (Text* 1 Thdl, p, too.) 
p ///-id/, si t 635-5 1 

I |.1 r j Ai AiWi TCpdKuAAl5, ft uEKuflo tj’/ U 

Xp'ircyM t}AujrT( jfcTeej'ijIi.rDI.' IJI LLT 41 * u.i twD 

T(Wu^ £(TUr, rVijf jj i A£ CMJrrTthF 

X/iinf«rU i'<^fioirro. Ri.wO ittm jrufyucS ^riiiv 

1 These at once recall the two « of 

Nestors Cup. There were tow doves cm tow 
supports in the case of the gold chalice from 
Utavc IV. May not then the four handles 
rather represent she two double handbs of the 
1 Vapheio type ' ? In shat case the resemblance 
would he even more complete. 

1 For the perched doves and their religious 
meaning as symboh nf possession. «e /' vf 
M, r i, p, 222 seqq. In the kindred religion 
of Cyprus, doves appear in a similar con¬ 
nexion* They are often seen on the rim of 
dav vessels. Nor is it surprising to find votive 
ierra-coun doves and dove Tby tons' among 
the ITuli stine fabrics of Palestine (L>. Macken¬ 
zie, Pidattm Expf&raihn Jwnd Annual 1912- 
rj, I 1 !. XV, 8 and p. 55, Ain Shems; D. 
Macal inter, Tht Excavation oj Gtttr //, p, i6 r 



Ensitt cjh 
ii Vaphcio 

iiHigtio + 

What is specially interesting to note in this connexion is that a vessel 

fur r '**, a tripie *« ■*«* ™»w “ t 

“el on' a C< fo,« SUC " '" <! maJ ' 10 bE ^ -■ 

on the great signet-ring 0 f 
the 1 Tiryns Treasure This 
is well shown by the enlarged 
section of a part of the design 
given here in Fig. 329, a. Here, 
as is more fully shown below. 1 
the liquid contents of the cup 
are supplied by a succession of 
four Genii, of the leonine Mi- 
noan kind, holding up the 
spouted ewers — with which 
they are so olteti associated in 
scenes of libation, 

A curious parallel to the 
form of this chalice is more¬ 
over presented by the basin 
into which on an intaglio from 

the \ apht io 1 Oinb, Minoan ™, —f-nuvL-miH 'cltok nestos' 

the -ceding section dealing „i,h the MinMn^ii the^dves^ 

Prom what lias been already said we seem here to h ive I ,f - 
scries of scenes of a sacramental nature in which chalice, that m ° isT 

divine essence S^ll^ d :° ,arlCS ' “ “ h ° m * * 

h ig- 21 fi), t >rthodnx fJrcefc parallels to the dove 
chalice of Mycenae are to be seen in the silver 
Communion cups with a dmc perched on the 
handle. A curious adaptation of this religious 
motive apftcars in a miniature silver cup from 
Ucoifiiu (Fig. 328*. On a d» rt pin rising 
within the bowl is supported a flying dove, 
and two are perched on its handles. 

1 Sec below, p. 460, Fig. 385. 

* See lb. ** ,c - Miniatujus Sii.vhk Dove 

1 11 At let, Georgia. 

n '^: r ^° Ul ™™l <bUVK IV. My. 

' ^ conr.i*BD with 4 Cep Of Nestor'. 


May not the 
G oddess 1 le r.sel f 
have been tie- 

pitted as partici¬ 
pating in this 

ritual refection ? 

On the Ti- 
ryns signet and a 
series of seal 

types referred to 
below, we have 

pictorial exam pies 
of drink-offerings 
made to her, either 
by mimstrants in 
human form or by 
the Uon-shaped 
Genii. Among 
these the best clue 
to the actual cha¬ 
racter ofthe liquid 
offering itself is 
supplied by the 
large gold signet¬ 
ring, of which an 
account is given 
in die last Section 
of this Volume, 
found in associa¬ 
tion with the 
Temple-Tomb of 
Knossos, and that 

eventually led to its discovery. Owing to this, indeed, the term fc Ring of 
Minos has been familiarly given to ltd 

Ili this case the Goddess is seated on a stepped altar of i sodom ic 
masonry, and beckons to a youthful male satellite, who, with one arm, 
pulls down the branch of a sacred tree, rising from within a small pillared 
enclosure, and in the other holds a * rhyton of the pear-shaped kind that 

1 Sec bdow* § * 17 , I't. h 

J Hice df 


offered to 

{ illd(jQ55 
UEi L king 
of Minos 


evidently sen ed to hold the Juice expressed from its fruit. The fruit itself is 
not shown on this intaglio, which simply gives conventional indications of 

foluige. On the gold signet-ring from Mycenae the contrary is the case, 
the branches befit 

no leaves, but termi¬ 
nate in what can 
only be interpreted as 
clusters of grapes. 

One of these bunches 
is there being picked 
by a little handmaiden 
oi the Goddess, who 
stands on a small 
cairn, to offer it to her 
divine mistress, sit ting 
fully robed, beneath 
the vine branches. 

Fresco r ... 

Fragment ln this connexion 

a* part of tJie sn,a ^ fragment. 

.Suited if,of the' Ca in p-stoo] 1 

Goddess * series (FI. XXXI n), 
deserves special at¬ 
tention. From the 
volute in which the 
upper part of the seat 
terminates behind 1 it 
is clear that in this 
case we have to deal 
with some hint! of 
solid throne or altar 
base — probably of 

* 1 U 

AtamK.vmnroF si ueh Figl kf of I\q 

\ I ASK D ox I It FSL'i:) | r K M i J| EX 1% 

Slone or stucco—in 
place of a folding- 

y , Q "‘ h , e r other hand ihe dm „f the seated figlIre isako of a very 

Z'Z “° f *- of eiU ’= r - -«* *-Z 

1 It is difficult id explain the black curve 
nurt indentation on rhe left hide 0 f the block. 
It looks like the edge of a moulding, but in 

that case the sitting room is reduced !o very 
narrow limit's. 


drink offering to goddess 

There remains just enough of the lower part of the gow n behind to 
show that it was flounced in the fashionable Minoati style, such as was also 
generally adopted by the Goddess herself, as we see her on the two 
signet-rings above cited. The manner in which the nearer leg is drawn back 
^ a is also very characteristic of 

h<;r attitude when seated h as 
shown in these arid other 
cases, the flounced lower 
border bein!* brought ihus 
well within the front line ol 
the itself. 

By die light of these DHnb 

{ » - Offering l® 

indications the figures asso- goddess 
ciated with the throne or 
base in the fragment n is 
partially restored in h ig. &W- 
In it we may, in all proba¬ 
bility, recognize a figure of 
the great MmOan Goddess herself, participating with her votaries in this 
Communion Service. She must in this case be conceived, either as holding 
in her hand a sacred vessel to be filled by a mmistrant, or as receiving it 
already filled. An analogy to the first alternative is afforded by the 'I iryns 
signet, while the handing of a goblet to the seated Goddess is well illustrated 

Pin. 331. Oi tKKTcmv Scejck os Clay Matrix 


by Knos^Ian seal types- 

An interesting example is supplied by the scene on the remarkable 
clay matrix and of a series of clay signet-impressions found in the Palace, 1 
here reproduced in Fig. 331. The Goddess is seen seated on the wing 
of her Pillar-Shrine, above the central altar-like projection on which ‘ hornsot 
Consecration ’ are visible. A female mmistrant approaches her, bearing in 
one hand what may be a two-handled ‘ rhytonwith its orifice temporarily 
stopped, and in this case the sacred nature of the contents are indicated by 
a ring above, symbolizing a celestial orb. The attitude of the Goddess on 
this seal-type—as well as in the case of a practically duplicate copy, repeated 
on a sealing from Zakro. with the Houneed leg drawn back in the same 
way—is exactly that suggested by the fragment u. 

. p 0 4 ,/ j„ Pt if pp. 7 & 7 70 and Fig- an a rod?) hy one of her child handmaidens 
403 . Mhyton 1 without handles is offered on a sealtmpression from Hagra Tmda (/*, 
in ,i simitar way to the Goddess (there seated P- ^ ’E- 





Chronological Place of 1 Camp-Stool Frescoes \ 

For the chronological place of the ‘ Camp-Stool Frescoes’ perhaps the 
best guide is supplied by their place of finding, as above mentioned, on both 
sides of the wall at the end of the 13 th and 14 th Magazines, and in near 
association with fragments of Palace Style ‘amphoras’ and jars. This 
evidence at least brings the wall painting to which they belonged within 
the limits of the last palatial Age. They cannot well be later therefore 
than L. M. II. while, on the other hand, the ‘Triglyph Frieze", also found 
in this area, may itself well go back to the earliest phase of the New 
Palace, belonging to the great restoration of die transitional M. M. ltl£- 
L. M. 1 Age, or at latest to the partial remodelling about the close of the 
mature L. M. 1 a epoch. 

The somewhat crude style of the workmanship does not itself involve an 
exceptionally late date, and indeed is paralleled by that of many of the male 
figures in the background crowds of the ‘Miniature Frescoes’, belonging to 
the closing M. M, 111 stage, The staring eyes and some other details some¬ 
what recall the 1 Captain of the Blackswhich may belong to early 
L, M. II. It is also noteworthy that the borders of plain bands recall in 
a simplified aspect those of die * House of the Frescoes’ assigned to the 
upper limits of L. \I. I a „ They contrast with the imitation intarsia work 
that seems to have been almost universally prevalent at the time of the 
latest redecoration of the building, and which had already begun indeed in 
connexion with the ‘ Tanreador Frescoes ’ of somewhat earlier date. The 
presumption is that the ‘Camp-Stool Frescoes’— as belonging to the wall 
decoration—-were earlier in date than the * Palace Style ’ vases found in the 
same area. This would take them at least to the early part of L, M. 1 Ik 
The shape of the cups is consistent with this dating. 

In corroboration of the somewhat early dating it may be recalled that 
the Palanquin Frescoes', which, both in the subject—including, besides 
long-robed personages, part of an actual folding seat—as well us in its some¬ 
what inferior sule, shows distinct affinities with the present group, seems 
from the associations in which it was fount! to have been executed before 
the dose of the First Late Minoan Period , 1 

1 See P , of ii, |*t. II, p. 770. 

j iq i, Long-robed Priestly and Royal Personages on Seals from 
Kkgssus and Vatheio : Okientali zing Influences, through Cyprus, 
on Cult of Dove Goddess—Syrian Axes. 

‘ .V./:', Sanctuary If a IP a Sacral College; Gabcrdined costume due to 
Oriental influences; Similar vestments scat in ' Palanquin Fresco ' ; Other 
ritual parallels; Earlier representations of Priest-kings; Portrait on 
Hieroglyphic Sealings ; The ' Priest-king ' Relief and ‘ Young Prince' of H. 
Triada Cup ; The latter wear ordinary male apparel; Attire of Male divinity 
also normal, though later ; AWuph types show Syrian influence ; Later version 
of Goddess in gaber dined guise, and long-robed votaries; Seal types with 
long-robed personages, Prist dings and princes—from Knossos and Vapheio 
Tomb; Knossian seal depicting long-robed youthful figure holding dove; Early 
associations of Miitoan Goddess with done—parallel traditions of Anatolian 
and Cyprian Religion; Taken over by Semites; Partial coalescence of 
Cyprian and Syrian Cult with Mi man—a Hiitite cylinder from Greece; 
Importance of Palestinian Dove Cult a Late Classical phenomenon; The 
Rock Dove of Cretan Cave Sanctuaries ; Priestly personage leading Griffin ; 
Armed male figures in simitar tbug robes—personages holding siugte-biaded 
axes of Syro-Egyptian type; Origin ami evolution of this form of Axe; 
Not normal Oriental type; Syrian influence, through Cyprus; Late example 
on Carthaginian silver bowl; Warrior Prince in chariot on Vapheio seal- 
stone; Seals of pre-Hellenic Priest-kings of Spartan region—intimate 
connexion with A ttossos. 

T„ e discovery of the Camp-Stool Frescoes on the borders of what on NX 
various grounds has been called the ' Sanctuary Hall', by the North-West ^ 
projection of the Palace, brings them into very close relation with its central 
cult so well illustrated by the noble * Palace Style ’ jars and ‘amphora* de- Collie? 
rived from it, some of them exhibiting the sacred Double Axes and other 
ritual objects- At tire same time the fact that the votaries ot these wall- 
paintings are represented as holding chalices in prec.ous metals may be 
taken to show that they belonged to the highest social rank. May the 
Hall itself have stood in a special connexion with some Sacral College, 
composed of young persons of both sen. belonging to *e inner circle ol 
the Court of the Priest-kings and including perhaps actual Children 

of Minos 1 ? . * . 

In any case the long-robed votaries of these Irescoes stand m a dose 

'r^ith due 
tci orients 
lb mg 

seen in 
• Palan¬ 
Fresco + . 



relation to the hierarchical system in vogue in the Palace in the last epoch 
of its history* 

I he exalted relationship in which we must place the personages 
of these Irescoes lends a special importance to their exceptional dress, 
covering the whole person, a form of costume which, as already pointed out, is 
entirely out of keeping with Minoan tradition. But, as will be shown, the 
exotic and unquestionably orientalizing character of tln-se long rubes fits in 
with other evidences of the intrusion during the last Palace period of other 
elements of an allied class from the same Eastern quarter. The intimate rela¬ 
tions with Egypt were not broken oh. but the Age in question undoubtedly 
corresponds with an epoch of renewed intensive influence from the 
Syrian side, recalling the cultural and religious wave which at the very 
beginning of the Age ol Palaces hat! reached Crete from the Wcstwardty 
extended dominions of the founder of the First Babylonian Empire. In 
the present case we have largely to take into account the reactions of the 
growing connexion of the Minoan world with the Syrn-Anatolian regions 
through Cyprus, where the process of actual colonization was already 
eginning, and perhaps, indeed, in the wake of contemporary commercial 
plantations on the Mainland coast opposite to it. 

Already, indeed, in the ‘ Palanquin Fresco', connected with the 
Entrance Corridor front the South, and described in the Second Volume of 
this Work,' it seemed permissible to recognize the operat ion of this influence 
m the white-stoled ministers, whose vestments are distinguished by the 
dark band running down from the shoulder, and recalling the davits of 
Roman and Etruscan usage„ (See Ing, lli\2 # i.) = 

The central figure of this composition, like those of the other fresco, 
similarly clad and seated 011 a folding stool, is borne aloft, and may well be 
identified with a Minoan Papa Re in his satin, gestatoria. The oblique 
wrapping^ of these stoles also shows a distinct analogy with the robes 
depicted in the Camp-Stool Frescoes, and the general style of the designs 
including the summary execution, marks, as already observed, more or Ess 
contemporary work.* The ceremonial transport of the Priest-king along 

/*. of jK, ii, Pt, II, pp. 7 ; 0 - 3 , and 
Figs. 302, 5113; see, too, A. E.„ AWw, 
■fttpert n>or, p. 20. These remains are there 
compared with the * Camp-Stool r Frescoes. 

5 Two fragments of this are here slightly 
developed- (Cf. op. tit., p. ;yt,) 

1 The si ram in 1 in which these fresco frag¬ 

ments were found contained a day matrix 
with a reproduction of a signet type—itself of 
J< M. I n date—showing a libation vessel 
offered to the (ioddess {sou Fig, 33), p. jgj 
above}. U'e have here an indication of a daLe 
that cannot he much later than the dose of 
1- H. I a. 


this line of access has itself greatly gained in importance from the recent jJJ« 
discovery of the actual Temple Tomb ot the House ol Minos lying directly parallels, 
on the roadway that started from the foot ol the Southern slope. 

In a more general way the long robes oi the votaries ol the ’(.amp* 






Fig, 33‘> a ». Fkaumksts or' Palanquin Fresco' showing White-stomed 

Priestly Figures. 

Stool Fresco’ may also be compared with those of certain ‘gaberdined’ 
figures—there, too, of both sexes— seen in the * Procession Fresco’, and 
the similar costumes of the male and female minist rants engaged in the 
ritual scenes ol the Hagia Trlada Sarcophagus, 

Hut such long-robed presentations of the Minoan Priest-kings and 
their entourage are"’themselves quite foreign to their traditional impersona¬ 
tions, , , 

The earliest glimpse that we obtain of those who held dominion 

in the Palace Sanctuary of Knossos is supplied by the remarkable male 


of Prkst- 

kings + 

on h £crk 



4 Priesi- 
king ’ 

' Voting 
Prince 1 
of II. 




heads on day seal impressions from the ‘ Hieroglyphic Deposit'—one of 
a man with aquiline features of a strongly Aroienoid type, the other 
of a child whom we may reasonably recognise as his young son . 1 They 
are associated with inscriptions in the advanced hieroglyphic script (B) 
presenting a sign group—presumably a royal name or title—that other¬ 
wise recurs on a prism seal associated with a 'cat' badge, possibly indi¬ 
cative of Egyptian connexions. These unique examples of early por¬ 
traiture belong indeed to the first epoch of intensive contact with the land 
of the Pharaohs, and the seals themselves may date from round about 
1800 U.L. 

Longo interval fa the date in this case approaching the middle 
of the Sixteenth Century u,c.—it was natural to recognize a full figure 
of a I nest of Knossos (though in this case the profile of tin: face was 
wanting) in the painted stucco relief of the youthful personage wearing 
a lily crown with peacock plumes . 8 In the restored design hc^progresses 
amidst Elysiau blooms, over which hover butterflies that, then as now, 
symbolized ‘little souls’. His left arm is stretched out in a sloping 
direction, which suggests that, as on a Vapheio gem. he was leading 

some sacred animal probably a Griffin by means of a cord tier! round 
its neck . 11 

In some respects a close parallel to this is presented by the small 
relief of the ‘Young Prince' on the steatite Cup from Hagla Trfatla.* 
With outstretched arm lie grasps a long staff or sceptre as he stands before 
the gate of his residency, and his double character as prince and priest 
Is well brought out by the insignia held before him by an attendant officer. 
In one hand he holds the sword of secular power, in the other an object in 
w hich we may recognize a histral sprinkler—analogous to the aspergillum 
of the Roman Pontijfaes* and clearly indicating the spiritual side of his 
dominion. Roth sword and sprinkler in fact recur on a cornelian bead-seat 
of the ‘fiat cylinder kind, found South-West of the Knossian Palace, in the 
hand of the Goddess herself 6 there standing * as the patroness of the 
Priest-king, who was her Vicegerent on Earth 

In these cases, apart from the crown and jewellery, the royal and 
sacerdotal personages are garbed in the plain ioin-cloth and sheath of 

1 P. of -I/:, t, p. S, r ig. 2. rf, i, and cf, 
ftiii., p. 276, Fig, 20 C; Strif/a Afiuoa, j, 
PP- 271, ’ 7 ’, Mid Figs, rij-5, 

P. cf Iff., iij Pt, U, p, 774 seqq. and 
Coloured Flot 11 i tplece. 

' Sc f pp. ;S3, 785. 

* Ibid,, p. 71)0 st-qq,, amt Fig. fl I (J. 

* ibid., p. 793. 

‘ d.oc, (it.. :md H‘t* Fig. 5 1 7, 


ordinary Minoan men, the latter figure showing the puttee-like leg-gear. 
Certain figures of religious min is trams of both sexes on the Hagia I riada 
Sarcophagus also illustrate the widespread practice of votaries wearing the 
skins of their victims. 1 and the curious baggy robes, sometimes with tail- 
like appendages, seen on a series o! figures—-some ol them attendants 
of the Goddess—upon early seal impressions have been thus explained* 
On these, too. we see ihis costume combined with a kind ol rustic corslet 
such as Ls worn in the same conjunction by the shaggy leader of the 
harvesters' rout on the Hagia Triada 'rhyton Y 1 

The ritual garb and accoutrements visible in these last-named cases, 
though they are connected with religious ministrations of various kinds, 
hardly concern the Priest-kings themselves* Like the male diiinit), with 
w hom to a certain extent the Litter may be thought to have been ideiitihed, 
they seem h though distinguished by special insignia, to have traditionally 
worn the mere loincloth of ordinary male apparel The religious con¬ 
servatism as regards the male divinity is well illustrated by the Cretan 
seal-type showing the Young God, 4 his divinity marked by the Sacral 
I lorns at his feet, attended by an ewer-holding Genius and a winged goat 
The chryselephantine figure of the divine Child, described below, has his 
loin apparel still preserved in gold plating** 

It is only at a distinctly later date that the traditional figure of the 
Minoan God begins to be replaced by the imitative images of the Syrian 
Lightning God, Kesheph, w ith his cylindrical helmet, his fighting pose, and 
Syro-Egyptian kih. s 

The Minoan Goddess herself was nothing if not fashionable. She 
moved with the times and wears her skirt* longer or shorter according 
to the prevailing mode. The flounced attire in which site appears from 
the Third Middle Minoan Period onwards no doubt reflects a general usage, 
though as already suggested/ the flounces may have been originally copied 
from Oriental models, such as, in the subjects of Babylonian cylinders, were 
already reaching Crete by the days of Hammurabi** In the remarkable 

3 C£ Paribeni Mart. six (1908). p. iS Aut t xiii), 

seqq. Ur. Paribefti did nut however regard * See /{ *tf i» p. 708. Hg- and ch 

1 he aiinendnge visible as actually representing p* 4b 7 * 392 htlo^ 

a A See p- 47°» ^Sr 39 L P- 47 3, 

1 Parabcidp t*fi.,d/. t p ^ 3 - See, tOflj Nilsson, Hg* 39 o ^ ^ 

Afitt&iN findMyremm# AMip&n* p«132 seqq. * >L L ' ^ ®' k 477 teqq* 

a See T for a tell rcsioriition, JK 0/ iL " dbid^ i. p, 197. and 1* ig- 145 . 

Pt. l p Slippl. PI. XVII; for thy v*w set ' E*g., i, p + igS r Hg* Nb, and /Arr/., 

I„ ^itvignunip di Triad* (3U*. kt. 1, p- j6 S» Hg« 1 L > S - 

ature of 

1 Kesh¬ 
eph + 

SyjK?> d Mt 

w later 

1- Joddess 
too Vicars 


nf Gnd- 



^arb h 

chryselephantine figure described above, m winch she takes the character 
oT 4 Lady of the Sports \ she combines the male loin attire of the girl 
ta urea dors who were her protegees with the 
corset of contemporary female fashion. 

Well into the opening phase of the 
Late Minoan Age—if we except perhaps 
the tiara with its distinct Oriental associa¬ 
tions—the costume of both the Minoan 
Goddess and the Youthful God was of 
home growth, and the si me rufe t as we 
have seen, applies to the Priest-kings 
who were their terrestrial representa¬ 

4 Gaberdined s Attire -Sign of New Syrian 
Influences* Goddess on Tiryna Signet 
and Mycenae Gems* 

Fi's* 333< S^jyt^d Gopdess betweicn 


But 1 coming events cast their shadows 
before them . The evidence already sup¬ 
plied by the great Tiryns signet-ring 1 
shows that an orientalizing influence had 
already supplied the Minoan Goddess with 
a novel type of close-fitting gown (see 
above, p. 395, Fig. 3211 d). 

From the line style of engraving 
exhibited by this design, which is fully 
described and illustrated below, it seems 
probable that its execution must be placed 
at least within the lower limits of the First 
Late Minoan Period. Two intaglios, both 

presumably of somewhat later date, said }’ !C ’ :m ' Uw^asT-wrosn »rt*tkn 
1 / t 1 Lions: Mycenae: Jackal Knot 

to have been found at Mycenae, afford a&ovxr. 

further examples of the Goddess in similar 

attire. Fig. 333 illustrates a lentoid ring-stone* with the divinity seated on 
a lions head anti with two lions heraIdicaltvposed. That given in Fig, 334, 
and hitherto unpublished, is. like the other, a yellow cornelian A presenting 

' Sec above, p, 39a seqq., and p, 460, p, 6y [165]. Fig. 45 (Franks Coll., G.M.). 

Fiy, 3H5. ’ Acquired by me in Athens in 1931: said 

1‘rom A. t. At J'f. Trte and PiUor Cult, to have been found at Mycenae. 



a standing figure of the Goddess wearing a kind of curved tiara between 
similar lion guardians. The * Sacral Knot' appears in the field. 

Long robes of the same 
kind were worn by male as 
well as female ministrants, 
Roth the girl votary who 
pours the libations between 
the sacred Double Axes on 
the 1 iagia Triad a Sarcopha¬ 
gus and the lyre-playing you tit 
of the same ritual scene wear 
this dress, as well as another 
male figure from the later 
Palace there. 1 The appear¬ 
ance of the lower borders of 
similar long robes on two 
male figures of the * Proces¬ 
sion Fresco" has suggested 
their restoration as players, 
respectively, of the (lute and 
lyre. We know that the Se¬ 
mitic lyre or kmnor —the 
Greek KiSdpa is inseparable 
from tile name of Kinyras, 
the Priest-king of Paphos, 
beloved of the Cyprian God¬ 
dess. * As a seer and culture- 
hero, beautiful and master of 
the lyre, he would naturally 
appear to the Greeks (who 
brought him into actual com¬ 
radeship with Apollo) as a double of the Kii/taroed&s .' J 

Although it may not be easy in the case of individual examples to find 
an exact parallel on the East Mediterranean side, it will be generally 

vtlUi'W D LlJ L 

Fig, 335* 

Seated Figure di Bov Votary (tartly 


J See P r qf J/ Tf ii f h. n B p. B*6 t Fig. heads. A form of lyre in the hands of a 

rf, &. The lyrts Eiere depicted [bough tilth female player from an Egyptian wafj paintrn-, 

mately of Mesopotamia!* decent-contain inserted t if rt Fig, 553 * proves this lo¬ 

an Egyptian element, as is shown by the demonstration, 
lotus Rower of k combined with the I be* 1 P &/ J/. r ii h Pt, II, pp, 837, 838. 

IV** E £ 

L on^ r - 
Hi betl 
IN inis- 



admitted that these gaberdine-like robes, such as on the Tiryns ring and 
some allied seal types completely muffle the figure of the Goddess, were the 
result of some strong Oriental religious influence. 

Sf- Variant illustrations of these long vestments have been given in con- 

nircnfiy uexion with the Lamp-Stool frescoes They are distinguished from those 
S P K P a ^° vc d f cri,xd h Y the winding drapery of the skirts, the waist-band some- 
}££,, '_ vhaC Obliquely set, and the short sleeves. In one case we see a boyish 
figure with two fringed appendages to the sleeves thrown over the shoulders 
(i’ig. * 135 ),’ while the well-known Pttrisientte wears what seems to be 
a version of the ‘sacral knot’in the same position (see above, PI. XX N 1 e 
and Fig. 310 , p. 385). 

Seal Types with Long-robed Personages : Friest.kings and Princes. 

But, as already pointed out, 2 the costume of these ‘ Camp-Stool r figures 
shows a close relationship with that of which our knowledge has been 
supplied by a series of intaglio designs of exceptional interest, evidently 
depicting high Minoan dignitaries of the male sex. 
intaglios Greatly as these designs contrast with the personage wearing the lily 

long- crown » anci recognized above as an actual Priest-king, it is difficult not to 

ZT ass, - na simIlar hi £ h ™nk to the long-robed figures of tins group, though in 

several cases the more military side of their functions, princely rather than 
sacerdotal, is brought out by the arms that they bear. Amongst these, 
as we shall see, the recurring single axe-blade of a special type, points 

to the same strong influence from tile Syrian side that is evidenced bv 
their dress. 1 

From Negative evidence can rarely be regarded as conclusive, but it is 

jso* nevertheless a highly suggestive circumstance that, of the seven specimens 
Vaphcio of this type known, three are from the actual site of Knossos and one 

from its neighbourhood, while the remaining three are from the Vapheio 
Tomb near Sparta. 1 

By a remarkable chance the largest specimen of this class (Fig. 333) 
was obtained by me from a native proprietor at the time of mv first 
exploration of the site of Knossos in 1894. and there are reasons for 

supposing that it had been brought to light in the West Quarter of the 

1 Cf. PL XXXI a 

= See p. 397 above. 



Intaglio showing Long-robed Youthful Personage holding Dove, 

The intaglio is cut on a green jasper bead-seal representing a thick 
elongated development of the ‘amygdaloid class, 
and represents a long-robed youth holding a dove. 

The fringed appendage of the robe seen in 
Fig. 33(5, which falls down the back and connects 
itself with a short sleeve, presents a distinct parallel 
to the dress of the boy referred to belonging to the 
'Camp-Stool’ series above reproduced in Fig. 335, 
though in that case two fringed ends hang down 
presenting a wing-like appearance. The oblique 
position of the waist-band with a band below sloping 
in the opposite direction is also a recurring leature 
of conformity. 

The youth or boy seen in Fig. 330 has abundant 
locks of hair falling about his shoulders. 'I ho bird 
that lie carries may naturally be regarded as an 
offering to a divinity, and there can be little doubt 
that it is intended 10 represent a dove. Though 
the neck is somewhat elongated, the bill, so far from 
being slightly upturned, as in the case of a duck, 
is definitely hooked at the point, like that of a 
pigeon. What is decisive, however, is the careful 
insertion of the swelling at the upper extremity of 
the bill (see Fig. 337, <i) well defined in the intaglio. 
This is a well-known characteristic of dot es* beaks, as is shown in the sketch 
of a rock-dove’s head placed here for comparison in big. 33 1 , (k 

Fin. 330 . Lauce In¬ 
taglio show inc Youth- 
rui. Personage iiouhng 
Move: Kn<kssos. (|) 

Fundamental Affinity of Minoan Dove Cult with Syro-Anatolian. 

The association of the Minoan Goddess on her celestial side with the 
dove corroborates the conclusion that this offertory design represents that 
bird and no other. Already by the mature stage of M. M. I the 1 dove-vase ’ 
from the Palace site 1 and the bowl with a dying dove moulded in it from 
the Bone Enclosure at Palaikastro s suggest a ritual connexion, lit the case 

1 1\ <if -V, i, p- M*. Fig. 107. 

i p. i3r p Fig. 1 30a* Cf. K. C Bosanquct, B m &A„ vm» p. 394 . 

E e 2 





CU^TftC 1 

be ilk. 

HOTl? of 
with. duve. 

an 4 Old 
lian CuEi * 

Dove cull 
Over by 



ot tiie 'Terra-cotta Shrine’ belonging to the Second Middle Minoan Period 
the sacred doves are seen perched on the shafts of the columnar shrine as 
the visible token of divine possession. 1 So, too, the dove, as well as the 
snakes that symbolize her chthonic con¬ 
nexion. is associated with the clay cylin¬ 
ders of the early domestic cult, 1 and in the 
case of the figure of the Goddess in the later 
Shrine of the Double Axes ’ a dove is 
settled on her head,* 

I» this connexion it may be well to 
point out that the conclusions so carefully 
■ drawn by Victor Helm from Classical and 
Semitic sources as to the date and origin 
ot the dove cult in Greece. 1 require radical 
revision in the light of more recent dis¬ 
coveries. T he later assimilation of Astart£ 
with the dove Goddess of Cyprus and the 
Syrian coasts, and the strange mythical 
transformation of Semiramis (Sammuru- 
mai), the historic queen of Assyria of the 
latter half of the ninth century lu;., into a 
sacred dove, 5 and her actual transportation 

from NimrGd to A sea Ion had led to a general assumption of a Semitic 

is all pm or die Mirage ai-itniale. The idea of an early connexion 
of «nh the dove, or indeed with any bird, appears to 1* q „i te 
unwarranted; • her emblem, indeed, as, primarily, the Goddess of War was 
t ie bon. I lie special,zed dove-colt, on the contrary, beyond all reasonable 
iuiiL.t. was taken over by the Semites front the Syro-Anatolian ethnic 
Sroap of which we have traced a Western extension in an important 
ingredient of the early Cretan population. It was this element, indeed! 

1 >. p. 120 «qq. t and Fig, ItTti, y, 

1 Seeabovt, p. 14^. and Fig. ] Hi, i 4f j w 

" ^ ^ iV -* I P Ph I'ig- 1&3* rf ij 

I’lUa n 7 . rf. Bmp held fev Vqtarv 
ON tlpM ; 4 Rock-dove's 11 kail 

n 2 a 

Kuliurpftan zf/t tniti HnustMm in r krtm 
Utbcrgang aui A sun mich Gr&rfitnhind und 

Hulun (ed. a 1S74V p. ; y , s ™.; Ifo 


Lucian, Dt Dot Syria, c, 14. For Seitii- 

ramis sce especially C. F, Lbrnann-Haiipi, 

Ah °\ 1 ("■ J0C 4' P* 66 5 seqq.; find his An. 
Stmiramh in Roscher's /,/xiktm, y. 

' So fc i^M an authority as the late L. \\\ Kin- 
vfrittB: 'I have little doubt thru the associa¬ 
tion of a bird with the cub of hhtur w J(s 
a comparatively late addition. 1 (fn letter to 
Prof. John (Jarstang; H. A. .Strong T/jc 
Syrian Goddess, d-r., p. 86 .) 



physically described as proto-ArmenoId and well represented by the Hittite 
monuments, and which emerges at Kiiossqs in the royal seal-types of the 
6 Hieroglyphic deposit —that seems to have supplied the facial profile 
later ascribed to the Hebrews. 1 

At IvnossoSn as we have seen, the connexion of the dove with the 
central cult may be traced back to the beginning of the Second Millennium, 
B.c* f nor can we forget the artistic carving of the ivnn seal of L 111 date 3 
in the form of a clove sheltering her nestlings beneath her wings. An 
amuletic pendant of chalcedony, moreover, in the form of a dove was found 
in Tomb IV at Mochlos, 5 recalling similar objects from Early Cycladic 
Graves, 4 

In Cyprus the evidence of the dove cult goes back into the Copper 
Age, and is well illustrated by a series of day vessels, often ring-shaped 
with three or four fees, on which are doves accompanied by libation vases 
and rude female figures.* Later on, in die period of intimate contact with 
Crete—which seems to find its Inception in L.M. I A, and is characterized 
by cylinder-seals with religious representations of what may be called a 
1 Cypro-Mlnoan * class 11 we witness a kind of fusion u( Cypriote and 
Minoan ideas regarding the Dove Lj odd css, 1 he bird perched on the 
little temple before the adoring figure on the Cylinder from Old Salamis a 
(Fig. 338) recalls the miniature gold shrines with the perched doves from 

1 F. von Luschm Husky Memorial Arr 
tun far f$li: Tht Early InhttijilanH of 
Western Asia, p. 240 seqq «and I '1 Ales XXIV, 
XXV, XXX XXXII { ftwrti, A\ Antkr fust. 
Von Luschcm refers (p. J43) So his con¬ 
vincing identification of ihe later * Jewish * 
physiognomy with this early 1 Syrt> Anatolian 
element, first pm forth by him in uios. The 
prevalence of a brachycephalic type with a 
distinctly Armenoid profile among the Qitiani 
of S. Arabia. now established (Sir Arthur 
Keith ami Dr. W. M. K my man, App> I to 
Bertram Thomas, Arabia A*/i-> p 195-)- <to« 
not siand in ihe way of tlvis conclusion AS 
the type is dearly intrusive in that area. 
The Aryan Kurd* have taken over this type 
in the same my as the Jews (see op- rtf* t FI* 
XXV), Von Liuduu) quotes the Song 4 
Songs* vii,, 4 for the Jewish ideal ol beauty. 

1 Thv nose is like the 1 ower of Lebanon 
which lqoketh towards Damascus/ 

1 J> 4 M. t i, p f 17t Fig. 86, a r & \ sec 
Xaru hudi dcs, J 7i tt/ffri Tombs 4 .\ftsaru 
{uansL Droop), PI* IV P 516, and p. 30 
(Tholo* uy 

1 Seager, E.vpfora/ioui iu thm Island of 
MoAt/os 7 p, 40, and Fig. ’o, 7. C'f. I 1 . 4 
i,p. 1 oj, 

4 ILg- TsOUnias, K itfcAoSt rui 1 Afltl II ; 

’Apx-. PI- VIII, 16 , fj t 33 ; *’•- 

X, 2 7 n aS. 

=■ A set nf such vessels was found in Tomb < 
nt Faraskcvl : *ee QhoefaUch-Richter, Ayfrm, 
if A / U‘M uitrf Ifnmcr. I'l- CLXX. (Compare 
PL CLXXJMt Tomb 12). Cl test, 

p. 2 $$ fteqq.* and Fig*. l8t-6. 

4 In my Jiye. 7 rre ami PH far Worship 
(p. 50 [148] seqq.) I referred to this class of 
cylinders as + Cypro-Mycenaean ". 

7 Cesuola, Safumniitj l 1 !, XIV. 45 ; tJlsne- 
falsch Kkhter* A yprvs Slc^ i 5 p, 291* Fig. 197 

of Cy¬ 


40 S 

Mycenae* On a Syro-Hittite cylinder (Fig* 348 £} a dove appears above 
the table of offerings. 

Unfortunately, as regards the closely allied Syro-Hittttc class, it is 
precisely in ihe Cilidan region opposite Cyprus, included between the 

Taurus and A mantis ranges* that 
Hittite monumental evidence fails 
us. It Is, indeed, in this main¬ 
land region that we should natur¬ 
ally find the best intervening links 
with Cyprus, while at the same 
time names of persons and places 
recur that are hound up with the 
earliest traditions of Crete, 

What associations with the 
residential seat of Minos himself 
are nut called up by Cilidan names 
like Mntis and Knfls [ The Kory- 
kian Cave sanctuary., where these occur, shares its name with a promontory 
of North-Western Crete* while Mailin'—the site of the early Palace in its 
more Easterly region—and other similar place-names, suggest the renowned 
Gilielan town of Mallos, the mention of which in Egyptian, lists is so often 
found before that of the 'land of Kcltiu*. 

So far. however, as Cyprus is concerned, the lacuna in the archaeo¬ 
logical evidence Is partly bridged by the occurrence of certain cylinder 
types which, though acquired or found in the Island, may have at times 
been executed in the opposite mainland region. Among these are designs 
showing, a* accessories to the main subject ami on a smaller scale, Griffins 
and Sphinxes, lions. Ibexes, and other animals, often in double rows, and 
accompanied with a ( chain 1 or gut Hock? pattern. In a general sense such 
cylinders must be grouped with the widely diffused fc Syro-Hittite' class, 
of which there seems to have been a Cilicia 11 branch. 

Fig. 338. CvLtKijRR i kuM Old Salamis 

Coalescence of Syrian and Cyprian Dove-cult with Minoan: a Hittite 

Cylinder found In Greece, 

Another cylinder from Salami * 1 fits on very closely to this series. 
On it, with a small lion and griffin behind, two votaries are depicted 
offering a bird- here reasonably identified with a dove —to the Goddess. 

1 Cesnola, Sahimimu f p. is j f Fig- 

i ’ Ml.f '■ 

V >* 

% ? m , m 
■ •l)*7 .- -■■■•:- TEjjBgffZ j ! 


Tills composition, moreover, shows a definite parallelism with that from 
a cylinder bought at Aleppo 1 (see below, Fig. 348 b, p. 42 1 ), and presumably 
belonging 10 a main* 
land Syro - Hittite 
group. On this a 
princely votary' wear¬ 
ing a characteristic 
1 ! ittitefringed mantle 
stands before a table 
of offerings upon 
which a dove settles. 

Before the dove is a 
star, and behind it is 
the seated Goddess. 

What we have 
at this time to deal 
with is the actual re¬ 
action of this Syro- 
Anatolian cult on the 

Minoan World. , , . 1 - 

An interesting variation of a similar scene appears on a pale bHe lapis 

lazuli cylinder found at Vari, South of Athens, and here reproduced m l »g. 
im 2 It Is evidently of the same Syro* Hittite fabric* On U we see the en¬ 
throned Goddess with the dove—its fan-tail well displayed- perched on ie 
outstretched hand* In front a small votary holds a kid and a looped object 
Behind is a flounced male figure, and another, perhaps representing a Hittite 
prince receives a similar offering of a young animal from a long-robed per* 
senate, standing on a crouched beast. The spiral border- so charac tens tic 
of this S\ro-Hittite class of sea Is-appears here, above ami below the 
seated Goddess. The cylinder itself was found with Mycenaean objec s 
including bine paste plaque impressed with rosettes of a kind that synchro¬ 
nizes with L.M. III «- Its finding on Greek sod is itselt an ^ere.g 
illustration of the reaction at that epoch of elements denved from the Last 
Mediterranean region with which its style is connected, 
i At the end of d« Section: cf. Hearth. Vtato, thanks to whose 

Seals, II- VI. , 75 a»d ,, 6* - J** * 

= Prom the Collection of Monsieur M. 1', Monsieur E. MM™", nls. 

Pic.. 939. Syro-Hittite Gyijnokr 01 I.apis i-azi m 
eovn u at Vari, South or Atheks, showing sEATim 




Analogies for Dove Goddess of the Cylinders supplied by Hittite Reliefs, 

The above cylinder type illustrating die contemporary dove cult 
on die Oriental side, finds specially dose analogies with certain Hiulte 


Fig. k Hutuk Keijkis rkou Ma&asii. 

religious reliefs. On that, here reproduced in Fig 340, cr, from Marnsbd the 
bird above the lyre held by the seated female figure, both from its general 
appearance as well as from the character of its beak, may be fairly 
regarded as a dove. L reappears in a more mutilated form on another 
slab (Fig* 340, 6) from the same l littlte site. On this the dove is offered by 
a long-robed priest to the tiarad divinity, who holds a mirror. In the former 

1 This and J’i^ JMi\ from Human n 

Li. Pudistdn, A'astN in Khuuuit'fi, q-r p 
Atlas, PL LXVU t j. A similar relief whh 
the bird oh the ahar occurs ai Yarre m tlie 
Saugarius (a« l\ W Crowfoot. i^ffnration 
irt Galatia as Ihthm : J, //. X , aik p r yi t 
l ig- 4)- Another was found at Fnikiin 
{Fcrak ccl-dim, South qf the Cappadocian 
Caesarea j, See Ra u isay and Hoganh, in M as- 

AWuritifi' ZhiratLw 1893, p 87* PL VI ■ 
< ‘hacunr,. 3 /rbdir^ Cqffitt/ati* r PI. XXIIL Cl, 
tos » t f. ( b M-;tang r 7 14 * tkeHtititn (r 9 r o^ 

Pi. XLVII, atid p, 1 51 1 w Iicre he- is untertain 
about the binl I n. 7'/it .S) nun Gwhitts (19 r3), 
ItOflcvLTd^ recognises 5 i{pp. 24, ^5) mi‘doubt¬ 
less a. pigeon or dove It is to tie observed 
ihm in that case the Coddess wears a conical 


4 H 

case she is holding an infant, and must be certainty recognized as the great 
Anatolian Goddess Ma. 

So far from emanating from any Semitic source, this dove-cult shared 
ah antique by Cyprus and the Minoan World, only appears to have 
become a pronounced feature in the Palestinian Coast towns at a com¬ 
paratively late date. The evidence of recent excavations in the earlier 
strata of these regions is consistently negative, and It is only in a quite ad¬ 
vanced Classical stage that the records of the Dove Goddess at A sea Ion and 
elsewhere come to the fore. On the Hittite monuments and cylinders, 
on the other ha ml, as \vc have seen, there are relatively early indications ot 

tance of 
13 man 
11 Idle 

the cislt. 

The truth is that the Classical writers from whom was due our earlier 
information about Derketo (Atargatis). the dove’ Semiramis and the rest, 
saw everything through a Semitic medium, am! in an already Semitized 
shape the sacred doves of Palestine had themselves become a special white 
breed, 1 But it Is now recognized by zoologists that the rock-dove Thr^ 
{Columba //via) is‘without contradiction the parent stem of all our domestic |>™ C . 
pigeons V- Nor can any one acquainted with tilt: caves and rock shelters, 
which ill Crete (as in the related East Mediterranean area) were the earliest 
sanctuaries, doubt that this was the original Sacred Dove of all these 
regions. In Crete, indeed—apart from migratory turtle-doves—it seems .still 
to be the only indigenous species* and swarms of these birds still haunt the ,,jj 
inmost clefts of such old centres of Minoan cnU as the I liktaean and ' |^‘ L " 
Kamares Caves or the great vault of Skotemo in the Knosaian region, long wc- 
unfrequented by human votaries. 

The rock-dove, like all our native pigeons, is, on the whole, of 
a somewhat sombre or dusky plumage—the word ‘dove*, as is well known, 
having that signification in the Aryan languages, and answering indeed to the 
old Irish dsthk = black, So. too, the doves of Dodona, 1 the earliest recorded 
seat of the cult among the Hellenes,® are described—like those of the twin 

‘ Tibullus’ lines (1, vii, 17: ed. PoagMe) 
sum up lbi± aspect 1 

Quid rdVrjuu ut volitet crebras intact* per 

,ilba PMSaf"SiinQ sane ta columba Syro, 

1 Set ilit- an irk- 1 Doves ' in JEW. Art/an* 
mm ((1307 rni-i p. 574?) by the eminent orm- 
LhologisQ Professor Alfred Newton, 

* This—noted as 1 common in sea caves f -— 

find tins migratory turtle-doves were the only 
species observed by the naturalist and explorer 
Trevor-Unlive ^sce Camping in Crete p- ^ 62 ), 
1 The rocky nooks about Dodona make it 
quite possible that we have there, tcso p 10 deal 
with Cohimtes ik-'U t. 

* See especially, A, lb Cook, /tens, i, p.364 



Oracle of the Libyan Oasis—as ‘ black V In later Classical clays, indeed, 
they were misdescribed as 1 snow-white 

Long-robed Priestly Personage leading Griffin. 

The red jasper ientoid seal from the Vaplieio Tomb (Fig. 341) ’ pre - 

Gkimhf: os Jasi-j-ir l.tNrum, Vai-hicio 
To mu (’), 

1 Herodotus ii. 55 makes two 1 black doves 
(TTtAfinAuf ptWiiit) fly from the F^v'ptim 
Thebes, one to T*udona, the other to Libya. 
Characteristically, in the variant account of this 
fihcti by Silitis Italieusiiii. 675—91), the doves 
become * snow-white ’ {nittii alts), ±0 :|S t0 
correspond with the colour of the J sacred 
doves" trom Palestine, only known [hi the 
Greeks from the time of the Persian Wans. 
Charon of laimpsacus (cited by Arinnaeus, 
■*t J-M. A speaks of them as first met wi th on 
the occasion of the shipwreck of the Persian 
fleet off Mt, At bos, tarru's description of 
an Italian (arm (ZV XV Kuififa, lii. sup¬ 
plies an interesting record of a succeeding 
stage in which the two classes of pigeons 
existed side by side and were producing a 
cross-breed {mictttum jpmti*. The tamer 
kind was white and were fed ixtra iimrni 
faunae. The wilder are described as a gtniti 

soots a male figure 111 a king winding 
roW whose function in leading the 
sacred Griffin leaves us in no doubt as 
to his sacerdotal character. 

Hits personage holds a rope that 
passes under the guardian monster’s 
wing and is attached to its neck. The 
Griifin. here, with its well-marked crest 
of plumes and eagle s beak, much re¬ 
sembles those of 1 he painted stucco 
relief from the great East 11 alt, attached 
by a cord round the neck to the column + 
that is there the baetylic representa¬ 
tive ol tile Mimmu Got!dess herself. 
In that case, too, the monsters stand on 
a triple gradation. So, too, on two of 
the seal-types described above s with 

jvia titf'/t dearly roc knit jvcs ■n nd foil nd roost - 
in S pl^es in the tunreis and gables of the Villa. 

1 As Victor I lehn h,is wdl shown, AWftor* 
f/ansrn mid f/nusfA/m (i 874). p L 795, so lost 
to the tfpeeks were the earlier connexions 
wilh the Paphtfln cult* that in the Homeric 
Hymn to Aphrodite doves are not even 
mentioned in connexion with her, while in 
Sappho's Ode to her as preserved in Diotiy- 
siu-s of Halicarimssoi (fr. 1 Bergk) such 
ignorance is liitrayiNl ol the persistent dove- 
cLilt of Cyprus that her ear is drawn through 

ihc sky by swifts (|^(K orpa’■iffi'Nr 

3 Tzomtes, K4. '\p Xtr * 890 , PL X t and 
P l( *l f Furiwangler, Aidi/x Gemmtn r Cl 
/rtf/ Af r ii + It. 11, p. 7 hy r big. 512, from 
which ]■ i^ K I is reproduced,, 

P, 0/ JA, iir, p + 510 seq<}, t and Fig, 355. 

* Sec above, p, 169, Figs, 130. 133 . 



the - Snake frames', the Goddess herself appears between two guardian 
Griffins standing on raised cornices. A comparison has already been 
made between this design and the relief of the youthful dignitary « * ■ t> 

the lily crown, and it is a fair conclusion that in both 
cases we have to do with the effigy of a Mmoan 
Priest-king leading the sacred Griffin. 

Armed Male Figure in similar Long Robes, with bow. 

In the last two instances the religious side of 
these long-robed personages is to the fore. 1 he 
offertory dove stands surely in relation to the Mmoan 
Goddess in her celestial aspect. In the figure beside 
the Griffin, again, we see a direct minister of the 

In the remaining cases, however . _ 

which the figures hold weapons— it is the military W 
and secular aspect ofMinoan princes that is brought 
into prominence. In the early days of my Cretan 
explorations, somewhat later than the discovery of 
the dove-holding type, the less perfect bead-seal. Fig- 
:t42. was brought to me from the site of Knossos. 
The material is haematite, and the lower margin ot 
the stole is wanting in the original. It shows a curved object rising up by 
the right shoulder, in which we may recognize the end of a 1 horn-bow ol 
the Asiatic class, the actual material for the composition ol which is shown 
on a series ol clay tablets iroin the Armoury + 

■in all of Fto« 

With hofrt 

Fig, 342. Personage 

W IT!I Bow a nHaKM ATtf E 
H ea 11: K n frssoi. (I <ow tR 

stored) ( m l ) 

Personages holding Single Axes of Syrc-Egyptian T^pe, 


'I'hree figures hold single axes of the single-bladed Syrian form, .. sonfl j, es 
of them on haematite bead-seals of amygdaloid form (Fig. a,b <), Of bMp 
these, . 7 , found at Vatheia in the Knossian district, may perhaps be recog- j*d ed 
m ? ed as the same youthful personage as Fig. 336- His hair falls m a 
similar manner about the back of his neck, while in this case there is an type, 
additional touch of elegance in the attitude and dress, the borders of which 
show tassels.* The young prince-for such we may regard him - stands as 

1 See below, p. S3* “‘Kl* 

1 Compare the labelled fringes of some 

«f the men’s dresses of the Thisbc series 
(A. E., SiHg of tester, p. 28 ). 


axe type. 


if advancing towards the left, but with the upper part of the body and head 
turned hack, the left arm being lowered with open palm as if in the act of 
greeting. There is something free and instantaneous about the action. 

" t> e 

Hg, ,M3. P|I1«CF.I-V AJfB Sacekuotal J’EitsoNVU-.- Hol.Dtjvc SritlAX Ami s OK Hu iivmr 
\riiAo'T om iT {< j ^ W **** Kf!ossos; ** S * XK ' Room of | !,k<,xk - Kwwsos'; , ' 

1 he dolphin in the field oi Fig. 343, 6, from a doorway near the ‘ Room 
of Lite Throne , may itself l)e regarded as a personal badge of the princely 
(and pontifical) individual there portrayed, perhaps the same personage as 
that shown in a. It would thus lind a parallel to the Cat type.* coupled 
with what seems to have been the hieroglyphic title of a Minoan ruler, 
whose portrait is preserved on M. M. II clay sealings referred to above. 

On the Vapheio bead-seal (Fig. 343, r) of the same form and material, 
the axe-hold mg personage shows an abnormal projection of the chin. 
1 Ins may possibly be interpreted as a short beard, but is more probably 
the eflect of the summary character of the engraving. 

The Syro-Egyptian Axe Type, 

The form of singlc-bladed axe that recurs on three of these intaglios— 
two from K nossos and one from the Vapheio Tomb—is of great interest as 
bearing on the whole history of their ritual costume. It corresponds with 

' Pound in 1908. just beneath the surface of the narrow 
of the Stone Drum \ 

Eastern doorway of the ' Room 



a special type of axe, the evolution of which can be traced back in Egypt 
to the beginning of lHu Middle Kingdom, but which in the final stage of its 
development is specially characteristic of the Syrian lands and the regions 


I 1 ’hi, 'M l. Egyptian Axe-mts : «, XII m Dynast 1 , : l>, <■, i-vim. 

influenced by them, like Cyprus, Copper axes with rounded blades go back 
to the first Egyptian Dynasty 1 and, later on. a compromise was made with 
the straight-edged form, its ends being carried back and thus drawn to 
the haft, leaving a more or less circular interval between the blade 
and die shaft. Axes of this type occur on Xllth Dynasty monuments 
(Fig, ;i44, a)r and survive in a broader shape into later Dynasties 
(Fig. :m, b, r). and it is also clear that by that time it had become 
naturalized on the Syrian side. A Middle Kingdom example of this class, 
apparently of Syrian fabric, from the ‘ Tomb of the Courtiers at Ahydos? is 
given in I*ig. 1145, it, (>, and an almost identical sjjtcirncn of the same 
approximate date occurred in a hoard of Implements found in Central Syria. 

The round blade of the early Egyptian form was inserted in the haft 
and attached by rivets, and ihe recurved ends of the later type are seen in 
its primary stage in Fig. 1144, r. At a somewhat later epoch, to which the 
axes on the Miitosn seal - stones belong, the looped attach meats had become 
continuous sockets, as shown in the specimens, l'igs, ,145, 1 —c. tjf these 
ii and c are from Cyprus, others similar are from llcyrtit, and this in tact 

1 Petrie, 73w/j W Weapons fflustmttd 6v 
(Ik Collection of UnrVtrilly Colk^, London, 
p. j m These rotiml are peculiar to 


~ E_g r Lep&ins* DcnkmUfer* ii. Fh. CXXXU 
und Cl,XI (Xllth Djil), See, too, Wilkin¬ 
son. A/awi t Egyptians, ed, Birch, 7 ^ i 
p, 215,, Big- 4S from which Fig. 3-1 I uktnp 
MonteSiuSp f/Jgt dt tn Eg) flr, PI v - 

31* pp. 40, 4 i ; Budge, Brvnu 

ff C^I-.J Arc&iit&fogia, fiii. VI Hi 4 i Sr 

7i w in P 5. 

v Petrie, British School of . Jr, haevfogy in 
Egypt* Afydos t 1925 1 PS, V, 28 and 

[i 6 (presented 10 die AshmoSean Museum). 
1 1 was faund, login her with ^ remarkably 
devdD[hed blade (30 inches long) with holes 
for attachment to a slick* described by Ferric 
as obviously of Middle Kingdom date. He 
regards the axe as of Syrian fabric, 

* \\\ GretmwdS^ On Some Forms 0/ Brtmzr 
Ufnfinns find ImpknUHts, Anrftaeotyia, Iviit 

(igc>l)t pp. ij, M- 


T" r A r —* *- 

lype an a ni^efta tetS". ***• 

tnjs case a lion seizing a ram, a method of 

lm . 345. Antecedents 

" ™* W ->■ **nm, n SvillA; < ,, C'VPRUS, 

trs? kx*“,.- srr ??•■■““* >« *■»*» 

schist Iron: the Palace of Mallia. the b°,t r , "of which nT^Tf'' "" 

r^\ r bd0 ” 85 “ M - M - 1 " *** - 

ftrttuk Muattm Qvatierfy. iv, j / ro «j} i , h - 

l-l LX.,. s», too, K. Dii® Ll^. " • I/ ™' A< 

(fjjo). pp, 33? , sjj. and p-j ’ , ’ 1 ' 1 ^;; K Chnpouthfer el J. Char- 

■ * *«■.» *• L 4 .CL a. J~ f,r* “ 


white that with the lion and ram must lie referred to an epoch approaching 
that of those borne by the axe-bearing personages of our Minoaii signet types. 

The ceremonial Axe of Mallia—surely, like the giant sword that 
accompanied it, part of the actual regalia of a local Priest-king—with its 
downward curving blade and ornamented butt, represents a variant of a true 
Oriental form, going back, like its animal decoration, to Sumerian models of 
the Fourth Millennium is,c. The Chaldacan form with a many-spiked butt 
is disseminated to Persia on one side and throughout Hitttte Asia Minor - 
on the other, and appears in the hands of a Hitcite warrior on a relief at 
Boghaz Keui. A secondary derivation of this type of axe with long curving 
blade was transported, apparently by Phoenician agencies, to the Adriatic 
Coastland embracing Southern Dalmatia and North Albania , 3 

In Crete, apart from the ceremonial weapon of Matlia, axes of this Asiatic 
kind are not found, though single axes of ordinary type occur not infre¬ 
quently among the hieroglyphic signs , 1 and are found in derivative shapes 
in both linear Classes. We have some hints that these, loo, at times stood 
in a religious connexion,'' but the usual type of implement both for ordinary 
use and for sacral purposes was the double axe. 

Its ritual prominence, indeed, makes it the more remarkable that in 
the last palatial Age these long-robed figures should make their appearance 
holding stngle-bladed axes of a Syrian class. It must be certainly taken to 
indicate that a very strong politico-religious influence was making itself felt 
at this epoch—whether coming front Syria itself or, as seems most probable 
in a main degree from Cyprus, now in the course of Mi noun colonization, 
possibly also from some vantage port on the opposite Cilician Coast. It is 
to be observed that both the longer and the broader versions of the Syrian 
axe shown in Fig. 345,4' are from Cyprus.* 

The persistence of this Syro-Egyptian type is, however, best illus¬ 
trated in the great Tyrian foundation of the North African shore. On the 

1 K, Uussaud, S\ria xt (1930), p, seqq 
(from Nthavcmh 

* A good illustrative specimen was found by 
Mr. Allen Knweat Itaisan in Palestine,w 3 iocom¬ 
pared i t w i [ Ju li at of t he Boghd z Ke u i f e 3 i ef ( A/us* 
JtHirn, of Pdfcsiint^ : see, too* \* Gars- 

iang p The Ifiiiik Empire, p r 5 G P and Pi. XIV). 

- New evidence on this provenance at the 
Adriatic bronze type wns brought forward by 
K Jr. K.Vulpiat the International Prchisiorkand 
Frotuhistorie Congress in London* 1932, f^ec 

Isfr&s (Bucarest r 1934)* P -45 A sped- 

men from a hoard of hronze muzz of this type, 
found near i .a-sldnuovo (Novi) in die Gulf of 
Callaro is in the AshnwEcan Museum. 

* Sfripfa Jfi/ti'Mi ] f p. 1S5, No. 1 t_h Other 
examples of ihts type on hieroglyphic seats 
have since come to my knowledge. 

6 For figures of boih sexes and apjsarently 
of a religious clHiracleFi with appendages like 
the single blade of an axe^ see J\ of J/ 1+ i* 
pp r £15* 616, and it, Ft. I T pp L 248, J49. 

* In the Ashmolean Museum. 

from true 

like tint 
oi MaUit 






Axe of 
ly pt from 

embossed silver bowl from Palestrina,dating from round about 700 u.c., the 
Nimrod of Carthaginian travellers' tales wields an axe of this traditional 
form in hts attack 011 the gorilla-like pair (Fig, 3*15)- 1 

In the Vapheio Tomb/* moreover—in the grave cist itself and 
associated with the 
gold cups and other 
prec ions rel ics—an 
actual specimen of a 
bronze axe of this 
form came to Iight a 
reproduced in Fig. 

347* This so far 
differs from any 
known Syrian ex¬ 
ample in being pro¬ 
vided with three 
separate loops to 
enfold the haft in 
place of any kind of 
continuous socket. 

It may therefore be of local fabric, and must be classed as a Minna 11 

Its appearance in the Tomb is of great interest, since we may fairly 
recognize in it the actual weapon of the Minora prince- -also exercising 
sacerdotal functions—to whom must also probably be attributed the 
three seal-stones exhibiting such figures that were found together with it + 
In one case (Pig. -Ml), the religious character of the gaberdined personage 
is fully brought out by the sacral monster that lv leads. On another Vapheio 
bead-seal he stands alone holding an axe of this Syrian form (Fig, 343 £)* 
The third gem of diis class found in that Tomb, a sardonyx lentoid given 

Fig. 34k Sc exe ox Silver Bowl from Palestrina: Hunter. 


1 See Clermt mi lSanneau’s lari LI ian t in terpre- 
tatlon of the scenes on this howl in IrtMgmt 
phimckxnti i, p. jS, and Plate opp. p. 156, 
Secdon VIII (aS?io Jvurmt Anntiqut^ 1877) 
from which Fig. 316 above is excerpted. In 
Hclbig {Butt. dtIFImt, c-r,, v, i17—3 e k and 
Ami. itW/ftst. tfi Corr. Am l. p rS;6< pp. 54, 
55) the form of the weapon h not dearly 
given, while in F. and C.. flht&irt -/V f Art, iii 
(Fhenicie-Chypre). the object is described , 

p, 176 (cf. |). 75«j, l-ig. 543J as a ‘dub’. 
The * gorilla skins 9 were hung up in the 
Temple an Carthage; perhaps the axe was 
also taken from a temple reliquary. For 
Haimo's Account of the animals, see his 
Per if ins (in (iagr* (Jr. Afinem t i* 13, 14)- 
1 Tsountas, Fqk 'Apx*i rSSy ± pp. 155, !<;&, 
and FL X. 1. Its breadth (horizontally) is 
3^-5 cm and its height the same. 


here in Fig, ‘MS, brings out even more fully his character as a warrior 
prince though here he bears a different weapon. 

Fig. 3-18 . Sardonyx Bead-seal eroji 
Vapheio Tomb : Lon<; Robed Minoan 
him k[no [x Chakeot hoi,01 no Si'F-ak, 

Fig. sir. Bronze Axk ok 
Syrian Class mow Vapheio 



Warrior Prince iti Ciiariot on Vsphfiio 

lie Ls here depicted driving a two-horse chariot of a kind that must Vajiheio 
itself he regarded as ultimately derived from the same Oriental quarter 1 , and warrior 
holding the shaft of a long lance, the middle of which rests on his shoulder. 

In spite of ihe relative smallness of the figure, it will be seen that he wears 
the same long robe with its alternate diagonal folds as the other repre¬ 
sentations of this class. 

Happily, the date of the Vapheio interment—thanks to comparative Approri- 
evidence from the Cretan side—can now he securely established within 
close approximate limits. It is marked by a set of four painted goblets" 
belonging to the fine early phase of L. M. I k exhibiting the ■ Ogival 
Canopy' in the form equally shared by Mtnoaft Crete and its Main¬ 
land plantations. These might, indeed, have been by the same hand 
as the similar motive on a jug from Palalkastro* A fragment with the 
same design was found on the Enlace site at knossos. Like the axe-head 
and the objects in precious metals, the painted clay cups were placed in 
the grave cist itself, but a beautiful contemporary ‘amphora ' in the best 

1 See § IT , bejotf. * K, C. Bosanqtiet, B.S.A,, ix (1902-3), 

* 'E^. ’Apx-, 1889, l't. vn, 19, and p. 1541 Pl>- 4 * 4 - 6 , and fig* 5 * See, too, /\ »/.)/.. 
see r. af M., H, l’t, IP ]>p. 490, Fig. lot, dL t Fig, 1-Mi a. a. 

Site A, k 






owner of 


* marine ' style-—of typical]) 1, Cretan evolution and certainly of contemporary 
work—which was subsequently reconstituted from fragments , 1 must have 
stood on the floor of the chamber. 

The ceramic associations of the Vapheio interment, as Illustrated 
by the pain ted clay goblets and the splendid ‘ marine style amphora, thus 
point to the first quarter of the Fifteenth Century before our era. The 
chariot itself is of the earlier class, without the bowed appendage behind* 
that is universal on the Ktiossian tablets with the linear Script li, belonging 
to the last Palatial epoch (L. M. II). 

Reference has already been made to the remarkable fact that, though, 
by now, seven different specimens of seal-stones have come to light pre¬ 
senting long-robed personages of the class above described, their provenance 
is confined to the Palace Site of Knossos or its neighbourhood, and to the 
Vapheio Tomb. To these, indeed, may be probably added a lentoid gem 
from a chamber tomb ol Mycenae on which a figure, with a long robe less 
dearly defined, seems to be performing the function of a fmrmpex on the 
body of a fat boar, set on a table.* 

At Knosaos we have seen that the long-robed ceremonial garb is, 
so to speak, at home, and was shared by the figures of the Camp-Stool 
Frescoes*, r.v hypothm belonging to some kind of Sacral College connected 
with the * North-West Sanctuary Hail'. In the case of those from the 
Vapheio Tomb, like the axe found with them, they must in all probability 
be regarded as the pecuHunt of some local vicegerent of the kmossian 
Priest-kings, ruling in a Mainland region that stood—as Argos and perhaps 
Mycenae seem to have done at a somewhat later date—in a close political 
connexion with the great Cretan centre. 

If, as the ceramic evidence shows, the actual interment of the prince 
for whom this great monument was erected took place at a date but little 
later than J 500 u.C., the earlier part of his career might go back well 
within the limits of the mature phase of L. M. \<i. which corresponds with 
the stage of thoroughgoing Mmoau occupation on the Mainland side. 

It was, in truth, a royal tomb, anti nothing, certainly, among the gold 
hoards of Mycenae itself, can vie as an artistic composition with the two 
gold cups presenting repoussee groups of bull-catching scenes standing—as 
demonstrated in the preceding Volume of this work—in an intimate relation 

fc Ajjwf Latt Minoati Vau$found seal* Ring af Ntst&r t p r 31 

in CfMiY, / /A xxiv (1904 r pp. jitt-ro, - See below, p. 573 and Fig. 550 . TsourUas, 
and PL XL "A w i&&&, p. 179 {No. 36}, describes the 

■ Sec my observations cm ihc Thubc bead- figure as a worn an sacrificing. 


to the splendid painted reliefs that adorned the Northern Entrance porticoes 
of the Knossian Falace , 1 

We must naturally suppose that the seat of government of the royal 
personage here interred was some Minoan predecessor ol the neighbouring 
Sparta. The ‘ Mycenaean ' representative of the town is known to have been 
situated on the hill of Therapna. where was the monument of Menclaos. 
traditionally, through his mother, a great-grandson ol ‘ Minos 11 But the 
remains of this, recently explored, have proved to go no larther hack than 
the la test * Mycenaean 1 Age, posterior by some two centuries to the Vapheio 
Tomb. On the other hand, I lyakinthos of the Amyklae Shrine, which lay 
nearer to the Tomb, bears a name of a recognized old Cretan and Carian 
classy and his later association with Apollo may well reflect the earlier rela¬ 
tionship of the Minoan Divine Child to the Mother Goddess.* 

1 See P. of M. t iti, $ 75, p. 158 seqq., and 11 yak int hides occur in AltEca and Hvakimhos 
especially pp. 1 j6-8y, as a place-name in Tenos. Kick 

■ p. Kretschmer, Einit Hu tig indie 6V- regards the name as * Ldegian 
sehkktt dergritdsischffi Spratfo, p. 4 ° 4 ; A. Fick, 1 Set P. ‘>f ■ I/., i>U p- 454 

VorgrictMsekt Orfsnamtn t pp* 5#, crj. M E * 

FtG. 318 fc Sytio-H irtjTE Cylinder EnoYt Aleppo 
District, showing Hiitith Prince rlfohf I able 

kin^s of 

ing inri li¬ 
en ccs via 


] ihitu- 









$ 102. Discover v in tne ' Initiator v Area' of Lams-lazuli Cyjunuer 


Mi moan Cylinder from Knossos district. 

Syriauking influences via Cyprus and Cilicia ; Syro-HiUite Cylinders; 
Earlier lraces of Oriental influence front Chaldaean side; Go hack (o 
Su inert an Age; Lafnsdazuli Cylinder from Palace site—Us early charac¬ 
teristics ; Cypra-Minoan Cylinders — example from Knossos district; The 
An it'd Goddess' on Cylinders—derived from primitive Idols ' „■ The .Mather 

The Syrianizing religious costumes described in the two preceding 
Sections, where they find such a full illustration in the * Camp Stool Frescoes' 
and in the long rolled priestly and royal personages of the seal-stones, are 
to be largely accounted for by the Minoan plantations in Cyprus and on 
the opposite Coastlands, The hold thus gained on the spacious North- 
Eastern angle of the Mediterranean finds its sequel in the new importance of 
the men of Kcfiiu in Egyptian monumental records from the closing decades 
of the Sixteenth Century B.C onwards. Its reflection is also seen in the 
intrusion of various Cypriote and Sj rian objects into Crete at this epoch. 

The Syro-Egyptian alabaster vase in the form of a pregnant woman 
found in the harbour town of K nossos. already described, is a good instance 
ol this,’ A certain interaction, moreover, is now perceptible between the seal- 
types of Late Minoan Crete and glyptic and sphragistic works of the other 
group. A special intimacy in the relations with the lands East of the 
Mediterranean, such as is already noteworthy at the very beginning of the 
Age of Enlaces, now once more makes itself felt to an exceptional degree. 

Just as in the days of I lammurahi, we have evidence of the importa¬ 
tion into the Island ot Babylonian cylinders, so again at this epoch more 
than one example belonging to the ' Syro-Hittitc ’ class has been brought to 
light within Crete itself and in Mainland Greece, A specimen of con¬ 
siderable comparative value trom the Knossos district is here given below 
in Fig. 351. 

But this invasion of Oriental forms was itself only a repetition, after 
successive intervals of time, of a reaction that had aireadv affected the 
insular culture from a very remote epoch. Its first evidences, indeed, go 
well beyond the Age of Hammurabi, and it has been already shown that such 
objects as the ceremonial axe-head of Mallia in the form of tlte fore-part 

* P of ii, P|. I, p„ ’55 jieqq,, and Fig. iflO. 


of a pard, the 1 rhytons' in the shape of bulls and bulls heads with their 
trefoil or qua trefoil inlays, must be ultimately derived from old Sumerian 
sources. Among the finds described in the present Volume, a remarkable 
addition to this series has offered itself in the painted 
terra-cotta flower so closely recalling die ’ flower-cones 
from Ur t dating back to the Twenty-ninth Century before 
our era. 1 The tradition, indeed , of the contemporary tloral 
jewellery such as is seen on that Sumerian site may well 
be recognized in the exquisite gold work from the Early 
Minoan tombs at Mochlos. 

The comparative knowledge that we now possess of 
the earlier Chaldaean culture has made it also possible 
to trace the true connexions ot a gold mounted cylinder 
of lapis lazuli obtained From the North-West part of the 
Palace site in the early days of the Excavation,* but of 
which no full account or illustration has as yet been 

Go bact 
to Sume¬ 
rian Age. 







its early 



l ie. 3 tt>. L\n>- 


wirn Gold Dp- 

J'INO. (\.) 

Gold-mounted Lapis-Lazuli Cylinder, 

This remarkable cylinder was found, 40 centimetres 
deeper than the M. M. lII a stratum, in the ‘Initiatory 
Area ’ just beyond the Western border of the * North Lustra 1 Basin and 
is shown, enlarged to two diameters, in Fig. 349. L is set with a gold 
can above and below, that above surmounted with a granulated circle. 

A development of the engraved designs (three diameters) I5 given m M- 
Fi-.aoil . 1 In the centre is the Man-bull Eabani. apparently seizing an ibex Sumerian 
bv the horn, with a post-like emblem between. Right and left of this 
central episode are pairs of the crossed rampant beasts inherent in this 
cylinder style , 4 in the one case a lion and bull, m the other a lion aiu 
ibex. Outside this animal group stands the flounced figure of a Goddess. 

In the narrower upper register of the cylinder. Irom right to left; 
a spray and a small human head, appears the winged dragon of Marduk- 

3 See above pp- 124 . 115, and Mgs. 

1 Jut&S£&Sf Ii J ff'c?rS ¥ 1900 1 pp« ^7 p^S- ^ there 
observed that the style of the mythological 
designs in the Imver fcjj i?ter " *how$ nu mice 
of distinctively 1 HiitUe r orSyro-Cappiidociiiii 

3 1 irawn by Monsieur h- * nllieroti, 

* Where a design is continuous, as on 
a cylinder, surh overlapping figures are 
valuable to the engraver as suppling an 
dement of elasticity in a com position, vvhuflu, 
while having neither beginning nr end, Inis 
to be contained within ils circuit. 


the old 1 iamat, with its lion s head and horned projection. Left of this is 
the solar symbol of Shamash, then the dragon's head in profile, a, lions mask, 
a winged Sphinx and what seems to be a misunderstood version of the eagle 

t ic,230, Earlv Cylinder of I, aims.i.azuli : Deyelopjiknt or Designs. 

witlt spread wings of Sumerian tradition here given a human leg. Beyond 
this rises an upright animal figure. 

"1 he prominence here ot the lower zone, the broad treatment of its 
designs and their old traditional character, give this cylinder a very early 
appearance. I his impression, moreover, is confirmed by the lapis-lazuli 
material, which becomes already rare by the time of the First Babylonian 

1 n the opinion of those most versed in the history of early Mesopo¬ 
tamian Art this cylinder, while fitting on to the ' Syro-tl i trite 1 class, shows 
certain early traditions that go back to the days of Sargon of Akkad and 
belong to an epoch somewhat earlier than the Age of Hammurabi. 
Mr. Sidney Smith, of the Egyptian and Oriental Department of the British 
Museum, points out that the transverse band that descends from the 
shoulder of the Goddess in the lower register in fact answers to a feature 
ot everyday costume exemplified by many -Sumerian monuments, and here 
surviving in a divine association. So, too, the curves repeated in the space 
t<i the lelt ot it. about the God dess s shoulder, equally answer to the series 
ot necklaces worn by Sumerian women. 

If we accept Kuglcr’s chronology based on the astronomic evidence, 


which fixes the accession of Hammurabi as t\ 2123 bxJ this would 
carry back the making of this cylinder to a date approaching 2400 UX. 
Its condition is somewhat worn, ami it may therefore have reached Orel* 
at a slightly later date, but the probability nevertheless remains that the 
stratum from which tl had been derived goes back at least to the l wuitj 
fourth Century bx. It has already been noted* that the Minoan bull 
‘rhy tons', like the early clay tablets, eventually derive from Sumerian 
models of the days of Sargon of Akkad, who had subdued the Amurru oi 
'the Western Land’ and who seems to have extended his authority to the 
Mediterranean shores as early as 2650 wx. 

Cypro-Minoan Cylinder from Knossos District. 

To a quite different category, connected with the ' Syrol littite group 
referred to above, belongs the haematite cylinder. Fig. 351 , found at cylinder. 
Astrakous in the Pedeada district. East of Knossos. Its discovery « itself 
a proof that works in this style were actually in the hands of the Minoan 
Cretans in the last Age of the Palace. It seems, indeed, to be best 
described as ' Cypro-Mtnoan \ 

11 ere the mixed elements of tins branch of Art arc well illustrated. In 
the crossed, rampant lions and the ibex held up by the legs we still recognize 
a persistent Chaldacan tradition, while the open hand and forearm belongs 
to the ‘ Syro-l Httite' repertory. 5 The winged disk-also often seen in that 
series—is an Egyptian intrusion. 

The chariots, on the other hand, with the bowed appendage behind 
correspond with the type that first appears on the tablets oi Class B m 
Knossos, belonging to the last Palace Period (L. M. I I). 1 hat with the 

horse is led and followed by men in Minoan loin-clothing. 1 hose have 
nothing Oriental in their appearance, though the personage who holds 
up the ibex wears a gaberdine and nfefelt like the votaries described in 
Section 101. It is also to be observed that the horse of the chariot 
beneath the forearm has the characteristic knotted mane of those of t e 
late Palace 'Chariot TabletsV This is an amplification of the plumes 

1 See P. of M„ i, p. igS, and cf. ii, pp. 1 * 4 , 
365. (This Elating i. that of Kuglcr ,Sttrohmdt 
und Steroditost ftt Haiti, it. Theil, t. Heft.) 

1 P. of . 1 /., ii, p. *64 (cf. L w r . King, 
History of Sumer tend Akhod t p. 5ei l f ! - 

King shows (p. 346 s^qq.) iliat the supposed 
archaeological evidence of Sargon Y s having 
conquered Cyprus has no real Uasis). 

1 Mg., G. Conte0*u, -La Gtyftique syro- 

fiittitf, PI XVII. r=*?- 







seen on Ramesside chariot*horses, and it is taken over on the L, M, III 
‘ amphoms ' of Rhodes and Cyprus, 

1 he appearance in the other register of the cylinder of a second 
chariot in which the horse is replaced by a Griffin brings ns back to the 

Fro. 351, or Cvi'ho-Mixoas Style fmosi AStrakols, East of Kkossos. 

same field of comparisons. Griffins at times take the place of horses on 
the chariot types of Cypro-Minoan 'amphoras and the same alternation is 
illustrated in Crete at a somewhat earlier date by the end panels of the 
Ilagta Trtada Sarcophagus, a work that on many grounds it would be 
unsafe to bringdown later than the close of the Second Late Mlnoan Period. 

The Naked Goddess, 

lhe religious interest of the composition centres in the figure of the 
Goddess—nude except for her loin-clothing between two lion guardians, 
antithetically placed in upright positions with their forelegs lowered. This 
figure is the slightly modified equivalent of the ‘Naked Goddess’ > as seen 
on cylinders of the hirst Babylonian Dynasty. On these, moreover, it is 

1 On lhe- Naked Goddess’, see J.Maimnt, Ionic ones i Hayes-Word, Cylinder Seats of 
(ifyftiquc Or ten (ate i, p. , 7 p seqq. Western Asia, , 5 i 0 , p. ,6,',™.; ;!lU J 

who compares I Ate Babylonian day figminesj dally fi. Conienaii (1914), fa Dust: „ ut 
M. V. Nikolsky, Arch . Congress of Moscow, bahyhnienne% cf., loo, bis Thesis, La GfyMf 
1890: Rev. Arch., u. p. 36 i*eqq., La t/irc svro-ftititle (19-2), p. 4a SL - t i, s ,, 

Dew* Jes Cylinders ct its Statvette, hetfy. $0. ' 4 h ‘ 5 * 


already connected with the Cult of the Dove. (See Eig. 3 j 3 at end ot 
Section.) With its two side-locks—which are in fact a Hathonc remi¬ 
niscence—it most resembles a form belonging to the ‘ Syro-Hittite class 
found in Cyprus. 

The ‘Naked Goddess* In its Relation to the Primitive Aegean 

and Anatolian Idols. 

The history or this type helps to strengthen the presumption, already 
advanced with reference to the cult of the Sacred Dove, that there had 
been a reaction on early Semitic Religion of elements belonging to a 
primitive stock that may be traced through Western Asia to the further 
Aegean shores. It affords, indeed, a sidelight on the process by which 

the later Semitic profile took its Armenoid shape. . _ 

On Babylonian cylinders of Hammurabi's time this idol-hke figure 
makes its sudden appearance ‘crude and nude \ unexplained by any earlier 
model of Chaldaean inheritance, and there Is a strong presumption that it 
was taken over through contact with the Amurru of the ‘ Western Land - 11 
stands apart from the sacred scenes amidst which it is often introduced on 
a much inferior seal arising like a separate image on a small pedestal. 

This effigy, vaguely identified with the consorts of Marthik and Adad f 
and afterwards lost In a general conception of Ishtar. has with great proba¬ 
bility been traced back by M. Salomon Kcinach * to a widespread family of 
small images of a naked female figure, executed both in day and stone, which 
seem to have stood in some talismanic relation to the idea ol motherhood, 
the characteristic physical signs of which arc at times well marked. 

These images were in fact anticipated by the stone and ivory tig urines 
like those of Willersdorf or Urassempouy, belonging to an older Uoikl. 
They find a wide distribution in a continuous geographical area that extends 
from the Aegean basin and the Middle Danube, throughout Asia Minor 
and to the Caucasian regions, and finds an Eastern offshoot on the shores 
of the Caspian, and at Serrin on to the Middle Euphrates, Attention to 
this remarkable primitive group has already been called m the F.fst Volume 

of this Work.* . . , < 

In Crete the evolution of the stone figurmes that play the principal 

part in this can be easily meed » ° f “l“ att,,, S fc "“ le 

graph La Dte* N«< A ^ 

confirms Reinnch’s conclusions. 


to early 
rep resettl¬ 



images going back at least to the Middle Neolithic epoch and considerably 
anterior in date to the oldest known Oriental or Egyptian Dynasties. 
Flatter Sub-Neolithic forms are seen on Fig. 352, a c, while the principal 


a-C Crete. 


d i da 

d i-a A twto fin. 


I'JG. 3 ;t 2 . 



fl -3 Cydndtl. 


* * Cylinder types. {had: 7 'rey. Jday: Cyprus. 

THElk iNFLfLNCL on IKE NtTDE Kicuses ON Cvukoers, 

type thus evolved stands in relation to what 
line of descent for the Cylinder class, 
from Illalun Bunar, in the heart of the 

It must at the sane tine be recognised, 
ns pointed out by me in P. of i, p, 
that certain types of tarty female images 
of this class have a tery extensive Eastern 
range ai an early date. Thus the parallel 
type with a rounded lower outline which 
occurs amongst the Neolithic day forms of 
Knossos {if. dt.), recurs in stone in the 
Cyclades, the Trend, at SyC-on in Galatia and 
die Caucasus, and reappears S.J.. of the 
Caspian, at Asterabad (with Sumerian spear¬ 
head of the early pan of the Third Millennium 
u.c.), A variant of the same form, also of 
stone, was found in a contemporary deposit 
at Senrin on the Middle Euphrates, and a 

may bo regarded ;is the 
(See Fig. 352 g, fi) Stone images 
Hittite country West of Konia (d i,z), 

similar image or clay was brought to light at 
Kish (Excavs. of tyo.i: Aahmolean Museum) 
of the same epoch. Clay female figures of a 
fairly advanced sensuous type were found at 
Amu in Russian Turkestan, belonging to the 
Second I'criod of Elam. Crude clay female 
images also occurred in the * pre-flood’ 
stratum of Kish. Reference has already been 
made, P. of M.. i, p. 51 and note to the 
clay female images found together with those 
of a male personage at Nippur, and dated 
r. rjoo tt.c. (Hilprecht, JSxattta/iow in Hiidt 
Lands, p, 343 and Plate), (.ft, the other 
hand, the former theory that the nude figures 
of the cylinders refer to ishtars < descent into 


show that a parallel development had taken place on the Anatolian side and no 
doubt Its cloy antecedents in Neolithic deposits of that report may ultimately 
be also brought to light, tt is characteristic of the evolution that the extreme 
stcatopygy noteworthy in the clay Neolithic class finds its equivalent in a 
broadening of the thighs of the stone copies, which are square cut with an 
indentation above on either side, while the legs at the same time are 
gradually straightened out, as best seen m the prevalent Lydadic type, 
die figure at the same time becoming more elongated. It is speciu \ 
interesting to observe that in the later specimens such as / from Sparta 
and / from the Cyclades 3 the signs of pregnancy are well developed. e 
have before us a Mother Goddess. 

Something of the traditional crudeness of the Neolithic clay figures is 
still preserved in the female image with chalk inlays Sound on the altar 
ledge of the very late • Shrine of the Doable Axes ' * at Knossos. where it 
occurred beside the sacred weapons and among votaries ol the Dove 
Goddess. The gross indigenous clay images of the Cyprian Aphrodite 
themselves survive the period of Minoan settlement. At knossos, on the 
other hand, the ■ Ring of Minos’ has supplied a nude personification in moie 
artistic style* executed, it would appear, m che First Late Minoan era 

Heir, mother naked, as S. Rdnadi lias well 
demonstrated, cannot hold. My own sugges¬ 
tion (71 of M. t M>- 5‘) <* a rcfaence 10 thlS 
is hardly warranted. Conversely, however, 
the doffing of all raiment by Ishtar before 
entering the Underworld may have been due 
10 traditional ideas as to the aspect of tis 


■ AM. MM., xvi 1.1891), p. S*i F'g. >■ 

5 In the liritish Museum: recently acquired 
by Mr. E. J. Forsdyte. 

1 P. of M„ i, p- 5 a, Tig. M.rt and A, and cf. 
iM, ii, Ft. I, p- 34-’ and n. 5 , 

‘ Sec below, § 117, Ft. I. 

V.r tvt t ate Cvt indkr snowtNO OFFKktsc, 

In »££. « Tin: •Sac... 

Fak tailed Hove ferCHeP mMUTt her* 


of nude 

type m 


q 103. The Mi moan Genu and their Relation to the Egyptian Hirro- 
potam us Goddess : Their Beneficent Functions and Divine Minis¬ 

The Mi wan Genii and their origin—Earlier Finos — MikhhSfer, fpc. ; 
Winters Comparison toil it Hippopotamus Goddess Ta-nri; Wear dorsal 
appendage, not skin of Victim ; Impersonation of animal victims excluded; 
Predominance of lions head type ; Genii sprung front Ta-urt but transformed 
in Minima sense ; Characteristics and attributes of Hippopotamus Goddess — 
resemblances presented by the Mi naan daemons; Astral relations of Ta-nri 
also reflected; Ta-urt - Ursa-Minor ; Controls 'haunch ' sign of Set (Ursa 
Major),- Impersonation of his , Guardian of Horns; Astronomic Ceiling of 
Sen-mitt Tomb ; Early imported scarab with Ta-urt type from Mesa to tomb ; 
First appearance of M moan Genii; Examples on bronze hydrias from Knr ion 
L.M. /b,* Suggestions of Crocodile between Genii; Correspondences with details 
of Egyptian astral scenes ; The 'Daemon Seals ' of Knossos ; Genii as carriers 
and leaders of animals; Bull and cow led by horns—parallelism with Vapheio 
scenes; Gatins lead in* lion; falls manic class of bead-seals with libation 
vessels, of M, M Ilf—L.M. /a date; Vegetation charms; Rain-bearing ritual 
on Seal types from Knossos and This be; Ewer-holding Genii engaged in 
similar ritual; Confronted daemons on t aphdo gem. pouring libations into 
fountain dasm before sacred palm—the fountain of Fermion ; Genii pouring 
libations into tripod cauldrons oh pillars and over altar-blocks and cairns ; 
Ta-urt and Minoan Genius on Cylinder .Seals, * Syro-IIUtile' and ' Cypro- 
Mmoan ; Mi non it Genii bear drink offerings to Goddess on Tiryns signet; 
Cylinder from Kahovalos with Genius guarding lion-slaying hero—Minoan 
IIirabies ; Analogy of Ta-urt assisting Horns against Ox of Set; Genii 
between lion guardians as representatives of divinity ; Genii as Ministers to 
youthful tit id — Bead-seal of Spartan basalt from Avdonin. 

Tiie The sacramental scenes of which we have a record in Lite ‘Camp-stool 

C^niT” Frescoes already described, where human votaries of both sexes are con¬ 
cerned, have already led to a comparison with parallel functions performed 
by the Minoan Genii, who play an important part in the religions icono¬ 
graphy of the Late Minoan Age. Thus have \\c seen on the great signet- 
ring of the ' Tiryns Treasure—here reproduced in its entirety in Fig. ;;sr*. 
a procession of four of these monsters bearing ewers from which to replenish 
the chalice in the hand of the seated Goddess, and itself identical in form 
with the gold cup held by one of the votaries of the Fresco. 

To this representation we shall return. 

Via. 334. Mikoan Genius 
t AKRviso Bull* 


Hippopotamus Goddess Ta-urt regarded as Source of Minoan Genii: 

Earlier Interpretations. 

A good idea of this class of subject will be given by the photographic tW 

i v rtf ilif» Chqkedonv leiltoid shown in Fig, •fo'f (® e < t0 °' h&fer 
n pro uc ion t- pjg ;JD 8 , 6), where the Minoan Genius, here with 

a hippopotamus-like head. Is carrying a huge wburt 
bull. The daemon has lion's feet. ^ on 

In the earliest archaeological notices ot «th^ 
this class of subject, such as Milchhfifers in 
tSS^," it was naturally approached in a hack 

ward direction along the tortuous paths of 
Greek mythology. A certain preference was 
shown for the horse-headed Demeter ol Vhi- 
galia and for allied forms or Erinys and Harpy, 

The type of the daemon holding a high-spouted 
vase, especially, did not fail to suggest Iris as 
sent by Zeus to fetch water from the Styx in a golden ewer of that form.' 

The true key was first supplied by Winter.* who pointed »«> *« the 
source of these monstrous shapes was to he found in the Egyptian Hippo¬ 
potamus Goddess T.-urt (Thueris), otherwise Reret-the nearest horse - 

type tons '^'elaborate attempts were made to vindicate the Hellenic 
character of these strange creations. Furtwangkr* indeed, ever resource. 
fH wl hi admitting the resemblance of the whole figure to that of the 

Hippopotamus Goddess, ventured on the bold suggestion • dial la-urt, as 

i -pS in Egyptian Art, represents the • specialisation o a type borrowed 
o n, the Mint.: daemons. Unfortunately, however, or this theory la.« 
was known in Egypt at least four centuries before the Genu appear m Crete. 

' See Iwluw,[ 1 . 453 . «<*>■ ■JW ” s '*; Dmampskehcteistvidlekhliit 

dunk bar: die Tauieris istclle von tier ^pii* 
schun Kiinst gemachtu 5 pedal isie rung eines 
vtm »ussen ObuHiefurien Dimonentypiu.* 
Professor Nilsson, who has collected much 
material relating to the tienii in his Mnoan 
and Myctnaenn Rdigitm, while admitting 
(p- 323 ) a striking tesembtonce to the Hip|nj- 
potanius Goddess in the case of the Phaestos 
s cnt (Fig, p, 43 J betow), yet finds the 

1 A. Milchhttfer. A*f&»& humt, P- 5 4 
seqq, and p. &o. Com pate, ttx* IMb* 

Suit, dcirlnt., 187 5, p. 41 Sti 4 q- : JJ 05 * 

bad,. Arch. 18S41 P- 'U “W-5 0v “* 
bedt, Ktcnstmvtiwl^ie, li», set fl* i S ° Un * 
las, •Apx * P- and 1 L Xt V 

* Hesiod, 2 7m- 7*4 *<»' * W 1 "** 


*' Anh- Ataei&r, iSgo, P* IoS - 

* (A»m id. !’- 4 1 : ' r ' comparison ■ f^feidieU*. 

1st eine Ahnlidikeii der gesammten destAlt comp 

mil der Hgyptischen iauens 


□ages, not 
skirts of 

of aoioiil 
c x~ 



Ertsssrt arssr •' — - ">■ —■ 

shippers,clad,according to a widespread ritual 
practice, in the skins of their victims, 1 as, in¬ 
deed, is frequently illustrated in Minoan Art.* 

In no case do these Minoan worshippers 
wear animal masks on their heads. Such, 
however, occur in the mimetic dance on the 
n i nth-century frieze of Assu r-nadf-pal at Ntne- 
\eJi (1 tg, "and this has been specially in- 
vokt d for comparison with the Cretan figures. 

But the comparison is quite unwarranted. 

I hese human-limbed performers at once de¬ 
clare themselves as of a different class from 
the Minoan demons with their animal legs. 

The skin of the animal, head and all, 
might well, indeed, be worn by votaries, such 
as those who took part in the goat dances 

Z'ZZ f? hny ™ H ; ,lls :1 " d iww* lion,, and wild boar, could 

have been impersonated m the same fashion. As applied to the on-in of 

itfacl inT °T lhere , iS ' Wver ‘ one h W ] V i^vement circumstance 
attaching to such an explanation. The worshippers, it is true, might have 

concealecl them heads and the upper part of their bodies in the " kins of 

I"™ VtC .7 S ' thCy COl]ld hw % ^ve grown claws or hoofs 

, are V!SI ' )lt " 1 many of their Minoan representations, and they 
would have found difficulty in imitating the articulation of animals' legs ' 
heir hind-paws indeed distinguish them from the family of composite 

' h “ m ^ > bem ^ s sowe!l known ^ Minoan Art, and to which the Minonnr 
imsdf, tlm man-stags man -goats\ and other monstrous shapes belon- 
all of these being provided with human legs. Neither was any attempt made 
to explain the peculiar character of their dorsal crests and appendages tint 
derive so naturally from the crocodile skin with its plaited termination wh4 
is a special feature of the Egyptian Hippopotamus Goddess. 

* ,JG p ^Daisttc Dancers in 

i-lQNS SkENS ; FriIlZj.; ftp a^sus- 

A, E + (.ook, Ani/fu if ff ws/iip ^ 

Jfyamean Jp (/./A S., xiv (1S94), p . a, 
seqq )r See too, his Zeas i i t p. seqq* 

■ See Nibspit, a/. aV. t p. i M 
Uj'aid, Mmmttnts l, p], ; 0 

and cf. Cook, qa tiY f pp. lf - t 



The varied character of the animal physiognomies, in the case of these 
Genii—among which, however, the lion greatly predominates—has itself 
no real significance. The 1 Nile horse'—known to the Ancient Egyptians 
themselves as the Nile 1 pig '—being unknown to the Minoan artists, was 
naturally identified in different ways with creatures familiar to them. 

Genii still to be regarded as mainly Minoan Creations, 

Tins is not to say that the Genii as seen In the early Cretan seals are 
otherwise than truly remarkable creations of the Insular Art, Formal and 
functional traces of their Egyptian prototype no doubt exist, but they were 
themselves only taken over to be transformed for the uses of Minoan 
popular religion. The animal element in the Genii is now predominantly 
leonine ; indeed, on an important series of seal impressions from the Knossian 
Palace, one of them is accompanied by a man-lion, So, too, the beneficent 
function that they are mainly seen performing, the protection of vegetation, 
does not seem to have been a special attribute of Ta-urt. Rain-bringing 
rites themselves have no relation to the climatic conditions of the Nile 
Valley. On the other hand, the parallel that naturally presents itself of the 
winged Assyrian Genii fertilizing the female palm-tree,’ relates to a period 
some three centuries later than the time when the Minoan Genii were in 
vocme in Crete. Neither is there any relationship in their form. 


Characteristics of Hippopotamus Goddess. 

The Hippopotamus Goddess is portrayed with the body and arms of 
a woman, and the head and legs of a hippopotamus, and. as already mentioned, 
wears a dorsal appendage apparently representing the skin of a crocodile, 
with which animal she was so nearly connected in cult (Fig. 3oG,c r i>). 
According to certain religious sj stems the Hippopotamus Goddess was 
the female counterpart of Set and the mother of the Sun God whom she 
brought into the world at Ombos.* for which reason the house or his nativity 
was shown in that city. The Goddess forms part of a triad, including 
Nekhebet or Eileithyia, the Goddess of Child-birth, and is generally depicted 
as in an advanced state of pregnancy. It is rather as a help in child-birth 
that she first appears m Egyptian religious Art, about the time of the 

Twelfth Dynasty. 

As can be seen from Fig. i. the hippopotamus head of 1 a-urt 

is generally assimilated to that of the crocodile, so otten carried on her 


> E B Trior Tin Winged figures ef the Assyrian and other Arntni Montmestb {/'rot. 
Bibl. Areh., iSgo). ’ * Budge, Gois of ths E&plb**, ii, 5S9 , 

nance of 







but trans- 


i n n 



o i H »j>po- 










sented by 



back. Fig. however, from the Ramesseum at Thebes 1 —where she 
shown in an astral rela¬ 

tion.of which more will 
be said below—gives a 
fairly good impression 
of the original type. 

In its main features 
it is practically identi¬ 
cal with the earlier de¬ 
sign from the Sen-mut 
Tomb shown in Fig, 

3fi2 below. The figure 
here with the mane ris¬ 
ing in front of the head 
and the tongue pro¬ 
truding, and the preg¬ 
nant outline of the 
body, shows points of resemblance 
with that of more than one Minoan 

'I here can be no question, for 
instance, ol the general correspon¬ 
dence with the design of the kid- 
holding daemon on thecomdinn bead- 
sea] from a Phaestos tomb* Fi" 
‘iaJt, a. though in that case the upper 
corner is fractured. The pot-bellied 
outline and the pose of the legs with 
their feet, in this case clearly clawed, 
is practically identical. That one 
design is closely related to the other 
it is impossible to doubt. The con- 
/en extends to the carrying 

1 lr ' 3 r”^’r~ POTAMUS G ? ,JIJESS . Ta (TUT ; f/> SEAMING 
Ckocorni-K UxV pack; carrying n in hand. 

Fjg. 357 + HimMWAUts Guarding 1 haunch 
sign; Ramusskdm. 

'• Dun ^ animal in one case a crocodile, in the other a kid. The direct 

!•[. Brunch, Tfttsaurvs Instrifthnum 
Aigyptwarum, 1’t. I, p. I#4 , Fig. r: the 
Hippopotamus Goddess (a) holding up a small 
crocodile and grasping a sword-iike instrument 
(i i), to left ol which are the rings of the 
chain by which ( 5 ) the forepart of the bull 

sign {Maskheti) is attached, Horus (4) to 
left aims a spear at this. To right" is a 
‘ Scorpion' Goddess {Sa/ge/). 

.* Savignoni, Men. Ant >iv (1904), p . 6-5, 

fig. 97 a. 



indebtedness of the Minoan design indeed might have been still more 
striking had the back of the head and the crest been preserved. The stone 
itself, of the form described as the flattened cylinder, is interesting as an 

indication of a rela¬ 
tively early date, since 
the vogue of this type 
belongs rather to the 
last Middle Minoan 
Period and the suc¬ 
ceeding transitional 
phase that covers 
L, M. W 

On the chalcedony 
lentokl again {Pig- 
358 , S) - the conforma¬ 
tion of the head and snout of the Minoan daemon betrays a distinct 

Fk>, Corseuan 

Beah-shal, Ph vestos. 


35M- Chalcedony 

resemblance to that of the hippopotamus (ct. Fig-. 334 ) 4 Here, too, \\e 
recognize the swollen belly, while a hull is borne on the shoulders in place 
of the crocodile carried on her back by l a-urt in big. ,1.18,11, 

Parallelism between Genii and Ta-urt extends to her Astral 


Mv own belief, expressed many years since, 3 that these daemon types 
were essentially rooted in that of the Hippopotamus Goddess, has only 
been strengthened by the materials since accumulated, anti the suspicion 
voiced in my monograph on the Tree and Pillar Cull of a surviving 

* The tomb in which the intaglio was 
found at Phaestos belongs to a series dated 
somewhat later (from the lower borders of 
L. M. U to l-M. HI 6 ), but the fractured 
state of the stone allows for the possibility of 
its having been somewhat of nn heirloom, t ,n 
the other side of the gem is a bull-grappling 
scene of an abnormal kind {op, at,, [>. <»i6. 
Fig, () -, b). A male figure is seen half kneel¬ 
ing, clad in a kilt with the ends of two cords 
hanging down from its girth. This method 
of cording round recalls that of the nkirt 01 a 
female figure on a M- M. 11 signet (‘ ■ “) ^ 
ir, Pi, I, p. 33, Fig- IS)- 

s From un impression talcen in. Rome by 
Cades {Jmprtsstens % 54, No. 75). Lajard, 
Cullt dt Jtfi/Ara t PL XLIII. tg; MilchMfcr, 
A*rf< d A Vfff/. pp + 54, 55 . ^g- 44 , £ 'I ke 
animal is dearly a hull, not as Cook suggests 
{Animat Warship f dv* : /. IL A'., kivy p. £4)+ 
a Cretan goat, 

a A, E. p J/yr, Tm and Fitter Cut/, p. 7 1 ; 
J, f/.S rj x\i (lyoi), p. i(yg r The astral 
character of the Goddess + as the image of a 
Constellation standing in comics ion with the 
*■ Haunch %flur Charles's Wain \ and its parah 
k-Stsm with Uhc solar lions, Griffins* Sphinxes, 
and Krio-spbinxes 1 was there insisted on. 

re L. 1 [ id n 
of Ta-urt 
also rc- 
rleccetl ? 











1 haunch 1 
si gn of 




astral element in the Minoan Genii has received—as shown below—some 
suggestive illustration. 1 * * It will be seen, indeed, that we have to deal, 

not only with formal correspondences in the 
dorsal appendage and the crest above the 
forehead, the actual resemblance of the head 
occasionally presented, and even the pot-bellied 
outline, but with certain functional aspects such 
as the holding up or carrying of animals in the 
same way as the crocodile on the back or in 
the hand of Ta-urt, of which, indeed, we seem 
to have an actual reminiscence.* Over and 
above this, moreover, the divine relationship in 
which these daemonic creations appear—espe- 

hlr.;, 35 * 1 , 
6 . ‘OkKAt 


fl,‘ Ox-LEli " SjGJJ ; 
Bear r Cowstella- 

cially as ministrants or guardians of a young 
God— shows a real parallelism with that of the Egyptian Goddess as the 
protectress of her son, the young Sun God, Homs. 

I here are reasons for believing that the Hippopotamus Goddess was 
herself identified with the Polar sign of the Little Bear {Ursa Miner)? It 
is therefore not surprising that later on in Egypt -as is illustrated in 
Fig. :i(U above by the design from the Ramesseum—we find Ta-urt stand¬ 
ing in a special relation to the constellation known to us as the ’ Great 

Hear ' or ' Charles’s Wain T , 

As a celestial sign the symbol for this hail been the .so-called H aunch, 
the fore-leg of an ox or calf, such as was habitually used from the early days 
of ihe {)h\ Kingdom as a sacrificial offering* 4 and Unis supplied the hiero¬ 
glyphic character, kh$p$k A which has the same form. That this sign should 
Ihive acquired an astral significance becomes indeed patent to the eye when 
its outline as show n in Fig r 359 , a, is compared with & depicting the stars 
ut the Great Bear constellation with linear connexions/ 

1 he constellation that marks this dark quarter of the sky was the 
symbol of Set p who, probably from his association with the principal Hyksos 

1 Sec below, pp. 440, 441, 

: Sue be] dw, p. 45a and Kig. Ml, 

1 This view is favourably regarded by the 
l^wst authority i/n t.srly Astronomy, Ernst 
/inner {Gtsdtkkft dtr Shn^mk, 1931, 
P* 2? )»- 1 he crocodile on her buck ap[ia- 

reritly represents the sL-irs t anti * of pnm, 

4 It is thus seep, for instance, cut and 
carried as a joint of offering, on a Vth 

Dynasty Tomb (F, LI. fhifliih* Afmktia t*f 
Ptiikhttfp<trui Akhtftpzt' Pi. I, Pl r 3 X, No. 140). 

• The relative position of stars of this 
cons! eSlation as here given is based on A, 
Polo's sketch of the drcumpohir coristd la- 
lions, North horizon ofTbbes r, ?qoo nx r in 
his article on the Astronomic Ceiling of 
Sen-imp, En Am, Oct, icfto. (Cf ri too t CArvm'- 
ym d*$gyflte t Jan, iyji t p, 43, l-'ig, 44 



deity , acquired Inter a more malignant character. 

