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librarian 01 habtard dnrversitt ; president op the amsrioam library 

association; formerly superintendent of ihi 

boston fublio library 



Cop}Tight, 1879, 

All rignts reserved. 


I WISH the user of this Handbook to under- 
stand its purpose and limitations. It is like a 
continuous foot-note to all histories of the Amer- 
ican Revolution. It points out sources, but it in- 
cludes also the second-hand authorities, though 
not all of them. Its references are made because 
the books referred to are the best ; or because for 
some reason they are significant above others, 
though perhaps in minor details ; and sometimes 
simply because of their greater accessibility. 
Any one disposed to follow its guidance will find 
that, with the more common books at his com- 
mand, the course of events can be understood ; 
while with the larger resources of our greater 
public libraries within reach, he can compass 
the subject much more thoroughly. Complete 
guidance to all details would have been possible 
by much more extensive subdivision and much 


greater analyzing of the books. The work seems 
large enough for the purpose, as it is. I could 
hardly have named more of the smaller general 
histories and other books, but slightly connected 
with the subject, except by swelling the volume 
without proportionate gain. 

The special student will, however, find here his 
starting-point. The ordinary reader can survey 
the field and follow as many paths as he likes. 

I began the making of these notes when the 
first fervor of the centennial period impelled a 
good many readers at the Public Library of Bos- 
ton — which at that time was in my charge — to 
follow the history of our Revolutionary struggle. 
To aid that impulse some portions of this Hand- 
book, in a less perfect state, were printed in the 
Bulletins of that Library. I believe it a part of 
the duty of a public librarian to induce reading 
and gently to guide it, as far as he can, because 
I know that as a rule there is much need of such 
inducement and of such guidance. I am no great 
advocate of courses of reading. It often matters 
little what the line of one's reading is, provided 
it is pursued, as sciences are most satisfactorily 
pursued, in a comparative way. The reciprocal 
influences, the broadening effect, the quickened 


interest arising from a comparison of sources and 
Authorities, I hold to be marked benefits from 
•uch a habit of reading. It is at once wholesome 
and instructive, gratifying in the pursuit, and sat- 
isfactory in the results. 

It is intended, if the system of this Handbook 
proves practically useful, to follow this initial vol- 
ume, with others covering themes of History, 
Biography, Travel, Philosophy, Science, Litera- 
ture, and Art. 


Habvabd Uniybbsitt, Gobb Hall, Sept. 1879. 




In Massachusetts, 1761-1765. — Writs of Assistance. 

Shortly after the close of the French war, 
when the British government was no longer de- 
pendent on the friendly assistance of the colonies, 
and revenue was to be got from enforcing the acts 
of trade, the application of the agents of govern- 
ment for " writs of assistance " was met by James 
Otis in his plea against the grant. Tudor 's Life 
of Otis makes that patriot the centre of interest 
at this period, and the legal aspects of the case 
can be studied in Horace Gray's Appendix to the 
Reports of Cases in the Massachusetts Superior 
Court, 1761-1772, by Josiah Quincy. The third 
volume of Hutchinson's History of Massachusetts, 
1750-1774, gives the governmental view, while in 
Minot's History of Massachusetts, 1748-1765, the 
patriot side is sustained, and this view is repre- 
sented in the Lives of Josiah Quincy, John Adams, 

and Samuel Adams. In its broad relations, as in. 


dicating the temper of the people, it is discussed 
by Bancroft in his History of the United States ; 
by Hildreth in his History ; by Frothingham in 
his Rise of the Republic ; by Barry in his History 
of Massachusetts, etc. There are delineations of 
the causes of the Revolution in many popular and 
lesser histories, like Ridpath's, p. 285, etc. The 
same ground is gone over in McCartney's Origin 
and Progress of the United States, and better in 
G. W. Greene's Historical View of the American 
Revolution. A statement of the grounds and mo- 
tives is in J. P. Thompson's United States as a 
Nation. There are several contemporary publica- 
tions on the existing political condition of the 
colonies, like Almon's publication, London, 1775, 
on the Charters of the British Colonies in Amer- 
ica, and Anthony Stokes's Constitutions of the 
British Colonies, London, 1783 ; also see William 
Griffith's Historical Notes of the American Colo 
nies and the Revolution, 1754-1775. Political 
tracts of this period are numerous. 

Of the many tracts preceding the commotion of 
1765, that of James Otis on the Rights of the 
British Colonies asserted and proved, published at 
Boston, 1764, is typical of the best of them. 

On the general subject of taxing the colonies, 
Bee the Parliamentary History, the Speeches of 
Chatham and Burke, May's Constitutional His- 
tory of England, ii. 576, and the whig and tory 
views as shown respectively in Massey's and Adol- 
phus's Histories of England. 


In the South, 1761-1765. 

For the progress of events and illustrations of 
the spirit of the people, see David Ramsay's Rev- 
olution in South Carolina ; Moultrie's American 
Revolution ; R. W. Gibbs's Documentary History 
of the American Revolution, 1764-1776 ; Dray- 
ton's Memoirs of the American Revolution in 
South Carolina (ending in 1776), and later histo- 
ries of that State like Simms's ; Jones's Defence 
of the Revolutionary History of North Carolina ; 
W. D. Cooke's Revolutionary History of North 
Carolina ; Foote's Sketches of North Carolina ; 
Martin's History of North Carolina ; Caruthers's 
Life of Dr. Caldwell ; R. Purviance's Baltimore 
town during the Revolutionary War. 

Illustrative details will be found in the Bland 
Papers, edited by C. Campbell ; and in later rec- 
ords like Wirt's Patrick Henry, etc. 

stamp Act, 1765-1766. 

To the general authorities named in preced- 
ing sections may be added, for local coloring, the 
chapters in the histories of Boston by Drake and 
by Snow, and in Lossing's Field-Book of the Revo- 
lution. See also Tudor 's Life of Otis, ch. 14 ; ex- 
tracts from Josiah Quincy's Diary in the Proceed- 
ings of the Massachusetts Historical Society, April 
1858. In the same Proceedings, June, 1872, there 
-S a fac-simile of Andrew Oliver's oath declining 


the stamp office. There are letters of the Stamp 
Act times in the Historical Magazine, May, 1862. 
Cf. also files of the Boston newspapers of the day, 
like the Boston Gazette and Evening Post. 

The Examination of Franklin relative to the 
repeal of the act was published in full, and in this 
connection consult the Lives of him by Sparks, 
Parton, Bigelow, etc., the latter reprinting the 
Examination of 1767. 

The Annual Register and the monthly maga- 
zines in London, like the Gentleman's, reflect the 
phases of English public opinion about the oppo- 
sition in the colonies. The histories of England 
for that period (typical among the later ones may 
be taken the Pictorial History, Massey's, and Earl 
Stanhope's), together with the lives and corre- 
spondence of the prominent political actors of the 
day, throw light from that side. Cf. Rockingham 
and his Contemporaries, i. 250 ; Fitzmaurice'a 
Life of Lord Shelburne, i. 319, and ch. 7 for the 
repeal of the act, and Protests of the Lords, ed. 
by J. E. T. Rogers, ii. 77. 

For the effect of the Stamp Act in Connecticut, 
see Stuart's Life of Jonathan Trumbull. 

For the effect of the Stamp Act in New York 
and Virginia, see the Magazine of American His- 
tory, June, 1877, and the Pennsylvania Magazine 
of History, ii. 296. Consult also the Memoirs of 
General Samuel Lamb ; and the histories of New 
York City and State. Almon's Collection of 


Tracts, London, 1773, gives in vol. i. the proceed- 
ings of a Congress held in New York, in answer 
to a call from Massachusetts, which was also 
printed separately in New York in 1845. Con- 
siderable light on the way in which New York 
was forced into opposition to Great Britain is 
thrown in the Collections of the New York His- 
torical Society for 1876. 

A large number of political and controversial 
tracts were printed at this time, both in the colo- 
nies and in England. Those in America will be 
found set down in Haven's pre-revolutionary Bib- 
liography of the American press, which is ap- 
pended to the American Antiquarian Society's 
edition of Thomas's History of Printing. The 
English ones are mostly enumerated from month 
to month in the monthly magazines of the time, 
published in London. Some part of all these are 
to be found in the catalogue of the Sparks CoU 
lection, now in Cornell University library ; in that 
of the library of Parliament, Toronto, p. 1421; 
the catalogue of George Brinley's library, 1879, 
No. 181, etc., 2116, etc. ; those of the library of 
Congress, New York Historical Society, Massa- 
chusetts Historical Society, etc. 

Regulators in North Carolina, 1768-1771. 

Beside the general histories, see Rev. Dr. 
Hawks's Battle of Alamance and the War of 
the Regulation, in W. D. Cooke's Revolutionary 


History of North Carolina. See also Carutliers's 
Life of Dr. Caldwell ; Foote's Sketches of North 
Carolina ; Martin's History of North Carolina ; 
The New England Historical and Genealogical 
Register, Jan. 1871; Lossing's Field-Book of the 
Revolution, ii. There is a tale, " The Alamawce," 
by C. H. Wiley. 

In General, 1767-1775. 

This period and its patriotic movements, so far 
as relates to Massachusetts, are made the special 
theme of Frothingham's Warren and his Times -, 
and in the same author's Rise of the Republic, 
the action of the patriots is viewed as tending to 
form the national spirit. A chapter in Tudor's 
Otis is given to characterizing the people of Bos- 
ton at this time, and in the collection of contem- 
porary documents called Niles's Principles and 
Acts of the Revolution, the spirit of the people 
can be read in their own words. A file of Papers 
relating to public events in Massachusetts, 1765— 
1774, was printed a few years ago by the Seventy- 
six Society, the originals of which are now in the 
Massachusetts Historical Society's Cabinet. See 
their Proceedings, Jan. 1878. Alden Bradford's 
Massachusetts State Papers, 1765-1775, gives the 
addresses of the Executive during this period. 
What is known as Almon's Collection of Papers 
also gives public documents, 1764-1775. Mercy 
Warren was a sister of James Otis, and .n her 


History of the American Revolution we have 
the characters of the most distinguished of the 
patriots drawn by one who knew them closely. 
Her estimate of John Adams in this work was not 
satisfactory to Adams, and the letters that passed 
between them thereupon are given in the Massa- 
chusetts Historical Society's Collections, 5th se- 
ries, vol. iv. Eddis's Letters from America, 1769- 
1777, London, 1792, reflect the feelings of the col- 

The influence of the press is traced in the third 
era of Hudson's History 'of American Journalism, 
in J. T. Buckingham's Specimens of Newspaper 
Literature, and the aspects can be studied in the 
files of the five newspapers published in Boston 
at that time : — 

Fleet's Evening Post, patronized both by the 
whigs and the government. 

The Boston Newsletter, the only paper which 
continued to be published during the siege. 

The Massachusetts Gazette, the chief organ of 
the government. 

The Boston Gazette, devoted to the patriots. 

The Massachusetts Spy, devoted to the patriots. 

The most important journal in Massachusetts, 
out of Boston, was the Essex Gazette. 

For the influence of the clergy, see Thornton's 
Pulpit of the Revolution, and the Patriot Preach 
ers of the Revolution, 1860. 

As before, the lives of leading patriots must b« 


consulted: Wells's Life of Samuel Adams; the 
Life and Diaries of John Adams ; Quincy's Life 
of Josiah Quincy ; Austin's Life of Elbridge 
Gerry ; Stuart's Life of Jonathan Trumbull ; 
Bigelow's Life of Franklin, from his own writ- 
ings, and other Lives of Franklin by Sparks and 
Parton ; and the general histories, like those of 
the United States by Bancroft and Hildreth, and 
those of Massachusetts by Minot and Barry, etc. 

The third volume of Hutchinson's Massachusetts 
Bay still gives the tory view, and the later Brit- 
ish estimates of the period are found in Mahon's 
(Stanhope's) and Massey's Histories of England. 
See also the paper on Col. Barrd and his Times in 
Macmillan's Magazine, Dec. 1876 ; or Living Age, 
No. 1699 ; and the Lives of Chatham and other 
parliamentary defenders of the colonists. 

For the local associations of the Province House, 
Green Dragon Tavern, etc., see Shurtleff's De- 
scription of Boston, and Drake's Old Landmarks 
and Historic Personages of Boston. 

Some letters on the condition of things in Bos- 
ton, sent to the ministry by Bernard, Gen. Gage, 
and Com. Hood, between Jan. 1768, and July, 
1769, were printed in London, and drew out from 
Samuel Adams a Vindication of the Town of Bos- 
ton, 1770. Cf. Wells's Life of Samuel Adams; but 
this tract has sometimes been ascribed to James 
Otis. See Proceedings of the Massachusetts His 
lorical Society, i. 485. 


Kearsley's American Gazette, London, 1768, il- 
lustrates the condition of affairs in Boston, and 
gives a journal of transactions there. 

Letters describing the state of feeling in Boston 
were written by Gov. Hutchinson and Lt. Gov. 
Oliver to friends in England, and these finding 
their way into Franklin's hands were transmitted, 
in Dec. 1772, to the patriots in Boston, and were 
made to support an address to the King for the 
removal of the Governor and Lt. Governor, as 
persons who were using their position to increase 
the discontent. These letters, with the proceed- 
ings thereon, were printed in Boston, 1773, and 
in London, 1774. See papers on their history in 
the Massachusetts Historical Society's Proceed- 
ings, 1878, p. 42. There is a synopsis of these 
letters in Barton's Franklin, i. 560. See also 
Campbell's Lives of the Chancellors, vi. 105 ; 
Massey's England, ii. ; Adolphus's England, ii. 
34, for English views. Franklin's own account of 
his connection with these letters was first printed 
in W. T. Franklin's edition of Franklin's works, 
1817, and is reprinted in Bigelow's Franklin, ii. 
206 ; but see also pp. 130, 161, 193, 200. 

John Dickinson of Philadelphia represented at 
this time the responsive sympathy of the Middle 
Colonies, and his tracts need to be considered : 
Address to the Committee of Correspondence in 
Barbadoes, defending the Northern Colonies, 
1766 ; Farmer's Letters to the Inhabitants of tha 


British Colonies, 1767, arguing against the right 
of taxation ; and his Essay on the constitutional 
power of Great Britain over her colonies, 1774. 
Cf. Bancroft's United States, viii. The condition 
of affairs in New York is seen in Gov. Try on 's 
and Lt. Gov. Colden's letters to Lord Dartmouth, 
printed in Documents relative to the Colonial 
History of New York, viii., and in Jones's New 
York in the Revolutionary War, i. with notes, pp. 
468, 502 ; and p. 506 begins a reprint of a very 
rare volume. Proceedings of the last Provincial 
Assembly of New York, Jan. 10 to April 3, 1775. 
Cf. Sparks's Life of Morris, and documents in 
Force's Archives. Parton, Life of Jefferson, de- 
picts the condition of affairs in Virginia at this 
time. Cf. also Wirt's Patrick Henry. 

The feeling of antipathy in the whigs against 
the tories is well shown in Trumbull's Hudibras- 
tic epic, McFingal, of which there is an annotated 
edition by B. J. Lossing. On the origin of the 
poem, see the Historical Magazine, Jan. 1868. 
For the loyalist feeling of New York, see Jones's 
New York in the Revolutionary War, published 
by the New York Historical Society, 1879, and 
the Life of Peter Van Schaack. The aspects of 
southern toryism can be traced in Jonathan Bou- 
cher's Views of the American Revolution, a series 
of discourses preached during this interval in Vir- 
ginia, and which, when subsequently published, he 
dedicated to Washington. 


Boston Massacre, March 5, 1770. 

Frothingham, in his articles in the Atlantic 
Monthly, June and Aug. 1862, and Nov. 1863, 
on the " Sam Adams Regiments," traces carefully 
the progress of events from Oct. 1768, which cul- 
minated in the massacre in March, 1770, and this 
matter is epitomized in his Life of Warren, ch. 6. 
Bancroft treats it in all its relations, in ch. 43 
of his sixth volume ; and it is the subject of 
a special monograph. The Boston Massacre, by 
Frederic Kidder, and is described in the introduc- 
tion to Loring's Hundred Boston Orators. A con- 
temporary Short Narrative, with an appendix of 
depositions and a folding plate of State Street at 
the time, was printed by order of the town in Bos- 
ton and also in Loudon in 1770. It was reprinted 
in New York in 1849. A Fair Account published 
in London, 1770, supplements the Short Narrative. 
Isaiah Thomas's Massachusetts Kalendar for 1772 
had a woodcut representation of the massacre. 
Capt. Preston, the royal officer who commanded 
the soldiers, was defended at his trial by John 
Adams and Josiah Quincy, and the Lives of these 
patriots treat of their defense. John Adams's 
brief, used at the trial, is in the Boston Public 
Library. A report of the trial, taken in short- 
hand, by John Hodgson, was printed in Boston 
the same year. Accounts of the trial are found 
.n the histories and in P. W. Chandler's Amer- 


ican Criminal Trials, vol. i. The plan of the 
ground used at the trial is in the possession of 
Judge M. Chamberlain, of Chelsea. 

The collection of orations delivered on succeed- 
ing anniversaries is necessary to a full under- 
standing of the event. The earliest collection of 
these orations is that made by Peter Edes in 1785, 
which passed to a second edition in 1807. Some 
of these orations and other contemporary accounts 
can be found in Niles's Principles and Acts of the 
Revolution. Other documents are in the Histori- 
cal Magazine, June, 1861. Cf. titles in the Brin- 
ley Catalogue, Nos. 1655-1665. 

See also Snow's History of Boston, the Lives of 
Otis, Samuel Adams, etc., and the general histo- 
ries. There is a descriptive letter by Wm. Pal- 
frey, addressed to John Wilkes, in the Proceed- 
ings of the Massachusetts Historical Society, 
March, 1863, where will also be found a letter of 
Gov. Hutchinson. 

Crispus Attucks, one of the slain, usually called 
a mulatto, is held to have been a half-breed In- 
dian, in the American Historical Record, Dec. 

There was published in Boston the same year 
the Proceedings of his Majesty's Council of the 
Province concerning what passed in consequenco 
zi the unhappy affair of March 5th. 


Hhode IslancS. 

There is a History of the destruction of the 
schooner Gaspee in Narragansett Bay, June 10, 
1772, by John R. Bartlett, Providence, 1861 ; and 
a documentary history of the event was compiled 
in 1845 for the Providence Journal, by W. R. 
Staples. See also the histories of Rhode Island, 
and Parton's Life of Jefferson, ch. 14 and 15. 
This was one of the earliest acts of violent resist- 

The Tea Party, December, 1773. 

Frothingham, in his Life of Warren, ch. 9, has 
given the details, and in his Rise of the Republic, 
ch. 8, has shown its political significance, and has 
again taken a general survey in his Centennial 
paper, in the Proceedings of the Massachusetts 
Historical Society, Dec. 1873.. See also under 
Oct. 1877, for a diary of this time and also the 
Collections of this Society, 4th series, vol. iii. 

In ch. 2 of Reed's Life of Joseph Reed, and in 
Sparks's Washington, the relations of the patriots 
of Boston to those of the other colonies at this 
time can be studied. 

Bancroft gives to it ch. 50 of his sixth volume ; 
and Barry, ch. 15 of his second volume. Geo. 
R. T Hewes, an actor in the scenes, has given 
an account of it in his Traits of the Tea Party ; 
and there is a paper, " Information of Hugh Wil- 
liamson," among the Sparks MSS. in Harvard 


College Library, There are illustrative docu- 
ments iu Force's American Archives, vol. i. ; in 
Niles's Principles and Acts of the Revolution; 
and the contemporary account and records have 
been reprinted from the Boston Gazette of Dec. 
6, 1773, by Poole, in one of the Massachusetts 
State Registers. 

See, further, Tudor's Life of Otis, ch. 21; 
Snow's Boston ; Niles's Register, 1827, vol. xxxiii. 
p. 75, from Flint's Western Monthly Review for 
July, 1827 ; Lossing in Harper's Monthly, vol. iv., 
and also in his Field-Book of the Revolution, i. 

A letter about the punch bowl, used by the pa- 
triots before going to the wharf, is given in the 
Proceedings of the Massachusetts Historical So- 
ciety, Dec. 1871. 

Mrs. Caroline Howard Gilman printed, in 
1874, an account of a private centennial celebra- 
tion of the Tea Party in Cambridge. 

There is a chapter on the Boston Tea Ships in 
Fitzmaurice's Life of Lord Shelburne, vol. ii. 

For debates in Parliament, see The Parliamen- 
tary History ; and later views in May's Constitu- 
tional History of England, ii. 521 ; Massey's Eng- 
land, ii. ch. 18. The first accounts received in 
England are given in the Gentleman's Magazine, 
1774, p. 26, and are quoted in Carlyle's Frederick 
the Great, vi. 524. 

Tory views of the events of this period are 
given in Peters's History of Connecticut, and in 


the appendix by McCormick to the reprint of it, 
— to be taken throughout with caution. Cf. the 
article " Lying as a Fine Art " in Scribner's Maga 
zine, June, 1878. See a foreign estimate in Hil- 
liard d'Auberteuil's Essais historiques, 1782. 

Boston Port BiU, 1774. 

General Gage arrived in Boston in May, to 
put the provisions of this bill in force, June 12th. 
Its political bearings can be traced in Bancroft, 
and in Frothingham's Warren, ch. 10, and in his 
Rise of the Republic ; and the military sequel in 
Frothingham's Siege of Boston. See also Tudor's 
Otis ; Wells's Samuel Adams ; Life of John 
Adams ; Life of Josiah Quincy ; Pitkin's United 
States, i. App. 15 ; Grahame's United States, iv. 

Illustrative documents will be found in Force's 
American Archives, vol. ii. See the diary of 
Thomas Newell, in Boston, Nov. 1773 to Dec. 
1774, in Proceedings of Massachusetts Historical 
Society, Feb. 1859, and in their Collections, 4th 
series, vol. i. The correspondence of the Boston 
Donation Committee, relative to the supplies sent 
to the embargoed town from other places, is given 
in the Massachusetts Historical Society's Collec- 
tions, 4th series, vol. iv. Col. A. H. Hoyt has 
given, in the New England Historical and Gene- 
alogical Register, July, 1876, an account of these 
donations during the period 1774-1777. This 
tract was also printed separately. 


For correspondence of the Boston patriots with 
those of the other colonies, see Frothingham's Rise 
of the Republic ; Reed's Life of Joseph Reed. 

The Suffolk Resolves, passed at Milton, Sept. 9, 
1774, can be found in the Appendix to Frothing- 
ham's WaiTen. 

The Provincial Assembly of Massachusetts met 
at Salem, Oct. 5, 1774, and A. C. Goodell deUv- 
ered an address at the centennial celebration of 
the event. 

Josiah Quincy, Jr., and others discussed the 
political bearings in published tracts. Quincy's ia 
reprinted in his Life by his son. 

For its effects in New York, see Lives of Jay 
by Jay, i. 24, and by Flanders ; Force's Archives, 
4th series, i. ; for results in Connecticut, Hollis- 
ter's History, ii. ch. 6. 

For the feeling in the South at this time, com- 
pare the general histories ; McRee's Life of Ire- 
dell ; Thaddeus Allen's Origination of the Amer- 
ican Union ; McSherry's Maryland, ch. 7 ; Read's 
Life of George Read, pp. 86, 101 ; Rives's Madison, 
ch. 3 ; Life of R. H. Lee, i. 97 ; Randall's Jeffer- 
son, i. 85; Parton's Jefferson, 130. 

Continental Congress, 1774. 

This was held at Philadelphia, Sept. 5th-0ct. 
26th, to devise plans for a redress of grievances, 
and for the restoration of harmony. The idea of 
\ Continental Congress is said to have originated 


with Franklin. Sparks's Franklin, i. 350. Cf. 
Bancroft, vi. 508 ; vii. 40, 63. 

Brief notes of the debates were kept by John 
Adams. Cf. Works, ii. 366, 370, 382, 387, 393. 
Also Adams's Life by C. F. Adams, Works, i. 150 ; 
ii. 340, his Diary ; ix. 339, 343, Letters ; and his 
Correspondence with Mercy Warren, Massachu- 
setts Historical Society's Collections, 5th series, 
iv. 348. 

Histories of the United States by Bancroft, vii. 
127 ; Grahame, iv. 373 ; Hildreth, iii. ; Pitkin, i. 
ch. 8. Frothingham's Rise of the Republic, 335. 
Histories of Massachusetts by Barry ; of New 
York by Dunlap, i. ch. 29 and 31 ; of Pennsyl- 
vania by Gordon, ch. 20 ; of New Jersey by Mul- 
ford, p. 389. 

Biographies of Samuel Adams, by Wells, ii. 
218 ; of Patrick Henry by Wirt, p. 105 ; of R. H. 
Lee by Lee, i. 106 ; of Washington by Marshall, 
and by Irving, i. ch. 35 ; of Jefferson, by Tucker, 
i. ch. 3, and by Parton, ch. 17 ; of Elbridge 
Gerry by Austin, ch. 5 ; of William Livingston 
by Sedgwick, ch. 5 ; of George Read by Read, 
93 ; of John Jay by Jay, and by Flanders in his 
Chief Justices, and also in the latter the Life of 
Rutledge, ch. 5 and 6 ; of Josiah Quincy by 

Documents will also be found in Force's Amer- 
ican Archives. The instructions to the Virginia 
delegates are in Jefferson's Writings, i. 122. The 


relations of the Congress to the Provincial Con- 
gress of Massachusetts are set forth in Frothing- 
ham's Joseph Warren, ch. 12. John Adams's 
Diary gives glimpses of the state of society in 
Philadelphia at the time. 

The Declaration of Rights which the Congress 
put forth is given in John Adams's Works, ii. 
535, with the original draft also. 

On the 28th of Sept. Joseph Galloway intro- 
duced his plan of adjustment, embracing a union 
between Great Britain and her colonies. It was 
printed in a pamphlet, and later, in 1779, in his 
Rise and Progress of the American Rebellion. 
Cf. the Lives of Washington by Marshall and 
Sparks ; of John Adams by C. F. Adams, ii. 387 ; 
of Samuel Adams by Wells, ii. 218 ; of Jay by 
Flanders, 100 ; of Patrick Henry by Wirt. Also 
cf. Franklin's Works, viii. 144, and Frothingham's 
Rise of the Republic. 

Jones's New York in the Revolutionary War, 
edited by De Lancey, i. ch. 2, depicts the relations 
of the loyalists to the Congress ; also pp. 438, 449, 
477, 490 for notes. 

R. H. Lee drafted the Address to the People of 
Great Britain, adopted by the Congress. Cf. 
Lee's Life of R. H. Lee, i. 119 ; Pitkin's United 
States, i. App. 17 ; and Jay's Life of John Jay 
i. App. 

John Dickinson wrote the petition to the King 
agreed upon in the Congress. Cf. American Quar 


terly Review, i. 413 ; John Adams's Works, i. 159. 
This paper was signed in duplicate, — • one copy is 
in the State Paper Office, London ; the other is 
mentioned in Henry Stevens's Bibliotheca Histor- 
ica, p. 87. Franklin printed it in the App. to his 
Account of the Proceedings of the Congress, 
London, Jan. 1775. 

The Proceedings of the Congress were printed 
in Philadelphia, by order of Congress, and at once 
reprinted in Boston. 

The Congress was attacked in two tracts, Free 
Thoughts on the Proceedings, and Congress Can- 
vassed by a West Chester Farmer, — both by 
Seabury, a loyalist, subsequently Bishop of Con- 
necticut. Alexander Hamilton, who was practic- 
ing his pen in criticism on the Ministry in Holt's 
Journal, replied in A Full Vindication, 1774. 
This was repKed to in a View of the Controversy, 
and again answered by Hamilton, in The Farmer 
Refuted, 1775. Cf. J. C. Hamilton's Republic of 
the United States, i. Qb. 

Political Agitation. 

On the tory side, a writer in the Massachusetts 
Gazette, signing Massachusettensis, now known 
to have been Daniel Leonard, but generally sup- 
posed at the time to be Jonathan Sewall, pre- 
sented the strongest front. These papers were 
reprinted in a pamphlet in Boston, again by Riv- 
kngton in New York, and in 1776, again in Bos- 
ton during the siege. 


JoLn Adams answered in the Boston Gazette, 
Bigning Novanglus. Almou abridged these papers 
and printed them in his Remembrancer as a His- 
tory of the Dispute with America. They were 
twice reprinted before they were given at length 
in Adams's Works. 

In 1819 both of these controversial series ap- 
peared in Boston, in one volume, with a preface 
by John Adams, in which he supposed his op- 
ponent to be Sewall. See Quincy's Life of 
Quincy, p. 381. Frothingham in his Rise of the 
Republic says they present accurate views of the 
arguments as the Revolution reached the stage of 
physical force. 

There has been some controversy about the 
origin of the Committees of Correspondence, a de- 
vice for the interchange of information and en- 
couragement, and for mutual assistance between 
the various colonies. Cf. Frothingham's Rise of 
the Republic, pp. 284, 312, 327; Wirt's Patrick 
Henry, controverted in the North American Re- 
view, March, 1818 ; Randall's Jefferson, i. 80 ; 
Tucker's Jefferson, i. 62 ; Kennedy's Memoir of 
Wirt ; Life of R. H. Lee, i. 89 ; Wells's Life of 
Samuel Adams, i. 509, ii. 62 ; Grahame's United 
States, iv. 338. 

The general political movement all through the 
colonies at this time is depicted, drawing largely 
upon the newspapers of the day, in Frothingham'a 
Rise of the Republic, p. 396. For the feeling in 


Massachusetts, see the histories of that State 
by Bradford and Barry ; Lincobi's History of 
Worcester, ch. 6 to 9 ; Gordon's Thanksgiving 
Sermon in Thornton's Pulpit of the Revolution ; 
Hancock's Oration on the Anniversary of the 
Boston Massacre, which Wells, in the Life of 
Samuel Adams, ii. 138, says was largely composed 
by that patriot. Cf. Loring's Hundred Boston 

For the feeling in New York, see the reports 
Governor Tryon made to the home government, 
and other documents from the British Archives, 
given in the Documents relative to the Colonial 
History of New York, viii. 

For sentiments prevailing in Virginia and the 
South, see Rives's Madison, i. ; Randall's Jeffer- 
son, i. ch. 3 ; Wirt's Patrick Henry ; and various 
papers in Force's American Archives. 

Effects and Movements in Great Britain, 1767-1775. 

The debates in Parliament are the best expo- 
nents of feeling at this time. Read's Life of 
George Read, p. 76, gives a synopsis of arguments 
for and against taxation of the colonies. The 
Cavendish debates of the House of Commons, 
May, 1768, to June, 1774, give reports taken at 
the time by a member, and edited by John 
Wright in 1841. Cf. reports in that collection 
under Nov. 1768 ; Jan. and Feb. 1769 ; March 
and May, 1770. Debates are also given in the 


Parliamentary History ; and scantily in the Gen- 
tleman's Magazine and other periodicals. Sum- 
maries are in the Annual Register. Contempo- 
rary impression and hearsay accounts, tinged with 
positive whiggism, can be found in Walpole's 
George the Third, edited by Le Marchant, and in 
his Last Journals, edited by Doran. 

Pictures of the contestants in these debates, 
with a tory coloring, are drawn in Adolphus's 
History of England, ii. ch. 24, and the strong 
ministerial sympathy which pervades Adolphus 
can be offset by Massey's History of England, a 
later work, with opposition views. Cf. also Camp- 
bell's Life of Loughborough, in his Chancellors. 
Burke as a speaker is depicted in Wraxall's His- 
torical Memoirs, ii. 35 ; and in the Lives of 
Burke, by Bisset, Prior, and Macknight. For 
other accounts of the opposition leaders and pol- 
icy, see Rockingham and his Contemporaries; 
Russell's Memoir and Correspondence of Charles 
James Fox, book iii,, and his Life and Times of 
Fox, ch. 4. 

The culmination of the Tory argument can be 
traced in Dr. Johnson's tract, Taxation no Tyr- 
anny. Moore's Life of Sheridan, ch. 3, gives the 
outline of an intended answer to Johnson. In 
Dean Tucker's writings, we have the advanced 
Uberal views. Macknight's Life of Burke, ii. 115. 
The writers on the American controversy are 
characterized at some length in Grahame's Unite(? 


States, iv. 320. The book-lists in the current 
numbers of the Gentleman's and other magazi/ies, 
chronicle the numerous political tracts as they ap- 

Dr. Franklin was at this time maintaining in 
London the side of the colonists. See his letters 
on the Boston Resolutions of 1768 in Sparks's 
Franklin, vii. 375. In vol. iv. Sparks gives 
Franklin's different writings as they came con- 
secutively out. In 1772 the Boston Resolutions 
against the bill for paying the salaries of the 
judges by the Crown were reprinted in London 
by Franklin, with a preface on the condition of 
the colonies, which is given in Sparks's Franklin, 
i. 350. 

The news of the Tea Party in Boston had 
reached London, Jan. 19, 1774, and the accounts 
were printed in the London papers, Jan. 21st. 
Lord North, on March 14th, brought in a bill to 
remove the government from Boston to Salem, 
and to close the port of Boston ; on the 31st it 
received the royal assent. Cf. Parliamentary 
History, xvii. 1163 ; Donne's Correspondence of 
George III. and Lord North, i. 174 ; Annual 
Register, xvii. 1159; Protests of the Lords, edited 
by J. E. T. Rogers, ii. 141 ; Adolphus's History 
of England, ii. 59 ; Massey's History of England, 
ii. ; Pictorial History of England, Reign of George 
III. i. 159 ; Russell's Life and Times of Fox, ch. 
o ; Life of Lord Shelburne, ii. 302 ; Chatham 


Correspondence, iv. 342 ; Rockingham Memoirs, 
ii. 238 ; Macknight's Burke, ii. 60. 

In 1774 General Gage was impressing on the 
King his disbeUef in the colonists' earnestness. Cf . 
Donne's Letters of George III. and Lord North, 
i. 164, and the Parliamentary History, xviii. for 
the speeches. 

In July Governor Hutchinson held an interview 
with the King, and an account of what passed is 
in the Massachusetts Historical Society's Proceed- 
ings, Oct. 1877. Cf. Donne's Correspondence of 
George III. and Lord North, i. 194. 

The King dissolved Parliament Sept. 30th, and 
after elections a new Parliament assembled Nov. 

Meanwhile Franklin was maintaining inter- 
course with Chatham and trying to arrange a 
plan of pacification. Cf. Lives of Franklin by 
Sparks, Bigelow, and Parton. He had deferred 
returning to America until the results of the Con- 
gress of 1774 were known, and it devolved on 
him to present its petition to the King. Cf. 
Sparks's Franklin, 372 ; Quincy's Life of Quincy ; 
Bancroft's United States, vii. 186. Walpole in 
his Last Journals, i. 439, describes the effect of 
this Congress upon the parties in England. 

Josiah Quincy made notes of speeches he heard 
in Parliament, Jan. 20, 1775, by Chatham, Cam- 
den, and others. Cf. Quincy's Life of Quincy, 318, 
335. Also see Gordon's American Revolution, i. 


298 ; Force's Archives, 4tli series, i. 1494 ; Wal- 
pole's Last Journals, i. 

Before leaving London Franklin wrote some 
articles for the Public Advertiser on the Rise and 
Progress of the Difference between Great Britain 
and her American Colonies, which are reprinted 
in Sparks, iv. 526. 

In March, 1775, Franklin left England, and on 
his voyage home he wrote out for his son an Ac- 
count of the recent negotiations with the British 
Government for a reconciliation, which is printed 
in Sparks, v. 1, and in Bigelow's Franklin, i. 256. 

January — March, 1775. 

For the interval before the actual hostilities at 
Concord, still follow Frothingham's Siege of Bos- 
ton, ch. 2, and consult for illustrative documents 
Force's American Archives, vol. i., where will be 
found De Berniere's narrative of his explorations 
towards Worcester to get information for General 

For particulars of Leslie's expedition to Salem, 
in March, see C. M. Endicott's article in the Pro- 
ceedings of the Essex Institute, vol. i., with a con- 
temporary letter, also published separately ; the 
Life of Timothy Pickering, vol. i. ; George B. Lor- 
ing's Speech and other addresses at the centennial 
celebration, 1875. 

The contemporary evidence relative to the ex- 
pedition to Marshfield lan be found in Force's 
American Archives. 


E. E. Hale's popular summary, One Hundred 
Years Ago, begins with these preliminaries of 

Lexington and Concord, April, 1775. 

The best eclectic account is that in Frothing- 
ham's Siege of Boston, and in his Appendix will 
be found a chronological list of the principal au- 

Paul Revere's expedition on the night of the 
18th, to give notice of the morrow's march, which 
is the subject of Longfellow's poem, was narrated 
by himself, and appears in the Collections of the 
Massachusetts Historical Society, 1st series, vol. 
v., and more accurately in the Proceedings, Nov. 
1878. There has been some controversy as to the 
tower from which the lantern, which was the sig- 
nal to Revere, was shown, and on this point see 
the pamphlet, Paul Revere's Signal, by John Lee 
Watson, with remarks by C. Deane (see Pro- 
ceedings Massachusetts Historical Society, Nov. 
1876) ; and one entitled Alarm of April 18, 1775, 
by Richard Frothingham. The question is also 
discussed by W. W. Wheildon, in his History of 
Paul Revere's Signal Lanterns, 1878, and in H. 
W. Holland's William Dawes and his Ride with 
Paul Revere, vindicating Dawes's claim to be 
considered one of the two who roused the country. 
See, in this connection, on the escape of Hancock 
and Adams, Loring's Hundred Boston Orators, 
and General Sumner in the New England Histor- 
ical and Genealogical Register, vol. viii. p. 188. 


The narrative and depositions ordered by the 
Provincial Congress were printed in the Journal 
of the third Provincial Congress, 1775, in the 
London Chronicle, and in various Boston newspa- 
pers ; and the whole reappeared in a pamphlet, is- 
sued at Worcester, in 1775, by Isaiah Thomas, and 
entitled A Narrative of the Incursions and Rav- 
ages of the King's Troops on the Nineteenth of 
April ; and they are given in Force's American 
Archives, 4th series, vol. ii. ; Shattuck's History of 
Concord, p. 342; and portions are given in Froth- 
ingham's Siege of Boston ; Remembrancer, 1775, 
vol. i., etc. The original depositions were signed 
in several copies, and some of them are in the Lee 
Papers in Harvard College library. See the Cal- 
endar of the Lee Papers, published in the Bulletin 
of Harvard College library. Other originals are 
among the Lee Papers in the library of the Uni- 
versity of Virginia. Cf. Sparks's Washington, iii. 

This matter constituted the account sent by the 
Congress to England, with the Essex Gazette, 
which was the chief newspaper narrative, and 
which reached London eleven days ahead of Gen- 
eral Gage's messenger ; and in this connection, see 
the Proceedings of the Massachusetts Historical 
Society, April, 1858. Other accounts and depo- 
sitions can also be found in Dawson's Battles of 
the United States ; in Frank Moore's Diary of the 
Revolution. See an account of the expresses sent 


South in Christopher Marshall's Diary, p. 18. In 
the New England Historical and Genealogical Reg- 
ister, Oct. 1873, p. 434, is the dispatch sent April 
19th, from Watertown, conveying tidings of the 
conflict, to which are appended the indorsements 
of the authorities of the towns through which the 
express passed. An original of one of these dis- 
patches is in the Peimsylvania Historical Society's 
library. Some of the contemporary accounts are 
given in Niles's Principles and Acts of the Revolu- 
tion. A fragment of a diary by Dr. McClure is 
given in the Massachusetts Historical Society's 
Proceedings, April, 1878. Cf. Military Journals 
of two private soldiers, 1758-1775, Poughkeepsie, 

The Rev. William Gordon, May 17, 1775, pre- 
pared An Account of the Commencement of Hos- 
tilities, which is in Force, and this, with addi- 
tions and abridgments, forms part of his History 
of the Revolution. A contemporary letter, prob- 
ably by Dr. Foster of Charlestown, is given in the 
Proceedings of the Massachusetts Historical So- 
ciety, April, 1870. 

The Rev. Jonas Clark delivered a discourse in 
Lexington on the first anniversary in 1776, and 
appended to it a narrative of events, which was 
reprinted in 1875. A brief account was also pre- 
pared by the Rev. William Emerson of Concord, a 
witness of the events at Concord, and this was 
printed in R. W. Emerson's Commemorative Dis- 


course in 1835, whicli has been printed separately, 
and in the American Historical Magazine, New- 
Haven, 1836. Other anniversary sermons were 
delivered in Lexington, in 1777 by Samuel Cooke, 
and in 1782 by Phillips Payson, both of which 
are in the Boston Public Library. 

Of the British accounts, Col. Smith's report 
will be found in the Appendix to Mahon's (Stan- 
hope's) England, vol. vi. Various English ac- 
counts are given in Force, and in The Detail and 
Conduct of the American War. General Gage 
sent to Governor Trumbull, a "Circumstantial 
Account," which is printed in the Massachusetts 
Historical Society's Collections, 2d series, vol. ii., 
while in vol. iv. will be found a reprint of a pam- 
phlet entitled General Gage's Instructions, etc., 
originally printed, in 1779, from a manuscript left 
in Boston by a British ofl&cer, which gives Gage's 
instructions to Brown and De Berniere, Feb. 22, 
1775, with an account of their journey to Worces- 
ter and Concord, and a narrative of the " Trans- 
actions " on the 19th of April. A contemporary 
account is given in The Rise, Progress, and Pres- 
ent State of the Dispute, published at London, in 
1775. In a work published at Dublin, 1779-1785, 
in three volumes, entitled History of the War in 
America, there is a large folded sheet of the num- 
bers of the killed, etc., of the British forces at 
Concord, Lexington, and Bunker Hill. An en- 
graved likeness of Earl Percy, is given in An- 


drews's History of the War. The third report of 
the Commissioners on Historical MSS., in Eng- 
land, 1872, cites various papers of the Percy fam- 
ily touching the events, etc., of the American War, 

Stedman, in his American War, and the other 
British writers claim that the provincials fired 
first at Lexington ; and Pitcairn's side of the 
story is given from Stiles's Diary in Frothingham, 
and in Irving's Washington. 

Late in the day General Heath exercised a gen- 
eral command over the provincials, and his mem- 
oirs can be consulted. Colonel Timothy Picker- 
ing's Essex Regiment "was charged with dilatori- 
ness in coming up, and this question is discussed 
in the Life of Pickering, ch. 5, by his sou. 

The semi-centennial period renewed the inter- 
est in the matter, and the question, whether the 
provincials returned the fire of the British troops 
at Lexington, was discussed with some spirit. 
This having been denied, a committee of the town 
of Lexington authorized Elias Phinney to publish, 
in 1825, an account of The Battle of Lexington, 
to which was appended depositions (taken in 
1822) of survivors to establish the point. This 
led the Rev. Ezra Ripley and others, of Concord, 
in 1827, to publish The Fight at Concord, claim- 
ing the credit of first returning the fire for Con- 
cord, and this was reissued in 1832. In 1835 the 
story was again told in the interest of Concord, 


in Lemuel Shattuck's History of Concord, which 
"was examined in the North American Review, vol. 
xlii. In this account, as well as in that by Ripley 
and others, it was claimed that the part borne by 
Captain Davis of Acton was not fairly repre- 
sented, and Josiah Adams, in his centennial ad- 
dress at Acton, in 1835, and again in a letter to 
Shattuck in 1850, presented the merits of Davis, 
and gave depositions of survivors. In 1851 James 
Trask Woodbury made a speech in the Massachu- 
setts legislature on the question of appropriating 
money to erect a monument to Davis and his fel- 
lows, which was printed by the town of Acton. 
The parts borne by other towns have also been 
commemorated : for Dan vers, by D. P. King, in 
1835 ; for Cambridge, by Rev. A. McKenzie, in 
1870 ; and also see S. A. Smith's West Cambridge 
on the 19th of April, 1775, Boston, 1864. 

At Lexington, Edward Everett delivered an ad- 
dress in 1835 ; but see also his Mount Vernon Pa- 
pers, No. 47. There is an account of the celebra- 
tion in Niles's Register, vol. xlviii. A plan of the 
Lexington field can be found in Josiah Adams's 
letter, and in Moore's Ballad History of the Rev- 
olution, part 1. Compare Hudson's History of 
Lexington, ch. 6, of which he published an ab- 
stract in 1876 ; a popular narrative in Harper's 
Monthly, vol. xx. ; accounts in association with 
landmarks in Lossing's Field-Book, and in Drake's 
Historic Fields and Mansions of Middlesex. See 


also R. H. Dana's address in 1875 ; the centennial 
Souvenir of 1775, and A. B. Muzzey's paper, The 
Battle of Lexington, with personal recollections of 
men engaged in it, in the New England Historical 
and Genealogical Register, Oct. 1877, and subse- 
quently printed separately. 

At Concord, Edward Everett delivered an ad- 
dress in 1825, and much of interest in connection 
with this anniversary was printed in the newspa- 
pers of that day ; and Lossing in his Field-Book, 
and Drake in his Middlesex, should be consulted 
for much illustrative of the events of 1775. Pop- 
ular narratives can be found in Frederic Hudson's 
illustrated paper in Harper's Monthly, May, 1875, 
and the article by G. Reynolds in the Unitarian 
Review for April, 1875. Read George W. Cur- 
tis's oration in 1875, and James R. Lowell's ode, in 
Atlantic Monthly, June, 1875. Also the Rev. 
Henry Westcott's Centennial Sermons, 1875. 

The town of Concord, in 1875, printed an ac- 
count of the Centennial Celebration, giving a fac- 
simile of pages from Rev. William Emerson's con- 
temporary diary of these events, and having for 
an Appendix an account of the literature of the 
subject, by James L. Whitney, which was printed 

The events of the 19th of April also form im- 
portant chapters in Bancroft's United States, vol. 
vii. ; in Elliott's New England, vol ii. ; in Barry's 
Massachusetts, vol. iii. ; and in other general work* 


on the Revolutionary period. Consult Dawson's 
Battles of the United States; E. E. Hale's One 
Hundred Years Ago ; and Potter's American 
Monthly, April, 1875. The events of the day 
make part of the story of Hawthorne's Septimiu's 

Amos Doolittle's contemporary engravings are 
reproduced in a new edition of Clark's narrative. 
See also Moore's Ballad History, part 1 ; and Pot- 
ter's American Monthly, April, 1875. There is a 
view of Concord taken in 1776, in the Massachu- 
setts Magazine, July, 1794, which is fac-similed 
in the separate issue of J. L. Whitney's Literature 
of the Nineteenth of April. 

An account of Jonathan Harrington, the last 
survivor of the fight, is given in Potter's American 
Monthly, July, 1875. Compare Lossing's Field- 
Book and De Lancey's note to Jones's New York 
in the Revolutionary War, i. 552. There is in the 
Historical Magazine, July, 1860, an account of a 
musket captured from a British soldier at Lexing- 
ton, which belonged to Theodore Parker, and now 
hangs in the Senate chamber of the State House 
at Boston. 

Claims have been raised for other places as hav- 
ing been those where blood was first shed in the 
war, for which see Potter's American Monthly, 
April, 1875. Dawson gave a paper on the affair 
at Golden Hill, in New York City, Jan. 19-20 
1770, in the Historical Magazine, iv. 233, and 


more at length in the number for Jan. 1869. See 
page 5 for the battle of the Alamance, and the war 
of the Regulators in North Carolina. There is un 
account of the Westminster Massacre in Vermont, 
March, 1775, in the Historical Magazine, May, 

Mecklenburg Declaration, May 20, 1775. 

Whether the declaration of independence passed 
by an assembly in Mecklenburg, North Carolina, 
is supported by credible evidence has been a mat- 
ter of controversy. It was denied by Jefferson, 
and J. S. Jones published a Defence of the Revo- 
lutionary History of North Carolina against the 
aspersions of Jefferson. The alleged resolutions 
of May 20th would seem to be the uncertain rec- 
ollection, twenty years later, of some that were 
passed May 31st, a wrong date given them, and 
alterations made under the influence of the conti- 
nental declaration of July 4th. Cf. Frothingham's 
Rise of The Republic, p. 422 ; Randall's Jeffer- 
son, iii. App. 2 ; North Carolina University INIaga- 
zine. May, 1853 ; J. C. Welling in North Amer- 
cian Review, April, 1874 ; Hawks's Lecture in 
W. D. Cooke's Revolutionary History of North 
Carolina ; and passages in the general histories. 

May and June, 1775. 

The events of the interval between Concord and 
Bunker Hill can best be studied in Frothingham'? 
Siege of Boston, and in his Life of Joseph Warren 


ch. 15. Particularly on the affair at Noddle's Isl- 
and, May 27. 1775, see Force's American Ar- 
chives. Humphreys's and Tarbos's Lives of Put- 
nam, Sumner's Histoiy of East Boston ; and a 
chapter in Dawson's Battles of the United States. 
Letters wi-itten from Boston in May are in the 
Proceedincrs of the Massachusetts Historical So- 
ciety, June, -1873. 

Com. F. H. Parker, in the Magazine of Ameri- 
can Histoiy, i. 209, gives an account of the cap- 
ture of the ^Iaro;aretta at Machias in June. 

The effects of Lexington and Concord on the 
other colonies are depicted in Stuart's Life of 
Jonathan Trumbull, and generally in the standard 
histories. The news was received in Xew York 
April 2od. Cf. Jones's Xew York in the Revolu- 
tionary War, i. 39, 4S7; Documents relative to 
the Colonial History of New York, viii. 571. 

A letter of Joseph Warren to his wife on the 
day before the battle of Bunker Hill is given in 
the Proceedings of the Massachusetts Historical 
Society, April, 1S71. 

Bunker HiU, June 17, 1775. 

Frothingham, in an Appendix to his Siege of 
Boston, enumerates in a chronological order the 
chief authoritative statements regarding the bat- 
tle. Dawson devoted the whole of the June, 1868, 
double number of the Historical Magazine, to a 
-illation of nearly all the printed accounts, au- 


fchoritative and compiled, and from his foot-notes 
can be gleaned a full list of articles and books 
which at that time had been published. 

Earliest Accounts. — The affairs of the 19th of 
April had among other results precipitated the 
removal of the newspapers published in Boston to 
other places, and the number for April 24th was 
the last of the Evening Post published in Boston. 
Edes's Boston Gazette, which was thus removed 
to Watertown, the seat of the Provincial Con- 
gress, gave in its issue for June 19th the earliest 
account of the battle which appeared in print. 
The Massachusetts Spy, which had been removed 
to Worcester in May, had its first account in its 
number for June 21st. That same day the Connec- 
ticut Journal had its first intelligence, and though 
it was several days later before the New York pa- 
pers published accounts, on this same 21st a hand- 
bill with the news was circulated in New York. 
In F. Moore's Diary of the American Revolution, 
there will be found a list of the contemporary 
newspapers publishing these accounts, and from 
which he derives in part the matter of his book 
which begins Jan. 1, 1775. Many of these ac- 
counts will be found reprinted in Dawson's His- 
torical Magazine article ; and some of them have 
been reproduced in fac-simile in the centennial 
memorials of 1776. Frothingham reprints that 
of the Massachusetts Spy in his condensed narra- 
tive of the battle, and it is in fac-simile in tho 
Centennial Graphic. 


Prof. Winthrop, June 2lst, sent a brief account 
to John Adams, then in Philadelphia, which is 
given in the Massachusetts Historical Society's 
Collections 5th series, iv. 292. 

The Rev. Mr. Thacher was a spectator of the 
action from the north side of the Mystic River, 
and within a fortnight afterwards, depending in 
some measure upon Prescott's assistance, prepared 
an account, the manuscript of which is now pre- 
served in the American Antiquarian Society's 
collection at Worcester. This had been used by 
Frothingham and others, but was never printed in 
full with all its corrections indicated, till Dawson 
included it in his Appendix in 1868. This narra- 
tive of Thacher's was made the basis of that which 
the Committee of Safety prepared for transmission 
to England, and this latter narrative is given with 
much other matter in The Journal of the Third 
Provincial Congress, 1775, and has been reprinted 
by Ellis (in 1843), Frothingham, Swett, Dawson, 
etc. Force's American Archives, vol. iv., is an- 
other repository of these and various other con- 
temporary accounts, several of which are copied 
by Dawson in his Battles of the United States, aa 
well as in his Historical Magazine article ; and by 
F. Moore in his Ballad History of the American 
Revolution, part 2. 

Colonel Prescott's own account is contained in 
\ letter dated August 25, 17'75, and addressed to 
John Adams, and this can be seen in Frothingham. 


where it was first published, and in Dawson. What 
is called the Prescott manuscript, which is said to 
have been prepared in the family of the colonel, 
and in part with his approval, was first printed in 
full in Butler's History of Groton, p. 337, etc., 
and it has been reprinted by Dawson, p. 437. 
Frothingham and Sparks had the use of the manu- 
script known as Judge Prescott's (son of the 
colonel) memoir of the battle ; but it was never 
printed in full till it appeared in Frothingham's 
centennial narrative, 1876. 

Contemporary feelings will be found expressed 
in the letters which passed during the war be- 
tween John Adams and his wife Abigail Adams, 
which, having been some years ago published sepa- 
rately, were reprinted in one series by their grand- 
Bon, Charles Francis Adams, in 1876. 

President Stiles, then of Newport, kept a diary 
of events at this time, which is preserved at Yale 
College. He first heard the news on the 18th, 
and began his account on that day, to which he 
added from day to day, as further corrected ti- 
dings reached him. This was printed at length 
for the first time in Dawson, but has been used by 
Sparks, Frothingham, Bancroft, etc. This diary 
also copies the letter of Peter Brown, dated June 
25th, to his mother, which is considered by Froth- 
ingham, who gives it, as the most noteworthy de- 
Bcription written by a private soldier engaged in 
the battle, and is printed from the original in 


Potter's American Monthly, July, 1875. Another 
letter, of date June 21st, is given in the Proceed- 
ings of the Masachusetts Historical Society, Feb. 
1870 ; under Oct. 1876, p. 108, will be found a 
brief account from Fenno's orderly-book ; and un- 
der March, 1877, another from Thomas Boyntoii's 

Colonel Scammans's account of his court-mar- 
tial is given in the New England Chronicle, Feb. 
29, 1776, and is reprinted in Dawson, p. 400. 

Governor Trumbull in a letter, Aug. 31, 1779, 
gave a sketch of the action, and it is printed in 
the Massachusetts Historical Society's Collections, 
vol. vi. See also Stuart's Life of Jonathan Trum- 
bull, ch. 16. Colonel John Trumbull, who after- 
wards painted the well-known picture of the battle, 
was not in it, but saw the smoke of it from the 
Roxbury lines, and in his autobiography, pub- 
lished in 1841, has an outline narrative. General 
Heath's memoirs, published in 1798, have a brief 
account. The narrative in Thacher's Military 
Journal is entered as having been written in July, 
1775. The Memoirs of General James Wilkinson, 
printed in 1816, give in ch. 19 a "rapid sketch," 
embodying his own knowledge and other evidence 
which had reached him at first hand, as he went 
over the field in March, 1776, with Stark and 
Reed, and conferred with Major Caleb Stark. 

Other testimony of eye-witnesses was gathered 
hOO long after the battle to be wholly trustworthy, 


in 1818, at the time of the Dearborn controversy, 
later to be mentioned ; and numerous depositions 
were taken from survivors attending the semi- 
centennial celebration, which are preserved in 
three large volumes, but are considered by those 
who have examined them as of little or no value. 
The recital of the Adventures of Israel R. Potter, 
who was a participator in the battle, and who pub- 
lished the first edition of his narrative at Provi- 
dence, in 1824, was put into literary shape by Her- 
man Melville. There is a long account in the 
Columbian Centinel of December, 1824, and Janu- 
ary, 1825. An account by Oliver Morsman, a revo 
lutionary soldier, was published at Sackett's Har- 
bor in 1830; and Mr. Charles Coffin published 
at Portland, in 1835, an account compiled from 
the narratives of Generals Heath, Lee, Wilkinson, 
and Dearborn. Mr. Needham Maynard contrib- 
uted the recollections of a survivor, which were 
printed in a Boston newspaper as late as 1843. 

British Accounts. — Of the British accounts, the 
entries in Howe's orderly-book are given in Ellis's 
sketch (edition of 1843). The Gentleman's Mag- 
azine (London) of the same year gave an account 
with a somewhat erroneous plan of the redoubt, 
which has been reproduced in Frothingham's mon- 
ographs. General Gage's official report was printed 
in Almon's Remembrancer, accompanied with strict- 
ures upon it, and it has been reprinted by Ellis 
(edition of 1843 with the strictures), Force, Swett, 


Frothingham ; by Dawson, in his Historical Mag- 
azine and in his Battles ; in Frank Moore's Bal- 
lad History, etc. Burgoyne saw the action from 
Copp's Hill, and his letter to Lord Stanley, dated 
June 25, 1775, has also been given in Fonblanque's 
Life of Burgoyne; in Dawson; in Ellis, edition 
of 1843 ; in the New England Historical and 
Genealogical Register, April, 1857 ; in an appen- 
dix to Pulsifer's Sketch of the battle, and is also 
given in Samuel A. Drake's Bunker Hill, the 
Story told in Letters from the Battle-field, in 
which also will be found, together with various 
other minor British accounts, the Impartial and 
Authentic Narration, originally London, 1775, 
by John Clarke, " a first lieutenant of marines," 
who gives what purports to be a speech of Howe 
to his troops previous to the advance, which with 
much else in this somewhat extended narrative 
is considered rather apocryphal. This narrative 
by Clarke was reprinted privately in. 1868. The 
compiled account in the Annual Register has been 
thought to have been written by Burke. Cf. Wil- 
liam Carter's Genuine Detail of the Royal and 
American Armies, with a plan of the works on 
Bunker's Hill, London, 1784. Carter was a lieu- 
tenant of the Fortieth Foot, and there is a note on 
the curious details connected with the book, in the 
Brinley Catalogue, No. 1789. Force, Ellis (edi- 
tion of 1843), and Dawson, gather various contem- 
porary royalist accounts, and some particulars can 


be found in the separate historic records detail- 
ing the careers of some of the royal regiments in 
the action, like the Fourth, Fifth, Tenth Foot, etc. 
Moorsom's Fifty-second Regiment gives a brief 
account of its share in the battle, with plates of 
their uniform at the time. See also Lushington's 
Life of General Lord Harris, pp. 54-56 ; Sergeant 
Lamb's (Welsh Fusileers) Journal of Occurrences 
during: the late American War ; and the Detail 
and Conduct of the American War, for a letter 
from Boston, July 5, 1775, with other Enghsh 
reports. The British accounts first took regular 
shape in Stedman's History of the American War, 
published in 1794. Howe's conduct of the bat- 
tle is criticised in Lee's Memoirs of the War in 
the Southern Department. Mahon's (Stanhope's) 
History of England, vol. vi., represents in an ac- 
count, otherwise fair, that the Americans then 
and since have considered the battle a victory; 
but, when called upon to substantiate such an as- 
sertion, relied chiefly (see his Appendix) on the 
reports of British tourists of a subsequent day. 
A loyalist's statement of Howe's obstinacy in at- 
tacking in front, is in Jones's New York in the 
Revolutionary War, i. 52. 

See a French narrative in Hilliard d'Auber- 
teuil's Essais historiques, 1782. 

Later Special Accounts. — In 1858 Mr. Henry 
B. Dawson published a popular account of the 
Battles of the United States, giving a chapter^ 


based on the ordinary authorities, to Bunker Hill. 
In 1868, in the Historical Magazine, an American 
periodical then edited by him, he gave a special 
study of the battle, in which the " colonists " of 
the earlier work became "insurgents," and the 
royal troops were represented as fighting " in sup- 
port of the constitution, the laws, the king and the 
government, and in defence of the life of the na- 
tion." Differing from other authorities, he rep- 
resents that the attack along the beach of the 
Mystic was a preliminary attack. He has elab- 
orately collated the various contemporary and 
later compiled accounts, and has appended numer- 
ous illusti-ative documents by English and Amer- 
ican writers, derived from Almon, Force, Ellis, 
Frothingham, and others, to which he adds sev- 
eral printed for the first time. The fac-similes of 
Page's, De Berniere's, and Dearborn's maps, which 
are mentioned in his text as given with his ac- 
count, were never appended to it. 

Of the more extended descriptions, that in 
Frothingham 's Siege of Boston is distinctively 
marked for its dependence chiefly upon contempo- 
rary accounts, and its avoidance of the mingled 
recollections and self-deceptions of the survivors 
of all grades, who in 1818 furnished so many 
depositions, over forty years after the conflict, to 
perplex the truth-lover. These confused recollec- 
tions, added to the local jealousies of the partisans 
l>f the troops of Massachusetts, New HampshirCv 


and Connecticut, and to the facts narrated by dif- 
ferent persons as having taken place in positions 
80 disconnected as the redoubt and the rail fence, 
have done much to render the sifting of evidence 
very necessary ; and it all gave some ground for 
Charles Hudson, in 1857, in his Doubts concern- 
ing the Battle of Bunker Hill (see also Chris- 
tian Examiner, vol. xl.) to attempt a logical vent- 
ure somewhat after the fashion of Whateley's fa- 
mous argument on the non-existence of Napoleon. 
When, later, Frothingham wrote the Life of Joseph 
Warren, he took occasion to summarize his longer 
narrative in a chapter of that book, and his whole 
description has again been recast in a popular 
form in his centennial Bunker Hill, where he has 
added much new matter, in letters, incidents, etc. 
Anniversary addresses have often rehearsed the 
story, occasionally adding a few details to our 
stock of information, and the most significant 
among them have been Webster's, in 1825 (see 
also Analectic Magazine, vol xi.), at the laying of 
the corner-stone of the monument ; Alexander H. 
Everett's, in 1836, which subsequently was in- 
woven in his Life of Warren, in Sparks's series ; 
the Rev. Dr. George E. Ellis's, in 1841, which 
was subsequently issued in 1848, anonymously, as 
a sketch of the battle, with an Appendix of illus- 
trative documents, some of which were printed for 
the first time, and has again, in 1875, been recast 
in a centennial History without the illustrative 


documents (see also bis account in the New York 
Herald, June 8, 1875) ; that by Edward Everett ; 
and that by Judge Devens in 1875. A succinct 
narrative of the battle was also once or twice 
printed by Alden Bradford, in connection with 
his studies in the history of Massachusetts. A 
New History of the Battle, by W. W. Wheildon, 
traces two separate engagements constituting the 
battle. Recent years have produced condensed 
summaries, like that of Pulsifer and S. A. Drake ; 
that by James M. Bugbee, in Osgood's Centennial 
Memorial ; an article by H. E. Scudder, in the 
Atlantic Monthly, July, 1875; one by Launce 
Poyntz, in the Galaxy, July, 1875. The story 
also makes ch. 4 of E. E. Hale's One Hundred 
Years Ago, and is retold in the Centennial num- 
bers of Frank Leslie's Pictorial, in the Centennial 
Graphic, and in various other popular memorials 
of 1875. It is gone over discursively in the illus- 
trated paper, by Rev. Dr. Samuel Osgood, in the 
July (1875) number of Harper's Monthly. 

Particular reference is given to landmarks in 
Lossing's Field-Book of the Revolution, vol. i., 
which account also appeared in the first volume of 
Harper's Monthly; in. S. A. Drake's Historic 
Fields and Mansions of Middlesex. Finch, in an 
article in Silliman's Journal, 1822, gave an ac- 
count of the traces then existing of the works of 
the British and Americans in the siege of Boston, 
md this has been reprinted by Frothingham. The 


Report of the Bunker Hill Monument Associa- 
tion, 1876, gives a plan showing the position of 
the monument and the present landmarks of the 
neighborhood, relative to the lines of the old forti- 
fications. See also the section below on Maps and 

Accounts in General Histories. — The battle 
has necessarily given a subject to chapters in the 
general histories of the war and of the State. The 
earliest American historian of the war was Gordon 
(see Loring on Gordon's History in Historical 
Magazine, February and March, 1862), and he 
followed closely the account of the Committee 
of Safety. Ramsay's American Revolution was 
published in 1789. Mrs. Mercy Warren's later. 
Hubley's in 1805. Bancroft gives to it the 38th 
chapter of his seventh volume. It is described 
in ch. 20 of the second volume of Elliott's New 
England ; in the third volume of Barry's Massa- 
chusetts ; and in ch. 15 of Carrington's Battles of 
the American Revolution, with an eclectic map. 