Fig. S$H, The Ox Sign or Set, chaineii iw I’a t UT 

U nder the New Kingdom 
it thus hecame a chief func¬ 
tion of the Hippopotamus 
Goddess to keep watch and 
ward over this sinister elc- 
merit and to make dear a 
place Jit the heavens for the 
birth of Homs as the Spring 
Sun. She was, in fact, an 
impersonation of Isis, and 
it is expressly said that 1 it 
is the office of Isis' (or 
Hathor) in the shape of a 
hippopotamus («// ren't) to 

of Jsis, 
of flatus. 


F|C 301 Ttit-BUL' AND *Oi-HAUHCH ’ Sign of Set[ = * Gbkat Ufa*-) as chained 

Cm** T«. . «. S’** « 

S:A-«l'T; R \\th tJVNASTV , J, PTULEMMC ; C, -V\l* IhMMt, I « ILAE - 

guard the bronze chain in the ' Northern Sky,' where is the fore-leg {Mof>s/t) 
of Set'. In scenes like that of Fi-. 3 ISD she holds enchained ilu* imper¬ 
sonation of the evil God, while Horus aims his spear at It. 

. }}Mk <,/ thi IMtJ. XV!i, is. Cf. Hrugsch, Tfowru! Instripfimum i. 

p. 121 seqq. Dir Sttrnbildtr aw ni'mUiAie» HtmwtL 

0 g 2 






l a roni a comparatively early date in the New Kingdom the Hippo¬ 
potamus Goddess thus appears in a scries of astronomic scenes appropriate 

I ! jg. SiVl , Ceiling of Innfh Cm \ m it kr of Kenmut To mu showing Hippopotamus 
Guiukess as G can in an or thk 1 On-leg r Constellation. 

to ceilings, holding by a chain, or at least controlling, the * ox-leg * sign of Set, 
now, from its hostile association, often inscribed as Miljtyw, ‘the 

Club, the Striker . The alternative name khopsh f also applied to the familiar 
Egyptian scimitar, is due to its resemblance in form to the * ox-leg ' sign. 


Horns is seen aiming his spear at it in Fig. 362 . Often the sign is liorckreii 
by the seven polar stars. The fuller representation of the constellation 
as the whole animal certainly suggests a comparison with the seven p otig 
mcr oxen'— septeinfriotus —of Roman astral lore. 

S °Versions of these scenes give* in Figs. MM since Any .Unstrst. 

the most prominent Junction of thcHippopo 
tamus Goddess during the period when she 
influenced the rise or the M moan Genii with 
which we are here concerned, I lie possible 
reaction of elements from this cycle must 
therefore always lie borne in mind. 

In this connexion, indeed, the recent >w- 
discovery of one of these astronomical pieces scn-mui 
in an inner chamber of the 1 orab of Sen- 
mut. the great Minister of Hatshepsut and 
Thothmes I, is of special interest, since the 
Kcftiu tributaries and their offerings on the walls of this tomb supply, as 
has been shown.' the first illustration ol the inornate connexion at 
*“ epork between Crete and Egypt. The ceiling of this room present an 
elaborate astronomical scene of this hind in wh,ch the Htppopo amus 
Goddess plays the principal part (Fig. 3 ia). 

controlling the principal pohir star by means of a pulley. She holds a n 
and smaU crocodile in her hands, as usual, and another crocodile is on 

baCk T^^^theS^tnownto Crete hv the beginning Wg* 

of the Middle Minoan Age is apparent from .be already redded = „„ t 

„ U white steatite scarab - ST 

FE<r 3H3 11 tbe mam contents ol which were m. ui. i. d™ 

Fig, 363 . Scarab from Pi .at a nos 

1 See esfiecially, VoL ii, Ft. ^ P 1 

SMIO. . ,, *L 

T Xjint hud ides. FSw/fo* Mtw ™* 

PI. XIV, No. 1075. ant) P' 11 7* Wh f n llT * 1 
published by me, P- of M-i it l 1 ' ;oo< 1 * ' 

I accepted ihc vie* taken by Hr. H. K. Hill 
that the scarab w.ts a Minoan imitation. But 

bis manner Judgement pronounced it— no 
doubt correctly—as of Egyptian fabric. (See 
his observations on The Civilization of Greece 
in the ISmrize Age, i9 3 ?. P- fi 9. note r \) 

* The sketchy animal figure be bind may 
repress', as 1 i: * 11 sugg 681 ** {6t - a ,tlontc! '- 






M in m n 

J anti¬ 
thetic * 

actual evidence of the reaction of this type on Minoan Art. The large 
deposits of seal impressions from Zakro and Hagk Triada as ivell as 
that from the 'Temple Repositories' at Knossos, dating from the dose of 
the Middle Minoan Age and the succeeding transitional epoch, contain no 
example. What seems to be the earliest instance—on the • Flattened 
Cylinder , Fig. UuSa above—may come within the limits of L, M. 1 a. On 
the other hand, when they become frequent, these reminiscences of the 
Hippopotamus Goddess are repeatedly associated with the ‘antithetic' 
scheme of opposed monsters or guardian animals—generally on either side 
of a central object such as a column, altar-block, or sacred tree—that first 
becomes common abou t the mature L. M. I epoch . 1 It is very characteristic 
ol L. M, 1 <\ where it is of frequent appearance. Thus the representative 
example of this class, Fig. ;57S below—on a gem already cited for the parallel 
it supplies to a chalice of the ‘Camp-stool Frescoes'—was found in the 
\ apheio Tomb, the last ceramic remains of which are, as we have seen, in 

V* e ^ st '^ e ^ ** was an ‘amygdaloid* seal-stone exhibiting a 

single Genius, a replica of one of the pair displayed on the other. It will 

, c scen t | iat reni3r kable illustrations of these Minoan daemons on an 
imported bronze 'hydrin* found at Ktirion in Cyprus, described below— 
together with another vessel of the same form 3 also belong to the closing 
First Late Minoan phase (L. M. I 6). 





dctjdls of 



Indications of Influence of Astral Relations of Ta-urt on those of 
Minoan Germ in the 1 Daemon Seals' of the Palace Hoard, 

I a the astronomical scenes in which the 1 1 ippopotamus Goddess takes part 
on .gj ptian ceilings such as that of the 1 omb of Sen-mut, several features 
appear which may well be regarded as having a special relation to the repre- 
set, tat ions of M i rioan Genii. As l*a ring on til is relnl Eonsh ip it is to be noted 
tliLLt the ' ox-leg which Ta-urt controls with a chain at times takes the form of 
a whole figure of a bull. So, too, both the bovine shape and the divine 11 ippo- 
potamus itself —especially in later examples—are accompanied by stars 

(>n tlle bronze hydrin from Kurion—more or less contemporary with 
the Sen-nnit ceiling—the connexion of the daemons with bulls is doubly 
emphasized. They are seen coursing round the rim. and their heads are 
triply grouped beneath each handle in place of the marine subject on the 
other vessel Bovine animals are led by the Genii on two of the finest 
intaglios presenting the subject, in one case by a short cord (see below 

1 for the ‘antithetic 1 scheme, see J\ 
ii'i PP- 5 G» 516. 

1 See above, p. 393 , J’jg. 
' p. JS 3 seqij. 


pig. 368, b). On a serpentine bead-seal from Crete (Fig. * a JvImoan 
daemon Is portrayed between two stars, In this case carrying a stag. 

The stars here are highly significant of the original astral connexion. 

Equally suggestive is a feature of a seal-type repealed oa a aeries of 

1 eigli tee si clay i m- k nu&sos 

1-ic. 354. Cretan Lektoi n 
Seal showing Mi scan Gf,- 
s tus ii stween ' 1'wo Star 
carkvisg Stag. 

Fig. 3 ii 5 . Seal ImiEWiow 
1, [on with Animals' Legs in f'kunm ; 
Area of I Daemon Seals \ 

pressions* found 

in a deposit at the sign. 

back of the ' Ser¬ 
vice Stairs ’ in 
the Domestic 
Quarter, known 
from them a;} 
the ‘ Area of the 
Daemon Seals', 
and in fact form¬ 
ing part ol a 
more extensive 
deposit derived 

from the 4 Room of the Archives * off the same staircase. 

In the design of these, as shown in Fig. 305, wc see a Mmoan Genius 
with a composite monster, lion-headed but human-legged, before him In 
the field in front of these appear two animals' hind-legs that might well be 
a reminiscence of the 'ox-leg' or khopsk sign of Set. so intimately connected 
with the astral functions of the Hippopotamus Goddess, though m that case 

it is the foreleg. 

Semi as 


Genii as Carriers and Leaders of Animals, 

Of the carrying function, common both to the prototype and to the ft 
, . , * 'liA nnwii fresco fragment from a private house at an 

Mycenae **supplies a good example (Fig. 8till). On this animals, with heads j-*- 

i thpir finder to those of asses, are seen bearing a pole with .intnmis: 
compared by tneir nnaer w Myc«»» 

of the animals, whose heads certainly resemble ffesc „. 

spiral band. 1 The mane 

’ MilchhMcr, A*f**V, ew., p. 55 . ,-1 « 
54l r: FurtwSnglcr, Berlin Mm. Cat ,. 
schnittene Stcine, 1 * 1 . 1 , ’ *. an d P- 3 ) ; ■ L lt ' 

pi ii « - Overbeck, 6>. Kumtmyiha’^c. 
B.V& 3 ^ A. 13 . Cook, j. ff. St 
1 ^ 94 , 11 , Ij3 r Fig* 19 - 

s Many of these were fuunG m a very 

imperfect state. In another deposit a type is 
also represented with a Genius holding it ewer 
and with a kind nf spray behind. 
a E-fr. "Ajix- PL X. 1 r 
Mi is rather, as Tsonnias points out (*>/■- 
p. 161). a pole with a spiral hand round it 
than a io\k a* it Iles elsewhere been described. 



those of asses, is prolonged in a shaggy appendage, with chevron decoration . 1 
that conceals part of the girdle.* Tsou litas' opinion that the pole was used for 
carrying certain objects is supported by the design on a cornelian bead-seal 

Fin, 3tl0- Daemons with Ass-ukk Heads carrvino 
POLE; ok FrescoFragment ntoM Mycenae. 

from Crete, Fig. 307, 
on which a daemon of 
this class is seen bear¬ 
ing in this manner two 

Fig 387 . Genius on 
Ch eta n Lento! d Pea jj-sk a u 
carrying Lions on Pole, 

lions heroic trophies of the chase—their fore-parts hanging down , 3 

Elsewhere the- Genii appear carrying animals on their shoulders. On 
the Cretan lentoid already illustrated in Fig, 364 a stag is thus borne. In 
other cases we see hulls , 1 On the 1 flattened cylinder", Fig. 358 , 0 , above, the 
daemon holds a kid with Ins forelegs. 

1 This chevron type of ornament, origin* 
Ml)' taken over from the graining of cut stone¬ 
work, ts also frequent in metalwork. 

1 This procession of oss-hemded Genii 
seems, as well its certain gem-types, io have 
suggested a connexion with the a nima Iheaded 
figures on a shell relief from Phaestos {Afm. 
duK, >di p p. 129 Btqq, and PI* VIII, i)« But 
these, with their human limbs and long skirls, 
clearly derive from the Babylonian class illus¬ 
trated by the well-known fc Hades* tablet and 
a similar one from Astur. (bee especially dd I u 
Sehip A a Cvruhigiitf di /*fsaish*s y d-y. : A'r ttdt- 
ftw ft def/t ri Ayy JA Kvii, 190K, j> r 

seqq, ; and Nilsson, MinpanMyevnc^an A't- 
PP* J20 t 321.) 

1 Cornelian lentoid, Crete. MikhkMer, 

Anfangt, drv. p pp. 54^ 55* Fig, 44 . ?>. CL 
lirmYii* Gr. Kumtgrirkkht*', p. 41 ; Ovcrbeck p 
£/r. KuttslmMhol^t i <ti p 683, Ac. 5 Cook* 
Animal Worship* /. //. xiv, iSr^ T p, 
&4t Fig. 1; P. el C t HhK dt PArt, vi, p. 845, 
Fig 428, 8; Berlin Mus. (Furtwfijigler, Cal., 
No. 11 ). 

4 Set above, p, 435, Fig. 358, A On a 
serpentine lentoid from Salonka a similar 
scene recurs. Milchhiiferj An/, ti A' p pp, 
54n 55- Fig. 44,4/4 Cook. Animal IVorsAi/, 
l ~ y, I J* jV- N. k xiv (1894), p, jo6 f Fig^ 9* 
Furtwv, Arr//* £.*£, No. 13. The design is 
very badly preserved, und MilchhlMeA 
il lust rut ion is misleading. 



At times they are depicted as guiding or leading animals. On a KuU*wi 
lentoid bead-seal of Spartan basalt, big. a daemon, with a head that boras, 

combines something of the boar and lion and a bristling mane, guides a bull 

Fit;. 368. <1, Mi hoax GiniUS leading Bull, oti LhntOID Bead-seal of Spartan 

Basalt - b Similar Scene with Cow ; roj kd isv Horns, Handed Auatk Lentoid, 

mum in 

by his horns, while in front is what looks like the conventional head of a 
palm tree in a pendant position, i bis gem. is the same as that published 
by Milchhofer fifty years since in his An/Sn^der k'unsl' from one of Cades 
casts (54 No. ; 6 ). made in Rome in i S 5 ; and the following years. The original 
was included m the Mayer Collection, and was subsequently purchased by 
ine 2 Iiy a curious coincidence a lentoid bead-seal ot handed agate, which 
must he regarded as a companion piece, Fig. MS&. executed we may con- 
elude by the same engraver, was later acquired by me at Athens from us 
Greek possessor, who had obtained it in Crete, where he formerly resided. 
In this case, the animal is a cow- the udder being clearly discernible -and 
the daemon—here of the lion-headed type-leads the animal by means ol 

a cord, which coils round the base of the horns , 1 

The bovine types on these two parallel seals themselves suggest an 
interesting observation. The bull of Fig. W *, "ith his raised head and 

1 I*. So, Fig. 51 (Leipzig, 1883), See, too, 
Cook, of, tit., pp. r$i. « 53 > big. =1. 

- At the sale of a portion ot die Mayer 
Colleen tin in iSjy- Cf. C. I - 1 >ativ, i at.of th\ 
Engraved Gctrn and Ri*g* in ih< Cutmbn of 
Jastph Mayer, ISA. (price it}. It 15 

described, p.4, Ko. to, as a 'group consisting 
uf a bull, a dragon-like horse, and a coiled 
serpent, grotesquely executed. Early Greek 

* Fur photographic reproductions of Figs, 
3tiS h } see SuppU PI. IA\ a, ^ below. 



ism with 




Fie. 3G f j. Minoan Genius 
Leading Lion ; Cornelian 
Llntoid, Melos. 

protruding tongue, and with one hind-leg drawn back, is essentially of the 
same type as that of the Vapheto Cup U, belonging, as has been shown in 

detail in the J liird Vblume of this work 1 , to the 
scene in which—lured into dalliance by a decoy 
cow—he is lassoed round one of Ills hind-legs by 
a Minoan cow-boy,® 

On the other hand, the upraised tail of the 
cow of big, the udder of which is unmistak¬ 
ably indicated, reproduces the physical sign of 
sexual inclination already noted in the animal, 
engaged in amorous converse with the bull in the 
central scene of the same cup. 1 

! heboid artistic style oft lie engraving ofboth 
these intaglios itself fits in well with the approxi¬ 
mate date of the gold cups exhibiting these toreutic 
masterpieces—approximately supplied by the fine L. M. I h pottery found 
with them in the Vnpheio Tomb, 

To gems of this group may be here added the cornelian lentoid. 
Fig, 300, said to have been found in Melos/ 1 worn and slightly fractured 
below, in which another lion-headed Genius is shown leading a lion. In 
the field above the lions hind quarters there appears what seems to be an 
impenect ^shaped shield, of the significance of which, as a religious 
symbol, something has been already said. 1 It may be thought to connect 
itsell in a special way with die young warrior God. 

We are thus led to another important group in which the Genii appear 
as if executing divine behests or as actually ministering to the Minoan 
Goddess or the youthful God, 

before describing scenes in which they appear hi direct relation to the 
God-head, a class of seal-stones must be referred to in which the Genii are 
seen acting as vegetation spirits, holding libation vases or pouring magical 
draughts or water upon baetylic pillars, altar blocks and holy cairns, or, as 
already noted, into a chalice before the sacra! horns and nursling palm 
shoots. Seal impressions described below* couple them with relatively 
huge barley-corns, as harvest-bringers and guardians of granaries. 

1 / J , oj J/., iii, |,. tSi -*cqq. 

Ibid. , p, i #4, 1 ’ig, 1127 , Thu conven¬ 
tional heart of flit palm, however, introduced 
•ntt> the field, rather recalls the scene on Cup A, 
; J&Wj P- 1S3 and note. Cf. p loa t J,iArt^ 

htfit d n'Skrr, Areh t Imt„ ix (1906), t>fK 
21,4. 295- 
' A. E. Coll. 

/'. of A iii, p, 3 14 se(|q. 

Sec below, ppw fis6, 637, Eij.. (i].j r 


Relation of Genii ewer-bearing to * Talismanic ’ Class of Seal*stones, 

To understand the function of the Minoan Genii as waterers anti pro- Taiis- 
moters of vegetation it is necessary to recall a special function of the seal- c iass of 
stones themselves on which these representations appear. They were, in 
fact, largely worn as charms to secure certain material benefits of more than tibatio# 
one kind. 

In the present case it will be seen that the vessels borne by these m.m. mi 
daemons, with their mostly prominent spouts, fit on to the motives ot a 
series of talismanie seal-stones that were already in very general use in the 
Age immediately preceding that to which die bulk of these seals belong. 

Some account of the general category of engraved stones to which this 
series belongs has already been given in the First Volume of this work, 
where their talismanic or amutetic character is clearly demonstrated. 1 
From the hasty execution of many of these Intaglios and their conven¬ 
tional designs it might at first have been thought that they belonged to 
the very close of the Minoan decadence. The occurrence, however, of 
many stones of this class, including specimens with spouted vases, in the 
graves of the Sphungaras Cemetery in East Crete, 1 belonging to M. M. Ill 
and the succeeding L. M. I a stage 3 shows that they are really a product 
of a very flourishing period of Minoan Art history. It is clear, indeed, 
that some of the types of tins magical class, such as the lion's mask, go 
back to the Second Middle Minoan Period. 4 

The area in which by far the greatest number of these have come 
to light is the Province of Siteia. comprising the Easternmost district 
of the Island, though they are also found In Mirabello, Pedeada, and 
Central Crete generally, including Knossos/ and extend sporadically to 
Polyrrhenia in the extreme West/ Among common types of this class 

1 J\ pfAf.< i, pp- 672-5, and cf. Figs. 492 . 


a E. H. Hall* SphtwHgarttf {I?*fa ef /*»- 

j 1 'IVtJ Hi it .1 /UStN Hi . ,] tl f/frOp lit?/ f H Nt - 

tums) T pp, 70* and Fig* 45. ot\ ibis T 

P. p/ jlf., i, p. 672. 

■ Sdii;sl‘ ini] juried speinnl-ens of this class., ot 
greenish fuTcnce^ were I*jlj ncl in. M vEiao tunics 
associated with pottery of the L. M* I £ style* 
putr J\ o/A/., t p for. dt. Two of these faience 
specimens arc in the L’ol lection of the British 
School at Athens, 

1 A, kindred ‘ ] ion's niaiik 1 type Appears in 

the hieroglyphic series. 

* E,g. h Xantbudide^ E^. *Apx*t 1907, PL 
JJ, No. 155. high's[wilted vase, 156, flying 
eagle, ship type of this class h also from 
Knossofi (No. a mil her from Pbaestos 

(XV'- So p PL 7 1 , u sepia appears on one fmm 
Kciliymnos 1, No. 7.^ Srriptu Aftnthi, p. 

(T.. too p Xos. 4.0 and 46 fur similar types 1 v( 
spouted vasep 

l have impressions of two specimens 
from that sile> erne apparently a convent tuna L- 
i/jcinrtof the octopus type, another a degrada¬ 
tion of a spots ted vase between branches. 

44 6 


are lions masks—perhaps to give physical strength—stricken wild goats 
(for hunters), fish, and octopods or sepias, ships, pillared structures, and the 
Double Axe. It is an interesting coincidence that many of these stones, 
once made to secure magic protection or divine aid to the old Minoan folk 
in their various vocations, were re-used—especially those of lighter hue— 
by the Cretan mothers of our times for their own physical needs, and 
are hence known as ‘ galopetras' or ' milk-stones d 



charm sl 



Vegetation Charms. 

I he talismanic class of seal-stones with which we are here concerned! 
presents three varieties of vessels* which, however, appear an similar 
connexions. 1 hese stones may he comprehensively described as 1 vegetation 
charms \ 

An important place among them Is taken by a kind of pedestal led 
chalice with two S-shaped handles, and usually, though not always, capped 
by a conical cover. Examples of both types are given in Fig* 370, kc? the 
lirst oJ special Interest from the appearance above the prostrate branch— 
itself an emblem of vegetation, and which in other cases is an upright shoot— 
a rayed circle that may be regarded as a sun symbol. A better pictographic 
rendering ot, drought caused by the score]dug summer sun of Crete could 
hardly be imagined, and the chalice itself would be naturally associated with 
rai upbringing rites, 

A cornelian lentoid with two upright branches on either side of the 
chalice was found on the site of Knossos in t 898 , In other cases, as in 
Hg, ,*70, r, the cup appears above a wide base which has the appearance of a 
gate with a fence, such as is also suggested by Fig. 372, a, below. Inland 
£■ vve see the chalice surmounted by a conical cover. On a specimen In the 
Finlay collection 3 the vessel Is set against a kind of framework. 

I l is clear that the vessel itstll belongs to the 1 kantharos h type, to 
the introduction of which Into Crete early In the Middle Minoan Period, 
from models in silver plate, attention has been already called in this work , 4 

1 This circumstance greatly assisted me in 
aeiHsiring Minoan bead-seals during my earlier 
travels in Crete. 

: Two of ihese stones were found near the 
site of GouLas fh ig. 37 n)_ a I purchased on 
the site at Hfigins Andonis ; h ttas obtained by 
meat H. NikoEuos, r vras sketched by me at 
Gras, near Girapetnu All are cornelian, A 

similar type is found on oncfucc ofa three-ssded 
scat-stone of she same material from Geraki, 
Pedtuda, in the K notion region 1 Xanihudstigs 
T]h^ + A px- f 1907, PI. ML No, 47* y). 

* In the British School, Athens. 

+ P * of M , i, pp. igi-j, and Figs. 



The widespread use or this form of vessel for some simple popular rite 
designed to promote vegetation is itself of singular religious inteiest. 
As a symbol of cult it survived into Hellenic times to be taken over by 

Fig, 370 , a , b . c . ‘Kanthawe*' Type os Taus manic Bead-Seals from Eastern Crete. 

Dionysos—the Wine God whose social relation to Ariadne marks him as 
the representative of the youthful male consort of the Minoan Goddess. 

From the Seventh Century onwards the kantkares appears ns the 
special coin-type of Naxos,’ wreathed with ivy-leaves and with bunches of 

graj^es hung from its handles, coupled later as 
also at Minos and elsewhere— with the head of 

Yit\ Dion y" o:i - . ... 

k L mi 1 with reference to the corneal cover it is in¬ 

teresting to observe that it recurs over a two- 
ha ml led cup on two ol the H. I riada tablets oi 
Class A. On one of these, Fig. :*7I it is followed 
by 'the two-legged axe*. and a ship sign terminates 
the inscription. 

In contrast to the original connexion of these 
two-handled chalices with the Troadic province 
stands another class of vessels of undoubtedly 
Egyptian derivation, associated with these 1 talis- 
nrinic' < r em$ These are the one-handted ewers, also of metallic shape. 
With „ curving spout rising from the body life that of a coffee-pot (Fig. STS). 
The type itself already appears amongst the Minoan hieroglyphic signs, and 
as [jointed out by me in Strifta Uimmf resen,l.les in its characteristic 
spout the well-known class of Egyptian libation vases, ff With the handle 

ti , v© F 

Wujaii_C* 5 ffF 

Fic. 371. H. TriadA 
Tablet mi tit Covered 

1 B.M, Cat.. Crrtt and Atgran Island} 
(Warwick Wroth). j). 1io btqq. and l’l. , 
l have also seen an early gem of ihc 

Mel tan class— r- 700 n.c,— of pale steatite 
with a kanihar&i design. 

1 VoL i, p. iJ9r Wfo* 4° 




as Egyi 1 " 



added, as usual with Cretan adaptations of Egyptian forms* In spite of 
the further evolution of the pedestal this relationship can hardly be doubted* 
though it must be borne in mind that handled and spouted vessels, such as 
the silver, teapot-like vase from the Byblos tomb. 1 had continued in use on 

I'ta, 3"2. 1 IitiH stsjUTKD Ewkrs ox Talis.uan tc Beau-seals. 

the Syrian side at a time when the use of spouts was only of exceptional 
use in Crete. 

1 he coftce-pot shape of this type of vessel is usually (Fig* 37*2, a-&) 
enhanced by the appearance of a conical lid, similar to that so often seen 
in tile case of the two-handled chalices. 

Here, too, the close association with vegetable motives is clearly 
brought out. In Fig. 372, u, we see conventional trees rising within a fence- 
like enclosure, and it is possible that libations with the general object of 
promoting vegetation were often made lie fore a sacred tree or grove. The 
I lorn-si taped spray to the left may show the reaction of the 'Sacral I lorns 
Complete * vegetable Horns also occur* At other times, a spray or branch 
rises from within the vessel. In c this is supplemented by a similar 
vegetation symbol before the spout, 1 while behind is the 'mountains’ or 
■ earth sign—a frequent hieroglyphic form J here on a kind of base. Oil 
a three-sided clay sealing the branch and the "earth' sign are coupled with 
the ‘ plough 

1 Sec P. of M„ ii, |*i, n, p. a* 5 , |.’i g . 
;Vil, a, and iidd., p, ft 54j {CC. Ch. Virol- 
Iraud, Syria , [ii. p, seqq*). A later 
Cretan parallel is supplied by the tea pot-like 
vase of faience front the Cent tat Palace 
Treasury at Knossos {P. r>f M., ii, Ft. 11, 
p. a? 5 , Fig, 3'H, i). 

1 On a cornelian bead-seal obtained by me 
at Girapetra (Hierapytrui) in 

1 Serif fa Afi/ioa, i, pp. i; 3 , -34, No. 114, 
where Hiitite, Egyptian, and Babylonian 
parallels are given. 

♦ For the connexion with the vegetable 
sign, see Sfrtfifa Jfbjtxi, FI. II* p. zb, b t d, 
P- Z'l. t- ^ PI. ^' T n, p. 64 * J, the ‘ branch' 
sign appears beside the ‘plough 1 , and it is 
mentioned in the test. 


Finally, the most frequent of all this group is the single-handled ewer. Suigfc-^ 
varying in form from that with a mere rim showing a slight lip opposite the 
handle, Fig. 374 . 0 . through intermediate varieties to the high-beaked type "‘‘j ectj[ie 
with a narrow neck, Fig. 373, a-c. hp. 

Fig. rf-r, ‘ Bilikei>’ Ewkss uv Bead-sem.5, 

It is this type of ewer that we now find in the hands of the Mlnoan 

Here, as in the associated forms of vessel, the metallic origin Is 
evident, and is well marked by the 5-shaped handles. The earliest 
example of the series known to me is the rimmed type. Fig. 374, tt, which 
appears by itself on a face of a three-sided prism-seal of a M.M. Ill class, 

showing a double ring round the base 
of the neck very characteristic of 
metal vessels. It might not he 
too fanciful to interpret the Hying 
swallow with sprays of vegetation 
seen on the adjoining face as an 
emblem of the Spring (Fig- 374. 

As in the case of the other 
vessels belonging to the present 
group, these * branch ' or 1 vegeta¬ 
tion ’ signs almost invariably ac¬ 
company the beaked ewer itself. 
It is constantly coupled with the Earth-sign, between the two peaks of which 
a spray rests (see Fig. 373, &)• At times again, the vessel itself is placed 
above or between the two peaks. On a Cretan lento id in the British Museum 
(Fig, 373, a) 1 it stands between the ' Sacred 1 lorns In this case the fine 

F n;_ s 7 1. «, k Ewe k ah r> Swam.ow oh P r isM- 
seai. (M. M. Ill): Casiua mstrTCt. 



1 brnticll 1 


1 ve^eta* 

t iLfcn. s 


B.M. Cat. Engraved dims, d'V, iH It. Witter*), PI. as a ami p. 3. 




style of the motive seen on Lhe other face of the stone—a bull struck by a 
javelin—shows that the intaglio belongs to a good period of Minoan Art 
A red and white agate from near Goulas—acquired during rny first 
journey in the Island—shows three sprays above a stand. 

The type. Fig* 373, r, of two high-beaked ewers In opposed conjunction, 

with a branch between, on a tenfold 
sardonyx — purchased by me at 
Palaikastro on the same journey 
■—is of special interest as a link 
of connexion with the design on 
the Vapheio gem + Fig. 373 below, 
in which two confronted Genii hold 
up similar vessels in the same anti¬ 
thetic manner above triple shoots. 
Ewersarealso held by these daemons 

Fin. 375. a t \ Lentoid prom Crete* 

in a similar opposition on the impressed glass plaques (Figs, fS7!>, 

The high'beaked, narrow-necked type shown in Fig. 373. a r has itself a 
very ancient suggestion, approaching as it does the form of the prototype of 
such vessels still to be seen in the 'gourd flasks', so characteristic still of 
the Caucasian regions. In a more general manner these beaked ewers 
reflect variant examples of such vessels, traceable in Crete from the earlier 
Middle Minoan phase on wards and composed of day and faience as well as 
precious metals, \ ases closely analogous both to these and to the asso¬ 
ciated two-handled vessels—some at least of gold—occur among the gifts 
of the Princes of Kefdu in the Rekhmara Tomb. 

bri H^ing 
rinisU S 






Presumed Rain-bringing Ceremony on Signet Types of Knossos 
and Thisbe with Divine Participation. 

On the above group of ‘talismamc' seal-stones we have collective 
evidence of a rustic cult intended to promote vegetation. The branches 
which in almost all cases occur in connexion with the vessels used are 
sufficient indication of this object. The design on h indeed, with the 

vegetable shoot prone beneath the rayed solar symbol affords a speaking 
corroboration of this. Of what the libations themselves may have consisted 
in Minoan times wo have no knowledge, though they doubtless varied 
according to the occasions of their use. The kmitkaros in later times con¬ 
notes wine, or in this case perhaps the juice of a sacred tree such as we see 
proffered to the Goddess on certain signet scenes. On the other hand the 


fluid may often have been simply water. The it leas of sympathetic magic 
here enter into the ritual. As the liquid contents were poured from the 
vessel, so might rain be drawn from the sky anti the vegetation be saved 
from the drought. 

Fig. 3<G a , i >, Ritual, Senses ok fovrJxg Liquid vrom ,\ Ewer into a Jau ; it, on 
Gold Signet rnoM Tkisk£ ; A, on Clay Seal Impression, Knossos, 

On the tablets of Ras-Shamra (where many of the actual jars to hold 
such liquid offerings were set in the earth) the magic formula of libation is 
itself recorded, 1 together with the God's assurance— 1 if thus thou pourest, thy 
tree shall be in My keeping’. 

In the fuller representation engraved on a gold bead-seal of flat Ritual 
almond-shaped form from a grave at Tliisbe in Boeotia (Fig. 37(5, «),* three K-om'”* 1 
personages are concerned. A female attendant, such as often accompanies r " XT imo 
the Mtnoan goddess, stands with her back to a plant that may in ah 
probability' be recognized as a vine, 3 pouring the contents of a one-handled 
jug, showing a neck-ring indicative of metal-work, into a large jar, the 
metallic character of which is also brought out by its recurved handles. 1 

Beyond this, bending over the jar, and with both hands over it in 
gesticulatory action, is a second female personage, who. from the presence 
behind of the little handmaiden—one of the pair with which she is so often 
grouped—may herself be identified with the Minoan Goddess. Her child 
attendant imitates her gesticulation, which in both cases may have been 
accompanied by some spoken charm or incantation. 

Eight jears after the discovery of this Tliisbe bead-seal the examina¬ 
tion of some fragments of clay impressions from the ‘ Area ot the Daemon 

' Cf. Virolteaud (cited by Schaefer) .VVwii , 5 From its form and the clusters that it bears, 

xiii (19^2). p, ij. this is obviously the same treelike version of 

1 See A a lb At A a f>^ qf Msfor, (Mac- a vine that occurs on the gold signet from 
millans. 1925, and /. II. S., xv), pp. 18 -jo, Mycenae. 1 Cf. vp. n't., p. 18. 

iv** n h 

■ 6672 


45 2 

Seals’ brought out during the excavation of 1901 , and temporarily reserved 
in a tin box placed among the stratigraphic stores, resulted in the discovery 
of another, abridged version of this hitherto unknown subject (Fig 376. $).' 
Here we see a seated figure on what appears to be n wooden seat of the 
kind that supplied the prototype of the gypsum throne at Knossos. The 
enthroned figure, incomplete above—in which we may venture now to 
recognize the Goddess herself performing the ceremonial—pours the con¬ 
tents of a similar jug into a tivo-ha^^ jar of the same kind. In front of this 
are placed the'horns ofConsecration’.clearly indicating its religious character. 
To the right is a plant or small tree, though the impression is imperfect. 

We here see in a simplified form die essential features of the scene 
depicted in Fig. 376.if. The vessels themselves are of similar types. 

Mi naan 
Genii En 

Ewer-holdmg Minoan Genii and the Part played by them 
in Similar Ritual, 

In the case of the group of' talismanic’ seal-stones illustrated above, 
the vessels themselves are alone depicted, such as were doubtless used 
by the heads ot households or communities in a rustic ritual. On the 
more elegantly designed intaglios, mostly of somewhat later date with 

which we are here concerned, the h 
form. The new religious creations, 

1 The subject of the Thisbfi bead seat 
(Fig* 37 ti T ^3 belongs to an otherwise urtes- 
amplcd class of ritual representation. Its very 
existence could not ac the time have been 
known to a forger, and the later emergence 
ot ihe Knossian scaling must be regarded :ls 
overwhelming retrospective evidence of the 
antiquity of the Thisbc bead-seals— from which 
this is inseparable—as a whole. All mention 
of this conclusive datum, to which I already 
called attention in 1925 {Xmg e/Msfor, 

PE 1 - 1 7 “ 1 9 \ has been nevertheless suppressed 
by those who have endeavoured to impugn 
the genuineness of the bead-seal. I he object 
itsdf is inseparable from the rest of the series. 
Apart from the identical style of engraving, 
moreover* ihe back view of the series, re¬ 
produced in Fig. 460 , p,516, below shows that 
this specimen—n In the series—which, like 
the other bead-seals, had some kind of filling 
within its gold plating* betrays a similar depress 

nagery appears in a more developed 
the Minoan Genii* drawn as we have 

si on due to the weight of superposed materials 
that marks the other beads of the series. The 
whole of the head-seats thus present similar 
characteristic features in their condition, point¬ 
ing to the conclusion that they had lain 
together in Lite same grave. See below, 
PP- 5*5 5 where the subject is more fully 
treated, and compare Fig. 4 Gfl a. 

% own long studies in this special material 
as well as the closely allied numismatic branch 
may he allowed to weigh in support of the 
conclusion* after careful ami repeated examina¬ 
tion, that the Thisbe jewels arc one and all 
genuine- h the exact find-circumstances are 
not forthcoming this deficiency—unavoidable 
under treasure trove legislation—is shared by 
many of the rarest authentic specimens j n 
Cabinets and Museums. Numerous other 
objects^ si!Ed 10 have been found with the 
jewels, and in their owner's possession, were 
ah, in my judgement* Minoan. 


seen, from the serviceable Hip[iojjotamus Goddess oi Egypt, now appear as 
the active agents 111 such libations. On a whole senes ol bead-sc»i!s, some 
of which, at least—as the specimens from the Vapheio In mb show—go hack 
to the flourishing days of L, M. I & these daemonic monsters are seen hold¬ 
ing libation evtcrs of the same class as those repeated in the earlier group. 

By this time—the lirst half of the Fifteenth Century b.c —the ‘ anti¬ 
thetic’ scheme is in lull 
swirig, while the great 
sig net-ring from Turns / : Tj ['’Ji M 
shows that the processional / - V / C^jj 
arrangement, adopted at A 1 * 1 A ■ 

Kir., :t77. CoKNEUAJt 


Crktk t A. E. Coll. 

Fro, S7S. Oxvx LentOid Hkap- 

SLAL : V a i‘H t; Itl 'I ’nil B- 

Lhis time from E<j 
the Mtnoan fresco painter 
was also followed in repre¬ 
sentations of these Genii, 

Even when, as on a sar¬ 
donyx amygdaloid from 
the Vapheio Tomb 1 a 
haematite example * from 

a Greek Island',* and other similar types* only a single daemon is seen 
holding an ewer, It fits on to one or other of these schemes. 

On the cornelian amygdaloid, Fig. 377, retrospective light is thrown on 
the talismanic bead-seal. Fig. 370 ,i, where a two-handled libation vase is 
flanked by the solar disk with scorching rays and a prone spray of vegeta¬ 
tion below. Here the rayed orb appears over the head of a starveling 
palm-stem, beside which the Genii pour their life-bringing draughts, while, 
behind each, rises a thriving plant—conveying the assurance of full revival. 

Specialty informative, too, is the onyx lentoid from the Vapheio Tomb, 
Fig. 378 , The confronted monsters are here seen holding up their libation 
vases above triple shoots, resembling those of nursling palms. The object 
from which they rise seems to be rather a large pot than the 'sacral 

horns V 

1 Tjfx "A px* lS %* PL x t i un ~ 

wdngk*r P Aniiht ft/www, 1 "L H, 3*■ 

1 Berlin Cut, PL T t 41 i Milchhtifer, An- 
fitngt' c^ t p. 68, Fig. 46, h?. 

* Eg,, ihrlin Cat, PL IL greyish 

green steatite conoid ffnm Cyprus of rough 
fitbrie, Mikhbafer. ^ tit, p. 63 , 4<L ^ The 
Oriental form is interest] ng as shoeing how 

this talismanic subject was taken over into 
Cyprn- Mil loan sphr&gistic Art. CL t too, the 
■ yl inder* Fig. 383 , p. 45 9, T h e bronze hydrias 
found at Knfion with reliefs of confronted 
Genii were dearly imported objects. 

4 This view* given in my original account 
□f this gem type in Trtc and I*illar Cuff t pp, 2 , 
3 (ioo-i)p has been now r oriobotated by the 

LI it 2 

Genii nn 









i*l I [ere A* 




An important: feature in this design is the fact that the two Genii here 
are not engaged in actually watering ihe shoots of vegetation , 1 but are 
pouring the refreshing draughts into the basin-—regarding the chalice-like 

Fig, 370 rf p A Iupre^ed Gla^h Pl wuis h*om Mycrnak Tovfiss showing 
Gbbui touring LinATiuns: ti, on Trirqu Ciulokons str over Shafts; 4 over Altar 

profile of which something has been already said—in front of the horns.’ 
This action bears a suggestive resemblance to that recorded in the Rmtan 
rife AW t where, in order to secure a copious rainfall, the Breton huntsmen 
in times of drought went to the Spring of Berenton, filled their horns with 
water and poured it on the steps of the fountain , 5 whereupon rain fell 
abundantly "in the forest and around 1 . The pedestailed receptacle on the 
gem might stand for the artificial basin of a source, for this representa¬ 
tion belongs to the Age of an advanced and highly elaborate culture, when, 
as we learn from the fresco, actual 1 jets cl'eau ' were in vogue. 

The f/#ra£ t the raiivbringers, of Ancient Greece filled their cups from 
1 sweet-smelling 1 springs . 4 

A further parallel is supplied by the impressed glass plaque (Fig* 370, a) 
from a i tholos 1 known from it as die B Tomb of the * Venii T at Mycenae , 5 where 

remarkable frescoes in the Amnisos houses 
explored by I ^r. Marin-itos, showing plants 
springing from large recipients^ like uh&r l^w, 
Sacral horns, however, at the foot of holy 
trees art: not inftequem* e,g M the lentoid from 
Pain] k astro, 0/. al r p. ^6 {154)1 Fig. 31, 

where they appear at the fool of a palm. A 
dose analogy is also presented by the crystal 
lento iU from die Idaeurt Cave, where the 
'sacral horns' appear before a centra] spray, 
with two others an either ^ide of them, 

1 Such had 1 k:cq my orig instl interpret.ition 

of the design* but see my corrected view and 
commentary, Ring trf J\ 7 sfor t ds-v. r pp. to. 2 1. 

¥ See p + 390-^eqq. p and the enlarged render¬ 
ing of ibis object, p. 393, Fig, 32£1 a above, 

5 Ramax di Afetf, li 4 6399 seqq, (ed T Ati- 
d re son, ii, p + 283), Cf. A. E. t 
iS-S.Jp p. roS. 

1 This is referred to by Theokriitos* Idyll+ E, 
Mft ijo- 

Near the 1 Cyclopean Tomb 1 . Bee h ioo p 
below, ^ i [G, The tomb had been plundered 
«>ee A- 7 V« ami Fllhtt Ctflt f p. rg [ a c j ], 



confronted Daemons are seen pouring libations into what appears to be a 
tripod cauldron set over a baetylic column. On a dark steatite lentOid from 
the Ktrossos district, unfortunately a good deal rubbed, lion-headed Gent! 

of the same late type with beaded manes and 
upraised forepnws. as it in the act ot adoration, 
face a column which seems to support a basin. 

On another impressed glass plaque. Fig. 
379. (k from the same tomb as Fig. 379, «. the 
ritual act of pouring libations Irom two ewers is 
twice repeated by a pair of Genii over a square- 
cut upright altar block. I he libations thus poured 
curiously recall a rustic ceremony which came to 
my personal knowledge in the then Mahometan, 
though Bulgarian speaking, village ot Ibrahimovcj 
in the Upper Vardar Valley. In a conspicuous 
place there, !\ mg on its back, I found a Roman 
altar dedicated to Jupiter Optimum Maximus by 
a Duumvir of the neighbouring Lolont& of Scupi, 
and learnt that in times of drought the villagers, Christian and Mahometan 
alike, with a local Bcv at the head, went in a body to the stone. . It was 
then set upright and wine was poured over it. while prayers were offered up 
for rain. 1 

On an impressed glass plaque from another Mycenae tomb* (htg- 3S<0 
two confronted Genii pour Illations over a heap of stones— evidently a 
sacred cairn—in place of the altar blocks on the other. T he similar heaps, 
on which the little handmaiden* stand, cut the well-known gold signet from 
Mycenae—one of them using it to reach down the fruit of the sacred tree 
for the seated Goddess—may well have a religious signification. In another 
case the Goddess herself appears seated on a small pile of racks , 1 there 
con vent ion ally rendered as three globules. 

i ma¬ 
in pud 
pillar - 
and on 

Kig* 380> I m j'HE5»;& Glass 
Plaque* Mylekaf. ; Lihatiovs 
over Cmhs* 




note 6 P and Fig. 14, and cl Twiinrt, 
npamrta, iZqh, pp- 39 - 30 - , hli subjects 

of this and Figs. 37E<A P 880 were drawn for 
me by Monsieur Ltillirron, with die kind 
permission of their excavator. Dr. TVmntas. 

1 Sthe A, K- t Atofiqttarittff fixpforutwrts hi 
I tty rtf am. iii ( Artkaiofotf&i 1885}. pp. 104-8, 

* A rock-cut square diaroher with dr&mos f 
S. of the Ak-ropolis. 

a On a green serpen li ne IfiiUoid: A* E. 

Co]I. A female adurant stands before the 
Seated Goddess, and between the two figures 
appear the 4 burns of Consecration \ This h 
the intagJio + then in the Pourgnignoii < oh 
lection at Naples, figured by Furtwangler* 
A*C.+ p- 37, from an imperfect impression. 
The s sacral boms 1 are there referred to as 
probably part of a basket, and the con* 
ventional rocks are irfconipletely given- 


MLnoati Ewer-bolding Genii on 
Bronze V/WnW of Ritual Usage 
from Kurion, Cyprus. 

Perhaps tire best record of these 
beneficent divine agents preserved 
by Minoan Art is to be found in the 
decorative reliefs of a pair of bronze 
* kydrias ' found at K urion, Cyprus* 
From the repetition* moreover, of the 
characteristic ewer that thev hold as 
a separate feature round the rim of 
one ol these* it may be inferred that 
Uiese great bt mis had been associated 
with the libation ewers in ritual 
o re monies such as those above re¬ 
ferred to. It is interesting* indeed, 
to recall the fact, already noticed* 1 
that this bronze 1 hydrin + form must 
he regarded as the prototype of a 
widely diffused class of Late Minoan 
a nd M ycenaea n pa i n t ed cl ay l*raicrs' p 
so frequently forthcoming in a se¬ 
pulchral connexion. I n the Temple- 
Tomb at Knossos they clearly 
formed part of a service devoted to 
a memorial cult of the interred— die 
last scion, it may well be, of the 
House of MinoSn 

A description of the bronze s iiv- 
dria* has been already given* 1 -' The 
more recently published of these * 

1 See above, Pi. I* pp. $io r 31 j r and Fij^ 
245, 24lk 

‘ /J - - 1 /"-* lL > H- l b pp* 652-4, md 

Figs, ur-in. 

a M.Markides, B*S. A. t *viii t PI. VIII t and 
pp* 94’7 (it is there, however, wrongly dnted 
to the XI Vih century u.-r,}, The fellow h\ 
dria from the same site—which has not [he 
evidence of date supplied by the fine 1 marine 1 

Fiu* 381. Han ole or Bronze * If yum a ' 

FKOM KuitiOX. 

style relief— is well known. ($te Perrot L -t 
Chipiez 1 /. An dans fAntiquit/ l iii, pp. 7^ 

6 ; iind cf. J. L My res, f/tsucla t 
473-9, No. 470j.) 


lias a special interest in relation to our present subject. Its handles (see 
Fig, 3 SI) present on each side four figures of Genii of the lion-headed 

Flo. :J&2. 1H a milk avd Rim or anothkr 'Hymua ' F sto it Ki hios 1 . 

ty pe, with one paw raised and the other lowered, facing an elongated central 
object. At the same time the plates of attachment bear reliefs consisting 
of cuttle-fish of the six-armed variety, coiling ‘ brittle-stars . rocks and sea- 
tan- in the most naturalistic ‘marine' style, for which Knossos was the 
unrivalled centre. It looks, indeed, as If we have here the handiwork of a 
Palace artificer of the L. M. la Period, and dating not later than the latter 
half of the Sixteenth Century B.e. 

The suggestion made by me In the Second Volume of tins work regarding 
the elongated object that the Genii face 011 die handles of this vessel still gsMdite 
holds good . 1 May it not be based on a reminiscence ot the Sacred Croco- 
dile^ *This itself was of astral significance, specially associated with the 
Hippopotamus Goddess, who constantly bears or holds it. a The waned 
surface of the object may well be taken to represent the scales-the body 

1 Set ii. Ft. II, p- 653 . Fig- ‘ 18 . 

1 See p. 434. Fig, 336 a, A above. 

of 1 ii-urt 

* %ro- 



on hac- 
maii [t 

found in 



of the sacred reptile is in fact so shown on some Egyptian examples- and 
there are traces of short legs. 

On the fellow hydrta from Kurion, long since known, the leonine 
features of the monsters are well delineated. In this case, they hold the 
spouted civers usual with the Genii, and are associated with bulls’ heads on 
die attachment plates, while a series of bulls are shown at a flying gallop 
round the rim (Fig. 38*2). 1 It is clear that this vessel must be regarded as 
a contemporary' fabric, from the same Knossian source. 

Ta*urt and the Minoan Genius on Cylinder Seals, 

In connexion with this relatively early appearance of the Minoan 
Genii on vessels of ritual usage found in Cyprus must be mentioned the 
hitherto unnoticed occurrence of figures, both of a form of Ta-urt and of 
the typical Minoan daemon, on cylinder seals. 

A cylinder is included by Ward in his ‘Syro-Hhtite’ series showing 
■the Goddess with robe withdrawn? which is of the normal Oriental kind 
including some Egyptian dements. On it a little effigy, recalling Ta-urt, 
but without fore-arms, appears—as an accessory feature and oil a miniature 
scale—to the left of the winged canopy that rises above the Goddess, here 
quite nude, standing on her bull. The little figure has in this case a kind of 
double plume above its head, but that we have to deal with some form of 
the Egyptian l a-urt is made probable bv the intrusion of other elements 
of Nilotic origin into the design, such as the tan- cross. The canopied 
Goddess here seen above the bull recurs in another scene with a dove flying 
towards her. \\ e have thus a good example of the meeting of hetero¬ 
geneous elements on th is class of cylinder. 

More definite evidence is supplied by the cylinder, Fig. 383 . which was 
said to have been found in Crete.* It presents a typical figure of the Minoan 
Genius its eh, performing a usual junction. The daemon is lion-headed, and 
furnished with the mane and dorsal appendage, rather summarily rendered, 
and holds a spouted vase of the same kind as that repeated oil the bronze 
hydrins. As m the case of certain Minoan types illustrated above, he seems 
to beabom to pour libations over a low pillar that rises in front of him. The 

' Reproduced from I’errnt et Chipie*, it is there described as ' a hawk hut the mane 
LArt d<t>ls tAnliquiU, iii, ;j. 794, Pig. 5J5 . and snout tire clear. 

’ ThtStllIC >'#**»¥ IS<JUr*Au at p.i 99 , • I, Wa5 hr ought l0 me hi amum with 

\o. 930. Ovm S to the absence of forelegs some Minoan bead seals of normal iyp« 



scene is not competed as in the case of the Tiryns signet by a seated God- 
dess, but the object of tin* worship is sufficiently indicated by the flying with 

Fig. 383. Haematite Cylinder found in 
Crete showing Mtnoan Genius. 

dove above the ewer. 


In, front of the Genius is 


a sta nd a ng 1 1 gu re—fact n g above, bull 
in profile below—of a man-bulb 

with lvis forearms folded inwards 

as in the case of the young God 
beside the Genius on the gem 
shown in I 7 tg* 302 below* His 
belt and loin-cloth are Mmoan, 
and, except for the facing head 
and standing or pacing altitude, 
it might seem natural to identify 
this semi-bovine figure with the 
’ Minotaur' types of Late Mlnoan 
t>ead -seaIs. 11 m u st be obs e rved, 

indeed, that a parallel pair of erect man-bulls—though in non-Cretan iolm 

clothing—is exemplified by a cylinder d ig. 384 ) * 1 * of a typical Syro-Anatolian 

-— -—-—->— ---——-group in association 

with a God in Hittite 
garb and the naked 
Goddess. Here, too, 
the dove appears as a 
symbol. Once more 
we are led to infer a 
iraod deal of coale* 


see nee of Minoan and 

Oriental religious ima¬ 
gery at lids time. 

The cylinder (Fig'. Probably 

i' ic, 3 S I 

* Svro-Hittite 1 Haematite Cvuniikk show isc, 

383) is of haematite, as is usually the case with the Syro-I littite and 
Cypriote group.* That the cylinder form was also occasionally used in «“>*■ 
Crete and Mainland Greece at this time is established by several examples, 
of which a good specimen is Illustrated in i‘ig. 3.^7 below.- But the intaglios 
on these follow the usual Minoan tradition in the style of their designs, 
while the cylinder before us (Fig. 383), though exceptional in including a 

1 Ward, sp, at.. |>. jS* and p, *36, No, 56 9> seals are also not infrequent. 

: Late Minoan lentold and amygdaloid bead- ’ ^ 4 6 J- 


i ieciii :l5 
of Youth¬ 
ful God, 

figure of the MI sioan Genius, otherwise illustrates the processional and 
mechanical methods of the Oriental class, On the whole, it seems best to 
regard this cylinder as having been made in Cyprus, but as fitting on to a 
well-ascertained *Cyprn-Minoan class, 1 

Fro, aSii, Large Goi.n Signet-king from Tiryns Hoard* Genu idunging 
Lmayioss to Seated Godpkss, 

Scene of Offering on Great Tiryns Signet. 

To the ritual episodes above illustrated in which these daemonic 
creations are presented to us as pottring libations in connexion with certain 
sacred objects- trees ami bactylic columns, cairns and altar-blocks must be 
added another class in which they act as direct ministrants to the divinity. 

Of this the most important illustration is supplied by the huge gold 
signet-ring found with other relics in a bronze cauldron near Tiryns in 191 ?; * 
(big. 335). 

The Goddess, grasping a pedes tailed chalice, more fully illustrated 
above , 1 is seated on a folding-stool, which below resembles those of the 
Palace group of frescoes, but with an inconsistent adjunct in the shape of 

1 I ventured to assign a series of Cypriote the size of the well-known gold signet from 
seal-stones to this etas (‘Cy pro-Mycenaean ’ Mycenae. It is also considerably larger than 
as there described), in Myc. Trtt and /War the gold signet-ring found by the Temple- 
Cult, p. s° 1.14®] wq*|' Tombat Knossos (5117, Pt. I) and the largest 

1 G, Karo, Arch. A ns., *916, p. 1 41 seqq.. of those from Thtsbft (A.E., A’ing of factor, 
and pp. 147, 148, Fig, 5, The length of the dw., p_ 5t Fig. t) , 
betel of this ring is 3*8 cm., more than twice ’ See above, p, 393, Fig. 3>H a. 


a high back, curving up behind She wears a long robe, that could be D*** 
opened down the front and showing a descending double band—a quite T}rym 
different fashion from those of the seated votaries of the * Camp-Stool s, « ne ■ 

Frescoes*. . 

Above as on the gold signet-ring from Mycenae, is a reserved compart¬ 
ment representing the sky. and with the orb and crescent of the sun and 
moon. Whether or not the minute dots or small dashes engraved in die 
field that encloses them, represent the starry firmament must remain a moot 
point, but the sprays of vegetation set against the background may fairly 
suggest a comparison with those that characterize the tahsmamc class oi 
seal-stones above described. 

Behind the throne is visible the corner of ail altar, or some other 
sanctuary structure, above which a bird descends with lowered win^s, t is 

another version of the Mmoan religious 
incident, so often repeated, in which the 
celestial Spirit in bird-form is depicted 
flying down or actually alighted on the 
object of divine possession, whether 
animate or inanimate. 1 The curved 


FlO, 38®. Genius iirru'KEN I,lost 
Guardians ok Divinity seated on 
Architect!™A t. Hash*. 

decoration visible on the structure is 
more fully explained by the architectonic 
frieze that underlies the whole group, 
displaying a succession of the hall-rosette 
and ‘triglyph * motives of Minoan 
friezes. 1 

On the platform above this frieze 
four lion-headed Genii—in accordance 
with the processional artistic fashions 
then in vogue-approach the Goddess, each in the same attitude, holding 
between tlieir paws high-beaked ewers of the usual type, to hll the chalice- 
shaped goblet already described, which ihc Goddess holds up for that purpose. 

As n pendant to the above may be here given the design (Fig. dS«) 
on a lento id from a tomb of the lower Town of Mycenae, where a Genius 
appears between the two lion-guardians of the Goddess, each seated on 
an architectural base. It is in fact the same scheme as that found on 
a seri(;s of lentoid bead-seals in which the Goddess, in these cases bearing 
a 4 snake-frame \ stands between her attendant monisters-sometimes hous 
sometimes griffins—set, as here, on cornices raised above the level on which 

■ See especially, A «TJ*. \ PP . »4- 5 *«. * *■ P* ** 






Ka kava- 
sl guar¬ 
dian of 
hero : 

M Hiram 

she herself is set . 1 It may be said that til this case the Genius stands as 
the representative of the Goddess or her youthful Consort lending her 
guardian lion. 

The Genius as Guardian Spirit of a Minoan lion-slaying Herakles. 

I hanks to the kindness of Mr. James Loeb it has been possible to 
illustrate in Fig. 887 a novel ami highly interesting aspect of the Minoan 
Genius acting as the spiritual ally of a warrior who attacks a lion. 

The seal itself supplies an interesting example of a Minoan cylinder, 
executed in a variegated greyish yell' >w agate. 11 was found in the spring 
of 1913 by Mr. Ashton Sanborn, the Secretary and Librarian of the Iloston 
Museum of Fine Arts, in a little brook near the shore at Kakovatos, or 
‘Nestor's Pylos ', 1 already distinguished by the rich Minoan relics found in 
its bee-hive tomb. These included a series of the finest L, M, I A 1 amphoras’. 
and the gold signet-ring referred to as the 'Ring of Nestor ’, 1 that has 
afforded us our first glimpse of the pre-Hellenic Underworld, 

It will be seen at once that the episode of ihe warrior huntsman 
attacking a lion is a variant of that depicted 011 the gold bead-seal from the 
Third Shaft Grave at Mycenae, here repealed in Fig. 8 S 8. 1 In the present 
case the lion stands upright on his hind-legs, and his assailant thrusts the 
point of his short sword into his mouth. Theguardian Genius stands behind, 
and gives a magic direction to the sword-stroke by bringing his fore-paws 
together on its sheath, The assailant's attitude exactly corresponds with 
that of the Mycenae bead-seal, 

The hero of this episode may be regarded as a kind of Minoan H&rnklgs, 
who, however, relies on his sharp blade rather than on simple brute strength. 

1 See alxm.% p. i6y, arid Figs, 130, I si, 
and 132. The comice* arc clearly visible on 
the example from the Diktawtn Cave and 
lalysos* in she latter case sloping upwards to 
give more spec in which to engrave daft 
bodies of (he < Iriffins, On other types, as 
those from Mycenae Jp. I ;o, Fig, 133, a and 
$} t ihe <1 or Ideas and attendant lions are to¬ 
gether placed on a double architectonic base. 

a This information is due to ihe courtesy 
of the tote Mr. James Loeb, wlio sent me the 
excellent cast from which Monsieur E. Gil- 
Hilron, fils, executed the drawing for Fig. 38 ". 
1 See /*. of JL, iii + p. 145 $oqq. t and my 

separate publication, The Rhgqf Nfftor : A 
Cr fimpse tFtihr. .]//turnn ,J tit*r-1 / *ffrfd t 
Macmillan, 1935 (and /. If. S- f 1935)* 

1 From iii, p. 135, J ig. 78 (from 

a drawing by M. GilKtfron, fils!. See Schlie- 
ttutnm Mycenae^ p. 174, Fig. 7S ; Kara, 
Schtuht£rahtr, PL XXIV, 33 : Fur t wangle r, 
Atttike GttttmWi u, 9 FL 11 r 14. The type was 
copied in his own fashion by a Greek engraver 
of t\ 300 ill-, tin the ivory bezel of a ring 
frotn a tomb near Qtnou (See T. oj tf y iii, 
^ Fig. 71 L) On one of the ThisM bead 
seals a warrior thrusts a spear into the mouth 
of a bon. 


The same gestc is recorded on the Mycenae seal* but we now know that 
the hero was under divine protection, 1 Both intaglios are clearlj uf more 

Fig. :s 87 . A a ate Cylinder fkom 
Kakoyatos (1). 

Fig, U'Akmo* stakuinc T.ion on 

Coi n Bead-seal, Mycenae (?)• 

or less contemporary work, hardly later than the close ol the First Late 
Minoau Period, after which the 1 flat cylinder 1 form of Fig. becomes rare. 

Analogy of Ta-urt assisting Homs against Ox of Set. 

The assistance rendered to the lion-slaying hero in the above scene 
curiously corroborates the parallels already drawn between the Minoan 

Genii and the Hippopotamus God dess. 

It will be seen that in a series of examples of the strange daemonic 
creations, these Genii also appear as supporters or m mistra. its ol what, as 
best shown on Fig. 391. below, must be interpreted as a youthful male God. 

In view of these connexions, it seems to be certainly worth recalling 
a suggestive analogy presented by the astronomic scenes above referred to 
in which Ta-urt —cx hypothec the prototype ol the Minoan daemons 
rcuilarlv appears in connexion with the youthful Horns, whom she assists 
against the hostile power or Set. 1 n one case, as we have seen (F ,g. 360 
above). 4 she holds the chained ox that symbolizes the constellation m the 
Northern heavens, while Homs strikes its head with a spear—just as the 

i It is, as Professor M, XLisbon poims out, 
a primitive point ol view to attribute to 
heroes such exploili as the killing or captur¬ 
ing of wild animals, and he concludes that 
the slaying of lions and other animals anti 
monsters goes back to a Mycenaean or Minoan 

cyde {The Sfyanatan Origin of Creek My 
ihi>log\ ; hat her Lectures, University of Cali- 
forma, 193=, PP- 2 H. slB )‘ The ^• n “ ul 
Uori-killer here depicted under divine guidance 
corroborates this view, 

: See above, p. 

□f Ti*nrt 


i Jib flue nets 
in Cn:tc 
front Kite 









Minoan Herakltis, aided by [lie Genius, drives his blade into the lion's 
mouth on the cylinder. Hg. 387. That these ceiling compositions, repre¬ 
senting the celestial Junctions of Ta-urt, supplied, in fact, her prevailing 
aspect as brought to the notice of the Minoans at the very epoch when 
these initiation daemonic forms took shape with them, is well demonstrated 
by the 1 omb of the great Vinter Sen-rmit who stood in the most intimate 
relations with the princes of Keltiu (Fig. 3CJ2, above}. We have seen that 
these astronomic schemes had left their mark on the Minoan seal types in 
which the Genii figure. The stars beside the stag-bearing daemon of Fig. 
3(i4 are specially suggestive, as Is the ox-leg of Fig. 365. 

We may here recall that in the * Book of the Dead' the I lippopotamus 
Goddess is identified with Isis or Hathor. the natural guardian of the child 
Horns, while on the other hand, there is sufficient evidence of the reaction 
of tills Goddess or of Wazet. with whom she was assimilated, on the Minoan 
Cult . 1 The Influence of the old Delta Goddess and her son is continuously 
preserved in Minoan religious Art, notably in her distinctive waz or 
papyrus wand and in the symbolic group of the cow and calf or its Cretan 
equivalent the she-goat suckling its young. But what is especially impor¬ 
tant to observe is that, in addition to these mythological records, old Nilotic 
cult forms and riiual objects such as they existed before the coming of the 
First Egyptian dynasty, survived over a considerable area of Central Crete 
including the site of Knossos itself. The evidence of this, as shown 
especially by the primitive bee-hive tombs of Mesara. certainly warrants the 
conclusion adopted in this work , 1 that the invasion or Menes had actually 
led to a partial migration of some of the older proto-Libyan inhabitants of 
the Delta to Southern Crete. This evidence, indeed, has been now corro¬ 
borated by the most telling example of this religious tradition yet brought 
to light, the discover) in the Temple Tomb at Knossos of a cylindricaUy 
bored libation block, cut out of an igneous ruck ,' 1 exactly answering to a 
typical late pre-dynastic class and standing at the head of the Early Minoan 
copies of such vessels already known from the Mesara graves. 

At the same time this ethnic intrusion must not be allowed to obscure 
the fact that the more deeply rooted element in the early Cretan population 
should be regarded as fitting on to the kindred ‘ Old Carian ’ stock on the 
Anatolian side. The Minoan Mother Goddess and her male satellite 
belongs to this, as does her sacred Double Axe symbol. Only in the 
present case—as happened also on the Syrian border of this' Asia 11 ic 

' ^ ee espocially, J\ ef i. p, 509 seqq, 45, and Fig, 20. 

' Sec especially, P. of M. t ii t Pt. I, pp. 44, > gee below, ^ 117, Pt. Jf J. 


group—a certain coalescence with the Nilotic Cult of Mother ami Son 
undoubtedly took place as a result of historic causes. 

The interaction of the two influences is continually traceable. Where 
the tiara occurs on the head either of the Goddess or her youthful consort, 
it must evidently he regarded as an Oriental token, Hut the serpents head 
rising from that of the faience image oi the Miuoan Goddess I oil 11 d ill the 
Temple Repository is clearly reminiscent of the uraens of her Egyptian 
sister. So, too. the Genii that reflect the hippopotamus form of Isis might 
well protect the Cretan version of the young God. 

pic, 38!*, 0, i, RepkooVcOOK ok Original Figures Or Riso 
(said to be from Orvieto Toim> in - Aitt/AM dej.s' InstitutO) 
tSSs- The Heads ake iikkl made nv the Copyist to rk>km»lij 

THOSE OF BULLS. (f. $). 

Minoan Genii as Supporters of Young Male God. 

Two of these ewer-hoi ding daemons confronting a youthful male figure, 
w ho apparently lays his hands on their forelocks, appear on an agate lentoid 
set in a bronze ring, which was one of the earliest known Minoan gems. It 
was published in 1 SS 5 / in the misleading form reproduced in Fig. 389, 
which is unfortunately its only record, and was said 10 have been found 

* O. Rossbaeh, AnnaUtMl Institute, 1&S5, 
Pi. GJiS, and p. 195. The Genii {‘asm inisti } 
are there described as with liuii-S' liciub, anti 
the male personnel- is snid to sci^ie their ears 
{probably the crests of the manes). Rut— 
contrary to this. now well-supported, ardtaeo- 
logical description—the artist of the Plate in 
the Atirtaii already provided the monsters with 
bulls’ heads. H el big, Qutsiton .1 fyattuntn, 
p. 32 (335!, Fig. 24, (jives a copy of this 

rnisdrawing. In Prof, A. B. Cookes A aiwa / 
Worship in tke Mv^tmfan Age^ iii {J* If. S. t 
xiv. 7894, p. Fig* 14) the bulb 1 heads are 
repeated* and she daemon is clearly grasping 
their horns* The Cksrius itself is given the 
head of a birth Kurlwritngler {A,G^ iit ? p. J7 P 
Fig. 167)1 shough partly retaining Kussbach's 
description a modification of the bird's 

htad, bill a full adoption of the horns), gives 
what is otherwise a copy of the /* ff+ - 5 , figure* 


as M inf- 
stcis of 
d tv]ni [y L 


FlC* 3 SiO. R(, rK CRYSTAL 

Two Genii saluting Male 

tn an Etruscan tomb at Orvieto. liossbach rightly recognized the leonine 
character of the daemons’ heads but owing to careless execution of the 
intaglio, his artist misinterpreted them as heads of bulls, and this feature 
^ has been repeated in subsequent illustrations 

o< this subject. 1 he object, lormerlv in the 
Castellaui Collection. 1 lias since disappeared,- 
I Jie characteristic attitude of the male 
figure hiving his out¬ 
stretched hands on the 
heads of the Genii con¬ 
forms with that of the 
young male God between 
uvo lions on a Ientoid 
gem from Kydonia ;t 
(Fig. 31)1 iis). 

An intaglio in rock 
crystal from Phigalia 1 (Fig. 3 !> 0 ) shows two opposed 
Genu, w.thout ewers, with a central male figure, who 
apparently raises his hands to be licked by their long 
tongues. I lie rendering of animals with protruding 
tongues is a recurring trait of the Minoan engravers" 
we sec it in the case of the wolves, or dot's of the 

hieroglyphic series, and of lions, bulls, and stags on bead-seals and signets. 

I he legs of the monsters here arc abnormally attenuated. It was this 
and similar representations, that suggested to Milchhdfer the idea of daemons 
with birds or even insects' lcgs/ p 

On the banded cornelian"from Hydra* (Fig. 391) » c see ,]„. scheme 
reversed. The Genius here is essentially of llie leonine type but has been 
ahernauvely invested „„h a horse's or an ass's shin, the yomhful ministers 
being described as subduing .1. • probably by .he help of incantations '. The 
>en eft cent Minoan daemon did not need to be dealt with In this way. 

tic. 391 . Genius 
llrL ATTEN 1 3 A NTS . (t V- 

URA. ( 4 ) 

1 llwrc by Furtw&ngier in iSSj. 

! Dr. A. H. Smith, Director of the I?Irtish 
School at Konit, kindly looked through the 
Collection (now in the Villa Giulia), but all 
his investigations proved fruitless. 

A. E,, A/ve. 7 ret andj'iihir Cult, p, 6 $, 
F '«h 43- * Berlin Cat., I'L I. Fig, io! 

" Overbeck, Kwtttatfthefo&t, iii, 683 seqq,; 
Mdchhofer, Anftinge dtr Kitnsi, p. 5 S 

and cf. p. 65 , where they are compared with 
locusts and grasshoppers, and mythological 
consequences are drawn from this. 

' Uilluk ‘ i cornelian, B.M. Coll., 00.41, and 
t 8. J7 . Pi. in, 5 a„d p. 6K. F uri . 
wangler(, 4 .a, iii, p. 38) curiously mianterprcis 
the numstenng fund ion of the two attendants 
—‘sie btadigeii ihn wo],l nut Beschwbnmc 
sie smd seine Horren 



Ewer-holding Genius with Young Male God, on Bead-seal from Kydonia. 

The most interesting association of a Minoan Genius with the youthful 
male Gotl is afforded by the intaglio designs (Fig. itil’i) on a lentoid bead- Spartan 
seal of Spartan basalt referred to 1 in an earlier Section of this work in 
relation to the winged creations of Minoan Art, It was found at Pyrgos Kydona. 
Psilonero, near the site of Kydoma, and the fact that it was made of lapis 
Lacedaemonius does not militate against its having been the work of a Cretan 
engraver, since great stores of this material were found in a small magazine 
<m the East side of the Knossian Palace, showing marks of cutting for 
decorative usage.' 

The youthful personage - the divine character of whom is clearly 
marked by the sacral horns placed at his feet-—is shown naked except for 
his bdt, with clenched hands pressed to his thorax. To the left is a winged 
goat, not, as on a Zakro impression, a winged goat-man, but in its way a 
more literal illustration of the be-winging tendencies of Art in the land of 
Daedalos. The tail and hindquarters of the goat at the same time suggest 
an incorporation with the lion-type. 

Behind the youthful figure to the right stands a Minoan Genius, 
holding a beaked cw r er between Iris fore-paws in the usual fashion, and who 
must be regarded as about to offer a libation to the divinity. 

1 P. of Jf.< i, p. and Fig* 532 . 1 l Eenaki at Athens* Thanks so his kindness 
was there reproduced from an unsatisfactory Monsieur Gjlla-ron p fits, was aide to execute 
impression* and wrongly described as of Ns drawing reproduced in Fig, 391 . 

1 agate s , It is now included among the 1 iT/. t iii t p, i63 fieqt^ T and sfie Fig. IK], 
treasures of the Museum Founded by Mr. A. E* 

Etc. 3fit Ns r White Agate Lrk- 
Tom from Site of hon ca 
Youthful God lay tm Hands on 
Lion Supporters, (See p, 4M.) 


Fhl 3D2, Youthful Male Cod 
above Sacral TIorns between 
Winged Goat and Minoan 


0 io4* Fresh Discovery of a Chryselephantine Image of Bov-G od : 
the Mjnoan Tonsure and Evidences of Hair- Offering. 

New Chryselephantine figure of boy-God; Comparison with earlier 
discovered example; Of somewhat mat u ter age; Gold plates of lain e lot king— 
patat lei to those of Goddess of Sports ; ' Proto-A rmcnoid ’ physiognomy : 
Shorn head—evidence of tonsure; Biretta worn ; Primitive custom of hair- 
offerings hair source of life and strength ; Cutting off of * Childhoods lochs ’ 
at Age of Puberty; Hair-offerings to Syrian Goddess ; Dedications of lochs of 
hair m Temple of Caricrn Zeus Panamaros ; Cretan connexions of his Cull—a 
Godofthe Double Axe; Sculptural representations of votive tresses— Thessalian 
stela ; Evidence of votive representations of hair-offerings in Minoan Shrines ,* 
Plaited steatite tresses used as affixes at A missus ami Mycenae ; Ex vuto of 
this hind found in relation to Palace Sanctuary of Domestic Quarter; Kite 
of tonsure as seen m the chryselephantine image associated with Youthful God, 


pliiint J dc 
ii^urc of 


To the examples given in the preceding Section of the Minoan Genii 
as Ministers and Protectors of a young male divinity may now be added a 
new and remarkable piece of evidence as to the character of the God himself 
under an adolescent aspect. As interpreted below, it throws at the same 
time a suggestive light on the ritual usage of hair-offering connected with 
the entry on the sta^e of puberty. 

A happy chance has made it possible to illustrate afresh specimen of a 
youthful chryselephantine %ure, the gold raiment of which throws a new 
light on that of the little boy-God already described and here reproduced in 
Fig. 303, similarly dad. 1 Like the image of * Our Lady of die Sports * 
this specimen too bad crossed the Atlantic, but in this case it has re crossed 
it and it has thus been made possible for me to illustrate this interesting and, 
beyond all doubt, genuine object, in detail in the present work. All that can 
with certainty be said about its provenance is that it was found some years 
since in the Southernmost region of Crete (Fig. 304, a. b 7 c and 300). Suppl. 
PI. LI I i shows the left side view of the figure enlarged to nearly one-half. 

The scale of this figurine is somewhat less than that of the boy-God 
shown in Fig. 303, its height being ja-j centimetres inches) in place of 
about J ^ cm. To the actual height of the figure, which in this case stands 

’ A oJAf iii, i>. 443 seen, and Figs. 300, > As calculated, he. al t without the tiara 

' , ... 1,11(1 assuming that the fuel were set flat instead 

See above, p, e 9 , fig. H. ofoll 

Flo. «». A. Si.. V.W 01- 


lUi’k View /from Facsimile) with (iou> Puktixg of Luin-cloth >l. - 
I Newly Discovered Fit*; rise (st* p- 47-. Ho. *>4 

1 I 7 

Fit;, 394 it, b, r. IvoRV FrGUHifft of Youth ill (loo w ith Loi>t*clothiw ik the Form of 
Goi.t> Plates (r cm. over nati uai hehjht]. 



flat-footed instead of on tiptoe, must in belli cases be added the base— 
here a truncated wedge, traversed laterally by a perforation (see Fig. 3 !H. *)■ 

Only one amt was preserved, of which the attachment is broken 
away, and the outer margin of the right leg is wanting 
from the hip to a little below the knee, while the toes are 
deficient. Otherwise, except for a slight flaking away of 
’’ the lower bridge of tile nose, the figure is <]uite perfect. 

The surface of the ivory is for the most part oark brown 
in its present slate—possibly owing to contact with the 
decayed wood of a casket——and this led the original 
owner to suppose that the actual material was wood. 

Although there is really only half a centimetre Cmopan- 
difference in the actual height, the size ol the earlier tar |j er 
published boy-God—placed here for comparison (Fig. 

393) has die appearance of being considerably larger. 

This, apart from the tiara, was about 13 Centimetres 
from the heel to die crown of die head, while the 
statuette is ,*S«n,. B«. the proportion of the 
n, through Chest; body in ihe case ol the former figure were distinctly 

Waist ; r t through lar The tonn d the loins of the present speci¬ 

men when perfect was about 6 centimetres* that of ihe 
other 8-4 The greater bulk m the latter case seems to be mainly due to the 
attempt to reproduce the fuller forms of childhood. In the present instance 
we have the more compact figure of a youth ok about the age ut P u 15 t >- 
Three sections ,rc here given in Fig. 396 . A. round the chest, where 
the diameter—21 millimetres under die arm-pits—contrasts with 24 m the 
case of the former figurine, it, the waist, where the horizontal diameter is 
,, mm . compared uitl, .= mm. in the other, c. round the buttocks, the 
diameter being 21 millimetres, not much more than two-thirds of that— 

20 mm.—attained by the boy-God. Fig. 393. . 

The muscles of the stripling that we have here before us. are firmer 
especially those of the back (see Fig. SOU). The harder set features and „ 
shorter hair must also be taken to indicate a youthful personage some- - 
what more advanced in tears than the boy-God already illustrated. 

Views of die image, without its gold plate and giving a better idea of 

the physical forms and drapery. are given in big- 3W and Su PP|* 1 U A c ' 

It will be seen that it is the embodiment of a boy about to reach die stage o 
puberty, rather than of one but litde beyond the borders of infancy. Its back, 
enlarged bv a ihird in Fig. 39If gives a good idea ol the shapely forms. 

47 3 


plates of 
parallel 10 
' Goddess 
□fSpOTSS 1 , 

Yet the evidence of the gold 
loin-clothing, which in this instance has 
been preserved, excludes tUe idea of 
the boy litre mot lei let I having; yet fully 
entered the Minonn man's estate. 
The characteristic 1 Libyan sheath ' 1 
was clearly not worn. I ndeed. it looks 
as il the raiment here used, repre¬ 
sented by two pieces of gold plating lor 
front and back, was much the same as 
that which had originally covered tlw* 
same parts of itie body in the case of 
the younger figure and of which, in that 
case, we have the evidence in a central 
pin-hole in the small of the back and 
two others above the hips. 

On the evidence now before ns the 
original loin-clothing of the latter is re¬ 
stored in gold plating In Fig. 3fl3, 6 ,c 
above, the diadem being also shown. 

Gold-plates of Loin-clothing: Parallel 
to Garb of* Goddess of Sports \ 

In the case of the boj-God de¬ 
scribed in the previous Volume the 
gold-plates that had originally clothed 
the waist and loins had disappeared. 
Hut an instance of a nude ivory image 
elaborately attired in thill gold plating 
has been given above 2 in the case of the 
“ Goddess of the Sports", who, as will I>e 
seen, combined a female corset with the 
belt and adult male clothing, including 
the pemttsuhi r, of a Minna n faurtndor. 

The plating of ihegirdle has been 
lost in the present case, as well as the 
cap that seems once to have covered 
the crown and back of the head. 


! Sis; p, 29, Fig. I I. 

l-ie. 3!UJ, M/U k View oi Ivory Fkjurs 
WIT HOI' I OIF. GoLf! I.OIJf J'i.ates (j),' 

1 See above, )>. 23, Fig. 12. 


The two "old loin-coverings, however, are well preserved, and are 
reproduced in Fig 1 . 397, 
n. It, showing pin-holes 
in each of their upper 
corners. These, no 
doubt, corresponded 
with the two small holes 
visible in the ivory just 
above the hips on either 
side, the same pin serv¬ 
ing for the corners o! 
the front and back rai¬ 
ment. The companion 
figure of the younger 
boy, already described, 
has two small holes in 

F10. :W 7 a, 

Fkoxt ,\m> Hack Luix-h.atbs or Yomhiti. 
Ivory FtfitkK. 

the same posi lions above 

the hips, besides another behind on the same 
level in the small of the back. It is clear 
therefore that gold plates of die same kind 
had been attached to it in a similar way, 

Both images are provided with another rivet* 
hole behind, in the hollow formed in the belt, 
which would have been originally covered 
with a band of gold plate in like fashion. 

In the case oftlv- present figure, the taper 
end of the back plate {^) below may be taken 
to indicate that this corner of the article of ap¬ 
parel that it represents was drawn between the 
legs, perhaps by means of an attached string 
or tape tied to another at die lower corner of 
tlte front piece. The good reproduction of 
the body contours by the gold plates may be 

taken as evidence that the cloths themselves were drawn t.ghl over the 
groin and buttocks. The plates show a slight decora.™, of dots and I.nes. 

Fig. 3!»S + of Ivqhy 

Physical Characteristics: ‘Proto-Armenoid’ Profile. 

As already noticed, however, the features of the face and cut of the 
hair visible in' the new figure mark a more mature age than the other. 



k Profo- 
noid 1 

though the character of the loin covering still shows that the personage here 
represented had not altogether reached the adult stage, 

I he month is small and well-shaped and the eyelids are slightly 
rendered as a narrow border above and below the 
eye-balls. I he outer ridge of the lower part of the 
nose has been unfortunately flaked off, but what 
remains suggests, in spite of the general boyish 
features, an original profile presenting marked signs 
of at] infinity, (See Fig. 

The character of the profile, indeed, has a 
great interest as in keeping with the ‘proto-Ar- 
menoid type so visibly reflected in the Middle 
Minoan seal impression already referred to, Fig. 

30!>.’ We have here a prince representing what J ] ' I! ‘ RES ’ 

seems then to have been the dominant ethnic tie- Deposit, 

merit in the Island. Uj s nose con¬ 
trasts with the less accentuated forms 
more usually portrayed in Late Mi¬ 
noan Art, as for instance, in the Cup¬ 
bearer fresco. But the young God 
was .still figured in the likeness of 
this old ruling race of Anatolian kin¬ 
ship. So, too, we have seen that the 
H6rakles-like champion of the hull - 
ring, who, as shown on a sea I-type, 
big, 400, bears on his shoulders a 
mighty beast, shows the same highly 
accentuated profile.* This, indeed, is 
quite in accordance with the evidence 
that the Sports of the Minoan arena Fie. -fu, Champjoh Taupe a non sut- 

came from the same Anatolian side. TORT,!SC Buu - : Green J ASf>fiB Lfntoip, 

, MycRSfAE, 

Inc more tender years ol the 

little boy-God previously described might well preclude ihc appearance of 
such features. In that case the nose is distinctly ’ tip-tilted (Fig, 3f)3, «). 

1 See /’ of . 1 /,, i, p, S, Fig, 2 and p. zyi, 
Fig. 201, a. 

: Cf- F. of _!/, iii, pp,130,2 j r, and Fig. 1131 



Evidence of Tonsure. 

But an even greater contrast is presented by the hair, 
the younger figure falls down in undulating tresses, not only 

here cut short before anti 

W hile that of ^hom 

, . head— 

is the hair 


gk JuHKrrA, us- 
stoked ( f}> 


but—as will be seen from the cn- 
larged photograph reproduced in Fig* 
401 —it lias been completely' shorn 
off over the whole crown and part of 
the back of the head. The place of 
the tiara was in this case clearly sup¬ 
plied by a bircita -originally, doubt¬ 
less, a small cap of thill gold plate like 
those about the loins—which had 
covered the crown of the head. A side 
view of this gold covering, which from 
the appearance of the ivory seems to 
have been slightly rolled in front, is 
restored in Fig* 402 . 

The wearing of the hiretta to 
cover the bald patch of the tonsure was in fact n natural 
consequence and corresponds with a similar usage in 
the Roman Church. The alternation in these two 
chryselephantine images— the religious character of 
which may in both cases be assumed—of the tiara and 
the bird tit suggests an interesting reflection. I lave we 
not here in truth a much more ancient parallel to the 
contrast visible between the public and private head-gear 
of the Roman Pontiff himself ? From the early Middle 
Ages onwards the bird urn —in that case of linen— 
was included, like the triple 1 mitra\ among the ponti- 

101 . IUck o v Hbaoot Figure 


of riimil 


ficial insignia 1 and was worn by bishops and abbots as a sign of investiture. 

Widespread Primitive Custom of Hair-offering. 

It must be inferred that we have here to do with the custom of the 
ceremonial cutting and dedication of the hair of which so many evidences 

1 See Du Conge, x. v. He cites n bulb of ac nos i!e ipso per nostrum Lirretum prae- 
Bomfaee Vlll presenting an ecclesiastical scnttaUter invesutnufc* It w*s also adopted 
benefice ‘illudque tridentTtaojnae contulinius by aeadcniit Jottnrs. 


cu^lnm of 
ing; luir 
life and 

arc still to be round among primitive races the World over. 1 * 111 The hair 
is regarded by diem as a main source of life and strength. So much, 
indeed, is this live case that its cutting off was very generally accepted 
as a substitute for human sacrifice, 3 an idea humorously played on by 
Ovid 3 in his imaginary conversation between King Numa and Jupiter. 
The God h consulted as to the propitiation necessary to avert his 
thunderbolts, demands die cutting off of the head of a man, on which the 
King- after a preliminary attempt to whittle down "head to that of an 
onion -would make Jupiter content himself with the top hair,* Accord¬ 
ing to primitive ideas the hair of the crown of the head was in a special 
way connected with human life/ In general the hair was a supreme 
personal offering in the case of the living and a potent means of placing 
the person of the votary in the hands of the divinity both in life and 

The hair regarded as the source of bodily strength is well brought out 
in the biblical episode of Samson and Delilah/ 

Besides death* the chief occasions for these ceremonial hair-cut tings 
were after birth, <m embarking on some special enterprise or on its successful 
result, and, as lure, on entering on the adult stage, in the case of both 

Such hatr-offerings were often made to springs and rivers as tile most 
visible embodiment of the divine life inherent in the Earth. The Arabs, 
like the Hebrews, 7 offer them at springs. With the ancient Greeks, as is 
well known, the long hair of childhood was dedicated to a whole series of 
local river Gods. So we read that Achilles' golden locks had been vowed 
by his father to the Spercheios though destiny led the hero himself to fulfil 
the vow at the pyre of Patroklos* where he laid them in his beloved 

1 Sec on this. e&pccialEy <1, A, WTIken, Bets 

Unurofftr (In his Vtrsprzide Gischrijtin r, Pl 

111 i ipis), p. 4oi seqq.) 5 &nd his monograph 

l VAfr iitii f/diirfiffer urnf fudge an day 7 runer- 
gtbruUthe hti den l r &Ikem indwmUm f r l {eft Vi p 
Amsterdam, 1&&7. 

; Tylor f Crimithy Culture, ik p. 3on seqq + , 
and cf. Kutise, Bit Abtvsung dtr Men - 
sekempfer^ p, 77 + 

* Fastis lii, 339 seqq.; the story is mote 
literally given by Plutarch (jYuma, xv). 

1 'Sunimos, ait iS1c h capitics'. 

* The Tibetans think that the stHil issues 

fratn the top of the head, and that the cutting 
oJT of the hair there facilitated its escape on 
death. So* top, the K;inik;irs h a mountain 
tribe of Travancone, cut nflf the top knot of 
the deceased (sec Frai&r, Burial Customs, 
P- S3, note), 

* 3 et% too, Wilkcn, /jn, at ,, and Dt Sim- 
$&rmgc {GidSy 1 & 38 , No. 5), and cf. Robert¬ 
son Smith, The Fdigwn *jf the Semites, p. 334^ 

and n. 2. 

1 Ephmeua Syr Lis {Op. Svr, j t J 4 6) p com- 
meriting on Lev. xi\, *j r Cf- Robertson- 
Smith, op. a/., p. 325, note 1. 


comrade’s hands . 1 So, too. Orestes, as Aeschylos tells us , 2 offered at the 
same time his * childhood's lock \ and another, o f mourning, to the river of 
Argos. In modern Greek folk-lore, Chares. who keeps in memory the old 
ferryman of Styx, still claims a fore-lock of the departed.* 

Votive gifts of locks of hair were made to various divinities- 4 They 
were very generally offered by girls before marriage, to Hera Tel eta, 
Artemis, and the Fates- In Paros a series of dedications have been found 
in the name of children, and youths whose hair was offered at the age of 
puberty to Asklepios and Hygieia* while at Tltanfi, near Sikyon, Pausanias 
was shown a cult statue of the latter Goddess so covered with women s 
hair- offerings that it could not be easily seen. 4 Like dedications are 
recorded to Poseidon anti Dionysos, to Nymphs and Heroes, and over die 
graves of the Hyperborean Maidens at Delos. But of most abiding record 
in the memory of mankind were die tresses dedicated by Queen Berenice, in 
the temple of the Zephyrian Aphrodite, for her husband's safe return from his 
Assyrian expedition, which later—found to be missing in the temple itself— 
were rediscovered in the sky as the constellation 1 Coma Berenices . 

At Delphi, where Lhe early cult was so closely connected with that of Cutting 
Minoan Knossos/ it was customary for boys about to enter on the estate ‘child- 
of manhood to have the forepart of their hair cut off at the spot where 1 $^*, 
Theseus was said to have practised the same rite. This form of tonsure 
was thence known as the iiie 

It does not appear whether die Item involved the actual shaving 
bare of the hair at the front of the head, or whether it simply meant the 
cutting of front locks. In the case of the ivory figure the tonsure was 
accompanied by a cutting off of the ‘childhood's locks*, both on the front 
and the back of the head. This is dearly seen from a comparison with tile 
hair of the younger boy-God as shown In Fig. 393. 

Guston Desdmmps and Georges Cousin, 

JiuiL A Crrr. Artfo f xii (tSES). p. i seqq M 
and cf. Fraser, Pausama$> iii r pp. 279-31. 

1 E.g.i C. L &* 2392 forty) rt>ij nuSum 

"ErucfrpoiVr^i- WjT TfH\t* A yiti 

fi Pans, is. 1 1 * 

" See P> qf -I/-T iii- Ft II f pp. 34 ^- £ 4 ^ 

* Plutarch r Ift&ruSj c. 5 tMtpsroST^g 
to. vpiur&tr juwn w t Zawip O/Ji/pOt 
¥ A/?»-rets. The explanation there given of 
cut!ini! off the forepart of the hair was that in 
hand-to-hand fighting the adversary might not 
be able to seize the forelock. 

1 l/i&d xxiii. 141 seqq. : 

crrrn fatimfi mipijs fai^r dwtrti/WSJ 

TtjL' HU ' 

. . . tv tcopipr rruptiU) Acrid 

TflKTJ (U JratTir Up tftepOF 

= Cimph. 6, 7. This is referred to there 
US irXorra^toi" SpafT^fib of, the Ollier lock IS 

* Schmidt. Volkskfcn dtr 

P- 2 ^ 

f or i he classical examples, see especially 



In Syrian 

tions of 

Jocks of 
hair art 
of Lurian 

In view of the fundamental affinities of pre»Hellenic Crete with the 
Syro-Anatolian cultural and religious sphere* it is also interesting to observe 
that hair-offerings of the special kind with which we are here concerned 
were a regular feature in the worship of the Syrian Goddess, Lucian 
records that before marriage both youths and girls made hair-offerings— 
already dedicated from their birth the first growth of the chins being 
included in the first case. These were placed in gold and silver receptacles, 
inscribed with the dedicator's name, and nailed up on the temple walls. 
Lucian had done so himself as a youth, and a lock of his hair was thus 
preserved in the temple at the lime when he wrote his treatise on the 
Goddess* 1 

Hair*offering in Temple of Zeus Panamarost Cretan Affinities of Cult. 

But the 1 proto-Armenoid" and old Anatolian type recognized in the 
physiognomy of the little tonsured figure before us brings it into an even 
closer connexion with the evidence, lately forthcoming, of similar ceremonial 
dedication of the hair in a sanctuary of the Mainland region to the East, 
with which Crete stood in such close primeval relationship. 

In the Temple of Zeus Panamaros at Panamara, near the flourishing 
Greek foundation of Stratonikeia, in Cana, the French explorers have in 
recent years brought to light a series of inscriptions recording such hair- 
ofierings** The votaries are in all cases male, and the occasions vary, 
but the mention of boys or children in several cases makes it reasonable to 
suppose that dedications of ‘childhood's locks' on arriving at the age of 
puberty were here included. The locks of hair were generally deposited : 
in oblong cavities cut in small siefac, and with a ledge at either end, so that 
it could he covered over by a small marble slab; 4 Inscriptions were cut on 

1 Lucian, Ih Syrin Ika, c. Go, In the 
case of ihe hair-offerings of ihe youth* in ihc 
Hicrapolis temple, he write* in one passage 
of the incipient beard only, hut speaks never¬ 
theless of his own offering as a + lock 1 (irAr!- 
tu ip*)* In his mention of the Tmezeniun-s 
however, he sneak* generally of lhuir maidens 
ami youths 1 cutiiiijr tlicit 1 Lair In honour of 
Hippolytos In c* 55 he menlions the fact 
that when a man first visits ihe sanctuary 1 he 
shaves his head and eyebrow* \ We may 
conclude that the youths referred \o cut the 
hair of their heads as well as the nascent 

heard on their chin. His statement that 
the Troezenians 1 alone among the Greeks' 
had this practice is, of course, as Pra7ur 
{PdvSfimtiSy in* p, jiio) points nut, erroneous 
since similar usages are recorded of many 
Hellenic cities* 

3 Gascon Pescbimps et George* Cousin, 
Bull de Corn Ardt h , d (iSoj), pp. 235 - 89 , 
373—97 i *S GS 8 S), pp. 249 - 73 , 

479-90 (Ln Com&rati&n dr /a C&cvzhtrt). 

1 Ae times, the very poor cut mere holes in 
the wall. 

* See the illustration, *?/, rit mf xii p p. 4S0. 


the blocks dedicating the hair to Zeus Panamaros, often coupled with his 
Consort, described as ' Hera Teleia ’. 

The cult is here seen in a very late, Greet zed form, the God himsell 
on the contemporary imperial coinage of the neighbouring Stratontkeia 
being converted into a riding figure with the usual tklawys. But the 
characteristic elements of Panamaros as of Panamara. the sanctuary site 
itself recur in the personal name Tiara fit v, so widely diffused among the 
Carians and their kin. It is found as far East as the foot of the Amanos, in 
the Kingdom of Sam’al, where, at Seudjirli, the name Panammft is attached 
to late Hittite dynasts , 1 A curious link with the traditions of the old Cretan 
Religion is found in its reappearance, under the form Pan am ores—together 
with Labraundos—as a name of one of the Kouretes, who had gone over to 

Curia In fulfilment of an oracle.* 

The God of these dedications, frequently referred to in general terms 
as the 1 Carian Zeus’, is, in fact, a local impersonation of the kindred divinity, 
Zeus Labraundos, whose symbol is the (abrys^ or Double Axe. I he chief 
Carian God appears regularly on the early coins of the Satrapal period, 
holding the sacred weapon. The divine pair of the Panamara sanctuary 
must, in fact, be regarded as of direct descent from that ot the earlier 
Anatolian religious phase, where the Goddess still claimed precedence, and of 
which we find the tradition in the worship of Kybelfi anti Attis and their 
equivalents. This Goddess and her youthful satellite themselves find 
their prototypes on Hittite monuments.* 

It is of special interest to note, as confirming the Minoan relations ol 
the cult of Zeus Panamaros and of the hair-offerings dedicated to him, that 
in one case at least, above the square cavity in the stela where the lock 
was formerly enclosed, the Double Axe symbol had been incised.* The 
inscription records the hair-offerings of two brothers, one ol whom, by a 
suggestive coincidence, bears the name of D aid alios . 4 

* This was first pointed out by C. J. Ball, Carian God and Ins consort with the earlier 

Prot. StxlBibL Ar<h. t titSSS), p. 431; 
too, Kretschmer, Einl. in -L Gtsth. d. grit- 
chhihin Sprncht^ pp, 379, 39**- l' or I'auani- 
mil see Sachau, Ausp'a/n/ngrn in Scndjirti, i, 
p. 56 seqq. 

5 Ef. EwSowtw (the rivet near 

Tralles beside which the Kouretes slept), 

* Kins Oppermann in his Ztus Fwumurof 
(Giessen, 1914), containing a useful summary 
of the material, has rightly pointed out (pp, 
89, 90) the essential correspondence of the 

divine pair of Asia Minor -is seen on the 
Hittite monuments. 

‘ P. Foucart, />’. C //,, xiv (1890), p. 371. 
The dedication—[Alii TTAMHMEP111—here 
shows a misinterpreted form of the name. 
A priestess, Aurelia Magnes, is in this case 
mentioned as well as a priest 


nexions of 

God of 




repress fl¬ 
int inn & of 

Steatite Ex l otos in the form of plaited locks from Knossian Shrine 

and Mycenae. 

There is evidence that in Greece such ceremonial dedications were 
recorded also in a glyptic shape- Faustinas relates that on the bank 

Fig. l<>3. Votive Momam wiih Piaitsd Locks of I!oy? dedicated to 
Foscid6k : Thess alias Thebes. 

of the Kephisos there was a statue of a youth shearing his hair to offer to 
the stream, just as Peleus had vowed to otter to the Sperchcios those of his 
son Achilles should lie return from Troy. 1 On the other hand, a votive monu¬ 
ment, the from of which is cut to represent a shrine {aedicula), found on the 
site of the Thessalian Thebes, displays in relief two long, elaborately plaited 
locks of boys offered by their father on their behalf to Poseidon (Fig. 403}. s 

1 Fans. i. 37, 3, and cL IL xxirL 141 seqq- and p. 32, who compares the Epigram, Anf/u 

3 In the British Museum {Caiafo&ut 0/ Cr . vi F c. sr* Kp. r; Folic r* Arthstofogia 
SimipU rnj, i r yS)r CT. MUUtigen t Andini Gratai. iii p e. 20. It is possible that in this 
VnliiUd Series i, F 3 . XVI, a, case the occasion of the boys 1 hair-offering 


Atjart even from such comparative illustrations there is what will Evidence 

■ ■ ■* i «■ Ht ■ ^ - 01 voti^ c 

probably be accepted as conclusive evidence ot the practice ot setting up represen- 

simUar €x votos for hair-offerings In Minoan shrines. I11 describing the jj*j r- 

in Mi- 

Fin. 494 <1 , f>. Votive Amx or Pi-sitko Locks is Steatite: is Sanctuary Deposit 

or Domestic Quarter, Kxossos. 

discovery of the remains of the 1 Hathoric' side-locks, cut out of dark 
Steatite, and unquestionably belonging 10 a Sphinx's head, 1 found in a 
Deposit of the ‘Domestic Quarter' of Knossos, another fragmentary piece 
was referred to, fitting on to these, which showed part of a plaited end This 
had been fastened lo the lock on tin right-hand side by means of a rivet, the 
perforation for which was visible. The occurrence of this fragment had led 
me. in describing these remains, to attribute to the same figure another 
relief in similar material brought to light in the same area s (Fig.4<M, d, &). 

This conclusion, however, cannot be maintained. The specimen re¬ 
ferred to is complete in Itself, with a flat base that had been fastened 
by means of an oblong slit to another flat surface (Fig. 404 , 6), T he plut- 
work formed itself a continuous oval and had no connexion with any other 
object. In other words, we have here what can only have been a model 
of a compactly plaited lock of hair, affixed for votive purposes to the wall 
of some sanctuary. 

was their starting on A voyage* 403 Sag/* by Messrs, h, Pouter, Maurice 

is reproduced from a photograph kindly sup- Albert* and Lb. Sii^liOr 
plied by the Keepe* of Greek and Roman 1 I*, vf jii* p. Mr. E* J. Forsdyke- I his relief 1 /Md y p. 4 :2, Fig. m* 

is also HSu stratcd in the at licit Coma of 







Affix of The * Treasury' deposit, in which this plait work affix was found, itself 

iocksfrom contained a whole series of relics derived from a shrine of the Mmoan 
Goddess that had existed in this Palace region. Amongst these, in addi- 

Fic. 105 <i, t >, Votive Affix of Plaited l,orKs in Steatite ; Mfcknak. 

lion to the Hathoric side-lochs of a Spltinx above mentioned, was part 
of the ivory wing of another, two small bronze Double Axes, gold plated, 
and part of a ' Miniature ’ fresco depicting the facade of a sanctuary on 
which the sacred symbol was repeated. 

An other The conclusion that the relic in fact belonged to a distinct offertory 

Mycenae, class of this kind receives moreover an interesting confirmation from the occur¬ 
rence at Mycenae of another similar relic cut out of the same soft stone, with 
a triple plait-work, slightly fractured on one side (Fig. 405).’ The base of 
this is also flat, in this case with three round rivet-holes for its attachment. 

It looks as if it had been a widespread custom to fix up ex voios of 
this kind, representing platted locks of human hair, on the walls of Minoan 

sanctuaries. In other words the votive usage that survived in the sanctuarv 

. * 

of the Carina God of the La&rys had been associated at a much earlier 
date with the great Cretan Goddess, 

Found at to the character of the worship itself, we have sufficient evidence 

^"cLuiem in the little gold-plated Double Axes, and the fragment of painted 
to Palace 3tucco showing part of the frieze of that cult in miniature, as well as 

SnitciUr 7 ■ 


1 iii, Sujipl, PI. XXWII, a. 


in the remains of the steatite and ivory 1 Sphinx. W hether or not as there 
are some reasons for suspecting—the 1 Boston Goddess and figurine ut the 
ivory boy-God. so closely akin to it, were derived from the same deposit, 
the votive reliefs of hair-offerings that it contained must be clearly brought 
into the same religious association. Here, too, as was the case ol the actual 
hair-offerings in the Sanctuary of the Carian Zeus at 1’anamara. their 
votive equivalents arc associated with the Cult ol the Double Axe. 

11 seems, moreover, reasonable to suppose that the chryselephantine 
image of the youth before us should itself be taken to represent the uftspimg 
of die Goddess herself rather than any mortal personage. The ritual 
tonsure and votive hair-offerings of boys on approaching mature years 
can be equally assumed in the case of the adolescent divinity. 

In this little gold and ivory figure we may once more be allowed to 
recognize a boy-God, slightly older than the other, but standing in the same, 
probably filial, relation to the Mittoan Goddess. More than one youthful 
personage of about the same age is seen in attendance on her, such as the 
young warrior who stands before the seated Goddess on the Mycenae ting, 
or the boy ministrants who pull down for her a branch of the sacred tree 
or proffer a flask with its juice, as on the 1 Ring of Minos .* In these 
figures, hardly to be interpreted as any kind of Consort, as in that before 
us. we may well—in a more advanced and serviceable stage of his boyish 
career—recognize the child who, under a still more infantile aspect, is 
otherwise seen on the lap of the Mother Goddess. 51 

1 Sue J\ of At., iii, p. 4G4, Fig. 324 . day image, Mavro Sjitlio, and p. 47 b Fl E* 

• See below, pp, 94S, 949. lliisbe ring, 

* of A/., iii, p. 4^9. 3 - ? • pimed 



k k 

Rite of 
t - ni iu re 
here lissd- 
Cm od. 

j 105. Retrospect ok Minoan Bead-seals and SigneT'Kings : Typical 
Forms and Select Illustrations. 

Primitive bead-seals of ivory and soapstone ; Af.Af. Ilf and Traits 1 iioitetl 
f>hase illustrated by hoards of sealings; Similar deposits at close of palatial 
period at Knossos; Early Nilotic sculptural influences—froto-dymstk ivories 
imitated in a more natural manner ; Sculptured Style common to stone vases and 
seals-—Owl type ; Middle Minoan seat-types mi hard slants, £V .—hieroglyphic 
prisms ; ' Signet' seals and those with foreparts of lions; Disuse of hiero¬ 
glyphic seal "types at close of M. M. II; Appearance of portraiture , natural¬ 
istic animals, and rod- scenery - Flat-sided disks—precursors of lentoid type . 
Lentmds in vogue by .1 f. hi, I 11 —the Xahro seal impressions ; Ltntoid t\pts . 
flying bird, calfs head, and instantaneous sketch of three water fond; Nilotic 
suggestions of water-/oztd motives—later 'versions contrasted; A typit it / hiitoid 
head-seal; Predominance of tent old type from close of L. M. lb; Almond- 
shaped or ' amygdaloid' bead-seats; Transitional M. J /, flf-L. M. I a 
examples; Perspective view of m fish ;' Tatis manic ' designs ; 'Elongated' amygda 
told bead-seats, their L. M, / b -II date; Cylinder form Early Aegean adapta¬ 
tion of Oriental type; Actual import of Babylonian cylinders in M. M. /a; 
but shape first copied in L.M. / a ; Haematite specimen from tl. Pelagia, with 
design of original Minoan composition; Reaction of Syro-Ilitti/e motives ; 
* Cypro-Minoan ’ class ; Minotaur on cylinder from harbour-tenon of Knossos ; 
'flattened cylinder' type — M. M, / a prototype from Plata nos; M. M. II 
examples; Gold-plated specimen from Palaikastro ; Gold beads of this form 
with finely executed intaglios ; Agate head shewing bull caught at eistet n ; 
Chalcedony bead with tumblers from Knossos—their Libyan plumes; 'Tumbling 
figures on early Nilotic cylinders, Cre. ; Compared with Minoan ; Minoan 
tumbling in bull sports ; Egyptian female acrobats ; Mate tumblers of Iliad; 
Goat and dog on fiat cylinder- -an illustration of Fable ; Gold Signet-rings — 
evolvedfrom Early Minoan bead-seals; Dramatic religious episodes presented by 
them ; Occasional scenes of combat; Elongated' gold head-seals from Thisbe 
tomb; Oedipus with Sphinx and with Lotos ; Slaughter of Aegisthos and 
Ktytemnesira by Orestes ; Historical records at the hands of Minoan arlists. 