In Biographies. — The biographers of Wash- 
ington, like Marshall and Irving, needed to de- 
scribe it as leading to the consolidation of the army 
of which he took command on the 3d of July next 
following. There is a brief account in Tudor's 
Life of Otis. The memoirs of Heath have already 
been mentioned, and the lives of other observers 
and participants will give occasional minor details, 
like the Journals of Samuel Shaw, Boston, 18'17 


etc.; the lives of General Ward and Colonel 
Knowlton, in the New England Historical and 
Genealogical Register, July, 1851, and Jan. 1861 ; 
the life of Deborah Sampson, called " The Female 
Review," by Herman Mann, 1797, edited in 1866 
by J. A. Vinton. A list of officers who were in 
the battle, and who are named in Frothinghara, ia 
given in the New England Historical and Genea- 
logical Register, April, 1873 ; and in the number 
for July, 1874, there is an English list of the Yan- 
kee officers in the forces about Boston, June, 1775. 
Neiv EampsMre Troops. — For the part borne 
by them, see the memoirs of Stark by Caleb Stark 
and Edward Everett. Stark's report to the New 
Hampshire Congress is in the New Hampshire 
Historical Society's Collections, vol. ii. ; in Ellis's 
edition of 1843, etc. The Adjutant-General of New 
Hampshire, in his report for 1866, second volume, 
rehearses the military history of that State, and 
gives some details regarding the troops engaged. 
The manuscripts in the Adjutant-General's office 
(New Hampshire), containing the rosters of 
Stark's and Reed's regiments, have never been 
printed in full. C. C. Coffin, in a letter in the 
Boston Globe, June 23, 1875, epitomizes the serv- 
ice of New Hampshire troops in the battle ; and 
details will be found in the New Hampshire Pro- 
vincial Papers, vol. vii.; in the histories of the 
towns of Hollis (see New England Historical and 
Genealogical Register, Oct. 1873, and July, 1876, 


and History by S. T. Worcester, 1879, p. 146), 
whence came Captain Dow's company of Pres- 
fott's regiment ; of Manchester, by Potter, whence 
came Captain John Moore's company of Stark's 
regiment ; and of New Ipswich. See also the 
New England Historical and Genealogical Regis- 
ter, vol. xxvii. p. 377, etc. ; and the account by 
E. H. Derby in the number for Jan. 1$77. 

Connecticut Troops. — For the part borne by 
them, see lives of Putnam, Stuart's Life of Jona- 
than Trumbull, histories of Connecticut, by Hol- 
lister and others; Hinman's Connecticut in the 

Who Commanded? — The question of the high- 
est command in the battle has given rise to much 
controversy. In many of the unofficial contem- 
porary accounts, particularly in the British ones, 
Warren is represented as the commander. Put- 
nam is known to have been the adviser of the 
expedition in the Council of War, and in the less 
authoritative accounts of the time is represented, 
as also in engravings, as the responsible director. 
Gordon, in his history in 1788, was the earliest, 
in print, to give the command to Prescott, follow- 
ing the Committee of Safety's account. The 
earliest printed direct mention of Putnam as com- 
mander is in a note to the sermon preached at his 
funeral by Rev. Josiah Whitney, in 1790, where 
he took exception to Humphreys's statement in 
his Life of Putnam, 1788, published while Put- 


nam was still living, in which no mention is made 
of Putnam having commanded. Eliot, in his bio- 
graphical dictionary, in 1809, represents Prescott 
as commanding in the redoubt, and Stark at the 
rail fence. The earliest reflection upon the con- 
duct of Putnam in the action appeared in General 
Wilkinson's Memoirs, which were published in 
1816, and were reviewed in the North American 
Review, Oct. 1817. The Analectic Magazine for 
Feb. and March, 1818, had articles on the bat- 
tle, following chiefly the accounts of Thacher and 
Gordon, but with some important differences, and 
giving documents in the latter number. 

General Henry Dearborn, who was a captain in 
Stark's regiment at the rail fence, opened a con- 
troversy, not yet ended, and which at that time 
soon got to have a political bearing, when he 
printed his communication in the Portfolio for 
March, 1818, in which he aimed to show that dur- 
ing th*fe battle Putnam remained inactive at the 
rear, and this paper has since been reprinted sepa- 
rately, and twice in the Historical Magazine, Aug. 
1864, and June, 1868, p. 402. A summary of 
this Dearborn controversy is given in G. W. War- 
ren's History of the Bunker Hill Monument As- 
sociation. Colonel Daniel Putnam, the son of the 
general, replied to Dearborn in the May number 
of the Portfolio, and appended numerous deposi- 
tions, all of which have been repi'inted in Daw- 
son's Historical Magazine, Juno, 1868, p. 407^ 


This reply of Daniel Putnam led General Dear- 
born to vindicate his former statement by the pub- 
lication, in the Boston Patriot of June 13, 1818, 
of various depositions and confirmations of other 
participants, all of which may also be found in 
Dawson, p. 414. At this time Daniel Webster, 
in the North American Review, July, 1818, vindi- 
cated the character of Putnam, but, examining 
the evidence judicially, came to the conclusion 
that Prescott commanded the fatigue party during 
the night, and on the subsequent day exercised a 
general command over the field so far as he could, 
and should be considered the commanding officer, 
and as acting under the orders of General Ward, 
at Cambridge, only, and to whom he made report 
of the action after it was over. See also the Pro- 
ceedings of the Massachusetts Historical Society 
for June, 18.58. 

Judge John Lowell next reviewed Dearborn's 
defense of his attack on Putnam in the Columbian 
Centinel for July 4 and 15, 1818, and strength- 
ened his points with counter-depositions of actors 
in the struggle, all of which are again given in 
Dawson, p. 423, Colonel Swett now entered into 
the controversy in an Historical and Topograph- 
ical Sketch of Bunker Hill Battle, which, in Oct. 
1818, was appended to an edition of Humphreys's 
Life of Putnam, and this sketch was subsequently 
published separately and with enlargements, de- 
rived in part from conversations with the surviv 


ors who attended the semi-centennial jubilee of 
1825, and this appeared in 1826, and again in 
1827 (see Sparks's notice in the North American 
review, vol. xxii.). Meanwhile, Colonel Daniel 
Putnam, in 1825, recapitulated his views in a 
communication to the Bunker Hill Monument 
Association, and this document is printed in the 
Connecticut Historical Collections, vol. i. The 
account of Swett has been substantially followed 
in Rand, Avery & Co.'s Bunker Hill Centennial. 
Swett's first publication was criticised by D. L. 
Child, in the Boston Patriot, Nov. 17, 1818, who 
claimed that Putnam was not in the battle, and 
whose article was reprinted as an Enquiry into 
the Conduct of General Putnam. On the other 
hand, Alden Bradford, in his pamphlet in 1825, 
claimed the command for Putnam. 

In 1841 Ellis in his oration, and subsequently 
in his History of the Battle in 1843, taking ad- 
vantage of intercourse with Prescott's descendants, 
made the first extended presentation of Prescott's 
claims, to which Colonel Swett demurred in the 
Boston Advertiser, where also can be found Ellis's 
rejoinder. See Judge Prescott's letter to Dr. 
Ellis in the Proceedings of the Massachusetts His- 
torical Society, June, 1868. Prescott is assigned 
the command in the narrative of Major Thompson 
Maxwell, who was present in the fight, which i8 
printed in the Collections of the Essex Institute, 
?ol. vii. See also the New England Historical 


and Genealogical Register, Jan. 1868. Cf. the 
Report to the Massachusetts Legislature on a 
monument to Colonel Prescott, 1852. 

Again, in 1843, John Fellows, in his Veil Re- 
moved, animadverted upon Swett's views regard- 
ing Putnam, and reproduced Dearborn's state- 
ment and many others which aimed to detract 
from Putnam's fame. 

When Frothingham's Siege of Boston appeared 
in 1849, in which the question of the command 
was critically examined, p. 159, etc., giving that 
authority to Prescott, Swett renewed the contro- 
versy in a critique on that work in 1850, with a 
tract. Who was the Commander? etc., to which 
Frothingham replied in a pamphlet of fifty-six 
pages. The Command in the Battle of Bunker 
Hill, substantiating his position, and pointing out 
the inconsistencies and seeming perversions of 
Swett. In 1853 Irving in his Life of Washing- 
ton favored Prescott. In 1855 L. Grosvenor in 
an address before the descendants of General Put- 
nam " exposed " (as he claimed) " the ungener- 
ous conduct of Colonel Prescott toward General 
Putnam, the commander in the battle." When 
Bancroft in 1858 published his seventh volume, he 
took the ground, already foreshadowed in a lecture 
which he had delivered, that Prescott commanded 
the Provincials. In 1859 " Selah " of the Hartr 
ford Post, favoring Putnam, had a controversy 
with Dawson, who held Putnam to have been a 


•' blusterer and swaggerer," and intimates tliat he 
was also treacherous, and this was reprinted in an 
unpublished quarto, called Major-General Israel 
Putnam. Again, in Putnam's favor, the Hon. H. 
C. Deming delivered a discourse before the Con- 
necticut Historical Society on the presentation of 
Putnam's sword, and it was repeated, June 18, 
1860, at Putnam's grave, at Pomfret, before the 
Putnam Phalanx. The argument, as regards the 
claims of Putnam, was presented by the Rev. I. 
N. Tarbox, in the New York Herald, June 12 
and 14, 1875, and in the New Englander, April, 

1875, and more at length in his Life of Putnam, 

1876. S. A. Drake's General Israel Putnam the 
Commander at Bunker Hill argues on the basis of 
military rule, and summarizes the authorities. 
See also Hollister's History of Connecticut and 
Hinman's Connecticut in the Revolution. Judge 
Devens's oration at Bunker Hill, 1875, favors 
Prescott. Wheildou's New History favors Put- 
nam. A pamphlet, entitled Colonel William 
Prescott, by Francis J. Parker, issued since 1875, 
presents the case anew in favor of Prescott. 

Death of Warren. — In 1825, when General W. 
H. Sumner was Adjutant-General of Massachu- 
setts, and it devolved upon him to arrange for the 
appearance of the veterans in the celebration of 
that year, he collected from the recitals of some of 
them a few particulars regarding the appearance 
and death of Warren, and held some correspond- 


ence with Dr. Waterhouse on the subject in the 
Boston Patriot, in August of that year. This 
matter he reproduced in a paper in the New Eng- 
land Historical and Genealogical Register, April 
and July, 1858. See further the accounts in Lor- 
ing's Boston Orators ; in Mrs. J. B. Brown's 
(Warren's grand-daughter) Stories of General 
Warren ; in Dr. John JefEries's (son of the royal 
surgeon on the field) paper in the Boston Medical 
and Surgical Journal, June 17, 1875 ; and in the 
Life of Dr. John Warren, brother of the general. 
See also the Eulogy on General Warren in 1776, 
by Perez Morton, and the memorial volume on 
the occasion of the dedication of the Warren 
statue, and particularly Frothingham's Life of 
Warren. J'he history of Warren's sword is given 
in the Proceedings of the Massachusetts Historical 
Society, Sept. 1866. 

There is an account of the different celebrations 
in Charlestown in the New York Herald for June 
4, 1875 ; and of Ralph Farnham, the last survivor 
of the battle, in the Historical Magazine, iv. 312. 

There are other papers on the battle in the New 
England Historical and Genealogical Register, and 
Dawson's and Frothingham's notes will indicate 
additional publications of small importance not 
mentioned here. 

Plans and Maps. — The earliest of the plans of 
the action seems to have been a slight sketch, after 
information from Chaplain John Martin, who was 


in the battle, drawn by Stiles in his diary, which 
is reproduced in Dawson, who also, as does Froth- 
ingham, gives the slight sketch, made with print- 
ers' rules, which accompanied the account in Riv- 
ington's Gazette, August 3, 1775. 

The careful plan made by Page of the British 
engineers, based upon Captain Montresor's survey 
(which closely agrees with Felton and Parker's 
survey of Charlestown in 1848), is much the best, 
and it shows the laying out of Charlestown, the 
position of the frigates, and the battery at Copp's 
Hill. The successive positions of the attacking 
force are indicated by a superposed sheet. This 
was issued in London in 1776, and the same plate, 
with few changes, was used in Stedman's history 
in 1794. The original impression was reengraved 
for Frothingham's Siege of Boston, and is also 
given in his Centennial Narrative. 

The plan by De Berniere, of the Tenth Royal 
Infantry, on much the same scale as Page's, dif- 
fers in some points from it, is not so correct in the 
ground plan, and is the first plan that appeared 
in an American engraving, in the Analectic Maga- 
zine, Feb. 1818, where it is represented as from a 
sketch found in the captured baggage of a British 
officer in 1775. General Dearborn made some re- 
marks on this plan in the Portfolio, March, 1818, 
which are reprinted in Dawson, p. 438. Dear- 
born's subsequent plan, as altered in red on that 
>f De Berniere, was criticised upon the field in 


June, 1818, by Governor Brooks (who acted as 
messenger from Preseott to Ward in the battle), 
as detailed by General Sumner in the New Eng- 
land Historical and Genealogical Register, July, 
1858. This map was made the basis of one en- 
graved by Smith, and issued in Boston, at the 
time of the completion of the monument, in 1843. 

A map of Boston, showing Charlestown and the 
field, with Burgoyne's letter attached, was issued 
in London, and has been reproduced in fac-siraile 
in F. Moore's Ballad History of the Revolution, 
part 2. 

There is also an English map of the eastern 
part of Massachusetts, dated London, Sept. 2, 
1775, in which the lines of march of the troops 
of the different provinces are designated as they 
assembled to the relief of Boston. This has been 
reproduced in smaller size in the Centennial 
Graphic, and Frothingham styles it " more curi- 
ous than valuable." In a side-sketch, of this same 
sheet, there is a semi-pictorial plan of the battle, 
with the whole of Boston, and this has been fac- 
similed in Wheildon's, Pulsifer's, and Bugbee's 
sketches, and in George A. Coolidge's Centennial 
Memorial. There is a map of New England at 
this time in Hilliard d'Auberteuil's Essais histor- 
iques, 1782. 

Colonel Swett made a plan of his own, based on 
De Berniere's, of about the size of Page's, and it 
was reproduced full size in Ellis's oration, 1841 



but the reproductions of it in Lossing's Field- 
Book, in Ellis's New York Herald article, June 8, 
1875, and in his History and Centennial History, 
in Rand, Avery & Co.'s Bunker Hill Centennial, 
in George A. Coolidge's Brochure, in the Bunker 
Hill Times, June 17, 1875, and in Bugbee's sketch, 
are reduced in size. See also Tarbox's Life of 
Putnam. Little regard is paid in this plan to the 
laying out of the town of Charlestown. There is 
a plan in the English translation of Botta's His- 
tory of the War of Independence ; and lesser plans 
are in Ridpath's United States, and are other pop- 
ular histories. 

Of contemporary plans of Boston, that in the 
Gentleman's Magazine, Oct. 1775, p. 464, shows 
the peninsula, with " Charlestown in ruins." This 
is drawn from the same original as that in the 
Pennsylvania Magazine, 1775, which in the June 
number has a plan of Boston Harbor, with only 
one eminence delineated on the Charlestown pen- 
insula, which is marked " Bunk^ H." The houses 
in the town are represented as on fire, and simi- 
larly in the plan in Murray's Impartial History of 
the American War. There is a plan of Boston 
in the Geschichte der Kriege in und aus Europa, 
Nuremberg, 1776. The London Magazine, April, 
1774, has a chart of the coast of New England, 
with a plan of Boston in the corner, and this plan 
»ras inserted, enlarged, in Jeffery's Map of New 
England, Nov. 1774, with also a plan of Boston 


Harbor, and was again copied in Jeffery's Ameri- 
can Atlas, 1776, and a French reproduction of it 
was published at Paris in 1778, in the Atlas 
Ameriquain septentrional. Another chart of the 
harbor and plan of the town is in the Political 
Magazine, Nov. 1782. 

Views, etc. — There are rude contemporary 
views of the action, one of which appeared in 
1775, known as Roman's, representing Putnam on 
horseback, as in command, and was reduced in the 
Pennsylvania Magazine, Sept. 1775, and this has 
been heliotyped in Frothingham's Centennial 
sketch, in Rand, Avery & Co.'s, and in Coolidge's 
memorials, and is also reproduced in Moore's Bal- 
lad History, and in the Bunker Hill Times, June 
17, 1875. In Cocking's poem. The American 
War, published in London, 1781, is a somewhat 
extraordinary picture, which, with extracts from 
the poem, has been reproduced in S. A. Drake's 
monograph ; and the picture is also given in Bug- 
bee's sketch, and in Coolidge's Brochure. In the 
Gentleman's Magazine, Feb. 1790, there is a view 
of Charlestown and Howe's encampment on the 
hill, taken after the battle ; and in the Massachu- 
setts Magazine, Sept. 1789, is a view of Charles 
River Bridge, showing the configuration of Bun- 
ker's and Breed's hills. 

The well-known picture which Colonel Trum- 
bull, in 1786, painted of the battle, and of which 
fe key will be found in the New England Historical 


and Genealogical Register, vol. xv., and of which 
there is a description in Trumbull's Autobiogra- 
phy, gave the command in the i-edoubt to Putnam, 
and a subordinate position to Prescott, which the 
painter is said afterwards to have regretted, as in- 
dicating views on the question of command at 
variance with the truth. A picture by D. M. 
Carter represents Prescott in command, and this 
is reproduced in Coolidge's Brochure. Chappel's 
picture of the battle is given in W. L. Stone's 
History of New York City. There is a curious 
engraving of a group where an eulogy is being 
pronounced over Warren's body, in Hilliard d'Au- 
berteuil's Essais historiques, 1782. 

The Mo7iument. — For accounts of the monu- 
ment, see Ellis's ed. of 1843; Frothingham's Siege 
of Boston, and Wheildon's Life of Solomon Wil- 
lard. A History of the Bunker Hill Monument 
Association has been written by G. W. Warren, 
1877. See, also, A. S. Packard's account in the 
Collections of the Maine Historical Society, vol. iii. 

In Fiction. — Dr. O. W. Holmes, in his Grand- 
mother's Story of Bunker Hill Battle, rehearses 
the events of the day in verse ; and the battle is 
described in Cooper's novel of Lionel Lincoln. 

The Siege of Boston, June, 1775 — March, 1776. 

The siege of Boston began with the return of 
the British troops from Concord on the evening of 
April 19, 1775; and Putnam fortified Prospect 


Hill (now Somerville) immediately after the bat- 
tle of Bunker Hill ; and after Washington's tak- 
ing the command, July 3, 1775, the work of com- 
pleting tlie lines about the town was begun. 

The fullest accounts of the events succeeding 
the 17th of June will be found in Frothingham s 
Siege of Boston, and in the memorial volume of 
the Centennial Celebration, printed by the City of 
Boston, in 1876, including an historical address 
by Geo. E. Ellis, to which is appended a chronicle 
of the siege by the same hand. A general survey 
of the events will be found in Bancroft's United 
States, vol. viii. ; and Barry's Massachusetts, vol. 
iii. ; in Paige's History of Cambridge ; in the Me- 
moirs of Gen. Heath ; the Memoirs of Gen. Wil- 
kinson ; Greene's Life of Greene, i. 88, and other 
accounts of the Rhode Island troops in the Rhode 
Island Historical Society's Collections, vi. 

Popular accounts can be followed in Dawson's 
Battles of the United States ; in E. E. Hale's 
One Hundred Years Ago ; in H. E. Scudder's 
paper on the Siege in the Atlantic Monthly, 
April, 1876, and in the general histories. 

Gordon, vol. ii., gives details from diaries of the 
times ; and illustrative matter of contemporary 
origin is given in Almon's Remembrancer ; in 
Force's American Archives; in Moore's Diary of 
the American Revolution ; in the Collections of 
the Essex Institute, vol. iii. ; in the diary of Gen- 
eral Heath in the camps at Roxbury and Cam- 


bridge, in the Proceedings, May, 1859, of the 
Massachusetts Historical Society, which contains 
matter not in his Memoirs; and the accounts in 
Niles's Principles and Acts of the Revolution. 
Cf. also F. S. Drake's History of Roxbury. 

The letters of Washington, in Sparks's edition, 
vol. iii., during his stay at Cambridge, are of the 
utmost importance, as are those of Joseph Reed, 
his military secretary. The Life of Reed con- 
tains some of Washington's letters vs^hich Sparks 
did not print ; others are in the Rhode Island Co- 
lonial Records, vii. Consult the autobiography 
of Col. John Trumbull, who was at this time 
of Washington's militai-y family ; the Revolution- 
ary Services of Gen. William Hull, ch. 2 ; and 
the Life of Dr. John Warren, brother of General 
Joseph Warren, and of the medical staff. A jour- 
nal of Knox's expedition in Nov. 1775, to Ticon- 
deroga to get cannon for conducting the siege of 
Boston, is given in the New England Historical 
and Genealogical Register, July, 1876. Drake's 
Life of Knox. 

Of the associations of Washington with his 
head-quarters at Cambridge, see Alexander Mc- 
Kenzie's article in the Atlantic Monthly, July, 
1875 ; and Charles Deane's paper in the Proceed- 
ings of the Massachusetts Historical Society, Sept. 
1872, — see also June, 1858. In the Harvard 
Book are chapters on the Old President's House, 
by Chas. Deanej on the Cragie House, by George 


Dexter, and on the Washington Ehn, by Alex- 
ander McKenzie. Cf. T. C. Amory's Old and 
New Cambridge. In this connection see the 
Centennial volume published by the City of Cam- 
bridge, 1875, which includes Rev. Dr. Peabody's 
oration at Cambridge, July 3, 1875. There is 
a poem, Under the Great Elm, in the Atlantic 
Monthly, Aug. 1875, by James Russell Lowell. 
A letter of Washington is in the Magazine of 
American History, Feb. 1879, p. 113. Much con- 
nected with the Cambridge centre, and the left 
wing can be learned from Drake's Middlesex; 
and for the whole line, from Lossing's Field-Book. 

The Rules and Regulations for the Massachu- 
setts army were published by order at Salem in 

Various orderly books, contemporary letters, 
and diaries, etc., have been printed, covering the 
American camp life, and the experiences of the 
troops and prisoners in Boston : — 

American Camp. — Thacher's Military Journal, 
the author being a surgeon in the forces on Pros- 
pect Hill, and in Boston after the evacuation. 
Dr. Belknap's diary, Oct. 1775, at Cambridge, in 
the Proceedings of the Massachusetts Historical 
Society, June, 1858. Paul Lunt's diary, Cam- 
bridge, May 10 to Dec. 23, 1775, in the same, 
Feb. 1872. Ezekiel Price's diary, along the 
American lines, in the same, Nov. 1863. Crafts 8 
journal, beginning at Cambridge, June 15, 1775 


in Collections of the Essex Institute, vol. iii. p. 
51. The letters written by Abigail Adams to her 
husband, John Adams. A MS. orderly-book, 
Cambridge, July 3 to Sept. 21, 1775, is in the cab- 
inet of the Pennsylvania Historical Society. Dan- 
iel McCurlin's journal in Thomas Balch's Mary- 
land Line during the Revolution. David How's 
diary, a soldier in Col. Sargent's regiment of the 
Massachusetts line, printed with notes by H. B. 
Dawson, New York, 1865. William Henshaw's 
orderly-book, April to Sept. 1775, with notes by 
C. C. Smith, in the Proceedings of the Massa- 
chusetts Historical Society, Oct. 1876, and re- 
printed. Glover's orderly-book, in Collections of 
the Essex Institute, vol. v. p. 112. Col. Israel 
Hutchinson's orderly-book, Aug. 13, 1775 to July 
8, 1776, in Proceedings of Massachusetts Histori- 
cal Society, Oct. 1878, with notes by C. C. Smith, 
and an introduction by Lucius R. Paige, also 
printed separately. Jeremiah Fogg's orderly- 
book. Winter Hill, Oct. 28, 1775 to Jan. 12, 
1776, is preserved in Harvard College library. 
Major William Lee's orderly-book is still in MS. 
in the cabinet of the Massachusetts Historical 
Society. Aaron Wright's diary, in Boston Tran- 
script, April 11, 1862. A Diary in the Histori- 
cal Magazine, Oct. 1864. Letters during Oct. 
1775 of William Thompson of the Pennsylvania 
line in Read's Life of George Read, pp. 112, 
128. For the camp on Winter Hill see Amory'a 
Sullivan, p. 15. 


In Boston. — The Andrews papers in the Pro- 
ceedings of the Massachusetts Historical Society, 
July, 1865. Letters, which had been used by 
Frothingham, but were not printed in full till 
they appeared in the New England Historical and 
Genealogical Register, April, 1857. Letters in 
the American Historical Record, Dec. 1872. 
Newell's diary in Boston, in the Collections of the 
Massachusetts Historical Society, 4tli series, vol. i. 
Letters during the occupation of Boston, edited 
by W. P. Upham, in the Collections of the Essex 
Institute, vol. xiii., July, 1876 ; and see in this 
connection Mr. Upham's paper on the occupation 
of Boston, in the Institute's Bulletin, March, 1876. 
Letters written from Boston, by the Rev. Dr. 
Eliot, in the Proceedings of the Massachusetts 
Historical Society, Sept. 1878. Letters written 
from Boston to Gardiner Greene, in the Proceed- 
ings of the Massachusetts Historical Society, June, 
1873. Samuel Paine's Letter, Oct. 1775, in the 
New England Historical and Genealogical Regis 
ter, July, 1876. John Leach's diary during his 
confinement in Boston as a prisoner, June 29 to 
Oct. 4, 1775, in the same, July, 1865, — also see 
Oct. 1865. Peter Edes's diary during his con- 
finement in Boston, printed at Bangor, 1837. 
The journal of a British officer in Boston, edited 
by R. H. Dana, Jr., in the Atlantic Monthly 
April, 1877. Fonblanque's Life of Burgoyne. 
ch. 4. Adjutant Waller's orderly-book, with the 


British in Boston, never printed, in the cabinet 
of the Massachusetts Historical Society. See 
their Proceedings, i. 481. The log-book of the 
British ship Preston, in Boston Harbor, April to 
Sept. 1775, in the Maine Historical Society's Col- 
lections, Aug. 1860. An account of the contribu- 
tions sent by the Friends in Philadelphia to the 
sufferers in Boston is given in the Pennsylvania 
Magazine of American History, i. 168. 

On the evacuation in March, 1776, there are 
letters by Eldad Taylor, in the New England 
Historical and Genealogical Register, July, 1854 ; 
and others by Edmund Quincy, in the Proceed- 
ings of the Massachusetts Historical Society, April, 
1858. Cf. Force's American Archives, 4th series, 
V. and vi. ; Reed's Joseph Reed, i. ch. 8 ; HoUis- 
ter's Connecticut, ch. 10. Dawson in his Battles 
gives Howe's dispatch from Nantasket Roads, 
March 21, 1776, and Washington's dispatch of 
March 19, 1776. Washington's instructions to 
Gen. Ward on leaving Boston for New York, are 
given in the Heath Papers, Massachusetts His- 
torical Society's Collections, 5th series, iv. 4; and 
p. 296 there is a letter of John Winthrop to John 
Adams, after the evacuation. 

Landmarks and Memorials. — The appearance 
of Boston at this time can be judged of from a 
plate representing the landing of the British 
troops to garrison the place in 1768, by Paul 
Revere, which is reproduced in Rand, Avery & 


Co.'s Bunker Hill Ceutenuial, and in the Boston 
Evacuation Memorial, 1876. There is a view of 
the harbor and town in the Pennsylvania Macja- 
tine, June, 1773 ; a description with a view in 
the Columbian Magazine, Dec. 1787 ; and one of 
the town from Breed's Hill in the Massachusetts 
Miigiizine. June, 1791, and in July, 1793, a large 
view of the Old State House, and for another see 
Aug. 1791 ; in July, 1789, one of the Hancock 
House ; in March, 1789, one of Faneuil Hall, — 
all showing the aspects of revolutionary Boston. 
Several of these are reproduced in the Boston 
Evacuation Memorial. A view showing Dorches- 
ter Heijrhts is in the number for Nov. 1790, and 
another of Boston from those heights in 1774, is 
copied from a contemporary English print in 
Lossing's Field-Book, i. 512 ; a view of Charles- 
town, with the north battery in Boston in the 
foresTound, engrraved bv Paul Revere, is in the 
Proceedinccs of the Massachusetts Historical So- 
cietv, Oct. 1877. 

Descriptions of the town and its society at a 
little later date will be found in the letters of An- 
burev, who was one of Burgovne's officers quar- 
tered at Cambridge in 1777 ; in Abb^ Robin, a 
chaplain of Rochambeau in 1781, whose accoimt 
b quoted bv Shurtleff, and translated in the His- 
toric;\l Macjazine, Auor. 1862 : and in Chastellux, 
1782, vol. ii., also quoted in Shuitleff's Descrip* 
ion of Boston. 


There is a view of Gage's lines on Boston Neck 
in Frothingham, from a print published in 1777, 
and a plan of them in Force's American Archives, 
vol. iii. ; another original plan is reproduced in 
the Centennial Graphic. An original plan of the 
Neck defenses of the British, made within the 
American lines, largely from information of a de- 
serter, with all the guns marked, their calibre and 
quantity of shot given, is preserved among the 
Lee papers in the library of the American Philo- 
sophical Society in Philadelphia. See also Penn- 
sylvania Magazine, Aug. 1775, for Gage's lines. 
A plan of the fort erected by the British on 
Bunker Hill proper is given in Frothingham's 
Siege, from one published in London in 1781. 
William Carter's Genuine Detail of the Several 
Engagements, etc., London, 1784, gives a plan of 
these works at the time of their evacuation. 

A gold medal given by Congress to Washing- 
ton to commemorate the Siege of Boston is pre- 
served in the Boston Public Library, and an ac- 
count of it is given in the Boston Evacuation 
Memorial, 1876. See also Snowden's Medals of 
Washington and Loubat's Medallic History of the 
United States. Washington's letter to Congress 
is given in fac-simile in Force's American Ar- 
chives, 4th series, v. 977. 

Fiction. — The events of the siege are worked 
into the story of Cooper's Lionel Lincoln, and of 
Scribe's play La Bohdmienne. 


Maps, Plans, etc. — Shurtleff, in his Descrip- 
tion of Boston, ch. 6, gives a section to the 
enumeration of maps of the town and its harbor, 
some of which are of interest in understanding 
the circuit of fortifications erected by the provin- 
cial forces at this time. The best for ordinary 
consultation is the eclectic map given by Froth- 
ingham in his Siege of Boston, p. 91. See also 
that in Force, vol. iii., and the military maps in 
Marshall's Washington, Sparks's Washington, re- 
peated in the Evacuation Memorial, and repro- 
duced by Guizot, in his Washington ; Carring- 
ton's Battles of the American Revolution, p. 155; 
Lossing's Field-Book, etc. 

For contemporary maps, that in vol. i. of Al- 
mon's Remembrancer, drawn at Boston in June, 
1775, and published in London, Aug. 28, 1775, 
shows for the field of battle the words " Breed's 
pasture," which accords with the belief that that 
eminence was not known as Breed's Sill till after 
the battle. It is not otherwise very accurate. 

The Gentleman's Magazine, Jan. 1775, gave a 
chart of the town and harbor. 

The Pennsylvania Magazine, July, 1775, gave 
a plan of Boston, with a side-sketch of the lines 
.about the town, which has been reproduced in 
Moore's Ballad History, and in the Centennial 
Memorials of Rand, Avery & Co., of George A. 
Coolidge, etc. Col. Trumbull, in his autobi' 
ography, gave a map of the lines made by himself 


in Sept. 1775. A plan of the works on Wintei 
Hill is among the Washington maps in the Sparks 

A large map of the town, with surrounding 
country and harbor, after Samuel Holland's sur- 
veys, was published by Des Barres in London, 
Aug. 5, 1775. It shows no fortifications except 
those at Copp's Hill and on the Neck. A colored 
copy of this is in the Boston Public Library, as is 
also a French map, 1780, Carte particuliere du 
Havre de Boston, rdduite de la carte anglaise de 
Des Barres. The 1775 plate of Des Barres, with- 
out change of date, but nevertheless with changes 
in some parts, and with the various fortifications 
of the siege delineated, was published again in 
1780-83 in the Atlantic Neptune, and it was 
from Frothingham's copy of this that the repro- 
duction in Shurtleff's Description of Boston was 
made in 1870. 

Faden's map of Boston, with the intrenchments 
of 1775, based on the observations of Page in 
1775, was published, London, Oct. 1, 1777, and 
in a later edition, Oct. 1778, and it has been fac- 
similed in Frothingham's Siege. 

Roman's map of The Seat of Civil War in 
America, 1775, has a rude view of the lines on 
Boston Neck, and a plan of Boston and its envi- 

In 1776 there was published by Beaurain, at 
Paris, a Carte du Porte et Havre de Boston. 


which is copied from a British plan, and has in a 
rignette the earliest known printed representation 
of the Pine-tree banner (this vignette is copied 
by Frothingham, who calls the map "curious but 
not correct ") . There is also a German edition 
of the same, published in the first part of the 
Geographische Belustigungen, Leipsic, 1776, by 
J. C. Miiller, " von dem Cheval. de Beaurin nach- 
dem Pariser original von 1776." 

Henry Pelham's map of Boston and environs, 
which is called " the most accurate " of all, was 
published in London, June 2, 1777, shows the 
military lines, and has been reproduced, much re- 
duced, in Moore's Diary of the Revolution and in 
Drake's Landmarks, but is fac-similed full size in 
the Evacuation Memorial of the City of Boston, 

In 1777 Faden published in London a plan of 
Boston and vicinity, showing the " Rebel works," 
and based on Page's and Montresor's observa- 

The Impartial History of the War in America, 
published in Boston, 1781-1785, has a plan of Bos- 
ton with Charlestown (represented in flames) and 
the attack on Bunker Hill. The engraving is 
marked " J. Norman, Sc." 

The earliest of the eclectic maps, and the one 
followed by later authorities in assigning the lo- 
cation of the military lines, was that given by 
Gordon in his History, vol. ii., who took Page's 
for the town, and Pelham's for the country. 


The contemporary American Atlas, London, 
contains various maps of interest in this connec- 
tion, namely : Plan of Boston and vicinity, made 
by English engineers, Oct. 1775 (No. 16) ; maps 
of New England (Nos. 13 and 14), and small 
plans of Boston (Nos. 13 and 15). 

See Josiah Quincy's descriptions of a map of 
Boston and harbor, 1775, in the Proceedings of the 
Massachusetts Historical Society, May, 1860, and 
other accounts in the Proceedings for 1864, pp. 
361, 474. . 

Burning of Falmouth, Maine, October, 1775. 

Contemporary accounts are given in the Gen- 
tleman's Magazine, London ; in the Historical 
Magazine, March, 1869 ; in Bailey's letter printed 
in the Maine Historical Society's Collections, vol. 
V. p. 437. See also Williamson's, ii. 422, and 
other histories of Maine, Willis's Portland, ch. 
19 and App. 17 to 20, Sparks's Washington, iii. 
App., and the New England Historical and Ge- 
nealogical Register, July, 1873. The act was 
disowned by the British government. Stan- 
hope's England, vi. 75, and Sparks's Washington, 
iii. 520. 

A plan of Falmouth is given in a Boston edition 
of the Impartial History, vol. ii. ; and in Smith 
and Deane's Journal of Portland, showing the 
burnt section. 


The Second Continental Congress, 1775. 

This assembly came together at Philadelphia 
May 10th, and their proceedings are given in 
Journals of Congress, ii. 

Illustrative accounts will be found in histories of 
the United States, by Bancroft, vii. 353, viii. 25, 
51 ; by Grahame, iv. 407 ; by Pitkin, i. ch. 9 ; by 
Hildreth, iii. ch. 31 ; in Frothingham's Rise of the 
Republic, p. 419 ; in Thaddeus Allen's Origina- 
tion of the American Union ; in histories of states, 
like Barry's Massachusetts, Mulford's New Jer- 
sey, etc. ; in Gordon's Revolution. Documents 
are in Force's Archives. 

Compare the lives of its members, etc., like 
those of Franklin by Sparks, i. 393, by Bigelow 
and by Parton ; of Washington by Marshall, 
Sparks, and Irving; of Samuel Adams by Wells, 
ii. ch. 37 ; of John Adams by C. F. Adams, i., 
with Adams's diary in vol. ii. p. 408 ; of Richard 
H. Lee, i. 140 ; of Schuyler by Lossing, i, 316 ; of 
Jefferson, by Randall, i. ch. 4, and by Parton, ch. 
19 ; of Jay by Jay ; of Rutledge by Flanders, ch. 
8 ; of George Read by Read, p. 105. 

For cOiTimentary on events see the letters of 
John Adams to Abigail Adams ; the letters of 
Silas Deane in the Connecticut Historical Soci- 
ety's Collections, ii. 129 ; the Diary of Christo- 
pher Marshall ; Frothingham's Rise of the Re- 
public, ch. ii. ; and, for the composition of parties, 


the Life of John Adams, i. 212 ; also Magazine of 
American History, April, 1878. 

John Hancock was chosen President May 24th. 
For the character of Hancock, not favorably drawn, 
see Wells's Samuel Adams ; also compare Sander- 
son's Lives of the Signers of the Declaration of 
Independence, Loring's Hundred Boston Orators, 
and C. W. Upham's Speech in the Massachusetts 
Legislature, March 17, 1859, on the bill for pre- 
serving the Hancock House. Sparks's Washing- 
ton, iii. 37. For Hancock's correspondence as 
President of Congress, see Force's American Ar- 
chives, 4th series, v., and 5th series, i., ii., and iii. 
An account of the Hancock Papers in the cabinet 
of the Massachusetts Historical Society is given 
in their Proceedings, i. 271. 

The address to the inhabitants of Great Britain 
was drafted by R. H. Lee. Cf. his Life, i. 143. 

For action on the nomination of Washington to 
the command of the army, see Bancroft, vii. ch. 
37 ; J. C. Hamilton's Alexander Hamilton, i. 110 : 
John Adams's Diary, in Works ii. 415 ; Frothing- 
ham's Rise of the Republic, p. 430. Cf. also C. F. 
Adams's paper in the Massachusetts Historical 
Society's Proceedings, June, 1858. 

The petition to the King, which was adopted 
July 8th, is given in Force's American Archives, 
4th series, iv. 607. 

November 9th an agreement to keep all the 
proceedings secret was signed by the members, 


and a fac-simile of this paper is given in Force's 
American Archives, 4th series, iii. 1918. 

November 29th Congress established a Com- 
mittee of Secret Correspondence for keeping up 
intercourse with sympathizers in Europe. Cf. C. 
W. F. Dumas's letters in Diplomatic Correspond- 
ence, ix. ; and Force's American Archives, 5th 
series, ii. and iii., index, under Dumas and Secret. 

PoUtical Effects, 1775. 

Sabine in his American Loyalists, i. ch. 2, 3, 
and 4, gives the condition of parties, as does 
Frothingham in his Rise of the Republic. The 
effect of the Lexington fight is traced in the gen- 
eral histories, and for distant responses in feeling 
see Lossing's Schuyler, i. 307 ; W. B. Stevens's 
Georgia, ii. 100 ; and other local histories and bi- 

In Massachusetts, Warren's oration on the an- 
niversary of the Massacre in March shows the 
strong patriotic impulses of the time. Cf. Froth- 
ingham's Warren, ch. 13 ; Magoon's Orators of 
the Revolution ; Loring's Hundred Boston Ora- 
tors. The Provincial Congress met at Water- 
town, in February (see Force's Archives, 4th 
series, iii., for proceedings, and Amory's James 
Sullivan, ch. 3), and President Langdon's ser- 
mon before it in May was the fii'st public com- 
memoration of the Lexington fight. Cf. Thorn- 
ton's Pulpit of the Revolution. 


The Proceedings of the New York Provincial 
Congress are also given in Force ; but compare 
J. C. Hamilton's Republic of the United States, 
i. ch. 3 ; and the letters of Joseph Reed in his 
Life by W. B, Reed, i. 93. 

As indicative of Southern feeling, see the prog- 
ress of events in Virginia as given in Girardin's 
continuation of Burk's Virginia, written with the 
cognizance of Jefferson ; Rives's Madison, i. ch. 
4 ; and Wirt's Patrick Henry, which shows the 
somewhat exuberant pride of an ardent Virginian. 
Cf. also under Dunmore and Virginia in the index 
of Force's American Archives, 4th series, iii.-vi. 

Late in the year the feelings engendered by the 
refusal of the King to recognize the petitions of 
Congress, and the burning of Falmouth, wrought 
changes which are depicted in Frothingham's Rise 
of the Republic, p. 447, and in Wells's Samuel 

Helations with the Indians, 1768-1776. 

In 1768 a treaty had been made at Fort Stan- 
wix, defining the line between the settlements and 
the Indian territory. Accounts, with map, may 
be found in the Documentary History of New 
York, i. 587 ; in Documents relative to the Colo- 
nial History of New York, viii. 136. A map of 
1771, showing the country of the Six Nations, is in 
the Documentary History of New York, iv. 661. 

In April, 1775, the Provincial Congress of Mas- 


Bacliusetts had sought to establish friendly rela- 
tions with the Indians of the Mohawk Valley. 
Stone's Life of Brant, i. 55. Amory's Life of 
James Sullivan, p. 48, gives the letter to the Indi- 
ans to induce enlistments under an order of the 
Provincial Congress, May 12, 1775. In May and 
June Congress had passed orders for the employ- 
ment of Indians in certain ways. Secret Journals, 
i. 44—46. Adolphus thinks that Ramsay (ii. ch. 
18) gives a candid account of the efforts made by 
both sides to secure the assistance of the Indians. 
Cf. Stone's Life of Brant, ch. 9. Sparks (Wash- 
ington, iii. 494) thinks the Americans equally cul- 
pable in intentions, though in effect the British 
caused most misery to ensue from the policy. See 
also V. 274. 

Congress also arranged (Journals, 1775, p. 162) 
for commissioners to meet the chiefs of the Six 
Nations, to fix, by treaty, their neutrality. They 
met at German Flats Aug. 15th. Cf. Force's Ar- 
chives, 4th series, iii. 473, and 5th series, i. ; Mas- 
sachusetts Historical Society's Collections, 3d se- 
ries, V. 75 ; Colonial History of New York, viii. 
605. A loyalist's view is given in Jones's New 
York in the Revolutionary War, i. 71. 

This was followed by a conference at Albany. 
Cf. Lossing's Schuyler, i. ch. 22. 

Force's American Archives contain many docu- 
ments. Cf. 4th series, iv., under Indians and Six 
Nations in the index ; v., under Indians ; vi., un 


der Six Nations and Indians ; 5th series, i. and ii., 
under Indians. 

Sir John Johnson's leaguing with the Indians 
against the Americans is set forth in Force, 4th 
Beries, vi. ; 5th series, ii. and iii. ; and in Lossing's 
Schuyler, i. 

In January, 1776, Schuyler led an expedition to 
Johnstown to disarm the tories and intimidate the 
Indians. Cf . Lossing's Schuyler,, ii. ch. 1 ; Dun- 
lap's New York, ii. ch. 2 ; Stone's Life of Brant, 
i. ; Documents relative to the Colonial History of 
New York, viii. ; and a tory view in Jones's New 
York in the Revolutionary War, i. 71, 578, 583. 
Accounts of Indian and tory alliances in Central 
New York are given in Simms's Schoharie County 
and in Campbell's Tryon County. 

Accounts of the expedition against the Chero- 
kees beyond the Blue Ridge are given in a paper 
by D. L. Swain in the Historical Magazine, Nov. 
1867 ; in the Chapel Hill University Magazine, 
May, 1852 ; and in a journal in the Historical 
Magazine, Oct. 1867. 


The chief contemporary authorities for the con- 
dition and vicissitudes of the loyalists are these : — 

New York in the Revolutionary War, by Judge 
Jones of Long Island, who was at one time a 
prisoner in Connecticut, and who wrote his history 
•n England, just after the close of the war. He is 


equally severe, both upon the British Ministry, 
their generals, and upon the Congress and its 
genei'als. The MS. was printed for the first time 
in 1879, edited by De Lancey, and issued by the 
New York Historical Society. 

The posthumous volume of Hutchinson's His- 
tory of Massachusett's Bay. 

The examination of Joseph Galloway before the 
House of Commons was printed, and has been 
edited by Thomas Balch for the Seventy-Six So- 

The Life of Peter van Schaack has been writ- 
ten by H. C. van Schaack. 

Curwen's Journal is that of a refugee in Eng- 
land, 1775-1784, recording current news and pass- 
ing judgment on it, and there are reviews of it in 
the Southern Review, July, 1843 ; North Ameri- 
can Review, Jan. 1843, and Oct. 1844. 

Much of contemporary record will be found by 
the index under Disaffected or Suspected persons 
and Tories, in Force's American Archives, 4th se- 
ries, iv., v., and vi. ; 5th series, i., ii., and iii. 

The most important of later works is Sabine's 
American Loyalists, which has an historical intro- 
duction, and consists of an alphabetical list of 
such persons, with brief accounts of them indi- 
vidually. It was reviewed by C. C. Smith in the 
North American Review, xcix. Winthrop Sar- 
gent made a collection of Loyalist Poetry. Long 
Island was a stronghold of this class, and thera 


is illustrative matter in the histories of Long 
Island by Silas Wood, 1826 ; by B. T. Thomp- 
Bon, 1843 ; by N. S. Prime, 1845 ; and in Onder- 
donk's Queens and Suffolk County. Sabine in 
ch. 8 of his introduction gives an account of the 
loyalists in arms, and Sparks's Washington, iv. 
519, has a note on their service in the British 
army. See also Massachusetts Historical Society's 
Proceedings, 1878 ; Elhs's Life of Count Rum- 
ford, p. 112 ; Huntington's Stamford, Connecticut, 
ch. 17 ; and other local histories. 

Capture of Ticonderoga, May 10, 1775. 

This expedition, planned in Connecticut (J. H. 
Trumbull's paper in the Hartford Daily Courant, 
Jan. 9, 1869, subsequently privately reprinted ; 
the documents, including the diary of Mott, edited 
by Trumbull in the Connecticut Historical Collec- 
tions, i. 163, and Mott's letter to the Provincial 
Congress of Massachusetts, printed in their jour- 
nal, with other papers), was strengthened in 
Berkshire (Holland's Western Massachusetts ; 
Barry's Massachusetts ; Smith's History of Pitts- 
field, i. ch. 12), and at Bennington was joined by 
Ethan Allen and his Green Mountain Boys, and 
the whole placed under Allen's command. 

Meanwhile Benedict Arnold, with a commis- 
eion from Massachusetts, went to Berkshire to 
raise a force for the same purpose, but finding the 
other expedition afoot, joined it, and after some 


dispute about the command, went on as a volun 
teer. Lossing's Schuyler, i. 310 ; De Laucey's 
notes to Jones's New York in tlie Revolutionary 
War, i. 546, for Allen's commission, and a letter. 
May 14th ; Force's American Archives, 4th series, 

Details of the capture and of events closely fol- 
lowing will be found in the following works : — 

Sparks's Life of Benedict Arnold. Schuyler's 
letters in Sparks's Correspondence of the Ameri- 
can Revolution. Sparks's Life of Gouverneur Mor- 
ris, i. ch. 4. The Lives of Ethan Allen by Sparks 
and Hugh Moore, with De Puy's Ethan Allen and 
the Green Mountain Heroes. Lossing's Life of 
Schuyler, i. 311 ; his Field-Book, and his article 
in Harper's Monthly, vol. xvii.. Irving's Wash- 
ington. Historical Magazine, Feb. 1869, p. 126. 
Watson's Essex County, N. Y., ch. 9. Palmer's 
Lake Champlain, ch. 6. De Costa in the Galaxy, 
Dec. 1868, and his Fort George, with Hiland 
Hall's pamphlet in reply to De Costa, Montpelier, 
1869. Hollister's History of Connecticut, ii. ch. 
7. Connecticut Historical Collections, vol. i. 
Elmer's journal of the Expedition, in the New 
Jersey Historical Society's Proceedings, ii. and iii. 
Force's American Archives, ii. Beman's ques- 
tionable account in the Historical Magazine, May, 
1868 ; and Col. Caldwell's narrative in the num- 
ber for Aug. 1867. L. E. Chittenden's address, 
1872, at the unveiling of Allen's statue at Bur 
lington, Vt., July 4, 1873. 


A loyalist view of these transactions is given 
in Judge Jones's New York in the Revolutionary- 
War, i. 47. 

A plan of Ticonderoga, with its dependencies, 
is given in John Trumbull's Memoirs, p. 33. For 
the ruins of the fort see Harper's Monthly, vii. 
170, and Lossing's Field-Book. 

Allen figures in Thompson's Green Mountain 
Boys, a fiction. 

The Advance into Canada, 1775. 

Washington in New York, June 25th, intrusted 
Schuyler with the command in the North. Los- 
eing's Schuyler, i. 330. Notes of the preparations 
Schuyler made are in Jones's New York in the 
Revolutionary War, p. 58. 

Congress put forth an Address to the Canadi- 
ans. Journals of Congress, and Pitkin's United 
States, i. App. 19. 

The movements of Benedict Arnold and Ethan 
Allen, and the action of Connecticut in dispatch- 
ing more troops (Lives of Arnold, Allen, Gov. 
Trumbull ; Hollister's Connecticut, Lossing's 
Schuyler), took place before Schuyler reached 
Ticonderoga, July 18th, after which events can be 
followed in Lossing's Schuyler, i, ch. 21 ; Pal- 
mer's Lake Champlain, ch. 6 ; Irving's Washing- 
ton, ii. 

A Journal by Gen. Irvine, beginning in May^ 

i8 in the Historical Magazine, April, 1862; a 


plan of cooperation in the New York State Calen- 
dar, i. 

Schuyler and Montgomery pushed to the foot 
of Lake Champlain in Sept. Lossing's Schuyler, 
i. ch. 23. Montgomery, Sept. 18th, advanced to 
the siege of St. John's. 

Meanwhile Ethan Allen, instead of joining 
Montgomery, started to capture Montreal by a 
surprise, but was himself taken prisoner Sept. 
25th. Moore's Diary of the American Revolu- 
tion, pp. 152-159 ; Allen's Narrative of his Cap- 
tivity; Lossing in Harper's Monthly, xvii. 721. 

The juncture of Gen. Wooster and his Connect- 
icut troops with the invading army perplexed 
Schuyler with the question of Wooster's rank- 
ing officers already in the field. Cf. Lossing's 
Schuyler and Hollister's Connecticut. Much 
about the proceedings of Wooster in Canada will 
be found in Force's American Archives, 4th series, 
iv., v., vi. ; 5th series, i. 

St. John's surrendered to Montgomery Nov. 
2d. Lossing's Schuyler, i. 444 ; Sargent's Major 
Andr^, p. 79 ; Armstrong's Life of Montgomery. 

The Advance by the Kennebec, September, 1775. 

Arnold, having returned to Cambridge, was 
put in command of a force, and Washington in- 
structed him (Sparks's Washington, iii. 86) to 
proceed by the Kennebec valley, and effect a juno 
tion with Montgomery before Quebec. Arnold's 


reports to Washington are in Sparks's Correspond- 
ence of the Revolution, i. 

Accounts are given in Lossing's Field-Book of 
the Revolution, i. ; his Schuyler, i. ch. 26 ; Ban- 
croft, viii. ; Sparks's Arnold, ch. 3 and 4 ; Que- 
bec Literary and Historical Society's Transactions, 
1871-1872, 1872-1873, 1876-1877; Historical 
Magazine, ii. ; New England Historical and 
Genealogical Register, April, 1857 ; Graham's 
Life of Gen. Morgan, ch. 4 ; Potter's American 
Monthly, Dec. 1875. 

The following journals of this march and the 
sequel have been printed : — 

Melvin's, separately, and in part in the Appen- 
dix to Barton's Aaron Burr. Henry's, 1812, also 
reprinted in 1877. Ware's, in the New England 
Historical and Genealogical Register, April, 1852. 
Allen's, in the Maine Historical Society's Collec- 
tions, 1831, pp. 341, 387, where are given Ar- 
nold's letters and Montresor's journal of the sur- 
vey of the route in 1760, which suggested this 
present expedition. Meigs's, separately, and in 
the Massachusetts Historical Society's Collections, 
2d series, vol. ii. See Jones's account of Meigs in 
his New York in the Revolutionary War, i. 180, 
and the correction in note, p. 668. Senter's, in 
Bulletin No. 1, 1845-1847, of the Pennsylvania 
Historical Society. Thayer's, in E. M. Stone's In- 
vasion of Canada in 1775, privately printed with 
introduction and notes. Providence, 1867. Thia 


book contains a full bibliography of the subject 
The volume makes part of the Rhode Island His- 
torical Collections, vi. See B. Cowell's Spirit of 
Seventy-Six in Rhode Island. A contemporary 
map of the Kennebec region is given in the At- 
lantic Neptune. 

Montreal and Quebec, November and December, 1775. 

Montgomery reached Montreal Nov. 12th, and 
sent a letter to the inhabitants, which is fac-similed 
in Force's American Archives, 4th series, iii. 1596 ; 
and another for the surrender, v. 312. Mont- 
gomery's letters to Schuyler as the campaign 
went on are given in Sparks's Correspondence of 
the Revolution, i. App., and in the same volume 
are Schuyler's letters to Washington, repeating 
the intelligence. The diligence and cooperation 
of Schuyler is shown in Lossing's Life of Schuyler, 
and in Force's American Archives, 4th series, iii. 
and iv. and subsequent volumes, index. 

Arnold crossed the St. Lawi'ence on Nov. 13th, 
and finally retired up the river to await Mont- 
gomery. The two, joining, advanced to Quebec 
Dec. 5th ; and on the 30th attempted to carry the 
place by storm. Cf. Force's American Archives, 
4th series, iv., v., vi. ; Remembrancer, ii. 368 ; 
Documents relative to the Colonial History of 
New York, viii. 663 ; Lossing's Schuyler, i. ch. 
28, 29 ; Leake's Life of Gen. Lamb, ch. 7 and 8 ; 
Bancroft's United States, viii. ch. 52-54 ; Irving'g 
Washington, ii. ch. 12 and 13. 


For the death of Montgomery, see Moore'a 
Diary of the American Revolution, i. 185 ; Force's 
Archives, 4th series, iv., index ; Marshall's Wash- 
ington, i. 329 ; Read's Life of George Read, p. 141; 
Bisset's George the Third, i. ch. 15 ; Armstrong's 
Life of Montgomery ; Geo. W. Cnllum's Sketch 
of Montgomery, 1876 ; Wm. Smith's oration be- 
fore Congress, Feb. 19, 1776 ; Miss L. L. Hunt's 
Notes on Montgomery ; Historical Magazine, Nov. 
1873. An account of the sword taken from his 
body is given in the Living Age, No. 1017, p. 428. 

Arnold's letter describing the attack is in 
Sparks's Correspondence of the Revolution, i. 116. 
Force, 4th series, v. and vi., gives reference under 
Arnold in the index. For other accounts of these 
events, see the letters in the Appendix of Sparks's 
Correspondence of the Revolution, i. ; Sparks's 
Life of Arnold ; Lossing on Arnold in Harper's 
Monthly, xxiii. 721 ; Ramsay's American Revo- 
lution, where the insubordinate spirit of the 
Americans is emphasized; Irving's Washington, 
ii. ch. 8 and 23 ; Graham's Life of Morgan, ch. 5 ; 
Dawson's Battles of the United States, ch. 7 ; 
Carrington's Battles of the Revolution, ch. 20- 
21 ; Hollister's History of Connecticut, ii. ch. 9 ; 
Garneau's Histoire du Canada, and Bell's trans- 
lation of the same, iii. 

A journal of Col. Ritzema is in the Magazine of 
American History, Feb. 1877. A paper on Que- 
bec, by Lossing, is in Harper's Monthly, xviii. 176. 


Gen. Carleton bad arrived in Canada in Sept. 
1774, and his movements in contesting the Ameri- 
can advance can be followed in Force's Archives. 
His account of the repulse of Montgomery and 
Arnold, as gazetted in London, is given in the 
Gentleman's Magazine, June, 1776. 

See, further, Stedman's American War, ch. 2 
and 10 ; Andrews's Late War, cb. 19 and 20 ; 
Annual Register, xix. ch. 1 and 5, and xx. ch. 1 ; 
a Journal of the Siege, London, 1824, with notes by 
W. T. P. Short ; histories of England, by Adol- 
phus, ii. 237, and Stanhope, vi. 76. 

There are deposited with the Literary and His- 
torical Society of Quebec the following MS. : — 

1. Le tdmoin oculaire de la guerre des Baston- 
nais durant les ann^es 1775 et 1776, par M. 
Simon Sanguinet. 

2. Journal contenant le r^cit de 1' invasion du 
Canada en 1775-1776, redig^ par M. Jean B. 
Badeaux, printed in their Historical Documents, 
3d series. 

3. Journal of the siege of Quebec, kept by 
Hugh Finlay, printed in their Historical Docu- 
ments, 4th series. 

4. Journal tenu pendant le si^ge du fort St. 
Jean en 1776 par M. Antoine Foucher. 

5. Letter from Col. Henry Caldwell, 15 June, 
1776, on the Siege of Quebec, 1775-1776. 

Maps and Plans. — Contemporary maps of 
anada are in the American Atlas, Carver's map 


with plan of Quebec, No. 4 ; and in Hilliard 
d'Auberteuil's Essais historiques, 1782. Carver's 
map was reengraved in Paris, 1777. 

Plans of the attack on Quebec are in Stone's 
Invasion of Canada ; in Lamb's Life and Times, 
by Leake ; in the Atlas to Marshall's Washing- 
ton ; in Carrington's Battles. A manuscript plan, 
by a British officer, is in the Faden Collection in 
the Library of Congress, and a plan engraved by 
Faden was published in London. Another plan 
is in the Sparks Collection in Harvard College 

Commission to Canada, Spring of 1776. 

Franklin, Samuel Chase, Charles Carroll, and 
the Rev. John Carroll were sent by Congress to 
BBCure, if possible, the sympathy of the Canadians. 
See Lives of Franklin by Sparks, Parton, and 
Bigelow. Charles Carroll's Diary is given in the 
Maryland Historical Society's Transactions, i. 
Sparks's Washington, iii. 390. Sparks's Corre- 
spondence of the American Revolution, i. App. 
Lossing's Schuyler, ii. Their instructions are in 
the Journals of Congress, 1776, p. 100. Cf. 
papers in Force's Archives, 4th series, iv. and v. 

Beginnings of the Navy. 

Most of the early documentary evidence will be 
found in the several volumes of Force's American 
Archives, under the index heads of Armed Ves- 


sels. Biildle, Fleet, Hopkins, Jones (Puul), Man- 
ley, Massachusetts Armed Vessels, Marine Com- 
mittee, Navy, Privateers, Prizes, Row Galleys, 
Seamen, Vessels. 

Sabine's Report on the Fisheries of the United 
States, p. 198, represents the fisheries as a school 
for the navy. Cf. Babson's Gloucester. 

John Adams (Works, iii. 7) names the proceed- 
ings in Congress, Nov. 25, 1775, as "the true 
origin and formation of the American navy." Cf. 
Journals of Congress. The Act of Massachusetts 
authorizing the fitting out of armed vessels will be 
found in the Provincial laws, and in the Gentle- 
man's Magazine, Jan. 1776. See Massachusetts 
Historical Society's Proceedings, Jan. 1809, p. 
203, and Austin's Gerry, ch. 9. 

The most considerable of the histories of the 
navy is Cooper's. Consult also the lives of the 
early naval heroes, like H. T. Tuckerman's Life 
of Talbot ; Mary Barney's Memoirs of Com. 
Barney ; Life of Capt. Manly ; Sheppard's Life 
of Samuel Tucker, etc. 

Incidental accounts of the early naval operations 
will be found in Sparks's Washington, iii. App. 
516 ; Arnold's Rhode Island, ii. 351, 363, 369, 
etc. ; Letters in the Revolutionary Correspond- 
ence, Rhode Island Historical Collections, vi. ; 
Gammel's Life of Samuel Ward ; Stevens's His- 
tory of Georgia, ii. 134, and the histories of Mas- 
sachusetts. Particulars of private armed ships ar« 


given in Lossing's Field-Book, i. ; Caulkin's New 
London ; Mrs. E. V. Smith's History of New- 
buryport ; Felt's Annals of Salem ; life of E. H. 
Derby in Hunt's American Merchants, ii. 

Com. Hopkins's likeness is more common in con- 
temporary engravings than those of the other of- 
ficers. A portrait of him engraved in 1776 is re- 
produced in Preble's History of the Flag of the 
United States. Cf. An Important History of the 
War, London, 1780 ; Geschichte der Kriege in 
und aus Europa, Nuremberg, 1776. 

Maps of the coast are given in the Atlantic 

Ithiel Town's Particular Services, etc., givea 
the journal of a British naval officer. 


EVENTS OF 1776. 

The Retreat from Canada. 

Arnold continued for a while before Quebec, 
and was joined by Wooster, from Montreal, April 
1st, who took command, while Arnold retired to 
Montreal. Cf. Force's Archives, 6th series, i. ; 
Lossing's Schuyler, ii. ch. 1 and 2 ; Read's Life of 
George Read, 150. 

Gen. Thomas had been appointed to the com- 
mand in Canada, and reached the camp before 
Quebec May 1st, but a British fleet with rein- 
forcements arriving, Carleton attacked the Ameri- 
can camp, and Thomas began his retreat. Los- 
sing's Schuyler, ii. 60 ; Force's American Archives, 
4th series, iv., vi. ; 5th, i. ; Bancroft's United 
States, viii. ch. 67; Irving's Washington, ii. ch. 
20, 22. 

Carleton's account of the retreat is in the Gen- 
tleman's Magazine, July, 1776. Burgoyne with 
the Brunswick troops reached Quebec in June. 
Cf. Fonblanque's Burgoyne, p. 211. 

Subsequent events are best followed in Lossing's 
Schuyler and Stone's Life of Brant, i. 154 ; with 
illustrative documents, particularly for the affair 
at the Cedars, in Force, 4th series, vi., and 5th 
series, i. 



Gen. Thomas having retreated to Chambl^e, 
died there June 2d, and was succeeded by Sulli- 
van. Cf. Amory's Sullivan; Lossing's Schuy- 
ler, ii. 

For the failure of Gen. Thompson at Three 
Rivers in June, see Force's Archives, 4th series, 
vi. ; Lossing's Schuyler, ii. 85 ; Read's George 
Read, p. 155 ; Marshall's Washington, ii. 362. 

In July Sullivan had reached Crown Point. 
Cf. Force, 4th series, vi., and 5th, i. and ii. 

In general on the campaign, see Schuyler's, 
Sullivan's, and Arnold's letters on the retreat in 
Sparks's Correspondence of the American Revolu- 
tion, i. ; Watson's Essex County, ch. 10 ; Dunlap's 
New York, ii. ch. 1, 4 ; Mrs. Bonney's Historical 
Gleanings, i. ; Marshall's Washington, ii. ch. 5 ; 
Irving's Washington, ii. ch. 23 ; Davis's Life of 
Burr, i. ; Sparks's Life of Arnold ; Smith's His- 
tory of Pittsfield, Mass., i. ch. 15 ; Temple and 
Sheldon's History of Northfield, Mass. ; and other 
local histories. 

In July Gates was sent to command the troops 
" in Canada," and as the retreat had brought the 
forces into New York State, there arose a question 
of command between him and Schuyler. Cf. 
Lossing's Schuyler, ii. ; Life of Gates; Force's 
Archives, 4th series, vi., 5th series, i., ii., iii. 


The Campaign for the Hudson, 1776. 

The Americans had early been warned of the 
British plan to secure the line of the Hudson and 
Lake Champlain. Journal of Provincial Congress 
of New York, p. 172 ; Lossing's Schuyler, ii. 16. 

As early as Sept. 1775, plans of intended forti- 
fications in the river passes had been made. 
Force's American Archives, 4th series, iii. 735. 
Washington had intrusted an examination of 
plans to Stirling. Force, vi. 672 ; Boynton's West 
Point, p. 29. Many documents can be found re- 
ferred to under Highlands and Hudson River in 
the index of Force, 4th series, iv., and subsequent 
volumes. See also for the efforts at different 
times to place obstructions in the river, Lossing's 
Schuyler, ii. 150 ; Boynton's West Point, ch. i. ; 
and Ruttenber's Obstructions of the Hudson 

There is an account of the attempts to destroy 
the British frigates threatening the ascent in 
July, 1776, in the Historical Magazine, 1866, 
supplement, p. 84. 

Washington, after the evacuation of Boston, 
had suspected that New York would be the next 
point of attack, and sent Putnam ahead to take 
the command there, with instructions, given in 
Sparks's Washington, iii. 337. Putnam reached 
New York April 2d. For the period of his con- 
trol, before the arrival of Washington, see Force, 


4:th series, v., index; the Lives of Putnam; 
Heath's Memoirs, 44 ; Sparks's Gouverneur Mor- 
ris, i. ch. 5 ; Histories of New York ; Almon's 

Jones (New York in the Revolutionary War, i. 
ch. 6, and notes) depicts the trials of the tories. 

"Washington arrived April 13th. Cf. Ii'ving's 
Washington, ii. ch. 24 ; Quincy's Journals of S. 
Shaw ; Joseph Reed's letters during the summer, 
in Reed's Reed, i. 

For details of the tory plot in June, see Eustis's 
letter in the New England Historical and Genea- 
logical Register, 1869, and papers in Force, 4th 
series, vi. 

On the campaign which ensued from the bat- 
tle on Long Island to the retreat of Washington 
through the Jerseys, there is an elaborate mono- 
graph. Campaign of 1776 around New York and 
Brooklyn, by H. P. Johnston, which enters into 
details, and prints original documents. Other 
works, covering with more or less fullness all the 
military events of this interval, are Dunlap's New 
York, ii. ch. 6 ; the histories of the City of New 
York ; Stiles's History of Brooklyn ; J. C. Ham- 
ilton's Republic of the United States, i. ch. 5, 
and other general histories like Gordon, Botta. 
Bancroft, etc. ; Allen's Origination of the Ameri- 
can Union ; Sparks's Washington, iv., and the 
Lives by Marshall, Sparks, and Irving ; Greene's 
Life of Greene : Memoirs of Colonel B. Tal- 


madge ; Qnincy's Shaw ; Read's Life of George 
Read, p. 170 ; histories of states for the part borne 
by their troops, like McSherry's Maryland, eh. 9. 
There are maps in Gordon, ii., Stiles's Brook 
lyu, and in Johnston's work. 

North Carolina, 1776. 

The British invasion of this year is the subject 
of a lecture by Swain, which is included in W. D. 
Cooke's Revolutionary History of North Carolina. 
Cf. Frothingham's Rise of the Republic, p. 502 ; 
Sparks's Correspondence of the Revolution, ii. 
App., as well as for other southern movements 
during the spring and summer of 1776. 

Fort Moultrie, Sullivan's Island, June 28, 1776. 

This was an attempt by the British fleet and 
troops, under Sir Peter Parker and Sir Henry 
Clinton, respectively, to force an entrance to 
Charleston harbor, and reduce South Carolina. 

Various contemporary documents will be found 
in Force's American Archives, 4th series, iv., v., 
vi. ; 5th, i., ii., iii., under Charleston, Fort Moul- 
trie, Lee, and Sullivan's Island in the index. 
Gen. Lee's report to Washington is in Sparks's 
Correspondence of the Revolution, i. 244. A let- 
ter of Gen. Morris in the New York Historical 
Society's Collections, 1875, p. 435. Moultrie's 
Memoirs of the American War; Bancroft's United 
States, viii. ch. 66 ; Irving's Washington, ii. ch 


29 ; Simms's South Carolina ; Garden's Anecdotes 
of the Revolution ; Lossing's Field-Book, ii. ; Daw- 
son's Battles, ch. 10; Carrington's Battles, ch. 28; 
Memoirs of Elkanah Watson ; Harper's Monthly, 
xxi. 70, by T. D. English ; Flander's Life of Rut- 
ledge, in his Chief Justices ; Wm. Crafts's Ad- 
dress in 1825, reprinted in his Miscellanies; C. C. 
Jones's Address on Sergeant William Jasper, 
1876, and an account of the Fort Moultrie Cen- 
tennial Celebration, Charleston, 1876. 

For British accounts, see Gentleman's Magazine, 
Oct. 1776 ; Annual Register ; History of the Civil 
War in America, Dublin, 1779 ; Adolphus (His- 
tory of England, ii. 346) bases his narrative in 
part on unpublished documents. A loyalist view 
is given in Jones's New York in the Revolu- 
tionary War, i. 98. 

Maps. — American plans of the attack are in 
Johnson's Traditions and Reminiscences of the 
American Revolution in the South, and in Dray- 
ton's Memoirs of the American Revolution in the 
South, ii. 290. 

A British plan was published by Wm. Faden, 
Aug. 10, 1776, and is No. 37 in the American 
Atlas. Col. James's MS. plan is in the Faden 
Collection, Library of Congress. The Political 
Magazine, London, 1780, has a map. 


In England, 1775-1776. 

Bancroft (United States, viii.) follows the po- 
litical aspects, and traces the movements of the 
opposition in Parliament, before they became 
estranged by the declaration of independence. 
Smyth, Modern History, lectures 31 and 32, sets 
forth the condition of parties, and in 33 he com- 
pares the American and English views as exem- 
plified in Ramsay's American Revolution, and in 
the Annual Register, whose successive volumes 
were " the very mirror of public sentiment." 

For the movements in Parliament, see the 
Parliamentary History, and Force's American 
Archives. Lord North had introduced a concilia- 
tory plan, Feb. 20, 1775. Force, 4th series, i. 
1597, and later, vi. March 22d Burke brought 
forward a plan, and again in Nov. His March 
speech is in his works, Boston edition, ii. 99. 
Force, 4th series, i. 1745, and vi. 178. Mac- 
Knight's Life of Burke, ii. 127. The index to 
Force, vi., will show the debates of Barr^, Fox, 
Camden, and Chatham ; and later debates, Oct. 
and Nov. 1776, are in Force, 5th series, iii. 961- 
1020. Stanhope says that " in the reports of 
Chatham's speeches in Almon's Register, the 
whole spirit evaporates." Cf. Russell's Memoir, 
and Correspondence of Fox, i. 157 ; Walpole'a 
Last Journals, ii. 7, 22 ; Campbell's Livep of the 


Political Movements, 1776. 

We have the doings of Congress in the Journals 
and in Force's Archives, 4th series, iv. 1625. 
Events can also be followed in the Correspondence 
of John Adams, Works, ix. 372 ; Frothingham's 
Rise of the Republic ; Lee's Life of R. H. Lee, i. 
161 ; Wells's Samuel Adams ; Bancroft's United 
States, viii. ch. 60, 63 ; letters in W. B. Reed's 
Life of Joseph Reed, i. 241, 271 ; Flanders's Life 
of Rutledge, ch. 7, in his Chief Justices. In 
Greene's Life of Nathanael Greene we see the 
weakness of Congress in its executive work. 

Sir William Howe, on his arrival off Sandy 
Hook, July 12th, issued a declaration of pardon for 
Buch as would return to their allegiance. For its 
failure, see Parton's Franklin, ii. 136. He also 
sent a letter which he had brought from an Eng- 
lish friend to Joseph Reed, and made other ad- 
vances in the character of a commissioner to 
restore harmony. Reed sent the letter to Con- 
gress. Cf. Reed's Joseph Reed, i. 197 ; Sparks's 

The feeling in Massachusetts can be traced in 
Perez Morton's Eulogy over Warren's body, April 
8th (Loring's Boston Orators, p. 127) ; in Sam- 
uel West's Election Sermon May 29th (Thorn- 
ton's Pulpit of the Revolution) ; in the statement 
of the principles of the Revolution as given in a 
letter of John Adams to Mercy Warren, in 1807 


(Massachusetts Historical Society's Collections, 
5tli series, iv. 338) ; in the records of the Boston 
Committee of Correspondence, May to Nov. (in 
the New England Historical and Genealogical 
Register, July, 1876). Cf. Dawson's paper on 
the act of Massachusetts assuming sovereign power 
May 1st, in the Historical Magazine, May, 1862, 
and Barry's Massachusetts. 

Bancroft devotes a chapter (ix. ch. 15) to the 
Constitutions which the states severally adopted, 
beginning in 1776. On the Constitution of New 
York, see the histories of that state, and Flan- 
ders's Life of Jay, ch. 8, and Sparks's Life of 
Gouverneur Morris. The movements for politi- 
cal consolidation in 1776 in Pennsylvania are de- 
scribed in Reed's Joseph Reed, i. ch. 7. For the 
Declaration of Rights in Virginia in 1776, see 
Rives's Madison, i. ch. 5 ; Madison's Writings, i. 
21. Randall's Jefferson, i. ch. 6, gives an account 
of the convention, and so does Grigby's commem- 
orative discourse in 1855. 

Thomas Paine's Common Sense, published in 
Jan. 1776, affected sensibly the current of politi- 
cal feeling through the year. Cf. Frothingham's 
Rise of the Republic, pp. 476, 479; Barry's Massa- 
chusetts, iii. 89 ; Life of John Adams, i. 204 ; 
Randall's Jefferson, i. 137 ; Bancroft's United 
States, ch. 56 ; Parton's Franklin, iii. 108 ; and 
the papers in Force's American Archives, 4th 
series, iv. index. For an English view, see 


Smyth's Modern History, 33d lecture ; and for a 
tory one, Jones's New York in the Revolutionary 
War, i. 63. 

Foreign Relations, 1776. 

As early as Feb. 1776, an agent of the French 
government was secretly communing with Con- 
gress. Cf. Bancroft's United States, viii. ch. 61 ; 
De Witt's Jefferson and the American Democ- 
racy ; and documents in Force's Archives, '4th 
series, vi., and 5th, i., ii., iii. 

Arthur Lee was now in London, having been 
appointed agent of Congress, and was holding 
correspondence with the Secret Committee of 
Congress. Sparks's Diplomatic Correspondence, 
ii., gives his instructions, Dec. 12, 1775, and let- 
ters ; also in Force's Archives, 4th series, iv. 
Cf. Lee's Life of Arthur Lee. 

The correspondence of William Carmichael is 
in the Diplomatic Correspondence, ix. 

Silas Deane had been a member from Connecti- 
cut of this and the 1774 Congress. (See his Cor- 
respondence, in the Connecticut Historical Collec- 
tions, ii. 129.) He was now sent to Paris. His 
instructions, dated March 3, 1776, are in the 
Diplomatic Correspondence, i. 5, and in Pitkin's 
United States, App. 23. He reached there in 
June. See Pitkin's United States, i. 384, and 
App. 24, for Deane's first letter. It was arranged 
(ihat the secret dispatches should be written ia 


invisible ink. Jay's Life of Jay, 64. Deane'a 
letters are in the Diplomatic Correspondence, i. : 
Force's Archives, 5th series, ii. 

For Deane's proceedings in Paris see Papers in 
Relation to the Case of Silas Deane, published 
in 1855 by the Seventy-Six Society, in which he 
goes over his doings from March, 1776 to March, 
1778. His quarrel with Arthur Le^ is set forth 
in the Life of Lee; and Lee's counter narrative is 
given in the Papers, etc., already mentioned. Cf. 
Parton's Franklin, ii. 189 ; and later references 
under 1778. 

Bancroft (viii. ch. 61) goes over the whole story 
of these French negotiations at this time. 

For Beaumarchais' connection with the agents, 
see Lomenie's Life of Beaumarchais ; Parton's 
Franklin, ii. 167, 203 ; Pitkin's United States, i. 
ch. 10 ; Quarterly Review, 1873 ; Lossing, in 
Harper's Monthly, xiv. ; Hours at Home, June, 
1870 ; Magazine of American History, Nov. 1878 ; 
and various documents in the Diplomatic Corre- 
spondence, i. and xii. 162, 167 ; and Force's 
Archives, 5tli series, i. Later relations are given 
in John Bigelow's Beaumarchais, the Merchant, 
— Letters of Theveneau de Francey, 1777-1780, 
an address before the New York Historical Society, 

In Sept. three commissioners to France were 
appointed by Congress — Lee, Deane, and Frank- 
lin ; and the latter proceeded to join the others 


in Dec. Their instructions from Congress are ia 
the Diplomatic Correspondence, i. See Lives of 
Franklin and Lee ; Deane's Narrative ; Journals 
of Congress, iii. ; Force's Archives, 5th series, 
ii. Franklin, Dec. 8, 1776, announces his arrival. 
Diplomatic Correspondence, iii. 5. Letters of 
Congress to the agents, Dec. 1776 to Feb. 1777, 
are given in Lee's R. H. Lee, App. 8. 

For views upon the mission at the time, see 
Mercy Warren's History of the Revolution ; 
Wells's Life of Samuel Adams. 

Parton, in his Franklin, ii. 248, goes into a 
history of the different agents of Congress in 
Europe at this time, beginning with Franklin, 
and enlarges upon the difficulties engendered by 
Arthur Lee's conduct ; but compare Lee's Life of 
Arthur Lee, and the Calendar of the Lee Manu- 
scripts in Harvard College Library. Also see 
the references under 1778. 

Dec. 6, 1776, an agreement was entered into 
with Lafayette and De Kalb to serve the states. 
Diplomatic Correspondence, i., and p. 291 for the 
Commissioners' letter, May 25, 1777, on the 
subject. The Memoirs of Lafayette touch upon 
the feelings rife in France when he determined 
to go to America ; and for his arrival see Sparks's 
Washington, v. App. Cf. Hilhard d'Auberteuil'a 
Essais historiques, ii. 


The Spirit of Independence. 

The growth of this spirit is traced carefully in 
Frotbingbam's Rise of the Republic, pp. 245, 291, 
315, 369, 428, 438, 449, 452, 453, 469, 483, 489, 
499, 506, 509. Botta, in bis History of tbe Revo- 
lution, bad represented it as rife long before tbe 
outbreak, — a statement tbat Jobn Jay and Jobn 
Adams take exception to in letters printed by 
Jeremiab Colburn in tbe New England Historical 
and Genealogical Register, July, 1876, and pub- 
lished separately as American Independence : Did 
tbe colonists desire it ? Cf . Jobn Adams's 
"Works, iii. 45 ; bis Letters in Massachusetts His- 
torical Society's Collections, 5th series, iv. 300, 
465, addressed to Mercy "Warren. 

For intimations of the existence of tbe spirit 
before it became an organized force, see Hutch- 
inson's Massachusetts Bay, iii. 134, 264, 265; 
Bancroft's United States, viii. ch. 64, 65, 68 ; 
Grabarae's "United States, iv. 315 ; J. C. Hamil- 
ton's Republic of tbe United States, i. 110; 
Barry's Massachusetts, iii. ch. 3, noting articles in 
favor of it in Boston Gazette, April 15 and 29, 
1776 ; Jefferson's Notes on "Virginia ; Galloway's 
Examination before Parliament ; Wells's Samuel 
Adams, ii. 352, etc. ; Randall's Jefferson, i. 124 ; 
Sparks's "Washington, ii. App. p. 496 ; Greene's 
Life of N. Greene, i. 122; Austin's Gerry, ch. 13 ; 
Sparks's Franklin, i. 379, 380 ; Rives's Madison, i. 


108, 124; Matthew Thornton's letter in Force's 
Archives, 4th series, ii. 696 ; also see vi. index, 
ander Independence. 

Independence declared, July 4, 1776. 

On the 7th of June, 1776, a resolution was 
offered in Congress that these United Colonies are, 
and of right ought to be, free and independent 
states. A fac-siraile of this paper is given in 
Force's American Archives, 4th series, vi. 1700. 

Frothingham (Rise of the Republic) traces the 
culmination of the various influences, resulting in 
the agreement of independence ; and he shows how 
the several colonies instructed their representa- 
tives to provide for local interests. Bancroft (ch. 
69 and 70) follows these events. A showing of 
the parties in Congress at this time is given in 
Randall's Jefferson, i. 153 ; Read's Life of George 
Read ; John Adams's Life and Works, i. 220, 
517; ii. 31-75, 93; Pitkin's United States, i. 

Very scant records of the debates previous to 
the passage of the Declaration are preserved. 
John Adams claimed that from 1774 to 1778, 
covering his period in Congress, there were no 
records of speeches, except some by Dr. Wither- 
Bpoon, delivered memoriter, which he printed, and 
one by Dickinson against the Declaration, which 
was afterwards printed, and seemed very different 
\o Adams from the one actually delivered. Some 


Bliglit notes and accounts of the debates, however. 
Lave been printed in John Adams's works, i. 
227; iii. 55; ix. 418; in the Madison Papers, i. 
12, by Jeflerson — reprinted in Read's George 
Head, p. 220; in Wells's Samuel Adams, ii. 413, 

General accounts will be found in the biogra- 
phies of the signers and principal political char- 
acters of the day. Wells's Life of Samuel 
Adams, ii., shows his strenuous efforts at thwart- 
ing all plans of conciliation. Stanhope (His- 
tory of England, vi. 121) takes a low view of 
Samuel Adams's character. Loring (Hundred 
Boston Orators) prints a letter of Hancock. C. 
F. Adams's Life of John Adams, ch. 4 and 5, 
and McKean's letter to Adams, in Massachusetts 
Historical Society's Collections, 5th seriesj iv. 
506. Lives of Jefferson by Tucker, i. ch. 4 ; by 
Randall, i. 142, 164 ; by Parton ; Jefferson's auto- 
biography in Writings, i. 12, 96, and App. p. 117. 
Rives's Madison, i. 130 ; Lee's Life of R. H. Lee, 
i. ch. 7 ; Read's George Read, p. 162 ; Austin's 
Life of Gerry, ch. 13 ; the sketches of Robert 
Morris, who opposed the Declaration. Lives of 
Franklin by Sparks, ch. 9 ; by Parton and by 
Bigelow. Reed's Life of Joseph Reed, i. ch. 
8 and 9. Lives of Washington by Marshall, ii. 
2h. 6, and by Irving. 

There are contemporary notes in the Journals of 
Congress; in Force's American Archives, 4th se- 


ries, iv., Sth, i., ii., iii. index; in Niles's Principles 
and Acts of the Revolution ; and in Sparks's Cor- 
respondence of the Revolution. The early histori- 
ans, Mercy Warren, Gordon, and Ramsay, give a 
reflex of contemporary views. The famous letter 
of John Adams to his wife, prophesying the con- 
tinued observance of the anniversary, is in the 
Familiar Letters of John and Abigail Adams, 
p. 190, dated July 3d, with a note explaining the 
change of date to 5th when first printed. For 
Philadelphia life at this time, see Historical 
Magazine, Nov. 1868, and the Diary of Christo- 
pher Marshall. 

Jefferson's original draft of the Declaration is 
given in Randall's Jefferson, p. 172 ; in Niles's 
Weekly Register, July 3, 1813; in Timothy 
Pickering's Review of the Cunningham Corre- 
spondence, 1824 ; in Papers of James Madison, 
1840, — not always agreeing, as different auto- 
graph drafts were followed. It is given with the 
changes indicated as adopted in Congress, in Jef- 
ferson's Works, i. ; Russell's Life and Times of 
Fox ; Lee's Life of R. H. Lee, i. 275. Cf. John 
Adams's Works, i. 233 ; Parton's Jefferson, ch. 
21 ; Parton's Franklin, ii. 126. 

The Declaration as adopted is given in Froth- 
ingham's Rise of the Republic, p. 539, and in 
various general histories and manuals. 

A fac-simile of the original draft, with Adams's 
and Franklin's changes, is given in Jefferson's 


Writings,!. 20; in RiindaU's Jefferson; in the 
Declariition of Independence, quarto, issued by 
the City of Boston, 1876, where is also a reduced 
fac-simile of the engrossed document, as signed 
Aug. 2d ; and a full-size fac-simile of the latter is 
in Force's American Archives, 5th series, i. 1595. 
Cf. also the Atlas of Guizot's Washington. Fac- 
similes of the signatures are in many places. Re- 
productions of autograph letters of the signers are 
given in Sanderson's Lives of the Signers, and in 
Brotherhead's Centennial Book of the Signers. 

There is an account of the Declaration by B. 
J. Lossing in Harper's Monthly, iii. and vii. ; and 
Col. T. W. Higginson tells the Story of the sign- 
ing in Scribner's Monthly, July, 1876. 

For the question of the observance of the 2d or 
4th of July, see Potter's American Monthly, Dec. 

There are accounts of Independence Hall, by 
John Savage, in Harper's Monthly, xxxv. ; Pot- 
ter's American Monthly, July, 1875; Belisle's 
History of Independence Hall; Col. Etting's 
Memorials of 1776. Cf. Etting's Historical Ac- 
count of the Old State House, 1876, of which 
there is a contemporary print in the Columbian 
Magazine, July, 1787, taken in 1778. 

The desk upon which Jefferson wrote tjie Dec- 
laration is now in Boston. Cf. Randall's Jeffer- 
son, i. 177 ; Massachusetts Historical Society's 
Proceedings, 1855-1858, p. 151. 


For the immediate effects of the Declaration, 
Bee Frothingham's Rise of the Republic, p. 548 ; 
Reed's Life of Joseph Reed, i. 195. 

The Declaration was reprinted at once in.Xon- 
don in the Gentleman's Magazine, Aug. 1776 ; 
Annual Register, 1776, p. 261; Almon's Remem- 
brancer, iii. 258. It occasioned comments and 
rejoinders in the Gentleman's, in Almon, and in 
other publications. Gov. Hutchinson's strictures 
on it, after circulating in manuscript, were printed 
in Almon, iv. 25. Adolphus (History of England) 
says that An Answer to the Declaration of the 
American Congress, which appeared in London 
the same year, is " worthy the perusal of those 
who wish to have the means of thinking rightly 
on the origin of the American dispute." Lord 
Camden's views are given in Campbell's Lives of 
the Chancellors, v.- 301. Lord John Russell, in 
his Memoirs and Correspondence of Fox, i. 152, 
thinks the truth was warped in charging all upon 
the King, while the fact was " the sovereign and 
his people were alike prejudiced, angry, and wil- 
ful." Earl Stanhope's view, in his History of 
England, was criticised by Col. Peter Force in a 
privately printed pamphlet, 1855. Morley, in his 
Edmund Burke, p. 125, has a chapter on the sig- 
nificance of the American passage to Independ- 


The Hessians. 

Bancroft, viii. ch. 50 and 57, narrates the 
efforts of the British Ministry to secure the aid of 
Russian troops, and subsequently of the Hessians. 
See results in vol. ix. ch. 18 ; x. ch. 3. The pre- 
liminaries of the negotiations are given in Donne's 
Letters of George III. to Lord North, i. 293, 297. 
The treaties with the German princes are given 
in Force's American Archives, 4th series, vi. 356- 
358. Debates, Nov. 1775, on the employment 
of mercenaries are in the Parliamentary History, 
and in Force, vi. 88, 107, 271. See, further, in 
Force, 5th series, i., ii., iii. index. 

Eelking's Die Deutsche Hiilfstruppen in Nord 
Amerika, gives a list of the MS. journals of the 
officers to which he had access. Of Eelking's Life 
of Riedesel, the German commander, there is an 
English translation. Ewald's Feldzug der Hessen 
nach Amerika, and Kapp's Der Soldatenhandel 
deutscher Fiirsten nach Amerika, 2d ed. 1874, are 
epitomized in G. W. Greene's German Element 
in the War for Independence. Cf. Gen. Von 
Ochs's Neuere Kriegskunst, 1817. 

See also a review of Eelking in the Historical 
Magazine, Feb. 1864 and Jan. 1866, and G. W 
Greene's paper in the Atlantic, Feb. 1875 
Sparks's article on Riedesel in the North Ameri- 
can Review, xxvi. ; Fonblanque's Life of Bur- 
goyne, 213. 


Battle of Long Island, August 27, 1776. 

An elaborate study of the battle fought at 
Brooklyn has been made by Thomas W. Field, 
and published in the Memoirs of the. Long Island 
Historical Society, ii. He gives many contem- 
porary documents. He had previously made it 
the subject of a lecture. Historical Magazine, 
Nov. 1866. 

Howe landed his troops at Gravesend Aug. 22d. 
Sir George Collier commanded the fleet, covering 
the landing. Naval Chronicle, xxxii. 

Greene had done the work on the lines of de- 
fense. Greene's Greene, i. 158. 

Howe's army in effective strength was double 
that under "Washington. Cf. Force's American 
Archives, 5th series, i. ; Beatson's Naval and 
Military Memoirs of Great Britain, vi. ; De Lan- 
cey's note, in Jones's History of New York in the 
Revolutionary War, i. 600. 

Contemporary Accounts. — Washington's dis- 
patches are given in Sparks and in Field ; also 
his letters in Sparks, iv. and App. Graydon's 
Memoirs, ch. 6, are important. Documents in 
Onderdonk's Revolutionary Incidents in Queens 
County. Almon's Remembrancer, iii. Force's 
American Archives, 5th series, i., ii., iii. Brod- 
head's Letters in Pennsylvania Archives, v. 21. 
4tlee's Journal in App. of Reed's Life of Joseph 
Reed ; and in Pennsylvania Archives, 2d series, 


i. 509; and p. 517 is the Journal of Col. Samuel 
Miles. President Stiles's diary is given in John- 

Death of Gen. Woodhull. — Force's Archives, 
5th series, ii., iii. index. Jones's New York in the 
Revolutionai-y War, ii. 593. Luther R. Marsh's 
Oration. J. Fenimore Cooper and Henry Onder- 
donk, Jr., had a newspaper controversy about 
WoodhuU's capture and death. See Historical 
Magazine, 1861. 

Later Accounts. — Mercy Warren's and Gor- 
don's Histories of the Revolution. Marshall's 
Washington, ii. ch. 7. Irving's Washington, ii. 
ch. 31 and 32. Samuel Ward's Lecture, 1839. 
Johnston's Campaign of 1776, ch. 4. Dunlap's 
New York, ii. 64. Reed's Joseph Reed, i. 222. 
Amory's Gen. Sullivan, p. 25. Hollister's Con- 
necticut, ii. ch. 11. Parton's Burr, i. ch. 6. Los- 
sing's Field-Book. Dawson's Battles of the United 
States, i. Stiles's History of Brooklyn. Williams's 
Life of Olney. Harper's Monthly, Aug. 1876. 
Knickerbocker's Magazine, xiii. Personal Recol- 
lections of the American Revolution, edited by 
S. Barclay, for family experiences in the neigh- 
borhood. Thompson's Long Island. 

Bancroft, ix. ch. 4, commented adversely on the 
conduct of General Greene in the battle, and 
Geo. W. Greene has examined that historian's 
statements in a pamphlet, which he has reprinted 
in his Life of General Greene, ii. In his first vol- 



ume, book ii. ch. 7, Greene gives his own version of 
the battle. Greene's arraignment of Bancroft is 
examined in the Historical Magazine, Feb, 1867. 
See also Aug. 1867. Bancroft also in a note, ix. 
105, controverts the statements of President Reed 
on the question of the retreat from the island, as 
given in W. B. Reed's Life of Reed, ch. 11. 

British Accounts. — Sir Wm. Howe's dispatch 
to his government was printed in a Gazette ex- 
traordinary, Oct. 10th, and is given in Field's mon- 
ograph. It elicited a pamphlet of Remarks, with 
the Gazette account annexed. The evidence be- 
fore Parliament is also given in Field ; and 
Howe's Narrative of his Conduct in America 
before the Committee of the Commons was sep- 
arately printed. Cf. Parliamentary Register, xi. 
340, and Almon's Debates, xiii. Howe's Narra- 
tive is commented upon in the Detail and Con- 
duct of the American War. 

Stedman's American War, ch. 6. Andrews's 
History of the Late War, ch. 21, with a portrait 
of Howe. Annual Register, xix. ch. 5. An Im- 
partial History of the late War. Stanhope's 
England. The Popular History of England, by 
C. Knight. Lushington's Life of Lord Harris, 
p. 76. 

A loyalist view of the opportunity lost in not 
forcing the American lines after Howe had gained 
his victory, is taken in Jones's New York in the 
Revolutionary War, i. 112. 


German Accounts. — Eelking's Deutsche Hiilfs- 
truppen, ch. 1 ; and other accounts in the Ap- 
peiKlLx of Field's Battle of Long Island. 

French Account. — Hilliard d'Auberteuil's Es- 
Bais historiques, ii. 

Political Effects. — John Adams's Works, ix. 
438, etc. Stuart's Life of Jonathan TrumbuU. 
Sedgwick's William Livingston, p. 201. 

In England : Donne's Corrrespondence of 
George III. and Lord North, ii. ; Rockingham and 
his Contemporaries, ii. 297 ; Russell's Life of 
Fox, and his Memorials and Correspondence of 
Fox, i. 145 ; Horace Walpole's Last Journals, 
ii. 70. 

Maps. — A contemporary American plan of 
Brooklyn, showing the American lines, is in the 
New York City Manual, 1858. 

One of New York and parts adjacent is given 
in Gordon's History, ii. 

In the large and small atlases to Marshall's 
Washington, in Sparks's Washington, iv. 68, 
showing the island ; and in Guizot's Washington. 

Field in his monograph gives a large plan, 
showing the projection of the modern streets over- 
lying the ancient landmarks. Full plans are 
given in Johnston's Campaign of 1776. 

Others are in Ward's Lecture, 1839; in Duer's 
Life of Lord Stirling, ii. 162; in Carrington'a 
Battles, ch. 14 ; in W. L. Stone's History of New 
York City, p. 246 ; in Onderdonk's Queens Coun* 


ty; in Ridpath's United States j in Harper's 
Monthly, Aug. 1876. 

There are British plans, as follows : Faden's 
engraved plan, 1776, with Gen. Howe's Letter 
to Lord George Germain, being No. 22 of The 
American Atlas. Various MS. maps, made by 
British officers, of the operations of this campaign, 
are in the Faden collection. Library of Congress, 
of which E. E. Hale printed a fist in 1862. 

In Gentleman's Magazine, Oct. and Dec. 1776. 

A map, 15 X 17 in., published in London, 1776, 
by Sayer and Bennett. 

In Stedman's American War, which is repro- 
duced with additions in the large illustrated edi- 
tion of Irving's Washington, ii. 308. In Mackin- 
non's Coldstream Guards, and a large map for the 
Campaign in Hamilton's Grenadier Guards, ii. 

A Hessian oflBcer's map is fac-similed in Field's 
monograph; and a contemporary map of Long 
Island is given in the Geographische Belustigun- 
gen, Leipsic, 1776. 

Cf. further titles of maps in the Bibliography 
of Long Island in the American Bibliopolist, 
Oct. 1872, and in the Appendix to Furman's 
Antiquities of Long Island. 

Howe as a Commissioner, September, 1776. 

Gen. Sullivan, taken a prisoner in the battle 
of Long Island, was paroled by Howe, and was 
Bent to Congress with a message of conciliation. 


Franklin, John Adams, and Rutledge were sent 
to confer with Howe, and they met at Amboy. 

An account of the interview is given in Frank- 
lin's Works, V. 97 ; viii. 187 ; also in Parton's 
Franklin, ii. 141. 

Journals of Congress, Sept. 1776 ; and Force's 
American Archives, 4th series, vi. ; 5th, i., ii. 

John Adams's Works, i. 237 ; iii. 73 ; ix. 440. 
Wells's Samuel Adams, ii. 443. Amory's Sulli- 
van, 30. Reed's Joseph Reed, i. ch. 12. Read's 
George Read, pp. 174, 189, 190. Lossing's Schuy- 
ler, ii. 37. 

Howe's report to his government is in Almon's 
Remembrancer, viii. 250 ; Parliamentary Register, 
viii. 249. 

■Washington withdraws to New York. 

Washington withdrew his army from Long 
Island by night without loss. 

Gordon indicates the contemporary recognition 
of the mistake Howe made through his inertness 
and his failure at once to gain the rear of the 
Americans either by the river or by the Sound. 
See also Putnam's letter to Gov. Trumbull, Sept. 
12, 1776. 

What was done for the maintenance of a posi- 
tion in New York itself is narrated in the Corre- 
spondence of the Provincial Congress of New 
York ; in General Lee's Memoirs ; in Booth's 
New York, p. 493 ; in New York during the Revo- 


lution, p. 82 ; in Johnston's Campaign of 1776, ch. 
5 ; in Irving's Washington, ii. ch. 33, etc. 

There is a journal of the American occupation 
in the Historical Magazine, Dec. 1868 ; and an 
American orderly-book, Sept. 1-13, 1776, cap- 
tured in New York, is among the Percy MSS., 
according to the Third Report of the English 
Commission on Historical MSS. H. B. Dawson 
gives an account of the town at this time, in New 
York during the Revolution. 

Nathan Hale. — This young Connecticut officer 
was sent into the British camp on Long Island, 
and being detected, was executed as a spy, Sept. 
22, 1776. See the Histories of Connecticut, and 
I. W. Stuart's Life of Nathan Hale. 

The British occupy New York, September 15, 1776. 

Washington was acting warily to avoid being 
inclosed by the British occupying the island to 
the north of him. Howe landed his troops at 
Turtle Bay. Connecticut troops stationed there 
fled precipitately. Washington's letter to Con- 
gress in his Official Letters, i. 246 ; and in Sparks, 
iv. 94. Greene to Gov. Cooke of Rhode Island, 
in Force's Archives, 5th series, ii. 370. Bancroft, 
ix. 122, cites a letter of Caesar Rodney, and shows 
how the story has grown. Gordon's American Rev- 
olution, ii. 327. Heath's Memoirs, p. 60. Davis's 
Life of Burr, i. 100. Read's George Read, p. 193. 
Col. N. Fish's letter in Historical Magazine, 2d 


series, iii. 33. Baumeister's Narrative, a MS. in 
Bancroft's possession, translated in the Magazine 
of American History, Jan. 1877. 

A considerable section of the city was burned, 
the British charging the act upon the retiring 
Americans as a part of a concerted plan to de- 
stroy the town. Force's Archives, 5th series, ii. ; 
Journals of Congress, and Washington's Letters 
(see Sparks's note in iv. 101) show that the act 
was not authorized by the American leaders. 
Howe's report to Lord George Germain is given 
in Force and in Jones's New York in the Revo- 
lutionary War, with note, i. 611. Cf. J. C. 
Hamilton's Republic of the United States, i. 
127 ; Henry's Campaign against Quebec ; Reed's 
Life of Joseph Reed, i. 213. 

In general, on the British occupation, see 
Fish's Letter in the Historical Magazine, Jan. 
1869 ; Gentleman's Magazine, Nov. and Dec. 
1776 ; a Diary in the Pennsylvania Magazine 
of American History, i. 133; and the histories 
of New York City. Cf. the papers on New York 
in the Revolution in Harper's Monthly, xxxvii. ; 
Scribner's Monthly, Jan. 1876. 

Maps and Plans. — The map used in the 
campaign by the American leaders is now in the 
Library of the New York Historical Society, and 
is engraved in the large illustrated edition of 
Trviug's Washington, ii. 276. There are other 
reproductions of contemporary plans of the city 


and of the military movements in the New York 
City Manual for 1863, 1864, and 1866 ; and, in 
connection with Dawson's account, New York 
in the Revokition. An old view of the city ia 
reproduced in Moore's Diary of the American 
Revolution, p. 311. 

There are other maps in Gordon's History ; in 
Marshall's Washington ; in Sparks's Washington, 
iv. 96. 

A German map is given in the Geschichte der 
Kriege in und aus Europa, Nuremberg, 1776. 

British maps will be found in Stedman's Ameri- 
can War ; in Hall's Civil War in America, 2d 
ed.j London, 1780 ; in the Gentleman's Maga- 
zine, Dec. 1776 ; in the Political Magazine, Lon- 
don, Nov. 1781. Major Holland's surveys are 
given in a contemporary map covering the coun- 
try from Sandy Hook to Haverstraw ; a chart of 
the harbor from Sandy Hook to New York was 
pubUshed in London, 1776, by Sayer and Bennett. 
Montresor's plan of New York in 1775 is No. 25 in 
the American Atlas, and No. 20 is the same officer's 
plan of the vicinity of the town. A plan of the 
city as surveyed by Bernard Ratzen, 1767, was 
engraved by T. Kitchin, and reissued in 1776 
and 1777, and is given on a reduced scale in 
Jones's New York in the Revolutionary War. 
Faden of London published in 1777 a map of the 
northern part of the island, drawn by Saulthier, 


The American Retreat, September — November, 1776. 

Washington withdrew up the island as the 
British advanced. The campaign in general can 
be followed in Johnston's Campaign of 1776 ; in 
Bancroft, ix. ; Irving's Washington, ii. ; Greene's 
Life of Greene, i. Washington's letters are in 
Sparks, and in the Heath Papers, printed in the 
jNlassachusctts Historical Soci ^ty's Collections, 5th 
series, iv. The Historical ]!Lagaziue, Dec. 1863, 
gives a military journal. 

British Aecoitnts. — Stedman's American War ; 
Conduct of the American War ; and the general 

German Accounts. — Eelking's Deutsche Hiilfs- 
truppen ; Schlozer's Briefwechsel, ii. 99. 

The following sections give details of the 
retreat : — 

Harlem Plains, September 16, 1776. 

Howe landed his troops at Frog Neck, in an 
endeavor to cut off Washington's retreat. Ir- 
ving's Washington. Heath's Memoirs. 

For contemporary accounts of the action, see 
Washington's letters in Sparks ; those in the 
Life of Greene by Greene; Reed's in the Life of 
Joseph Reed, i. 237 ; Gen. Silliman's in the notes 
of Jones's New York in the Revolutionary War, 
i. 606 ; Gen. Clinton's letter in New York in the 
Revolution ; and Documents in Force, 5th series, ii. 


Later Accounts. — In the general histories ; 
Johnston's Campaign of 1776 ; Lossing's Field- 
Book; Dawson's Battles, and his paper in the 
New York City Manual, 1868; the Centennial 
Oration of John Jay before the New York His- 
torical Society, 1876 ; Lushington's Lord Harris, 
p. 79 ; and the histories of New York City. 

Map. — Johnston's Campaign of 1776, ch. 6. 

Bancroft, ix. 175, gives a note collating the 
authorities on the origin of the retirement of the 
Americans from the island of New York. 

White Plains, October 28, 1776. 

Heath's Memoirs gives a daily chronicle of 
events during October. 

Washington's Letters, iv., gives his daily ob- 
servations. See also Force's Archives, 5th series, 
ii., iii. ; Marshall's Washington, ii. ch. 8 ; Irving's 
Washington, ii. ch. 37 ; Hamilton's Republic of 
the United States, i. 132 ; Bancroft, ix. ch. 10 , 
Reed's Life of Joseph Reed, i, ch. 12 ; General 
Hull's Revolutionary Services, ch. 4 ; Lossing's 
Field-Book, ii. ; Dawson's Battles, ch. 14 ; John- 
ston's Campaign of 1776, ch. 7 ; De Lancey's 
note to Jones's New York in the Revolutionary 
War, i. 621. A diary by Allen is in Smith's 
History of Pittsfield, Massachusetts, i. 252. 

British Accounts. — In Stedman, ch. 7, and in 
» Gazette of Dec. 30, 1776, which gave the first 
intelligence in London, and prompted a pamphlet 


by Israel Maudit, entitled Observations on the 
Conduct of Sir William Howe at Whiteplains, 
London, 1779. 

There is a German account in Eelking's Hiilfs- 
truppen, ch. 2. 

Maps. — The Lives of Washington, by Mar- 
shall and by Sparks; Hamilton's Republic of the 
United States, i. 132. A plan by Saulthier, en- 
graved by Faden, 1777, is in the American Atlas, 
No. 23 ; and there is another British plan in 

Fort 'Washington, November 16, 1776. 

Wliile evacuating the island of New York with 
his main body, Washington had left, contrary to 
his own judgment, a force to maintain this post. 
It fell before an attack of the combined fleet and 
army of the enemy. 

Washington's letters are in Sparks's edition of 
his writings, iv. ; but compare the Lives of Wash- 
ington by Marshall and Irving. Heath's Me- 
moirs, p. 86. G. W. Greene's Life of Nathanael 
Greene, book ii. ch. 11, gives that general's share 
in the affair, and in a separate tract the biograr 
pher controverts the view taken in Bancroft, ix. 
ch. 11. See documents in Force's Archives, 5th 
series, iii. 

Reed's Life of Joseph Reed, ch. 13; Dawson's 
Battles, ch. 15 ; Lossing's Field-Book, ii. ; Maga- 
Bine of American History, i. 


Graydon's Memoirs, ch. 7, had intimated that 
the success of Howe was perhaps due to informa- 
tion of an officer of the fort who deserted to the 
enemy. De Lancey, in his notes to Jones's New 
York in the Revokitionary War, i. 630, prints a 
letter of William Demon t, adjutant of the com- 
mander, dated 1792, which states that he bore 
plans of the fort to the enemy, " by which plans 
that fortress was taken." Howe's intention of 
attacking Washington's main force was changed 
by this information. 

Maps. — Washington's Writings by Sparks, iv. 
96, and the Atlas to Guizot's Washington and 
Carrington's Battles, ch. 37. A large contempo- 
rary map is reproduced in the New York City 
Manual for 1861. An account of the capture in 
the Magazine of American History, Feb. 1877, is 
accompanied by a fac-simile of an original map. 

There is a British plan in Stedman's American 
War. An English plan of the attack was given 
to the New York Historical Society, in 1861, by 
R. L. Stewart. A fac-simile of Faden's plan of 
the attack is in the New York Calendar of His- 
torical MSS. i. 533. 

There is a German map in the Geschichte der 
Kriege in und aus Europa, Nuremberg, 1776. 

General Charles Lee, 1776. 

The conduct of Lee began to incite observation 
during the movements of Washington after the 


fall of Fort Washington, when he moved with his 
army into New Jersey to cover Philadelphia. 
Cf. Geo. H. Moore's Treason of Charles Lee; 
Heath's Memoirs, p. 88 ; Reed's Life of Joseph 
Reed, i. 253 ; Drake's Life of Henry Knox ; J. 
C. Hamilton's Republic of the United States, i. 
ch. 6. 

Lee was taken prisoner in his quarters, Dec. 
13th. Cf. Sparks's Washington, iv., App. 8 ; 
Irving's Washington ; Moore's Treason of Lee, 
p. 60 ; Charles Lee's Memoirs ; Memoirs of Mrs. 
E. S. M. Quincy, privately printed, 1861 ; Jones's 
New York in the Revolutionary War, i. 173 ; 
Force's Archives, 5th series, iii. 

■Washington in the Jerseys, December, 1776 — January, 1777. 

The letters of the commander-in-chief are in 
Sparks's Washington's Writings, iv. Various 
original papers are in Force's Archives, 5th se- 
ries, iii. Bancroft, ix. ch. 12, and Irving's Wash- 
ington, ii., are still the best to follow. Geo. W. 
Greene gives a separate chapter to this retreat in 
his Life of General Greene, and controverts Ban- 
croft on special points. See also Read's George 
Read, p. 216 ; Reed's Life of Joseph Reed, ch. 
14 ; Gordon's History, ii. ; Johnston's Campaign 
of 1776, ch. 8. There is a series of minor mono- 
graphs by C. C. Haven, namely, Washington and 
his Army in New Jersey, 1856 ; Thirty Days in 
New Jersey Ninety Years Ago, 1867 ; Historical 
Manual concerning Trenton and Princeton. 


See, further, J. F. Tuttle's Washington in Mor- 
ris County, in the Historical Magazine, June, 
1871 ; Washington at Morristown, in Harper's 
Monthly, xviii. 289, and in the Magazine of 
American History, Feb. 1879, p.. 118 ; Ghmpse of 
'76 in New Jersey, in Harper's Monthly, July, 
1874 ; Washington at Trenton and Princeton, in 
Potter's American Monthly, Jan. 1877, and a 
little tract by T. White, published at Charles- 
town, Mass. 

The State of New Jersey has printed the cor- 
respondence of its executive, 1776-1786. 

The political aspects of the campaign can be 
traced in Mercy Warren's History ; in Ellery's 
letters to the Governor of Rhode Island, in Rhode 
Island Colonial Records, yiii. ; and in Wells's 
Life of Samuel Adams, ii. The state of affairs in 
Philadelphia is shown in R. Morris's letters to the 
President of Congress in Pennsylvania Historical 
Society's Memoirs, i. 50. A loyalist's view of the 
unmilitary management of the British general ia 
in Jones's New York in the Revolutionary War, i. 

The British view is given in the general his- 
tories of Stedman and Andrews ; in the Annual 
Register, xx. ch. 1 ; in General Howe's Narra- 
tive ; in the Detail and Conduct of the American 
War for the evidence of Cornwallis, etc. ; in Let- 
ters to a Nobleman on the Conduct of the War 
in the Middle Colonies, London, 1779. 

A contemporary tabular view of Howe's losses, 


Aug. - Dec. 1776, is given on a folded sheet in 
the History of the War in America, Dublin, 

Maps of the Campaign. — A reproduction of 
that used by the American commander is given in 
Irving's Washington, large illustrated edition, ii. 
430. Others are in Gordon, ii. p. 524 ; Lives 
of Washington, by Sparks, iv. 266, and by Mar- 
shall ; in Carrington's Battles, p. 302 ; in Loss- 
ing's Field-Book, ii. 

The British maps are in Gentleman's Magazine, 
Sept. 1776 ; Stedman's American War. Faden's 
map of New Jerse}'^, Dec. 26, 1776 - Jan. 3, 
1777, is in the American Atlas. 

Holland's map of New York and New Jersey 
was engraved by Jefferys in 1775, and reappeared 
as improved by Pownall in 1776. Saulthier's plan 
of Howe's operations was published by Faden in 
1777 ; and another of the seat of war in New 
York, New Jersey, and Pennsylvania was pub- 
.^shed by Almon in 1777. Faden again published 
Ratzer and Banker's map of New Jersey in 1777, 
and the same year a plan of the operations of 
Washington against the King's troops, in 1776- 

Trenton, December 26, 1776. 

Washington unexpectedly crossed the Delaware 
and surprised a camp of the Hessians. Cf. Eel- 
king's Deutsche Hiilfstruppen, and papers in 
Force's Archives, 5th series, iii. 


Washington's Letters, iv. 242-246, and App. 
641, and his account to Heath, in Massachusetts 
Historical Society's Collections, 5th series, iv. 
32 ; and Lives of Washington, by Marshall, ii. 
ch. 8, and Irving. 

The representations by the Committee of Con- 
gress to the Commissioners in France are in 
Sparks's Diplomatic Correspondence, i. 246. 

Bancroft, ix. ch. 13. Greene's Life of Greene, 
book ii. ch. 13. Wilkinson's Memoirs, ch. 3. 
Reed's Joseph Reed, i. 270. An account by 
Major Morris in the Sparks MSS. in Harvard 
College Library. Letter of R. H. Lee in the 
Massachusetts Historical Society's Proceedings, 
1878, p. 109. Drake's Life of Knox. Hull's 
Revolutionary Services, ch. 5. Dawson's Battles, 
ch. 16. Lossing's Field-Book, ii., and his article 
in Harper's Monthly, vii. 445. Carringtou's Bat- 
tles, ch. 39 and 40. Raum's History of Trenton. 
C. C. Haven's Annals of Trenton, 1866. Hil- 
Hard d'Auberteuil's Essais historiques, ii. H. K. 
How's Poem on the battle, 1856. 

The English historians, Adolphus, ii. 385, and 
Stanhope, vi. 130, assign the credit of this sur- 
prise to Arnold. Gov. Tryon's letters to Lord 
George Germain, in Documents relative to the 
Colonial History of New York, viii. 694. 

Maps. — Washington's Writings by Sparks, iv. 
258, and the atlases to Marshall's and Guizot'a 
Lives of Washington ; Lossing's Field-Book, ii. 
Raum's Trenton. 


Princeton, January 3, 1777. 

The Letters and Life of Washington by Sparks. 
Irving's Washington, ii. ch. 14. Custis's Recol- 
lections of Washington, ch. 3. Wilkinson's Me- 
moirs, ch. 3. St. Clair's Narrative. Hull's Rev- 
olutionary Services. Bancroft, ix. ch. 14. Los- 
sing's Field-Book, ii. and his paper in Harper's 
Monthly, vii. 447. Dawson's Battles, ch. 17. 
Stone's Life of John Howland. Reed's Joseph 
Reed, i. 287. W. B. Reed's oration on General 
Mercer. J. F. Hageman's History of Princeton. 
Hollister's Connecticut, ii. ch. 13. An account 
by a sergeant in Newark Daily Advertiser is re- 
printed in E. S. Thomas's Reminiscences, i. 283. 

Bancroft, ix. 247, has a note on the authorities 
for giving Washington the credit of the plan of a 
roundabout march to Princeton. 

3Iaps. — Sparks's Washmgton, ii. 258, and 
Lossing's Field-Book. 

Arnold on Ijake Champlain, October, 1776. 

This was an attempt by Arnold to drive back 
the British flotilla advancing up the lake. 
Cooper's Naval History of the United States. 
Wilkinson's Memoirs, ch. ii. Marshall's Wash- 
ington, iii. ch. 1. Irving's Washington, ii. ch. 39. 
Sparks's Life of Arnold. John Trumbull's Me- 
moirs, p. 34. Lossing's Schuyler, ii. 116, 137, 
and his Field-Book, i. Dawson's Battles, ch. 13. 


Palmer's Lake Champlain, ch. 7. Battle of Val- 
cour, a pamphlet, 1876. 

Arnold's naval tactics are examined in the in- 
troduction to General Wayne's Orderly-Book of 
the Northern Army, Oct. 17, 1776 - Jan. 8, 1777. 
A new view of Arnold's escape is given in Wins- 
low C. Watson's Naval Campaign on Lake Cham- 
plain, in the American Historical Record, iii. 
438—501. A contemporary sketch of the action 
is in the Sparks MSS. in Harvard College Library. 
Arnold's letters are in Sparks's Correspondence 
of the American Revolution, i. Appendix. Vari- 
ous contemporary reports will be found in Force's 
American Archives, 5th series, i., ii., iii. index, 
under Arnold, Fleet, and Lake Champlain. 

Maps. — A map of Lake George and the 
southern end of Lake Champlain is in Wayne's 
Orderly-Book ; and another map is in Palmer's 
Lake Champlain. A map of Hudson River and 
the communication with Canada by the lakes, by 
Saulthier, was published by Faden, in 1776 ; and 
the original plan by a British officer, of the action, 
subsequently engraved, is in the Faden Collection 
in the Library of Congress. An earlier survey of 
the region by Brassier, made for Amherst in 
1762, was published by Sayer and Bennett in 
1776, who also engraved the map which is given 
m the Military Pocket Atlas, 1776. See also 
A.merican Atlas, No. 21. 


EVENTS OF 1777. 

Political Aspects. 

The journals of Congress are always meagre. 
*' It is impossible to touch upon any interesting 
incident in the history of the Congress of the 
Revolution, and not regret," says G. W. Greene, 
" the meagreness of the journals." Events are 
followed in the lives of the principal members, 
like Samuel Adams, ii. ch. 44 ; R. H. Lee, John 
Adams, etc. 

The iusuflBciency of Congress, and its needless 
interference with military matters, are pointed 
out in Lossing's Schuyler, ii. ch. 19, and in 
Greene's Life of Greene, i. ch. 18, etc. 

July 1st, Congress instructed William Lee as 
Commissioner to Berlin and Vienna. Diplomatic 
Correspondence, ii. 289. Pitkin's United States, 
i. App. 25. Ralph Izard was commissioned to 
Italy. Diplomatic Correspondence, ii. 367. Ar- 
thur Lee's Life, and Life of Samuel Adams, shows 
Lee's proceedings in Paris ; but the negotiations 
pi'ompted by the surrender of Burgoyne, leading 
to an alliance with France, will be referred to 
under 1778. Bancroft, ix. ch. 17, traces the 
progress of negotiations with Spain. A set of 


diplomatic papers, beginning in 1777, and relat- 
ing to their negotiations with the United States 
and Great Britain, has been printed by the 
States General of the Netherlands. 

Nov. 15th, articles of confederation were adopt- 
ed. Bancroft, ix. ch. 26; Life of John Adams, i. 
269; ix. 467; Life of Samuel Adams; Pitkin's 
United States. 

The national flag of thirteen stars and thirteen 
stripes was adopted by Congress this year. Preb- 
le's Flag of the United States, p. 182, where 
will also be found an account of the flags used 
from 1766 to 1777. Cf. Lossing's Schuyler, ii. 
113 ; Schuyler Hamilton's History of the National 
Flag ; J. F. Reigart's History of the First United 
States Flag, and the patriotism of Betsey Ross, 
Harrisburg, 1878; and documents in Force's Ar- 
chives, 4th series, iv. 

The views of the Opposition in England may 
be drawn from Burke's Letter to the Sheriffs of 
Bristol, in his works, Boston edition, ii. 189. 

British Plans for the Campaign, 1777. 

The British army, under Sir William Howe, 

were in possession of New York, and documents 

relating to their rule in the city will be found in 

Valentine's New York City Manual for 1863. 

See a picture of life in New York under British 

rule in the Unitarian Review, Nov. 1876, by 

Samuel Osgood, D. D. 


March 29th, Gen. Charles Lee, then a prisoner 
in British hands, presented a plan of campaign to 
Gen. Howe, as calculated to thwart the American 
purposes. George H. Moore first brought this to 
the attention of students in his Treason of Charles 
Lee, in which he gave a fac-simile of the docu- 
ment in Lee's handwriting, and in which he 
traces the influence of it on the plan of the cam- 
paign as carried out by Howe. Cf. Bancroft, ix. 
330 .; Howe's Narrative ; Greene's Life of Greene, 
i. 385 ; Lossing in Magazine of American His- 
tory, July, 1879, p. 450. 

This plan of Lee seems to account in part for 
the mistake, recognized by Gordon and others, 
by which Howe, failing to cooperate with Bur- 
goyne up the Hudson, subjected his troops to the 
confinement and danger of a sea voyage in order 
to approach Philadelphia from the Chesapeake. 

Stedman (American War, i.) considers Howe 
responsible for the failure of the British arms in 
this campaign. A copy of this book, annotated 
by Sir Henry Clinton, is in the Carter-Brown 
Library at Providence, and a transcript of Clin- 
ton's notes is among the Sparks MSS. in Harvard 
College Library. De Lancey used these notes in 
his Jones's New York in the Revolutionary War, 
where a loyalist's criticism upon Howe will be 
found. A pamphlet of Observations by Clinton 
on Stedman's History was printed in London, 
1794, and privately reprinted in New York, 1864 


Howe defended himself in a Narrative, and this 
drew out Galloway's Letters to a Nobleman, Lon- 
don, 1779. Howe again replied in Observations, 
to which Galloway gave a Reply in 1781. Papers 
relating to the campaign are appended to a View 
of the Evidence relative to the Conduct of the 
American War under Sir William Howe, Lord 
Viscount Howe, and General Burgoyne, as given 
before a Committee of the House of Commons, 
London, 1779. 

Sparks wrote in his copy of the third edition of 
the Detail and Conduct of the American War, that 
" its principal object was to attack and injure the 
characters of Sir William Howe, Lord Howe, and 
General Burgoyne, and that the facts are every- 
where distorted, opinions perverted by prejudice 
and a vindictive spirit, and the representations 
extravagant and often false." 

Further examination of these charges against 
Howe and of the conduct of the campaign at large 
will be found in Smyth's Modern History, lecture 
34; Gordon's American Revolution, ii. ; An- 
drews's Late War, ii. ch. 26 ; Murray's War in 
America ; Adolphus's England, ii. ch. 31 ; Lives 
of Washington by Marshall and Irving ; Histories 
of the United States by Bancroft, ix. ch. 23, and 
Hildreth, iii. ch. 37 ; Lossing's Field-Book ; Sar- 
gent's Life of Andrd, ch. 7. 

Bancroft, i^. ch. 16 and 18, gives an account of 
the preparations made in England for the cam- 


paigu of 1777. Arthur Lee writes to Congress 
of the British plans. Diplomatic Correspond- 
ence, ii. 35. 

Maps. — American Atlas, No. 12, dated 1771, 
and John Andrews's Map of the Colonies for 
1777 in the same. Hall's American War has a 
map of the campaign, 1776-1777. Mellish and 
Tanner's Seat of War in America. Montresor's 
Province of New York, Pennsylvania, etc., 1777. 
Evans's Middle British Colonies, extended by 
Pownall, 1776. Saulthier's Province of New York, 
made for Gov. Tryon, 1777, published by Faden, 
1779, is reproduced in Documentary History of 
New York, i. Faden's Map of New Jersey, Dec. 
1, 1777. The Gentleman's Magazine, Dec. 1777, 
has a map of the approaches to Philadelphia. 
Barber engraved a map showing a circuit of 
twenty -five miles about New York, in 1777 
There is a map in Howe's Narrative. 

Of the French maps may be named : Du Ches- 
noy's Theatre de la Guerre, 1775-1778. Beau- 
rain's Carte pour servir k I'intelligence de la 
Guerre, Paris, 1777. Brion de la Tour's Theatre 
de la Guerre, Paris, 1777, with one by Phelip- 
peaux, 1778, pour servir de suite. Bourgoin's 
Theatre de la Guerre, Paris. 

There is a contemporary German map in the 
Geschichte der Kriege in und aus Europa, Nurem 
berg, 1776. 


Howe evacuates Jersey, 1777. 

After the spring opened, the British commander 
endeavored, without success, to draw Washington 
into a battle, and finally withdrew all his forces 
from the Jerseys. Irving's Washington, iii. 
ch. 8 ; Graydon's Memoirs ; Bancroft, ix. ch. 20 ; 
Greene's Life of Greene, i. ; Graham's Life of 
Morgan ; Life of Timothy Pickering, i. ; Eel- 
king's Die Deutsche Hiilfstruppen. 

In Connecticut and Rhode Island, 1777. 

In April an expedition under Gov. Tryon in- 
vaded Connecticut from the Sound to destroy the 
American stores at Danbury. This object was 
accomplished, but the British were vigorously pur- 
sued to their ships. Leake's Life of General 
Lamb, ch. 11, with a plan ; Teller's History of 
Ridgefield ; Deming's Oration at the Dedication 
of the Wooster Monument in 1854 ; Stuart's Life 
of Jonathan Trumbull, ch. 27 ; Hollister's Con- 
necticut, ii. ch. 12; Dwight's Travels in New 
England, iii. ; Hinman's Historical Collections ; 
Marshall's Washington, which account is exam- 
ined by E. D. Whittlesey in the New York His- 
torical Society's Collections, ii. ; Irving's Wash- 
ington, iii. ch. 5 ; Sparks's Washington, iv. 404 ; 
Lossing's Field-Book, p. 407. The English ac- 
count will be found in Stedman, ch. 14, and a 
loyalist one in Jones s New York in the Revolu' 


tionary War, i. Dawson, in his Battles of the 
United States, ch. 18, gives the authorities and 
illustrative documents. 

In July the British General Prescott was cap- 
tured in Rhode Island by a party led by Lieut. 
Col. Barton. Cf . the histories of Rhode Island ; 
Force's American Archives, 4th series, iv. ; Di- 
man's Address, with a map, on the centennial ob- 
servance of the event. 

Burgoyne's Advance from Canada, May and June, 1777. 

In the campaign of 1776, the British had ad- 
vanced up Lake Champlain to Crown Point, 
which they held till, on the approach of winter, 
they returned to Canada. It was already ex- 
pected that Burgoyne would conduct the next 
campaign over the same ground. Cf. Force's 
American Archives, index of the various volumes, 
under Burgoyne, Canada, and Carleton. Bur- 
goyne returned to England, and drew up a plan 
of operations, which is in the Gentleman's Maga- 
zine, April, 1778 ; and in the Appendix of Fon- 
blanque's Burgoyne, with the King's comments 
on it, which are also printed from a manuscript 
in the royal hand, in Albemarle's Rockingham 
and his Contemporaries, ii. 330. Lord George 
Germain's instructions to Gen. Carleton relative 
to Burgoyne's movements are in the Gentleman's 
Magazine, Feb. 1778. 

Burgoyne arrived at Quebec May 6th. Los- 


sing's Schuyler, ii. 194. What of preparation 
had taken place or was made up to the time of the 
advance, is shown in the lives of Baron Riedesel 
and the Baroness Riedesel; Anburey's Travels; 
Hilliard d'Auberteuil's Essais historiques, ii. ; 
Schlozer's Briefwechsel, Th. iii. pp. 2T, 321 ; Th. 
iv. p. 288, etc. Also see Bancroft, ix. ch. 21, who 
gives much information regarding the German 
material among the troops, and the recruiting of 
them in Germany, ch. 18. This matter has spe- 
cial treatment in Kapp's Der Soldatenhandel 
Deutscher Fiirsten nach Amerika; and in Eel- 
king's Die Deutsche Hiilfstruppen in Nord Amer- 
ika, where is a list of manuscript journals, to 
which access was had ; and in ch. 4 there is an 
account of these preparations in Canada. 

The proclamation issued by Burgoyne June 
23d, to induce the adhesion of the country people, 
is given in the Appendix to Fonblanque's Bur- 
goyne ; in the Gentleman's Magazine, Aug. 1777 ; 
in F. Moore's Diary of the Revolution ; in Riede- 
sel's Memoirs ; in Niles's Principles and Acts ; in 
the Proceedings of the New York Historical So- 
ciety, Jan. 1872 ; and there are accounts of it in 
Anburey's Travels ; in Lossing's Schuyler, ii. ; 
and in Thacher's Military Journal. 

June 26th, Burgoyne reached Crown Point, 
and, generally, for the early stages of the ad- 
vance, see Fonblanque's Burgoyne ; Riedesel'a 
Memoirs ; Lossing's Schuyler, ii. ; Bancroft, ix. 


ch. 21 ; Irving's Washington, iii. ch. 9 ; Palmer'? 
Lake Champlain, ch. 8 ; De Costa's Lake George, 
and his Narrative of Events at Lake George, 

The fight at Diamond Island is described in the 
New England Historical and Genealogical Regis- 
ter, April, 1872, p. 150. 

In the meanwhile the preparations which Schuy- 
ler was making to oppose Burgoyne are detailed 
in Lossing's Schuyler, ii. ch. 7. The dispute of 
command with Gates had finally resulted ii? 
Schuyler's being confirmed in the charge of mili- 
tary operations in the northern department. May 
22d, and Gates journeyed to Philadelphia to lay 
his grievances before Congress. Irving's "Wash- 
ington, iii. ch. 3. 

Ticonderoga evacuated, Jiily 6, 1777. 

For the arrangements which had been made 
for the defense, see Force's American Archives, 
6th series, i., ii., and iii., and Lossing's Schuyler. 
St. Clair was in command. Burgoyne seized and 
fortified the summit of Mount Defiance, which 
had been thought inaccessible to artillery, and this 
movement rendering the post untenable, Ticon- 
deroga was evacuated in the night. 

Burgoyne's letter on the capture was printed in 
the Gentleman's Magazine, Aug. 1777. Fon- 
'olanque's Burgoyne, p. 248, and Dawson's Bat- 
tles of the United States. Cf. Anburey's Travels, 
letter 30. 


St. Clair explained the necessity he was undet 
in a letter to Washington, in Sparks's Correspond- 
ence of the Revolution, i. 400, and in ii. App. 2, 
there are various letters from St. Clair and others. 
Dawson also gives St. Clair's account. The dis- 
heartenment through the colonies was general. 
Wells's Samuel Adams, ii. ch. 45, and the letter, 
Aug. 7th, of the Committee of Congress to the 
Commissioners in France, in the Diplomatic Cor- 
respondence, i. 315. St. Clair was tried by 
court-martial and acquitted. The papers used are 
among the Sparks MSS. in Harvard College 

In general, on this event, see Sparks's Wash- 
ington, V. ; Heath Papers in Massachusetts His- 
torical Society's Collections, 5th series, iv. 65 ; 
Wilkinson's Memoirs, ch. 4 and 5 ; Gen. Hull's 
Revolutionary Services, ch. 7 ; Orderly-Book of 
the Northern Army at Ticonderoga, with Notes, 
published by Munsell, 1859 ; Dawson's Battles, 
ch. 20 ; Lossing's Field-Book, and his Schuyler ; 
Van Rensselaer's Essays ; Jay's Life of Jay, i. 
74 ; Sparks's Gouverneur Morris, i. ch. 8 ; J. C. 
Hamilton's Life of Hamilton, i. 79, 91, and Ham- 
ilton's Works, i. 31 ; Sedgwick's Livingston, p. 
233 ; Palmer's Lake Champlain ; De Costa's Fort 
George ; Watson's Essex County, ch. 11 ; Smith's 
History of Pittsfield, Massachusetts, i. 282 ; His- 
torical Magazine, Dec. 1862, July, 1867, Aug. 
1869 ; Rev. Lewis Kellogg's Historical Discourse, 
Whitehall, 1847. 


Maps. — A large plan of the works and topog- 
raphy of the neighboring ground, at the time of 
Abercrombie's attack, nineteen years before, is 
fiven in the Documents relative to the Colonial 
tlistory of New York, x. 726. A copy of the 
map used at St. Clair's trial is in the Sparks 
Collection, Cornell University. Palmer's Lake 
Champlain has a map dated Aug. 1776. 