Primitive SOMETHING has been said in these Volumes of the early class of Minoan 

of 3 bead-seals in ivory and soapstone, as well as of the succeeding styles in 
iiontT* 1 ^ which harder materials were attacked. On these, the primitive pictographic 


figures developed, not only into the finely cut hieroglyphic signs, but, from 
the second Middle Minoan Period onwards were transformed into intaglio 
types of the highest naturalistic and artistic merit. 

Of the sphragistic style of the great transitional Age that links the u.M- ill 
closing Middle Minoan phase with the earliest Late Minoan collective records I'rransi- 
liave been preserved in the great hoards of day seal impressions from Zakro 
and Hagia Trkda and at K nossos itsel f in those of the Temple Repositories, 

Some salient points regarding these have already been brought out and many of scat- 
of the gems themselves and of the gold signet-rings that now come into jnE '' 
prominence have received illustration in the course of the preceding Sec¬ 
tions of this Work. 

The next great landmark is afforded by some considerable hoards of 
clay seal impressions, more particularly referred to below, that mark the 
closing Palatial Age of Knossos. and which owe their Interment to the 
final catastrophe. But to understand the somewhat conventionalized stage KtlQSS “ 5 - 
there reached it is necessary to take a general survey of the intermediate 
examples of the gem-engraver’s Art that enable us to carry back its history 
to the days of its greatest achievements. 1 

A rough chronological guide to the date of individual seal-stones is E, 
often supplied by their form and material. In the more primitive Age the ^Jp" 51 
use, for instance, of soft and easily worked substances, such as soapstone 
and ivory, inspired the craftsmen to carve the upper part of the seals in a 
great variety of animal reliefs. 

i In attempting, for the first time* a sum- 
nn:y classification of Minoan bead'Stals anil 
signets of the Middle and first two Late 
Minoan phases, I Have been largely aided by 
my own Collection, which consists of over 200 
selected specimens. k has been the result of 
a quest for this material., extending now over 
forty years, and it may at least be claimed to 
be more continuously representative of the 
various stages than any other collection, either 
public or private. The nucleus was formed in. 
the years from 1 S94 onwards, devoted by me 
to the archaeological exploration of the Centre 
and East of the Island. Its formation was 
greatly assisted by the practice of the Cretan 
housewives in the villages of wearing Minoan 
I fead-seals as 4 mi Ik stones p , for w h ich, ho we ver„ 
they were willing to accept substitutes. In 
1S93 1 had already been able to acquire at 


Athens a certain number of early stones (some 
of them presenting hieroglyphs) obtained from 
Crete by an antiquary there, and in the follow¬ 
ing year the series had been greatly added to 
by the acquisition, from a native proprietor, 
who liad land on and near the site of Knossos, 
of a small local collection of great interest, 
including a gold signet-ring. At (lie same 
time I secured in a similar manner a batch of 
specimens from the £licia Province in the 
extreme East of the Island. In later years 
my series received important additions through 
exchange (for Cretan coins) with the late 
Mr, R. lb Meager. Favourable circumstances 
also enabled me to add tbeThisbc intaglios on 
gold beads and signet-rings, and -as the result 
of a special journey to the West of the 
Prloponnese—the d Ring of Nestor \ 










Nilotic Sculptural Influences on Early Minoan Crete. 

The presence of abundant deposits of green and (>artly translucent 
soapstone in East Crete greatly promoted the development of this miniature 
sculptor's Art for this and like purposes. The ivory, also ready to hand, 
seems to have been tine to the continued relations preserved throughout 
the Early Minoan Age with a kindred clement beyond the Libyan Sea. 
To these works of the primitive lapidaries, rendered possible by the abun¬ 
dance of such materials, but also to the innate artistic genius of the race, we 
must trace the beginnings of the great plastic school ot Middle Minoan Crete. 

Nor can it be doubted that, together with the supply of the ivory 
material, sculptural models in the round hat! themselves found their way 
into the 4 Mid-sea Land’. We may here, indeed, find the explanation of 
an interesting phenomenon. The Early Minoan craftsmen show distinctly 
greater advance in relief carving as compared with engraving, and the upper 
parts of their signets, rendered in relief, arc superior to the intaglios below. 

The ivory Hons on a flat base, inherited by tire earliest dynastic Art of 
Egypt 1 from the late prehistoric and used as pieces in games (Fig, 10ti), 
supplied the model for the Early Minoan seal in the same material already 
illustrated (Fig. 407. a, &)* In this, indeed, we see the new element of the 
recumbent body of a man below, but the correspondence in details, such as 
the form of the base and the tail of the lion curling up the flank, a fiords 
absolute proof of the affiliation of proto-dynastic Egyptian models. 

A similar origin may be claimed for the ivory seal types in the form of 
apes (Fig. 411). while certain pre-dynastic hawk amulets in glazed stone 
(Fig. 408 ), with a lateral perforation , 5 suggest the similarly bored dove from 
Kountasa, that shelters its fledglings beneath its wings (Fig, 40t»). The 
lion form of seal—as is show n by the amethyst specimen, bored in the same 
way through its side. Fig. 416 4 —■itself survived to the beginning of the 
■ hard-stone period' of the Minoan lapidaries (M. M. 11), A remarkable link 
with this is supplied by the scaraboid-like lion-seal of steatite, with the same 
side perforation, Fig. 415, a~d, found at Knossos tgye. This presents below 
a finely engraved squatting figure in a markedly Egyptianizfog Style, holding 
a globular vase and coupled with a loop pattern of Early Minoan affinity, 

1 E.g. h Petrie* A\ Tombs of Ahydos* Pc. ii p a side and from perforation, 
pi, VI, #3-8 find pL VIa (ist Dyn). 1 B.M* Cat Jfygrsvtd Gems, p h i^ p 

1 See T- of if, Ft. I, p. SSf Ffe 28 . No. 103, with side view. The base is here 
The OVal, sqii»rfc-cut hast h also reproduced* for the first time published. Nought in r8ga 
here engraved as for a seal. from an Athens dealer. Said lu be from 

1 Of Dyn.tUie, from the Abydos Temple * Mycenae \ but certainly of Cretan origin. 
(Petrie, Abjdos t I'L ii, PI. VJl T St, 8a), It has 

Fig |Ofci h Ivory Draught Piece in Form 
o> Lion. First Dynasty: Abydos* Egypt* 

Fig- 4i>7 + Ivory Lion-seal Primitive 
F FKOUis: * Ka i VTii i a s\\ ( \) 

FtCi m 
j IavK Pknuast. 
I Iuizrd Stone : 
Auydos* IKs, L 

H ^ 

Fig, 409, Ivory Dove, sheltering YoUHG* 
Kovmasa Crete, 


i ui. 110 , Breccia Vase. Early M inoaK: 



Fig. 410 hts . Ivory Seal in 
Form or Owl. MesarA, 

Ficl III. Ivory Seal in Form uj Apk 

1*1. AT A NOR. {' k KT ¥. 

FtG* 412 . 

KovmAN Ai k. 

Fig. 415. 

Flo. 413* a . Ivory Dog ; d f Back Hikrakgnj^iis Early Nilotic. 

rii;.. I 14. Doc; on Creln SrKAtm Liti- hium 
Mochlos* Early Mj.\e>AK 11 


sI - A3.’ MM* EI. 


The conspicuous skill of die earlier Nilotic ivory carvers in portraying 
dogs (see Fig, 4Ei, a, if *) is reflected in the couchant dog; so admirably 
executed in relief on the steatite lid from Mochlos (Fig. 414), where, however, 
its jackal affinities contrast with the nobler stock represented by the 
11 terakonpolls ivory. The latter and a parallel prick-eared type were 
adopted by historic Egypt—at times with Libyan names—and this breed 
appears on the M. M, I I a seal illustrated below . 2 There, too, we recognize 
the bow and arrows of the Desert Race, 

As demonstrating the identical style of the lapidaries who executed the 
reliefs oil stone vases, and of those who carved die ivory seal-tops, it is possible 
here to supply two interesting examples. An Early Minoan breccia cup 1 (Fig, 
410, a, 6), cut into the figure of a little owl, finds its counterpart in the ivory 
seal (Fi if, 410 Ms. a- </), probably from a similar primitive vault of Mesara.* 
When compared with hieratic hawks and lions that already make their 
appearance in Egypt by the Age of Menes these Cretan animal sculptures 
are of more animated conception, I he dove is sheltering its young. 1 he 
lion guards the prone body of a man. The hound stretches himself as ' dozens 
of crop-eared dogs of the same peculiar long-legged and emaciated type 
have stretched themselves in the Cretan village streets lor the last 4 , 000 years. 
The great multiplicity of form that characterizes the earlier Minoan 
seals* was considerably restricted when, about the beginning of M. M. II, 
their engravers began to attack hard stones such as cornelian, agate, 
chalcedony, and rock-crystal, some of which materials were already not un¬ 
known for beads. The three- and four-sided seals—their originally thick-set 
form being modified to that of an elongated prism —became a well adapted 
vehicle for hieroglyphic figures at the beginning of the Middle Minoan Age 
and survived to the dose of M, M, IL In M. M. Ill this was succeeded by 
a shorter form with bossed sides, generally presenting * talismanic ' motives. 

s From Hierakonpolis - in tlie Ashtnolean 
Museum (specially drawn). The sockets for 
insert ion of legs and tail anticipate the tech¬ 
nique oi 1 lie Minoan ivory figurines, 

5 See below, p« 533* l’ig* 4 ES, and cF P- &/ 
I/., ti P Ft. I„ p. 48 seqrp and Fig, 2a above 
(‘The bow of Neith*). 

3 Stager, AfwAfi?j+ p|k 20 P 21, arid Fig- 5 ? 
cf. P £?/.)/., i t p. 94t 

1 This seal, obtained by me from Southern 
Crete, may well have been one of the scattered 

relicsffOttL the dest royed Tholos tomb of Hngios 
Onuphrios. l>r. MaHnatOs informs me that 
ihe owl vase was in ihe Miisotakls Collection 
at Candid but its find-spot is not recorded. 
To my own knowledge specimens from Hagjos. 
Onuphrios—the sole source of such relics at 
that time—had passed into MLtsotukiii'posses¬ 
sion shortly before 1894. 

* R. TL Stager, Mochfos > p. 2 ( + 

* See especially jP. , 1 /^ i t p. 117 
Figs. 8^ r 

E, hL 

R-lylc com¬ 
mon IO 
vases and 

Little owl 

M. M, 
seal types 
on hard 
prism Sj 



* Signet 1 
seals und 
those with 
uf Lions. 

This, indeed. 

Disuse of 
phic IJP55 


ance til 
lure, na- 
lurnli scic 
.\ninu]s t 
>im\ rock 

1 Signet Type of Seal, due to Hittlte Influences. 

A new type of ‘ signet-seal f also used for hieroglyphs seems at this 
time to have owed its temporary vogue to Hittlte influences, 
is confirmed by the discovery of a specimen in silver 
from East Crete, 1 a metal common on the Anatolian class 
of seals, but otherwise unexampled In the Minoan series. 

Some variety of form was also maintained by the 
occurrence of seals with their upper surface imitating the 
whorls of shells or elegantly convoluted, and one example 
at least exists ol a Xllih Dynasty Egyptian scarab of 
amethyst engraved with Minoan signs. 

About the close of the M. M. II 6 phase a funda¬ 
mental change takes place in sphragistic usage. The 
fields of the seals are now no longer filled with hiero¬ 
glyphic signs, and at the same time the current form of 
prism seal, with its flat elongated facets, so appropriate 
for such inscriptions, is itself given up. On the later 
specimens of these prisms themselves we begin to see 
animal designs, for which their narrow* fields were not 
well adapted. J he * signet' type, though small for such 
pictorial subjects, seems on the other hand to have sup¬ 
plied the remarkable head of a Minoan prince, with a 
strong Armenoid profile*: the first attempt aL anything like realistic 
portraiture preserved to us. So, too, a cornelian -signet' found in East 
Crete depicts a pair ol wild goats on a rocky peak {Fig. 417). n Among 
the seal impressions from the 1 Hieroglyphic Deposit’ at Knossos,however, 
there now occur, beside late examples of the 'signet' class, singularly 
naturalistic representations of rocky landscapes in a round slightly bossed 
field of large compass, indicating the advent of the new. lentoid ty pe. 

Fig. 417 tf r 6„ 
White Cgknexjan 
"Signff’j near 


Fla (-sided 
disks, pj-t' 
cursors of 

Flat sided Disks—transitional links with Lentoid Type. 

It Is, Indeed, difficult from impressions alone to distinguish such lentoid 
beads from a parallel class with broad flat edges that now comes Into vogue. 
An intaglio of this kind, showing a very natural figure of a homed sheep, 
standing on a stepped base, is here reproduced (Fig. 41Sn)p The upper 

3 Obtained by me by exchange from ilic 
late R. B. Seager* 

1 Sec above, p. 474, Fig, 399, and cl P. oj 
JA, j t |x 27 - Fi^. SOIjpfl. 

U d see tm the handle an elongated v<rr- 
sEon of the rope pattern of Hitilte and Syrian 

Cf. P. qf \f. f ] t p r c3 S 4 , Fig. 50% 5. 


part of the field, with its filling of upright bars joined together by 

diagonal lines, links this to 
a common class of bead- 
seals of the same flat-sided 
shape, elsewhere explained 
as a conventional attempt 
to represent a facade of a 
building (Fig- 418^).' 

These flat-sided disks 
are the successors of a 

.similar type in ivory and 
F HJ■ 4 I E' I' J- AT - * r HT M 1 

SIX>en' Disk with Soft slon ^ °J M - M - 1 I? 
KAt; Mtv. or Build- association, with engraved 

Pick J is a. *HornedSheep *, 


sided 1 Disk ; Central r kkte. 



designs both on the upper 
and the lower surface, f hey 

are Anally assimilated to the true lentoid form by transitional stages. 

The Lentoid Type. 

Of the true lentoid type a quite recent find In the Gortyna district has 

produced an example nfgre at chrono¬ 
logical import (see Fig. 410b It is of 
yellow steatite and presents a foliate 
pattern closely akin to the central 
device on 
a highly 
deco rat i ve po Iy chro me 

pot from the North West 
T reasu re H ou se a t 
Knossos- of mature 
M.M, II ti date (inset). 

It is further remarkable 
in another way. a part 
of the incised design 
showing remains of a bright red filling material. 

This, then, was not a seal hut an ornamental 

1*1 c. 4 1 Br I i nto] j > Be a e j 
or Yellow Steatite from 
nea k Gortyna, with 
Traces or Red Inlaying 
Material. (The Pattern 
rkhemislf.s th at or a L. M. 
T E n Polychrome Vase 
it. 1700 ilch).) 

Fig. 419 Aft. Head of Dervish 
Priest from Jdnii: Palace. 

1 /#. P pp. 564, 565, Fig. 4 11. 1 is repro 

ducedm Fij*. -| I 8 &). 

* Soti /! &/ .1/., i p p. *4*?. Fig. lM M a r and 
cl Coloured Flale III, 


type in 
vogue by 

scnl bn- 

bead. The steatite bead-seal round in the Little Palace, presenting the 
head of a diaimtmg priest, here reproduced in Fig. 419 bis' 1 is placed by 
its find circumstances well within the borders of M. M. HI. Like the fiat- 
edged class, it has a device 
on both faces. At the same 
lime the strongly character¬ 
ized portraiture maintains the 

tradition of the M. M. 11 clav- 


sealing of the 'Priest King' 
from the Hieroglyphic De¬ 
posit. though the facial type 
is very different 3 

It is fairly clear that the 
bulk of the fantastic types on day sealings from Zakro and elsewhere/ 1 the 
earlier examples of which maybe safely attributed to the M. M, III Period, 
belonged to lento id types. 

Fig. 420. SpHtKx 
(i rom Zakro)* 

Fit;. I2h EykH JiV’LJKR* 
I'LIES (i~K0tt Kxossos)* 

Fir.* 422* Staling of Lintuii? 

Type Hieroglyphic De- Fig. r23, Skating from 
posit : Knossos* (&LM. IF) Temple Repository. 

Fig, 42 L Flying Bird Seal¬ 
ing : H. Triada* 

These are more fancy free than any other class oi intaglio designs 
to be found cither in the Ancient or the Modern World, An airy touch 
is stippled by the fondness of die arlists for wings of all kinds—of birds, 
butterflies, and bats. What could be a more graceful composition than die 
facing Sphinx, here reproduced (Fig. 420)?* Its eyed wings are suggestive 
of a pea cork butterfly, such as we see in a triple coil on a seal impression 
from the Palace site at Knossos (Fig, 421), Itself of this fantastic class, 1 

1 See above, p. ;iS, K : g. 167 fi, ' P. oj Af,, i, p. 705 , fig. 52*}, t 

* Sec nbovf, p r 474 . Fig* 3$0. 1 ih + Fig. 52*2* d. 

3 Stre / p . vj Jf. r s, [h jroi spqtj* 


The eyes on this themselves approach the symbol of the all-seeing divinity, 
such as appears in the field of more than one signet-ring* 

Fantasy apart, designs of this class often reveal the truest sympathy with Ltmoid 
natural forms and surroundings, as is seeti in the design of a fish and squid 
stranded in a rocky pool, on a Knossos sealing already referred to (Fig. 422). birtL 
In Fig* 423, on a sealing of MM. Ill date, 1 we actually seem to have an 
instantaneous glimpse of what might be willows bending to the breeze, which 
stirs flood water round. Fig. 424 showing a flying lnrtl, on a seal impression 
from Hagia Triada," supplies another good example of this free .spirit* 

Lentoid showing Calf's Head. 

Unfortunately, owing largely to the rarity of contemporary tombs, we Calf's 
have largely tn rely on clay seal impressions for our knowledge of this earl) JlVrcriToi 
lentoid class. It is possible, however, to illustrate far the first time here 
a remarkable specimen, exceptionally executed in dark steatite, from 

conjecture that it was a seal for warrants for a 
share of sacrificial offerings such as is usually 

Lability, be regarded as an early work ol the Third 

Middle Period- Fine illustrat ions of lentoid types belonging to the succeeding 
1 jite Minoan style are supplied by Figs. 570. 5£H> and Sup pi FI. LV, d. ft 
below, showing a stag seized by two lions and a mortal combat of two lions 
for their quarry. 

Contrasted Group of Three Water fowl on Lentoid Bead seaL 

A beautiful and in many ways remarkable piece, from its naturalistic Group of 
style, belonging to the great transitional epoch M. M* Ill-L.M. I ir, is an 
1 /A t \k Gijj, I r^r. 310. 3 Acquired by me, through exchange from fwl. 

1 Dora Lei 1, L* Crttufc di Naga Triads Mr. K. B + Scjger* The surface is slightly 
< di ZdkrO' p, 3?p Fig* 5 jj find FI. IX, 28* 




intaglio in ail opaque green stone found near Mirabel to East of Candia. It 
is an instantaneous sketch, presenting a group of three irater-fowl, displayed 
in such a way that each illustrates a different phase of bird life (Fig. 42d). 

One is asleep, with his head and long neck 
resting on his back ; another, below this, plunges 
his head into a stream—indicated by undulated 
lines—in search of food. A third, behind, with 
outspread wing and head gracefully thrown back 
and extended neck, prepares for flight. No one 
will question the selective felicity and power of 
artistic grouping displayed in this design. It is 
executed with a firm hand and with great sureness 
Fie. 42G. Group or Water- ol touch, which, though singularly free of details, 
im! M. M. Ill—I.. M. la; brings the essential features into strong relief. The 
Miftw.u,o T Crete i ; >. background is clear. Not a single papyrus spray, 
so characteristic of other versions of this subject, is here introduced to break 

Fig. 427 ', Docks and 1 ’ait- 
rub Sprays: J„ M. II—III: 
Kftossos (j). 

Kkl 128 tip b % Bami-ed Acatk Lkxtuiu ; Mikarkj lo (f) F 

the simplicity of the composition. The wing feathers are not defined, but 
the rendering of the outlines of wings themselves and the general contour is 
so skilful and true that the absence of such details hardly strikes the eye. 

As a foil to the varied scene presented by the little masterpiece here 
reproduced, the design, on a green jasper intaglio found on the site of 
Knnssos itself, 1 is here repeated. 

In this case. Fig. 427, we see a group of three wild ducks on the 
same level, two swimming one way and one another, while, above and in 

front, rise three papyrus sprays—one weighed down bv two of the birds_ 

in a manner often seen In the wall-paintings of the Egyptian Thebes. The 

1 Given me by Dr. Joseph Hiitadaiis in iS^. CT. /’. »f iii, f r fi, Fig, 



conventional style of these sprays is suggestive of L. ML II—II I vase decora¬ 
tion and is well dated by examples from the last palatial deposits oi clay 
seal impressions at KnossosJ 

Later History of the Lentoid Class. 

A good example of the fully developed lentoid type with a section and 
side view is given in Fig; 428* This gem, a banded agate, was found in the 
Mirabello district East of Candia. and the subject " may be compared with 
that of the elongated bead-seal t Fig. 559 below, a more or less contemporary 
work. Here a huntsman, rushing forward at a gigantic and trucdeirt-boktng 
agrjmi f stabs it to the heart while warding off the horns with his other arm* 
In the field between his legs is a bull's head, often used as a fill-up object 
in Mlnoan intaglio designs. 

So far as the existing evidence goes it would appear that the use 
of the lentoid form of bead-seal was by no means general before the 
mature L. M. la stage. By the close of L. M* I however, it was already 
becoming predominant, as is well shown by the Vapheio deposit* 1 As 
noted below/ it now engenders a special lentoid type of design* In the 
days of the latest degeneration of Minoan Art, when the lapidaries had 
ceased to attack any materials but the soft ■ steatite, the lentoid form 
became practically the only type. It was revived some live centuries later, 
together with the + almond-shaped 1 form, in a choicer translucent green 
variety of the same material, by the gem-engravers oJ the H Median' School, 
of which contemporary Crete formed a somewhat subsidiary branch. 

The Almond-shaped or Amygdaloid Type. 

Another class of bead-seal makes its appearance about the same time 
as the fine lentoid gems, which for some time runs parallel with them* 1 hese 
almond-shaped or 1 amygdaloid * type—otherwise known as * glandular '— 
cannot be: traced to any Mlnoan origin. As applied to beads, however, 
the form occurs on a larger scale among Sumerian relics of a date approach¬ 
ing l ^goo ilc m and is also known in Egypt from late Prehistoric times to 
the Xllth Dynasty, though there the outline was less elongated* 

* See below, pp. 60S. 605 (Fig, 5 &I 7 a, >i). a traditional M. M. 111 A L. M. 1 amygda- 

3 See, too, Fig* oaS, p* 577, 3 <nd of the 1 taJismanic class',, and the others 

* Out of 37 seal-stone* from the Vapheio represent either the * elongated 1 bead-shaped 

Tomb illustrated by Tsounias,'K^. 1SS9, lype that now conies into vugue or ihe amygda- 

H. X, 24 arc of ihc lentoid type Of the loids with rather rmtrow field, 

remainder, one (Figs. 5, 6) to presents a survival 4 P r 615 seqq + 

of a M M_ Ill three-sided form, another is 




nance of 
type from 
close of 
L. M. 1 h 

shaped or 
' amygda¬ 


L. M r I a 
examples k 
Fish in 

1 Tails- 
IHfDic h 

It-S field was particularly adapted for scenes hi which animals are de- 
pieced at full gallop, as on some fine seal 
impressions, probably from stones of this 
class already discussed , 1 belonging to the 
M. M. Ill—L, M. Gt phase. To the same 
great Transitional Age must be ascribed an 
instantaneous sketch of a flying-fish, com¬ 
pared above with those of the fresco (Fig. 

4211},* and the perspective rendering of the 
skaros — a kind of parrot wrasse-—with its sea 

pasture here reproduced in Fig. 4l!Q. ‘ To it, y, G . m Cornelian a»toda- 
too. we must sec down the hunting scene loid: FLvmc-nsiL 

depicting the lassoing of large homed sheep, 
and the herd of Cretan goats on another 
Cornelian gem from Crete (Fig. 431)/ 

As has been shown above, it is this class 
of stone that was the special vehicle of the 
talismamc types, belonging in an over¬ 
whelming degree to L. M. Iff and the latest 
M. M. Ill phase. By the beginning of the 
L. M. I i> period, and a date round about 
1500 B.c., this form of bead-seal seems to 
have practically gone out of use, and, among 
thirty-eight intaglios of the Vapheio deposit, 
only one. presenting the ‘covered chalice*'' 

of the talismanic series—obviouslv to be l' J c, eta. Corneuak Amvcda- 

J loid: SfiT.iJios Fish. 

1 As, fw instance, the racing lions, P. nf .V,, 
i, |j. 716, Fig, 539 , <r, and the Hying leap of 
wild goats {'//>,, E-ig. 539 , t), ft is often diffi¬ 
cult in the ciise of day sealings to distinguish 
the impressions of bead-seals of this d«s from 
those of signet-rings. The amygdaloid gems 
as a rule arc somewhat more 1 tossed. 

1 /’. <>/ M. t iii, pp. ii8, try, and Fig, H I. 

* On a run id i an tread-seal from l-appo, in 
West Central Crete, nhtained by me in 1895 
(see op, fit, 1*. 677, Fig. 498 ), 

* E.M. Cat. No. 34: presented by Mr. W. K, 
Piton in 1SS4. 

■ *E$. 'A(, x . tS8y, PL X, 17. 

Fto. 431. Cornelian Amvoaloid; Hkkij 
or Cretan Goaia 



regarded as a specimen that had survived in use—is of the true almond- 
shaped form. 

Fi«. 432. Amygdaloid 
(Haouiits) with 
(Jhodykd Hack, {[£' 

liiis amygdaloid class a fiords a few Isolated in¬ 
stances of a peculiar cutting of the back of the stone 
which, in the succeeding Period, becomes general in 
the case of the closely allied family of‘elongated beads’. 
In conformity with this lapidary fashion, the origin of 
which is not clear, the bossed centre of the field is 
framed, as it were, by a slight groove (Fig. 432).' This 
dorsal contour, though as yet of very rare occurrence, 
is already seen in the case of a gem with a lassoing 
scene. Mg. 543.* which can hardly be later than the early 
part of L. M. I ft. On the earliest specimens of this class, 
it does not appear." It is rare on the considerable 
series of beads presenting talismanic motives. 1 

l it.. 433. * lil.ow- 

gated Amygdaloid 
Type with Ghooted 
Back. Ii£) 

■Elongated’ Amygdaloid Type of Bead-seal. 

The earlier amygdaloid type practically dies out about 
the beginning of L. M. 1 b. A more elongated type, 
however, answering to a bead form, that came into vogue 
in the mature L. M. 1 epoch, survives into the two suc¬ 
ceeding Periods. I his form, indeed, is very characteristic 
of the last Palatial Age at Knossos,' and is also well repre¬ 
sented in the Vapheio group.* The outline was specially 
well adapted for seals presenting single figures like the 
long-robed priestly personages, one of which that shows a 
dove-holding figure *—its back view appears in Fig. 433, 
The delicate Incision of its moulding carries to still greater 
elaboration that so frequent in the ordinary amygdaloid 
type. A specimen illustrated below (Fig. 550), which 
depicts a hunter in the act of dispatching an overthrown 

1 The characteristic form with the grooves 
was already illustrated by l / ur[w.ingJt:r I He 
sthrtibn>i% dtr£isth>tittenen Slant im Antigua- 
ritwi, p. 5 (no. 42). 
s I 1 . 569 below. 

As, for instance, on those showing the 
Xkarot and flying-fish (Figs. 429, 130), 

It appears on two specimens of ihuse [ire- 

sen ting .1 very degraded version of tlie !ion’s 

Set /: ii, Ft, I, p. 75, Fig. 3 L e, 

- '^ 4 ' * A PX * r ^?p I** 19* 23-4. 26-30, 
30 nnd 36 be described as 
transitional amygd&loids. For gold examples 
see below, pp* 511 , 513 + 

T Sec above, \\ 405, Fig, 33+1* 

1 Klrm-.L- 
[fd" type 
of bead- 



L, M. 1 6 


L. M. JL 



tlon4 of 
us d aslant 


iigHi/n, still reflects the bold execution of the best period of the Minoan 
gem-engraver's Art. 1 Elongated bead-seals of gold and ot superior size 
form ail important group of the Thisbe series: their backs, however, are plain. 

The Cylinder Type: Early Reflection and Later Imitation in Minoan 


The widespread family of early Oriental cylinders—extending to the 
Nile Valley—could not be without its effect on primitive usage throughout 
the East Mediterranean basin. In Cyprus of the Copper Age we already 
see, so far as the tubular form was concerned, more or less exact reproduc¬ 
tions, coupled with barbaric copies of the figured representations. A similar 
phenomenon occurs at Hissarlik, where, however, the rude floral and 
branch-like designs 1 indicate derivation front types very characteristic 
of the Anatolian midlands. In the Cyclades, more remotely situated, we 
see solid cylinders, with rude geometrical decoration, attached by means of 
a holed projection at top. So, too. in Early Minoan Crete, seals appear of 
soft stone, ivory, and terra-cotta with side perforations. In that case the 
engraved figures are on the upper and lower faces instead of being round 
the circumference, anti the considerable repertory of designs Is quite 
independent of the Oriental cylinder class. 5 

At most we have a suggestion due to indirect acquaintance. At the 

1 lii&n (A. Gotic), p, +V4 7 j and cf. Schl tetinann, translucent steatite. A specimen of terra- 
p, 416, Figs. 50z, 503 (and ef, p.,415, Vig. 500). cotta, with primitive engravings above and 
The floral design recalls IX CL Ilugarth p below from ihe T [agios Onuphrios Deposit, 
Hi Mite Seals, &c. t no, 33 (PL II)* was described by me in Cretan J*kt$graphs 

f Cf. especiallyXatUhtidides, Caulted Tomhi (Quartieb, 1895X pp- and 107, Fig, Si, 
0/ Jfcsara (Fraud* Droop), PSs. VHI P XIII, where its dissimilarity from the Oriental class 
XIV; Seager* J fwAMSj p, |o P Tomb XVII!: was pointed oat. 

Fit;. Fio. Cornelian Cvuxukhl with 
Dolphins repeated: K. Crete. 



beginning of the Age of Palaces, however (M* M I a )—as part of a 
new stream of influence from Eastern quarters in the time of the First 
Babylonian Empire, or even earlier 1 —there is evidence of the actual impor¬ 
tation into Crete of cylinders of 
the Oriental type. 

Somewhat later, a more direct 
acquaintanceship with this form of 
seal leads to its literal adoption as 
a Minoan type, though without any 
attempt to takr over the Oriental 
subjects. Two specimens in red 
cornelian are hen- reproduced, both 
of them from Eastern Crete (Figs. 
434 r 435), bearing traces of the 
rapid use of a hollow drill. Fig. 
434 fits on to the s talismanic class 
above described,” and shows a kind of base with vegetable shoots coupled 
with heads of a bull and two-horned sheep* Tile other, presenting a 
series of repeated dolphins and sdgzags, betrays the same rapidity of 

The agate specimen, Fig. 387 above. 3 depicting a hero, protected by a 
Minoan Genius, attacking a lion, belongs to a good L. M. I A style* 

A cylinder— cut out of haematite, like the Oriental prototypes—was 
found in a tomb of the Minoan cemetery of Hagia Pelagia, a small haven 
West of Candia, It was dated by the associated pottery to the early part of 
L, M. 111, and displays a fantastic hunting scene, clearly executed by a native 
artist (Fig, 43Gb A female figure is seated on a cantering animal, which, 
from its bushy tail that rather resembles a wing—-might be taken fora fox. 
Behind her walks a male attendant, carrying a Griffin on his shoulders as 
a trophy of the chase. The whole is set in a field of conventional papyrus, 
but with a rocky ground. This cylinder must be regarded a? presenting an 
original Minoan composition, though the papyrus is Nilotic. 

The progress of colonization in the North-East Mediterranean angle— 
in Cyprus, and. it may now be added, on the Syrian and Ctlician coasts—led 

1 In the case of the gohlitiGupted lapis- headwtihspravs oudtherside fecalisaihnee- 
lazuli cylinder from the Palace there is a strong sided cornelian bead-seal of the 1 taltsnmnic 1 
reflection of a still earlier Sumerian style (sec class,of MAh HI fabrjc T seen by me at blirnda 
above, p.. 4*4, and Fig. 350 ). (QIqusJl 

; See p* 446 seqq. The style of the bull's a See p. 4bj, Found at Kakovatos. 

l ie. Haematite Cvi-lNjJkii (L.>L III a). 

Hauia Pelagia. W. oi Candia* 

import ol 
I on vdn 

M+ M. la. 

form lirst 
copied iti 
L.M. \it* 

tile ex¬ 
from in 


Laic re¬ 
action of 
S>T o- 


" Cypro- 

tite cylin* 
der wit h 

13 arbour 

to the manufacture, by the Minoan settlers themselves, of local classes of 
cylinders, not only of the same Oriental form, and, like Fig. 436, of the same 
haematite material, but with kindred religious representations. A group 
displaying versions of the Egyptian palmetto pillar seems to belong to this 
class, 1 * 3 In other cases, as 
on cylinders referring lo 
the cult of the Dove God¬ 
dess, Cypriote and 1 littitc 
Art traditions show such a 
close parallelism with that 
of Minoan Crete that the 
respective contributions 
cannot always be easily 

Examples of such have 
been given in Section 102 above, including a faience cylinder of Syro-Hittite 
character, found at Vari,* in Attica, and illustrating the wide Aegean diffusion 
of such models. The question indeed suggests itself whether they may 
not have been imitated in Crete by Minoan engravers. The haematite 
cylinder of Cretan provenance described above in connexion with the Minoan 
Genii *—though the daemon is there coupled w ith a Minotaur—may still be 
assigned to the Cypro-Minoan class. But another specimen, Fig. 41*7, found 
some years back on the site of the harbour town of Knossos, near the river- 
mouth. 1 bears internal evidence, not only of deviation from the norma! 

l ie. I 37 . 

Haematite Cvi-jxdf-r : H in inset; Town of 

cyllmkr style, but of details traditional with the Cretan seal-engravers. 

The first episode, of a horned animal—in this case a stag—pounced 
upon by a hound while suckling us young, h a known Minoan motive. ■ 
There follow s a nun-stag, with the head and upper part of his body bent 
down in a manner characteristic of designs of single- and double-bodied 
Minotaurs, and similar fantastic creations on Cretan lentoids* 1 There is 

1 See A. E. # Afy<\ Tret and PiUar if brs/tif, 

48 seqq. 

* Sec p. 409 above, Fig, 330. 

3 See p. 459 above, and Fig. 383 . 

* Fig. 437 was drawn by M + E + Gilltetnn, 
fils, from an Impression obtained by me at the 
time. I an; ignorant as in the present owner¬ 
ship of the cylinder. 

3 E.g, ILM, Cut- (kms T I 1 ]. 11,55 and p. 7 (uf. 
Jr/f.S, xvii, 1897, PL 111, 9 and jl 69) where 

in bot h worts, the group is wrongly describe ns 
a deer and fawn. 

A similar figure of a J man-slag 1 occurred 
ona Late Minoan Cornelian Jcnioid found by 
the West Porch at Knussos (A/hwj*/, Report, 
i 9 *S- R l8 < % 10). a parallel design o( 
a man-bull or ^tiiiEvUiur is seen on a hbiema- 
tile Ion Enid obtained by me from Mi late, 
I rete,. not her (.Tetan specimen presenting 
a conjoined mail-bull and man-goat is no. £5 



nothing in the two remaining figures—a running animal and a seated 
Sphinx—to detract front the Cretan character of this cylinder . 1 

The ‘Flattened Cylinder* Type. 

Amongst early forms of Minoan bead-seals, that described in this Work 
as the ‘ flattened cylinder 1 plays a special part. It is, indeed, the vehicle for 
a scries of the finest achievements of the Cretan gem*engraver’s Art. 

It seems impossible to point to a prototype 
of this form outside die Island, either on the 
Chaldaean or the Egyptian side. 1 n Crete 
itself an ivorv bead-seal from Knossos s with 
details recalling one from Tfwfos A at Platanos 
(E. M* 1II-M. M. I tt) r and another from 
Tfioios B there (M* M. I d), Fig, 438 T * seem 
to lie the only near parallels to be found 
among the seal-types of the primitive class, 
though the faces are flatter, and of squarer 
outline. The intaglio design on this is much 
worn, but shows a rude animal, and traces, 
apparently, of linear signs. 

15y M. M f 1J, however, the existence of 
the type in Its characteristic aspect, with some¬ 
what rounded faces, is attested by a clay seal- 

Fus 138. Ivorv I* fad-seal: 


impression from Zakro, presenting hieroglyphic signs of Class B,* and by an 
actual example in banded agate , 4 with hieroglyphs of the same class on one 
side, and on the other a sketchy design of a wild goat with abnormally long 

in the British Museum l’ol Sect Son, which 
has been often desert bud since Mildihiiten 
publication p, 78, Fig. 50). As 

already shi iwn (P. &J J/ + aii, p. 268 seqq.) 
the Spartan {{tipis Ltittdrtfm&HMs) out 
of which it U cut waii stored in the Palace 
Magazines and freely used by its lapidaries 
1 A cylinder from Mycenae, perhaps of local 
fabric, shows a male odorant before a grou p of 
five columns (A- 1L S Mrr. 7 Wi ami Fiff&r Cntt f 
p. 45, Fig, 24}* By a clerical error [here 
described as a 1 lemoid \ 

3 Knossos, f\ M. r iii, p. ji, Fig. 11, there 
described as M. M. I hut cf + /* of J/ Jp i* 
P * Fig. 87 t 9 from TJ & i&s A, Plaianus, 

preponderantly Jv. M. Ill* 

* Xanthudides, if ‘united T&mbs vf M&ara 
(tnmvl Droop) t PL XIY r , no. 1070 , and p. 11 ft. 

H Script* Aftmm t t, p. 155* 1 \ 145, Found 
En House A at Kale Zakrn, 

The face of this with the hieroglyphs was 
published by me in Cretan P/tit^mp/rs, 1895* 
P- 3 °* 39 (/ // A J( nlv, p. 299) from an 

impression of the stone which then in 
Athens. Both faces arc given by l urlvfangler, 
J r G. r PL Vl t 1 3l 14 and in Walters JV. AL 
Cat. GfmSj 1*1, I. 3 a T l*. 1e was parchasod 
by the B. M. at the Story-Maskelyne Sale, in 
1921 . The edges of this gem are exception¬ 
ally rounded. 

L I 

Cylinder 1 

M. M. la 



I - 1 1 

M.M 1! 


Cl ol d- 






CsQ kt 

beads of 
this cIjus 
with fine 



horns, pursued by a dog over scale-like rocks. 1 Ot finer style* though of con¬ 
temporary execiiiion, with similar long horns, is the agf imi leaping over rocky 

ground „ wi l!i a tret: behind,obtained 
by me from Rethymnos, and here 
reproduced (Fig- The stone, 

a very beautiful banded agate* 
presents die peculiarity of having 
two perforations, and on grounds 
of style the intaglio may be placed 
within the borders of M.M. II A A 
chalcedony example from Knossos 
(Fig. 440 p and SuppL PL LIV, ^), 
of more or less contemporary date, shows a fisherman in exceptional loin 
clothing holding a s&ar&s fish and an octopus on a string. This may date 
from early M* M* III. 

Of special Interest among early examples of the ■flat cylinder' class is 
that reproduced in Fig, 44 1 ^ obtained by me from a peasant on the 
site of Pulaikastro, in 1894, where the stone, consisting of black steatite, is 

Fiu, 130. 1 Flat Cylinder * Cornelian : 
Rethvmngs, BOL ll ti)- 

Fiel HO. Chalcedony: 
K nqs sos f X W. it i- St j jv >, 
M. M. Ill (|). 

Fia 4 -3 h Cold - I K 1 . at k u 
Sl tATlTE + ] ’l_AT C V E.i N111! K 

FaLAIKA&TRO, M. M. I n ( l). 

Fic> 4 tx I.. M. II Example, 
Royal To mil [sopata, Chal- 

L- d BOX v, G uLL!- > lOU NTH It f J ). 

covered—as were small reliefs on vases in the same material—with thin gold 
plate (cf. Snppi. I'l. LIV, 6 ), I his is impressed into a design of dolphins 
swimming, with rock-work in front, of the nai oral is tic style common to 
M. M. II b and M. M. III. I he object Jiere was to imitate an engraved gold 
bead of this form, and it will be seen that ' flat cylinders ' of gold were asso¬ 
ciated with some of the finest intaglio designs of Mycenae and Thisbe, 

1 A flat cylinder or handed agate in a some- Carian island of SymG. 
what similar style, shawm- a Griffin 5<ji*ing 3 Cf. I‘. of M, i, p. 6 j 5 , Fig. 195, «, b. 
a dter (Ber). Cat*. No* 51) came from the 


Select Lstaulios o^ Eari.y V\m StYLk; a , M. M. 11; b m , M. M- III \Ni> Tkanaitiqnai 


belonging to the early phase of L. M. I . 1 From this time onwards, except 
occasionally for simple heads without engraved designs, the J flattened cylin¬ 
der" tends to go out of use. In Tomb l at Isopata, indeed, the structure and 
L. M. 11 sherds of which show that it was contemporary with the neigh bowing 
Royal Tomb, a flat cylinder of chalcedony was found , 3 which may be taken 
as evidence that the type remained still in occasional use to the close of the 
Palace period. It is mounted with plain gold bands at the two ends— 
slightly overlapping the figures, anil displays, in inferior style, a collared 
dog, with lion-like head, of a size quite disproportionate to that of the two 
men who accompany it (Fig, 442)* It is a significant fact, however, that 
no seal types of this kind occurred in the Vapheio deposit. They seem to 
be equally to seek in ihe later tombs of Mycenae. a Only a single impres¬ 
sion of this class was found, to my knowledge, among the hoards of sealings 
belonging to the time of the destruction of the Palace at Knossos* (See 
Figs, 597 a. ]i, pp* 60 S, 609 below.) 

Masterpieces on Flat Cylinders: the Bull caught at Cistern, 

The oblong field of this form of bead-seal was better fitted than any 
other—subject to the restrictive limits of the engraver's Art—for the repro¬ 
duction of panel designs of the same shape, painted, in the flat or in stucco 
relief, on the Palace walls. It is* perhaps, for that reason that several of 
the chief masterpieces of this Art have come to light on fiat cylinder seals. 
Among these it is hardly necessary to mention the gold bead-seal front the 
Mycenae Shaft Grave, depicting the wounded lion on the rocky steep (see 
below. Fig. 507 ) t 4 and the grand figure of the bull, surprised and grappled 
while drinking at a cistern (Stippl FJ. LIV, t)* the front of which En fact 
repeats the details of a decorative wall-painting at Phaestos, 

Gem of 1 Flattened Cylinder * Class depicting Tumblers, and Derivative 
Types: Minoan Comparisons with Indigenous Nilotic Group. 

Recent discoveries have produced two fresh examples of this class of 
bead-seal of first-rate interest. The first of ihese was round by a native 
proprietor on a knoll of natural formation about half a mile North of the 
Palace site at Knossos. 

The stone Is a bluish chalcedony, and its subject is two tumblers 
1 See above, P. of J/ M Hi, p. 134, 1%. 7.7. holding up n kid found in a, tombuf ihcPhaeslos 
A hroruse specimen of this class, &J J/,, \\ t Cemetery (see above, pp. 434, 435, Fig. 350, ff) 
pr 343, Fijj T HO, shows a a hip at full *aiL may bc*E be regarded a* a survival from the 
3 A- 1-1., Prthi £5%% ji, 9, Fig. 14 preceding epoch. 

(L. M. II), * See bdow, p. 546. 

* The fractured specimen showing a. Genius 3 See P. of M ri iiu p. tSti, Fig. 121 ). 

t I * 

Ike bull 
taught at 


dony from 



in a flowery field (Fig, 44;} and Suppl. PI. LIV,;> The figured will be m 
exactly balance each other* and the whole scene is symmetrically designed. 
At ihe same time the style of engraving is of die finest kind, wh ile die new j 

human forms are well proportioned a nil elegantly disposed, 1 he plants 

one of which 

springs up between 
the acrobatic 
figures—arc them¬ 
selves convention* 
ally rendered, and 
it is impossible 
to Identify them 
with a fly certainty. 
The flowers, set 
on long stalks, rise 
on either side, and 

Fits- 413 - 1 Fi at Cvu si.inst' or 
ISi.ue Chalchpuxy l KxVOSSOS (i). 

l\a F 4 14- Tu»BtERS ox 
LbIMOlO 1 j EM, 

a central one shoots up between the tumblers" heads. 

This triplet of sprays is itself repeated in a degenerate shape on the 
lentoid In taglio. Fig, 444. 1 In which we tmist certainly recognize a derivative 

Fic. H5, Ni loth Cyuki*j-;k >Howtxtp Fie. 1 1C. IxvFmxizixo Cviixjuch sh&wsxo 


1 Libyan 1 


of the acrobatic scene given in Fig, 443, The legs of the tumblers, in this 
case, however, do not cross one another, and the forearms are directed 
towards the stem of the central plant. 

One important feature in the more perfect design, as seen in Fig, 413, 
is wanting in the derivative version, This is the double rrest curving back 
from the top of the performers' heads. From the slight widening of these 
in their central part it is impossible to regard them as am kind of horns 
and the idea must lie rejected of men in any respect travestied to took like 
animals—Cretan wild-goats, for instance. On the other hand, the slight 

1 From it plaster cast obtained at Athens. 


broadening observable In the upper part of the crests answers to it 
characteristic ol the double plumes worn by the Libyan triltes, anti ver\ 
conspicuously in the case of some of their pre-dynastic representations/ 

This comparison, indeed, leads us a step further. The tumbling iigure 

* ■ ' ‘ associated ei Trly 


Pin. 417. Kaunas 1’his« ; Bi.ack. Stratiti, 

in fact 

with a special class of JJgJg,* 
early cylinders in black 
steatite, presenting a 
medley of subjects 
that curiously com¬ 
bine Nilotic and Chal- 
dacan features. Their 
style is often barbaric 
(see Fig. 445). but 
sometimes—as is illus¬ 
trated by Fig. 44ii here 
given—of better work- 

manship.- This class of cylinder is quite distinct from the well-known 
Egyptian series with hieroglyphic inscriptions, mainly executed in the s&me 
black steatite* that begin with the earliest Dynasty, and often presenting 
royal names front Narmcr onwards * 1 Certain common features in style and 
subject are. however, discernible. 

In first calling attention to this primitive non-Egyptian class of cylinder Audon 
seals thirty-five years since , 1 it was already possible lor me to cite evidences 
of striking conformity between, figures there represented and those on early 
Cretan seal-stones. This was supplemented by the notice of a prism-seal 
acquired at Karnak / 1 and reproduced here in Fig. 4 * 7 t which together with 
elements common to the cylinders, such as the crocodilediokiing man, the 
hornets and scorpions, and conjoined fore-parts of an animal ■-presents the 
characteristic shape of a three-sided Min oast seal-stone. In its black steatite 
material ami its wide perforation* this object resembles the cylinders of this 

1 ELg. that ftii a slate palette, 1 \ 0/ 

VL J. p, ji t J ig. 21. ti. For ihv later type 
Fig. 24 , b* 

: E’roni I .ajar J, Ctt/U i/r Afsthra. So:- my 
Farther Dfcc&terits 0/ Cr/tan Script ( J.ilS- 
xvii). p, j6 4r Fig. 30. 

1 See especially Newberry* Smmbs, d-r-* 
p, 30 seqq M and fur a full cmispecius 
off the material Petrie* Sfambs ( *wf CvOndtrs 

with Nmmet { 1917 }. FIs. I-VIl t 

1 Further Rii&ft'tms <[f Cretan ami -■ legran 
SfrijM: with Libyan a nd ftvfa Egyptian Cfrm- 
pariStMS, fJf.S . (1^97), p, 361 fccqq+T and 
Qtinritcti, 1 CL too Scripts J\liwHt t i 

(iqoy) T pp 122 , 123 , 

1 By Mr. Grevilie Chester ; presented by 
him to Ihe Ashmoteiii M^eum {&p. rft-> J 3 . 362 ). 


t'rc [ an 

group, otherwise the elongated three-sided form is unique amongst Nilotic 
inkani:tk objects of the kind, and corresponds with that of the later pictograpine and 
j'tMh., the hieroglyphic seals ol Crete. It surely indicates a reaction front that 
side. I lie double animal in fact resembles a Cretan wild-goat, (Cf. Fig. 448.) 

T ttrw j- T' NlLfl1lc CTVJHhW - UIHULPf.trt 

<A I 


"*■***• | bl BTh*iT* 


TLA’tCVlirtMy H-W H* & 

K-iouaa ™«rLU-* L 

L*C T ** tin 



pri^m, WtlS A|UEQ 

•/nlDiM FaPVfs 



£1 tJ 

<Hi Ft 


*■*^'1 11 ..V 1 


ifNiij.t Ilia 

► NO *a 1 F F I [ tL 3 +H L T n ff A u 
J* C -1 *** i i* 1 

CL- L fa */ 

Tin, J4S, Cowt AjiATtVE Tahir of Early Nilotic ami Mi so an Types. 

1 his prism seal, like the cylinders with similar figures, must in fact be 
grouped together with a whole family of' button-seals’, the reversed designs 
on which have been shown, in the first volume of Script# Mhioa} to have 
had a marked influence on a series of Minoan seal-stones, mostly of the early, 
compact, three-sided class, but some of them also preserving the button shape, 
if to this be added the influence of certain ‘ tabloids’ and oblong seals, 3 
belonging to the same group. 3 it will be seen how far-reaching were the effects 
of the later wave of old Nilotic elements on the glyptic Art of Crete from 
about the close of the Early Minoan Age onwards, and which, hs shown by 
Lhc Kamak prism, seem to have had a reaction on the Egyptian side 

It is possible, indeed, after the lapse of many years, to repeat here in 
- Sertyta Mfaw, i, p> uj. Fig. 65 f Table XX. * Sec IK i, p. Pig, 0] . The*’the 

Cf., too, P, of AK i, p, 1J4, j* 2 . 

1 See P. uf A/., i, l ig. 360 , 6 , t - (opp. p. ^gy 

maieriaU are steatite lTr d limes tone. 


Fig. 448^ with a few supplementary touches, the 'Fable prepared on the basis 
of my earlier researches. It will be seen ihat K amongst the running figures* 
the horned type from the Karnak prism (Fig* 447 above) may well supply the 
original suggestion of a version of the fully developed Minotaur, recurrent 
on Late MJnoan lentoid seals, arid which was itself revived with human arms 
in the Greek conception of the monster as seen on the coins of Knossos/ 

The acrobatic figure from the + Nilotic' cylinder* 

Fig. 44(5, not only supplies the prototype of the R tumblers' 
on our Knossian intaglio, but may also have influenced 
the parallel pose of the Minotaur, such as Is seen on a 
black lentoid from KnossoV above a star (Fig* 4411), and 
on another from Sybrita on the Western side of Ida 
(see Comparative Table, Fig, 448k The context shows, .. m 

indeed, that the rude horned personage on the Nilotic g XAR ok Bi ack 
cylinder connects up with much earlier man-bull types Steatite, Lektoid: 
of Sumerian cylinders* which later took shape in the 
Babylonian Ea-bani* 

The cylinders with these primitive figures arc themselves of the more 
elongated, old Chaldaean form, contrasting with the stumpy appearance ot 
the usual early dynastic Egyptian types. The * buttons \ which fit on to 
the 'Nilotic* cylinder group, and form indeed its principal ingredient* recur 
at Bismiya/ and elsewhere, in central Babylonia. Their first appearance in 
the Nile Valley dates from about the time of the Syro-Egyptian V Ilth and 
VII l th Dynasties/ On the other hand, the two-headed animals, bulls or 
goats, that appear on tilts group, recall similar forms on the pre-dynastic 
slate palettes of die indigenous 11 proto-Libyan 1 element/ itself in turn 
already influenced by Sumerian Art. The ringed monster of Fig. 44n is 
surely a version of the ‘ Old dragon \ Tiamat* 

It must at Lhe same time be recognised that the cylinder type on which 
this monster occurs, and which further supplies the acrobatic figure, presents 
several dynastic Egyptian features, notably the dad sign between two beasts 

L See* loo, F of i r p. 359 and Fig. 2 tUl a 
di /► 

J See Fo/AL, i, pp + 35 S, island Fig. 260* rf 
{facing p. 358)* The derive non of Early 
Cretan ’maze 1 or * labyrinth 3 paiiem from 
a parallel Nilotic source is also there illustrated, 
but the * maze F and h Minotaur' types are not 
placed in connexion with one another in 
M Incan Art, as they are on the Fifth-Century 

coins of Knossos. In its simplest shape the 
'maze 1 connects itself with Egyptian 1 house* 
plan r or “ Palace ! sign* 

s Specimens i n t lie l' nivendty Ortfcge ( Jo 1 * 
lection. London. 

1 See Petrie, Button* and Design Scarabs, 
p, 2 seqq„ and cF + Plates. 

& Sec A. E i Further JJhmxries *>f Cretan t 
kz>v.. Stript* p + jh ; r 

N ilot Ic 
anti prism 

in p rt- 



T Limbic r 
type cn 
of 4 cam- 
pact w 


of Sec, the fore-legs of which terminate in itraci. Tumbling performances, 
as we shall see, were also well known in Egypt. 

In every form of Nilotic culture there has been an intermixing of 
heterogeneous ingredients, but the group to which this Egyptlanizing 
example itself belongs must, on the whole, be assigned to the older native 

Fro, -J 3 G r Tumblers os Grey Marble 
Cylinder or a Nilotic Class, 

Fig; 431. Female Taukeadok 
turning Somersault; Clay Sealing: 
Temple Kepositqrh-S Knossos. 

element The recurring lizard types suggest the Libyan Desert On the 
banks of the Nile they are metamorphosed into crocodiles. 

These, in turn, in reversed position- as seen on a clay cylinder impres¬ 
sion ot this class in the Cairo Museum 1 —are adapted to the Oriental 1 anti¬ 
thetic scheme, such as we already find it in a ‘ proto-Libyan ’ medium 011 
the ivory handle from Gebel-ePArak. s 

I he proto-Semitic features In the Libyan languages themselves bespeak 
a fundamental kinship of the older inhabitants of the Nile Valley with the 
lands to the East of them, and this was culturally reinforced by successive 
incursions of Semite tribes into Egypt. 

I he tumbler type is also found on another cylinder, of the shorter and 
more compact dynastic Egyptian form, but which, though acquired at Cairo, 
shows a style of engraving wholly different front the native Egyptian 
class (Fig. It is deeply engraved in what seems to be a kind of grey 

marble, and presents two acrobatic figures, the attitude of which closely 
resembles that of our Cretan gem, Fig. 443 . 

This cylinder clearly fits on to the series above-mentioned, and must 




in p rt- 



type on 
of 4 com- 
pact * 

* A.K., */>. <iL w p w 364, Fig. JT ; Ut Morgan, 
ftcffarthcs suf its dr fMgyptt, ii t p, -57, 

two Hons. 

Ashipolean Bought at Cairo 

XII a. On the ivuty knife handle the figure of a][y) d^bed h , H h 

i ,1 ’ illfr-v UtC CiTWn ■"Cl ii Is. ‘<illll i. < i 111 in i _ .. 

1 P. of ii, Pt. I, p. 27 , and Suppl. PI. 

in uji 1 by Mr. ( 1 . I), Hum blower. Jn the 
catalogue of acquisitions it is (very conjectur¬ 
al fy) described by Hogarth >u 'South Seitiidc*. 


be referred, like the others, to some surviving indigenous element in the 
Nile Valley. Its general shape seems to answer best to Cylinders of the 
Vth and Vlth Dynasties. 

In the case of the ‘tumbler' type, as depicted on the Minoan intaglio. 
Fig, 443, the characteristic Feather crests may be reasonably taken as a 
tribute to the excellence of Libyan performers, to which we may also see 

Fio, ivi. Female Egyptian Tumblers or Social asd Ceremonial Occasions- 

a reference in the acrobatic figure on the 'Nilotic' cylinder (l'ig- 44l>). On 
the other hand, among the M moans themselves tumbling and other acrobatic 
feats were a traditional feature in the bull sports, and had already entered 
into ihe programme of these in their Anatolian home-land. 1 The * Cowboy 
Fresco' is a later example of this, and Its best sphragistic illustration, 
a clay seal impression from the Temple Repositories. Fig. 451/ supplies a 
record of it in Minoan glyptic Art by the close of M M. III. 

‘ Tumbling' still forms an essential part of the Cretan w^jtrfe x°P“b 
where the leaders of the dance execute somersaults with surprising agility,and 
recall the *v{ii(rTT)Ti'ipt of the Iliad, who accompanied and led the ring-dance. 

It was, as noted above, equally well known in historic Egypt, where 
a hieroglyph existed of a kilted male tumbler. 11 Such already appear in 
the Xllth Dynasty Tomb of Antefoker at Thebes,' but female acrobatic 

1 Tumblers are seen in connexion with bull 
on ii Cappadocian cylinder of the latter 
hair □ f the Third Millennium n,(\ (see J\ 
iit, p. 205, and Pinches, Zm Anns. Ank&c- 
ohyy unti Anthrop&h^ i, p. 7&seqq* 3 no -j, 
with Prof. payee's remarks). 

5 P. tfAI. t, p. 694, Fig. .">14 (cf. til, p. 
big, 1 i\K and p. 2 iq a Fig, bV2 {Zukrui. 

3 Bun,sen, l^gyfit'j jP/aain / Vrwfir/ lihl^ry 
(Cottrell's translation edited hy Fireh), i,p, 507, 
no. 34. In no # 35 a female figure ot a 
tumbler is also given as a hieroglyph, but there 

wrongly taken for the arched form of the 
Goddess of heaven, 

1 For that of the Tomb of Antefoker see 
S. tin Gam Davies, Ball. Muir. J/wx., N*V+ 
Supply March* igiS, p. 62, Fig-14, Cf i too, 
the examples of women acrobats given by- 
Mr, Davies in die Bulletin of Feb, 192S, p. tr2 t 
Fig. 4; p. 65, Fig. 7 : p> Fig* it; p. 69, 
Fig. 13, arid p. ja, Fig. 14- A fine late painting 
of n female acrobat appears on an wtrahm 
of the Turin Museum (Maspero, in 

Jr* l w mh p- 156* Fig. 2^7. 

or Bull 

at dancer 





of Hinuf. 



tion a] 

Goal niuL 

flai cylin¬ 

I lloslra- 
lion of 

performers were more in vogue at Egyptian dances. These are depicted 
naked except for the loin cloth, and with long falling hair, an essential 
feature for the expression of movement and acrobatic pose (Fig. 452, a, b, r), 
which recalls the similar expedient of Minban artists in representing cow- 
boy feats and the downward course of divinities. They not only attended 
social gatherings and banquets, but joined ceremonially in religious pro¬ 
cessions, and formed part of the trained staff of the temple, performing in 
every ’proper burial'. 1 Figures of such women tumblers appear on the 
walls of tombs and in the courts and colonnades of temples. 3 

That the male tumblers recorded in the Iliad stood in direct succession 
to those of the Minoan world is the more probable when we remember the 
traditional dance of the Knossian followers of the Ddphinian Apollo, 1 fresh 
landed at the ' holy haven of Delphi, on his way to his new sanctuary of 
the ‘Mamie chasm I he acrobatic female performers, indeed, who attended 
the Greek banquets oflater times, seem to have been taken from Egyptian 
models, and were attired in the same scant fashion. But they had now 
lost all traces of their religious connexion, and had become a mere accessory 
ol luxurious junketings, sensational touches being added, such as a stage 
set with the blades of swords.* 

I litre is a wide difference between such a setting and the flower-topped 
shoots oi Cretan meadows, amongst which the tumbling youths are seen 
performing on the gem from Kuossos. 

Flat Cylinder illustrating Fable of ‘The Goaf and the Dog 9 . 

An intaglio (Fig. 453 and Suppl PI. LIV, -y) on a seal-stone of the same 
Hat cylinder class a very beautiful bluish-white translucent agate, from the 
important Minoan site of Arkhanes, Inland of Knossos 4 —may be taken 
to complete the illustration of this group. Its free and picturesque style 
—though the exec in ion is somewhat hasty in places—clearly marks it as 
belonging to the great I rausitioilal Age. It is best assigned to M. M. 111 
I his gem belongs to an otherwise unexampled class, for it seems 

1 See Davies, Built tin t Feb., njaS, p. 63, 

- As at Luxor and Ddr d IkihrL 

* Compare my obsemibns in !\ t ?j J/„ ]\ i 
?U II T p. 841. 

* Stir Athenaeus 1 account {Lib, iv. c. 3) of 
the wedding banquet of the Macedonian 
Kara nos, where women ar rubais make their 

entry— tvhujk* f™j9«n^ 


It was acquired by ms at Athens togciher 
wEth n snrmll scries of bead-seals— several of 
thetii clearly Cretan in character and including 
s|n'citnens uf early ‘ prisms’ and signet seals— 
tolletried nn the spot by a native of Arkhanes. 


actually to illustrate, iti a skilfully epitomized shape, a homely ktble of 
some native Aesop, the subject being an encounter of a hunting dog with 
a Cretan wild-goat or ngtwi). The goat looks down from, a rock ledge, 
ready to butt the hound should he bound higher. 1 he dog stands below, 
on the stony flat, with his body thrown back, and supported by his out¬ 
stretched fore-paws, as if in arrested course—while, 
with head upraised and open mouth, he barks at his -''J? 1 ^ 
adversary immediately above him. 

The concluding pari of the dialogue and the /j 
moral—to adopt the familiar style of the fables—- 
seem to have been much as lollows : 

■ bark away!’ mocked the wild-goat. ‘ I had to 
llec from you over the level country, since you have 
the better of me with your teeth. Now 1 am on my 
native rocks,—just come within reach of my horns J 

* The story shows that each is master in his own 

It is interesting to note that the scene of two 
animals, one on the ground below, the other perched 
on a rocky height—finds a real parallel in one of the failles that actually 
bear Aesop's name. In the ‘Lamb ami the Wolf, 1 a lamb, standing on an 
eminence—i-ilfr/Acy toi rev—heaps insults on a passing wolf below. Flic 
Wolf replies, ' 1 1 is not you who are insulting me bin the stronghold (*w«) on 
which you stand.’ The moral drawn in that case is that insults are endured 
from the weak when they have been inflicted by those in a higher position. 

The lesson there Inculcated is of a more subtle kind. 1L is less primitive 
and smacks of Oriental social conditions. General tradition, indeed, 
brings Aesop—about whose works in their original form we know so 
little—from the East Aegean shores, and the class ot tables in which 
animals take part, finds its greatest vogue and earliest known sources in 
Eastern countries such as Persia and India. In Minoan Crete, with its 
manifold traces of early Anatolian relationship, such beast stones, embodying 
folk wisdom, may well have had an early vogue. I he beast actors of the Ur 
inlays 2 now supply an early Sumerian analogy. 1 he particular illustration 
afforded by the gem in which the principal part is played by Lhe native 
agrimt in a rock-set scene, is. however, racy ot the Cretan soil. 

Fin. 453. Flat Cylin¬ 
der or Blue Chalcedony, 
Abkhases: Faiile or 

' \li%« AJmWt, OLliii {i S 4 ^-clUion,p. i jo), the lyre. On a day fragment from I )sdiodi:i is 

1 See Wt ley, Ur Exams, ii, FI. toj The the begi nning of vvlmt seems to be a fall e about 

fox appears asservant of the linn, the ass plays u wounded fox. i A exjner, OI/,., xvi, 3°^.) 

uf animal 






ol Minoan 

Gold Signet-rings. 

It is impossible to separate the Art of the engraver of bead-seals and 
signet-rings, whether in gold or inferior metals, from that of the gem 
engravers, (hough the material favours more microscopic work, and for that 
reason—as in the case of the ‘ Ring of Nestor'—a greater multiplication of 
figures. Their bezels were engraved with essentially the same tools, though 

a t > i b z r 

Fro. 454. Evolution of Type of Minoan Signet-ring from He ah with Engraved 
Facet! a, Tubular Gold Head; b r, 2, Ivory Seal, Platanos (M.M. In); c . Ideal 
Intermediate Tvj'e ■ </, Minoan Signet-ring. 

the tubular drill may have been less, and the fine point more in request. 
Gold beads of the amygdaloid and the 1 elongated ’ bead-shaped forms, as 
well as that of' fiat cylinders'. were equally used as fields for intaglio designs. 
The bezels of certain early gold rings also at times take the round, bossed 
torm of Eentoid bead-seals. A signet-ring of this form, engraved with a linear 
inscription of Class A. occurred in a Lamb of the Knossian Cemetery of Mavro 
Spelio. 1 Another Cretan specimen in the finest M. M. Ill style, sub-oval in 
outline, is given in Stippl. PU I-IV ,I wo t ?^ritttts here appear in the act 
of coition.- 

It is the oval bezel—often considerably elongated—set at right angles 
to the hoop, that is the most characteristic feature of Minoan rings. This 
feature, indeed, except for some Chinese specimens, and certain dependent 
types, Including—strangely enough—an Anglo-Saxon variety* seems to be 

1 Sec J\ of M., ii, Ft, II, p. 557. Fig. 352 , 
and cf. E. J. Forsdyke, The Moan S/vft'o 
Ceme/erj 1 ai Knossos t B+S.A. r ss^iii i igad-j^',, 

PI, XIX, p;i. 3 & 4 P 2S 5l and Fig. 37* p, 

1 JtJtf* Cat Attrirnt Rings^ c*v n p. 4, no, 

14 from Crete. Mean inner dirnn, 1 j mm. 

Two examples were found Ut SpJlOlingams, unc 
a bronze ring, the other of lead (F r H. HtII^ 

Extovs, in I\-CrrR t t Perntiyfa. Afi/s, f*uhli~ 
taUms (1912), pp. 63 h 6g r Figs. 43 a and 44L 
Uiam, of both, 10 mm . 

1 The Chinese type of silver finger-ring with 
the bezel at right angles to the hoop reappears 
among Anglo-Saxon forms, as is shown by a 
ring from lx worth, Suffolk, in Sir John Evans's 
I Collection, now in the Ashtnolean Museum. 
I here it takes its place among elements do¬ 
med by trade mutes from Central Asia and the 
Permian regions to the Baltic. The possibility 
remains that this Asiatic group was, in some 
obscure way. derived from the Minoan, The 
same type extends to Tibet, 


unique among the finger-rings of both the Ancient and the Modern World. 
In the Mijsoan case, as already shown, this peculiarity is explained by the 
origin of the Minoan form from a type of perforated bead for suspension, 
with an engraved facet. I iris form of bead is of Early Minoan date, and the 
process of evolution by which it gave origin to tire 
signet-ring is here once more illustrated in Fig. 454d 
This derivation accounts for the fact, otherwise un¬ 
explained, that many of the later Minoan signet-rings 
are provided with hoops too small to fit the finger. 

Fundamentally they were seals for suspension. 

It will be seen from the series given in fig. 454 
— including the ideal type c— that the ivory bead-seal Fig, 1 55 . Gold Sicset- 
from, a primitive times ossuary 01 Mesara, with its L ^ m . M. 111 ) j . Sp hoc si¬ 
re versed figures of ants, presents three rounded gakas (?). 
ridges, which still survive in the advanced riirg- 

tvpe f i. From two perforations in the loop oi this ivory bead-seal it is 
almost certain that it w r as originally coated with gold plates. 

Probably the earliest example of an actual finger-ring of Lhis class 
preserved to us is one that has been contained in one oi the sepulchral jars 
of the Sphoungaras Cemetery in East Crete, which presents the unique 
peculiarity of having been set with a crystal intaglio (Fig. 45oJ .’ 1 1 he design, 

which is of a purely ornamental character, shows a cross-hatched background, 
aktn to the network often seen on M. M. 11 signets. 1 ts date indeed can 
hardly be later than the earlier phase of M. M. Ill- In this case the hoop 
consists of two rings. 

Although, as shown above, it seems possible to trace the origin ot the 
typical Minoan signet-ring from a form of gold-plated bead-seal ot ivory or 
soft stone of E. M. Ill date, the earlier links in the connexion are stilt to 
seek. The first record of the fully developed type of gold signet-rings is 
supplied by seal impressions belonging to the latest Middle Minoan 

1 This ivory bend-seal is illustrated by 
Xtirfiudides, Vented Tombs of Mesatn 
(Transl. I troop), PI. IV, no. 646 ,md p. So, 
Where the insects ate- called ‘grasshoppers'. 
The reversed position of the ants recalls 
a familiar feature of Tilth Dynasty ‘button 

' Sec /’. of ,1/1, iii, p. I3Q seqq. and Fig. 
liti, n-J, and cf. A- F., Ring i>J Nestor, o-v. 
(Macmillans, t y j 5 ), p. 47 - ’ 1 ** 

1 From Thofos B at Kmim.Lsa. Xanlhu- 
dides, Vaulted lotahs <>f Mesari (Transl. 
Droop), PI. IV, 646, On p. 30 it is men¬ 
tioned that ‘ the bole is too small for it to E° 
on even a child’s finger See, too, my re¬ 
marks in the Preface to that work. p. vii, on 
the importance of this object in relation to 
the later ' ring ’ types. 

* E. II. Hall, SpkeuHgarus, c-r„ p, 69, 
Fig. 4311. 


ring- scl 
with triv¬ 
ial in- 

ring im¬ 
of Transi¬ 
M.M. Ill 



lromL r M r 
I a on- 

phase or the initial stage of L. M. I. Such are those represented by certain clay 
sealings from Zakro and Hagia Trxada and by the clay matrix of Ktiossos.' 

1 here can be little doubt that these impressions belong to signet-rings 
of this kind, and show that they were already in vogue in the great transi¬ 
tional M. M. III- 
L, M. I t j phase. 1t 
is difficult, however, 
on grounds«f style, 
to assign any exist¬ 
ing specimens of 
the rings them¬ 
selves to an earlier 
date than a fairly 
advanced stage of v ff. 

T , . tUi. 4 afl*r,A CUvSRAI,lu1>RES$10Sff; PROBABLVOr ASiaiTET- 

.* 1 . I ft. Among mxc snow INC scenes or Combat, From Hagia Triad a. 

these may be rec- 

Draniatk: honed the well-known example from Mycenae; where the Goddess of the 
Double-Axe is seated beneath her sacred fruit tree. To the same 
approximate date, too, may be referred that, so fully developed in its 
dramatic expression, depicting the double scene of mourning and ecstatic 
frenzy beside the little grave enclosure. 4 A kindred spirit breathes in the 
design—combining similar ecstatic possession with a mourning figure on a 
shield—seen on the gold signet-ring from the Vaphexo Tomb,® and In that 
case dated to L. M, I If. To this group also belong the crowded scenes on 
ihe ■ Ring of Nestor,* and those of the gold signet-ring,—similar in workman¬ 
ship, and identical as regards the decorative beading of the hoop which led 
to the discovery of the ‘ Temple-Tomb of Minos'* On these latter examples 
we have to do with successive tableaux set together on the same field, and the 
suggestion afforded by fresco panels is not far to seek. In the case of the 
Ring of Nestor', indeed, it has warranted a coloured restoration on the lines 
of the miniature wall-paintings.* 

From the beginning these signet-types are associated with religious 
subjects like the above, including, besides actual scenes of adoration, 
episodes of the agonistic sports of the arena, held in honour of the Goddess, 

1 See J‘. of it/., ii. Ft. II, p, -fij, ]% 

= See especially P- of M., iii, pp 14a, 14 j 
nrtij I’ fgi 93 . 

1 ’K$. ’Apjj,, iSSq, FI. X, [j, jij * p. af ,J/ lf 
ii, p- 14° se<|<|.. Figs. OJ ami 112 {chrysalis 

emblem} ; and cf. A, E„ JAn Tree <t,,d Mar 
it<*rsbip, p. yS seqq, and Fig. 5 1, 

1 °f ■h’-* ii‘* f- i 4 t> seqq., and Fig. 113, 

B Sec below, j». 963, suqq, 

" I'* Cobared Fiate XX A. 


It lias been suggested In a former Section of this Work that the pugilistic 
bouts illustrated by Impressions—apparently of signet-rings of the early 
class-—were later adapted by the Mainland Art to episodes of heroic warfare 
such as were later recorded in Greek epic . 1 But warlike scenes were not 
altogether wanting on Cretan intaglios of the transitional M,M. Ill L.M.Lt 
phase. On two seal impressions from Hagia Triada. one of which (a) seems 
to have been produced by a signet of this early class, episodes of actual 
com bat are certainly depicted (Fig. 4 fni), a A bowman in the act of aiming 
an arrow, apparently of the same martial class, occurs on another con¬ 
temporary seal impression from the same site.* Later on, in the last palatial 
Age of Knossos, military types are often represented. 

The prevailing character of these signet-rings was, however, throughout 
religious, and, indeed, our knowledge of Minoan Cult is largely due to the 
illustrations they supply. These objects’—which to the last retained in 

many cases in their narrow hoop 
their original function of pen¬ 
dant bead-seals rather than of 
finger-rings—stood, as we have 
seen, in a peculiar personal 
relation to their owners, a 
relation that extended beyond 
the grave. 

The Gold Bead-seals of * Elon¬ 
gated Amygdaloid * Type 
from the Thisbe Tomb. 

Amongst all the gold bead- 
seals the most interesting are 
those Lhat must actually betaken 
to reproduce heroic scenes, or 
even records of historic episodes 
of more recent date. Where, 
as In tile case of gold flat 
cylinders from the Fourth 
Mycenae Shaft Grave,* and of 
other intaglio types, a warrior 

! ^1 i, p, 691 seqq, An Hi, ji, 1939), p. 37, Figs, 130, 131. 

J 1 iret illustrated by Boro Lein, is Crtiu/e 1 /A, p. 56, Fig, 

tit iiaff/iui Jriaia (Atf/t* tit!hi r. Stttoia tit * Sec /'. of J/., iii, p. uj, Fig. ?#. 

I n:, 157. Minoan Versions or Okuitus slaying 
the Si’hinx (tr) ani> tf) urs Father Laios on Gold 
Head-seals of 1 Elongated Oval' Class, Tiiishe, 

nol un- 
know 11 on 


seals of 
fc dun^a- 
txed p ij-pe 

! 3 istoric 
scenes of 



of K\y- 

Lemntst rj, 


is shown attacking a lion, no cine has been left as to the personage depicted. 
On a sardonyx amygdaloid from the Third Grave, however, the combat 
between two warriors, one falling back on his shield, certainly corresponds 
in a remarkable way with the 
death of Periphetes. as described 
In the /liadf On the other hand, 
two of the large gold beads of 
an ‘elongated oval/ class, from 
the Thisbe Treasure supply, 
what is clearly a Minoan version 
of the Oedipus story. In the 
one case (Fig. 457, tf) wc see the 
hero as a young prince, attacking 
a Sphinx with a dirk or short 
sword. s 1 n the other (Fig, 4. r »7,£) 
we can hardly fail to recognize 
the’ same youthful personage 
waylaying Lai os in the ‘hollow 
way’ (indicated by the rocks 
above), both personages being 
armed with bows and arrows , 3 
That the find-spot of these en¬ 
graved jewels was the harbour 
town on the Gulf of Cadmean 
Thches;uUh»as{ieciat significance 
to their subjects. The anticipation of the story of Oedipus slaying the 
Sphinx—a Greek term for‘the Strangler'—reminds us that the Kadmein 
themselves looked forth on Its ancient abode, the Sphingion Or os. May 
not some more primitive form of the monster have haunted those wilds in 
the folk-lore of an indigenous Greek population long before It was assimilated 
to the Egypt ianizing creation of Minoan Art? 

But the third similar intaglio from the same sepulchral deposit 
(Fig. 45H) exhibits a subject that seems actually to illustrate the crowning 

1 Homer, //,, xv, 645 se<.]q. .Set A. E, W Sepulchral Treasure of Cold Sigttel-ri>tgs 
xxxii),pp. aSg,2X4 ; and cf. P. of M„ and tttadstah fr. m Thisbi, Botoiia (Mat- 
iil, Fig. 80 , (i (facing p. 126). The type was tail tans, 0325), p. 2; 5e<|<|,, and Figs, jr, 
imitated on a Hellenistic ivory rins-Uve! from * ft., p. 3, seqq. and Figs. 33. 34, Vor the 
Kydonta !-ig, 80 , baseless criticism of the chariot design in 

: Sec P.ofll., Hi,pp, 41fiseqc1.andp.418, Artthuu (irjsfi, p. 63 M*qq.) see below ijd 
F ig, 282, and cf. A. E, Xing of Xa (or, iSy., 817, Kr$, 

Ft«-'■ ’158* Sera E APPARENTLY ll. I, ( ST RAT ISO T1 (E 

Mi'nr>F:K ok Atuismos axu Kj.yiehxestra bv 
Class: Tkisije. 

Fig. Tragic Seim: ox Gold Beau-seal 
from Tmsnfe: I'hotografurd from the Object 



tragedy of the house of AtreusJ The warrior here—-equivalent to Orestes the 
avenger of his father, the murdered Agamemnon—has clearly already dealt a 
mortal stroke at Aiglsthos—seen tumbling backwards -and hastens to dis¬ 
patch Klytemnestra, who hurries, richly bedizened*to the left h endeavouring to 
escape, and m an attitude of abject fright. The scene, naive in its composition , 
but full of violent action, itself finds no echo in live later Greek version of the 
same episode, as depicted, for instance, on a series of red-figure vases. But its 
correspondence with an outstanding tragedy of aEicient tradition is so close 
that it is difficult not to recognize here ail acuial record of It by the Minoan 
engraver* The rich costume of the woman itself proclaims a personage of 
the highest rank, and the undignified overthrow of her male partner fits in 
well with the 1 iomeric epithet of the 'impotent" or * craven'—applied 

to Aigisthos. Tl\e Intaglio itself forms a pendant to the other pair, equally 
illustrative of gestes belonging to the heroic cycle of early Greece, 

Evidences of Genuineness of Thisbe Jewels. 

The remarkable character of the latter subject, coupled with those pre¬ 
senting a hero to be naturally identified with Oedipus* has probably done 
more than anything rise to Induce certain critics -who in no case had 
examined the originals—-to throw doubt on the whole series of the Thisbe 
jewels. So persistent, indeed* has been this attitude that, though in the 
course of this Work controversy has. where possible, been avoided, a few 
words may not be out of place. 

My own opinion—at the back of which stand at any rate some sixty 
years of expertise in ancient seals and intaglios, and an exhaustive acquain¬ 
tance with Minoan artistic work in all its manifestations—has never wavered 
as to the entire genuineness of the series as an indivisible whole. This view 
was fully endorsed* as the result of independent study, by such a prominent 
authority on Minoan remains as the late Mr. R. B. Seager.' 1 Hut the genuine¬ 
ness of the objects, as pointed out above, subsequently received signal con¬ 
firmation from the interesting discovery that what had at first appeared to be 
an unique scene of ritual pouring from an ewer into a two-handled jar of a 
special shape, presented by one of the Thisbe bead-sea Is, was paralleled by a 
sealing brought to light eight years later from a palatial deposit of Knossos. : 

1 fur iL fuller account see Hk, p. 3S seqq,* and rf. A, \i, r R'ittg of Xu far, (Macmillans, 
and Figs, 3$, 39. 1925, and /. //. .V. *lv), pp. 1^-20, How* ino + 

riktir genuineness was independently con- could a forger have known of the BpeniLn 
firmed by [he well-known arcluicologisl, Mr. igtich in the Spear-shaft witli ribbon-!ike attach- 
John Marshall* molts (of* cu* + p. 26* Mg. 29)? Where indeed 

See above, pp. 451* 452 r and p + 452,11. 1; did lie acquire the subtle knowledge that the 

IV ** M m 


AigUl ho* 

Qrc&Les r 



The most gifted forger could hardly be credited with powers of second 
sight and of even a prophetic knowledge of later discovery! 

Pic. itin. Back View or Bead-seals and Rise from Thisbk Fran showing the Effects of the 
Impact ok Pressure of Fallen Materials ok th«r Backs, n , I.iration Scene (p, ^51, Fic, 37ij, 
above). i >. Spring Goddess iillifo to rise kkom Earth ( A \ of .V«A, p 15). Goddess hunting 
Stag, it , Goddess between Waterfowl, t , I Irink-qfferinc to Seated Goddess. / } I unts>i an ash 
Boar, g, ‘ Elongated' Bead seal : 'Ohuk s and Sphinx A , I »o ‘Oedipus and Laios'in Chariot. 
4 'Akhstiio# slaying Agamemnon and Klytkmnhstra'. J , Flat Cylinder; Sc fine of Bum.-kino! 
A k l*o. PaitaiLV 4 Matapor p akd Bum.. 

The objects said to have been found with the jewels—a number of 
which I saw associated with them in their owner's hands-—were alt of genuine 
Late Minoan fabric. The gold seals themselves are divided stylistically 
into two groups, three ‘flattened cylinders', of slightly earlier fabric, and 
die remainder consisting originally of eleven pieces, presenting signs of 
similar fabric. Hut an Interesting feature in the condition of the bead-seals 
is common to the whole series. They are In each case formed of a casing 
of gold plate on which the intaglios were executed, within which is a filling 

* flat cylinders’ required* slightly earlier style? amygdaloid types the grooving and facets of 
How, again, was he inspired to imitate on the L. M. la? (See above, p, 4<> j), 


of some other material that lias not afforded a strong resistance 10 pressure . 1 
Fhe backs of the gold-plated beads thus show a greater or lesser amount 
of small depressions or blunt indentations—in the case of Fig. 4r;u, a 
partial rupture of the plating. The general correspondence in condition is 
well brought out by the photographic reproductions in Fig. 46G* 3 Of great 
interest is the fact that all, including a —as to the genuineness of which 
Lhere can be no legitimate doubt—reflect the tradition of the grooved back 
characteristic of L. M, I a (see above, p. 493 ). The central section of this, 
being slightly embossed, has specially suffered. 

Qmue ignatum pra faho is itself a dangerous motto in the Minoan field. 

Aigisthos, and the Pictorial Illustrations of History or Recent Traditions 

by Minoan Artists. 

If. as there seems to be good reason for supposing, the scene depicted 
on the bead-seals illustrated in Figs, 458, 459, does in fact refer to the 
traditional story of the murder of Agamemnon and Klytemnestra, the name 
of Aigislhos, the villain of the piece. Is of great interest, as showing a direct 
affinity with the most characteristic of all old Cretan and kindred Philistine 
and Anatolian forms that has been preserved to us , 3 The engraved bead, here ^ lolLin 
ascribed to the early part of the Fifteenth Century ti,c +# would thus supply an phiiUifre 
association of the name of Aigbthos with a prince of Mainland Greece 
about the time of the appearance of the envoys of K eft in on Egyptian Aigiiiliu*. 
monuments. It may therefore be something more than a coincidence 
that under the form AkashoU —reasonably identified wish the Philistine 
Akish—it appears on the L London Tablet' of XVIII th Dynasty date as a 
representative personal name of Keftiu. 

riuch a reference to more or less current events has already been Historical 
illustrated by the siege scene on the silver * rhyicu 1 , itself In keeping with Mlnoaa^ 
similar Egyptian records, and was as much a feature of Minoan Art as the apl ^ [S - 
instantaneous sketches of birds and animals* The attitude of mind on ihe 
part of the artist Is essentially modern and far removed from the inhibitions of 
the great days of Classical Greek Art h though quite intelligible to a Roman, 

Pictorial scenes like the alx)vc may at times be recognized as the 
reflection of greater works existing on the Pal ace walls* In the preceding 
Volume the elaborate illustration of the Minoan Underworld supplied by 

1 The head* seem to have fallen face down- apjieari in the LX X its *A and An 

waida. Jh'tfh king of I dal ten is mentioned among 

r I he hoop of the ting f was much preyed Cyprian princes tributary to Esarhaddon and 
down. .-Wurhanijul and fItausa h the Assyrian 

1 See Riugtif AVjfor, d~Y.,pp. 40, 4 t, Afhish form of a tun icm paimy king of Ekrum 

M m 7 

TOILETTE scene of m. m. hi frescoes 

5 1 ® 

the ‘Ring of Nestor' has been made the basis of an actual re translation 
of the scenes in colour, so as to restore the equivalent of a fresco panel 
in the 1 Miniature' style.' It has been shown that a whole group of 

bull-grappling or 
bull-catching scenes 
on signets were 
taken over from 
prototypes in the 
greater Art, such as 
the painted stucco 
relief of the North¬ 
ern Entrance Porti¬ 
coes at Knossos.and 
of which the repttusst* 
compositions on tlie 
Vapheio Cups form 
a fuller record. In 
many cases, moreover, the architectonic source of sphragistic motives is 
actually indicated by the ‘triple gradation ' beneath them, sometimes with 
the separate blocks of the masonry marked out. 

a fi 

Fig. 4(11. a , Jaspkk Lkxtojo from Kvdonia showing 
Tiring Scene. Female Figure (irobablv the Minoan Goddess) 
seated on Pillar and tended nv Two Handmaidens; i>. 
Restoration or Desioh nv Gii.uiiron, rn s. 

Toilette Scene of M. M. Ill Fresco reflected on Gem. 

To the suggestions already made of such influences in the course of 
this work may be added the evidence afforded by a curious, though sketchily 
engraved and unfortunately somewhat worn design on a jasper km to id 
from the neighbourhood of Kvdonia (Fig. 4HI ), As shown by the restored 
drawing, Fig. 461, 6, it was evidently intended to depict a toilette scene such 
as those depicted in the M. M. Ill wall-painting of the ‘ Ladies in Blue/ 
or the more or less contemporary Jewel Fresco',® where a male hand is 
seen holding the end of a robe, apparently attached to a beaded necklace. 
A part of one of the black tresses of its wearer is also v'isible. 

Some tiring process of the same kind must be recognized in the case of 
this intaglio. This is being performed for the central figure by the two hand¬ 
maidens at herside. From the short pillar—of baetylic significance—on which 
the personage thus adorned is seated, she may well be regarded as the Mitioan 
Goddess herself, also seen, in other cases, attended by two handmaidens. 

1 See F, of M. t iii, p. 145 seqq., and 
PL XX, a. 

1 F. of M., i, pp. 545-7, and Figs, 397 , 3 G@. 

J F. of Jf., i T |>. s z 6 , Ffg. and cf. p. 313l 
Fig. 231 . It has since been badly injured by 
Fardiquake of njzd. 

{ ic6 a. Indigenous SpHhACisnc Tradition ; Lion and Bell Type 


Sphragisiic tradition indigenous to Crete; Early Nilotic and Egyptian 
prototypes at times traceable: Primitive pictorial motives; Potters' seals— 
water playing draughts; Survival of type of seated routers; 7 russed wild- 
goats on pole—later version, trussed host ; Hunting of Cretan Hi id-goats — 
hound Imping on wild-goat; Hound seising stag’s neck — Odysseus' brooch com¬ 
pared: Eton leaping on quarry—outgrowth of the indigenous types ; First 
appearance of lion on primitive Cretan seals under Nilotic influences ; 
Lion types in M.M. // of Mainland inspiration ; Lions divine guardians ; 
Lion seising deer on Shaft Grave dagger blade; Fully developed scheme of 
lion leaping on quarry—Thisbi signet-ring; Oriental group contrasted 
with lilt noun ; Oriental scheme influenced by cylinder types—hods hind-legs 
on ground; /.Ion and bull on jasper weight from Tell-el-A mat na; 
Exceptional Mi noon groups wish lions hind-legs on ground * Examples of 
traditional scheme where lion leaps on victim's back—This scheme direct 
outgrowth of that of dog and Cretan goat; Reaction of sphragistk motives on 
greater A rt; Lion and bull on Minoan hones—Eukomi mirror handles * 
Minoan Colonial fabrics on Syrian and Ci/ician Coasts; 'Mato-Cilicia u 
ceramic motive of lion and bull: Minoan influences on Assyrian Art; 
Lion and bull on Beirut scarab; Cypriot Greek , Ionian, and Phoenician 
versions ; Coin-types• Early painted reliefs of Ahropolis , Athens : Later 
Greek versions, revival of Minoan type. 

It is important to observe that—apart from the Influence of larger 
models, such as wall-paintings, on the more advanced class of signet types 
there was an inherited tradition, going back to unite primitive models, which 
was proper to the seals themselves. 

This atavistic element is, In fact, well illustrated by the evolution above 
traced of the Minoan ring-type from what was originally a pendant bead- 
seal of a particular kind. 

The unbroken indigenous pedigree of certain sphragistic motives Is of 
great utility in helping us to ascertain how far they are to be regarded as the 
genuine outcome of a native Minoan school, or bow far they may be due to 
extraneous influences. 

This must not, indeed, leave out of count the consideration that, at the 

nous to 






at times 

of type 

back of the primitive prototypes themselves, foreign influences from beyond 
the Libyan Sea or still farther afield were already at work. It lias, indeed, 
been already shown that the ‘double sickle" motive and certain reversed 
types ol lion and even some ‘ antithetic ' human subjects stand in relation to 
a special class of Nilotic 1 button-seals '—having affinities farther East—that 
belong to the disturbed Egyptian phase that follows on the Sixth Dynasty, 1 
The ‘key" pattern, and even the Labyrinth itself as a decorative type, 
seem to have reached Crete by the same route,® and primitive forerunners 
of the Minotaur may lie linked with the Man-bull of Eabani by rude 
intermediate forms from the same Nilotic source. 

The oouchant lion of a notable Early Minoan ivory seal from Mesara 
has been shown above 1 to reproduce the typical features of First Dynasty 
gaming pieces. 1 he dog-faced ape was also taken over and the sacred 
hawk converted into a dove. So, too, in the succession of animals met 
w ith on some of the ivory seals we may certainly recognize a reflection of 
processional lions on proto dynastic Egyptian cylinders. 

a very long 

Survival of Early Minoan Motives. 

Some Early Minoan motives can be shown to have had 
h istory, A n i nsta nee of this is sup- 
pi ied by a curious type of which 
more than one specimen is known. 

This displays a series of figures 
in a crouched attitude which, on 
the evidence ol more advanced 
examples, must be taken to be 
rowers, A primitive prism seal 
of steatite of the closing Early 
Minoan phase from East Central 
Crete shows three such figures 

rudely executed on one face while on another are seen two ships {Fig. 462, 
i) t c). 4 Although the intermediate stages are wanting, it is clear that the 
tradition of a similar motive is preserved in a seal type of which numerous 
fragmentary impressions were found in a palatial deposit at Knossos, 

Fm. Iiilia, (>, e, "J‘hr EE-fitnEt* Heah-sk o. or 

1 Sge IK of M., i, p. 122 seqq,, and Figs. 
G 2 . G 3 a, it. 

1 lb., pp, «i, Figs, 90, 0|, anj 

PP 35**! 359, figs- 238 , 25 !). 

See above, p. 486 and Figs. 40(1, \\} 7 . 

* I 1 ' 1 Fig- The ‘equineanimal’ 

ori the first face is probably an ass. 


Ken. 163 . Sealing showing 

ofM»M. Ill-L, M. I date. A reconstitution 
of the design front overlapping clay t rai¬ 
ments there found is given in Fig. iGtf, 1 and 
it will be seen that the blades of the oars 
held by the squatting figures are in this case 
also represented Similar impressions of clay 
sealings were also found in the contemporary 
Zakro Hoard.- 

Rowers from Knossos: Type Indigenous Motives of Pictorial Character 

RECONSTirtTTED FROM FRAG- . . . . . t ... 

US.XT& Original compositions in a pictorial 

nature make their appearance betimes on 
Early Mi naan seals. Such we may recognize in the repeated designs of 
the potters of both sexes—whose craft was already of pre-eminent im¬ 
portance in the island—carrying their pots suspended from a pole. In 


(E M. III), showing i* Potter moulding F.akge 
Jar ; 2, Playing I Draughts (for Board cf 

Fig, 4 G 5 t <i f fi ); 3, Two I Jogs crgesed. 

Fig. jG 5 . er, Draughtboard 
an n Piece on F. AS. Ill Ivory 
Sign it (fracture restored); 
h g Eg 1 v r r a x D r a to ht i io ak i i 
Sign (; r, f. Egycte a x 

other designs the vessel is .set within the oven. Of exceptional interest, 
again, is the potter—who, on another face of the seal-stone is seen 

1 A. Lv, A ffaf&rtt 19a* (M,S + A „ H vil), 
p. 102. These fragments belonged to the 
earlier deposit of seal impress ions found at 
the West end of the E.-VY. Corridor* extending 
»ntkr the later blocking of ihv entrance to 
the Corridor of the Bays. 

: Hogarth *axis (iy*2l + Pi. IV t jfi 
and p. 79. Five sjierimcns were found, none 

of them in good condition. Hogeuth calls 
them * exact replica* of the Knossbn type'. 
Some other Zakro types show 3 sitnibr corns 
spoEidencc. and the seal impressions found on 
the she of the I larlmir Town of Knossos 
afford a fufiber proof of 11 maritime connexion 
(/\ of M rf ii t pt. I, pp. *54-5t and Fig. H 4 J). 

p cuter 





gonts on 





at work on a tall jar—seated beneath a treo and relaxing himself with 
a game of draughts on a table m front (Fig. -MU, r. s). Beneath his 

hand is a draughts 
man ^ ie c ° n ^ ca ^ 
' 1 * * Egyptian fo r m 

(Fig, <*,/), 

preserved in use at 
Knossos till the 
latest days of the 
Palace. The board 
and men are still 
better shown 

Fig. 400. Ji,M, III Ukadseal: 
Mall i a, 

Fin. 4 m . Cornelian 
Lentoid from Crete: Mi- 


uARHviNti Lions on Pole, 


Fio. 4 fiT + Seat. Impression iM.M. 
Ill LM. la); H* Triad A. 

an ivory signet 
of RL M. 1 11 from 
Hagta Triada (Mg. 
4W5 t *i)* The crossed dogs (Mg* 4(14. 3 ) 
also compare with later Minoau animal 
types on seals, 

I he pots play a prominent part in 
the hieroglyphic seals of the succeeding 
Middle Minoau phase, though the potters themselves entirely vanish 
from the scene. Art interesting 'tabloid' bead from Mallia , 1 however, 
engraved on four sides, depicts a huntsman bearing on a pole that rests 
on his shoulder two agrimh strung up with crossed fore and hind leys 
(I ig, 4GH) in the same way as we see potters on other early bead-seals 
carrying their vessels. For this method of transporting the quarry it is possi¬ 
ble to cite a considerably later sphragisric example. This occurs on a clay 
impression of a gem of the “flat cylinder* type from Zakro, belonging 
to the transitional M. M. 111 6-L, M. I/t epoch,- on which two men are 
depicted in the act of trussing for suspension the legs of a huge lion (Fig, 4 GT). 
Here the transference of live subject from the indigenous wild-goat to the 
greater beast, of Mainland range, is itself very characteristic of the more 
advanced stage of Minoan Art. As a supplement to this the Cretan lentoid 

* From Mr, R, B. Seager's Collection; 
now Ah E, 

1 First published by Do to L*vi, J.e CrAuk 
di Ha%km Triads t di Zakro {Anmmrb d/Ua 
t. Sarnia Art&tvivgtm di Ahtte. i>/. 5 i q ?q) f 
p, 1 1(1 [t&z]. Tig. 2 $i r and FL XVI] I. It is 
there compared with the intaglio un a jasper 

lentoid from she Vnpheiu Tomb ( S E^. h a Wp 
PL x, ; FiirMtagter, A. G. f ii t 
>ig- 1 j) j The same operation h being carried 
iml t hut the lion’s legs are hot yet bound 
together. The Vaphdo gem would be some- 
wb-it Liter in dilu than the 11. Triada impres¬ 



Fig, 4<»S, is here repeated, on which a Miuoan Genius bears two lions on 
a pole as trophies of the chase. 

The Hunting of Cretan Wild-goats. 

Goats or other animals of the chase occur on seal-stones of the primi¬ 
tive class-—sometimes running'■—but it is not till tile early part oi the first 

Middle Minoan Period that a regu¬ 
lar hunting-scene makes its ap¬ 
pearance. Oil the ivory 'half 
cylinder' from Knossos, Fig. 409, 
huntsman and hound are seen 
pursuing the wild-goat,* behind 
which is a tree, symbolical of the 
wooded hillside. 

An interesting pendant to this 
is supplied by the somewhat later intaglio illustrated above," from Rethym- 
nos. and executed in a more lively style. Upon this stone, which repre¬ 
sents an early example of the ‘fiat cylinder’ class, a similar tree appears 
behind, but there was not room in the field for huntsman and hound, anti 
the idea of pursuit is in this case artistically conveyed by the turning back 
of tile head of the galloping animal, A comparison of the designs cannot 
but suggest the near relation of these two presentments of the scene. 

But at the epoch, M, M. II, to which the latter belongs, a version of the 
design begins to appear which brings out, in a condensed form suitable for 
a round or oval field, the crowning episode of the chase, the actual seizure 
of the quarry by the pursuing hound or beast of prey. An illustration of 
this—like the early 'flat cylinder’, Fig. 439, to be placed within the limits 
of the M. M. II Period—is supplied by the crystal bead-seal, Fig. 47U. 
found at STaka in Siteia, where a collared him ting-dog is seen actually 
leaping on the coursing wild-goat and bearing him to the ground. 4 On the 
reverse sale of the gem is a boar. 

I lunLmg 
of wild- 

on 1 he 

1 IC.g. A. E.j Cretan Pktegmph& % orr, p p, 71 
(/,/!..% p + 340), Fig, no T JJark-grey steatite 
prism } Central Crete. 

a / J . ff/M* ! t p. iy7t Fig, U5+ 

5 See above, p. 500, Fig. \^ T where it is 
ascribed to ll. M. IL 

4 See J* a/ J/„ f, p. 275. Fig* f* On 
pp. 564 r 565, and Figs. 4 lU f -J I I, illustrations 

are given of the type {frequent an such seat*) 
presenting (he facade of a building, and of 
impressions of a broken specimen of ihe kind 
on the ^one of a 1 * * 4 Medallion pit bos" from the 
Royal Magazines at Knossos of M, M. III £ 
dLite. Spedmen s nf tfosse * ftaL-edged 1 lentotds 
in my col lection show the transition to the 
ordinary kntoid form. 




BW*g + 3 






Some account has been already given or the special type of circular head- 
seal on which this design occurs. It has been called the 1 * 3 4 fla t-sided lentoid 
Seen from above or below, 
its circular contour resem¬ 
bles the ordinary lentoid 
form. The edge, however, 
in its original shape as 
shown by this specimen is 
broad and flat. In style 
this example belongs to 

Similar designs are 
not infrequent on bead- 
seals of a somewhat later 
lentoid class, 5 On a hae¬ 
matite specimen of this kind from Eastern Crete, Fig. JTl, the collared hound 
of Fig. 470 reappears springing on a stag's back and seizing his cervical 
vertebrae in his Jaws, it is interesting to note that the inherent talts- 
manic virtue of dris seal-stone, as bearing on the chase, is here emphasized 
by two subsidiary details below that have nothing to do directly with the 
main episode. The little pillar here seen is of a baetylic class. The 
seated dog with his forelegs higher than his hind is really one of a pair 
of sacred animals such as we see them with their forelegs resting on 
an altar based Though somewhat worn, the fine style of this intaglio 
points loan epoch not later than L, M. I <$.* The subject itself lias a special 
interest since the tradition of it was taken over by the Poet of the Odyssty 
in his description of Odysseus' brooch, 1 though it may safely be said that 
no fibula of the Age in which the Homeric poem was put together (unless, 
indeed, it be brought down to the Sixth or Seventh Century) was adapted 
for such an ornament. In that case the dog gripped a young dappled stag, 
gazing on it while the fawn writhed with Its legs in the vain effort to escape.* 1 

FiC. 4 TO, Crystal 
Lentojt> or Flat-sided 

Kio* 171 . Haematite Len- 

TOiu, E. Crete: Dog seising 

1 See P. f>f .l/. t i, |i]!. 375 , 27<V, Fig. 20 J, a, 


3 On a grey steatite lentuid by me 
at Fiskokcphali in Siteut in i8gS t the leaj>- 
irtg bound Sms not quite reached the; back 
nf l he goat, which, however,, has hi lien nn its 

See for instance p, 60S, Fig- 597 ,%, g bdaiv. 

4 Hi is, too, was the lime when she use nf 

haematite for seat-stones was most prevalent, 
due no doubt in strong Syrian influences 

See irwi, ArEr h The Afinoati utid Myetnaiait 
Rkmenti/iUdkiiktifc ( / //,\ ri xisstsi, 
= =Mi and Fig. 4. 

* Of/. xi?L seqej.; 

* v Vpartpmfrt raSctfoY *tW wtiixQtev 


Ji.rrrmd^M'jiTn Aawi' oirarrc^ 


5 2 5 

Indication of Mirtoan Origin of the Well-known Type Depicting Lion 

leaping on Quarry. 

But the evidence before tis, illustrating the native origin of the scheme 
of the hmiml leaping" on a wild-goat or a deer anti bearing it down with his 
weight has an obvious relation to the better-known design in which the 
lion is tile hunter. 

This latter motive has from the Classical point of view been traditionally 
regarded as the verv embodiment ol Oriental influence. Was not it, too, 
rather the artistic creation of Minoan Crete ? 

The date of the appearance of the fully evolved scheme under its 
purely indigenous aspect of a dog seizing a Cretan tignm). as indicated 
by its occurrence on the flat-sided crystal lentoid, must go back at least to 
the lower limits of the Second Middle Minoan Period. In other words it can 
hardly be brought down later than the Eighteenth Century n.c. It is only 
at a distinctly later epoch, which can scarcely be earlier than the initial phase 
of the Late Minoan Age. that the lion, so generally associated with this 
scheme in later Art, first appears in connexion with this scheme. 

Early Appearance of the Lion both in Relief and Intaglio in 
Connexion with Minoan Seals. 