Hubbardton, Vermont, July 7, 1777. 

A part of the Americans, retreating from Ti- 
conderoga, was overtaken by Generals Fraser 
and Riedesel, and defeated. Wilkinson's Me- 
moirs, ch 5 ; Lossing's Schuyler, ii. 223, and his 
Field-Book, i. 145; Dawson's Battles, i. ch. 20, 
giving the authorities ; Carrington's Battles, ch. 
45 ; Amos Churchill's History of Hubbardton, 
1855; Henry Clark's Historical Address, 1859; 
and the histories of Vermont. 

A journal by Enos Stone is in the New Eng- 
land Historical and Genealogical Register, Oct. 
1861. Ebenezer Fletcher was wounded and taken 
prisoner, and he printed at Windsor, 1813, a Nar- 
rative of his Captivity. 

Burgoyne's Narrative gives the British account. 

Maps. — In Burgoyne and Carrington. 

Mvirder of Miss McCrea, July 27, 1777. 

This event, as evincing the untrustworthy alli- 
lince of the Indians, whom Burgoyne had joined 


to his army, and as being the subject of much 
agitation in England and America, was of impor- 
tance in the progress of the war. A Life of Jane 
McCrea, by D. Wilson, was privately printed in 
New York, 1853, and there is an account of her 
in Mrs. Ellet's Women of the American Revolu- 
tion, ii. Cf. Lossing's Schuyler, ii. 250, and his 
Field-Book, i. ; Stone's Life of Brant, i. 203 ; 
Irving's Washington, iii. ch. 14 ; Asa Fitch's 
account in the New Jersey Historical Society's 
Proceedings, reprinted in the Revolutionary Me- 
morials, edited by Stephen Dodd ; W. L. Stone in 
Historical Magazine, April, 1867 ; in Galaxy, Jan. 
1867, the last reprinted in Beach's Indian Miscel- 
lany ; and the Appendix to Stone's Burgoyne's 
Campaign. See also Ruttenber's Hudson River 
Indians, p. 273. 

Her fate is the subject of a story. Miss Mac 
Rea, by Hilliard d'Auberteuil. 

The opposition in England to the employment 
of Indians by Burgoyne showed itself in Burke's 
speech, Feb. 6, 1778. Cf. Parliamentary His- 
tory ; Gentleman's Magazine, March, 1778 ; 
McKnight's Burke, ii. 213 ; Walpole and Mason 
Correspondence, i. 335 ; Fonblanque's Burgoyne. 

Port Stanwix and Oriskany, August, 1777. 

A part of the British plan of the northern cam- 
paign was to send a force of British, Hessians, and 
Indians, under St. Leger, by way of Oswego, to 



capture Fort Stanwix (or Fort Schuyler, as some- 
times called), and then to follow down the Mo- 
hawk valley, hoping to unite with Burgoyne at 
Albany. For the preliminaries, see Stone's Life 
of Brant, i. ; and for condition of affairs, see 
Force's American Archives, 5th series, i., ii., iii. 
Col. Gansevoort commanded at Stanwix, and St. 
Leger laid siege to it Aug. 3d. Gen. Herkimer, 
with the militia, advanced to raise the siege, and 
the somewhat doubtful conflict which ensued is 
known as the Battle of Oriskany, fought Aug. 

American Accounts. — Gordon gives some de- 
tails from eye-witnesses. Dwight picked up vari 
ous anecdotes about the field in 1799, which are 
given in his Travels, iii. The best of the later 
accounts are in the elder W. L. Stone's Life of 
Brant, i. ch. 10 and 11, and in the younger Stone's 
Campaign of Burgoyne and Expedition of St. 
Leger, 1877. Other narratives are in Lossing's 
Schuyler, ii. 273, and Field-Book, i. ; Hull's Rev- 
olutionary Services, ch. 8 ; Irving's Washington, 
iii. ch. 15 ; Bancroft's United States, ix. 378 ; 
Dawson's Battles, ch. 21, where various contem^ 
porary documents will be found ; Benton's Her- 
kimer County, ch. 5 ; Campbell's Tryon County, 
ch. 4 ; Harper's Monthly, xxiii. 327, by T. D. 
English ; Magazine of American History, Nov. 
1877 ; E. H. Roberts's Address, 1877. 

British Accounts. — St. Leger's account is in 


the Gentleman's Magazine, Marcli, 1778, in the 
Appendix to Burgoyne's State of the Expedition, 
and in the Appendix to Roberts's Address. The 
Annual Register, 1777, is followed in Andrews's 
History. Almon's Parliamentary Debates, viii., 
gives some details. Beatson's Naval and Military 
Memoirs, vi. 69. 

St. Leger still continued the siege, but retreated 
on the approach of Arnold, Aug. 22d, with a force 
dispatched by Schuyler. Lossing's Schuyler, ii. ; 
Irving's Washington, iii. ch. 16 and 17 ; Journals 
of the Provincial Congress, i. ; Sparks's Corre- 
spondence of the Revolution, ii. 518. 

Maps. — Fort Stanwix, with a topographical 
map of the surrounding country, in 1758, is in 
the Documentary History of New York, iv. 325, 
326. A plan of the fort, in its relation to the 
modern town of Rome, is given in the English 
translation of Pouchot's Late War in North Amer- 
ica, edited by F. B. Hough, p. 207. Plans of the 
siege will be found in Lossing's Field-Book, i. 
249 ; Campbell's Tryon County ; Stone's Life of 
Brant, i. 230. A copy of Lieutenant Fleury's 
plan is in the Sparks Collection at Cornell Uni- 

Bermington, August 16, 1777. 

Burgoyne, in order to secure forage and destroy 
the stores which the Americans had accumulated 
at Bennington, as well as to encourage the loyal- 
ists, sent a force of Hessians, under Col. Baum, 


towards that place. He was met by Stark with a 
force of Green Mountain, New Hampshire, and 
Massachusetts troops, and routed. The British 
supports under Breyman were likewise driven 

Burgoyne's original instructions to Baum are 
preserved in the cabinet of the Massachusetts 
Historical Society, and are printed in their Col- 
lections, ii., and in W. L. Stone's Burgoyne's 
Campaign, App. 3. 

American Accounts. — Lincoln communicated 
the first accounts to Schuyler, who transmitted 
them to Washington. Sparks's Correspondence 
of the Revolution, i. 425. Stark's dispatch is 
given in Dawson's Battles. An account, by the 
Rev. Mr. Allen, was printed in the Connecticut 
Courant, Aug. 25, 1777, and is reprinted in App. 
F of Smith's History of Pittsfield, Mass. 

In 1848 there was delivered before the legis- 
lature of Vermont an address on the battle of 
Bennington, by James D. Butler, which was 
printed in 1849, together with an account of the 
life and services of Col. Warner, by George 
Frederick Houghton. Professor Butler's address, 
says the author, " contains original testimonies of 
witnesses now long dead, and notes from papers 
since burned in the Vermont State House." 

Reminiscences by participants are given in the 
App. of W. L. Stone's Burgoyne's Campaign. 
Documents illustrating the part taken by Ver- 


mont in resisting Burgoyne's invasion are in the 
Vermont Historical Society's Collections, 1870, 
p. 161. Wilkinson's Memoirs, i. eh. 5. 

Later Accounts. — Bancroft, ix. eh. 22. Irving's 
Washington, iii. ch. 16. Lossing's Schuyler, ii. 
ch. 14 ; his Field-Book, i., and article in Harper's 
Monthly, v. Dawson's Battles, ch. 22, and his 
account in the Historical Magazine, May, 1870. 
Carrington's Battles, p. 334. Hall's and other 
histories of Vermont. Holland's Western Massa- 
chusetts, ch. 15. Smith's History of Pittsfield, 
Mass., i. 293. Lives of Stark, by Caleb Stark, 
Edward Everett, and others. Jennings's Memo- 
rials of a Century. Letters in the New England 
Historical and Genealogical Register, April, 1860. 
Chipman's Life of Seth Warner, and the account 
of Warner's share in the battle, in Historical 
Magazine, iv. 268. Harper's Monthly, xxi. 325, 
also Aug. 1877. Albert Tyler's address on Ben- 
nington before the Worcester Society of An- 
tiquity. Noah Smith's speech at Bennington, 
in the Vermont Historical Society's Collections, 
1870. F. W. Coburn's Centennial History of 

De Lancey (Jones's New York in the Revolu- 
tionary War, i. 685) has a note on the forces 

A Bennington Historical Society was formed 
in 1876 for the purpose of commemorating the 


British and Hessian Accounts. — Burgoyne's 
dispatch is given in Dawson. Cf. Fonblanque'a 
Burgoyne, p. 271, and his Narrative, with evi- 
dence as laid before Parliament. Riedesel in 
part controverts Burgoyne's statement in his Me- 
moirs, i. 259, and in the App. p. 299, there are 
some Recollections of Bennington. Schlozer's 
Briefwechsel. Stedman's American War, i. ch. 

Maps. — In Burgoyne's Narrative; in Jen- 
nings's Memorials ; in Lossing's Field-Book ; in 
Carrington's Battles. There is a MS. plan among 
the Sparks MSS. in Harvard College Library. 

The Change in Command, August 19, 1777. 

A check had been given to the enemy at Oris- 
kany in the west, and he had been defeated at 
Bennington in the east. At this juncture, when 
Burgoyne felt the toils tightening about him, a 
change in the command allowed Gates to reap the 
fruits of victory. Schuyler has long since been 
acquitted of blame for his conduct of the cam- 
paign ; but a certain imperious manner and in- 
cautiousness of tongue had created a prejudice 
against him among the New England troops, and 
the change was perhaps a necessary one. The 
movement in behalf of Gates was assuming a 
political significance. ' Wells's Samuel Adams, ii. 
ch. 45 ; Sparks's Washington, v. 14 ; Sparks's 
Gouverneur Morris, i. 138. Bancroft, is., holds 


Schuyler in some measure responsible for the 
misfortunes of the early part of the campaign, 
Schuyler, however, has earnest defenders in 
George L. Schuyler's Correspondence and Re- 
marks upon Bancroft's History of the Northern 
Campaign, 1777 ; and in Lossing's Schuyler, ii. 
325. Cf. Sparks's Washington, iii. 535 ; Head- 
ley's Washington and his Generals ; American 
Historical Record, April, 1873 ; Magazine of Amer- 
ican History, Feb. 1877, by J. W. De Peyster. 

W. L. Stone has a paper on Schuyler's faithful 
Bpy in the Magazine of American History, July, 

Gates reached headquarters Aug. 19th, and com- 
municated with Washington Aug. 22d. Sparks's 
Correspondence of the Revolution, i. 427. Cf. 
Irving's Washington, iii. ch. 12 ; Hamilton's Re- 
public of the United States, i. 306. 

A portrait of Gates, after a pencil-sketch by 
Trumbull, is given in the Orderly-Book of the 
Northern Army at Ticonderoga. Other contem- 
porary likenesses are in Murray's War in Amer- 
ica, ii., and in An Impartial History of the War, 
London, 1780. 

Preeman's Farm, September 19, 1777. 

Sometimes called the first battle of Semis's Heights, or the battle o/ 

Stillwater. ) 

This was an effectual defense of the left wing 
»f the American army. General Wilkinson's Me- 



moirs, i. ch. 6, gives the best account of the action 
by any participant. Also see Headley's Wash- 
ington and his Generals, and Lossing's Schuyler, 
ii. ch. 19. Morgan, who, with his riflemen, had 
been sent by Washington to join Gates, did much 
to increase the power of the American army dur- 
ing the rest of this campaign, and his career can 
be examined in Graham's Life of Morgan, ch. 7-9. 

See the account in Burgoyne's Narrative; in 
Fonblanque's Burgoyne; in Col. Carrington's 
Battles of the American Revolution, ch. 46. Daw- 
son, ch. 25, treats this and the action of Oct. 7th 
in^ one continuous narrative, with copious refer- 
ences and illustrations of official dispatches, etc. 
Cf. Lossing's Field-Book. 

A panoramic view of the position of Burgoyne's 
army after this battle is given in Anburey's 

Bancroft, ix. 410, cites the authorities to show 
that Arnold was not present, as often represented. 

Robert Lowell read a poem, Burgoyne's Last 
March, at the centennial celebration of this battle, 
Sept. 19, 1877. 

Maps. — In Burgoyne's Narrative ; in Carring- 
ton's Battles. 

Sept. 27th, Burgoyne sent Captain Scott to 
ppen communication with Sir Henry Clinton, who 
was now ascending the Hudson to cooperate, 
Scott's journal is given in Fonblanque's Bur- 
goyne, p. 287. 


Bemis's Heights, or Saratoga, October 7, 1777. 

Burgoyne advanced with a strong force to cover 
foraging parties and to reconnoitre the American 
position. He was attacked sharply and driven 
back. The Lives of Arnold indicate his important 
share in this success. Cf. Magazine of American 
History, May, 1879, p. 310. There is a mono- 
graph on the battle by Neilson, and in his Appen- 
dix is the story of Woodruff, an eye-witness. Cf. 
Wilkinson's Memoirs ; Stone's Burgoyne's Cam- 
paign ; Hull's Revolutionary Services, ch. 10 ; 
Bowen's Life of Gen. Lincoln ; Creasy 's Decisive 
Battles of the World ; Irving's Washington, iii. 
ch. 22 ; Lossing's Schuyler, ii. ch. 20, and his 
Field-Book ; A. B. Street in the Historical Maga- 
zine, March, 1858. 

Silliman's account of his visit to the battlefield, 
is given in an Appendix to Stone's Burgoyne's 

Maps. — In Burgoyne's Narrative ; in Fon- 
blanque's Burgoyne ; in Stedman's American 
War ; in the Analectic Magazine, 1818 ; in Car- 
rington's Battles. 

In the night Burgoyne withdrew across the 
Fishkill and intrenched himself. Wilkinson's 
Memoirs, i. ch. 8, gives fac-similes of Burgoyne's 
letters to Gates, commending to the care of the 
victorious general his abandoned hospital and 
Lady Ackland, who sought her husband, Major 


Ackland, wounded, and in the American camp. 
The devotion of Lady Ackland is a pleasing epi- 
sode in all the accounts of this battle. See, con- 
cerning her, the Historical Magazine, ii. 121 ; 
Ellet's Women of the American Revolution ; and 
the portraits of her in Burgoyne's Orderly-Book, 
and in Bloodgood's Sexagenary. 

Burgoyne's Surrender, October 17, 1777. 

With his retreat cut off, his supplies exhausted, 
and an enemy much superior in numbers sur- 
rounding him, Burgoyne opened negotiations for 
a surrender. The council of war is described in 
Riedesel's Memoirs. The correspondence and 
convention papers are given by O'Callaghan in 
Burgoyne's Orderly-Book, and they are also in 
Stedman's American War, and in Dawson's Bat- 
tles, ch. 25. The original MS. of the Convention 
is in the New York Historical Society's Cabinet, 
and fac-similes of the signatures are given in 
Lossing's Field-Book, i. 79. 

General accounts of the surrender are in Wil- 
kinson's Memoirs, ch. 8 ; Bancroft, ix. ch. 24 ; 
Lossing's Schuyler, ii. ch. 21 ; Irving's Washing- 
ton, iii. 22 ; Blackwood's Magazine, Ixiii. ; Blood- 
good's Sexagenary ; Pennsylvania Archives, v. 

Loubat (Medallic History of the United States) 
describes the medal given to Gates. 

Burgoyne, while the guest of Schuyler in Al- 
bany, Oct. 20th, wrote a dispatch to his govern 


tnent, which is given in the Gentleman's Maga- 
zine, Dec. 1777; in Fonblanque's Life of Bur- 
goyne, p. 313, with other letters; in the Brief 
Examination of the Plan and Conduct of the 
Northern Expedition in America, 1777, London, 
1779 ; and in Dawson's Battles. Cf. Stanhope's 
History, vi. 207. Riedesel in his Memoirs com- 
ments on Burgoyne's dispatch. 

Maps. — The position of Burgoyne's army is 
shown in Burgoyne's Narrative ; Fonblanque's 
Burgoyne, p. 302 ; Carrington's Battles of the 
Revolution, p. 354. 

Strength of the Armies. — De Lancey, in his 
notes to Jones's New York in the Revolutionary 
War, i. 674, examines the question of the relative 
strength of the British and American armies in 
this campaign, with references to the authorities. 
The return of Gates's army, given in the Gates 
MSS. in the New York Historical Society, at the 
time of the Convention, shows a total of 11,098. 
Burgoyne printed in the Appendix of his Narra- 
tive a return, which he said Gates gave him, and 
it foots up 18,624. The difference may be ex- 
plained by the sick and furloughed men. Gor- 
don (American Revolution, ii. 578) gives 5,791 as 
the number of the British at the surrender ; but 
there are diversities in the statements, as De 
Lancey shows. 

The Convention Troops. — The captured army 
became known by this designation during theif 
subsequent detention till the close of the war. 


They were marched to Cambridge, Mass., under 
escort ; and in Anburey's Travels there is a map 
showing their line of march. At Cambridge the 
officers gave their parole to keep within defined 
limits, the English and Germans signing separate 
papers. The originals of these are now in the 
Public Library of Boston. They are printed in 
Burgoyne's Orderly-Book. For the reception of 
the troops, see Heath's Memoirs, p. 134. Of their 
stay in Cambridge, there are particulars in Schlo- 
zer's Briefwechsel, Th. iv. 341, etc. ; in Riedesel's 
Memoirs, ii. ; in Madame Riedesel's Memoirs ; in 
Lossing's Field-Book; in Drake's Middlesex; in 
Eelking's Deutsche Hiilfstruppen, ch. 9. Nathan 
Bowen's Bo.ok of General Orders during the so- 
journ of the troops in Cambridge was copied in 
part by S. G. Drake, and his copy is in the Pub- 
lic Library of Boston. 

Col. Henley, an American officer of the guard, 
was accused by Burgoyne of ill-treatment of the 
Convention troops ; and the account of Henley's 
trial, London, 1778, shows glimpses of the camp 
life and traits of Burgoyne's character. This trial 
is epitomized in P. W. Chandler's American 
Criminal Trials, ii. Various letters relating to 
the Convention troops at this time will be found in 
Sparks's Washington, v., and in Heath's Memoirs. 

Burgoyne returned to England on parole, and 
sat in Parliament while still unexchanged. Fon- 
blanque's Burgoyne and Macknight's Burke, ii. 
ch. 30. 


The difficulties of provisioning the troops in 
Cambridge, and the apprehension lest the British 
should attempt their rescue, induced Congress to 
order their removal to Virginia, Anburey gives 
a map of their route in Nov. 1778. Accounts of 
their sojourn in Virginia are given in Anburey, 
Riedesel, and Eelking ; the Bland papers, edited 
by Campbell ; Jefferson's Writings, i. 212 ; Lives 
of Jefferson by Tucker, i. ch. 5 ; by Randall, i. 
232, 285; and by Parton, p. 222. Howison's 
History of Virginia, ii. 250. Cf. Pennsylvania 
Archives, ix. ; and in vi. 162, the Report of Con- 
gress, Jan. 8, 1778, on the breach of the Con- 
vention by the British. 

Charles Deane, in the Council Report of the 
American Antiquarian Society, Oct. 1877, exam- 
ined the tortuous course of Congress in carrying 
out the provisions of the Convention of Surren- 
der ; and this question is further discussed by G. 
W. Greene in the Magazine of American History, 
April, 1879. Cf. also Stanhope's History of Eng- 
land, vi. 194 ; Jones's New York in the Revolu- 
tionary War, i., with De Lancey's note, p. 698. 

General Views of Burgoyne's Campaign, 1777. 

American Accounts. — Gen. Lincoln gives an 
account of his experiences in a letter in Sparks's 
Correspondence of the Revolution, ii. 533. Cf. 
Bo wen's Life of Lincoln, and the account in Head- 
\ey'8 Washington and his Generals. Dr. Thacher 


was with the army, and his Military Journal gives 
frequent records. The reminiscences of Col. Seth 
Warner are in the Historical Magazine, July, 
1860. The part borne by Col. Brooks of Massa- 
chusetts is shown in the Massachusetts Historical 
Society's Proceedings, Sept. 1864 ; and there are 
other details under Feb. 1858. F. Kidder's First 
New Hampshire Regiment follows that regiment 
through the campaign. Gates's own papers are 
in the New York Historical Society's Cabinet. 
Wilkinson was selected to carry the news of the 
surrender to Congress, and his Memoirs give the 
experiences and observations of a staff officer. 
Bloodgood's Sexagenary details the experiences of 
the country people on the line of Burgoyne's 
march. Various papers, including Armstrong's 
letters, are in the Sparks MSS. in Harvard Col- 
lege Library. 

The correspondence of the Committee of Con- 
gress with the Commissioners in France regarding 
the effects of the surrender, is in the Diplomatic 
Correspondence, i. 338, 355. Cf. Stuart's Life of 
Jonathan Trumbull. 

There are accounts, more or less full, in Gor- 
don ; Ramsay ; Bancroft, ix. ; Hildreth, iii. ch. 
36 ; J. C. Hamilton's Republic of the United 
States, i. ; Marshall's Washington, iii. ch. 5 ; Ir- 
ving's Washington, iii. ; Thaddeus Allen's Orig- 
ination of the American Union ; Hollister's Con- 
necticut, ii. ch. 14 ; Dunlap's New York, ii. ch. 8 


McAlpine's Memoirs, 1788 ; Stone's Life of Brant ; 
Mrs. Bonney's Historical Gleanings, i. 58 ; and 
the Lives of Gates, Schuyler, Lincoln, and Ar- 

Samuel Woodruff, a participant, gave Stone 
some reminiscences, which are included in the 
Life of Brant, i. 475. 

Neilson, son of an old resident of Saratoga, 
contemporary with the events, and himself fa- 
miliar with the ground on which the battles of 
Sept. 19th and Oct. 7th were fought, published a 
monograph, Burgoyne's Campaign. 

The younger W. L. Stone published, 1877, a 
new study on The Campaign of Lieutenant-Gen- 
eral Burgoyne, in which he gives a bibliography 
of the subject. He has also printed a short his- 
tory of the Saratoga Monument Association. 

Magazine Papers. — Harper's Monthly, Iv. ; 
Historical Magazine, Jan. 1869, by J. Watts De 
Peyster ; Magazine of American History, May, 
1877, by E. H. Walworth; Galaxy, Nov. 1876, 
by J. T. Headley, on Burgoyne's Orderly-Book. 

Commemorative Addresses. — N. B. Sylves- 
ter's Saratoga and Hay-ad-ros-se-ra, July 4, 1876 ; 
George G. Scott's Saratoga County ; J. S. L'Amo- 
reaux's at Ballston Spa, July, 1876 ; Edward F. 
Bullard's at Schuylerville, July 4, 1876 ; J. A. 
Stevens's Burgoyne's Campaign ; Geo. W. Cur- 
tis's Address ; H. C. Maine's Burgoyne Cam- 

154 READER'S HANDBOOK 01 [1777 

Lai}dmar'k8. — Lossing's Field-Book, and hia 
Book of the Hudson. 

British Accounts. — The Gentleman's Maga- 
zine, Oct. 1777, p. 472, warned the public of the 
diflBculties Burgoyne must expect to encounter. 
Lord Shelburne (Fitzm amice's Shelbume, i. 358) 
intimates that Burgoyne's disaster arose from 
Lord George Sackville's dilatoriness in not send- 
ing instructions to Howe to cooperate up the Hud- 
son. Fonblanque's Burgoyne, p. 233. 

Burgoyne underwent examination, and pro- 
duced his witnesses before Parliament, May, 1779, 
and the documents are given in the Parliamentary 
Register. The Gentleman's Magazine chronicled 
the progress of the examination from month to 
month. Cf. Annual Register, xxi. 168 ; Russell's 
Life of Fox, and his Memoirs and Correspondence 
of Fox, i. 176. Burgoyne printed his statement 
in Parliament, with the evidence, in his State of 
the Expedition from Canada, London, 1780. Some 
copies have a supplement of the Orders issued by 
Burgoyne, and these Orders were privately re- 
printed in New York in 1865. This account is 
substantially followed in Fonblanque's Life of 
Burgoyne, eh. 6. 

Burgoyne had already defended himself in a 
Letter to his Constituents, London, 1779, which 
elicited a Reply, the same year. 

Portraits of Burgoyne are given in the Polit« 
Ical Magazine, Dec. 1780 ; Fonblanque's Bur- 


goyne (painted 1750) ; Andrews's Late War, ii. 
382 ; Murray's War in America, ii. ; Burgoyne's 
Orderly-Book ; Bloodgood's Sexagenary. 

The testimony of the Earl of Balcarras and 
other officers is in the Conduct of the American 

Burgoyne charged the loyalists and Indians 
with failure to support him, and this charge is 
answered in a paper printed by De Lancey in the 
App. of Jones's New York in the Revolutionary 
War, i. 683 ; and pp. 198-218 will be found a 
very good account of the campaign, with loyalist 
sympathies, and deprecatory criticism of the mil- 
itary conduct of it on the part of the British gen- 

Contemporary Narratives. — Sergeant Lamb's 
Journal of Occurrences, the record of a subaltern 
of the Fusiliers. An English diary in the Maga- 
zine of American History, Feb. 1878. A MS. 
journal of Lieutenant Hadden is in the possession 
of General Horatio Rogers of Providence. 

General Histories. — Stedman, i. ch. 16 ; Stan- 
hope, ch. 56 ; Pictorial History of England. 

The effect of the surrender upon parties in 
England is shown in the Debates in Parliament , 
Macknight's Burke, ii. 202 ; Donne's Correspond- 
ence of George the Third and Lord North, ii. 
93, 111 ; the excerpts in Moore's Diary of the 
American Revolution, i. 525 ; Russell's Memoirs 
and Correspondence of Fox, i. 161 j Fitzmaurice'a 


ShelbuFDe, iii. 12 ; Walpole's Last Journals, ii. 
70 ; Fonblanque's Burgoyne, ch. 8 ; Madison's 
Writings, i. 31 ; Curwen's Journal, p. 175 ; Ban- 
croft, ix. 478. 

German Accounts. — Baron Riedesel, the Ger- 
man general accompanying Burgoyne, took excep- 
tions to the English commander's narrative as not 
doing justice to the auxiliary troops ; and the Leben 
und Wirken of General Riedesel, by Max von 
Eelking, translated by W. L. Stone, contains let- 
ters and reports. In Madame Riedesel's Memoirs, 
also translated by Stone, there is an abstract of 
her husband's account of the campaign, p. 94, etc. 
Eelking, in his Die Deutsche Hiilfstruppen, de- 
votes two chapters to this campaign, ch. 7 and 8. 
See also Remer's Amerikar^isches Archiv. Kapp's 
Soldatenhandel covers the organization of the 
German auxiliaries, and George W. Greene's 
German Element in the War for Independence, 
epitomizes Kapp's investigations in part. 

The Effect in France. — Jonathan Loring Aus- 
tin, dispatched by the Massachusetts authorities, 
carried the first intelligence. Cf. Boston Month- 
ly Magazine, July, 1826 ; Loring's Hundred Bos- 
ton Orators, p. 174; Barton's Franklin, ii. 283. 
The Baron de Schulenberg congratulated the 
Commissioners, writing from Berlin. Diplomatic 
Correspondence, ii. 120 ; and for Izard's letter, 
ii. 370. Robin's New Travels, letter 12, gives the 
general hearsay accounts prevalent during th« 
few following years. 


In Fiction. — Gleig's Saratoga, in bis Chelsea 
Pensioners ; D. P. Thompson's Rangers. 

Greneral Maps of the Campaign. — Burgoyne's 
Narrative, and also in his Orderly-Book. An- 
burey's Travels. Gordon's American Revolution. 
Neilson's Burgoyne's Campaign, whose map is 
reproduced as revised in W. L. Stone's Lieut. 
Gen. Burgoyne. Carrington's Battles, p. 312. 
Magazine of American History, May, 1877. 

Saulthier's survey of the inhabited part of 
Canada, with the frontiers of New York, was pub- 
lished in London by Faden in 1777. A map, 
after Saulthier's survey, showing the province of 
New York, with the old divisions of counties, 
manors, etc., covering the present Vermont, to- 
gether with New Jersey, was published at Augs- 
burg in 1777, and is reproduced in Jones's New 
York in the Revolution, i. Medcalfe's map of the 
country in which Burgoyne acted was engraved by 
Faden. Montresor's map, made in 1775, is in the 
American Atlas. The Faden Collection, in the 
Library of Congress, has various contemporary 
maps. There are maps also in Hilliard d'Auber- 
teuil's Essais historiques, ii. 

Clinton's Advance up the Hudson, October, 1777. 

Sir Henry Clinton moved up the Hudson with 
troops and vessels to open the navigation of it 
and to effect a junction with Burgoyne at Albany. 
He deceived Putnam by his strategy, and fell 


upon and took Forts Clinton and Montgomery, 
Oct. 6th. 

American Accounts. — Letters of Putnam and 
George Clinton in Sparks's Washington, v., App. 
p. 471 ; Correspondence of the Revolution, i. 438 ; 
ii. 536. Leake's Life of Samuel Lamb, who was 
a participant. Lossing's Schuyler, ii. ch. 20, and 
his Field-Book, ii. 165. Irving's Washington, iii. 
ch. 21. Sargent's Life of Andr^, p. 102. Ham- 
ilton's Republic of the United States, i. 321. 
Lives of Putnam by Humphreys and Tarbox. 
Dawson's Battles, i. ch. 28, who gives the dis- 
patches, and his paper in the National Repository, 
ii. Carrington's Battles. 

There is an account of the burning of Esopus, 
as the British pushed up the river, in the Ulster 
County Historical Society's Collections, i. 109. 

British Accounts. — Sir Henry Clinton's dis- 
patches are in Almon's Remembrancer, v., and in 
Dawson. A letter of his is in Rockingham and 
his Contemporaries, ii. 334. His annotations on 
the account in Stedman's American War, ch. 18, 
are printed by De Lancey in Jones's New York 
in the Revolutionary War, i. 704. 

Fonblanque, in his Life of Burgoyne, and other 
defenders of that general, trace his ill-success to 
the tardiness of this diversion. 

Maps. — Col. Palmer's plan of Fort Montgom- 
ery, 1776, in the New York Calendar of Historical 
Manuscripts, i. 474, and a sketch of the river ol> 


structions, p. 616 ; and ii. 298, a plan of the attack 
on the two forts, after Faden's plan. MS. plans 
are in the Sparks Collection at Cornell and at 
Harvard. Stedman's American War, ch. 1, follows 
the plan by John Hills, which was first published 
by Faden, June 1, 1784. Sparks's Washington, v. 
92. Leake's Life of Lamb. Boynton's History 
of West Point, with drawings of the river obstruc- 
tions. Lossing's Field-Book. Carrington's Bat- 

Howe's Campaign, 1777. 

Howe's obvious movement was to proceed up 
the Hudson and cooperate with Burgoyne ; but 
the spring and early summer wore away, and 
Washington was not satisfied of his intentions. 
See his letters in Sparks's edition of his Writings, 
iv. 442, 453, 501, 505 ; v. 42 ; and in the Heath 
Correspondence, Massachusetts Historical Society's 
Collection, 5th series, iv. In August, embarking 
18,000 troops on transports, Howe sailed for the 
Chesapeake, and, landing them at the Head of 
Elk, he began to advance towards Philadelphia. 
Jones's New York in the Revolutionary War, ii. 

General accounts of the campaign which ensued 
for the possession of Philadelphia, will be found 
in Gordon, Bancroft, Hamilton's Republic, i. ch. 
10 ; in Lives of Washington by Marshall, iii. ch. 3, 
and Irving ; Histories of Pennsylvania ; McSher- 
•y's Maryland, ch. 11 ; and various biographies, 


like Greene's Greene, Quincy's Shaw, ch. 3, etc. 
The Minutes of the Pennsylvania Board of War, 
March to August, are in Pennsylvania Archives, 
2d series, i. 

Brandywine, September 11, 1777. 

Washington had hastily marched his army 
through Philadelphia to the Brandywine, where 
he encountered Howe, Sept. 11th, but was driven 

American Accounts. — Washington's letters are 
in Sparks, v. 58, and in Dawson. Marshall is full 
on this part of Washington's career. Irving's 
Washington, iii. ch. 18. Gordon's American Rev- 
olution. Bancroft, ix. charges Sullivan with de- 
feating Washington's plans, and Sullivan is de- 
fended in Amory's Military Services of Gen. Sul- 
livan, p. 45. For charges against and defence of 
Sullivan, see Pennsylvania Historical Society, Bul- 
letin, i. Cf. also Sparks's Washington, v. 108 
and App. Johnson's Life of Nathanael Greene ; 
Greene's Greene, i. ch. 19. Muhlenberg's Life of 
Gen. Muhlenberg, ch. 3. Pennsylvania Historical 
Society's Proceedings, Sept. and Dec. 1846, and 
Memoirs, i. A letter written in 1820 by C. C. 
Pinckney, who was in Washington's military fam- 
ily at this time, is in the Historical Magazine, 
July, 1866. J. C. Hamilton's Life of Alexander 
Hamilton, who was at the time on Washington's 
staff. Pickering's Life of Timothy Pickering, L 


ch. 10. Reed's Life of Joseph Reed, i. ch. 15. 
Lafayette's Memoirs. Read's Life of George 
Read. Dawson's Battles, ch. 24. Carrington's 
Battles. Lossing's Field-Book. Hollister's Con- 
necticut, ii. ch. 16. Thaddeus Allen's Origina- 
tion of the American Union. Smith's Delaware 
County, p. 305. Lewis's History of Chester 
County. H. M. Jenkins in Lippincott's Maga- 
zine, XX. A pamphlet account by J. Townshend, 
1836. Some particulars of events following the 
battle are given in Read's George Read, p. 319. 

British and Hessian Accounts. — Howe's dis- 
patches are in Almon's Remembrancer, v. 409 ; 
and in Dawson. The evidence before Parliament 
regarding this battle is in The Conduct of the 
American "War. Stedman gives a clear account. 
For a statement of the breech-loading rifles used 
by the British, see Bisset's History of George the 
Third, ch. 19 and 25. 

Eelking's Deutsche Hiilfstruppen, ch. 6. Ban- 
croft quotes Ewald's Beyspiele Grosser Helden, 
as the story of an eye-witness to the well-guarded 
retreat of Washington ; but see, on the other hand, 
Du Portail in Stanhope's England, vi. App. 27. 

Maps. — Faden published, 1778, a map of the 
battle. MS. plans are in the Faden Collection in 
the Library of Congress, and one is in the Sparks 
Collection at Cornell. A large map of Pennsyl- 
vania, chiefly after Scull, 1770, was published by 

Bayer and Bennett, 1775, and the next year they 


issued a chart of the Chesapeake, after surveys of 
Anthony Smith. 

Later Plans of the Field. — Sparks's Washing- 
ton, V. 58 ; Marshall's Washington, v. ; Duer's 
Lord Stirling, ii. ; Lossing's Field-Book, ii. 377 ; 
Irving's Washington, iii. ; Hamilton's Grenadier 
Guards, ii. ; Carrington's Battles, 382 ; Bowen 
and Futhey's Sketch of the Battle. A large plan, 
with topography as surveyed in 1846, is in Penn- 
Bylvania Historical Society's Memoirs, i. 

PaoU, September 20, 1777. 

Washington, on his retreat, detached Wayne 
with a force to fall upon the enemy's rear. Howe 
sent, as a counter-movement. Gen. Grey, who sur- 
prised Wayne's camp at Paoli, and routed his de- 
tachment. Irving's Washington, iii. ch. 19 ; Lives 
of Wayne by Sparks and Moore ; Pennsylvania 
Magazine of History, i. 285. 

J/ajo. — Faden published, July 1, 1778, a Plan 
of the British Camp at TrudrufErin, Sept. 18-21, 
1777, with Grey's attack near White Horse Tav- 
ern, Sept. 20th. 

Philadelphia taken. September 27, 1777. 

Washington was unable to impede Howe's ad- 
v^ance, and the British general entered Philadel- 

American Accounts. — Bancroft, ix. ch. 28. 
Elildreth, iii. ch. 37. Lossing's Field-Book, ii, 


p. 302. Greene's Life of Greene, i. ch. 21. 
Drake's Life of Knox. Letter of Thomas Paine 
to Franklin, in the Pennsylvania Magazine of 
History, ii. 283. Memoirs of Col. Benj. Tal- 

Papers relating to the War, 1777-1781, in the 
Pennsylvania Archives, 1st series, v., and 2d se- 
ries, iii., for affairs in Philadelphia during Howe's 

British Accounts. — Sir William Howe's Narra 
tive. The Conduct of the American War. Ross's 
Life of Cornwallis. 

The catalogue of the Philadelphia Library 
Bhows, p. 1563, numerous proclamations of Howe. 

For the events of the British occupation, see 
Christopher Marshall's Diary; Robert Morton's 
Diary, in the Pennsylvania Magazine of History, 
No. 1 ; Sargent's Life of Andr^. W. B. Reed's 
Life of Esther Reed, p. 278. United Service 
Journal, 1852. 

The relations of the Quakers to Congress, and 
the arrest of some of them in Philadelphia, and 
their removal before the Americans left the city, 
are told in Gilpin's Exiles in Virginia. Cf. Penn- 
sylvania Archives, passim. 

Maps. — Sparks's Washington, v. QQ., gives a 
map to show all the movements of this campaign. 
See also Pennsylvania Archives, 2d series, iii. ; 
Hall's History of the Civil War, 1780; Gentle- 
rfian's Magazine, 1776 and 1777, and July, 1779, 


for Fisher's Chart of Delaware River, made in 
1776 ; Moore's Diary of the Revolution ; History 
of the Coldstream Guards; Moorsom's Fifty- 
Second Regiment. 

A plan of the city following the surveys of 
Scull and Heap was engraved by Faden in 1777 ; 
another after Eastburn's survey of 1776, and one 
after Hill's survey, were issued in Philadelphia in 

There are various MS. maps in the Faden Col- 
lection in the Library of Congress. 

Germantown, October 4, 1777. 

While a part of Howe's force was operating on 
the river below Philadelphia, Washington made a 
vigorous attack on that part of it encamped at 
Germantown, and was nearly successful. 

American Accounts. — Washington's letters are 
in Sparks, v. 86, 463 ; and in the Heath Papers, 
Massachusetts Historical Society's Collections, 
5th series, iv. 76. Marshall was in the fight, and 
gives a good account in his Washington, and 
so do Sparks, i., and Irving, iii. ch. 23. Custis's 
Recollections of Washington, ch. 4. Gordon used 
original authorities. Bancroft, ix. ch. 25, is con- 
troverted by Amory in his Military Services of 
Gen. Sullivan, p. 57, where a letter of Sullivan's 
is given. Lives of Greene by Johnson and 
Greene, i. ch. 21. Life of Timothy Picker- 
ing, i. ch. 11. A controversy, participated in 


by Johnson, Pickering, and Sparks, can be fol- 
lowed in the North American Review, April, 
1825, and October, 1826, and in National Intelli- 
gencer, Dec. 5, 1826, and Jan. 27 and Feb. 24, 
1827. Wilkinson's Memoirs, eh. 11. Life of Gen. 
Muhlenberg, ch. 4. Armstrong's Life of Wayne. 
Reed's Life of Joseph Reed, i. 319. Sargent's 
Andrd, p. 112. Lossing's Field-Book, and his ar- 
ticle in Harper's Monthly, i. 448. Dawson's Bat- 
tles, i. ch. 27. 

Jones in his New York in the Revolutionary 
War gives a loyalist's view. Col. John E. How- 
ard's Narrative is among the Sparks MSS. in 
Harvard College Library. Cf. Pennsylvania Ar- 
chives, V. 646. 

The centennial observance produced two ad- 
dresses: Judge Thayer's in the Weekly Times 
and separately, and Lambdin's in the Pennsyl- 
vania Magazine of History, i. 361. 

British Accounts. — Stedman's American War, 
i. ch. 15; Hamilton's Grenadier Guards, ii. 

Maps. — By John Hills, published March 12, 
1784, by Faden in London. A MS. plan by Mon- 
tresor is in Harvard College Library. Sparks's 
Washington, iv. 86. Guizot's Washington, atlas. 
Johnson's Greene, 4to edition, i. Duer's Life of 
StirHng, ii. 177. Lossing's Field-Book, ii. 314. 
Carrington's Battles, p. 392. 


Forts on the Delaware, October and November, 1777. 

Howe detached a force to cooperate with the 
fleet in reducing these forts and opening a passage 
to the sea. 

American Accounts. — Sparks's "Washington, v. 
112, 115, 151 ; Correspondence of the Revolution, 
ii. 12, 20; Marshall's Washington, i. 178; Irving's 
Washington, iii. ch. 24, 25, and 26. Gordon's 
American Revolution. Ramsay's American Rev- 
olution. Bancroft, ix. ch. 25. Life of Pickering, 
i. 174. Greene's Greene, i. ch. 22. Leake's Life 
of Lamb, including Knox's letter. Lee's Me- 
moirs. Williams's Life of Olney. Reed's Reed, 
i. ch. 16. Lossing's Field-Book. Dawson's Bat- 
tles, i. ch. 29 and 30. Carrington's Battles. 
Stone's Invasion of Canada, p. 75. Historical 
Magazine, Feb. 1872. The Minutes of the Penn- 
sylvania Navy Board, Feb. - Sept. 1777, are given 
in Pennsylvania Archives, 2d series, i. 73. 

British Accounts. — Howe's dispatches are in 
Almon's Remembrancer, v. 499. 

Particular narratives of the separate attacks 
will be found as follows : — 

Red Bank, or Fort Mercer, Oct. 22, 1777.— 
Reed's Reed, i. ; Pennsylvania Archives, v. ; Smith'a 
Delaware County, p. 321; and the Hessian au- 
thorities, Count Donop being killed at the time. 

Mud Island, or Fort Mifflin, Nov. 10-16, 1777 
— Bancroft, ix. 434, cites as the principal author- 


ities Fleury's Journal in Marshall, and in Sparks, 
V. 154 ; Varnum's and Col. Angell's letters in 
Co well's Spirit of 1776 in Rhode Island. Penn- 
sylvania Archives, v. 699, vi. Lieut. Col. Lau- 
rens's account in Frank Moore's Materials for 
History, 1861. Life of Pickering, i. 174. Tuck- 
erman's Com. Talbot. J. C. Hamilton's Republic 
of the United States, i. 297. Potter's American 
Monthly, Feb. 1877, with a view of the fortifica- 

Chastellux's Travels, English translation, i. 260, 
gives an account. 

Maps. — Fisher's chart of the river below Phil- 
adelphia, 1776, printed by Sayer and Bennett, is 
reproduced in Pennsylvania Archives, 2d series, 
iii., and is also given in Gentleman's Magazine, 
1778; also see 1779. Faden published a river 
chart showing the works in 1778. Sparks's 
Washington, v. 156. Lossing's Field-Book, ii. 
296. Carrington's Battles. Plans of Red Bank 
are in Smith's Delaware County, p. 321, and 
Pennsylvania Archives, v. 

MS. plans of Fort Mifflin are in the Sparks 
Collection, Cornell University. Plans for ob- 
structing the river are given in the Pennsylvania 
Archives, 2d series, i. 749. 

The Conway Cabal, 1777. 

When the surrender at Saratoga had encour- 
iiged the partisans of Gates to claim for him a 


still higher command, his alienation from Wash- 
ington showed itself in his hesitancy to return 
to the commander-in-chief some of the troops 
which had been sent to him in the season of his 
necessity. Hamilton was sent by Washington to 
urge these reinforcements. Hamilton's Works, i. 
37; Hamilton's Life of Hamilton, i. 100-113; 
Hamilton's Republic, i. 339; Irving's Washing- 
ton, iii. ch. 25. 

The movement to prejudice the public mind 
against Washington soon attracted attention, and 
Gates, Mifflin, and Conway, together with abet- 
tors in Congress, seemed to be the chief spirits at 
■work. Gordon implicates Samuel Adams in the 
conspiracy ; and J. C. Hamilton (Republic of the 
United States, i. ch. 13 and 14) is very severe on 
the Adamses in this connection. Mrs. Warren, 
however, held there was no sufficient ground to 
connect Samuel Adams with it ; and Wells (Life 
of Samuel Adams, ii. ch. 46) argues against the 
connection. Sparks (Washington, v. and App.) 
gives a series of documents elucidating the cabal ; 
and Stanhope (History of England, vi. 243) 
thinks Sparks " glides over too gently the par- 
ticipation of New Englanders." 

Lives of Washington by Mai'shall, iii. ch. 6, 
and Irving, iii. ch. 25, 28, 29, and 30. Bancroft, 
ix. ch. 27. Sparks's Gouverneur Morris, i. ch. 10. 
Greene's Life of Greene, i. 22; ii. 26 and 27. 
Kapp's De Kalb. Hamilton's Life of Hamilton, 


i. 128-163. Wirt's Patrick Henry, p. 208. 
Austin's Gerry, ch. 16. Reed's Joseph Reed, i. 
342. Wilkinson's Memoirs. Lossing's Schuyler, 
and his Field-Book, ii. 336. Dunlap's New York, 
ii. ch. 9. 

Col. Robert Troup's account is among the 
Sparks MSS. in Harvard College Library. 


WINTER OF 1777-1778. 

"Washington at Valley Forge, 1777-1778. 

After some desultory movements, which can 
be followed in Simcoe's Journal of the Queen's 
Rangers and Reed's Life of Joseph Reed, i., 
Washington hutted his army in winter quarters 
at Valley Forge in December. The winter's 
manoeuvres were wholly for foraging. Greene's 
Greene, i. ch. 24. Graham's Morgan, p. 191. 

For the trials and incidents of the camp life in 
general, see the following : Sparks's Washington, 
v., and the narrative in the App. Irving's Wash- 
ington, iii. ch. 27 and 31. Custis's Recollections 
of Washington, ch. 9. Sparks's Correspondence 
of the American Revolution, ii. ; Sparks's Gou- 
verneur Morris, i. ch. 9. Greene's Greene, i. 
ch. 24 and 25. Life of Timothy Pickering, i. 
200. Reed's Joseph Reed, ch. 17. Read's George 
Read, p. .326. Bancroft's United States, ix. 
ch. 27. T. Allen's Origination of the American 
Union, ii. Lossing's Field-Book, ii. 331. Mrs. 
EUet's Domestic History of the Revolution. Gen- 
eral Hull's Revolutionary Services, ch. 12. Col. 
T. W. Bean's Washington and Valley Forge. Col. 
Brooks's letter in Massachusetts Historical Soci- 


ety's Proceedings, Feb. 1874. Surgeon Waldo's 
Diary in Historical Magazine, May, 1861, and 
Letters, April, 1867. Potter's American Month- 
ly, May, 1875, and July, 1878. 

In January Washington addressed Congress as 
to the organization of the army. Hamilton's 
Works, ii. 139. Bancroft, ix. ch. 27, discloses 
the relations of Congress to the army. Congress 
instituted a Board of War, and its operations are 
followed in the Life of Timothy Pickering. Steu- 
ben, who had landed in Dec, was, May 5th, made 
inspector-general, and his influence in disciplin- 
ing the army is dwelt upon in Kapp's Life of 
Steuben ; and in ch. 8 Kapp examines the position 
of foreign officers in the Continental army. For 
Steuben, see Sparks's Washington, v. 526 ; Ir- 
ving's Washington, iii. ; Wells's Samuel Adams, iii. 
2 ; Bowen's Steuben ; Greene's German Element. 
Stuart's Life of Jonathan Trumbull throws 
light on the sending of supplies to the army ; and 
Greene's Life of Greene, ii. 48, shows the begin- 
ning of that general's services as quartermaster- 
general, having entered upon his duties in March. 

A scheme of sending an expedition to Canada 
under Lafayette is examined in Sparks's Wash- 
ington, V. 530; vi. 106, 114, 149; Marshall's 
Washington, iii. 568 ; Irving's Washington, iii. 
334 ; Life of John Jay, i. 83 ; Stone's Life of 
Brant, ch. 14. 

While at Valley Forge, Washington received 


a letter from the Rev. Jacob Ducb6, then in 
Philadelphia, making representation to induce 
him to lead the country back to dependence on 
Great Britain. Washington transmitted the let- 
ter to Congress, but Sparks could not find the 
original in the government archives, and printed 
it from Rivington's Gazette, in his Correspond- 
ence of the American Revolution, i. 448. See 
also Sparks's Washington, v. App. p. 477; a 
separate publication, entitled Washington at Val- 
ley Forge and the Duchd Correspondence ; Wil- 
son's Memoirs of Bishop White. 

Maps. — Sparks's Washington, v. 196. Guizot's 
Washington, atlas. Lossing's Field-Book, ii. Car- 
ringtou's Battles. Harper's Monthly, xii. 307. 
Plans are in the Sparks Collection at Cornell 

For the landmarks of Valley Forge, see Los- 
sing's Field-Book and the account from the Ohio 
State Journal, in Read's George Read, p. 326. 

Howe in Philadelphia, 1777-1778. 

Details of the winter life of the British in 
Philadelphia wiU be found in Sargent's Andrd, 
ch. 7, 8, and 9; Irving's Washington, iii. The 
account of the impressions of the Hessian Captain 
Henrick, as shown in Prof. Schlozer's Correspond- 
ence, iii., is translated in the Pennsylvania Maga- 
zine of History, No. 1. 

In Jan. the Americans sent down the river 


some torpedoes in the shape of kegs to destroy 
the British shipping. They failed of their pur- 
pose, but gave rise to a humorous poem by Hop- 
kinson, The Battle of the Kegs. See Lossing's 
Field-Book, ii., and Moore's Songs and Ballads of 
the Revolution. 

In the spring various foraging parties scoured 
the surrounding country. Cf. Simcoe's Journal 
of the Queen's Rangers, with a map of the affair 
at Quintin's Bridge, March 18th. Dawson's Bat- 
tles, ch. 33, etc. Lossing's Field-Book, ii. 314, 
etc. Stedman's American War, ii. Johnson's 
History of Salem, New Jersey. 

Washington in the spring had advanced Lafay- 
ette with a corps of observation to Barren Hill, 
and Howe endeavored to cut him off. Irving's 
Washington, iii. ch. 33. Sparks's Washington, 
v. 378, 545, with a map. 

In May Sir William Howe returned to Eng- 
land, leaving Sir Henry Clinton in command. 
Tory arraignments of Howe's conduct in America 
are given in Jones's New York in the Revolution- 
ary War, i. 252, 714; in the Life of Peter van 
Schaack, p. 167 ; and also in Galloway's Examina- 
tion before Parliament. Cf. Bancroft, x. 120. 

The Mischianza. — This was a festival. May 
18th, given in honor of Howe on his departure. 
Andr^ described it. Cf. Gentleman's Magazine, 
4ug. 1778 ; Lady's Magazine, Philadelphia, Aug. 
1792; Sargent's Andr^, 165; Jones's New York 

174 READER'S .lANDBOOK OF [1777 

In the Revolutionary War, i. 242, 718 ; Annual 
Register, 1778, p. 264 ; F. Moore's Diary of the 
American Revohition, p. 52; Bland Papers, i. 90 ; 
Watson's Annals of Philadelphia ; Lossing's Field- 
Book, ii. 303 ; Mrs. EUet's Domestic History of 
the Revolution ; Smith and Watson's American 
Historical and Literary Curiosities. 

Israel Mauduit published Strictures on the Mis- 
chianza, London, 1779. 

Major Clark communicated to Washington in- 
telligence of the enemy in Philadelphia, during 
the occupation, Oct. - Dec. 1777, and his letters 
are in the Pennsylvania Historical Society's Me- 
moirs, i. 


EVENTS OF 1778. 

American Diplomacy in Continental Europe. 

Benjamin Feanklin was the central figure oi 
the American Commissioners in Paris, who were 
awaiting the development of events to press an 
alliance upon the French government. Franklin's 
Works, i. 434; viii. 229. Sparks's Franklin, 
ch. 10, and ch. 11 for the efforts of the British 
emissaries to win him; and'on this latter point see 
also Parton's Franklin, ii. 321, and John Adams's 
Works, iii. 178, 220. Bigelow's Life of Frank- 
lin. Diplomatic Correspondence of the Revolu- 
tion, iii. Elkanah Watson's Memoirs. Thomas 
Hughes on the English estimate of Franklin in 
Lippincott's Magazine, July, 1879. John Adams 
gives an equivocal estimate of Franklin's fitness 
for his position. Adams's Works, ix. 486. 

The name and fame of Franklin, however, did 
not preserve harmony among the Commissioners, 
and there is a sad story of their disagreements. 
Diplomatic Correspondence of the Revolution, i. 
John Adams's Works, iii. 123, 129, 138 ; ix. 477 , 
and in iii. 130, 139, Adams gives descriptions of 
the several American commissioners and their 
agents. Arthur Lee headed the opposition to 


Franklin. Sparks's Franklin, i. 447 ; viii. 57, 
257, 444. Parton's Franklin takes an extremely 
adverse view of Lee ; and on the other side hia 
position is explained in Lee's Life of Arthur Lee ; 
also in John Adams's Works, vii. 79, 96. 

Ralph Izard had been appointed Commissioner 
to Tuscany, but had never been received at his 
post, and lived in Paris, siding with Lee. Sparks'a 
Franklin, i. 451; viii. 250, 308, 388. Mrs. Deas's 
Life of Izard. Diplomatic Correspondence of the 
Revolution, ii. 367. 

Silas Deane had stood by Franklin, but making 
contracts with foreign officers for service in the 
United States, which embarrassed Congress, he 
had been recalled, but was still in Paris at the 
opening of the year. On his return to the United 
States, he in vain besought Congress for a settle- 
ment of his accounts ; and Lee's enmity toward 
him led to public recriminations. Getting no sat- 
isfaction from Congress, Deane resorted to an Ad- 
dress to the People in the Philadelphia Gazette, 
Dec. 1778, thus making public the extent of the 
differences among the Commissioners, and this was 
answered by Thomas Paine in the Philadelphia 
Packet, Jan. 2, 1779. Cf. John Adams's Diary, 
Works, iii. 187 ; vii. 79. Wells's Samuel Adams, 
iii. 60. Deane's own narrative was printed by the 
Seventy-Six Society, in 1855, and the story was 
revived in the Memorial of his heirs to Congress in 
1835. Lom^uie's Life of Beaumarchais at a later 


day threw such light upon Deane's transactions as 
lifted the cloud under which he had fallen. His 
hard fate is traced in the Diplomatic Correspond- 
ence ; in Parton's Franklin, ii. ch. 9 ; and refer- 
ence to the papers of the quarrel with Lee will be 
found in the Calendar of the Lee MSS. in Harvard 
College Library Bulletin. Some of Deane's man- 
uscripts were No. 2138 in the Brinley sale, 1879. 

Congress had appointed John Adams to succeed 
Deane. Diplomatic Correspondence, iv. 241. 
John Adams's Works, i. 277 ; iii. 91, 121 ; vii. 5 ; 
ix. 472 ; and his Familiar Letters to his wife. 
Parton's Franklin, ii. 369. He afterwards ex- 
pressed his discouragement at the want of har- 
mony which he discovered on his arrival. Letters 
to Mrs. Mercy Warren, in Massachusetts Histori- 
cal Society's Collections, 5th series, iv. 368. 

Bancroft's United States, x., thoroughly sur- 
veys the varied relations of the American Con- 
gress to the several European powers, and the 
relations with Frederick the Great are particularly 
set forth in ch. 3. A letter of John Adams gives 
a contemporary view. Works, vii. 99. Cf. Hil- 
dreth's United States, iii. ch. 38 ; Lyman's Diplo- 
macy of the United States, ch. i. ; Trescot's 
Diplomacy of the Revolution; Journals of Con- 
gress; G. W. Greene's Historical View of the 
American Revolution ; Stanhope's History of Eng- 
land, vi. 149. 

The relations with Spain, involving the question 


of the navigation of the Mississippi, are particu- 
larly set forth in Bancroft, x. ch. 6 and 8 ; Madi- 
son Papers, i. 64, 74 ; Pitkin's United States, ii. 
ch. 13 and 14, and App. No. 8, for Jay's instruc- 
tions as commissioner ; Jay's Life of Jay, i. ch. 4 
and 5 ; Flanders's Life of Jay in his Chief Jus- 
tices; George Sumner's Fourth of July Oration 
at Boston, 1859. 

The relations to Holland are explained in Ban- 
croft's United States, x. ch. 12. John Adams's 
Works ; Correspondence of Adams and Mrs. 
Warren, in Massachusetts Historical Society's 
Collection, 5th series, iv. MuUer, in his 1872 
Catalogue, Amsterdam, Nos. 1637-1725, gives the 
bibliography of the subject. 

Condorcet in his Works has an essay on the in- 
fluence of the American Revolution on Europe. 

The Treaty with Prance, February 6, 1778. 

On the 6th of Feb. a treaty of alliance and a 
treaty of commerce were signed at Paris. The 
negotiations had begun after the reception of the 
news of Burgoyne's surrender. Sparks's Frank- 
lin, i. 430. 

French views of the situation can be found in 
Chotteau's La Guerre de I'lnd^pendance ; Count 
Segur's Memoirs ; Guizot's France, v. ch. 5. Ban- 
croft, ix. ch. 29, and x. ch. 5, claimed that Amer^ 
ica had substantially gained her independence 
Defore the treaty with France; and Count Cir^ 


court translated Bancroft's account as Histoire de 
Taction commune de la France et de I'Amdrique 
pour rind^pendance des Etats Unis, adding an 
Historical Review, which is translated in the Mas- 
sachusetts Historical Society's Proceedings, Oct. 

The treaty was printed in 4to in Philadelphia 
in 1778, and it will be found in Gentleman's 
Magazine, Feb. 1779 ; Bancroft Davis's Notes on 
the Treaties of the United States ; Treaties and 
Conventions of the United States, 1871 ; Receuil 
de Trait^s par Martens, ii. 587 ; Lyman's Diplo- 
macy of the United States, i. ch. 2. 

The Commissioners notified Congress of the 
signing of the treaty. Parton's Franklin, ii. 303. 
Diplomatic Correspondence, i. 364 ; and for the 
official papers appertaining, i. and ii. ; and iv. 
250, for John Adams on the Treaty. Cf. Pitkin's 
United States, ii. ch. 12 ; Marshall's Washington, 
iii. ch. 7. 

Bancroft, ix. ch. 38, describes the effect of the 
alliance in England. 

For the reception of the news of the alliance in 
the camp at Valley Forge in May, and for the 
effect upon the country, see Sparks's Washington, 
V. 355 ; Irving's Washington ; Parton's Franklin, 
ii. 317 ; Greene's Life of Greene, ii. 72 ; Wells's 
Samuel Adams, iii. ch. 47. 

In July, 1778, Gerard arrived at Philadelphia 
AS the first French minister to the United States. 


Diplomatic Correspondence, x. 235. John Adams's 
Works, i. 235. The introduction to the French 
translation of Botta's History. Lyman's Diplo- 
macy of the United States, i. 57. Hazard's Penn- 
sylvania Archives, vii. 

The Britisli Government. 

The reign of George the Third in all its phases 
is treated elaborately in the Pictorial History of 
England, v. to viii., with a strong tory leaning. 
This section is not included in the American re- 
print of that work. Other general histories cov- 
ering that part of the reign which spanned the 
American Revolution are, Adolphus, likewise tory, 
and compendious ; Stanhope, generally fair ; Mas- 
sey, liberal ; May's Constitutional History, show- 
ing the influence of the Crown, and, of less im- 
portance, Belsham and Bisset. Wright traces the 
humors of the time in his Caricature History of 
the Georges. Knight's Popular History of Eng- 
land is perhaps the best general account of the 
more comprehensive narratives. Buckle's History 
of Civilization, ch. 7, dwells on the political de- 
generacy of the times. 

Contemporary estimates can be found in Wal- 
pole's Last Journals, inimical to the court party, 
and in Wraxall's Historical Memoirs, 1772-1783. 
The Bedford, Chatham, and Rockingham Corre- 
spondence respectively show the three phases of 
the great Whig Party. Cf. Cooke's History of 


Party ; G. C. Lewis's Administrations of Great 
Britain, 16 ; Almon's Debates ; Bancroft's United 
States ; Brougham's Statesmen of George III. ; 
and ch. 30 of Smyth's Lectures on Modern His- 

The letters which passed between George III. 
and Lord North, 1768-1783, were used by 
Brougham and Bancroft, and Sparks summarizes 
them ; but the originals were published in 1867 
as Correspondence of George III. with Lord North, 
ably edited by W. B. Donne, who manifests lib- 
eral views in his introduction, but lays the blame 
of the wrong-headed policy rather on the cab- 
inet and the people than upon the King. This 
work is reviewed in the Edinburgh Review, 1867 ; 
in the North American Review, Oct. 1867, by C. 
C. Hazewell ; in Blackwood, June, 1867, in an ar- 
ticle, " Was George III. a Constitutional King ? " 
and in the Quarterly Review, 1867, on " The Char- 
acter of George III." 

The personal character of the King was amus- 
ingly set forth with views favorable to America, 
by Jesse, in 1867, epitomized in the Eclectic Re- 
view, 1867, or No. 1186 of Living Age. See in 
this connection Thackeray's lecture, or Harper's 
Monthly, vol. xxi. ; also see vol. xxvi., and Wal- 
pole's Letters. Scott takes a favorable view of the 
King. Buckle (History of Civilization, i. ch. 7) 
has a low estimate. Southey's Vision of Judgment 
is a tribute to his memory, while Byron's answer 
■s ttie whig view. Brougham's sketch is brief. 


Some of the above authorities also portray the 
Bocial life of this era, for which, further, see chap- 
ters in the Pictorial History, Stanhope's History, 
and Blackwood's Magazine, 1867, or No. 1220 of 
Living Age. 

For the character of North, see the general his- 
tories above enumerated ; Earle's English Prem- 
iers ; Jesse's Etonians ; Brougham's Statesmen ; 
Macaulay's Chatham ; Smyth's 33d lecture ; Cor- 
respondence of Fox, i. 195 ; Adolphus's Reign 
of George the Third, iii. 345 ; Walpole's George 
in., ed. by Le Marchant, iv. 78. 

The Conciliatory Bills, 1778. 

Lord North brought forward his plans of con- 
ciliation on the 17th of Feb., and the bills passed 
March 3d, and were signed by the King March 
11th. The minister's speech proposing them is 
given in the Gentleman's Magazine, Feb. 1778. 
Parliamentary History. The account of the de- 
bates in the Annual Register, xxi. 133, is prob- 
ably by Burke. Gibbon refers to the proceedings 
in his letter of Feb. 23, 1778. Walpole's Last 
Journals, ii. 200, 215. Russell abridged Wal- 
pole's account in his Memoirs and Correspond- 
ence of Fox, i. 172. Life and Times of Fox, i. 
ch. 9 and 10. Fitzmaurice's Shelburne, iii. ch. 1. 
Donne's Correspondence of George III. with Lord 
North, ii. 135. Rockingham and his Contempo- 
raries, ii. 346. J. E. T. Rogers's Protests of the 
Lords, ii. 174, 178. 


For the debates in March, see Parliamentary 
History ; Gentleman's Magazine, March, 1778 ; 
Walpole's Last Journals ; and a note in Donne, ii. 
151, on the difficulties of framing a new ministry. 

The American Commissioners in Paris reported 
on the conciliatory bills to Congress. Diplomatic 
Correspondence, i. 369, and Pitkin's United 
States, ii. App. 2. Franklin wrote upon them 
to David Hartley. Diplomatic Correspondence, 
iii. 34. 

The bills were received in the United States 
in advance of the arrival of the Commissioners. 
Wells's Samuel Adams, iii. 14. Lives of Wash- 
ington by Marshall, iv. ch. 1, and by Irving, iii. 
ch. 32. Reed's Joseph Reed, ch. 18 and App. 
Sparks's Life of Gouverneur Morris, p. 182. 
Pitkin's United States, ii. ch. 11. 

The Commissioners reached America in June, 
under instructions from Lord North, printed in 
Documents relative to the Colonial History of 
New York, viii. 738. They landed in Philadel- 
phia just as Clinton was evacuating that city. 
Their letters reached Congress June 13th. Al- 
mon's Remembrancer, 1778, p. 11, and p. 127 for 
their manifesto, and various other papers about 
them are scattered in Almon, vi., vii., and viii. 
Gouverneur Morris's reply on behalf of Congress 
is in the Journals and in Almon, viii. 40. 