The first entry of the lion on die scene among the sphragistic elements 
of Crete itself goes back well into the Early Minoan Age. it supplies the 
form 1 as well as the subject of Ivery steals, being one among a series of pre- 
dynastic and proto-dynastic elements, the evidence of which has been mostly 
forthcoming from the contents of the primitive Iftofos tombs of the Mesara 
district-- So intensive there, indeed p are the N ilotic elements,as to lead almost 
perforce to the conclusion, developed in an earlier Section ot this \\ ork, that, 
over and above a still more remote prehistoric connexion between Crete and 

it*- oi u-pw iifiTCE u jHtf Auc WjlUpOK rfSray 1 - 
A w 'i 

aLTup ij itufriyltiv fitfiuii* ^irraipt tfuSffro-r. 
As noted* of. dt^ p r the ascertained 

archaeological data forbid us to believe that 
a fibula thus decorated could hive existed in 
the transitional bronze to Iron Ape epoch to 
which the Qdfjscy in its historic form 
apparently belongs. A further correction is 
needrd of the description of the group 
itself. The picture of the hound E strangling * 

(d#uyX*ii ) the young stag with his fore-paws is 
obviously ail impossible one. Pew* and claws 
were doubtless used to obtain an additional 
hold on the quarry. U. IS. Monro (Odyssei\ 
siibxxivp p. 160) cored the difficulty. Mere 
we have not any k ind of 1 s t rangL i ng 1 bitt t he 
paralysing effect of the carnivore's teeth pene¬ 
trating the vertebrae in such a way as to break 
the spinal cord. 

1 above* p. 486* and l : lg. 4 t> 7 . 

5 P. &f M ,, ii, Ft* L p 59 seqq. 

Li nil 
nn quarry 
of indi¬ 



.iflLtf of 

kciti oil 










types in 
M.M. J| 

of Main¬ 
land ift" 
a pi ration. 





the Delta* Menas Conquest of Lower Egypt may have led to a settlement of 
this Southernmost Cretan region by immigrants belonging to the older stock. 

The lions often appear following one another, according to the b pro¬ 
cessional H arrangement noticeable m Egyptian works of the proto-dynastic 

In all these cases, however, the lion, though perhaps retaining some 
special religious significance and supplying a traditional element of seal 
decoration, is hardly more than an exotic reminiscence. It is impossible to 
suppose that the animal existed in a wild state in the Island. Neither does 
there seem to be any evidence of the appearance of a Hon—even as a 
sphragistlc type*—on the contemporary three-sided steal!te bead-seals of 
indigenous Cretan fabric. 

By the second Middle Minoan Period,however, probably owing to the 
intimate contact with Mainland Greece then established, the lion takes an 
active place as a motive of prism seals in hard 
stones, These are sometimes associated with 
hierogly phic signs of Class B on the other faces. 

On a four-sided red cornelian (without hiero¬ 
glyphs) from near Arkhanes (Fig* 47'i) the 
animal Is represented coursiiigat full gallop with 
his head turned back. In addition to this we 
lint] the facing lion s head surmounted by the 
sacral fleur-de-lis, 3 and in another case in profile, set beside the same 
symbol, 3 appearing in the regular hieroglyphic series. This quasi-religious 
connexion seems to anticipate the: close relationship of the lion to the Minoan 
Goddess as guardian and supporter, so repeatedly illustrated by glyptic 
works from the beginning of L. M + I onwards.* On the 1 Ring of Nestor' 
a lion, couchant on a kind of stand and tended by the two little hand¬ 
maidens of the Goddess, acts as W arder of the Underworlds 

1* 10.472 - Lion ok l-oi ;raided 
Cornelian Prism : Am: hanks. 

1 The date of the Cretan ivory scab oti 
which these 1 processional * types appear is 
much later Limn Mena's lime and overlaps 
M. M. I rf- For examples, see especially 

Xiinihudkles, Faulted Tmfe Aftsani 

iTransJ. Droop), Pis. V Ill, XIII, XIV, XV; 
also A(Atio> + IVf pr 21 

(Maratbokepha 1i )- 

* On a four-sided head-seal of green jasper 
from East Croce. On another side of this 
four facing heads of a feline an but, perhaps 

also a lion, appear in a vertical row* 

3 This facing design with the fUusr-de-lys 
originates a series of types on seal-stones of 
a talisman ic or amuletic class (P. of M„ i, 
p. 673, Fig. 492 ), 

* The earliest example of such religious 
usage seems to be the Zakro sealing showing 
the lion guardians of a portal {P f pf J/. T \ t 
p. 308, Fig. 227, 4 

A. E. T Ring uf Aiifar t «,p r 65, Fig. jj t 
and cf. l\t>/ J/ M iii, pp r 1 53, 154and Fig. 104 * 


Lions leaping on their Prey: Minoan Versions. 

The coursing; lion of Fig. 47 ^ may itself be regarded as the forerunner 
of the scene on the inlaid dagger of Queen Aah-hotep {c. 1550 n.C.) die 
Minoan workmanship of which is undoubted. 1 On this the lion pursues a 
bull—also at full gallop—a movement as distinctively Minoan as are the 
rocks jutting down from the upper border. It is but a step from this scene 
of pursuit to that so finely conceived in the somewhat later inlaid design 
on the dagger from the Mycenae Shaft-grave, 3 where the lion, his feet still 
on the ground, springs on a dappled deer whose hind legs are also extended 
in the characteristic galop volant of Minoan Art. This motive is. indeed, 
usual with such subjects, as already shown 3 from a fine L, M. I a design on 
a seal impression from Hagia Triada where one wild-goat pursues another 
over rocky ground. 

From the mature L. M. I epoch onwards the fully developed scheme of 
the lion leaping on his quarry and gripping his dorsal or cervical vertebrae 
as he bears him to the ground is of frequent occurrence on Minoan seal- 
t} pes. The victim is by turns a bull, a stag, or a large horned sheep. 
The field is alternately rectangular, oval, or round. The lion's hind-legs 
grip the victim's hind-quarters, or at times one of them rests momentarily 
on one of the lund-legs of his quarry, but in this case, too, neither leg 
touches the ground and the whole weight of the great beast is thrown on 
his prey. 

On the great gold signet-ring from Thisbfi, 4 on the other hand, the 
lion has already made his pounce, and, though one hind-leg is loose, the 
claws of the other are firmly embedded in the victims flank, 1 his is 
the complete adaptation to the case of the lion o! the purely Cretan scheme 
of the dog springing on the back of agritni or stag. 

Typical groups of this class must be regarded as the climax of this 
artistic composition, worked out step by step on Cretan soil. 

1 Sec /’. of M. t i, p. 715, Fig. SST. of the ‘flat cylinder ’ type (/£,, p. 9, t ig. 8), 

• Reproduced in l*. of AT., iii, |i. 133, the Iran who grips the bulL cervical l ertebmc 
Pig,, 72_ has his hiiul feet still on the ground. The same 

3 //>., i, p. 716, l-lg, 539, <t. feature is repeated on the fine onyx fcntoid 

' A. E. f Rings/Mcttor t &<-\ t p.9, Fig.9, and from the Wipbeio Tomb 'Ap.\‘. lS % 

cf. p. 540, F14 .491 below. On a gold bead-sea) FI. X, 19). 

Lion on 




bhide + 

scheme ul 
lion kap* 
any on 









of Cylin¬ 
der types 

Oriental Group of Lion seizing Quarry contrasted with 
Minoan: conditioned by Cylinder Types. 

As already observed, this type of the lion seizing fob prey has been 
held up to us as the very essence of Oriental symbolism. But the archaeo¬ 
logical results by this time acquired in Egypt and over a wide Oriental 
area beyond the Aegean must be taken to si tow that, while the elements of 
hunting scenes can be naturally traced back to a remote epoch, the fully 
developed type of the lion seizing an animal of the chase and bearing it 
down with his whole weight was first perfected by Minoan craftsmen. It 
looks, indeed, as if it had been a special achievement of the Cretan seal- 
engraver's Art in which we see it led up toby simpler scenes in which hunt¬ 
ing dogs leap down on the neck or back of wild-goats and bring them to 
their knees. 

Surprising as it may seem, considerable researches into the copious 
materials supplied by early Oriental Art—mainly irom cylinder-seals but now 
augmented by the picturesque subjects presented by the Sumerian inlays from 
Ur—-in which lions are depicted attacking their quarry, have only been pro¬ 
ductive of negative results . 2 Evidence is lacking on that side of this scheme 
of the lion actually 
leaping on the back 
of its quarry. 

The character¬ 
istic cylinder type 
of Old Chaldaea 
representing the on¬ 
slaught of lions on 
their prey depicts 
two animals crossing 
each other, their 
hind-legs resting oil the ground and with the head of the carnivore turned 
round and gripping the back of his victim's neck (Fig. 473).* The 
more or less upright or, at most, diagonal attitude of the lion, inherent in 
the cylinder technique, is also seen in the cas<- of the parallel type where 

1 In these researches I am glad to adrnuw- : See Ward, Sea/ Cylinders* d~e„ p, 44, 
ledge the kind assistance of the representa* .\'n, 1.4. The alternative method of attack 
lives of the Egyptian and Assyrian I>c|nutmetit by gripping the jugular vein recurs in Minoan 
of the British Museum. glyptic Art. It is seen on two gem types in which 

1 Ward, Tkt Sea/ Cy/inders 0/ Western in the ore case a Iron, in the other a (biffin, grip 
Alia, p. 62, Fig. 146 (Univ, Penns, Coll). the front of a stag's neck from over his head. 

Fig. 473 . Eaki.y Dialog am Cv- Fig, 174 , Inlay ok 

mxpjlk kh aw jN£» L iox a t tack l see Q i; i : g xSh us a r> 3 s Tot i. kt 

Gazelle. Uox; Ur. 




-[7.3, Lion attacking Hum.: 


Fig. 470. Exceptionai> 
Seal Hu kession, 

the carnivore seizes the throat of his victim to drink his life-blood, as 
on the inlays of Queen Shubud's toilette box 1 (Fig. 474). The lion, here 

standing firmly 
on the ground, 
grips the throat 
of an up-rearing 

What is re¬ 
markable, more¬ 
over, is that 
where, as on 
the early nm ce¬ 
il cads * such as 
that dedicated 

to King Musilim of Kish, there was every opportunity, as far as space con¬ 
ditions go, of setting the lion full on the bull, the cylinder type is in ihe 

main adhered to. A slmi- 
" lar method is adopted in 

the engraved design on 
the convex panel of a 
cup of early Sumerian 
date (Fig. 475). 3 It may. 
indeed, be said that in 
the whole series of early 
Oriental representations 
of the lion anti bull group 
and kindred motives the 
Fig. 177. Late Assyrian Cvlikuer. sole example of a carni¬ 

vorous beast leaping on 

his prey with the impact of its whole body thrown on to it Is to be seen on 
a proto-Elamite seal impression, unique in type, of about ;ooo nx, {Fig, 
47ti) t 4 But even in this case the leopard-like animal who attacks the bull 
might be supposed to have his hind feet on a higher ground level. His 
off hind-foot hardly touches the bulls hind leg. 





tion nl 
type on 

J SeeG p Woolley w r&ctm>a/tms r : Heuzey* t f />.a/ r P3. XL\ I, no. j CaL t 

Text, sj6. p, iS$: cf. King, vp> <ii. t p. 79, Mg. jo. 

; I feucey, Deeosttxrtes t» Chaidde, PI. I, Hr, * E, Lcgrnin, Empreintcs de cachets ehmites, 
No. ?, Cat. »u>. 4. I» W, King, History of PI. XI, t ig. 17s, and p, 50 {Mission Arch dt 
Sumer and Akkad, p, 911, Fig. 4*. Perse, Vpl. XVI). M. begiwn observes that 

Lion stud 

bull on 







On an Assyrian cylinder 1 of much later date, where the lion's body is 
seen in front of the bull and the whole rendering is freer than the usual 
cylinder stvle, we see the bull in the course of being" brought down head- 

ii f> 

Fta ITS < t , k Ran Usrett Weioht is shape or Haknesseo Lins seiziko Buu.: 


long, but the lion still rests on the ground (Fig, 4771. This cylinder belongs 
to a time when Minoan influence was already reacting on Assyrian Art. 

As a further Illustration of the permanent conditions attaching to this 
Oriental type may be cited an interesting little red jasper relief of a lion 
and bull from Tel I-el-A mania, at One time erroneously claimed to be of 
Minoan workmanship (Fig. 478},* The object is hollow below, and its 
true explanation has only been recently supplied by a parallel relic from Rns 
Shamra , 3 in the form of a stone lion-weight, the lead filling of which was still 
preserved. lit the above case the group of the two animals has been sub¬ 
stituted for tiie traditional type of a single eouchant lion. The Oriental class 
to which the relief belongs must be regarded as clearly ascertained. At first 
sight, indeed, the lion might perhaps be regarded as throwing his full weight 
on the bull, but as a matter of fact, the bull is as much above the lion 
who grips its neck, as the latter is above the bull, and the whole of the 

1 lie spots may he due to rugosities in the 
hi iu ruinous day of the impress ion. 

1 Of luciuntiie, in I he Ashmolean Collection, 

1 H. K. Hall, Oldest Civilization of Gnat 
{mjui), p, 303 senq. and Figs. 70, 71, by 
Mr. F. Anderson, from which Figs. 17 S a, b, 
are reduced. In his later pa,[>er on Ajasftr 
group of a lion and butt fighting, from El 
' Amaruah, in fht liritith Museum (fourtt. of 
Egypt. Arch. (Xl)), 1925, p. 15^ seqq., Dr. 

Hall revised his first impressions and suggested 
a North-Syrum origin for it (p. tGi l J t may 
he observed that the OricniLil source of the 
work is at any rate well defined by the charac- 
ter of the lion's whiskers—visible on one side, 
ihese go back to an early Sumerian tradition, 
which, however, survived in Assyrian Art. 

* Professor Schaefer has kindly informed 
■me of this diseovtr} 1 , 


53 1 

lion's body rests on the ground. The lion itself wears a harness anti 
represents a hunting animal from some royal Oriental' kennelThe general 
associations of this object with Tell-el-A mama w'ould point to an early 

Fro, -ISO. I,xox w ith Hind-feet on Ground 
imiNNuxc newsG alloping Gazelle. Dagger* 
blade : Mycenae. 

Fig. ■itfi, Lion with Hixu-fert os 
GROUND BEARING nows I Jr LI.. I Soil! 
bead-seal; Thisbe, 

Fourteenth-Century date, but the work, both in its strength as well as in 
certain details, preserves a much earlier, Sumerian tradition. 

It is clear that exceptional examples exist among Minoan designs, both in Mlncan 
intaglio and small relief, in which the lion makes his onslaught on the quarrv 1 

with the hind-legs still resting on the ground. This attitude is seen on a gold Umd-lej* 
bead-seal of the ’ flat cylinder' type from Thisbii (Fig, 47ff)d as well as oil gmmd, 
a fine onyx lentoid from the Vapheio Tomb,* It recurs again on the Mycenae 
dagger-blade (Fig. 4Sn) and in one of the late reliefs on an ivory mirror 
handle from Enkomi, 1 n such cases the possible reaction of Oriental models 
cannot be excluded, though there may well have been a parallel indigenous 
tradition. Where, as on die Thisbe bead (Fig. 170), or, again, on the 
Mycenae dagger-blade, the whole forepart of tire quarry is borne down by 
the lions weight, the scheme may still fairly be regarded as at any rate 
Minoizing. In the true Oriental version the lion's weight acts rather 
as a counterpoise to that of his victim. 

but there can be no doubt that the more characteristic Minoan form of Examples 
the group is that in which the lion makes Ills attack by leaping on it from dhiiwi 
above, thus throwing his full weight on his victim. And this, as we have 
seen, has no counterpart in the lands Influenced by the cylinder technique, lion 

On the other hand, we have seen that on Cretan soil the part later o^quar" 
played by the King of Beasts had already been taken at much earlier date 

1 Sitc* toO| J*. vj J/. T hi* p. ij-j, Fig. 75* cates hardly 3mer ihsin L* M* 1 a* 

Tins intaglio belongs to the t-Mirlier Thiisbc 1 s£8j.i + TL X, sS* 

group as lIil b * Gat cylinder 1 form itsdl indi- 
iv ** n n 


by hunting dogs. The original object of their chase had been the native 
wild-goat, and, later, the fallow deer. Of the latter type, as transferred 
from dog to lion, a very beautiful example is supplied by a ientoid bead- 

seal (Fig. 481included also 
among the select gems photo¬ 
graphed on Suppl. PI. LV, c\ 1 lie 
stone is a chalcedony, clouded red, 
and the finesse of the execution 
is such that it has had to be here 
exceptionally enlarged to three 
diameters to give an adequate 
idea of the details, 11 is necessary 
to suppose that in this case the 
finer lines—failing an actual dia¬ 
mond—were engraved by means 
of a corundum point. 

From the pal mat ion, here 
so characteristically given, the 
quarry is clearly a fallow deer * 
borne down by the full weight of 
a springing lion who seizes it by 
the hind-quarters. One of the 
lion's legs rests on the hoof of the 
deer's fore-foot, the oilier is free. 
The agony of the victim is shown 
by the open mouth and protruding 

A parallel illustration in 
which the lion grips the neck of 
a tallow deer, also very finely 
engraved, is seen in the intaglio 
of the large gold signet-ring from 
TUisb£ {Fig, 491 below),* In the 
same way on the Ientoid (Fig. 482) 
a lion and a lioness grip the neck of a homed sheep.* 

Fig, 181. Ch ALCEDOtf v Lentoi ej : Lion hearing 
down Fallow Deer: from Athens* (£} 

Fig. Lioness (auow.) and Lion (helow) 

springing,on Horned Sheep. Yellow Agate, 
Mycenae. 1) 

1 From a cast kindly supplied me hy Dr. R. : See Imhoof-likimer und Keller, 77 rr- tfttd 
Zabn r die Director of the Creek Derailment in jyiitnunk r p* 198 (PL 17, tz) + 

Berlin Museum (*tx- Furtwlnjiterj 3 P. 540. 

t \k 3 P Xo f i 5, and cf. A.G^ ii, No. 3, PL 3}. ' For she homedsheep,seep, 569 sqq, below. 


Selection ok Late Minoan IntaOUOS {L. M. 1 t> L. M II) with Animal Form* mostly 



Fig. 481. Cornelian Beau-s-eal, 
Crete : Leon hearing down Bull* 

Much the same scheme recurs on a strongly incised amygdaloid 
bead-seal of mottled red and white cornelian from Crete , 1 also belonging 
to a good Late Minoan epoch, here reproduced in Fig. 4S3, where the 

quarry is a bull. In this case one of 
the lion's hind-feet grips the bull's 
back, while the other rests on the bend 
of its hind-leg.’ In another version, the 
lion, who attacks the back of the bull’s 
head, is himself transfixed with three 

Of the taking over of the seal-types 
before us on to ivory reliefs, a good ex¬ 
ample is supplied by the L. M, III plaque 
from the Spat a !Juries (Fig. 484), ! where 
the lion makes a flying leap on to the 
bull’s neck from behind. On the ivory 
mirror handles from Enkomi. the Cy¬ 
prian Salami.*.* on the other hand, 
though the Minoan source is obvious, 
the lions' bodies are contorted by the 
nature of the space, so that their hind 
paws, as in the parallel type, Fig. 47SJ, 
above, rest on the ground. These appar¬ 
ently date from Raineses Ills time* 
(r. 1212-1171 is.c.), and represent a 
branch of Art of which one centre at least may be found in the Minoan 
colonial plantation at Ras Shamra on the Syrian Coast, so successfully 
explored by Professor Schaefer and the French Mission, 

E.icm and 
bull group 







184. Lion springing on Bull : 
Ivory Plaque, Spata* 

on Syrian 

Coast l 

' In my Collection, from Central Crete. 

2 Cf. t loo, the lion on a Phaesto* genii 
A/an. Jnt. f *iv, p. 63 r, Fig. 9-3. 

3 IS K KLuis5oulbcr t Cat. tos n/Jtfs d/cduverfo 
a Spa/a ( Bui/ to CW*\ //?//+! ii„ iSyS), PI. X V l T 
4+ pp- 213. 

4 tf.M. Ex&Wf. in Cyprus, PI. II t nos. 
40a ami 872 b* and see pp. 31 j 3a* From 
Tumb 17. 

The relief of a warrior (p. S04 Fig* 7 S 2 ) 
fit I acting a Griffin on the other side o f mirror 
bandit; is duplicated by a fragment showing 

a similar relief belonging to an ivory casket. 
This is not mentioned in the lest, hut, as has 
bwn pointed out by Poutscn {Jahrhit£h r/. A/vh- 
(J?s„ T 911 ; /ur Zetibtstimmung tor EnMmC 
Junto, pp* ** 3 r$), it «ns found in Tomb 2, 
who re it was associated with a scarab uf 
Raineses III (attributed hy Murray to the 
XXIX Dynasty). In my paper on the same 
subject \jintrn. Ant&r* IttsL, xxx (1900), 
j, a 13), l hud already compared the breast¬ 
plate of the warrior attacking the Crtffm with 
those of the invadens from Western Asia on 

i 2 


N iflO- 
type rtf 
Hon anti 

influc n i cs 
on As¬ 



It is becoming dear that parallel Colonial out]>osts of Minoan culture 
had also existed on the Cilidan Coast to which, indeed, the Hittite 
characteristics of the cha¬ 
rioteer on the ivory casket 
from Enkomi infallibly lead 
us. Preliminary explora¬ 
tions made by Mr. Burton 
Brown on that side have 
resulted in the discovery of 
painted sherds from a 
mound at Ankhiale, near 
Tarsus, recording ihc exist¬ 
ence of an independent 
school of the very latest 
Minoan date. Among these 
is the fragment, slightly re¬ 
stored iti Fig. 4So, showing 
a lion springing on a bull 
according to the true Minoan tradition. 1 This type -to which the term 
' Mino-Cilieian may be applied—does not happen to be represented m any 
other branch of Lale Minoan Ceramic Art. 

It is a f;ir cry from such rude reminiscences of the old Cretan ty pe as 
we see here to the masterpieces of the Glyptic Art given above. Elements 
of transition, however, already apjjear on such decadent examples as the 
seal impression (l'ig. 4S(i) —belonging, it may be presumed:, to the In¬ 
occupation Period—from the Little Palace at Knossos, Here, again, we 
see a similar scheme of the lion wholly resting on the bull’s body. 

A seal impression from the ‘ Archives Hoard ’ of the Palace that may¬ 
be clearly dated to the L.M. 11 Period supplies an interesting variation in 
which two Hons setae on their quarry, one leaping on the bull from in front 
and the other from behind (Fig, 4JS7>. This version has a special interest 
in its relation t > archaic Greek and Phoenician versions of the subject. 

Oi the influence of such Minoan offshoots on Assyrian Art much 
remains to be elucidated. Such positive facts as the discovery on (he site 
of Ashur itself of the detached upper part of a - rbyton 1 of L M. I type, 

Raineses Ill’s Monument at Mediriet Haim, frescoe depicting the buttle of Kadcsh. 
and Imd demonstrated the practical identity ‘ The phcjto K raph front which l ig. 4 $ ewas 
of the chariot on the Knkomi draught-box drawn is dm- to the courtesy of Mr. Burton 
with the llittitc chariot# of Raineses 3 3 ‘h Brown, 

\>i$y 1 . 

Fits. 485. Paintcd Sttrnn from Anxhim v; 
near Tarsus, snowixn Lion si-kinoim; ox Bull. 
M.M. Ill Mixo-QuiCtAN ), 



formed of faience of the Cypro-Minoan class, 1 and a vessel in the shape ofc 
a woman's head* 1 of the same fabric—probably even by the same hand—as 
similar vessels from Enkomt, will be found to have a much wider context. 

Fhl l Decadent Tvpe ok Lion 
utLMiise. down Hi Li. os Skai. Imi-kk - 
'[on t Little Palace Knu^gs. 


Bull; Seal Iwi-jusssioNj Archives Uia- 


That the lion and bull type was taken over by the Phoenicians In a 
religions connexion is clear by its later emergence on the coins of Byblos 
(Gebal), 3 whose Adonis cult, coupled with the local AstaritL hears a certain 
relationship to that of the Minoan world,* A supplement to this is supplied 
by the much earlier example of this scheme, here lor the first time repro¬ 
duced, on a crystal scarab from Beirut (Fig, I he prey in this case is 

a cow ± suckling a calf. The Hon seizes the cow from behind, throwing on her 
his full weight, and with one leg resting on her hindmost hoof. I he other 

1 Andrae, />it urthiiiskt fjtAfar- Tcmpd in 
Assat (S* 201 76); Hall, JA/.S, p xh isi (192SL 
p. 71* lug, 5« It very closely approaches a 
detachable form of J rbyton 5 lop that appears 
in marble-like stone at Knosros in I- M I ^ 
(r* 1500 1450 b.c*}+ See P. &f J/., ii h p- -24 * 
Fig. ] 29 p 17. This is a remarkably early 
slarxing pomt for the Cypro-Minqan Faience 
series to which tire Ashuc specimen un¬ 
questionably belongs. 

1 Andrae. Farkigt Ktrnmik tins Assur, 
{1023b p. r seqq. and cL Hall, 77 k Crtiiize- 
iion &f Gin ih* Ffronzt Agt {1937), 
p|>. 2*5-7! Figs, 299, 300* and T for the close 
connexion of this Ashur faience with Cyprus* 

xEviii ( 1928 ), p. 64 seqq. = Mitunm 
Jw'/ait? in Mtuypnlamia . The woman's head 
was found in the Temple of Ishlar of the lime 
of Tukulii-Enurta I (t. 1160 1238 ilc + ). 

1 l.kihel on. Cut dt At JVatimaU: 

PtrscS Ach/mdmd^ H. XXVI, 12 *kc r {Coins 
tit King FJfiUiL r. 360 K,c + ), his suecessors- 
CL Y too, /A.I/. Cut PAwniti rr P FLXLI ^Supple¬ 

* See J\ 0/ JA sii t pp. 473 i 474 «id my 
A Frazer Lecture \ T931: Tht E^rikr Religion vf 
Greerti pp. 4U 4»- 

s In iny Collection since 1 ^ 94 , hitherto 

honB and 
bull type 
an crystal 


S3 6 








Don and 
bull as 

{incomplete) is in the air The whole is vigorously engraved in a somewhat 
rough style, and the epithet ‘ sub-Minoan* may be fittingly applied to Ltd 
It looks, moreover, as if the type was taken over into the Classical 
Greek repertory from Cypriote or Phoeni¬ 
cian sources of somewhat later date. On a 
chalcedony scaraboitl of early Fifth-Cen¬ 
tury date s the design of a lion seizing a bull 
is associated with the Oriental winged disk. 

In other cases derivations of the lotus 
flower appear beside it* Specially interest¬ 
ing is an Intaglio depicting this motive on 
a very fine Ionian scarab, a beautiful sard, 
from a tomb of the Greek cemetery' of 
Gela * (see below, Fig. 493), So archaic 
here is the design, recalling the early 

bulls of Sybaris, that it can hardly date later than the close of the 
Sixth Century it.c. It Is interesting to recall that Gela itself had been 

Fin, 488. 

Rock Crystal Scakas, 
i'kom Beirut. 

founded by* settlers from Crete or Rhodes in 5 S 9 hx„ and its Eastern 
relations may well have continued into the succeeding epoch. 

It was natural that this scheme should occur on early Cilicia 11 tiles at 
Tarsus and, associated with a stag, at Malla, whose name contains a record 
of its old Cretan connexion, preserved in that district to the very latest 
Minoan Age—witness the Ankhinle sherd (Fig. 4S5, above). The powerful 
rendering of the design on the early tetradrachms of AkaiUhos 1 * 3 * (Fig. -l!) 4 ) 
—not far distant in date from that on the Ionian scarab (Fig, WA )—recalls 
the fact, recorded by Herodotus," that the neighbourhood was still infested 
by Hons at the time of Xerxes’ invasion. In the case of this Chalkidic city 

1 The ‘sut^Mmaeui* (^ub-MjceDticsm 1 ) 
character of a good deal of Phoenician Ate 
to* king since recognised by MonsieurSalomon 


3 Flirt wftngler,. A. 6% PI. VI (from T/ttfos ): 
Warren ColL 

* E.g., MM. Cat. Engnmfd Gtms t jasper 
scarab (two Holts); scarab. Vienna Coll,, 
Furivv., ArG .„ vii, 25 (degenerate loius bud). 

1 Acquired by me in tS c;e (with vues atid 
other relics) from the cemetery of Costa delta 
fompdgna at Terrano^ behind the original 
Cdiian acropolis of LindoL 

1 B.Af* Coin Catalogue .* Aftmdmta^ &*c. t 

P- 30, Akanthos No, r and Fig, m. Cf. 
Head, J/rtf. smd ed,, p. 205, Fig., u t . 

On ihe lion and bull group of A!cambus t see 
P. Gardner, Ty/tt 0/ GsaA Cdwr, Pis, IU, f j 
and VII T 20; and |j. 135 (where he company 
ihe gateway sculpture); G, Macdonald, Cain 
p* So r He regarded the type as tillF 
irately ol Mycenaean f Minoan) origin, ant! 
r L-fcrs to remarks of mine on the actual revival 
—per saittim —of Miiaoan lenlotd designs on 
coins, In tliis efis^ howetfetj. ibete seems to 
Have been a direct [radiiion. 

* VU. 125 seqq. 



we have an example of the taking over into sculpture of a type originally 
confined to small glyptic objects like seals and coin-dies, for the subject was 
repeated as the City amis in a relief 1 —a good deal later in date than the 
archaic coin-type—that had been set up above one of the gates ol Akanthos * 5 

The attack of lions on bulls is a commonplace of the Homeric poems p 
but the description does not go much beyond generalities * 1 Where, as in the 
account or the Shield of Achilles. Lhe description applies loan actual work ol 
Art, we find two lions attacking the bull. This scene corresponds with an 
alternati ve M inoan form of the present scheme illustrated above in Fig* 487 . 1 * * 
Amongst the high reliefs in fiar&s stone brought to light on the Athens E-jj^ 
Akropolis, in addition to an example dating from about 600 b,C of the rdidfc of 
version showing two animals,* were remains in a somewhat more advanced 
style, in which two lions take part . 6 This work is the very embodiment of Athens. 
primeval force. When fresh from the earth and with the colours still unfaded 
—as it was my good fortune to see it—it set forth in a quite unique mannui 
the most vivid polychrome traditions of early Greek sculpture. I he lions 
have scarlet manes, their bodies being ol a paler red, their eyes as here por¬ 
trayed between vermilion-rimmed lids—are black, with white pupils. The 
bull s body is a deep blue (in places turned to green) and from the holes torn 
in its hide by the lion s claws its life-blood pours in crimson streams down 
its flanks A 

In a very different technique—the colours less crude and die modelling 
unsurpassed by any later Age—the bull relie \ that adorned the North 
Portico at Knossos inevitably suggest themselves for comparison* Certain 
details, indeed, such as the bright red rims ot the eyelids and the w bite pupils 
against a dark ground, might be taken to imply a real coloristic tradition. 

1 Clarac, MvSft it SadphfTf l Ft 11 , p 
no. 722 ; S. Ke'mach, RPpcrhnre it fa Sta/mim 
grtifjtit ft r&maint* I, p. t 12 , 

* A record of the: source of the relict i* pre¬ 
served in the archives of the Louvre (Sitzifngs- 
badtkit d r Muttchttwr Akai . r 1877+p, t j}* 

a E.g. IK xvi t 11- 48 7 s 488. In ft, xvii, 

p* tit seqq Pi however, lhe Hon is described as 
seizing ihe hull's neck iti his mighty teeth and 
gorging on its blood and en trails. 

1 See above, p, 535 . 

& K. tteberdey, AftaitmK l^rosskulptur 
(1919), p. 78, Fig. £4 and sou Dr* Hcbertiey's 
reconstitution, p. 79, Fig, £5. On these early 
sculptures in /<ir<sj stone, see, too, E. Busehor, 

Btrigfotvtt * {Atk. YfiWt.y 1922 (xIvi i)),p 92 seqq* 

1 Hclu rdey, ef. «>.. |ip, H Figs 67 , 68. 

1 Letter of A. E* to Man^mRr Gmiriian 
on recent discoveries on the AkropoUs at 
Athens, July 17, 1^4. The remains of the 
hull's horns, as pointed out by Walters art of 
n ]inle, which also distinguishes his hoofs 
and fetlocks. The bull's body is almost 
executed in lhe round, Heberdey, op, df n 
restores the gn 1 u p as a ped i me n lal com posit i c in 
with 1 wo symmetrically grouped lion* fastening 
on the elongated bull* here prone. The Geneva, 
kraier (Grrutidon II* PL X[II r 2) supplies a 
good black-figure parallel. 

* See F. of M„ lii, p- 174, Fig, 1L«, 


Traces of 
stucco re- 
Hef of 

Emup at 

Is it possible that monumental reliefs of the Hon and bull group in 
painted plaster had found their place on the Walls of Knossos ? It is 
shown below (p. 547 ) that the * double gradation ' 1 seen beneath the seated 
Hon type of the lentoid gem, illus¬ 
trated in Fig, uOi) points that way. 

More than this, a fragment of 
stucco relief (Fig. 4SD) representing 
*— life size—part of the mane of a 
lion with clear traces of red colour¬ 
ing, together with a small piece of 
the lion's leg, were actually found 
in the artificial vault beneath the 
North-East angle of the building.* 

A remarkable feature of the 
larger fragment is the appearance 
above the curving outline of the 
lion's mane of a small section of 
what is clearl) another animal with 
shaggy hair, which cannot certainly 
be identified with a bull.® Neither 
does it correspond with the lioness 
such as we see grouped with her 
mate in some glyptic types, It 
would quite agree, however, with the shaggy io re-quarters of an agrim), 
whose neck had been gripped by the lion’s jaws as he bounded forward. In 
any case the remains may be held to assure the existence of the general 
type of the lion seizing his quarry among the great painted plaster reliefs 
on the Palace walls. It is further to be noted that the conventional red 
colouring of the lion’s mane corresponds with that of the archaic poios 
group of the Akropolis. 

Fie. ifla* Fbaomknt or Stucco Relief of 
).ion's Uki\i> and Mask ami I’aki of anotiikr 
An 1 Mai. ; with Tracks oj Red Paint. S.K. 
Palace Anci.c, Knossos. 

On the Cretan side, the group of the lion seizing its quarry begins, 
as we have seen, on seal-stones and signets, though it is later the theme of 

x See J f i>f * 1 /,, i, p m 686 seqq* 
s /* tf J/^ ii. Ft. I, p P 3^ j + Fig, I S@ T a, A A 
lierfomitiii was visible in the plaster for 
,1 square wooden pin to attach it to the wail, 
idem teal with those of M-M. I]! fresco frag¬ 
ments from the * Corridor of the Procession 1 
in iis earlier shape {/*. of M. r si p Pi, II, p. 6So 


3 The id e mi heat ton with a hull isaccepted t 
indeed, by Dr + Bp. Marinates {Anh. 

1 U t P' r ° 7 jq.) w h o w oli Ed evuti go firi he r 
ami bring those fragments from the S.E f pit 
into connexion with iht: bull-grappling reliefs 
fjf the Northern Entrance portico. These 
however have nothing to do wit It lions. 


small ivory reliefs. No representation o! tilts group lit works of the true 
Geometrical class has as yet come to light, and its first vogue in Hellas 
can, be reasonably brought into connexion with its survival In Cypriote Art, 
on which the masterpieces of the Assyrian Empire were now reacting, while, 
later, its propagation West may have been largely due to scarabs of the 
* Ionian' class. To Ionian influences, too, was doubtless due the appear¬ 
ance of variants of this design where the lion seizes a bull by the neck, as on 
a tomb at Xanthos, 1 and it is noteworthy that the Assyrian influence in that 
School of Art is attested in the lion relief of another Xanthian tomb* by the 
characteristic whiskers, of remote Sumerian descent. It also survived cm 
parallel Phoenician works, and the version showing two lions occurs on the 
centre of a silver bowl from the Regulini Galassi l’omb, 3 We see it 
already in a design, helplessly enough drawn, of a lion seizing a dappled deer 
from behind, on the neck-band of an early Attic amphora 4 of early Seventh 
Century date. 

The lion and bull types of early Greek Art were connected thus by a real 
catena with the Minoan prototypes, but there remains a great probability that 
there had been, in certain cases, an actual resuscitation of the design through 
the copying of Minoan seal-types, of which we have undoubted evidence. 4 

Some of the Hellenic reproductions of that version of the group in which 

the lion leaps on a stag, of which Minoan 
examples have been given, may be thought 
specially suggestive in this connexion, I he 
exquisite scarab-type (Fig, 490} e —though 
found at Tharros, certainly by a Greek hand— 
in which we see the scheme adapted to an 
oval field, here with a cable border, and 
the fine later rendering on a didrachm of 
the old Phocacan Colony of Velia (Fig. 492), 
curiously recall certain Minoan seal-types. 
For the lion and hull class the designs on the 
Akanthos stater (Fig. 494) anti the Gda scarab (Fig. 494) already referred 
to—are equally significant. These suggestive parallels are here placed 
side by side with the intaglio on the large gold signet-ring Irom 1 hisbe 
(Fig. 491), where the spots of the fallow deer are also reproduced. 

I-'it;. 4911. Lion and Hull on 
Tharros Scar ail 

1 J K P- 393, log- 278 
1 lb., p. 3<ji, Ftg- 37( 3 . 

1 P. *t C„ iit, p. 769, t ig, 54 j, Ac. 

* G. M. A. k [elite r, A V«r Early Atik 

Ease: ///-S’, xsii (1912), p. 370 5njq., atid 
PI. XI (Metropolitan Mus., S.V,). 

* See P. of ,\f.. iii, pp. i *5, tz6. Figs, 79 , 80 . 
‘ C tV. k i ng, Antique Cents a net kings, i. 1 2 4- 





Over a thousand years here separate the execution ot the Greek and the 
Minoan designs. But the type itself h essentially that which had spon¬ 
taneously developed on the soil of Miitoan Crete at a still more remote 

Fie* I9L Lion sizing Sjao on Thesrl Gold Sigkkt (}). c 1500 n,c. 

Fig. 491 to. Amygdaloid Bead seaUdark 

FlG 192, Hidrachm o> Veli a 
tlViH Ct:NT. + nx). 

Fio* 4113, Sard Scarab Gela < E'ekha- 
nqva), Sicily. 

Hu. i.n. Silver Stateruf AkanthdSi 
VhH CcNt.^ fix. {*) 

j [q6u. Indigenous Sphragistic Tradition ( continued ) —Wounded 

Quarry Types, 

Wounded quarry types—(alismattic value to hunters; Artistic designs 
succeed the merely magical; Stricken calf trying to extract arrow,' Similar 
types of suouitdcd lion ; Scheme as apphtd to hounds; I founded lion, scaled; 
Wounded lion on Shaft Grave bead-seal; Comparison soil// Assyrian reliefs 
and tradition in Greek A rt. 

Type of the Wounded Quarry, and its Talismanic Virtue to Hunter. 

Much evidence has already been adduced to show that I mm an early 
date certain types of bead-seals, or ’ periapts were adapted as talismans for 
securing beneficial results to their owners, just as white ’milk-stones are 
worn to-day by Cretan wives. Types of such magical import may be clearly 
traced to the more primitive class of Cretan bead-seals, dating well back 
into the Early Minoan Age. It has been shown, however, that this usage 
had a special vogue in the last Middle Minoan Period and the succeeding 
L. M, I a, 1 Thus we may assume that nil such beads strength was secured 
by the lion’s mask 2 —of which large numbers were roughly and hastily 
cut for a popular demand. The flying bird—perhaps an eagle—may 
have brought with it swiftness. The fish and squids on other beads no doubt 
brought luck to fishermen. The jugs and spouted ewers for pouring liquid 
offerings appear later, as we have seen, in the hands ol the Minoan Genii as 
promoters of vegetation. The Double Axe as a solitary type on these 
stones speaks for itself as an emblem of divine guardianship. 

In the same way, the rude figure of a running agrintt or wild-goat 
with a shaft in his side, which is found repeated in a similar way, may well 
have brought good sport to the huntsman. On a three-sided cornelian bead 
from Central Crete this design on one face is followed by the equally 
efficacious living bird on another (Fig. 405. b t c). 8 I he typical flying bird 
(also adopted as a sign in the linear script) is better shown on a heart- 
shaped bead of amethyst from Knossos * (big, -107), where it appears to 
represent a flying eagle. 

' See P. of Al, i, pp. 67 a, 673. The 3 IK p. 673, l i B . 432 . 

chronotpgicaj evidence in such 1 tnlismanie' 1 The side of this bead-seal is simply bossed, 

types afforded by the Sphoitrigaras Cemetery, without intaglio, 

explored by Miss Edith Hall (Exeavf. in * Obtained by me from the site in 1S94. 
Eastern Crete) , is specially valuable- A plain heari-sha]>ed bead of gold—a recurring 


54 2 








But this well-defined and summarily engraved M, M. Ill — L. M. I a 
class of engraved talismanic beads was from the first accompanied by more 
select intaglios, on which, though a magical object may also have been 

Fig. 405. TiiRKK-stratn Cornelias Bead-seal or M. M. Ill I’i.ks : yttm Central I mete 

served, the chief aim was artistic effect, An M. M. 11—111 lento id of the early 
flat-sided type, 1 Fig. 41)4, already gives a pictorial view of a wild-goat 
struck by a javelin as he flees over the rocks. The libation vessels so 

Fio. H'i). * Flat-shied 

]e v i ini>: U c v s 'i A t ;at k t 
MM. 11-1II. 

Fig. -iot. Amvlettc 
Brad oi „ \ vi ktht^twitji 
Late k a l Per foratjox 
showing Pi.viNo Eagle. 

often set forth by themselves on the talismanic series pass into the hands 
of Minoan Genii, as adapted to completely ritual scenes. The 1 flying bird 1 
charm also lakes a fuller and more artistic form on a Hagia Triatla seal 
impression,® The fish talisman is incorporated in the fuller design of the 

form—occurred in the 1 Drain-Shaft Deposit * 1 B.M. Gr/, t Pl. LI h no. 87. described (p + m) 

of M. M. 111 ^ date (/ J . of Jf t iii T |X 411* as a 1 burnt agaic \ The exaggerated pratan- 
Fig. ^ 73 ). The linear marks on Fig. \ti 7 du gatiun of the horns .seems to pkieu ihk among 
not seem to be signs of script (as 1 had at first early specimens of this type of seuhstone. 
supposed). The flying eagle later became the 1 See p. 490, Fig, il l above, 
type of the coin* of Lyktos. 


fisherman holding up his catch, 1 or, as seen in the fine gem depicting the 
Seart/f Crdmsh, a kind of ' parrot grass’, for which the Cretan waters 
were celebrated* becomes itself a masterpiece of perspective drawing. 
(See Suppl- FI. LIV, f.) 

Stricken Calf endeavouring to extract Arrow with his Leg. 

A particular refinement marks the artistic transformation of the simple 
early versions of the wounded wild-goat. The theme is transferred to to «u*ci 
other animals, which are depicted striving to extract the lethal shaft. 

A pathetic and really painful example of this class is supplied by a (en- 
toid bead-seal of milk-white chalcedony from the Knossos district (Fig. 4118). 

Vic . 498. Calf kkukavqitkino to 
extract Arrow : Milk-white Cual- 

i kih>nv. lD istrict* 

Be. 499. Calf with Arrow in 
Backs Mottled Cornelias, 

11 ere a calf, with horns just sprouting, singled out. we may suppose, from the 
herd of wild cattle, for its tender flesh, is depicted as vainly striving to 
extract an arrow deeply embedded in the lower part of his flank. Bellowing 
with pain, with protruding tongue and ears erect, he is shown in frantic action 

half-way to a headlong fall. , . 

As an illustration of Instantaneous draught man ship this mtag 10 must 
be regarded as a real masterpiece. The firm, sure touch that is here dis¬ 
played. ami the reserved treatment, which shuns ail details except those 
actually needed for the presentment of this tragedy of the chase as affecting the 

1 P. <>/ M„ i, p, 67 j. Fig. 497 ; and fur 
a parallel type, ft. if, Cut, Kttgr&vtd (Jems, 
&e., PI. I, 39. 

! P, of it., i. Fig. 498. 
a Fig. -JU8 is from it drawing by M. h- 
iiillierun, fils. This and the gems, Figs, 1*2U, 

427 , 453, wtiic placed by meat the disposal of 
Mr.'];. J. Fundylic for his Herns Lecture on 
A finnan Art given to the PritUh Academy, 
Prncttdingt, vcL xv (1939). See PI, X, and 
cf. pp. JH, * 3 - 


young animal itself, mark this gem as belonging to the great Age. It would 
hardly he safe to bring down the work beyond the very earliest Late Minoan 
phase. In its free style it shows some affinity with the galloping steer on 
a Vapheio lentoid (L. M. I &V We already see a fine adaptation of the 
design to a circular Held, This, however, is still sufficiently removed from 
the more elaborate packing of the space so characteristic of many seal- 
types of the last Palace epoch (L. M. II) and later, belonging to the true 
1 lentoid * style. 

That this or slightly variant types of the same design had a certain 
vogue in the Minoan World is shown by its recurrence on a mottled 
cornelian lentoid from Mycenae (Fig though in this instance the arrow 

penetrates from above, entirely out of reach of the calf’s leg. 

In this, as in the familiar lion and bull group dealt with above, the 
specialized artistic versions of the wounded animal lit on to an indigenous 
class of which the subject was tire native agria d, serving the purpose of 
■sympathetic magic’ for the Cretan hunter. In its specialized artistic form, 
where the stricken animal tries to withdraw the arrow from its flank, we see 
the subject applied to the youngling of a herd of wild cattle, such as seem 
early to have existed in the Cretan lowlands. 


ir.i re¬ 
ferred Lu 

Similar Scheme transferred to Wounded Lion. 

In this case, too. we sec an artistic scheme that had been Hrst applied 
to an indigenous quarry transferred to the lion, from the First Late Minoan 
epoch onwards, which had been rendered familiar by the Minoan extension 
on the Mainland side, 

A pictorial type parallel to that of Fig. 408 appears on a sardonyx 
lentoid (Fig. 5u(l) ! from the Vapheio Tomb, in which a lion replaces die 
call (L. M. 1 1). Here conventional rocks are introduced beneath the 
lion's fore-quarters. A fragmentary clay impression of a lentoid gem, 
presenting a similar design of a wounded lion among rocks, occurred at 
Knossos in the "Jewel Fresco' area, under stratigraphic conditions pointing 
to about the same date The same wounded lion scheme is seen on a L. M, la 
seal impression from 1 lagiaTriada (Fig, IR8);*m Fig. 501 he seeks to extract 

1 e*. 'Ap X ., iSS 9l in. x, 14. 

* H-M. Cat. Rtigritvtd Gems, (H_ Jl 
Walters}, PI. 11, G\ -ind jj t u. The head, loo, 
Is thrown further back. As on the example, 
Fig. 1^3, the mouth is open, nidi protruding 
tongue* There is a greater bending of the o(T 
bind-lL'g, but the description of the animal as 

s returnbe^t 1 is emonemts. Lt h called a 1 hull 
to- at p hut. tike the other, h in fact ;i calf with 
sprouting horns 

5 ^ a px > i^sSy, I’l. X, 8. Fart*.. . i.G., 

1 Ltvi, Crtfule di ifogta Triuda, ijy., p. 3^ 
Fig. Gy. 


Kit;. 500. I.ion LNnE.woi'R' i'to. 501. Lion trying to with- 
iso ro EXTRACT Arrow: draw Arrow from Jaw, (J) 


Flo. 302. Similar 
Suijkct: Clay Seal 
1 « pressjon, H. Tk r a jm . 

Fic. ,503 d. Similar Sub¬ 
ject: WOl’NDKt) f.tONESS l 
Clay Seal Impression, 
H. Tkiapa* 

Fio. 503 k WouNPtt* Lion 
without Arrow, Mycenae. 

!■ ic. 3 ol. Dou snuTcmsr. Fio. 50 S. Bitch scratching Kin, 3 h> 5 . Dog scratching 
shik. Sral Impflession, Jaw : Jasper Lentoib, Jaw : Seal Impression, 

H. Triad a. Central Crete. H. Thiaiia. 

the lethal shaft from his jaw , 1 On some sealings of the same series the subject 
seems to be a lioness (Fig. 50:l «).* On the line Mycenae tentoid, Fig. 50:i A, 
the attitude of the wounded lion is preserved but the arrow is not shown . 3 

Other designs show similar attitudes taken over without rhyme or Similar 
reason to a collared hound, no trace in these cases appearing of any dart 

(.ahiiud <lc>, Medailles, Paris. traae {.irdiutQfogia, ,ix\xii (lyjs)), Pi. XXVI1, tohounds, 

lAwi, ap tif, t p. jj. Fig. 63, 33 , anti p, iyy, 

A. J, It Wace, Chamfer Tnml’i tit My- 



WiJUn dcd 

linn on 





or arrow. The scheme of the wounded animal is here simply used as 
a suggestion for a study of a dog scratching himself (Fig. 504). On, a red 
jasper lentoid from Central Crete (Fig. 505). 1 a bitch's leg is raised to the 
lower part of her jaw, while on another clay scaling from Hagia Triads,” is 
shown an almost exactly similar attitude in the case of a dog (Fig. 506).’ 

The strained action of these poses had an obvious attraction for the 
Minoan artist. The Minoan public loved sensational scenes. 

Wounded Lion on Shaft Grave Beati-seaL 

In the above cases, illustrated by Figs. 500-503the wounded animal 

endeavours to extract the shaft 
with his hind-leg. Another ver¬ 
sion, compatible with a less con¬ 
torted scheme, is that in which a 
lion, stricken with an arrow in the 
shoulder, strains his neck round 
to seize the end oi the shaft in his 
teeth. A noble representation of 
this occurs on the gold tlat cylinder 
bead-seal from the I hird Shatt 
Grave at Mycenae. He is de¬ 
scending a rocky steep, and his 
knees giving under the paralysing 
influence of the wound I Fig. 507).+ 
On the signet (Fig. 507 bis) 4 
two arrows wing their way towards 
the neck and shoulders of a lioness 
galloping in full flight through a 
rocky glen, with her cub beside 
her. On a lentoid bead-seal the 
arrow sticks in the back of a 
coursing bull, but his bead is 
simply turned round towards the 

■ Ltjvb Op. dt., p. 97. F‘g. 

1 A. E. Coll. 

* Op. tit., p- 44 Fig- ioo- 

1 Frmn a lirawing by E* GiLlifron* f 

Fig. 507, Wm'tttJEU Lion ksdlavih ring 


Bearkseal {flat Cylinder), Mvcenae, (f.) 

Fig. (j <}7 Lioness wmi Cub in 

Cr.Sdiliemami, Jfycwae, p.174, no, 135, FlM- 
wAngler, J. 0 \, FI. U L 49 ! K ftro, SfAai-fifynttrr 
twi Myctml FL XXL V. 34 ; Text* i, \y, 49* 

1 From a cast in my possenion. 



Lick (Haematite). 

Wounded Lion Seated. 

The wounded lion scheme above described is also adapted on lentoid 

bead-seals to the figure of the animal sit¬ 
ting up and looking back, as if he had 
been suddenly stricken when at rest* On 
a stone of this class observed by me, 
found near Rethyiunos, 1 the lion turns 
his head back as if about to seize in his 
teeth the plumed end of a shaft, visible at 
the back of his neck. 

The actual attack on a lion, thus 
Ft<;. 5i.i8 ^Huntsman spearing Seated seated, by a huntsman who thrusts his 

spear into its back, is depicted on the 
haematite 'amygdaloid', Fig, 508- 

In relation to this, moreover, it is 
of interest to observe that the motive 
has evidently been carried over into the 
attitude of a lion on the fine onyx lentoid 
from the Vapheio Tomb (Fig. 509). a In 
this case a double gradation, that points, 
as already noted/ to an architectonic 
model p is seen below. Such subjects, in 
which the resulting pose is preserved, 
though its cause is no longer recorded, 
are not Infrequent In Minoan animal 
representations on seals. 

I'lG. 509, Ska i i d Lion : Qxvx H 
Vapheio Tomi:. 

Comparison with Assyrian Representations of Wounded Lions* 

In comparing,as it is impossible not to do, these Minoan glyptic episodes 
of wounded lions with their admirable and naturalistically studied counter¬ 
parts from the walls of the Palace of Nimriid—dating some dx centuries 
later—this Minoan episode of the vain endeavour to extract the lethal shaft 
is found to be at any rate of very rare occurrence/ Following a long 
Oriental tradition, these mighty victims of royal huntsmen are seen stricken 

1 A variant of this design occurred on a p- U4, Fig. /G. 
haematite lentoid from Crete, formerly in the s /*. of , 1 / 1 , i, p. 685 seqrj. 

MitfioUku Collect ion at Can din, Lind another * There is, as far a* [ am aware, only a 

(seen by mej on a cornelian lentoid from Sparta, single example cjf such action among the 
* 'Ap^.p PL X T j. Qk jP. uf M. t iiip numerous lion reliefs of Nine veil, 

IV** 00 




hi i n wilh 



in taler 



with arrows, nor, indeed, has the paralysing effect of the perforation of the 
dorsal vertebra ever been more powerfully brought before the eye than m the 
grimly pathetic portrayal of the dying lioness. But neither in that, nor in 
the fellow relief of the 
Hon pierced through 
his shoulder to the 
heart, and with his Site 
blood pouring from 
his open mouth, {Fig. 

510) is there any at¬ 
tempt of the great 

beast to pull out the 
shaft. This realistic 


company tnt 


its ac~ 

distortions, though it 
suited the sensational 

[■'10, 5 id. Wounded Lion Relief: Ximrup; Palace of 


of the 

spirit of the Minoan 
artist in reality detracts from the 

This must not be taken to call in question the 
conclusion that much of the naturalistic inspiration 
of the great palatial style of the Assyrian kings 
was due to Late Minoan influence. In Hellenic 
hands, at a later date, the same theme as that illus¬ 
trated by the lion relief from the Palace of Kuyunzik 
(Fig. 510) is still further simplified—in accordance 
with less sensational methods—-by the elimination of 
the lethal shaft itself. The influence of an Assyrian 
model of the kind on the intaglio (Fig. 511) 1 can 
hardly be doubted. The lion’s whole pose, leaning 
forward on hts fore-legs, with head lowered and o|»en 
jaws, is practically identical, though there is neither arrow in his shoulder 
nor blood pouring from ids mouth, and the idea of the extreme agony is 
still conveyed. The work itself—of a style succeeding that of the later 
Italian scarabs—in its strength and simplicity is still by a Greek hand, 
but the winged disk above brings the subject into an Oriental relation.* 


Disk, on Onyx Sardo¬ 
nyx Intaglio qi Clas¬ 
sical Greek Style. 

1 A.E. Collection, formerly Greville. ibe same [KtfEtion on scarabs of the Tbareos 

4 This symbol is of frequent occurrence in series. It is also found over the design of 


Crete, the Source of the Mainland Seal-types: Their Wholesale Introduction. 

The history of the wounded lion type repeats that of the lion seizing Wounded 
a bull. Both, though ultimately supplying a design for Greek artists, and t L vejw i«p- 
not without their reaction on the East Mediterranean shores, go back to 
Minoan masterpieces evolved step by step from humbler origins on the Cretan 
primitive soil of Creie. Both, moreover, found their source in more primi- 
live versions in which indigenous animals such as, in the hunting scenes, 
the native greyhound and, for quarries, the Cretan wild-goat, the fallow 
deer or the youngling of the herd of wild cattle played their part long 
before their place was taken by the exotic lion. 

It was only at this later stage, indeed, when the scheme had been fully 
evolved and adapted, that it makes its appearance in Mainland Greece. 

This latter phenomenon is itself only in keeping with the negative 

result deductible from the whole mass of seal-stones and signets brought to 

light in that area. Although such objects being of durable materials and of At«nce 

a class suitable for heirlooms might in certain cases considerably antedate ijsijc 

the more recent relics ill the deposits where they were found, the out. 

standing evidences of this are very rare. With hardly any exception the lives on 

t . . . f . , , » Mainland 

most ancient specimens of such intaglios of Mainland provenance are not 

earlier than the beginning of the First Late Minoan Period . 1 Like the 

gold ‘ flat-cylinder ' seal from the Third Mycenae Shaft Grave, Fig. GOT 

above, they illustrate in fact the fully developed Minoan glyptic style. No 

examples, indeed, exist from this area of that most perfect phase of the 

Art which ranges from forms of purely natural inspiration to the fancy 

free creations of the Zakro sealings. 

I n other words, as in all other branches of Art, the whole previous 
history of the seal-engravers" craft as known in Mycenaean Greece, must be 
sought in its original Island home. An antecedent stage for it on the Main¬ 
land side is entirely wanting, the whole craft itself being represented by 

a banded Agate ring-stone, formerly in the 
de Moniigny Collection ( CoJL dt AUnftgny, 
FL 1I T th-y which shows the same somewhat 
oblong outline. Furtwangler (A.G., PL XV, 
itnd Text* p. 72} has compared the work 
of this wiih (hat of the gems shown on his 
Plates XXI T XXII 'Italian ring-stones in the 
severe style fitting on to that of the Etruscan 
scarabs ^ In PI. LXYT h 2 and Vol. Si, p T 305 
he has ilium rated and described my sped mem 

That it was inadc for a Carthaginian is highly 
probable, and the question arises whether the 
survival of the type itself is not 10 he sought 
on that side. 

1 One or two survivals or offshoots ofa three- 
sided M. M. Ill type of bead-seats e-ust of 
later fabric, u.g. Furtw&ngfer. A, G. t PL Li c, 
19 (Fdoponnese) l Tsountas, 'Ap#, 
1889* Pi. X, 5, 6 (Vaphcio). 

0 0 2 



lie iub- 
jccls in- 
M inoan 
C rete. 

some quite unrelated specimens of Helladic seals 1 of the rudest fabric and 
so feu til number that they could be covered w ith the palm of a single hand. 
The culture reflected in the designs on the intaglios from the Peloponnese 
or from beyond the Gulf of Corinth is that of which we have the earliest 
evidence in Mitioan Crete—the episodes of the chase, the sports of the 
hull-ring, the traditional forms of shields, helmets, and weapons, the chariots 
and horses, the cattle pieces-—the same acquired fashion of Nile-bank 
scenes, waterfowl, and papyrus clumps. The details of religious cult are 
derived from the same source—the Goddess and her youthful consort, the 
sacred emblems, such as the Double Axes and Sacred Knots, the same 
long-robed priests, the Minoan Genii, the guardian lions, the pillar shrines 
and ‘ horns of Consecration' before the sacred tree and baetylic stone, 
the rani-bringing ritual and the sacrificial beasts. The costume with only 
slight modifications remains Minoan. and. where, as on the Thisbe jewels, 
the gestes of Mainland heroes may seem to receive illustration as in the 
case of Orestes or Oedipus, the attire is still Minoan, 

Behind all this there is nothing but a blank on the soil of Hellas itself. 
So far as this, in many ways the most prolific source for our knowledge of 
Mycenaean Greece, is concerned—over and above the abrupt introduction 
of new civilized usage;: involved in the use of signets—what we see is 
a wholesale invasion of the most varied forms of cultural and religious 
details indigenous to Minoan Crete. 

A certain parallel may perhaps be drawn from the introduction for the 
first time of the use of engraved gems and signets into Gaul that followed 
Caesar’s conquest. But in Mainland Greece the extent of the similar 
innovation that followed the Minoan settlements there was carried out to a 
much greater degree. The high level maintained by the gem engravers' 
work in that region as well as the identity of the themes that thev illustrated 
can only be explained by its widespread occupation by a branch of the 
Minoan race. The earlier engravers had been trained in Cretan Schools. 

Indications of a Mainland Minoan School of Signet Designs. 

It must at the same time be observed that from quite early in this 
period or Conquest we sec Minoan engravers of the overseas branch illus¬ 
trating themes that w ere in a special degree the property of what, at a slightly 
later date, we may fairly call * .Mycenaean ’ Greece. On the sardonyx lentoki 
from the Third Shaft Grave at Mycenae, there seems, as already noted, 1 
to be a direct reference to I’eriphetes falling over his shield, an episode of 
* E.g. C. W. Bit-gun, Zygufrin, PI. XXI, 4 ; r; it rly 11 cl Indie. 


‘Achaean’ Saga. 1 It may well be suspected that a man of Mycenae could Latcr^ 
have equally fitted heroic names to the warriors of the scene of combat on t i oni „(■ ^ 
the gold signet from the Fourth Grave {Fig. 511 *6). On an engraved gold ( J J““ 
bead of the ThisM Treasure we seem to have actually a pictorial record ol 
the crowning drama of Agamemnon’s house at Mycenae while two others, as 
has been shown, record the Cadmean myths in which Oedipus figures.- 

If we may believe that the lion still existed in Greece itself in Minoan 
days, as it is recorded to have done on the Macedonian side over a thousand 
years later, it is obvious that the artists of the Mainland branch were at a 
great advantage over their Cretan rivals in portraying the King ol Beasts 
Tn his various aspects, That a Mainland school grew up showing special 
proficiency in this subject is highly probable. A series of intaglios exist 
illustrating this theme and still belonging to a fine artistic period, all ol which, 
so far as any record has been preserved, are of Mainland provenance.- 1 he 
most distinctive type, however, that of the wounded lion endeavouring to 
extract the lethal shaft, still fits on to the earlier Cretan tradition, 

The existence of a provincial school does not indeed affect the funda¬ 
mental fact that the general unity of Minoan culture w r as still maintained 111 
its broad lines. lit the same way the script of t-lass R. with a few modi¬ 
fications due to dialectic differences, continued, as we shall see, in use in the 
great Minoan centres on both sides ot tlve Gulf to a considerably later date. 

1 of M. iii, Fig. 80 (faring |j, i-’t'U- 

' .Sec above, p, seqq. 

‘ „\t the head nf the series are two 1 flat 
cylinders 1 orgo1d t I : ig. 507 from She 1 bird Shaft 
Grave at Mycenae and Fig. 47fl r p. 53 r above* 
from This be, ibe form of which almost ex¬ 
clusively belongs to the L, M. I a phase of 

of Crete, Of lentoids, the fine example Fig. 

■11$ 1. p. 531 above (Suppl I 1 !. ?), Jrom 

Athene itself an important Mycenaean site, 
and two others from the Vnphdo Tomb 
(A a/Af., iii, p. r*4, Fig. and P 545. 

500 , above). 

fin, 511 bit. Cowuat ScKfiK os Gold Sign lb. Grave l \ P MvcENAK 
(f rom photograph of original kindly supplied me by Prof. G Kluo.) 





and kii.L* 
on faltnee 

Cow and 

i 106 c. Indigenous Sphragistic Tradition (continued 1 . 

Animal sucklingyoungs Wild-goat and kids ; Cow and calf— Egyptian 
version schematic; Religions association of Minoan type—also connected with 
Syrian Goddess: Influence of Minoan version on Arslan Task ivories: 
Assyrian parallels front Pliniri'td; JUinoan outpost fit Has l/ainra ; Cow 
and calf on Archaic Greek coin dies; Stag suckling fawn: Maned lion 
suckling cub ; Bull licking hind foot—revival on coin types ; Bull scratching 
head with hoof parallel motive on coins; Seal impressions from entrance 
to Royal Tomb , Jsopata—hull over architectural frieze with spirals ; Bate 
Minoan vogue of true ' Cattle pieces'; Recumbent o.v with outline of another — 
recurrence of stepped hose below ; Barge sealing with Cattle group from A'. 
Entrance Passage -frieze below of sacrificial purport , 

Motive of the Animal suckling its Young. 

It is clear that in Crete the tvpc of the animal stickling its young goes 
hack to the Middle Minoan Age. A proof of this is afforded by the beautiful 
faience reliefs of the wild-goat and cow found 
in the Temple Repositories at Knossos, 1 and 
there is every reason for supposing that, as 
in the case of Huthor's cow with its stellar 
spots, these had a direct relation to the cult 
of the Minoan Mother Goddess. 3 big, 512 
show's a goat suckling its young. The tail, 
however, is that of a cow. 

Of these faience groups, that of the 
agrimt and her two kids, one bleating for 
its turn—though the rocks below are conventional—presents one of the 
most natural scenes of animal life to be found in the whole range of 
Ancient Art. 

FlC. J 12. (tOAT SUCK I INC You so : 
if row Cast. 

The Cow and Calf. 

The parallel design, on other faience plaques from the same Reposi¬ 
tories, of the cow licking the hindquarters of her calf, 3 supplies an exquisitely 

1 J\ of ,V., i, [«. 5<o seqq., Fig*. 36 fi, 3 io, 

'16., pp. jit 14, 

3 IK P- 5 1 h ^g. 307 . rttid p. ;i a, Fig. 3 U 3 . 


realistic prototype for a long series of traditional designs. The motive ^ 

r^dappearson a flat cylinder* (Fig. ».4)-a W»« |f ■» S* 

noted, lias a comparatively carh ran c e ’ ^ 
die lentoid, Fig. SI3, the Cow is much better 
executed than the Calf. Perhaps irs best sphra- 
gjstic illustration—In a duplicated form-is on 
l chalcedony ring found in the ‘Cyclopean 
House* at Mycenae 1 (Fig. Stu). 

From early in the Late Minoan Age this 
motive is of frequent recurrence among the 
intaglio types, both in Crete* and on the Mmn- 
land side, and its popularity may be regarded as 
a symptom of the growing importance of the 
bucolic industry. It is found on die 
scalings of the latest Palatial deposits, 
am! an unfinished matrix with this de- 
sign. described below, 4 was found in the 
* Lapidary’s Workshop’ at Knossos. of 
Re-occupation date and continued to 
be reproduced to the most decadent days 
of L. M. III. That it has a certain re¬ 
ligious or talismanic significance may be 
gathered from the fact that on a late 
and hastily engraved specimen* a version 

Kig. 313, Cow UOUNC. Calf. 

Fig. 6U. 

B X N UK S 1 C ii AI CEDQN Y. C11E K- 

sonksos, Crete. 

i pound at CHersooesos, East of Candia: 0l ' i:e 
A, E. Coll., later Lewes House Loll. (11>- 

lleadey, Cal, 19 *«* 5 * P- 2 and 1>L 

stone is a banded chalcedony. 

5 Schliemann, My<enae, p. i t-N 1 J 5 > douS 
mention its provenance. Sec too, l-‘urtw. t A- O., 

p| m. i□; l\ and C-r vl, PI- XV+ 15 ^ 

itnioid ’ gem with this type, good as tar as 
the cow is concerned, was discovered by the 
British School escalations in 19=2 ( Uacc '' I,or 
another from Mycenae, see ’E£. 'A/i*,, iSSS, 

Fm. 515 . I)UPttc^ii ])ksig« pi-C ow T Overall Cretan examples have 

suckling Calf osf CkaU-eggmv Rt*G, 

Mvcenar. sen ed b >‘ me 

‘ See below, p. 595, Hg. 5 i) 0 . 

1 An agate lentoid in the Berlin Museum (l urtw, CaL, PL b No. = 4 )- * aid ^ ha%c 
been found in Continental Greece ( Ttxt, p. 4 )- 

been oh- 








tccHu ai 



of tile ' impaled triangle * symbol is seen in die field, and this recurs on, 
a parallel type of a lion and cub. 1 

From its long history the type itself has a special importance.* The 
traditional scheme of the cow suck ling its calf goes hack, on Egyptian 
monuments, to the Old Empire/ 1 It reappears among the Middle Empire 
sepulchral reliefs of herd Hasan, and from the XVlIlih Dynasty onwards 
supplies a hieroglyphic sign with the sense of 1 be joyful V The group 
is engraved with other kine, amidst a papyrus thicket, on a bronze howl 
belonging to the dose of the reign of Amenhotep I ] I or the first years 
of Amenhotep IV. 

From beginning to end, however, the Egyptian versions are little more 
than pictographs, schematically recording a certain phase in a cow's career. 
The sketch last referred to, though a little more lively, belongs to a time 
when—as is well illustrated by the gambolling calves of the Telbel-Amarna 
wall-paintings and the galloping ox of the earlier dagger-blade—Minoan Art 
had already begun to react on the land of the Pharaohs. 

Generally speaking, in Egypt, throughout, the Cow and Calf motive had 
been little more than genre though it is probable that the formal type had 
reached Crete, as it did the Syrian coastlands, from that source. That, from 
the Minoan point of view, however, it had also a religions reference might 
in itself be gathered from the occurrence of the faience reliefs in the Temple 
Repositories, and, as already shown, there are reasons lor supposing that in 
this respect the Palace cult had a direct relation to that of the Delta Goddess 
Wazet, a form of Hathor, whose symbol was the papyrus wand. 

.So, too, already on a Syrian cylinder of an earlier class,® we have this 
motive—which is not Chaldacan^“~taken over in conventional Egyptian 
shape as a religious adjunct. It appears as an inset, behind a figure of 

1 See below, p. 559 , Fig. 322 b. 

’ Illustrative materials regarding the Cow 
and Calf motive, to which 1 am indebted, 
IUo t; been collected by Longpericr, (Ettvra , i, 
166 j F. Foul sen, Her Orient tend die jnth- 
grifthisekt A'ftnsf. 2 1, icy 55 ; C. Watzinger 
Antike Plasrik, IK Amdung, sum 60 . Gtburts- 
fag t p. 164 and note 2; and Thureau-Dangui 
in Ars/un Task , pp, 124-6, 

1 It appears in the Vih Dynasty Tombs of 
Anti (Petrie, Dfshnskeh, PI, V. third register), 
and of Ptalihetep(Davis, Mattaba of Etahhettp 
untl Akhrthetep //, I’I. XV! I, second register). 
It is also found in the Middle Empire Tombs 

of Jleui Hasan (P.E. Newberry, BntiHasanI/, 
11 .\ 11, second register). In the latter example, 
to be more fully illustrated shortly by Mr. de 
Oaris Davis, the cow also suckle* a male 

H Ermim-Grnpow, WvrUrdtith d, Atg\pH- 
sAu-h SfiratAt, p.n.Alan H. Gardiner, Eg\ }ha» 
Grammar, p. 4 5 a E (1 nammal 5 ) 5. .M. Ale\an dre 
Muret (cited by Thureau-Dangut in Arslan 
7 dsA, p. 114 ) points nut that theXIIth Dynasty 
hieroglyph referred to in the Wvrierbuth does 
not really correspond, as the cow is seated. 

Uard, The Seat Cylinders of Il'atera Asia, 
NVu 4rs, pp. 157, 158. 


Isluar under her old warlike aspect, while beneath It a small attendant Also can- 
holds a pail and cup for her refreshment. In later Syro- Phoenician Art we 
can again detect evidences of a similar religious association. Its Irecpnent 
repetition on ring-stones and signets may itself be taken to imply a protec¬ 
tive virtue, indeed in the case of a parallel design on a senraboid depicting 
a doe suckling its fawn, the owner has added the words .•!start ozzt Astarte 
is my strength (or ‘salvation ')/ In another case, the Cow and Call is anti¬ 
thetically repeated—as on the Minoan ring (Fig* nlo)—-on each side of a 
figure of Thotta,* whose sanction had a special appropriateness in the sealing 
of letters. 

On the other hand, though the group as seen on Syro-Phoenician 
handiwork—often with a papyrus setting—was, in part at least, derived 
from Nilotic sources, it clearly points to Minoan influences. In addition to 
the parallel religious attributions, a correspondence with the Cretan bovine 
types as often seen on seal-stones has been noted in the repeated folds 
of the skin of the neck, absent on the Egyptian models. But the remarkable 
carvings, found in a building outside the Assyrian Palace, at Arslan lash, 
near the upper Euphrates, have supplied higher and more artistic standards 
of comparison. 

Who, looking at the Arskn-Tasb specimen, here reproduced in Fig.51 «V -™“" 
and the head of a similar ivory cow from Nimrfld set by it in f ig. 51a. 
can doubt its ultimate attachment to the same natural school that produced by 
the beautiful faience reliefs of the '1 emple Repositories at Knossos ? In 
particular may be noted the similarity presented by the loose-limbed young 
animal, so realistically rendered in the faience relief—here reproduced in 
Fig. —to that of the Arslan Tash ivory (Fig. 516) and to another from 

Nimrikl shown in Fig. filfl. 

One of the Arslan Tash ivories bears an Aramaean inscription, from 
which we know that it was presented by Hazael, King of Damascus/ the con¬ 
temporary of Salmanasar III, in the latter half of the Ninth Century u.c. 

But the Arslan Tash ivories themselves, with fine reliefs ol the cow and from 
calf and equally beautiful designs of the feeding deer, must be regarded as * 

' De Ridder, Cat. dt Cltrtq, No. 2310 (PL les pte tie lencdure.’ Equally suggestive of 
XVII), and cf. Clermont-Gnnnciiu, &'n//.v it Jlinonn models are the exquisite reliefs of die 
Cathtts, t 6 , pp. 22, 23. fallow deers {<>/>. tit, 1 * 3 . XXXVI, Figs. 6i, 

3 Cut. dt t^ny, viij Nu r p. 267 , 

3 At. Thurcau-Dangln, in liLs. excellent * Sfie P* of p. 510 seqq* 
remarks on ihc Sym-Phoenician versions of 3 A,p- 5 I2 » ■ 

this motive, observes {Artfait T&$k f pp. 125, 1 rbureaii-Diingi^ Arslan Task* p 135 

nG) 'On retttftiqucrn sur tous ces cxempies seqep 


the lineal successors of the fragmentary remains of similar subjects so 
abundantly forthcoming from Ntmrtkb 1 in large part at least, derived from 

Fig, 510. Ivory Openwork I i.aiji i: siiowinc Cgu 
suckunc Calf; Arslan Tasii. 

I- ii.. 17 r 1 Jf'al' of Simh yr 
] vokv Cow ; Ni m k u ll 

Fig. €18. Suckling Km. Fragment oe 
Faience Relief, Knossos. 

Fro- Srcki i no Calf : Frag¬ 
ment or Ivory Relief, NimrOd. 

the North-West Palace. These art. 
Age of Ashur-nasir-pal of the first 
therefore, nearly a century earlier, 

'1 he fragments here illustrated 

1 Thank* to thu kindlier* of Mr Bariutt of 
the Assyrian Department oft hi- ttritidi Museum, 
who is making a special study of tlio Nbnnld 
fragments 1 was able to look over \ he very 
extensive series of the ivory fragments in 
the reserve store of She Museum. A 1ar->e 
numtkrr of these belong to the Cow Calf 

generally attributed to the brilliant 
halt of the Ninth Century H.c., and 

for comparison (Figs. 5[S. r.lfi) S ufti- 

MW>up. framed in el manner simitar to others or 
A retail lash, They me clearly from more 
than one deposit, containing remains of various 
subjects, hut there is no evidence os to the 
circumsiancek of their discovery'* Fragments 
of the ivory ?>iag* ;irc also represented* 


ciently show how closely the Nimrftd ivories representing the Cow and Calf 
group Jit on to those of Arslan Tash. 

In both cases the true home of the naturalistic school to which this Mrown 
group of ivory carvings belong should surely be sought on the North r li * 
Syrian Coast, where the contact with Minoan Art Is early traceable, l here, shlimr ' 1 ’ 
moreover, as is now known from the discoveries ot Ras Shamra and the 
royal tombs of the neighbouring; port of Minet-e1-Beida t actual scions ot tlie 
House of Minos 1 seem to have prolonged a Colonial dominion to a date 
well beyond that of the fall of the Knossirt Palace, The later examples 
of ivorv carvings from this site—notably that of the seated Goddess -find 
their counterpart in Mycenaean Greece, while, on the other hand, there is 
observable an approximation in style to those of Enkomh 

It is, doubtless, only owing to an accident of discovery that neither 
the Cypriote nor the Syrian ivories of this class happen to contain an 
example illustrating the Cow and Calf group, though the bulls oi the Enkomi 

mirror-handles help to fill the gap. 

The interval oT time that elapsed between the 1 hsrteentb and Ninth 
Centuries rc. is still very incompletely bridged, hut the reaction of more 
than one of the schools represented by the Nimrfld relics* as, now, by 
those of Arslan Tash—cm early Ionian Art is well established. The 
Cow and Caff motive itself appears on a series oi Syfo-Phoenidaii seal- 
stones. as we have seen, with a religious association, and recurs on scarabs 
with Cypriote Greek inscriptions . 3 

It was, perhaps, owing to the idea of divine protection and sustenance Cwd 
conveyed bv the design that the Cow and C nlf motive taken over, perhaps, aT ^j ia ic 
from Ionian signets—spread early in the Sixth Century to the archaic coin’ 
dies of Coreyra and other Greek cities." In view, however, oi the appear¬ 
ance in other cases of what seem to be direct copies of Minoan gem-types, 

J Set below, § 113 . of Corcyra to the first period of its indepert- 

5 1 or one of these, to be from KurioU, deuce following the death of Perbnder of 

Corinth in ^5 type appears only 

slightly later in the Cgrcyraean Colonies of 
Dytrbachion and ApaUonia. An archaic 
version of the Cow and Calf, more or lc^ con* 
temporary with that of Coreyrt is found on 
a class of Macedonian coins akin to those of 
Lete (cf. I mhoof Blunter, Afatitma Grt£$tt€S f 
p, 103, and PL n p 2). Others with the 
inscription E^V are attributed by Imhonf- 
fUumur to Asb Minor i/K p. 104 k 

$ m .L-. r Ccsnbla, Cyprus, PL XXIII; A t( i\ t 
iii T p r 643, Fig* 43$ : Cg]Ilu t Sammfung gritth* 
Diakktmffkriftm C'p. jfi, No, Decoke). 
Xow in Berlin C.TcalL {Fnrtw., Q*/. r P- 1 
No. 109, and PI. Ill)* The inscription is 
1 K u-pa - j a - k« i • tel - r 1 1 — ¥L nr^Mi yuf iao, A not h cr 
scarab (Myites, Cmwfo €&fl n No, 4193)* 
where Master's reading {p. 543) h * Zo-vOtL- 
m i-^e 1 = ‘ Z00X li cm isM y res read s 11 /j m?o- 
les-a p 1 Zoteles s . 

■ Head, //. _Y rt p. 325 , assiyns the early stalers 


it may welt be asked whether over and above the traditional usage of the 
type, for which a catena may be established this renaissance factor may 

Vu.. 520. Gkhje Coins with Cow akd Calk Ttrre, Vth-IVth Clnturv, li.c.: «, b . Mack, 
donja (?); f , Lorl vu.v: it , Dvrshacml'm ; e t with Inscription E . N . 

not also have played a pan at least in the more elaborate versions of the 
motive found on Fifth- and Fourth-century coin-ty pcs (see Fig. 520). Such 
an influence is m tact suggested by the remarkable fact that on the Fifth- 
century coinage of Corcyra's mother-city, Eretria, a parallel Minoan seal- 
type, presenting a cow scratching her head, seems certainly to be reproduced. 
'Hiss motive, as shown below, belongs to a characteristic ggtuc device 
applied to a whole group of Minoan animals. 1 




Horned Fallow Deer suckling Fawn. 

An amethyst lentoid from the Third Shaft Grave at Mycenae* shows 
the motive applied to a fallow deer, the dapples or which are clearly indi- 

* ft* below, p. SSoscqq. a „d 7 «/,p. 59l Fig, , j.dbo remarks«Mtoige 

bchlicmann, Mytnttc, p. joj, kjg, 315, Arbeit nudi guten Vorbildcm * 

Karo, Schm-fttgrakr, c-v.. PL XXIV, No, 15, 



catetl (Fig. 521). 

Homs are here added to the doe's head in the same way 
as Classical artists gave them to such sabulous 
animals or the kind as that which suckled Tclephos 
when exposed by his mother on the steeps ol 
Mount Parthemon, 1 

Pm. ;i >l. Horned Fallow 
Deer suckling Young. 
Amethyst : Mvcsnae. 

Maned Lion suckling Cub. 

It is curious that this motive of the maned planed 
animal giving suck should have been also applied suckling 
to lions (Fig. 522 a t i), and it is interesting to cubi 
observe that, here too. the parental function is 
attributed to the male as the best representative 

of the lion species. In 
both cases the animal is 
provided with a mane. 

In the group of the 
cow and deer the mother 
licks her suckling, or at 
least bends her head 
towards it, and this is 
also repeated in the lion 
scheme, as on Fig. 522, 

Fig. 322 «, i. Maned Lions suckling Young. 4 0 _ ,, 

rtd But at times the 

artist seems to have felt a difficulty in attributing too maternal an attitude 
to the great beast. Here, in one instance, the lions facing head and neck 
are stretched downwards, as in the scenes where he leaps on the back ol his 

prey (Fig, 522, i). 

On this stone the * impaled triangle symbol reappears that lias been 
already noted in connexion with die Cow 1 and Call group. In ft we see an 
Agrivi) head and Minoan shield. 

1 Thu doc of Ttlephos is not only depicted {*E^. iSSS, I’l- X, 32, and p- 178). I he 
with horns in Classical An, but is so described animal is described simply as by f sottmas, 

by Sophocles f Akad. Fr. 86J, His natural he, At., but Is certainly a lion. I he bead-sea) 

history is gravely corrected by Pollux, v. jfc was found in Grave 43 . In another case a cub 

* Compare with this a lentoid paste, Mycenae leaps on a lion s back {it’., I I, X, vj). 



Cow (or bull) licking Hind-foot. 

null lick¬ 
ing hind- 

Among the set pieces of this branch of g&tre designs a very pleasing 
example is supplied by that depicting a bull licking his hind-foot. This 

Fig. 523* Cohnelian Lentoiil 

l ie. u2 i. Dakk Cornelian. 

I tG, n'i'i. Spartan Basalt* 
Central Crete. 

on Coin- 
lypt5 + 

motive goes back at least to the early part of the First Late Mitioan Period, 
appearing first in connexion with the true amygdaloid form of bead-seai 
(Fig. 5*J8)» It also occurs on a Vapheio lentold- 
and on two other gems, one ot dark brown cornelian 
(Fig. 524),* and the other of Spartan basalt from 
Central Crete (Fig. 526).* In these cases the bun's 
mouth ts generally open, with protruding tongue. 

When, about the end of the Eighth Century, 
u.c., a revival of the gem-engravers Art set in of 
which Melos was a centre. 4 this scheme seems to 
have had at least a suggestive influence on certain 
amygdaloid bead-seals, for which it was well adapted 

As a coin-type we see this action of the bull 
licking its hinder hoof revived in a literal shape on silver staters of Gor- 
tyna (Fig. 52b)/' while other issues of this Cretan city show intermediate 
versions in which the animal’s head is turned towards the raised hind-leg. 

Fir*. 526. Cow licking 

HtN PER H OQ ¥ CUV ( 'ot N 
or EktTUi 

1 A rod cQHidkn amygdaloid seep by me, 
from Centra] Crete. 

= Of coradian wi th gold mou mi ng r Tsou mru, 
T*. A PX , f PL X, 

* In the British Museum (Cat, i h L ii p 70), 

' Found in *933: A.E. Coll. 

1 his- 1 M el ian * class is a.Lso ofnfjt infrequent 
occurrence in Corinlhia, and is also found 
throughout Crete, though the stones are 

generally smaller. Jhe iimEcrial chosen was 
usLciilly the decorative but easily worked traps- 
lucent soapstone* of a pak green or yellow 

SfWonos, Numismatist tfr /a Crib 
andtnw, FI, XIV, r= and PI, XV (dl A. M 
Cat., Crete, PI IX, to). There arc other iyp« 
in which the head is si reply bent towards it* 



Bull or Cow scratching its Head with its Hoof, 

A somewhat parallel design is that in which the bovine animal raises BuU^ 
its hitul-W in such a wav as to scratch his head with his hoof. An example illg , he;id 

of this,—-with the addition of a cult below on 00 ■ 
a reddish agate lentoid with rosy veins is 
■nven in Fi^. G27 , 1 It will be seen that the atti¬ 
tude hears a certain analogy to that of the hound 
scratching itself, which in turn fits on to the type 
of tlie wounded call trying to tear out the arrow 
with his hind-leg. It corresponds in fact with a 
recurring device of Mioosn artists, and it is 
therefore a highly suggestive circumstance that, 
like the Cow and Calf motive, it recurs on a 
series of early Creek coin-types. 

Good examples are to be seen on some J*™Jj 
late Sixth-century silver pieces of liretria (big. on Coin- 
and of its colony Dikaia on the Thermaic 1 >'P°. 

FIG 52 7 . Cow senATCK [ SG 
Balk of HtAh : Cali um.ow. 

Xosil ON Lath VItii Cent. 
Coin qv Ekktkia, 

Gulf . 3 

Unlike the case of the Cow and Calfp 
where there had been a more or less continuous 
tradition under a religious sanction, we have in 
both these geme motives illustrated by the coin 
typesetter an interval of nearly a millennium 

_an actual reproduction of a Minoan design 

long fallen out of use. This revival seems best 
to be explained by the direct copying of Minoan 

Bull with its Head turned against its Side on Seal Impressions 
from Entrance of ’Royal Tomb at Isopata. 

Such an actual revival seems to be in the same way indicated by some 
closely related types, ol which the coinage of Gortyna supplies good 
illustrations, where the animal turns its head abruptly against its Hank or 

1 Kiora thede Clcrcq Collection, ii, PL b 1‘>P* 3 ,ln ^ 4* 

97 , and p. 37 . It is interesting as having 1 Imhoof-Tilumer, GmckttkeMil* Sffl, Pi I, 
lieen inund h the neighbourhood of Antioch. 9 aiui p. from the Green well Collection. 

* I rom die ti. M.Coltection : Cat., PI. XXI f I, Now in the British Museum 



still further towards its thigh as if irritated by the bite of a fly. Fig. 52fl. <r. 
These schemes in fact lead up to the beautiful perspective type, i, that 


Fig* S 29 d H c. 

Silver Staters of Gortvka t Vth Centl/ry, g.c. 

1' i° JS30 ' Clav Sbaum Of WHICH A Series were found at Entrance of Rovai Tome 


marks a speciality of the numismatic Art of Hellenic Crete and for which, 
again, we are led to seek the suggestion in Minoati seal-stones. 1 

Fite type with the head turned back against the side will be seen to 
recur at Knossos. A motive in some respects allied to that above described 
is repeated on a series of clay seal impressions which have a special interest as 
having been found near die entrance of the ' Royal Tomb ' at Isopat a North 
of Knossos (Figp 530 a t 6)* 

1 A good instance of a perspective render¬ 
ing a n it Mi noon seal-stone is afforded by ibe 
design gf the iAttres fish on ]%. 130 , p, 4^4 

2 A.E,, Prthhforh Tvmfa 0/ Kvasses, ii t 
P 1 1 54 1- 1 *6* ■•md No. 35. About ii 
examples of these sealings were found, some 


As will be seen from the section, the clay nodule shows a projection 
behind, as if it hat! been pressed into some crevice, but in no cases was 
there any trace of a string running through the material, such as is frequently 
found in a carbonized state. That in some way these sealings helped to 
officially close the doorway of the sepulchral chamber is a reasonable con¬ 
clusion, and the date—the mature L. M. 1 1 phase—is fixed by the fine 
* Palace Style’ pottery' found within the Tomb, it closely corresponds, in 
fact, with the date of the destruction of the Great Palace itself. 

It must be inferred that we have here a design of an architectonic 
character. The running spiral already, as we have seen, appears on facades 
as a decorative relief well before the close of the Middle Minoan Age. As 
a painted design of friezes it enters largely into the scheme of re-decoration 
carried out about the close of the L, M. I a through out the Domestic Quarter 
of the Palace. A spiral frieze similar to that of Fig, 530 Is seen beneath 
a group of three warriors bearing 8 -shapcd shields on a seal impression found 
beneath the landing of the Stepped Portico of the West Quarter of the 
Palace . 1 

Late Minoan Vogue of True * Cattle Pieces 

It is significant of a definite cultural advance in Crete and the Minoan 
World generally that from the later phase of the First Late Minoan Period 

(L. M. I i) at least, onwards, cattle are no longer 
simply depicted in connexion with Jaunting 
scenes and drives nr with the sensational 
episodes of the bull-ring , 1 Already by the later 
phase of M. M. HI we begin to have defi¬ 
nite evidences of the value attached to stock 
rearing and cattle breeding, in the Temple 
Repositories we find a seal impression that 
apparently portrays the actual parturition of 
a kid (Fig. 5H1)—a complement to the act of procreation shown in Suppl. 
PI. LIV, i. Other sealings, referred to below, with the back view of a 
recumbent ox, seem to be excerpted from a group by some well-known 
master that had appeared, ive may believe, on the Palace walls by the dose 
of the Middle Period, 

Throughout the early part of the Late Minoan Age this bucolic 
tendency becomes more and more marked. U will be seen, for Instance, 
from die ‘Vapheio* deposit that 'Cattle pieces in the modern agricultural 

1 P- of J/. f iii, p. 313, and Fig. 204 . 1 See P- of M-, hi, p. 3 iS stijq, 

IV ** f p 

I'tc. 531, Parturition or 
Kin Sealing : Temple Reposi¬ 

Vuguc of 

1 Call! e 
pieces. h „ 



sense were already coming into vogue. On a late seal impression Ironi 
Knossos , 1 we have before us what might well be taker as a scene trom 

F 4 G. ( Thk PpiJE Ox': Restqreii 

IHsion on Imfue-ssion, i'w-hiha' oHjOLI> 
Sir .ski i Akl Hivus Iiki O'It), Knossos, 

lii,. 533. i ouster Marked 
Si Aki iuve> DEPOSIT): 
Hoy leading Beast. 

Fig. 534. Boy milking Cow: from 
Seal i A m i i i v el [it: posit), 


Fig. S:iS. Rv.ii Jasper Lektoih. 

a cattle show, in which the owner complacently gazes on his prize ox, 
T'ig, On another scaling trom the same hoard (Fig. 533), counter’ 

marked by a sign of the Linear Class B, a boy is leading a walking beast, 
and on the complement to this (Fig. 534) another is seen milking a cow. 
On a red jasper lentoid (Fig. 535)- a mate figure, exceptionally clad, guides 
three oxen, and on the fine Cretan specimen of mottled agate (Fig. 53B) a man 
of muscular build standing behind the animal—like the Mtnoan Genius of 
Fig. 308. h (p, 44 1) above holds in a similar way a rope attached to its horns, 3 

1 * Archives Deposit 1 : see below, pp Go: 4. 1 B.M. Coll (Or/ 1 , no. 79). Furtta., .4, G„ if, 

; Robinson Collection : am] now A.E. PJ. VI, ro; iii, p. 45 fJI.S., rS 9 ; r PL Hi 



The cattle piece (Fig, 537J consists of two lowing oxen. Purelj bucolic 
subjects were now the order of the day quite as much as those due to a 
still surviving Liste for the hu lining. 1 

Groups of recumbent entile without either sensational or religious 

Fie. Mottled Agate Lkntoid ■ 


Fig* 337 , Sardonyx Lkstoiiv: 

associations seem actual!v to have formed part of the decoration on the 
palace walls. A design on the gold plate of a ring bezel from Mycenae, 
here reproduced in Fig. 538, shows the lower part of a group of two 
concha nt oxen, in reversed positions between two vegetable si loots,' oil an 
architectonic base, the separate blocks of which are clearly delineated. 

Group of Two Recumbent Oxen, the Hinder partly outlined ? Recurrence 

of Stepped Base. 

Among compositions of this class, one which, from its constant rejielb 
lion, may be thought to depend on some work of the greater Art, is a group 
consisting of a recumbent ox with another behind It, of which only die 
back of llie head and part of die dorsal outline is visible ( Fig. 1 fere 

the natural instinct of the engraver would surely have been to give fuller 
value to the hinder beast by depicting the front profile of his head * as indeed 

Fig. I, (>. 67. The type and style retail* the 
M. Lrcdo riiiaii rains of the Kdoni and Orrescii 
fV, 500 ilc,) where u man—often armed with 
!wo spears—stands between two oxen of 
similar broad proportions With folds to iheir 
necks r 

1 iiee, 100, f \ <*/ .t/ v i ( p. 687, Fig* S 05 . 

? Thai on 1 he left appears io be o much 

conventionalued lily* 

* This specimen was bought l^y me in 
Athens* but was said to he of Cretan proven¬ 
ance. On this type cf. 1 *. vf J/. r i h p. 6y^ 
and %, ul 7* 

1 This version* in fact, occurs on si sealing 
from TL Triada; 1 >. Levi + ofi p. 

Fig. 8o 

r p 2 


btm Ok 

wftti *iii- 






is done in variant versions of this motive. But the more usual type is that 

Fig. 53R. Fart of Cattle Group ox 
Arc h t t ec ton i r B as e : G u u j-m , ate t> R i n< ■ P 
Mvcexae. (f). 

Fk- 539 * Two Oxen on * Gradu¬ 
ated Rase BaKpeO Auatk ; said 
to he from Crete. 





nf niufLU- 



illustrated In Fig. 539, and it is further to be noted that in these and other 
cases the group rests on the * stepped gradation \ itself suggested by an 
architectonic base, 1 such as that more fully 
shown in Fig. 638, In some cases the stepped 
base beneath this group is exceptionally 
clear. 1 In Fig. 540—a haematite lentoid from 
the Candia district—one of the recumbent 
oxen lias been stricken by a huntsman's 

It mav be regarded as a conclusive tact 
that though the insertion of this 1 double 
gradation " beneath the design on lentoid 
bead-seats is quite exceptional, it appears on 
seven out of eight specimens of this type that 
have come under my personal observation, the remaining example—a 
haematite intaglio from the Knossos district—preserving it in the secondary 
shape of a single groove. There is then a high probability that the motive 
owed its wide diffusion to the existence of a well-known work of the kind 
belonging to a more monumental class, 

A version of it is already found on a clay sealing from Hagia Triada, pre- 

Fmj. 54®. One Ox stuck by 
Shai tj Caniua District. { i). 

1 P. of M., i, p. 6H6 seqq, Mycenae). C£,too, asomewhathastily executed 

* Eyg. Vnpheio Tomb, ’Ap^,, iSSg, example of this lE^sTgai on a three-sided agate 
PL X, 9, to (replicas of same design). P. and bead-seal of traditional M- M. Ill shape, from 
C, p, S45, Fig. 4iS. ifj (agate lentoid, the Murea {Berlin Cat., No, 49 ti). 



sumably of L. M, I <r date, 1 but the approximate epoch of its greatest vogue 
on stabs to lies of this class, as may be gathered from its duplication among 
the series from the Vapheio interment, belongs to L. M. I b* I t is almost 
exclusively confined to lentoids. 

The artistic habit of showing oxen with the back of the head turned 
towards the spectator itself goes back to the closing 
Middle Minoan phase as may be gathered from a 
clay seal from live Temple Repositories here re¬ 
produced in I 7 ig.341 or In that case it is applied, 
curiously enough, to a single couchant beast, Hie 
stricken bull of the fine intaglio design, Pig, 373 b 
above 9 on an amygdaloid gem of M. M. Ill - 

L. M, 1 fabric, shows the head turned away in the Fig. 541 1 ». Skalixg 

same manner, and a like feature recurs on day seal FRO>t 1 Keposi- 

impressions, some of them of the same transitional 
date, from Hagia Triada,* In some cases the head 
of the hinder ox is shown in profile, 4 A fine 
sardonyx of this type from Central Crete, Fig. 341 b, 
shows two calves. 

The original element I 11 this large family of 
designs surely goes back to some particular sculp¬ 
tural work—prominent perhaps in some Palace 
Court or facade—that had struck the public fancy. 

Cattle pieces were clearly in vogue among Minoan 
sculptors long before the days of Myron s ‘ Cow \ 

Fig. 5liA (Textual 
Chktjl (j). 

Large Sealing with Cattle Group from Northern Entrance Passage 


A cattle group associated with an elaborate architectural base of 
religious association occurs in the case of an exceptionally large seal 
impression, broken away above, found with an extensive dejjosit of clay 
tablets of Class B* by the West border, the upper section of the Northern 

1 f K Levj, Crvfitfe di Hagia TrmdtX, Orv. p 
V- P\ 79. I’he impression k too imperfect 
to show the form of the scabstonc. 

: /' 0/M+1 I* p- 696, Fig, 618 , c 
7 See above, p. 450* 

1 IX Tcvi, a/, rif tf p. 34, Fig. 74 ; P- 3 S « 
Fig- S2; p- 4 % Fig. 97. 

1 IK p- 3 6 i Fig. So. 

: The sealing was found in the upper level 
1 if the area that con mined the spirnl ceiling. 
The small deposit of tablets found in assccia- 
lion with it belonged to a larger series scattered 
over ;l considerable space, and containing 
numerous * Chariot Tablets p * (See below T 

5 114 ) 







Fn ext 
bdow of 



Entrance passage at Knossos* Two walking oxen are here seen above 
a cornice, the centre of which is supported by the capital of a pilaster while 
on either side of this are two bull's heads (Fjg + 542 a) r l 

I his frieze recalls that on an agate lentoid, here repeated (Fig. 542 i), 
representing the sacrifice of an ox above the slab of an altar, the face of 
which shows small pilasters, alternating with Sutram'fi rather than simple 
ox-heads. ~ Above is a bending palm-tree of a fully conventionalized style, 
and indicative of a late date, 

1 They somewhat tcscmblL' the heads of b my Scrifto Afina*, i p p. 196, Fig. 99, in 
homed sheep, hut facing hull's heads of ibis connexion wiib the 1 bccmniuim ' hieroglyph, 
type are also known. The germ is in the Berlin Mutuum (Funuv, 

* See above, p + 41. Fig, 24 . The true Caf. t PL T, sj; cf. A. G. t PL II, 25), 
character of the frieze below w;ts first recognized 

l ie. lp J2 A Sacrifice of 
Ox with lice ram A ON 

Fig, 542 a. Seal Imthesslqv: 
N- Entrance Passage. 


Influence of Oriental Cylinder Schemes and Evolution of the 
1 Lentoio " Class of Designs, 

Cretan horned sheep—its sacra! aspects; Lassoing scene; Domestic 
slid tie; Boar laid out for sacrifice ; Hunting of wild boars—use of net; 
Huntsman spea ting boar ; Warriors attacking lion—military aspect of sport; 
Spearman and archer on Kydonia seat—lion hunt on dagger-blade compared; 
Huntsman stabbing Agriml ; A Liman Goddess, as Dikiynna, pursuing stag 
with haw; The fallow deer represented in Mi noon Art; Stag-hunting in 
chariot on Mycenae signet—royal sport: Ladies in Tityns Fresco ; Hunting- 
dogs on Fresco and seals—-greyhound type; Prominence of lion motives on 
L M. seals; Lion holding up hull, as Mhioan Genius ; Reflections of Oriental 
cylinder types, Gitgamesh and Falmni; Frequency of Lions Gate scheme ft cm 
L, M, l b onwards ; Single-headed and two-bodted Lions Gale type bizarre 
variation ; Crossing animals ; Lions seizing stag and fighting for quarry; 
Adaptation of designs to circular field of leu lends ; Coiled and contorted 
animal figures ; 1 Aerobatic ' Minotaur type ; bvoliihon of‘ tenfold style. 

Horned Sheep. 

Amongst animal types on signets already illustrated in tins work the gg” 

large hornet! sheep, probably the Anatolian sin-cp. 
or Cyprian variety, has a prominent place. 

That this existed In the Island in at any 
rate a half wild state is shown by the red 
cornelian amygdaloid gem, Mg. 543, ob¬ 
tained by me at Kastri near I urloti in 
Hast Crete in iSpG, in which a huntsman, 
whose loin-clothing is exceptional, con¬ 
sisting of a simple kilt, is seen lassoing 
a huge animal of this kind, while in the 
act of suckling its young. 1 As noted 
in Volume I of this work, where various intaglios are referred to ex¬ 
hibiting the animal, a seal-type from the day impressions found in the 
Temple Repositories, 4 here reproduced in Fig* o44 r a, shows this animal 

Fig, . 143 . Hunter L.vssoiNc 
Horned Ewe while suckling 
her Lav is. L'okn ticiAx i KastrI. 

' Sue P. of ill,, t, [ip. 684-5 (from winch 
Figs- 543, 5-1 <>, 517 sire here reproduced). 

1 /t., p Fig. SI8. t>. 


beside, apparently, a trough, and a swastika sign in the field above, to be 
in this case legitimately regarded as a religious symbol. This sacral indica¬ 
tion may be now supplemented by a sealing from the 'Archives Deposit' 

a b t 

a. Sealing, Tewli: Kepositoklus, K,vo~kqs; b, Jasper LEHTOtD, Siteia: e. do. ‘S.tV. 


Its sacral 

of the close of the Palace Period, Fig. 044, r, where a homed sheep is 
grouped with a Cretan wild-goat between the shield and ' impaled-triangle ' 
symbol. In this connexion it is interesting to observe that on the iasper 
lentoid from Siteia In Eastern Crete,- Fig. 544, A, there is introduced 
between two horned sheep in reversed positions a character representing 
(with a spur attached) the common M sign of the Linear Class B, which is 
itself derived, through preceding intermediary forms, from the hieroglyph 
representing a sacred Double Axe.* Its religious significance is further 
confirmed by the recurrence of the hi sign as a mark of dedication. A direct 
votive connexion of the homed sheep with the Minoan Goddess, parallel to 
that of the Cretan wild-goat, is well illustrated by the fine cornelian lentoid 
from the Vapheio Fomb (Fig. nfa) 1 where the Goddess appears actually 
holding it up. Similar evidences of the special dedication of the agriml or 
Cretan wild-goat arc of constant recurrence. On two intaglios, indeed, from 
the same Vapheio deposit, the Goddess or a female ministry tit bolds up a n 

1 See bdov. r p. 604. 

1 In the Candk Museum, &e. Xaruhudtdes, 
KprfTtKtu Ac. : 'Ktf* 11407, 

PL VII, 103 , and p. i jG, 

1 hor the intermediate links sec P. a/ J/. p 
i, p 643 . Fig* * 177 , No 12 . 

1 Tsountea, 'K^ p A Wt P]. x, 34; 

1 . el C vt, p. £43, Pig. 426,14 ; P’ertwangle^ 
Hi p, and \ gL ii p [h 25^ vvbere 
he rightly observes ‘Die Frnii iss offenbar 
eine Gottid und der WSdder ihr hriligc* Tier 
« = Aphrodite?)", 


offertory ram, and the motive reappears on cylinders of the late 1 Cypro- 
Minoan* class . 1 Twice, too, the ram appears tied to the baetyltc column, 1 - 
Pfobabiy die best illustration of the horned sheep itself is supplied by 

I - to . 3 4 3 Gor>r jf. o r Vo 1 a r y 
HoLnmc; Ofihtrtprv Ram 
Corn eli in: Yapheio, 

Fio r a 16* Hqrhed Sheep on 
* Flat Cylinder f or Run 
Cornelian : Lyktos, 

Fig. 347* Chalcedony 
Lentous Lasithl 

a h flat cylinder (Fig- 5-1 (i) found on or near the site ol Lyktos.® In 
particular rhe shaggy breast of this species is here well given. This 
intaglio, moreover, is of particular interest ns supplying a good example 
of reserved background, such as marks the best period of (he Minoan gem* 
engravers’ Art, Another good example of the animal is to be seen on the 
‘flat-sided’ lentoid from Lasithl * (Fig. 5-17), with M.M. 111 facade decoration. 