The Commissioners threatened a greater fero(y 
ity in the conduct of the war. Cf . the letter of 


the Commissioners in Paxis to Vergennes. John 
Adams's Works, vii. 72. Buckle (History of 
Civilization, ch. 7) cites, for evidences of the feroc- 
ity with which the English conducted the war, 
the following : Tucker's Life of Jefferson, i. 138, 
139, 160 ; Jefferson's Memoirs and Correspond- 
ence, i. 352, 429 ; ii. 336, 337 ; Almon's Corre- 
spondence of Wilkes, V. 229 ; Adolphus's George 
III., ii. 362, 391; Parliamentaiy History, xix. 
371, 403, 423, 424, 432, 438, 440, 447, 487, 488, 
489, 567, 578, 579, 695, 972, 1393, 1394 ; xx. 43 ; 
M(:imoires de Lafayette, i. 23, 25, 99. Jones (New 
York in the Revolutionary War) is not reticent 
concerning the excesses, particularly in plunder- 
ing, of the British troops. 

A later counter manifesto on the part of Con- 
gress was prepared, Oct. 30th, by Samuel Adams, 
Cf. Wells's Adams, iii. 46. 

Other Accounts. — Marshall's Washington, iii. 
ch. 10. Sparks's Washington, v. 344, 397, 401 ; 
vi. 16, 79, 96. Sparks's Gouverneur Morris, i. 
ch. 11. Bancroft, x. 122. Reed's Joseph Reed, 
i. ch. 18 and App. 4. Howison's Virginia, ii. 
230. A loyalist account in Jones's New York in 
the Revolutionary War. 

British Accounts of their Failure. — Massey's 
England, ii. 295; Stanhope's England, vi. 246; 
Donne's Correspondence of George IH. with Lord 
North, ii. 208 ; and letters of Carlisle, one of the 
Commissioners, in Jesse's Selwyn and his Contem' 
poraries, iii. 280, 339, etc. 


Political Movements in England, 1778. 

It was thought that if Chatham could have 
abated his opposition to American independence, 
a union with the Rockingham whigs might have 
unseated the North cabinet, and restored peace. 
Cf. Chatham Correspondence, iv. 484; Donne's 
Correspondence of George III. with North, ii. 

The death of Chatham in May seemingly put 
off the fall of the North ministry. Cf. Massey's 
History of England, ii. ch. 22; Fitzmaurice's 
Shelburne, iii. 40. Chatham, in his relations to 
the American war, must be studied in Thack- 
eray's heavy and laudatory life of him; but a 
brilliant account of his political action will be 
found in Macaulay's two essays. Cf. the Chat- 
ham Coi-respondence ; Fitzmaurice's Shelburne, 
iii. ch. 1 ; Campbell's Lives of the Chancellors 
Stanhope's England; Massey's England, ii. 279 
Brougham's Statesmen; Bancroft's United States 
Parton's Franklin ; Earle's English Premiers 
Davenport Adams's English Party Leaders ; and 
the note in Donne's Correspondence of George 
III. with Lord North, ii. 185. 

For illustrations of the hatred which the King 
bore towards Chatham for his liberal views, see 
Brougham's Statesmen ; Russell's Memoirs of Fox, 
i. 129; Adolphus's History, ii. 568; Stanhope's 
England, vi. App. ; Grenville Papers, ii. 386 , 
Bancroft's United States. 


The death of Chatham afforded a chance of a 
coalition of the tories with some part of the op- 
position. See on this point the Rockingham Me- 
moirs; Life and Memorials of Fox; Donne's Cor- 
respondence of George III. with North, ii. 188; 
Walpole's Last Journals, ii. 338. 

Eden's account of his negotiations with Fox for 
a compromise is printed in the Memoirs and Cor- 
respondence of Fox, i. 180. 

Jonathan L. Austin was sent to London by- 
Franklin to confer with the opposition. Boston 
Monthly Magazine, July, 1826. 

Bancroft, x. ch. 5, gives a view of the state of 
feeling in England ; and a reflex of tory opinions 
is found in Curwen's Journal. 

For instances of the commercial distress which 
the ministry's action had brought upon England, 
see Stanhope, v. 133; Franklin's Correspondence; 
Adolphus's History, ii. 261; Burke's Works; 
Parliamentary History, xviii. 734, 951, 963, 964 ; 
xix. 259, 341, 710, 711, 1072; Walpole's Me- 
moirs of George III. ii. 218. 

Hozier's Invasions of England, ii., shows the 
concern prevailing after the alliance with France 
became known ; and there is in Donne, ii. 176, an 
account of the blundering efforts of the English 
navy to intercept the French fleet, which left 
Toulon in April. 

Toward the end of the year, two pamphlets, 
©ne by Sir Wm. Meredith, the other by David 


Hartley, were printed in London, which had 
marked influence, as is described in Walpole's 
Last Journals, ii. 327. 

Congress, 1778. 

Bancroft, x. 349, says that though Congress 
sat with closed doors, the French envoys conveyed 
to their government the most complete reports of 
their discussions which are known. They are 
preserved in the French archives. See a repre- 
sentation of Congress at this time in the Life of 
John Adams, i. 282. Washington wrote to John 
Bannister, in April, his views of the political bear- 
ing of events. Sparks's Washington, v. 321. Cf. 
Christopher Marshall's Diary; Leake's Memoirs 
of General Lamb ; Journals of Congress, and the 
lives of its members. 

The Summer's Campaign, 1778. 

Washington in April had submitted to his offi- 
cers three plans of a campaign. Sparks's Wash- 
ington, V. 320. A plan of his own is among the 
Sparks MSS. in Harvard College Library. Life 
of Muhlenberg, ch. 5. 

The expected arrival of a French fleet, which 
might close the Delaware to succor, necessitated 
the British evacuation of Philadelphia, and Sir 
Henry Clinton began his march across the Jerseys 
towards New York, June 17th. For the march 
see Eelking's Hiilfstruppen, ch. 10; Magazine of 


American History, Jan. 1879, p. 58 ; a journal of 
Clinton's secretary in New Jersey Historical So- 
ciety's Proceedings, vi. ; Diary of Jos. Clark in 
the same, vii. 93. 

Monmouth, June 28, 1778. 

The advance of Washington's army attacked 
the rear of the retreating British, who turned and 
forced back the Americans under Lee ; but the 
presence of Washington on the field, later, re- 
trieved the day. 

American Accounts. — Washington's letters are 
given in Sparks, v. 422 and App. No. 18, and in 
Dawson's Battles, ch. 37, and Kapp considers 
Dawson's account the clearest. Lives of Wash- 
ington by Marshall, iii. ch. 8; and Irving, iii. 
ch. 34 and 35. Sparks's Correspondence of the 
American Revolution, ii. 150. Custis's Recollec- 
tions of Washington, ch. 5. 

Lee was brought to trial by court-martial, July 
14th, for misbehavior and disrespect to Washing- 
ton, under reproof. The evidence introduced is 
of importance. It was published separately, and 
is embodied in Dawson. Lee's defense is also 
given in Longworthy's Memoirs of Lee, p. 23. 
Cf. Sparks's Life of Lee ; Davis's Life of Burr, i. ; 
and Lee's letter in Reed's Joseph Reed, i. 369. 

Other Accounts. — Heath's Memoirs, p. 186. 
Gen. Hull's Revolutionary Services, ch. 14. 
Drake's Life of Knox. Kapp's Life of Steuben, 


p. 159. Quincy's Life of Shaw, ch. 4. Sargent's 
Life of Andr^, p. 187. Hamilton's Life of Alex- 
ander Hamilton, i. 194. Hamilton's Republic of 
the United States, i. 471. Bancroft, x. ch. 4. 
Letters of Hamilton and Wm. L-vine in the Penn- 
sylvania Magazine of History, ii. 139. Reed's 
Joseph Reed, ch. 17. WilUams's Life of Olney, 
p. 243. Life of Anthony Wayne. The original 
orderly-book of Wayne is No. 2095 in the Menzies 
Catalogue. C. King's account in the New Jersey 
Historical Society's Proceedings, iv. Lossing's 
Field-Book, ii. 356, and his paper in Harper's 
Monthly, vii. 449 ; also see June, 1878. Barker 
and Howe's Historical Collections of New Jersey. 
J. W. De Peyster in the Magazine of American 
History, July, 1878, and March, 1879; aJso June, 
1879, for letters. American Historical Record, 
June, 1874. 

Carrington, in his Battles of the Revolution, 
gives one of the most intelligible accounts. 

British Accounts. — Stedman, ii. ch. 22. Mur- 
ray's Impartial History, ii. 448. Stanhope's Eng- 
land, vi. ch. 58. Clinton's dispatch is given in 

Maps. — Sparks's Washington, v. 430. Atlas 
of Guizot's Washington. Hilliard d'Auberteuil's 
Essais, ii. 271. Duer's Life of Stirling, ii. 196. 
Lossing's Field-Book, ii. 356. Carrington's Bat- 
tles. CoflSn's Boys of Seventy-Six. 

The Sparks Collection in Harvard CoUege 


Library has some MS. maps copied from others 
belonging to Lafayette. 

New York and Philadelphia, 1778. 

The British retreated to Sandy Hook and 
crossed over to New York. Sargent's Life of 
Andrd, ch. 11. Documents relating to the occu- 
pation of that city by the British will be found 
in the New York City Manual for 1863; and a 
plan from the London Magazine of 1778 is repro- 
duced in the same manual for 1869. 

For Arnold's career as commander in Philadel- 
phia after the city was regained, see Sparks's Life 
of Arnold ; his Washington, vi. 514 ; Irving's 
Washington, iv. ch. 2 ; Pennsylvania Archives, 
vi. and vii. ; Reed's Life of Reed, ii. 48, 88, 93, 

The charges against Arnold and his answer are 
in Almon's Remembrancer, 1778-1779, p. 349. 

Indian Depredations, 1778. 

Wyoming^ July Ist-^th. — The irruption into 
this valley by tories and Indians, with the fight 
and subsequent massacre, is described in Dawson's 
Battles, ch. 38, who gives the official documents. 
The panic-stricken refugees from the valley, fly- 
ing eastward, crossed the Hudson at Poughkeep- 
sie, where their exaggerated statements (Stone's 
Brant, i. 339) were first published, and formed 
the basis of the narratives in Thacher's Military 


Journal, Gordon, Ramsay, Botta, etc., and they 
have been repeated in Drake's Book of the Indi- 
ans. Marshall, in the later editions of his Life of 
Washington, modified his earlier statements. Con- 
temporary accounts are given in Moore's Diary of 
the American Revolution, ii. More accurate 
views of the transactions were taken by Charles 
Miner in his original newspaper articles, and in 
his History of Wyoming, 1845 ; and Stone, in his 
Poetry and History of Wyoming, followed Miner. 
Stone, in his Life of Brant, and in his Border 
Wars, drawn chiefly from the Life of Brant, gives 
an account of the inroad, but contends that Brant 
was not present. Caleb Cushing reviewed the 
Life of Brant in the Democratic Review, claiming 
that Stone had not proved an alibi for Brant ; but 
Stone in his Wyoming (p. 192) reasserted his 
statement, and pointed out Campbell's confession 
of his error for making Brant present in the story 
as told in his " Gertrude of Wyoming," which 
poem is reprinted in Stone's Wyoming. See 
Brodhead's New York Documents. Peck, in his 
Wyoming, ch. 2, enforces Stone's argument, and 
gives various personal reminiscences. 

Chapman's Wyoming has but a hurried account. 
Other narratives will be found in Irving's Wash- 
ington, iii. ch. 37 ; Jenkins's Historical Address, 
July 3, 1878 ; Hollister's Connecticut, ii. ch. 15 ; 
Harper's Monthly, xvii. 306 ; Lossing's Field- 
Book, i. 852. Mrs. Ellet's Women of the Ameri« 


can Revolution, ii., and her Domestic History of 
the Revolution ; and the Appendix to Campbell's 
Try on County. 

Mohawk Valley. — The plans and actions of the 
enemy in the Mohawk Valley are described in 
Lossing's Field-Book, eh. 12 ; Stone's Brant, eh. 
14 ; Campbell's Tryon County ; History of Scho- 
harie County, ch. 9 ; Dawson's Battles, ch. 36, 
etc. ; Harper's Monthly, July, 1877. 

Cherry Valley, Nov. Wth. — The slaughter at 
Cherry Valley is particularly detailed in contem- 
porary letters in the Historical Magazine, June, 
1866 ; Campbell's Tryon County, ch. 5 ; Daw- 
eon's Battles, ch. 45 ; Stone's Brant, i. ch. 17 ; 
Lossing's Field-Book, p. 268 ; Dunlap's New 
York, ii. 147, etc. 

Brant. — Stone's Life of Brant. Drake's Book 
of the Indians, book v. ch. 5. New England 
Historical and Genealogical Register, Oct. 1848. 
Norton's Pioneer Missionaries, New York, 1859. 
W. C. Bryant in Beach's Indian Miscellany. 

Border Warfare in Creneral. — Beside Lossing, 
Schuyler, and Stone's Brant, see De Haas's In- 
dian Wars of Western Virginia ; J. H. Perkins in 
North American Review, Oct. 1839, an article 
also included in his Memoirs, ii. 281. A paper 
on the British and Indian cooperation is in the 
New York Historical Society's Proceedings, iii. 
There .is much illustrative matter in the New 
York Documentary History, and in the Pennsyl 
yania Archives. 


Fiction. — Border and Indian traits and warfare 
during the Revolution are worked into the guise 
of fiction in Grace Greenwood's Forest Tragedy, 
and in C. F. Hoffman's Greyslaer. 

The Khode Island Campaign, August, 1778. 

The French fleet under D'Estaing arrived at 
the Capes of Delaware in July, but the British 
fleet had escaped to New York, whither the 
French commander followed. He was unable to 
pass the bar of that harbor with his larger ships. 
Sparks's Correspondence of the Revolution, ii. 155. 

Opening communication with Washington, a 
plan was formed for an attack on the British 
forces at Rhode Island. Irving's Washington, 
iii. 419. 

A land attack was undertaken by Gen. Sullivan 
at the same time. Sullivan's letters are given in 
Sparks's Correspondence of the Revolution, ii. ; 
Rhode Island Historical Tracts, No. 6 ; Dawson's 
Battles; Sparks's Washington, vi. Bancroft, x. 
ch. 5, questioned Sullivan's soldierly conduct, and 
T. C. Amory vindicated him in Massachusetts 
Historical Society's Proceedings, Dec. 1866, and 
in his Military Services of General Sullivan. 

Shortly after D'Estaing and Sullivan had laid 
their plans by conference, Howe appeared off the 
harbor with the British fleet, reinforced. The 
French put to sea, but a general action was pre- 
vented by a storm, and D'Estaing returned to 



Newport with a shattered fleet, and sailed for Bos- 
ton to refit. Cf. A Candid and Impartial Narra- 
tive of the Transactions of the Fleet under Lord 
Howe, London, 1779. The British army on the 
island was now reinforced, and Sullivan retreated 
to the main-land. The abandonment of the at- 
tempt produced effects on the country that are 
Bet forth in Wells's Samuel Adams, iii. 38. The 
charges of Sullivan against the French came near 
disturbing friendly relations with the allies. D'Es- 
taing's papers are in the Ministerie de la Marine 
et des Colonies at Paris. The French side of the 
controversy is presented in Chevalier's Histoire 
de la Marine frangaise pendant la guerre de I'in- 
ddpendance Amdricaine, ch. 3, and in an Extrait 
du Journal d'un OflBcier de la Marine, 1782, which 
gives a likeness of D'Estaing, and another will be 
found in Andrews's History of the War. The 
proclamation of D'Estaing to the former subjects 
of France in America, issued in October, is given 
in the Documents relative to the Colonial History 
of New York, x. 1165. See other authorities on 
the French auxiliaries under 1780. 

Lafayette went to Boston to confer with D'Es- 
taing. Heath's Memoirs. Lafayette's letters to 
Washington on the miscarriage of the expedition 
are in Sparks's Correspondence of the Revolution, 
'i. 181, 196. Lafayette's account of the campaign, 
told by himself fifty years later, when in this couiv 
try, is in the Historical Magazine, Aug. 1861. 


Accounts of tliis expedition, more or less full, 
are given in the following places : Bancroft, x. 
ch. 5. Hamilton's History of the Republic, i. 
sh. 17. Arnold's Rhode Island, p. 419. Green's 
Rhode Island. Dunlap's New York, ii. Barry's 
Massachusetts, iii. 150. Rhode Island Historical 
Collections, vi. Moore's Diary of the American 
Revolution-, ii. 85 ; also his Songs and Ballads of 
the Revolution, p. 231. Heath's Memoirs. Lives 
of Washington by Marshall, iv. ; by Irving, iii. 
ch. 36. Sparks's Washington, v. 29, 40, 45. 
Greene's Life of Greene, ii. 100, and Greene's 
letter in the Correspondence of the Revolution, ii. 
188. Amory's Sullivan, p. 70. Memoirs of John 
Trumbull, p. 51. Stuart's Life of Jonathan 
Trumbull, ch. 32. Williams's Life of Gen. Bar- 
ton, ch. 3. Glover's Orderly-Book in Essex In 
stitute Collections, v. Major Gibbs's Diary, Aug. 
6th— 30th, in Pennsylvania Archives, vi. J. A. 
Stevens in Magazine of American History, July, 
1879. Historical Magazine, iv. 145. Carring- 
ton's Battles. S. S. Rider's Rhode Island His- 
torical Tracts, No. 6, gives the Centennial Address 
of S. G. Arnold, and reprints contemporary ac 
counts, including the German narrative of Max 
von Eelking. 

English Accounts. — The dispatches of Gen. 
Pigot, etc., in Gentleman's Magazine, Nov. 1778 ; 
in Dawson's Battles ; in Rider's Rhode Island 
Historical Tracts, No. 6. Stedman's American 


War, ii. ch. 23, 24. A Diary at Newport is in 
the Historical Magazine, 1860. A loyalist view 
\n Jones's New York in the Revolutionary War, 
ii. ch. 12. 

Maps. — The Massachusetts Historical Society 
preserves a plan of the campaign ; see its Proceed- 
ings, May, 1865. The Sparks Collection at Har- 
vard College has copies of contemporary French 
plans. There are contemporary British plans of 
Newport and Narragansett Bay in the American 
Atlas, Nos. 17 and 18. The Magazine of Ameri- 
can History, July, 1879, gives fac-similes of Fa- 
den's Newport plan, 1777, made by Blaskowitz, 
and also his Narragansett Bay, 1777. The Gen- 
tleman's Magazine, 1778, has a print of the battle 
of Quaker Hill, Aug. 29th, which is fac-similed in 
Lossing's Field-Book, ii. p. 83, where is also a 
map of the campaign ; and others are in Eider's 
Centennial volume; in Marshall's Washington, 
V. ; and in Carrington's Battles. There is a MS. 
plan of attack in the Faden Collection in the 
Library of Congress. 

A subsequent British incursion at New Bedford 
is noted in Ricketson's New Bedford, ch. 22, and 
in the Appendix to Crapo's Centennial Address, 

p. 58. 

On Rhode Island's share in the war, at large, 
dee A. B. Gardner's Rhode Island Line in the 
Continental Army ; B. Cowell's Spirit of Seventy- 
Six in Rhode Island; W. R. Staples's Rhode 


Island in tlie Continental Congress, published by 
the State in 1870; G. W. Curtis's Newport, in 
Harper's Magazine, ix. 289. 

Capture of Savannah, December 29, 1778. 

A naval and military force from New York 
attacked the small American army defending Sa- 
vannah and defeated it. Dawson's Battles, ch. 
46. Simms's South Carolina. Stevens's Georgia, 
ii. 160. Marshall's Washington, iv. 97. Sted- 
man's American War, ii. ch. 26. 

The Vermont Troubles. 
These were disputes between the governments 
of New Hampshire and New York as to jurisdic- 
tion over this territory, and the British govern- 
ment endeavored by emissaries to seduce the in- 
habitants of this region from their allegiance to 
the American cause. New York Documentary 
History, iv. 329, with map. Dunlap's New York, 
ii. 217. Belknap's New Hampshire, ii. ch. 26. 
Williams's History of "Vermont. Madison Papers, 
i. Lossing's Schuyler, ii. 408. Wells's Samuel 
Adams, iii. 144. 

Naval Actions, 1778. 

For accounts of the blowing up of the Randolph, 
March 7th, see Dawson's Battles, Cooper's Naval 
History, Clark's Sketches of Naval History. 

Paul Jones's exploits in the Ranger, and his 


capture of the Drake, are described in the several 
lives of Jones, and in Parton's Franklin, ii. ch. 8. 
Dr. Ezra Green's journal of the Ranger's cruise ia 
given in the New England Historical and Genea- 
logical Register, 1875. Cf. Annual Register, xxi. 
176. Jones's instructions from the Commission- 
ers in France are given in the Diplomatic Corre- 
spondence of the Revolution, i. 361, where are 
also various other letters. 

Galloway's Letter to Lord Howe on his Naval 
Conduct, London, 1779, animadverts on his inac- 
tion in face of the inferior force of the colonists, 
and gives lists of their respective fleets. 

James's Naval History and the Life of Admiral 
Keppel tell the story of the confronting of the 
English and French fleets in European waters. 

A diary of the English fleet in the summer of 
1778 is among the manuscripts of the Percy 
family, according to the 3d Report, 1872, of the 
English Historical MSS. Commission. 

The Northwest, 1778-1779. 

Bancroft, x. ch. 8, gives an account of the ex- 
pedition, and of the bearings of this conquest of 
the northwestern territory, as influencing subse- 
quent control by the United States. Accounts, 
more or less extended, are given as follows: — 

Clark's own account, dated Nov. 19, 1779, has 
been edited by H. Pirtle, and published by Clarke 
vf Cincinnati in 1869 ; and in the Appendix of 


this volume "mil be found Patrick Henry's private 
and public instructions to Clark, and Bowman's 
Journal of the Expedition, Jan. 27 to March 20, 
1779. Stone's Life of Brant, i. ch. IG. Almon's 
Remembrancer, vi. 82. Dawson's Battles, ch. 40, 
for the attack on Fort Boone, Aug. 8th-20th. 
Jefferson's Writings, i. 221, and Randall's Jeffer- 
son, i. 248, 256, 273. Barton's Jefferson, p. 233. 
Girardin's History of Virginia. Pennsylvania 
Archives. Butler's Kentucky. Law's Colonial 
History of Vincennes. Imlay's Western Terri- 
tory. T. M. Smith's Legends of the War of In- 
dependence, Louisville, 1855. G. W. Hill's Cap- 
tivity of Christian Fast, an episode of the Indian 
invasion of the Northwest, in Beach's Indian Mis- 
cellany. Adventures of Daniel Boone. Dod- 
dridge's Notes on the Indian Wars. Hecker- 
welder's Moravian Missions. C. I. Walker's Ad- 
dress on the Northwest in the Revolution, before 
the Wisconsin Historical Society, 1871. 

There is a sketch of Col. Clark in the Histori- 
cal Magazine, June, 1857 ; another in Lewis Col- 
lins's Historical Sketches of Kentucky, which is 
copied in Pirtle's edition of Clark's letter to George 

Prisoners of "War. 

For the early period of the war there is much 
illustrative matter in the several volumes of Force's 
American Archives. The memoirs of various suf- 


ferers throw light upon prison experiences. Ethan 
Allen's Narrative of his Captivity. Memoirs of 
Andrew Sherburne. Adventures of Ebenezer 

Jersey Prison Ship. — Dring's Recollections of 
the Jersey Prison Ship, ed. by Albert G. Greene, 
1829, and again by H. B. Dawson, with an App. 
1865. Thomas Andross's Old Jersey Captive. 
Dunlap's New York, ii. ch. 10. Prisons and 
Prison Ships in the Revolution, privately printed, 
45 copies. New York, 1865. History of the Inter- 
ments at Wallabout, 1808. Harper's Monthly, 
xxxvii. 187. 

Mrs. Ellet's Domestic History of the Revolu- 
tion, ch. 10, 11. Onderdonk's Suffolk and Kings 
Counties. George Taylor's Martyrs to the Rev 
olution, 1855. Lossing's Field-Book, ii. 865.' 
New York Historical Society's Proceedings, Dec. 
1861. Historical Magazine, 1866, supplement. 
Pennsylvania Archives, passim. Moore's Diary 
of the American Revolution, ii. index. 

An account of the " Fleet Prison " kept by the 
Americans at Esopus, on the Hudson, is given in 
Jones's New York in the Revolutionary War, i. 

Much aboiit the American prisoners detained 
in England will be found in the Diplomatic Corre- 
Bpondence, the letters of Franklin, Lee, and John 
Adams. Charles Herbert's Relics of the Revolu- 
tion gives experiences in the English prisons. 


Exchanges of Prisoners. — George Bancroft 
printed, New York, 1862, A Letter on the Ex- 
change of Prisoners during the Revolution. More 
or less details will be found as follows : Washing- 
ton's Writings, Sparks's edition, iv. 547, and gen- 
erally throughout his correspondence ; v. 306 ; vi. 
508, on the vacillating policy of Congress; and vii. 
3, on the unwillingness of the British to treat on 
" national grounds." The Gentleman's Magazine, 
1777, printed the correspondence of Howe and 
Washington. Irving's Washington, iii. ch. 2. 
Hamilton's History of the Republic. Graydon's 
Memoirs, ch. 8. A report of the Commissioners 
for settling a cartel detailing their unsuccessful 
negotiations, was printed in Philadelphia, 1779. 
Jones's New York in the Revolutionary War i 
93, gives a loyalist view. 


EVENTS OF 1779. 

In GeneraL 

Washington was in camp at Middlebrook 
during the winter. Irving's Washington, iii. 
Greene's Greene, ii. 160. His views in January- 
are given in a letter to Congress. Sparks, vi. 158. 
He resolved on a defensive campaign. Bancroft, 
X. ch. 9. Heath was in command east of the 
Hudson. Memoirs, p. 205. 

Bancroft, x. ch. 10, summarizes the military 
movements in the north, and, ch. 13, in the south. 
Cf. Hildreth, iii. ch. 39. 

The Journals and Secret Journals of Congress 
and the Diplomatic Correspondence hardly in- 
dicate the infelicitous bickerings of Congress. 
Greene's Historical View gives sections to Con- 
gress and to the relation of Congress to the States. 
Bancroft, x. 208. Washington to Mason in the 
Virginia Historical Register, vol. 96. Greene's 
Greene, ii. 170, 175. John Adams's Works, i. 292. 

For the riots in Philadelphia, and the efforts to 
regulate prices, see Reed's Reed, ii. ch. 6. 

For the British rule in New York, see the Me- 
moirs of the Baroness Riedesel ; New York City 
Manual, 1863; Letters of Major-General James 


Pattison, a British officer in New York, Jan. 1779- 
Aug. 1780, in the New York Historical Society's 
Collections, 1875 ; Memoirs of Lieut. General Sam- 
uel Graham, Edinburgh, 1862, and abstracts in 
the Historical Magazine, Aug., Sept., Oct., and 
Nov. 1865. 

Tryon in Connecticut, July, 1779. 

Clinton dispatched a plundering expedition un- 
der Tryon, which invaded New Haven and de- 
stroyed Fairfield. Part of the plan was to draw 
Washington from the Highland fastnesses. 

Hinman's Historical Collections of the part 
sustained by Connecticut in the Revolution. 
Stuart's Life of Jonathan Trumbull, ch. 37. 
Chauncey Goodrich on the invasion of New Ha- 
ven in the New Haven Historical Society's Col- 
lections, ii. 27. Moore's Diary of the Revolution, 
ii. 180. Ithiel Town's Particular Services, a 
British account. For the destruction of Fairfield, 
Massachusetts Historical Society's Collections, iii. 
108. Diplomatic Correspondence, ii. 253, for the 
Committee of Foreign Affairs to Lee, and, iii. 99, 
for Lovell to Franklin. 

"Wayne at Stony Point, July 16, 1779. 

The defenses at this post and on the opposite 
^de of the Hudson were the outworks of West 
Point, and protected King's Ferry, the cross- 
ing below the Highlands. Before the Americana 



had completed them, Clinton captured them in 
June. Sparks's Washington, vi. 292. Washing- 
ton planned a surprise of the British garrison, 
and intrusted the execution to Wayne. Arm- 
strong's Life of Wayne. 

The contemporary accounts of his brilliant suc- 
cess will be found in Washington's letter to Con- 
gress, Sparks, vi. 298, and Wayne's account in 
the Appendix of the same volume. Moore's 
Diary, ii. 192. Pennsylvania Archives, vii. 

Dawson has a special monograph on the assault, 
and gives a chapter to it in his Battles of the 
United States. 

Marshall's Washington, iv. ch. 2. Irving'a 
Washington, iii. 465. Lossing's Field-Book, ii. 
175. Hull's Revolutionary Services, ch. 16. 
Reed's Joseph Reed, ii. 110. Harper's Monthly, 
July, 1879, by H. P. Johnston. 

Steuben was interested as testing his bayonet 
instructions. Kapp's Steuben, ch. 11. Greene's 
review of Kapp in North American Review, vol. 
xcix. — an article reprinted in Greene's German 
Element in the War of Independence. Eberling's 
account of Steuben in the Amerikanisches Maga- 
zin, 1796. J. C. Hamilton's Republic of the 
United States, i. 443. 

At the Centennial Celebration, July 16, 1879, 
Gen. Jos. Hawley delivered an historical address. 

Maps. — Faden's English plan, showing also 
the works at Verplanck's Point, after surveys bj 


Simpson and Campbell, by John Hills, published 
in London, March 1, 1784, is fac-similed in the 
New York Calendar of Hist. MSS. p. 347. The 
MS. plans used in the attack are in the Sparks 
Collection in Harvard College Library. Other 
plans are in the atlas of Guizot's Washington ; in 
Hull's Revolutionary Services, ch. 16 ; in Sparks's 
Washington, vi. 304. 

For an account of the medal given to Wayne 
Bee Loubat's Medallic History of the United 
States, where are also described the medals given 
to Lieut. Col. De Fleury and Major Stewart for 
good conduct in the assault. 

Paulus Hook, August 19, 1779, 

This was a brilliant advance, attack, and retreat 
by Major Lee. This British post was where Jer- 
sey City now stands. See the general histories ; 
Marshall's Washington, iv. 87 ; Irving's Washing- 
ton, iii. 475 ; Dawson's Battles ; Quincy's Shaw, 
p. 65 ; Reed's Joseph Reed, ii. 125 ; Duer's Stir- 
ling, p. 204; Moore's Diary, ii. 206; and S. A. 
Green's paper in the Historical Magazine, Dec. 

An account of the medal given to Major Lee 

is in Loubat's Medallic History of the United 


The Neutral Ground. 

This was the country in Westchester County 
oetween the outposts of the British and American 


lines. See the general histories, Irving's Wash- 
ington, histories of New York, and Bolton's West- 
chester. For the interval of Burr's command see 
Parton's Burr, ch. viii., and Davis's Burr. 

Events that took place here are fashioned into 
the substance of Cooper's novel, The Spy; and 
H. L. Barnum's Spy Unmasked collates the nov- 
elist's story with actual occurrences. See other 
imaginative renderings in Roe's Near to Nature's 
Heart, Gleig's Day on the Neutral Ground in his 
Chelsea Pensioners, etc. 

Sullivan's Expedition against the Indians, July — Septem> 

ber, 1779. 

Stone's Life of Brant, i., gives a full account of 
the Indian depredations in the spring and early 
summer. Washington had early given his atten- 
tion to some plan of chastising the Indians, in 
retaliation for their incursions into Wyoming and 
Cherry Valley. Sparks, vi. 183. His instruc- 
tions to Sullivan are in Sparks, vi. 264, and His- 
torical Magazine, Sept. 1867. Sullivan's com- 
ments in Sparks's Correspondence of the Revolu- 
tion, ii. 264. 

Gordon is unfriendly to Sullivan in his account. 
Bancroft's strictures are noticed in T. C. Amory's 
Military Services of Gen. John Sullivan, p. 97. 

Accounts of greater or less fullness may be 
found in O. W. B. Peabody's Life of Sullivan • 
Stione's Life of Brant ; Marshall's Washington. 


iv. 105 ; and letters of Washington in Sparks's 
edition, and in the Magazine of American His- 
tory, Feb. 1879, p. 142 ; F. Moore's Correspond- 
ence of Henry Laurens, and his Diary of the 
Revolution, ii. 216 ; Pennsylvania Archives, vii. ; 
Historical Magazine, Aug. and Sept. 1862, and 
by N. Davis, April, 1868; Stuart's Jonathan 
Trumbull ; Lossing's Field-Book, i. 272 ; Hamil- 
ton's Republic, i. 543 ; McSherry's Maryland, 
p. 14 ; Miner's Wyoming ; Campbell's Annals of 
Tryon County, ch. 6 ; Seaver's Life of Mary Jemi- 
Bon, p. 278 ; and a little notice of the Campaign, 
printed at Rochester, 1842. 

There are several other contemporary records : 
Bleeker's orderly-book of Gen. James Clinton's 
brigade, printed 1865, edited by F. B. Hough. 
Major Norris's journal in Jones's New York in the 
Revolutionary War, ii. 613, notes. Barton and 
Elmer's diary in New Jersey Historical Society's 
Proceedings, ii. Jabez Campfield's diary, in the 
same, 2d series, iii. 1873, covering May 23-Oct. 
2, 1779. Gookin's, in the New England Histori- 
cal and Genealogical Register, Jan. 1862. Hub- 
ley's, in Miner's Wyoming, Appendix, p. 82. Rev. 
Wm. Rogers's, with introduction and notes by 
S. S. Rider, and map of the campaign. 

Gen. Sullivan after this left the army and sat 
in Congress for New Hampshire. His character 
has been the subject of controversy between Ban- 
croft and T. C. Amory, the former alleging that 


Sullivan was a pensioner of Luzerne, the French 
minister. Amory's reply was entitled, General 
Sullivan not a Pensioner of Luzerne. Bancroft 
published in response the letter on which hia 
charge was founded. Cf. Massachusetts Histori- 
cal Society's Proceedings, Dec. 1866; Historical 
Magazine, Supplement vi. of 1866. An account 
of Sullivan and his genealogy is given in the New 
England Historical and Genealogical Register, 
Oct. 1865. 

The Penobscot Expedition, August and September, 1779. 

Massachusetts fitted out an armament, the land 
forces under General Lovell, and the fleet under 
Commodore Saltonstall, to dislodge the British 
from the Penobscot region. A British reinforce- 
ment sent from New York shut the Americans up 
within the bay, and their whole force was destroyed 
or scattered. 

Accounts more or less full are found as follows : 
John Calef's Siege of Penobscot, with Journals, 
London, 1781 ; this and other documents are re- 
printed in Wheeler's Pentagoet (Castine), ch. 5 
and 6. Williamson's Maine, ii. 471. William- 
son's Belfast, ch. 12. Willis's Portland, ch. 19. 
Various other local histories detail the connection 
of separate sections with the expedition. Barry's 
Massachusetts, iii. ch. 14. Bradford's Massachu- 
setts. Thomas Philbrook's Accoimt in B. Cowell's 
Spirit of Seventy-Six in Rhode Island. Thacher'f 


Military Journal, p. 166. Heath's Memoirs, p. 
235. Sparks's Correspondence of the Revolution, 
ii. 460. Ithiel Town's Particular Services. Bos- 
ton Gazette, March 18, 25, April 1 and 8, 1782. 
Pemberton's Journal, in Massachusetts Historical 
Society's Collections, ii. 172. Journal of the 
Attack on his Majesty's Ships and Troops, July 
24th, 1779, from the Nova Scotia Gazette, Sept. 
14, 1779, reprinted in the Maine Historical Soci- 
ety's Collections, vii. 

Maps. — In Calef 's Siege of Penobscot, and in 
Wheeler's Pentagoet. 

Briar Creek, March, 1779. 

For movements in the spring in Georgia, see 
Stevens's Georgia, ii. 180 ; Moore's Diary, ii. 138 ; 
Lossing's Field-Book, ii. 

Siege of Savannah, September 23 — October 18, 1779. 

Lincoln had been in command of the Southern 
department since Dec. 1778. Sparks's Corre- 
Bpondence of the Revolution, ii. 241. D'Estaing 
"with a French fleet approached the town by water, 
and Lincoln marched from Charleston to invest it 
by land. An assault failed. The fleet went to the 
West Indies ; the army returned to Charleston. 

Contemporary Accounts. — Two Journals of 

officers of the fleet, edited by C. C. Jones, Jr., and 

published in folio. A Narrative of the combined 

attack, edited with notes, by F. B. Hough. CoL 



Cruger's narrative in the Magazine of American 
History, Aug. 1878. Maj. Gen. Provost's Jour- 
nal of the Siege in Gentleman's Magazine, 1779, 
p. 633. Original papers in the Historical Maga- 
zine, Jan. and Sept. 1864. A Journal in Frank 
Moore's Correspondence of Henry Laurens. Caro- 
hne Gilman's Letters of Eliza Wilkinson. Moore's 
Diary, ii. 221. 

D'Estaiug's orders are in the Magazine of Amer- 
ican History, Sept. 1878. 

Later Accounts. — Lee's Memoirs of the War, 
eh. 12. Moultrie's Memoirs of the American 
Revolution. Simms's South Carolina. Bowen's 
Life of General Lincoln. Lossiug's Field-Book, 
ii. 736. Carrington's Battles, ch. 61. Stevens's 
Georgia, ii. 200. Flanders's Life of Rutledge, 

Sritish Accounts. — In Stedman's American 
War, ii. ch. 30, and in the English general his- 

Pulaski. — This general was mortally wounded 
in the assault. See Sparks's Life of Pulaski, and 
his North American Review articles, vol. xx. and 
xxiii. The account of Pulaski in Johnson's 
Greene, brought out a vindication of Pulaski by 
Col. Bentalou, 1824, which was noticed by Sparks 
in the North American Review, No. 47, which led 
to Remarks, etc., by Johnson, in rejoinder. 

Maps. — In Stedman's American War ; Jones's 
ed. of the contemporary Journals ; Carrington's 
Battles ; Lossing's Field-Book, ii. 736. Moore's 


Diary of the Revolution, ii. 221. Two contem- 
porary French MS. plans, one showing more of 
the country around than the other, are in the 
Boston Public Library, described in Dufoss^'s 
Americana, 1879. Dr. S. A. Green of Boston 
has another French MS. plan. 

Paul Jones in British Waters, August and September, 1779. 

Correspondence of Franklin and Jones will be 
found in Frankhn's Works, viii. See letters in the 
Proceedings of the Massachusetts Historical So- 
ciety, Oct. 1872. Cooper in his Naval History 
takes a favorable view of Jones's character. Daw- 
son in his Battles, vol. i., gives a full collated nar- 
rative of the action between the Bon Homme 
Richard and the Serapis, Sept. 23d. Compare 
Peter Landais's account in his Memorial, printed 
in Boston in 1784, justifying his conduct, which 
gives a plan of the action. See also Barton's 
Franklin, ii. ch. 8; Preble's "Three Historic 
Flags " in the New England Historical and Genea- 
logical Register, Jan. 1874 -, Headley's Miscella- 
nies, ii. 

A British view is taken in Allen's Battles of 
the British Navy, and in the English histories. 
For the effect in England of his exploits, see Al- 
bemarle's Rockingham and his Contemporaries, ii. 


Of the monographs on Jones, Sherburne, who 
aad access to the archives of the United States 



government, and possessed some of Jones's private 
papers, particularly bis correspondence with La 
Fayette and Jefferson, published the earliest au- 
thoritative life, in 1825. Five years later, a life 
was published in Edinburgh, based upon Jones's 
log-books and family papers, which was decidedly 
English in tone, and the papers used by its author, 
being shortly after brought to this country, Robert 
Sands had use of them and others, in preparing 
his memoir ; while in 1840, Mackenzie made the 
most readable narrative of all, by sifting the ma- 
terial of his predecessors. A more popular life is 
that by J. S. C. Abbott. S. P. Waldo printed a 
sketch of Jones in his American Naval Heroes, 
fifty years ago. See Lossing's illustrated paper 
in Harper's Monthly, xi. 145 ; and " Paul Jones 
and Denis Duval " in Hale's Ingham Papers, or 
the Atlantic Monthly, Oct. 1864 ; and in this last 
connection see Thackeray's Denis Duval with the 
notes appended. See a reactionary British view 
of Jones, in All the Year Round, 1870, or No. 
1353 of Living Age, and a biographical account 
Eraser, April 1878. 

Jones figures in Cooper's Pilot and in other 
tales by A. Cunningham and T. Miigge. Dumas's 
Le Capitaine Paul, is a sequel to Cooper's Pilot. 
See also Herman Melville's Israel Potter. 

An account of the medal struck in Jones's 
honor, for his action with the Serapis, is given in 
Loubat's Medallic History of the United States. 


Foreign Relations, 1779-1780. 

The unhappy differences between Franklin and 
Lee and Izard still went on. Lives of Franklin 
by Sparks, i. ch. 11 and Works, viii. 444, and by 
Parton, ii. 379. John Adams's opinion of Franklin 
is given in Works, i. 319. Samuel Adams held 
a good opinion of Lee. Wells's Samuel Adams, 
iii. 120. Correspondence of Ralph Izard, edited 
by his daughter Mrs. Deas, one volume only pub- 

To put a stop to these disturbances, La Fayette, 
in Feb. 1779, carried over a commission to Frank- 
lin, as sole minister plenipotentiary, when Adams 
returned to America. Diplomatic Correspondence, 
iv. 307. Lee still filled his position as agent to 

Congress was occupied with baffling the schemes 
of France which were aimed to secure a general 
peace, at the price of curtailing the limits of the 
United States westward, and giving up the nav- 
igation of the Mississippi to Spain. Bancroft, 
X. 349. Sectional differences resulted in a com- 
promise, by which John Adams was appointed a 
commissioner to negotiate with Great Britain, and 
John Jay with Spain, thus terminating Lee's 
agency. The agitation which produced this re- 
sult can be traced in the following : Life of John 
Adams, ch. 6, where the policy of France is repre- 
sented as entirely selfish ; also his diary in Works» 


iii. 186, 229, 259 ; his official correspondence, vii. 
119, 120, 139, etc., which is full on the European 
complications ; his private letters, ix. 476. C. 
F. Adams thinks the French translator of Botta 
had access to Gerard's papers. Adams's com- 
mission and instructions are given in the Diplo- 
matic Correspondence, iv. 339, and his letters are 
continued in vol. v. and in his Correspondence 
with Mercy Warren, Massachusetts Historical 
Society's Collections, 5th series, iv. 378. Cf. 
Parton's Franklin, ii. 394 ; Bancroft, x. 442. 

For Jay's instructions and the question of the 
free navigation of the Mississippi, see Rives's 
Madison, i. ch. 6 and 8; Madison's Debates and 
Correspondence, i. App. ; Writings, iv. 441 ; 
Jay's Life of Jay ; Niles's Register, 1822 ; Ban- 
croft, X. ch. 8 and 9 ; and for his letters to Con- 
gress, the Diplomatic Correspondence, vii. 171 
and viii. (1781) ; Francis Dana's correspondence 
from St. Petersburg, begins Aug. 1780, in Diplo- 
matic Correspondence, viii. 239. 

Lossing gives a summary of these diplomatic 
manoeuvres, in his Field-Book, ii. supplement. 
Condorcet, (Euvres, viii., gives a view of the in- 
fluence of the Revolution in Europe. Cf. Cape- 
Sgue's Louis XVL and contrast with Bancroft, x. 
ch. 11 and 12. 

For the combination of the northern powers in 
an Armed Neutrality^ 1778-1780, to protect them 
selves against Britisk interruptions of their trade 


see Bancroft, x. ch. 12 and 20 ; Anderson's His- 
tory of Commerce, ed. of 1790, vi. 362; note 
in Thornton's Pulpit of the Revolution, 457 ; 
Wells's Samuel Adams, iii. 109. 

Bancroft, x. ch. 11, summarizes the abortive 
naval movements of France and Spain against 
England. Adams sent to Congress, 1780, a state- 
ment of Great Britain's naval losses since the be- 
ginning of the war. Diplomatic Correspondence, 
iv. 483 ; v. 234. 

Adolphus, History of England, iii. ch. 40, points 
out the complications of England with the other 
powers. Cf. Stanhope, the Pictorial History and 
other general histories. The view of the expa- 
triated loyalists are given in Curwen's Journal, 
and in Reminiscences of an American Loyalist, in 
Notes and Queries, 1876. The year was fertile in 
political tracts. A Short History of the Opposi- 
tion was followed by Observations on the same, 
and again by a Defence. 

The King and ministry made fresh efforts, 1780, 
to bring about a union with the opposition. Me- 
moirs and Correspondence of Fox, i. 251. Wal- 
pole's Last Journals, ii. 422. Donne's Corre- 
spondence of George III. with Lord North, ii. 327. 
Stanhope's England, vii. 73. 

Henry Laurens, late president of Congress, waa 
Bent to Europe, armed with credentials for cod 
eluding a treaty of alliance with the Netherlands. 
His instructions are given in the Diplomatic 


Correspondence, ii. 453. The British captured 
him at sea, and securing his papers, discovered the 
complicity of the Netherlands, and declared war 
Dec. 20, 1780, against that country. Diplomatic 
Correspondence, ii. 461, v. 367. Donne's Corre- 
spondence of George III. with Lord North, ii. 350. 
Fitzmaurice's Shelburne, iii. ch. 3. Massey's Eng- 
land, ii. 382. Stanhope's England, vii. 81. Adol- 
phus's England, iii. 221. 

Laurens was confined in the Tower. South 
Carolina Historical Collections, i. Parton's Frank- 
lin, ii. 405. 

John Adams's letters to the Dutch jurist, Cal- 
koen, 1780, on the present state of affairs in 
America, were printed by Adams in London, 
1786 ; reprinted. New York, 1789, and in the 
Correspondence of the late President Adams, 
Boston, 1809, and in Adams's Works, vii. 265. 

■Winter, 1779-1780. 

This was an exceptionally severe winter. Jones's 
New York in the Revolution, i. 320 ; Greene's 
Greene, ii. 184 ; Leake's Lamb ; Almon's Remem- 
brancer, ix. 

In December Clinton went south with a force 
for the capture of Charleston, leaving Knyphausen 
in command in New York. The river froze, but 
"Washington was unable to take advantage of this 
natural bridge into the town, on account of the 
weakness and destitution of his troops, now hutted 


at Morristown. An Orderly-Book of Capt. Parker 
at Morristown, is in the New York Historical 
Society's Cabinet. See Irving's Washington, iv. 
ch. 1 and 4 ; J. F. Tuttle's Washington in Morris 
County, in Historical Magazine, June, 1871, p. 
364 ; and Washington at Morristown, in Harper's 
Monthly, Feb. 1851, also Lossing's Field-Book, ii. 
Some account of the suffering of the troops will be 
found in Thacher's Military Journal. 

Washington sent an unsuccessful expedition to 
Staten Island. Life of Pickering, i." ch. 17. Rev- 
olutionary Correspondence in Rhode Island His- 
torical Society's Collections, p. 257. Historical 
Magazine, i. 104. 

Bret Harte's Thankful Blossom is a tale of the 
Jerseys in 1779. 


EVENTS OF 1780. 

The Southern Campaigns in General. 

Unable to make progress in the north, the 
British transferred the seat of war to the south, 
where the finally decisive conflicts of the war were 
fought, often hardly more than skirmishes as re- 
gards numbers, but exerting a determinate influ- 
ence on the progress of political events. 

Ramsay's American Revolution is the one, 
more particularly of the general histories, to serve 
the reader. Cf. Bancroft, x., and Hildreth, iii. 
ch. 40 and 41. 

American Accounts. — Moultrie's Memoirs of 
the American War. Joseph Johnson's Tradi- 
tions and Reminiscences of the American Revolu- 
tion in the South, particularly concerns the upper 
country. Garden's Anecdotes of the Revolution- 
ary War. Caruther's Revolutionary Incidents in 
the Old North State. Graham's Lecture, on the 
invasion of North Carolina in 1780-1781, is in 
W. D. Cooke's Revolutionary History of North 
Carolina. McRee's Life of Iredell, ch. 13. R. 
W. Gibbs's Documentary History of the Amer- 
ican Revolution, 1776-1782, and another volume, 
1781-1782, chiefly concerns events in South Caro 


lina. W. G. Simms's South Carolina in the Rev- 
olutionary War. Johnson's Life of Greene. 

G. W. Greene, in his Life of Nathanael Greene, 
iii. ch. 1, gives a description olf the country and 
its inhabitants ; and in ch. 2 he begins a review 
of events previous to the arrival of Gen. Greene. 

Partisan Leaders. — The lives of Morgan, 
Sumter, Marion, and others, are sketched by 
Greene in the 7th ch. of his Life of Greene. 
Other accounts are in the Appendix of Lee's 
Memoirs of the War ; and in C. B. Hartley's 
Heroes and Patriots of the South. There is a 
life of Morgan by Graham, and chapters on him 
in Custis's Recollections of Washington, and in 
Headley's W-ashington and his Generals. Sum- 
ter is depicted in Irving's Washington, iv. ch. 8. 
Lives of Marion have been written by Weems, 
Simms, and James; and Lossing has a paper on 
him in Harper's Monthly, xvii. 

See a journal in the southern department given 
in the Historical Magazine, April, 1867 ; and in 
Parton's Life of Andrew Jackson, ch. 5 and 6, 
there is a picture of family vicissitudes in the 
Carolinas during this period. 

British Accounts. — Col. Tarleton's Campaign 
of 1780-1781, London, 1787. Roderick Macken- 
zie published the same year in London, 1787, 
Strictures on Tarleton's Narrative, defending Corn- 
wallis. Stedman's American War accuses Tarle- 
ton of misstatement and exaggeration. Stanhope 


and the other general histories. See also the 
Cornwallis Correspondence, i., for much in illus- 

Loyalists. — The narrative of Col. David Fan- 
ning, a tory in North Carolina, was privately 
printed at Richmond, in 1861. He practiced bar- 
barities on the whigs. See the paper on a Caro- 
lina loyalist in Col. Chesney's Military and Biog- 
raphical Essays. 

Maps. — The American Atlas, by Mouzon and 
others. Political Magazine, London, Nov. 1780. 
Milliard d'Auberteuil's Essais, ii. Marshall's 
Washington, atlas. Greene's Life of Greene, iii. 
Johnson's Life of Greene, ii. Carrington's Bat- 
tles. Ridpath's United States, p. 342. 

Tarleton gives a large map, showing the 
marches of his legion, and of the army of Corn- 
wallis. Faden published in 1787 a map of Corn- 
wallis's marches. 

Collet, governor of Fort Johnson, made a map 
of North Carolina, which was published in Lon- 
don in 1770. 

A large map of South Carolina and adjacent 
parts is given in Ramsay's Revolution in South 
Carolina. Cook's Province of South Carolina, 
engraved by Bowen, was published in 1773. 

A large map of South Carolina and Georgia, 
made by Bull, Gascoigne, Bryan, and De Brahn^ 
was published in 1.777, both in London and in 
Paris; and, with additional surveys by Stuart, 
was reissued in London by Faden in 1780. 


Archibald Campbell's Northern Frontiers of 
Georgia was published by Faden in 1780. 

Siege of Charleston, March — May, 1780. 

Arbuthnot with the English fleet, and Clinton 
with the army, advancing from Savannah, gradu- 
ally inclosed Lincoln and the American army 
within the defenses of Charleston. 

There is a monograph on the siege by F. B. 
Hough. See also Bancroft, x. ch. 13 and 14 ; 
Simms's South Carolina in the Revolution ; Mar- 
shall's Washington, iv. 135 ; Irving's Washington, 
iv. ch. 3 and 5 ; Tarleton's History of the Cam- 
paigns of 1780-1781 ; Moore's Diary, ii. 269 ; 
A Journal of the Siege in the Proceedings of the 
New Jersey Historical Society, ii. ; Carrington's 
Battles of the American Revolution, ch. 63 ; Mas- 
sachusetts Historical Society's Collections, 2d se- 
ries, iii., on Lincoln ; Bowen's Life of Gen. Lin- 
coln ; and Lincoln's letters in Sparks's Corre- 
spondence of the Revolution, ii. 401, etc., as 
well as others from Woodford, Col. Laurens, etc. 
Dawson's Battles ; Sargent's Andrd, p. 225 
Moultrie's Memoirs of the American War, ii. 65 
Ramsay's Revolution in South Carolina ; Flan- 
ders's Life of Rutledge. The British gazetted 
account is in Gentleman's Magazine, June, 1780. 
For the political significance of this southern 
movement of the British, see Sparks's Washing- 
ton, vii. 92. 


Charleston in 1774 is described by an English 
traveler in the Historical Magazine, Nov. 1865, 
and Faden published views of Charleston in 1776, 
drawn by Lieut. Col. Thomas James. 

The tory ascendency in South Carolina at this 
time is depicted in J. P. Kennedy's Horseshoe 
Robinson, a novel. 

Maps. — An English MS. map of the siege is 
in the Faden Collection in the Library of Con- 
gress. Faden published a plan of the town and 
environs in 1780. A MS. plan of Charleston, by 
Cowley, 1781, is in Harvard College Library. 
See Ramsay's Revolution in South Carolina ; 
Johnson's American Revolution in the South ; 
Stedman's American War, ii. ch. 33, similar, 
but not the same with the one published London, 
March 1, 1787 ; Marshall's Washington, atlas ; 
Lossing's Field-Book, ii. 765 ; Gordon's Americai. 
Revolution, iii. and iv., for a map of the campaign ; 
Moore's Diary of the American Revolution, ii. 

"Waxhaws, May 29, 1780. 

A defeat and massacre of Buford's regiment by 
the legion of Tarleton, who was sent out by Clin- 
ton after the capture of Charleston. See Dawson, 
Lossing, and, on the English side, Tarleton's Cam- 

Bamsour Mills, June 20, 1780. 

A deadly encounter in North Carolina between 
whigs and tories. See Historical Magazine, July 


1867, beside scanty accounts in some of the gen- 
eral histories, etc. 

Springfield, New Jersey, June, 1780. 

The British in New York, getting tidings of an 
insurrection in the American camp in the Jer- 
seys, caused by want of pay, made an incursion 
into that State. Histories of New Jersey. Ban- 
croft, X. ch. 18. Marshall's Washington. Gor- 
don's American Revolution, iii. 368. Historical 
Magazine, i. 104. Irving's Washington, iv. 6. 
Carrington's Battles, p. 502. Sparks's Washing- 
ton, vii. 75. Lossing's Field-Book, i. 322. Greene's 
Greene, ii., and Greene's letters in Sparks's Wash- 
ington, vii. 506. 

A tory view is given in Moore's Diary, ii. 285. 
A Journal of a British officer in New York, and 
in these excursions, Aug. 1779 to Nov. 1780, is 
in the Historical Magazine, i. 103. Simcoe's 
Queen's Rangers. The court-martial of Colonel 
Cosmo Gordon, a British officer, for neglect of 
duty in the action, was printed in London in 1783, 
and gives some details. 

Maps. — Faden published, April 12, 1784, a 
plan by John Hills, showing the British forces at 
Elizabethtown Point, after their return from Con- 
necticut Farms, June 8th, giving also the works 
erected to protect the army while passing to Stat- 
en Island, June 23, 1780 Later maps are in 
Carrington and Lossing. 


BuU's Ferry, July 21, 1780. 

This -was an effectual attempt by Gen. "Wayne 
to assault a blockhouse (near Fort Lee, on the 
Hudson) garrisoned by refugees. Life of Wayne. 
Sparks's Washington, vii. 116 ; Sparks's Corre- 
spondence of the Revolution, iii. 34, 37. Sar- 
gent's Life of Andr^, who wrote in derision his 
doggerel of " The Cow Chase," part of Wayne's 
project being to gather cattle from the neighbor- 
hood. Lossing's Field-Book. 

Summer, 1780. 

During the inactivity of the northern army 
Steuben exerted himself to reorganize the forces. 
Kapp's Steuben, ch. 12-15. Chastellux gives an 
account of camp life. Irving's Washington, iv. 
ch. 13. 

The British Government erected Maine into a 
province called New Ireland, to serve as a foil to 
the new Commonwealth of Massachusetts, now 
reorganized under a new constitution. Bancroft, 
X. 368. Barry's Massachusetts. Maine Histori- 
cal Society's Collections, vii. The efforts which, 
before this, had been made to protect the frontier 
by the force under Col. John Allan are described 
in F. Kidder's Military Operations in Eastern 
Maine and Nova Scotia. Cf. Journal of the Ship 
Hunter in Historical Magazines, viii. 51, and Itliiel 
Town's Particular Services, etc. 


In June martial law was declared in Pennsyl- 
vania to meet the emergencies of the time. Reed's 
Reed, ii. 208. 

In July President Reed addressed Washington 
a long letter on the condition of affairs, which is in 
Sparks's Correspondence of the Revolution,' iii. 15. 

Washington's vigorous letter to Congress, in 
August, on the evils which, through the war, had 
arisen from short enlistments and the temporizing 
action of that body, and the want of uniform and 
concerted action by the States, indicates the wiser 
feelings of the patriots. Sparks's Washington, vii. 

A number of Washington's letters, 1780-1781, 
are printed in the Magazine of American History, 
Aug. 1879. 

In August there was a convention of delegates 
from the several States to advise on a vigorous 
prosecution of the war, and to provide a generous 
reception for the French allies. The original MS. 
of their proceedings has been edited by F. B. 
Hough, Albany, 1867. 

The French Auxiliaries, 1780. 

Lafayette gives Washington an account of his 
efforts to induce the French government to send 
troops and a fleet to America. Sparks's Wash- 
ington, vii. 477. Lafayette's own arrival her- 
alded their coming. Memoirs of Lafayette. J. C. 
Hamilton's Republic, ii. 15. The measures taken 



by Washington in anticipation of their arrival are 
detailed in Sparks, vii. Heath, July 12th, in- 
forms Washington of the fleet's arrival. Sparks's 
Correspondence of the Revolution, iii. 12. Heath's 
Memoirs, p. 243. Irving's Washington, iv. eh. 7. 
Washington's first letter to Rochambeau, July 
16th, is in Sparks, vii. 110, and in App. No. 4 is 
Rochambeau's reply, where is also Lafayette's 
report of his interview with the French com- 
mander, held by Washington's direction. 

The French took post in Newport harbor, where 
they were blockaded by the English fleet. 

Contemporary Accounts. — Rochambeau's M^- 
moires, and his account in Walsh's American 
Register, ii. Letters of an aid of Rochambeau, 
written from Newport, Aug.-Dec. 1780, in the 
Magazine of American History, May 1879, etc. 
Letters in Rhode Island Colonial Records, ix. 
Luzerne's letter in Diplomatic Correspondence, x. 
Marquis de Chastellux's Voyage de Newport a 
Philadelphie, printed on board the French fleet in 
Newport harbor, and afterwards published in his 
Voyage dans I'Am^rique Septentrionale. (Cf. 
Bibliographical Contributions of Harvard College 
Library, No. 6 ; the Sumner Collection, p. 8.) 
Count S^gur's M^moires. M^moires du Due de 
Lauzun. The New Travels of the Abb^ Robin, 
the Chaplain. The Journal of Deuxponts, 1780- 
1781, brought to light and edited by Dr. Samuel 
A. Green, in French and English. An English 


version of the Journal of Claude Blanchard, a 
commissary of the French army, which gives 
daily experiences. (Cf. Revue militaire fran^aise, 
new series, iii., and vol. ii., for 1870.) There 
was printed at Amsterdam in 1783, another 
French narrative, Journal d'un officier de I'arm^e 
navale en Amdrique, en 1781-1782. New Eng- 
land Historical and Genealogical Register, Oct. 
1873, p. 409. 

General Accounts of the French Participation 
in the War. — Leboucher's Histoire de la guerre 
de I'inddpendance des Etats Unis. Thomas 
Balch's Les Fran^ais en Amdrique, 1872, covering 
1777-1783. Cf. Tuckerman's America and her 
Commentators, ch. 3. 

Clinton's purpose to attack the French at New- 
port was thwarted partly by want of harmony 
between him and the British admiral, and partly 
by Washington's movements about New York. 
Sparks's Washington, vii. 130, 137, and the gen- 
eral histories ; Irving's Washington. Cf. Jones's 
New York in the Revolutionary War, i. 358, etc. 

For the subsequent plan of a concerted attack 
on New York, see Sparks's Washington, vii. 171, 
^nd App. No. 6 ; Mdmoires de Rochambeau, and 
the general works. The English blockaded the 
second division of the French fleet at Brest, and 
this caused, in August, the final abandonment of 
-ne plan. The next month, September, Washing- 
ton met Rochambeau at Hartford to devise further 


methods of cooperation. Irving's Washington. 
J. C. Hamilton's Republic of the United States, 
ii. 49. 

Maps. — The Political Magazine, London, 1780, 
has a map of Rhode Island and surrounding 
waters, showing the station of Admiral Arbuth- 
not in blockading Admiral Ternay. 

Charles Blaskowitz's chart of Narragansett Bay 
and his plan of Newport were engraved by Faden 
in 1777 ; and Almon published the same year a 
map of Rhode Island, engraved by Lodge. 

Gates in Command, June, 1780. 

Gates was sent to take command of the south- 
ern army in June. Washington, in a letter to 
the President of Congress, traces the growth of 
Gates's sinister feelings towards him. Sparks, 
vi. 214. See the general histories, the lives of 
Gates, and G. W. Greene's summary in his Life 
of N. Greene, iii. 17. The chief original authority 
for Gates's campaign is the Narrative of Otho 
Williams, first published in Johnson's Life of 
Greene. It is valuable, though controversial in 
character. Lee's Memoirs of the War, ch. 18. 
The Letter on Gates's Campaign, published in 
1822, by Gen. Thomas Pinckney, who was aid to 
Gates. Lives of Washington by Marshall, iv 
169, and by Irving, iv. ch. 8. 


Camden, August 16, 1780. 

Gates was confronted by Cornwallis at Camden, 
and the American army was routed. 

American Accounts. — Gates's letter is in 
Sparks's Correspondence of the Revolution, iii. 
QQ^ 76. Greene's letter in Rhode Island Colonial 
Records, ix. 243. Bancroft, x. ch. 15. Hamil- 
ton's History of the Republic, ii. 120. Simms's 
South Carolina. Marshall's Washington, iv. 181. 
Irving's Washington, iv. ch. 8. Lives of Gates. 
Lossing's Field-Book. Dawson's Battles. Car- 
rington's Battles, ch. 65. New England Histori- 
cal and Genealogical Register, Oct. 1873. 

De Kalb was mortally wounded, Kapp's Life 
of De Kalb. J. S. Smith on De Kalb in the 
Maryland Historical Society's Publications, 1858. 

British Accounts. — Cornwallis's dispatches are 
in the Cornwallis Correspondence, i. 492, and in 
the Gentleman's Magazine, Oct. 1780. Rawdon's 
letters are preserved among the Percy papers, 
according to the third report, 1872, of the English 
Commission on historical manuscripts. Captured 
letters of Rawdon are in Sparks's Washington, 
vii. 654, and Almon's Remembrancer, xi. 156. 
Stedman's American War, ii. 210. Moore's Diary, 
li. 310. 

3Iaps. — A British plan is in the Faden Col- 
lection. Stedman, ii. ch. 34, the same published 
London, March 1, 1787. Johnson's Greene, iL 
Carrington's Battles. 


W. G. Simms's novel, The Partisan, covers the 
events of this period, and for the events following 
down to Greene's arrival, see his Mellichampe. 

Arnold's Treason, September, 1780. 

Arnold, who had, while in command in Phila- 
delphia, circuitously opened correspondence with 
Clinton, also approached Robinson to secure a 
confederate. Sabine's American Loyalists. Sar- 
gent's Andr^, Appendix. He then sought from 
Washington and obtained the command at West 
Point. Irving's Washington. Lossing's Schuy- 
ler, ii. 412. Hamilton's Republic, ii. 52. 

While Washington was absent, holding a con- 
ference at Hartford with Rochambeau, Arnold 
planned to betray the garrison at West Point. 
For arranging details. Major Andr^, adjutant- 
general of the British army, was dispatched by 
Clinton up the river, under a flag of truce, to an 
interview with Arnold. This over, Andr^, in 
disguise, attempted to return to New York by 
land. Near Tarrytown he was stopped by a party 
of Americans ; his papers found in his boots ; and 
word was incautiously sent to Arnold, who, find- 
ing the plan had miscarried, fled down the river 
under a flag in a boat to a frigate of the enemy. 