Of special interest in its bearing on the later traditions of the Cretan 
Zeus and epnnymic heroes, like Ivy don, suckled by animals, is the early 
type represented on a sealing from the Hieroglyphic deposit, already re¬ 
ferred to in the first Volume of this work, in which a naked child is seated 
beneath a homed sheep, perhaps also lie-lore a manger (Fig. -">±4, a ). 4 

Wild Boars and Domestic Swine. 

In the absence of special indications it is often a moot point where Dome$[ie 
animals like sheep or goats are depicted whether they are to be regarded " intl 
as wild or domesticated. This difficulty occurs with regard to some repre¬ 
sentations of boars or pigs, such as are already a favourite motive of 
Minoan seals on the prism seals of the liarly Minoan Age. \\ hen, as on 

1 K,g. Cesnok, Stt/ttminin, Pi. XII, i ; tyna (A. E. Coll.) of practically identical fabric 
Ohnefalsch- Richter, Kjprot t & c.. PI, LXXIX, 6 . ’ See A of , 1/i, i, p. 6 S 4 , Fig. rr. 

5 On an onyx lentokl from itifc 1 Chidllin’s ‘ p. ftSj, Fig. i. 

Crave , Knossos. and another from near Gor- 1 If, p. 175 , Fig. 202, e. 



of boar. 

a somewhat later prism of the hieroglyphic dass T we see the animal coupled 
with a gate or door its domestic character seems to be well assured. 1 * 3 On a 
sealing from 11 agia Triada (Fig, 548) ( s beneath figures of two large swine. 

maybe discerned 
a whole litter of 
little pigs. A 
co uclmui boar 
with the upper 
outline of an¬ 
other is of coni- 

Fig. CIS. Two Swiss with 
Litter iujiqw. SEM 4 M 0 : 
H. Triad*. 

Fio. 549 , Group of three 
Swine ; Lentous Corde¬ 

mon occurrence, 
and on a haema¬ 
tite lentoid from 
near the Argive 
Heraeon :i this 
device is coupled 
on the other side 

with the seated oxen motive shown in Fig. 539 above, suggesting that the 
swine, too, art of the domestic kind. On a line cornelian lentoid. 'from 
an island of the Archipelago \* appear two seated boars, with the head of 
a third looking in the opposite direction (Fig. .549). That pigs formed an 
important item in Minoan stock is shown by the Palace inventories. 

That this animal also served a sacrificial purpose is clear from the agate 
lentoid from a chamber tomb at Mycenae (Fig. 550). 4 Here a long-robed 
personage belonging, it would appear, to the priestly caste described in 
Section tot above, stands, knife in hand, about to make an incision in the 
the lower abdomen of a huge boar—evidently already slaughtered—placed 
on a table like that upon which in other cases sacrificed oxen are set On 
an agate lentoid (see above, Fig. 542 1>)*, an ox, with a knife sticking into 
his neck (a proof that he had been already sacrificed), Is laid on a table 

1 A.E., Scripta Afin&z f PL TI, p, 22 a ti. 

3 D. Levi, Cretuk t un p. 4^ Fig. 9S: The 
lower pan of ibe sealing h there, however, inter¬ 
preted a* inequalities of ihe { l ll suolo £ 
accennaLoda am pie e scon volte /eke di terra*). 

3 Furlwangkr^ A, 6*,, PL III, iS. The 
design on Loth of ibis Itrnloid re-Sts on 
a ‘triple gradation'. 

* Ei Habdon, Coikdum Pamiri de Ai 
Cknpcih^ FL I, G, and p. 2, The base 

which supports this design shows a transverse 
wavy decoration recalling the conventional 
representation of stone work on Lale Minoan 
frescoes—as for instance, below the Griffins 
on the walls of ;he Throne Room’ at 

1 Tsojnlas, *E$. 'A PX ., , figs, PL X t 36 
(upside down): Furtw. A.G., PI. II, 18. 

" P. 5 ^ 3 . 



of the same kind. 1 There are, indeed several parallel examples of bulls 

or oxen laid out ott similar sacrificial 
tables. Tile animal is depicted as already 

The rite performed with the sacrificed 
boar may be certainly taken to show that 
divination by the entrails of victims was 
practised by Minoan priests—an interesting 
anticipation of Etruscan haruspicks* 

Hunting of Wild Boars. 

On the other hand we have also to deal 
with the animal in his wild state. In Late 
Minoan Art ‘ pigsticking 1 scenes are not 
infrequent. On a chalcedony lentoid from 
the Vapheio Tomb 31 the hunter checks a 
charging wild boar with a spear-thrust on the front of his head, the scene 
being laid beneath a canopy of rocks (Fig, 551)* In this case the design of 

Fig. 350. Priestly Personage 
jv Long Roue ABOUT 1 to make 
Haiujsfic: i al Incision on Boar laid 
on Sacrificial Table. Agate Len- 
Tom: Mycenae. 

H tinting 
of wild 

Fit;. 551 . Vaphejo Gem show¬ 
ing Buak is kn lath Rocks. 

Fic.SSt*. Goi.nB eau-seal: Huntsman 


the huntsman is much inferior to the spirited representation of the animal 
itself. A similar scene recurs on a cornelian amygdaloid from the Pelopon- 
nesc. 3 The Thlshe bead-seal, 4 in which a spearman thrusts his weapon into 
the mouth of a charging lion, is here given fur comparison (Fig. 552)* 

The fine relief of a steatite vessel originally goid plated* from 

3 Funvtfngtar, A. G- f PL 11, tz (Berlin Montig ny Collection. 

CaL f No. ar, PI. 1). In Imhoof-BSumcr und 1 rSK;* PI _\, i&<:, 

Kdlcr, Tit r u r Pflanttttbilrftr^ p, no> the 1 Furttf^ A.G* f ti T PL 11, 12 . 

Amma\ is wrongly identified vrith an antelope, H A.IL, A o/ Xt sfor, &i\ t p. 35, Fig* jO, 

as Furtwangler pointed out: from thu l>e 



Use of 





Palaikastro, showing the fore-part of a boar charging over rocky ground, 1 * * 4 
itself belonging to the transitional phase of M. M. III —L M. I a Art. may 
well stand in relation to fuller scenes In painted relief already existing on 

Fig. 5."t3„ Bull caught in 

N EX* ^ !LAY s E Air I Jll E 1 KESSION : 

H. Ttuapa, 

Fig* i>51, Bull n rearing through 
Fence. Cwv Seal Impression; 
Hi Triad a. 

palatial walls. The Tiryns fresco.- indeed, proves that boat^hu tiling subjects 
were in vogue in 1 Mycenaean ‘ Greece at a much later date. 

On the fresco we see the boar driven into a net. as in I lor ace’s I talv. 
This, too, recalls the capture of th- wild hull in a tut drawn from tree to 
tree across the Forest drive, as seen on one of the Vaphdo Cups.* The 
subject, indeed, is Illustrated on a clay sealing of Hagia Triada * tEig. r>531, 
but there is no evidence here of any relation to the Vapheio composition 
such as there seems to be in other intaglio types. As a supplementary 
illustration of such scenes. Fig. 554, from a seal impression in the same 
Deposit,' is here added in which a bull butts his way through a fence. 

Lion-hunting Scenes. 

Other kindred types already illustrated, such as that on a bead-seal 
from the Third Shaft Grave at Mycenae.* show a warrior attacking a half- 
reared lion with a short sword. In the analogous motive on an agate 
cylinder from Nestor's Pylos, where the lion stands bolt upright on his 
hind legs, the hero who stabs it appears in an identical guise. In that 

1 P of SJ., i, p. 676, Fig inti. 

- RodeniVLilch, Tl/yuit, is, p, 155 seqq. p 
Fig. 55, PL XI[J and p, pj£ + "So, 2. 

See P *f Af^ ili ri i>pp. p. i;£ p Fig- 123 v. 
and ef« iHa* Fig. 12 L 

4 D. Levi T Cfttnk di llu£hia Trutdix, p. 
Fig, fit. A ecmlorted design of a hulk taf the 
Icintoid diissp SnppL PL LV S and Fig 5pit, 

below, show a great uniformity with the 
\ split iu design, 1 hough the net is omiited. 
On maihtr scaling from the same hoard a hull 
approaches this net warily (/£,, p. jS t Fig, 82). 

Hk* p. J5 h Fig* 76. 

^ "h P* I2 5i Fig. TS : iinitaied 

by a HdieniMir engraver of Kydmia f/^. B 
Fig, 7i>), 



Hs i.MkT attacking Lion, (J). 

L 7 1G. 5->0, VV AR R [OK A K M ET> Wj Tit 
AT I ACKING LlON. Kkd Jasiek: 

case, indeed, he receives supernatural aid from a Mmoan Genius, who 
grasps the 
sheath of his 
dirk as if to 
give a magical 
direction to his 
stroke. On 
lenloid beatl- 
seal + Fig. 555/ 
a spearman at¬ 
tacks a Hon in 
the same erect 
position, wear¬ 
ing a crested 
conical helmet 
of exactly the 
same shape as 
is worn by the 
Knossian war¬ 
riors on a seal¬ 
ing from tire 
1 Archives De¬ 
posit \ This 
crested head¬ 
piece reap¬ 
pears on the 
Minoan sol¬ 
diers shown 
in the course 
of disembark- 

meat in the siege scene on the Mycenae 1 rhyton * Contrary to statements 
sometimes made, its setting with hoars'' tusks seems to have been common 
io Crete as well as the Feloponncse. 

The military character of this form of sport has already received 
fall illustration from the spirited compos!lion on the dagger-blade irom 
the Fourth Shaft Grave (Fig* 557). 1 here four warriors, armed with 

spear, bow + and shield, attack a troop ot three lions, the hindmost ol 

1 Cabinet d« MtfdaillM* M + 6673. D* Levi, describes ibt helmet as being provided with 
cp, nf. f p. 1 jj, note 1, referring to this intaglio, cheek pieces* I his T however, is not the case* 

Pig, sr»7. Section of Inlaid Dagghmm.adb ikm Fourth Shaft 
Grave, Mycenae; Warrior .vrrACittso Lion. 


aspect of 
by daj^er 


non urn] 



lion <m 



11 urns- 
A grim}. 


which turns on the pursuers—an incident that, ns pointed out, curiously 
resembles scenes in the real war which African natives, armed only with 
weapons of similar ancient types, are forced to wage against the King of 
Beasts. 1 

There is, indeed, direct evidence that such fuller compositions as 
those of this ‘painting’ in metals were actually drawn on by Minoan seal- 
engravers within their narrower limits. A ‘flat cylinder’ of red jasper 
(Fig. found on or near the site of Kydonia* presents a scene of two 
warriors—a spearman with an 8-shaped Minoan shield slung on his shoulder 
and an archer who draws his bow in a half-kneeling attitude—attacking 
a lion standing erect like the preceding. Except that in this case the 
shield is slung in front of the first figure instead of behind his back, we 
may here certainly recognize a reflection of the first two figures of the 
attacking force as seen in the completed form of the design supplied by 
the dagger-blade. The rocky slope under the spearman's feet and the 
little eminences on each side of the lion's leg seen on the intaglio are 
absent from the engrailed design of the dagger-blade, but are quite in 
keeping with this class of work. They may ultimately point to a still more 
picturesquely developed illustration of the same once existing in a fresco 
painting on a palace wall. 

An acute observation made by Dr, Rodenwaldt® with regard to the 
Tiryns frescoes of considerably later date tends to show that this inlaying 
technique in metal-work had reacted on the larger Art. In the case, for 
instance, of the boar’s body there seen the lighter band below it gradually 
narrows towards the hindquarters in the characteristic fashion observable 
in the case of the lions, gazelles, and other animals of the inlaid dagger- 

Huntsman stabbing A grim). 

The Cretan hunter on the agate lentoid from Mirabelto, 1 reproduced 
in Fig, 558, deals with the uprearmg and truly monstrous agrimi with 
a thrust from his short sword or dirk, much as the lion-hunters in similar 
scenes. On the boldly-cut agate from Magia Pelagia, on the North Coast 

1 Sf ? e p '■ PP- r - 3 - l -s■ I’P- ' 3 *, tji. and Fig. 245. The stone 

* This, like the preceding, Tig. 535 , is from obtained at Canea. 
a cast kindly supplied me by Monsieur A. " Tiryns, ii, p, JJT| an d ef. [% , J4 . 

David of the Cabinet dts M ii dailies. It is * See, too, above, p. 491, and Fig, j 28 , 

also published by Dr, Uqto Levi, op. rft. f 



of Central Crete 1 —the ' elongated ’ amygdaloid form of which is parallel with 

some Vapheio types—the assailant has 
overcome a similar great beast, gripping 
him by a horn while he thrusts his blade 
into its cervical vertebrae (Fig. 559), 

Do, 538 . Hirers man stabisinc 
Aga/mI Agate Ltjrroifi: Mika 
hello, Cretk, (So, too, Ftc.428, 
|! - 49 :=)- 

1' io, a VJ, H wrrs man stabuixg o v£ m h row n 
GJt/.vh E i.ongatm) a >i VGDALOl n or Ac ate : 
H, Pblagia, Ckete. (J). 

Stag Hunts, 

Of the use ol the bow to bring down the wild-goat pursued by abound, Mrmmb 
we have an early record in the ivory half-cylinder of M. M. I a date.- The 
huntress, of matron!} proportions, who appears on a Late Minoan cornelian ty4W *- 

intaglio from Crete (big, js surely the Goddess herself in the form stag 


perpetuated by the later Dtktynna, whether her quarry l>c in this case wild- 
goat or deer. Her divine character is, in fact, implied by the ‘sacral 

1 For Hngiji Petagiu, c f. P. sj . 1 /., ii, 

PP‘ 2 5 *t *5 a. 

Fic;. "AmO. Cretan Gon- 
wss as Akifmis (Dik- 


Stag wtrti Bow op Asiatic Ttpk. Oolik Belaid 
seal; Tmsug, 

Fic«. BG& Hunted 
Stag w i t h Sa* r alKnot s 
a ieove. Seal Em frisson 
4 Archives De¬ 
posit \ Knqssos. 

1 Sec above, p. $23, Fig. 403 . 
’ s ee P' °J M-i i, pp. 43:1-4. 

The fal¬ 
low deer 
sented in 


knots' 1 * * * (here clumsily defined) that are attached to her shoulders,- An 
interesting complement to this design is supplied, indeed, by a clay seal 
impression from the late 1’alula I 'Archives Deposit' at K nossos, 5 6 Fig. 5(352, 
shotsing a running stag, above which are inserted a pair ol these ‘knots' 
associating h thus with the Goddess, This is a good instance of the 
abbreviated forms of expression imposed on the gem-engraver's Art 

Finally, in tile: fuller field afforded by the oval of a gold bead from 
the Thtsbd Treasure (Fig. 5*11)* we see the completed design of a person¬ 
age who. from her rich attire and the apparent crown that she wears, may, 
again, be taken to be the Goddess—though, in this case, she is more 
practically attired—shooting a stag with a bow of the composite Asiatic 
class. An interesting peculiarity in this figure is that she is turned round in 
such a way as to present her back to the spectator. She is not here adorned 
with the ' sacral knots’, but wears a quiver, suspended from her left shoulder. 

In a variant form this was a favourite attitude of Artemis with 
Hellenistic artists. 

Here as in other cases the pahnution is that of the fallow deer, whose 
dapples seem also to be indicated. This species [Ctrvii* fiarna), indeed — 
spotted and broad*homed—is the only one well-ascertained in Mtnoan 
representations.* This conclusion is of great interest in view of the fact that 
throughout all historic and late prehistoric times the only species of wild deer 
known in Greece—as in Europe general!)—has been the red deer {Ctrzmi 
dafihus)} The fallow deer, which is well represented on Cretan seal-types, 
going back to Middle Mtnoan rimes, and survives itself in some of the 

1 FurlivjEL^ler, A a 7., H. IL 24 (And sue his 
BtrUti Cat , T p. 3, No. -)h 

f See my /Hug vf JUste *; p, j 2, where 

1 h & gent is reproditct-J m Fig. 22. E r u rvx'.i nglur 
who* doubtfully, regarded the object (at tlml 
lime impossible of recognition) as a quiver, 
would have been confirmed in his vow that 
the figure represented Dikiy 

a See below, p. 609, Fig 507 n / 

* Jtingcf Ntstur* iSv,, pp. 2 1-3, And Fig. 24* 

6 See on ibis Imlioof-Elumer und Keller. 
The stag on the amethyst intaglio from the 
Third Shaft Grave At Mycenae is, indeed, 
described by 0. Keller an a red dctr t bill tin- 
dapples arc clearly indicated (see my note, 
Jtifigflf\.Yrsti*r w Ofv. (Macmillans], 19-5. P f °)' 
For references to representations of deer i>n 

Minoan and * Mycenaean ‘ seal-stones and 
objects see Roden waldt,. 7 try rtf, ii p p, i$i t 
it. i- The only object from Mycenae that 
is clearly a red deer is the silver and lead 
vessel from the? Fourth Shaft Grave. For this 
sec taofr, Karo, ScAtuhtgr*iSer t PL CXV K Te*f t 
P- 94t whoihfiWA that there was no outlet at the 
mouth Mid that it wav not, therefore, a true 
1 rhytu n \ The fora of the vessel thus answer 1 
to an Karly Cycladk marble type. 

On the Tiryns fresco these are conven¬ 
tionally rendered by crosses like the midform 
star symbols on the llathonc cow (sue 
J/., i r pp. 514, and Ftg. 370 f x-c\ 
This convention wan also taken over in 
L. M. III Ceramic Art. 



Aegean islands, seems to have had a more Easterly and Southern range, 

extending still to Anatolia and Northern Africa, 

Two heads of gold pins of Cycladic type from 
the Fourth Mycenae Shaft Grave—as is shown 
by the angle at which the tine springs—represent 
the antlers of fallow deer (Fig. 5G3. d, $).* 

On the gold signet-ring from the Fourth li^al 
Shaft Grave of Mycenae, what is most probably ]^,ip S j„ 
a royal male personage in a chariot, with an early 
'box' body, is seen driven at full gallop by his signet, 
charioteer, while he aims an arrow at a leaping 
stag (Fig, 504). 

Fig, 5G3, a A. Heads of 
Gold Pins from L Vth Shaft 
Grave, Mycenae, comfareit 
with Antler it Fallow 

Kiev K >vm Malk Person huntin-. Stag in 

Chariot in a Rocev Glen. Gold Signet ring from 
rouRTH Shaft Gkavk, M vcenak* 

Deer had existed in Crete from very early times, and it is natural to 
suppose that the how had there also served the Minoan Goddess in the 
chase. In spite, however, of the wholesale use of the chariot by the latest 
Palace lords of Knossos, of which the clay tablets of the Linear Class B 
have supplied so much evidence, 1 it is difficult to believe that the Oriental 
usage, affected by the Mainland princes, of taking part in the hunt in chariots 
could have had anything but the most limited and artificial vogue. 

The great plain of Meaara in the South of the Island, indeed, was 
quite as well adapted as that of Argos to make this form of the sport 
possible anti it is tempting to bring the female personages with diadems of 

1 SmA.E., Shaft Grvmo / MyMttae , p.45,Fig, nmean species, foreign to Mainland Greece. 
351, This van an imported South East Mcdiicr- 1 £ee bL-low. 1 , § ii-j- 

IV** Q q 

hunters in 
ch urines- 
on Tiryns 




fresco and 


the lily-crown class who are seen driving chariots of the late Knossian 
hind at the ends of the 1 iagia Triada Sarcophagus 1 into connexion with the 
dappled deer seen on a fragment of a painted frieze 2 near the neighbouring 
Palace. The Tiryns frescoes, belonging to a still later date, repeat the 
same form of chariot, drawn by horses, similarly caparisoned, in which 
ladies- ill this cast- dressed according to Minoan sporting fashion, in male 
costume- follow the stag-hunt.* 

The Minoan Greyhounds and their Sacral Connexion. 

The dogs who accompany the Tiryiuhian huntresses, collared and held 
on leash by grooms in Mainland dress, are dearly greyhounds *' 1 

As will be seen from the restored iragment, Fig. 565—-notably the 
head, with the ears exceptionally rendered, as if half fallen , 4 and its long 
muzzle—the animal at once suggests a dose resemblance to the English 
greyhound. The build, as in that case, is at once slender and strong. 'I he 
body, so far as the fragmentary evidence enables us to complete it, is short- 
haired and smooth, but on die other hand, the tail has a well-marked fringe 
of hair like that of the more hairy Persian breed.* 

The nearest glyptic parallel to the hound of the fresco is supplied by 
a clay seal impression, unfortunately incomplete below. On this, the 
young male God, as we may interpret the figure, stands between two dogs 
antithetically seated, holding a short cord attached to the collar of each 
{Fig. 566)." In this case the resemblance is enhanced by the ears thrown 
back against the side of the neck. A constantly recurring design on sea! 
impressions in the later palatial deposits of Knossos is a collared hitch of 
somewhat solid build with the ears, again, thrown hack (Fig. 5(17). Other¬ 
wise, the dogs are mostly prick-eared, the body and legs resembling those 
oT the ordinary greyhound. 

On the green jasper lentoid from Central Crete (Fig. 569), we 

1 K. Paribem. IISanvJtfj>» lipintodi f/aghia 
Triad*, PI. lit {Afunt. An 4, sin, ryoK), hi 
out* ease* a pair of Griltins is Mitetitutcd for 
the horses- 

* /A, p. yr, Kig. is. 

a Uodimwaidl, 'Jinnt. ti, 1*1. Nil, p. 97 seqq. 
and Pig, 40. I'r. Rodanwaldt ip. roS) noted 
the male character of their costume. 

1 lb,, p. 1 to, fig, 47,and I'l, XIV, 6. The 
boaxfajQiintb are of a different lined. 

In this rase, however, the ears begin by 
landing down and then become mute or less 
homontal, while the true greyhound's ear 
shwK up before falling. It looks as if the 
Tiryns at tin had shown some confusion m 
lira ling with an unusual form of ear. 

1 The modern Greek greyhounds arc still 

See /'. </ Af., if, Pt* II, p. 565, and 
big. 135 . 



!■'ta □ Bh r Volt; Mam: ! >iv r njtv hetwee k two 

■ Atit Hivys JiKiwrr 1 . 

Fig, 367. Collared Bitch. 


mos : Knossqs* 

Fig, 56,7- Groom with Collared Houtfo from Staohgktino Ijll .^‘l Collaree* Lfn. nh 

Fli£StiG| TlKVJSS. AM) A-nEJiEUNT, Ja'tMK Ll.n- 

toid: Central Critel 

g q 2 

nence of 
on L, M. 


even see a similar subject to that of the fresco . 1 The groom—here in the 
ordinary Mlnoan attire and very diminutive in comparison with the hound 
behind which he stands—lays his hands on its collar. It is a collared bitch 
of this breed which is seen scratching the underside of her chin on the red 
jasper bead seal, big, $05 above , 1 as well as that which seizes the stag on the 
haematite lentoid, Fig. 471. 3 This latter design, indeed, is of special value, 
since the small seated figure of a similar hound below—posed as if one 
of a pair with their forefeet on an altar base*—is itself placed beside a 
baetvlic pillar, showing the sacred character of the animal. On the lentoid 
(also, like the preceding, of haematite), Fig. 5GS, we see a dog of the same 
kind standing on a double base with the impaled triangle—certainly 
a religious symbol above. In front is a flying bird. The sacral associa¬ 
tions of the Mlnoan greyhound are clear. 11 was dogs of this breed who 
accompanied the Goddess when, bow in hand—whether on foot or in her 
chariot—she pursued the wild-goat or the deer. 

Prominence of Lion Motives on Late Minoan Seals. 

But it is the !ion that conics into more special prominence during the 
early part of the Laic Minoan Age. This was a natural consequence of 
the extended dominion on the Mainland side, and it is a noteworthy circum¬ 
stance that pari passu with the popularity of the King of Beasts on signet 
types, there seems to have been a certain falling off in the vogue—so 
conspicuous in the great transitional M. M. III-L. M. I epoch—of the 
scenes of the bull-ring and the feats of Minoan cowboys. To the end 
of the Palace period, however, good examples of these are still to be found, 
as is shown by the seal impressions. Fig. fifty u, k and », p. 609 , below. 

In addition to the characteristic schemes described above in which the 
lion grips his quarry, he Is now depicted in a great variety of aspects, some 
ol them of a peaceful and picturesque character akin to that of the cattle 
pieces. On a lentoid from Mycenae we see a pair seated in a palm grove,only 
so far alert that they gaze in opposite directions. On a haematite bead-seal 
’ CT 100, my T&mb of iht l)$u&k Axes t crv. B 

PP- % * 0 i whett: the type \% compared with 
\\mi an ei chalcedony 'flat cylinder * depicting 
a mastiff*) ike col bred animal with j s-gjiall 
mate figure behind. The rounded var* 
uf the animal, however, show some confusion 
wills Hie lion type 

J See pi $ t$ r < )n grey hlfine lentoid in my 
collection a similar bitch is in [lie act of 


: P, 524 , alcove- 

1 On a common seal -type of the late Palatial 
depots ifosjN of thicker build anti with bushy 
toil* arc confronted in this fashion (p. 6oH, 
F%. -fP” a, g below), 

■f*f sardonyx from a chamber tonih 
l ,T urlw. p A,(^ t iii, rb. 



of the ‘ elongated amygdaloid type (Pig. 570) from Central Crete, 1 they are 
trenchant in reversed positions, just as elsewhere we the see two oxen. The 

attitude of the lion on another lentoid 
from Mycenae has an almost playful look. 
More generally, however, they are 
depicted as beasts of prey, sometimes, 
as we have seen, as the subjects of 
heroic * gestes but oftener as attack¬ 
in'* other animals. Of the schemes in 


which the lion springs upon his quarr; 
enough will have been said in a pre¬ 
ceding Section ; among the select Late 
Minoan intaglios set forth in Suppl. PL LV the finely engraved lentoid * on 
which he is shown seizing a stag is photographically reproduced. 

In Fig. 571 — a green jasper lentoid, said to have been found at 
Athens* —the lion, in a half-standing position, grips a bull by the neck. In 

Fio.oTM. Two Lions com: hast. Haem/v 
titk Ahvcualoiu : Central Crete. 

Uii huSl- 



Fig, 571 . Lms gripping Bull nr 
Xkck. Crees j asper : Athens. (|)> 

lAoti holding up a Wild- 
Jaw Greks Jasper : 
Crete. (J). 

Fig. 57*2 * he holds the whole animal up. like a monster retriever, as also on 
a lentoid bead-seal of green jasper, also from Crete,* where the ‘ sacral knot 
is introduced below (Suppl. PL LV. r). The lion is. in these eases, depicted 

* Acquired by me in iSSS. 4 On a green jasper lentciid shot with red. 

1 See Above, p. 532, Fig. 481 . It is there In the British Museum (Cat., insG, 1 * 1 . 1 , 

enlarged to three diameters. 4Jl: furtw,, |"l. HT, 7 ; Imhoof-Btunier 

1 It was obtained by me there, and said to u«d Keller, Tkr- and rjhsu^nlnidit, FI a IV, 
he a local find. There is a triple, trailing object jS, and p. 86. The idea of carrying off <>J the 
beneath the lion not easily explained- quarry is missed in the description, B-M. Cat., 


as actually serving a divine behest and carrying the quarry in a manner 
analogous to that illustrated by the Minoan Genius of Fig. 358, &, p. 4 ^ 5 , 
above. Beside this, on the Plate are set the pair of closely related designs 
in which respectively a daemon guides a bull and a cow . 1 These intaglios 
anti the fine groups above them illustrating lions and their prey may all be 
referred to the mature style (L.M. 1 A) of the First Late Minoan Period. 

tkms of 
cyl! Eider 
e&Ji nml 

Examples of Oriental Cylinder Designs reflected on Minoan Seal-types. 

The general conclusion arrived at in Section 1061 * above, that the 
scheme of the lion seining his prey—whether bull or stag—was, in its most 

Fig* 573 Bearded Hero (Reflection or 


SlONF.T<Mt m ; Mycenae. From a Drawing by 
Mows, Gilukrqn; fils. 

Fici 671. Two IIekoes com dating 
l.ios^ Gold SiGNrr- ring; Pergnxe 

characteristic shape, of indigenous Cretan origin, does not exclude the fact 
that in certain cases there are undoubted examples of reaction of cylinder 
designs of old Oriental tradition on Minoan seal-types . 3 We have only to 
recall the bezel of the jasper ring from Mycenae. Fig. 573 , where a hero, 
the direct reflection oi Gilgamesh, holds up two lions, one by the hind¬ 
legs and the other by the throat. On a Babylonian cylinder a we see 
the bearded hero holding ttp two lions in a similar manner, in this case 
indeed, both hy their lund-legs. Ur. again, Gilgamesh iS associated with 

P* 0 fisjitd. The ‘sacral knot’ too (folly 
described in of J/, r i (jgtt), p. 430 seqq.) 
becomes -an object perhaps intended for a 
!>tump of a tree or a hanktu 

' See above, p. 445 and Figs. UtJ8. a, h. 
i sDuntas. M PI, V, 5 and p. 1 bo, 

l ig. Tj 4 : Tsountas and Manatt, Mxt. Agt, 
p. i f>o. Fig. 54 ; I*, ei C„ ii, p, S4*, Fig. 426, 

= t, from drawing by Si. Elmefinuticr (enlarged 
above), I he Iniii'ctoilling, knotted in front 
with two end* hanging down i n Oraldaean 
fashion, is Abnormal for a Mi noun male figure. 
I he beard may here he regarded as taken 
over from tl>t Oriental prototype. 

( Wto/Am (ie CliTf, t 'at., 41 ; f fayes Wait], 

Stst-Cytm&ptnj Hasten, Asia, p. (,o. j 41 


an ally or double, each struggling with a lion antithetically disposed, ^uul 
it is this version that we recognize in the gold signet-ring (h>g« 5,_ *) 
formerly in the Museum of Peronne. 4 

O f the scheme in which a hero or divinity stands between two opposed 
animals or monsters, several good examples have been given in which the 
Goddess herself or the young God forms the centre of the composition. 
These, like the kindred motives in which two similar forms confront a 
central object or a sacred character, such as a tree or a baetylic pillar or altar, 
begin to be of frequent occurrence in the mature stage of the hirst Late 
Minoan Period (L. M, l 6 ) as is evidenced, for instance, by the fine intaglio 
from the Vapheio Tomb where the two Genii pour libations before a 
nursling palm. 3 The* Lions’ Gate'scheme itself appears on Zakro seals ol 
the transitional M, M. Ill *-L. M, I -1 epoch, and from L, M. I onwards is 
of continual recurrence. 

Throughout the L. M. 11 Period these antithetic combinations are 
specially frequent in a religious connexion. The signet types found in 
association with the late shrine on the Centra! Court will at once occur to 
mind, with the Goddess on the peak between her lion supporters. 4 Many 
such designs occurred too among the clay seal impressions from the latest 

deposits in other quarters of the Palace/ 

An outgrowth of the Lions* Gate type is to be found in that in which 
two bodies have a single head. A variation of this is supplied by another fine 
sard lentoid, Fig. 575 (SuppL PI. LV,/), We have here a powerfully executed 
symmetrical group of a huge horned sheep (which except tor the charac¬ 
teristic horns might well be a bull) attacked by a lion.* I he eliiect of 
the head with a body on cither side, at first sight conveys the idea of one 
of the don bled-bodied figures elsewhere connected with versions of the 
Lions' Gate motive. Examples are given tor comparison from Mycenae 
in Figs. 57i;. 577, a Kriosphinx with a rim's head facing, nvo lions bodies 
and four wings, 7 and a double-bodied lion in the same guise ' 

1 K.g. Colt. Jf t,Vr jv p 4S* Hayes Wald* 
tti. r p. 6ti, Nil 164, 

s J 1 , et C +p vi B p. K64, Fig. 450: drawing by 
St. F I me Gautier* 

3 Sira above, jip, 453, 454, Fig, 378 . 

* S^e befnw, p. 60S. Fig. 50* 

* S<* 3. 

* ). \h Beadey, Tkc Lma Ifoust CvUttf&m 
$f Ancient No. 2, p. 1 and FI. I. 2 - 

? Sec A,E P , jl/jTs 7 n m? it*ni /War 

p, 6i t Mgs. 37, 38. Fig. 57615 a jasper lentoid 
it am a rhaaiWr-tomb of Mycenae ifsoiantaA, 
*Apx> i 33 S s VI X. 30 and p. 17$ \ 
1 \ t-t C-* Mg. 42«, ^75 Furiw angler, A.G>< 
PL, III. * 4 K Tta design h accompanied 
by the * impaled triangle 1 * 3 symbol Set, too f 
l p et C F vi, p. S45, Mg. 42^, 17. 

1 A sanl also from a Chamber Tomb: 
+ EFI, X s s; Furtw T| <?/-. tiL 

fi. m t 23; \\ l-i l\ vc, in. xvi. to* 


i^ucncy of 
1 Liens* 

GalC * 



l.m.i A 



1 1,1015^* 

Gale 3 
lypc + and 

variatfa n. 



Here we seem to see a deliberate attempt to deceive the eye accustomed 
to such schemes, in fact an artist's trick of an extremely modem kind with the 
Implied inquiry 'Where is the lion ?' 

Flo. .'Til. Hokm.h £hKKI> 
PoiFILE-UODZIvD SCH t J[ KS : S K 1 ). 

Kig. 5?l> KkiospHis::twiTU Ram's Fjc, 377. Two nonn u Lion 
Head, Doviile Bom (Winged ( Lions’ Gate Sen k » k). Sam* : 

Lion). Ja&kk; Mycekae. Mycenae, 

for prey. 

Many of the later animal schemes such as the crossing animals, some¬ 
times at grips with one another, also stand in direct relation to the 
traditional schemes of bulls and lions on 
Flab) Ionian cylinders. The crossing figures 
of leaping bulls in Fig. 578 (Snppf. PI. LV. 
supply a tine illustration of this. They even 
recall motives of a much more primitive 
Minoan class, such as the crossed hounds on 
an E. M- MI three-sided bead-seal figured 
above,* which also suggest exotic influences. 

A striking version of such more or less 
counter-balanced animal forms is that sup¬ 
plied by a lentoul of translucent sard, said to 
come from Mycenae,* on which tivo anti- 

bo 5 * 8 . S\rh Lentoid. 

thetically opposed lions fasten on a stags throat {Fig. 570 and Sunp] 
PI. LV,,/>. The complement to this scene is shown in Fig. 58u (S.mpl 
PI. LV. A) where the lions quarrel over their prev. They are here seen 
symmetrically crossed, gripping each others backs while' the sta- m U, 
death throes falls headlong between them. 

1 See above, p. 521, 404 t * a 

1 J. \.K Beasley, Ltuvs Notts* CuffuftoM qf 
Anrirnt Gtmt, 1H. I, r, And p. f # Xo. i, 1 nm 

indebted to Professor Beasley for a east of dm 
and of Fig. 



On another ientokl gem two lions are seen, one .seated left, the other 
springing to the right, while in that reproduced in Suppl. PI. LV, //, two 
bulls appear in reversed positions.' 

Fig. 5~!>. Two Ijoxs seizing Stag by 

NkCR. Const LI AN LENTOID. (£) 

Fir. 580. Two Lions fighting for the 
Slav u tf,r eu Stag. Cor ski. i an Lentous. (J) 

Designs adapted to Circular Field: the Lentoid Class. 

Lite crossing or opposed animats ami other antithetic figures, and the Adapta- 
* Lions' Gate ' class of designs were themselves ^ E °n S t „ 
specially adapted fertile lentoid form which from the 
dosing phase ofL.M. 11 onwards became practically lentoids. 
the sole type of bead-seal. Equally so were such 
more or less parallel motives as a daemon com¬ 
bined with the foreparts of collared hounds or the 
linked foreparts of bulls, where the interspaces are 
filled with a horned sheep's head below and the 
shield and impaled triangle symbols above. 

In big. 581 we see an ingenious example on 
a haematite lentoid from Central Crete where a 
facing ram's head and two goats’ heads in profile 
are packed into the circular field. 

As in the most primitive forms, the engraver was generally filled with 

Fig. 581, Ram’s and 
Goat's Heads on Haema¬ 
tite Lentoid from Cen¬ 
tral Crete, 

1 I 11 the Cabinet ties .Mcddlles, from a. east kindly supplied by Monsieur S Livid. 
* A. Li, Coll. 


a kind of horror vacui which made him seek to Jill the entire surface of the 
seal, The artistic concentration visible in the 'I ransttioital M, M. 111-L. M. 1 

epoch which led to the reservation of part of the 
field for the fuller emphasis of the design—so well 
illustrated by the horned sheep on the flat cylinder 
(Fig. 54n above}—was no longer maintained, A good 
illustration of this growing tendency has been already 
supplied by the comparison of the exquisite instan¬ 
taneous sketch of the three water-birds in varying 
action 1 silhouetted against a plain background with 
the later group in winch the rest of the fluid is filled 
in with papyrus sprays. 3 This later work, dating from 
about the beginning of L. M. Til, itself contrasts 
with a still further stage in the same Men to id’evolution in which the 

Fig, S&2, Cat and Duck. 
Corn ru an : Ark hanks. 

J ig. 5iS;l Cwtortod Ltots, Pic. £81. Contosts n Bull Fig, lifts. Csuonsc Hull with 

K©cK Crystal; Knossus. wttw Giouhlk in Centre. Shield he low: Rto Jasper, 

and con- 



kindred Nilotic theme of the Cat and Duck is reduced to the closely packed 
form shown in Fig, 58a. 

Figures of animals coiled or contorted so as to fit the circular field are 
now of constant repetition. The lion of the crystal lentoid from m-ar 
Kuossos (Fig, 583) is itself of exceptional) line work, and the pottery found 
with it established the date, tn this case, as mature L. M. [ I. The bull of 
Fig. 584, coiled round a central globule, recalls the lion. Fig. 583. In the 
latter case, the Vaphefo relief of the great beast caught in the net may help 
to explain the attitude. So. too, the twisted body of the wild-goat. Suppl. 
V], IA'./, is itself ol very early tradition in the history of Cretan seal- 

1 /fc t Fig. V27. 

* See p + 4-92, Fig. 12(5. 


engraving. The galloping bull of Fig* 585 with a Minoan shield below is 
also very cleverly executed to fit the circle. 

Lions pursue one another round their narrow orbit: in one case t at least* 

Fig. r*sfj. Max-i. i on pcbsu* 
isc Manuuli, : Co ft xi: i Ian, 

FiO* 587* Minotasr with Sacra] 

a mansion seems to be after a man-bull (Fig 58(1)* l he Minotaur scheme 
itself, as has been show n above, fits on to a design of an acrobatic figure 
of early Nilotic origin. 1 It was of its nature specially well adapted for the 
circular field of the lentoid type, and the frequent occurrence of these semi- 
human and semi-animal types on Late Minoan bead-seals is partly explained 
by this fact. The man-bull displayed by the specimen of Spartan basalt from 
the Psychro Cave (Fig, 587) derives particular interest from the occurrence 
in the interspaces of the field of two symbols, the impaled triangle and 
the Minoan 8-shaped shield that are known to have a religious value. A 
stellar symbol appears beneath a Minotaur on a somewhat earlier lentoid ot 
black steatite from the Knossos district.* 

In the above cases there is perceptible a deliberate effort to till the 
circular space of this class of bead-seal, and at the same time to adapt to it 
the arrangement of the principal figure or figures of the design. 1 his effort* 
as is well shown by the galloping bull of Fig. 585 (Suppk PI- LV, j£}, is itself 
compatible with a free and beautiful effect* A similar result is achieved in 
the design oT the two lions In reversed positions—one seated, one leaping— 
on the lentoid (Fig, 588}* Even where the symmetrical balance is 
patently artificial, as in the case of the two lions fighting for the stag in 
Fig, 58b (SuppL PL LV P /*), the result at times is still a noble achievement, 
To harmonize the design w ith the field available is in itself a laudable aim, 

1 Sc* above, p. 5 05. Fi^ IIU, Jincj ihe Com- * P. . 1 /., i. p- 359 *uid Fig. 
paraiive Table. Mg, M». 5 At ihc end of I lie section. 




i vduUL»n 
<■4 ■ lentoid 


whatever the form of the seal, Put to subordinate the design to the field 
marks a decline in true artistic spirit. The reserve shown by leaving parts 
of the background Iree so as throw into relief the principal theme of the 
engraving—finely illustrated by the waterfowl group above referred to 
itself answers to a higher aesthetic standard. I he filling-in methods that 
we have to deal with in the fully developed 1 lentoid’ style really represent 
a return to the more primitive usage, such as is illustrated by the steatite 
prism seals of Early Mitioan date. 

From the clay seal impressions of the late palatial deposits at Knossos, 
described in the succeeding Section, it will be seen that the fully developed 
‘lentoid' stjle was in general vogue by the close o! L, M. 11. 

1 p. +9-i Fig- and SuppL 1*1. L1Y, wr. 

Fill 588* GOfttfELiAS Lentoid. 

i ioS. The Late Palatial Deposits of Clay Seal Impressions 

at Kkqssos. 

Long indtgttums (radiiion of Mmoein seat-types ; Deposits of day scat 
impression t belmging to Great Transitional Age of intaglio toori—AL M. 

///-£. J/ m /a k * Late Palatial hoard s associated with toilets of Class IS / 

Inferior quality of day and baking; Mostly preserved, with documents, m 
tipper-floor rooms; Sealings broken and scattered by precipitation ; S. IV* 

Basement Deposit (A) (be day b matrix' and its wide distribution ; Lapi¬ 
dary s workshop of L . Jtf. fII datet IIoard from Central Shttne (/*) > flu 
* Archives Deposit' (C) —ehranalog hat amdusfom ; Deposit derived from 
Bast //all binders \D); Deposit E from Little Palace; Intrusive seal im- 
fircssi&n with wrestling bout; Parallel of thrown champion in steatite relief 
MM. Ill date; Isolated finds, with tablets: Summary catalogue of late 
Palatial sea! impression ; from various l 1 epos its ; I mp cessions of gold signet- 
rings and others with Religious subjects ; Illustrations of Central Palace 
Cult; Frequency of Lions Gate scheme —divine presence variously indicated; 
Fragmentary seal impression showing sculptural group of Lions Gate type 
on Cornier of Portico; Origins of guardian lion typ&s on A /moan scats— 
connected with portals of shrines; Double .Lies decorafive/y grouped sug¬ 
gestion of ceiling pattern ; Pred&nnname of leu to id bead-seats t large examples ; 
Frequency of bucolic motives ; Lypuaf Untold designs ; Chariots and horses ; 

Graffito signs of Class B as signatures and counter-marks on seal imf regions; 

A rrow-sign mark of Armoury Deposit; C ountermarked sealings of ti esf 

In the summary review of Minoau seal-engravings given above, some- Lofi^ 
thing has been done to trace the long indigenous tradition ot the Art* g C | lfJU5 . 
starting with the effort of a primitive Society to supply its domestic 
needs, t|uickoned by the knowledge of foreign models from more than one 
s^urce and ultimately leading up to miniature masterpieces ot the native 
genius, such as in the case of animal representations, at any rate, have 
hardly been surpassed. 

Of the great Age of Minoan intaglio work—the grand Transitional Earlier 
period that includes the latter part ot M, M- III and the earlier phase of oi -^ ay 
of L* M. I—a definite landmark has been preserved by the successive dis^ 
cove ries of large deposits of clay sea] impressions, in an important house ot m, M, Hi— 
Zakro, in a room of the little Palace of Hagia 1 riada, and at Knossos in 
the Temple Repositories. 


ted with 
Eablcl$ ol 

CktsS B. 

quality of 
clay and 

The intermediate sphragistic phrase answering to the L. M. 1 b epoch 
is partly supplied by the contents ol certain tombs, notably that of V apheio. 
For evidence parallel with the above, afforded by clay sealings for¬ 
merly attached to documents, wc have, however, with some individual 
exceptions, to pass on to the large though scattered deposits of such ob¬ 
jects many fragmentary—belonging to the last palatial phase of Knossos, 
With these, too, must be grouped the day seal impressions, more sparsely 
found in actual association with the hoards of inscribed tablets of the then 
prevalent Linear Class 15, and in some cases counter marked with signs of 
that form of the script. 1 

From the outset, however, it is necessary to understand a difficulty 
which besets this dass of material in its later phase. In the case of the 
large hoards of sealings, above referred to, from Zakro, Hagia Trlada, and 
Knossos itself, the day nodules presenting the impressions were well baked, 
as the result of some special method of treatment. I n tins they are paralleled 
by the clay documents of the Linear Class A w ith which they were con¬ 
temporary. But, at the later epoch to which both the tablets of Class J> 
and the associated day seal impressions belong, the process was of a 
more summary kind, and in both cast s it would appear that they were iiule 
more than sun-dried. The hoards of inscribed clay tablets, indeed, could 
hardly have been preserved except for the supplementary heating due to 
the conflagration of a large part of the building, tn more than one case— 
though great precautions were taken when once the danger was ascertained 
—a torrential storm of rain at the moment of excavation reduced both tablets 
and clay sealings to pulp. Fire—so fatal to oilier archives—was, at 
Knossos, an actual cause of preservation. 

The clay itself, made use of for both documents and sealings of the 
earlier class, bad been of finer quality and better prepared. Thus the 
artistic details of the intaglios themselves were better reproduced than was 
often possible in the case of the rougher and less carefully prepared day 
used in the later period. 

Mom The less durable quality of the materia) was so far recognized by the 

wSdoctt- Fa lace officials themselves that, whereas in die days of the 1 Middle Palace*, 
inentsin a t Knossos and elsewhere, hoards of sealings were actually found in basc- 
rlnLr ment repositories, according to the later arrangement these, like the 
documents to which they had been originally attached, seem to have been in 
nearly all cases preserved in upper-floor rooms, s It is possible,indeed, that 

1 See below, pp. t>i6, U r7. near the border of the Southern Terrace of 

' The day chest containing tablets found the West Palace section lav, however, on the 



one cause of this was the use of materials more perishable than parchment 
„such as papyrus imported from Egypt-^for the documents themselves. 
A fragment of a clay seal impression from a late Syro-Hittite cylinder, 
derived from the fc Room of the Archives may + In fact* be taken to show 
that foreign correspondence on such materials was there preserved. 

This upstairs storage resulted in another disadvantage as regards the 
preservation of the later hoards of sealings* None of these were found in 
the circumscribed space represented by the cist or coffer that had ouc£ 
contained them. They had all been precipitated from their original place 
of deposit This precipitation p which naturally led to their being scattered 
over a comparatively large basement area, was productive of specially 
damaging effects in the case of such easily friable objects as these im¬ 
perfectly baked sealings. Compared with the impressed nodules of the 
earlier class, this later material largely consisted in scattered fragments. 
Indeed, the proportion of perfect seal impressions was very small. 

The opening of letters or other documents written on such materials 
as parchment or papyrus naturally accounts for a large amount of the 
breakage. Over and above this, moreover, die breakage due to the original 
precipitation had in the basement areas been greatly Increased owing Lo dis* 
turbance caused by the often renewed grubbing of later treasure hunters. 
The collection of the scattered fragments-—themselves earth-coloured was 
itselT a difficult and often thankless task, and it was only made possible by 
carefully sifting all the earth from areas where these or other fragments of 
possible importance occurred. Many valuable discoveries were, however, 
due to the methodical use of sieves adopted from the beginning oi the 
excavation and for which four sieves, each with two men t were otten 

Deposits of Seal Impressions in S,W k Basement. 

Two deposits of clay seal impressions belonging to the later period ot 
the Palace have already been partly described. 

One of these—as usual consisting largely of broken specimens which 
may be here referred to as Deposit A. was brought to light in two basement 
spaces in the South-West Palace region, extending on each side of a 

^touiul Jloor-—though of an tipper terrace* also found. It was here that u clay seal tin- 
level- aiid the " Ctiariot Tablets’ belonged pression represcniing ^ chsjict and hursts with 
to a snub closet opening oil u basement iMl- two riders was detomprtdcd. by a loneruial 
chamber where ibe remains of the small storm which was also fatal to some of tlie 
wooden diesti (hat had contained them were lablels. See Scrf/tftt J//w, i r p. 43* 




by preci- 
pi tLLtiore, 

S. W. 
and Us 





section represented above by the ' South-North Corridor . 1 In the base¬ 
ment East of the Corridor, a little below the level where remains of L, M. 
II inscribed tablets lay, was found the ‘clay matrix', evidently taken 
from a large signet-ring in precious metal, impressions from which occurred 
in other parts of the Palace. The offertory* scene on this, in which a 
female votary offers a two-handled chalice to the seated Goddess, has been 
illustrated and discussed above 1 and the style as well as the recurrence of 
a similar type on a Zakro sealing , 3 clearly carries back the original design 
to Transitional M. M. IU-L.M. I a epoch. That its use survived down 
to a later epoch is proved, however, from the occurrence of several broken 
impressions of it in the ‘Archives Deposit' (C) in a medium dated to 
L. M. I A-h. M. II. As these were of the ordinary' business character, it 
would seem, moreover, that the clay matrix itself was not a counterfeit 
device with a fraudulent intent, but rather a survival due to the wish to 
adhere to an old religious type, at a time, perhaps, when the original had 
been lost in the great catastrophe at the end of M, M. III. 

There are some reasons for referring the ‘Young Minotaur' seals, 
also belonging to this deposit , 4 to the L, M, 1 b Period ns well as the finely 
engraved signet impression showing a youth holding cords attached to two 
seated bounds, antithetically posed . 4 But the bulk of the impressions here 
found—including the lady with the swallows (P ig. 597 b, j‘) *—were products 
of the closing palatial Age. A terminus a quo for this deposit is supplied by* 
the * Palanquin Fresco ’ with W'hich it was associated . 7 There is every reason 
to suppose that the seal impressions here found, many of them bearing 
designs of a religious character, had stood in relation to a small shrine that 
opened oft" the West side of the corridor above and to w hich the ‘ Palanquin 
Fresco ‘ itself seems to have belonged. 

Lapidary’s Workshop of Re-occupation Date, 





L M. ME 


It is worth noticing, that in another small basement immediately South- 
West of the area, containing the remains of the above Deposit, were found 
evidences of its use as a lapidary’s workshop in the Rc-occupation Period. 
Mere, besides a great variety of peg-like objects in white ’marble* and 
steatite studs of the same material and shell-beads—some unfinished— a 

1 See P. <?/ J/., ii, ft. II, p. 76 s ieqq. 
1 !'■ 395- and *’>& 331. 

: Ik, p. 7GS. Fig. 499. 

* Ib., p. 763, Fig 491. 

' Ik, p, 765. Fig. 405. 

‘ Ik, p. 766 , Fyg, 497. 

7 Ik, p. 7 70 setup, and cf. above p. 214 . 



worked oblong piece of jasper and other materials for use, there came to 
light evidences of the actual manu¬ 
facture of lentoid bead-seats. Two of 
these are here illustrated in Fig. 585) a 
and b, and show steatite beads as first 
roughed out, ti with an incipient boring 
at one end, b wholly unbared, The 
actual engraving of the design was in 
these cases clearly left to the finishing 
stage. In Fig. 5510 it-d, however, we en¬ 
counter a different method, the in¬ 
taglio—a cow suckling a calf—having 
been cut on a roughly rounded grey 
steatite core (b )—sawn off below (r)— 
the cutting out and drilling of the bead 
itself being left to the final stage (ir. it). 

With the remains of the unfinished 
head-seals there also lay clay nodules 
which had been used for trial pieces by 
the engraver during the course of his 
work and showed parts of very late animal designs. 1 

vx\ r _ , 


+ 580 . LF.NlptP ii RAD-SEALS EN 

Process of Manufacture* 

V ii;. 590 + SftAUfeToNK in Process of ManufaCwk : 1 IJUtiAtv’s Workshop 1 , L- M III. 
a, Top of Piece oi Grly-crekn Steatite showing Intaglio; fr, Side View of Pseck; 
^ Base; ii f Sketch OF Seal-'type. 

1 Among ihesc was a fra^mtrni of a scene 
showing a ti 0 g sei/mg his quarry, inhere 
of ccnjdumk oxen* ^oats, and horned sheep, 
anti a section iif a conventional palm’tree. In 
an adjoining corner stood a pot full of small 

carbonized beans of a kind still imported from 
Alcsiindna in &hc CancHa market. Evident!) 1 
the I- M III lapidary had made his home in 
ihis outer basemcmL 



R r 






Deposit ■ 


Deposit of Broken Sealings in Central Shrine, 

A religious connexion, even more direct than that inferred in the case 
of Deposit A. could he established for a hoard of fragmentary clay seal 
impressions, here referred to as B, found within the North Columnar Wing 
ot the little shrine on the West side of the Centra] Court. 1 The signet- 
types consisted of not more than two or three varieties, all illustrating 
the cult of the Minoan Khea and clearly referring to a single sanctuary 
{see Fig, 597 a, r), The Goddess Is imaged as standing on a peak 
between her guardian lions and beside a sanctuary building, in which we 
may reasonably recognize that actually brought to light on the rocky crest 
of Mount j uktas.- 

ln this case, the broken sealings, instead of being scattered over a 
considerable space, were found, approximately at the same level, just above 
the door, in the narrow space enclosed by the North wing of the Portico, and 
the evidence, therefore, weighs against their having been broken by falling 
from an upper repository. The breakage in this case may well have been due 
to the opening of documents secured by them. It looks as if die priestly 
superintendent of the sanctuary on the peak had been in regular correspon¬ 
dence with his colleague of the Central Palace Shrine. 

The ‘Archives Deposit’. C. 

A more extensive series of seal impressions {(.’) stands in connexion 
with what, in its final palatial form, lias been called the 1 Room of die 
Archives’, in die Domestic Quarter. The 'Ivory Deposit' and other 
precious relics found in the spaces immediately below had stood in relation 
to this room under its earlier aspect as the 'East Treasury A In an 
upper layer of the floor of the same basement chamber—familiarly called 
the 'Lair' and in the adjoining spaces above this more precious deposit 
was a stratum containing more or less fragmentary sealings, together with 
a few tablets of Class B, which had evidently reached their present posi¬ 
tion owing to the collapse of the floor of the room above. On its Eastern 

■P. of M,, ii, Pt. It. pp. 80S, Hog. j he Revolution, an independent Government oame 
scene, as shown in Fig, a, t, below, was into power, the Knotfian signet-type thus 
put together by me by means of overlapping pieced together was adopted for a new potia.'* 
piece* or several fragmentary specimens, stamp, 
md Ihtr whole was subsequently drawn by 1 U m , i t p. (&e q r ^ 

Monsieur E. Cillieron, pfcre. When, after I be = Sec ibid., [it, J99 Se(]fl< 



bonier, again, the same catastrophe had precipitated other relics of the 
same kind into the space overlying the balustrade of the ‘ Queen's Bath- 
Room * on that side. 

Flo. 591 a, b , (. Success i vk Siues or Nouui.E impressed with 1 Clay Matrix*: b shows 
where String tor attachment passed; r t apparently pressed on Wicker-work, 

Other similar remains were found, beyond llie neighbouring Service 
Staircase, embedded in the debris that filled the lower part of the Hall of 
the Colonnades on Us Southern side. Their 
occurrence here, indeed, has a special 
interest since this group of seal impres¬ 
sions was associated with the largest of 
all the inscribed tablets found in the 
Palace—a document of 24 lines includ¬ 
ing three lists of men and women , 3 Here, 
too, were found , together with other re¬ 
mains of tablets, two or ihree disks of 
clay, larger than the ordinary sealings, 
which had evidently been used to secure 
packages . 4 They were traversed internally 
by sections of the carbonized string with 
which the package had been tied up and, 
in this case, in place of seal impressions, bore graffito inscriptions in the 
Linear Class B T with numbers attached — 30 . 

It is of interest to observe that the impressions of the ‘clay matrix' 
here reproduced in Fig, 5fM ti r several specimens of wh ich occurred here, as 
in Deposit A,’ f seemed to have been overlaid on wicker-work. Nodules 
stamped with the widely diffused collared hound motive (Fig, 51)7 Kj) showed 
within them the impress of coarse cord (Fig. 592), closely resembling that 

1 See below, p. 703, and Fig* G86t probable that iliey belonged to a single 

" As they were found within a small radius package, 
ot one another and ihe inscription and * See above, p. 395, Fig. 33 L 
numbers were in eacli case identical* it scents 

R r 2 

Fig. SA2. Interior of Broken 

XOMJL ¥ SHOWl VO i MIl'R E.SS Oh ( 'o.\ R SE 

Corik The Ur per Face or this uore 
Lmpresslon of Collared Hound, 
Fig. S l JT b f j . (1 







of the inscribed clay disks. Two sealings, here found presenting a syiti- 
metrical group of barley-corns (Fig. 013, p. 626 below) were impressed below 
in a rib-like manner suggestive of having been applied to some kind of 
basket work. 

Another considerable group of sealings, forming an integral part 
of the same Deposit, had, at the same time, been precipitated into the 
small lobby below the South-West corner of the ' Archives' Room, which, 
from the occurrence of numerous specimens depicting a Minoan Genius , 1 
was known at the time as the 1 Room of the Daemon Seals This lobby 
seems to represent a short section of what had originally been a corridor, 
the continuation of which in a westerly direction was cut short by the re¬ 
construction of this part of the building at the beginning of M. M. II [ T » 

The fragmentary impression from this Deposit, Fig* 5 !) 3 , clearly be¬ 
longs to a Syro-Hittite cylinder. Part of a 
long-robed personage stands on the left, holding 
a kid, while half of a probably composite male 
figure is seen in front, whose left leg is in the coils 
of an uncertain object. IJeyord is another long- 
robed figure. The source of the cylinder can 
be approximately located* The triple beading 
running up the long robe of the personage to 
the left recurs in the case of a worshiper on 
a Syro-Hittite cylinder* who also holds an animal. The worshipper is 
there coupled with a winged figure with a human body, showing a long 
flounced skirt, but terminating above in two horned animals’ heads.* 




Fig. 593 




The approximate date of the actual deposit of this series and the 
other analogous more or less scattered hoards of clay seal impressions is 
in all cases the same, being supplied by that of the final catastrophe of the 
Palace to which their precipitation was due. On the whole, therefore they 
represent the signet-types in use at the dose of L. M. IJ or round about 
1400 B.c* It seems reasonable to infer that the majority or the sealing 
belonged to the epoch immediately preceding that historic landmark On 
the other hand, if we consider the medium in which they were discovered 
and the space of time during which the ‘ Room of the Archives * fulfilled 

1 See above, p. 441. 

% The course of the buht stone drain that 
here mm about Stalf a metre beneath the 
existing pavumem was cut short at the same 
point by the Southern wall of die J Hall of the 

as then arranged. 

1 Schlumbeiger Collection; Ward Seal 
Cylinders of Eastern Asia, p, 304, na ^ 

1 Compare the two-headed forms shown in 
Tart i, above pp. 374, 375. 


its later function, individual specimens might have a chronological range 
going back to the close of the L, M, I a epnch, when, as shown above, the 
Domestic Quarter of the Palace underwent a considerable restoration 
accompanied by partial remodelling. In other words, there is no difficulty 
in supposing that some of the clay sealings may belong to the L. M. I h 
Period. Nor must it be forgotten that the signets themselves that had 
impressed the clay nodules might in certain cases have been considerably 
older than the impressions preserved. 

This scattered * Archives Deposit" is here referred to as C. 

Closely bordering the Northern offshoots of this Deposit is another— 
D—also of a much dispersed character. The remains of this occurred in 
the Southern section of the passage connected with the Royal Magazines 
and beyond its blocked entrance on the landing of the Grand Staircase. 
It continued thence for some metres in a stratum, superposed on the 
Middle East-West Corridor, which was associated with a considerable 
hoard of inscribed clay tablets. It seems clear that this Deposit of seal 
impressions had been precipitated from one or more store-rooms or 
offices bordering the great ‘ East Hall 1 above. 

Series D, which was much smaller than the preceding, may thus be 
referred to as belonging to the ‘ East-Hall Borders ’ Deposit. 

Deposit E: from Little Palace. 

Parallel with these groups of sealings belonging to the last Age ol 
the Palace itself, and precipitated by the same final casiastrophe, is a large 
scattered deposit, E, found within and on the borders of the Central 
Shrine of the ‘Little Palace',* later the scene of a primitive religious 
revival illustrated by the cult of fetish blocks . 3 But several of the frag¬ 
mentary impressions here brought to light illustrate a cult identical 
with that represented by the signet-types from the Central Shrine of the 
Palace itself. In this case, too. we see ad or ants beside columnar sanc¬ 
tuaries and lion guardians, heraldically grouped on either side of a rocky 

Like the preceding, this ' Little Palace Deposit’ bears every evidence 
of having being derived from an upper repository. Its scattered remains, 

1 See /'. of .1/,, iii, p, _jS r secjfp, § $&. given in Figs. 326 and 327. (Reproduced 

■ Tlit deposit is referred lu in /*. of M., ii, below, p. (>o8, Fig. .IflT a. fj.) 

I't. It, pp. 5’3, 5*4, where two impressions ’ See of if., ii. Ft. I, p. 346, Fig. 1 
representing parts of sanctuary scenes are 

1 >eposit 




E, Hall 


E. Iran 



ins pres- 






leled by 




indeed, though separated by the North and East walls of the Shrine 
itseli into three main sections, were otherwise continuous and can be 
treated as one whole. The impressions were found near the floor* 
levels in the lower part of the accumu¬ 
lated debris. It well be seen from the 
analysis supplied below 1 that in addition 
to the religious scenes the material covers a 
great variety of subjects. With the sealings 
was a clay seal—whether counterfeit or not— 
in the form of a cone presenting a sunken 
device ol an os with his head turned back 
showing two sprays below, and another, re¬ 
versed, in front. Pic. 594, Seal Impression .show¬ 

ing Overthrown Champion, from 

t *. i „ m „ Little Palace (M. M. III). (?) 

Intrusive M. M. IH Seal Impression with ' W 

Pugilistic Scene and Parallel Relief from 

Steatite Vessel. 

One interesting seal impression, however, 
from the same area (Fig. 594 ) dearly belongs 
to the earlier class represented in the Little 
Palace itself by the signet presenting a head 
of a churning * dervish V Imperfect and 
somewhat distorted as the sealing is, the 
subject a pugilist thrown by a fellow 
champion—belongs to an agonistic class 
which seems entirely to have lost its vogue 
by the close of M. M, III. Curiously enough, 
the best illustration of the episode itself has 

only recently been supplied by a discovery Fra. 5fis. Fragment or Steatite 
of an object of contemporary date made on (proiub^v 1 Rami* - } t h*gm 

terrace of the slope immediately to the back ^ HeuenikA > KkosSos * tf) 
of tile Little Palace, known from the abunilance of ancient relics found 
there as <rm EX)i,,^_ihe ‘ heathen' ground. This is a fragment of a ore, 
steal,,e vessel, probably a • rhytoo \ with a highly spirited relief (Flo. ml) 

“ “ l " : of throws his adversary-who seems in 

have leaped upon him-backwards by a powerful upper cut. I „ this ease 
as m several examples known on •signets' and 'rhytons-. the defeated 
champion would have fallen on his back. 

• P.tassc,.,. ■ P.48#%4 l9to ^.,. Bndn ^ r „ aaa ^ 0[fc ^ 


In both representations we are carried hack to a very different style 
of Art t the forceful natural spirit of which is rarely visible in the intaglio 
designs of the last Palatial Age t as we see them reflected in the day 
impressions of Figs. 597 a, b* Certain illustrations of bull-grappling scenes 
—such as Fig. (504 below—are still inspired, however, with something of 
the old tradition. 

Isolated Sealings found with Clay Tablets of the Linear Class B* 

Besides smaller groups of sealings,, such as f tor instance, occurred in 
the Jewel Fresco Area, still more isolated specimens were found in con¬ 
nexion with various hoards ol clay tablets of the Linear Class B p some ot 
these themselves a good deal scattered. 

These clay impressions, nevertheless, supply an inseparable pendant to 
those of the Deposits above described. All these Deposits with the 
exception of the Series C from the Central Shrine—were, as already 
pointed out, themselves associated with remains of similar clay tablets, and, 
together with the isolated impressions not included in them, had been 
derived from upper store-rooms or offices. The precipitation ot both 
classes of remains was, moreover, due to the same historic cause, the final 
catastrophe of the building. 



impressions IN 

A* South-West B*sesikxt Deposit, 

t. Cky matrix of signet-ring. (Sec p. 395 . Figr 331 above, and /"* &f Af-t i( T Ft. II, 
P- 767 , Fig. 198.) 

2 - The 1 Young Minotaur' (2 specimens). p. Hg* 49 L) 

3 , Minoan Genius holding ewer, £pray behind, 

4, Female figure luring swallow'with another attached to a string- (Fig- h, /), (Re¬ 

peated from /A, p, 761 J+ Fig. 497.) 

5 , Youth holding cord attached to two seated mastiffs. p> 7^5* f ig- 495.) 

6 , Collared bitch. (Fig. 597 B* j.) (Numerous fragments, apparently from J flat 

cylinder'.) See* tno p 'Archives Deposit \ No. and /*. uf ii + Ft. ll f P- 7^5*^ 
Fig, 493, and p. 5 Si, above* Fig. 567 + 

7 , Crouched lion, from abraded Kcntoib, apparently the same as that used for Armoury ■ 
SL Horned sheep and stag, with shield and 1 impaled triangle'; lentoid impression, 

(See above, p. 570 , Fig. 541, rj 
9 . Long-horned sheep* con diant —- 4 elongated head ? type. 

10 . Couehant oxeit p heads in opposite directions* (See above p. j 66 r higs. :i39* 5 ID, 

littds witli 
table Is. 


n. Man leaning on fence surveying bull. (See above p. 564, Fig, 532 , ' At the 
Cattle-j how 1 .) 
j j. Fugitive Agriw). 

13. Half of large clay impression showing water-fowl, and reeds restored in Fig. Stir a, e. 

((’om|wre the sealing found near Arsenal, p. Gi Ss Fig. 002 below, with papyrus 

14. I Mphins swimming round octopus {earlier date), 

■ 5s &c. Numerous fragments of hunting scenes, cattle-pieces, Ac. 

H. Central Shrine Deposit. 

(See P. 0/ M ti m. Ft, tf. p. 809, Fig. 528 .) 

1. Restored impression of signet-ring. Goddess on peak with lion supporters Shrine 
10 left (Fig, 5 i+T a, rl. 
i r Variant of same. 

C. * Archives Deposit l 


4 - 


6 , 


Impressions of counterfeit 
matrix of signet 2 as A 1. 

(Several specimen s ) 

Male adorant before richly 
clad figure of Goddess 
who ruts both arms. 

(Imp rc&5 ion of sign el-ring, 
it good deal defaced (Fig. 

Man saluting figure with B- 
shaped body shield r good 
style, but fragmentary* 

Three warriors with body 
shte]d* (/> 0/ M., iij t 
P- 3 * 3 . 205 .) 

Three Mjnoan body shields 
and part of couniermarfc, 


Fhree similar Wy shields connected by spiral frierc Shield Fresco) Mu 
broken. (Sec P. */.!/., iii, /«-. «/.) } ' 

ri « 1 ”- ““W ■» •» tom jaws of g „. ldil „ 

Fu;, 598. Sk t res of StutisiC.M ale Ahorar 
pkforr Ooones: much abraded, Froeam.vero 
tjoi.n Sit; set-king, {£} 





variant or same. (Fig. 597 a. a,) 

Female adorant with upraised hand ; spray iq teff 

** ^ ■ doram - ’ i,h « >- 

1.0 —tom, aet on fads side of a palai.t Iee . |A„,v s d« 


tj. Mi noun Genius with mum! ion and animal's leg, {Rcmiimsof 18 specimens; from 
+ Area of Ldaemon Heals*. Sec fi, 626 am! Fig, ( 114 ), 

14* Man and altar, fragmentary* 

15. Griffins, hack to hack, antithetically posed, with heads turned towards each other. 

Between their wings crested bird with tong rail. (Fig, of!” a,/*) 

16 . Griffins confronted 

17. Single Griffin (3). Lentoid* 

rtf. Pillar, horizontally placed above two animals in reversed positions. 

19 , Forearm and hand holding sacred lily spray, (Fig, 31*7 
ao. Fart of shrine with sacral horns, 

si. Group of four double axes, symmetrically arranged. (Fig. 5!>7 a, J.) Compare 
restored ceiling pattern; See p- 6 i 4p below, and Fig* 601 + 

LegSj apparently of man-bull, w ith star below, 

23. Human legs, combined with foreparts of two wild-goats. 

54, Lion and fluted column. 

25. Lion seizing hull by neck, from above, 

jfi. Two lions confi unted, in halF-crouched positions, with bull's head between their heads. 
27. Lion in contorted position ; 1 lentoid 1 class* Good style. 

2S, Variant type of same, 

29. Lton standing, looking backwards* 

30. Group of lions* 

31. I Jon springing on deer and gripping its neck : naturalistic foliage. (Several,) 

32. Contorted lion with facing head. 

33. Two lions seated, looking in opposite directions. (Several*) 

34. Forepart of hon, facing, seizing animal's back. (Several) 

35. Lion springing on bull, 

36. Hoar to right, with tree behind. 

37. Boar walking right. 

38. Collared bitch: Fig* 507 b,/ (as Deposit A}* 

3*r Dog, with spray below. 

40. Head of homed ^|ieep T surrounded by spray and superposed on a cross-hatred object. 

(Fig. 597 i\, A.) 

4 r* Two oxen walking in opposite directions, one with head lowered j hehind each 
a pilm treo and small shoot between. (Fig* 397 B* *rs ) Perhaps iron* gold bead 
of 1 elongated oval 1 type. 

4J. Fragment from scene of AutrvhsfAiififja* (Fig. 597 u, *t m ) 

43. Youth grappling bull's horn, (Fig. 597 n 3 A.} 

44- Hull looking back, and spray- 

45. Bull looking back j youthful figure 10 right endeavouring to lead him by 11 cord tipi 

fosses across his upper arm. Cotintermarked apparently by variant of <J> sign. 
See p. 564, Fig. 333 . 

46. Hoy milking cow. (See p. 564, Fig* 53-1.) 

4 7- Ox seated beneath conventional palm-tree* 

48. Part of contorted figure oi bull, w ith shield, and apparently sacral knot in field. 

49. Hull with head lowered. 

50. Bull's head between two calves (?) t antithetically ground. (Lentoid.) (Fig, 597 n t g r ) 
Si- Two pairs of antithetically grouped oxen. (Lentoid.) (Fig* 397 r s r.) 


Cow and suckling calf; usual type, (6 specimen*,) 

5 l V Bull coursing* fish below. (Lcnluid). 

54 - Bull standing right artd looking back : branch of tree above his bind-quartm. 

55 - Homed sheep* tied 10 spirally fluted column {P m vf m \f r , iii, p. 317, Fig. 209 , and 

cf. Fig, 20 &). 

56. Agrmts with trees and foliage, (Numerous varieties,) 

57- l wo Agrjmis standing in reversed |>osiLioiis d 

5S, Agrtm and dug running, and part of another animal, 

59 - Hog springing on stag nnd seizing it by neck. (As Fig* 47l p p. 5-4.) 

6g t Horse (?) with two horses' heads and neck* alaove). See below, p + $2% Fig, @ 09 - 
61 P Fragment showing part of shield and whorl-shell. 

£2, Flying-fab. 

63. Fart of school of dolphins. (Earlier fabric.) 

64. Horn-Shaped object, like cwnucopfae, with flowered mouth, 

65. Grains of barley. (Several.) Sue p. 626. 

66. Variant of the same, 

6 7 - Gieoniet rical decoraii on of circles concentrically a ranged, w it h cent ml dot H (Several .) 
6S. Fragment of clay sealing impressed by Syro-HiUite cylinder. (See p* 5g $, Fig, 


3 - 



6 . 



9 - 


1 i r 
12 . 



* 5 - 




D. f East Hau- Borders Deposit r + 

Seveml impressions from the day main* representing the seated Goddess, f Vs V 1 
and B.t.) 

Goddess holding necks of two lions (one restored in Fig. 537 s.r), who stand back to 
back with their heads turned towards her. 

Goddess, seated on folding-seat, reaching forward to receive food from attendant, 
(See above, p. 3% Fig. SUE.) 

Male figure—probably young God or Minoan HeraktCs—his hands placed on two 
Hons heraldically grouped. 

Young God faying his outstretched arms over heads of two heraldically confronted 
lions. (Cf. Kydonia gem, p. 467, Fig. 331 . fis, ) 

Horned sheep before spirally fluted column: Minout shield in field, (See 1\ of T/. iii 

V- 3 1 7 - Ug. 208 , and cf- Fig. 209 from * Chieftain s Grave similar from Com 11 a > 
I-depart of Griftin. f 

Stag and two sacml knots, (Fig. 597 n, /.) Sec p. 577. Fig. 5®. 

Recumbent os to left with head turned away from the spectator. 

Recumbent ox with part of another behind. 

Two coucham oxen in reversed positions. (Several example.) 

Two oxen symmetrically arranged in 'coiled' positions : good example of ■ lenioid * 

Cow and calf, usual type, (Fig. 507 is, d, j 
Forepart of unrertum animal. 

Lion leaping on bull. 

Lion in contracted position, (Cf. p. 58$, 1% 583 .) 

Bull in contracted portion with head turned towards hind-lean. 

Upper pari of palns-tret?. 

PiPJTtl3,[k< ‘ flppc;irance ' ^ wecn »*° wild-gtHU. Oval: perhaps from 


to, wild-goat in contracted position with head turned towards hind^s. 

2u Homed sheep and wild-goat symmetrically arranged2 Minoan shield and inifraled 
triangle between. {Same as S*W h Basement Deposit.) 

22 . Three homed sheep* couchant [Fig. 507 »,/)> 

35. Two antithetically arranged animals (? dogs) with - impaled triangle 1 symbol between. 

24. Part of what seems to have been a design uf two conjoined birds. 

25. Flying bird. 

E. # Little l 1 alack' Deposit. 

1, Adoring male votary before two-winged Minoan shrine with bi columnar central 
structure. {Fig. 5fl7 a,/ CC /L 0/ jK, ii, Ft. II. p. 524* Eg. 32ti.) 

2* Cornice, supjjorted on columns on which is the design of two confronted lions, their 
forefeet resting on a rocky knoll, like that on which the i loddess stands in the 
signet impressions from the Central Palace Shrine, (Fig. 59” A, /\ and cf* 
P. tfAP, SI, Pt. 11 + p. 524* Fig. 327.) Restored with facing head ; see p-fin, Iwlow. 

5. Half-seated figure, apparently of Goddess, stretching out her anus towards the leg 
a reversed animal figure. 

4. Two doves seated on altar-block with incurved sides, 

5. Griffin with expanded wings, and crested bu:tr + 

6. Griffin coursing right. 

7. Female odorant before two foreparts of honied sheep. 

S. Two collared dogs in opposed positions, with heads turned back and forefeet resting 
cm altar-block with incurved sides. Between the dogs T heads a star, and 5 globules 
on either side of the field above. (Fig* 597 a, g.) Several examples, 
cj. Lower part of Minoan Genius standing before a large bull s head, 

10. Genius wit Si raised fore-paw standing before a large representation ot a barley-corn* 

(See below*, p. 6a6 r Fig, til l j'L) 

11. Facing head with two barley-corns in field* (Half a clay impression from an almost 

identical seal with a single barley-corn and the additional feature of a back part 
of a lion's, body below, was found in the 10th Host Magazine' Cf. below. p + 626, 

Fig. 613)* 

rs. Apparently a grain of com germinating. (See p. 626, I H ig. ti 15J 
ij a Three serpents with an object above like a cauldron upside down, (See above, 
Ft + i, p, 151, Fig, lUi.) 

14. Part of man bull in contorted position. 

15. Forepart of ox ta right with linear sign ^ in front + 

rfi. Part of onc-mastud ship, with rowers anti horse^ like those ot chariots, superposed 
(See below, § 114*) 

17. MaiTs leg and spray. 

iS. Human arm s spray 1 and waved litre. 

icj. Man standing in front of large head of couehant ox* hind-quarters of lion bellind 
him, apparently gripping the neck ol another kneeling ox. E, ^.) 

20, Fragment of hunting scene : dog seizing neck of quarry. 

aii Horned sheep with head turned buck against body* Good style- 

22. Man leaping on forepart of bull 1 in field r., sacral knot and shield. 

23. Many other fragments of scenes relating to 7 \stmkathafs ftr. 

34 . Two lions in reversed positions : branch between. 




25* Couchant lion wearing collar: head turned back* 

26* Couchant \hm y head turned hack : spray (tree) behind. 

27, Lion springing on stag's Laid* 

28. Ox with hack of head turned away, and wild-goat. 

19. Three wildcats apparently coursing, with heads turned back, symmetrically grouped 
10 fill the field. 

jo. Wild-goat w ith head of another behind. (Complete lentoid.) 

31. Cow stickling calf, (Usual type.) 

32. Two calves In reversed positions. (Lentold form complete.) 

33. Sealed oxen in reversed positions. 

34. Numerous fragments of cattle pieces. 

35. Two crouched dogs (?) confronted, 

36. Bitch suckling pup, 

37. Collared bitch and two puppies, one in field above. (Lent aid form complete.) 

3S r Bulls, Sc. with symbols—Mmoan shield and B impaled triangle T , 

39. Flying bird. 

40. Two fish in reversed positions. 

4 i- Two ducks in reversed positions. 

42, Ac. A large number of fragments of animals, many of them in groups. 

Selected Types, 

The selected types shown in Fig. 597 a, a, may be regarded as fair 
illustrations of the seal-engravers* art at the time of the great catastrophe 
that closed the palatial age on the site of Knossos about 1400 s.c„ and 
which forms a convenient terminus for L. M. II. The clay impressions 
derived, as shown above, from a series of deposits (A-E) are themselves 
in many cases incomplete, and in definition of details naturally fall short of 
the originals in stone and metalwork from which they were taken. Owing 
to the fragmentary condition of so many specimens, the subjects, as de¬ 
scribed in the list, could often be only recovered by means of overlapping 
fragments, as was notably the case with the signet, Fig. 597 Ai f rom t j ie 
Central Palace Shrine. That the signets themselves may in certain cases 
have been in use for a considerable period of years previous to the date of 
this catastrophe, is always possible, and, indeed, the clay ■matrix* above 
referred to, itself goes back to the earliest L. M, I phase. As a whole 
however, we have 3 fair guide to the prevailing sphragistic style. 

Only in quite exceptional instances, such as Fig. 597 n r b is there 
evidence of the continued use of the ‘ fiat cylinder' form. The fine * am vg- 
daloids are also at most very sparingly represented, the oval types that 
here appear in most cases probably belonging to signet-rings or • elongated 


oval' gold beads. Although it is often difficult to ascertain the original 
shape of the field, it is clear that at this time lento id bead-seals were over¬ 
whelmingly predominant, some of them, as will be seen from Fig. 597 n, e, 
and its fellow. Fig. 602 , p, 615 . below, and /t t of Fig, 597 A. being of abnormal 
dimensions. What has been above described as the 1 lentoid' class of 
designs is here constantly illustrated. 

Impressions of Gold Signets and others with Religious Motives. 

Not to speak of the clay‘matrix', which must have been used as a 
substitute for an actual signet , 1 it Is clear from the shape of the field and 
the character of the engraving that a fair proportion of these day impres¬ 
sions were produced by the bezels of the typical Late Minoan class of gold 
signet-rings. Many of these—such as l ; ig, 597 a, e,j, and probably k —as 
usual depict religious subjects, but in Fig, 597 it, w, the ‘prize' bull of 
Fig. 532, p. 564 above, and the milking scene of Fig. 534, p, 564 , we seem to 
have instances of signet-rings the theme of which was purely bucolic. 

As might have been expected, the religious subjects naturally attach 
themselves to the Central Palace cult, of which so complete an illustration 
was afforded by the signet impressions found within the wing of the little 
Shrine off the Central Court, here once more reproduced in Fig, 597 a, c. 
Good reasons have already been given for believing that the rocky peak, 
on which the Goddess stands with her lion guardians was, in fact, the 
summit ridge of Mount juktas, such a prominent feature of the landscape 
from the Court itself. The male worshipper, here magnified to twice the 
proportions of the Goddess, might, indeed, be supposed to include in his 
act of devotion the mountain peak and distant shrine—a whole beatific 
vision—besides the actual divinity itself. On a smaller scale -perhaps as 
the youthful God—he reappears on another large sealing (C. 2, Fig. 59(i, 
p. 603 ). where the richly-robed female figure before him must certainly be 
identified as the Goddess. On the fragment j, the raised arm of a similar 
adorant is seen above the left wing of the typical Minoan pillar shrine, 
recalling that the plan of which is still traceable on the inner Palace facade. 4 
On a, S, again, female odorants, in procession, repeat the same gesture. 

A whole series of partially broken sealings supplies slightly variant 
versions (e,g. a and c) of the Goddess raising her arms to the chins of her 
guardian Hons. On she is replaced, in a similar attitude, by a figure tti 
whom we may recognize her youthful consort or offspring. On another 

1 See pp. 396 and 593, above. ’ See P, of JA, ii T I't. II, |j. 804 &eqq. 

sions of 



31 lustra' 
tions ol 
cult ' 
on peak* 

/ Fia 597 a. 

Select Examples or Late Palatial Seal Ihmikssioks. i 

/ tn u 

i'li:. 37 i\. Sfj km ExaMS'LES oi Latk Palatial, $kal (mprk^io-^s {fwifttr/ed). 


sealing (D, 5 ) he holds out his hands above the lions’ heads, as on a gem 
from Kydonia given above. Elsewhere, as we have seen, lie stands 
between two Minoan Genii , 1 in one case, between the Daemon and a winged 
goat, with the sacral horns at his feet, and, on a seal already reproduced * from 
the Archives Deposit, his two supporters are collared hounds held by leashes. 

cl £ 

Fig. £ 98 . a r Gold Sii'-iKet-king ; b Agate LeNTOID: morn from Mycenae illustrating of Gotitfiiss asi * Column, 

luicd far 

In this and similar schemes the place of the divinity between the 
animal guardians is taken by its baetylic form, such as a column or an 
altar base, or of both combined as in the case of the tympanum relief. 
A good example of the columnar version (showing ‘sacral knots ‘ attached 
to the capital) on a gold signet-ring from Mycenae, together with an agate 
lentold from the same site, with the Goddess herself in place of her haetvlic 
column, here given for comparison in Fig, 508 b? In this case, in place of the 
leashes of the collared hound, the guardian, regardant lions are attached 
by short cords to the pillar that could be infused by due ritual with the 
essence of the divinity. 

Fragmentary Seal Impressions showing Sculptural Group of Lions’ Gate 

Type on Cornice of Portico, 

turiiL re¬ 
lief of 

Of singular interest Is the fragmentary seal impression, Fig. 597 a, t. from 
the Little Palace, found in association with that showing the adorant and 
part of a pillar shrine (Fig, 597 a, /). The guardian lions in this recall those 

1 P. 465 , Pig 989. 

= P, 467 , l ig> 302. 

1 UdiSi intaglios tire in my own Collection, 

Jwfe.l/w* a,ltl Hilar Cult, pp, 61. {12, and 
lug. 39, and pp. 67, Fig, 44, 


on each side of the peak on which the Goddess stands, as seen on the 
signet-type of the Central Shrine (Fig. 597 a. tr), but their closer approach 
in the present case makes it impossible to suppose that the Goddess her- 

Fig, 599, M.M. HI4 M, \ a, Seal Iijffncssto\’s showing Lions guarding utcuRVED 
Altar-base. u, i, Zakko ; r. Hagia Triad a. 

self stood between them. The lions here, perhaps facing the spectator like 
the guardian hounds on Fig. 597 x,g t set their forefeet on a sacred peak 
recalling the cairn over which the Minoan Genii pour their libations in 
Fig. p. 455 above. 

I he important point is that we have the familiar scheme of the con¬ 
fronted lions with their forefeet on a sacred object—-here a baetylic cairn 
—adopted as an architectural adornment, set up above what may well have 
been the entrance portico of a building. 

This. as envisaged by the engraver, certainly implied sculptural work 
in the round, but it is obvious that we have here a very near parallel to 
the Mycenae tympanum relief even as regards the general outline. It must 
be observed, moreover, that this scheme of confronted lions is at home on 
Cretan soil, appearing, indeed, in more than one form on transitional seal 
impressions of M. M. Ill L, M. I a date, both at Zakro 1 and Hagia Triada.- 
In this earlier stage the heraldically opposed lions appear beside one of 
the incurved altar-bases—in one case contained within a shrine (Fig. 599 
ir, 6, r). Later, as in Fig. 599, c t they set their forefeet on the base—in the 
case of the Lions’ Gate on two separate bases. 

I he design on the sealing from the Little Palace (Fig* 597 a, i) — 
doubtless from a gold signet-ring—makes it clear that the type, as a symbol 
<>f divine protection, had become a subject of sculptural or plastic adorn- 

1 Hogarth, Z tkra Seafingt, p, 87, l-'sg. jS valiant example of which is given by Dr. Uorq 
(No, tin, uf id cf. JKo/AL, i, p. 30S, Fig. "> 99 , Levi, Cretitle, kc., p, yg, pig. tHo. 

& is drawn from another Zufero sen ling, a 5 [>. Levi, ef>, tit., p. 33, Fig. 70. 

class on 
cornice nf 


Origins of 

1 ion types 
on ML- 




portnl* of 



merit on ;in entrance portico, perhaps belonging to the sanctuary building 
in which it was found. Its earliest appearance in Crete was in connexion 
with the porta) of a shrine (Fig. 595, a). The Lions' Gate of Mycenae— 
probably somewhat earlier in date than the Knossian design—itself fits 
into the Minoan series (Fig. 500). 

Design on Cornice of Portico reflecting Sculptural Group of 

Lions' Gate Type. 

Considering the position in which the group is placed on the seal-type 
from the Little Palace, we may infer that it stood quite free and open to the 
sky, like tile statues and sculptured groups on classical cornices. In a work 
that had no backing and was therefore executed in the round, there is some 
presumption for supposing that it was executed in stone—according to the 
usual composite methods—rather than in hard plaster such, as we know, 
was usually employed at Knossos for plastic reliefs. Of free standing 
sculptures in the round that may have existed above the porticoes or 
on the cornices of either the greater or the lesser Palace, little light 
could be hoped from the excavations, which mainly concerned interior 
dements, but that such had existed in connexion with the sanctuaries here 
brought out was rendered evident by the discovery of the steatite locks 
of a Sphinx , 1 practically of lite-sire. This was built up by means of a 
composite technique, such as we again meet in the case of the bronze locks 
of a colossal wooden statue of the Goddess from the Great East Hall , 1 
the height of which would have been about nine feet. Of a statue of 
nearly half-size we have the evidence in a hand of marble-like limestone , 1 
not to sjjeak of the large stone statuette of the Snake Goddess described 
above, which is 40 centimetres ( 15 ^ Inches) in height* and in one piece. 

The splendid achievements of the Minoan craftsmen in the shape of 
small reliefs on vases and the exquisite cutting of their architectural friezes 
and rosettes—both of which classes of minor Art attained their highest 
development in M. M. Ill—in itself makes it almost inconceivable that they 
should not have attempted stone reliefs on a larger scale. The probability, 
indeed, has already been urged that the fragmentary reliefs on slabs of 
Cretan gypsum found outside the * At reus ’ facade at Mycenae, representing 
respectively a charging and a stationary bull and belonging to the same 
cycle as the bull reliefs of painted stucco from the Portico of the Northern 

1 vf M., iii, p- I'ig. 2W8. about 90 cm. (a ft. S in.). 

' ' P- 5 *‘ and p. 523, Fig. MIL * See p. 195 above. Fig. 150 . 

9 I& rt p. 5i$ F Fig. 3 ti 3 , h\ height vm 



Entrance of the Palace, were imported works of a Knossiati sculptor work¬ 
ing on his local stone. I lie decorative and finely undercut reliefs in hard 

stone, of which we have 
already evidence in 
friezes of theSouth Pro- 
pylaeumi of M. M. 111 
date, are of unsurpassed 
excellence both techni¬ 
cal and artistic. 

In the case of 
the Minoan Mainland 
School—where the ma¬ 
terial for the fine plaster 



natural that stonework 
sculpture should have 
been predominant, 
though, except for the 
Lions’ Gate, the evi¬ 
dence is scanty indeed. 
Put to go beyond tills 
and to make sculpture 

Pic* 000. Tympanum Relief 01 Gatew.iv. Mycenae 
faci yc Lions confronted before Baetyuc Column bepre- 
?exting the Minoan Goddess : theik Feet ox a Double 
Altar-base of the Incurved Tits. {From Dr. Schlie- 
mann’s original PHOTOGRAPH.) 

in stone a special creation of some intrusive Northern genius on that side 
is, surely, a 'vain imagining’and in diametrical opposition to the existing 
evidenced The limestone relief of the lions, though doubtless of local 
labric, is itself not only in design and details, but in the composite addition 
of the original faces of the guardian beasts, purely Minoan both in inspiration 

3 It is necessary to emphasize tittle results 
in vifiiv of the obstinate adherence of some 
scholars to the received tradition* Thus I 
reyret to note in Prof. Martin Nilsson's valu- 
Me and recently published J/tmrr a»J 
J\f\i£mrf r p. 8r r the following passage—"Mi¬ 
noan A Ft is always essentially a small art. 
It does not know any sculpture of great 
-sistr. in face of the planning*—both grand 
und elaborate—of the I I’oniesiie Quarter it 
Knoik5os t and the splendid freswudt* of the 
entrance halls of both die Great and the Little 
1 alaceSj we are nut with the remark that + The 

adding one room to [he other as the cellules 
in a beehive.* He adds that 'the Mycenaean 
Age has created the osity monumental sculp¬ 
ture of the Bronze Age, that of the Lion Gale 
at Mycenae \ Accordingly the * Tomb of 
Aircus 1 still belongs to 4 L. M. Ill p t a classifi¬ 
cation and chronology, as shown above (IY [ r 
5 97), quite foreign to the present work. 

Excluding the late 4 Re-occupation 1 sherds, 
the rule is that the latest pottery of the great 
Myito tombs h L. M. I A The late L P M + 111 
[* L+ H. Ill ’j element unty appears as a late 
and barbarous intrusion. 

vastness of the palaces r , . is achieved by 

S S 3 

6i 4 



quenty of 







fleL'Otrl ■ 



and execution. Its association with the incurved altar-bases itself goes 
back at least two generations on Cretan soil. 

I t is in L. M. I b continuing into L. M. II, that the Lions' Gate type 
attains its greatest vogue on seals. Often, as in Fig. 567 A, g, two confronted 
hounds, collared, but of very wolf-like aspect, place their feet on the in¬ 
curved altar-block, the central column is omitted, though the celestial 
element is here Indicated by the stellar symbol above. I n Fig. 51)7 A, / there 
appear two Griffins back to back, of the crested kind like those of the 
Throne Room frescoes, without any baetyhc block or pillar between 
them. A flying bird, inserted in their stead, is itself a well-known 
emblem of spiritual manifestation. 

Fig, 601. Ceiling Pattern restuksu ekom Dkcokat£V>, Croup ok Double Axes 
and Kosette os Sr at. Impressions (P, Go a, Fig. 597 a. d). 

Decorative Double-Axe Group suggestive of Ceiling Pattern, 

Fig. -507 a. ib, showing four sacred Double Axes symmetrically grouped 
round a central rosette, suggests an appropriate pattern for die ceiling 
of a Palace Shrine (Fig. 001). In jf-, above a running spiral band that 
also implies an architectonic association, three ‘sacral knots' appear between 
two Minoan shields, also a recurring symbol of the divinity. The forearm 
on/ adorned with a bracelet, grasps the sacred fleur-de-lis. 



Miscellaneous Motives: Cattle Pieces and Typical ‘Lentoid* Schemes. 

Among'the everyday types of seal impressions, that reproduced in Fig, 
5117 ii s and a closely parallel specimen from the Armoury Deposit, Fig* 602d 
here reproduced for the sake of com¬ 
parison. are interesting;, not only as 
illustrations of exceptionally large len- 
toids.but from the obvious dependence 
of Lhe representations of water-fowl 
on the J Nile pieces' in vogue among 
the Late Minoan artists. These two 
seal-types seem to represent the work 
of the same engraver, only slightly 
modifying an identical design. The 
double zones in which the birds appear 
are, in fact, a reminiscence of the suc¬ 
cessive registers in which contempor¬ 
ary wall-paintings were arranged. 

The surviving vogue of bull-grappling scenes is attested by & and n 
hut at this time types of a simply bucolic nature became more promimetiL 
Late Palatial seal impressions presenting such motives have already received 
illustration, such as the scene of the 'Cattle show' 2 and the boy milking a cow/ 
In Fig. 597 it we see a series of groups of oxen and horned sheep {£*/> »/)* 
The two bovine animals on a seal impression already illustrated, 4 standing 
□nan architectonic base with a columnar support,are taken, seemingly, Irom 
some existing relief and must be regarded as having a dedicatory character. 
In Fig.5B7.Tvf thefamiliar cow and calf motive reappears. The symmetrically 
arranged and closely packed designs, like other sea] impressions from 
these deposits already figured, afford good examples of the h lentoid class. 

Three Important types in which horses appear are reproduced in a suc¬ 
ceeding Section. 11 Another, insufficiently baked, with a chariot scene was, 
as already recorded, reduced to pulp by a sadden storm of heavy rain. 

1 P* t*f jVh, iii t p. 117 and Fig, £7* See, 1 / 5 n Fig. 531 . 
too, A. K,* KntiS$Qi Y 1904, pp. 56* 57, * See above, p* Figs. 542 a f L 

Fig. 19. n See below, pp. £27, Sa£, Figs., 005 , 8Q8 P 

3 P. 564, Fig, S 3 S above* 

F10* UOa. Large SeaUko from 
Armoury Deposit- (f) 

P redone i- 
Tiartce ud 

seals ; 


quency of 









Seal Impressions countermarked with Graffito Signs of Script B. 


sijfni. uf 
marks on 
seal im- 
press ians. 

Some of the day seal impressions, both from the above-mentioned 
Deposits as well as those found elsewhere in association with hoards 

I-'ig. G03„ Clay Sfai jxgs from Cnsms containing Arrows 
of ■ Armoury Udosit' roughly impressed with Lion Srvi. and 


of tablets, presented a further evidence of connexion in die shape of graffito 
signs of the same Linear Class IS as the tablets with which they were 
associated. These signs had been incised into the reliefs of the designs on 
the sealings when the day was still wet, and had been used either as 
countermarks or with a view to cancellation by the controlling officers. 

In some cases—as exemplified by the inscribed disks referred to 
above in place of the impression of a seal, the pinched day nodules that 
served for attachment were certified by means of graffito inscriptions, as 
was so often the case among the three-sided sealings of the hieroglyphic 
class * In certain sealings of the closing Palatial epoch at Knossos. B «am 
we see a survival of this practice on two of the sides, where graffito 
inscriptions appear-presumably signatures or titles- while the principal 
face is impressed with a signet design, itself countermarked, In both 

1 See above, p. 597, 

1 Seripia Minm t L p. i G j, seqq,, and FJ, IV a, b. 


titles, as seen in Fig, <504, a, b, the throne sign, [j—the mark of a Palace 
official—is included. 

Good examples of this double means of obtaining security, as applied 
to the sealing of chests containing valuable stores, came to light in the 


Fig. 604. Cj.av Sealings with Scenes from Biri-L-spoRTs, covkter- 
htAKKKniiv 4 Balance' anii ISarkei* 8 Miosis,an n knikjr&ki► with Graffito 
Signatures, is muii Cases containing the ‘Throne 1 Sion. 

building described as the ' Armoury", North-West ot the Palace . 1 1 he con~ 
torted lion design, of which at times very rough impressions were found at 
the base of the sealings belonging to this group (Fig. 4»t>:t). had been in some 
cases counterruarked by the arrow sign. The appropriateness of this as a 
mark of control was illustrated not only by the occurrence in the same deposit 
of tablets inscribed with this sign and referring to two large lots of arrows, 
respectively 2,630 and $.540 in number, but by the discovery of two 
depots of bronze arrow-heads, each of which had been contained in a 
wooden chest with bron/e loop handles. The sealings themselves were 
found among the charred remai ns of these coffers, which had evidently been 
secured by the string that had passed through the major axis of each. 

1 See A, K, A'ttossiti, Hr part, 1904 si ground floor space here had fait tin from an 

*}, p- 54 seqq- The lablets, sea! impressions, upper chamber, 
and remain*, of wooden chests found in 


sign m;trk 
til the 
1 Armoury 1 


af West 

The lion seal used for these impressions seems, curiously enough* to 
have been Identical with that which had been made use of For a clay seal 
brought to light in association with the tablets containing lists of men found 
in the South Eastern quarter of the I'alace, near those relating to hoards of 
bronze swords. In that case the impression ts eountermarked with a ‘man* 
sign similar to the ideograph of the tablets. 

Good specimens of sealings, some coun term ark ed, as well as abundant 
remains of deposits of inscribed tablets fallen from storerooms or offices 
above, were found in or near the West Magazines. 1 Fig. t!04, <r, depicts a 
coursing bull countermarked by something much resembling the ‘balance" 
sign. Fig. 1104, (4, from the Fifth Magazine.shows a male figure in a conical 
helmet grappling a mighty bull by the horns and neck,* which is counter- 
marked by the 'barred e’ sign. The fine intaglio from which the impres¬ 
sion was taken would have supplied a good specimen of the gem-engraver’s 
art in the last palatial epoch. At the same time the intaglio itself—so 
skilfully packed into the round field—affords another characteristic example 
of the fully developed * lentold* style of the palmy days of L. M. I I. 

This noble composition forms a fitting close to the long series of 
examples of the gem engraver’s skill throughout the days of the highest 
development of Minoan Art, from the Eighteenth to the close of the Fifteenth 

Century a, c. 


1 Si?e Sfripto MiHoa, 42, 43, nnd 5 See P* 0/M. iii t p, jjt r Fig. 163 , 

Fig, 30 Up k 

J log. Later Phase of West Magazines, Upper and Lower 'Cereal 
Tablets and Basement Oil Storage: Types of Oil Jars or Ptraou 
Discovery of Standard Weight —' Balance 1 and 1 Incot 1 Signs on 
Clay Inventories, 

Clay sealings counter markedby signs of Script B — derived, ft ith tablets f 
from upper chambers; The Upper West Magazines; Stored grains and 
•Granary ‘ tablets precipitated into Lower Magazine j: Bifid vegetable 
sign—perhaps Millet—suggestive of Millet beer; Appearance on tenfold 
signet; Barley sign—ears moulded on jugs, also oatdike sprays : Enclave of 
K Kasclhs —once Treasure Cists ; Larger vats for oil; Final phase of West 
Magazines—oil storage predominant, with superficial basins; Degenerate 
sumizal of* Medallion * type among later pit hoi ; 7 rue H Medallion pithoi on 
earlier floors, others transferred to later floors; Eoidence of original pla it- 
worh bands on * Medallion ' pithoi / Its bearing on steatite examples found m 
' A Irens' tomb ; ATM, II/ prototypes of normal pithoi of L.AL II Class; 
L k M. I b inscribed pithoi from Phaestos ; Injhtcnee of L, M . I painted 
designs on pithoi of later class—plant designs, loop decoration and sacral 
1 Adder mark f Rim profiles of pithoi / * Bottle-shaped class derivedfi om 
basketry ; Evidence of about 200 pithoi in position—accommodation for jtSo 
in IK Magazines ; Estimate of total oil storage; Roofing over of Magazine* 
VII-X—remains of painted dadoes; Discovery of standard Palace weight with 
octopus reliefs, representing light talent; Copper ingots of this talent weight; 
Late Palatial disk-shaped weights ; Their graduated numeration and Ct/mva- 
knee to Egyptian units ; Others answering to light Babylonian standard; 
Equations with Egyptian gold units ; 4 Ox-head and * Sphcndonaid weight; 
1 Balance ’ sign on libation vase of hard stone with boustrophfidon inscription ; 
The sign (raXti^T^rj an tablets ; coupled with ‘ingot '^60 with one-eighth 
deducted; Late Minoan * dumps'\ predecessors of Coinage—elect mm example 
from Palace site; Gold rings and bars mediums of Currency a Mi naan 
k shilling' (skilling) 1 Discovery of gold AI eight seal —an Egyptian gold unit. 

In addition to the considerable hoards of clay sealings iound in the 
Domestic Quarter of the Palace (where they were to a large extent derived 
from the 4 Room of the Archives ) repeated finds of these were brought to 
light, above the floor level, in excavating the West Magazines, In this 
case, even more than in the other, these were associated with the remains 
of large deposits of clay tablets of the Linear Class lb 

As in the former case, moreover, several oi these sealings had been 

clay seal¬ 
ings from 
W. Maga¬ 

by sign* 
of Script 
B + 




conn term axked by graffito signs of this form of script (See Fig. i'U4 a, &.) 
i^cdwith All these remains had been in a similar manner precipitated from an 
)mtn 5 Wpper story where, for the sake of dryness, such documents would pre- 
upper ferably be preserved. It will be seen a indeed, from the revised plan, 

MAGS 10 13 

J.- * : ■ ■ - u p t u ■ LON 

o- CO R. i D O CL 
Of TaAatz^ 


Fig. tins. Revised Plan or Upper Paiace Section aimjvf. Part of West Magazines and the 
Long Corridor showing Upper Magazines A K 

chain - 
U pper 


XI nir:. 

Fig- 60S, 1 that six of the basement Magazines - (see p. 6'i. Fig. G2I) 
answer to the same number of similar chambers above, marked a f. Of 
these a-e are clearly evidenced by the door-jambs and parts of the upper 
walls, preserved more or less at their original level and shown, with 
some slight restorations, in Fig. GOG, while the existence of f and f is 
a logical deduction. A view of die entrances of three of these Upper 
Magazines -u, c, n—as partly restored, at their original level, is given in 
big. <>(>5, together with the Upper Corridor lloqr and the piers of the under- 

'** twi “ d ! ‘ bn C 31 UlC end of lhis 1 fndudfni the original Magazine C, later 

olumi! ' reduced to a mere passage-way. 


taxed into 
zine 3. 

lying basement Magazines* Those above had doubtless served primarily 
as store-rooms, but the remains of tablets of Class li precipitated from them 
indicated that they had also served in part as repositories for such documents. 