Contemporary/ Accounts. — The papers found 
Vn Andrd's person are in the State Library at 
Albany, and they are printed in Boynton's West 
Point, ch. 7, and elsewhere. Correspondence in 


Sparks's "Washington, vii. 620-544. The papers 
used by Sparks in writing his Life of Arnold are 
in Harvard College Library. Hamilton's letter 
to Laurens in Works, i. 172-182 ; also his letters 
to Sears and Miss Schuyler. Pennsylvania Packet 
quoted in Moore's Diary, ii. 333. Gen. Greene's 
le'jters in Rhode Island Colonial Records, ix. 246, 
and in the Revolutionary Correspondence in the 
Rhode Island Historical Collections, vi. Journal 
of General Matthews. 

Clinton's official dispatches are preserved in the 
State Paper Office, and have been used by Sparks 
and others. His letters, Oct. 11th and 12th ; his 
report to Lord Amherst, Oct. 16th ; his secret 
letter, Oct. 30th. Extracts from his journal 
printed in Stanhope's England, vii. App. His 
statement, written at some length in his copy of 
Stedman (now in the Carter-Brown Library) is 
printed in Jones's New York in the Revolutionary 
"War, i. 737 ; in Stanhope, vi. App. ; in Sargent's 
Andr^ ; and in the New York Tribune, May 24, 

Joshua H. Smith was brought to trial for com- 
plicity in the plot. A report of his trial, edited 
by Dawson, was printed in New York, 1866. The 
Gentleman's Magazine, 1780, Supplement, p. 610» 
gave an account of the trial and printed the chief 
documents. Historical Magazine, 1866, Supple- 
laents 1 and 2. Smith's Narrative of the Causes 
l^hich led to the death of Major Andr^, London, 


1808, was written for the English public, and must 
be cautiously used. It has been a disputed ques- 
tion if Mrs. Arnold was privy to the plot. Davis's 
Life of Burr, i. 219. Parton's Burr, p. 126. 
Stone's Life of Brant, ii. 101. Reed's Joseph 
Reed, ii. 373. Sargent's Andr^, 220. 

Washington gave in 1786 an account at a din- 
ner-table of the treason of Arnold, which is repro- 
duced in Richard Rush's Washington in Domestic 
Life, being letters addressed to his secretary, Lear, 

The Captors. — Williams and Van Wart's ac- 
count of the capture is in the Historical Maga- 
zine, June, 1865. American Historical Record, 
Dec. 1873. Bolton's Westchester, i. Simms's 
Schoharie County, p. 646. Quincy's Journals of 
Samuel Shaw. Sargent's Andr<?, App. 

Paulding in 1817 petitioned Congress for an in- 
crease of his pension, and Judge Egbert Benson 
vindicated the captors against aspersions of their 
character. Analectic Magazine, x. This Vindica- 
tion was printed with documentary evidence, in- 
cluding proceedings of the Board that tried Andr^, 
affidavits, etc. The Journals of the House, 1817, 
give Major Talmadge's recollections. Statements 
of one of Andre's guards, printed in the news- 
papers, 1817, are given in Jones's New York in 
the Revolutionary War, i. 734. 

Loubat's Medallic History of the United States 
Bhows the medal given by Congress to the cap- 


H. J. Raymond delivered in 1853 an address at 
Tarrytown in commemoration of the captors. 

AndrS. — Boynton's West Point reprints entire 
the proceedings of a board of general officers re- 
specting Major John Andr^, Sept. 29, 1780. The 
original MS. of these proceedings is in Washing- 
ton ; and Sargent (Life of Andr^) collated the 
printed account with the original. 

Accounts of Andre's connection with the plot 
will be found in P. W. Chandler's American 
Criminal Trials, ii. ; Earl Stanhope's Miscellanies, 
2d series; Atlantic Monthly, Dec. 1860; Har- 
per's Monthly, iii. and xxiii. ; North American 
Review, by C. C. Smith, July, 1861 ; L. M. Sar- 
gent's Dealings with the Dead; Paulding's Paper 
in the Historical Magazine, Nov. 1857. 

Dr. Thacher furnished some Observations on 
Andre's execution in the New England Magazine, 
May, 1834. 

On the removal of Andre's remains to England, 
see United Service Journal, Nov. 1833; Sargent's 
Andr^ ; Stanley's Westminster Abbey ; Pennsyl- 
vania Historical Society's Memoirs, vi. 373 ; New 
York Evangelist, Jan. 30 and Feb. 27, 1879. 

Memorials of Andre. — Sabin's American Bib- 
liopoHst, 1869-1870. Political Magazine, March, 
1781. New Jersey Historical Society's Proceed- 
ings, 1876. Smith and Watson's American His- 
torical and Literary Curiosities. Galaxy, Feb. 
1876, on Andr^ and Miss Seward, and the latter'a 


monody is given in J. H. Smith's Narrative, etc., 
and in other places. 

Portraits of AndrS. — In Smith ; Political Mag- 
azine, March, 1781 ; Sargent's Andr^ ; Moore's 
Diary, etc. 

Andre's fate has given rise to dramas by Cal- 
vert, Lord, Dunlap, Haid, etc. For Arnold as 
the subject of fictitious stories, see W. G. Simms's 
Views and Reviews. 

In General. — Bancroft, x. 395, follows only 
" contemporary documents, which are abundant 
and of the surest character, and which taken col- 
lectively solve every question." Hildreth, iii. ch. 
41, gives an outline. Marbois, secretary to the 
French legation at the time, published Complot 
d'Arnold et Clinton, Paris, 1816, and G. W. 
Greene says it is " neither so accurate nor so com- 
plete as might have been expected." Cooper's 
Travelling Bachelor, says Sargent, gives " several 
particulars which possess value from those [La- 
fayette, etc.] that supplied them." Thacher's 
Military Journal and New England Magazine, vi. 
363. Walsh's American Register, ii. 

Lossing's Field-Book, ii. ch. 6, 7, and 8. Dun- 
lap's New York, ii. ch. 13. Masshall's Washing- 
ton, iv. 274. Irving's Washington, iv. ch. 9, 10, 
iind 11. Sparks's Arnold. Sargent's Andre. 
Leake's Life of Lamb. Gen. Hull's Revolution- 
ary Services, on Andre and Nathan Hale. Hamil- 
ton's Life of Alexander Hamilton, i. 262. Greene' 


Life of Greene, ii. 227. Quincy's Life of Shaw, 
p. 77. E. G. Holland's Highland Treason, in his 

Boynton's West Point points out the military 
importance of that post, and gives ch. 6, 7, and 8 
to these transactions. 

Lossing's Papers in Harper's Monthly, iii., 
xxiii., and again. May, 1876. Historical Magazine, 
Aug. 1859; Aug. 1863; Supplement of 1866; 
Dec. 1870. Niles's Register, xx. Southern Lit- 
erary Messenger, xi. National Quarterly Review, 
Dec. 1862. Cf. titles in the Menzies Catalogue. 

Col. Trumbull gives an account in his Memoirs 
(pp. 69, 317) of his arrest in London as a pendant 
to Andr^. Simcoe (Queen's Rangers, App.) of- 
fered to rescue Andr^. 

English Comment. — Sargent, ch. 22, gives the 
characters of the members of the board that con- 
demned Andrd, to refute the claim, sometimes put 
forward by English writers, of their unfitness to 
act by virtue of their ignorance of law and prec- 
edents ; and also collates the different English 
commentators on the justice of the execution. 
Clinton's views are given in Sargent, p. 415. 
Adolphus (History of England, iii. ch. 39} takes 
an adverse view of the American grounds. Stan- 
hope, in his History and in his IVIiscellanies, cen- 
sures Washington and the court, and his position 
is examined by C. J. Biddle in the Pensylvania 
Historical Society's Memoirs, vi. (cf. Allibone, iii, 


1204), and in the Historical Magazine, July, 1857. 
Massey (History of England, iii. ch. 25) exoner- 
ates Washington. A British estimate from the 
Saturday Review, 1872, is given in Sabin's Amer- 
ican Bibliopolist, Oct. 1872. Cf. contemporary 
British view in Moore's Diary of the American 
Revolution, ii. 393. 

Jones, the loyalist, in his New York in the 
Revolutionary War, i. ch. 18, judges Arnold to 
have played " a noble and virtuous part." 

Sargent thinks a vindication of Arnold (Re- 
marks on the Travels of M. de Chastellux, Lon- 
don, 1787) was instigated by Arnold himself. 

Maps. — Carrington's Battles, p. 512. Los- 
sing's Field-Book, ii. 148. Guizot's Washington, 
atlas. Sargent's Andrd, p. 303. Marbois's Com- 
plot has a plan of West Point. Sparks's Wash- 
ington, vii. 216, gives a map of the region. Maj. 
Villefranche, a French engineer, made several 
plans at this time, and they are given in fac-simile 
in Boyuton's History of West Point, viz. : map of 
Fort Constitution, opposite West Point, p. 26 ; 
map of the river and military positions, p. 45 ; 
plan of the lower works at West Point, p. 79 ; of 
a.11 the works and river, p. 86. The same book 
nas a contemporary panoramic view of West 

Note. — I have been favored by the Hon. Isaac N. Arnold of 
Chicago with the proofs of the chapter on Arnold's treason, 
which makes part of a Iiife of Arnold by that gentleman, now 


In press. He has used the Arnold and Shippen papers, and seta 
distinctly forth the incentives to Arnold's plotting of treason. He 
does not think Mrs. Arnold guilty of any complicity ; and defends 
the action of the board that condemned Andre' to death. Gen. 
King, the officer who had charge of Andrd immediately after his 
capture, wrote, in 1817, a letter describing these events, which was 
first printed in the New Haven Palladium, 1879, and copied in 
the Boston Sunday Herald, Sept. 14, 1879. Cf. also Sargent's 

The Northern Invasion, 1780. 

The several attempts at invasion from Canada 
at this time are supposed, in F. B. Hough's North- 
ern Invasion, published by the Bradford Club, 
New York, 1866, to have had connection with 
Arnold's plot, and they are outlined in Lossing's 
Schuyler, ii. 407. 

"Washington in Camp, October and November, 1780. 

An account of Washington's camp at Totowa 
and Preakness in New Jersey, with a map and 
view of his headquarters, is given in the Magazine 
of American History, Aug. 1879. 

King's Mountain, October 7, 1780. 
Fergusson, one of Cornwallis's marauding offi- 
cers, in endeavoring to rejoin that British general, 
was attacked by the mountain militia and de- 
feated. This checked Cornwallis's advance. Mar- 
shall's Washington, i. 397. Irving's Washington, 
iv. ch. 14 ; Foote's Sketches of North Carolina ; 
Lee's Southern War ; Hamilton's Republic of the 


United States, ii. 161 ; Bancroft, x. eh. 16 ; Los- 
eing's Field-Book, ii. 629; Carrington's Battles; 
Dawson's Battles; Tarleton's Campaigns; Mac- 
kenzie's Strictures on Tarleton ; Moore's Diary, 
ii. 338 ; J. W. De Peyster in the Historical Mag- 
azine, March, 1869; Ramsay's South Carolina; 
Simms's South Carolina. J. S. Preston delivered 
a commemorative address in Oct. 1855, which 
was printed with a documentary appendix. 

Leslie's Expedition into Virginia, October, 1780. 

See the accounts in the general narratives. 
Leslie made his way to North Carolina to cooper- ^ 
ate with Cornwallis. Parton's Jefferson, ch. 27. 
Sparks's Washington, vii. 269. Correspondence 
of the Revolution, iii. 141. 

Map. — Political Magazine, Dec. 1780. 

Greene in Command, October, 1780. 

Late in the year Greene resigned as quarter- 
master-general of the army. Life of Pickering. 
J. C. Hamilton's Republic of the United States, 
ii. 41. Greene's Life of Greene, ch. 10. In 
October Greene was appointed to succeed Gates 
in command of the southern army. Washing- 
ton's instructions to Greene are given in Sparks, 
/ii. 271. Cf. Correspondence of the Revolution, 
iii. 116, 137 ; Greene's Greene, ch. 12 ; J. G 
Hamilton's Republic, ii. 133, and his Alex. Ham- 
ilton, i. 308 ; and the latter's eulogy on Greene, 


1789, in Works, ii. 481. Marshall's Washington, 
iv. 336. Irving's Washington, iv. ch. 15. Ban- 
croft, X. ch. 22. 

Steuben accompanied Greene as far as Virginia, 
where he was left in command, with orders to 
send forward reinforcements to Greene. See 
Kapp's Steuben, ch. 16 ; Greene's Greene, ii. ch. 
3 and 5 ; and the Life of General Miihlenberg, 
who was under Steuben in Virginia. Randall's 
Jefferson, i. ch. 8. 

Greene arrived on the field in December. Cor- 
respondence of the Revolution, iii. 165. 

Mrs. Sedgwick's Walter Thornley gives tho 
guise of fiction to events of this year. 


EVENTS OF 1781. 

Mutiny of the Pennsylvania Inne, January, 1781. 

These troops, under "Wayne, stationed at Mor- 
ristown, without pay and supplies, revolted and 
marched toward Philadelphia to claim redress of 
Congress. Wayne visited their camp to expostu- 
late. Clinton sent emissaries, whom they hung. 

Wayne's letters to Washington in the Corre- 
spondence of the Revolution, iii. 192-199. Life 
of Anthony Wayne. Sparks's Washington, vii. 
348, and the account in App. 10. Marshall's 
Washington, iv. 393. Irving's Washington, iv. 
195. Hamilton's Life of Alexander Hamilton, i. 
323, and Works, ii. 147. Amory's Sullivan, 181. 
Hildreth's United States, iii. ch. 42. Madison 
Papers, i. 77. 

Pennsylvania Archives, viii. and ix. Hazard's 
Register of Pennsylvania, ii. 160. Bland Papers, 
ii. Reed's Life of Joseph Reed, ii. ch. 14. 

Sir Henry Clinton's report is in Almon's Re- 
membrancer, xi. 148. Jones's New York in the 
Revolutionary War, ii. 179. 

Political Aspects, 1781. 

On March 1st the final ratification of the arti- 
cles of confederation was made. Journals of 


Congress. Bancroft, x. ch. 19. G. W. Greene's 
Historical View, p. 111. The executive business 
was taken from committees and delegated to 
heads of departments. Hamilton's Republic, ii. 
ch. 28. R. R. Livingston became head of the 
department for foreign affairs. Diplomatic Cor- 
respondence, xi. 201. 

The want of power in Congress to compel the 
States began to be seriously felt. Rives's Madison, 
i. ch. 10. G. W. Greene's Historical View of the 
American Revolution. 

Bancroft, x. ch. 17, traces the beginnings of the 
abolition of slavery ; and the origin of the appor- 
tionment of five slaves as three persons is traced 
in Rives's Madison, i. 424; Madison's Debates, 
etc. i. 422 ; Journals of Congress, iv. 

A new commission was formed to negotiate a 
peace, and new instructions given. Life of John 
Adams, i. 341 ; vii. 349. Rives's Madison, i. ch. 
11. Madison Papers, i. Hamilton's Life of Alex- 
ander Hamilton. Flanders's Life of Rutledge, 
p. 596. Franklin's Works, viii. 526 ; ix. Jour- 
nals of Congress, vii. Diplomatic Correspondence, 
vi. 3, for John Adams's letters. See under " Ne- 
gotiations for Peace," 1782. 

Lafayette's letters during his visit to Europe 
»re in the Diplomatic Correspondence, x. 



The question of the finances of tlie Revolution 
has had special treatment in Bancroft, x. ch. 7 , 
Hildreth's United States, iii. ch. 40, 43 ; Greene'ti 
Historical View of the American Revolution, p. 
137 (with tables of expenses, federal and state, 
with emission of Continental money in the Ap- 
pendix), and his Life of Greene, ii. ; Pitkins's 
United States, ii. ch. 16; Rives's Madison, i. 
217, 229, and ch. 14; Madison's Debates and 
Correspondence, i. Sparks's Life of Gouverneur 
Morris, i. ch. 13 and 14 ; J. W. Schucker's Brief 
Account of the Finances of the Revolution, 1874. 

Special or Local Aspects. — Felt's History of 
Massachusetts Currency; Amory's Sullivan, p. 
187 ; Reed's Life of Joseph Reed, ii. 287 ; Mid- 
ford's New Jersey, p. 457, etc. 

Continental Money. — Force's American Ar- 
chives, 5th series, vol. ii. index; S. Breck's His- 
torical Sketch of Continental Paper Money in the 
Transactions of the American Philosophical So- 
ciety, 1843; Lossing's Field-Book, i. 317, and 
Harper's Monthly, xxvi. ; National Quarterly Re- 
view, Dec. 1875. 

Depreciation of the Paper Money. — Gouge's 
Short History of Paper Money ; Greene's Greene, 
ii. 163, 243, 248; Moore's Diary, ii. 422; Rhode 
Island Colonial Records, ix. 282. 

Loans in Europe. — Diplomatic Correspondence 


ix. 199 ; xi. 291 ; Franklin's lives and letters ; 
Sparks's Washington, viii. 525. Col. John Lau- 
rens was sent in 1781 to negotiate a loan. His 
instructions are given in Diplomatic Correspond- 
ence, ix. 199, and for his efforts and success, ix. 
195-249; Hamilton's Republic, ii. 150. John 
Adams secured a loan in Holland. Works, vii. 

John Adams's Relation to the Question. — Works, 
vii. 292, 355; viii. 193. 

Hamilton''s Views. — Writings, i. 116, 150, 
223; his Life by J. C. Hamilton, i. 241, 352; ii. 
etc. J. C. Hamilton's Republic of the United 
States, i. 570 ; ii. 80, 100, 351, and ch. 35, etc. 
For the diverse views of Hamilton and Madison, 
see Riv-es's Madison, i. 433. A charge is made in 
the Republic of the United States, ii. 398, that 
Madison falsified the record of Hamilton's votes, 
which is answered in Rives, i. 437. Cf. Atlantic 
Monthly, Nov. 1865, p. 628. 

Robert Morris was made Superintendent of 
Finance, Feb. 20, 1781, and entered upon his 
duties in May. Diplomatic Correspondence, xi. 
347, 431. Pennsylvania Archives, ix. Sparks's 
Washington, viii. 136. Custis's Recollections of 
Washington. Bancroft's United States, x. 566. 
Franklin's Works, ix. 59, etc. Life of Morris in 
Hunt's American Merchants. Michael Nourse'a 
\ccount of Morris, 1781-1784, in Banker's Maga- 
zine, Feb. 1860. Albert S. Bolles in the Penn 


Monthly, Oct. 1878, on the Financial Administra- 
tion of Morris, also issued separately. Turner's 
Pioneer History of the Holland Purchase. Pot- 
ter's American Monthly, Dec. 1775. 

Greene's Campaigns in Gteneral, 1780-1782. 

Greene, leaving Steuben in Virginia late in 
1780, pushed on and took command of the south- 
em army at Charlotte. His conduct of the cam- 
paign gave him a reputation second only to that 
of Washington ; and though he never gained a 
decisive victory, his battles were always followed 
by the retreat of the enemy. The general works 
on the southern campaign have been referred to 
under 1780. The fullest record of Greene's own 
participation in it is in the elaborate life of him 
(1867-1871) by his grandson, George W. Greene. 
The same writer had already furnished a sum- 
marized narrative in the Life of Greene in Sparks's 
series of American Biography. Another Life of 
Greene, published in 1822, by Judge Johnson, 
who had possession of Greene's papers, had re- 
flected on Gen. Lee, one of Greene's lieutenants, 
and this drew out a vindication of Lee from his 
Bon, Henry Lee, entitled The Campaign of 1781, 
which has an Appendix of original documents. 
G. W. Greene calls this book both " clever and 
lively, but too controversial to be perfectly trust- 
worthy." Lee is the subject of a chapter in Cus- 
tis's Recollections of Washington ; and he wrote 


thirty years later, in 1809, his own recollections 
in his Memoirs of the War in the Southern De- 

Greene's own letters are given in Sparks's Cor- 
respondence of the Revolution, iii. 207, etc. ; in 
Reed's Life of Joseph Reed, ii. 344, etc., and ir 
the lives of him. 

On the British side we have contemporary au- 
thorities in Clinton's Narrative of the Campaign 
of 1781 ; Cornwallis's Answer to Clinton, and an- 
other Reply to Clinton, likewise vindicating Corn- 
wallis, all published in London, and reprinted in 
Philadelphia, 1865-1866. 

Later summarized accounts will be found in 
Bancroft, x. ch. 22 ; Hildreth, iii. ch. 42 ; Irving's 
Washington, iv. ; McRee's Iredell, ch. 14 ; Moul- 
trie's Memoirs. 

Contemporary likenesses of Greene and Corn- 
wallis are in Andrews's History of the War and 
in Lee's Memoirs. 

Maps. — Greene's Life of Greene. Carrington's 
Battles, 540, 556. Caruthers's Incidents in the 
Old North State in 1781, two series. Balch's 
Les Fran^ais en Am^rique. 

The British ia Virginia, January — May, 178L 

It was the British plan for Cornwallis to move 
north in the end and join the forces to be sent 
from New York to the James. Clinton had al 
►eady dispatched Leslie, who had reached Vir- 


ginia, as already stated, Oct. 22, 1780. Arnold, 
the traitor, was now sent with a detachment, 
arriving Dec. 29th. Gen. Phillips arrived and 
superseded Arnold, March 26, 1781, and dying. 
May 13th, Arnold again took command, which he 
held till the 20th, when Comwallis (arriving at 
Petersburg, as hereafter stated) ordered Arnold to 
New York and assumed command. 

General accounts of transactions in Virginia 
during the summer, and of the inertness and un- 
prepared condition of the Virginians, can be 
found in the histories of Virginia by Campbell, 
p. 168, and by Howison, ch. 4. Hamilton's Re- 
public of the United States, ii. ch. 27, reflects 
on Jefferson, at the time governor, and lives of 
Jefferson by Tucker, i. ch. 6 ; by Randall, i. 295 ; 
by Parton, ch. 27, need to be compared. In Jef- 
ferson's Writings, ix. 212, 220, there are extracts 
from his diary, etc. Also Wirt's Patrick Henry ; 
Jefferson's Notes on Virginia ; Rives's Madison, 
i. 289 ; and Madison's Writings, i. 45. 

Arnold's Military Movements. — Sparks's Life 
of Arnold. Marshall's Washington, iv. 387. 
Sparks's Washington, vii. 347. Correspondence 
of the Revolution, iii. 200. Irving's Washington, 
iv. ch. 14 and 17. Bancroft, x. ch. 25. Hamil- 
ton's Republic, ii. 170. Arnold's own report in 
Almon's Remembrancer, ii. 350. Kapp's Steuben, 
ch. 17-19, records that officer's watch upon Ar- 
nold's movements. Lossing's Field-Book, ii. 434, 


546. Carrington's Battles. Life of Miihlenberg. 
Moore's Diary of the Revolution, ii. 384. The 
Life of Arnold, now in press, by Isaac N. Arnold. 

British Accounts. — Simcoe's Military Journal 
of the Queen's Rangers, privately printed, 1787, 
and subsequently published in New York, 1843. 
Stedman's American War. Jones's New York in 
the Revolutionary War, ii. 177. 

Washington was disappointed in not entrapping 
Arnold by aid of the French fleet. Sparks's 
Washington, vii. 410. This fleet encountered the 
British squadron, which succeeded in command- 
ing the Chesapeake waters. Meanwhile, in April, 
Lafayette reached Virginia with a detachment of 
troops. For his movements, see Sparks's Wash- 
ington, viii. 118, 509 ; Correspondence of the 
Revolution, iii. ; Marshall's Washington, iv. 418 ; 
Irving's Washington, iv. ch. 21 and 23. Lafay- 
ette's Memoirs and lives of him by Regnault, etc. ; 
Bancroft, x. ch. 21 ; Dawson's Battles ; Carring- 
ton's Battles, ch. 72 and 73 ; Kapp's Steuben, ch. 
20, in which justice is hardly done to Lafayette ; 
J. A. Stevens's Expedition of Lafayette against 
Arnold, published by the Maryland Historical So- 
ciety, 1878 ; Balch's Maryland Line, published by 
the Seventy-Six Society. 

Simcoe, Stedman, and Moore's Diary. 

Maps and Plans. — Carrington's Battles. Sim- 
loe's Queea's Rangers. 


Cowpens, January 17, 1781. 

Comwallis, advancing, sent Tarleton to rid his 
flank of JNIorgan, who encountered Tarleton at the 
Cowpens and defeated him. Graham's Life of 
Morgan, according to G. W. Greene, " a full and 
trustworthy narrative founded on authentic mate- 
rial." Morgan's papers were offered for sale in 
New Orleans, July, 1879. 

Greene's Life of Greene, iii. 139. Marshall's 
Washington, iv, 342. Irving's Washington, iv. 
ch. 18. Correspondence of the Revolution, iii. 
217. Bancroft, x. ch. 22. Dawson's Battles. 
Carrington's Battles, p. 546. Lossing's Field- 
Book, ii. 636. Simms's South Carolina. Moul- 
trie's Memoirs, ii. Harper's Monthly, xxii. 163. 
Historical Magazine, Dec. 1867. Some details 
were picked up by Chastellux in his Travels, 
English translation, ii. 60. New York Historical 
Society's Collections for 1875, p. 476. 

British Accounts. — Annual Register. Sted- 
man's American War, ii. ch. 41. Tarleton's His- 
tory of his Campaigns, with Mackenzie's Strictures 
on Tarleton. 

Congress gave medals to Gen. Morgan, Lieut. 
Col. Washington, and Lieut. Col. Howard, which 
are described in Loubat's Medallic History of the 
United States. 


Comwallis and Greene. 

In January Cornwallis detached a force to the 
region of Cape Fear River, and the Political Mag- 
azine, March, 1781, gave a map of the locality. 

After Cowpens, Greene and Morgan united, 
and, Cornwallis pursuing, Greene conducted his 
famous retreat across the Dan River, when the 
British general in turn falling back, Greene re- 
crossed the river in pursuit. Lives of Greene by 
Johnson and Greene, iii. Marshall's Washington. 
Correspondence of the Revolution, iii. 225, 233. 
Ramsay's Revolution. Lee's Memoirs. Histories 
of the United States by Bancroft, x. ch. 23, and 

British Accounts. — Stedman, Tarleton, Lamb's 

Gmlford, March 15, 1781. 

Greene offered battle to Cornwallis at Guilford 
Court House and was defeated. Lives of Greene 
by Johnson and Greene, iii. 176, and Moore's 
Diary of the Revolution, ii. 400. Sparks's Wash- 
ington and Correspondence of the Revolution. 
Lives of Washington by Marshall, iv. 366, and 
by Irving, iv. ch. 19 and 20. Gordon's American 
Revolution. Bancroft, x. ch. 23. Lossing's Field- 
Book, ii. 594, 608. Dawson's Battles. Carring- 
ton's Battles, ch. 69. 

Cornwallis's letters and dispatches are in Ross's 
Oornwallis Correspondence, i. 85, 606. Moore's 


Diary, ii. 400. The discussion in Parliament 
upon the battle is noted in Macknight's Burke, 
ii. 437. 

3Iap8. — MS. plans in the Faden Collection, 
Library of Congress. Tarleton's Campaigns. 
Stedman's American War, ii. eh. 41. Caruthers's 
Revolutionary Incidents, 2d series. Greene's 
Greene, iii. Carrington's Battles. 

Greene's statement of the aspect of affairs sub- 
sequently, April 22, 1781, is given in the Rhode 
Island Colonial Records, ix. 380 ; Revolutionary 
Correspondence of the Rhode Island Historical 
Collections, vi. 284. 

Hobkirk's Hill, April 25, 1781. 

Cornwallis, unable to profit by his victory at 
Guilford, retreated to "Wilmington, while Greene, 
pushing by Cornwallis's left flank, carried the war 
into South Carolina. Greene's Greene, iii. ch. 
12. Lord Rawdon attacked Greene at Hobkirk's 
Hill, near Camden, defeating him. 

Greene's Greene, iii. 241. Johnson's Greene, 
ii. 83. Gordon, iv. 81. Marshall's Washington, 
iv. 510, following Davie's MS. Lee's Campaign 
of 1781. Gibbes's Documentary History. Ir- 
ving's Washington, iv. Lossing's Field-Book, ii. 
876. Simms's South Carolina. Dawson's Bat- 
tles. Carrington's Battles. 

Stedman's American War, ii. ch. 42. 

Maps. — Stedman, ii. 358, the same published 


with slight differences, by Faden, Aug. 1, 1783. 
Greene's Greene, iii. 241. Carrington's Battles, 
p. 576. 

A series of minor reverses compelled Rawdon 
to fall back to Charleston. Greene's Greene. 
Bancroft, x. ch. 24. 

Ninety-Six, May— June, 1781. 

Greene laid siege to this post, and, on the ap- 
proach of Rawdon with rehef, assaulted it unsuc- 
cessfully and retired. 

Greene's Greene, iii. 299. Johnson's Greene, 
ii., which apologizes for Sumter's harassing of 
Greene ; but see Greene's Greene, iii. 319. Mar- 
shall's Washington, iv. 524. Bancroft, x. ch. 24. 
Lossing's Field- Book, ii. 690. Dawson's Battles. 

British Accounts. — Stedman, ii. ch. 43. Tarle- 
ton and Mackenzie. Jones's New York in the 
Revolutionary War, ii. 376. 

Sparks's Correspondence of the Revolution, iii., 
gives various letters of Greene. 

Maps. — Johnson's and Greene's Greene. 

For Greene's camp life during the summer, see 
Greene's Greene, iii., and his letters to Washing- 
ton in Sparks's Correspondence of the Revolu- 
tion, iii, 

W. G. Simms covers the events of the siege of 
Ninety-Six in his novel. The Scout, and the story 
's pursued in his other taxes, — Katharine Wal- 
Lon, Woodcraft, Forayers, and Eutaw. 


Eutaw, September 8, 1781. 

Greene, advancing towards Charleston, was suc- 
cessful at first at Eutaw, but checked towards the 
close of the fight. Greene's Greene, iii. 384. 
Johnson's Greene. Marshall's Washington, iv. 
542, Irving's Washington, iv. ch. 27. Bancroft, 
X. ch. 24. Lossing's Field-Book, ii. 698. Simms's 
South Carolina. Dawson's Battles. Carrington's 
Battles, ch. 71. Lee's Memoirs. Greene's Re- 
port to Congress. Stuart's Report to Cornwallis, 
— Moore's Diary, ii. 486. The medal given to 
Greene is described in Loubat's Medallic History 
of the United States. 

Maps. — Johnson's and Greene's Greene. Car- 
rington's Battles. 

End of Southern Campaigns. 

For final movements in South Carolina : Greene's 
Greene, iii. ; Bancroft, x. ch. 28 ; Sparks's Corre- 
spondence of the Revolution ; and the histories of 
Ramsay and Moultrie. Some of Greene's letters 
are given in Reed's Reed, ii. 377, 468. 

For the case of Isaac Hayne, who was hung by 
the enemy, see Greene's Greene, iii. 356 ; Ram- 
Bay's South Carolina, ii. 277 ; Moultrie's Revolu- 
tion, etc. ; Lee's Campaign of 1781. 

For movements round Charleston in 1782, see 
Ellis's Count Rumford, p. 127. 

Conquest of Georgia. — Armstrong's Life ot 


Wayne; Historical Magazine, May, 1860; Ste- 
vens's Georgia, ii. 240 ; Greene's Greene, iii. 435 ; 
Johnson's Greene; Lee's Memoirs; Marshall's 

Siege of Pensacola. — Historical Magazine, iv. 

Comwallis in Virginia, May, 1781. 

Meanwhile Cornwallis, not regarding Greene's 
march to the south, moved north to Virginia, and 
reached Petersburg May 20th, superseding Ar- 
nold in command, as before noted. 

Bancroft, x. ch. 23-25. Marshall's Washing- 
ton, iv. 480. Irving's Washington, iv. ch. 20 and 
21. Lossing's Field-Book. 

Ross's Cornwallis Correspondence. Sparks's 
Correspondence of the Revolution, iii., gives La- 
fayette's letters, detailing his movements in the 
presence of the enemy. 

In June, Tarleton raided to Charlottesville and 
Monticello. Tarleton's Campaigns. Life of Jef- 
ferson by Randall, i. 337, and by Parton, ch. 28. 
Harper's Monthly, vii. 145. 

For movements about Williamsburg, see Den- 
ny's Journal in the Pennsylvania Historical So- 
ciety's Memoirs, vii. 240. 

The Allies in Virginia, 178L 

Washington had contemplated a combined at- 
tack by the Americans and French on New York, 
»nd, after the scheme was abandoned, he kept up 


the appearance of preparation to deceive the 
enemy. Sparks's Washington, viii. 54, 130, 517, 

Stuart's Jonathan Trumbull describes the plan- 
ning of the movement to Virginia. Washington, 
Aug. 2d, informs Robert Morris of his intentions. 
Diplomatic Correspondence, xi. 417. Heath (Me- 
moirs, p. 298) was left in command on the Hud- 
son, and Washington and Rochambeau moved 
south. Robin's Nouveau Voyage, translated as 
New Travels through America, Boston, 1784. 
There is a map of the march in Soul^'s Histoire 
des Troubles de I'Am^rique Anglaise, Lincoln 
had the immediate command on the march. Bow- 
en's Life of Lincoln. Life of Timothy Pickering, 
i. 294. Journal of William Feltman. Diplo- 
matic Correspondence, xi. 462, for Washington's 
passage through Philadelphia. 

On Rochambeau and his participation, see Maga- 
zine of American History, July, 1879. The rep- 
resentatives of his family offered Rochambeau's 
papers to Congress in 1879. 

Arnold in Connecticut, September, 1781. 

Meanwhile, a marauding expedition from New 
York, under Arnold, was sent along the shore of 
Long Island Sound. The points of attack were 
New London, Fort Griswold, and Groton. See 
Hollister's, ii. ch. 17, and the other histories of 
Connecticut ; Sparks's Arnold ; Stuart's Life of 
Jonathan Trumbull, ch. 45; and Gov. Trumbull's 


letter to Washington in Sparks's Correspondence 
of the Revolution, iii. 403 ; Moore's Diary, ii. 
479 ; Dawson's Battles ; Carrington's Battles, 
with plan, p. 630 ; Irving's Washington, iv. ch. 
25; Caulkins's New London, ch. 32; Niles's 
Principles of the Revolution; Hinman's Historical 
Collections. Cf. Isaac N. Arnold's Life of Gen. 

MS. plans of New London and Groton are in 
the Faden Collection in the Library of Congress. 

Cf. Tuttle's address at Fort Griswold, 1821 ; 
C. Griswold's address in commemoration of Led- 
yard in 1826 ; W. F. Brainerd's, 1825 ; and Rath- 
burn's Narrative of capture of Groton fort, and 
of the massacre. 

OflF the Capes of Chesapeake, September, 1781. 

De Grasse, with a French fleet, had arrived 
within the Capes to cooperate with the American 
land forces, when Admiral Graves with a British 
fleet appeared off the Capes. To engage him, 
while De Barras, expected with a smaller French 
fleet, made the bay, De Grasse stood to sea, and 
the two fleets partially engaged, Sept. 5th, and 
manoeuvred for some days, till, his purpose ac- 
complished, De Grasse drew off and returned to 
Lynn Haven Bay, and the blockade of Cornwallis 
was made complete. Stedman's American War, 
li. ch. 44, with a map. The Political Magazine, 
1781 and 1784. John G. Shea edited in 1864 for 


the Bradford Club two contemporaneous journals, 
showing the Operations of the French fleet, and 
gave a plan. Cf. also Chevalier's Histoire de la 
Marine fran^aise pendant la guerre de I'independ- 
ance Amdricaine, Paris, 1877, ch. 7. Moore's 
Diary, ii. 476. 

Siege of Yorktown, September — October, 178L 

The French secure within the Capes, Corn- 
wallis, posted at Yorktown and Gloucester, was 
shut off from escape by water and from succor 
from Clinton, while Washington and Rochambeau 
opened their trenches on the land side. 

Contemporary Records. — Washington's Writ- 
ings, viii. ; Thacher's Military Journal ; Colonel 
Tilghman's Diary, p. 103 ; Journal in Historical 
Magazine, March, 1864 ; Journal of William Felt- 
man of the Pennsylvania line; Denny's Journal 
in Pennsylvania Historical Society's Memoirs, 
vii. ; papers in Almon's Remembrancer, xiii. 

French Accounts. — Memoirs of Rochambeau, 
S^gur, and Dumas; De Fersen's Journal in the 
Magazine of American History, July, 1879 ; Chas- 
tellux's Travels. Robin's New Travels. 

English Accounts. — Cornwallis's Correspond- 
ence. Cornwallis's letter to Clinton is in Robin's 
New Travels, App. Moore's Diary, ii. 512. A con- 
troversy between Cornwallis and Clinton gave rise 
to several pamphlets. Cf. Menzies's Catalogue, 
p. 79 ; and on this point see Ross's CornwaUis, i 


130; Jones's New York in the Revolutionary 
War, ii. 464, 466. 

The return of Cornwallis to England gave 
occasion to Walpole to compare him as a general 
with the other British leaders. Last Journals, ii. 

Stedman's American War. Tarleton's Cam- 
paigns. Simcoe's Queen's Rangers. Robertson 
to Lord George Germain in Documents relative 
to the Colonial History of New York, viii. 814. 

Correspondence and Articles of Capitulation. — 
Sparks's Washington, viii., App. No. 8. Moore's 
Diary, ii. 508. Ross's Cornwallis Correspondence, 

Later Accounts. — Lee's Memoirs of the War, 
Force's edition. Histories of the United States 
by Bancroft, x. ch. 35; Hamilton, ii. 263; Hil- 
dreth, iii. ch. 43 ; Ridpath, etc. Lives of Wash- 
ington by Marshall, iv. 472; Irving, iv. ch. 25, 
26, and 28 ; and in the Recollections by Custis, 
ch. 6. Lossing's Field-Book of the Revolution, ii. 
508, and his Operations in Virginia Eighty Years 
Ago, in the Atlantic Monthly, June, 1862, also an 
article in Harper's Monthly, vii. 452. Dawson's 
Battles of the United States. Carrington's Bat- 
tles of the Revolution, ch. 75. Hollister's Con- 
necticut, ii. ch. 18, etc. J. E. Cooke's Virginia in 
the Revolution, in Harper's Monthly, June, 1876. 
Lives of Timothy Pickering, ch. 19 and 20; of 
Alexander Hamilton, by J. C. Hamilton, i. 384 j 


yf Steuben, by Kapp, ch. 21 ; of Autliony Wayne ; 
of Henry Knox, by Drake. 

How the King received the news is told in 
Wraxall's Memoirs, 2d ed. ii. 108. Cf. Donne's 
Correspondence of George IH. with Lord North, 
ii. 390. For the effect of the news in general : 
Walpole's Last Journals, ii. 474 ; Macknight's 
Burke, ii. 457; Annual Register, xxv. ; Massey's 
England, i. 407 ; Parton's Franklin, ii. 448 ; Fitz- 
maurice's Life of Shelburne, iii. 123 ; Parlia- 
mentary History, xxii. 639, where the debate is 

3Iaps. — The Political Magazine, Nov. 1781, 
has a contemporary map of the campaign, and a 
MS. one is in the Faden Collection. Hilliard 
d'Auberteuil's Essais, ii., gives a map of Virginia 
and Maryland ; and a map by Fry and Jefferson, 
1775, is No. 31 of the American Atlas. Sparks's 
Washington, viii. 158. 

There was a French map of this part of Vir- 
ginia published in Paris by Esnauts et Rapilly, 
and another of the Bale de Chesapeak, with a 
" plan de I'attaque." A German plan was made 
by Sotzman. 

For the Siege. — Soul^'s Histoire des Troubles 
de FAmdrique Anglaise, Paris, 1787. Gordon's 
History of the American War, iv. Ramsay's 
Revolution in South Carolina. Tarleton's Cam- 
paigns, ch. 7. Sparks's Washington, viii. 186 
A.tlases to Marshall's and Guizot's Washington 


Hamilton's Republic of the United States, ii. 263, 
following an English plan. Carrington's Battles, 
p. 646. Ridpath's United States. Faden issued 
in London, Oct. 7, 1785, a large plan of the 
siege, made by John Hills. That in Stedman's 
American War, ii. 412, is substantially the same 
with one published in London, March 1, 1787, 
but from a different plate. 

Congress struck a medal in commemoration of 
the double surrenders of Yorktown and Saratoga, 
and it is described in Loubat's Medallic History 
of the United States. Cf. Sparks's Franklin, ix. 

For landmarks see Lossing's Field-Book, and 
Porte Crayon's Shrines of Old Virginia, in Lip« 
pincott's Magazine, April, 1879. 

WINTER, 1781-1782. 

The Situation. 

The French remained in Virginia. Parton's 
Jefferson, ch. 29. Washington went with the 
American troops to the Hudson. Sparks's Wash- 
ington, viii., gives successive schemes of further 
concerted action with the French. Irving's Wash- 
ington, iv. ch. 29 and 30. Kapp's Steuben, ch. 
23. Lossing's Field-Book, ii. ch. 5. The question 
whether Washington was ever made a marshal 
of France has given rise to some dispute. See 
Historical Magazine, ii. 98 ; iii. etc. Potter's 
American Monthly, 1876, on Washington's order 
books. R. R. Livingston to the governors of the 
states on the next campaign in Diplomatic Cor- 
respondence, xi. 221. Reed's letter on the condi- 
tion of affairs in Reed's Reed, ii. 371. Political 
movements, Rives's Madison, i. ch. 10. 

EVENTS OF 1782-1783. 


Thomas Paine was employed by Robert Mor- 
ris, Feb. 1782, to sustain the action of Congress 
in the public prints. Diplomatic Correspondence, 
xii. 95. Sparks's Washington, viii. 345. Par- 
ton's Franklin, ii. 454. North American Review, 
No. 120, p. 40. 

In general for the connection of Paine with the 
American Revolution, see lives of him by J. Cheet- 
ham, an English radical, and by G. Vale, some- 
what sympathetic. In the Atlantic Monthly, for 
Nov., 1859, there is a paper on his first appear- 
ance in this country ; for July, one on his second 
appearance, and in that for Dec, one on his ca- 
reer in England and France. M. A. Casey's Plea 
for a Patriot, in the Galaxy, xxi. Parton's Jeffer- 
son. Recollections of his residence in New York, 
in the New York City Manual, 1864. Potter's 
American Monthly, Feb. 1877. M. D. Conway in 
Fortnightly Review, March, 1879. Allibone, p. 
1485, gives numerous minor references. 

April, 1782. A plan to capture Prince Wil- 
liam Henry, at this time in New York. Sparka's 


Washington, viii. 262. Irving's Washington, iv. 
Historical Magazine, Feb. 1869, p. 130. 

April, 1782. Loyalists hung in New Jersey a 
Capt. Huddy; and Capt. Asgill, a British officer 
and prisoner in the Americans' hands, was selected 
to suffer in retaliation. The case was one of per- 
plexity to both Carleton and Washington. Diplo- 
matic Correspondence, xi. 105, 128, 140. Sparks's 
Washington, i. 378 ; viii. 265, 801, 336, 361. Ir- 
ving's Washington, iv. ch. 29. Correspondence 
of the Revolution, iii. Heath's Memoirs, p. 335. 
Franklin's Works, ix. 376. J. C. Hamilton's Re- 
public, ii. 282. Political Magazine, iii. 472. 
Jones's New York in the Revolutionary War, ii. 
232, 483. 

May, 1782. Crawford's expedition against the 
Wyandottes on the Muskingum, near Sandusky, 
is the subject of a monograph by C. W. Butter- 
field, 1873. 

The affairs of the loyalists on Long Island dur- 
ing 1782-1783. Ellis's Memoir of Count Rum- 
ford, 132, and Onderdonk's Queens, Suffolk, and 
Kings Counties. 

June, 1783. The mutiny of troops in Pennsyl- 
vania and their insult to Congress. Rives's Madi- 
son, i. ch. 16 ; the histories of Pennsylvania ; and 
W. P. Hazard's edition of Watson's Annals of 
Philadelphia and Pennsylvania, a book much im- 
proved over the original issue. 


Fall of the North Ministry, March, 1782, 

The tidings of Yorktown had reached London 
in November. Walpole's Last Journals, ii. The 
Life of Van Schaack, p. 267, gives the heads of 
debate in Parliament, Dec. 11, 1781. Cf. also 
Parliamentary History. On successive test ques- 
tions the majority of the ministry gradually de- 
creased. Parton (Franklin, ii. 452) describes the 
British intrigues in Jan. 1782, to alienate the 

Feb. 22, 1782. Gen Conway's motion to put 
an end to the war was lost by one vote. Lyman's 
Diplomacy of the United States, i. 93. Walpole's 
Last Journals, ii. 505. 

Feb. 28. Conway's renewed motion to put an 
end to the war prevailed, giving the first majority 
against the ministry. Debrett's Parliamentary 
Register, vi. 310-341. Walpole's Last Journals, 
ii. 509. Macknight's Burke, ii. 482. 

March 28, 1782, Lord North resigned. Wal- 
pole's Last Journals, ii. 521. The condition of 
parties at this time is described in Bancroft, x. ch. 
26. Cf. also for this period of the waning power 
of North, Donne's Correspondence of George IIL 
with North, ii. 398, 429 ; Belsham's England, vii. ; 
Stanhope's England, vii. 136 ; Massey's England, 
:i. 414 ; Adolphus's England; Pictorial History 
of England; Wraxall's Historical Memoirs, ii. 
148 ; Cook's History of Party ; Russell's Memori' 


als and Correspondence of Fox, i. 281 ; Russell 'a 
Life and Times of Fox, i. ch. 15 ; Fitzmaurice's 
Shelburne, iii. 129. 

Negotiations for Peace, 1782. 

Rockingham's demands of concessions by the 
King before he would consent to form a new cabi- 
net, are given in Albemarle's Rockingham and 
his Contemporaries, ii. 452. 

The party, late in opposition and now in power, 
was divided, Rockingham, the prime minister, be- 
ing in favor of granting the United States their 
independence ; but Shelburne, his colleague, rep- 
resented the repugnance of Chatham to dismem- 
bering the monarchy. Albemarle's Rockingham, 
ii. ; Fitzmaurice's Shelburne, iii. ch. 5, reviewed 
in Edinburgh Review, Jan. 1854, and in Quar- 
terly Review, Jan. 1854. Sparks (Franklin, vii. 
303) had copies of the Shelburne papers, then in 
Lord Lansdowne's hands, since used by Fitzmau- 
rice. Russell's Memorials and Correspondence of 
Fox, i. 290, 294, and Life and Times of Fox, i. 
281. Bancroft's United States, x. ch. 27 and 28. 

July 1, 1782, Rockingham died. Walpole's 
Last Journals, ii. 544. 

Meanwhile Sir Guy Carleton had arrived at 
New York to succeed Clinton, May, 1782, and 
had endeavored without success to open commu- 
nication with Congress as commissioner of peace. 
Madison's Debates and Correspondence, i. ; Rives's 
Madison, i. 331, 333. 


On Rockingham's death Shelburne became 
prime minister, and Fox, representing the Rock- 
ingham party, divided the cabinet, and hoped to 
detach America from France, in treating through 
Grenville, his agent to Paris, while Shelburne 
sent Oswald in August on a similar mission, with 
the hope of inducing the acceptance of a plan 
for a separate parliament for America under the 
Bame king. Diplomatic Correspondence, iii. 373, 
483 ; viii. 116 ; Sparks's Washington, viii. 328, 
344; Rives's Madison, i. 336; Walpole's Last 
Journals, ii. 549, 583, and for Shelburne's charac- 
ter, unfavorably drawn, ii. 566, 623 ; Fitzmaurice's 
Shelburne, iii. ; Stanhope's England, vii. ch. %Q ; 
Adolphus's England, iii. ch. 46-49; Belsham'a 
England, vii. 325 ; Memoirs of the Court and 
Cabinet of George the Third; Russell's Memo- 
rials and Correspondence of Fox, i. 330, 343, 439, 
and Life and Times of Fox, i. 303 ; Life of John 
Adams, i. 362. 

Congress had issued instructions to its Com- 
missioners in Europe, June 15, 1781, Diplomatic 
Correspondence, x. 71 ; and again, Jan. 7, 1782, 
through Secretary Livingston, Diplomatic Corre- 
Bpondence, iii. 268, and Franklin's Works, ix. 128. 
See also, under 1781, " Political Aspects." 

The proceedings of Congress, while the nego- 
tiations went on, are followed in their Journals j 
Madison's Writings, i. 61, 515 ; Rives's Madison, 
L ch. 12 ; J. C. Hamilton s Republic, ii. ch. 31 


and 34 ; Diplomatic Correspondence, passim. The 
Debates in Congress, Nov. 4, 1782, to June 21» 
1783, are given in the Madison Papers, i. 187. 

General summarized accounts of the negotiations 
are given in Bancroft's United States, x. ch. 26, 
27, and 28 ; Sparks's Franklin, ch. 13 ; John 
Adams's Works, i. ch. 6 and 7 ; Pitkin's United 
States, ii. ch. 15 ; Marshall's Washington, iv. ch. 
11 ; Knight's Popular History of England, vi. ch. 
29 ; Hildreth's United States, iii. ch. 43 ; Greene's 
Historical View of the American Revolution. A 
tory view is taken in Jones's New York in the 
Revolutionary War, ii. 487, 491. 

A correspondence had been opened between 
Franklin and Shelburne during the Rockingham 
administration. Bancroft, x. 535, and Lives of 
Franklin. Oswald had had an interview with 
Franklin April 16, 1782, and Franklin conducted 
the negotiations for some months alone. Frank- 
lin's Works, ix. 118 ; and for his journal of the 
negotiations, March 21 to July 1, 1782, Works, ix. 
238-350. This journal is also in Bigelow's Frank- 
lin, iii. 66, and in the Diplomatic Correspondence, 
iii. 376, and many of Franklin's letters are in the 
Bame volume. Franklin's "Notes for Conversa- 
tion " with Oswald are in Works, and in Parton's 
Life of Franklin, ii. 458. Franklin's unpopular- 
ity in England has sprung partly from what was 
felt to be his excessive care for the interests of 
America in his conduct of these negotiations. Cf. 


Thomas Hughes in the Contemporary Review, 
1879, or No. 1833, Living Age, p. 298. 

Jay came from Spain to Paris, June 23, 1782, 
and introduced his suspicions both of Great Brit- 
ain's sincerity and France's purposes into the 
conduct of affairs. Diplomatic Correspondence, 
viii. 126, 128, 129, 163. Sparks's Franklin, i. 495 ; 
Parton's Franklin, ii. 476, 479. Madison's De- 
bates and Correspondence, i. 518. Rives's Mad- 
ison, i. 356, and App. D. Bancroft's United 
States, X. 559. J. C. Hamilton's Republic, ii. 
476. Jay's Life of John Jay, i. ch. 6, assumes 
his suspicions to be well founded, and in Sparks's 
opinion needs to be read with caution. Sparka 
(Franklin, ix. 452) alleges the groundlessness of 
Jay's suspicions of the French ministry. Flan- 
ders's Life of Jay, ch. 12. Cf. C. F. Adams's Life 
of John Adams, i. 357, for a note on British se- 
cret agents near the American Commissioners. 
Arthur Lee at this time was holding opinions re- 
garding the French alliance which excited suspi- 
cion. Rives's Madison, i. 340. 

John Adams, meanwhile, though the head of 
the Commission, had been successfully achieving 
treaties with Holland, one acknowledging the 
Lidependence of America, April 19, 1782, and 
the other of commerce, etc., Oct. 8, 1782. Med- 
als commemorating these are engi-aved in John 
Adams's Works, vii. and viii. For the progress 
and results, see John Adams's Works, i. 347, etc. ; 

268 READER'S HANDBOOK Oi- [1782. 

iii. for Diary ; vii. 501, for official correspond- 
ence ; Bancroft, x. ch. 26 ; Lyman's Diplomacy 
of the United States, i. ch. 3 ; Treaties and Con- 
Tentions of the United States, 1871, p. 607. 

The Holland mission accomplished, Adams, 
Oct. 26th, joined Franklin and Jay in Paris, and 
his letter to Livingston, Oct. 31, 1782, opens his 
official correspondence. Works, vii. 652, con- 
tinued in viii. Cf. his Life in vol. i. ch. 6 and 7 ; 
his Diary, in iii. 300. Diplomatic Correspond- 
ence, vi. and vii., with extracts from his diary. 
Parton's Franklin, ii. 486. 

Laurens, released from the Tower (Madison's 
Debates, etc., i. 175 ; Rives's Madison, 346 ; Par- 
ton's Franklin, ii. 404), joined the other Commis- 
sioners in Paris later. Diplomatic Correspond- 
ence, ii. 

The negotiations were continued with the Brit- 
ish agents, without the privity of Vergennes, and 
directly in contravention of the instructions which 
had been given by Congress. This was the re- 
sult of the suspicions of Jay, now strengthened 
by Adams's views, and helped by an intercepted 
letter of Marbois, the French secretary of lega- 
tion at Philadelphia, which the British agents 
produced. The letter is given in Pitkin's United 
States, ii. 528. Cf. John Adams's Works, i., 
App. D. ; and i. 392, for Adams's news of the 
policy of the French cabinet ; and viii. p. 11, 
for his views cf his instructions. Flassan's Dip 


lomatie Fran^aise, vi. The whole course of the 
diplomatic relations with France is summarized 
in J. C. Hamilton's Republic, ii. ch. 32. 

Conclusions were easily reached but upon three 
points : — 

Boundaries. — The French proposal for divid- 
ing North America between the United States, 
Spain, and Great Britain is given in Fitzmaurice's 
Shelburne, iii. 170. A map showing the northern 
boundary as proposed by Oswald in Oct. and 
Nov. 1782, respectively, is given by Fitzmaurice, 
iii. 294, who says that the map with the line 
finally determined under the Ashburton treaty, 
1842, is in the King's Collection in the British 
Museum. The original map is lost, and this loss 
led to the disputes, settled by that treaty. On p. 
324 there is a copy of the official map, showing 
the rival claims for the boundary of Maine, with 
the line finally fixed in 1842, and a note on the 
two maps bearing upon the question. Cf. John 
Adams's Works, i. 377, and App. C. on the Maine 
boundary. A statement of the American view by 
Charles Sumner was circulated in England in 1839, 
and printed in the Boston Courier June 4, 1839. 
For a history of the dispute see Daniel Webster's 
Works, vol. i. p. cxxi ; vol. v. 78 ; vi. 270 ; Gal- 
latin's Memoir on the North Eastern Boundary, 
with map. New York, 1843, and the public doc- 
uments of Great Britain and the United States. 

The earliest map of the United States, as such, 


with bounds defined according to the treaty of 
1783, was published April 3, 1783, by John 
Wallis, London, and is fac-similed in Jones's New 
York in the Revolutionary War, ii. 313. Maps 
ehowing the bounds as fixed by the treaty were 
published at once in Philadelphia by Pursell, in 
Paris by Lattre, in Germany by Giissefeld, and 
in Amsterdam " d'apres Mr. Bonne." See also 
Political Magazine, Feb. 1783 ; Andrews's History 
of the War, etc. Gen. Chamberlain's Maine, 
Her Place in History, has a map showing the 
bounds of 1783 and the subsequent growth of 
the territorial limits. 

The British had advanced claims as far west 
as the Penobscot and even the Kennebec, and to 
the territory south of the great lakes, under the 
terms of the Quebec Act, passed at the beginning 
of the troubles, but they were abandoned. 

The whole question of the cession by Virginia 
of the northwest territory, and of the rival claims 
of othier states and of land companies, as affecting 
the question of boundary, is gone over in Rives's 
Life of Madison, i. ch. 15. Cf. Journals of Con- 
gress ; Madison's Debates and Correspondence, ii. ; 
Thomas Paine's Public Good, an argument against 
the claim? of Virginia ; Histories of Virginia and 
of the northwestern states. 

The question of the bounds and independence 
of Vermont has already been referred to under 
1778. Congress was again engaged with the 


subject during the period now under considera- 
tion. Madison's Debates and Correspondence, i. 
Rives's Madison, i. 465. Ira Allen's Political 
History of Vermont. Stone's Life of Brant, ii. 

The Fisheries. — For the right to take fish 
on the banks of Newfoundland, etc., see John 
Adams's Works, i. 380 ; iii. 328 ; J. C. Hamilton's 
Republic, ii. 482 ; Sabine's Report on American 
Fisheries ; Wells's Samuel Adams, iii. 150. 

The Loyalists. — The British agents endeavored 
long to make the United States, rather than their 
own government, indemnify the loyalists for 
sacrifices ; but Franklin's intimation that an equi- 
table equivalent would be the British indemnifi- 
cation for ravages by their troops, stayed the claim. 
Wilmot's Historical View of the Commission for 
inquiry into the losses, services, and claims of the 
American loyalists. Sabine's American Loyalists, 
eh. 10 and 11. Jones's New York in the Revo- 
lutionary War, ii. 237, has a tory view, and in ii. 
510, is given the New York act of forfeiture, in 
1779. Franklin's Works, ix. 426. Wells's Sam- 
uel Adams, iii. 182. 

The condition of the negotiations were some- 
what affected by the political situation of Ireland. 
Bancroft, x. John Adams's Works, i. 379. Me- 
moirs of the Court and Cabinet of George the 
Third, i. 66-136. Also by Rodney's defeat of De 


Grasse and the French fleet in the West Indies 
Bancroft, x. ch. 27. James's and other histories 
of the British navy. The Age of Pitt and Fox, 
Ap23., London, 1846. 

Nov. 30, 1782, the provisional treaty was signed 
at Paris. Lyman's Diplomacy of the United 
States, i. ch. 4. Bancroft's United States, x. 59. 
Hildreth, iii. ch. 45. Irving's Washington, iv. ch. 
32. Treaties and Conventions of the United 
States, 1871, p. 309. Stanhope's England, vi. 
Diplomatic Correspondence, x. 109, 115. Austin's 
Gerry, ch. 24. The Commissioners addressed Sec- 
retary Livingston concerning this preliminary 
treaty. John Adams's Works, viii. 18. This 
dispatch was laid before Congress March 12, 1783, 
and for the views of Congress on the Commission- 
ers' proceeding without the knowledge of the 
French Court, see Rives's Madison, i. 352 ; J. C. 
Hamilton's Republic, ii. 488 ; Journals of Con- 

Vergennes addressed Luzerne in Philadelphia 
in deprecation of the want of confidence shown. 
Sparks's Franklin, i. ch. 14 ; ix. 452. Livingston 
Bent a reproving letter to the Commissioners. Di- 
plomatic Correspondence, x. 129 ; Rives's Madi- 
son, i. 372. Several drafts of a Reply are given 
in John Adams's Works, i. App. F. ; also see i. p. 
875, and viii. 87, and Franklin's Works, ix. 532. 

There is a correspondence of Jay and J. Q. 
Adams on the treaty in the INIagazine of American 
History, Jan. 1879. 


The story sometimes repeated, that Franklin at 
the signing wore the identical suit of Manchester 
velvet in which he was dressed when he was in- 
sulted at the Privy Council, is discredited. Sparks's 
Franklin, p. 488. Concerning the history of a por- 
trait of Franklin, painted by Greuze, and given 
by Franklin to Oswald, and now in the Boston 
Public Library, see the Report of that library 
for 1872, App., with memorandum by Charles 

Jan. 20, 1783. The provisional treaty between 
Great Britain and France signed at Paris. Sparks's 
Washington, viii. 407, and the histories of Eng- 

The provisional treaty of Nov. 30, 1782, was 
assailed in Parliament, and was one of the causes 
of the dissolution of the Shelburne ministry. Van 
Schaack's Life and Letters. David Hartley suc- 
ceeded Oswald in the further negotiations for the 
definitive treaty. Rives's Madison, i. 497. John 
Adams's Works, viii. 78. Eight or nine months 
of fruitless diplomacy resulted in the terms of the 
provisional treaty being exactly agreed upon for 
the definitive treaty, signed Sept. 3, 1783. Con- 
gress ratified it Jan. 14, 1784 ; the King, April 
9th ; and Franklin notified Congress, May 13th. 
Works, X. 87, 95, 96. The treaty is given in 
Jones's New York in the Revolutionary War, ii, 



The Newburgh Addresses, March, 1783. 

In Dec. 1782, the army had made representa* 
tions to Congress, setting forth its sufferings from 
want of pay. Journals of Congress, iv. 206. 
Madison's Debates and Correspondence, i. 266. 
Rives's Life of Madison, i. 383. 

Nothing satisfactory coming of this appeal, a 
movement of uncertain extent to demand of Con- 
gress a redress of grievances manifested itself in 
anonymous addresses to the army, calling for a 
meeting, and written, as afterwards acknowledged, 
by Maj. Armstrong, of Gates's staff. Hasty ac- 
tion was prevented by Washington's interposition. 
The original autograph of his address is in the 
cabinet of the Massachusetts Historical Society, 
and a fac-simile of it was issued by that society 
in 1876. The addresses, as wi'itten by Arm- 
strong, are given in Sparks's Washington, viii. 
551. More or less extended accounts of the pro- 
ceedings incident to this attempt to coerce the 
tivil by the military power will be found in Pick- 
ering's Life of Timothy Pickering, i. ch. 29, 30, 
and 31 ; Sparks's Washington, viii. 369, 393, 
551 ; Marshall's Washington, iv. 587 ; Irving's 
Washington, iv. ch. 31 ; Rives's Madison, i. 392 
Quincy's Life of Shaw, 101 ; J. C. Hamilton's 
Republic, ii. 365, 385, and his Life of Alexander 
Hamilton, ii. 68 ; Hildreth's United States, iii. 
ch. 45 ; Dunlap's New York, ii. 230 ; Journals of 
Congress, iv. 213. 


Hostilities Cease, 1783. 

Meanwhile, April 19, 1783, a publication of tlie 
sessation of hostilities was made in the camp at 
Newburgh. Sparks's Washington, viii. 425, and 
App. 13. Heath's Memoirs. Madison's Debates, 
etc., i. 437. Diplomatic Correspondence, ii. 319- 
329 ; X. 121 ; xi. 320. 

On Washington's headquarters at Newburgh, 
Bee Lossing's Field-Book, and J. T. Headley in 
Galaxy, xxii. 

May, 1783. The Society of the Cincinnati 
formed among the officers of the army. Kapp's 
Steuben, ch. 26. Heath's Memoirs, p. 381. Penn- 
sylvania Historical Society's Memoirs, vi. Win- 
throp Sargent in the North American Review, 
Oct. 1853. Loring's Hundred Boston Orators, p. 
184. The scheme was not approved by many. 
Wells's Samuel Adams, iii. 202. Austin's Gerry, 
ch. 25. Franklin's Works, x. 58. Chief among 
the tracts in opposition was Cassius's (Judge 
Burke of South Carolina) Considerations on the 
Society or Order of Cincinnati, 1783. The orig- 
inal Institution and Proceedings were printed at 
Boston, 1812. There have been various minor 
publications about the society, and there is an ex- 
tensive History of the Massachusetts Society by 
F. S. Drake. 

June 8, 1783. The circular letter of Washing- 
ton to the governors of the states, taking leave of 


them and expressing hopes for the future, is in 
Sparks's Washington, viii. 439. Irving's Wash- 
ington, iv. 394. 

Oct. 18, 1783. Proclamation disbanding the 

Nov. 2, 1783. Washington's Farewell Address. 
Sparks's Washington, viii. 491. Irving's Wash- 
ington, iv. 402. 

Nov. 25, 1783. New York evacuated by the 
British. Irving's Washington, iv. ch. 33. New 
York during the Revolution, New York, 1861. 
Jones's New York in the Revolutionary War, ii. 
504. Histories of the City of New York. 

Maps of the city at this time are in Moore's 
Diary, ii. 498 ; Political Magazine, 1781 ; Dunlap's 
New York, i. 

Dec. 4, 1783. Washington parts with his of- 
ficers in New York. Lives of Washington by 
Marshall and Irving. 

In Philadelphia, Washington deposited his ac- 
counts during the war, 1775-1783, in his own 
hand, — a document now in the Treasury Depart- 
ment at Washington. A fac-simile of the MS 
was published in 1837. 

Dec. 23, 1783. Washington resigned his com- 
mission to Congress at Annapolis. Sparks's Wash- 
ington, viii. 504, and App. 14. Marshall's Wash- 
ington, iv. 622. 

An account of John Gray of Mount Vernon 
the last soldier of the Revolution, by J. M. Dal 
zell, was printed at Washington, 1868. 



In the previous sections of this Handbook, 
special points of the conflict, arranged approxi- 
mately in a chronological order, are illustrated by- 
references to monographs, more or less confined 
in scope, and to parts of more general works. It 
seems convenient to add a survey of the principal 
works covering the whole period, and to indicate 
a few of the lesser ones, as typical ; and also to 
mark some of the chief sources of contemporary 
information, comprehensive in their character. 