The entire 
clearing out of the 
basement spaces 
below the Upper 
Magazines A-c, at 
some period of 
which there is no 
record, had de¬ 
stroy ect allevidence 
as to the nature of 
the stores that they 
once contained* 
With regard to i>, 
however, some data 
re^ardinjr the ma- 
terials derived from 
it have been pre¬ 

The Third 
Magazine that un¬ 
derlies tile Upper 
Magazine o ? and a 
small adjoining 
area of the Long 
Corridor, as well as 
the opening of the passage leading thence to the Pillar Rooms, had been 
the scene of a promiscuous dig in search at ancient objects at the hands 
of a native explorer , 1 In the course of this, twelve large fiif/i&t were 
extracted, and near them were found carbonized peas and small beans,' 
of the kind known in Crete as 4 Egyptian beans P and, till lately at least, 
imported from Alexandria, According to an account, moreover, given me 
J Mr. Minos Kalokatrinns* a merchant of near t he jars. All the objects found} except 
Candia, much interested in Crel&fl antiquities, one or two f it/ios given to Museums, were 
Sec p. fiaj, n. 3 below. destroyed sit the Fire on the occasion of the 

? EL Haus&oullfer, Rev. Anh^ rSSu, ii, Insurrection and Massacre of 1S99 when the 
p. 361, Note 5 (cf. fiufL df Cerr. Arch., iv, whole Christian Quarter of Candia was burnt, 
p. 1 S 7 ) mentions these as having been found 

Fics. Gift Vt k w rabM North Border of Upper Cong 
Corridor showino remains or Jamtc or Uppm 'Vbbt Maga¬ 




R rains of 
in K. 

1 Graoory 
ill SO as&Q* 




zinc D. 

by an eye-witness of the excavation, burnt barley-corns also occurred, anil 
some of these vegetable products lay inside the plthoi. There can be no 
doubt, however, that, like the painted pottery—then called 4 Mycenaean"— 
found at the same level, these grains had fallen from the doors above. The 
exhaustive examination of the contents of the great jars in the Magazines 
of both sections of the Palace, made in the course of my otvn excavations, 
failed indeed to discover any traces of corn or any other grains within them, 
and the negative evidence is so overwhelming as to necessitate the con¬ 
clusion that the pit hoi were exclusively used for the storage of oil. 


Fig. COT. Cak- 
bonded Grain qf 
Millet from De¬ 
vout N, qf Loom- 
weight Area. (*} 

The ‘Granary’ Tablets: Cereal Signs and Remains. 

There is, as will be seen, good reason for supposing that the corn 
belonging to the Palace lords was mainly stored in 
granaries outside the walls, 'l he only good evidence of 
internal storage of grain is supplied by the discovery of 
a deposit of burnt corn in the narrow area North of the 
4 Loom-weight Basement* on the East side, containing 
a M, M, III filling in which a group of faience plaques 
known as the' 'Town Mosaic’was brought to light. The 
corn which may lmve been stored in some upper Maga¬ 
zine of the Palace on that side seems dearly, 1 from 
the grains preserved (Fig. (107), 
to have been, in this case, some 
kind of millet. 

The occurrence of barley, 
peas, and beans in the Third 
Magazine — probably derived 
from the Upper Magazine n, 
lhat overlay it—stands in re- 
lation to another discovery 
made in the same basement 

area and the adjoining en- t / 

trance section of the small K _ , 

Corridor leading to the Pillar SJriKS - 

Rooms, Amongst the materials precipitated into this area from the upper 

1 t here jerc burnt remains as of a superficial envelope above the cores of the trains as 
shown in the figure. h 

e B 


62 \ 

’ . r 

Fig* 605 L Clay Tablets of the Linear Class li with Inventories presenting 

Granary and Cereal Signs. 

the previous Ji^ in this area 1 les travau* ne 
mi rent au Jour jutcunc inscription*. As a 
matter of fact the tablets later brought to 
light here lay, partly in the earth left uhuk- 
cavatedp partly in the dump heaps re-esplored 

accompanied by the pictorial 
or store-house 
and at times 

by lifting, They have not p however,, in any cast 
(as M- Haustfoullier seems to have hoped) 
added 10 the materials for Grttk epigraphy* 

1 The passage—at the opening of which 
these tablets were first found—was at the 
time called the * Corridor of slie House 
Tablets \ 

floor were found a series of tablets (Fig, U09* a) 
sign a. which must certainly be taken to refer to a granary 
of some kind (Fig. fl{>8, rt). s It shows no signs of eaves, 

* Hausisouhier (A de Corr, 1S80, 

p. 125 ' Rev. Artft., rSSo r p. 359) remarks of 




-Granary 1 


si^ji cofl" 

'Granary 1 * 

ance on 

1'iG. y 10 . * Hir in’ L'brkKAL Sign, 

the covering takes fi rounded form (Fig. I1U8, 6,fg). Often there is 
a horizontal line or lines across the body of the structure, as of a 
strengthening girth and, in relation to this, a C-like loop at the side 
resembling a handle (Fig. liOS,/ ^), Faking tile various features together, it 
looks as if these objects were of circular 
shape, and perhaps of no very great size, to 
be compared with the wicker-work structures, 
thatched above, so commonly used for maize 
or other stores throughout Iiastern Europe, 

The tablets refer to considerable groups 
of these, in two cases apparently 35, though 
lesser numbers i 3, 7 and 2 also followthis sign. 

1 hat the structures here figured were used tor the storage of cereals is 
conclusively shown by the discovery in the upper part of the earth deposit, 1 
in the Ninth Magazine, a little North 
of tile first group of Tablets belonging 
to this class, of remains of another 
hoard in which the same object appears 
wiLh what must certainly be regarded 
as a vegetable sign, rising from its sum¬ 
mit (Hg. £, d). This sign appears, 
indeed, as an independent element on 
several tablets (Fig. 010 a~d). 

In connexion with this bifid vege¬ 
table symbol it was my good fortune to 
acquire, somewhat later at Athens, a 
large lentoid gem of green jasper, in a 
contemporary style (Fig. (i 11), in which 
the same sign is seen. It there rises 
behind a figure of a bull with its 
head turned to the near hind-leg, as in schemes referred to above, the 
animal being seized 011 above by two heraldically opposed Grifftns. 
Between these this vegetable symbol shoots up above the bull's back. 
The bead-seal was said by its possessor to have been found in Crete, and 
there is every' reason for concluding that we have here the signet of a 
Palace official charged with the superintendence of a granary depart¬ 

I he sign here presented is followed on tablets by numerals rangme 

is C* 

1 One was found above the tup oi" the adjoining West wall of the Palace. 

Fic „ 6 It 4 Green J as pe R Sic net : JJ 1 1 ll 




from one or more units to 15s. It is seen to alternate oil them with parallel 
ideographic figures relating to cereals. In some cases, moreover, this is 
succeeded on the clay inventories by the bowl sign sometimes shown 
with a handle “O- On the back of certain tablets, c.g. Fig. 609 d 1 , where 
this conjunction occurs, the bowl sign is repeated, with a well-known 

composite sign of Class B. before it (Fig. Ii 09 d 2). Ibis sign is a 
regular concomitant of vessels of various forms in use for liquid contents, 
In view of this fact we may infer that in the present case it had a 
similar signification, and refers not to the actual produce of the plant but 
to a drink made from it. 

Summary as is the sketch of the vegetable form here presented, its 
grouping with unquestionable cereal forms, such as are shown in other 
tablets, sufficiently indicates that it was a food plant of the same class. 
From the wavy outline of the ears, and the constant division of the stalk 
into two main stems, it seems probable that we have to do with millet, 
of the actual storage of which in the Palace evidence has been given 
above (see Fig. tiOT a. b). in the cases where the 'bowl' sign is added, 
we may therefore conclude that it refers to some kind ot drink brewed 

from this, such as the millet beer 




, r > 

made, according to I lekataeos, 


by the Baconians. 1 Millet itself 
throughout a large part of primi¬ 
tive Europe and Asia Minor was 
ihe * Staff of life \* and its name 
iHimcnm recalls the fact that, to 
the Italic race at least, it was 
the original material of bread, 

(Nvm- On several tablets (Fig. «i09, 
b, c, d) this sign alternates with 
a parallel ideographic figure representing an ear of corn on a stalk. In 
some cases this is bearded (Fig. tiOO e) t but it seems probable that the simpler 
unbearded forms that more frequently occur (big- mui, c f t£) reallj represent 
the same cereal, since they occupy identical positions in similar formulas. 
On a series of these both varieties are followed by the ^ sign p also 
coupled in the same way with the 1 granary** I here is further associated 

Fig, G32 + Ear of Barley on Tablets 


1 Athena eus, x (p. ; T&wbimds ££ - * ■ 

Etaccilti? 0 pjrf| T‘ivuv ffipiTOV HTT4J Ttol' fllSt 

WVpafil'rjr EMfJ K€VfipfW Mat 

3 See !tchn 1 Ktdturpfanwu &c. (1874, «L T 
PP- jSj. 4&4)- 

by bow l 
of liquid 

tion with 

* Millet 
beer 1 of 

com Asso¬ 
wi cli other 

6 26 



Corns on 
Clay £ ftal- 

ated with 

with thtse another vegetable sign Y- w Hfch also appears as a regular 
character of the syllabary in Class li 

That the grain shown in Fig. 612. n-f t was intended to represent barley. 

Flo. im. Fart 
or Ci av Skauniv 
siiqwixc.: Facing 
Head and Har¬ 
ley Cork. 

Fig, 61 4* Minoan 
Genius before 
lkv Corn on Sealing. 

Fig. til.', Seal 


Fig. Glfl. Grains on 
Sealing awrangbd in 
Wheel Pattern. 

ls made probable by the recurrence of what seem to be corns of this cereal 
on a series of con¬ 
temporary seal im¬ 
pressions. Half of 
a clay sealing found 
in the upper filling 
of Magazine X 
shows a curious 
type consisting of 
a facing human 
head, part of a leo~ 
nine body, and what 
must certainly be 
regarded as a grain 
of barley in the 

Fic Sealing from Hh-iroglyphic Deposit showing on 
one side fa) Germinating Barley Corn, ani> on the other 
tub Doubi l-.\xe Symbol, 

field (Fig* Hi 3), 

Parts of day sealings with a similar facing head, 1 in this case with two grains 
of corn, were found in the Central Deposit of the Little Palace, while 

1 The facing head in an isolated position positions an a cornelian lentaid from the 
recalls tme sj irimcirically placed in ihe middle Phaesto* Cemetery ( r \ftw. Ant> t xW t 753 , 
s[Mic^ ha tween ewo homed sheep in reversed Kjg + tj&y 



another fragmentary impression from the same hoard ( Fig. 614 ) depicts 
a Minoan Genius as promoter of vegetation, with raised fore-limb before a 
grain of barley, here rendered as large as the Daemon’s body. In the same 
hoard of sealings occurred that 
shown in Fig. 615 , as sketched 
at the time of excavation. Here 
tve see the same grain in a state 
of florescence or germination, a 
version of which motive that had 
been already frequent on sealings 
of the hieroglyphic class, always 
in isolated positions. It thus 
appears on a clay label 1 with a 
sign group in the upper register, 
and followed by numerals indicat¬ 
ing 32. 1 O11 the clay seal im¬ 

pression (Fig. 617 ) it Is coupled on the other side (&} with the Double Axe— 
endorsed, that is, with the 'signet' seal of a Steward of the Palace Sanc¬ 

On the seal impression from the 1 Archives Deposit ’ of the later 
Palace, of which other, more fragmentary specimens were found, eight 
grains of corn are grouped in a wheel-shaped pattern (Fig, 616 ). What 
seems to represent the same design already appears oil an Ivory cone of 
Early Minoan type from the Fla tan os tkotos * and groups of grains are 
a recurring feature of seal impressions belonging to the beginning of the 
Middle Minoan Age. A jasper prism seal from Mitalic 11 o of the hiero¬ 
glyphic class presents what seems to bean ear of barley with indications 
of the beardA 

What have been Identified in a previous Section with ears of barley R ar i ey 
are moulded in high relief on a class of jugs belonging to the earlier 
phase, (7, of M. M. III s accompanied by other raised decoration rep re- barley 
senling a survival of the 'barbotine’ work. A specimen of one of the 
triple sprays of barley seen on these vessels Is reproduced in Fig. 618 ,* and 
we may well suppose, as above suggested, that the liquor contained in these 
small jugs was not unconnected with 1 1 ohn Barleycorn It is probable that 

1 Saipta Minna, i, j>. ;i 7, No, 94, h~f. ' Stripfa Mi non, i, p. 2 1 7, N'o, 95 : P. sc b. 

3 lb ri pH 167, i\ 85 h. # / J . of AL f i, pp. 414, 4i5 t and Fig. 2 K 9 a t &- 

3 Xan thud ides, Vmikd Tombs of Mtsorit * See l\ of JA r c r p* 415 and Fig, 3^9 A 
(tr Droop), PI. XIII, No. 1043. 

Fill Gib. Barlev Sj^rav in Moulded Relief 
on M. M, 111a Vase. 



—as in Ancient Egypt anti among many primitive European people—beer 
brewed from barley malt was drtink in Minoan Crete from a very early 
epoch, though its use may have been supplemented in Late Minoan limes 

by wine from the juice of the 

i») J11) 

a is <■ J- 

J-[43. rijn. Four-row Eh Barlky asu Grain 

V ROM 5 W ISS I,A k E St .VI ION i Ro UK N H AT,' 5 K N i : 
j K(.M KEL.LiJk. 1'3SE SAME IIE LOW ON C’olN Ob 

grape. The Goddess on the 
well ■ k now n signe l-ri ng firom 
Mycenae was certainly stated 
beneath a vine, if we may judge 
from its grape-like bunches. 

The spikes of the ouier 
sheath of the barley corns are 
not indicated In the moulded 
relief (Fig. 618 ). the artist— 
more . I / inoko —- h a v i ng con¬ 
tented himself with the grains 
themselves. But the Cs i pie rows 
in which these are disposed 
agree with the appearance, as 
seen from one side, of the 
typical primitive species of bar¬ 
ley, I Ionic urn hexa$tkhum t re¬ 
mains of which, as shown in 
Dr. Kellers illustration repro¬ 
duced in Fig, HUK t r 2 t 3* were 
found in the Swiss Lake 
Dwelling^ 1 and which, on the 
Mediterranean side, are so well 
illustrated by the coinage of 
Metapontson (Fig* (i 1H\ iO. it) 
whose earliest traditions were connected with 

—-the Achaean foundation 
Nestors Py tiara.* 

As a supplement to the jugs showing the ears of barley in relief, 
attention deserves to be called to a painted vessel of an unusual L. M. 1 A 

t K Killer, JYithifasuttu : itchstcr Ifcrkht, 
Zurich, tS66, PI. XV11 (of which a section h 
here reproduced) and \\ 317. In the Robtm 
hausen Staiidti* where most of [he vegetable 
remains were collected* a link with Crete is 
preserved in the capsule of Site** Crttka 
\Jhid^ PI. XVlb Fig, 30). Dr. Oswald Heer 

{op, fit ., p. 315) reaches the conclusion that 
the ti-rawed barley of ihe Lake Dwellings is 
really the predecessor of the 4-tOWed kind 
(' So is»r wahrscbeinHch die klcine sechszeilige 
Gcrste der rfahlbauien die Urlorm, von 
welcher die vier^es%e cntsprungen ist r ). 

1 Strabo, Gfogr., vi, r. j. 


■ t.kt-like 
nrfliyH on 


style, restored in Fly;, ti'20 a from fragments found in a disturbed medium 
West of tire Palace. 

The design on it—of 
great interest from its re¬ 
flection on an Am isos 
rhyttm 1 (Fig, re¬ 

calls that of the contempor¬ 
ary group, depicting tufts 
of grasses or reeds," but 
here the sprays on the 
shoulder of the jug have 
a cereal aspect. Front 
the way, indeed, in which 
the grains broaden out 
and stand free of their 
stalks, a suggestion is here 
conveyed of some kind nt 
oats, such as A vena oricn- 
fa/is. As a food plant, oats 
are un-dassical. but the 
analogy of the barley on 
the former group of jugs 
makes it probable, if ibis 
identification be correct, 
that the M moans also 
drank some brew of oats. 

Fn020 it. l„ M, Iff. Jug with Pi vnt UkcOHation. 

The Lower West Maga¬ 
zines and the Great 
t’itbui for Oil Storage. 

The bulk of the stor¬ 
age of com and other ali¬ 
mentary products w r as, as 
already stated, probably 
effected by granaries or 
other store-houses outside 
the Palace. That a smaller amount of such stores, for which place w as found 
■within the walls, was. for the sake of dryness, preserved in upper chambers, 

Fig 020 A. 

Punt Design on Jui; 

( > ATS. 

Suggestion 0* 

' See, below, pp. 764-5, uud Fig 74 ". J Qf iii, |>p. -77^9, lugs. I^fS, TiD. 

T t 2 





vau for 


is a natural conclusion, and agrees with the evidence at hand. 1 he barley, 
peas and beans that had been deposited in an upper level of Magazine 111 
had fallen from a store-room above. The heap oi burnt millet in the base¬ 
ment space of the East Quarter had certainly been precipitated from an 
upper door. 

But liquid produce in the shape of oil had, from the earliest palatial 
Age, found its proper receptacles in the great jars of the basement cellars. 

Successive Phases of West Magazines, 

It has been shown above that tile Magazines of the West Palace 
Section passed through three distinct periods, 1 According io the original 
arrangement they were made with broad openings convenient to admit the 
huge ‘ knobbed ’ pitiwi} of which examples arc still to be seen in the East 
Magazines, as well as in the early store-rooms of Phaestos, There is every 
reason to believe that the sole contents of the Magazines was, at that time, oil. 

In the succeeding M. M, III Period, however, when the Priest-kings 
. attained their greatest wealth, a whole block of the West Magazines—from 
3 to 1 3 inclusive—was shut off by a cross-wall and doorway at each end, 
and the separate entrances of the chambers themselves narrowed, while at 
the same lime cists or 'kanlki' of peculiar construction, 5 ninety-three in 
all, were sunk into the floors, both of the Magazines themselves, and of the 
* Long Corridor' into which they opened (see Plan, Fig. 621 ). 

That these were for the deposit of actual treasure is proved by the 
fragments of valuable objects, such as caskets inlaid with faience ami 
crystal plaques and overlaid with gold foil, actually found within them. 
The fuller contents, indeed, of the contemporary ‘ Temple Repositories ‘ 
with their exquisite figurines and reliefs, afford a parallel illustration, 
A remarkable feature of these treasure cists was the lining of their walls 
with sheet lead, the better to protect the valuable objects that they 

Oil, however, continued to be stored, though the jars for which there 
was space on the borders of the * Knselles ' were of the slimmer ’ Medallion ' 
type. But, in addition to lhese, two-thirds of the section of the * Long 
Gallery' (now shut off as an enclave) was provided with a series of 
squarer and more capacious receptacles, formed of limestone, instead of, 

1 I\ of M, t i, p. 44 s M( iq- flection «J. 1 Sec especially /bid., Fig, 325, opposite 

1 /bid., J). S31 and Fig. 17 ’* (and cf. p, 45;. 

I*. * 33 , Fig. 174, from Pharos), 



as In the case of the others, gypsum slabs—the better to resist moisture. 
At the same time oblong cavities about six inches deep were cut in the 
base blocks of these, evidently designed for sediment. The whole of the 


Ci ST 

central court 











r etom 

rM.M.L,. ■ 


LNTRANit t(3 

**»NE&V £*«ii 

PYEa« < DA L iOHCKr 

Fig. 6 ^1 . Part or West Section or Palaci, showing; 1 Enclave on KA5ELLKS r ; together 
with A r hi a East, including Fim-ah. Rooms AJtn Temple Repositories. 

interior surface of cists of this class * 1 was coated with cement, and they 
must certainly be regarded as vats for liquid contents, i lie possibility 
suggests itself that oil, in its initial impure state—with water probably. 

1 These cists are marked as B in the Plan (/«*, opp. p, 45 *)distinguished from ibo 
ordinary fc Kaselta ' type A. 



below — was poured into these, and subsequently * skimmed ' for storage in 
tin: jar.s, 

'That these vats remained in use to the close of the Palatial Aye is 
shown in the case of the two nearest the staircase at the North end of the 
Gallery, by the occurrence, on the surface of the earth and rubble deposit 
with which they were finally filled in, of small bowls of Re-occupation 

Oil Storage predominant in Final Phase of West Magazines. 

Fin ill 
pliiise erf 
W. MatfSU 








Finally, in the concluding phase of the West Magazines, we see, at 
a somewhat higher level, something like a reversion to their original 
arrangement. There was no question now of allocating any ol the space 
For treasury purposes. The blocking walls and separate doors of the 
M.M, III enclave were done away with, and free access restored from the 
Gallery and passage beyond. At the same time the entrances of 
Magazines IV-XIt I, so far as their doorways had been narrowed, were in 
most cases again widened om to the full width of the store-chambers. The 
1 kaselles’ within them, like those of the adjoining Gallery, with the excep¬ 
tion of the‘vats’, were either paved over or reduced to mere superficial 
receptacles or "catch pits’. These would be handy in various contingencies 
connected with the great jars themselves, and as useful intermediary basins 
into which the oil could be tipped from them when nearly empty, 1 The 
use of the superficial cists as oil vats is clearly evidenced by the signs 
or conflagration left by the smoke-stained borders of one in the Sixth 
Magazine, illustrated above.* Some, at least, of the large vats in the 
adjoining Gallery continued to fulfil their special functions. 

The whole of this large section of the West Magazines was thus once 
more confined to oil storage, and it is this stage, marking the course of the 
last epoch in the Palace history, which, as already shown, was brought to 
light by their excavation, 1 

This phase iti their evolution owed its origin to the extensive scheme 
of restoration that followed on the great catastrophe at the dose of M. M. 111. 

s From the 1 Elite brown surface colouring of 
l hirse thev had at btun erroneously taken 
10 I Ft of M. Mill fabric (/ J . v/AL, i p p. 453), 
The 1 .. M. til t* date of similar bowls found 
under the late blocking uf ihc 4 Fas t Corridor * 
w»s T however* subsequently recognized (op. dt. t 
iii, p, 265}* 

1 In Greece small 1 vats’ are still node in 
tlie floor of room.; In which there ,ire oil jars. 
One principal object is to prevent the waate 
of oil caused by accidental breakage. (See 
A. E„ A'iroji», Report, tyoo,p. jy {P.S.A^vi). 

* P. of J/,, i, p. 459, Fig. 32 H. 

* Ihiti., p. 44S seqq., $ jj. 


There can be little doubt. Indeed, that this widespread disaster—due in the 
first instance to an Earthquake oi exceptional violence ol which we have 
the actual traces 1 —was followed by wholesale plundering of the sunken 
treasure cists of this area. This, in itself, made the renewed reservation ol 
this basement section for oil-storage a natural solution. 1 he imj*overished 
Palace lords, from this time onward, had perlorce to content themselves 
with treasure chambers of more restricted dimensions, such as that of which 
we have the evidence opening out of the 'Central Trtcolunm&r Mall (sec 
Revised Plan C) in near connexion with the Central Palace Shrine. 

'['hat this last re-modelling of the Magazines followed at no long 
interval 011 the closing catastrophe of M. M. Ill at Knossos is shown by 
the fact that three of die pithoi found in use on these lloors belonged to the 
‘ Medallion ’ style of that epoch. 3 

Survival of 1 Medallion ’ Pithoi. 

These ‘Medallion ' pithoi , indeed, the typical circular bosses of which 
represent an outgrowth of the earlier ‘knobbed’ (also * bossed T ) class ol lieo'type 
M. M. II, themselves go well back within the borders of M. M. Ill. Some, l!lt j a j ef 
indeed, as we have seen, were impressed with signets showing the facade fttkm. 
motive dating from the earlier part ot that Period. A curious discover)' 
made towards the very close of the excavation gives a Ircsh insight into 
the relatively earlv stratigraphic horizon occupied by the original floor- 
levels on which they stood, as compared with those of the last palatial 

In the first year of the Excavation a small Magazine, adjoining that T&*Tjj 11 
where the fallen column-bases came to light, was called at the time the non* 
Room of the Great /Wes', from a large jar of the ‘Medallion’ class, g*" 
apparently standing on its floor-level. Only a quite recent re-exa mi nation 
of this vessel led to the discovery that the plaster floor sunoutiding a part 
of its lower circumference did not really represent the level ol the base ol 
the jar. Further excavation on one side brought out the I act that it rested 
on a M. M. Ill floor—some 30 centimetres lower—thus increasing its 
height by that amount. A remarkable feature of this pithos is the appear- 

1 Set ibid,, ii T Ft, I. p. 297. Fig. 173 - AshmOkan Museum ; presented to me by the 

1 TheW were found in Mag. V[, No. 11 of Cretan Government). Another, Xo. 3 of 
mv hand-list,and Mag. IX, No. 6and Mag. X Mag. VI (see Suppl. PI, US, *), can only be 
(see R of M., i, p. 563, Fig, 409 : in the described as a degraded offshoot. 



Fig. tiiU. Tall 1 Medallion " Piruos, latelv ms- 


ancc of two internal handles 
65 cm. below the rim. These 
were probably designed to 
facilitate its transport. 

Tall as it is, it still can¬ 
not compare with that of 
the giant, ‘knobbed pii/ioi’ 
of the East Magazines, one 
of which attains a height of 
2*17 metres. I ts height, how¬ 
ever, is r - 75 metre, about a 
quarter of a metre higher 
than that of the tallest of 
the ' Medallion pifhei’ of 
the ’ Royal or the West 
Magazines, so far as it is 
ascertainable. It showed— 
instead of tile three zones 
usual with these-—four 
' stories', like the great 
knobbed jars, the number of 
medallions" being 32 in 
place of 1S. 1 It bears the 
same impressed single circles 
on its horizontal bands, but 
these are connected, as often 
those of the earlier class, 
by slanting lines of rope- 
work, and in this case the 
bosses themselves are sur¬ 
rounded by rope-work rings. 

Against these archaic 
peculiarities may. however, 
be set the fact that there 

1 I wo ‘medallions’ occur here 
between each handle instead of one, 
though the exterior handles in this 
case 4re sixteen in place uf eighteen 
on the normal ’ Medallion' pitkai. 


was no trace of the usual M, M. Ill lilac-brown wash, nor of the white 
rosettes on the 1 Medallions * themselves, which are here more bossed. On 
the other hand the tail, upright, proportionately narrow contour ol the jar 
anticipates a prevailing characteristic of vessels of early L. M* Itf date. 
The somewhat finely cut protile of the rim is itself common to the usual 
type of 1 Medallion 1 pilkoL (See p. 644, Hg* G 3 4 2 u.) 

On the whole, In spite of the earlier traditions here represented, it 
seems best to regard this tall jar as contemporary with the others. It 
Is clear, however, that it had remained continuously in use to the last 
palatial Age. On the upper; plastered, floor-level laid round it, 30 centimetres 
above its base, were remains of seven ordinary ptffi&i oi a late class, t and 
in front of It had been set a shallow stone-lined receptacle like the super¬ 
ficial vats of the West Magazines* Between the earlier - and later floor 
was an accumulated deposit. The history oT this vessel a good deal 
recalls that of the capacious iar found in the private house W est ol the 
Palace that had contained the fittings of its Snake room. 3 1 his rested on 
a pavement of transitional M. M- III— L. M. la date, while, at a height 
in that case of 20 cm. above this and covering similar accumulations, a new 
Hoor had been laid down in L. M. II, the receptacle continuing in use + 

The VMedallion^/fMtf/ of die West Magazines themselves stood on the 
same pavement level as the other store-jars, showing that in this case they 
had been transferred from earlier floors. 1 hroughout ihc West Magazines 
there are, indeed, traces of an earlier system of pavements lying some 
20 25 centimetres beneath that on which the great store-jars were found at 
the time of the excavation. 

The jars presenting the medallions thus appear— per sa/tvm —side 
by side with the later class, the prevailing type of which fits on to a L. M. 1 a 
type, and on which, with only one exception, the tradition of the medallion 
ornament is entirely lost. The exceptional vessel referred to is reproduced 
on SuppL PL LI X, 6 , and displays between Its four upper handles isolated 
and diminutive ringed bosses that are merely distant survivals of true 
fc Medallions \ The whole build of this pi (has and Its degraded decoration 
of unevenly curving ropework, indicates a distinctly later date/ 

1 Above ihc Upper floor was found a. Late ciiptton broken. I his [joints to ihc puttU lI use 
Minoin lam|vAland of purple gypsum and a of the chamber as a barbers shop, 
painted stirrup-vase. 1 See above. Ft* L p. ■ -|0- 

a On the original floor here were found * It is just possible, indeed, that this Teasel 
numerous 1 blades 1 or knife like flakes or ob* may represent a very late element from an 
sidian or volcanic glass, with only one es- earlier floor. The general shape with Ihc four 

4 Medal¬ 
lion * 
pit hoi 
ferred to 
W- Maga¬ 
zines from 
M. M + III 





Steatite An interesting point about this Lite version oi a * Medallion pit hot is 

the hatched decoration of its horizontal bands. These are in each case 
a r ran fed in three rows; with the incised lines sloping in alternate direc- 

WtrcLfi ■& 

Big. 623, Plait womk 

E >E.CO K AT ION ( I S\ IT ATI ON" □ f 

Il> vtkn Bands) on .M. M. 
Ill a Limestone Vase. 

Fkl 132-1. Section pi 
Steat ls k /V r / fos , 1 At k k i:> 
Tomb, Mycenae, 

Fig. H2 .« r?. Basf. or Pm/as xz of Magazine V 


Kig f 620^. Sei teonpfLatk 4 Mkhai i ion 1 
Plattavork Banils. 


on them a 
i nidi E ion. 

tioiis (see Fig. b-J 5 , i>) so that any two of them set together form a 
J herring-bone' pattern. Double rows of inclined striarions forming this 
pattern are, indeed, frequent on the later pithoi of the Magazines, aiul the 
origin of this recurring pattern from a simple plait-work band is made dear 
by the actual appearance ot this on a jar No, i 2 ol Magazine \ —of good 
fabric showing curved [l utings of early tradition round its base (Fig, G 25 %)A 

handles* above and two near the base conforms, ‘ medallion 1 pitk&i. 

however, to a recurring later type. But the ■ This pitkn closely resembles in details 
contour of the upper rim approaches that of of its fabric, such as the profile of the rim and 


The repeated ‘herring-bone' bands on the late 4 Medallion pith&s 
(Fig. t;*!5 p i) point, therefore, to plait-work zones of this kind on earlier pif hot 
of the same class. None are to be found on the existing clay specimens, 
but the farutta is filled by those in green steatite from the Atreus l^ E1H ih 
at Mycenae, a section of one of which is reproduced hi big. U14J The 
horizontal bands on this consist of three rows of plain plait-work* 

\Ve have here an additional indication dint these finely carved jars 
of green Cretan steatite had, at one time, reposed on an early floor ol the 
Royal cellars of Knossos, side by side with the stately + Medallion J pitkvi of 
painted clay^ Nowhere else, in fact, but in the Great Palace, have remains 
of clay store-jars of this type been brought to light. It will also be recalled 
that a type of ewer, executed in more than one stone, with plait-work decora¬ 
tion on 1 he body, is a special characteristic at Knossosof the earlier phase of 
the Third Middle Miiioan Period. (See Fig* +SiH) ' 

The Late Minoan Pitkoi of the Normal Class. 

The normal arrangement of the Liter jars shows an upper gone of four 
handles beneath the rim, and another, either oi two or tour handles con¬ 
nected with a rope-work band at about a fifth of the total height of the 
pithos above its base. This in itself is of very early tradition, and answers 
to the scheme that already appears on some of the painted jars of the early 
Magazines at Phaestos 3 of M. M, II date. As already demonstrated, 4 this 
arrangement of an upper and lower row of handles preserves an interesting; 
record of the process by which this class of large pots were evolved. The 
starting-point was a mere bowl with either one or two handles on its rim. 
On this* in order to increase the vessels capacity, a high collar was built 
up like a second story* and its upper circuit in turn provided with handles 
of its own* At a still earlier stage the process is illustrated by basketry*® 

It will be seen 11 that this 1 two-storied classot pots finds wide analogies 
not only among Mainland ‘ Helladic forms, but among ihe late Ikonae and 
early Iron Age d ramie types on the Italian side* as at Crespellano and tit 
the well-known Villanovan urns. 

the well-modelled handles* that with the In oilier cases there are si v nr more handles 
foliated ssone below p reproduced in Fig, 02^, ^ in the upper rone. 

This latter decoration is a reflection of painted 1 P- of *J/*, ii* Ft. 11, p. 4-^ SL,t Fl- ami bl&su 
vases itt the L M + 1 & side. -4i* r 25th 

1 See above, pp. 23 i d 232. 1 E g the suspension basket from Koftitthn, 

T Cf. P 0/ ;!/ p i. p. 4 t 2 t end Fig. S 9 ti p Suppl- PL LX (see below, pp 645, 
and cf, p. 22^ Fig. 17 +j t above. * A 0/A/. f l\ T Ft. II, p. 4291 Fig. ISA. 

3 L. Pernier* Ahm. Ant^ siv p PS, XXXIV A 

fithoi of 



types of 
flr/A&i of 
L. M. 1J 

Among Minoan pit hoi 
the predominant late type 
of the West Magazines, 
with its upper and lower 
tier of handles, goes back 
to a more elongated and 
upright class —the fabric 
of which may be said to 
consist of three or four 

* stories ' — showing traces 
of 'drip' ornament, that 
had come into vogue with 
the closing phase (£) of 


A good specimen, re¬ 
produced in Fig. oc¬ 
curred on a slight!}' higher 
floor-level in the North- 
East Magazine at Knos- 
sos, 1 and another similar 
in the Sixth Magazine of 
the 1 North-East f fmtse * 
there** In the latter case 
a sealing was found by the 
jar incised with signs of the 
linear Class A, and accom¬ 
panied by a pictorial rep re- | 
sentatcon of a lion's head 

* rhy ton 1 „ as well as by a seal 
impress son of the facade 
type, showing a house win¬ 
dow. Similar////^/recurred 
in the Magazines of the 
largest house at Tylissos, 3 Fig, &2 G. 
where the painted pottery 
indicated that their use had survived well into the earlier phase {<;) of L M. I. 

Tiie walls of this extremely elongated type of pUkos are still striped with 

M. M. Ill j* r Firms mow Mouth-East 


1 M Y ii + Ft. II, p, 4 r 9 , Fig* 241 lu 
1 Cf. ihd., p + 42a and Fig. 212 + 

P Ti Aiffitf p. |g j seqq. 

and Figs. 3 and 4, 


the 'drip' ornament of M. M. III, and the rope decoration appears in hold 
relief as on the more archaic M. M, 1 1 class- 

lit Magazines of the last palatial Age at Phaestos, however, as at L.M. I b 
Hagia Triada, a less elongated ami more shapely type of store-jar makes JlXvof 
its appearance. On these, while the arrangement of an upper and lower Pb®**»«* 
tier of handles remains unchanged, the rope-work decoration is no longer 
executed in full relief but as flat bands* either horizontal or curving, the 
surface of which is scored by fine incised lines {Fig. <> 27 ). In this and in 
other cases graffito inscriptions of the Linear Class A appear on these 
vessels, and the last associations of their floor-levels belong to the beginning 
at least of the maturer phase (^} of L. M. 1 . 

In the West Magazines at Knossos no examples occurred of this 
particular class of pitkai. The flat bands, however, especially in horizontal 
positions, are of frequent occurrence, sometimes with similar upright 
stnations. On the other hand, certain features of the flat bands of the 
Knossian group, such as the repeated C s 1 and the impressed circles, like 
those of the ‘Medallion * pit hoi* can be shown to be a direct inheritance from 
M, M. III. Altogether the evidence points to an overlapping of this group 
and the Phaestos type shown in Fig. A 2 ?. 

Influence of L. M. I Painted Designs on Pitkai: Plant Decoration. 

A terminus ad qucni for the pil hoi of the West Magazines is, of course, influence 
supplied by the abundant remains ot painted jars and amphoras found with 
them, and representing the last ceramic element—L. M* II—on the upper 
floors, from which they were precipitated at the time of the final catastrophe, pnhoiot 
What, however, was the higher limit ? class. 1 ** 

For the continuous history’' of this late Palace section the data supplied 
by the debris of the South-West angle of the building beyond, which fitted 
on to the area of the West Magazines, form a useful supplement.* 1 I lere, in a 
deposit, marking the former existence of a votive centre at this corner, and 
containing abundant fragments of L, M. 11 pedestal led goblets, was round, 
in addition to further amphoras ot the L, M. 11 class, a fine specimen 
illustrating the 1 marine ' style of L. M. 1 bf though it was otherwise closely 
related to the * octopus' series of the ‘ Palace style jars. I lie remains here 
also contained various characteristic fragments of L. M. I b goblets, 1 It is 

1 These arc derived from the overlapping 1 Iv g. p. &34, 1 ig- 0-2. 

'tats 1 to which rope-work is iten reduced on : See above, l*t. I, p, 359 

M.M, III pottery, (See P. of M„ ii, Ft. II, ‘ See above, It I, p. 280 , Fig. 215. 

p. 418, Fig. 241 a.) * See above, p. 3&1, Fig. 301 a-f 

640 influence of painted designs on pit hoi 

a fair conclusion that, apart from some repainting in the latest clays of the 
building, the West ^.Iaga^ines as found date at least from L. M. I h and 
may ev en overlap the close of L, l a* 

Fig. G 27* L. M I h P/mos inscklrll* wit it 

l-ii J+ /Vi/jfas 1 (Xo, ie> of Maga^ink V) 
W| ™ hE.vnr Spray rounu Foot, 



This conclusion is confirmed by certain reflections of plant motive* 
npf peculiar to painted jars of the mature L M. 1 a phase traceable in the 
decoration of the pithri contained by other Magazines, The continuous 
leafy spray round the foot of the jar. Fig. li*V recalls those that recur 
on the painted ’ pithoid jars' of die L.M 1 a class.* 

I ?.*? *5*1 “?■ "■ -*■ ... " l3 - 1» «** «— *. k* bund q «*, 

Ste /- ii* 11. 1 ] i Ph 453,1'lgs, 21 the lower tier af handle 

Fig. fi2H. Pjtj/os os Higher Level beside ‘' is Magazine IV with Plant 

Decoration in Keliei’. 




1 Adder- 
mark* in 


The plant designs on the most decorative of our pi Hun, Fig- h 29 1 — 
shown as it stands in Magazine IV—recall at once certain aspects of the date- 
palm motive as seen in L. M. I b vases* as well as the papyrus groups,both 
of these and of the painted jars and amphoras of the 1 Palace styleThe 
alienee, however, of side coils, and, in the second case, of a central flower, 
suggests a nearer relation to the simple reed tufts such as are seen between 
the Double Axes on the large painted jar from the ‘ North-West 
Sanctuary'. 3 The sprays on the similar pilfws of Magazine XI must be 
regarded as an inferior variant of those illustrated by Fig. < 1 * 29 . Both the 
rope ornament and the horizontal bands of this jar show the incised C's, 
derived from overlapping ‘ears’ of clay, of which bands are moulded on 
M. M. Ill jars.* 

Further Motives derived from Vase Painting: Looped Ornament 

and ‘Adder Mark'. 

Another derivative of Late Mmoan 
painted decoration on vases may be recog¬ 
nized in the pendant loops seen in bold 
relief between the handles of the pitfi&s in 
Suppl. Pi. LVI 1 . b, from the Ninth Maga¬ 
zine^ These recall the double banded 
festoon5“distinct from the beaded form 
reminiscent of the Ladies in Blue—that is 
often seen beneath the rim of painted 
vessels of the latest palatial Age or the 
immediately succeeding epoch, as for in¬ 
stance on a stirrup-vase from Grave I of 
the Zafer Papoura Cemetery, Fig, tgJO,* 

It will be further noted that the rope- 
work in the lower zone of the looped 
pithos (Suppl. PI. LVII, 6 ) is no longer 
simply undulating, but imitates in fact the 

1 The impressed rings with central loss on metre and the outer width of its upper margin 
the rim and handles of this pithos are also a 071 cm. The section of the rim is somewhat 
distinctive feature. square in outline. 

* E.g. P. o/M., ii, Pt. 11, p. 496, Fig. 301 , r. * A. E„ Ibrnhs of Ktmsos, i, p. zz t Fig. 14 

3 This r.v hvfothesi overlay Magazines XI- (Arehtuoiogia, LIX : 1906, Tomb I), This 

XIII. See above, p. 343. I’ig. IT, h, stirrup-vase should be referred to tile borders 

4 See above, p. f>39- "• *• of L. M. II i or L. M, IIU. 

s No. 17. The height of this jar is W4 

Tic- G30. Stirrup Vase with 
Festoon Ornament ; Grave tj 

ZArtR Fa 1*0 UK A. 



crested wave outlines of the familiar sacral motive of Minoan Art, which p 
as demonstrated I11 detail in a former Section, 1 can he clearly traced to the 
'Adder Mark of the Goddess. 

This conclusion is confirmed by 
the still more definite repro¬ 
duction of this motive—as 
usual in the later versions with¬ 
out the dot or dash- — on two 
of the flat bands of the />t///os r 
SuppL PI. LVIIL* In a more 
angular form this motive can be 
traced on the bands of some 
other fiiilwi of die Magazines, 
as well as on a somewhat later 
specimen found in the South 
P ropylaeurn, ' Y h i s dotl tiss form 
of the sacral wave motive 
answers in vase painting to the 
latest phase of the Palace style 3 
and Lhe early part of L. M. Ill* 

In connexion with the appearance of this religious ornament on the 
fiilfiai may he cited the fragment of one — found outside the section of the 
building containing the Magazines—here reproduced in Fig. 631 . The 
objects rising above and below the curves of the rope-work might at first 
sight be taken for some kind of tool The flat curving ends of the blades, 
however, in spite of the attenuation of their attachments, make it probable 
that they are conventional derivatives from the blades of the sacred weapon. 

Typical L. M. II Ptikol 

The most usual type of pitfios is that In which the zones between the 
horizontal bands are simply decorated with undulating lines of imitation rope* 
A typical specimen from the Third Magazine is to be seen in the British 
Museum, 1 and a good example is given below in Fig. fSI&L from just inside 
the entrance of the Twelfth Magazine* 

FJO + 631. F k.vr;\i ent of Pitiu k w ith I m ents 
in Relief, 

s See fcboye. p„ jjft seqq, 
s No. j of Magazine VI. Height 1-20 metre; 
outer diameter of rim o-£h? cm. The rim of ibis 
jar has a well-modelled profile. 

3 See + for instance, the upper margin of 

the day sarcophagus, p. 330 , Fig. 272 r a t 

' Presented by Mr. Minos Kalochiierinos, 
and obtained by him in 1878 from that area, 
(See A. k.. A twss0s t Report, rgoo, p. si.) 

L u 


L. M. 11 










XL7. XI. IO. XI. 14, XL6 


Pig. 632 . Pkoliies ok Kims ok Pir/fOi-, M.M. II a-L. M. II. 

The horizontal 
bands of this nor¬ 
mal class showed a 
variety of incised 
hatching, and, at 
times, impressed 
circles. The ' her¬ 
ring-bone ' pattern 
that often occurs on 
them is, as already 
noticed in the case 
of a late 1 Medal¬ 
lion ’ ptfhos, taken 
over from another 
source, and ulti¬ 
mately, as we have 
seen, 1 connects it¬ 
self with plait-work 
patterns that ap¬ 
pear on M. M. Ill a 
stone vases. The 
pt/hos, S uppl. PI. 
LVIII, with the 
incised ‘Adder 
Mark 1 affords a 
good example of 
this late class. 

Profiles of Rims of Pifiwi M.M, Ua to L.M. II. 

The Comparative Table. l : ig, 1132 , shows a selection of the rim profiles 
in three successive classes of the great store-jars. The first category. A, 
representing the great knobbed pithrn IM. M. I i a), shows a simple flare (A i), 

Huskies part of the Third Magtmne, a small were brought out on ibis occasion were, how- 
LLdjoining section of the Long Gallery was also ever, thrown into a rubbish heap from wliich 
dug into as well as of the adjoining they were recovered lb rough a careful siding 

afterwards named the ‘Corridor of the of the earth deposit in \ 900, 

House Tablets’. What fragments of tablets 1 See above, p. 636, l-‘igs, 023 -5. 


supplemented in 2 by a bifid ridge below, B, exemplifying the 4 Medallion ' 
group, shows a compactor and more elegant outline, in the case of B 1 over* 
lapping the underlying ridge. The normal rim of the later series (C) s as 
seen in the \\ est Magazines, is moulded much as those of B> but some 
later examples are marked by a flattening of the top, a feature to be also 
iound later In the case of what is probably a store-jar of the Re~occupation 
period found on a late floor level of she South Propylaeum* 

The average height of thirty typical specimens of these ordinary late 
Palace pilkm is 1*30 metre, and the exterior breadth of their rims GS centi¬ 
metres, The mouths of these jars were thus slightly wider than half 
their height 

* Bottle-shaped t Class of Jars derived from Basketry. 

Side by side with this normal type there is another distinct series, the 
contours and decoration of which point to the influence of a different class 
ol models- Although approximately of the same height as the other, a 
noticeable feature of these jars is their proportionately narrower neck and 
rim h which gives diem a bottled ike appearance. The outer margin of the 
mouth is, in this case, about a third of the height instead of half of it as in 
the other series. The width of the neck Is in some cases little more than 
3 quarter of the height of the vessel. The bodies form an elongated oval ; 
the waving rope ornament is absent from die horizontal interspaces of their 
zones, and they are surrounded by numerous slightly relieved bands with 
hatched surfaces, sometimes presenting the b herring-bone " pattern. 

A good example Is given in SuppL PL LVH a} and a similar pitkos is 
seen In position to the left of the entrance of Magazine IX in Fig. 63 :J. a 

[ he handles near the base and above the shoulders on jars of this 
class conform to those of the normal piikoh but, apart from this, the whole 
appearance is best explained by basketry models. In this case, and more 
notably in the more open-mouthed type, SuppL Pi. L [ X r ? 2, we find the best 
analogy on the African side. In Kordofan—between the Libyan Desert 

Height 1'2-3 metre ; outer rim 47 cm. in 

\ [t numbered i in Fig. G 33 , Its 
height is 1-42 metre: (he diameter of the 
rim 4- cm, A similar vessel, No, 13 of Mag. 
IX, is 044 metre high with a rim diameter 

of 4 2 cm, (Iis base is 23 cm* In diameter.) 
These proportions will be seen to be widely 
diverge cit frosn those of rite normal pitk&i of 
the Magazines, though their height is about 
the same—about a third the height instead of 

U II 2 

jars de¬ 
rived from 


ami the Upper Nile—receptacles of basket-work of much the same shape 

Fu033, Entrance Section ok Magazine IX, with Pillar supporting Colujunmiask or Hall 


as the store-jars with which we are concerned are used as milk churns, 
and are hang up on brunches. A specimen from the Pitt Rivers Museum 
from the Bagarra district is shown in the SuppL PL LX. 1 Being made 

1 Us height Sr cm., the outer rein being s 5 cm. in diameter,. from a photograph kindly 


for suspension the bottom in ihts case is rounded off, and decorati\ ? e tassels 
are attached. 

Here an interesting feature in the fabric is the strengthening of the 
upper 1 story* with bands consisting of narrow strips of hide. This strengthen¬ 
ing with leather-work is interesting, since the raised bands and herring-bone 
plait-work that appear above and below these round the Minoan pilhoi have 
been shown to be the outgrowth of a leather pattern, clearly originating—as in 
the case of stone vases of early M. M. 1 11 date—in plaited leather strips. 1 

Numbers and Arrangement of Pithai : Total Capacity of Oil Storage in 

West Magazines, 

Including bases found in posh ion, evidence was forthcoming ol the 
existence of 151 piihoi standing in their places at the lime of excavation. 
In this amount arc reckoned i 2 previously extracted from Magazine 111 , and 
11 from die Long Corridor, which had also largely served as a repository of 
oil jars arranged along its East Wall and outside the entrance jambs ol the 
Magazines. There was fragmentary evidence of many more, 

I t must be borne in mind, moreover, that in many cases the great jars 
had been cleared out of the Magazines by the grubbers after treasure, who 
had frequently broken into the older cists beneath the pavements. J hus, 
in Magazine VII only a single pilhos came to light, and In VIII and X, in 
each case, not more than five. 

The Magazines in which these great tars had stood formed a continuous 
series from the Third to the Thirteenth inclusive, or eleven in all. There 
was no evidence of such storage either In the Southernmost Group, A-cand 
1, 2. or in the Northern Section, embracing Magazines X I \ to XVIII, and 
forming an area apart. 

The Magazines themselves fell into four groups according to their 
dimensions. Those of the Northern section (in which no jars occurred) 
were about 1050 metres in the length of their interior; Nos. 111 —V, 13 
metres: VI to X, under the N.W, Pillar Hall, c. 14-20 metres, and 
XI-Xlll 1 £-50 metres. The long narrow Magazines XI and XII were, 
as will be seen from SuppL Pi. LX I, completely packed with piihoi in 
single rows. The existing evidence shows that there was room in 

supplied me by the Curator, Mr, Henry 1 See especially P.o/JU., i r Kg. 2SHJ, (p.41 a) 
Itidfuur. Such vessels were provided with where the plait-work is certainly copied from 
basket-work covers. The fit/ici themselves leather bands, 
may have been covered wilh wooden disks. 

X ajalier 
of pnhvi 
nS. Jisrer- 
luineLS in 


Groups M 
to dimen¬ 


to Conlain 
420 fit&fftl 
pf oil 

fkilini’ of 
pit Aw in 
d Throne 

over of 
VII l-X. 

Nos. Ill — V for about 30 store-jars, or 90 in all; in Nos, Vf-X for 40, 
making 290 in all, while in each of the longest group, Nos. XI-XIII, where 
the pithoi stood only against the right walls—as shown in Suppl. Pi, LX I— 
there was place for 28, totalling 84 jars. 

The Magazines themselves were therefore constructed to contain about 
374, while the standing room in the Long Corridor could have accommodated 
46 more. 

As many as 420 pithoi may thus have been stored in this area, though 
it is not necessary to suppose that the full number of jars was reached at 
any one time. The cubic contents of a pithoi of normal type and size, 
1-40 metre in height, would have amounted to about 185 litres or 40 gallons. 1 
The total amount of oil storage that the West Magazines were made to 
accommodate would thus have been about 77,700 litres, or 16,800 gallons. 

The discovery is mentioned in Volume II. of a considerable building 
containing rows of pithoi, like those of the late Palace Magazines, near the 
shore at the Southern port of Komb" known to the nati ves as the 'Tdoneion' 
or Custom I louse. Similar warehouses doubtless existed in the sea-port of 

A curious indication that the contents of the pithoi was in fact olive 
oil is ailorded by a discovery relating to the very moment of the final 
catastrophe. On the pavement of the ‘ Room of the Throne‘ t close to its 
entrance had been set ahtfxistrap doubtless used for anointing functions in 
the Lustra! Area below. On its side by these la)’ a much crushed pit has 
ol normal type that had evidently been transported here, with its contents 
at a somewhat low level, and from which some acolyte, who had turned it 
over thus for his convenience, was in the act of filling the ceremonial vessels. 

Roofing over of Section of Magazines: Painted Dadoes, 

I n order to preserve, in situ, the important remains of a column-base and 
door-jamb of the bi-columnar 1 Great I tall' above, as well as for the better 
conservation of the pithoi in the Magazines below, a section of these was 
roofed over (including Magazines V 1 II-X), and the upper lloor restored (see 
h ig, liOiS, al>ove), A view of the interior of Magazine IX thus covered over, 

1 Tiiis calculation was arrived ai from a typi¬ 
cal normal example* pithos 10 of Mag. V (rf. 
tfJ 0 G 3 -li opp.)hy dividing its interior into 
the equivalent nf two cylinders. One of these 
was 41 cr 11. Y- ir.jj in ) in dkmeter and 69 cm, 
(^27 in.) in height, the other 32 cm. in diameter 

(r. 1 En.)md cm. (r. 37 in.) in height. The 
tMct figures were 184-44 litres (40 6 gallons). 
| A °f J V., ii, Ft. t, p. 88. 

below, p, 931;, and Coloured Plate 
XXXIII (Frontispiece), 




Fio. <>34 Entrance uf Magazine Xll showing Plaster Decoration or Wall. 

is given in I'ig. 633 , showing the lower pier ol the Northern column ol the 
Hall anti the wooden beam that ran above the dado, restored in cement. 

This beam would itself have been concealed by the plaster decoration 
of the walls which seems to have been in course of renewal here, as i n a large 



Remains area of the Eastern section of the Palace, in the epoch—-L. M. 11 —that prc* 
rljr?mT^ ceiled the final catastrophe. 'File best evidence of this is afiorded by the 
entrance of Magazine XII (Fig. fKt 4 ), also interesting from the fact that the 
lower block of its right-hand jamb is cut out of a limestone block of the Early 
Palace incised with the ‘Window’ sign. A dado band, coloured a bluish 
grey, occurs here at a height of S6 centimetres from the pavement followed 
by a Venetian red line, this system being repeated 6l centimetres above 
the first band. Though in this case perfectly plain, this dado scheme will 
be seen to answer very closely to that of the 1 Room of the Throne’, 

Parts of the same decoration were ton ml covering a block of masonry 
on the opposite wall of the Long Corridor, and remains of similar painted 
stucco, in some cases smoke-stained, occurred in other Magazines’; it is 
in fact evident that the system was intended to include this whole Ha semen t 
Section. In several Magazines, however, the walls were found in a quite 
rough state, with but little remains of plastering,- and it is possible that 
here, as seems to have been the case in part of the Fast Quarter of the 
building, 1 the process of re-decoration was in actual course of execution at 
the time of the final catastrophe of the Palace. 

Discovery of Standard Palace Weight of One Talent. 

Discovery Above the floor-level near the West end of the Fifteenth Magazine, and 
standard evidently fallen from an area of the upper system near the North-West 
weight. Corner Entrance, was the remarkable stone weight reproduced in Fig. 635 .* 
h is 43 centimetres (1inches) high, of the purple gypsum so much in 
use in the last palatial Age, and is somewhat wedge-shaped above, with 
a perforation 5-6 centimetres in diameter. It could thus be suspended 
Ogffi 1 from a rope. Upon both of its sub-triangular faces is an octopus in relief, 
L, M. 11 the tentacles in each case coiling over its square-cut sides, The tj pe of these 
matches that 011 a series of ‘ Palace Style ‘ ampbnras of the I jest period/ 
from the overlying Hall. As compared, however, with examples of the fine 
Transitional Age, such as the ‘ambushed’ octopus on the steatite ‘ rhyton ’of 
M. M. Ill date—a relic from an earlier treasure, brought to light in the 

1 K.g. in Mag. VI ; P.efM., i t p. 459,1% 
329 . 

* As for instance in Mag, IX (Fig. ti33, 
p. 646 above). 

* See Jt of, 1 /., iii, p. j56. 

* See, too, A. E., A'^uja, Reputt, 1901, 
pi 1- 42, 4j, and cf. my Minoan IItigAfi and 

.Iftdiums of Currency (in Corolla Numismatic^ 
igcH 34 i. Fig, t, 

1 The object is a cm. wide at top gradually 
increasing to 17 cm, at bottom, where it is 
1 j cm, thick. 

' E.g, p. 30ft, Fig. 2-1 ft above. 



Lustra I Basin of the 'Room of the Throne’—where the coils are inter¬ 
twined, 1 this is of the later class in which each tentacle is separately defined, 

without any crossing. It 
is still somewhat early in 
style, however, since one 
arm passes behind the 
squid’s body. 

It is clearly a 
weight, and the tentacles 
coiling over the whole 
surface had a practical 
value in making ii diffi¬ 
cult, without detection, 
to reduce its volume. 
It is also probable from 
the frequent repetition 
of such cuttlefishes, both 
01 1 ve s sets a n d sea 1-s to lies, 
that, in ancient as in mod¬ 
em Crete, it formed a 
popular article of diet, 
and would thus have 
been a prevailing ele¬ 
ment in any Minoan oil a 
podrida. A fisherman 
holding a large octopus is 
seen on the‘flatcylinder’ 
seal (Suppl. I’l. LI V, e). 
Its appearance on the 
weight had therefore a 
I special apj,impriateness in 
connexion with the local 

Fits. 635. Standard Talent Whiuht or Pvupll Gypsu# 
with Two Octotous in Kkuhk. 


The tact that it scales 

exactly 29x00 grammes shows that we have here 

to do with a * light talent 

1 P. ii, t’l. I, p, 227. Fig. a .TO, and cf. Fig. 312 r{Goumifc) arid d (Palaikaslro). On 

Ibid ,, IH, tl, pp. ;s!, joj,iinii Fig,307. This the Knussiin example of this style, p. Ji'o 
free tradition is .still observed in I- M. I b above, Fig. 213, crossing tentacles still occur, 
painted vases, eg. P. of M., ii, I't, M, p. jog. 

a light 
used in 


of a peculiarly Egyptian type. This answers to a somewhat low version 
of the Babylonian talent representing Go m/vas of about 49Q grammes. The 
Knossian weight would itself answer to a mina of 483-33 grammes. 

It further appears that the Palace Standard of which we have here the 

Flo, 636 , Com;R Ingot mou Hacia 

hiCb fi3f, I hoot om Tablets of Cu$s B. 


fcm of 

signs on 
tablets of 
Ctasa ih 

evidence was approximately repeated in a series of copper ingots. Nineteen 
of these were discovered by Professor Halbherr and the Italian Mission in 
1903, carefully waited up in four basement compartments of the small 
1 alacc ol 1 lagia I rmda, five of them presenting incised signs (Fig. 636). 
The average weight of these ingots which themselves do not greatly vary 
m weight l —is 29.13 J 6 grammes, and two of them weigh exactly 29 kilo¬ 
grammes, the amount scaled by the Palace weight from Knossos 

Ingots of the same kind have been brought to light on other Cretan 
sites, including Tyhssos on the border of the Knossian district * A f»v 
ment o one occurred in the Palace itself, in disturbed earth near the Soutl, 
end of the Long Corridor. 1 hat even In the latest Age of the Palace there 

J. HaizicLdis, TiAimrac MmuwnJ t p T 32 i p * /*.*?/ !/ [f h it n - _ 

Fig. 3 i. (Weight not given.) Other similar p. 7ho , p,v ','73 ’ ’ P ' 535 ‘ lg ' 333 and 

finds are recorded at Pilaik.isiro ami Mochlos. 



were considerable deposits of these in its T rea series is itself made evident by 
the recurrence of the ingot signs on the clay tablets ol Class B (Fig- ' )■ 

The similar ingots borne by the tribute-bearing chieftains of Keftiu as 
depicted in the Tomb or Kefchmara have already received illustration. 1 

It Is clear, indeed, that this form of Ingot, with its sides incurved to gmlUr 
facilitate porterage, had a widespread currency in the Ancient World beyond bonwby 
the sphere of M inoan enterprise. The large hoard of these found at Sena from’ 
lllxi In Sardinia with inscribed signs had possibly a Cretan connexion, and 
those found In Cyprus still come within the Minoan range. But they are 
also seen borne as tribute by Syrians and Nubians. The material of one 
of the Hagia Trmda specimens analysed by Professor Mosso was nearly 

99 per cent. pure copper. , 

From the repeated cancellation on the ‘Chariot Tablets , illustrated 
below, of the * cuirass \ as part of knight’s equipment, and the substitution 
of die ‘ ingot ’ sign.* It would appear that 1 copper talent was regarded as 
its proper equivalent* 

Disk-shaped Weights from Knossos 1 of Egyptian Gold Standard. 

Numerous examples of smaller weights were discovered belonging to 
the late palatial period, l he typical shape was a disk, with sides in sume 
cases slightly rounded off, and the materials were dark steatite, limestone, 
alabaster and, occasionally, lead. In many cases these were engraved 
with circular signs of numeration, and it has thus been possible to place 
together a consecutive scries as shown in I* ig. b.SS, 

The larger of these. Fig. < 15 * 8 . *, of black steatite, found with a late 
Palatial lamp of the same material, N.E. of the l'alace, is exceptionally 
marked with two larger circles, which, as the decimal system was in vogue, 
may in each case stand for ten of the units, represented here by lour o tie 

ordinary small circles ®go- h would therefore be equivalent to 24 units. 
The weight, as corrected to its full original volume , 3 scales 1,567-47 grammes. 
Its diameter is 11-5 cm. and height 6 5. 

Liuc pala¬ 
tial dislc- 

bered and 
tc* Egyp¬ 
tian units. 

1 P. tfM., ii, Ft II, p. 740 , Fig. mej. plaster cast is then made up to reproduce .1* 

* Sec below, p. So 5 ah;! 1 -ig. 7*1 °dginal contour and the weight of this restored 

* In order to recover the original weight of CMt taken. The whole calculation « thus 
chipped or partially defective weights l have reduced to a simple propomon sum. As the 
resorted to a simple process. A cast of the imperfect plaster weight is to the perfect so is 
imperfect weight is first made in plaster of the defective stone (or meta) Wt, fi 1 10 1 
Paris and the weight of this taken. The same in its original condition. 

6 5 4 


Divided by 2^ this gives a xmit of almost exactly 65-5 grammes 
{*“■ 1 jOoS grains). 1 he unit thus arrived at represents 5 Egyptian gold 
units of a 13 grammes (= 65 grammes). This is 10 Egyptian l units of 





I’id, «3S. CkA&tMTKi) St-PXK Weights from K Stosses ts sh.vh*: of R,it Disks, 

6 5 grammes, the half being often used for calculation the drachm us 
opposed to the slater? 

Next m gradation is the weight h. of the same black steatite material, 
and also found in a lair: Palatial deposits l ive of the smaller circles arc 
here engraved ° 0 o o o , representing similar 5 half units of 6-5 grammes. 
1 lie diameter of this weight is 82 cm*, and its height 29. 

The next weight r, or white limestone, found with the preceding 
presents 4 small engraved circles gg, pointing to a unit of a little over 
68 grammes, rius answers to 5 Egyptian units of the somewhat full 
weight ot 13*67 grammes. The diameter of this is 6-6 cm., and height - t. 

f For more del ailed metrological re*u]is 
1 must agum refer lo my Min thin Utfeite and 
Mtdiums &f Currtnq'. (Sec |>. 343 seqq. of 

Corolh? Xtsmismutiia ) 

Op. tit p. 345. The original weight (as 
corrected) was ^7 02 grammes. 



Finally, the small flat weight of coarse alabaster found above the floor- 
level of the East Magazines has a single small ring on its upper surface 
showing that it represents a unit. Its original weight was 5*93 grammes. 1 

One flat disk of fine alabaster from die Palace site, marked with two Oiher 
small circles, scaling 8-54 grammes, belongs to a different system, and cl carl \ Sniped 
answers to a light-weight Babylonian shekel and a leaden weight of the 
same shape, of 845 grammes, must be classed with this.- Otherwise the taught 
correspondence of weights ot this group, found in a late palatial associa- | on j A „ ^ 
tion- — -as evidenced by the numbers they bear and the original amount 
scaled by them — with the Egyptian gold units, 3 may be regarded as con¬ 
clusively established. This might in itself be expected from the close 
commercial relations in which Crete at this time stood to Egypt, so well J^wO** 
illustrated in the tombs of the Viziers of Ihothmes 111 . and his immediate Egyptian 
successors by the envoys of Keftiu and their offerings. A remarkable 
discover} 1 , however, described below, 1 now shows that the Egyptian gold 
unit was known in Crete by the very beginning of the Middle Minoan Age. 

Amongst other forms of Minoan weights may he mentioned a bronze 

ox-head -found in a I.nte Minoan association of the votive stratum of die wttgiu 

Dikiaean Cave — weighing 

75-62 grammes 

grains), Fig. « 39 . apparently 

I representing8 A'&tets of 9 2025 

grammes. Like an Egyptian 

example of the same form 

from Tel 1 -el-A mama, it is 

filled with lead.® 

A haematite example 

> of the well-known 1 sphen- wci^hi of 
+ . . „ , , t Haenia- 

donoid cla-Hs 1 — like si mg ^ 

bullets slightly cut away on 

Fiu, 639. Bronze 


Cave, (f) 

Fig. 640, Sphesiwkoh 
KNO 5 S 0 & (|) 

the side to enable them to stand 

1 One of Professor Petris’?- Egyptian weights 
gives a ball" gold unit of 6 *095 pammeSi Its 
diameter h 4*55 cm.; height i j 55- 
* See r/A, pp. 347 , JJ 4 &- 
a For the Egyptian gold unii-i and corre¬ 
sponding weights — which go back in ibe 
earliest dynasties and, apparently 10 pre¬ 
historic times — sec especially A. I - ^ 

SttfflC f'iittn WtigAti iff /V*?/ /W*W $ 

was foum! on a floor of a basement 

Co/ktfi « (Prt*. Srt- J?^/- * 4 rt*-t 
p. 37 S seqq.}. 

1 p h (>65, iit end of Section. 

% Obtained by me in 

* Weigall, tf/, r//„ p. 3 ^ 7 , No, 7076 and 
PL V, The original weight was 86*7 5 
grammes (r. i?35° grains)# 

* In Egypt stone weights of this daw go 
back to the early dynasties. 


room on the South front of the Palace. It lay beneath a wall of the 
Re-occupation Period (Fig. (HO), and its affinities must be sought in 
examples in the same material from L. M. Ill tombs at Enkomi. It 
weighs 12 6 grammes (195 5 grains), and apparently represents a somewhat 
low Egyptian gold unit. 

The * Balance 1 Sign on an Early Libation Bowl from Knossos. 

Its early The earliest Mlnoan representation of the balance sign occurs in an 

?cnceon inscription incised on a section of a shallow-cupped stone vessel, evidently 

Flc. G41. Inscribed Location Bowl of Basic 
Rock with Calcitk from N. or Palace Sttii, 
Knossos: Restorem Section. Height G cm. : 
Width jjciT.: Depth or Bowl s cm. (J) 

Fin. 0-12 . Inscription of Class A on Steatite 
Li ration Vessel of Cylindrical Form from 
APOPOILOU, (}> (Photo, by I)r. Marinatos.) 

Inscribed designed for libations or other offerings, found in a field North of the 
LRntkui 1 ^ a ^ ace Slte at Knossos and hitherto unpublished (Fig. (141), The material 
Bowl. itself is a fine-grained basic rock with cal cite, while the disproportionately 
shallow basin is often seen in the case of Cretan offertory vessels. 

Amongst all dedicator)' inscriptions engraved on such stone vessels 
the present example may be said to show the most archaic characteristics. 
Certain features would link it with the Hieroglyphic Class, but it fits 
on nevertheless to the known series of such dedications belonging to 
the Linear Class A. The two initial characters, apparently the same 
repeated, recall the second sign of the Psychro Libation Table. A new 
ideographic ’ rebus’ is presented by the raised bird’s leg of the first register 
holding a peg-like object which somewhat recalls the fl sign of the B 
script. 1 The general character of this composite ideogram recalls an 
early Egyptian hieroglyph in which a small pyramid appears beneath the 

1 For this compound sign see, loo, p. 67a below, Fig. 6SJ, No, 5 , 


open claws of a crane’s leg. 1 So. too, except for the ball-like object grasped 
in the hand, the bent arm of line 2 both recalls a Cretan hieroglyphic type, 8 
and also bears evidence of a survival of the ‘boustrophedon arrangement jnscrip- 

of the other series. 1 n con- Xtm - 
tradistinotion to Lhc bird s leg 
of the tipper register, it is 
turned to the left. 

That, in fact, the bent Kent arm: 
arm comes after the ‘balance ^^ or> 
sign receives striking confir¬ 
mation from an inscription 
of the same dedicatory class, 
engraved on the side of a 
steatite cup with perforated base, found recently at Apodoulou on a South- 
Eastern foot-hill of Mount Ida (Fig. 642 )." In this case, where the two 
lines of the inscription both follow the normal, left to right direction, 
the same sign of the bent arm holding a ball is succeeded, as on the Knossos 
bowl, by a form of* drop’ sign which, in cognate varieties, is well known to 
both classes of the Linear Script.* A similar ‘drop sign recurs on the 
upper margin of a section of a high steatite libation bowl Irom I etsofa, 
near Palaikastro (Fig. U43) f * and a re-examination of the remains oi the 
inscription has brought out the interesting fact that there, too, it is preceded 
by the bent arm and ‘ball’, running, as normally, from left to right. 

In Fig. 642 it is followed by the facing ' cat's head \ a religious symbol. 

Fig* fi S 3 > Pahtof as Itfscnimost of Class A on 
Hlgii Stsahie J j nation Buwli-kom PetsofA* (J) 

1 The sign indicates 1 inundationThe 
shape of ihe character seen on the Knossos 
howl dearly suggests a bird's leg- 

* A. E,, Script* Viwa 9 i + p, iSj, No, 7- 

* Copied there by Mr.J*Pendlebury in 4 

Or. Sp. Marina Sos, who 

J called attention to the 
object, has kindly sent 
me st photograph, sup¬ 
plemented by others 
giving the result* of his 
recent e salvation there. 
These include a bud's 

head 1 rhytofJ J , part of 
another, square libation vessel (inscribed), and 
a further portion of Fig. £342 (AfJvJ). 

1 See Table below, Fig- 6&G, opp* p. 

B 41 . 

* Bosanquct and Dawkins, Uflfuhlishtd Ob- 
jtetsfrom i&e 1%/tritostrv Extdvati&Hs,1902 6 t 
Part I f |). No. j- The formula of dedi¬ 
cation closely eorrespoiids with that of the 
Apodoulou Cup* It* first four characters, 
conventionally rendered, are repeated in the 
Apodoulou inscription (see Fig. ti42 and 
inset) followed by tlie 'feline head 1 (Fig. 
GS 9 f p, 6j% No. 40 ). In the first case the 
irmrfc of division is a simple dot f in the second 
a short upright stroke. It seems probable 
that in the ease of the Falaikastro vessel 
the first character preserved was preceded by 
the 1 drop h sign rr; and the same collocation 
recurs on another libation vessel from that 

site. The 1 hand 1 and s are u] so coupled 

on the Fsychro Libation Table.' 


The conclusion that the ‘drop* sign in its variant forms originated in 
a 'rain' pictograph had long since suggested itself to me, and its recurrence 
in a series of libation vessels may well indicate that it could be used in the 
sense of pouring. Its connexion with the figure of the hand held forward 
and grasping some offertory object is Itself most significant, 

• Scat's' 
here, pre¬ 
native of 

scales, oil 

V 45 C+ 

It would appear that on the offertory bowl from Knossos the‘balance 1 
sign, which in other cases is followed by numbers, stands at the end of 
a group and may rather refer to a title of some steward or Treasury official. 

This interpretation, moreover, is supported by two tablets from Hagia 
Triada, where in each case the ‘balance' sign appears, unconnected with 
numbers, after what there is good reason to regard as a personal name. In 
both cases (Figs. Hi l, 045) 1 the preceding sign group is the first of tile inscrip¬ 
tion and terminates in the * facing head’ sign <f. from which in Fig. ({45 
it is separated by a punctuation. I his character is also fount! repeated in 
an isolated position, and is clearly connected with persons, 1 {ere, too, the 
‘balance* may be taken as a determinative indicating that the individual 
referred to was some kind of accountant. 

This earliest representation of the ‘scales' or * balance ’ as seen on a 
Minowi vessel of offering in this way finds a curious comparison with the very 
latest. On a painted Cypro-Minoan ‘krater 1 recently brought to Jhdit by 
the Swedish excavators at Eakotni (Salamis)-Ftg. G4B—in connexion with 
one of the usual chariot scenes (themselves taken over from Cretan sarco- 

1 Both lablvis relate to vegetable products, 
on Fig. 1 . 3 ihc 1 saffron \ 

Un Mg. 644,1. $, we svu ihc 1 olive tree ‘ sign ; 



phajji of the preceding Age 1 ), there appear two attendant figures respec¬ 
tively representing, we may suppose, the deceased’s household in its sporting 

or military and its 
economic aspect. 
Beneath the horses 
stands a ‘squire’, 
in the shape of a 
bare-limbed youth 
holding a bow in 
one hand and an 
arrow in the other, 
while in front, clad 
in the gaberdine of 
Syrian fashion, is 
another person hold¬ 
ing up a balance, a 
natural emblem of 
stewardship. 8 

As an Egyp¬ 
tian hieroglyph the 
‘ balance ’ — wh ich 
was essentially used 
as a pictograph— 
had been known 
from the days of 
the Pyramids, to its 
most typical form, 

Fig. if iu. 

Cvi-ho-Mimoas ' K hater * FROM Enkosii Swedish 

however, the upright support of the cross-beam shows a loop above for 
suspension.* This type is occasionally represented in inscriptions of Class A 

1 For instance, the painted sarcophagus of 
H. Triada atid a clay * hxrmix ' front Zafer 
Fupoura in which a chariot scent can be 
faintly traced. 

s 1 l is to be regretted that Professor Martin 
Nilsson who first published this vase in hi* 
Jfomer and Mytttia* (Fry, 56) from a phtrto 
graph, supplied by the ™:u\atar T MrSjuquEst, 
should have been so far curried away by his 
theme as ty compare the subject with the 
well-known scene described in Jfotut vjii,. 
Gy seqq M x\ii T joy setpp, &c (p. ah;), 1 It can 

be but Zeus taking 4b the scales of destiny" 
in order to determine the fate of the com- 
butanes ** The culture illustrated by the 
Enkonii comb is still overwhelmingly Minoon, 
though-from the point of view of Religion, 
especially—a distinct Syrian izing tendency is 
perceptible* As the day images show, there 
was a gross clement in it. more ai home at 
Hierapolis than the Aegean knds. I’he 
I-lonieric Zeus would have found himself in 
very strange company. 

1 in an elaborate shape, illustrated in a 

X x 




Scales as 




• Balance' 
sljjn on 

in Class A. 

as can, be dearly seen on a tablet from Hagia Triads, where a well- 
defined hook rises from the beam of the balance. A loop is seen in the 
case of a Shaft Grave example referred to below, 1 In Class 13 , however, 
the best representations of the ‘balance’ sign show the upright support 
terminating below in a broad foot, while the upper end of it is iorked to 
hold the beam. This is dearly depicted on the tablets (Fig. 049 <r, c, </, 
below) from Knossos. 

The 'Scales’ or ‘Balance’ Sign (TaXavTov) on Tablets: coupled 

with ‘Ingot’ Sign. 

The ’scales' or 'balance’ is the Greek raWrai-, with which, indeed. 

Ftc. 6 17. Ta iu.f.t >hom * Taw ri. k 1' to, t> 18. T rnouP aFOiir a ox 


■ ISalance 

the talent weight of the Ingots specially connects them. This character, as 
we have seen, had already occurred on a tablet of the earlier linear Class A, 
found in the Temple Repositories, here reproduced in Fig. < 347 . It is 
there coupled, as above noted, with the open hand sign springing from 

the character h reversed, which seems to supply a parallel to the Greek 

'drachm' = a hand-full, 1 The 'balance' sign on Class A tablets from 
Hagia Triada is usually followed by numbers, which occur up to 19, 
including a fractional sum such as t£. On an example from Papoura, near 
the watershed on the way to the Diktaean Cave (Fig. (3 *8), it is also followed 
by numbers = 35. In this case it is preceded by the ‘open hand’ sign 

tomb of item Hasan the vertically of the From a drawing by Howard Carter.) 

upright support is told by a plummet, {fieiti 1 See p. ( 159 , n. 

liman. Pan IV, PI. mm, Fig 3 and p. 9. 1 P. of M. t \, p . 6,9 <pj gi 455^ 


attached to a form of]/ 1 and followed by an uncertain sign, The amount 
indicated may have been reckoned hi Minoan drachms. 

Apart from the sepulchral type of gold scales for the weighing of the 

and 4 \Uu\ Nt:ii p Signs. 

butterfly SouI F s from ihe Third Shaft Grave at Mycenae/ 1 the fullest illus¬ 
tration uf Minoan scales ts to be found in the specimen found in the Mavro 
Spelio Cemetery at Rnossos, 4 which seems to have served ior ordinary 
personal use. The Palace scales for the weighing of ingots must have 
been of much larger si^e* 

The "balance 1 sign is seen on some more or less fragmentary tablets 
of the linear Class B from Knossos, in two cases preceded by the 1 ingot 
(Fig, f »40 a, f). In one instance (r) the * ingot is crossed by the not 

infrequent linear sign It is followed by a single horizontal line denoting 

io p while the balance is coupled with six upright strokes signifying 6. In tf t 
on live other hand, the figures attached to the ‘ ingot — 6o show a certain 
correspondence with those that follow the balance = 5- ari d 21 fraction* to 
be interpreted with great probability as two quarters, or one halt. It is 
noteworthy in this connexion that the difference between 6o and 52* = 7 a 

1 A simplified form of ibis open hand sign Xus. St, where a larger and a smaller 
is at [ached to a series of other si^m on tablets trance from that interment are restored. L’i 
of CiaS3 A, {See A a/J/,, i t p. 645, Fig 17 $ ; too, Text, p. 53, Fig. r^ + 
arid cl p. 619, Fig. 455 J 2). * E, j, Forsdyke, Mavra Sfefio {S.S.A^ 

s See A &J M f iij, pp. 14^-52; and cf* sxviii), p, 256, Fig. where scale pans, arm, 
Amg of ;V«/jr p p. 53 &eqcp and handle were found in Tomb III 

1 G. Karo, Afptenai t Jtfas, VI XXXIV, 

X X 2 

J J ngQt* 

* balance 1 
on lablelSr 

60 and an 



66 - 


is exactly equal to ooe-erghth of the former sum. This figure nafight express 
the ratio between two nearly related standards. Or fc again, it might repre¬ 
sent the exchange value of the ingot as reduced by the amount specified - 
the price of copper having fallen in the Knossos market. 

The number 60 of Fig. a, after the ingot—the weight of which, 
as we have seen, was about that of a light Babylonian talent—Is itself 
significant, and would represent Its equivalent in minas* Each mina 
consisted of 60 shekels. So, too. the 3, and, again, 6 repeated after the 
1 balance' sign, points to an assimilation to duodecimal methods. 

Still* the Minoan system of mi me ration was essentially decimal and the 
| of the tablet itself refers to a unit which seems to have been reckoned 
in tens. The highest number that follows this double <2 sign is nine. 1 

Conventionalized Ingots on ‘ Banner* Signs as Marks of Value. 



ingms ifcs 
nmrki of 

■ * 

• * 
* * 


A round stone weight found in a house at Zakro, 1 and contemporary, 
therefore, with the Linear Gass A, shows, within an 
oblong frame, an ingot-shaped outline. Fig, 650 , a, of 
the kind where only two sides are incurved. It has six 
pellets engraved on its lower surface and weighs sso 
grammes {3-390'5 grains)* It thus answers to a unit 
very exactly corresponding with an Egyptian 4 -ktdet 
weight in the Petrie Collection. The sign reappears in the 
ordinary A signary—apparently as a simple phonogram 4 
—both in an original and a derivative shape (Fig, 650 , e, rf) 

in the same word-group } I (k]/\ 7 j ©A* Fig. &5o. a, fi, os 

* Ui’FKk axd Lower 

A parallel form showing the incurving on all its ! ncs or Zaxro 

sides, like the ordinary ingot ptetographs, occurs on tw o ,"' r * HT ' Ha ' 
Knossian tablets of Class B—in these cases distinctly 
as an indication of value—superposed on a rectangle w hich Is realty a form 
of the * banner' sign. 

The examples on the tablet. Fig. 051 . are of special interest in the 

1 The | that indicates the fractional sum is 

not found with mote than j units in this re¬ 
lation. In other connexions it is seen before 
higher amounts up to 54. (No, 7^5 of kind- 
list). In relation to the * balance' si^ti it 
seems to ccirresjHmd with ihe ^ of CIjlss A, 

tiliio interpreted as |. 

: Hogarth, R$.A<i vsi, p + 136. 

1 A. J-;., Ctmffa iVumijmafimt p. 346 The 
numerical relation of ihe two units shown in 
I'ig. 031 whs there pointed out. 

On the tlagia Triad* tabled. Nos. 23 and 
of my own hand-list. 



comparison that they supply to the Zahro weight, Fig. (j-il) if, b. I lie lessor 
units are represented by (he frequently recurring » sign, 3 which is equally 

common as an ordinary phonogram in word-groups and as a sign of value 
before mi mtiers, In this latter connexion it is especially frequent alter the 
* flock 1 signs illustrated below. 

That this sign and the * ingot ‘ are here numerically equated the 
latter amounting to six of the former—is clear from the respective numbers. 
In the first line we see 18 of one corresponding with 3 of the other; m 
the second 1 2 answers to 2 and in the third 24 to 4. 

Inasmuch, moreover, as one-sixth of the Zakro weight with the parallel 
■ ingot' sign is equivalent to the 4 -kedtl Egyptian weight it looks as ii the 

^ sign may have represented that value. - 

11 ere, and again in Fig. G 51 u. the conventional ingot appears on the 

1 Xo. 5 r of the B signary, Fig- below. 

; This result lends no countenance to the 
opinion advanced by 1 >r. J, Sundwall p dtm 
Numtfhtn U'nhrungnystem {Nihmgtl 
jip* ttej p 829) and Nimischt Rf^hmngs- 
urkunitn (Soc. Scient. Fennica: Com men ta- 

tiones bum. lilt. p iv. 4) iliac, the ^ sign repre¬ 
sents a k balance 1 and, through thai t a 1 latent - 
U differs in fact from the balance" sign, such 
as ne know it in both the A and B signaness 
in essential particulars. In the 1 balance 
sign the apexes of the triangle formed with 
the scales are enn si sternly joined by the hori¬ 
zontal beam. In his otherwise somewhat con¬ 
ventional i/ed reproduction of the tablet \Mtl 

Oafs, Ph asS) t Hr, Sundwall supplier versions 
of the sign which are certainly misleading. 
Tims in line where the M occurs as a 

phonetic character in a work group (probably a 
personal mm e) and* again, as an indication of 
value, it is rendered by him as two distinct char- 

aclcrs M 11 Ejr 

The first is a non-existent and altogether mis¬ 
leading variation of the sign itself: for ilie 
second he takes the * balance * pure ami 
simple. Elsewhere he prefers a third fonn which 
h neither the one nor the oilier and 
resembles a misshapen double axe. 



1 dumps j : 

csssors nf 

and ban 

of cur* 

‘banner’sign, 1 This is itself frequently used as a vehicle for other signs 

as well as alone and, in both cases, before_ 

numbers. The triliteral sign-group which pre- 1 — 
cedes this compound character on both tablets 

begins with h 

Coinage was as yet unknown, anti its fore¬ 
runners in the shape of sniatl, more or less 
' monetiform ’ dumps of precious metal only 
make 1 their appearance at a date later than the 
catastrophe of the Knossian Palace. A silver TK ^- ln Fragment of 
dump ciI this class was found, however, in igoi Ta islet showing ‘Ikcot'Sicn 
in a late Minoan deposit above the earlier floor- 0> Mansrh. 
levels of the East Magazines, which fits on to others of gold that had already 
occurred in a Late Cvpro- 
Minoan grave. It is simply *, 
a blob of metal dropped on 
to a rough surface, which, 
however, in this case has 
the appearance of having 
been engraved with Lite 
broad 11 sign (Fig. ( 152 , a). 

Its weight is 3-654 grammes 
(54*4 grains), anti it would 
thus answer to a fourth of 
a Phoenician shekel of the average weight of about 14-616 grammes (225-6 
grains) —-a system represented at Knossos by the leaden weights in the 
shape of a disk. Three gold ' dumps' of this kind, answering to both Egyptian 
and Oriental standards (Fig. G 52 , b, r), had been already found in a tomb at 
Old Sal ant is of a date which, from the general evidence 
of that part of the Cemetery, may he assigned to about 
1300 ti.c. One of these, c, was of a more elongated 
form, like the earliest electrum coins of Lydia, i had 
myself at first mistaken the silver * dump' from Knossos * 
for a worn specimen of an early Aeginetan silver 

The true Minoan mediums of currency sr-cm rather 
to have been bars and rings of precious metal. The gold rings, of which 
a series was found at Mycenae, answer approximately to a mean weight 

* See Table, Kg. 706 (U, 94 ), p. 725 . 


Fig, (15%, a. Silver ‘Dump 1 , Knossos. a. Gold 
■ Dumps', Old Salamis: Cv^o-Minoan. 

Kig. 1*0 3 l Gold 
S lUtUm:*: Myi exae. 



Fic.GSR fioi.ii 
Weight-seal s 
Knosso*. (|). 

of about S-7 grammes (i,V 5 grains) , l which looks like a slight reduction oi 
the Egyptian kakt system.- That gold bars were in use is demonstrated 
by a complete example found in a Cypro-Mmoan iamb at Old Sal arms, 
weighing "2'i - grammes (1,113 grains) corresponding 
to 8 Egyptian kedeis oi 9'®^5 grammes (13 9 't -5 grains). 
A cut section, representing a fraction of such a bar 
of pale gold or electrum (two and a halt k&ieis) was 
found atlviycenae (Fig. H 53 ), 4 Similar sections of the 
silver bars of Saxon treasure hoards were known as 
shillings. The Mycenae specimen Is in fact a true 
1 ski/Hug' or 4 shilling . 

That, however, the older standard in Crete was the 
Egyptian has received fresh and striking confirmation 
from a quite recent find made on nr near the site of 
Koossos.* This is a ‘weight seal' of solid gold and 
scaling 12-25 grammes (189 grains), which brings it 
within the normal limits of the Egyptian gold unit. 7 Its 
shape, with two small upright bars at three points of us 
circumference, is unique, but the coiling double sprays 
engraved below find a parallel in the design in the field 
uf an ivory seal from the primitive tholos H oi Platanos,* 
where also occurred a haematite cylinder ol the Age of I lammur.ibL 1 Im 
coils with their leaf-like ends arc so devised as to prevent its being cut 
down. The fact that it is of solid gold itself points to Nubia—the 1 Land 
of Gold—the Egyptian ns its original source. 

A Mmaati 

of gftltl 
4 weight- 
seal * *= 

gohl unit. 

* W, Ridgeway, Mctrol&gita} Ahta; Jf&d 
ihi J'topk of Nyttrne it U'rigAt Sfandard ? 
( /. Jf m S +f s, p. go seqq.). Frqftssor Ridge¬ 
way considered this to represent a slight 
increase of the light Babylonian shekel of 
about S‘4 grammes (tjo grains}- But as 
observed by me* Mitioan drv., p. 33 ^ 

it was more in accordance with precedent in 
the case of n commercial people slightly to 
redan a borrowed standard. The forte t 
units of Minoan weights descend to about 
9 grammes {r. 138 grains). 

3 The fodtt weights in the Petrie Collection 
range from grammes (13& grains) to 

1 O’ iqS grammes(156 grains), giving an average 
of y -160 gram mes (14* grains ). Wcigslt p lYot. 

Sot. mi Arrk. t x*iii t njoi. p- ji* 

* G. R Hill. BJf. Coin Cal (Cyprus)* p. xnL 
1 Afin&au <jY., op. af mi p- 353+ 

1 h was till Milled there by Mr. L + II. Hawes, 
(lumks to whose kindness 1 was abk to publish 
it. */. v/V.. [h 354s Fig- ro. Its weight is ^66 
grammes (r. 350 grainy,, 

« The object had migrated to Athens to¬ 
gether with Cretan bead-seal^ but the approxi¬ 
mate record preserved by its owner of ins 
provenance seems to hold good 

T See p. 654. A. E* <A PP- 345 - 34 «* 

■ Xanlhudidcs, Vaulted Tombs 0/ A/esam 
(ed- Droop), PL XlV p No. 1059, and p. 116 + 

1 P a/M- r i, p- igSt 

} I I O. FIKST D i SCOV EH V OK ],\ RG E IIOA It l)S OF Cl .A V Ta li L ETB IN AdVA NCE n 

Linear Scrift (li). Signs of Class Boom pared with A: their Analysis 
and Associated System of Numeration. 

Discovery of hoards of clay tablets {associated sealings, already described) \ 
At (lie time unparalleled phenomenon ; The first hoards brought to light in 
SJI\ region; 'Granary and'Chariot' tablets; Armoury deposit; Mostly 
stored on the upper floors ; ‘ Chariot tablets in basement closet with remains 
of chests ; 'Adze' tablets in original order; Classical traditions of finding of 
prehistoric Writing Bronze tablet of A Ik mine's Tomb ; Earthquake reveals 
tablets at Knossos in Nerds time—Dikiys' ‘ Chronicle of Trojan I Tar'; The 
Tablets of Linear Class B—-formscontrast with carder documents ; Retrospect 
and Synopsis of Class A — transitional examples fitting onto the Hieroglyphic 
type; ' Monumental' group of A inscriptions on stone vessels of ritual class ; 
C/ay series; Hagia Triada group of tablets, illustrating commerce and 
industry- Synopsis of Class B; Signs used both phonetically and idem 
graphically; A and B classes compared—common source, but B more 
advanced; Egypt ionizing element in B—papyrus wand and urns-us; Official 
and priestly emblems ' throne and sceptre' and 1 horned head-piece'; Numera¬ 
tion of A and B—practically same ; ' Percentage Tablets ’ ■ Signs of 
Addition . 

of Hoards AIK K ADV< ‘ n de SCf ' hi the sea lings from the late Palatial tie pos its dealt 

of ci°y l s with above, a feature lias called for notice that stands in relation to what, 
Tablets. at t he time of the Excavation ami since, lias been by many regarded as its 
crowning result, This was the discovery of a series of hoards of day 
tablets, numbering—complete or fragmentary—over i t 6co, presenting in¬ 
scriptions in a more advanced linear style than any yet brought to light. 

Assn- In dr.seribmg the i. laj sealings, a series of examples have been noted 

•uiW 011 which one or more of the hct '* httirs graffito inscriptions, consisting it 
d«cS«3 would a Pl' e!ir ‘ of vbe names and titles of officials in the same form of writing, 
while in several cases ihc seal impression itself has been counter marked 
in a similar manner. In touching on the Upper West Magazines and con¬ 
nected system it lias been further necessary to anticipate a more genera! 
account of the tablets themselves by a reference to examples derived from 
those relating to granaries or stores of cereals, as well as lo others bearing 
on the Standard Weight there preserved, and presenting figures of balances 

nnd of copper ingots* 


The emergence of such a mass of clay records in a highly advanced 
form of linear script was the more striking at the time of the excavations 
since other parallel finds illustrating the preceding phase, A» of this script, 
such as later occurred at Phaestos, had not as yet come to light. Nor was 
a single specimen known of a clay document of the more archaic h Hiero¬ 
glyphic' class such as both Knossos and MalUa were later to produce* 
With the exception of the inscribed DIktaean Libation I able the materials 
hitherto accumulated had been derived from early seal-stones, 1 Tilts crown¬ 
ing discovery thus stood out as the culmination of a long series oi more 
isolated finds, and as a striking confirmation of the views long upheld by 
me, that, from the point of view of Writing, the great early civilization ol 
Greece was not dumb whether or not a key to the decipherment oi its 
language may yet be recoverable. 

On the site of Knosaos itscU my hopes had been encouraged at an 
early date, both by the discovery of seal-stones with hieroglyphic signs- 
and by the sight of a fragment of a burnt clay slip presenting some incised 
linear signs, which had been a surface fmd on the site, derived no doubt 
from the previous diggings in the Third Magazine. 3 But the few signs 

1 So far as the hieroglyphic system was 
concerned, my first hint of its existence ms 
supplied by a four-sided cornelian l>ead-sea|with 
groups of signs presented to the Ash mo l can 
Museum in i&Stihy Mr, Greville Chester, and 
said 10 have come from Sparta* Subsequently^ 
however* I found an impression of the bead-seal 
in the possession of its original owner hi C&ftdia 
who had obtained it in Central Crete, This 
piece uf evidence was followed by the recog¬ 
nition during a visit to Athens in 1893 of 
several tread seals of the same cEass* all of 
them derived from Crete, and—as a result 
of my early exploratory journeys through the 
Central and Eastern parts of (he Island from 
1S94 onwards—of the acquisition of a whole 
series from the various sites on which they 
were found. The first announcement of tile 
existence of a hieroglyphic script in prehistoric 
< Tete w as made by me to the Hellenic Society 
in 1893 in giving an account of the Angina 
Treasure* (For the results of my early quest in 
Crete sec A/funatum f June 23, 1894; Tiw*$ n 
Aug. 29; and a paper read in the Anthropo¬ 

logical Section of the British Association at 
their Liverpool Meeting! September 1S94- 
too, Cretan Fkio^mfhs^ Ac . /. //. S. f vol xiv. 
Pt. TI, 1893. For the account of the inscribed 
Libation Table and the evidence of the Linear 
Script A, see Further Dmtmrks of Crttan 
and Aegean Scrip/. 1S98 (in f Jf. S. t xvit 
and B. Qtiaritcta); and cf. A of J/., L p. 627 


“ In j S95. Two seal stones had also come to 
my notice, bearing ^rou^ of hieroglyphic 
characters, picked up by peasants on the site 
f Scrip/a Minoa t h p- 15* * s *- ^th early 

linear signs, ami /ftfV/,, pi 121. 

It was in the possession of Kyrios Zachy- 
rakis. a Candia chemist, and subsequently 
perished at the time of the massacre and the 
destruction of ilte Christian quarter of the 
town in 1899. As noted above* this 1 tumul¬ 
tuary ’ excavation— to use the appropriate 
Italian expression—had thrown out several 
tablets, in a broken condition* only recovered, 
years afterwards* by our sifting the dump heap. 

At the 
lime an 


preserved on this seemed to be of so advanced a character that it was 
difficult off-hand to accept them as Mi naan. But hopes were raised and 
imagination kindled, though for the time this fragmentary relic could only 
be placed to a reserve account. 

First Discovery of Hoards of CJay Tablets on Site of Knossos. 

The first When, however, in the spring of H)oO—after six years of fruitless 

brought effort it was possible at last to begin the methodical excavation of the site, 
in the attack on what proved to be the Southern Terrace of the Palace was 
region. not long in leading to a decisive result. On March 30, tyoo, the larger 
part of an elongated tablet came to light with sign-groups and numbers 
incised on it—ot the* same kind as those on the imperfect specimen. In the 
days succeeding this discovery a series of such tablets was found within what 
afterwards proved to be the Second West Magazine, This was followed 
up by the discovery on the basement level East of the Upper Propylaeum 
of a clay receptacle in the form of a bath, the preserved lower part of which 
contained a whole hoard of similar tablets, several with pictographic signs 
Canary showing that they referred to stores of grain. 1 These tablets were arranged 
chariot in rows, anil the charred wood found round them indicated that they had 
labkis. b een pi ace( | ; tl a box, which had probably fallen into the clay receptacle 
from above. In a closet under a small staircase a little North of this 
had been placed at least lour boxes—seven broiwe lunges being picked out 
from the carbonized remains—in association with which was a considerable, 
though a good deal broken, deposit of tablets, many of them relating to 
horses and chariots/ that gave it its distinguishing name, 5 It is to be 
noted that one piece of the charred wood showed a waved and foliated 
border in relief, 

l Ar* ( ^ l he Armoury Deposit aiready referred to,* where eighty inscribed 

DtSt ublets had falk ' n int0 a basement magazine—fifty of them referring to 
chariots and their parts—remains of some of the wooden boxes In wliich 

1 See above, p« 6*3. The specimen given 
in Fig + tiuEi f dearly refers 10 barley, 
s See below, p* 7-SS, Ftg. 703. 

1 This large deposit in fact referred to a 
gnat variety of possessions, the objected cpicted 
cm rhem including ears of com, various kinds 
at trees, saffron flowery ivi well as Implements 
including spades and single-edged axes. There 

were also lists with die 'man 1 and - woman 
sign fste A- L rt Report t A T msiQs t igco. pp. ^7, 
5i j AAi\- j /.p vl ; and cf, S&iptQ J//jfftj; i p 
I* 4 l)* 

* See pp. CuG p Gr 7 , and cf, A. E.„ 

A *9&4 (A S r A ., x) t p. 5 7 setup (See 
too, below, p $32 Mqq r ), 



these had been preserved were also found, in tins case together with bronze 
loop handles. Here, too, as with many other hoards, occurred a series of 
clay sealings. Some of these, as has been noted, 1 were coimtermarked with 
the arrow sign, standing in connexion with remains of chests here found 
containing masses of arrows with bronze heads, a pictographic figure of one 
of which was engraved on a tablet. 

In this case pieces of the plaster floor of the upper chamber in which 
the tablets had been stored came to light at a lower level, and a further upper 
proof of their upper story location was afforded by the burnt condition of 
many specimens, some being actually reduced to cinders. 1 he same was 
true of a series of tablets found above the level of the Upper Hast-West 
Corridor and its continuation North, some of which may. indeed, have been 
derived from a roof terrace where they had been placed tor sun-baking. . 

On the other band, in the exceptional instance of storage in a basement 
closet, illustrated by the 'Chariot Tablet' deposit, a phenomenon of a contrary !nj™«- 
kind was observable. Many of these, together with the chests that liat -1 C | 0SC [; 
contained them, having been probably set on shelves on the back wall of 
the closet, bore evidence of the action of fire. Others, however, that hail 
lain on the floor of the little chamber had escaped this action, and proved 
to have been insufficiently baked. A group of four of these that lay 
intact in their original order on the pavement were carefully cut out by me 
in one piece with the indurated earth that held them together, and tem¬ 
porarily transferred for the night to the old Turkish house that at that time Effects of 
served as head-quarters, in ihe glen below Kephala. Hut a torrential storm 
that came on in the night poured through our rotten thatch, and inundated 
the tray containing the tablets. When the mischief was discovered it was 
too late, and they had been reduced to a pulpy mass. 5 1 together with 
them, unfortunately, was a clay seating in the same insufficiently baked 
state, presenting a design of a chariot and horses with a charioteer and a 
personage behind him. It had been evidently used by ihe superintendent 
of the royal stables to seal the chest that had contained the tablets. The 
type much resembled one found in the somewhat earlier hoard ot sealings 
from Hagia Triada,* 

Part of a hoard of tablets in the same unbaked condition came to light 
on the lloor of the South-East Corner of the Eighth Magazine. 1 These fomMa*. 
were embedded in a clay mass representing the remains of a much larger ; r vj n “] 
number reduced to a kind of pulp, owing to the effects of moisture, as. m the order. 

: Sue below, p. Kg, SOtt* 

1 Set Strict Ahum, p&L 44i 45* 

s See above, pp. 6i6, 17, iiiid Fig, GQ 3 . 

1 See T too, Strif/a Mum 7, i f p. 14S. 

Hu, Gila, Clay Uiu-f.ts referring kHAibejs’ showingOriginal File, On f 




Little Palace, were imperfectly sun-baked bricks, With the aid of a plaster 
backing l was here able to raise what had been preserved of a small series 
of these in a regular file, and thus preserved a record of their original 

FlO! a, K t * Adze ' Tablets, 

arrangement (Fig. <>5aJ. Prom the fragments of decayed gypsum with 
which they were associated it appears that in this case they had been 
enclosed in a gypsum coffer, broken in its hill from an upper floor. 

This group of tablets is, as will be seen from Fig. 65 $, a-c, marked 
with a sign apparently depicting an adze, 1 followed by numerals, dearly 
shown on Nos. 2. 5, 6, 7 as 28, 6, .^o, and at 7 - 

» The wi de or part of this si-n is visible scored with an inner line at both extremities, 
on till of there except the topmost* of which perhaps 10 indicate their sharpening ai oih 
only the first half is preserved. The adze is ends. 


of finding 
of prehib- 

tablet af 




uibEtm At 

Was the Discovery of the Minoan Script anticipated by Classical 

Antiquity ? 

There is solid evidence leading to the conclusion that the first discovery 
of the day archives of Kuossos presenting an. unknown script goes back to 
the days of the Emperor Nero. 1 

Such a discovery, moreover, does not stand alone. The proofs of the 
currency of the Minoan system of writing at Thebes in lioeotta supplied by 
the inscribed vases illustrated below -—supplementing the specimen already 
known from Orchomenos—throw a new light on a lind that Plutarch :i 
ascribed to Agcsilaos of Sparta in the tomb of Alkmene at Huliartos in the 
same region. Tilts was a tablet of bronze * containing many letters which 
excited wonder from their appearance of great antiquity. For nothing could 
be understood from these, though, on washing the bronze, they came out 
clearly—the type of the letters being outlandish and most like the Egyptian 
At the request of the King of Egypt, to whom a copy was sent by the 
priest Khonouphis (who. if they had been Egyptian hieroglyphics, might 
well have read them), after much study and hunting out of the various kinds 
of characters in 'old books*, reported that it belonged to the time of King 
Proteus in other words, to the Age of the Trojan War—and contained a 
general exhortation to the Greeks to found a contest in honour of the Muses, 
and. setting arms aside, to devote themselves to the peaceful rivalry of letters 
and philosophy. With reference to the material and object it will be recalled 

that a small bronze tablet, inscribed with two letters of the Linear Class A_ 

apparently giving the name of the votary whose figure appears beside it— 
was brought to light in the Diktaean Cave, 1 from the same offertory stratum 
as that containing the inscribed Libation Table. 

Kitosses itself was the scene of a parallel find of the same nature, with 
which we are immediately concerned. ' There was a fictitious compilation 
attributed to Diktys the Cretan, well known from what purported to be a 
Latin translation by a certain L. Scptimins of a Greek original and written 
towards the end of the fourth century after our era. This work, the 
■Atmdent 1 listorle and trewe and syncere Chronicle of the War res between 
the Grecians and the Trojans’, to quote tile title of its earliest English 

1 A fuller account of ihi* and analogous 
discoveries going back lo Classical times will 
he found in my Saififo voL e, p r ion 

«qfj (5 * 3 >- 

* See below, p* jjtj aeqq. 

Gmi& Strain f capp. v, vei j CL S, 
Retouch, Anthrcpolo^k, (yM , p. m S eqq> 

/ J . f. /-T/., i, pp, fsj;? 4 , and Figs 17 r) t 17 L 
J lll ^p A. E S1 Stripfa i, 

pp. loS-io* 


version by John Lydgate, has been shown from the Tebturns papyri to have |" n ^ em+s 
been in fact* as its author stated, an adaptation of a Greek original, the + th™iclc 
recently discovered fragment of which dates from early in the third century. 1 ^T?■ Ln 
Further evidence supplied by later references to an independent Byzantine 
version throws back the date of the Greek archetype still further,- and make 
the more natural the bringing of it into connexion with an actual historic 
event that took place in the days of the Emperor Nero. 

This was the great earthquake that occurred in the thirteenth year 
of his reign, a.o, 66 at the time when the Emperor was making his mad 
progress through Greece—and which actually ravaged Crete* It may be 
further concluded that Knossos, in the most earthquake-stricken region of 
the Island - was specially affected, and that one of the many repositories of 
the inscribed day tablets should have been laid bare on the Palace site by 
this convulsion would In itself have been a very natural result* The recent 
discoveries in fact invest the origin of the Diktys story with an entirely new 
appearance qf probability. 