American Contemporary Kecords. 

The Journals of Congress begin Sept. 1774. 
Henry Armitt Brown delivered, in 1874, a cen- 
tennial oration on the anniversary of the meeting 
of this Congress. The first volume of the Journals 
goes through 1775. After that there was a vol- 
ume each year through the struggle. The vol- 
ume for 1774-1775 was reprinted by Almon in 
London, 1775. 

The Secret Journals of Congress begin 1775, 
when the Committee of Secret Correspondence 


began to communicate with agents in Europe, 
and the title of this committee was changed to the 
Committee of Foreign Affairs, April 17, 1777. 
These Secret Journals are concerned with their 
proceedings down to the close of the war. G. W 
Greene says : " In using the Journals of Congress, 
I have constantly had occasion to regret the awk- 
ward separation of the Secret Journals from the 
main collection, and the want of a new edition 
based upon an accurate collation of the original 
manuscript, and completed by the insertion of 
the fragments of debates and speeches scattered 
through the works of Adams, Jefferson, Gouver- 
neur Morris, and other members of that body." 
These Journals — contemporaneous edition, 13 
vols., and the reprint of 1823, 4 vols. — are but a 
selection from the originals preserved in the De- 
partment of State. There is a chapter on the 
Congress of the Revolution, and another on its re- 
lations to the states, in G. W. Greene's Historical 
View ; and perhaps the best account of Congress 
from 1780 to the close of the war is found in 
Rives's Life of Madison, i. 

The letters that passed between the officers or 
committees of Congress and its agents and min- 
isters abroad are contained in the Diplomatic 
Correspondence of the American Revolution, 12 
volumes, 1829-1830, edited by Sparks. After 
Aug. 10, 1781, the correspondence on the part of 
Congress was transferred to R. R. Livingston, tlie 


first Secretary of Foreign Affairs. Sparks used 
this publication of the government sometimes as 
a medium through his notes of his own arguments 
and inferences, for which he has been criticised. 

Cf. North American Review, xxxii. on the Di- 
plomatic Correspondence by Edward Everett ; 
and xlvi. by George Bancroft, and xcii. by G. W. 
Greene, on the Documentary History ; also the 
latter's Diplomacy of the Revolution in his His- 
torical View, p. 173. 

Washinofton's official letters had first been 
printed in Boston, New York, and London, 1795- 
1796, but Jared Sparks, in 1827, issued a pamphlet 
describing the papers of Washington (cf. Ban- 
croft, ix. preface, p. 5.), and proposed a plan of 
publication of them ; and between 1834 and 1837 
he published the Life and Writings of Washing- 
ton, 12 vols., — an authority of the highest impor- 
tance. Sparks's labors were great and extremely 
valuable, though his method of editing, in recti- 
fying and dignifying language not originally in- 
tended for publication, has been censured by Lord 
Mahon (Earl Stanhope) and others, in 1851. In 
his own defense Sparks published pamphlets in 
1852 and 1853. It was shown that much of the 
alleged tampering followed the language of Wash- 
ington's letter books, which differed from the let- 
ters actually sent, and these last at the time were 
not accessible to Sparks, but the differences were 
made apparent on the publication of W. B. Reed's 


Life of Joseph Reed, in 1847, where Washington's 
letters as sent were printed. In 1852 W. B. Reed 
reprinted the letters in dispute with marginal 
references, showing Sparks's omissions and changes 
and his own. Stanhope, after Sparks's explana- 
tion, gave his final views in the Appendix of His- 
tory of England, vol. vi. 

Cf. Allibone's Dictionary, iii. 1203 and 2596, 
for reference to spurious Letters of Gen. Wash- 
ington to his Friends, 1776, published in Lon- 
don, and afterwards forming a part of Washing- 
ton's Epistles, etc., New York, 1796. 

In 1854 Sparks edited the Correspondence of 
the American Revolution, 4 vols., being chiefly 
letters addressed to Washington during the war, 
and a necessary complement to the letters of 
Washington. He says in the preface, in pursuance 
of his plan of editing, and after his controversy 
with Mahon: "Eri-ors of grammar and obvious 
blunders, the result of hasty composition, have 
been corrected." 

The measure of Sparks's labors for the history 
of the Revolution is taken in the Memoir of him, 
prepared by George E. Ellis, D. D., for the Pro- 
ceedings of the Massachusetts Historical Society. 
Cf. also Historical Magazine, May, 1866, and the 
references in Allibone, iii. Col. Henry Whiting 
collected Washington's orders, 1778, 1780-1782, 
Crom the papers of his father, John Whiting, and 
published th?Ti, 1844. Inedited letters of Wash 


ington have been printed in various places, — 
Magazine of American History, Feb. 1879 ; Cath- 
olic World, Nov. 1867 (to Chastellux), etc. 

In 1830 the late Col. Peter Force projected a 
documentary history of America from 1492 to 
1789. In 1833 Congress ordered the publication 
of such portion of the American Archives as 
constituted series 4th and 5th of Col. Force's plan, 
covering 1774-1783. The 4th series as printed 
embraced the interval, March 7, 1774, to July 4, 
1776, 6 vols, folio; and of the 5th series only 
3 vols, ending with Dec. 1776, were printed. Con- 
gress ceasing to vote appropriations for it. The 
print showed a literal following of even obvious 
errors in the originals. In 1867 the library of 
books and manuscripts which Force had collected 
was purchased for the Library of Congress. A 
report of the Librarian of Congress (46th Con- 
gress, 1st session. Senate Misc. Doc. No. 34 — 
May 15, 1879) represents the manuscript mate- 
rial, 1776-1789 still unprinted as covering 230,000 
foolscap pages, enough to make 30 volumes, match- 
ing those already printed. The librarian thinks 
it desirable to print it with " careful omissions 
and additions." The volumes as printed take a 
very wide scope in selection from contemporary 
printed records and manuscripts; but the indexes 
to each volume are very inadequate and incon- 

Niles's Principles and Acts of the Revolution 


is a gathering of contemporary opinions and do^ 
ings, without clironological arrangement, but with 
an index. It was reprinted in 1876. 

Recitals of transactions and illustrations of viewa 
and manners will be found in the Diary of the 
American Revolution, a daily record, consisting of 
excerpts from the public prints and other original 
sources, compiled by Frank Moore, to which may 
be added the same compiler's Songs and Ballads 
of the American Revolution, and W. Sargent's 
Loyalist Poetry of the Revolution. 

Thacher's Military Journal during the Ameri- 
can Revolutionary War gives the experiences and 
observations of a surgeon. 

The Familiar Letters of John Adams and his 
wife, Abigail Adams, with a memoir of Mrs. 
Adams, by Charles Francis Adams, give a picture 
of the feelings of the time, with glimpses of events, 
that is of extreme value. Other similar illustra- 
tions will be found in H. E. Scudder's Men and 
Manners in America One Hundred Years Ago. 
Cf. Mrs. Ellet's Domestic History of the American 

The newspapers of the day are of the first im- 
portance, and for the early stage of the conflict 
they are carefully used in Frothingham's Rise of 
the Republic, and Moore in his Diary of the 
American Revolution constantly gives extracts 
from them. The principal ones of New England 
ire named on p. 7 of this Handbook, and others 


can be enumerated from the references of Froth- 
ingham and Moore. Rivington published in New 
York the principal paper in the British interest, 
known as The Gazetteer, 1773-1775, and as the 
Loyal and then Royal Gazette, after 1777. Hud- 
son's Journalism in the United States. Buck- 
ingham's Specimens of Newspaper Literature. 
Sabine's American Loyalists, 2d ed. ch. 5 of in- 
troduction. Jones's New York in the Revolution- 
ary War, i. 561. 

The contemporary utterances of the pulpit are 
traced in Thornton's Pulpit of the Revolution, 
and in The Patriot Preachers of the Revolution. 
Cf. Sprague's Annals of the American Pulpit. 
J. T. Headley's Chaplains and Clergy of the 

A controversy was conducted in the Historical 
Magazine by H. B. Dawson and others, about the 
disloyalty of the Methodists during the war. Cf. 
the numbers for 1867, May, June, Sept. and Dec. 

For the effect and traces of the eloquence of the 
time, see the lives of Patrick Henry and the other 
leaders ; E. L. Magoon's Orators of the Ameri- 
can Revolution ; Frank Moore's American Elo- 
quence ; Rufus Choate's Address on the Eloquence 
of the Revolution. An account of the various 
conventions during the war is given in Jameson's 
Constitutional Convention. 

Joseph M. Toner printed in 1876 the Medicai 
Men of the Revolution, with a brief history of the 


medical department of the Continental army 
containing the names of nearly 1,200 physicians. 

Bancroft, in his prefaces, vols, vi., ix., and x., 
indicates the chief manuscript sources, public and 
private, in this country and in England and on 
the Continent, upon which he depends. He saya 
of the military MSS. which he procured from Ger- 
many : " that they are, in the main, the most im- 
partial of all which have been preserved." The 
Papers of Gov. Hutchinson of Massachusetts, Gov. 
Trumbull of Connecticut, of Gen. Heath, and of 
John Hancock, are in the Massachusetts Histor- 
ical Society's Cabinet. The papers of Horatio 
Gates and Baron Steuben are in the New York 
Historical Society's Cabinet ; those of Gen. Knox 
are in the library of the New England Historic 
Genealogical Society ; those of Hopkins and Fos- 
ter in the Rhode Island Historical Society's li- 
brary ; those of Arthur and Richard Henry Lee 
are divided between the libraries of Harvard Col- 
lege, American Philosophical Society in Philadel- 
phia, and the University of Virginia ; those, both 
originals and copies, gathered by Sparks, are in 
Harvard College Library. The Journals of Gen. 
Henry Dearborn are in the Boston Public Li- 

There is also a large mass of papers in the 
government archives, in those of the original 
states, and in the Force Collection in the Library 
of Congress. 


The lives of John Adams, Samuel Adams, 
Thomas Jefferson, James Madison, Joseph Reed, 
Alexander Hamilton, Timothy Pickering, Gener- 
als Greene, Sullivan, Wayne, and other actors in 
the struggle, are based upon papers still preserved. 
The prefaces of such lives usually describe these 
collections. Other manuscripts have been men- 
tioned in previous pages. 

Britisli Contemporary Kecords. 

A Calendar of the Journals of the Lords was 
published in London in 1810; and general indexes 
of the Journals of the Lords, before 1779, and 
after 1780, were printed respectively in 1817 and 
1832 1 and of the Journals of the Commons, cov- 
ering 1714-1774, and 1774-1790, respectively in 
1778 and 1796. 

The Parliamentary Register, beginning 1774, 
was printed in London, 1775, and continued yearly 
till 1779. 

Almon's Remembrancer was begun in London, 
June 15, 1775, but the second edition of the first 
volume of the Remembrancer has preliminary 
matter not contained in the earlier issue. Its 
purpose was to gather from English and American 
sources the fugitive and contemporary accounts of 
transactions, remembering chiefly, says Smyth, 
" such letters, speeches, and pubhcations as serve 
to display the injustice of the design and the foUj 
of the councils of Great Britain." 


The Gentleman's Magazine, London Magazine, 
and other periodic publications of the day follow 
the current of events and variations of opinion, 
and the official reports of the officers in the field, 
when gazetted in London, were often reproduced 
in them. " Publications like these," says Prof. 
Smyth, lecture 26, " give the manners and opin- 
ions living as they rise, and seem to have been the 
precursors of the more ample and regular Annual 

Early American Histories. 

There was printed in Boston, 1781-1785, An 
Impartial History of the War in America in three 
sections, which is in part a reprint of a work with 
a similar title, published in London in 1780, but 
with large alterations and additions to adapt it 
to the American public, and with a different ap- 

The Rev. Wm. Gordon, an Englishman, came 
to New England in 1770, and was settled at Rox- 
bury, Mass., and beginning to collect material as 
early as 1777 (John Adams's Works, ix. 461), he 
returned to England after the peace, and pub- 
lished in London, in 1788, his History of the Rise, 
Progress, and Establishment of the Independence 
of the United States, 4 vols., a somewhat minute 
chronicle, and impartial in the distribution of 
praise and blame. He is thought not to have ad- 
mitted some statements for fear of persecution in 


England. Bancroft, vs.. 123, says that, " notwitli- 
Btanding its faults, it is invaluable, but is by no 
means free from tales that on examination are 
found untrustworthy." C. F. Adams says it has 
" a great deal of value with difficulty to be found 
in any other quarter." W. B. Reed, Life of Joseph 
Reed, i. 240, calls it " ponderous, curious, and ill- 
digested ; " and says the author had " access to 
much that was authentic, but made strange and 
often mischievous use of it," making his work 
" quite as much a British as an American ver- 
sion." Smyth praises him for his impartiality. 
See an account of Gordon and his history by J. 
S. Loring in the Historical Magazine, Feb. and 
March, 1862. 

In 1790, Ramsay, a South Carolinian, published 
his History of the American Revolution, more 
concisely written than Gordon, and held to be 
superior to Gordon by Smyth. 

A small History of the American Revolution, 
by John Lendrum, was printed in Boston, in 
1795 ; and a History of the British Empire, 1765- 
1783, covering the war, was prepared by a " so- 
ciety of gentlemen," and printed in Philadelphia 
in 1798. A compiled Historical Journal of the 
American War is given in the second volume of 
the Massachusetts Historical Society's Collections. 

Mrs. Mercy Warren's History of the Revolu- 
tionary War, printed in 1805, is of interest as a 
reflex of intelligent comment by a contemporary, 


and intimate friend of leading patriots. She had 
differences with John Adams regarding the esti- 
mate to be put on some of them, and their corre- 
spondence on these points has been printed in the 
Collections of the Massachusetts Historical So- 
ciety, 5th series, iv. 

Early British Histories. 

Erskine May says, "No part of English his- 
tory has received more copious illustration than 
the revolt of the American colonies." 

Capt. Hall's Civil War in America, 1780, never 
reached a second volume, and the first ends with 

The continued narrative in successive volumes 
of the Annual Register, beginning with vol, xix., 
will show the course of British feeling, and these 
accounts are largely embodied in An Impartial 
History of the War in America, to 1779, pub- 
lished in London in 1780. The sections in the 
Annual Register are usually ascribed to Edmund 
Burke, and they were made into A Concise His- 
tory of the Late War in America, published in 
the Columbian Magazine, in 1789, and separately 
in 1790. Cf. Wells's Samuel Adams, iii. 41. 

Contemporary impressions, with the usual inac- 
curacies of hurriedly compiled histories, are found 
in Murray's War in America, 1778, and in An- 
drews's History of the Late War, 1785-1786. 

Thomas Jones, a justice of the Supreme Court 


of tlie Province of New York, and a loyalist, 
living on Long Island during part of the war 
within the British lines, and for another portion 
a prisoner in Connecticut, wrote in England, just 
after the close of the war, a History of New York 
in the Revolutionary War, which is largely, how- 
ever, a history of the conflict generally. It re- 
mained in MS., and had never been used by any 
historical writer when it was first printed, in 1879, 
by the New York Historical Society, in two large 
octavos, edited with extensive notes by E. F. De 
Lancey. It is a valuable contribution to a his- 
tory of the war from a side which has not yielded 
much of its kind, representing the common hear- 
say accounts at the time of many important trans- 
actions. The writer divides his condemnation in 
nearly equal proportions between the " rebels " 
and the ministry with their soldiers. The loyal- 
ists in his narrative are represented as abused by 
both. Simcoe's Journal of the Queen's Rangers 
was privately printed in 1787, and reprinted in 
New York in 1843. It begins after the battle of 
Brandywine in 1777. 

The chief contemporary British authority is 
Stedman's History of the American War, 1794, 
a valuable record by an intelligent eye-witness, 
the author serving under General Howe, but hav- 
ing little faith in him as a general. Stedman is, 
however, of no authority in matters not military. 



It has been asserted that his work was written by 
Dr. William Thomson. 

Later American Histories. 

Dr. Abiel Holmes's American Annals, 1492- 
1806, published 1805, and improved and con- 
tinued to 1826 in 1829. It is a careful chrono- 
logical arrangement of events, with references to 
authorities, and of importance in its day and still 

A History of the American Revolution of little 
value was published in Baltimore in 1822, pur- 
porting to be by Paul Allen, but said to be in 
great part by John Neal. 

Timothy Pitkin of Connecticut published in 
1828 a Political and Civil History of the United 
States, 1763-1797, two volumes, which Sparks 
calls a first attempt to disconnect political events 
from the military operations. 

James Grahame's History of the United States 
comes down only to the Declaration of Independ- 
ence. Originally published in 1836, it was re- 
issued in this country in 1845, under the super- 
vision of Josiah Quincy, who was furnished with 
the MS. emendations left by the author. It is a 
well-sustained work by an ardent admirer of 
American principles. 

As coming after much had been wrought by 
Dthers, and as having had access to materials o 
the highest importance, particularly as regards 


the European relations of the contest, the vol- 
umes of Bancroft's History of the United States, 
covering the war, constitute the chief authorita- 
tive general narrative. Bancroft is controverted 
on points, but such have been mentioned in the 
progress of these notes. The original issue of 
this work, coming out between 1834 and 1875, 
makes ten volumes, of which vols. vii. to x. cover 
the Revolution. The plates of the several vol- 
umes have undergone correction and revision, and 
Bets may not wholly correspond. In 1876 he re- 
issued the whole in a revised centennial edition 
in six volumes, but this edition does not supersede 
the original work. 

Lossing's Field-Book of the Revolution takes up 
the events, not in chronological sequence, but as 
they arose in his travels through the country in 
search of anecdotes and memorials of the contests, 
and he gives particular interest to the landscape 
and landmarks, in connection with their Revolu- 
tionary associations. 

Col. Carrington's Battles of the American Rev- 
olution is a history applying the principles of 
military criticism ; and Dawson's Battles of the 
United States often gives the contemporary official 

Mention can be made of only a few of the less 
distinctive or more condensed and popular general 
accounts. Hildreth's United States for the events 
of the war is too much summarized for any but 


those wishing a mere abstract of military events. 
Ridpath's United States is a convenient summary 
with maps. The histories of the United States 
by J. H. Patton, Tucker, and J. A. Spencer 
Mrs. A. S. Richardson's History of Our Coun- 
try ; C. E. Lester's Our First Hundred Years, — 
all are intended in one way or another to supply 
popular wants. C. C. Cofl&n's Boys of '76 offers 
the general reader a convenient gathering of plana 
of the various battles. Headley's Washington 
and his Generals was popular thirty years ago as 
a somewhat spirited portrayal of personal charac- 
teristics. Abbott's Paragraph History is an out- 
line, something like an amplified contents-table of 
an extended history. 

Later British Histories. 

Belsham's Memoirs of the Reign of George the 
Third, 1760-1793, was published 1795-1801, and 
was afterwards embodied in his History of Great 
Britain, 1806. He espouses the side of the colo- 
nists, and Smyth considers him far more reason- 
able than Adolphus, whose History of England, 
1760-1783, was published in 1802. Adolphus 
defends the king's ministers, and Smyth says that 
he very fairly puts the reader in possession of the 
opposing views of Chatham. 

Beatson's Naval and Military Memoirs of Great 
Britain, 1804. 

These early narratives, however, are largely fol- 


^owed by the later British historians. Earl Stan- 
hope (Mahon), in his History of England, vol. vi., 
is not so favorable to the colonists as Massey, in 
his History, vol. ii. Cf. Reviews of Mahon in 
North American Review, July, 1852 (by J. G. 
Palfrey), and Jan. 1855. The account of the 
Reign of George IH., in the Pictorial History of 
England, has a strong tory leaning. Knight's 
Popular History of England will show the aver- 
age British views of recent days. 

There are six lectures on the American war at 
the close of Smyth's Modern History, which ex- 
press the better British feeling of sixty years ago, 
and they are accompanied by some advice on the 
best methods of studying the period. In treating 
of the preliminaries of the war he relies largely 
upon the debates in Parliament. 

Sparks, in 1841, said of Smyth : " It would be 
difficult to find any treatise on the American Rev- 
olution confined within the compass of six lectures 
from which so much can be learned, or so accurate 
an estimate of the merits of both sides of the 
question can be formed." 

There are very brief statements regarding the 
part borne by the various British regiments in 
the series of the Regimental Historical Records. 

Of the less important British histories covering 
the war, mention may be made of Chalmers's 
Revolt of the American Colonies, for its legal 
bearing ; Bartlett's and Woodward's History ol 


the United States, a pictorial record distinctively ; 
Mackay's United States ; the convenient and 
graphic summary, Ludlow's War of American 
Independence, in the Epochs of Modern History 
Series ; Tancock's England during the American 
and European Wars, 1765-1820, in the Epochs 
of English History series ; and popular histories 
by Cassell and others. 

Green, in his Short History of the English 
People, says : " The two sides of the American 
quarrel have been told with the purpose of fair- 
ness and truthfulness, though with a very differ- 
ent bias, by Lord Stanhope and by Bancroft. The 
latter is by far the more detailed and picturesque ; 
the former, perhaps, the cooler and more impar* 

French and Italian Histories. 

Various histories of the war were published in 
France, most of little value, except as reflecting 
incidentally the French sentiments, — such as Le- 
boucher's Histoire de la Guerre de ITnd^pendance 
des Etats Unis, which gives maps of the northern 
and southern colonies. 

Sparks, however, Washington's Writings, viii. 
135, says of Soul^'s Histoire des Troubles de 
'Am^rique Anglaise, that it is " the best written 
and most authentic in the French language. The 
author had access to public documents, but all the 
particulars relating to the operations of Rocham- 


beau's army are taken almost word for word from 
a narrative which had been drawn up by Rocham- 
beau, and which was afterwards published as a 
part of his M^moires. A large portion of Soul^'a 
book was read in manuscript by Rochambeau and 
the Minister of War." 

There is a paper on the French in the American 
Revolution in the Revue Militaire Fran^aise for 
1870, ii. ; and various French narratives are men- 
tioned in connection with the record of their par- 
ticipation in the war in previous pages. A list of 
French officers, appointed to the army by Con- 
gress, is given in Hilliard d'Auberteuil's Essais 
historiques, and is reprinted in the Magazine of 
American History, June, 1879. 

An Italian, Botta, published in 1809 what was 
long accounted the best History of the American 
Revolution. Jefferson called it the best yet writ- 
ten in his day, but took exception to the speeches, 
which, after the manner of the ancients, are put 
into the actors' mouths. Bancroft styles it ad- 
mirable. It was translated into English by G. W. 
Otis, of Boston, and is reviewed in the North 
American Review, xiii., by F. C. Gray. 

A French translation of it appeared, with an 
introduction, in which the papers of Gerard, the 
French minister to Congress, had been used. 

There was published in Genoa in 1879, under 
the editing of G. Colucci, the official correspond- 
ence of the Genoese ambassador in London during 


the American Revolution, — I Casi della Guerra 
per rindipendenza d'Araerica, two volumes, — 
with an extended preface on the thirteen colonies. 
These dispatches, written by Francesco Ageno, 
begin in 1770 and end in Dec. 1780. 


Most of the lives of the principal actors, covei 
ing but their personal experiences, can hardly be 
classed as general works, but from his position 
Washington has given his biographers grounds for 
making their works in large part extended nar- 
ratives of the war. 

In 1805 Marshall brought out his Life of Wash- 
ington, and he had peculiar advantages in the use 
of Washington's papers, as well as from a per- 
sonal knowledge of him, and by reason of his own 
participation in the conflict. He gave a sedate 
and trustworthy character to his work, which ren- 
ders it still of prime interest, notwithstanding 
later developments, and notwithstanding a treat- 
ment of the subject that to some will appear dull. 
It was originally issued in five volumes, both 
quarto and octavo, and was reissued in 1832 in 
two volumes, without the introduction or colonial 

Sparks's Life of Washington, making vol. 1 of 
Washington's Writings, and published also sepa- 
rately, is of excellent reputation for accuracy. Cf. 
Allibone's references to reviews of it in his Die- 


tionary, iii. 2192. Guizot translated and con- 
densed Sparks's twelve volumes into six, 1839- 
1840, and furnished a succinct and judicious in- 
troductory sketch, which preceded a life by De 
Witt, and which has also been printed separately 
as his Vie de Washington. C. W. Upham made 
up an Autobiography of Washington by detach- 
ing extracts from his writings, which has been 
successful in England, though the publication of 
it was stopped in this country, as infringing the 
copyright of Sparks. The most popular of the 
lives of Washington, however, is Irving's, which 
is gracefully written and shows respectable re- 

Of the less important lives, reference may be 
made to those by Aaron Bancroft, Ramsay, 
Paulding, Mrs. Kirkland, Lossing, Headley, etc. 
The life by M. L. Weems was very popular at the 
beginning of this century, but it was worked up 
by a shrewd book-agent to insure a sensational 
popularity. Cf. Parton in the Magazine of Amer- 
ican History, Aug. 1879, on the True and Tradi- 
tional Washington. Of more condensed expres- 
sion, see the addresses of Everett, Webster, Win- 
throp, etc., and the essays by Theodore Parker 
in his Historic Americans ; by E. P. Whipple on 
Washington and the Principles of the Revolu- 
tion, etc. Edward Everett wrote a condensed 
life for the Encyclopaedia Britannica, which was 
published separately as a Life of Washington. 


Cf. his Mount Vernon Papers, and the address 
which he delivered so widely in aid of the pur- 
chase of ]\Iount Vernon. He tells the story of 
this address in the Massachusetts Historical So- 
ciety's Proceedings, June, 1858. Lossing has a 
paper on Washington's Life-guard in the Histor- 
ical Magazine, May, 1858. 

Alexander Hamilton, as for a period one of 
Washington's military family, and as the expo- 
nent of marked views in administration and 
finance, is made the central figure of his son, J. 
C. Hamilton's Histoiy of the Republic of the 
United States, as traced in the Writings of Ham- 
ilton and his Contemporaries. This work has met 
hostile criticism from its attacks on the charac- 
ters of the Adamses, Joseph Reed, Madison, etc., 
and from the obtrusiveness of the author's as- 
sumption that all papers, preserved in Hamilton's 
hand, but signed by Washington, were the work 
of the secretary. Cf. W. B. Reed's Life of Joseph 
Reed, i. 108 ; Sparks's introduction to Wash- 
ington's Revolutionary Correspondence. G. W. 
Greene's Historical View, p. 385. J. C. Hamil- 
ton replied to his critics in the preface to his sec- 
ond volume. A more confined memoir of Hamil- 
ton's participation in the war is the same author's 
Life of Alexander Hamilton. J. T. Morse's Life 
i>f Hamilton, ch. 2, gives a summary of his Revolu 
lionary career. 

Joseph Reed, first Washington's secretary, then 


adjutant-general, and later the President of 
Pennsylvania, was put in a central position, and 
the Life of him by W. B. Reed, 1847, is largely 
general. The character of Reed has given rise to 
controversy. In 1783 he published Remarks and 
an Address to the People of Pennsylvania, which 
brought out, in 1787, a Reply by Gen. John Cad- 
walader, which was reprinted in Philadelphia in 
1848, and again in 1856, together with the " Val- 
ley Forge Letters," pronounced forgeries by W. 
B. Reed, under the title of Nuts for Historians to 
Crack ; and both the Reed and Cadwalader pam^ 
phlets were printed in fac-simile at Albany, in 
1863. There is also a pamphlet on this matter 
by John G. Johnson. Bancroft, in his volumes 
viii. and ix., took views that elicited a vindication 
of Joseph Reed from his grandson, W. B. Reed, 
entitled. President Reed of Pennsylvania, 1867, 
which is reviewed unfavorably to Bancroft in the 
Atlantic Monthly, June, 1867. Bancroft replied 
in Joseph Reed, an Historical Essay, 1867, which 
is rather favorably reviewed in Harper's Monthly, 
Feb. 1867. W. B. Reed issued a Rejoinder, 1867. 
Gen. Stryker, in his Reed Controversy, Trenton, 
1876, showed that Bancroft had mistaken a Col. 
Charles Read for Joseph Reed, as being under 
British protection, and Bancroft corrects his cen- 
tennial edition, accordingly, vol. v. Cf. Pennsyl- 
vania Magazine of American History, i. 114. A 
iharp controversy also arose between W. B. Reed 


and J. C. Hamilton, because of some statementa 
in the latter's History of the Republic. Cf. His- 
torical Magazine, Dec. 1867, supplement; also 
Bee 1866, supplement, p. 177 ; April, 1867, p. 
249, and Jan. 1869, p. 45. See also Presiden . 
Reed, published at Morrisania, 1867. 

For the political aspects of the war the lives of 
John Adams, Samuel Adams, Benjamin Frank- 
lin, James Madison, Gouverneur Morris, are of the 
chiefest importance. A less careless and clumsy- 
manner had made the Lives of Richard Henry 
Lee and Arthur Lee, both by the younger R. H 
Lee, of the first importance. The papers on which 
they are based are now part in the library of 
Harvard College, a calendar of which is now ap- 
pearing in the bulletin of that library; part in 
the library of the American Philosophical Society 
in Philadelphia, bound in two volumes ; and a 
third part in the library of the University of Vir- 

Naval Histories. 

J. Fenimore Cooper's Naval Histoiy of the 
United States. Thomas Clark's Naval History 
of the United States, 1814. George F. Emmons's 
Navy of the United States, 1775-1853, a record 
of the vessels. Lossing's Field-Book of the Amer- 
ican Revolution, i.. Appendix. The lives of the 
several American commanders as named on pre- 
vious pages. Cf. account of Com. Samuel Tucker 
in the New England Historical and Genealogical 


Register, April, 1872. The records of the several 
itates show much about their dififerent partici- 
pancy in this service. Cf., for example, the Penn- 
Bylvania Archives, first and second series. 

C. D. Yonge's History of the British Navy 
Allen's Battles of the British Navy, and othei 
special monographs on the English side. 


Various contemporary or nearly contemporary 
narratives have engraved likenesses of the prin- 
cipal public characters, some of which are men- 
tioned in connection with their names as they 
occur in these notes. Such illustrated accounts 
are : James Murray's Impartial History of the 
American War, London, no date., giving Washing- 
ton, Franklin, Hancock, Putnam, Lee, Arnold, 
Montgomery, George IIL, North, Germaine, Gen. 
Howe, Lord Howe, Earl Percy, Gen. Gage. 

An Impartial History of the War in America, 
Boston, 1781-1785, giving Washington, Franklin, 
Lafayette, Greene, Samuel Adams, Montgomery, 
Knox, Lincoln, Warren, Hancock, Heath. 

Impartial History of the War in America, Lon- 
don, 1780, giving Hancock, Samuel Adams, 
Washington, Putnam, Arnold, the Howes, etc., 
Boston Magazine, 1783-1786. 

Geschichte der Kriege in und aus Europa, 
Nuremberg, 1776, giving Franklin, Com. Hop 
kins, Arnold, Putnam, Chas. Lee, Robert Rogers^ 
Sullivan, D. Wooster. 


Du Simitidre's profile likenesses of thirteen of 
the patriots (inchuling Arnold), engraved by 
Reading, were published in London in 1783. 

Later portraits and mementoes are given in 
Smith and Watson's American Historical and 
Literary Curiosities. 

It is not worth while to enumerate the appear- 
ance of such likenesses in all the later histories 
and biographies. The portraits of Washington 
and Franklin are very many in number, and have 
been the subject of special lists and examination. 


Contemporary. — A map of the colonies accord- 
ing to a survey of 1763 was made, and an en- 
graved reduction of it appeared in London, 1766, 
!n a collection of the Charters of the Provinces 
and the Proceedings in consequence of the Stamp 
Act. M. A. Rocques published at London, 1765, 
u set of plans of the country and of the forts in 
A.merica, from actual surveys, which has a folding 
nap of New York city. 

Evans's map of the Middle Colonies, between 
Eastern Massachusetts, Ohio, and Virginia, pub- 
lished at Philadelphia, 1755, with an essay, was 
enlarged by T. Pownall, late governor of Massa- 
3husetts Bay, to include New England and part 
of Canada, and published in London by Almon 
in 1776, and was subsequently reissued, revised 
by Major Holland. 


Peter Bell's map, according to the treaty of 
1763, appeared in a History of the British Domin- 
ion in North America, 1773. The same year there 
was a map issued at Paris, by Bonne, which was 
reproduced at Leipsic in the Geographische Be- 
lustigungen, 1776; and again in 1776, at Nurem- 
berg, there appeared another map of the colonies 
in the Geschichte der Kriege in und aus Europa. 
In 1779 a map was given in the History of the 
War in America, published at Dublin ; and a 
large one the next year, 1780, came out in the 
Impartial History of the War in America, pub- 
lished at Dublin. Other maps appeared in the 
Political Magazine, April 17, 1780 ; in Soul^'s 
Histoire des Troubles de I'Am^rique Anglaise, 
Paris, 1787, and in the German version of it ; in 
Hilliard d'Auberteuil's Histoire de 1' Administra- 
tion de Lord North et de la Guerre ; in Boucher's 
Histoire de la Derniere Guerre, Paris, 1787 ; and 
in Gordon's American War. 


Ben : Perley Poore's Political Register gives 
the federal officials from 1776. A collection of 
rosters and personal items will be found in Saf- 
fell's Records of the Revolutionary War, New 
York, 1858. A convenient list of the general offi- 
cers at the beginning and close of the war is 
given in G. W. Greene's Historical View, p. 452 , 
and the same work has a section on the foreign 


element in the war. The Last Men of the Revo- 
lution, by E. B. Hillard, 1864, is an account of 
the seven Revolutionary pensioners then surviving. 

Sparks's Washington, v. 542, gives a statement 
of the effective force of the British army in Amer- 
ica, at intervals, from 1777 to 1782, as derived 
from the State Paper Office. 

A table showing the number of troops furnished 
by the several states is printed in Niles's Register, 
July 31, 1830 ; in G. W. Greene's Historical 
View, pp. 454, 455 ; in Hildreth's United States, 
iii. 441, and elsewhere. Cf. W. Sargent on the 
Army of the Revolution, in North American Re- 
view, Ixxvii. ; a chapter in G. W. Greene's His- 
torical View of the American Revolution ; and 
Von Bulow's criticism of the military conduct of 
the war, in the Historical Magazine, 1865. 

There are treatises on the employment of ne- 
groes as soldiers by George H. Moore and George 

Judge Charles H. Warren's paper on the buff 
and blue uniform of the Continentals is in the 
Massachusetts Historical Society's Proceedings, 
Jan. 1859. 

There is a paper on martial law during the Rev- 
olution by A. B. Gardner in the Magazine of 
American History, i. 

For the caricatures of the period, see Parton'f 
article in Harper's Magazine, July, 1875, after 
wards included in his History of Caricature. 


The spirit of the Revolution is depicted in such 
novels as Cooper's Chainbearer, J. L. Motley's 
Morton's Hope, L. M. Child's Rebels, J. K. Paul- 
ding's Old Continental, John Neal's Seventy-Six, 
S. J. Hale's Grosvenor, Miss Sedgwick's Lin- 
woods, etc. Other novels have been referred to 
in connection with the particular events which 
they illustrate. 

The War of the Revolution is part of the series 
of visions that make up Joel Barlow's Columbiad, 

The literature of the Revolution is illustrated in 
two chapters of G. W. Greene's Historical View 
of the American Revolution, in sections of Duy- 
ckinck's American Literature, and in Griswold's 
Prose Writers and Poets of America. Allibone's 
Dictionary, under the names of writers, will fur- 
nish data and references. The Songs and Bal- 
lads have been collected by Frank Moore, and the 
Loyalist Poetry by Winthrop Sargent. 

The intellectual and material condition of the 
Revolutionary period is considered as the start- 
ing-point of the subsequent development of the 
country, in the conglomerate volume, by various 
writers. The First Century of the Republic ; a 
Review of American Progress, New York, 1876 ; 
a series of papers, the most of which originally 
appeared in Harper's Magazine. 



•»• Reference is commonly made but once to a book if repeatedly mentioned 
in the text, but other references are made when additional information about tht 
took is conveyed. 

Abbott, Edw., Paragraph History, 

Abbott, J. S. C, Life of Paul Jones, 

Ackland, Lady, 147. 

Adams, Abigail, letters, 282. 

Adams, Davenport, English Party 
Leaders, 185. 

Adams, John, Life, Diary, and Works, 
by C. F. Adams, 1 ; controversy 
with Mercy Warren, 7, 287 ; as No- 
vanglus, 20 ; Familiar Letters, 38, 
282; in Europe, 177; to negotiate 
treaty, 213 ; views on finance, 243 ; 
makes treaty with Holland, 267 ; in 
Paris (1782), 268 ; papers, 284. 

Adams, J. Q., on the treaty, 272. 

Adams, Josiah, Address at Acton, 31. 

Adams, Samuel, Life by Wells, 1 ; 
Vindication of Boston, 8 ; efforts 
and character, 104 ; and the Con- 
way Cabal, 168. 

Adams, Sam, Regiments, 11. 

Adams, Samuel, papers, 284. 

Adolphus'a History of England, 2, 

Age of Pitt and Fox, 272. 

Ageno, Francesco, 296. 

Alamance, battle of, 5. 

Albemarle's Rockingham and Ms 
Contemporaries, 112. 

All the Year Round, 212. 

Allan, Colonel John, 224. 

Allen, Ethan, 79,82; his Narrative, 
82 ; Life by De Puy, 80 ; Life by 
Moore, 80 ; Life by Sparks, 80. 

Allen, Ira, History of Vermont, 271. 

AUen, Paul, 290. 

Allen, Rev. Mr., 142. 

AUen, Thaddeus, Origination of 
American Union, 16. 

Allen's Battles of the British Navy, 
211, 801. 

iUen's Kennebec journal, 83. 

Allibone's Dictionary of Authors 
235, 261. 

Almon's Charters of the Colonies, 2 ; 
Collection of Tracts, 4 ; Remem- 
brancer, 27, 285. 

American Annals, by Holmes, 290. 

American Antiquarian Society, .37. 

American Archives, Force, 10, 281. 

American Atla^ 58, 71, 113, 220. 

American Bibliopolist, 113. 

American Colonies, Revolt of, by 
Chalmers, 293. 

American Criminal Trials, 11, 150. 

American Gazette, by Kearsley, 9. 

American Historical Magazine, New 
Haven, 29. 

American Historical Records, 12, 127, 

American Independence, War of, by 
Ludlow, 294. 

American Journalism, by Hudson, 7. 

American Naval Heroes, by Waldo, 

American Philosophical Society, 66 ; 
Transactions, 242. 

American Quarterly Review, 19. 

American Revolution, Abbott's Para- 
graph History, 292 ; histories, by 
Paul Allen, 290; by Botta, 295; 
■^ews of, by Jonathan Boucher, 
ID ; Carrington's Battles of, 46, 291 ; 
Correspondence of, 80 ; EUet's Do- 
mestic History of, 282 ; Field-Book 
of, by Lossing, 3 ; Documentary 
History, by R. W. Gibbs, 3 ; Uistoiy 
by Gordon, 28, 287; Historical View 
by G. W. Greene, 2 : by Lendrum 
287 I by Moultrie, 3 ; by Ramsay 
85, 287 ; by Mercy Warren, 7, 287 
in South Carolina, by Drayton, 3. 

American Union, Thaddeus Allen'i 
Origination of, 16. 

American War, poem by Cocking 



American War, Impartial History, by 

Murray, 67. 

AmericuD War, by Stcdman, 30, 289. 

AmerikaDifiches Magazin, ^U4. 

AmheniC, Lord, 231. 

Amory,T. 0., Life of James SulliTan, 
73 ; Military Serrices of Gen. Sulli- 
Tan, 206 ; Old and New Cambridge, 

Analectic Magazine, 44, 147, 232. 

Anburey 'S Travels, 66, 135. 

Anderson's llistory of Commerce, 215. 

Ajidr^, Major, Life by Sargent, 82 ; 
his Cow Chase, 224 ; relations with 
Arnold, 230. 

Andrews's History of the Late War, 

Andrews, John, Map of the Colonies, 

Andrews papers, 64. 

Andross, Thomas, Old Jersey Captive, 

Angpll, Colonel, 167. 

Annapolis, Congress at, 276. 

AJuual Register, 4, 286, 288. 

Arbuthnot, English admiral, 221. 

Archseologia Americana, 5. 

Armed Neutrality, 214. 

Armstrong's Life of Montgomery, 82 ; 
Life of Wayne, 165. 

Armstrong and the Newburgh Ad- 
dresses, 274. 

Armstrong's letters at Saratoga, 152. 

Army disbanded, 276. 

Arnold, Benedict, Life by Isaac N. 
Arnold, 236 ; by Sparks, 80 ; at Ti- 
conderoga, 79 ; expedition by the 
Kennebec, 82 ; at Trenton, 125 ; on 
Lake Champlain, 126 : at Fort Stan- 
wix, 141 j not present at Freeman's 
Farm, 146 ; at Saratoga, 147 ; in 
Philadelphia, 190 ; his treason, 230 ; 
in Virginia, 246 : in Connecticut, 

Arnold, Mrs., and the treason, 232. 

Arnold, S. G., History of Rhode 
Island, 88, 195 ; address, 195. 

Asgill, Captain, 262. 

Ashburton treaty, 269. 

Atlantic Monthly, 11. 

Atlantic Neptune, 68. 

Atlas Ameriquain septentrional, 68. 

Atlee"s Journal, 109. 

Attucks, Crispiis, 12. 

Auberteuil, d", Essais historiques.lS. 

Austin's Lite of Elbridge Gerry, 8. 

Austin, Jonathan Loring, 156, 186. 

Yabsok's History of Gloucester, 
Mass., 88. 

Badeaux, J. B., 86. 
Bailey's letter on Falmouth, 71. 
Balcarras, Earl of, at Saratoga, 164. 
Batch, Thomas. '^8; Maryland Line, 

63, 247: Les fmncais en Am^rique 

Ballad History of the Revolution, by 

Moore, 31. 
Baltimore in the Revolution, by Pur- 

viance, 3. 
Bancroft, Aaron, Life of Washington, 

Bancroft, George, History of United 

States, 290. 
Bancroft and Reed controversy, 299. 
Banker's Magazine , 243. 
Bannister, .lohn, 187. 
Barbadoes, 9. 

Barber's Map of New York, 132. 
Barclay, S., Personal Recollections, 

etc., 110. 
Barney, Com., Memoirs, 88. 
Bamum, U. L., Spy Unmasked, 206. 
Barr^, Colonel, 96 ; Barre and bis 

Times, 8. 
Barren Hill, 173. 

Barry's History of Massachusetts, 2. 
Bartlett and Woodward's United 

States, 293. 
Bartlett's, J. R., Destruction of the 

Gaspee, 13. 
Barton, General, Life by Williams, 

Barton, Lieut. Colonel, 134. 
Barton and Elmer, diary, 207. 
Battle of the Kegs, 173. 
Baum, Colonel, 141. 
Baumeister, 116. 
Beach's Indian Miscellany, 139. 
Bean, T. W., 170. 
Beatson's Naval and Militarv Memoirs 

of Great Britain, 109, 292". 
Beaumarchai.^, 100, 176 ; Life by John 

Bigelow, 100 ; by Lomenie, 100. 
Beaurain's Carte de Boston, 69. 
Bedford Correspondence, 180. 
Belfast, History by Williamson, 208. 
Belisle's Independence Hall, 106. 
Belknap, Jeremy, 62 ; History of New 

Hampshire, 197. 
Bell, Peter, map, 303. 
Belsham's Great Britain, 292 ; Relga 

of George the Third, 292. 
Beman, 80. 

Bemis's Heights, 145, 147. 
Bennington, 141 ; History of, by F. 

W. Cobum, 143. 
Benson, Egbert, 232. 
Bentalou, Colonel, on Pulaski. 210 
Benton's Herkimer County, 140, 



Berkshire County, Mass., 79. 

Bernard, Francis, 8. 

Biddle, Captain, 88. 

Biddle, 0. J., on Andre's execution, 

Bigelow, John, on Beaumarchais, 
100 ; Life of Franklin, 101. 

Biographies of the Revolution, 296. 

Bissefs England under George III., 
85, 161. 

Blackwood's Magazine, 148. 

Blanchard, Claude, Journal, 227. 

Bland Papers, 3, 151, 174, 240. 

Blaakowitz'S surveys, 196, 228. 

Bleeker"s orderly-book, 207. 

Bloodgood's Sexagenary, 148. 

Board of War, 171. 

Bolles, Albert S., on R. Morris, 244. 

Bolton's VYestchester County, 206, 

Bon Homme Richard, man-of-war, 211. 

Bonne, map by, 303. 

Bonney, Mrs., History Gleanings, 91. 

Boone, Daniel, Adventures of, 199. 

Boone, Fort, 198. 

Border Warfare, 192. 

Boston, Committee of Correspondence, 
98 ; Description by Shurtleff, 8 ; 
History by Drake, 3 ; History by 
Snow ; massacre, 11, 21 ; Neck, 67 ; 
Old Landmarks, by Drake, 8 ; Ora- 
tors, by Loring, 11 ; plans of, 57, 
68 ; Port Bill, 15 ; Siege of, 59, and 
history, by Frothingham, 15 ; and 
medal, 67 ; Centennial celebration 
of the Siege, 60 ; Tea-party, 13, 23. 

Boston newspapers : Daily Advertiser, 
51 ; Courier, 269 ; Evening Post, 4 ; 
Gazette, 4, 209 ; Medical and Surgi- 
cal Journal, 54 ; Monthly Magazine, 
156, 186 ; Newsletter, 7 ; Patriot, 
50; Sunday Herald, 237; Tran- 
script, 63. 

Boston Public Library reports, 273. 

Botta's History of the War of Inde- 
pendence, 57, 214, 295. 

Boucher, Jonathan, Views of the 
American Revolution, 10. 

Boundaries at the peace, 269. 

Bourgoin's Theatre de la Guerre, 132. 

Bowen, F., Life of General Lincoln, 

Bowen, Nathan, 150. 

Bowen and Futhey's plan of Brandy- 
wine, 162. 

Bowman's journal, 199. 

Boynton, Thomas, journal, 39. 

Boynton's West Point, 92, 230. 

Boys of '76, by Coffin, 189. 

Bradford Club, 237, 255 

Bradford, Alden, on Bunker Hill, 45, 
51 ; History of Massachusetts, 26 ; 
Massachusetts State Papers, 6. 

Brainerd, W. F., 255. 

Brandywine, 160. 

Brant, Joseph, 192 : and Wyoming, 

Brassier's surveys, 127. 

Breck, S., on Continental money, 242 

Breech-loading rifles used, 161. 

Breed's Hill, 68. 

Breyman, Colonel, 142. 

Briar Creek, 209. 

Brief Examination of tho Northern 
Expedition, 149. 

Brinley Library Catalogue, 6, 177. 

Brion de la Tour's Theatre de la 
Guerre, 132. 

British Dominion in North America 

British ferocity in the war, 184. 

British Government, 180. 

Brodhead's Letters, 109. 

Brodhead's New York Documents 

Brooklyn, battle at, 109 ; Stiles's 
History of, 93. 

Brooks, John, 56 ; at Saratoga, 152 ; 
at Valley Forge, 170. 

Brotherhead's Centennial Book of the 
Signers, 106. 

Brougham's Statesmen of George 
III., 181. 

Brown, Henry Armitt, 277. 

Brown, Mrs. J. B., on Gen. Warren 

Brown, Peter, on Bunker Hill, 38 

Bryan, 220. 

Bryant, W.C, 192. 

Buckingham, J. T., Specimens of 
Newspaper Literature, 283. 

Buckle's History of Civilization, 180. 

Buford's regiment, 222. 

Bugbee, J. M., on Bunker Hill, 15. 

Bull, 220. 

Bull's Ferry, 224. 

Bullard, E. F., address, 153. 

Bunker Hill, 35 ; the question ol 
command, 48 ; fort, 67. 

Bunker Hill Monument Association, 
46, 49, 59. 

Bunker Hill Times, 57. 

Burgoyne, Campaign of, by W. L 
Stone, 140 ; Life by Fonblanque, 
41 ; his advance, 134 ; he surren- 
ders, 148 ; his letter to his constit- 
uents, 154 ; his Orderly- Book, 148 • 
his portrait, 154 ; his State of th» 
Expedition from Canada, 141, 154 

Bulk's History of Virginia, 74 



Burke, Edmund, 96; Life byBisset, 
22 ; by Mac Knight, 22, 260 ; by 
Morley, 1U7 ; Life by Prior, 22 ; and 
the Annual Register, 287 ; bifi 
Speeches, 2. 

Burke, Judge, 275. 

llurr, Aurou, Life by Dayis, 91, 206, 
232; by Parton, 83, 206. 

Butler, J. D., on Bennington fight, 

Butler's History of Groton, 37. 

Butler's Kentucky, 198. 

Butterfield, C. W., 261. 

Byron on George III., 181. 

Cadwaladek and Beed controTsrsy, 

Caldwell, Life by Caruthers, 8. 

Caldwell, Colonel, 80. 

Caldwell, Colonel Henry, on Siege of 
Quebec, 86. 

Calef "8 Siege of Penobscot, 208. 

Calkoens Dutch jurist, 216. 

CaUert, George U., 234. 

Cambridge, History by Paige, 60 ; men 
at Lexington, 31 ; convention troops 
at, 160 ; Old and New, by Amory, 

Camden, battle at, 229, 260. 

Camden, liord, 96; on the Declaration 
of independence, 107. 

Campbell, Archibald, 221. 

Campbell's Lives of the Chancellors, 
9, 185 ; Life of Loughborough, 22. 

Campbell's edition of Bland Papers, 
3, 151. 

Campbell's Gertrude of Wyoming, 

Campbell's Tryon County, 77. 

Campfield, Jabez, diary, 207. 

Canada, history by Gameau, 86 ; his- 
tory of Invasion of, by Stone, 83, 
166 ; advance into (1775), 81 ; com- 
mission to, 87 , retreat from, 90 ; 
invasion of, Lafayette's scheme, 

Cape Fear River, 249. 

Capefigues Louis XVI., 214. 

Carleton, Guy, general, 86; in New 
York, 264. 

Carlisle, British commissioner, 184. 

Carlyle's Frederick the Great, 14. 

Carmichael, William, 99. 

Carrington's Battles of the Eevolu- 
tion, 46, 291. 

C!arroll, Charles, diary in Canada, 87. 
Carter, D. M., picture of Bunker Hill, 

Carter William, genuine detail, etc., 

Caruthers, Life of Dr. Caldwell, 8{ 

Revolutionary incidents, 218. 
Carver's map of Canada, 86. 
Casey, M. A. 261. 
Cassell's History of the United State* , 

Castine, 208. 
Catalogue of the library of Parliv 

ment, Toronto, 6. 
Catholic Worid, 281. 
Caulkins's New London, 89, 265. 
Cavendish Debates, 21. 
Cedars, fight at the, 90. 
Centennial Graphic, 36. 
Chalmers's Revolt of American Colo- 
nies, 293. 
Chamberlain's Maine, 270. 
Chamblee, 91. 

Champlain, Lake, by Palmer, 80 ; Ar- 
nold on, 126. 
Chandler, P. W., American Criminal 

Trials, 11, 160, 233. 
Chapel Hill University Magazine, 77. 
Chapman's Wyoming, 191. 
Chappell's Picture of Bunker Hill, 59. 
Charleston, Clinton's expedition to, 

216 ; siege of. 221 ; in 1782, 262. 
Charlestovm, 66 ; survey of, 56, 57. 
Charlotte, North Carolina, 244. 
Charlottesville, Va., 253. 
Chastellux's Travels, 66, 167, 226. 
Chatham, Life by Thackeray, 186; 
correspondence, 23, 180; speeches 
2, 96 ; and the war, 185. 
Cheetham's Life of Paine, 261. 
Cherokees, 77- 
Cherry Valley, 192. 
Chesapeake, chart of the, 162 ; British 

fleet in the, 247. 
Chesney's Military and Biographical 

Essays, W). 
Chester County, Lewis's, 161. 
Chevalier's Histoire de la Marine 

Franfaise, 194. 
Child, D. L., on Bunker Hill, 61. 
Chittenden, L. E., address, 80. 
Choate, Bufus, Eloquence of the ReT. 

Chotteau's Guerre de I'lnd^pendance, 

Christian Examiner, 44. 
Churchill, Amos, History of Hubbard 

ton, 138. 
Cincinnati Society j_275. 
Circourt, Count, 1(8. 
Clark, Colonel George, in the north- 
west, 198. 
Clark, Henry, address, 138. 
Clark, Jonas, on Lexington fight. 28 
Clark, Joseph, 188. 



flark, Major, in Philadelphia, 174. 
Clark's Sketches of Naval History, 

197, 300. 
Clarke, J. F., Revolutionary Seryices 

of General Hull, 61. 
Clarke, John, on Bunker Hill, 41. 
Clinton, Fort, 158. 
Clinton, George, 158. 
Clinton, Sir Henry, 94; Observations 
on Stedman, 130; up the Hudson, 
157 ; in the Jerseys, 187 ; expedi- 
tion to Chariestou, 216 ; and An- 
dr(3, 231 ; campaign of 1781, 245. 
Clinton, James, in Sullivan's expedi- 
tion, 207. 
Cobum, F. W., History of Benning- 
ton, 143. 
Cocking"s American War, 58. 
Coffin, Charles, on Bunker Hill, 40. 
Coffin, C. C, Boys of '76, 189, 292. 
Colbum, Jeremiah, 102. 
Coiden, Lieutenant-Governor, 10. 
Coldstream Guards by ilackinnon, 

Collet, 220. 

CoUier, Sir George, 109. 
Collins, Lewis, Historical Sketches of 

Kentucky, 199. 
Colonies, maps of ^ 302. 
Colucci, G., 295. 
Columbian Centinel, 40. 
Columbian Magazine, 66, 288. 
Oommittees of Correspondence, 20. 
Committee of Foreign Affairs, 278. 
Committee of Safety, 37. 
Committee of Secret Correspondence, 

Common Sense, by Tom Paine, 98. 
Conciliatory bills, 182. 
Concord fight, 26. 

Concord, History of, by Shattuck, 27. 
Condorcet, 178, 214. 
Conduct of the American War, 161. 
Confederation ratified, 240. 
Congress, accounts of, 278 ; and the 
army, 171, 202 ; and the European 
powers, 177 ; and the States, 202 ; 
British Commissioners to, 183 ; de- 
bates in, 103, 187 ; Journals of, 128, 
277 ; parties in, 72, 74 ; proceedings 
secret, 73 ; Secret Journals of, 277 ; 
want of power in, 241 ; weakness 
of, 97, 128. 
Connecticut, History by Hollister, 16 ; 
by H. Peters, 14 ; in the Kevolution, 
by Hinman, 48 ; at Bunker Hill, 
48; invaded by Try on, 203; in- 
vaded by Arnold, 254. 
Connecticut Courant, 142. 
tonnecticut Farms in New Jersey, 223. 

Connecticut Journal, 36. 
Connecticut Historical Collections, 51- 
Constitution, Fort, 236. 
Constitutions of the States, 98. 
Contemporary Review, 267. 
Continental Congress (1774), 16', 

(1775), 72. 
Continental money, 242. 
Convention troops, 149. 
Conway Cabal, 167. 
Conway, General, in Parliament, 263 
Conway, M. D.,261. 
Cook"s map of Soui;h Carolina, 220. 
Cooke, J. E., Virginia in the Revolu- 
tion, 257. 
Cooke, Samuel, in Lexington fight, 29 
Cooke, W. D., Rev., History of North 

Carolina, 3, 218. 
Cooke's History of Party, 180. 
Coolidge, Q. A., Centennial Memorial, 

Cooper's Lionel Lincoln, 59, 67 ; Na- 
val History of the United States, 88, 
300; Pilot, 212; Spy, a novel, 206; 
Travelling Bachelor, 234. 
Copp's Hill, Boston, 69. 
Cornwallis, Life by Ross, 163 ; corre- 
spomlence, 220, 249 ; answer to Clin- 
ton, 245 ; marches, map of, 220 ; in 
North Carolina, 249 ; in Virginia, 
253 ; besieged, 255. 
Cornwallis and Clinton controversy, 

Cow Chase, by AndrtS, 224. 
Cowell's Spirit of Seventy-Six in 

Rhode Island, 84^67. 
Cowley's surveys, 222. 
Cowpens, 248 

Craft's journal at Cambridge, 62. 
Crafts, William, address, 95. 
Cragie House, Cambridge, 61. 
Crapo's address, 196. 
Crawford's expedition, 262. 
Creasy '8 Decisive Battles of the World 

Crown Point, 91. 
Cruger, Colonel, 210. 
Cullum, General W., Sketch of Mont 

gomery, 85. 
Cunningham, A., Paul Jones, 212. 
Cunningham correspondence, 106. 
Curtis, G. W., 197 ; Concord oration 

32 ; on Saratoga, 153. 
Cunven's Journal, 78, 186. 
Cushing, Caleb, 191. 
Custis, Recollections of Washington 

Dalzell, J. M., 276. 
Dan River, 249. 



Dana, Francis, in Russia, 214. 

I>auu, K. 11., Lexington address, 82. 

Danbury, 143. 

Uanvert* at I«xington, 81. 

Davis Bancroft, Notes on Treaties, 

Davis, N., 207. 

l>avis'8 Life of Aaron Burr, 91, 282. 
Dawes, William, and Paul Kevere, 26. 
Dawson's Battles of the United States, 

27, 291 ; Major-General Putnam, 48 ; 

New York in the Kevolution, 116. 
De Barras, 255. 
De Berniere's narrative, 26. 
De Brahm, 220. 

De Brett's Parliamentary Register, 263. 
De Costa, B. F., Fort George, 80 ; Nar- 
rative of Kvents at Lake George, 136. 
D'Estaing, 193, 194 ; at Savannah, 209. 
De Fersen's Journal, 256. 
De Fleury, Lieut.-Colonel, 205. 
De Grasse, Admiral, 256; defeated in 

West Indies, 271. 
De llafis's Indiian W'ars, 192. 
De Kalb, 229 ; engages, 101 ; Life by 

Kapp, 168. 
De Lancey,editorof Jones's New York, 

etc., 78, 289. 
De Peyster, J. W., 145, 153, 189, 287. 
De Witt's Jefferson and American 

Democracy, 99. 
Deane, Charles, on Revere's Signals, 

26 ; on Washington at Cambridge, 

61 ; on the Convention with Bur- 

goyne, 151. 
Deane, Silas, 72, 176; in Paris, 99; 

Papers in relation to, 100. 
Dearborn, General Ilenry, on Bunker 

Hill, 49 : journals, 284. 
Deas's Life of Izard, 176, 213. 
Definitive Treaty of Peace, 273. 
Delaware County, Smith's, 161. 
Delaware River, 164, 167 ; forts, 165. 
Deming, H. C., on Putnam, 53. 
Deming's oration, 133. 
Democratic Review, 191. 
Demont, William, 121. 
Denny's Journal, 253. 
Derby, E. H., 89. 
Des Barres's maps, 69. 
Detail and Conduct of the American 

War, 29, 131. 
Deuxponts, 226. 

Devens, Charles, on Bunker HiU, 45. 
Dexter, George, on the Cragie House, 

Diamond Island Fight, 136. 
Dickinson, John, tracts, 9, 18, 103. 
Viman's Address on Prescott's capt- 
ure, 134. 

Diplomacy in Continental Europe, 17& 
Diplomacy of the Revolution, 278; 

by Trescot, 177 ; of the United 

States, by Lyman, 177. 
Diplomatic Correspondence, 99, 278. 
Dodd, Stephen, 139. 
Doddridge's Notes on the Indian Wari, 

Donne's Correspondence of George the 

Third, 23, 181. 
Donop, Count, 166. 
Doolittle's Engravings of Concord 

Fight, 33. 
Doran's edition of Walpole's Last Jour 

nal, 22. 
Dorchester Heights, 66. 
Drake, F. S., History of Roxbury, 61 

Mass. Society of Cincinnati, 276. 
Drake, S. A., on Bunker Hill, 41, 63 

Historic Fields, etr., of Middlesex 

31 ; Landmarks of Boston, 8. 
Drake, S. G., Book of the Indians, 191 

History of Boston, 3. 
Drake, man-of-war, 198. 
Drayton's .traerican Revolution In 

South Carolina, 3. 
Dring's Jersey Prison Ship, 200. 
Duche, Rev. Jacob, 172. 
Du Chesnoy's Theatre de la Gnenw, 

Duer's Life of Lord Stirling, 112. 
Dumas, C. W. F., 74. 
Dumas's Le Captaine Paul, 212. 
Dumas's Memoirs, 256. 
Dunlap, 234 ; History of New York, 17 
Dunmore, 75. 

Du Portail in Stanhope's England, 161. 
Duval, Denis, 212. 
Dwight, Timothy, Travels in New 

England, 133. 

Earle's English Premiers, 182. 

East Boston, by Sumner, 35. 

Eastbum's Survey, 164. 

Eberling on Steuben, 204 

Eclectic Review, 181. 

Eddis's Letters from America, 7. 

Eden, 186. 

Edes's Boston Massacre oration, 12. 

Edes, Peter, diary, 64. 

Edinburgh Review, 181. 

Eelking's Deutsche Hiilfstruppen, 

108, 135 ; Leben von Riedesel, 108, 

Eliot, Rev. Dr., letters from Boston, 64. 
Eliot's Biographical Dictionary, 49 
Elizabethtown Point, 223. 
EUet, Mrs., Domestic History of the 

Revolution, 282 ; Women of the 

Revolution, 139. 



Blliott'g, C. W., History of New Eng- 
land, 82. 

Ellis, G. E., on Bunker Uill, 37, 44, 
67 ; Life of Count Rumford, 79, 
252 ; Memoir of Sparks, 280 : ora- 
tion on the siege of Boston, 60. 

Elmer's Journal, 80. 

Eloquence of the Revolution, 283. 

Emerson, R. W., on the Concoi'd fight, 

Emerson, William, on the Concord 
fight, 28. 

Emmons, G. F., Navy of the Cnited 
States, 300. 

Encyclopasdia Britannica, 297. 

Endicott on Leslie's expedition, 25. 

England, Ilistory of, by Adolphus, 2, 
180, 292 ; under George III., by Bis- 
set, 86, 161 ; C. Knight's Popular 
History of, 111, 180, 293 ; History of, 
by Massey, 2, 180, 293 ; Constitu- 
tional History of , bv May, 2, 180; 
Pictorial History of, 4, 180, 293 ; 
History of, by Stanhope, 4, 180, 292 , 
commissioners of historical MSS., 
30; political movements, 21, 96. 

English Commission on Historical 
MSS., 116. 

English Premiers, by Earle, 182. 

English, T. D., 96. 

Epochs of English History Series, 294. 

Epochs of Modern History Series, 294, 

Esnauts et Rapilly's map, 258. 

Esopus, 200 ; burned, 158. 

Essex County, New York, 80. 

Essex Gazette, 7. 

Essex Institute, Bulletin, 64; Collec- 
tions, 51, 60 ; Proceedings, 25. 

Etonians, by Jesse, 182. 

Etting, Colonel, 106. 

Eustis's Letter, 93. 

Eutaw, 252. 

Evans's Map of the Colonies, 303; 
Middle British Colonies, 132. 

Everett, A. H., on Bunker Hill, 44; 
Life of Warren, 44. 

Everett, Edward, Concord address, 
32 ; Mount Vernon Papers, 31, 297 ; 
Lexington address, 31; Life of Stark, 
143 ; Life of Washington, 297. 

J)wald's Beyspiele Grosser Helden, 
161 ; Feldzug der Hessen, 108. 

Exchange of prisoners, 201. 

Exiles in Virginia, by Gilpin, 163. 

Faden, William, 68 ; collection of his 

maps in librarv of Congress, 161. 
Fairfield destroyed, 203. 
Falmouth burned, 71. 
Faaeuil Hall, 66. 

Fanning, Colonel D., 220. 

Farmer's Letters, by Dickinson, 9 

Farnham, Ralph, 54. 

Fast, Christian, Captivity of, 199. 

Fellows, John, Veil Removed, 52. 

Felt, Joseph B., Annals of Salem, 89 ; 
Massachusetts currency, 242. 

Feltman, William, journal, 254. 

Female Review, by H. Mann, 47. 

Fenno's orderly-book, 39. 

Ferguson, 237. 

Field, T. W., battle of Long Island 

Field-Book of the Revolution, by Lo*- 
sing, 3, 291. 

Finances, 242. 

Finch on Revolutionary Landmarks, 

Finley's Siege of Quebec, 96. 

Fish, Colonel N., 116. 

Fisher's Chart of Delaware River, 164, 

Fisheries, and the treaty of peace, 271 

Fitch, Asa, 139. 