At Knossos, we are told In the prologue to the work, an earthquake 
that had caused a great overthrow exposed the interior of the Tomb of 
Diktys. bringing to light a + tin chest \ Some passing shepherds who, seeing 
tliis, had opened it in search for treasure, found instead documents of'lime- 
bark \ inscribed with 1 unintelligible letters'* I hese were taken to Nero* then 
in Greece, who, supposing them to be Phoenician, called in Semitic experts 
to interpret them. When Nero commanded something must be done, and 
the doctors forthwith proceeded to interpret them as the journal of one of 
the ancients- the Knossian Diktys, companion of Idomcneus f who had been 
present at the Trojan War* 

The brown, half-burnt tablets of the Palace themselves bear a distinct 
resemblance to old or rotten wood, and it Is clearly possible that the earth¬ 
quake shocks had revealed one or more ol the 1 kaselles with their lining 

1 Otnfell and Hunt, The Teblunh Papyri* 
Ft. II, 1907. The conclusion of" tht editors 
was that ‘opart from unnecessary verbiage and 
occasional minor distortions the J-aiin version 
follows the original faithfully enough \ 

- Sec Ferdinand Nuack, Ph&ologns* 
Suppi. Band, iSyj, pp 401-300. He showed 
(as against those who regarded the work a* 
wholly a fabrication of Septimius) that the 
reference toil by MaUihs (Sixth Century) in his 
’EvAoyij '1(7^^', and Ctdrenus (Eleventh 

Century) that these Byzantine reference* were 
based on a Late Greek version parallel with the 
Laun t bui independent of it. Both versions in 
luce went bwck to a Greek archetype of much 
earlier date. On the general question see, too, 
W. Ramsay Smith's Dkt. &/ Biography Y &c. 
(igos), Aft Ditfys* 

* See P. 0/ ii. Pi. I, p. jtj seqq>; and 
rf r V, Rati Li n. Description physique de /a Crefe t 

i p p. 4 39, 



of old lead sheeting—easily confounded with tin. The precipitation of a 
hoard of clay tablets at an earlier date into one of these is itself paralleled 
by the boxful that had fallen inio the bath-like receptacle described above. 

Forms of Tablets associated with Linear Script B. 

1 he elongated ' slip' ty pe of day tablet, illustrated by the series from the 

Fits, 0,17 a , i T r * Tablets or Eloncjatep Forms seen- from the sun:. 

of Linear 
CI54SS Li: 
l heir 

tligHth Magtizuie [1 Opj.>, tiSbJ is the commonest and most characteristic 
of those inscribed with the Linear Class B. These as a rule present a 
single group of signs, followed bv two rows of smaller signs and numbers, 
divided 1)\ a horizontal liar, I he hack of these curves slight tv* in a Ion <T i - 
tudinal direction, so that the ends arc somewhat wedge-shaped. {See 
Fig. i! 57 .) A copy of the inscription on Fig. 6o7 r, which is of a broader 
three-lined type and belongs to the; ■ Cereal' class. Is given in Fig, n:>S. 
Some of these ‘elongated slips * attain a length of 24 centimetres, or about 
8 inches. 

Broader varieties (like Fig. <>o 7 , c) are also found, divided along the 
whole length by two or at times three horizontal lines. Larger specimens 
of this class as one in which the ‘wheel’ sign occurs m"each line 1 — 

1 Sec Iwloiv. |i. 795, Pig. -os. 



approach in outline a regular rectangle, in the latter case about 14 cm. 
( 5 > in.) in width, by S cm. (/. 3* in.) in height, but these are of quite 
exceptional occurrence. 

The tablets of another class are proportionally higher than they are 
broad, one or both ends being generally somewhat rounded oft. 1 

Nothing more than a succinct general account can be here attempted, 
with special reference to the inner economy os the great Palace and the 


tl VS! 


\ c 

Li&^f [' 






1 <s>)‘/k 




J V 1 4 


ffil vv 



Fig 05B. it road. Elongated Tabut-Ov 'CfcftEAi/ Class; Hakoust Xo* 13, (Cf. Fit- .) 

varied possessions of its lords. These, indeed, are copiously illustrated by 
the documents themselves, appearing often in a pictorial form on the margin 
of inventories* 

At ihe same time, for the right understanding of the script of this late 
palatial type* constant reference must be made to that of Cla^s A. which, 
at Knossos at least, occupies an earlier stratigraphic position. In the lower 
direction, again, it is possible now to supplement a general sketch o( Class B 
with some surprising evidences of its survival on the Mainland side. 

Retrospect of the Linear Class A. 

A general account of Class A lias already been partially attempted in 
the first Volume of this work,* but some retrospect of the subject is tod is- 
pens;ibit* to the endeavour to place Class IS in its true relation and to supply Cl,iai A 

a whole series of illuminating comparisons. 

Tlie Linear Script A had. as has been already shown/ a much wider 
diffusion in the Island than that which succeeded it at Kuossos. It is clear 
that in the Palace itself it was in general use from the earlier phase oi 
M. M. Ill till the dose of L. M. though-owing to the remodelling 

1 E.g., |*. 695, 1% (IS 11; |>. 703, Fig. GBb, 


iv** v y 

s P, it/, 1 /., i, [>[t. fi!2 seqq., § 59. 

5 See, especially, /*. o/M., i T pp. 636, 637. 


of the building that took place about the latter date—Its records were 
largely destroyed. At Phaestos only a single tablet, resembling those of the 
'Temple Repositories’ at Knossos, marks the earlier (M. M. IIH) stage, 
but the dependencies of the neighbouring 1 * 3 Little Palace’ of Hagia Triada. 
where the bulk of the known tablets of this Class came to light, bring 
down its records well into the First Late Minoan phase. The ceramic asso¬ 
ciations indicate that this class of script had survived in Southern Crete 
at least to the L. M. 1 6 stage. 

Tnnsi- [l is interesting to observe that both at 1 alaikastro 1 and at Mallia 

S A early examples of the Linear Script A appear on clay bars of the same 
thetfiero- type as those bearing the Hieroglyphic script at Knossos. On the other 
iiySl" 0 ” hand, the numeration on the clay bars of Mallia of the Hieroglyphic Class 
already conforms to that of the Linear Class A as seen at Hagia Triada. 
Knossos, and elsewhere/ 

Synopsis of Class A for Comparison, 

Synapse For the sake of comparison it has been thought well to reproduce here 

ij£%fiary j n a somewhat revised form Lhe synopsis of the signs of the A script given 
in the first Volume of this work (Fig, 659 }/ To this is appended, in 

1 K, C. llosanquetand R. M, Dawkins, Tht 
Unpublished Qbjutsjrmn the Pajaihastn) Exm- 
vxitians {SuppL Piper of the B* S* -L), p, M&t 
Fig. t jSj and see my note The numeration 
ctTtainly seems to belong to the archaic class, 

I ml presents diffic tlUfea, 

1 Fernand Chapomhier, Its Em fares 
miNM-ttnes Ptiiaii de Maflm (Pads), 1930* 
P + GcuitmerJ, pp. 55 > 5 * (Ch, III, Its Immp 
fftftrs /irtrmrts). In his excellent analysis of 
these he shows that the signs for this group 
contain characteristic types of Class A, 

3 Chapouihier, /b. t pp, 53. 34- It must* 
however, lie said that I am quite unable to 
accept M. Chapouthiers view that die Hiero¬ 
glyphic Deposit of MaUia belongs to M. M.III, 
The signet Impressions on clay documents with 
a parallel script from Knossos and themselves 
presenting similar hieroglyphs are of types 
that cause at the close of M- M, II. Some 
belong to >L M. 1 . Linearized forms of the 
Hieroglyphic class occur as graffiti on a 
characteristic M. ST. In form of clay jug with 

hatched decoration. One of these from a 
primitive th&fos found by me at (about 
3 hours St.i utit of Mallm and afterwards fully 
excavated by M. Sp. Marinate*) is, from its 
c»nte*t T clearly SL M* I a n and that published 
by me in Script*! Min&a w i, p, 1 2. Fig, (\ repre¬ 
sents a parallel type. Those from Xirou Kliani 
stand in Lbe same relation *Apx-r *906* 
FI, % 1 3), Vases of the same form and 
similar incised hiUch-work were found, as M. 
Chapouthicr himself ad mi is (<*/. dfV. t p- 64, 
Fig. 5), in the deposit near the tablets at 
Malliap and the ' rippled 1 tortoise-shell ware 
also found there itself goes back to M, M^ If. 
The bar*, however* with the Linear Script A, 
may well be of M. M* HI a date, 

1 A provisional list of signs belonging to the 
advanced Linear Glass A is given in J\ of M. r 
i, p, 643* Fig. 47‘G- J To the 90 types tlacre given 
I am here able to add those given in Fig. B60 : 
Of these the vegetable sign 91 is clearly different 
from No. 44 of Fig, 176* and in a reversed 
position (c of Nlk iS finds its place here). 

^ ts UQ ^J) 

*? ^ <33 "P _ “— : 

^ £*,«^ f <3, >P s ^ a cfl.*-.* 

f j--* “ «* 'Til 


>^ n_ ^ ^+- H rt ;1-H 'F 

?~ r —^n tX ^ —-!—~hH nK~ 

® s c .r^^ 8 x 5 tsj f 


L_ ,— ^ 

J — C--,<x, 

4 i£ c- 

—— VT __ 1 |ii 

C\];_^| : tL_ :!■ 

- © c£p (M 

H- '=~ © -J- r& ^ 




zx IS &: 

-Q-: U£s < ^, - 

9rx J-O ' / ^ N| c\ 

©' §: ©■ 

W'm ^ ta. a “ 

e=> 3 © '*/f\ .r3.,s>-x 

-D ‘ “ 


^ -pi 

|SMF £1W 

tx*: ns 

D A 


i -3 

5 ^_, 

^L. +1" GU h<> XT 

Ir 8 ^ t s- T ^ it 

<2: (v, i ^ _ © 2: 

^ ^ ^ ClJ ^ ^—1 - ctxj © yx 

Fro# Synopsis of Sjgnarv of Clash A. 



9 ' 


1 Monu¬ 
mental 1 
jrrcmjj of 
Class A; 
r it uni 

Fig, fitiO, a supplementary list of 14 additional signs and, in Fig, 0 <H. some 
distinctive ideographic signs. Some of these are of special interest. r l he 
symbolic figure No, l, as already pointed out, probably holds a primitive 




CF Nf 36 

ON P. K 

LIBATION j --—+ 

(CFN« JQJljf] H"] 

Fig, GUI. A»orriONAL Ideograms of Ci .ass A. 

anchor. The bent arm sign. No. 4, will be shown to have an offertory 
significance. No. 7, repeated at Hagia Triada by itself at the end of a 
group, is clear!)' a loom ; in No. $ we may recognize a lion's head ' rhyton ’ 
of the well-known class to which the gold example from tire Fourth Shaft 
Grave at Mycenae belongs. The profile is curiously similar. 

Deducting signs of obviously ideographic import, and others like 

the forms (No. 64) specially connected with numbers, the total number 
of characters of Class A that may have been capable of phonetic usage in 
general currency perhaps amounted to about 85, though in many cases it 
is impossible to attain certainty. 

The more or less ‘monumental - group of inscriptions on stone 
vessels of a ritual character (such as. notably, the Diktaean Libation Tabic) 

No. 92 seems to bow and arrow, 96 looks different type from Fig. 1 7 <i, 62 (' manacles r ), 
like the 1 land * or ‘mountain’ sign of I he and Fig. (SUL, 7, to be identified with a loom, 
Hieroglyphic series placed on its side and is here placed among the ideograms, 
provided with legs. No. 97 seems to be a 



that exclusively distinguish Class A has already received some notice in this 
work* It is of special interest as presenting certain recurring formulas* 

like are seemingly dedications, 1 It is clear that a sacral 

element is also at times present in the case of the day tablets, I he 
1 sistrum P sigtiSp Fig, fjfjl, very hilly rendered in No, q t on a tablet from 
Tylissos, may well point to an orgiastic aspect of the cult, such as that 
illustrated by the Hagia Triada Thytoii \ Symbols of divine protection, 
already illustrated b> the Goddess as Mistress of the Sea, also make their 
appearance. The primitive ‘anchor type is combined in No. 1 * with what 
may be best interpreted as a single-bladed axe h so prominent in the later 
cult. Here they are incorporated m n female impersonation, and a male 
presentment of the kind is also known,® In one case the H ship is coupled 
with the 1 throne 1 sign of this Class. 

Tile conclusion that the flat oblong or squarish type of clay tablet 
that comes in early in this Class was due to Oriental example, commands A uibkts 
general acceptance. Rut the comparatively small field offered by this 
form of tablet gave little room for the scribe who In any case had to eke 
out his incomplete methods of actual writing with pictorial illustrations of 
the objects referred to* 1t was doubtless on account of this that from the dons* 

q rs t u v w x y z as a a 

Fig, 602* Compot.nt Characters or Class A, 

first there was a tendency to save space by fitimg together two or sometimes 
three separate characters into a simple compound lorm. Of such ligatures 
a considerable list may be made out, but it is sufficient to reproduce here 
in Fig, Ml2 a selection already made. 1 largely concerning the ‘hand and 
forearm P sign 

1 jP, of J/ +i i t pp, 630*631. should not, as in /^. *?L S l # 24^ be con- 

5 Set: <f r nV.p ii, Ft. 1 . p* 249 p Fig. H6. neeted with the Double Axe, but rather with 
1 In JdtW. t iip Pt r l f pp 4 348, 34^ :ind Fig, the single blnded kind. 

145 (wrongly described as * winged F figures in 4 71 of Af* r i T p. 645, Fig. 476 . 
underline of Figure), The Ase thus vitalized 

6 So 





rend inn 
DfCiftss IJ: 

Cm ti¬ 
me rte and 
by \L 

This habit, which gives the tablets of Class A a rather crabbed 
appearance, is at times the cause of some obscurity. On the other hand, it is 
to be observed that examples of the A script executed under conditions free 
from this artificial limitation, such as those, above referred to. incised on 
stone libation vessels, the graffito or painted inscriptions on walls, or those in- 
scored on the large jars, are almost entirely free from these compound forms. 

The small, nearly square-shaped tablets of M. M. Ill b date, such as 
those from the Temple Repositories and a single, more or less contemporary 
specimen from the Phaestos Palace, show a tendency in the succeeding 
L. M, 1 Period somewhat to enlarge their dimensions. Far the most 
prolific source of these are the deposits found in buildings outside the 
Little Palace at Hagia Triada, which Indeed give the best idea of the whole 
class of tablets bearing the A script. These, as is well shown in the case 
of a huge official residence, were associated with pottery of L. M. I a type, 
but it is dear that some of them overlapped L. M I b. 

One consequence of this late duration was die reaction of certain charac¬ 
teristic forms of the Knossian Class B.' This, too, is corroborated by 
a significant change in the decimal sign of the numeration, which Is other¬ 
wise—as shown by Comparative T able, Fig. U 7 C, below—very similar in the 
two groups. The earlier A symbol for to—inherited from the Hieroglyphic 
system—is a single pellet (•). This, however, is transformed by intermediate 
stages into the universally diffused B equivalent of the decimal sign, a hori¬ 
zontal stroke (-}. The evidence on the whole points to the surviving use 
of Script A, at least down to the close of the L. M. 1 b Period—contemporary 
with the earlier phase oI L, M. II at Knossos—or, approximately speaking, 
well down into the Fifteenth Century before our era 

In addition to the evidences of maritime enterprise supplied by the 
naval types and tablets of Class A from Hagia Triada, there may be found 
many illustrations of industry and commerce. References are to be seen to 
the cultivation of saffron* of olivet and apparently other trees good for 
fruit or timber, while here, as m Class B, the ‘barn' sign- recurs as an 
indication of cereal produce. The loom speaks for the existence of textile 
industry. Together with the repetition of the ‘balance’ or ‘talent’ si -n 
significant of large business transactions, there is also, as in 13 a reference 
to various forms of metal vases. For comparison with similar groups of B 
and at the same time to give a general illustration or the contrasts presented 
1 E.&, the ‘ throne ’ sign on ihc Truths ' See pn 716 *17 

•cr.pp.6„, , 6,jlh«, c . 

See p 71S find fig. HU, 


by the. tablets of Class A with those of the later Knosskn series, a specimen 
of one of these is given below in Fig. 715 (p. 731). 

Synopsis of Signary of Linear Class B.' 

The Table, Fig. 603 a, n t c t (opp. p. 6S4 below), together with the 
supplementary signs, present typical forms oi characters of script ^ otet > 
me in the course of a fairly exhaustive perusal and transcription of the clay 
documents of the Linear Class B* 

Among the subjoined signs, the 'triangle' appears in two cases not 
in ligature, but as a separate character. This sign occurs in a single instance 
in Class A on a tablet from Tylissos* The ‘loop (No. 2) exactly cor¬ 
responds with a variety ol the Egyptian noose hieroglyph, p u ^ OUH ^ 
enough, parallels to both these signs recur on the inscribed L. M. Ill 
* stirrup-vase * from Orchomenos, the latter upside down/ No. .■>#. m a^ 
probability a rudder, is found in a sign-group representing a personal name, 4 
and has a special interest from its recurrence in a variant form >, on -1 
painted sherd of L. M. Ill date found in the Domestic Quarter at Knossos/ 
'I’he object greatly resembles the classical form ol the rudder. 

A full list might be taken to include—(1) Signs that could apparently 
be used with a phonetic value as syllables or even letters, as well as in a 
purely ideographic sense, (2) A certain number of ideographic characters 
that fit on to these, but are not here included, and are simply pictona 
renderings of material objects like chariots and their parts. {3) A group o 
signs on inventories which stand in a special connexion with numerals, an 

A ft is right to mention that* pending [he 
completion of the work on the site of Knossos* 
VtoL J. Sundwall, of Helsingfors, has. with the 
permission of the local authorities (but* so far 
as Knossos is concerned, without previous con¬ 
cert with those responsible for its archaeological 
exploration)* made a study *>f the materials in 
thcCandh Museum, including n large portion 
nf ibe Knasslan tablets. In the /aMucb* d* 
Arch. Inst, , xxx (1915), p. 4? seqq. f he pub¬ 
lished a careful list of signs of Class A, and has 
since dealt with Class 11 * Various other articles 
of hb on the Cretan script have also appeared* 
The results independently obtained by a com¬ 
petent student are always valuable, and these 
may also help to correct errors and unwarranted 

conclusions made in the course of my own 
work. Di iterances m u st natural I y arise, but, 1 0 
avoid controversy. I have in the present pub- 
cation relied entirely on ray own researches 
over the whole field. 

: L Hnteidakis, TvXwtj* Mimuctf, p- 
Fig, rg (from ray copy). 

3 F* LL Griffith. I/tVr?g(vflhs f P44 (Figs. 
4t( 43 ) r For this simplified form he cites 
Sieindorffi Dcr Grades Affnhtkettfa PL IH, 
and p. This, however, is not a hieroglyph* 
The ordinary form occurs on Middle Kingdom 
coffins, with nr near to weapons 

* No. 49 iii my hand list: IVflfr 

1 S« below, p. 739, Fig, 7 ' 23 , 

1 Set below, p. 738, Fig. 722 . 


used bqlh 
ns idco- 
K rims and 

The signs 
cally used. 

Com pan- 
A and li; 
new signs. 

relate to various properties, (See Tablets, Fig. 709 , p. 726 below). A series 
of these has already received illustration in relation to the grain stores of 
the Palace, (4) An interesting ideographic series relating to overseers of 
crops, &c. (see Fig, G 85 , p, -or, below), specially applied to the super¬ 
intendence of olive-groves (Fig, < 199 , p, 716). 

It is necessary to realize, in the case of both the A and R systems, that, 
in a considerable number of cases, where the signs were used in groups 
phonetically as syllables, they could also stand alone with their full value 
as ideographs, A large number of examples ol this double usage can he cited. 

The signs that were txhypQihesi phonetically used, including the animal 
forms represented in the above 'l’able, are 73 in number, but of these eight 
are unique. The syllabary in ordinary use may have amounted to about 
62 characters, as compared with about 85 signs of the same kind in the case 
of Linear Class A. The phonetic signs of Class B thus almost exactly 
represent in numbers three-quarters of those of Class A. Together with 
recent additions, the Hieroglyphic Signary may itself have amounted to 
over 150 characters. It will be seen, therefore, that, regarded as stages 
towards an alphabetic standard of 04 letters, the signary of Class R shows 
a certain advance on Class A. 

Comparisons betw een Classes A and B, 

A glance at the comparisons between the two signaric-S supplied by 
I- igs. d;»9 and GGU is sufficient to show that the common element in Classes A 
and R is large. 

Questions may arise in individual instances, but it may be said that 50 
types at least, though often divergent in stjlc, are common to the two 
systems. A whole group of signs that form a characteristic feature or Class A 
are now omitted. Typical examples of these are given in Fig, iiG3 and it will 
be seen that, amongst those the origin of which seems "0 be traceable, 
they include the hand and forearm. No. 1 1, the sistmm \ No. 36, the - feline 
head No. 40, the * throne' (without sceptre). No. 53, the ‘ manacles', and 
the lyre , No. 7b. On the other hand, a series of wholly new types now- 
make their appearance. Among these (see Fig. GG4) are the < whin ‘ 

a No. 18. the 'singled axe B, 20, the - Sacral Floras’, B. M . ami t^e 
Throne and Sceptre , H. 27. 

In other cases types usual in Class R occur as rarities in Class A, 
Thus I*, winch is certainly an alternative form of £|. and is exclusively 

] Noi given in Fig, 6G L 


used in the later script, is occasionally found in place ol the other in Class A. 

[n the same way the unrecognizable 'saw sign, 38 £ (I' ig* ^ 50 ) of Class A, is 

a degeneration characteristic of Class B, So, too. a sign p j-^jL different from 

„? „f»©„2J,fUS.rt„/?.IA »8 

«TS s, Y a P s/h r d v'A » W ^ ^ 

Fig. GG3. Chah acteri stic Signs of the Linear Class A omitted in B. 

Fic. CG! P C11 akacte ktsric Signs that make their first Appearance in the Linear Class B. 

the ordinary H throne K sign of this Class, and obviously corresponding with 

that of the late Palace tablets, [y is found on the ‘Trullos ladle 1 in company 

with A script. This may be primarily regarded as a result of Knossian 

dominion over the neighbouring Arkhanes community. Otherwise^ the 

1 throne* sign of the earlier class is invariably []y no sceptre appearing* 

Although Class B covers a somewhat later period and illustrates in passes a 

many of its features a more fully developed stage in ihc Art ot \\ riting p it i^dy 

cannot be regarded as simply a later outgrowth of A. It is on the whole 

of independent growth. though both systems largely go back to a common source. 

prototype. In one or two cases, indeed, such as notably in the " flying bird p 

No. 32 (41 of Class A), and in the 4 leaf sign, * *<>■ 28 (A. 60). the 

characters of B stand in a nearer relation to the pictorial prototypes* So, 

too, the 1 single-bJaded axe " and the 1 horns of consecration ’ found in B and 

the Hieroglyphic series arc not represented in A, Class B is freer and clearer Advanced 


in many ways than the other. Though it contains one character. No. 31, of B. 
already fused into a compound shape from three separate signs of the 
series—j[, f* it' s not ' as l1ie ot ^ r system, cumbered with an endless 
series of ligatures, of which specimens have been given above. 3 

Apart from the absence of ligatures, however, the general arrange¬ 
ment of the script remains the same, except in the li system it is 
clearer. We note the recurrence of inventories or lists of possessions, with 

1 Sec, too, /’. ofM., i, p. Gi6, Fig. 46 .% 1 See p. 671;, Fig. 

6 S 4 




nintcs in 








numbers preceilctl by <|ii,imitative diaracttrs 'Tech similar in form in the 

*'™ g Tf' T1 ' C “".T'-T’ “ CLASS A Ml) CLASS B KNOSSOS 

shown below, is practically ulnui* 

caland the sign-groups arr divided 

from one another in the same 

manner by linear marks, sometimes 

mere clow, sometimes short n|j- 

right strokes. In both cases the 

writing runs consistently from left 

to right. 

More than this, the language 
itself Is identical. As will be seen 
from a small comparative selection 
in Fig, m; 5 , the same personal 
names—authenticated as such on 
the B tablets by the association of 
the - man 'or ‘woman 'sign -recur 
in both series, 

\Ye have not here the indica¬ 
tions of a violent intrusion at tile hands of some foreign Power. Equally 

Wllh li,<: 0ther ' lh( - ,1!; " is rooted in the soil of Crete itself auld is 

part and parcel of its history. Rather, the evidence may be thom-ht to 
pomt to a change of dynasty*, * 






]■ i«.. iill.", CO.-Iri’ a mrtv'K Kximples or Name* 
«u.oy..!N 4 , TO CtASias A ash II. 


^g + fl3 23t 



Ui ■ 

Analysis of Signs of Class B. 

'' hen we come to analyse tile elans. 7i! i„ number, given in tlie Table. 

1 ” rC,,,<l ,l,,rd "“S' '* ..■»'« ‘0 have been capable of a mtrelv 

'j.eograph.e usage. most cases directly connected with numbers. But it is 
dUUcul. to lay down any hard and fast line of division. Certain signs foe 
instance. like the an,and figures Nt* SS to „. darnel, primarily pictorial 
and ideographic, are also u.cinded in sign-grottps. whs, they mav often 
belong to a personal name in which that of an animal forms nan. ' 

III the same way the • ship' and other signs that recall a definite object 

a sub^Ho n n T' " r 'TT m ''-ime-groupa. More will he said on this in 
a sub-section tlvnling with lists t>f persons. 1 

It will be seen that, apart from certain more or less plain geometrical 
forms.’ which go back to what may be called the primitive linear class- 
' See Mew. P p. jet,-... • As, for , . 4l 54 , j6 . 

< ] 



u: ‘m i— 

u uu 


j ft t 1 

4 / j J i 

? 1 

frA *011 

m srrf s^n 

i m 

e f 


[ S I 









B r ” 3 

£ O.M P\ 1 I £ - 1 

ir T 

5£$ WS 

yrt r T K^ 











HftWN y> 

f Efwy? [%y] 

S '^lj’ 5 d I 


ill H thO 

B 69 

1 J\ 

I ” 7 ^ t j o« 

Iq\ TAfttfW 
V) ^iTH 

\= fct 

r ir 


i a k 

6 [A /fi“A] 

N jT 

Cr A 87 





c £5 

>o 2 








y tfl 

V w 

oi J ^ 



— &r 









x at 

Fig. GSfi (a). Synopsis or Link** Signary B ahu C&HPARtsOKS with Class A. 

Fig. GS6 (u). Synopsis of Jjnear Sign ary B ano Comparisons wtik Class A, 

Fic- ti&E (c). Synopsis of Linear Sion ary B anij Comparisons with Class A. 

^ h ff 
s X 


itself often so alphabetiform in its nature—the origin of a fair number of the 
signs of both the A and II scripts in many cases stands clearly revealed. 

In the case of Class li there can be little doubt as to the head and 

neck being represented in 7. the single hand in and the crossed arms in 

The ‘fence", and 'gate', signs, and the 'crescent moon \ speak 

for themselves. Among vegetable t\ pcs are the ’ trt-e ' forms such as the 

'leaf. and the ‘Illy', *jf\ while on the animal side we find the ‘flying 

bird the head of the dolphin or tunny-fish, and others more purely 

ideographic, such as the forepart of the ox. Se Vf charac te r * a re 

interpreted by earlier forms found in ihe 1 Uero^Iypbic sigiiury or in Linear 
Class A* and among; such notably the l £aw\ No, i 6 , which In the more 
developed varieties here seen has now reached a past recognition. 

So, too. the origin of the H double-axe' si^n r is assured by earlier inter¬ 
mediate forms, while the single-edged variety that now appears, is on nil 
fours with ic. 

Hieratic and Egyptianizing Element. 

As was natural at Knossos under what must be regarded as a regime 
of Priest-kings, the hieratic element in Class B is well marked. 

Km. GOT. Evm.rnox or the 'Sach.u Ivv Lfaf’. 

A certain Egyptian ingredient is visible in the ankk, or life-sign, ; 
common also lo Class A {No. .; 6 ). In two instances, moreover, what are 
clearly traditional forms going back to ihe hieroglyphic stage. ^ and the 
leaf symbol have been curiously transformed into tyi>cs of sacral asso¬ 
ciation. It has been already demonstrated 1 that the * leaf 1 sign with an inner 
curve, if in the type series Fig. 06 ?, is ‘crossed 1 by the sacral ivy-Leaf 

1 /'. of .1/., ii, I’t 11 , |>|i- 484, 485 seqq. and Fig, 290 (repeated in I’ig. tiHTj. 

Ou ;3 53 ' 

[) iciori.ll 



Egypt ran 
in Scrips. 

Rent Linns 
of pnpy- 




M lit fIf Is. 



Axe: ^ 

i tig sign. 




68 fi 


symbol, itself a decorative outgrowth of the papyrus-wand (was) of 
the Delta Goddess, 

^ ^ ea d\ appears in live hieroglyphic stage without 

any cine to its original source, supplies an interesting parallel. There can in 
fact be little doubt that under the form f of Fig. (tliH it bus been assimilated 
to the 1 double nrattis staff' of Islitar there shown, akin to that of Hathor, 
m hicb so clearly reacted on a class of Cypro-Minoan cylinder types . 1 


No 30 


No 31 

CLASS 6 N* Z 3 







] in. 068 , ^ Sics, showing Contamination itv Vraevh Type jk Class ]i, 

The 'double-axe’ sign. ^ and common to Class A, is of purely 
Minoan religious origin,and can be traced back through intermediate varieties 
to the hieroglyphic pictorial rendering of the sacred weapon (Fig. am}, It 
is clearly often used as an ideogram, and we may conclude that die native 
word that represented it was allied to the kindred Anatolian form of fafoys. 

Supplementary to this is the parallel sign, } or % derived from the single axe 
type of the hieroglyphic signary. This, as already noted, is not found in 
die A class, but us revived vogue is in keeping with the importance of the 

Sjnanizmg single axe tn the later Palace, though the sign itself preserves 
the alder form. 1 1 

I he * horns of con- 
secretion\ (No. 22), 
so nlten associated in 
iht cult with the Double 
Axe, which 15 also found 

j K - x . , in the hieroglyphic series 

(iso. but is absent m the A series, now reappears; 

^fTVf't 1 V 

a i> t d f f g 

1 it;, Mif. Kvcu l tki.ns OF Dourle-Axi Kigs : , f . 
clvthic ; /> J, Cl, ASS A ; f-g. Class i;_ 

The Throne and Sceptre. 

i he connexion with the Priest-kings themselves is well marked by the 
frequent recurrence of what must be regarded as the throne and sceptre 

Y\JZ 7 /' 0r ' T ™ a * d mar C “ ,f > ^VV S* 54 <///..*, 1901, pp. ,48 Ja) and 

■* 'h-■ -Op * 



sign* The throne, [j s is high-backed (^0,27). like that in the ceremonial 
Palace chamber* The crook 
sceptre in front of its seat is 
a He emblem of the * Shepherd 
of the People', 1 a title which 
in Homer is most frequently 
attributed to Agamemnon, 

As a symbol of royaltj it is 
borrowed from Egypt, where 
the sceptre as a sign of king* 
ship was identical from the 
days of the early dynasties, 
with the shepherd's crook/ 

I he Egyptian 1 throne" sign 3 
^ (which shows a thick back) 
has a ledge in front serving as a stool for the feet, like that set before the 
almost Gothically moulded Knossian throne, 1 

The equivalent sign ol" the A series, with its lower part elegantly 
Incurved and evidently representing a seat of honour, is not coupled with 
the sceptre. But, as noted above, on the inscribed stone ladle from Trulios 
by Arkhaiies in the Knossian region the li lorm of the sign already appears. 
A curious ' double throne 1 sign or is referred to below. 

The sign Is used with an ordinary phonetic value, in any position, but 
it also appears as an ideogram, anti with a determinative meaning. It is 
frequent before certain stasis indicative of property, and connected with 

numbers, such as the 'flock' sign* °f. and its variants, and is similarly 

coupled with and the ’ 1 cup At other times It is placed by itself before 
numbers/ In certain places* again. It seems to stand apart before words 
or sentences/ Where it Is seen hi an Isolated position before a chariot/ it 

surely indicates a royal owner. In a series of cases the formula bA 

h TbHii? 

Fig. G7<i. ‘ Tkkose and Sceptre 1 Sign of Class B 


1 ThHjiyv Xtiwiv The title is applied more 
t hart fifty limes to kings .and chieftains in t Eie 

I lomerii- puvnis {T + I Jay Seymour, Lift in iht 
Ifomtrk p. 95 y ("ompure Isaiah xL 1 1. 

■ F Li. Griffith. JHfavgfyfl&s t 33 57 and PL 

II I, Fig. £ej. The crook and Its variant forms 
mus ill so ll wonl->i|^n for flocks and herds* 

See Griffith I 7 fr. t p. 54), and Jknf fLusan* 

Y, Pc III, PL YJ t S6. 

1 See below, § ! i ft. 

■ It is tlius found at the beginning of my 

■' On 50 of my series. 

On 230, 559* &e. This for¬ 

mula is also twice repeateil on iheediit: of fro_i* 

688 THE horned HEAD-PIECE 

occurs at the beginning of inscriptions and the two signs also often form 
the first element oi what may he regarded as masculine names. 1 On 
* ^ ** l Es e tablet, i 55 -* "lifit seems to be the name of an important female 
personage written in tall characters is followed in smaller letters by what 
looks like a title ending with the ‘throne T sign as a determinative. 5 

I he sign itself is of frequent recurrence on the whole series of Knossian 
tablets, and the gradual simplification of its form a . due to this constant 
repetmon^-as reproduced in Fig. (570 led to successive degradations, of 
which the final version might well be taken for *Ti 1 in modern letters 

from the 
4 horned 

The Horned Head-piece, 

Another interesting character seen in its developed form, % in the 
B series (No. 49}. deserves special consideration 111 this connexion. This 
sign, which is common to ail phases of the Minoan linear script may also 
vutJi great probability be regarded as a symbol of official dignity. 

In its most primitive aspect, of which we can trace tlm dear survival 

“ r-»W»? H ,” g!a Triid " *“«* 1 . already appeals mi 

m b f r ° rwbat mUiit 1>e reco - nizetl the latest transitional 
uassoi the Malha documents * belonging to the earliest phrase of M, M, HI 
here reproduced from my own copy (Fig. 

-mat appL-ans before w *man f sign m 
die list of Nos, 1553 Lind , J5iJ an£ j j^| j n 

die same way cm ijflr,, ^ i in other cases 
coupled wiili the somewhat utiahigoija A.) 

■ TTYS em- 

>ee, too, /'. 0t .1/1, i, p. Gjtfi, Kg, 4^4, 

4 Prof. 1. Chapeuthicr's, Ecriturts 

'*** df 4fc *» <‘WD. IT- 55 * 

* M ‘' ldewith tllu kind permission of Mi.ttsieur 
Chapouthter and die French Mission. 
Stamiallyagree-wiib J'rof.Chapoutliiersccpv, 
but die terminal sign of both lines answer 


The form of this document, a clay 
bar. is. interesting since it represents a 
survival of the hieroglyphic tradition. 

Its initial X is also taken over from 
the same system, as well as a decad¬ 
ent variety of ait animat's head, though 
the O crossed by an X is a unique 
feature. Otherwise, the script must 
lie attributed to a primitive phase 01 
tiie Linear Class A, 1 and the Inscrip 
tion lias a special importance from the 
early cm a m pies that it presents of the 
sign, here thrice repeated, (see 
big. S!7*2 tit &. <•). It twice follows the 
* fodder ‘ sign, © and at the begin¬ 
ning of ime^it is grouped with a form 
of the Double Axe, V, ami appears 
under a variant aspect. That we have here some kind of peaked head- 
piece can hardly remain in doubt* 3 

These examples, which slam! at the head o\ the comparative scries 
belonging to the Linear Classes A ami B, grouped in big. ^73. tiring ns 
within sight of the pictography origins of the type, Ol the wide difluslcm 
of forms of more or less; conical horned helmets on the Anatolian side 



Fig. U 72 + * Hohn&d Hklmrt p Sign and 


more nearly lo the H h which it dcurly repre¬ 
sents, ns rims tlie terminal tsf lint: e. The 
pena Li i i n ate c baracLc r see 11 l.h lo t *e idem teal wi t h 
an ‘animal's head 1 ssru that recurs on the Mrdlia 
Tablets (see t>p+ at r |p r 33* Mr. t v). Thu 
little group of day 'liars 1 lo which this be¬ 
longs is rightly iitlributcd to the linear Class A 
of M_ M, III, p/. a/., pp + 57 t 58. 

1 Pari tif a clay bar from Palaikastro also 
presents script of this class* 

■ 11 is i 11 ipossible lo accept Chape luthier's i n- 
geniou* suggestion {$p. dL t pp, 59, 60) that this 
siipi is copied from a class of objects variously 
regarded as 1 idols' or 1 votive robes 1 or—us 
maintained 111 I\ 0/ J/. F i p p. 175— ' votive 
sheep bells'. Thu apex, visible irt *i 1 l phases 
of the sign, is there wanting. In its place a 

handle (inset <t) which 
later becomes a mere 
protuberance (fi), anti, in 
the original votive ob¬ 
ject, two holes for the 
suspension of a clapper 
(in the secondary type /* placet! 
on lbe side). A section showing 
(? lit ted wish a clapper is here given 
(r). The chronological discre¬ 
pancy may, indeed* itself be re¬ 
garded os decisive. The votive 
objects m question arc peculiar 
to M. M, Irt deposits. So far as is known, the 
earliest appearance of die sign dates from the 
beginning of M. II. Ill a —some three cen¬ 
turies later. 






] 1 uracil 




there h abundant evidence, and it ts indeed a usual concomitant of figures 
of llittke Gods and Princes (Fig. GT#!), 1 where four horns are often 
indicated. Due. as equipped with two horns, Late MI non it Art affords two 

classical examples. The near¬ 
est parallel is on the fragment 
of a relief from a faience ves¬ 
sel from the Third Shaft Grave 
at Mycenae - on the head of 
a warrior covered to tile neck 
with the rounded run of a 
large shield (Pig. ( 574 ). In a 
more ornamented shape, with 
a crest above and curling ram's 
horns on cither side, we see a 
conical helmet of the same 
general class on a cornelian 
IciUoid from the Vaphcio 
1 omb J {I- M. I &)■, reproduced 
in Fig. 1175 . where the usual 
decoration of rows of boars 
teeth is dearly suggested b\ the 
alternating rows of curves."' 
A feature (} f ihis design, tin: two strings for lying on the head-piece curling 
up below and reappearing at the side, afford at the same time a reasonable 
explanation of the tu'o short appendages seen beneath Fig, (572 &, r. 

These rudimentary indications of the strings are themselves inter¬ 
preted in the further evolution of the sign as short crossed supports of the 
* camp-stool kind, and are gradually assimilated to the longer 1 legs 1 
attached to Other signs. 

In this character, then, we may recognize another emblem of personal 
dignity. As a phonetic sign it is frequent in groups. 

I Ior nf:d H k i .m }■. r of Hi rn te I ¥ k 1 \ t, K<. 

Fid. 1171, War¬ 
rior with Horned 
Heap - heck on 
FaJknce Kl Lll l ; 
Mvci.xak, (Hinder 
Horn rES iORtiL) 

Fig* GT.T Lento id 
Bealhseal VkOll Ya- 


H el 14 lt w ini Ham *s 
Horns and Row? of 
Hoars' Tusks. 

1 rf, 1 vri (Wright, of I'l. 

XIV) i h Sinjifli; <7 Tel! Basher (Hogarth, 
IlittU* St iih t 1 J L X T 313)* 

: Scliuchhardt, ScAfit/tttiittfs 
ppH -07' 3o8 and Fig, t<|S, The shield may 
very well hive been of the ordinary Mmnan 8- 
sbaped kind and not 1 round P p as there slated. 
In Raikicssidc Egypt the horned helmet was 
specially associated with the Shardanu. On 

tlie ’ W amor \ ' from Mycenae Lt appears on 
the (lend 01 twn bearded waniors whose bags 
ol praviskm^ wl s H ole, slung from their spears, 
seem to stamp them as marauders from a 

* Tsountas, 'E*. m Ap Kt 1SS9. Pb X, 37, 

1 It seems possible that ill? dashes on the 
homerL helmet, Ffg h U 71 ! fr r may stand for a 
similar form of decoratforn 



The Numeration. 

Except lor the partial survival of the 'pellet' form of the decimal sign Nw'iww- 
tnherited from the hieroglyphic system, the numeration in Classes A and B class b 
is practically identical, though the fractions art- clearer marked in Class A 
and the 10,000 sign only occurs in B (see Comparative Table, Fig, d 7 t>). A, 











to<V OO ::: 
V V OO~ — 

\o ^ + 

* * * w 

111 - 24 $6 



1, IMIt i- l- 




i 0.000 



fOGO%*+ lOOfc + lO^ +■ 





Fir, 1170 . Numerals or Classes A and Li 

That we have to deal with a decimal system is clearly shown by the 
fact that the units are never more than nine in number, the same rule 
applying to the tens ami hundreds. 

Over atul above this, a remarkable aiul recurring feature in the numbers 
attached to the clay documents proves the existence of a system of per¬ 
centages. On a usual type in the form of a clay slip, after what we may 
regard as a personal name, and in characters the lull height of the tablet, 
there appears a statement of account In two registers divided by a horizontal 
line. The upper of these registers shows one or both varieties of the ' flock ' 

sign TX as recognized below, followed by numbers. Sometimes, as in Fig. 

1 * 77 . a ,a circle, indicating too, represents the whole amount. More often the 
upper register shows a large proportion of too and tin. 1 lower a fraction of it. 

These smaller amounts often follow what may be supposed to be the official 
signs such as ^ and £ and, in a principal degree, the " throne and sceptre * 

sign [^. In all these cases It will be found that the tipper and lower amounts I'wcern- 
specified together make tip 100, A simple instance of this is given in ^ r * lv 
Tig. 1 * 77 . where the two sums of the upper register 57 H- 23 = So, while in 

IV ** z j. 



the lower register what appears to be the name of some official written 
in smaller letters than the initial group, is succeeded by the 1 throne' sign, 
coupled with the barred ‘hock’ sign and numerals = 20, the whole sum 
amounting thus to too. Here then the royal share seems to have been 
20 per cent. 

Inthe parallel example, Fig, i> 77 , r, the two amounts in the upper register 



are 84 and 1i = 95, while in the lower—following a small sign-group that may 
represent the name of an official, and associated with £ and the ‘Hock’ sign 
are ciphers == 5. Here the total again is 100. but the quota deducted is 
only 5 per cent. At times it sinks as low as 1 per cent, Occasionally the 
total amount is 50 or 200, the decimal character of the reckoning again 
and again manifesting itself, 

A curious variet}' of these 1 percentage' tablets is illustrated by l’ig. < 178 , 
a, 6 . Here the total of the numbers Indicating the round sum is contained 
in the first register, a giving 90 + 10 = too. ^48 + 2 = 50. lit these cases, 
therefore, the total sum dealt with is contained in the first line. and. in place 
of the minor percentage normally supplied in the second register, there 
appears, in each case, after what are probably name-groups, an X. It is 
clear that this must be interpreted not as the x sign of modern arithmetic, but 
as simply o, since nothing was left over. 

Signs of Addition. 

A good example of addition is supplied on which numbers follow what, Sigwof 
from its general appearance, has been here described as the ‘banner’ sign. 

In this case the total sum—40—is marked on the edge of the tablet, pre¬ 
ceded by two signs that appear on others as an indication of addition at the 
end of lists (Fig. 678). The constant initial sign of the total of amounts 
is "f. This, however, is often followed by the ‘ single-edged ’ axe sign f 

or this coupled with to which seems to be closely related, 

A striking example of addition sums is afforded by the large tablet. 

Fig, HS6 below, containing lists of names. 

pi - / 

//////® Q =»»!' = 3 ; 

nv r 11 


uj O 

LU Ur 

8 S 3 S 51 TY Ph 

= Total 4 o 

Gnu ft Total Signs 

T N ?, T"»P 

Fig. G71L Example of Segss or AbamoN. 
n s 

1 Minus 1 

« j r J. Tablets of the Linear Script B (continleu) : Meticulous 
Business Mmtiiods; Lists of Persons and Inventories ru - Possession. 

‘ Alims as a bureaucratic organizer as well as law-giver- — Corrcbora- 
tioa of Greek tradition: Elaborate business methods; Inventories docketed; 
Method ini! disposition of tablets—A rhtidcs ' the Unjust'; The Grammarian 
at work—conventions common to A and /t: Bulk of Tablets inventories and 
lists of persons; Example of exceptional document; I human figures — 'liftin' 
sign; Cher see) sign : Targe tablet with lists of men—elegant inscription of 
similar kind; 'Woman' sign—lists of female names; Signs indicative of 
children; The name-groups -with and without ‘man or 'woman sign , 
Ideograms in personal names—interest of'goat' sign; 'Ship' and 'rudder * 
in name forms; Male and female terminals—evidence of declension; Corre¬ 
spondence of names in Classes A and B ; Linguistic unitv extends to Cyclades ; 
Olive culture—symbol of superintendence ; Saffron culture and cereal signs ; 
Blocks and herds; Swine and horses; • Horned cattle' and flock' signs— 
indications of sex; Signs specially am ucried with quantities or numbers ; 
Pictorial fgates of uncertain warning; Deposit of 'Vase Tablets' - com¬ 
parisons with hoards of meiat vessels and relation to Central Palace Sanctuary ; 
Early B tablet with ' rhytons' and 'Vapheio' nips; Services of vessels ; Signs 
of script relating to vessels; Hoard of tablets referring today 1 stirrup vasts * 
marked by ‘Double-Axc' character; Stratigraphic interest cf deposit L. Af. 
II/ b f stirrup vases' on clay floor above. 

I ME evidence, supplied in- these clay documents, of conventions due to 
some school of scribes and grammarians, and their meticulous arrangement, 
lit in well with the traditions taken over by the Greeks regarding the great 
Minnan ruler. Minos, according to these, was not only a lawgiver, bin was 
himself both a great dispenser of justice and a bureaucratic reformer, after 
the manner of the Egyptian Sesostris, 1 who, for his convenience, divided 
the population into three distinct classes—soldiers, burghers, and husband¬ 
men. Even more perhaps than the beauties of Minoan Art must this 

highly perfected inner organization have struck the primitive Greek 

The tablets themselves, as we have seen, were grouped according to 
the particular subject of their contents. These are in many cases made 

1 Aristotle, /V. vi]\ I Cl 



dear by the pi ctog rapine de¬ 
signs oil their margins, and 
accompanied by special formu¬ 
las. The tablets, for the most 
part, were then stored in wooden 
cases, which would naturally 
have ’ ( been labelled with ink- 
written inscriptions. 

The whole surface was Tablet* 
marked out with cross-lines as 
a preliminary to the insertion 
of the written records, which 
was often, as will be seen from 
Fig. liSO, only partly filled in. 
Evidently the tablets were sup¬ 
plied in this state to the clerk, 
like ruled sheets of paper in a 
modern business office. 

In one quite exceptional 
case the tablet, which is of the 
elongated * slip ’ form, is scored 
by vertical in place of hori¬ 
zontal lines (Fig. 681 ). It is 
thus divided into six compart¬ 
ments, 1 the last blank, the first 
— rather wider than the others 
—containing presumably the 
name of the principal person 
concerned in larger characters. 

1 Assuming that the arrangetiw'nt in the small lacuna was symmetric aJ with the rest of 
the tablet as restored in I’ig. 641 . 

form* ol 
day docu¬ 




ing of in¬ 
on edge 
of tablet; 


As restored, the inscription would read as follows: 

VCAH abb itr t©r m 

The documents of the Hieroglyphic Class had been for the most part 
perforated bars or clay ‘ labels', and the tablet-shape proper is of rare occur¬ 
rence, Solitary specimens from Knossos and Phaestos show a rectangular 
outline of greater width than height. 1 Among those presenting the linear 
Script A the tablet-form is general: sometimes, as Fig, ( 147 , p. 660, above, 
practically square in shape, but usually oblong, of greater height than width, 
and with the edges slightly rounded. This type, often on a considerably 
larger scale, is followed in the last described Knossian class. Some of the 
tablets—as is shown below 5 —-were extraordinarily small. 

Business Methods and Meticulous Arrangement of the Records, 

Another interesting document, in which the ‘ banner '-sign is repeated 
(Fig. 68% gives an excellent idea of the business-like methods of the scribes 
who drew up these inventories. It is rapidly written, in a style that shows 
great practice and character, the secondary details being inserted in signs 
and numbers so microscopic that in the original they are best seen through 
a magnifying glass. Some idea of these niceties may be gathered from my 
own transcript (Fig. <» 82 ). which, however, is somewhat enlarged. No clear 
evidence of the subject of the inscription is forthcoming, but the ■ saffron 1 

sign is contained in the group f ^ of line 2, while, in another, near the- end 
of the same line, we recognize the * superintendent T sign in a similar position. 

Here, again, a summary account of the contents of the document is 
inserted on the edge of the tablet (Fig. 682 , fi). This docketing on the edge 
itsell suggests that in these cases the documents had been packed together 
like books oil a shelf, 

U is touches like the above that best illustrate the highly methodical 
administrative methods in vogue throughout the closing period of the Great 
Palace. It is of a piece with the precautionary details such as have been 
already exemplified, not only by the securing of documents or packages 
ot value bv means of clay sealings impressed by official signets, but by the 

■ Sec SmfitaMuM, i, p, 17* l*. X3 o ami 4.4 cm. hi.) high. None were discovered 
«!■ One from kno«os is about 7 cm. ( 1 % in.) 3 t Mailia. 
w ide by 4 S cm. (1 J In.) high. The tuber, from = See p. 709, Fig. uhs. 

Phaestos, is about 8-5 cm. {3J in.) wide aiui 



countermarking of the impressions themselves with graffito signatures, and 
as an additional measure of control—by their countersigning and endorse¬ 
ment in a similar manner. On the tablet, Fig. <582, the lettering itself is of 
four sizes. 

TiA\i TMX H 1 Ti unyfrii. 

F10. Gh 2 . a . Tablet with 1 Banner " Sign and £ki j evi rn, Inscribed Edge 01 1 ablet. 

Methodical Disposition of Tablets; Aristides the E Unjust , 

The methodical disposition of the clay archives in the ‘House of 
Minos' was destined, indeed, to bear fruit in modem times, and even to 
serve the ends of justice. A series of tablets, clearly purloined from Knossos, 
had made their appearance at Athens, and inquiries made connected their 
removal with an oversea trip of one of our workmen, who hath just before, 
left the excavations. On looking through the inscriptions of the stolen 
tablets 1 observed a formula specially associated with the deposit ot tablets 
found in Magazine XV. and an examination of the day-books showed that 
Aristides- such was bis name—-had been working in that Magazine before Aristides, 
the date of his hasty departure. On his return to Crete he was arrested^ j U5 ' e p 
and the evidence supplied by the Minoan formula was accepted b) the 
Canea Tribunal. Aristides—* the Unjust—-was in consequence of this 
condemned to a heavy fine and three months' imprisonment. 1 

1 See, lot), Strip to Mhwa r i, [>- 4*k 

6 9 8 


Conventions common to both Class A and B, 





K3 JII a i rn:s r - 
lam ;it 
work i 
l mis 
to A nnd 

Meticulous bureaucratic methods such as the above reflect a legalized 
administration ami 1 reasury devices ot a highly modem kind, such as 
never before were seen on any fraction of European soil. In the inscriptions 
of Class Ii, and the elaborately artificial system implied by many of the forms 
ol the signs themselves and by their relations to values and numbers, we 
must recognize the work of official grammarians of outstanding ability. 

In this connexion we observe common conventions, imposed In this 
u*iv, adopted by both Classes A and 13 . I Ids has been already ex cm- 
plified by the identical system of numeration adopted, different from that 
of the Hieroglyphic series; it is well illustrated in detail by the common 
use <>( the banner sign for the insertion within it of characters—in some 
cases the same in both Classes—such as the ‘ flying bird 

Bulk Of 
tablets in- 
v zutorics 
anti Jists 

of persons, 

nt eacej* 

Tablet of Exceptional Class. 

lhe great bulk of the clay documents, as already stated, are of a 
business character, such as Inventories and lists. Hut there exists a small 
class of exceptionally large tablets, sometimes inscribed on both faces, and 
clearly of a different purport. Here the signs, denoting various properties, 
and those referring to individual persons, are conspicuous by their absence! 
In such cases, as on die large inscription, my copy of which is given in 
Fig. mii t l we may reasonably suppose that we have to deal with a contract 
or an official pronouncement that may well have borrowed Els wording from 
an actual enactment of die great Law giver. 

This document is written in bold characters, originally about 67 in 
number, J and consists of nineteen or twenty words, composed of 2 to 4, 
or 5 signs, with the usual upright strokes between. It is divided into 
three paragraphs, the first ending in line 2, the second in line 6, and the 
conclusion in the eighth line. Eight or nine characters arc lost on the left 


Here there is no quasi-pictorial sign referring to possessions, nor any 

indication ol numbers, 1 lie characters representing persons of the male or 

female sex are also wanting. At the same time the recurrence of the ' hand ’ 

• **:a photographic facsimile see Strata ’ The second sign (here completed) h fairly 

7T‘^ IIB ™ ptl0n *** ft,lmd wilh ™ fragmentary sign at the beginning 
the large deposit of lahlets m llw Northern , , . rt . 

Entrance Passage, a fair number of which ^ bc Cl,her 2 0t $ 

rcbm to the Koval Stublcs and Arsenal, 


sign as a terminal at the end of each of the last four lines raises a suspicion 









Ffo 683- Lahoe Document w ithout Numkrlcm, Indications. ($) 

that such may be included, since this sign is amongst those not infrequently 
found at the end of names marked both by the male and female figure. 

In a case like lids it is, at any rate, not improbable that the document 
may consist of some official warrant, involving, it may be, a legal formula. 


But the overwhelming proportion of the tablets relate to inventories 
oi possessions and apportionments of accounts in which these arc involved, 
or to the lists of names of persons of both sexes, accompanied by the ‘ man* 
and ‘ woman ’ signs. 

Ideographic and Qnasbpictorial Signs. 

To the signs that apparently have a phonetic as well as a purely ideo¬ 
graphic or pictorial value must be added a second group of characters— 
such as those depicting animal lorms — the use of which seems to have 
been of the latter class, with some special exceptions in the case of the 
elements of personal names. 

- Man' 


sign + 

Human Figures: Ideogram of Superintendence. 

The first place in the group may be claimed for the human figures, of 
which specimens are given in Fig, GS 4 . These, as will be seen, are of 
both the male and female sex (B. 74. 75), 1 he hall-squatting attitude 

characteristic of some of the ‘man' signs is, as shown below, 1 of very early 
tradition, and may even indicate a hieroglyphic Egyptian influence. The 
long triangular outline of the lower part of the ■ woman ’ sign, on the other 
hand, sometimes with a dividing line in front, rather reflects very late 
Palatial fashions of Oriental importation. On a version that appears on 
a sealing of Class A we recognize, on the contrary, the shori-skirted, 
flounced apparel of transitional M. M. Ill L. hi. J fashions* 

In what seems to be a direct relation to the oversight of fields and 
crops there appears at the head of the inscriptions on the 'cereal ' class of 
tablets already referred to.' a more specialized form of both the * man " and 
'woman sign fFig. tt 85 ), in which the figure rests one hand on a crooked 
statt, and holds out the other in the attitude of superintendence. These 
of I it ini signs, as applied to both sexes, make their appearance several times 
in groups, such as imr 

A parallel phenomenon in the case of the sign-groups that appear 
before the ordinary ' man 1 sign ft, 11. 74 of the list, is the occurrence of the 
throne sign in them as part of the phonetic composition of names. 

1 See bcW* p. 706, Fig, 

1 A similar costume, hut with a longer 
flounced skin, is also reflected in compound 
female signs of Class A (No. ijo of the sigftaiy, 
F< 6 77 ± 

* See above, p. 623 and Fig, GOfl, 0, ^ d. 

In No. T43J, GC, too,, No. 604. Jn three 
cases it follows T and is perhaps iisctl Ideo- 


7 oi 

'man and woman" 

"woman* SIGN 



(ft*S**.?>•) &(»**>, . 

grift («m) AA 

l tsOPifO*"™ Hi 

--- n. ■*. Ci F ^ 


76 b 





Fig. G8 3 , S ic ns of S t- per* 


The inclusion of this sym¬ 
bol of dominion in per¬ 
sonal names suggests com¬ 
parisons drawn from many 
races, such as Melchize- 
dck or Abimelech, Ver- 
ciugetortx, Hilderic, or 
Theodoric, Oswald, and 
Wladimir. Its inclusion 
at any rate suggests a 
royal lineage, just as 
the sign of superinten¬ 
dence seems to indicate 
high bureaucratic connex¬ 

Such forms then may 
certainly be taken to weigh 
against the opinion, some¬ 
times expressed, that the 
lists of names found on 
the tablets relate to slaves. 
It may be further ob¬ 
served, indeed, that the 
names of slaves or cap¬ 
tives might largely refer 
to Individuals of foreign 
stock, while the sign- 
groups themselves tit in 
with the ordinary Mitioan 

Large Tablet dealing with Male Persons in Three Groups, 

Of tablets dealing with lists of persons of the male sex, by far the 
largest example is that, reproduced on a somewhat reduced scale from my 
copy, in Mg, 1580* It is 26 cu% (idJ inches) high by 15-5 cm. (6^ in.) in 
breadth, and presents 24 lines of inscription* I he list itself is divided, at 
the 1 ith, 19th, and 20th lines, into three sections, and each of these is prefaced 
by a separate heading. Hath paragraph bears at its end a statement of 

1 Th rone 1 

1 superb- 

sigrts in 

with [his 
of men. 


the total number of persons contained in the Section—3 1 in the first. 23 in 
the second, and apparently 15 in the third. The word-signs indicating the 
name of the individual are in each case followed by the figure of a ' man’^—the 
number of characters in the sign-groups varying from two to five. IncEttding 
those of the headings the number of personal nam es given amounts to 72, 

Each of the three lists of names is pro facet] by a general statement, 
the first being of greater length, and perhaps, therefore, relating to the 
whole of the contents of the inscription. Unfortunately the initial line of 
this has been entirely broken away except for three disconnected characters. 
What follows on line 2 is 

X*AO , ' l flil] | [D i H l Hd[Vft l 

The second heading (in line 12) is shorter. After one missing word it 


The third heading (in line 20) is also brief, but is completely preserved. 
Here the second and third group is smaller than the first, but the fourth, 
to which the ‘man’ sign is affixed, again attains the normal height 

PTY Serrb'fA'YCSft 1 

The fact that in alt three cases these headings end m the man' sign 
deserves particular attention. 

The terminal group itself, with which this sign is connected, is not 
included tn the list of those added up. Were It included in the total of the 
first section the number would be 32 instead of 31, while in the second 
section the number would be 24 instead of 33. 

O11 the other hand, it must be regarded as a remarkable circum¬ 
stance that here, out of a total number of 10 word-groups, no less than 

5 terminate in the ‘gate’ sign §, which is quite distinctively and to an over¬ 
whelming degree the final character in female name-groups. 1 In the two 
latter instances it forms the terminal sign of the sentence before the male 

figure. In the first heading, however, in line 2, its place is taken by ^ which, 
as will be shown below, seems to be an indication of children of both sexes,’ 

Why then the male figure at tire end of all these headings— -not, however- 
reckoned in the appended lists of men ? Women and children would seem to 
be the real interested parties here but acting through male representatives. 

J See below, p. 710, 1 % m B , and cf. [>. 714. ■ See below, p. 70S. 


f l 1 . ■' 

Wkf i TO1X+ ? 1 H g 


t wdiU TfTrrt 

sfeik n> u & i, V rw V V 


Fig. (t 8 ii + Large [ ini-jcr showing Lists 0 ^ Men. 


wj [Ik 

tion with 

An interesting grammatical detail is also noticeable in these headings. 
The sign-groups are m each case separated by a very small upright mark 
on the lower border of the register. After the + man P sign, on the other 
hand, there appears die usual dividing stroke, somewhat elevated above the 
lower border 

That an individual concerned with the third heading occupied some 
official position is itself made probable by Its second group terminating in 
the ' throne 1 sign. This sign also forms part of the names of two persons 

In the preceding paragraph and Mkl 

Certainly, in this document bureaucratic method is everywhere apparent: 
In its heading and the prefatory formulas of its paragraphs; in their clear 
distinction from one another and the careful addition sums. To these we may 
also add the variation in the size of the characters—so that in paragraph 3 
we have larger and smaller type—and the graduated scale noted in the 
punctuation, showing a truly modem advance in the Art of Writing. 

Contrast with this an early Greek inscription—with all the advantages of 
alphabetic development but entirely devoid of espacefnent or punctuation— 
the words running into one another, anti the sentences imseparated! In 
the Greek case it is a foreign system, imperfectly assimilated by barbarians 
ol yesterday. A Miuoan inscription, on the other hand, though its signary 
had not yet reached the alphabetic stage, represents a gradual and con* 
tinuous growth on Cretan soil , fiari fiassu, through long generations, with 
that of a great indigenous civilization the subtleties of which it fully 

The great tablet was found on an upper level overlooking the Hall of 
the Colonnades, together with broken remains of others on a smaller scale, 
and was clearly derived from the neighbouring Room of the Archives, 

A good, though more fragmentary, example of lists of male personal 
names is reproduced from my copy in Eig. Gfe 7 <r, 6 } Perhaps, two-thirds of 
the tablet is preserved, with some lacunas, and face u, where the characters are 
larger, may have consisted of 9 lines of inscription. On face 6 , however — 
with the object apparently of securing sufficient space for carrying over the 
remainder of the list—after the first line (which nearly answers to the scale 
ol a) the registers become narrower. The whole inscription on this face 
may have originally amounted to 12 lines. 

The initial section of face $, shows a whole sign-group, succeeded, after 
a mark of division, by another (incomplete) without any intervening 'man' 

1 For photo^rajsliic copits see Suppl. 1*1. LXtt. 

sign, and 
seems, there¬ 
for c t to be in 
the nature of 
a short head- 

■* UMG 


U n fortunately 
the initial part 
of face a Is 
wanting, but 
11 m a y iv e 11. 
have been of 
an analogous 
character* The 
two conclud¬ 
ing groups of 
the register, 
however, ter¬ 
minate in the 
+ man * sign. 

The per- 
sonal names 
inscribed in 
the two lists 
are composed 
of from two to 
four charac¬ 
ters, Out of 
22 terminals 
of those pre¬ 
served, ^ oc- 
curs 5 times, 

I 3 and }, 

and ^ twice 
each. The 
special fre¬ 
quency of the 
first two and 

Fit;, 087 ti f k Tablet with Elegant Soupt containing, 
Li>is of Mi n. 

with list of 



of I at the end of male-names is also notable elsewhere: the group TTC 
is found with the * man‘sign attached on another tablet, 1 The ‘throne’ 
sign at the beginning of affords a further indication that the persons 

listed on these tablets were not as a rule of servile condition. 

The elegant style of this inscription at once strikes the eye* It is one 

of distinct group marked by the same * Court 
hand'. A feature of this group is the con¬ 
ventional half-seated attitude of the * man' 
sign itself, which suggests an archaic tradition, 
since it curiously recalls a crouched human 
type found in the hieroglyphic class (Fig. 
tiSS, 6 ). 

An examination of 136 groups followed 
by the ‘man’ sign, including the legible 
examples on the tablets, Figs. 08 ti and 1587 . 
and clearly representing personal names, shows that 20 consist of two 
characters, 6= of three, 45 of four, 5 of five, and 1 of six. 

* t t 

Fig* fl88 
Type; ITS 
Hieroglyphic Class a, 
on Tablets, f). 

p t 

Crouched Male 
A kl M A EC Tk A HIT ION : 

Man 3jok 

Lists with Female Names. 

Of inscriptions connected with the‘female* sign (No. U. 75 of Fable 
Fig. <> 84 1, the most important is that of which my transcript is reproduced, 
slightly enlarged, in Fig. 680 , a The tablet, which is beautifully inscribed, 
is practically complete, and consists of fourteen lines. 

It contains a double list with a statement at the end of each of the 
total number mentioned. It is thus analogous 10 the large tablet, Fig. <iSl> 
above, repeating the ‘man 1 sign, though unfortunately in this instance, 
owing to lacunas, it is not possible in either list to check the addition sums 
arrived at. Hint at the end of the inscription is entirch broken off. The 
calculation is further complicated by the fact that in more than one case the 
' woman sign, though accompanied by only a single name, is followed by 
numbers referring to more than one person. Thus the group AL 9 . which 

* Face fi, line No, of my hand-list. 

£ Face & t line fi, 

s This tablet formed part of an important 
hoard found About 30 cm* below the surface 
on the upper level of the XVth Magazine. Whli 
it was found a seal impression* countermark eel 

and countersigned, depict Lug a Lull attacked 
by two Uogs^ n large one showing two bulls, 
ihuI a fragment uf another presenting the 
Linn* Gam scheme, Cf. li< S. A., vii; A. 15 - t 
AV/cW, Knossos [LjLn t p* 43. 


occurs alone with the 'woman' sign on other tablets with a single cipher, 
is here followed by the number 7* In other cases we see 2, or 4. 

The ' woman' sign is traceable thirty-eight times on this tablet, and we 
may infer that it was originally repeated in seven other places. It is note¬ 
worthy that the group T occurs three times before the ‘woman’ sign 



in the second list of the tablet. 1 Here we may infer that it applied to 
different individuals of the same name. At other times where, as not in¬ 
frequently happens, a name recurs on more than one tablet, we are free to 
suppose that it may belong to another person. 

The addition formula here “f is an abbreviation of that on the large 
tablet. Fig, G8G, with the lists of male names. It is followed by the ‘woman " 
sign, and the total number 46. 


tivc of 

Sign groups indicative of Children of Both Sexes. 

11 is specially to be noted that in the addition sums seen on this tablet— 
as in a series of parallel documents—the * woman sign is coupled with 

two other groups and indicative of separate categories.* On the 
tablet, Fig. <* 90 , we sec these categories further differentiated, in the case 
of the first, by supplementary formulas fTlWM 7 A which are of 
frequent recurrence in the same connexion. 

The most natural conclusion seems to be that we have here to deal 
respectively with male and female children. The common element is here the 
which elsewhere stands alone in connexion with numbers. Of the |jj 
sign, with which tt is coupled in the first group, and which therefore would 
appear to have a masculine signification, all that can be said is that it is 
itself apparently the derivative of a facade or porch of a building. 3 With 
regard to the qualifying formulas Tft ant ' TfiTft ass °ciated with ^fjj, 
it is worth while observing that in the modern Cretan dialect a different 
word may be applied to boys over and under seven years of age. 

1 Lines 3 , 10, 11, 1 In Tablefopp. p, 6S4),Fig.iSSfi a. No, R 8. 

8 Jn 1. 6 the second si^ii uf tlit: latter fiimiuhi In earlier examples it . s 1 posts * (sec /'. t*f 
ta broken away. It can be restored with rer- .i/. t f, jk 63^ Fig- I ” 4 * 
mine y fro till L 5 and a ^ratrs of other cfctmpk'S 


On the other hand, the jj of tile second formula can be shown to have 
distinct feminine associations. This character, in its completed form, as 
seen in Fig. H91 a, 6, z,' with a 
horizontal stroke at the base, repro¬ 
duces the characteristic elongated 
triangular outline of the robed 
’ woman 1 sign. It is clearly capable 
of use as a phonetic character, and in 
one case it appears reduplicated at 
the end of a sign-group of four 
letters. Elsewhere two of these 
characters face each other (Fig, <UJl 
6). On a fragmentary tablet,* con¬ 
taining part of a list, J appears alone, 
followed by numbers, as if standing in place 
of the ' woman ‘ sign, while on another it is 
seen substituted lor it iti a similar way, and 
followed by a single cipher, before the ior- 

mulas ffil atul The derivative type, Fig. 

«01, € i placed before tile pictorial representa¬ 
tion of a cup of the Vapheio tvpc on the inter- Fig. t\ l J± Exckpti Smam. 
esung tablet. Fig. 711 below’may possibly de- ^ i ;^^ PPARh;NTLV RIIKRfl,ril ' To 
signate it as the property of a Minoan princess. 

The feminine sign above and the two formulas, here recognized as 
representing children of both sexes are repeated on the exceptionally small 
tablet (Fig. Ufl'i). It almost looks as if we had here a child's tablet. 


A detailed examination of the sign-groups on tablets clearly 'labelled' 
as personal names by the ‘ man ' or * woman' sign that immediately succeeds 
them leads to a wider conclusion. 

As will be seen from the Comparative Tables. Fig, liJKt a and u, which 
are themselves by no means of an exhaustive character, the whole or part 
of these 'name-groups’ recurs in a scries of sign-groups that appear on 
tablets in prominent places and conspicuous characters, without being 
succeeded by the conventionalized figure of a man or woman. 

1 See, too, Fig. 602, * No. 647 of my liiind-list. * Sec p. 729 . 

5 A 2 

Kl IiiO 1*. ^in vs o f i' F.M j n i xe m fo kt i 










7 io 

With, utid 
* nun " «>r 
1 woman 1 

The female examples, as shown in Fig. GR,‘l h. are not so abundant as the 
male, partly owing to the fact that there are longer list of persons to which the 
‘ man' sign Is actually attached, but also largely owing to another ci rcumstance. 




man'sign compared 



/fT 125t 



C X t'3t 
\ I Wtf 




£3 1 TT^ 2 j, t2M 
j 1 Li ( W5 /4B5 


W, ¥k©7 






^ /fW 


^ £[r j 3 foio 



i Y 



Flo. 693 a. Xamk-chovjhs oi Lixwk Script R amocmtid with “ Man ' Sn;s 



6 + Z 


YM/H 0 


T'|;l m 



Ftu. oo:i b. Namk-oaoi:ps or Linear Scriti B associated wim * Woman ' Sion. 

It will be seen that a disproportionately large number of the Knossian 
tablets preserved to us in whole or part, including the * percentage' series, 
refers to Hocks and herds, and of their nature principally relate to persons of 
the male se?t. So, too, the 1 Chariot tablets, ot which there is also a large 
series, may be thought to have been principally concerned with men. 

The correspondence and interconnexions of these * labelled ’ name- 
groups o! both sexes, with a much larger series of sign-groups, mostly taking 
the initial place on the tablets, arc such as to warrant the conclusion that 


these, loo. represent the names of individuals, personally referred to in 
various relations. A very considerable proportion of the sign-groups pre¬ 
served in these documents may thus be treated as personal names. 

The signs themselves, varying in a single group—as noted above in 
connexion with the ‘ man ' sign 1 —from two to five, rarely six, usually three 
or four in number—-evidently refer rather to syllables than single letters. It 
is further evident that in a good many cases a single character could be used 
by itself on a tablet with a phonetic value representing the object that the 
sign in its original form was supposed to depict 

It has been demonstrated above that a series of name-groups belonging 
to Class B correspond in whole or part with examples taken from Class A, 
and the conclusion has been drawn that the language itself was practically 
identical and that the differences visible in H must be rather due to dynastic 
than to racial causes.* 

From the point of view of language it is especially interesting to note Idco- 
that a certain number of signs included in the * name-groups' of the B series 
are still sufficiently pictorial in character to dectarc their meaning. names. 

Specimens of tablets including such signs in name-groups are given in 
Fig. Amongst them are several types of domestic animals, such as 

the ox. the goat, and the pig, 

A variety of animal forms had already supplied a frequent ingredient 
in sign-groups of the hieroglyphic class, some referring to personal names, 
others probably to official titles, these, as in the later script, being represented 
either by the whole animal or by the head and fore-part only. There are 
also reproduced in Fig. HP 4 , t\ f two tablets on which the fore-parts of sailing 
vessels occupy the central position of groups, 3 white in Fig, li 04 , ti the 
trisfalis sign appears, which may be taken to symbolize some more abstract 
idea— ich It seems possible that several of these quasi-pictorial signs 
connected with animals or other objects in such name-groups bad at least 
a bi-syllabic phonetic value, 

Of the animal forms, the conventionalized horse's head ^ 1 frequently Domestic 
recurs in name-groups, like onto- in Greek. The ‘pig's' head of Fig, 

fi, b, js also often found in such groups. Among the combinations of cludcd: 
signs in which it occurs are P’f* 5 ! 5 and The 

* See above, p. 706, examples of the sign. 

J -See above, p. 6S4, Fig, 865 . 11 Distinguished from the initial group by 

T See especially Strifilu A/f»aa t i f p. 263 smaller characters, 

and Table XIV, pp. 231, 333, /V. jH* S4. ■ Xo. 97 z of my hand list 

See belo^. p, Soo p for comparative 

Fl<;, (L1M rr-A. 

Gl AjmiALS ami OTHER OtlJtCTS. I , Varieties o> ‘ Ox ' Sius. 


swine Is widely used as a component of personal names, and Scandinavian 
forms like Sviuhufvud (swine head) will at once occur. A late Greek name 
form, Xmpo$QVKQ$ y ‘ swineherdmay also be eked. 

The ‘goat\ of the group recalls die frequent appearances of the 

animal's head in the hieroglyphic series. 1 I he b goat s head sign is itself well 
known among the Hlttitc hieroglyphs, where it has a special importance 
from its appearances with a cuneiform key to its phonetic value on the 
silver boss of Tarkondemos," The name, written thus as the Greek trans¬ 
literation of the names of Cilician kings, reads there I arkutimme, the first 
element Tarku- (or Tarrik-), being represented by the goat s head. Con¬ 
sidering the exceptionally dose relation in which the older ethnic element 
of Crete seems to have stood to the primitive population of Cilicia and its 
borderlands^ we have good warrant for concluding that the * goat sign on 
the Knossian tablet represents a familiar phonetic element in a Minoan 
name. It may indeed well be asked if the Greek work -payos (ora he-goat, 
which does not seem to be of' Aryan 1 origin, may not be included among 
names taken over from the older occupants of Hellas. 

Unfortunately, we have no such obvious clue in the case of the L ox 
sign which also recurs in ihese name-groups. 4 Four examples of sign- 
groups depicting the fore-part of this animal, are shown on fragmentary 

tablets, HfBK. m —YW followed by the safiron sign* 

(Fig* 094 , /, and d". r and //■) 

The female association of the sign is here indicated by the recurring y. 

A bird, possibly intended for a goose, occurs in the name-group MT- 
and the H living bird 1 sigm presumably an eagle, is of not infrequent appear¬ 
ance tn groups connected with the ‘ man' sign 1 anc ^ ' m 

a female association. 

Recognizable signs such as the lily \ and the 'leaf . also occur 
both in male and female name-groups. It is interesting to find in the same 
relation the conventional k eye' sign-—which itself displays a striking 
resemblance to the Tyrian form of the Semitic Vjv///— 

parallel to 
‘ Goal H 

O*’ in 

J Snp/ii J/inm t p. roj., W 64. 

: Sex Sayce's epoch making interprclflilmi 
of the Hiuite signs on file boss, Trntu* 
flih Jfi'A.t vii, I'e. (I {irstfi). |j_ =97 t and 1je". 
his rcrsUlcnuint in VV, Wright, Em pin itf Me 

T Sue especially / 3 . J/, T i, p. ft seqq* 

1 According to ibe lute J^r. A L. Cowley 
1 TU Hitiitos* Schwcich lectures, Ill. pp. 57 . 
5S), ibe bull «jr ox head occurs a*. die first 
si4j.1i of the place-name Mar ash (in cuneiform 
.Marka^u) and would therefore represent M* 


'Ship 1 
mild 1 rod¬ 
der p in 
farms r 

signs of 
male :md 

The appearance of the ship 1 —represented by its forepart—as an 
element in the formation of personal names, seen in the groups rab-T and 
above, is of interest from the comparisons that it suggests with 
Greek nomenclature. In the parallels that - uii i—. 

occur, such as NavaTparot, NainrurXijs, Nftwf- M A tpj rih l"H 

K«a, and the like, it is to he noted that, in 
contrast to the Minoan com pounds, the syl- 

table relating to the ship occupies the initial (j ROUPs ^ i,. mj, 

place. In litis, connexion the appearance of 

the 'rudder sign, as an element in a name-group has also a considerable 
interest (Fig. 695 , n). In a secondary shape jjj. on a vase fragment of L. M. 
III ft elate Irom Knossos, 2 it is again found, apparently in a name-group 
(l - ig, 1195 , i). Such nautical combinations mark the persona! names of a 
maritime race. 

Terminal Signs of Name-groups: Male and Female. 

An examination of the names followed respectively by the male and 
female figures shows that in 
each case there is a prepon¬ 
derance of particular terminal 




$SA7 ft 


?va 1 



, W IS 


L VVo sg 

Thus among joogroups 
before the 'man* sign, X 
occurs 20 timrs, ^ i.|. [] i). 

T IO ’ f s A 5< f 4. 4< 

$ 4, while a variety of other 
terminal signs are found 
once or twice. 

Among 55 groups fol¬ 
lowed by the ‘ woman * sign, 
g recurs j6 times, represent¬ 
ing nearly a third of the 

whole, Jjjjr is found 5 times, ^ and * 4, [». and ? 5. and 15 other signs 

ouce or twice. 

' FtJf ,hls 'ship ’ sign tom pared with its equivalent of Class A, set- P of ii, Pt. t, n. 2 iS. 

5 See helovr, p, 738 , Fig. 712. 

l'ir., Evidence or TitttENsioN in 



The great preponderance of the 'door" or "gate " sign Q, in this case 
amounting to over 30 per cent., is a noteworthy feature. This sign is 
hardly ever seen in connexion w ith the ‘ man ’ sign anti must be as a rule 
regarded as an indication of the female sex. Where it occurs at the 
end of a name-group without indication of sex the presumption is that 
we have to do with a woman's name. 

It is. further, of considerable interest to find that, in repeated instances, 

groups ending in ^ and otherwise followed by the 'woman sign, undergo 
the same change in their terminal character before signs connected with 
numbers (Fig. We have here, surely, good evidences of declension. 

^ and ‘ Cup ’ Sign of Name-groups of Class A found at Melos. 

Of special importance is a collocation ol signs—the j and handled cup 
^ (see Figs, tiDii and 7*21, p, 736, below). This forms an initial element in both 
male and female names, and recurs with characteristic male suffix, "f. preceded 
by fa, which seems to be a preponderantly masculine termination, and with 
the characteristic female suffix ^ coupled In the same way (see Fig. 1 ( 9 ( 1 ). 
That it belongs to a common personal name, applied with a different suffix to 
both men and women, is a fair conclusion, and it is therefore of quite excep¬ 
tional interest to find it again — 
apparently as a personal mark of 
-on the base of a 

a fi black-ware vessel from Melos (Fig. 

Fig. w, a , Graffito ok Bas* or Vslet, fi97 > ?)- The sherti itself ofcoi,v 
Mki.os: A, Thera Pot: c. Early Barx Sn;x, parattvely early date.and this, as well 
Kxossos. as t ^ e (- orm 0 f |jj e 1 vase ‘ sign anti 

the archaic retrograde direction of the inscription, assigns it to an early phase 
of the Linear Class A. It shows that Cretan colonists in the Cyclades had 
imported, with other evidences of their culture, the use of their language, 
and fits in with the graffito characters on the rim of a pot from "1 hera 
(Santorin) (Fig. 697 , b ) 1 —the first of which is also peculiar to Class A. 
The 'barn' sign that there succeeds it is common in variant forms to both 
the linear scripts, but the 'piles’ here visible below' it bring it into closer 
connexion with the earlier form of the character as it appears in the 

_ ttonal mteresi 

t<~? 333 & 

1 Stic ij p, 637 , is. z r 

f-Ivsden- e 
of dEclen- 

to Melos, 

Class A 
tion iYqiti 


in scrip 
irons m 

cutty re 
utsd sym¬ 
bol of its 

hieroglyphic seritrs (Fig. ( 197 , tf}, 1 It might be equally well regarded as some 
kind of rick on a platform. 

The ultimate dependence of both the Minoan linear classes on the 
hieroglyphic and still more primitivepictographic systems that had preceded 
them in Crete has already received su the lent demonstration,* The inter¬ 
connexion, indeed, is of such a kind as to impose the conclusion that we 
have to do with an earlier form of the same language. Not to speak of the 
Cypriote and East Mediterranean offshoot, the Cretan dominion on the 
soil of Mainland Greece naturally brought in its wake the same diffusion 
ol the Minoan script and language of which these still earlier records are 
traceable in the Cycladic Isles. In the succeeding Section cogent proofs 
are supplied of the survival of the later script and language, and, with it, 
the nomenclature of Minoan Crete in the chief Mainland centres to a date 
appreciably later than the fall of the Great Palace. 

Olive Culture and Signs relating to it. 

It Is interesting to find that the symbol of superintendence referred to 

above in the case 
of the* man’and 
' woman ’ sign is 
combined in the 
shape shown in 
Fig, 1 ) 99 , with a 
character. No. 45 
of the B signary 
tFig. 698 ), which, 
in its more pic¬ 
torial aspects, 
may be identified 
with the olive- 
tree. Inthisideo- 
gram, represen t- 

S 77 


Fir; tiflf*. No. 45 or Siunarv W. 
inKMiFinn wn 11 Olivi-thkc : b is 
coKHEcrtm with no: 'Siri'EKix- 
Tfcxr>i-;K , ('t:' Sir.N .is snows' is I- u;. 
G 09 , a 


3 r H Lilli9, S v M L 0 1 St 1 J'EK- 

ing tile superintendence or the royal olive groves, we have signal evidence 
ot the importance of the oil-production in the last Age of the Palace. 

The best rendering of the tree itself is found in an inscription oil a 

' Afinaa, 1 , |>, ir> 6 . No. 43 , a, fi. 4771 of signs of ihe linear and hieroglyphic 

I he Comporativc Table {>'/,■„ p. ( 34 $, Fig. 'scripts' is capable of considerable additions. 



remarkable* tablet—dealing besides, apparently, with three or more other 

trees— -of which 
about half seems 
to have been pre¬ 
served (Fig. 700 }* 

The conven¬ 
tional figure in 
the first line may 
represent some 
forest tree, since 
it is followed by 
numbers a - 
mounting to 
1,780, Some Olive 

- ■ , . spr;iys 

specihc Clue tO and ship; 

the olive-tree in 

line 2 issupplied txpxu 

by the indication 

of berries as well 

as leaves. The 

Fig. “Do. 

Tablet referring to Trees ; Olivr*tre£ is 
Second Register. 

character of the foliage, in fact, corresponds with the group of signs 

Fia "ul, Sprat indicative of 

O LlVE-TfcEES J p I IIEKCH 31 V E H |C 1 FlG. 702. SeA L l M PRES5ION OF * H 111ROC LV P H 1C C LASS P 


recognized as "olive sprays' that recur on seal stones and clay documents 
belonging to the hieroglyphic class (Fig, 701 ). 1 J hese, as shown on a 
clay seal impression (Fig. 702 ) * appear above a ship, a probable allusion to 

1 Scripia Mima, \ r p r aog, No. toi p fuidcf. 3 /£- t p. itii, P. mud cf. / J . e/ J7 rt i + 
No. io2. p. aS t T Fig, 

5 r»ns re¬ 
lating to 
Cult Lsre. 


the export of oil from Minoan Crete to Egypt. The item on the present 
tablet deals with 405 olive-trees, a fairly large plantation. 

Saffron Culture, 

It is clear that, throughout the whole of the Palace period. 1 one of the 
sources of wealth to the lords of Knossos was to be found in the culture of 

saffron, Its best record has been supplied by 
tile fresco of the Saffron Gatherer, 4 in style 
the earliest of the series, and above attributed 
to the later phase or M.M. II. A child is there 
seen collecting the flowers in baskets. The 
flowers, in clumps or rows, recur on the votive 
robes of faience from the Temple Repositories. :t 
I he saffron is foil ml, too, both as a phonetic 
sign in a name-group and before numbers, up 
to 6o. on tablets of the A class from Hagia 
1 riada, while its religious connexions seem 
to be marked by its appearance on the Trullos 
stone ladle 1 at the end of a sign-group. 

Salfron is tlie prevailing colon rot" the robes 
of ladies performing a religious dance on one 
of the Miniature Frescoes. 5 In the Ancient 

Fig. 703 . 4 Saitrox ' Sign and World sal Iron was a favourite hue lor the robes 
Compounds. of Goddesses, and vied with ‘ purple' as a 

royal badge. And lias not Virgil told * how, 
at Mycenae, Leda bore to her daughter Helen a saffron-bordered veil for 
her fugitive marriage—to be recovered later from the flames of llion ? 

Comparative examples of the 'saffron ' sign are given in Fig. 7u:j. In 

1 For the earlier period coni] jr re the seal- 
stones and impressions of the hieroglyphic 
series showing saffron flawed. Scr/fta Afiuva, [ t 
p, *13, No. 8S. 

t I 1 * 0J A/^ i y pjL 2 fig, 366 rind Coloured 
PEale I VC On the saffron in Minoan Art see 
now especially Prof, Marlin M ohms’ excellent 
article, PftanztnbHdtr dtr mimhtktn Kuntt in 
bvtanisditr Bttrathtung { fakrb* d+ it Arch. 
ImLy u>j3) r pp. 7-9 and Fig. 4. The plant 
itself, Crocus jv/hrus T does not seem 10 be known 

in a wild slate. Dr. Mobius, however* suggest* 
that the unccstrat stoek is 10 he found in 
Croats CarmrighitamiSy which is indigenous 
in Crete. 

3 * p. 506 , Fig. 304 

1 PP* ^2 5p 6^ and Fig. ids. I. 

No. 2 1. 

/ftjif.y iit, p. 71 seqq. t am! Coloured Plate 
K\ Ell c 1 he Sirred Grove and Dance ’)* 
Atn <, e, 64K setjq, 





the tablets of Class B presenting this sign, shown in 1 ‘ ig* 704 , three interest¬ 
ing points may be observed. 

In repeated cases (e,g. Fig. 704 , c) it is coupled with £ the feminine 
signification of which—often attached to what seems to be the ' child ' sign— 



+ Plot 1 or 
* garden ' 

culture in 
J horit 
Kind h : 

is demonstrated above. 1 So, too, in / we see it following the terminal of 
female names, while, on the same tablet and in A, sign-groups appear ending 

in Al a feminine termination.- In it is associated with the ‘throne and 
sceptre \ and in both & and g it is followed by a sign clearly representing an 
enclosed plot—the * acre' sign of Fig. 7 u 5 below, and no doubt answering 
to a definite area. The + saffron sign itself in these cases presents an 
unmistakable characteristic in its protruding and pendulous stigmas, from 
which, with part of the stile, the precious dye was produced* 

The 4 plot or 'garden area' here referred to is only accompanied by a single 
cipher. The flower itself as seen on Fig, 704 , c f is in one case succeeded by 
numerals — 52- On //, the 'saffron' sign is followed by numbers = 43*45, 45, 
thus totalling 133. On the incomplete tablet. Fig. 704 ,/ we see numbers, 
apparently amounting to B6 P appended to it + These higher sums connected 
with the plant evidently refer 10 some recognized measure of its commercial 

It is noteworthy that in several cases the saffron stands in immediate 
relation to a sign which in its more regular form ^ must be identified with 
a symbol—described above as the K impaled triangle * of frequent occurrence 
in the field of Late Minoan seal-types nnd clearly of religious Import. 
Here, as In other places where this sign appears, it is generally followed by 
relatively high numbers. On Fig. 704 , r, we sec 402, on/where this sign 
immediately succeeds the 1 saffron \ 302. It may be thought to represent 
some sanctuary interest in die transactions. 

That saffron culture should have played a prominent part in the 
industry of Minoan Knossos 3 is singularly appropriate to the special 
ethnic aud geographical relation in which it had stood to the Cllician Const- 
land. Crocus culture was Indeed specially connected with the sacred 
precincts of the Korykian Cave* 1 It has been suggested with some 
probability that the name *p 6 x*s itself, which, as the old Hebrew form 
kar&om shows, was of Eastern derivation, was derived from some inter¬ 
mediate Anatolian form that gave its name to Korykos and its Cave* 5 
In that case the intermediary source may well be sought in the language 
of Minoan Crete. The Korykian Cave itself stands in the centre of a 

1 Seepp. 7081 7 * 9 - 1 Slrabo, I siv, C, 5] fr £ >) Jpwm? 

See above, p+ 7*4 find lug!. 6!HJ* KpoKtrc r , . mpfarnprfli 5 m tw 

p For the Saffron in Minoan An, bee now* m 4 *jiorrn try* V.i\ DkawdiJes L 25. 

especially, Prof. M. Mubins' Pjhmzt'tUufifrr der 1 V. Hehri^ Kttfiitrpjfun^n 4' t S 7 4 ed. 
winoiwhtrt AT/j/jr/, c->r. i jahrh. d* Anh. /fis/ r , p r 2 241. 

*933). P- ? sei|q. 


region the later inscriptions of which have still preserved the patronymic 
of Knossos. 1 

That Crete itself was well suited to the growth of the saffron plant— 
Crocus saitvus —is shown by the revival of its culture there during the 
period of Venetian occupation. Several localities, especially in Western 
Crete—like Saffron Walden with us—bear names derived from the Italian 
form of the word. 

Cereal Group of Signs. 

A series of signs connected with cereals or other vegetable crops are 
put together in Fig. 705 and some account of the pictographic and other 


records of various kinds of grain has been given above.- It is highly 
probable that Nos, 79 and So may represent actual measures for such, just 
as in 81 we see a plot of land, presumably of standard size such as an acre 
or 1 hectare \ specially coupled with the * satlron sign. 

The ‘ Cereal Group ’ of Signary B has already received some attention, 

» Cf. r. c/,1/., i, p. 6 and n . j. The personal Sir William Ramsay lias pointed out, lb., xxxii 
name is thrice connected with the Kory f > c) t ’. p, 17 °'* there seems to have been a 
kian Cave and the Temple of the priestly Knossos in KsJdia. 
dynasts of OlhC. Cf. E, I,. Hicks, Inscriptions 1 P. ^<14- 
of Asia Miner, J. // 5., *ii, p. 230 seqq. As 

Group of 
Cereal 1 









3ik 1 cla\ documents illustrating various kinds of ^rain have already received 
illustration. 1 1 hese piant forms arc of their nature conventionalized picto- 
graphs, and some attempt has been made to distinguish the various kinds 
ot produce, including barley, oats, and rye. In connexion with these cereal 
forms it has also been shown that special signs of measure and quantity 
were in vogue, which are here put together m IS, 79, So of Fig. 705. These 
may be regarded as special measures either of the grain itself or of some 
liquid produce—such as kinds of beer, I here Is some evidence, indeed, 
that the bowl, No. 79—sometimes handled—was for liquid contents and 
might be regarded as the equivalent of a * pint' or ‘ quart', while No. 80 
may stand for a 1 bushel 

Flocks and Herds: Swine and Horses. 

The group of ideographic signs shown in Fig. 7<Mi are clearly inter* 
related and can only be regarded as referring to cattle, including horned 

>° t'fff 1 

iw m 

Fig. TOG. Flocks and Herds : 

; ,f Hokn iid Cattle ; fs r t i , Horned Sheet (ok Goats) : 

ii 92, SWINE; B. HgkS£& 

sicep, goats, swine (Nos. 90-92), and horses (No. 93), All four are 
grouped together in a senes of exceptionally long tablets of which complete 
specimens are given in Fig, 707 b. c reduced to about three-quarters. 

c , ^ hes< - the . s ™' s hcad s ‘£ rns of die second register are unmistakable. 
So, too, figures that foHow these are shown, by the transitional forms, given 
in Fig. iOB under B 93. to be horses' heads. 

'1’hc transformation of the tufts of hair artificially arranged along the 
back of the horses necks, as illustrated by the 1 Chariot Tablets' described 
in ^ection u.g into a mere loop and crest and of the head and neck 
Ilsel! into a rectangular appendage, may serve as a good Illustration of the 
compendious methods resorted to by the Mlnoan sign maker. 

Sco above, p. 


7 2 J 

Thai H 90 and Bgi are homed cattle maybe fairly concluded. In the 
first case we seem to have to do with ox-horns curving downwards, con¬ 

ventionally set—as B 92.93—-on an upright stem 

91 on t-lie other 

hand, an seen for instance in t?- almost exactly reproduces the effect of the 
liorn of the native variety of sheep—copied literally in the inset from 




a seal-type—-set up in a similar manner 

But it is not necessary to 

confine this symbol to sheep. It may very well include domesticated goats, 
both classes of animal being traditionally grouped together under the single 
name of TrphfinTu still current in the Island. 

While, then, in two cases we recognize the heads of the swine and 
horses, taken as the equivalents of the whole animal and set up on linear 
supports, the other examples give the horns alone made use of tor pur¬ 
poses of recognition in a similar way. It will be seen, moreover, that in 
each category, as shown on the tablets Fig. 7 u 7 there are two distinct 
types of linear supports to these horn symbols—a plain upright crossed by 
two bars, ami what may be called two legs, converging on a point above, 
on which the horns are set. 

As to the meaning of these dual delineations there can be little doubt. 
I t is a fair conclusion that they were devised to distinguish the two sexes. 
The barred single upright may be of arbitrary contri vance, hut the elongated 
acute angle Is associated with two varieties of ideographic signs (see 
above pp. joK, 709) relating in one case to women [where it is a secondary 
form), while in the other, as shown above—coupled with a general sign for 
children—it marks the female sex and may sometimes, indeed, be used to 
mean 1 mother 

1 he number of animals in the respective classes fully bears out these 
conclusions as to the identity of each, it is natural to find the oxen less 
numerous than the sheep and goats. Thus, on the examples given, their 
numbers are 345, 170, and 159 (?), while the ‘flock' signs ant follow’cd 
respectively by 900. 750, and 301. It is further to be observed that, while 
apparently on no document do the single items attached to the sign for 
horned cattle reach 350, the numbers following the 1 tlock ' sign are often 
much greater than those given on the above examples and in one cast 
exceed 19,000. The ‘ percentage tablets ' described below belong to this 

The ‘flock' and ‘herd’ signs of the usual kinds, as shown on the 
tablets grouped in Fig, 7 <J 7 , are of a purely ideographic class and are only 

or 1 iloek s 

tioosi oi 
$ts + 


found in relation to numbers. 1 wo closely allied signs, however, occur, 
evidently referring respectively to the same animals, in which the double 
stem is replaced by an elongated upright loop (Fig. 71 MJ, li 90, 91 a. d, <-), 



= !f 5 L- 


iV 1 

OOO - 1 


A, 'll" 0 - 

jggk/1 — 

T!" ' 

1 j 

F,c - '»< * o Tablets relating to Flocks amj Herds, Swish am. HoftSES. 

and these seem to be essentially of the phonetic class. They are only found 
m sign-groups that presumably represent personal names. These signs arc 
never directly connected with numbers. 

As is natural, the numbers of swine mentioned in single tablets are less 

than those of the sheep and goats, amounting at most 186. 11 ere, too, the 

pig's head by itself, sometimes with a short im-barred stem, is used 

phonetically in name-groups. The same is true of the ‘ horse ‘ sum. 




Signs specially attached to Numbers or Quantities, 

A series of characters is specially prefixed to numbers. (See Fig. 70 S,) 

F»«, 70S. Sic.sAHv of Linear Class B. 4 Banner' and or her Shots vseo 

iucfork Numbers. 

Some such signs, like ^ referred to above,' are almost indifferently used both Signs 

in this position and as a regular phonogram in word-groups. I he ‘ impaled connected 

triangle ^ and ^ (efi li SS ; Fig, 705 } also recurs as a religious symbol, 1 numbers 

or quaint- 

and the sign B 95 given in Fig, 70 S compounded of the 2 (L 3 60) and the tits. 

* horns of Consecration 1 (L 5 22) also belongs to this class* 

The sign, B 94, |^| (Fig, 7**8), conveniently described as the 1 banner h is 
not only vised by itself before numbers :1 but in the same position forms a 
vehicle for the insertion of a series of other stgns of ordinary phonographic 

use such as £ and ^ It also, as already shown, 1 frames a conventionalized 
H ingot \ 

Pictorial Figures of Uncertain Meaning* 

In addition to the ordinary characters* capable of being used as phono- Ficwcijil 
grams in word-groups, and ihc special signs governing numbers, a large out¬ 
number of documents are provided with pictorial figures relating to die sub- Mrt:i \ n 

1 i CJ _ IlleiSniFlf 1 , 

jects of the documents—a most useful guide to their meaning (see Fig. 70 !!}. 

4 Ingots* on a group of tablets of this nature have been already 
described, and vessels of various shapes and materials are seen on another 
series illustrated below. To this class, too, belong the arms and armour, 
chariots and horses referred for description to the succeeding Section, In 

' 5 eu above, p, 663 * See above, p, fiyj, Fig. fiTEl, 

5 Set; above, p, j;o, Fig. 5-1 ir, &c. ' See above, p. 663 and Mg. U51- 

3 ]J 2 


other eases, however, it is not so easy to pass a definite judgement as to 
the meaning of these quasi-pictorial figures. 

Specimens of such arc shown on the fragmentary tablets reproduced 


in Fig, 7 l» 9 . Of these the last (.£■)—before numbers amounting to tS— 
somewhat resembles a lizard That of t differs from the others inasmuch as 

it appears in the middle of a word-group, — ex hypothesi a personal 

name. '1 his itself stands before a pictograph of a cuirass, forming part of 
a knights equipment usual on the * Chariot tablets' described below. 1 The 
object looks like some kind of frame or chassis. 

It is possible to interpret the figure on a as a simple form of tent— 
tente etabrt -—with an arrow above, suggestive of military use. Fig. 7011. 6 , 
may well he some kind of coffer, with cords attached to secure its lid ; 
e with the script sign (j£ superposed on it, and d (which looks like a form 

of coop left open at top) arc hard to determine. The incomplete object on /, 
however, is apparently a spade. 

1 IScc below, p. £03 iseqq* 


Pictorial Figures showing Forms of Vessels; Deposit of * Vase 


The important finds of vessels of various shapes and materials in the l>p«ic 
Palace itself or in its immediate surroundings have already given occasion 'nii>t=ts: 
to refer to tablets of the B class presenting similar objects. The «»: S; 
formity of some of these vases and of others held by the 1 Cup-bearer 
and his fellows on the Palace frescoes 1 with those borne by Lhe Minoan vessel, 
chieftains as tributary gifts of the Viziers of Hatshepsut and T hot limes HI 
-—including the Vapheio form— has also received attention." Among the 
actual remains of such vessels the splendid hoard of bronze basins and the 
associated ewer found in the North-West Treasure-House, 3 irom the artistic 
point of view tank very high. As a more or less contemporary supple- cotuparU 
ment to It may be grouped the varied deposit of bronze vases and utensils j^ids'nf 
from the ' Tomb of the Tripod Hearth 1 / and the hoard of silver vessels ineial 
from ihe 'South House"/ For the clay equivalents of the large bronze 
ewers we have, besides, the fine array of painted 1 hydrins and c amphora® 
in the + Palace style" from the Sanctuary halls on the W estern confines of 
the building/ 

Considerable remains of stone vases also occurred, of varied materials. 

1 hese include two unfinished * anaphoras of native alabaster from the 
1 Sculptor s Workshop h described below/ the a/aAas/m from the Room oi the 
Throne*, a cup of Vapheio type, in a beautifully veined stone/ that artistic 
tour tie force die bull s head * rhyton ' of inlaid black steatite " with crystal 
eyes, and those of marble-like stone in the form of a lioness* head from the 
Treasury of the Central Palace Sanctuary in the Western Wing, 1 " 1 I he latter, 
as we have seen, are of singular interest from the recurrence of this sacred 
utensil of the Hon-guarded Knossian Goddess—identical in workmanship 
and material—beneath the inmost shrine of what was later the Delphic 
Sanctuary of b Apollo of the Dolphin V 1 

The deposit in which were found the lioness 1 rhy tons + together with 

1 f\ o/M.y lip T J t. I | s p r 719 seqq. and Figs 
See, too, p, 534 se qq . and 

337 4tv 

1 Cf. Ifi. f ii- Ft. II, p. 736 seqq. See, too, 
the tributary vessels from the Tomb of Men- 
kheper’ra-senb p. 74^ Fig. 

5 fb. t ii* Ft II, p. (*h seqq. 

1 //*, [i. 635 *eqq and Fig. 3 tt@. Ct A* E-, 
Prthhi&rk Tombs of Kmsse j, i. p. 33 seqq. 

1 /*., is, Fu I, p. 3S7 and Fig 22 L 

* See above, p. 399 suqq* 

r See below, p, 896 ^ [l[ +f and Fig-*;, u, 

1 /&, H, I't. L p> j£& and Fig. 212. 

* /^. t Pt. II, p. 527 neqq T and Figs. 330* 
331 from the 4 Link Palace + . 

111 /J + , ii, FE. H, p. 827 seqq. and Figs. 
512 , 543 , 

i] /&., p, 83a seqq. and Fig. Glfl. 



fit Vase 
to Central 

the remains of a whole series of ritual vessels'—including one of native 
faience—belonged to a small square 1 Treasure Chamber opening out of the 
South-East corner of the Central Tri-Columnar Hall of the West Wing 


f ■ 1 

_ J- y1- ^ 


.RH-EA , 

pff- * 

5 [ - k-fc _ 

in? i h ■ 


“> H, 

PhO I «r—i 


.> v th 



- -Ljl-. ^ 



S r 

4 ' 

L'_- fc’i 




O - 













* ii, 



replaced Over 
PM i of caypt paoa 

__ JAMfl 

oaoR jambs 
*** PQsmot' 







ti*wy + 

Fig. 710 , 

Pl,\x oi Central Section of West Wiicg ui the 
Distribution Ol THK * Vase Tablets ’ ( X X X 



Isee Plan, Fig. 71 <»). This formed part of a complex bordering the Late 
I dlar Shrine on the Central Court, where the seal impressions were found 
presenting the lion-guarded Goddess on her peak. 5 It served, in fact, as 
tile congregational section ol a sanctuary of the Miuoati Rhea, which, 
as the remarkable piece of evidence cited above shows, may be regarded 
as the metropolitan sanctuary of a pre-Hellenic shrine at Delphi. 

The principal hoard of tablets referring to vessels of various kinds 
stands in connexion with what seems to have been some repository of 
archives situated on the North borders of this Sanctuary I lull, This, it is 
clear, contained documents referring not only to vessels of bronze or precious 
metals, but to abundant stores of day vessels, possibly with liquid contents. 
What may be called the core of the deposit was, itself, found, about a metre 
below the upper floor-level, in a small niche or loculus in the upper pm 
of a basement wall on that side 3 anti which had served to collect part of the 

] /k, p. Sue seqq* arid Figa* M7—10. 

J s« abuve t p 602 and p, GoS, Fig. 597 \ t ? 
(el* f\ i>/ J/, p if. p. 809}* 

A. E. ( iyoo(/; r s, A. t 

v ^| p. 50. it was not at that time possible tu 
point out the evident relation of the hoard 


remains when precipitated from a part of the neighbouring upper floor (see 
Plan, Fig. 710 ), The further remains of the hoard had unfortunately been 
a good deal scattered, chiefly in a Westerly direction. 1 fragments belonging 
to it occurring as far on that side as the upper part of the lower Long 
Corridor, by the entrance to the VHlth Magazine. From the abundance of 
decayed gypsum precipitated with the tablets into the recess in the base 
ment wall, it looks as if, as in some Other cases, the tablets had been stored 
in chests of this material. 