Fitzmaurice's Life of Shelburne, 4, 

Flag adopted (1777), 129 ; History of 
by Preble, 89. 

Flanders 's Life of Jay, 16 ; Life of Rut 
ledge, 17. 

Flassan's Diplomatic Franfaise, 268. 

Fleet's Evening Post, 7. 

Fleet Prison at Esopus, 200. 

Fletcher, Ebenezer, narrative, 138. 

Fleury, Lieutenant, 141, 167. 

Flint's Western Monthly Review, 14. 

Fogg, Jeremiah, orderly-book, 63. 

Fonblanque's Life of Burgoyne, 91. 

Foote's Sketches of North Carolina, 3 

Forayers, by Simms, 251. 

Force, Colonel Peter, on the Declara- 
tion of Independence, 107 ; Ameri- 
can Archives, 10, 281 ; his collec- 
tion, 284. 

Foreign officers in the army, 171. 

Foreign relations (1779-1780), 213. 

Fort George, 80. 

Fortnightly Review, 261. 

Foster Papers, 284. 

Foucher's Siege du fort St. Jean 86. 

Fox, C. J., 96 ; Life and Times of, by 
Russell, 182 ; Memorials and Cor- 
respondence, by Russell, 96 ; in the 
Shelburne cabinet, 265. 

Fox, Ebenezer, adventures, 200. 

France, History by Guizot, 178 ; agent 
of, 99 ; three commissioners to, 100 
treaty with, 178 ; would curtail thg 
American boundaries, 213. 

Frank Leslie's Pictorial, 45. 



Franklin, Benjamin, Life by Blgelow, 
4; by Parton,4; by Sparks, 4; and 
the Stamp Act, 4 ; Proceedings of 
the Congress, 19 ; on the Boston 
Resolutions, 23: progress of the 
difference, etc., 25j arrives in Paris, 
101 ; in Europe, 176 ; in Paris, 213 ; 
negotiates for peace, 266 ; unpopu- 
larity in England, 2W5 ; portniit by 
Greuze, 273 ; suit of Manchester 
velvet, 273 ; Works, edited by W. T. 
Franklin, 9; Works, edited by 
Sparks, 18. 

Eraser's Magazine, 212. 

Frederick the Great, by Carlyle, 14; 
his relation with the American 
Congress, 177. 

Freeman's Farm, 145. 

French auxiliaries, 194, 225; fleet, 
193 ; fleet in the West Indies, 209 ; 
histories of the war, 294 ; participa- 
tion in the war, 296 ; troops in Vir- 
ginia, 263. 

Friends. See QuaJcers. 

Frog Neck, 118. 

Frothingham, Richard, Alarm of April 
18th, 26; Bunker Hill, 52; Rise of 
the Republic, 2; Siege of Boston, 
15 ; Warren and his Times, 6. 

Fry and Jefferson's maps, 258. 

Furman's Antiquities of Long Island, 

Gaos, General Thomas, 8. 

Galaxy, The, 45, 233. 

Gallatin's North Eastern Boundary, 

Galloway, Joseph, 78 ; before the 
Commons, 78 ; Letters to a Noble- 
man, 131 ; Letter to Lord Howe , 198 ; 
plan of adjustment, 18 ; Rise and 
Progress of the American Rebellion, 

Gammel, Life of Samuel Ward, 88. 

Qansevoort, Colonel, 140. 

Garden's Anecdotes of the Revolu- 
tion, 95, 218. 

Gardner, A. B., Rhode Island Line, 

Gameau's History of Canada, 85. 

Gascoigne, 220. 

Gaspee, destruction of the, 13. 

Sates, General Horatio, Life in Head- 
ley's Washington, etc., 91; sent to 
Canada, 91 ; Schuyler's dispute 
about command, 136 ; in command 
of the northern army, 144 ; and the 
Conway Cabal, 168 ; in Carolina, 
228 ; his relations with Washington, 
128 ; his papers, 284. 

General Records of the war, 277. 
Genoese ambassador in I.iondon, 296. 
Gentleman's Magrizine, 4, 285. 
Geographl.sche Bolustigungen, 803. 
George III., Keigu of, by Belsham 

292 ; Memoirs of his court, 266 ' 

Correspondence with Lord North 

23; his letters, 181 ; reign of, 180; 

its social aspects, 182; his charac* 
I ter, 181. 
Georgia, 209, 221 ; Stevens's History 

of, 74 ; map of, 220 ; conquered by 

Wayne, 262. 
Gerard, the French minister, li9, 214 ; 

hLf papers, 295. 
German Flats, 76. 
German town, 164. 
Gerry, Elbridge, Life by Austin, 8. 
Gertrude of Wyoming, 191. 
Geschichte der Kriege in und aus 

Europa, 57. 
Gibbon, 182. 
Gibbs's Diary, 195. 
Gibbs, R. W., Documentary History of 

American Revolution, 3, 218. 
Gilman, Caroline, Eliza Wilkinson 

Gilman, Mrs. C. H., on the Tea-party, 

Gilpin's Exiles in Virginia, 163. 
Oirardin's History of Virginia, 75. 
Gleig's Chelsea Pensioners, 157 ; Day 

on the Neutral Ground, 206. 
Gloucester, Mass., History by Babsoa 

Gloucester, Va., 266. 
Glover's orderly-book, 63, 195. 
Golden Hill, 33. 

Goodell's centennial address, 16. 
Goodrich, Chauncey, 203. 
Gookin's diary, 207. 
Gordon, Colonel Cosmo, 223. 
Gordon's History of Pennsylvania 

Gordon, William, American Revoln 

tion, 28, 46 ; his history, 286 ; com 

mencement of hostilities, 28 , 

Thanksgiving services, 21. 
Gouge's Paper Money, 242. 
Graham, Lieut. General Samuel, 2031 
Graham's Life of Morgan, 83, 219, 248 
Graham on the invasion of Norti 

Carolina, 218. 
Grahame's United States, 15, 290. 
Graphic (newspaper) Centennial, 66. 
Graves, Admiral, 255- 
Gravesend, 109. 
Gray, F. C, 296. 
Gray, John, last soldier of the Revc 

lutiOQ, 276. 



Graydon's Memoirs, 109. 

Great Britain, Administrations of by 

Lewis, 181 ; Military Memoirs, etc., 

by Beatson, 292 ; treaty with 

Prance, 273. 
Green Mountain Boys, 81. 
Green, Dr. Ezra, 198. 
Green, Samuel A., 205, 211 ; editor of 

Deuxpont's Journal, 226. 
Green's Short History of the English 

People, 294. 
Greene, Albert G., 200. 
Greene, Gardiner, 64. 
Greene, Q. W., German Element in 

the War, 108 ; Historical View of 

American Revolution, 2. 
Greene, Nathanael, Life by G. W. 

Greene, 60, 244 ; Life by Johnson, 

160 ; quartermaster-general, 171 ; 

at the South, 238, 244 ; in South 

Carolina, 250 ; papers, 285. 
Greenwood, Grace, Forest Tragedy, 

Grenadier Guards, by Hamilton, 113. 
Grenville sent to Paris, 266. 
Grenyille's papers, 185. 
Greuze's portrait of Pranklin, 273. 
Brey, General, 162. 
Greyslaer, by Hoffman, 193. 
Griffiths, William, Historical Notes of 

the American Colonies, 2. 
Grigby, H. B., 98. 
Griswold, 0., 255. 
Griswold, Fort, 254. 
Grosvenor, L., on Bunker Hill, 52. 
Groton, Conn., 254. 
Groton, Mass., History of, by Butler, 

Guilford, 249. 
Guizot's France, 178. 
Qiissefeld, map of United States, 270. 

Hadden, Lieutenant, 155. 

Hageman, J. P., History of Princeton, 

Haid, 234. 

Hale, E. E., List of Faden Maps, 113; 
One Hundred Tears Ago, 26 ; Paul 
Jones and Dennis DuTal, 212. 

Hale, Nathan, 115, 234. 

Hall, Hiland, 80. 

Hall's Civil War in America. 117, 288. 

Hall's History of Vermont, 143. 

Hamilton, Alexander, 298 ; Life by 
J. 0. Hamilton, 72, 189, 298 ; Life 
by J. T. Morse, 298 ; Tracts, 19 ; 
Views on Finance, 243 ; papers, 285. 

Hamilton, J. C, Republic of the 
United States, 191, 298 ; Contro- 
Teny with W. B. Reed, 299. 

Hamilton, Schuyler, History of the 
National Flag, 129. 

Hamilton's Grenadier Guards, 113, 162. 

Hancock, John, 73 : Oration on Bos- 
ton Massacre, 21 ; House, 66, 73 ; 
papers, 73, 284. 

Harlem Plains, 118. 

Harper's Monthly, 14. 

Harrington, Jonathan, 33. 

Harris, Lord, Life by Lushington, 42, 

Hartley, C. B., Heroes of the South, 

ECarkey, David, 183, 186 ; in Paris, 273. 

Harte, Bret, Thankful Blossom, 217. 

Hartford, VVashington and Rochan> 
beau at, 227. 

Hartford Daily Courant, 79. 

Hartford Post, 52. 

Haven, C. C, Annals of Trenton, 125 ; 
Historical Manual, 122 ; Thirty 
Days in New Jersey, 122 ; Washing- 
ton in New Jersey, 122. 

Haven, S. F., Jr., Bibliography of the 
American Press, 5. 

Hawk8"s Battle of Alamance, 5, 

Hawley, General Joseph, Address, 204. 

Hawthorne's Septimius Felton, 33. 

Hay-ad-ros-se-ra, 153. 

Hayne, Isaac, 252. 

Hazard, W. P., editor of Watson's An- 
nals, 262. 

Hazard's Pennsylvania Archives, 180. 

Hazard's Register, 240. 

HazeweU, C. C, 181. 

Head of Elk, 159. 

Headley, J. T., 153 ; Chaplains and 
Clergy of the Revolution, 283 ; Mis- 
cellanies, 211 ; Washington and hia 
Generals, 145, 292. 

Heath '^Memoirs, 30; Diary at Cam- 
bridge, 60 ; on the Hudson, 202, 254 ; 
papers, 119, 164, 284. 

Heckerwelder's Moravian Missions, 

Henley, Colonel, trial of, 150. 

Henrick, Captain, a Hessian, 172. 

Henry, Patrick, 199 ; Life by Wirt, 3. 

Henry's Kennebec journal, 83. 

Henshaw, William, orderly-book, 63. 

Herbert, Charles, Relics of the Revo- 
lution, 200. 

Herkimer, General, 140. 

Herkimer County, by Benton, 140. 

Hessians, 108, 135. 

Higginson, T. W., 106. 

Hill, Q. W., Captivity of C. Fast, 199. 

Hilliard d'Auberteuil's Essais bis- 
toriques, 59 ; Administration (to 
Lord North, 303 



Bills, John, Pl&n of Fort Clinton, etc., 

Binman, Connecticut in the Revolu- 
tion, 4S, 133 ; Uist. CoUections, 203. 

Historical Magazine, 4. 

Hobkirli's Uill, 250. 

Hodgson's Report of Preston's Trial, 

Hoffman, C. F., Orcyslaer, 193. 

Holland, E. Q., Highland Treason, 235. 

Holland's, H. W., William Dawes, etc., 

Holland, J. Q., Western Massachu- 
setts, 79. 

Holland, Major, surreys, 69, 302. 

Holland, treaties with, 267. 

Holland and the United States, 178. 

Holland Purchase, 244. 

HoUis, History of, by Worcester, 147. 

Holllster's History of Connecticut, 

Holmes, Abiel, American Annals, 

Holmes, 0. W., Qrandmother's Story 
of Bunker Hill, 69. 

Hood, Commodore, 8. 

Hopkins, Commodore, 88 ; papers, 

Hopkinson's Battle of the Kegs, 173. 

Hostilities cease, 275. 

Hough, F. B., 141, 207, 209 ; on the 
convention of 1780, 225 ; Northern 
Invasion, 237 ; on the siege of Char- 
leston, 221. 

Houghton, G. F., 142. 

Hours at Home, 100. 

How, David, diary at Cambridge, 63. 

How, H. K., 125. 

Howard, Colonel, J. E., 165. 

Howard, Lieut. Colonel, 248. 

Howe, Lord, at Rhode Island, 193; 
naval conduct, 198. 

Howe, Sir William, arrives, 97 , nar- 
rative of his conduct. 111 ; as com- 
missioner for peace, 113; contro- 
versy with Galloway, 131 j evacu- 
ates the Jerseys, 133 ; Philadelphia 
campaign, 159 ; in Philadelphia, 
172 ; returns to England, 173. 

Howison's Virginia, 151. 

Howland, John, Life by Stone, 126. 

Hozier's Invasion of England, 186. 

Hubbardton, History by Churchill, 

Hubley's diary, 207. 

Huddy, Captain, hung, 262. 

Hudson, Charles, Doubts concerning 
Bimker Hill, 44 ; History of Lexing- 
ton, 31. 

Hudson, Frederick, on Concord fight, 

82 : Journalism In the United 9tat«& 

Hudson River Campaign (1776), 92 

obstructions, 92 ; Clinton's cant 

paign on the, 157. 
Hughes, Q. B. T., on the Tearparty 

Hughes, Thomas, on Franklin, 175 


Hull, General William, Revolutionary 
Services, 61. 

Humphrey's Life of Putnam, 85, 50. 

Hunt's American Merchants, 89, 243. 

Hunt, L. L., Notes on Montgomerr 

Hunter, ship, 224. 

Huntington's History of Stanford, 79. 

Uutehiu8on, Colonel Israel, orderly- 
book, 63. 

Hutchinson, Governor Thomas, let- 
ters, 9; History of Massachusetts, 
1 ; papers, 284. 

iMlAT's Western Territory, 199. 

Impartial History of the War in Amer- 
ica, 70, 286, 2S5. 

Independence declared, 103 ; spirit of, 

Independence Hall, 106. 

Indian Miscellany by Beach, 139 

Indian Wars, by De Haas, 192. 

Indians, Book of the, by S. G. Drake, 

Indians in the War, 76, 139, 192, 199, 
206 ; Sullivan's expedition against, 
206 ; depredations in 1778, 190. 

Iredell, Life by McRee, 16, 218. 

Ireland, state of, 271. 

Irvine, General, 82, 189. 

Irving's Life of Washington, 17. 

Izard, Ralph, 128, 176, 213. 

Jackson, Andrew, by Parton, 219. 

James, Colonel, plan of Fort Mool 
trie, 95. 

James, Thomas, 222. 

James's Life of Marion, 219. 

James's Naval History of Gre«t Brit- 
ain, 198. 

Jameson's Constitutional Conven- 
tions, 283. 

Jasper, Sergeant William, 95. 

Jay, John, Life of, by Flanders, 16; 
by Jay, 16 ; minister to Spain, 178; 
and the peace negotiations, 267. 

Jay, John, Oration, 119. 

Jefferson , Life by Parton , 16 ; by Ran- 
dall, 16 ; by De Witt, 99 ; by Tucker 
17 ; drafts the Declaration of Itt 
dependence, 105 ; Notes on Virginia 



102; Writings, 17; papers, 284; 

GoTemor of Virginia, 246. 
Jeffery's American Atlas, 58 ; map of 

New England, 67. 
Jeffries, Dr., on General Wairen's 

death, 64. 
Jemison, Mary, Life by SeaTer, 207. 
Jenkins, H. M., 161. 
Jenkins's Wyoming Address, 191. 
Jennings Memorials of a Century, 

Jersey Oity, 205. 
Jersey prison ship, 200. 
Jerseys, campaign in, 122 ; evacuated 

by Howe, 133. 
Jesse's Etonians, 182; George III., 

181 ; Selwyn and Ids Contempo- 
raries, 184. 
Johnson, Fort, 220. 
Johnson, Sir John, 77. 
Johnson, Joseph, American Revolu- 
tion, 218. 
Johnson, J. G., 299. 
Johnson's Taxation no Tyranny, 22. 
Johnson, Judge, on Pulaski, 210; Life 

of N. Greene, 160, 244. 
Johnson's History of Salem, N. J., 

Johnson's Traditions of the American 

Revolution, 95. 
Johnston, H. P., campaign of 1776, 

93 ; Stony Point, 204. 
Johnstown, 77. 
Jones, C. C, Jr., 209 ; on Sergeant 

Jasper, 95. 
Jones, Paul, 88; 198, 211; Lives of, 

Jones, Judge, 77 ; New York in the 

Revolutionary War, 10, 77, 288. 

Kapp's Life of De Kalb, 168 ; of 
Steuben, 171, 204 ; Soldatenhandel, 
108, 156. 

Katherine Walton, by Simms, 251. 

Kearsley's American Gazette, 9. 

Kellogg, Lewis, address, 137. 

Kennebec expedition (1775), 82. 

Kennedy, John P., Horseshoe Robin- 
son, W. ; Memoir of Wm. Wirt, 20. 

Kentucky, History of, by Butler, 198 ; 
Collins's Historical Sketch of, 199. 

Keppel, Admiral, 198. 

Kidder, Frederic, Boston Massacre, 
11 ; Eastern Maine, 224 ; First New 
Hampshire Regiment, 162. 

King, C, 189. 

King, B. P., on Danvers at Lexington, 

King, General, 237. 

King's ferry, 203. 

King's Mountain. 237. 

Kirkland's Washington, 297. 

Knickerbocker Magazine, 110. 

Knight, C., Popular History of Eng- 
land, 111, 180,. 293. 

Knowlton, Colonel, 47. 

Knox, Gen. Henry, Life by Drake, 61 ; 
expedition to Ticonderoga, 61 ; pa- 
pers, 284. 

Knyphausen, 216. 

i Lady's Magazine, Philadelphia, 173 

Lafayette's Memoirs, 101 ; engages, 
101 ; scheme of invading Canada, 
171 ; at Barren Hill, 173 ; and D'Es- 
taing, 194; and the French Govern- 
ment, 225 ; In Europe, 241 ; in Vir- 
ginia, 247, 253. 

Lamb, Sergeant, Journal of Occur- 
rences, 42. 

Lamb, Samuel, Memoirs by Leake, 4 

Lambdin's address, 165. 

L'Amoreaux's address, 153. 

Landais, Peter, and Paul Jones, 211. 

Langdon. President of Harvard Col- 
lege, 74. 

Langworthy 's Life of Charles Lee, 188. 

Last Men of the Revolution, 303. 

Lattre's Map of the United States, 270. 

Laurens, Henry, Correspondence by 
Moore, 207 ; captured, 215 ; in 
Paris, 268. 

Laurens, Lieut. Colonel, 167, 331 ; and 
finance, 243. 

Lauzun, Due de, 226. 

Laws, Vincennes, 199. 

Leach, John, diary in Boston, 64. 

Leake's Memoirs of General Samuel 
Lamb, 4. 

Lear, Washington's secretary, 232. 

Leboucher's Historie de la Guerre, 
227 ; Guerre de I'lnd^pendance, 294. 

Ledyard, Colonel, 254. 

Lee, Arthur, in London, 99; in Eu- 
rope, 1?5 ; in Paris, 2l3 ; and the 
French Alliance, 267 ; Life of, 300. 

Lee, Gen. Charles, Memoirs, 114, 121 ; 
taken prisoner, 122 ; Treason of, by 
Moore, 122, 130 ; court-martialed 
for Monmouth, 188 ; Life by Sparks, 
188 ; Life by Langworthy, 188. 

Lee, Henry, 205 ; Campaign of 1781, 

Lee, Gen. Henry, Memoirs of the War, 
42, 245. 

Lee, R. H., Life by Lee, 16, 300 ; drafti 
address, 72. 

Lee, William, Commissioner to Ber- 
lin, 128 

Lee, WlUiam, orderly-book, 63. 



Lee Papers, 284, 300; fn Ameriran 
Philosophical Society's library, 67 i 
in Ilarrard College library, 27. 

Le Marchant'g eilition of Walpole'i 
George the Third, 22, 182. 

Lendrum's American Kevolution, 287. 

Leonard, Daniel, 19. 

Leslie in Virginia, 238. 

Leslie's expedition to«6alem, 26. 

Lester, C. E., Our First Ilundred 
Years, 292. 

Letters to a Nobleman, 123. 

Lewis, Q. C., Administrations of Great 
Britain, 181. 

Lewis's Chester County, 161. 

Lexington fight, 26 ; Uiitory of by 
Hudson, SI. 

Lincoln, Gen. Benjamin, Life by 
Bowen, 147 ; at Saratoga, 151 : at 
Savannah, 209 ; at Charleston, 221 ; 
in Virginia, 254. 

Lincoln's llistory of Worcester, 21. 

Llnwoods, a noTel by Miss Sedgwick, 

Lionel Lincoln, by Cooper, 59, 67. 

Lippincott's Magazine, 161. 

Literature of the Revolution, 305. 

Livermore, George, on negroes as sol- 
diers, 804. 

Mving Age, 8. 

Livingston, R. R., 241, 260, 278. 

Livingston, William, Life by Sedg- 
wick, 17. 

Loans in Europe, 242. 

Lomenie's Life of Beaumarchais, 100, 

London Chronicle, 27. 

London Magazine, 57, 285. 

Longfellow's Paul Revere, 26. 

Long Island and its histories, 78 ; 
battle of, 109 ; Furman's Antiqui- 
ties of, 113 ; loyalists, 262. 

Long Island Historical Society, Me- 
moirs, 109. 

Lord, 234. 

Loring's, Q. B., Speech at Salem, 25. 

Loring, J. S., Hundred Boston Ora- 
tors, 11 ; on Gordons history, 287. 

Lossing, B. J., Field-Book of the Rev- 
olution, 291 ; Life of Schuyler, 71 ; 
Washington, 297. 

Loubat's Medallic History of the 
United States, 67. 

Loughborough, Life by Campbell, 22. 

Louis XVI., by Capefigue, 214. 

Lowell, J. R., Concord ode, 32; Un- 
der the Great Elm, 62. 

Lowell, John, on Bunker Hill, 50. 

Lowell Robert, Burgoyne's Last 
March. 146. 

LoTell, General. 208. 

Loyalists, 76, 7/, 155, 220, 289 ; and 

the peace, 271. 
Ludlow's War of American Indepen 

dence, 294. 
Lunt, Paul, diary at Cambridge, 62. 
Lushington's Life of Lord Harris, 42. 
Luzerne, French mini^tcr, 207, 22*5. 
Lvman's Diplomacy cf the United 

"states, 177, 263. 
Lynn Haven Bay, 255. 

Madison, Life by Rives, 16 ; views on 
finance, 2)3 ; papers, 178, 284 ; 
Writings, 98. 

McAlpine's Memoirs, 153. 

Macaulay's Essay on Chatham, 182. 

Mcl'artney's Origin of the United 
States, 2. 

McClure's diary, 28. 

McConnick's edition of Peters's His- 
tory of Connecticut, 15- 

McCrea, Jane, Mij8, murdered, 138 ; 
Life by D. Wilson. 138 : a tale by 
Hilliard d'Auberteuil, 139. 

McCurlin, Daniel, journal at Cam- 
bridge, 63. 

McFingal, by Trumbull, 10. 

Mackay'B United States, 293. 

McKean>8 letter, 104. 

Mackenzie, Alex., on Washington at 
Cambridge, 61 ; Cambridge at Lex 
ington, 31. 

Mackenzie, R., Strictures on Tarleton 

MacKinnon's Coldstream Guards, 113 

Macmillan's Magazine, 8. 

McRee's Life of Iredell, 16, 218. 

McSherry's History of Maryland, 18. 

Magazine of American History, 4. 

Magazines, value of, 286. 

Magoon's Orators of the Revolutif n 

Mahon's History of England, 4, 292. 

Maine, History of, by Williamson, 71 
208 : as New Ireland, 224 ; bouc 
dary dispute, 269 ; Her Place in His- 
tory, 270. 

Maine Historical Society Col lections 
59, 224. 

Maine, H. C., on Burgoyne's Cam. 
paign, 153. 

Manchester, N. H., History by Potter 

Manley, Captain, 88. 

Mann, Herman, the Female Review 

Manuscript sources, 284. 

Maps of the war, 302. 

Marion Francis, 219 ; Life by JancM 



219 ; Life by Simms, 219 ; Life by 
Weems, 219. 

Marbois, Complot d' Arnold, etc., 234 ; 
his letter intercepted, 268. 

Margaretta at Machias, 35. 

Marsh, L. R., on General WoodhuU, 

Marshall, Christopher, diary, 28, 72. 

Marshall's Life of Washington, 17. 

Marshfield expedition, 25. 

Martial law in tlie Revolution, 304. 

Marten's Receuil de Xraites, 179. 

Martin, Chaplain, 64. 

Martin's History of North Carolina, 3. 

Martyrs to the Revolution, by Taylor, 

Maryland, History by McSherry, 16. 

Maryland Line, by Balch, 63, 247. 

Maryland Historical Society's Trans- 
actions, 87 ; publications, 229. 

Mason, George, 199, 202. 

Massachusetts, History of, by Barry, 
2 ; by A. Bradford, 21 ; by Hutchin- 
son, 1 ; by Minot, 1 ; Western, by 
Holland, 79 ; assumes sovereign 
power, 98 ; Constitution (1780), 224 ; 
Currency by Felt, 242. 

Massachusetts Gazette, 7. 

Massachusetts Historical Society's Li- 
brary Catalogue, 6 ; Collections, 7 ; 
Proceedings, 3. 

Massachusetts Kalendar, 11. 

Massachusetts Magazine, 33, 66. 

Massachusetts Provincial Congress 
Journals, 27. 

Massachusetts State Papers, by A. 
Bradford, 6. 

Massachusetts State Register, 13. 

Massachusetts Society of Cincinnati, 

Massachusetts Spy, 7. 

Massachusettensis, 19. 

Massey's History of England, 2. 

Matthews, General, his journal, 231. 

Mauduit, Israel, 174; on Sir William 
Howe, 120. 

May's Constitutional History of Eng- 
land, 2, 288. 

Maynard, Needham, on Bunker Hill, 


Maxwell, Major T., on Bunker Hill, 51. 

Mecklenberg, Declaration of Indepen- 
dence, 34. 

Medcalfe's Map, 157. 

Medical Men of the Revolution, 283. 

Jleigs's Kennebec journal, 83. 

Mellish and Tanner's Seat of War, 

Melville, Herman, 40 ; Israel Potter, 

Melvin's Kennebec journal, 83.' 

Mercer, General, 126. 

Mercer, Fort, 166. 

Meredith, Sir William, 186. 

Methodists and the War, 283, 

Middlebrook Camp, 202. 

Middlesex, Historic Fields of, b/ 

Drake, 31. 
Mifflin, Fort, 166. 
Miles, Colonel Samuel, 110. 
Military Journals, etc., 28. 
Military Pocket Atlas, 127. 
Miner, Charles, History of Wyoming, 

Minot's History of Massachusetts, 1 
Mischianzii, 173. 
Mississippi River and its navigation, 

177, 213, 214. 
Mohawk Valley Indians, 76, 192. 
Monmouth, 188. 

Montgomery, General Richard, 82, 
85 ; Life by Armstrong, 82 ; by Gen. 
CuUum, 85 ; oration on, by William 
Smith, 85 ; notes on, by L. L. Hunt, 
Montgomerj', Fort, 158. 
Monticello, 253. 
Montreal, 82, 84. 
Montresor, 164. 

Moore, Frank, American Eloquence, 
283 ; Ballad History of the Revolu 
tion, 31 ; Correspondence of Henry 
Laurens, 207 ; Diary of the Revolu- 
tion, 27, 282 ; Materials for History, 
167 ; Songs and Ballads of the Rev- 
olution, 173, 194, 282. 
Moore, George H., on negroes as sol- 
diers, 304; Treason of Charles Lee, 
122, 130. 
Moore, Thomas, Life of Sheridan, 22 
Moorsom's Fifty-second Regiment, 42. 
Moravian Missions, 199. 
Morgan , Daniel , 219 ; Life by Graham, 
83, 146 ; with Gates, 146 ; at Cow- 
pens, 248 ; papers, 248. 
Morley, J. L., Slorton's Hope, 305. 
Morley's Edmund Burke, 107. 
Morris, Gouvemeur, 183 ; Life by 

Sparks, 10. 
Morris, Robert, financier, 104, 243. 
Morris, General, letter, 94. 
Morristown, 21/ ; Wayne at, 240. 
Morsman, Oliver, on Bunker Hill, 40. 
Morton, Perez, on General Warren, 

54 97. 
Morton, Robert, 163. 
Morton's Hope, by Morley, 305. 
Mott, 79. 

Moultrie's Memoirs of the Amorican 
War, 218. 



Moultrie, Fort, 94. 

Mount Defiance, 186. 

Mount Vernon Papers, by Ererett, 

Mouzon, 220. 
Mud Iflaud, 166. 
Miigge, T., Paul Jones, 212. 
MuMenberg, General, Life of, 160 ; in 

MuJford'8 Uistory of New Jersey, 17, 

Muller's Americana, 178. 
Miiller'g Geographische Belustigun- 

gen, 70. 
MiUTay's Impartial History of tbe 

American War, 57. 
Murray's War in America, 288. 
Muskingum, 262. 
Muzzey, A. B., on Lexington fight, 


Narkaoansett Bat, plans of, 196, 

National Intelligencer, 165. 

National Quarterly Review, 236. 

National liepository, 158. 

Naval Actions (1778), 197. 

Naval Chronicle, 109. 

Naval Hiptoriea, 300. 

Naval losses of Great Britain, 215. 

Navy, beginnings of, 87. 

Neal, John, 290 j Seventy-Six, a novel, 

Negroes as soldiers, 304. 

Neilson on Saratoga, 147, 153. 

Netherlands, 129 ; war with England, 

Neutral Ground, 205. 

Newall's diary in Boston, 64. 

Newark Daily Advertiser, 126. 

New Bedford, History by Ricketson, 
196 i British at, 196. 

Newburgh, Washington's headquar- 
ters, 275 ; addresses, 274. 

Newburyport, by E. V. Smith, 89. 

New England, History of, by C. W. 
Elliott, 32 ; Jeffery "s map, 57 ; maps 
of, 71. 

New England Chronicle, 39. 

New England Historical and Genea- 
logical Register, 6. 

New England Magazine, 233. 

New Englander, 53. 

Newfound'and Banks, 271. 

New Hampshire, History by Belknap, 
197; Provincial Papers, 47; adju- 
tant-general's reports, 47 ; first re- 
giment, 152 ; at Bunker Hill, 47. 
iew Hampshire Historical Society's 
Collections, 47. 

Newhall, Thomas, diary, 18. 

New Haven invaded, 203. 

New Haven Palladium, 287 

New Ipswich, History of, 48. 

New Ireland, 224. 

New Jersey, History by Mulford, 17 

New Jersey, Historical CoUectiona 
Barker and Howe, 189. 

New Jersey Historical Society's Pro* 
ceedings, 80. 

New London, 254; History by Caul- 
kins, 89. 

Newport, 197 ; plan of, 196 ; the 
French at, 226. 

New York City .History by Booth, 114 , 
by W. L. Stone, 69 ; Campaign 
about (1776), 93 ; Washington in 
(1776), 114; occupied bv the Brit- 
ish, 115,202; burned, 116; in 1778, 
190 ; French fleet at, 193 ; British 
in, 223 j threatened by Washing- 
ton, 22i ; evacuated, 276 ; maps, 
117, 276, 302. 

New ifork in the Revolution, 114. 

New York in the Revolutionary War, 
by Jones, 10. 

New York State History, by Dunlap, 
7 ; Documentary History, 74 ; Docu- 
ments on Colonial Uistory, 10. 

New York Provincial Congress, 76; 
Last Provincial Assembly Proceed- 
ings, 10. 

New York Constitution, 98. 

New York State, Maps of the Province 
of, 169 ; Calendar of Historical 
MSS., 121 ; State Calendar, 82. 

New York City Manual, 112. 

New York Evangelist, 233. 

New York Herald, 46. 

New York Tribune, 231. 

New York Historical Society's Library 
Catalogue, 5 ; Collections, 5. 

Newspaper Literature, by Bucking- 
ham, 7. 

Newspapers of the Revolution, 282. 

Niles's Principles and Acts of the 
Revolution, 6, 281. 

Niles's Register, 31, 105, 214, 235. 

Ninety-Six besieged, 251. 

Noddle's Island, 35. 

Norman, J., 70. 

Norris, Major, journal, 207. 

North, Lord, 96 ; his character, 182 ; 
his cabinet, 185: his Correspondence 
with Geoi^e the Third, 23, 181 ; hit 
ministry, fall of, 263. 

North American Review, 20. 

North Carolina, 94, 222, 237 ; Regn 
lators, 5 ; Caruther's Revolutionarf 



Incidents, 218 ; W. I). Cooke'B Revo- 
lutionary History of, 218 ; Foote'e 
Sketches of, 3 ; Graham on the In- 
vaeion of, 218 ; RsTolutionary His- 
tory by Jones, 3; History of, by 
Martin, 3 J Map of, 220. 

North Carolina University Magazine, 

North Eastern Boundary, 269. 

Northfield, Mass., History by Temple, 
etc., 91. 

North Western Territory, 198, 270. 

Norton's Pioneer Missionaries, 192. 

Notes and Queries, 215. 

Nours«, Michael, on K. Morris, 243. 

Novanglus, 20. 

Nova Scotia Gazette, 209 

Novels, 306. 

Nuts for Historians to Crack, 299 

O'Cauaohan's Burgoyne'B Orderly- 
Book, 148. 

Ohio State Journal, 172. 

Old Continental, novel by Paulding, 

Oliver, Lieut. Governor, Letters, 9. 

Olney, Life by Williams, 110.. 

Onderdonk, Henry, History of Queens 
and Suffolk counties, 79, 262. 

Orators of the Revolution, by Ma- 
goon, 73, 283. 

Oriskany, 139. 

Osgood, Samuel, on Bunker Hill, 45 ; 
New York under British rule, 129. 

Oswald sent to Paris, 266. 

Oswego, 139. 

Otis, G. W., 295. 

Otis, James, Life by Tudor, 1 ; Rights 
of the Colonies, 2. 

Paceaed, a. S., on Bunker HiU 
Monument, 59. 

Paige's History of Cambridge, 60. 

Paige's Map of Boston, 70. 

Paine, Samuel, Letter from Boston, 

Paine, Thomas, 163, 176 261 ; Com- 
mon Sense, 98 ; Public Good, 270. 

Palfrey, J. G., 293. 

Palmer's Lake Champlain, 80. 

Palmer's Plan of Fort Montgomery, 

Paoli, 162. 

Paper money, 242. 

Parker, Commodore P. H., on the Mar- 
garetta, 35. 

Parker, Francis J., on Bunker Hill, 53. 

Parker, Sir Peter, 94. 

Parker, Theodore, 33 ; Historic Ameri- 
oans, 297. 


Parliamentary History. 2 ; Journals, 
285 ; Register, 164, 285. 

Partisan leaders, 219. 

Parton, James, Life of Aaron Burr, 
83 ; Life of Franklin, 4 ; Life of An- 
drew Jackson, 219; Life of Jeffer- 
son, 10 ; Washington, 297; History 
of Caricature, 304. 

Pattison, Maj. Gen. James, 203. 

Patriot Preachers of the Revolution, 

Paulding, J. K., Old Continental, 305 ; 
Washington, 297. 

Paulding, Captor of Andr6, 232. 

Paulus Hook, 205. 

Peabody, A P., oration at Cambridge, 

Peabody, 0. W. B., Life of SulUvan, 

Peace, commissioners of, 241 ; nego- 
tiations for (1782), 264. 

Peck's Wyoming, 191. 

Pelham, Henry, map of Boston, 70. 

Pemberton's Journal, 209. 

Penn Monthly, 244. 

Pennsylvania, History by Gordon, 17 
in 1776, 98 ; martial law in, 225 
navy board, 166 ; maps of, 161 
Archives, 109, 240 ; line mutiny 
240, 262 ; Hazard's Register of, 240 

Pennsylvania Historical Society, 28. 

Pennsylvania Magazine of History, 4, 
51, 172. 

Pennsylvania Packet, 231. 

Penobscot expedition (1779), 208. 

Pensacola, 253. 

Pentaget, 208. 

Percy, Earl, 29. 

Percy papers, 229. 

Perkins, J. H., 192. 

Peters, Hugh, History of Connecticut, 

Petersburg, 253. 

Philadelphia, contributions to Bos- 
ton, 64 ; campaign (1777), 130, 159 ; 
taken by Howe, 162 ; Howe in, 172 ; 
plans of, 164 ; British evacuate, 
187 ; in 1778, 190 ; riots (1779), 202 

Philadelphia Gazette, 176. 

Philadelphia Library Catalogue, 163. 

Philadelphia Packet, 176. 

Philbrook, Thomas, 208. 

PMlippeaux, 132. 

Phillips, Payson, on Lexington fight, 

Phillips, General, in Virginia, 246. 

Phinney's Battle of Lexington, 30. 

Physicians of the Revolution, 283. 

Pickering, Timothy, Life by Pickerino 
and Upham, 26 ; Review of Cunning 



ham Correspondence, 105 ; papers, 

Pictorial History of England, 293. 

Pigot, General, 195. 

Pilot, novel by Cooper, 212. 

Pinckney, C. C.,on Brandywine, 160. 

Pinckney, Thomas, 228. 

Pine-tree banner, 70. 

Pirtle, U., 198. 

Pitkin's United States, 16, 290. 

Pittafleld, Mass., Uistory by Smith, 79. 

Political a.ipects of the war, 300. 

Political Magazine, 58, 228. 

Poore, Ben : Perley, 303. 

Porte Crayon's Shrines of Old Vir- 
ginia, 259. 

Portfolio, 49. 

Portland, Uistory of, by WilUs, 71 ; 
Journal of Smith and Deane, 71. 

Portraits, 3U1. 

Potter, Urael R., 40. 

Potter's American Monthly, 33. 

Potter's History of Manchester, N. H., 

Pouchot's late War, 141. 

Pon-nall's map, 124, 302. 

Poyntz, L., on Bunker Hill, 45. 

Preakness camp, 237. 

Preble, O. H., History of the Flag, 89 ; 
Three Historic Flags, 211. 

Prescott, Colonel, on Bunker Hill, 37. 

Prescott, General, captured, 134. 

Preston, Captain, 11. 

Preston, H. B. M. ship, 64. 

Preston, J. S., 238. 

Price, Ezekiel, diary at Cambridge, 62. 

Prime, N. S., History of Long Island, 

Princeton, 126 ; History of, by Hage- 
man, 126. 

Principles and Acts of the Bevolution, 
by Niles, 6. 

Printing, History of, by Thomas, 6. 

Prisoners of war, 199 ; exchange of, 

Privateers, 88. 

Protests of the lords, 4, 182. 

Pirovisional treaty of peace, 272. 

Provost, General, 210. 

Public Advertiser, 25. 

Pulaski, Count, 2i0 ; Life by Sparks, 

Pulpit of the Revolution, by Thorn- 
ton, 7, 283. 

Pulsifer, David, on Bunker Hill, 41. 

Pursell's map of United States, 270. 

Purviance's Baltimore in the Revolu- 
tion, 3. 

Putnam, Daniel, 49. 

Putnam, Israel, by Dawson, 63 ; by 

Humphreys, 85 ; by Tarbox, 36 
Whitney's sermon at death, 43 ; Id 
New York, 92; deceived by CUntou 
(1777), 157. 

QoAKER Hill, 196. 

Quakers in the war, 163. 

Quarterly Review, 100, 181. 

Quebec, 84 ; Quebec Act, 270 ; Que- 
bec Literary and Historical Society 'a 
Transactions, 83. 

Queen's Rangers, 173, 247. 

Quincy, Mrs. E. S. M., Memoirs, 122. 

Quincy, Eamund, letters, 65. 

Quincy, Josiah, Life of, by Quincy 
1 ; Reports of cases, 1 ; Diary, 3. 

Quincy, Josiah, Journals of Samuel 
Shaw, 93 ; editor Grahame's His- 
tory, 290. 

Quintin's Bridge, 173. 

Ramsat's American Revolution, 85, 
218, 287 ; Revolution in South Caro- 
lina, 3 ; Washington, 297. 

Ramsour's Mills, 222. 

Rand, Avery & Co.'s Bunker Hill 
Centennial, 51. 

Randall's Life of Jefferson^ 16. 

Randolph, man-of-war, 19/. 

Ranger, man-of-war, 198. 

Rangers, by D. P. Thompson, 156 

Rathbum, 255. 

Ratzen, Bernard, 117. 

Raum's Uistory of Trenton, 125. 

Rawdon, Lord, 229 ; defeats Qreene, 

Raymond, H. J., 233. 

Read, Col. Charles, 299. 

Read, George, Life by Read, 16. 

Reading, engraver, 302. 

Rebels, a novel by L. M. Child, 305. 

Red Bank, 166. 

Reed Joseph, 225, 298 ; Life by W. B 
Beed, 13, 298 ; papers, 284. 

Reed, W. B. controversy with J. C. 
Hamilton, 299 ; Life of Joseph Reed, 
280 ; on Washington's Letters, 280. 

Reed ,ind Bancroft controversy, 299. 

Reed and Cadwalader controversy, 

Reed, Esther, wife of Joseph Reed, 163, 

Regiments, Uistorical Records of Brit- 
ish, 293. 

Regnaulfs Lafayette, 247. 

Regulators in North Carolina, 5. 

Reigart, J. F., Uistory of United State! 
Flag, 129. 

Remembrancer, Almon's, 285. 

Remer's Amerikanisches Archiv, 166 

Revere, Paul, 66 ; and his lanterns, 26 



Revue Militaire Franijaise, 227, 295. 
Reynolds, G., on Concord fight, 32. 
Rhode Island, 13 ; History by Arnold, 

88, 194 ; Colonial Keconls, 123 ; 

Spirit of Seyenty-Six in, 84 ; cam- 
paign (1778), 193; waters, map of, 

228 ; in the Continental Congress, 

Rhode Island Line, by Gardner, 196. 
Rhode Island Historical Collections, 

Rhode Island Historical Tracts 193. 
Richardson, Abby S., History of Our 

Country, 292. 
Ricketson's New Bedford, 196. 
Rider, S. S., 195, 207. 
Ridgefield, Conn., Teller's History of, 

Ridpath's History of the United 

States, 2. 
Riedesel, Uaron, Memoirs, 108, 135, 

156 ; Life by Eelking, 108. 
Riedesel, Baroness, Memoirs, 135. 
Ripley's Fight at Concord, 30. 
Rise of the Republic, by Frothing- 

ham, 2. 
Rise, Progress, etc., of the Dispute, 29. 
Ritzema, Colonel, 85. 
Rives's Life of Madison, 16. 
Rivington's Gazette, 65, 172, 283. 
Roberts, E. U., Address, 140. 
Robin's New Travels, 66, 226. 
Rochambeau arrives, 226 ; in Virginia, 

254 ; Memoirs, 226 ; papers, 254. 
Rockingham, Prime Minister, 264 ; 

Correspondence, 180 ; and his Con- 
temporaries, 4. 
Rocques, 802. 
Rodney, Admiral, defeats De Qrasse, 

Rodney, Caesar, 115. 
Roe's Near to Nature's Heart, 206. 
Rogers, J. E. T., edition of Protests 

of the Lords, 4, 182. 
Rogers, Rev. William, Diary, 207. 
Roman's Bunker Hill, 58 ; Seat of the 

Civil War, 69. 
Ross, Betsey, 129. 
Ross's Life of Comwallis, 163 ; Com- 

wallis Correspondence, 249. 
Roxbury, History of, by F. S. Drake, 

Royal Gazette, New York, 283. 
Rumford, Count, Life by Ellis, 79, 252. 
Rush, Richard, his Wasliington in 

Domestic Life, 232. 
Russell's Life and Times of Fox, 22 : 

Memorials and Correspondence of 

Fox, 22. 
i>xssia, Dana in, 214. 

Russian aid sought by Great Britain, 

Rutledge, Life by Flanders, 17. 

Ruttenber's Obstructions in the Hud- 
son, 92. 

Sabin's American Bibliopolist, 233. 

Sabine, Lorenzo, American Loyalists, 
73, 78 ; Report on Fisheries, 88, 271. 

Sackville, Lord George, 154. 

Saflfell's Records of the Revolutionary 
War, 303. 

St. Clair, 126, 137. 

St. Johns, 82. 

St. Leger, 139. 

Salem, Felt's Annals of, 89; expedi- 
tion to, 25. 

Salem, N. J., Johnson's History of, 

Saltonstall, Commodore, 208. 

Sampson, Deborah, 47. 

Sanderson's Lives of the Signers, 72. 

Sands Robert, Life of PaulJones, 212. 

Sandy Hook, 117, 190 

Sanguinet, Simon, 86. 

Saratoga, 147 ; medal for, 259 

Sargent, L M., Dealings with the 
Dead, 233. 

Sargent, Winthrop, Life of Major An 
drtS, 80 ; Loyalist Poetry, 78, 282. 

Sargent's regiment, 63. 

Saturday Review, 236. 

Saulthier's maps, 117, 157. 

Savage, John, 106. 

Savannah captured (1778), 197 ; siege 
of (1779), 209. 

Sayer and Bennett's maps, 113, 161. 

Scammans's court-martial, 39. 

Schlozer's Briefwechsel, ll8. 

Schoharie County, 77, 232. 

Schulenberg, Baron de, 156. 

Schuyler, G. L., on Bancroft's His- 
tory, 145. 

Schuyler, General Philip, Life by 
Lossing, 71 ; controversy with Gates, 
136 ; removed from command, 144. 

Scott, G. G^ 153. 

Scott, Sir Walter, 181. 

Scott, Captain, 146. 

Scribe's La Boh^mienne, 67. 

Scribner's Magazine, 15. 

Scudder, H. E., on Bunker Hill, 45 , 
on the Siege of Boston, 60 ; Men and 
Manners of the Revolution, 282. 

Scull's map of Pennsylvania, 161. 

Scull and Heap's survey, 164. 

Seabury's tracts, 19. 

Seaver's Mary Jemison, 207. 

Sedgwick, Catharine M., Linwoods 




Bedjfwick, Theodore, Life of William 
LiTiugston, 17. 

Bedg%vick, Mrs., Walter Thornley, 239. 

Begur's Memoin, 178, 226, 256. 

8eUh, 52. 

Selwyn and hiB Contemporaries, 184. 

Senter'g Kennebec journal, 83. 

Beptimiiu Felton, by UHwthome, 33. 

Serapis, manK>f-war, 211. 

Seventy -Six, a noTel by John Neal, 

Serenty-flix Society, 6, 78, 247. 

Sewall, Jonuthan, 19. 

Seward, Anna, 233. 

Shattuck's Historv of Concord, 27. 

Shaw, Samuel, Journals, 46, 93. 

Shea, John O., 255. 

Shelbume, Life by Fittmaurice, 4. 

Sbelbume, prime minister, 265, 278 ; 
papers, 264. 

Sheppard, J. H., Life of Samuel 
Tucker, 88. 

Sherburne, Andrew, Memoirs, 200. 

Sherburne's Life of Paul Jones, 211. 

Sheridan, R. B., Life by Moore, 22. 

Short, W. T. P., on Siege of Quebec, 

Short enlistments, 225. 

Shucker, J. W., on Finances, 242. 

Shurtleff, N. B., Description of Bos- 
ton, 8, 68. 

Silliman, General, on Harlem Plains, 
118 ; on Saratoga battlefield, 147. 

Silliman °8 Journal, 45. 

Simcoe's Journal of the Queen's Ran- 
gers 170, 247, 289. 

8lmiti4re, du, 301. 

Simms, W. G., Historv of South Caro- 
lina, 219 ; Life of Marion, 219 ; Eu- 
taw, 251 : Forayers, 251 ; Katharine 
Walton, 261 ; Mellichampe, a novel, 
230; The Partisan, a novel, 230; 
The Scout, 251 \ Woodcraft, 251 ; 
Views and Reviews, 234. 

fc mms's Schoharie County, 77, 232. 

Siaipson and Campbell's surveys, 205. 

Six Nations, 75. 

Slavery, abolishment of, 241. 

Smith,' Anthony, survey, 162. 

Smith, B. v., 'History of Newbury- 
port, 89. 

Smith, Joshua H., 231. 

Smith J. S., 229. 

Bmith, T. M., Legends, 199. 

Smith, Noah, on Bennington, 143. 

Smith, S. A. on West Caiubridge at 
Lexington, 31. 

fiaith, Wm., on Montgomery, 85. 

Smith's Delaware County, 161. 

•mith's History of Pittsfield, 79. 

Smith and Deane's jonmal, 71. 

Smith and Watson'n American His- 
torical and Literary Curiosities, 174, 
233, 3^r2. 

Smvth, lectures on Modem fflstory 
9(3, 181, 293. 

Snow's History of Boston, 3. 

Snowden's medals of Washington, 67 

Sotzmann's map of Virginia, 258. 

SouUs lUstoire des Troubles, 294. 

South Carolina, Gibbs's Documentary 
Ili.'itory , 218 ; History of, by Simms 
8, 219 ; American Revolution In, by 
Drayton, 3 ; Ramsay's Revolution 
in, 3 : in 1776, 94 ; Greene in, 250 ; 
torics, 222 ; maps of, 220. 

South Carolina Historical Collections, 

Southern Campaigns, 218. 

Southern Kcviow, 78. 

Southey's Vision of Judgment, 181. 

Spain and the United States, 1(7 ; ne- 
gotiations with, 128; Jay in, 213; 
Lee in, 213. 

Sparks, Jared, his historical labors, 
278, 280; Memoir of , by Ellis, -280: 
Life of Ethan Allen, 80 ; Life of 
Arnold, 80 ; Correspondence of the 
American Revolution, 80 ; Diplo- 
matic Correspondence, 99 ; Life of 
Franklin. 4 ; Life of Gouvemeur 
Morris, 10: Pulaski, 210; Life and 
Writings of Washington, 13 ; papers, 
284 ; Collection at ComtU Univer- 
sity, 5. 

Sparks and Mahon controrersy, 279. 

Sprague's Annals of the American 
Pulpit, 283. 

Springfield, New Jersey, 223. 

Spy, novel by Cooper, 206. 

Stamford, Conn., History by Hnnting- 
ton, 79. 

Stamp Act, 3. 

Stanhope's History of England, 4, 
292 ; Miscellanies, 2.33. 

Stanley's Westminster Abbey, 233. 

Stanwix, Fort, 75, 139. 

Staples, W. R., on the Gaspee, 13 , 
Rhode Island in the Continental 
Congress, 197. 

Stark, General John, 47, 142 ; Life by 
Caleb Stark, 143 ; Life by Edward 
Everett, 143. 

Stark, Major Caleb, 39. 

Staten Island expedition, 217, 223. 

Statesmen of George 111., by Brough 
am, ISl. 

Stedman's American War, 30, 289. 

Steuben, 2<M ; Life by Kapp, 171 ; Lif« 
by Bow en, 171 ; in/spei'or general 



171; reorganizes army, 224 ; in Vir- 
ginia, 238, 246: papers, 284. 

Btevens, Henry, Bibliotheca Historica, 

Stevens, J. A., 195; on Burgoyne's 
Campaign, 163 ; on Lafayette in 
Virginia, 24". 

Stevens, \V. B., History of Georgia, 

Stewart, Major, 205 

6tiles"s Diary, 30. 

Stiles 's History of Brooklyn, 93. 

Stillwater, 145. 

Stirling, Lord, 92; Life by Duer,112. 

Stokes, A., Constitutions of the Col- 
onies, 2. 

Stone, Enos, journal, 138. 

Stone, E. M., Life of Howland, 126 ; 
Invasion of Canada, 83, 166. 

Stone, W. L., life of Brant, 75 ; Bor- 
der Wars, 191. 

Stone, W. L., Jr., History of New York 
City, 59 ; campaign of Burgoyne, 
140, 153. 

Stone's History of Wyoming, 191. 

Stony Point, 203. 

Street, A. B., on Saratoga, 147. 

Btryker's Eeed Controversy, 299. 

Stuart's Life of Jonathan Trumbull, 

Stuart, I. W., Life of Nathan Hale, 

Stuart's Surveys, 220. 

Suffolk Resolves, 16. 

Sullivan, James, Life by Amory, 73. 

Sullivan, General John, his character, 
207 ; Life by 0. W. B. Peabody, 206 ; 
his Military Services, by T. C. Am- 
ory , 206 ; in Canada, 91 ; sent to Con- 
gress by Howe, 113 ; at Brandywine, 
160 ; in Rhode Island, 193 ; expedi- 
tion against Indians, 206 ; papers, 

Sullivan's Island, 94. 

Bumner, Charles, on the boundary, 
269 ; on Franklin's portrait, 273. 

Sumner, George, 178. 

Sumner, W. H., on Hancock and 
Adams, 26; on Bunker Hill, 53; 
East Boston, 36. 

Bumter, 219; relations with Greene, 

Bwain, D. L., on the Cherokee expe- 
dition, 77. 

Bwett, Samuel, on Bunker Hill, 37, 

Bylvester, N. B., 152. 

Falbot, Commodore, Life by Tucker- 
OLan, 88 

Talmadge, Colonel B., 94, 163. 

Talmadge, Major, 232. 

Tannock's England during the Ameri- 
can War, 294. 

Tarbox's Life of Putnam, 34. 

Tarleton's Campaigns, 219: at Cow- 
pens, 248 ; in Virginia, 263. 

Tarrytown, 230. 

Taylor, Eldad, Letters, 65. 

Tavlor, George, Martyrs, 200. 

Tea-party, 13. 

Teller's History of Ridgefield, 133. 

Temple and Sheldon's History of 
Northfield, 91. 

Ternay, Admiral, 228. 

Thacher, Rev. Mr., 37. 

Thacher's Military Journal, 39, 282. 

Thackeray's Lectures on the Georges, 
181 ; Dennis Duval, 212. 

Thackeray's Life of Chatham, 185. 

Thankful Blossom, by Bret Harte, 217 

Thayer, Judge, 165. 

Thayer's Kennebec journal, 83. 

Thomas, E. S., Reminiscences, 126. 

Thomas, Isaiah, History of Printing, 
5 ; Massachusetts Kalendar, 11. 

Thomas, Gen. John, 90. 

Thompson, B. T., History of Long 
Island, 78. 

Thompson, D. P., Rangers, 157 ; Greem 
Mountain Boys, 81. 

Thompson, J. P., United States as a 
Nation, 2. 

Thompson, General, at Three Rivers, 

Thomson, Dr. William, 289. 

Thornton, Matthew, 103. 

Thornton's Pulpit of the Revolution, 

Three Rivers, 91. 

Ticonderoga, 79; evacuated (1777), 

Toner, J. M., Medical Men, 283. 

Tories, 77, 78, 93. 

Totowa, camp, 237. 

Town, Ithiel, Particular Services, 89. 

Townshend, J., 161. 

Travelling Bachelor, by Cooper, 234. 

Treaties and Conventions of the 
.United States, 268. 

Treaties of the United States, 179. 

Treaty between Great Britain and 
France, 273. 

Trenton, 124; Annals of, by C. C. 
Haven, 125 ; History by Raum, 125. 

Trescott's Diplomacy of the Revolu- 
tion, 177. 

Troops, effective, in either army 

Troup, Col. Robert, 169. 



Trudruffrin, 162. 

frumbuU, Jonathan, Life by Stuart, 
4; Papers, 284. 

Irumbull, Col. John, Autobiography, 
39; Picture of Bunker HiU, 68; 
McFingal, 10. 

Trumbull, J. II., 79. 

Xryon, Governor, 10, 125; invades 
Connecticut, 133, 203. 

Tryon County, 77. 

Tucker, Dean, tracts, 22. 

Tucker, Com. Samuel, 800; Life by 
Sheppard, 88. 

Tucker's Life of Jefferson, 17. 

Tuckerman's America and her Com- 
mentators, 227 : Life of Talbot, 

Tudor's Life of James Otis, 1. 

Turner's Holland Purchase, 244. 

Turtle Bay, 116. 

Tuscany, 1<6. 

Tuttle, J. F.,Morri8town, 217; Wash- 
ington In Morris County, 123. 

ifyler, Albert, on Bennington, 143. 

Olster Cocntt, LUstorical Society's 
Collections, 158. 

Dniform, Buff and Blue, 304. 

Dnitarian Review, 32. 

Dnited Service Journal, 163, 233. 

United States, History of, by Ban- 
croft, 2, 290 ; by Bartlett and Wood- 
ward, 293 ; by Cassell, 294 ; by 
Grahame, 15, 290; by Uildreth, 2, 
291 ; by Mackay, 293 ; by J. II. Pat- 
ton, 292 ; by Pitkin, 15, 290 ; by 
Ridpath, 2, 291 ; by J. A. Spencer, 
292 ; by Tucker, 292 ; United States 
as a Nation, by J. P. Thompson, 2 ; 
Clark's Naval History of, 300 ; Coop- 
er's Naval History, .300 ; Dawson's 
Battles of, 27, 291 ; Diplomacy of, by 
Lyman, 177 ; Loubat's Medallic His- 
tory, 6( ; Origin, etc., by McCart- 
ney , 2 : Republic of, by J. C. Ham- 
ilton, 19, 298. 

Tpham, C. W., on Hancock, 73; Life 
of Washington, 297. 

^pham, W. P., on Siege of Boston, 64. 

\»xcour's Island, 127. 

Vale's Life of Thomas Paine, 261. 

Valentine's New Tork City Manual, 

Valley Forge, 170, 179. 
Valley Forge Letters, 299. 
Van Schaack, Peter, Life of, 10, 78. 
Van Wart, captor of Andr6, 232. 
Vamum, 167. 
Veil Removed, by Fellows, 52. 

Vergenncs and the Peace, 268, 572. 

Vermont, History by Ira Allen, 271 
by Hall, 143; by Williams, 197; 
Bounds, 270 ; Controversy, 197. 

Vermont Historical Society Colle* 
tions, 143. 

Verplanck's Point, 204. 

ViUefranche, Major, 236. 

Vinccnnos, History by Law, 199. 

Virginia, History by Uurk, 75 ; by 
Campbell, 246 ; by Gir.krdin, 75 ; 
by Howison, 151, 246; Jefferson's 
notes on, 102 ; Declaration of Rights, 
98 ; Convention troops in, 151 ; In- 
dian wars in, 192 ; Leslie in, 238, 
245 ; Arnold in, 240 ; Lafayette iu, 
247, 253 ; Phillips in, 246 ; Corn- 
wallis in, 253 ; the French in, 253 ; 
Campaign of 1781, 254 , and the N 
W. Territory, 270 ; maps of, 258. 

Von Bulow on the war, 304. 

Von Ochs, Neuere Kxiegskunst, 108. 

W.\LDO, S. P., American Naval Heroes, 

Waldo, Surgeon, 171. 

Walker, C. I., Address, 199. 

Wallabout, interments at, 200. 

Waller's orderly-book, 64. 

Wallis's map of United States, 270. 

Walpole's George the Third, 22, 182 ; 
Last Journal, 22, 180 ; and Mason 
correspondence, 139. 

Walsh's American Register, 226. 

Walter Thornley, by Sedgwick, 238 

Walworth, E. H., 153. 

Ward, Gen. Artemas, 47. 

Ward, Samuel, Life by Gammel, 88. 

Ward, Samuel, Lecture on Battle of 
Long Island, 110. 

Ware's Kennebec journal, 83. 

Warner, Col. Seth, 142 ; Life by Chip- 
man, 143 ; at Saratoga, 152. 

Warren, Charles U., on the Buff and 
Blue Uniform, 304. 

Warren, G. W., Bunker Hill Monu- 
ment Association, 49. 

Warren, Dr. John, Life of, 54. 

Warren, Gen. Joseph, Life by A. IL 
Everett, 44 ; death of, 53 ; Oration 
on Boston Massacre, 74 ; Eulogy 
by Perez Morton, 54 ; Stories of, 
by Mrs. J B. Brown, 54; and hi» 
Times, by Frothingham, 6. 

Warren, Mrs., American Revolution, 
287; her controversy with John 
Adams, 237. 

Washington's Writings, edition by 
Sparks, 279 ; Spurious Letters of, 
280 ; different lives of, 296 ; by 



A. Bancroft, 297 ; by Everett, 2G7 ; 
by Guizot, 67 ; by Irring, 297 ; by 
Kirkland, 297 ; by Lossing, 297 ; by 
MarshaU, 17, 296; by Paulding, 
297 i by Ramsay, 297 ; by Sparks, 
296 ; by C. VV. Upham, 297 ; by M. 
L. Weems, 297 ; Custis's KecoUec- 
tions of, 126 : and bis Generals, by 
Headley, 292 ; Essay on, by T. 
Parker, 297 ; Address on, by Web- 
ster, 297 ; Essay on, by E. P. Whip- 
ple, 297 ; Address on, by Winthrop, 
297 ; takes command, 60 ; at Cam- 
bridge, 61 ; nominated, 73 : in the 
Jerseys, 122, 123 ; at Valley Forge, 
170 ; Farewell Address to Army, 
276 ; resigns his commission, 276 ; 
a marshal of France, 260 : accounts, 
276 ; life-guard, 298 ; order books, 
260, 280 ; papers, 279. 

Washington Elm, Cambridge, 61. 

Washington, Fort, 120. 

Washington, Lieut. Colonel, 248. 

Waterhouse, Dr., on General Warren's 
death, 64. 

Watertown, Mass., Provincial Con- 
gress at, 74. 

Wutson, Elkanah, Memoirs, 95, 175. 

Watson's, J. L., Paul Kevere's signal, 

Watson, W. C, Naval Campaign on 
Lake Champlain, 127. 

Watson's Annals of Philadelphia, 174, 

Watson's Essex County, N. ¥., 80. 

Waxbaws, 222. 

Wayne, Anthony, Life by Armstrong, 
165; Life by Moore, 162; at Paoli, 
162 ; at Stony Point, 203 ; at Bull's 
Ferry, 224 ; and the Pennsylvania 
line, 240; in Georgia, 253; Orderly- 
Book, 127, 189 ; papers, 265. 

Webster, Daniel, Bunker Hill Oration, 
44; on the Maine boundary, 269; 
address on Washington, 297. 

Weems's Life of Marion, 219 ; Life of 
Washington, 297. 

Welling, J. C, 34. 

Wells's Life of Samuel Adams, 1. 

West, Samuel, Election Sermon, 97. 

West Indies, the French fleet in, 271. 

West Point, History by Boynton, 92, 
230 ; Arnold at, 230. 

Westchester County, N. Y., 205, 232. 

Westcott's Concord Sermons, 32. 

Western Territory, by Imlay, 199. 

Westminster Massacre, 34. 

Wheeler's Pentagoet (Castine), 208. 

Wlieildon, W. W., on Bunker Hill, 

45; Bevere's signal lantenw, 26; 

Life of S. WUlard, 59. 
Whig party, 180, 186. 
Whipple E. P., Wa.shington and th« 

Revolution, 1J97. 
Wbite, Bishop, Wilson's Memoirs of, 

White, T., 123. 
White Horse Tavern, 162. 
White Plains, 119. 
Whiting, Colonel Henry, 280. 
Whitney's literature of Concord fight, 

Whittlesey, E. D., 1.33. 
Wiley's tale, The Alamance, 6. 
Wilkinson, Eliza, letters, 210. 
Wilkinson, Gen. James, Memoirs, 39. 
Willard, Solomon, Life by Wheiidon, 

William, Henry, Prince, 261. 
Williams, captor of Andr^, 232. 
Williams, Otho, 228. 
Williams's Life of General Barton 

Williams's Life of Olney, 110, 166. 
Williamsburg, 258. 
Williamson, Hugh, on the Tea-party, 

Williamson's Belfast, 208 ; History of 

Maine, 71, 208. 
Willis's Portland, 71. 
Wilmington, 260. 

Wilniofs Historical View of Ameri- 
can Loyalists, 271. 
Wilson's Memoirs of Bishop White, 

Wilson, D., Life of Jane McCrea, 139 
Winter Hill, 69. 
Winthrop, Prof. John, 37. 
Winthrop R. C, Address on Wash- 
ington, 297. 
Wirt, Wm., Life of Patrick Henry, 3; 

Memoir by Kennedy, 20. 
Wisconsin Historical Society, 199. 
Witherspoon, Dr., 103. 
Women of the Revolution, by Mrs. 

EUet, 139. 
Wood, Silas, History of Long Island, 

Woodbury's, J. T., speech, 31. 

Woodcraft, by Simms, 251. 

Woodford, 221. 

WoodhuU, General, 110. 

Woodruff at Saratoga, 147, 153. 

Wooster, General, 82; monument, 

Worcester, S. T., History of Hollis, 47. 
Worcester, History by Lincoln, 21 ; 

expedition to, 25. 



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