Among the scattered tablets of this group, that reproduced in Fag. 71 J 1 
claims the first place, in its exceptional!) hard-baked texture this example 
fits on to the fabric of the day documents of the Linear Class A, following 
the practice of the earlier Itiero-hphlc series. On the other hand, the signs 
themselves are typically representative of Class B + 1 liat it goes back to 

the earlier stage of the last Palace 
period, within the limits of which the 
B deposits lie, may be fairly con- 
chided. and* as shown above* the 
earlier part of this phase synchronizes 
ceramically at Knossos with L. M* 

I A The Vaphdo shape of cup here 
Illustrated, though of earlier tradition 
In Crete, seems to have been rather 
specially in vogue at that time, and to 
it + indeed, the gold originals found 
in the tomb Itself belong-^ The an¬ 
nexed ciphers show that the document 
itself refers to a set of three. We 
have seen that the £ of which a minute variety appears beside it. is other¬ 
wise found in a feminine relation* Were these cups for a Queens table? 

tablets" were found* 

Fig* 73 L Tablet or Fine Early Fab¬ 
ric of Class B t illusTRATIXG BuuAs-Head 
Rhytpns anii Vabmeio Clti s . 

with the Tricolumnar Hull of the Central 
Sanctuary* The basement space in the upper 
level, in which the bulk of this scattered deposit 
came lo light, was called at the lime the 
1 Magazine of the Vase Tablets \ though it 
was later recognised that they had ah made 
their way there from an upper floor. This 
space was originally covered above by die 
parage'-way leading from the Stepped Portico 
tii the Upper Long C'onidoT* 

1 A few-, however, had made their way SE. 
to the borders of the area where the ‘ Chariot 

= See. loo. fi of AS-, «, Pb II, p. w ^cre 
its exceptional diameter was pointed out, 

# So, ioo K we see large vessels of this class 
of gold and inlaid silver earned by the tribute 
bvarers from Keftiu on the walls of the Tomb 
of Senitmt, of more or less contemporary 
date (Iasi decades of Sixteenth century P + C}* 
See P. pf M* lip Vi ll t P- nh F %* |7n * 
and cf. \k 534 h Fig. 337 (where another is 
shown from the Tomb of User- Anion) and 
Fig. 33d. 

(ablet of 
class U 



\’j phtvo 



Servkt 5 
of vessels 

Sign* of 
scrip! re- 
laisfijz to 

I he buIlVhead "rhytons' with which this * Vapheio 1 type of cup is 
here associated are also, like the hitter : recurring objects ampn^ the yifts of 
the Chieftains of Keftiu to the Viziers of Hatshepsut and Thothmes HI, 
in the dosing decade of the sixteenth and the beginning of the fifteenth cen¬ 
tury H.G, At the end of the second register a single unit follows this 
sign, but the place of the larger bull's head above tends to show that there 
were at least three unit strokes in the missing corner of the tablet, The 

last sign-group of line 2 was undoubtedly repeated in the third line, the 
only being wanting. 

On the fragment. Fig. 712, 1 we see two small ’services* or sets of 
vessels, recalling the silver service, consisting of a high-spouted ‘cream 

jug and three bowls-—one of 
them provided with a handle- 
found in the South House. 1 
The first group, with a beaked 
vase above a handled bowl 
contained in a basin, is accom¬ 
panied by two small n-like 
signs, not found elsewhere, and 
a figure resembling a mason's 
square above. It is followed 
by two ciphers showing that it 
refers to a pair of such ‘ sets'. 

I he second group recalls the 
bronze basins and ewers from 
the West Palace Treasury* 1 In 
Fig. 713 , on the other hand, we see what may well be another ’set' 
separately delineated. Of the first sign little remains but the outline so 
fin as presened, and the traces of the handle conclusively indicate that it 
was a high cup of the Vapheio type. This is followed by a handled bowl, 
a ladle, and a jug, the handle of which is partly obliterated. It seems to 
have had a raised ring round its neck. 

The vessels of this class of tablets are often marked or specially 
associated with signs of the Linear Class B. 1 he connexion of the com¬ 
pound sign w ith a plain bowl has been already illustrated.' In Fig. 7 14 ( a. 

FiC. 712. Tablet with two sets of Vessels: 
Deposit or * Vase 'I'ablets*. 

Fig. 713, ‘Vapheio 1 Crr {imperfect). Bowl, 
Fal-j e, ami Ji n ox ' Vase Tablets r . 

1 Sec, too, 1\ f/.l/., ii, I*t. 11 , p, 633 and 
Fig. 3t>7. 

* /#,, [i, 1*1. I, p, 3 S 7 a fid Fig. 22). 

/i,, ii. Pi, II, jf. 641 *ieqq. 

1 Kuo above, p. 623 and Fig. UOSrf. 



Fig. 715, Fragment showing 
Vessels asth 'Cuirass': Vase 
TAhlet Deposit. 


Fig. 7 Kt a f 

this is set before a two-handled cup of inverted 
conical shape, upon which the ' double-axe 
sign tj 4 appears,ratherskewly delineated. In 
Fig. 714 , c the compound sign rises from 
above the mouth of a two-handled ‘ amphora 
of die usual type. On another fragment, 
we see two of the elements ^ (in its com¬ 

pleter shape) and i of which this compound sign is formed, placed 
separately before a two-handled vase of the same ' amphora type, itself 

73 = 



marked, as on the handled bowl. a, w ith the ^—a frequently recurring; sign on 
these ‘amphora’ types (as^). In d, e we sec tile f sign, alone, set above 
a plain or handled pot. A kind of three-hand led cauldron (Fig. 714 , /'} 
that appears on a fragment of another tablet is interesting frotiT its being 
marked b) uhat has been called above the ‘drop' sign, associated with 
libation vessels and. probably, signifying Avater’. This recurs on the two- 
handled bowl in the second register of Fig. 715 , and it is interesting to 
note that a similar sign with three additional ‘drops* below appears at*the 
end ol a graffito inscription on the rim of a large clay jug from the ‘Temple 
Repositories 1 

The two-handled bowl on the tablet, Fig. 715 , shows what appears to 
be the ftf. It is followed by numerals - $o. The object on the third line, of 
which sixteen examples seem to be enumerated, must probably he regarded 
as a variant of the ‘cuirass' sign seen on the ‘Chariot tablets'.* At 
ilie end of line 4, followed by a single 
cipher, is a two-handled pot with three 

That in these cases we have to tin 
with metal vessels may be gathered, 
among other features, by the somewhat 
angular bend of die handles, and in 
one exceptionally decorative example, 

Fig. 4 Ki a, (J, by the elaborate coils 
into which the handles are twisted. 

Comparison of‘Labelled’ Vessels on 
‘Vase Tablets' with Similar Re¬ 
presentations on Tablets from 
Hagia Triada. 

It is interesting to note that the 
tablets of bigs. 714 and 715 showing 
signs supeq>osed find a close parallel on r ,, 

? h 7 of t ?t” e , dMs from Ha « !a 

CtaYtfv fa £ “SK**? 1 - * h «w h WPW«lly grouped with 

, A - "*> casos havt overlapped Class H at Knossos. A good 
/a vf Afrj i f p T 617 fmset) # wbCTC, lKi , ffevcr, fl Iti unnw Amtm ■ ■* . t , 

;‘™r** ’ i ' h —- - —'Szzsszz 

ft nil the square form also occurs. 



X EJ'J /jrt 


example is given In Fig. 717, where the bronze tripod with up-raised 
handles is of special importance. 

As to the import of the signs associated with the different types of 
vessels here illustrated no certain conclusion Is possible. T hese may* indeed, 
have well had a different signification in various eases. 1 lie "double axe 

^ may naturally be interpreted as a consecrating symbol* The 1 water 
sign. ^ as naturally, refers to the contents* 1 he groups on big. TIT are 
possibly personal names. 

Fig* 718, ‘Stirhup' Vase on 
F kAtiMENT. 

Hoard of Tablets referring to Fainted Clay ‘Stirrup Vases 1 from Area 
above ‘Early Keep 1 . Its Stratigraphic Relations. 3 

Tablets from another deposit on the Northern border of the building 

unquestionably related to painted clay vessels, 
in all cases of the 4 Stirrup Vase' or * Bttgd- 
kanne 1 class. A scattered fragment of the 
kind. Fig. 71B : had already come to light, pre¬ 
senting what seems to be a globular example 
of this type. The deposit referred to, however, 
illustrates a distinctly high form, apparently, 
indeed, of somewhat more elongated propor¬ 
tions than the fine Palace Style specimen with the octopus and early three- 
C pattern from the South-West angle of the building, 1 

The stratigraphic relations in which the deposit of * stirrup-vase tablets 
was found are themselves of great interest* The area in which it lay 
situated a little West of that into which the 'Saffron Gatherer' fresco had 
fallen belonged to the Palate system superposed over the filled-in, 1 deep- 
walled 1 pits of the 1 Early Keep'* But, during the period that immediately 
succeeded the final overthrow of the Palace as a royal residence, tins area, 
as also a section of the Northern Entrance Passage on its Eastern border, 
had been made use of by native potters to store their wares—perhaps in the 
latter case to expose these (including a series of curiously linked double 
jars) for sale Lo those making their way up to what had formerly served as 
the Central Court of the Palace. 

The area where the * Stirrup-vase tablets' were found. West o! this 

1 See above* p. 355, Fig. 398. As the lower vase 1 of n more globular form was found in 
pam of this vessel is wanting its proportions may the Koyal Villa (/&, p. 334, lug- ^ * 4 - 

have been slightly mure elongated- A K stirrup 

Heard of 
10 clay 
vases *, 

■ 1 I 


tiy bpuble 
Axe »%n- 

Cliiy floor 
L* M P E J1 



Entrance Passage, hat I been partitioned anew by the Re-occupation folk, 
and a small pottery store had been formed, the North wall of which ran over 
the chamber in winch the tablets lay, covered by a shallow accumulation of 
soil. This layer, about 20 cm. thick, including the day floor above, had 
given very insufficient protection to the clay tablets themselves, which were 
found in a much decayed and generally obliterated condition. Enough 
remained, however, to show that they referred, like one of the best pre¬ 
served of them given in Fig. 719 , to stirrup vases, which, from the large 
numbers attached to them, could not well have been oi anv other material 
than painted clay. It will be 
seen that two single items on 
this fragmentary inventory refer 
In each case to 900 of these, 

11 is interesting to note 
that these were marked with 

the same ^ that recurs on a 
number ol metal jugs deline¬ 
ated on the ‘ Vase tablet' 
series. This sign, as already 
noted, can be traced back 
by intermediate stages to the 
Double Axe ol the Hieroglyphic Class—running parallel with another 
S 'S 11 T derived from the single-edged weapon. As representing the sacred 
w i.apon of the central Minoan Cult, it may thus be taken to indicate that the 
vessels or objects marked by it nere the property of the Priest-kings or, at 
least, of special shrines within the Palace precincts. It is worth remarking, 
moreover, in this connexion that this sign forms the initial of prominent 
S'gn-groups on the cups w r ith ink-written inscriptions found in the Sanctuary 
Chamber above the Basement of the Monolithic Pillars.' It recurs again 
at the beginning of the graffito inscription on the M,M. 111 j ar f rom the South- 
U est Basement. A form of it appears by itself on the L. M. III Theban vases,- 
Curiously enough, on the floor of the apartment built by the later 
occupants of the Palace site, were found remains of several painted stirrup 
vases, three of them, of somewhat tall proportions, being almost completely 
preserved. 1 liese, in two cases, displayed octopods in a mature L. M. Ill 
style (see Fig. 720 , *), while the third, 6 , well illustrates their prolonged coils 

1 ** ff - J C |»p. jSj, 588 . and Fig. 4 a I : and 
fot the inscriptions, pp. 614 - 16 , Figs. t51, (52. 

Km. 713. ‘Stikki i'‘ Vasks MAfcKth with W Sid* 
□fc T^nucr. 

3 Sue below pp a 
i*y 31 A 

prolonged coils 
4 ®* 741 and Fig. 72"* 

Fin. 72 «. L..M. Ill ‘Stihrui* Vase? ' and Stkacsku mow K1.00 k of Kk>ccfmho* 

i’Kkioii, ahovk Cham&eh tos i aimm; Taw m>. 

as adapted to form an mdependcntdecoratton of the sklesof day vessels and 
coffins {Jarmiles) of the L. M. Ill b phase (Fig. 720, 3). With these were 


for rein* 
live dating 

ftijj vase 1 
table [sl 


also found the perforated disk-shaped utensil, Fig. 720 , c, with a low’ rim. 
which had possibly served as a cheese-strainer—showing a late form of the 
adder-mark motive—and live two-handled jiots. or 'amphoras', of pale 
plain day, I his late chamber was called at the time the ’Room of the 
Bitgelkannes V 

1 he ceramic remains here, like other similar deposits of what may be 
called the post-palatial class throughout the building, mark the extreme 
limit of its rc-nccupation by the later scatters. Among these contemporary 
deposits the nearest parallel was presented by the store of 'stirrup vases' 
and two-handled pots of about the same ske on a plaster floor, about 
25 cm. above the level of the remains of that or the 'Archives' Room of 
the Late Palace, itsdl associated with sealings and tablets of Class R. 

The stratification revealed, both in that case and by the ‘ Room of the 
Stirrup Vases’, is of great importance in its bearing on the chronology of 
the latest deposits of tabtets of the Linear Class H within the Palace. Not 
only are these separated in date by an interval marked by the gradual deposit 
of about a quarter of a metre of surface earth from the deposits of pottery 
found above them, but the later vase decoration represented by these shows 
several degrees ot decadence when compared with the fine * Palace Style*. 

1 See A. E. A'eport, Kmsses 1900 {/i.S.A,, vi), p . 44i 




¥ v i lf\7 WOMANS 



WARE ('flo$T- Geometric’) PHt La 
kope, MELOS. 



See pp. in , 7*5. ‘ ■' 

jus, Knosman Script B in Mainland Greece—the Theban Evidence: 
Script B in Cyprus : Occurrence of Script Aon Votive Figurine at 

Sam sou n. and Parallel Evidence of Adoption of Minoan Decora¬ 
tive Motives on Hittite Pottery. 

Pfem-occurfence of inscribed tablets in post-palatial deposits; Painted 
inscription on L.Jlf. Ill Sherd from Kttossos ; Discovery of * Stirrup-vases' 
•with painted inscriptions of Class D in * 1louse of Kadmos at 1 tubes; 
Similar from Qrchomenos, Thyus, and Mycenae, and Elcusis ; Those from 
Thebes; Comparisons tilth Class 11—solitary A sign; 7 At Mainland 
divergence from A tradition—remarkable phenomenon ; Probable (hat Class A 
tons previously known there; Ceramic parallels to intrusion of Class 11; 
Conventionalized vase types, dependent on L, M, 11 : Also at Teli-efAmania ; 
Short interval between fall of the Knossian Palace and Ttll-el-Amarna 
relics ; Close correspondence of Theban inscriptions with those of Knossian 
Palace; Similar arrangement and composition ; h samples of identical 
name-groups - The same language, parity perhaps the same persons; Only 
occasional adoption of Mainland elements a few novel signs ; the ' Gridiron '; 
Perhaps badge of Master Cook ; Him of far from A sine with graffito decora¬ 
tion partly suggested by characters of script It; Found in Shrine of tradi¬ 
tional Minoan class ; Laic date, c. 1200 *<*.; Late Minoan Script in Cyprus ; 
Cmnparisons -with Linear Script IS and Cypriote Greek; Residuum of 
unknown elements Earlier Cypriote linear class; Did ' Men of heftin' 
propagate their script on Cilicia a side ? Reties thereof an L. M. Ill Ceramic 
style; Indications of Minoan contact with Pontic region; Two-stalked L, M, 1 
ivy ami 1 oats ' motive on Cases from Samson n (A misos) &c,; i 'olive clay 
ram from there with .Minoan graffito inscriptions of Class A; ft r it ten 
boustrophedon, in Hittite fashion. 

Throughout the whole Palace area and in titer more or less related 
buildings, such as the Armoury and the Utile Palace, where clay docu¬ 
ments had occurred, no single tablet was found belonging to the Reoccupa- 
lion stratum. Negative evidence of this kind is not conclusive, and. at 
Kuossos at least, the contents of tombs, especially in the Zafer Papotira 
cemetery belonging to the period that immediately succeeded the final 
catastrophe of the old Palace, do not convey the ultra of any abrupt break 
in the general course of the local civilization. It is. therefore, likely enough 

of Jtl~ 
tablet* in 
tial dfs- 


L. M, 1EI 


with in- 

that such records may eventually occur. Nevertheless, the fact remains 
that no inscribed tablets have come to light, either at Knossos or on any 
other Cretan site, of later date titan the time of the great Catastrophe. 

In Mainland Greece and the East Mediterranean outposts of Minoan 
civilization such as Cyprus, though the occurrence of inscribed clay tablets 
has nut been recorded, the tradition of written documents continued, either 
in the shape of inscribed vases or other relics. Of such objects one example, 
indeed—a painted sherd—was brought out front a later deposit within 
the Palace area at Knossos itself. 

Painted L. M. Ill Sherd with Sign-group of Class B from Palace Site, 

In disturbed eardi low down within the light-well of the Hall of 
Colonnades, evidently 
fallen from above, was 
found the dark on light 
painted fragment (big. 

7 - 2 ) presenting a linear 
inscription. It is the 
only example from Knos¬ 
sos of a painted inscrip¬ 
tion on a vase. 

The vessel itself 
seems to be some kind of 
bowl with horizontal 
handles, and the horn¬ 
like decorations on either 
side of one of these joined 
on left by a triple band 
answer best to decorative 
motives of the mature 

['to. <22. I'r.mjmksi nr L. M. Hi Howl with PAifiTKB 

L* M- 1 II class. On the other hand, the superior quality of the glaze here 
visible might at dial time be regarded rather as a characteristic of Main¬ 
land,, Mycenaean technique, 

I he inscribed vessel clearly dates from the early phase of the Re¬ 
occupation period on the Palace site. The signs of the inscription itself 
ure. at the same time, of Knossian tradition, the characteristic middle sign, 
answering, in a slightly accentuated shape, to the ‘ rudder' seen on a tablet 


of the B series. 1 Whether another sign-group preceded this must remain 

The Orctaomenos Inscription and Mainland Group, 

The occurrence of a ' stirrup vase ’ from Orchomenos with a linear 
inscription - of an unusual kind {Fig, 723 } had heen known since 1904.* 
and remains of similar vessels, mostly of a very fragmentary nature, pre¬ 
senting one or more signs, derived from 
Schliemann's or Tsountas' excavations at 
Mycenae, existed in the Museum at 
Nauplia, though little attention had been 
paid to them. 4 Inscribed pottery of an 
identical class had also heen brought out 
by the German excavations at Tiryns,® 
photographs of which have been kindly 
placed! at my disposal. Much of this evi¬ 
dence was fragmentary, though it was pos¬ 
sible to put together a series of complete 
examples, given below. I is collective value, 
however, has remained unrecognized. 

The Inscribed ‘Stirrup Vases* of the 
* House of Kadmos ’ at Thebes. 

But the finds thus held in suspense 

Fig. 1 23 . m her 'Sti mr vr V.«r’ altaint;d * nevv significance by the dis- 
from OkcuoMLNos. covery of Dr. A, D. Keramopoullos, in 

the course of his fruitful explorations in a 
part oi the 1 1 louse of Kadmos' at Thebes, of a store-room containing some 
thirty large ‘stirrup vases’ with inscriptions on the shoulders or body.* 

4 Stirrup 
Vmc 1 

of 1 In¬ 
VnM 5 f 
3 House 
at Thebes, 

* See Table* Fig*, a (npp. p. 684), 
The initial of the in&criplion shows an early 
feature in its reduplicated lower cross line* 

■ The A at tl^e end of this inscription recurs 
as a complementary B character between the 

■legs' of Jf. It h also found on a Tylissos 
tablet of Class A, 

3 I-L Btille* Dk HWAt, 1^04, fkft 5, p, si6, 
and see Strip hi Minoa t i t p. 57, Fig, 3 r „ 

IV** - 

* Two of these fragments, however, were 
published by Mr. Ah j. B. Ware in 
xxv, pp- an, a 1 and Fig. 5. 

1 These h only a brief mention of these in 
the great wort on the German excavations 
there {Tiry^ ii, p. 3), 

1 The discovery (made in r i?:i) ls referred 
to by Professor Keramopoullos it* HpuKrutd, 

nj2j F pp. 3°, j*' Cf., too, ib. r 1928, 
p , fa 1 * It was mentioned by Mr. Wacu ( / ff.S. T 
x li T Arc&thwkgyin 6>r^, 1 u 1 9- 1 921, p. 273). 




Keg. 721 cr, Pain feu I^ckeptiov* on Clav 'Stirrup Yawls ' from Store room 
of 'House or Kabmos -at Tiiejiks* 

The stratigraphic evidence for the date of the deposit is itself well 
ascertained. The fine remains of frescoes on the walls of the contiguous 
hail and corridors, such as the female figure holding a bunch of lilies and 


74 i 

a two-handled vase, themselves show a distinct echo of the Knossiait school. 
These remains* too, were associated with fragments of small painted vases in 
the Tell-el-Amarna decorative style of the Tell-el-Amama class. 1 (See 
below. Fig. The walls of this part of the building, moreover, were 

embedded ill a stratum answering to L. M. II.* 

Thanks to the kindness of Professor Keramopoullos and of the Greek 

Kits. 721 1>. Painted Inscriptions os Ct.av ‘Stirrup Vasts’ from Store-room ok 

4 House or Kapdos s at Thebes, 

Archaeological Society in reserving me the task, it is possible here for the 
hrst time to supply full reproductions of this group of ceramic inscriptions 3 
(see Figs. 724 a, 6), the result of more than one visit to Thebes, where the 
specimens in the Museum were placed at my disposal* 

My researches in the Museum at Nauplia regarding the inscribed sherds Remains 
from excavations at Tiryns and Mycenae there preserved were supplemented InscrtilL.T 
by the courteous action of Professor Karo, at present Director of the German 

1 Setr, for instance, ibe jiaU t>f a painted 
bowl reproduced together with frag ment* of 
the frescoes in *E*. 1909, PL III, ro. 

i ur the female with the lilies and vntt* 
sec 'A/i*. AtXn»< p mi, p. 3J9 + Fig, 193. 

crtimopoo]los, lljwiK-nj^ 1928* p. ftj* 

A preliminary account of these inscrip- 
tions was given by me to the International 
Prehistoric Congress at London (Sept. 1932), 

and cm November 22 , 1932 , to the Hellenic 
Society (/ r // r .£i 1 933)- See, t<>u F Times fiter- 
tity Supplement. Dec* i T 1^:. 

1 Monsieur K. Gil heron, fils n who accom¬ 
panied me* copied the inscriptions under my 
superintendence with great accuracy. One 
circirmstance p however, that must be bomc in 
mind is that, owing lo a certain superficial 
decay, pans of several signs had disappeared. 


find My- 

spi*r id (q 
Cbss h r 

Axt dmr- 
iicier on 

Archaeological Institute at Athens* in sending me photographs of those 
brought to light by the German Excavations. It Is thus possible here to 
reproduce seven complete groups together with three single signs on vases 
(Fig. 723 ). 

1 he class of material on which these inscriptions are found is itself 

Fig. 725. SiCN-GRoees and Single Signs on ‘SriRkvi- Vases' i eoh Tjrvns ( T/.j, 
Mycenae (J/ic), ash Orckomrnos ( 0 / tc // o .). 

curiously limited. In all cases, including the somewhat abnormal sign-group 
from Orehomenos, they occur on the body, shoulders, or neck of 'stirrup 
vases' of somewhat high proportions. That from Orehomenos and most of 
those from Thebes showed a plain day face with dark bands and inscrip¬ 
tions, Many examples from Tiryns and Mycenae, however, presented a 
purplish or reddish brown surface on which the signs and decorative details 
were superposed in white—suggesting a general resemblance to M. M. Ill 
ceramic f.tshion, winch, as already noted, had at first misled me regarding 
some of the Re-occupation pottery at Knossos. Restored drawings of two 
Tirynthian specimens of the inscribed * Bllgelkanne ’ class, illustrating 
both these styles, are given in i : ig. Tiiit <r t b . 

Apart from the overwhelming elements of correspondence in the pai nted 
signs themselves with those of Class B, this whole Mainland group of 
vessels thus marked fits on to a series that has already found illustration 
on the late palatial tablets of Knossos. There, as already shown, 1 we find 
a variety of vase types associated with special single signs—some of these 
placed above or beside them, some with the characters inscribed on tlteir 
sides. These signs had certainly some direct reference either to lire contents 
of the vessels or as marks of dedication for their use in the Palace-Sanctuary. 
It is clearly in the latter association that the *f, or conventionalized Double 
Axe, thus appears in a solitary position on the ‘stirrup vases’, of which such 
large stores are recorded on the tablets of the hoard in the North Quarter 
of the Palace. 1 It is therefore of interest to find the same sign, in the same 
way in a solitary position, marking sanctuary property on similar vessels from 

1 nbove * P' ?3*- ’ See Above, p, 7 ^, and 1%. 710. 


Tiryns and the House of Kadmos. Here we see an identical usage, taken 
over with the same religious purpose, inherited 111 the Mainland centres from 
the great Cretan Palace. (Fig. 727 . No. 23, if, £.) 

Fig. 72 G. ‘Sti Skiri- Vases ' from Tiryns, h uh Painted Inscriptions: <*, with 
Light Ground; with Hare. 

The ‘wheel* sign ® (No, 24, a, b) also seen at Tiryns (Fig. 725 g) and 
the ‘cross' -J- (originally a stellar emblem), seen on L, M, III ‘stirrup 
vases ' from Mycenae, may have had 
a similar consecrating value. 

At Mycenae itself, except for 
this and the 1 arrow ’ sign, t—also 
by itself—in white on a darkground, 1 
the evidence of such painted inscrip¬ 
tions is at presentcon fined to isolated 
characters. At Tiryns, however, there is evidence ol the labelling of such 
vases by a series of sign-groups, of which two completed examples, in both 
the light on dark and dark on light styles, are shown in Fig, 72 ti. In the 
store-room of the Theban Palace, however, the vessels themselves were 

tri M © 0 

23a 23b ma 

Fig. 727 + Single Signs on the Theban 

1 See Table, Fig+ 725 A. 

The in¬ 
pots from 




sons with 
Class K 

sign hor¬ 
rid ived 
Class A. 


much more perfect, and in several cases they presented a series of three or 
four sign-groups, including in one instance (Fig. 7*24 a, i ) thirteen characters. 

In all, the Theban deposit supplied twenty-eight different examples of 
inscribed 'stirrup vases’, some of them repeating the same sign-group, 
In the longer inscriptions. Nos. 2-4, similar groups are differently arranged. 

i he excavations of Pmf. Kouroniotes at E leu sis have now brought out 
a similar stirrup-vase with a three-word inscription (Suppl. PI. LXIX) 1 in two 

lines. The signs again are typically Class B: and ft better than the Theban 
examples, I he initial pair ol I. 2, |- y. recurs among Knossian name-groups. 

Tile Comparative Table, Fig. 728 , speaks for itself. Specimens of 
signs selected Iroiu the whole Mainland Croup arc there compared with 
similar characters ol the Linear Class B, the peculiar product of the last 
Palatial Age at Knossos, The correspondence of the signs on the vessels 
with these at once leaps to the eye. 11 is detailed in its manifestations, 
and overwhelming in the proportion that it hears to the number of known 
Mainland characters. Of the forty-five comparisons given in the Table 
only two or three can even be regarded as uncertain* Considering that 
there are not more than forty groups and a few odd signs in all available 
belonging to the Mainland series, the number of correspondences with 
Class 1 J is truly remarkable. This identity is moreover established in 
a series of forms typical of this later Script, and which do not occur 
in Class A. Among these are the ‘whip’ the single-edged axe f- 
Nos. 30 j[. 31 40 y, and 51 * "1 he throne and sceptre' seen here is 

also of the later Knossian kind, and the Y< here repeated, is of the 
Egyptian Ling double Urants type first seen in Class B, 

Ol signs peculiar to Class A, (\ and its possible variant ^ alone appear— 
a phenomenon which, as we shall see, also recurs in the case of the Cypro- 
Minoan group, The character which combines ^ with a form of Y~see 
Fig. 724 , 4 . No. 20, also suggests composite forms of the earlier Script, 
Otherwise there is nothing here distinctive of it, while six, or perhaps seven, 
out ol the ten characters enumerated above s as peculiar to Script U. arc 
included in this evidently very incomplete series of Mainland signs. These, 

as we have seen, represent the signary brought into use by the late Palatial 
scribes of K iu>ssos. 

AtAiior, p. 23, 

Pig, lit. The copy was kindly supplied me 
by Prof. KouroEiioicN. 

s 'l he* leaf sign 1 Xu. 2# is only represented 

by incomplete examples. The equivalent of 
Xo. '-/* ,it I iryns i*. duuliifu] ; the 'loop' s!({n 
lit i* reectsed :ti Orchomenos. 

3 See |). 683, 1% tUM. 


TlflYNS ' T| 

€ck ft A* 




TI RYN 5 * TI 


I T/f 



diver'' ,n ^ ^ ^*^®*S®®**® from Class A is the more remarkable when we consider 

senec antecedent stages of the Mainland Miuoan branch. Its best artistic 

d^bVof P rtK ^ uct5 as seen, for instance, in the contents of the Shaft Graves at 
CkwA,n Mycenae -reflect the earlier and the mature phase of L. M. I or the still more 
abte phe- brilliant transitional M, M. Ill epoch that had preceded it, and the whole 
iwmcnon. pericud comprised corresponds with the duration of the earlier linear Script 
on the Cretan side. 

The varied and omnipresent manifestations of the earlier Late Minoati 
phase, in every branch of life, throughout the wide area over which it 
was at that time implanted, both in the Peloponnese and in Northern Greece, 
had by this time formed of Crete, and of what was afterwards Hellas, an 
hilitytbfti ^separable cultural unit. It is surely inadmissible to suppose that the mere 
SW crtlssin = ° r a comparatively narrow arm of sea deprived one half of this 
known cultural realm oi what to the other was the highest mark of its progress on 
ihcre, the road to high civilization—the Art of Writing, 

It must be accepted as axiomatic that the knowledge and practice of the 
Linear Script A was introduced at this time on the Mainland side, and the 
absence of clay tablets should lie rather set down to the accidents of 
discover)- or to climatic causes. 

It follows that, according to every presumption, the script, of which we 
have now the evidence on a special class of objects belonging to the initial 
phase of the succeeding L. M. Ill Period, would turn out to be an offshoot 
oi Class A. Influenced by that presumption I had myself regarded the 
' stirrup vase \ with four painted signs, from Orchomenos—at one time the 
only known example of the Mainland group as belonging to Class A. 1 
I hough the signs on this, however, present some abnormal features, the 
balance of evidence may be thought here, too, to incline in favour of Class BP 

Parallelism between the Mainland Adoption of Script B and the Rise of the 
1 Mycenaean T Class of Ceramic decoration : both affiliated to Knossos. 

JSi C k T he at thfs time on f be Mainland side of this specifically 

svinpcoms Knossian form of script m tact fits in with other contemporary phenomena 
s™ 1 ' re at ' n S to lhls Northern area of the culture, for the first time brought into 
relief in an earlier Section of this Volume.* It is there shown from the 

1 Stfijfrfti Minga f i , p. 57* 

1 The second sign k regarded in the Com¬ 
parative Table, Fig. 72 H, as akin Ui 15 the 
third h B Supph 2 reversed; she 1 triangle 1 
s % n at the end of the group was also known 

to Class B, I he apparent numeration at die 
i i nd i however, three pellets and a dash, seems 
Ed answer to the earlier tradition. 
a See above* p. 371* seqq. 


ceramic evidence that the Minoan cultural domain, after being split in two 
by the rise of a great dynastic power at Knossos, shows a tendency to a 
certain reunion in the succeeding epoch that marks the rise of the L. M. Ill 
phase—which eventually became a diffused 1 Mycenaean ' style. 

Up to the date of the great Catastrophe, about the close of the Fifteenth 
Century before our era , the brilliant though strictly conventionalized b Palace 
style '—also shared by Argos on the Mainland side—distinguishes the 
direct domain of the Priest-kings from the rest of the Minoan area* To 
a certain extent in Crete itself, and still more widely overseas, the L* M. 1 ^ 
system -the most beautiful of all in decorative design—out of which the 
more formal 4 Palace style' of Knossos was itself developed, still, awhile, 
held Its own—finally becoming dead-alive in the shape above genarically 
described as L. M. I c\ 

The contents of the iholns tombs show that at Mycenae, and many 
other Peloponnesian sites, the later phase of L, M- 1 A marks the end 
of their true history apart from the relics of a later re-occupation. At 
Thebes—as we learn from a series of tomb-groups—this style was contem¬ 
porary with the earlier 1 fousc of Kadmos* Put in the later residences alike 
at Mycenae* Tiryns, and the Boeotian Thebes, the degraded 1 L. M. J* a 
tradition then existent is largely broken by the entry on the scene of a 
new and very conventionalized ceramic class which, though not actually 
Knossian, stands in a close relation to its L. M. 11 style. 

It is this ceramic class that characterizes the archaeological stratum to 
which these inscribed stirrup vases belong* whether at Tiryns and Mycenae 
or on the Boeotian side. Its special concomitant is a scries of decorative 
motives derived from the conventional papyrus designs which, like the 
octopus, are a prominent feature on the 4 Palace Style F vases of Knossos. 
It is significant, indeed* that on a 'kylix' from Tomb 505 at Mycenae 1 that 
produced several samples of this ceramic group, a variety of this kind of 
spray is seen (Pig. 729, a) associated with a derivative form of the 1 two Cs r 
motive, the evolution of which from the p three Cs\ a geometrically arranged 
design of the 1 marine" class, has been traced in a preceding Section** With It 
in Fig. 729. fi r is shown another fragment from the same sepulchral deposit, 
in which the b loop 1 form of this motive has possibly affected the decorative 
end of what was originally the papyrus stem. Designs of this group— 
labelled thus by what we now know to be the Knossian symbol—-are of 

1 Wace, CAam&rr Ttnttfrs ef Afy&nae^Artkatib which Fig. 7 29 u, ft is taken (<r and g). 

/ogia ¥ Isxxiij,, p. i> and patterns and 3 See above, pp. 314* 315 and Fig, 250, 

profiles of kyltx fragments* p. ij T Fig. S r from 

Lite K no 5 * 
lian script 
on Main¬ 
land side, 

ihflFC of 

Cta£$ de¬ 
on L.M. 
II of 


constant recurrence 011 the painted pottery belonging to the closing phase 
of the later Palace at Thebes, which were contemporary with the inscribed 
vessels found in the store-room. Fig. 7 liO l reproduces a specimen akin to 
the last-mentioned Mycenae fragment. 

Im*ma these cases, as in contemporary examples from Cyprus and, 

CI.i«$rUo notably, Rhodes, we recognize a ceramic phase which has a special impor- 
iiuLt.utii. tanoe f rom j ts reappearance under closely delimited chronological conditions 
in the painted ‘ Aegean ’ sherds of the rubbish heaps of Tell-cI-Amarna. 

I lie importance of Akhenaten's new capital on that site dates from Ills 
sixth tear—1377 B.C.— when his activities there really began. On the other 
hand, the death of his successor Tutankhamen, smaller relies of whom are 
not infrequent on the site, is given as 1332 B.c. As the L M. Ill sherds 
found here so abundantly were to a large extent derived from rubbish 


lion In 
aiylc indi- 


short in¬ 

heaps, the accumulation may have lasted roughly from the beginning of the 
second quarter to somewhat over the middle of the Fourteenth Century before 
our era. If therefore, as there are converging reasons for concluding, live great 
Catastrophe of the Palace at K nossos took place about 1400 n.c., an interval 
of not more than twenty-five years—a short generation—can he allowed to 
account tor the marked difference already visible in the ceramic style. 

From the first the idea had commended itself that the great days of 
M inban Art still stood near enough to the Egypt of Akhenaten for its 
reflection to be discernible in painted designs of the Tell-cl-Amarna Palace, 
I he life and motion of some of the scenes in which calves disport them¬ 
selves over flowery meads, as seen on the great pavement, breathe the free 
Miuoan spirit. 1 lie variety in the floral types itself suggests the same 
inspiration. J if co/tlvo -, as will be shown below, the hieratic tendency of 

* St-c ’Ajix., 1909, J 1 ]. tl, 10. 



the last Palatial Age at Knossos had resulted in a certain assimilation to 
Egyptian conventionalizing traditions, such as is also traceable in Script B, 
Attention is called below lo new and striking illustrations of this assimilating 
tendency as visible in the papyrus thickets, amidst which the sacred Griffins 

Kw. 731. Os I. ateFalack Bowl : Knossos. Fic. 732. On Siirrk ; TKiL-EL-AuAttNA. 

are seen couched, on the walls of the 'Room ol the Throne at Knossos, 
and notably, in the remarkable conformity between the variegated sprays 
seen on the ‘incense burner associated with the last interment ol the 
Temple-Tomb and those on a polychrome vessel from Tell-el-Amarna. 1 

In all this wc have the evidence of a distinct approximation in date ol the 
last palatial elements at Knossos to those ol Akhenateit's foundation at ! ell- 
el-A mama. There have been recorded, indeed, on that site one or two frag¬ 
ments that tit on very closely to fabrics in vogue at Knossos itself, about tin: 
lime of its great Catastrophe. A fragment of a piriform vessel, the light on 
dark technique of which at this time suggests a Mainland origin, itscll stands 
in dose relation to an L. M. 11 adaptation of the 1 Sacral ivy chain pattern and 
an echo of a similar type may be traced on a bowl fragment from the East 
side of the Palace site at Knossos (Fig. 741 ). A considerable projection, 
indeed, of the TeH-el-Amarua types present conventional details derived 
from the L, M. II style of Knossos. 5 

Striking as is the falling olf visible from the good L. M. 11 style, the 
interval of time between its vogue in the great Cretan centre and the 
general diffusion of a L. M. 111 class largely" dependent on it must for 
cogent reasons have been of comparatively short duration. 

What has been said above supplies cumulative proof that the ceramic 
history ui the 'diffused Mycenaean style runs parallel with that ol the 
Mainland script. Knossos is the main source of both. 

1 See below, §117 ami Coloured PI. XXXV. gonial lines token from octopus tentacles, ami 
* As, tor instance, a repeated ornament n form of pendant (Tf/Z-r/'.lo/itwia, l J f. 

recalling a thickened N, and undulating b°n- VXVit *’ (, 3)* 


Clfr£C CDT- 

denee of 
M it in fa eh! 
tions with 
those of 

arran^ c- 
mmt and 



£T 01 ]fJS. 

Detailed Comparisons of Mainland Signs and their Groups to 
Class B of Knossos, 

1 he inscriptions of the Mainland offshoot of Class 13, the history of 
which forms part and parcel of that of the associated ceramic motives, in 
some cases give evidence of such close agreement with their Knossian 

- ©fttift'WflFrl?®t-h 
4 © Ff £f,« WWT0H 

Do, 733. «, Inscription No. i from Thebes; fi , Transliter RTIOn into Normal 


palatial prototypes as equally to entail the conclusion that tlicy were 
separated from the other by only a short interval of time. 

One or two signs, indeed, such as the f and j[. show a certain falling 
away trom the original types, but the general resemblance is often so 
close that we might well seem to have before us documents in the 
same Court hand . In some cases—as in the long inscription No. I, con¬ 
sisting or thirteen characters—every single sign transliterates itself into 
almost identical equivalent forms of Class B {see Fig, 

The groups themselves—consisting, as in the other case, from two to 
Jive signs -show the same marks of division by vertical strokes, as well as 
many correspondences in the elements of their composition, What, however, 
is of capital importance—especially when we consider the limited number of 
specimens of sign-groups of the Mainland class available for comparison* - is 
the fact that in several cases they actually correspond with similar groups 
occupying prominent places on the late palatial tablets of Kuossos. 

It has been demonstrated in the preceding Section that an extensive 
class of sign-groups on the tablets, which generally either stand by themselves 
or occupy initial positions, and are often of larger dimensions than those of 
the signs that follow them, must be regarded as representing the actual 
names of individuals of either sex or, in some cases, their functions or 
profession. Many of these groups, as we have seen, have the ‘man' or 
woman sign actually attached. A still larger number ot sign-groups of 
identical composition and of similar prominence must clearly be accepted 
m the same manner, though the human ideogram be not appended, and 


may be reasonably interpreted In the same way as personal names or titles. 
In other cases, where we see part of a similar group of signs with a different 


TH-THE.BE 5 T ' 

T k — T 1 O V JU 5 



T) - TlRYNS 



1 1 1 1 T\I INj 




.WIT* 1 




Q& Z]\ * TH 

Wi " m 

< 3 " 


1 f w. Corridor 

j A { (*•**?) 


£ 14,1 4 to**** 

r ll T li. A. WOMM'SfCH 


'f 1 ^ k¥ 

ofrlTi Ft 

.] Jn I COftAfZ CTM& 

\ l KWH'MAUSfS# 

2Wf ,,7f 


BF* *“ j 



Wr, YP - ^,©Wfl 77 ~. 
l 1 , 77 „.,itSy„AC ! f 7 .. i tPETjr) 


K^OSSiAN ok Class li. 

termination, we may fairly conclude that it is a variant of the same personal 
name containing an identical element. 

That* considering the relatively small amount of material with which 
we have to deal in Lhe case of the Mainland series, so many correspondence 
should occur in these name-groups is in itself remarkable. In the Com¬ 
parative Table given in Fig, 7;U, which cannot by any means be regarded 
as complete, seven sign-groups at least are common to Knossos as well as 
to Tiryns and Thebes* 

a from Tiryns is repeated in an identical form on two Knossian 
tablets and recurs on a third with another terminal sign added, v reappears 


The tm 
in either 
the same 

Only oc- 
ftf Main¬ 
land tie- 

on the large tablet from Knossos containing the lists of men. The terminal 
sign of t is so roughly executed that it might not be recognized as the 

'single-edged axe 1 were it not for the parallel supplied by a document 
from the East-West Corridor oF the Domestic Quarter* Of special interest 
is the name-form A± (Fig. 7:14 , g), consisting of the same syllabic 
character repeated, which reappears on a tablet of Class B ‘—separated, as 
on the Theban pot. from what follows by a mark of division. This repe¬ 
tition of the same syllable in what is presumably a personal name, recur¬ 
ring in a series of examples, 3 recalls a distinctive characteristic of the 
Anatolian family—the baby or ‘stammer 1 names*—the Lallnamen of 
German terminology—like 1 papa \ 1 mama \ ’ nanna and ' daddyOn that 
side, though common as applied to persons, they had a special attachment 
to the early Religion, and 'papas 1 as a sacerdotal term has survived to 
distinguish alike the parish priests of the Orthodox Greek Church and the 
i J ope of Rome. 

The Same Language: in cases perhaps the same Individuals. 

It is dear that both at Knossos and the Mainland sites we have to do 
with the same language. 

I his absolute correspondence, indeed, of a series of name-groups_out 

of the very limited number recorded—on the " stirrup vases* of the Boeotian 
Thebes and Tiryns, belonging to the period immediately succeeding those 
on the latest clay documents of the Knossian Palace, might even suggest 
that in certain cases we have to do with the same individuals. 

Indigenous Signs taken over in Exceptional Cases. 

As has been already noted- though, as a whole, the Mainland signary 

repress nts the linear Class 11 of k ikjssos to an overwhelming degree—_one 

or two signs belonging to this group are clearly survivals of Class A. 
They may, Indeed, be looked on as direct evidence of the former diffusion 

1 No. 1311 of my himcNisL 
•*s-Wl ( l 49 Sl* ^ ^Soi. m 

22AT, 22m YYT <■>« - 

1309), me (with A man 1 sign), 

wtih 1 man ' sign, xxt 7 wlOs ‘wtiftran’ 


3 tir \ht bperinl diffusion of such names 
in Early Anatolia see especially Kreischmer, 
Eitt failing ifi tiff Qtsfhichtt dtr gritchfschtn 
S/rarAfj p. 334 seqq. 



of this earlier form of the linear Script iti what is known as ' Mycenaean 
Greece—a diffusion which, in spite of lire non-discovery oi the actual docu¬ 
ments, we are hound to suppose had taken place on this side, flan passu, 

with that of the Minoan culture as a whole. Among these signs are and 

the possibly related to which, perhaps, may be added the conventionalised 


■ tree * sign with three horizontal bars That these signs continued to be 
employed was possibly due to their peculiar fitness to represent certain 
sounds of the language as brought over, and which had perhaps been better 
preserved in the overseas dominion than in the great Cretan centre. 

A certain conservatism—as well as innovation—in the spoken tongue 
is a well-known Colonial feature, and we may best regard this survival ol 
archaic characters as a symptom of a certain differentiation in dialect* 

That Lhere is not greater evidence of actual innovation in the Mainland 
stgnary is rather a matter of surprise, since changed conditions and even the 
effects of a harder climate—clearly marked in certain features of the 
attire—might well he supposed to have been productive of new characters. 
At every turn, indeed, we are confronted with the evidence of a very 
definite impress of the latest Palace culture of Knossos. 

The wholly new characters that appear on the Mainland pots seem to 
have been rather ideograms than of purely phonetic usage. I he most 
conspicuous of these are shown in Fig. 7:15. and they clearly include objects 
the character of which, in some cases, it is difficult or impossible to determine* 

‘ Gridiron T Sign. 

As has been already said, the occurrence of more or less pictorial signs 
representing objects in groups can at times be explained by the fact that 
such groups are descriptive of the functions or occupation of the person 
referred to rather than a personal name. These functions, indeed, may 
perhaps be revealed to us in the case of another qua si-pic tog raphic sign 
(Fig. 7:15, it). 






of ICnoS" 


Script In 



Here we see a kind of horseshoe with recurved etuis crossed by four 
bars—hi one case provided with a handle. It may be suggested that this 
sign, found both at Tiryns (where it recurs on several 
fragments) and Thebe*, should be interpreted as some form 
of gridiron. It is true that in the later forms, familiar 
from Classical times onwards, the bars are included in. or 
overlaid on an oblong frame, but the curved outline— 
which would have economized the amount of bronze such 
as was used for it at that time—does not interfere with 
the general serviceableness of such a form. The handle 
^ itself recalls the gridiron of medieval times as so often 
Pi' raft ,t Gum l^ ace{ * ' n ^ ie hand of St. Laurence. This, too, is some- 
iROff as Emblem tinaes forked at the end. as seen on a Theban vessel (see 
or Sr, Laurence. 1 -jg, /■>). For suspension on avail this broadening ol 

Hani*lk. 1AS ' Mt end had a definite utility. 

At Tiryns, where this sign is found on at least five 
fragments, it seems to have stood at the beginning of the inscription, and 
may have had a separable ideographic meaning. At Thebes, where a 
handle is actually joined to the grid, it appears in the middle of a group. 
In this case, too, as in the analogous groups with the ’ship' sign, it may 
have formed part of a compound name or title. It is natural to suppose 
that both at Tiryns and Thebes the 'gridiron* referred to the cook's 
office. At both these royal residences this functionary 7 may well have 
occupied as important a place as he did in the royal kitchens of medieval 

Historical Significance of Diffusion of Late Palace Script of Knossos 

in Mainland Centres, 

Tile conclusion broadly resulting from the above comparisons is of no 
slight historical interest. That Script B of Knossra—the system of writing 
that reflected the highly' elaborate bureaucratic methods of its later Priest- 
kings—should reappear in the principal Mainland centres—at Tiryns and 
Mycenae, as well as Thebes and Orchomenos—in the period that succeeds 
the fall of the Great Palace is itself an arresting phenomenon. Its 
reappearance on so many urban sites would naturally imply that the language 
and script was current at this time not only at the Courts but among the 
ordinary citizens, both in the Peloponnese and throughout a large tract of 
Northern Greece beyond the Gulf. It follows that, in at least the middle 


of the Fourteenth Century Ji.C., there is no place either at Mycenae or at 
Thebes for Greek-speaking dynasts. Apart from certain innovations due 
to the climate and environment, including the reaction of the older indigenous 
element, the culture, like the language, was still Minoan to the core. 

Decorative Motives on Jar from Late Shrine at Asiae partly suggested 

by Signs of Script B. 

It would be unsafe to bring down the inscriptions of the Mainland Class 
above described to a later date than the dose of the Fourteenth Century u.c* 

Was there a still laLer survival ? It is of common knowledge that, out¬ 
side Cyprus* the Hellenic successors to the Minoan and Mycenaean heritage 
brought with them, as a result of their extensive Eastern relations in which 
the Inmans played the principal part, the fully developed Phoenician 
alphabet together with the Semitic names of the letters. 

It is impossible* however, here to pass over an enigmatic find that has 
been recently made use of to support the view that not only did the Greek 
occupants on the Peloponnesian side in some sort take over the Minoati 
script already diffused there, but even that it was through their agency that 
its later syllabary reached Cyprus, 

Among tile important discoveries recently made by Professor Axel 
Perssou ot the Swedish Mission at Asine, on the Argolid Coast not far 
from Tiryns, not the least interesting was a late Shrine, belonging to a 
private house anti containing, among other relics, part of a rim of a large 
earthenware jar presenting incised signs of a curious character. 1 The 
offertory vessels and cult images were definitely later than those of the 
Shrine of the Double Axes {I H M. Ill /^) at Knossos, which it otherwise 
resembles. 2 Some continuity of cult, indeed, may be gathered by the presence 
oi its most primitive emblem, a polished stone axe of Neolithic fabric, placed 
here as a * thunderbolt' or This late shrine had in fact still 

preserved, in us rudest form, the same cult as that of the Goddess of the 
Double Axes in the most elegant of her Palace sanctuaries. 

All the small painted clay ‘idols' found in the shrine show female 
breasts. Of the larger image found only the head and neck is preserved* 
and from the elongation of the chin it has been taken to represent a beard. 

1 Sre Pruf. Axel \\\ Person, Sc&rift and p|i h xx-xviii, und Pfcics. Ml and IV* 

SfracJk nt Ait-Kreia {UftpsaA i Unhxrsiiils 1 Professor Nilsson (&/*. dL t p. xxi) rightly 
Arskrifti nj3& Program jJ„ and. for the recognises the general similarity of this find 
Sanctuary, cf. Prof. Martin P. NiEsson, Xht to the contents of the Shrine of the Double 
Mwon n a mi AJyamrati Rifigioa (Lu nd „ 19 ? 7), Axes at K nosaos. 

h Jar with 
>;.rafliu 1 

Found in 
Shrine of 

I nid ilia ri¬ 
al M Lnuun 


La tt date: 



The whole face, except the eyes and mouth, is painted white according 
to the feminine convention* There is no indication of a heard, nor have we 
any call to recognize, in the midst of this motley harem, Dodona's Lord. 1 

Flic arrangement of the cult objects themselves on an altar bench or 
ledge recalls that of the late shrine of the Double Axes at Knossos. The 
deposit itself is best dated by a goblet with a solid pedestal, showing a 

Klu. 737. Objects found in ‘Sub-Mycenaean’ Shrink at Asisf : 

Stone Ask )n Ckstke below. 

characteristic swelling, and by the ‘Granary’ type of two-handled bowl.* 
These objects (sec Fig* 737) are typical of the ‘Spring Chamber 1 deposit 
at Knossos" and the Tombs of Karakovilia, and may he probably dated to 
the close of the Thirteenth or to early in the Twelfth Century u*C. 

As a supplement to the contemporary Cretan material it may be 
thought useful here to insert tit Fig. 738 a copy of a clay head of the Goddess 
from Knossos/ apparently from some very late shrine. Her flat-topped 
head-gear (Itself of Hathoricderivation) supplies an intere sting late survival 
of the adder-mark. The prominent chin is characteristic of such figures, 
and helps to show that the still more exaggerated version of it visible in 
the larger head from the Asine shrine really belongs to a female divinity. 

1 The identification willi Zetis was suggested comparisons with Karakovilia see pp. rjfi, rj; 
lot, dt. and Pig. 70, 

1 A. J, B. Ware, ft.S-.l,, xxv, PL XI, h, kj. ' Pound, many years since, neat the Aque- 
1 P, ofM. } ii, I‘t, I, p. 1 seqq., and for duct, above the Villa Ariadne (Ashm. MusA* 


The ‘tattoo’ marks (Fig;. 73s &,f) on cheek and nose of the head from 
Knossos are themselves curio 11 sly primitive, and recall certain marble figures 

from Early Cycladic graves, The mark over the nose 

resembles the familiar Q sign, a reminiscence of Script 
to be here noted. On the neck is a geometrical pattern. 

The rim of the A sine jar, on which the graffiti Sig n s o f 
occur, was originally about 5^ feet in circumference, Script 
and the section of it preserved is only 13 inches (r, a^mra-* 0 
33 centimetres) in length or, as near as possible one- t'veo« 
fifth. The only part that presents any semblance of jar. 
characters is 9 inches in length, followed, after a small 
break, by what can only be described as a simple form 
of decoration, consisting of two rows of figures, which, 
when complete, resemble repeated lis or Ds (bigs. 

. 739 , 740 b-b). A 

fairJ y exact <> f 

_ _ — l -=L f ] if ihe only part on 

mb J / / j j }*j which it seems 

possible to detect 
definite signs may 
be gathered from 

my copy, reproduced, with one-third reduction, in Fig. 740 , The notes below 
this give my own conclusions as to its contents. 

The initial part, a as shown, is quite indeterminate, and does not 

$ N 

& t 


ti . H ka n o f < iop 1 j t'fSu j 1 
Minoas) from Knossos. 
4 Tattoo f marks. 

I*'] li+ T rt h , s ection 0 r ki u qv Asin k J ,\ u 


A —--A 




DESIGN h t 3 PH 



Flo. 740. Section- of Kim of Asink Jar showing Various Figures, some reflecting 
Signs of Script It. (From Sketch W A. li.) 

suggest any known sign of writing, while ii~n seems to me to be a repetition 
of the same decorative motif that appears on the rim farther on (see 
big. 739 ). c, however, might fairly be regarded as a reminiscence of the 
well-known * wheel' sign and D, which closely follows it, seems to be 




M moan 

based on the 1 whip * of the later Palace script ^ There follows what seems 
to be si very rude sketch of a bull {e-e}. and the 4 ivy-leaf sign may well have 
supplied the elements of ] \\ where two similar characters run into one 
another. The last figure on the right {u) must certainly be recognized a 
misshapen dotibfe-axe symbol, 1 with traces of the foliate stem with which, 
as at \ tagia Triada 1 it was associated in its ritual form* On a votive vessel 
from a shrine perpetuating the traditional cult its appearance is quite natural. 

The apparent imitation of die signs and the last two forms 

peculiar to Class B—is itself of considerable interest. It is to be olwerved, 
moreover, that 1 as shown above in the Table. Fig. 72 S, all three signs are 
exemplified by the later Mainland version of the Cretan Class B. It seems 
probable that the Asinfi potter—though himself illiterate- -had before him 
some existing document of the old script, the signs of which he may have 
used as decorative models, much as medieval Sicilian craftsmen adapted the 
Cufic characters. There may also have existed some vague feeling of th« j ir 
having a religious value. But, for that very reason* he call hardly himself be 
credited with a knowledge of the Art of Writing. 

Beyond this it is impossible to go: the graffito signs cut on the rim of 
the Asine jar cannot be regarded as forming an intelligible inscription^ 

The Minoan Script in Cyprus* 

The more or less continuous Minoan contact with Cyprus has been 
shown lo go back to the time of the finest L M. I A artistic phase, such as 
is reflected on the 4 marine st\ le 1 relief of the bronze 1 hydria f from Kurlotv 1 
Some acquaintance with Script A—so widely diffused in Crete itself-—might 
therefore well be looked for there, and, indeed, is traceable in at least one ol 
the 1 Cypro-Minoan characters still current during the vogue of the insular 
style answering to L. M. Ill A 

In number, the published examples are very limited 1 and are, indeed. 

1 Prof. Person, eft. t vV., p. > h h 3 * rightly 
recognised this* and the sprays on either 
side of the shaft (by him connected) cor¬ 
roborate the conclusion. The double^*, 
however* had already ^ivtn birth to the rharac- 
terljpsrs ihe linear script of Crete, though it was 
at time* used as a symbol. 

* I am wholly unable to follow Professor 
PerMun in bin bold aitempt r//., p. ro 
seqq.) to read off the marks on tbo jar in 

Tigris of the later Cypriote syllabary, though 
1 am in agreement with him on the general 
question of the indebtedness of that syllabary 
to the advanced Minoan linear Script (see my 
Table* Strjftfa Afinoa y S, p* 713, and the re¬ 
vised version of it T p. 76 * below). But many 
of the suggestions made in his Table, df t 
Fii^. 0, p. r 7 P miss or overshoot the mark. 

■ Set- / J T oj Il t Ft, ti T p. 653 and Fi^. 1 1 

* See my Strrftfa J/»w, t* p, 30 seqq. 



confined to inscriptions on clay balls from Enkomi, or Old Salamis 1 
(Figs, 742 , 743), an engraved gold ring from Maronir a Cypro-Minoan balk, and 
cylinder in the Louvre, 1 and another in the Cesnola Collection.* I o these 


may notv be added 
a limestone frag¬ 
ment, from a looted 
tomb of die same 
site, with graffito 
characters (F ig* 
7411 , The latter is 
due to Professor 

Fin. 741 . ft, 
Tom si 

Ixschiitjos EraumknT, Enkomi 

/*, 11 a. N r IFIC VHO N WI ! M Ml M N S tGN^ 

Mvres f s more recent excavations, and a photograph of it was kindly put 
at my disposal by hint* 

From my tracing of this, Fig. 741 ,er, it will be seen that the first four 
characters form a group (the last of them placed below) dial closely 
corresponds with the four signs ot the late Palace signary (B) of Knossos 
given here for comparison in Fig. 74 l t A a The other two answer to two 
religions symbols. The llrst (No. 6j has been here called the 'impaled 
triangle' constantly recurring on the later seal-stones, 1, which also serves in 
a secondary shape as a common ideographic sign of Class B before nLim¬ 
bers. Considering the hastiness ol these griiffili t it seems not unreasonable 
to recognize in No. 7 an Incomplete Double Axe. 

The fragment is broken oft at the beginning of die inscription. I hem 
.seems to be. moreover, slight remains of another sign before No. 4 j Nos, 1, 
2 , and 3 may therefore be the end of a group of four, or perhaps five, 
characters, and 4 of another, perhaps of two or three signs. Nos. 4 and 4 
may be looked on as terminals, and this fact is of some interest since both 
4 + die 1 arrow \ and the "cross’* 4. are among the commonest and most 

1 E-Vcnvs t in Cyprus^ ]i. 3 ? + Figs. 5S- 

(>o, found close to one of the tombs. 

: Emm a tomb excavated on the Tekke site 
near l*arnaka hy Mr T 11 . B. Walters. See A. E 
J fr&rntitan Cyprus, u>v. Jmirn, Anthr, last ., 
volr xs\ t p. 1 oty So far as my information 
goes the only associated objects were Lute 
Mmoun. Prof* 3 frussnud. however, regards 
the ring as of later date* 

’ |\ r Dussaud, Cibifisatfans pr/Att//* 
nfyifrt , p. 4jr, Fig, 330. 

* Ward, S&tf Cylinders of W^itern Asia* 
Xo. 1164. 

* Sec T L. Myra; -lAtff, February 1934* 
The tomb was situated on the limestone 
escarpment above the Minoan Ak to pul is of 
Enkomi* My reading of the inscription is 
also given, /&. At. 

* A very slight, almost vertical abrasion, 
bad effaced the upper angle of the tmngukr 
m-n [No. 11, and a corresponding small section 
of its base, but there can be little doubt of sis 
completion shown in Hg. 741 

T Sec above, p, jSi, Fig* 56 S P and cf, \y, 

7 * 5 - 





distinctive terminals of the groups identified above as representing men's 
names on the Knossos tablets of Class 13.' 

Turning to the clay-balls, live in number* the incisions on which 
(Fig. 74*J and Fig. 743, ti-c ) at limes recall cuneiform methods, it ih clear 

F|... 742. H A SIS or INSCRIPTION'S os Cwi-SAM 5, EsKOMIj O fRl'S, 

t 2 1 4 s- 4 t S * X a a / a J 

F«j. 713. Coi>Ut5 or Cvpko-Mixoass Inscriptions, n-r, Os Clay-halls ;/, g. Cylinders. 

that, out of the twelve different characters fairly well defined, nine may be 
identified with signs of the Cretan Linear Script (see Table, Fig, 744 ). To 
these the gold signet-ring adds three more, including the ankh sign, common 
to both Script A and 13. Together with those on the limestone fragments 
(three of which duplicate the others), we have thus in all 15 Cypro-Minoan 
signs that are paralleled by the advanced linear forms of Crete. 

It is noteworthy that while the terminal sign on the ring (No. 9 of the 
Table) and the special form in which the 'cup' appears (No. 4 ) point to 

1 Sec above, p. 714. I’ersson in bis paper on Some Inscribed Terra- 

1 Three only of Ihesc were reproduced by cotta Balis from F.nkoni. He regards them as 
transcriptions in B.M. Exam- d-r.. p_ 17, weights, but Minoan, Syrian, and Kgyptian 
Fig*- 58, 59. and 60 (upside down). Photo- weights all have a Hat surface below to keep 
graphic facsimiles of casts were kindly supplied them in position. These objects, indeed, 
by (lie British Museum. Sec, too, I'roles so r have no siiij-Ic characteristic of weights. 


Class A, one of the best defined characters that h here found No. 1, is 
peculiar to B. Nos. 3 and 9 also best answer to that and the ‘impaled 
triangle ’ as a symbol is also connected with the Inscriptions and seal-types 
of the bite palatial epoch at Knossos. 

No. 15 of the Table (cf. Fig* 74 ;}, r?) is unmistakably a degenerate version 
of a facing ox-head, which in Crete is common on the hieroglyphic seal- 
stones and sealings. 1 In the corresponding sign of Class B (where lhe 
fore-legs are added), it appears in the middle of groups, as a phonogram. 

The day-balls themselves may most naturally be compared with the 
small round clay nodules found in the votive sanctuaries of Crete as at 
Pctsofa and the Peak Sanctuary of Jiiktas. 0 where was the traditional 
Tomb of the Cretan Zeus. In connexion with the first discovery they 
were aptly compared by Professor Myres 3 with the ' pebbles, pellets, and 
missiles of various kinds' thrown ‘either into bonfires or into sacred places 
or at a cult object , and in particular the Buddhist prayer pellets containing 
a written prayer or petition thrown or spat at a cult image. In Minoan 
Crete the name of the votary was inscribed on certain offertory relics such 
as the small clay image from Tytissos or the bronze votive tablet from the 
Psychro Cave.* It seems likely, therefore, that the inscriptions on the 
Cypriote clay-balls served the same votive purpose, or at least supplied 
a medium for placing the votary in the hands of the divinity. 1 he ’ cross 
sign at the end of Fig. 743 , a, is a constantly recurring terminal of male 
names on the Knossos B tablets, often succeeded by the ‘man sign. 

The comparisons with characters of the advanced linear script of C rete 
carry with them in several cases resemblances to signs of the Greek Main¬ 
land Script. 4 On the other hand, not a single sign peculiar to the Mainland 
group can be said to find any similar form in the Cypriote series. In face 
of this the idea of the introduction oi the Cypro-Minoan script from the 
* Mycenaean ' side seems to be less probable. 

Parallels, some of which are too detailed to be accidental, are also 
here given with signs of the Cypriote Greek Syllabary that first emerges 
into view some four or five centuries later than the objects with which we 
are dealing. The old syllable script had been by that time very imperfectly 
adapted as a vehicle for Greek writing, in an Age when, outside this con¬ 
servative Island, the Semitic Alphabet had been generally adopted. 1 his 

r See Scrtf>fii Afitfoa, i, p, Ko. 6- 1 tf/ J/. T ftp* 632, ^ 33 * 

1 P m vf+V, r t, p, 159 , 471, mid p. 634 * Fig* -173. 

1 TAi Santfmiry Site 0 /Petscfii (B.S..L, in), 3 K.jj., Nos. 2, 3* 5 - 6, ■-* 

p r 3S2 and J J 1. XIlIj 64 




sons with 
Script W 


wijtfi fiijjJTS 
of C’yprU 

ole Greek 



)K b )K b )•( 


J A T A Ta A£ 

■h \ B 

TnJK* fit 


A B 

I A T B I A 

f'A. A. 


A A A : s*iil 


p y 
A B A B 



- Mojo 

A '*** 

a ^4.15 


+ t, 

J- ? i- <*' 



T CYl 
K 1 "** 

R /M 




VA Hi. 



ll ! T 1 










J 3 !# 


_ _ _ MH*J PA*J HUWllti. 

'T T T° WMVTjeJ safipw 51 

U/ [£ ^ 4* 

Kh; ?H, Cyf-roMinoan Sipns com park d with Cueta.v. 

persistence, beside the 
very era tile of the 
Alphabet, of the more 
imperfect local tradi¬ 
tion is itself one of the 
strangest phenomena 
in the History of 
Writing. The sounds 
of the characters so 
far as the Greeks 
could find an equiva¬ 
lent arc, however, 

With these rests 
the only real hope of 
even approximately 
learning the values of 
the Miuoan signs. 

It will he seen 
that, among the com¬ 
paratively small nlim¬ 
ber of signs selected 
in the Table, Fig. 
“ 44 , for their equi¬ 
valence with those of 
the Minoan signary, 
nine at least are 
practical! v identical 
with the later Cypri¬ 
ote r or VtT, i r/, pa, fa, 
e, hi, ua, fat, and ra. 
Naturally, if the much 
larger material sup¬ 
plied by the whole Mi¬ 
ll oan sig ti a ry I s, 11 ra \v n 
on tor such compa¬ 
risons, the amount 
of conformity visible 
becomes considerably 



It uill still be found, however, that there remains a by tio means negli- 
ible residuum of signs that have no obvious connexion with Minoan forms. 
It must always, indeed, be borne in mind that Cyprus itself had its indepen¬ 
dent tradition of early script, going back centuries before 
the date of the Minoan plantations on that side. 

Although little, as yet. is known of this, a stogie 
cylinder of green steatite from a Copper Age tomb of 
the I lagia ParaskevI Cemetery, 1 the inscription on which 
is given In Fig, 74o, would be sufficient to demonstrate 
the existence of early linear signs parallel with that 
which already existed in Crete long before the days of the more advanced 
scripts A and B.- Some curious parallels presented by this early cylinder 
group—small as it is—tend to show that this primitive class of linear signs 
had a certain family relationship to that of Marly Minoan Crete. 


Fi 1 7 1 I \ sen 11 'l l os 

on Eaki.v Steatite 
Gvi mDER: Paka* 

□ f wn- 
h n caw ti 
in Cypri¬ 


Traces of 

an earlier 



c1it$ on 




Minoan Contact with opposite Cilician Coast: How far did the 'Men of 

Keftiu 1 Introduce their Script? 

A good deal of evidence tends to show that the early population of Minam 
Cyprus was closely akin to that of the neighbouring coast land of Asia *X' Kl 
Minor, while the affinities of the latter, and notably <*l ihe early inhabitants opposite 
of Cilicia with a dominant section of the Minoan Cretans, is illustrated at Couat. 
every turn by the practical identity of local and personal names , 1 as well as 
by tlir proUi-Armcnoid character of the portrait of the early Priest-king - ot 
Knossos, as seen on seal impressions. 

When, apparently towards the beginning of the Fifteenth Century b,c.* 
the Minoan Cretans were planting commercial settlements both in Cyprus 
and the opposite Mainland strip (which best answers to the original land 
of KefiitF). ihe process of penetration was doubtless in both cases aided by 
the old underlying community of race. 

To what extent the 4 Men of Kcftiu on the Cilician side introduced inckp<m- 
there, as in Cyprus, their improved methods oi writing, can only be a seer- m 

tained by future discoveries. Of the existence of an independent L M. Ill j™<* ITl 
culture in that region we have already some certain indications in the sherds region, 
described above* But ihe evidence is accumulating on the Mainland side 
of Hither Asia Anatolian, as well as Syrian—not only of ihe dillusion of 

In the Ash muled tt Museum:: Colt. with it juctugmph identified on the tablets of 

3 The 1 N F sign above occurs among the the Linear Class H at tCnusaos wilh a kind 
prim ill vo linear ? signs of Crete, parallel with of granary, set: alxwe, |ip, (ri 2 and 6a 3, 
the Hieroglyphic. I he 1 1 ’ repeated is coni- 1 See, for instance, above, p. 751, and /' of 
montucbssA* The terminal dgn corresponds JA. i, pp. **.7. 



the actual originals of the handiwork of the * Men of Kef tin \ but of their 
imitation by native craftsmen. 

3 ndicfr* 

lion? of 





T wo 

stnl kr-d 

L. >L ] # 
n|] VftSCS 
from 03d 
Samson rt 
I A m i' uh l, 

Indie at ions of Minoan Contact with Pontic Region: Direct Ceramic 
Influence and a Graffito from Amisos iSamsoim?. 

It is true that in the case of certain animal 1 rhytons’, like those in the 
shape of bulls heads adopted by the Minoan Cult, the ultimate source can 
be [raced back both on the Cretan anti the Anatolian side to old Sumerian 
prototypes. 1 1 hr large group ol ' Cappadocian 1 theriomorphic vessels had 
doubtless a very early inspiration from the lands farther East. But a class 
ol these that seems in a special way to connect itself with the old Hittite 
Capital on the site of Boghaz-Keui (Pteria) and its maritime outlet at Eski 

Sam sou n (Amisos) on the Pontic side, stands in a direct relation to Minoan 
models. It has been already noted that the ‘sacral ivy leaf motive, 
prominent in certain forms, bears clear evidence of a Minoan reaction. 2 
I'or this decorative motive—in which a purely geometrical conjunction of 
two rows of running spirals is combined with a spray that reflected the 
hieratic papyrtis-waud of Egypt—had had, as we have seen, a tong ante- 
cedent history in Crete, There the exotic spray had transformed itself 
betimes into a natural ivy leaf, with the double stalks imposed by its origin, 
and often, within the leaf itself the curved surviving outline cf the papyrus 
tuft (big. 740, b-*). At times the naturalistic transformation is complete 
and we see an ivy leaf on a. single stalk. 3 

A typical example of the two-stalked ivy is given in Fig. Tin,/", from an 
1 L. M, I h amphora V When, then, this Minoan derivative form—otherwise 
presenting the usual type of ‘Cappadocian' polychromy 5 with simple 
geometrical motives—appears on a series of bulls' head ‘ rhytons’ of the 
1 For ther prototypes of the Minoan t.uiri- coloured Ml list ration s of this class of pottery. 

form Class, see F. of M„ it, Pi. I, p. serjq. 

: Sec F. of M., it, Pi. II, pp. 6 5 S, 659 and 
Fig, 422. 

1 The ivy-leaf pattern also occurs on ;t sherd 
belonging to some larger vessel from Chirishli 
Tepc, S. of Hughs/-Kern (Sayre Cull.: Asltnto- 
lean Museum: Evelyn White), see Ft)'. 747/'. 

* Kali ova to*series: of. fit., p.4X5, [■ ig. 2<jie. 

* For tiiLs ceramic class, which in its 
later ph.Lie 41 least, might appropriately lie 
railed Hiuite, see Frankfort, Studies in Early 
Pottery uj titc A'ear Fn$f T ii r p, 1; t\ hci['|,, and 

i.:r, J. I,. My res an nfptidocisstt li'a/vf fount 
R. Antkr. lust., 1903), p. 334 seqi| bine 

based nn the Louvre Collection, have now 
been ^iven by Mons. H, dc (jctiouillttc in his 
CPramiqtte (uffodonenme, The Ashmok-an 
Museum also lately obtained .in excep¬ 
tionally good group found some years hack in 
a tomb at Old Samscmn (Amisos) (in Report 
cf the Visitors, 1933, p, 9 and PI. )]>, XL 
tienouiliac, misled, no doubt, by the striking 
resemblance Imth of the bull’s head ‘rhylon 1 
fitrtn and of the ivy spray decoration (though 
there with single stalks) to lute Ftalo-Greek 
examples, had brought down the Cappadocian 
itroup to the Hellenistic Age. (See P . of M-, 
ti, Pt. H, p. fijS, note 4.) 



Samsoun group (see Fig- 747), it is impossible not to recognise an intrusive 
Minoan element. It may be also noted that the bulls heads themselves of 

Fig. T4i5. Comparative tlx ampuls t 1. lustr atikc Evolutios itr ' Sack a 1 Ivv Motive, 

with Double Stalks, 

this series are much better moulded than* for instance, a late Hitfcite k rhyton 
from Ain-Tab. 1 and fit in with the naturalistic tradition visible In faience 
specimens in the form of ranis and horses 1 head-cups from Eukomi*- 

The chronological basis supplied by the Minoan stage of the ivy-leaf 
spray L. M. I A —roughly the first half of the Fifteenth Century b.c and 
contemporary with Thothnies Ills reign—answers to the great days oi the 
HI trite Empire. The port of Am isos-— Old Sam soil ti—was at the same time 
the nearest mari time outlet of its great inland capital, the later Pteria (Eoghaz- 
Kent), The shortest alternative route to the Mediterranean 1 almost twice 

1 A. E., Uv, p P 94, Mg. 97 : in pp. - -4n 22 S ( l' c & t s 95+ horses head ; 

the Ash malr;m Museum. Hg, agfi* raafs head), 

* Fur the fttfencc vessels from Enkomi sec 3 tor the o3d mutes tending N T urth and 
A M* Rx&vs, Cyprus, IH. OX, and cl U K. South from lioghaK-Keul to the sea* see es 
ILiJE, T/t* CrviUwtiet* 0 / Gmk in the Bramz pecially Sir William Ramsay, Thi Hhfonmt 


the length of the other—was compelled, in order to reach what is now the port 
ol Mersina, to pass through the narrow defiles of the ‘Cilician Gates'. There 



Elements b x Fragment vkqm Chikisilu Tefe. 

the rocky walls were said to have approached so close that till Ibrahim 
Pasha blasted them for the passage of his artillery— a camel could hardly 
pass through with his load ', 1 It is not unreasonable then to suppose that, 
over and above the natural point of contact on the Cilician side, the sea¬ 
faring enterprise of the Minoans might have also sought the Pontic outlet 
of Kh eta -1 a tub 

Of very early Aegean relations with the Pontic coasts we have more 
than one indication, and something has been already said of the important 
part played by the old Troadic silver trade . 1 The 1 sources ’ of silver were 
indeed carried still farther afield on that side to the upper system of the 

*/ As ' a Mi mr {R.G.S. $*ppl. '■ Houhly the diffusion D r tbe silver ‘fom-, .v) jP p. sS, 29, Ac. lWos > tv|J , (sec p of M ft 

Ramsay, «/. tit. Y p h 51. 


Ifalys, 1 that once ringed round the very centre of the old llitiite power. 

There, mar Yuzgat, amid the White Mountains, rich silver mines have 

been still worked hi modern times 1 

The figure of the Minotaur on the earliest coinage of Colchis may give 
some warrant for supposing that Miuoan commercial activities had extended 
still farther East on the Caucasian side. 3 

The bright red paint which relieves die white slip of the Amtsos vases, 
as well as those of Bogliaz-Keiti, certainly suggests that Pontic region Irom 
which the Greeks obtained later, through the more Western port, the 
famous * Si no pic Earth". It may be further said that the artistic adoption Evidence 

1 * « xt i i i a + ofMlPoan 

of thu 1 twostalkcd ivy' pattern on what we must regard as a North ! uttUc hnntti- 

class of ware is of such a kind as to suggest Mmcmn handiwork on the spot 
rather than semi-barbaric adaptation of a pattern on foreign articles of 
import. J hr contrast between the naturalistic plant decoration hero seen and 
the coarse geometrical pattern, of Cappadocian tradition* visible on the other 
parts of the ‘ rh\ ton * is so great that we may fairly recognize a Mlnoan hand. 

It is possible, indeed, to carry the comparison still farther* I he plant 

decoration in the ^one 
beneath that depicting 
the two-stalked ivy dis¬ 
plays, in fact, both in style 
and details, an unmistak¬ 
able resemblance to the 
cereal type seen on the 
Knossi in Palace jug de¬ 
scribed above 4 and here 
reproduced in Fig* 74$. 

The identification, there Ears of 
suggested, with oats will bLLrlcS " 
hardly be contested, and 
both this and the other jugs showing ears of barley—in that case in 
relief—may also have reference to some kind of brew. V\ e may assume 
the same about the Samsoun 1 rliyton * 

* The Haly/aman allies of Troy in //. ii. Uiwlsins, Numbers of Penile Greeks were 
»57, are brought rq \itfw If ‘AAv^s, Sfit* at one time transferred to work the Ak Uagh 
•jreptiv ^iru ! he names of both Maly- mines. 

jeone* and Hillybt (hke that of the XAvjM 3 Mf- Charles Felltnan at Cambridge kindly 
reflect that of the river. reminded me of ihte type. 

1 This information is due to Prof. R* M- 1 See above, p. 679 nr*d. Jig. G 20 , n t 

FiGk 7 -lw. Par r 01 Jug denctIng Cereal, idutiiird 
wit u () a is : K HOJsSQS. 



clay nsftl 
Ami so* 
with Mi- 
H raltitn 
Uon of 
CluSS A. 


jf** r f 

That direct Minoan contact with the Hittite world had in fact been 
actually established on the site of 
Am isos maybe taken to be estab¬ 
lished by the occurrence there of 
a curious inscribed relic. Some 
years since Professor Sayce ob¬ 
tained from Eski Samsoun what 
appears to he a ^matl figure of a 
votive class, commonly associated 
with Minoan sanctuaries, repre¬ 
senting a rani. or horned sheep. 1 
It was formed of coarse clay, com 
turning numerous minute pebbles 

(Fig. 74i).«r, /i), and showed on its Fig. 749 a, A VotivkClay Raw from Samsook 

back and side two lines of graffito W|11! tjR ' FF1To Inscription answering to 
, , , , 15 , uttfiAR SCKtpr B of Knossos. f»l 

signs.- i nc object has since passed, ' ir 

by his will, with the rest of his Collections, 
into the possession of the Ashmolean 
Museum, and a careful examination of the 
graffiti has assured me that the bulk of 
the signs represent recognizable form of 
the Minoan linear Class A.® Of its belong¬ 
ing to any of the other available scripts 
used in ancient Anatolia, such as Hiliite, 

Phoenician, Greek or the Lykian or kin¬ 
dred alphabets, there is no question. 

The comparisons given in Fig. 750 
of the graffito signs on the votive ram 
with typical forms of the Minoan linear Class A will be probably regarded 
as conclusive. The ‘cup' sign (?) and the MW-]ike figure of the fore¬ 
arm and band (6) show slight variations in detail, and one or two signs, 
perhaps ideograms—as notably No. K— are not accounted for. But the 
general correspondence is unmistakable. We seem to have here an offshoot 
of this type of script in use amongst the Minoan traders—some of them 
perhaps actual settlers—at the ancient Am isos. 


CHAl h lTO ttt&CKlPrJQN ON 
Votive: Figure (the O-i.ike 5tCS m - 
NIvATH BODY). {]} 

1 The object is jj cm (4J in.) long arul 
4-i cm, (1 1 Ip.) high, 

; An OS ike indatan appears on she lower 
part of ihc animal 1 * body {Fly. 740 f). 

1 Obviously ihu votive figure hid been 
■■erjuirerf by Professor S:iyce in pct-fainoan 
days. In his .MS- description it appears as 3 
'graffito inscription in an unknown script’. 



One archaic feature is noteworthy, so far as Minoan practice is con¬ 
cerned. The inscription is written bomiy&phaUn fashion. The known direc¬ 
tion of the ‘cup’ In what seems 10 be the first sign-group indicates that the 
line runs from right to left, while Minoan usage with regard to Nos, 6 and 7 

Fig- M". Analysis or Inscription showing its liousTROPHirnJN arrangement, 

points to the second line running from left to right. But this divergence 
from the modern method p consistently observed in documents ot both the 
advanced linear classes in C rete* of reading from left to right only is o\ 
considerable significance in relation to the region in which the grathto itseli 
was found. The practice of the 6pNtfrepA$dtm method of writing first from 
right to left and then from left to right was one of the earliest features 
noted with regard to the Hittite writing . 1 We may here then recognize not 
so much a remote reminiscence of early examples of the Cretan hieroglyphic 
writing, as an attempt to conform with local I littite usage* 

Again we are confronted with a singular parallelism in the epigraph ic 
and ceramic history, just as we have seen the diffusion of Class B in Main¬ 
land Greece proceed pari pas*ft with the appearance ot a new style of 
painted pottery also largely dependent on the palatial traditions ol Knossos* 
A like simultaneous reaction is demonstrated above in die ease of Cyprus, 
and some new and interesting revelations of Minoan acti vities on the North 
Syrian Coast summarized in the next Section, repeat the same story. 

1 See* for instance, \V\ Wright Tfc Emfir* nirrn side p which in its form and incised 
&f p, 138* Sayce in his account homontal lines resembles Class B* bears an 

there quoted, of the 1 PseudoSesostris 1 of inscription running r. lo 1 . {Lehmanin 4 lmjpt r 
Karabul {vp. af. f p, itic>) T observes e hat the Arminfen* &¥., ii r PfL $$$-% and Fig*}, 

1 housiTophedon* manner of writing distiiv seventh-century dale, signs, and numeration 
guishes all ihe known Hillite inscriptions. A prove it to be un-Minoan. 
clay tablet from Topmkkulch, on the Arme- 


in Halite 

$ 11Sltpi'LEMENTARV To Preceding: Tut M iso an Remains at Ras- 
Shamra: Corbelled Vaults with 13uni> Openings as Royal Tomb 


Evidences of Mhtmn trad? and settlement at Minet-cEBeida ami Ras- 
Shamra— Professor Schaeff rsdiscoveries ; Opposite Cyprian Salamis; Link 
with Euphrates and station of faience import; Persistent traditions of Minmn 
settlement i/t North Syria ; 'King Kasios'; Cuneiform Alphabet of lota! 
evolution ; Built 1 Royal Tombs' with ear be!ted vaults identical in structure 
and details with Royal Tomb of Isopata; Openings in masonry connected 
with blind welts for drink-offerings; Features in Isopata Tomb explained — 
blind openings backed by virgin soil; Further parallel supplied by smaller 
built tomb of Isopata ; Mutoan types of vessel associated with Ras-Shamra 
Tombs; Month piece of faience ' rhy ton' from Assur of L.M. I n fabric; 
Votive silver bowl from Ras-Shamra deposit presenting graffito inscription 
of Class B. 

dences ol 
M iitosta 

p] H T,n! Litioil 
at Mincl- 
amt K-is- 

On the Syrian side, almost directly East of the point of the long pro¬ 
jecting horn of Cyprus, the discoveries -epoch-making m more than one 
direction—of Professor Claude F.-A. Schaeffer and his collaborators of the 
1 reach Mission ha\c brought to light what seems to lie something mure 
than a merely commercial plantation from Late Minoan Crete. 

E Tere opens the httie, almost land-locked cove, still called, as in 
Classical times,’ the White Haven Mi net -el- Be id a—from its low chalk cliffs 
and rocks, while, a little inland, rises the 1 Tell ' of Ras-Shamra—' Fennel 
Hill —the site of an ancient acropolis, the relations of which with Egy pt, 
attested by local monuments, go back well into the Middle Empire, The 
fact that ihe great Cypriote emporium of Salamis (Enkomil lay directly 
opposite accounts for the early preponderance of imports from that side, 
and there seems to have been some actual mercantile settlement. But 
what specially concerns our present subject is the remarkable evidence that 
has resulted from these excavations of intimate contact with the new 
Minoan lords of Cyprus, and the conclusive proof that they had actually 
obtained a footing in this Syrian haven. 

1 he 1 act itM+Ji Ikis miporEance in its gcntTiil bearing on the 

diffusion of Minoan influence by the easy route of transit thence alon- the 


A* i Af/ii/r, 


Nahr-el-Keblr to Aleppo and Mesopotamia or to llama and Homs, 1 and it 
was, doubtless, in this way that specimens of the fine fabrics of faience and 
p&rwfaine teudre, equally well represented in the richest tombs or Salami* 
and of Mmet-eMSeida* penetrated to the Euphrates, The most charac¬ 
teristic of these, the goblets presenting what may best be regarded a* the 
Goddess's face with Hathpric head-piece, were, in fact, loimd in the early 
islitar Temple at AssurA 

Structural Identity of the Corbelled Tombs of Minet-el-Beida and Ras- 
Sharnra with the Royal Tomb of Isopata and Allied Cretan Group. 

The tombs containing Minoan relics brought to light at Minet-el-Beida 
and by the Library site on the neighbouring ukropolisof Ras Shamra afford, 
not only in their general structure, but in the characteristic details connected 
with them, direct and surprising evidence of a connexion with Knossos itself. 
They throw, indeed, a retrospective light on certain details in the construc¬ 
tion of the Royal Tomb at Isopata 1 that had not hitherto been explained. 
The general architectural resemblance presented by (he Ras-Shamra 
group, with their keeled vaults, to die Isopau Tomb m its original aspect 
was recognized by their excavator/ There, too, we see, on a somewhat 
lesser scale, rectangular built chambers approached by a descending dromps t 
with high corbelled vaults more or less ‘lanceolate' in section. But a 
remarkable feature in their structure carries this general resemblance to 

3 free PrutcsNur DushlieilTs comprehensive 
survey ( Syria, y p. 21. 

" Fur Tomb VI, see Professor Claude l.-A. 
Schaeffer, Syria, viv I ■ 9 jJ 1 % ii. [\ lojseqq. 
Lind Pktcs XL XII. 

It does not find a pheein Andrfte, sIwAifuf&e 
/srAfar- Tkmpti in Assttr, or in Pariigt Kcravtik 
tuts Assur (1915). See, however^ H. R< Hall 
{/• H St* xlviii T 1928), p. 64 sstrqq., who makes 
youd the 1 ?ypro-Minu;m claim 10 be the 

source of tho 'woman-head cups *- Those of 
Assur, which mi^hl Ik regarded as radio r 
degenerate cqpius of the best of Fnkumi and 
Has-S Ii am ra p a re from the I sh 1 ar tc m| Ac? re j suted 
10 dale Irom the time of Tukulti-LiiLiria J 
{f, 1260 1 JjS ELC.), 

1 Fur the Isopata Tomb k tt A. K., The Prt- 
IV** 1 

hi$h>ri< 7 bm&$ if/ l, Quarirch, tyo6 

(ArtAoeeftight , hy), p. i.jfi seqq. 

Claude L.A. Schaeffer, /•'outfits dt J/fVf 
d+firitirt flas-Sfiamm iigiqh Syria, x r 

p. 291, n. 2. far as corbelled keel vaulting 
goes attention has also been drawn by Dr. 
Linar Gjerstad {Summary of Swedish Exalta¬ 
tions in Cyprus^ -Vmo T x p sec p* 65), to the 
structure ul the great tomb, with drom&s and 
descend i ng si aitease, at Trailtunas. B ei il 11 om b* 
of oblong form with ihc upper part of the side 
walls corbelled and roofed by large slabs w r ere 
found at V .nkomi {/LM r Zlttttftf., Ac. t p. 5, 
Fig. 5), The evidence, however, of she 
characteristic 1 blind openings* and 1 blind 
wells * doe* not seem as yet to be forthcoming 
in Cyprus. 


C yprian 

and link 
with Eu¬ 
phrates ; 
Nation of 
M inoan 


form and 

details of 





ihi Lb 
those of 
Tomb at 





with blind 
wells for 


such a measure of conformity in actual detail as to afford convincing evi¬ 
dence of tlie Cretan origin of this type of vault. This feature—not before 
noted in built sepulchral chambers—is the more or less square opening in 

the masonry, the con¬ 
nexion of which with 
blind wells for drink- 
offerings to the thirstv 
dead is in some cases 
clearly established. 

The dimensions of 
the largest of these sepul¬ 
chral vaults to which 
Monsieur Schaeffer has 
not hesitated to attach 
the name of " Royal 


Tombs a — were 
metres* by 3-50 in width, 
comparing, respectively! 
with 7 S3 and 6 05 metres 
at Isopata* The Sixth, 
the largest of thisgroup of 
tombs, was also the rich¬ 
est, containing, amongst 
other precious relies, a 
goblet and mash of faience 
in the form of female 
heads and rivalling die 
finds of Enlvomi and 
Assur* In the sepulchral 
chamber of Tomb V an 
opening in the masonry 

of the left wall gave access to a jar to receive and hold the libations that 
reached it from above by means of a shaft. 

The best preserved example of the structure was presented bv another 
v[Iu]t, only second to the List in dimensions, which rose beside the Library on 
the Tell Itself, The illustration here (Fig. 7f»l} shows a window-Iike opening 
on the arched side and another in the back wall, opposite the entrance, while 
a farther opening on the ground level, to the left of the entrance, led to 
a kind of adapted to hold tile overflow of liquid offerings. 

Fit;. 751 + 

(Town Ytj .Vi RasSiiaUra, 



Blind Openings and Corbelled Vault of 4 Royal Tomb ' at Isopata 
paralleled at Ra^Shamra, 

But the methods of securing the passage of drink-offerings to die interior 
of the vault, illustrated by the Ras-Sh am rn group* at once ex plain a feature 
in the Isopatn tomb that had hitherto remained enigmatic 

Here again* opposite ibe entrance to the bn rial vault, a low door -1 [kc 

Fig. 752 I j or Inner Chamber antj Fori; Hall of RoYal Tomb of Isopata, 
m \k The Main Chamber shows an Ofenim. in the Ma£0£rV ijaikup sly the 

Virgin Rock ami tin- Fork Hall ruro others or t he same Class* 

opening was visible in the masonry securing direct contact with what in Faitmts 
that case consisted of the soft * kouskouras 1 rock that had been cut into for Tomwf 
the construction of the sepulchral chamber (see Plan, Fig. 75 2), May not 
this, too, have stood in relation to some superficial blind well above, devised ^jind 
for the passage of libations ? These might well be thought to have trickled 
through into the abode of the dead, sail, 

"Fins arrangement, moreover, further explains the openings in the 
masonry of the side walls of the Fore Hall of the tomb, in |]iis case forming 
corbelled arches ending blindly, like the low 1 doorway ‘ of die inner chamber, 
against the virgin soil, These lateral recesses were later used for a series 


or Interments, the remains of which were found, accompanied by late 
L. M. Ill pottery. I he Royal Tomb itself dated from the L, M. II 

Flft - ,S3, JNtwuo* or Rovai. Tom or Isopata, near Kxossos. snow ino I.ow Open- 
Inc in Entrance Blocking \Nu Lateral Archavaa ix Wall or Fork Hail ukyonip, 


Period contemporary with the earlier elements of the Minet-el-Beida 
series, and contained vases of the finest * Palace style", 


tt seems probable that there had originally existed some channels lor 
conducting such drink-offerings as may have Siltered into these recesses 
into the Cist grave visible lust within the doorway of the inner chamber. 

1’jo. Smallkr Built Skpi’lchrat, Chamber, Toiiu I, at Isofat a, with 

Pruning is Back Wall. 

A low door-like opening was in fact visible in the masonry of the entrance 
blocking, exactly opposite the similar opening in the Western inner trail of 
the great vault In Fig. 753 a good idea is given of this low Moorway ' and 
of the lateral arch in the bore Hall of the Isopata Tomb beyond—a blind 
entrance, again, to Mother Earth. This view also illustrates the general 
structure, so closely recalling the Ras-Shamra vault, Hg. 751. 

In the smaller neighbouring tomb, No. 1 of the Isnpata Cemetery, 
identical in its method of construction with keel-shaped vault and the front 
and back walls upright -a similar opening occurred in the inner masonry, 
opposite the entrance (see Fig. 754). In this case it was made one course 
above the floor-level, being thus suggestive of a low window rather than, 
a door. The resemblance between this tomb and one at Minet-cl-Heida 
provided with a similar aperture in the back wall is so striking that the 
representation of the latter given In big. 755 1 might almost serve as ait 
illustration of the Knossian vault! 

The smaller built tomb at Isopata contained fragments of vases in the 



and fore 

1 From a photograph kindly supplied me by Prof, Schaeffer. 





Tnmb | t 

types of 

with Kos 



1 atace style, a line gold-mounted intaglio, and the gold signet-ring depicting 
the descent of the Goddess over an orgiastic dance of her handmaidens. 1 

As in the case of the larger Knossian vault, the evidence is clear 
that tilts structure goes back to the 
palmy days ol the last Palace period 
(L. M. II), This keel-vaulted type 
of built sepulchral chamber, as seen 
on a smaller scale in Crete itself, lias 
evidently a considerable range there. 

I onibs oJ this class, more or less 
contemporary with those of ICnossos. 
reappear in the West of the Island 
notably in the neighbourhood of 
Canea. 1 

This extensive range in the Island 
tends to show that the origin of the 
construction illustrated by the Royal 
Tombs of Mi'uet-d-Beida and Ras- 
Hhiimni should be sought on Cretan 

soil thoughts In analogous cases the existence of Cypro-Minoan inter- 
mediants is only what might 1 jr- expected 

T ig 7"iA. Built Sh'i i lhrai Chaaijikk 

A 1 M! s^ E: r h I -Bjr j Lr,v .>l|oWTXG ApKKTI'^K 
IS II.M K \\ AN I IXeToVUi I ui Isor.XTAp 

Minoan Types of Vessel associated with Kas-Shamra Tombs. 

Although the bulk of the relics found in or near the tombs on the 
bitter sites—notably the faience ' head-goblet' and mask—are of L M III 
date, and, like the ivory reliefs there found, naturally shotv a close connexion 
with the Lypro-Minoan fabrics of Enkomi, Professor Schaeffer has rightlv 
called attention to a certain number of vessels as clearly related to the 

products ot the last Palatial Age of Knossos. They even approach its 
earliest limits. * ‘ 

Among the type, reproduced iu F*. Tot;. 1 the ■ Hi,ton • „ mil. a .rood 
ifsomeu’hat symmetrically rendered, octopas, which repteaeuL, the L. M.II I » 
elenienr, while .1 differ, style ami detail., fro,,, parallel example, f ott „ d „ 

1 See o/J/„ lit. jt. 6$, Fig. us. 

In 7'he Tomb of the Dtubtr Axtt. &c_. p. g t 
reference is nude in such tombs tit Mnlnmi, 
iilKtui two hours West of Cniisi, itnd others 

Itarv since come to light in that region. 

I - nun photographs kindly supplied me by 
Prof. Schaeffer (i f. Syria, viii, PI IV, , and si. 


Enkomi , 1 absolutely conforms to ill r Knossian traditions. The 1 rliyton with 
the bulls head in. relief (Fig. T50, &), though unique in this respect, shows 
a decided relation to the fluted stone vessels of the kind from the Central 

I reasurjv at Knossos jsee Fig, THU, A. while an analogy for the projecting 
animal s head is supplied by the earlier L. M. I a rhyUMi, from Falaikastro 3 
with the long-homed ftfrfmi head rising from its shoulder. Fig. on 

the other hand, a large ' stirrup vas? ', from the extensive * Enceinte Deposit V 1 
with its dark reddish ground and spiral iform ornament laid on in white, 
Alight at first sight recall one of the M. M. Ill A jars from the‘Temple 
Repositories P * The tradition is clear, but the 'stirrup vase' type itself 
indicates a somewhat later date. In die same way die alabaster vase 4 

1 Eg p. 40, Fig. 6E, no, ioijf 

(Tomb 69). 

Ot herwisc k niyw n as il se 1 StotstfVnse Root11 
i t /\ of M. t if, Pl II S p, 537, Fig, 31 J. 

where a comparison is also drawn with the 

simitar head rising from the Eup of a vessel 

among the gifts from Kcfiiu-Uuid on the 
Rukhmiira Tuinb. 

' SchiefliT, FokitUs i it .1 finct-<} iitidil ci d< 
Rat-Shamra ( k^i ), Syria, xiti, I'l. VN t i and 

HP* 5 - 1 >- 

= II. IV, 4 and p. 3. 


(Fig- 757) represents a Minoan creation derived from a painted Middle 
Kingdom Egyptian aiabatlrmL* with its stand incorporated and handles 
added, Aty&v L-rciat j 1 (ef. Fig. 77>J) a) + I hat this alabaster type in a slightly 

developed form survived into 
the succeeding Age is well 
established by a four-handled 
variant of it imperfectly pa- 
srrved in tin: Cairo Museum 
(Fig. 7aS <i). This fs en- 

Fic. 7 §7. 1 Ai-abastf-r 1 Vase, 


Fl.CS. 758 IN.SC RlFTtON ri^ 
iseo Cartouche or Queen 

H ATS H fcPfiUT* 

Fu. 7:53 it. A■.A tiAs a KK \ A’T. 

en Cairo Museum. 

graved with the air touche of Queen Hatshcpsut (Fig. 758 ft): Its form 
and handles are of Minoan style, and it may be approximately referred to 
the close ot the Sixteenth Century' n.c. 

A parallel type of pecks tailed vase in painted day, but with horizontally 
set and more prominent handles, can be traced back well into the Third 

1 See on tins my observations, /' of J/., i K 
|>P -n&, -| 17 ai>tl Figs. 301 T 30* and compare 
fit .h iiu pp. 40 *. 40 , 1 , find Fig. 2il7 : reproduced 
heie in Fig. 75!L I Jr. K k, t tnl) p wba Ima re 
T 'T-ch Iiiccj I e h r wise (E ; ig. 7 ;* s 4 /1 in h :s f 7: i/ra/itM 
of Cnm in tki Brom< Agt* p_ zoo, Fig, 
describes it ns possibly of L foreign marble \ and 
compares the h,iEul]e> whh those of k ptlhoid’ 
Minoan ^aniphoraT und jars {/\ of J/^ if s 
Pi II. p. seqq.) f the essential feature of 

wliicbr however, i- the two nr more rows, such 
a* that depicted in Senuitifs tomb. The real T 
compoflire prototype is there missed. A good 
example of the true (Egyptian type of alabaster 
‘amphora - which h L L> nu handle *—h given 
by Fr. \\ . von Hissing, Cnf, (Jr/t. dts AntiquitiS 
tm iVits/c dt £.Vn#v T So. 18179 , 

PL IV + 

3-rom a photograph kindly supplied me by 
the IMn-ctor of Cairo Muslim, 


Middle Minoau Period at Knossos 1 (Fig. 759 ( c), but sped mens from Phaestos 
(Fig. Toll, n) seem to be best referred 10 L. M. 1. J here is at least otic good 
piece of evidence from the last quarter of the Sixteenth Century B.c, and 

[■'in. E’l.iu iidm Hi FKDKSTAtJ.ti) Vask ot I'aixtoi Ci,*v f*om IJcTritAN 

Alabastrdn and S i ami, ok tiik XIIth Dynasty: n, JtaviTiAs Li.av I'OJtv, Bphkk: 
c. M. M. Ilia, Knossos; o. I'uaestosj k, Ksossos, aiiovk Ivory Dwomt. 

the first half of the Fifteenth—by the time, that is. when the envoys Irom 
l\eftiu-land were making their offerings to the \ iriers of Hatshepsut and 
Thotlimes IU—that Minoan artistic products were already penetrating trom 
the Syrian coast to the Euphrates, 

‘Mouth-piece of Faience ‘Rhyton* of Minoan Fabric from Ashur. 

Among the faience relics front Ashur is the separate mouth-piece of 
a type of‘rhyton ‘ of the‘elongated class,* such as is seen in the hands 
of the tribute hearers on the Rekhmara tomb, c. 1450 B.C. ' Rhytotis 
with the rim and neck in one piece detached from the body, into which it 
is made to lit,are already represented by steatite examples dating from the 
transitional ftf. M. Ill—L M. 1 ir epoch, at which time composite fabrics of 
various kinds wen: much in vogue* Probably of L.M, I & date is the specimen 

M oiith- 
piece of 
1 rhy[QH F 
Ashur. of 



1 /'. of M.. iii, pp. 4 ai, 403. and Fig. 2C.7 ; of this daw by successive stages from earlier 
reproduced here in Fig. 7 . 19 . vessels in the shape of osirich eggs, see P. of 

' For the derivation of the Minoan ‘rhytons’ .)/„ if, l"t* I.p. 215, Fig. t2£>* 


of a veined limestone, of marble-like aspect (Fig, 7lit*. r), found amongst the 
offertory vessels of the Central Sanctuary at Knossos presenting on its body 
arched ilutings reduplicated, a characteristic kind of Mlnoaii decoration that 

Fm, It, StTAUTR Fa'ik\« i Moi-I H-t'iKtt: of- ‘ Km ton A-mn ; !<, si>ui_\r or Maune- 
MitK Limestone, Knossos; r, the whole Vessel 

F aicncc 


piec t 
(ikjfl to 

has a considerably earlier history. The separate mouth piece of this vase is 
shown in Fig. 7<f0,£,and the whole vessel 
in e. It will be seen at once that the faience 
specimen from Asliur, Fig. 7no, a. bears 
a distinct resemblance to it. The bosses 
that are visible within the month of this, 
suggestive oi reponss4 work, may. indeed, 
be taken to show thin the immediate 
model from which this faience object was 
taken, was, as so often the case, of mend- 
work, But it cannot be doubted that it 
approximates to Fig, 7<10, 6, and its fabric 
could not safely be brought down later 
than the middle of the Fifteenth Cen¬ 
tury u,c. There can be no question of bringing it down to the date of the 
■woman's head' goblets from the same site, which, like the similar relics from 
kas-Shamra, are shown by the parallel find of Enkomi to beof Ram -aside elate, 
some two centuries later, ()n the Cretan side, it may be here recalled that 
a part of a faience vessel, Iig, 7 lit, presenting the same kind of reduplicated 

l uip 70L Pakt of Faience 
^ I -M- I \ HOM M. M. ]I| i, > rkATUM, 

S.E* Pa i m K AxfiLK t Ka'os^ps. 



fluting as Fig. 7(SO. «*, ami termed, above, a "blossom bowl . occurred at 
Knossos In the M, M. lll^f stratum near the South-East angle of the 
Palace, from which it seems to have intruded itself . 1 

Persistent Traditions of Minoan Settlement in North Syria: its 

Cultural Importance. 

A remarkable tradition, moreover, which in spite of its late date is too 
foil nf local lore and too consonant with archaeological records to be lightly 
passed over, brings Cretan colonists to the neighbouring height ol Kasius. 
the 'ancient rock' overlooking the mouth of the Orontcs, to which the long 
horn of Cyprus directly points. The Byzantine chronogrupher, John 
Malalas of Antioch,* makes the eponymic representative of the spot. King 
Kasns, identify these with Cypriote settlers, while Kasos himself, as son of 
loach os, extends these re